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Sample records for berggrunden paa stora

  1. Final disposal of high-level nuclear waste in very deep boreholes. An evaluation based on recent research of bedrock conditions at great depths; Slutfoervaring av hoegaktivt kaernavfall i djupa borrhaal. En utvaerdering baserad paa senare aars forskning om berggrunden paa stora djup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aahaell, Karl-Inge [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    This report evaluates the feasibility of very deep borehole disposal of high-level nuclear waste, e.g., spent nuclear fuel, in the light of recent technological developments and research on the characteristics of bedrock at extreme depths. The evaluation finds that new knowledge in the field of hydrogeology and technical advances in drilling technology have advanced the possibility of using very deep boreholes (3-5 km) for disposal of the Swedish nuclear waste. Decisive factors are (1) that the repository can be located in stable bedrock at a level where the groundwater is isolated from the biosphere, and (2) that the waste can be deposited and the boreholes permanently sealed without causing long-term disturbances in the density-stratification of the groundwater that surrounds the repository. Very deep borehole disposal might offer important advantage compared to the relatively more shallow KBS approach that is presently planned to be used by the Swedish nuclear industry in Sweden, in that it has the potential of being more robust. The reason for this is that very deep borehole disposal appears to permit emplacement of the waste at depths where the entire repository zone would be surrounded by stable, density-stratified groundwater having no contact with the surface, whereas a KBS-3 repository would be surrounded by upwardly mobile groundwater. This hydro-geological difference is a major safety factor, which is particularly apparent in all scenarios that envisage leakage of radioactive substances. Another advantage of a repository at a depth of 3 to 5 km is that it is less vulnerable to impacts from expected events (e.g., changes in groundwater conditions during future ice ages) as well as undesired events (e.g. such as terrorist actions, technical malfunction and major local earthquakes). Decisive for the feasibility of a repository based on the very deep borehole concept is, however, the ability to emplace the waste without failures. In order to achieve this further research and technological development is required.

  2. Understanding PaaS

    CERN Document Server

    McGrath, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The least understood feature of cloud computing, Platform as a Service (PaaS), is also the most powerful and cost effective. This concise overview shows you why organizations that properly wield PaaS can quickly gain a strong competitive advantage. You'll learn how PaaS enables developers to pursue low cost R&D projects, lets system administrators focus on systems rather than servers, and helps architects evaluate new technology quickly and directly. Many reliable PaaS providers are available today, including services from Amazon, Red Hat, and Google. This book offers valuable advice for tec

  3. Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C. Várilly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin.

  4. Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Várilly, Joseph C.; Gracia-Bondía, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin.

  5. BRS “Symmetry”, the main role of Raymond Stora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becchi, Carlo M., E-mail: becchi@ge.infn.it

    2016-11-15

    We discuss how Raymond Stora's absolute need of mathematical rigor has determined the discovery of BRS “Symmetry”. This need having been the essential reason for the construction of the identity which has been presented by Rouet and Stora in the lectures given at Lausanne-1973. Once written this identity the celebrated discovery has been a matter of reading. We also recall the less celebrated discovery of BRS cohomology and its impact on Physics.

  6. BRS “Symmetry”, the main role of Raymond Stora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becchi, Carlo M.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss how Raymond Stora's absolute need of mathematical rigor has determined the discovery of BRS “Symmetry”. This need having been the essential reason for the construction of the identity which has been presented by Rouet and Stora in the lectures given at Lausanne-1973. Once written this identity the celebrated discovery has been a matter of reading. We also recall the less celebrated discovery of BRS cohomology and its impact on Physics.

  7. Kontserthuset Göteborg. Fredag 7. mars 1997 Stora salen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1997-01-01

    Kontserthuset Göteborg. Göteborgs Symfoniker. Chefdirigent: Neeme Järvi. Dirigent: Neeme Järvi. Kontsertmästare: Per Enoksson, Christer Thorvaldsson. Fredag 7. mars 1997 Stora salen (orange serie). Kavas: Ingvar Lidholm "Toccata e canto", Eduard Tubin Sümfoonia N 5 h-moll, Igor Stravinski "Püha kevad" Lk. 3-4: Kruckenberg, Sven: Tubin - Symfoni nr 5. Lk. 7 Neeme Järvi dirigenditööst

  8. Imavere Sawmill is Stora Ensos Jewel in the Region / Seppo Vainio ; interv. Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vainio, Seppo

    2004-01-01

    Skandinaavia metsanduskontserni Stora Enso Timberi tegevuse juht Baltikumis vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Eesti suurima metsatööstuse Sylvesteri ostu 2003. aastal, Baltikumi üksuste osa Stora Enso tegevuses, Imavere saeveski valimist aasta välisinvestoriks. Vt. samas: Imavere saeveski eile ja täna. Tabel: "Välisinvestor 2004" nominendid

  9. Build your own PaaS with Docker

    CERN Document Server

    Hane, Oskar

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to take full advantage of separating services into module containers and connect them to form a complete platform. It will give you all the insights and knowledge needed to run your own PaaS.

  10. Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin quantization of histories electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noltingk, Duncan

    2002-01-01

    This article is a continuation of earlier work where a classical history theory of pure electrodynamics was developed in which the history fields have five components. The extra component is associated with an extra constraint, thus enlarging the gauge group of histories electrodynamics. In this article we quantize the classical theory developed previously by two methods. First we quantize the reduced classical history space to obtain a reduced quantum history theory. Second we quantize the classical BRST-extended history space, and use the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin charge to define a 'cohomological' quantum history theory. Finally, we show that the reduced history theory is isomorphic (as a history theory) to the cohomological history theory

  11. Challenges for the comprehensive management of Cloud Services in a PaaS framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Gomez, S.; Jimenez-Ganan, M.; Taher, Y.; Momm, C.; Junker, F.; Biro, J.; Menychtas, A.; Andrikopoulos, V.; Strauch, S.

    2012-01-01

    The 4CaaSt project aims at developing a PaaS framework that enables flexible definition, marketing, deployment and management of Cloud-based services and applications. This paper describes the major challenges tackled by 4CaaSt for the comprehensive management of applications and services in a PaaS.

  12. Environmental impact assessment of STORA SKOG:s forest fertilizing program. Part 1: Basic facts; Miljoekonsekvensbeskrivning av STORA SKOG:s goedslingsprogram. Del 1: faktaunderlag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe. [SkogForsk, Uppsala (Sweden); Westling, O. [IVL-Aneboda, Lammhult (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    Nitrogen fertilization of forest soils has been used for several decades to improve productivity. STORA plans to fertilize 10 to 15 thousand hectares forests with nitrogen annually, over an area of 1 545 000 hectares productive forest land. The ecological effects of this forest fertilization plan have been studied in the form of an environmental impact assessment (EIA). The first part of this EIA, presented in this report by the Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL), include the present and possible future state of the forest environment in Sweden, in relation to STORA owned forests and the fertilization programme and present knowledge about nitrogen cycling and forest fertilization. The second part, presented in a separate report contains information about the ecological effects of implementation of STORA fertilization plans, identification of shortcomings in knowledge to date, and recommendations for evasion of possible negative effects of implementation. Environmental effects of nitrogen fertilization are described in contrast to the possible environmental effects of acidification of soil and surface water, build-up of nitrogen pool in soils, leakage of nitrogen to surface waters from soils, changes in forest soil fertility, uptake and loss of climate affecting gases, and the biological diversity of the forest ecosystem. 193 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

  13. Corporate social responsibility as a business strategy: Stora Enso-WWF partnership project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tysiachniouk, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes the strategic partnership between transnational corporation Stora-Enso and international nongovernmental organization NGO WWF as a business strategy that helps the company to adopt its business to the turbulent environment of the economy in transition. In this paper I draw from

  14. Kontserthuset Göteborg. Lördag 15. mars 1997 Stora salen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1997-01-01

    Kontserdi kavas juttu: Eduard Tubina "Balalaikakontsert" ning Wilhelm Stenhammari ja Sergei Prokofjevi teosed Lk. 3-4: Kruckenberg, Sven: Tubin - Balalajkakontsert. Kontserthuset Göteborg. Göteborgs Symfoniker, chefdirigent: Neeme Järvi. Dirigent: Neeme Järvi, solist: Gennady Zut, balalajka. Kontsertmästare: Per Enoksson, Christer Thorvaldsson. Lördag 15. mars 1997 Stora salen (grön serie)

  15. Poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) hydrolases and PAA biodegradation: current knowledge and impact on applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, Tomohiro

    2016-02-01

    Thermally synthesized poly(aspartic acid) (tPAA) is a bio-based, biocompatible, biodegradable, and water-soluble polymer that has a high proportion of β-Asp units and equivalent moles of D- and L-Asp units. Poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) hydrolase-1 and hydrolase-2 are tPAA biodegradation enzymes purified from Gram-negative bacteria. PAA hydrolase-1 selectively cleaves amide bonds between β-Asp units via an endo-type process, whereas PAA hydrolase-2 catalyzes the exo-type hydrolysis of the products of tPAA hydrolysis by PAA hydrolase-1. The novel reactivity of PAA hydrolase-1 makes it a good candidate for a biocatalyst in β-peptide synthesis. This mini-review gives an overview of PAA hydrolases with emphasis on their biochemical and functional properties, in particular, PAA hydrolase-1. Functionally related enzymes, such as poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerases and β-aminopeptidases, are compared to PAA hydrolases. This mini-review also provides findings that offer an insight into the catalytic mechanisms of PAA hydrolase-1 from Pedobacter sp. KP-2.

  16. Environmental impact assessment of STORA SKOG:s forest fertilizing program. Part 2: Judgement; Miljoekonsekvensbeskrivning av STORA SKOG:s goedslingsprogram. Del 2: bedoemning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westling, O [IVL-Aneboda, Lammhult (Sweden); Nohrstedt, H Oe [SkogForsk, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    The ecological effects of forest fertilization have been studied in the form of an environmental impact assessment (EIA). The first part of this EIA, presented in an earlier report by the Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL), included the present and possible future state of the forest environment in Sweden, in relation to STORA owned forests and the fertilization programme and present knowledge about nitrogen cycling and forest fertilization. The second part is presented here, and contains information about the ecological effects of implementation of STORA fertilization plans, identification of shortcomings in knowledge to date, and recommendations for evasion of possible negative effects of implementation. The general consensus of this EIA is that the forest fertilization plans drawn up by STORA will not negatively affect the use of the forest as a natural resource in an ecologically sound way, taken into account that the guidelines included in the EIA are followed. The possible environmental effects of a 10 to 20 year period from onset of the plan were studied in contrast to the possible environmental effects of acidification of soil and surface water, build-up of nitrogen pool in soils, leakage of nitrogen to surface waters from soils, changes in forest soil fertility, uptake and loss of climate affecting gases, and the biological diversity of the forest ecosystem. The recommendations given in this EIA include the choice of forest stands for fertilization, environmental awareness, amount of fertilizer applied, frequency of applications, application procedures and effects follow up, communications, and documentation of the events. 69 refs, 14 tabs

  17. Study of Ag+/PAA (polyacrylic acid) and Ag0/PAA aqueous system at equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keghouche, N.; Mostafavi, M.; Delcourt, M.O.

    1991-01-01

    When submitted to gamma radiation the system Ag + -PAA-water leads to clusters Ag 0 n /PAA (3 420 nm) interacting with the clusters. Potentiometric measurements carried out on Ag + solutions in the presence of PAA at various pH show that the deprotonated form (polyacrylate anion) is strongly bonded to Ag + , on the opposite of the protonated form of PAA. One of the oligomer clusters can be stabilized for more than one year. Studying it by infra-red spectrometry reveals important modifications in the vibration bands of the COO - group circa 1400 and 1600 cm -1 according to the bonding of PAA with Ag + or Ag 0 [fr

  18. Corporate social responsibility as a business strategy: Stora Enso-WWF partnership project

    OpenAIRE

    Tysiachniouk, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes the strategic partnership between transnational corporation Stora-Enso and international nongovernmental organization NGO WWF as a business strategy that helps the company to adopt its business to the turbulent environment of the economy in transition. In this paper I draw from the theory of institutional sociology to explain complex interaction between transnational actors and actors in localities that jointly form a governance generating network in order to implement the ...

  19. Environmental impact assessment of STORA SKOG:s forest fertilizing program. Part 1: Basic facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe.; Westling, O.

    1995-12-01

    Nitrogen fertilization of forest soils has been used for several decades to improve productivity. STORA plans to fertilize 10 to 15 thousand hectares forests with nitrogen annually, over an area of 1 545 000 hectares productive forest land. The ecological effects of this forest fertilization plan have been studied in the form of an environmental impact assessment (EIA). The first part of this EIA, presented in this report by the Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL), include the present and possible future state of the forest environment in Sweden, in relation to STORA owned forests and the fertilization programme and present knowledge about nitrogen cycling and forest fertilization. The second part, presented in a separate report contains information about the ecological effects of implementation of STORA fertilization plans, identification of shortcomings in knowledge to date, and recommendations for evasion of possible negative effects of implementation. Environmental effects of nitrogen fertilization are described in contrast to the possible environmental effects of acidification of soil and surface water, build-up of nitrogen pool in soils, leakage of nitrogen to surface waters from soils, changes in forest soil fertility, uptake and loss of climate affecting gases, and the biological diversity of the forest ecosystem. 193 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

  20. Environmental impact assessment of STORA SKOG:s forest fertilizing program. Part 2: Judgement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westling, O.; Nohrstedt, H.Oe.

    1995-12-01

    The ecological effects of forest fertilization have been studied in the form of an environmental impact assessment (EIA). The first part of this EIA, presented in an earlier report by the Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL), included the present and possible future state of the forest environment in Sweden, in relation to STORA owned forests and the fertilization programme and present knowledge about nitrogen cycling and forest fertilization. The second part is presented here, and contains information about the ecological effects of implementation of STORA fertilization plans, identification of shortcomings in knowledge to date, and recommendations for evasion of possible negative effects of implementation. The general consensus of this EIA is that the forest fertilization plans drawn up by STORA will not negatively affect the use of the forest as a natural resource in an ecologically sound way, taken into account that the guidelines included in the EIA are followed. The possible environmental effects of a 10 to 20 year period from onset of the plan were studied in contrast to the possible environmental effects of acidification of soil and surface water, build-up of nitrogen pool in soils, leakage of nitrogen to surface waters from soils, changes in forest soil fertility, uptake and loss of climate affecting gases, and the biological diversity of the forest ecosystem. The recommendations given in this EIA include the choice of forest stands for fertilization, environmental awareness, amount of fertilizer applied, frequency of applications, application procedures and effects follow up, communications, and documentation of the events. 69 refs, 14 tabs

  1. o PAA e o PNPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinalva Donizete Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The public policy for Family Agriculture, as a strategy of capitalist development in Brazilian countryside promotes tensions and conflicts to the families that make use of them. This policy is based on programs, actions and strategies that aim to insert the families in the production process, making them suitable to the market system. At the same time it denies the peasant rationality, it hides structural issues of the field, such as the need for land reform, exploitation and expropriation of the wealth and conflicts (reexistents. In order to handle and analyze such issues, highlighting the conflicts surrounding the relation between public policy and peasant families, it was analyzed the processes of implementation of the Production and Use of Biodiesel National Program (PNPB and the Acquisition of Food from Familiar Agriculture Program (PAA, in rural settlements in Jataí and Perolândia, in the Southwest area of Goiás. The data presented and discussed make up a larger research bounded to the Graduation Program in Geography from Goiás Federal University, Campus Jataí, since 2010.

  2. 4CaaSt : Comprehensive management of Cloud services through a PaaS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Gomez, S.; Lelli, F.; Eschriche-Vicente, M.; Arozarena-Llopis, P.; Taher, Y.; Momm, C.; Spriestersbach, A.; Jimenez-Ganan, M.; Le Jeune, G.; Dao, M.; Carrie, S.P.; Niemoller, J.; Mazmanov, D.; Biro, J.; Giesmann, A.; Junker, F.

    2012-01-01

    The 4CaaSt project aims at developing a PaaS framework that enables flexible definition, marketing, deployment and management of Cloud-based services and applications. The major innovations proposed by 4CaaSt are the blueprint and its lifecycle management, a one stop shop for Cloud services and a

  3. "Forntidens vildar" : Perspektiv på relationen mellan djur och människor i grottan Stora Förvar

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The cave Stora Förvar, excavated in the end of the 19th century, yielded a vast archaeological assemblage, providing great insight into the stone-age occupation of Stora Karlsö, an island a few kilometers off the west coast of Gotland. The bones of around ten humans dating to the Mesolithic have previously been identified among the four tons of faunal remains recovered from the cave. The human bone material featured cut-marks and split tubular bones. This, along with the apparent mixing of hu...

  4. On the Bargmann–Michel–Telegdi equations, and spin–orbit coupling: A tribute to Raymond Stora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The Bargmann–Michel–Telegdi equations describing the motions of a spinning, charged, relativistic particle endowed with an anomalous magnetic moment in an electromagnetic field, are reconsidered. They are shown to duly stem from the linearization of the characteristic distribution of a presymplectic structure refining the original one of Souriau. In this model, once specialized to the case of a static electric-like field, the angular momentum and energy given by the associated moment map now correctly restore the spin–orbit coupling term. This is the state-of-the-art of unfinished joint work with Raymond Stora.

  5. On the Bargmann–Michel–Telegdi equations, and spin–orbit coupling: A tribute to Raymond Stora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Duval

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Bargmann–Michel–Telegdi equations describing the motions of a spinning, charged, relativistic particle endowed with an anomalous magnetic moment in an electromagnetic field, are reconsidered. They are shown to duly stem from the linearization of the characteristic distribution of a presymplectic structure refining the original one of Souriau. In this model, once specialized to the case of a static electric-like field, the angular momentum and energy given by the associated moment map now correctly restore the spin–orbit coupling term. This is the state-of-the-art of unfinished joint work with Raymond Stora.

  6. On the Bargmann–Michel–Telegdi equations, and spin–orbit coupling: A tribute to Raymond Stora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, Christian

    2016-11-15

    The Bargmann–Michel–Telegdi equations describing the motions of a spinning, charged, relativistic particle endowed with an anomalous magnetic moment in an electromagnetic field, are reconsidered. They are shown to duly stem from the linearization of the characteristic distribution of a presymplectic structure refining the original one of Souriau. In this model, once specialized to the case of a static electric-like field, the angular momentum and energy given by the associated moment map now correctly restore the spin–orbit coupling term. This is the state-of-the-art of unfinished joint work with Raymond Stora.

  7. On the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equations, and spin-orbit coupling: A tribute to Raymond Stora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Christian

    2016-11-01

    The Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equations describing the motions of a spinning, charged, relativistic particle endowed with an anomalous magnetic moment in an electromagnetic field, are reconsidered. They are shown to duly stem from the linearization of the characteristic distribution of a presymplectic structure refining the original one of Souriau. In this model, once specialized to the case of a static electric-like field, the angular momentum and energy given by the associated moment map now correctly restore the spin-orbit coupling term. This is the state-of-the-art of unfinished joint work with Raymond Stora.

  8. Salinity, dissolved organic carbon and water hardness affect peracetic acid (PAA) degradation in aqueous solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dibo; Steinberg, Christian E.W.; Straus, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is used in aquaculture under different conditions for disinfection and therapeutic purposes. There is limited information about its environmental fate, particularly its persistence in aquatic systems with different physical–chemical conditions. This study investigated PAA...... had only minor impact. For commercial aquaculture, actual PAA concentration in the raw product needs to be measured; the fate of PAA in individual facilities must be carefully monitored and feasible application strategies need to be investigated to achieve maximal disinfection and therapeutic...

  9. Natural gold composition studied by proton activation analysis (PAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, V.; Badica, T.; Popescu, I.V.

    2003-01-01

    The minor and trace element concentration of natural gold is essential for provenance studies of gold archaeological artifacts. In this work proton activation analysis is used in order to find what elements can be put into evidence in natural gold. For that purpose some gold nuggets from Romania were used. It was found that PAA is a good supplemental method to neutron activation analysis. (authors)

  10. Surface modification of cation exchange membranes by graft polymerization of PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemati, Mahsa; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen; Bagheripour, Ehsan; Madaeni, Sayed Siavash

    2016-01-01

    Surface modification of polyvinylchloride based heterogeneous cation exchange membrane was performed by graft polymerization of PAA and PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles. The ion exchange membranes were prepared by solution casting technique. Spectra analysis confirmed graft polymerization clearly. SEM images illustrated that graft polymerization covers the membranes by simple gel network entanglement. The membrane water content was decreased by graft polymerization of PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles on membrane surface. Membrane transport number and selectivity declined initially by PAA graft polymerization and then began to increase by utilizing of composite nanoparticles in modifier solution. The sodium and barium flux was improved sharply by PAA and PAAco- 0.01%wt PANI/MWCNTs graft polymerization on membrane surface and then decreased again by more increase of PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles content ratio in modifier solution. The electrodialysis experiment results in laboratory scale showed higher dialytic rate in heavy metals removal for grafted-PAA and grafted-PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs modified membrane compared to pristine one. Membrane areal electrical resistance was also decreased by introducing graft polymerization of PAA and PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs NPs on membrane surface.

  11. Peracetic acid (PAA) disinfection of primary, secondary and tertiary treated municipal wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivunen, J; Heinonen-Tanski, H

    2005-11-01

    The efficiency of peracetic acid (PAA) disinfection against enteric bacteria and viruses in municipal wastewaters was studied in pilot-scale. Disinfection pilot-plant was fed with the primary or secondary effluent of Kuopio municipal wastewater treatment plant or tertiary effluent from the pilot-scale dissolved air flotation (DAF) unit. Disinfectant doses ranged from 2 to 7 mg/l PAA in the secondary and tertiary effluents, and from 5 to 15 mg/l PAA in the primary effluents. Disinfection contact times were 4-27 min. Disinfection of secondary and tertiary effluents with 2-7 mg/l PAA and 27 min contact time achieved around 3 log reductions of total coliforms (TC) and enterococci (EC). PAA disinfection also significantly improved the hygienic quality of the primary effluents: 10-15 mg/l PAA achieved 3-4 log reductions of TC and EC, 5 mg/l PAA resulting in below 2 log reductions. F-RNA coliphages were more resistant against the PAA disinfection and around 1 log reductions of these enteric viruses were typically achieved in the disinfection treatments of the primary, secondary and tertiary effluents. Most of the microbial reductions occurred during the first 4-18 min of contact time, depending on the PAA dose and microorganism. The PAA disinfection efficiency remained relatively constant in the secondary and tertiary effluents, despite of small changes of wastewater quality (COD, SS, turbidity, 253.7 nm transmittance) or temperature. The disinfection efficiency clearly decreased in the primary effluents with substantially higher microbial, organic matter and suspended solids concentrations. The results demonstrated that PAA could be a good alternative disinfection method for elimination of enteric microbes from different wastewaters.

  12. Description of development of an analytical method for measurement of PAA in tattoo ink and PMU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pia

    This review gives a background on azo pigments and primary aromatic amines (PAA) and describe how to develop a robust method for analyzing these in tattoo ink.......This review gives a background on azo pigments and primary aromatic amines (PAA) and describe how to develop a robust method for analyzing these in tattoo ink....

  13. Controlled protein adsorption on PMOXA/PAA based coatings by thermally induced immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Fatima; Chen, Chaoshi; Zhu, Haikun; Pan, Chao; Wang, Yanmei

    2018-05-01

    In this work, poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline-random-glycidyl methacrylate) (PMOXA-r-GMA) and poly(acrylic acid)-block-poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PAA-b-PGMA) copolymers were synthesized via cationic ring-opening polymerization (CROP) of 2-methyl-2-oxazoline (MOXA) and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) followed by their random and block copolymerization with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), respectively, and then characterized carefully. PMOXA/PAA based coatings were then prepared by simply spin coating the mixture of PMOXA-r-GMA and PAA-b-PGMA copolymer solutions onto silicon/glass substrates followed by annealing at 110 °C. The coatings were rigorously characterized by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the static water contact angle (WCA) test, ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results demonstrated that the coating based mixed PMOXA/PAA brushes with desired surface composition could be attained by simply maintaining their percentage in the mixture of PMOXA-r-GMA and PAA-b-PGMA copolymer solutions. Finally, the switchable behavior of PMOXA/PAA based coatings toward bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption was investigated by fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled BSA (FITC-BSA) assay and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), which indicated that the coating based mixed PMOXA/PAA brushes could control BSA adsorption/desorption from very low to high amount (>90% desorption) through adjusting the composition of PMOXA-r-GMA and PAA-b-PGMA solution used in preparing PMOXA/PAA based coatings upon pH and ionic strength change. Furthermore, PMOXA/PAA based coatings displayed efficient repeatability of reversible BSA adsorption/desorption cycles.

  14. Human mesenchymal stem cell osteoblast differentiation, ECM deposition, and biomineralization on PAH/PAA polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattabhi, Sudhakara Rao; Lehaf, Ali M; Schlenoff, Joseph B; Keller, Thomas C S

    2015-05-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEMU) coatings built layer by layer with alternating pairs of polyelectrolytes can be tuned to improve cell interactions with surfaces and may be useful as biocompatible coatings to improve fixation between implants and tissues. Here, we show that human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) induced with bone differentiation medium (BDM) to become osteoblasts biomineralize crosslinked PEMUs built with the polycation poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and the polyanion poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). Degrees of hMSC osteoblast differentiation and surface biomineralization on the smooth PAH-terminated PEMUs (PAH-PEMUs) and microstructured PAA-terminated PEMUs (PAA-PEMUs) reflect differences in cell-deposited extracellular matrix (ECM). BDM-induced hMSCs expressed higher levels of the early osteoblast differentiation marker alkaline phosphatase and collagen 1 (COL1) sooner on PAA-PEMUs than on PAH-PEMUs. Cells on both types of PEMUs proceeded to express the later stage osteoblast differentiation marker bone sialoprotein (BSP), but the BDM-induced cells organized a more amorphous Collagen I and denser BSP localization on PAA-PEMUs than on PAH-PEMUs. These ECM properties correlated with greater biomineralization on the PAA-PEMUs than on PAH-PEMUs. Together, these results confirm the suitability of PAH/PAA PEMUs as a substrate for hMSC osteogenesis and highlight the importance of substrate effects on ECM organization and BSP presentation on biomineralization. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Primary aromatic amines (PAAs) in black nylon and other food-contact materials, 2004-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Xenia Thorsager; Okholm, B.; Foverskov, Annie

    2010-01-01

    Primary aromatic amines (PAAs) were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in migrates from 234 samples of food-contact materials, including black nylon (polyamide) kitchen utensils (n = 136), coloured plastics (28), and clear/printed multilayer film/laminates (41......), from retailers, importers, and food producers. A further 29 utensils in use were obtained from colleagues. Very high PAA migration was found from black nylon kitchen utensils to the food simulant 3% acetic acid: the 'non-detectable' limit (20 mu g aniline equivalents kg-1 food) was exceeded by up...... migration test conditions influenced the final test results. Long-term release of PAAs was fitted by diffusion modelling experiments and long-term release was also seen as expected from used utensils. Toxicologists consider these migration levels of the suspected carcinogenic PAAs as a problem of major...

  16. Peracetic Acid (PAA Disinfection: Inactivation of Microbial Indicators and Pathogenic Bacteria in a Municipal Wastewater Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bonetta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have noted that treated and untreated wastewaters are primary contributors of a variety of pathogenic microorganisms to the aquatic ecosystem. Conventional wastewater treatment may not be sufficient to achieve microbiologically safe effluent to be discharged into natural waters or reused, thus requiring wastewater effluents to be disinfected. In recent years, peracetic acid (PAA has been adopted as a disinfectant for wastewater effluents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the disinfection efficiency of PAA at low doses (range 0.99–2.10 mg/L against microbial indicators and pathogenic bacteria in a municipal wastewater plant. Samples of untreated sewage and effluents before and after PAA treatment were collected seasonally for 1 year and were analysed for pathogenic Campylobacter, Salmonella spp., E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli virulence genes using molecular methods; moreover, the detection of specific microbial indicators (E. coli, faecal coliforms, enterococci, C. perfringens and Salmonella spp. were carried out using culturing methods. Salmonella spp. DNA was found in all untreated sewage and effluent before PAA treatment, whereas it was recovered in 50% of the samples collected after PAA treatment. Although E. coli O157:H7 was never identified, the occurrence of Shiga-like toxin I amplicons was identified in 75% of the untreated sewage samples, in 50% of the effluents assayed before PAA treatment, and in 25% of the effluents assayed after PAA treatment, whereas the stx2 gene was never found. Campylobacter coli was only detected in one effluent sample before PAA treatment. In the effluents after PAA treatment, a lower load of indicator bacteria was observed compared to the effluents before treatment. The results of this study highlight that the use of low doses of PAA seems to lead to an improvement of the microbiological quality of the effluent, although it is not sufficient to guarantee its suitability for irrigation

  17. Preparation, optimization and property of PVA-HA/PAA composite hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Liu, Jinlong; Yang, Xuehui; Zhang, Dekun

    2017-09-01

    PVA-HA/PAA composite hydrogel is prepared by freezing-thawing, PEG dehydration and annealing method. Orthogonal design method is used to choose the optimization combination. Results showed that HA and PVA have the maximum effect on water content. PVA and freezing-thawing cycles have the maximum effect on creep resistance and stress relaxation rate of hydrogel. Annealing temperature and freezing-thawing cycles have the maximum effect on compressive elastic modulus of hydrogel. Comparing with the water content and mechanical properties of 16 kinds of combination, PVA-HA/PAA composite hydrogel with freezing-thawing cycles of 3, annealing temperature of 120°C, PVA of 16%, HA of 2%, PAA of 4% has the optimization comprehensive properties. PVA-HA/PAA composite hydrogel has a porous network structure. There are some interactions between PVA, HA and PAA in hydrogel and the properties of hydrogel are strengthened. The annealing treatment improves the crystalline and crosslinking of hydrogel. Therefore, the annealing PVA-HA/PAA composite hydrogel has good thermostability, strength and mechanical properties. It also has good lubrication property and its friction coefficient is relative low. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Morphological and Optical Characterization of High Density Au/PAA Nanoarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shaban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal nanoarrays of Au nanorods and nanopillar were deposited on nanoporous anodic alumina (PAA membranes utilizing dc electrodeposition. The surface morphologies and optical properties were characterized by using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. The optical reflectance spectra of the as-prepared, pore widened, and 2D-Au nanorods-coated PAA membranes were studied in detail. The effects of the angle of incident, pore widening time, and electrodeposition time on the characteristic peaks positions and intensities of the fabricated nanoarrays were addressed. As the angle of incident increased, the interference peaks and transverse surface resonance are shifted to longer wavelengths, but the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance is shifted to shorter wavelengths. Also, the reflected intensities are decreased linearly for the as-prepared sample and decreased exponentially for Au/PAA samples. Using the modified Kubelka-Munk radiative transfer model, the energy gap is increased from 2.83 to 3.06 eV and the refractive index is decreased from 1.84 to 1.36 for the as-prepared and 70 min pore widened PAA membranes, respectively. Based on the advantages of the fabrication approach and the enhanced and controlled properties, this generation of Au/PAA arrays can be used as efficient building blocks for nanoelectronics and nanophotonic devices.

  19. Pre/post-strike atmospheric assessment system (PAAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peglow, S. G.; Molitoris, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    The Pre/Post-Strike Atmospheric Assessment System was proposed to show the importance of local meteorological conditions in the vicinity of a site suspected of storing or producing toxic agents and demonstrate a technology to measure these conditions, specifically wind fields. The ability to predict the collateral effects resulting from an attack on a facility containing hazardous materials is crucial to conducting effective military operations. Our study approach utilized a combination of field measurements with dispersion modeling to better understand which variables in terrain and weather were most important to collateral damage predictions. To develop the PAAS wind-sensing technology, we utilized a combination of emergent and available technology from micro-Doppler and highly coherent laser systems. The method used for wind sensing is to probe the atmosphere with a highly coherent laser beam. As the beam probes, light is back-scattered from particles entrained in the air to the lidar transceiver and detected by the instrument. Any motion of the aerosols with a component along the beam axis leads to a Doppler shift of the received light. Scanning in a conical fashion about the zenith results in a more accurate and two-dimensional measurement of the wind velocity. The major milestones in the benchtop system development were to verify the design by demonstrating the technique in the laboratory, then scale the design down to a size consistent with a demonstrator unit which could be built to take data in the field. The micro-Doppler heterodyne system we developed determines absolute motion by optically mixing a reference beam with the return signal and has shown motion sensitivity to better than 1 cm/s. This report describes the rationale, technical approach and laboratory testing undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a system to provide local meteorological data and predict atmospheric particulate motion. The work described herein was funded by

  20. Analysis of primary aromatic amines (PAA) in black nylon kitchenware 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Xenia; Granby, Kit

    is 0,01 mg of substance per kg of food or food simulant. The detection limit applies to the sum of primary aromatic amines released’ Since July 1st 2011, an additional EU regulation has come into place, which states that each consignment of polyamide (nylon) kitchen utensils from China and Hong Kong......% acetic acid as food simulant at an exposure temperature of 100°C and time from ½-4 hours, depending on the foreseeable use of the utensil. The samples were collected by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority at importers and retail shops. Of the 20 PAAs analysed. four PAAs were detected, being aniline (ANL...

  1. In vivo kinetic analysis of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway using PAA stimulus response experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Amit T; Verheijen, Peter J T; Maleki Seifar, Reza; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter M

    2015-11-01

    In this study we combined experimentation with mathematical modeling to unravel the in vivo kinetic properties of the enzymes and transporters of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway in a high yielding Penicillium chrysogenum strain. The experiment consisted of a step response experiment with the side chain precursor phenyl acetic acid (PAA) in a glucose-limited chemostat. The metabolite data showed that in the absence of PAA all penicillin pathway enzymes were expressed, leading to the production of a significant amount of 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6APA) as end product. After the stepwise perturbation with PAA, the pathway produced PenG within seconds. From the extra- and intracellular metabolite measurements, hypotheses for the secretion mechanisms of penicillin pathway metabolites were derived. A dynamic model of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway was then constructed that included the formation and transport over the cytoplasmic membrane of pathway intermediates, PAA and the product penicillin-G (PenG). The model parameters and changes in the enzyme levels of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway under in vivo conditions were simultaneously estimated using experimental data obtained at three different timescales (seconds, minutes, hours). The model was applied to determine changes in the penicillin pathway enzymes in time, calculate fluxes and analyze the flux control of the pathway. This led to a reassessment of the in vivo behavior of the pathway enzymes and in particular Acyl-CoA:Isopenicillin N Acyltransferase (AT). Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A new inorganic-organic composite coagulant, consisting of polyferric sulphate (PFS) and polyacrylamide (PAA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussas, P A; Zouboulis, A I

    2009-08-01

    Currently, research is focused on the synthesis of new composite coagulants, which are constituted of both inorganic and organic materials. In this paper, the development of relevant reagents was investigated, by combining the inorganic pre-polymerised iron-based coagulant Polyferric Sulphate (PFS) with an organic, non-ionic polymer (Polyacrylamide, PAA) under different PAA/Fe (mg/l) and OH/Fe molar ratios. Moreover, the new reagents were characterised in terms of typical properties, stability and morphological analysis (XRD, FTIR, SEM). Their coagulation performance, when treating low or high turbid kaolin-humic acid suspensions, was also investigated, whereas the applied coagulation mechanisms were discussed by using the Photometric Dispersion Analysis (PDA) analysis. The results show that the new coagulation reagents present improved properties, including increased effective polymer species concentration, and they exhibit very good stability. The respective tests using PDA confirmed that the predominant coagulation mechanism of PFS-PAA is the bridge formation mechanism. Coagulation experiments in low or high turbid kaolin-humic acid suspensions reveal that the novel composite reagent PFS-PAA exhibits better coagulation performance, when compared with simple PFS, in terms of zeta-potential reduction, turbidity and organic matter removal and residual iron concentration.

  3. Hydrogels of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) synthesized by radiation-induced crosslinking of homopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadłubowski, Sławomir; Henke, Artur; Ulański, Piotr; Rosiak, Janusz M.

    2010-03-01

    pH-sensitive PVP-PAA hydrogels have been prepared by electron-beam-induced irradiation at pH close to pKa of carboxylic groups. Protonation of these groups promoted the formation of hydrogen bonds between the PAA and PVP segments within the crosslinked structure and caused interpolymer complex formation. To demonstrate possible future application of such gels, we tested them as simple chemical detectors. When loaded with glucose oxidase, the PAA-PVP gel's turbidity and shrinkage was triggered by the presence of glucose due to a drop in pH caused by the enzymatic reaction.

  4. Synthesis and photoluminescence enhancement of nano-PAA-ZnCl_2 with controllable dimension and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jianguo; Wang, Kaige; Zhou, Yukun; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Guiren

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • One kind of large area nano-PAA-ZnCl_2 composite film is fabricated, its dimension and morphology is controllable. The properties of nano-composite films have been heavily influenced by the concentration of initial ZnCl_2 solution, the depth of nano-PAAM substrate and the growth time of ZnCl_2 crystals. • At room temperature, the nano-PAA-ZnCl_2 film has the same excitation center (335 nm) and emission center (430 nm) as the nano-PAAM substrate, and the PL intensities can be doubly enhanced. • After annealing at 500 °C, the emission peak spectra of the nano-composite films stabilized at 385 nm, 402 nm, and 430 nm. - Abstract: One kind of ZnCl_2 nano-films with controllable dimension and morphology is successfully synthesized on the top surface of nano-porous anodic alumina membrane (nano-PAAM) by self-organized method. The nano-PAA-ZnCl_2 composite films are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, and laser confocal Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the concentration of initial ZnCl_2 solution, the depth of nano-PAAM substrate and the growth time of ZnCl_2 crystals have important influences on the properties of nano-composite films. Furthermore, the characteristics of nano-composites such as the photoluminescence (PL) spectra are investigated. Compared with the nano-PAAM substrate, at room temperature, all of the nano-PAA-ZnCl_2 composite films have both the same excitation center (335 nm) and emission center (430 nm), no matter what the nano-composite morphologies being; and the PL intensity of nano-PAA-ZnCl_2 composite films are all enhanced and the maximum enhancement is two times; after annealing at 500 °C, the emission spectra of the nano-composite films stabilized at the 385 nm, 402 nm and 430 nm. The research provides a new, simple, economical and practical technology to fabricate nano-PAA composite films with higher luminousintensity.

  5. Water and Wastewater Disinfection with Peracetic Acid and UV Radiation and Using Advanced Oxidative Process PAA/UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Beber de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The individual methods of disinfection peracetic acid (PAA and UV radiation and combined process PAA/UV in water (synthetic and sanitary wastewater were employed to verify the individual and combined action of these advanced oxidative processes on the effectiveness of inactivation of microorganisms indicators of fecal contamination E. coli, total coliforms (in the case of sanitary wastewater, and coliphages (such as virus indicators. Under the experimental conditions investigated, doses of 2, 3, and 4 mg/L of PAA and contact time of 10 minutes and 60 and 90 s exposure to UV radiation, the results indicated that the combined method PAA/UV provided superior efficacy when compared to individual methods of disinfection.

  6. Electrical conduction of polyimide films prepared from polyamic acid (PAA and pre-imidized polyimide (PI solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrical conduction characteristics in two different polyimide films prepared by the imidization of polyamic acid (PAA and pre-imidized polyimide (PI solution were investigated. It is found that the current density of the polyimide film from PAA was higher than that of the polyimide film from PI at the same electric field, even though the conduction mechanism in both polyimide films follows the ionic hopping model. The hopping distance was calculated to be 2.8 nm for PAA type and 3.2 nm for PI type polyimide film. It is also found that the decay rate of the residual electrostatic charges on the polyimide films becomes faster in the PAA type than in the PI type polyimide film.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a PaaX-like protein from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yi; Lou, Zhiyong; Sun, Yuna; Xue, Fei; Feng, Changzeng; Gong, Xiaocui; Yang, Dongmei; Bartlam, Mark; Meng, Zhaohui; Zhang, Keqin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the PaaX-like protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 was successfully crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant. PaaX is a global regulator of the phenylacetyl-coenzyme A catabolon that adjusts the expression of different operons to that of the paa-encoded central pathway. In this study, the PaaX-like protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 was successfully crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant. Diffraction data were obtained to a resolution of 3.0 Å using synchrotron radiation at the Photon Factory. The crystal belonged to space group P321, with unit-cell parameters a = 86.4, b = 86.4, c = 105.5 Å

  8. Water and Wastewater Disinfection with Peracetic Acid and UV Radiation and Using Advanced Oxidative Process PAA/UV

    OpenAIRE

    Beber de Souza, Jeanette; Queiroz Valdez, Fernanda; Jeranoski, Rhuan Felipe; Vidal, Carlos Magno de Sousa; Cavallini, Grasiele Soares

    2015-01-01

    The individual methods of disinfection peracetic acid (PAA) and UV radiation and combined process PAA/UV in water (synthetic) and sanitary wastewater were employed to verify the individual and combined action of these advanced oxidative processes on the effectiveness of inactivation of microorganisms indicators of fecal contamination E. coli, total coliforms (in the case of sanitary wastewater), and coliphages (such as virus indicators). Under the experimental conditions investigated, doses o...

  9. Intestinal Targeting of Ganciclovir Release Employing a Novel HEC-PAA Blended Lyomatrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Mostafa; Mulla, Jameel A S; Kumar, Pradeep; Chejara, Dharmesh R; Badhe, Ravindra V; Choonara, Yahya E; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2016-10-01

    A hydroxyethylcellulose-poly(acrylic acid) (HEC-PAA) lyomatrix was developed for ganciclovir (GCV) intestine targeting to overcome its undesirable degradation in the stomach. GCV was encapsulated within the HEC-PAA lyomatrix prepared by lyophilization. Conventional tablets were also prepared with identical GCV concentrations in order to compare the GCV release behavior from the lyomatrix and tablets. GCV incorporation (75.12%) was confirmed using FTIR, DSC, and TGA. The effect of GCV loading on the microstructure properties of the lyomatrix was evaluated by SEM, AFM, and BET surface area measurements. The in vitro drug release study showed steady and rapid release profiles from the GCV-loaded lyomatrix compared with the tablet formulation at identical pH values. Minimum GCV release was observed at acidic pH (≤40%) and maximum release occurred at intestinal pH values (≥90%) proving the intestinal targeting ability of the lyomatrix. Kinetic modeling revealed that the GCV-loaded lyomatrix exhibited zero-order release kinetics (n = 1), while the tablets were best described via the Peppas model. Textural analysis highlighted enhanced matrix resilience and rigidity gradient (12.5%, 20 Pa) for the GCV-loaded lyomatrix compared to the pure (7%, 9.5 Pa) HEC-PAA lyomatrix. Bench-top MRI imaging was used to confirm the mechanism of GCV release behavior by monitoring the swelling and erosion rates. The swelling and erosion rate of the tablets was not sufficient to achieve rapid zero-order GCV release as with the lyomatrix. These combined results suggest that the HEC-PAA lyomatrix may be suitable for GCV intestinal targeting after oral administration.

  10. Enhanced corrosion protective PANI-PAA/PEI multilayer composite coatings for 316SS by spin coating technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, Junaid Ali; Lu, Hongbin; Tang, Shaochun; Meng, Xiangkang, E-mail: mengxk@nju.edu.cn

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • PANI-PAA/PEI multilayers with controllable thickness were fabricated by spin assembly. • PAA matrix results in the homogeneous dispersion of PANI in the composite coatings. • Spin coating combined with heating assures the linear increase in thickness with n. • The corrosion protection property of PANI-PAA/PEI coatings were optimized at n = 20. • Enhanced protection owing to multilayer structure that lengthens the diffusion pathway of ions. - Abstract: In the present study, polyaniline-polyacrylic acid/polyethyleneimine (PANI-PAA/PEI) composite coatings with a multilayer structure for corrosion protection of 316 stainless steels (316SS) were prepared by an alternate deposition. Spin coating combined with heating assists removal of residual water that result in a linear increase in thickness with layer number (n). The combination of PANI-PAA composite with PEI and their multilayer structure provides a synergistic enhancement of corrosion resistance properties as determined by electrochemical measurements in 3.5% NaCl solution. Importantly, the PANI-PAA/PEI coating with an optimized layer number of n = 20 shows improved corrosion protection. The superior performance was attributed to the formation of an interfacial oxide layer as well as the multilayer structure that extend the diffusion pathway of corrosive ions.

  11. Vilka typer av nyheter har drivit stora prisförändringar hos börsnoterade europeiska fotbollsklubbar? : Är prisförändringarna ekonomiskt rationella?

    OpenAIRE

    Dagberg, Michael; Yap, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Bakgrund: Det som skiljer fotbollsbranschen från övriga företag är att framgång i inte enbart mäts i ökade marknadsandelar eller intäkter utan även utifrån sportsliga framgångar. Traditionell finansteori med utgångspunkt i ekonomisk rationalitet kontrasterar en känslobaserad beteendeekonomi för att förklara vad som driver fotbollsklubbars aktiepriser. Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att identifiera och kartlägga vilka typer av nyheter som har drivit stora prisförändringar och analysera om det ...

  12. Madalam veohind jääb Eestis veel unistuseks / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 1. okt. lk. 22. Vedajad sõltuvad Eesti kütusemüüjate diktaadist, mistõttu kütusehinnad ei ole siin samas tempos vähenenud. Vt. samas: Nafta nõudlus kuivab kokku; Kadrin Kärner, Kadri Paas. Jaan Lepp: kütusehindade tõus on firmadele jätnud kustumatu jälje; Diagramm: Nafta ja bensiini hind jätkuvas languses. Küsimusele vastab Ilo Rannu

  13. A novel pAA virulence plasmid encoding toxins and two distinct variants of the fimbriae of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Rie; Struve, Carsten; Boll, Erik J.

    2017-01-01

    phylogenetically distinct, strains harboring the major pilin subunits from both AAF/III and AAF/V. Whole-genome and plasmid sequencing revealed that in these six strains the agg3A and agg5A genes were located on a novel pAA plasmid variant. Moreover, the plasmid also encoded several other virulence genes including...... some not previously found on pAA plasmids. Thus, this plasmid endows the host strains with a remarkably high number of EAEC associated virulence genes hereby likely promoting strain pathogenicity....

  14. Results of a Pilot-Scale Disinfection Test using Peracetic Acid (PAA) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Sewage Treatment Plant (STP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Paul Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a small pilot-scale test using PAA to disinfect a side stream of the effluent from the ORNL STP. These results provide the basis for requesting approval for full-scale use of PAA at the ORNL STP.

  15. Preparation of chitosan/MCM-41-PAA nanocomposites and the adsorption behaviour of Hg(II) ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong; Huang, Yue; Hu, Jianshe

    2018-03-01

    A novel functional hybrid mesoporous composite material (CMP) based on chitosan and MCM-41-PAA was reported and its application as an excellent adsorbent for Hg(II) ions was also investigated. Innovatively, MCM-41-PAA was prepared by using diatomite and polyacrylic acid (PAA) with integrated polymer-silica hybrid frameworks, and then CMP was fabricated by introducing MCM-41-PAA to chitosan using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. The structure and morphology of CMP were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements. The results showed that the CMP possessed multifunctional groups such as -OH, -COOH and -NH2 with large specific surface area. Adsorption behaviour of Hg(II) ions onto CMP was fitted better by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir model when the initial Hg(II) concentration, pH, adsorption temperature and time were 200 mg l-1, 4, 298 K and 120 min, respectively, as the optimum conditions. The corresponding maximum adsorption capacity could reach 164 mg g-1. According to the thermodynamic parameters determined such as free energy, enthalpy and entropy, the adsorption process of Hg(II) ions was spontaneous endothermic adsorption.

  16. Preparation of chitosan/MCM-41-PAA nanocomposites and the adsorption behaviour of Hg(II) ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong; Huang, Yue; Hu, Jianshe

    2018-01-01

    A novel functional hybrid mesoporous composite material (CMP) based on chitosan and MCM-41-PAA was reported and its application as an excellent adsorbent for Hg(II) ions was also investigated. Innovatively, MCM-41-PAA was prepared by using diatomite and polyacrylic acid (PAA) with integrated polymer–silica hybrid frameworks, and then CMP was fabricated by introducing MCM-41-PAA to chitosan using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. The structure and morphology of CMP were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller measurements. The results showed that the CMP possessed multifunctional groups such as –OH, –COOH and –NH2 with large specific surface area. Adsorption behaviour of Hg(II) ions onto CMP was fitted better by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir model when the initial Hg(II) concentration, pH, adsorption temperature and time were 200 mg l−1, 4, 298 K and 120 min, respectively, as the optimum conditions. The corresponding maximum adsorption capacity could reach 164 mg g−1. According to the thermodynamic parameters determined such as free energy, enthalpy and entropy, the adsorption process of Hg(II) ions was spontaneous endothermic adsorption. PMID:29657793

  17. Interpretation of the quasi-elastic neutron scattering on PAA by rotational diffusion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bata, L.; Vizi, J.; Kugler, S.

    1974-10-01

    First the most important data determined by other methods for para azoxy anisolon (PAA) are collected. This molecule makes a rotational oscillational motion around the mean molecular direction. The details of this motion can be determined by inelastic neutron scattering. Quasielastic neutron scattering measurements were carried out without orienting magnetic field on a time-of-flight facility with neutron beam of 4.26 meV. For the interpretation of the results two models, the spherical rotation diffusion model and the circular random walk model are investigated. The comparison shows that the circular random walk model (with N=8 sites, d=4A diameter and K=10 10 s -1 rate constant) fits very well with the quasi-elastic neutron scattering, while the spherical rotational diffusion model seems to be incorrect. (Sz.N.Z.)

  18. Amperometric biosensor based on direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin in poly-allylamine (PAA) film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafi, A.K.M.; Lee, Dong-Yun; Park, Sang-Hyun; Kwon, Young-Soo

    2007-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) was immobilized in poly-allylamine (PAA) film onto the gold electrode by layer by layer (LBL) method. The modified electrode exhibited a pair of well-defined peaks during cyclic voltammetry, which was attributed from the direct electron transfer of heme proteins. The immobilized Hb showed an excellent electrocatalytical response to the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The sensor exhibited a fast response and high sensitivity. Through the use of optimized conditions, the linear range for H 2 O 2 detection was from 2.5 x 10 -6 M to 5 x 10 -4 M with detection limit of 0.2 μM. The proposed biosensor showed long-lasting stability and excellent reproducibility

  19. Spectroscopic study; Estudio espectroscopico del PAA con iones de Eu{sup 3+} como material luminescente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, M.; Rodriguez, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Arroyo, R. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, A.P. 55-534, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    This work is focused about the spectroscopic properties of a polymer material which consists of Polyacrylic acid (Paa) doped at different concentrations of Europium ions (Eu{sup 3+}). They show that to stay chemically joined with the polymer by a study of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) of {sup 1} H, {sup 13} C and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (Ft-IR) they present changes in the intensity of signals, just as too when this material is irradiated at {lambda} = 394 nm. In according with the results obtained experimentally in this type of materials it can say that is possible to unify chemically the polymer with this type of cations, as well as, varying the concentration of them, since that these are distributed homogeneously inside the matrix maintaining its optical properties. These materials can be obtained more quickly and easy in solid or liquid phase and they have the best conditions for to make a quantitative analysis. (Author)

  20. Elevated phenylacetic acid levels do not correlate with adverse events in patients with urea cycle disorders or hepatic encephalopathy and can be predicted based on the plasma PAA to PAGN ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarani, M; Diaz, G A; Rhead, W; Berry, S A; Lichter-Konecki, U; Feigenbaum, A; Schulze, A; Longo, N; Bartley, J; Berquist, W; Gallagher, R; Smith, W; McCandless, S E; Harding, C; Rockey, D C; Vierling, J M; Mantry, P; Ghabril, M; Brown, R S; Dickinson, K; Moors, T; Norris, C; Coakley, D; Milikien, D A; Nagamani, S C; Lemons, C; Lee, B; Scharschmidt, B F

    2013-12-01

    Phenylacetic acid (PAA) is the active moiety in sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) and glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB, HPN-100). Both are approved for treatment of urea cycle disorders (UCDs) - rare genetic disorders characterized by hyperammonemia. PAA is conjugated with glutamine in the liver to form phenylacetyleglutamine (PAGN), which is excreted in urine. PAA plasma levels ≥ 500 μg/dL have been reported to be associated with reversible neurological adverse events (AEs) in cancer patients receiving PAA intravenously. Therefore, we have investigated the relationship between PAA levels and neurological AEs in patients treated with these PAA pro-drugs as well as approaches to identifying patients most likely to experience high PAA levels. The relationship between nervous system AEs, PAA levels and the ratio of plasma PAA to PAGN were examined in 4683 blood samples taken serially from: [1] healthy adults [2], UCD patients of ≥ 2 months of age, and [3] patients with cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The plasma ratio of PAA to PAGN was analyzed with respect to its utility in identifying patients at risk of high PAA values. Only 0.2% (11) of 4683 samples exceeded 500 μg/ml. There was no relationship between neurological AEs and PAA levels in UCD or HE patients, but transient AEs including headache and nausea that correlated with PAA levels were observed in healthy adults. Irrespective of population, a curvilinear relationship was observed between PAA levels and the plasma PAA:PAGN ratio, and a ratio>2.5 (both in μg/mL) in a random blood draw identified patients at risk for PAA levels>500 μg/ml. The presence of a relationship between PAA levels and reversible AEs in healthy adults but not in UCD or HE patients may reflect intrinsic differences among the populations and/or metabolic adaptation with continued dosing. The plasma PAA:PAGN ratio is a functional measure of the rate of PAA metabolism and represents a useful dosing biomarker. © 2013.

  1. Synthesis and photoluminescence enhancement of nano-PAA-ZnCl{sub 2} with controllable dimension and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jianguo [State Key Laboratory of Cultivation Base for Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials, Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology of Shaanxi Province, National Center for International Research of Photoelectric Technology & Nano-functional Materials and Application, Institute of Photonics and Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Physics Department, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Wang, Kaige, E-mail: wangkg@nwu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cultivation Base for Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials, Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology of Shaanxi Province, National Center for International Research of Photoelectric Technology & Nano-functional Materials and Application, Institute of Photonics and Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Zhou, Yukun; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Chen [State Key Laboratory of Cultivation Base for Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials, Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology of Shaanxi Province, National Center for International Research of Photoelectric Technology & Nano-functional Materials and Application, Institute of Photonics and Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Wang, Guiren [State Key Laboratory of Cultivation Base for Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials, Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology of Shaanxi Province, National Center for International Research of Photoelectric Technology & Nano-functional Materials and Application, Institute of Photonics and Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Mechanical Engineering Department & Biomedical Engineering Program, University of South Carolina, Columbia SC 29208 (United States); and others

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • One kind of large area nano-PAA-ZnCl{sub 2} composite film is fabricated, its dimension and morphology is controllable. The properties of nano-composite films have been heavily influenced by the concentration of initial ZnCl{sub 2} solution, the depth of nano-PAAM substrate and the growth time of ZnCl{sub 2} crystals. • At room temperature, the nano-PAA-ZnCl{sub 2} film has the same excitation center (335 nm) and emission center (430 nm) as the nano-PAAM substrate, and the PL intensities can be doubly enhanced. • After annealing at 500 °C, the emission peak spectra of the nano-composite films stabilized at 385 nm, 402 nm, and 430 nm. - Abstract: One kind of ZnCl{sub 2} nano-films with controllable dimension and morphology is successfully synthesized on the top surface of nano-porous anodic alumina membrane (nano-PAAM) by self-organized method. The nano-PAA-ZnCl{sub 2} composite films are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, and laser confocal Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the concentration of initial ZnCl{sub 2} solution, the depth of nano-PAAM substrate and the growth time of ZnCl{sub 2} crystals have important influences on the properties of nano-composite films. Furthermore, the characteristics of nano-composites such as the photoluminescence (PL) spectra are investigated. Compared with the nano-PAAM substrate, at room temperature, all of the nano-PAA-ZnCl{sub 2} composite films have both the same excitation center (335 nm) and emission center (430 nm), no matter what the nano-composite morphologies being; and the PL intensity of nano-PAA-ZnCl{sub 2} composite films are all enhanced and the maximum enhancement is two times; after annealing at 500 °C, the emission spectra of the nano-composite films stabilized at the 385 nm, 402 nm and 430 nm. The research provides a new, simple, economical and practical technology to fabricate nano-PAA composite films with higher

  2. Brazilian policies and strategies for rural territorial development in Mozambique: South-South cooperation and the case of ProSAVANA and PAA

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, Elizabeth Alice [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyzes Brazil's present role in South-South development cooperation in Africa, focusing on the implementation and impact of Brazilian policies for rural territorial development in Mozambique. Specifically, two different programs for agricultural development-ProSAVANA and PAA Africa-are examined. ProSAVANA is an ongoing trilateral program run by the governments of Brazil, Japan and Mozambique that aims to modernize agriculture in three provinces in Northern Mozambique. PAA Africa...

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of PaaAC, the main component of the hydroxylase of the Escherichia coli phenylacetyl-coenzyme A oxygenase complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, Andrey M.; Ajamian, Eunice; Zhang, Linhua; Cygler, Miroslaw

    2010-01-01

    The expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the PaaAC complex is reported. This is the main component of the E. coliphenylacetyl-coenzyme A oxygenase complex. The Escherichia coli paa operon encodes enzymes of the phenylacetic acid-utilization pathway that metabolizes phenylacetate in the form of a coenzyme A (CoA) derivative. The phenylacetyl-coenzyme A oxygenase complex, which has been postulated to contain five components designated PaaABCDE, catalyzes ring hydroxylation of phenylacetyl-CoA. The PaaAC subcomplex shows low sequence similarity to other bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases (BMMs) and forms a separate branch on the phylogenetic tree. PaaAC, which catalyzes the hydroxylation reaction, was purified and crystallized in the absence of a bound ligand as well as in complexes with CoA, 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, benzoyl-CoA and the true substrate phenylacetyl-CoA. Crystals of the ligand-free enzyme belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 and diffracted to 2.65 Å resolution, whereas complexes with CoA and its derivatives crystallized in space group P4 1 2 1 2 and diffracted to ∼2.0 Å resolution. PaaAC represents the first crystallized BMM hydroxylase that utilizes a CoA-linked substrate

  4. Wind power's effects on marine life. A synthesis report; Vindkraftens effekter paa marint liv. En syntesrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Lena (Aquatic Resources, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Oeregrund (Sweden)); Kautsky, Lena (Dept. on Botany, Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Stockholm Univ. Marine Research Centre (Sweden)); Malm, Torleif; Aastrand Capetillo, Nastassja (Stockholms Univ. Marine Research Centre (Sweden)); Ohlsson, Hans (wpd Offshore Stockholm AB (Sweden)); Wahlberg, Magnus (Fjord and Baelt (Denmark)); Rosenberg, Rutger (Dept. of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden); Marine Monitoring AB, Lysekil (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    As in many other countries, an expansion of wind power is expected in Sweden during the coming decades. The expansion is driven by rising prices on electricity and the need for an increased production of renewable energy. Since wind conditions at sea are good and relatively constant, several offshore wind farms are planned in Swedish waters. Offshore wind power with a total effect of about 2500 MW has been granted permission and additionally 5500 MW are being planned for in Sweden. Examples of granted projects are Storgrundet with an effect of 265 MW, Stora Middelgrund with an effect of 860 MW and Kaarehamn with an effect of 48 MW. Today Sweden's largest offshore wind farm is Lillgrund in Oeresund with its 48 turbines with an installed effect of 110 MW. Prior to this expected expansion, it is important to investigate the environmental impact of offshore wind power, and how possible negative effects can be minimized. This synopsis about the impact of wind power on the marine life in Swedish waters, is based on more than 600 studies, most of which are scientific articles, but also reports by companies and authorities

  5. 3D Printed, PVA–PAA Hydrogel Loaded-Polycaprolactone Scaffold for the Delivery of Hydrophilic In-Situ Formed Sodium Indomethacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mershen Govender

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available 3D printed polycaprolactone (PCL-blended scaffolds have been designed, prepared, and evaluated in vitro in this study prior to the incorporation of a polyvinyl alcohol–polyacrylic acid (PVA–PAA hydrogel for the delivery of in situ-formed sodium indomethacin. The prepared PCL–PVA–PAA scaffold is proposed as a potential structural support system for load-bearing tissue damage where inflammation is prevalent. Uniaxial strain testing of the PCL-blended scaffolds were undertaken to determine the scaffold’s resistance to strain in addition to its thermal, structural, and porosimetric properties. The viscoelastic properties of the incorporated PVA–PAA hydrogel has also been determined, as well as the drug release profile of the PCL–PVA–PAA scaffold. Results of these analyses noted the structural strength, thermal stability, and porosimetric properties of the scaffold, as well as the ability of the PCL–PVA–PAA scaffold to deliver sodium indomethacin in simulated physiological conditions of pH and temperature. The results of this study therefore highlight the successful design, fabrication, and in vitro evaluation of a 3D printed polymeric strain-resistant supportive platform for the delivery of sodium indomethacin.

  6. Colhendo os frutos : dificuldades e conquistas da modalidade do PAA compra-institucional em uma Universidade Pública

    OpenAIRE

    Paula, Natália Ferreira de

    2016-01-01

    Orientadora : Profª. Drª. Islandia Bezerra Coorientadora : Profª Dra. Mônica de Caldas Rosa dos Anjos Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências da Saúde, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Alimentação e Nutrição. Defesa: Curitiba, 27/07/2016 Inclui referências : f. 72-79;81-89 Resumo: O Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos da Agricultura Familiar (PAA) foi criado no Brasil em 2003, a partir de proposições da sociedade civil e adotado como uma estratégia de...

  7. Improving thermal stability and efficacy of BCNU in treating glioma cells using PAA-functionalized graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu YJ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Jen Lu1,2,#, Hung-Wei Yang1,#, Sheng-Che Hung3, Chiung-Yin Huang2, Shin-Ming Li4, Chen-Chi M Ma4, Pin-Yuan Chen2, Hong-Chieh Tsai2, Kuo-Chen Wei2, Jyh-Ping Chen1 1Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kwei-San, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 3Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan#These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU, a commercial chemotherapeutic drug for treating malignant brain tumors, has poor thermal stability and a short half-life. Immobilization of BCNU on a nanocarrier might increase the thermal stability of BCNU and extend its half-life.Methods: Nanosized graphene oxide (GO could be modified by polyacrylic acid (PAA to improve the aqueous solubility and increase the cell penetration efficacy of the nanocarrier. PAA–GO intended as a drug carrier for BCNU was prepared and characterized in this study. The size and thickness of PAA–GO was investigated by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, and the presence of PAA functional groups was confirmed by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. BCNU was conjugated to PAA–GO by covalent binding for specific killing of cancer cells, which could also enhance the thermal stability of the drug.Results: Single layer PAA–GO (about 1.9 nm with a lateral width as small as 36 nm was successfully prepared. The optimum drug immobilization condition was by reacting 0.5 mg PAA–GO with 0.4 mg BCNU, and the drug-loading capacity and residual drug activity were 198 µg BCNU/mg PAA–GO and 70%, respectively. This nanocarrier significantly prolonged the half-life of bound BCNU from 19 to 43 hours compared with free drug and showed efficient intracellular

  8. The Influence of Lyophilized EmuGel Silica Microspheres on the Physicomechanical Properties, In Vitro Bioactivity and Biodegradation of a Novel Ciprofloxacin-Loaded PCL/PAA Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mabrouk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new composite poly(caprolactone (PCL and poly(acrylic acid (PAA (PCL:PAA 1:5 scaffold was synthesized via dispersion of PCL particles into a PAA network. Silica microspheres (Si (2–12 μm were then prepared by a lyophilized micro-emulsion/sol-gel (Emugel system using varying weight ratios. The model drug ciprofloxacin (CFX was used for in situ incorporation into the scaffold. The physicochemical and thermal integrity, morphology and porosity of the system was analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Attenuated Total Refelctance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, SEM, surface area analysis and liquid displacement, respectively. The mechanical properties of the scaffold were measured by textural analysis and in vitro bioactivity, biodegradation and pH variations were evaluated by XRD, FTIR and SEM after immersion in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF. The in vitro and in vivo studies of the prepared scaffold were considered as future aspects for this study. CFX release was determined in phosphate buffer saline (PBS (pH 7.4; 37 °C. The incorporation of the Si microspheres and CFX into the scaffold was confirmed by XRD, FTIR, DSC and SEM, and the scaffold microstructure was dependent on the concentration of Si microspheres and the presence of CFX. The system displayed enhanced mechanical properties (4.5–14.73 MPa, in vitro bioactivity, biodegradation and controlled CFX release. Therefore, the PCL/PAA scaffolds loaded with Si microspheres and CFX with a porosity of up to 87% may be promising for bone tissue engineering.

  9. The Closing Digital Divide: Delivery Modality and Family Attendance in the Pathways for African American Success (PAAS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Liu, Na

    2018-01-22

    Although family-focused, evidence-based programs (EBPs) have the potential to reduce disparities in health and behavioral outcomes for youth, access to such programs is severely limited in the most affected areas, including African American communities in the rural South. As expanding the reach of EBPs is the primary goal of translational research, interest is growing in the potential of technology as a viable platform to disseminate services to areas with limited resources. To test whether African American families in the rural South would be willing to engage in a technology-based family-focused EBP to prevent adolescent risk behavior, we examined attendance using data from two arms of a three-arm community-based trial of the Pathways for African American Success (PAAS) program. In the overall study, sixth graders (N = 412) and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to the following conditions: (a) in-person, small group sessions led by facilitators; (b) self-directed, technology-based sessions; or (c) a literature control with home-mailed educational materials. Results indicated that attendance was higher in the technology condition than in the small group condition. Parental age, education, and socioeconomic status did not limit attendance in the technology condition. We conclude from these results that the use of technology can be an acceptable strategy for disseminating parenting EBPs to African American families in the rural South.

  10. Toroidal cores of Mn{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/PAA nanocomposites with potential applications in antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcalá, Olgi [Laboratorio de Física de la Materia Condensada, Centro de Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Apartado 20632, Caracas, 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Briceño, Sarah [Laboratorio de Materiales, Centro de Ingenieria de Materiales y Nanotecnología, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Apartado 20632, Caracas, 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Brämer-Escamilla, Werner [Laboratorio de Física de la Materia Condensada, Centro de Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Apartado 20632, Caracas, 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Silva, Pedro, E-mail: pejosi@gmail.com [Laboratorio de Física de la Materia Condensada, Centro de Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Apartado 20632, Caracas, 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we study the electrical response of toroidal coils with cores of mixed ferrites magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) embedded in a polyacrylamide matrix (Mn{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/PAA, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1). The MNPs were synthesized by thermal decomposition of molecular precursors and Mn{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/PAA toroidal cores were constructed by using the method of copolymerization of MNPs with acrylamide and bis-acrylamide. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns of MNPs correspond to the cubic spinel phase. The MNPs average size obtained by using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) ranges from 6 to 12 nm. In order to compare our results we measure the characteristics of a commercial toroidal coil and we found that the impedance curves show a resonance peak for each configuration (commercial and Laboratory-made coils) around 75 MHz; the signal intensity of the Laboratory-made coil increases by one order of magnitude with respect to the commercial coil. We found that both, magnetic and electrical measurements, are related to the manganese concentration. The advantage of the designed Mn{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/PAA toroidal coils system lies in the fact that versatile combinations of Mn{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} components can bring facile tuning of the electrical and magnetic properties to optimize the impedance of the coils. - Highlights: • We prepare Mn{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (MNPs) using a thermal decomposition method. • Mn{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/PAA nanocomposite were prepared embedding the MNPs in a Polyacrylamide matrix. • Toroidal coils with cores of the Mn{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/PAA nanocomposite were prepared. • We Compare Impedance measurements in our cores with that of a commercial core T50. • The intensity peak around 75 MHz was one order of magnitude greater in our cores.

  11. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN and peroxyacetic acid (PAA measurements by iodide chemical ionisation mass spectrometry: first analysis of results in the boreal forest and implications for the measurement of PAN fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Phillips

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (CH3C(OO2NO2, PAN and peroxyacetic acid (CH3C(OOOH, PAA in the Boreal forest using iodide chemical ionization mass spectrometry (ICIMS. The measurements were made during the Hyytiälä United Measurement of Photochemistry and Particles – Comprehensive Organic Particle and Environmental Chemistry (HUMPPA-COPEC-2010 measurement intensive. Mixing ratios of PAN and PAA were determined by measuring the acetate ion signal (CH3C(OO, m/z = 59 resulting from reaction of CH3C(OO2 (from the thermal dissociation of PAN or CH3C(OOOH with iodide ions using alternatively heated and ambient temperature inlet lines. During some periods of high temperature (~ 30 °C and low NOx (< 1 ppbv, PAA mixing ratios were similar to, or exceeded those of PAN and thus contributed a significant fraction of the total acetate signal. PAA is thus a potential interference for ICIMS measurements of PAN, and especially eddy covariance flux measurements in environments where the PAA flux is likely to be a significant proportion of the (short timescale acetate ion variability. Within the range of mixing ratios of NOx measured during HUMPPA-COPEC, the modelled ratio of PAA-to-PAN was found to be sensitive to temperature (through the thermal decomposition rate of PAN and the HO2 mixing ratio, thus providing some constraint to estimates of photochemical activity and oxidation rates in the Boreal environment.

  12. Report from PAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The Population Association of America Annual Meeting, held in San Francisco April 6-8, 1995, generated papers on the key demographic themes of marriage, birth, mortality, and migration. In the US 47% of people between the ages of 25 and 44 have lived with an unmarried partner for some period, up from 37% during 1987-1988. For teenagers, absence of contact with fathers is associated with symptoms of depression, becoming a teen parent, and delinquency. Single fathers in 1990 were younger and had lower incomes than in the past. About 40% of nonpaying fathers had children out of wedlock; 30% to 48% had low or no income. The tendency of Whites to leave or avoid minority neighborhoods is due to perceptions about crime, quality of the schools, neighborhood deterioration, and the socioeconomic level of neighbors. Although African-American death rates generally are higher than those of Whites, the pattern seems to reverse itself after age 85. Surprisingly, survival probability at ages 80-95 for US Whites is higher than that in Europe and Japan. When immigrants enter an area, there is not much evidence of low-skilled native-born people moving out. Families with undocumented heads received an average of $6,080 in welfare benefits, while refugees received $10,444. The Social Security system is shifting large amounts of money from regions of the country with younger age structures, such as California, to states with older age structures, such as Florida. Among other topics, the remarkably low total fertility rate of 3.4 in the Bangladesh 1993-1994 Demographic and Health Survey was questioned as biased; the infant mortality data for Tajikistan appeared to be suspect; the diffusion of information about family planning in Africa was mentioned; the significance of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development regarding reproductive health services was hailed; and USAID's designing of indicators in safe pregnancy, breastfeeding, and women's nutrition was related.

  13. Spar paa farten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes an Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) project in Denmark based on Pay As You Drive principles, which means that the ISA equipment both gives a warning when the driver is speeding but also gives penalty points which reduce a promised bonus at 30 % on the insurance rate. In the ...... in a three year test period involving 300 car drivers as participants in the project, and we have some very primary results from the first 3 months driving. We have problems recruiting participants in the project, until now only 90 have signed a contract to have an OBU installed....

  14. Reply to the Comment by A. Wyttenbach and L. Tobler and correction for errata on 'Minor and trace element determination of food spices and pulses of different origins by NAA and PAA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Y.; Kajikawa, A.; Zaidi, J.H.; Nakanishi, T.; Sakamoto, K.; Kanazawa Univ.

    2001-01-01

    Reply is given to the comment by A. Wyttenbach and L. Tobler in J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 247 (2001) 457 on the article by Y. Miyamoto et. al. published in J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 243 (2000) 747 on 'Minor and trace element determination of food spices and pulses of different origins by NAA and PAA'. (N.T.)

  15. Adsorption Properties of PVA/PAA/clay Composite Hydrogel Synthesized by Gamma Radiation and its Application in Removal of Crystal Violet Dye from Its Aqueous Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, H.; El-Sayed, A. Hegazy; Mohamed, M.M.; Sabaa, M.W.; El-Dessouky, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Copolymer hydrogels composed of Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and Poly acrylic acid (PAA) were prepared by γ-irradiation in the presence of N,N’ methylene bis acrylamide (MBAM) as crosslinking agent or bentonite clay. The copolymers were characterized by FTIR and SEM. The dye adsorption experiments for Crystal Violet dye (CV) were carried out by using bath procedure. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the adsorption behavior. The effect of different copolymer composition, clay concentration, ph, contact time, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, and adsorption temperature were investigated to obtain the best experimental conditions. The adsorption equilibrium was attained after about 24h. of contact time. It was found that the adsorption process was correlated with Freundlich isotherm equation. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of CV dye onto the prepared hydrogels were also evaluated

  16. Suppressor mutations identify amino acids in PAA-1/PR65 that facilitate regulatory RSA-1/B″ subunit targeting of PP2A to centrosomes in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Karen I; Heinrichs, Jeffrey; Cheung, Karen; Srayko, Martin

    2013-01-15

    Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is a key mechanism for the spatial and temporal regulation of many essential developmental processes and is especially prominent during mitosis. The multi-subunit protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) enzyme plays an important, yet poorly characterized role in dephosphorylating proteins during mitosis. PP2As are heterotrimeric complexes comprising a catalytic, structural, and regulatory subunit. Regulatory subunits are mutually exclusive and determine subcellular localization and substrate specificity of PP2A. At least 3 different classes of regulatory subunits exist (termed B, B', B″) but there is no obvious similarity in primary sequence between these classes. Therefore, it is not known how these diverse regulatory subunits interact with the same holoenzyme to facilitate specific PP2A functions in vivo. The B″ family of regulatory subunits is the least understood because these proteins lack conserved structural domains. RSA-1 (regulator of spindle assembly) is a regulatory B″ subunit required for mitotic spindle assembly in Caenorhabditis elegans. In order to address how B″ subunits interact with the PP2A core enzyme, we focused on a conditional allele, rsa-1(or598ts), and determined that this mutation specifically disrupts the protein interaction between RSA-1 and the PP2A structural subunit, PAA-1. Through genetic screening, we identified a putative interface on the PAA-1 structural subunit that interacts with a defined region of RSA-1/B″. In the context of previously published results, these data propose a mechanism of how different PP2A B-regulatory subunit families can bind the same holoenzyme in a mutually exclusive manner, to perform specific tasks in vivo.

  17. Suppressor mutations identify amino acids in PAA-1/PR65 that facilitate regulatory RSA-1/B″ subunit targeting of PP2A to centrosomes in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen I. Lange

    2012-11-01

    Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is a key mechanism for the spatial and temporal regulation of many essential developmental processes and is especially prominent during mitosis. The multi-subunit protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A enzyme plays an important, yet poorly characterized role in dephosphorylating proteins during mitosis. PP2As are heterotrimeric complexes comprising a catalytic, structural, and regulatory subunit. Regulatory subunits are mutually exclusive and determine subcellular localization and substrate specificity of PP2A. At least 3 different classes of regulatory subunits exist (termed B, B′, B″ but there is no obvious similarity in primary sequence between these classes. Therefore, it is not known how these diverse regulatory subunits interact with the same holoenzyme to facilitate specific PP2A functions in vivo. The B″ family of regulatory subunits is the least understood because these proteins lack conserved structural domains. RSA-1 (regulator of spindle assembly is a regulatory B″ subunit required for mitotic spindle assembly in Caenorhabditis elegans. In order to address how B″ subunits interact with the PP2A core enzyme, we focused on a conditional allele, rsa-1(or598ts, and determined that this mutation specifically disrupts the protein interaction between RSA-1 and the PP2A structural subunit, PAA-1. Through genetic screening, we identified a putative interface on the PAA-1 structural subunit that interacts with a defined region of RSA-1/B″. In the context of previously published results, these data propose a mechanism of how different PP2A B-regulatory subunit families can bind the same holoenzyme in a mutually exclusive manner, to perform specific tasks in vivo.

  18. Co-existence of COPD and bronchiectasis: a risk factor for a high ratio of main pulmonary artery to aorta diameter (PA:A from computed tomography in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dou S

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Shuang Dou,1 Chunyan Zheng,1 Xiuli Ji,2 Wei Wang,1 Mengshuang Xie,1 Liwei Cui,1 Wei Xiao1 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pulmonary Disease, Jinan Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Background: Pulmonary vascular disease, especially pulmonary hypertension, is an important complication of COPD. Bronchiectasis is considered not only a comorbidity of COPD, but also a risk factor for vascular diseases. The main pulmonary artery to aorta diameter ratio (PA:A ratio has been found to be a reliable indicator of pulmonary vascular disease. It is hypothesized that the co-existence of COPD and bronchiectasis may be associated with relative pulmonary artery enlargement (PA:A ratio >1.Methods: This retrospective study enrolled COPD patients from 2012 through 2016. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Bhalla score was used to determine the severity of bronchiectasis. Patient characteristics were analyzed in two ways: the high (PA:A >1 and low (PA:A ≤1 ratio groups; and COPD with and without bronchiectasis groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors for high PA:A ratios.Results: In this study, 480 COPD patients were included, of whom 168 had radiographic bronchiectasis. Patients with pulmonary artery enlargement presented with poorer nutrition (albumin, 35.6±5.1 vs 38.3±4.9, P<0.001, lower oxygen partial pressure (74.4±34.5 vs 81.3±25.4, P<0.001, more severe airflow obstruction (FEV1.0, 0.9±0.5 vs 1.1±0.6, P=0.004, and a higher frequency of bronchiectasis (60% vs 28.8%, P<0.001 than patients in the low ratio group. Patients with both COPD and bronchiectasis had higher levels of systemic inflammation (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, P<0.001 and fibrinogen, P=0.006 and PA:A ratios (P<0.001. A higher PA:A ratio was significantly closely correlated with a higher Bhalla score (r=0.412, P<0

  19. Synthesis, surface modification/decoration of luminescent–magnetic core/shell nanomaterials, based on the lanthanide doped fluorides (Fe3O4/SiO2/NH2/PAA/LnF3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runowski, Marcin; Lis, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The synthesized magnetite nanoparticles (10–15 nm) were successfully coated with amine modified silica nanoshell, which led to the formation of core/shell type nanostructures (30–50 nm). The as-prepared nanoparticles were surface modified with polyacrylic acid (PAA) via electrostatic interactions of –NH 2 and –COOH groups. Afterwards, the surface PAA molecules acted as complexing agents of the introduced lanthanide (Ln 3+ ) ions. Subsequently, the as-prepared nanostructures were surface decorated with luminescent LnF 3 nanoparticles, forming Eu 3+ or Tb 3+ doped Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 /NH 2 /PAA/LnF 3 nanomaterials (50–100 nm). The obtained luminescent–magnetic products exhibited simultaneously bright red or green emission under UV lamp irradiation (λ ex =254 nm), and a response for the applied magnetic field (strong magnet attracts the colloidal particles, dispersed in aqueous medium). After the synthesis, properties of the nanomaterials were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and spectrofluorometry (analysis of excitation/emission spectra and luminescence decay curves). Such advanced nanomaterials can be potentially used in multimodal imaging, targeted therapies and as multifunctional contrast agents, novel luminescent–magnetic tracers, protection of documents, etc. - Highlights: • Luminescent–magnetic nanomaterials Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 /NH 2 /PAA/LnF 3 were synthesized. • Core/shell nanostructures were obtained by surface modification of nanoparticles. • Luminescent lanthanide fluoride nanoparticles doped with Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ ions. • Multifunctional core/shell nanostructures exhibited red or green emission. • Nanomaterials formed stable aqueous colloids.

  20. Etnobotánica del "coro" (Nicotiana paa, Solanaceae: Un tabaco silvestre poco conocido del extremo sur de Sudamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo F. Scarpa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El "coro" es un tabaco silvestre de Argentina y Chile cuyas raíces son empleadas como fumatorio y mascatorio desde tiempos inmemoriales por grupos indígenas. Si bien existen noticias sobre su empleo desde la época colonial, en la actualidad no hay consenso sobre su identidad botánica a la par que sus modalidades de obtención, procesado y consumo han sido escasamente descriptas. Se efectuaron campañas etnobotánicas al sudoeste de la provincia del Chaco donde se colectaron ejemplares que responden a dicho nombre vernáculo en compañía de indígenas y se analizaron fuentes bibliográficas históricas disponibles. Se comprobó in situ que los mocovíes actualmente fuman sus raíces mezcladas con tabaco tanto en contextos ceremoniales como extra-ceremoniales. Como resultado del análisis bibliográfico se infiere que también lo emplearon en el pasado de manera homóloga indígenas vilelas, qom (tobas; wichi y abipones. Se descarta la correspondencia del "coro" con especies de Trichocline por la inexistencia de registros etnobotánicos al respecto. Se confirma que este fumatorio corresponde a Nicotiana paa Mart. rov. y se presentan y discuten nuevos datos sobre su obtención, procesamiento y consumo.

  1. Study of the influence of the codopant over the photoluminescent properties of PAA doped with Eu3+, Gd3+, and Tb3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, M.; Arroyo, R.

    2003-01-01

    The results are presented obtained about the synthesis of acrylic poly acid characterization (PAA) doped with Eu 3+ , Gd 3+ and Tb 3+ . They got ready materials with even of these ions and it was studied the influence of the co dopant in the processes of emission of Eu 3+ (λ em = 618 nm), Gd 3+ (λ em = 624 nm) and Tb 3+ (λ em = 546 nm), as well as their effect in the phosphorescence (λ em = 450 nm) of the polymeric matrix. It was found that the intensity of the emission of Eu 3+ diminishes substantially due to the presence of the ions Gd 3+ , contrary to what happens when the co dopant is Tb 3+ , which causes an increase. In the one case of the emission of Tb 3+ , this it increases with the presence of Gd 3+ but it diminishes when Eu 3+ is present. These results are consequence of the homogeneous distribution of those dopants and of the phenomena of energy transfer that happen in the materials synthesized. (Author)

  2. Algal toxicity of the alternative disinfectants performic acid (PFA), peracetic acid (PAA), chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and their by-products hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorite (ClO2-)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Baun, Anders; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Environmental effect evaluation of disinfection of combined sewer overflow events with alternative chemical disinfectants requires that the environmental toxicity of the disinfectants and the main by-products of their use are known. Many disinfectants degrade quickly in water which should......: performic acid (PFA), peracetic acid (PAA) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as well as two by-products of their use: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorite. All of the five chemicals investigated showed clear toxicity to the algae with well-defined dose response curves. The EC50 values ranged from 0.16 to 2.9 mg...

  3. Study of the influence of the codopant over the photoluminescent properties of PAA doped with Eu{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+}, and Tb{sup 3+}; Estudio de la influencia del codopante sobre las propiedades fotoluminiscentes de PAA dopado con Eu{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+} y Tb{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, M.; Arroyo, R. [Departamento de Fisica, UAM-I, A.P. 55-534, 09820 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The results are presented obtained about the synthesis of acrylic poly acid characterization (PAA) doped with Eu{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+}. They got ready materials with even of these ions and it was studied the influence of the co dopant in the processes of emission of Eu{sup 3+} ({lambda}{sub em} = 618 nm), Gd{sup 3+} ({lambda}{sub em} = 624 nm) and Tb{sup 3+} ({lambda}{sub em} = 546 nm), as well as their effect in the phosphorescence ({lambda}{sub em} = 450 nm) of the polymeric matrix. It was found that the intensity of the emission of Eu{sup 3+} diminishes substantially due to the presence of the ions Gd{sup 3+}, contrary to what happens when the co dopant is Tb{sup 3+} , which causes an increase. In the one case of the emission of Tb{sup 3+}, this it increases with the presence of Gd{sup 3+} but it diminishes when Eu{sup 3+} is present. These results are consequence of the homogeneous distribution of those dopants and of the phenomena of energy transfer that happen in the materials synthesized. (Author)

  4. "... en Juvel - paa en Tribune"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehrmann, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    Undersøgelse af Herman Bangs mangesidede virke som henholdsvis oplæser på turné i provinsen, forfatter af romanen Mikaël og journalist på avisen København i året 1904......Undersøgelse af Herman Bangs mangesidede virke som henholdsvis oplæser på turné i provinsen, forfatter af romanen Mikaël og journalist på avisen København i året 1904...

  5. AVALIAÇÃO DO PROGRAMA DE AQUISIÇÃO DE ALIMENTOS (PAA E DO PROGRAMA NACIONAL DE ALIMENTAÇÃO ESCOLAR (PNAE EM CASTILHO-SP E EM ANDRADINA-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóri Edson Lopes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Em meio a debates e reivindicações sobre a necessidade de uma maior intervenção do Estado na questão da segurança e soberania alimentar, é criado em 2003 – pelo governo federal – o Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos (PAA. O programa tem como um de seus objetivos cooperar na luta contra a fome no Brasil, além de atender, pelo menos em parte, as reivindicações de movimentos sociais de luta pela terra que buscam um maior reconhecimento e apoio para a produção da agricultura familiar camponesa, que mesmo sendo deixada em segundo plano pelas políticas agrícolas do Estado brasileiro, é responsável por importante contribuição para a soberania e segurança alimentar do país.

  6. 13C based proteinogenic amino acid (PAA and metabolic flux ratio analysis of Lactococcus lactis reveals changes in pentose phosphate (PP pathway in response to agitation and temperature related stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalrul Azlan Azizan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 is an important starter culture for dairy fermentation. During industrial fermentations, L. lactis is constantly exposed to stresses that affect the growth and performance of the bacterium. Although the response of L. lactis to several stresses has been described, the adaptation mechanisms at the level of in vivo fluxes have seldom been described. To gain insights into cellular metabolism, 13C metabolic flux analysis and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS were used to measure the flux ratios of active pathways in the central metabolism of L. lactis when subjected to three conditions varying in temperature (30°C, 37°C and agitation (with and without agitation at 150 rpm. Collectively, the concentrations of proteinogenic amino acids (PAAs and free fatty acids (FAAs were compared, and Pearson correlation analysis (r was calculated to measure the pairwise relationship between PAAs. Branched chain and aromatic amino acids, threonine, serine, lysine and histidine were correlated strongly, suggesting changes in flux regulation in glycolysis, the pentose phosphate (PP pathway, malic enzyme and anaplerotic reaction catalysed by pyruvate carboxylase (pycA. Flux ratio analysis revealed that glucose was mainly converted by glycolysis, highlighting the stability of L. lactis’ central carbon metabolism despite different conditions. Higher flux ratios through oxaloacetate (OAA from pyruvate (PYR reaction in all conditions suggested the activation of pyruvate carboxylate (pycA in L. lactis, in response to acid stress during exponential phase. Subsequently, more significant flux ratio differences were seen through the oxidative and non-oxidative pentose phosphate (PP pathways, malic enzyme, and serine and C1 metabolism, suggesting NADPH requirements in response to environmental stimuli. These reactions could play an important role in optimization strategies for metabolic engineering in L. lactis. Overall

  7. 13C based proteinogenic amino acid (PAA) and metabolic flux ratio analysis of Lactococcus lactis reveals changes in pentose phosphate (PP) pathway in response to agitation and temperature related stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizan, Kamalrul Azlan; Ressom, Habtom W; Mendoza, Eduardo R; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain

    2017-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 is an important starter culture for dairy fermentation. During industrial fermentations, L. lactis is constantly exposed to stresses that affect the growth and performance of the bacterium. Although the response of L. lactis to several stresses has been described, the adaptation mechanisms at the level of in vivo fluxes have seldom been described. To gain insights into cellular metabolism, 13 C metabolic flux analysis and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to measure the flux ratios of active pathways in the central metabolism of L. lactis when subjected to three conditions varying in temperature (30°C, 37°C) and agitation (with and without agitation at 150 rpm). Collectively, the concentrations of proteinogenic amino acids (PAAs) and free fatty acids (FAAs) were compared, and Pearson correlation analysis ( r ) was calculated to measure the pairwise relationship between PAAs. Branched chain and aromatic amino acids, threonine, serine, lysine and histidine were correlated strongly, suggesting changes in flux regulation in glycolysis, the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway, malic enzyme and anaplerotic reaction catalysed by pyruvate carboxylase (pycA). Flux ratio analysis revealed that glucose was mainly converted by glycolysis, highlighting the stability of L. lactis' central carbon metabolism despite different conditions. Higher flux ratios through oxaloacetate (OAA) from pyruvate (PYR) reaction in all conditions suggested the activation of pyruvate carboxylate (pycA) in L. lactis , in response to acid stress during exponential phase. Subsequently, more significant flux ratio differences were seen through the oxidative and non-oxidative pentose phosphate (PP) pathways, malic enzyme, and serine and C1 metabolism, suggesting NADPH requirements in response to environmental stimuli. These reactions could play an important role in optimization strategies for metabolic engineering in L. lactis . Overall, the

  8. 13C based proteinogenic amino acid (PAA) and metabolic flux ratio analysis of Lactococcus lactis reveals changes in pentose phosphate (PP) pathway in response to agitation and temperature related stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 is an important starter culture for dairy fermentation. During industrial fermentations, L. lactis is constantly exposed to stresses that affect the growth and performance of the bacterium. Although the response of L. lactis to several stresses has been described, the adaptation mechanisms at the level of in vivo fluxes have seldom been described. To gain insights into cellular metabolism, 13C metabolic flux analysis and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to measure the flux ratios of active pathways in the central metabolism of L. lactis when subjected to three conditions varying in temperature (30°C, 37°C) and agitation (with and without agitation at 150 rpm). Collectively, the concentrations of proteinogenic amino acids (PAAs) and free fatty acids (FAAs) were compared, and Pearson correlation analysis (r) was calculated to measure the pairwise relationship between PAAs. Branched chain and aromatic amino acids, threonine, serine, lysine and histidine were correlated strongly, suggesting changes in flux regulation in glycolysis, the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway, malic enzyme and anaplerotic reaction catalysed by pyruvate carboxylase (pycA). Flux ratio analysis revealed that glucose was mainly converted by glycolysis, highlighting the stability of L. lactis’ central carbon metabolism despite different conditions. Higher flux ratios through oxaloacetate (OAA) from pyruvate (PYR) reaction in all conditions suggested the activation of pyruvate carboxylate (pycA) in L. lactis, in response to acid stress during exponential phase. Subsequently, more significant flux ratio differences were seen through the oxidative and non-oxidative pentose phosphate (PP) pathways, malic enzyme, and serine and C1 metabolism, suggesting NADPH requirements in response to environmental stimuli. These reactions could play an important role in optimization strategies for metabolic engineering in L. lactis. Overall, the

  9. Synthesis, surface modification/decoration of luminescent–magnetic core/shell nanomaterials, based on the lanthanide doped fluorides (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/NH{sub 2}/PAA/LnF{sub 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runowski, Marcin; Lis, Stefan, E-mail: blis@amu.edu.pl

    2016-02-15

    The synthesized magnetite nanoparticles (10–15 nm) were successfully coated with amine modified silica nanoshell, which led to the formation of core/shell type nanostructures (30–50 nm). The as-prepared nanoparticles were surface modified with polyacrylic acid (PAA) via electrostatic interactions of –NH{sub 2} and –COOH groups. Afterwards, the surface PAA molecules acted as complexing agents of the introduced lanthanide (Ln{sup 3+}) ions. Subsequently, the as-prepared nanostructures were surface decorated with luminescent LnF{sub 3} nanoparticles, forming Eu{sup 3+} or Tb{sup 3+} doped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/NH{sub 2}/PAA/LnF{sub 3} nanomaterials (50–100 nm). The obtained luminescent–magnetic products exhibited simultaneously bright red or green emission under UV lamp irradiation (λ{sub ex}=254 nm), and a response for the applied magnetic field (strong magnet attracts the colloidal particles, dispersed in aqueous medium). After the synthesis, properties of the nanomaterials were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and spectrofluorometry (analysis of excitation/emission spectra and luminescence decay curves). Such advanced nanomaterials can be potentially used in multimodal imaging, targeted therapies and as multifunctional contrast agents, novel luminescent–magnetic tracers, protection of documents, etc. - Highlights: • Luminescent–magnetic nanomaterials Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/NH{sub 2}/PAA/LnF{sub 3} were synthesized. • Core/shell nanostructures were obtained by surface modification of nanoparticles. • Luminescent lanthanide fluoride nanoparticles doped with Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} ions. • Multifunctional core/shell nanostructures exhibited red or green emission. • Nanomaterials formed stable aqueous colloids.

  10. Algal toxicity of the alternative disinfectants performic acid (PFA), peracetic acid (PAA), chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and their by-products hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorite (ClO2-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Baun, Anders; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2017-05-01

    Environmental effect evaluation of disinfection of combined sewer overflow events with alternative chemical disinfectants requires that the environmental toxicity of the disinfectants and the main by-products of their use are known. Many disinfectants degrade quickly in water which should be included in the evaluation of both their toxicity as determined in standardized tests and their possible negative effect in the water environment. Here we evaluated according to the standardized ISO 8692 test the toxicity towards the green microalgae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, of three disinfectants: performic acid (PFA), peracetic acid (PAA) and chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) as well as two by-products of their use: hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and chlorite. All of the five chemicals investigated showed clear toxicity to the algae with well-defined dose response curves. The EC 50 values ranged from 0.16 to 2.9mg/L based on nominal concentrations leading to the labeling of the chemicals as either toxic or very toxic. The five investigated chemicals decreased in toxicity in the order chlorine dioxide, performic acid, peracetic acid, chlorite and hydrogen peroxide. The stability of the chemicals increased in the same order as the toxicity decrease. This indicates that even though ClO 2 has the highest environmental hazard potential, it may still be suitable as an alternative disinfectant due to its rapid degradation in water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of vegetation and sewage sludge on sealing layer of fly ashes in post-treatment of mine tailings impoundments; Inverkan av vegetation och roetslam paa taetskikt av flygaska vid efterbehandling av sandmagasin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria; Neuschuetz, Clara (Inst. of Bothany, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)); Isaksson, Karl-Erik (Boliden Mineral AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    Mining industry produces 25 Mton mine tailings yearly that are deposited in impoundments in the nature. When this sand, containing sulphur rich minerals, reacts with oxygen and water it starts to weather and acidic metal rich water is formed. To prevent this, the sand can be covered with a sealing layer and a protective cover layer with vegetation. As sealing and cover materials fly ashes and sewage sludge can be used. The aim of this investigation was to find out: 1) how sealing layer of fly ashes with and without sewage sludge, and a cover with sewage sludge can be placed practically on mine tailings in a cold climate. 2) how such a cover should be constructed to minimize the risk of root penetration and leakage of nutrients and metals 3) which vegetation that is most suitable This was investigated in field- and greenhouse tests with a sealing layer of fly ash and/or sewage sludge with a cover layer of sewage sludge in which different plant species were established. The practical application was performed in 0.3-1 ha plots at a mine tailings impoundments at Boliden. The ability of plant roots to penetrate a sealing layer was investigated, as well as the effect of simulated root exudates on the penetration resistance in hardened ash. Leakage of nutrients and metals from cover layer of sewage sludge, in some cases with sealing layers beneath, was investigated in field and greenhouse lysimeters. Various plant species were compared on their ability to affect metal and nutrient leakage as well as root penetration and shattering of the hardened ashes. The project was a cooperation between Stockholm University and Boliden Mineral AB, and the field tests were performed at the impoundment Gillervattnet in Boliden and in Garpenberg. Cooperating were also Iggesund Paperboard, Skellefteaa Kraft, Stora Enso Fors, Umeaa Energi and Vattenfall, all producers of ashes that were used, as well as Stockholm Vatten AB, which produced the sewage sludge. The most important conclusions

  12. Packaging Solutions : Delivering customer value through Logistical Packaging: A Case Study at Stora Enso Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Kun; Julius, Joezer

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackground;Despite of the significant role of packaging within logistics and supply chain management, packaging is infrequently studied as focal point in supply chain. Most of the previous logistics research studies tend to explain the integration between packaging and logistics through logistical packaging. In very rare cases, the studies mentioned about customer value. Therefore the major disadvantage of these studies is that, they didn’t consider logistical packaging and customer v...

  13. Optimized district heating supply temperature for large networks; Optimerad framledningstemperatur foer stora fjaerrvaermenaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, Lisa; Boman, Katarina

    2012-02-15

    The supply temperature of the Uppsala district heating network was optimized using a model-based control strategy. Simulation of the network showed that the supply temperature could be decreased by in average 8 deg and the electricity production of the plants supplying the network could be increased with 2.5 % during the period January- April, giving an extra income of 1.2 MSEK due to increased income from electricity sales

  14. Experience from a number of larger surface earth heating systems. Erfarenheter fraan naagra stora ytjordvaermesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, J.

    1987-01-01

    The heat pump systems investigated in this project supply heat to the following loads: the Adult High School in Oestra Grevie, a cycle factory in Vandsbro, detached houses in Surte and detached houses in the Sandhed area of Orsa. The heat pumps in all four have operated reasonably well. As far as design is concerned the systems are of monovalent type with low-temperature heating systems. Although the Oestra Grevie installation incorporates an oil-fired boiler for supplying heat during the winter to an older part of the school, there is no load-sharing between the boiler and the heat pump. The Vansbro installation incorporates an eletric boiler, but is has not been necessary in practice to use it. As a result, the systems have not suffered from what would normally be the relatively common problems encountered in bivalent systems from joint operation. Total heat and energy demands are generally over-estimated, which has meant that heat pumps are larger than was originally intended. In purely physical terms, specific heat abstraction from the ground in kWh/m/sup 2/ per year for the various systems could be increased by 100-700%, although abstraction should also be related to the intended use of the ground. However, it is clear that it could be higher in the systems investigated here. If building these systems today, optimum system design would enable capital costs to be reduced by 10-35%. However, there does not appear to be any scope for general cost reductions per m of hose in large collector systems: the decisive factors are ground conditions and the distance between the collector and the heat pump in each individual case.

  15. Raymond Stora, le physicien, l'homme, l'ami ( Memorial meeting )

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

      Speakers:  Michel Bauer, Michel Dubois-Violette, Sergio Ferrara, Marc Henneaux, Camillo Imbimbo, Juan Luis Manes, Ivan Todorov Organizers:  Luis Alvarez-Gaumé, Luc Frappat, Paul Sorba, Frank Thuillier

  16. Milleks Villu Reiljan miljoni laenas? / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2008-01-01

    Eestimaa Rahvaliitu kuuluv parlamendiliige Villu Reiljan võttis majanduslike huvide deklaratsiooni kohaselt Rahvaliidu suurtoetajale Urmas Sõõrumaale kuulvast firmast U.S. Invest miljon krooni laenu. Vt. samas: Süüdistatakse pistise nõudmises; Varem pole kelleltki laenanud; Allar Viivik. Juul ehitab maja tarbimislaenuga

  17. Pentagon otsib Eestist kaupa / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Pentagoni logistikatugi Defence Logistic Agency (DLA) pöördus Kaitsetööstuse Liidu poole selgitamaks välja, kas Eesti ettevõtetelt oleks võimalik osta Afganistanis sõdivatele vägedele köögivilja, joogivett ja ehitusmaterjale

  18. Kadrioru lossipidude uurimine salastatud / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Kadrioru peetud noortepidusid uuriv Põhja Politseiprefektuur ei soovi juhtunu selgitamise huvides avalikustada menetletava väärteoasja paragrahvi. Vt. samas: Kirsti Vainküla. President ei maksa tütre elamiskulude eest; Katrin Pauts. Mihkel Kärmas: mingit vandenõu pole olnud; Siim Randla. Lepikult hakkab politseitööd analüüsima; Peol käis ka Meri lapselaps; Lossi ümber ehitatakse tara? Minister vastutust ei tunne

  19. Merelt võetud terminal / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 18. juuni lk. 16. Perekond Vähi plaanib merelt võetud maale ehitada terminali, mis võimaldaks käsitleda 800 000 konteinerit aastas. Vt. samas: Vähide pereäri. Küsimusele vastavad Juhan Kolk ja majandusminister Juhan Parts

  20. Kindlusta kilosid ja hinda / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka:: Delovõje Vedomosti 16. juuli lk. 16. Kaubavedude puhul on vedajal kilogrammipõhine vastutuse limiit, kauba omanik sõlmib aga veosekindlustuse, mis hüvitab võimaliku kahju toodete tegeliku väärtuse. Küsimusele vastab Kalmer Jegonjan. Lisad: Vedaja vastutuskindlustus; Millega peab kauba omanik arvestama?; Lennutranspordis küündib vedaja kindlustuslimiit kõige kõrgemale. Vt. samas: Aivar Same. Kas tead, kus autojuht kohvipausi peab?

  1. Deepwater drilling; Jakten paa de store dyp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Recent technological development has made it possible to drill for oil and gas at the impressive depth of 3000 metres. An increasing part of the world's oil and gas discoveries are made in deep or ultra deep waters. Ultra deep waters are those exceeding 1500 metres. Since drilling at more than 500 metres started at the end of the 1970s, 32 discoveries of about 500 million barrels of extractable oil or gas have been made. These finds amount to almost 60 thousand millions barrels of oil equivalents. Most of the effort has been made in the coasts between Brazil, West Africa and the Gulf of Mexico. Deepwater projects have been a field of priority for Norwegian oil companies in their search for international commissions. It is frequently time-consuming, expensive and technologically challenging to drill at great depths. The article describes the Atlantis concept, which may reduce the complexities and costs of deepwater activities. This involves making an artificial sea bottom, which in the form of an air-filled buoy is anchored at a depth of 200 - 300 metres. Production wells or exploration wells and risers are extended from the real bottom to the artificial one.

  2. Põhiharidus on oluline / Kristjan Paas, Kaire Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kristjan

    2003-01-01

    Seosed haridustaseme ja majandusliku aktiivsuse vahel; põhihariduseta inimeste kooli tagasitoomise probleeme. Tab.: tööealise elanikkona majanduslik seisund hariduse ja vanuse järgi, sissetuleku liikide osakaal keskmises netosissetulekus haridustaseme lõikes, täiskasvanute gümnaasiumi ja eelkutseõppe õpilaste toimetulek

  3. Mida sportijad vajavad? / Evelin Kivilo-Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivilo-Paas, Evelin, 1979-

    2015-01-01

    Sportijate toitainete vajaduse kohta jagavad selgitusi Tallinna Ülikooli terviseteaduste ja spordi instituudi direktor ja spordibioloog Kristjan Port, Synlab Eesti laboriarst dr Anneli Raave-Sepp ja Spordimeditsiini SA spordiarst dr Krista Veevo

  4. Discursos y prácticas de la cooperación Sur-Sur brasileña en materia agrícola en el África Subsahariana: el caso del ProSavana y del PAA África

    OpenAIRE

    de Andrade e Sousa, Maria Eduarda

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo aborda la Cooperación Sur-Sur (CSS) brasileña en el África Subsahariana, con el objetivo de investigar en qué medida las iniciativas en materia agrícola pueden contribuir a la seguridad alimentaria de la región. Para ello, dos proyectos, el ProSavana y el PAA África, han sido estudiados en detalle a fin de valorar sus potencialidades desde el punto de vista de la seguridad alimentaria y analizar hasta qué punto están en línea con los principios de la cooperación técnica brasileñ...

  5. An integrated IaaS and PaaS architecture for scientific computing

    OpenAIRE

    Donvito, Giacinto; Blanquer, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Scientific applications often require multiple computing resources deployed on a coordinated way. The deployment of multiple resources require installing and configuring special software applications which should be updated when changes in the virtual infrastructure take place. When working on hybrid and federated cloud environments, restrictions on the hypervisor or cloud management platform must be minimised to facilitate geographic-wide brokering and cross-site deployments. Moreover, prese...

  6. PaaS for web applications with OpenShift Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Lossent, A; Rodriguez Peon, A; Wagner, A

    2017-01-01

    The CERN Web Frameworks team has deployed OpenShift Origin to facilitate deployment of web applications and to improving efficiency in terms of computing resource usage. OpenShift leverages Docker containers and Kubernetes orchestration to provide a Platform-as-a-service solution oriented for web applications. We will review use cases and how OpenShift was integrated with other services such as source control, web site management and authentication services.

  7. PaaS for web applications with OpenShift Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossent, A.; Rodriguez Peon, A.; Wagner, A.

    2017-10-01

    The CERN Web Frameworks team has deployed OpenShift Origin to facilitate deployment of web applications and to improving efficiency in terms of computing resource usage. OpenShift leverages Docker containers and Kubernetes orchestration to provide a Platform-as-a-service solution oriented for web applications. We will review use cases and how OpenShift was integrated with other services such as source control, web site management and authentication services.

  8. 29. IV-22. V on Stora Enso Packaging ASi uues tehasehoones Jälgimäel Tänassilma tehnopargis...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Noorte kunstnike näitus "Paper Talks!". Väljapaneku koordinaator Maarin Ektermann. Installatsiooni märksõna on interdistsiplinaarsus, kaasa on haaratud hüpermaal, graafika, arhitektoonika, videokunst

  9. Symanzik–Becchi–Rouet–Stora lessons on renormalizable models with broken symmetry: The case of Lorentz violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cima, Oswaldo M.; Franco, Daniel H.T.; Piguet, Olivier, E-mail: opiguet@pq.cnpq.br

    2016-11-15

    In this paper, we revisit the issue intensively studied in recent years on the generation of terms by radiative corrections in models with broken Lorentz symmetry. The algebraic perturbative method of handling the problem of renormalization of the theories with Lorentz symmetry breaking, is used. We hope to make clear the Symanzik's aphorism: “Whether you like it or not, you have to include in the lagrangian all counter terms consistent with locality and power-counting, unless otherwise constrained by Ward identities.”{sup 1}.

  10. Acceptance-criteria for the bedrock for deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Proceedings from a seminar at Gothenburg University; Acceptanskriterier foer berggrunden vid djup geologisk slutfoervaring av anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The seminar was directed to Nordic participants, and discussed disposal in the Nordic crystalline bedrock. Criteria for the bedrock should include: It should give durable mechanical protection for the engineered barriers; give a stable and favorable chemical environment for these barriers; have a low turnover of ground water in the near field; be easy to characterize; give favorable recipient-conditions; not have valuable minerals in workable quantities. These general criteria raise several questions coupled to the safety analysis: e.g. the need for geological, hydrological and geochemical parameters. Which data are missing, which are most difficult to find? What should the site characterization program look like to focus on factors that are of the highest importance according to the safety analysis. The demands on the conditions at a site need to be translated into quantitative criteria, which should be expressed as values that can be measured at the site or deduced from such measurements. These questions were discussed at the seminar, and 21 contributions from Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish participants are reported in these proceedings under the chapters: Coupling to the safety analysis; Methodology and criteria for site selection in a regional geoscientific perspective; Rock as a building material - prognosis and result; Geoscientific criteria for the bedrock at the repository - Mechanical protection; Geoscientific criteria for the bedrock at the repository - Low ground water turnover, chemically favorable and stable environment in the near field; Geoscientific criteria for the bedrock at the repository - Demands on the bedrock concerning the migration of radionuclides.

  11. Environmental prices in the long term; Miljoepriser paa lang sikt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Economic analyses may undervalue important long-time environmental impacts of economic activities if the calculated price of the impacts are wrong. This report discusses how one may estimate the future calculated price of some environmental services. The term environmental service denotes something the presence or absence of which has an impact on the environment that can be valued. Thus, puffins, NOx emissions and suspended dust are all environmental services. The calculated price of an environmental service is the price used in socio-economic benefit-cost analyses. A calculation method is proposed and evaluated by application to such diverse environmental services as the stock of puffins, impregnated wood, NOx emissions and suspended dust. None of these services are priced in the market. The proposed method can be used to estimate the future prices of environmental services that are not priced in the market. The most important difficulties experienced with the method have been (1) how to find data for the increase in the supply of environmental services and (2) how to define environmental services in a satisfactory way. 29 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Kui vana on su keha? / Evelin Kivilo-Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivilo-Paas, Evelin, 1979-

    2012-01-01

    Keha vanuse testimisest Polar BodyAge'i programmi abil. Treener Kristi Roosimägi analüüsib osalejate, TV3 uudisteankur Marek Lindmaa, ilmateadustaja Liis Lusmäe ja reporter Feliks Unduski tulemusi

  13. Villu Reiljan jagab Luualt ärinõu / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Endine Rahvaliidu juht Villu Reiljan asutas konsultatsioonifirma Picea Konsultatsioonid, tema sõnul hakkab ta andma keskkonna-, põllumajandus-, metsandusalast ja ehk ka juhtimisalast konsultatsiooni

  14. Anu Lamp õpetab presidendile kõnekunsti peensusi / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Näitleja Anu Lamp õpetab president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele kaheksa akadeemilise tunni jooksul kõnelemisoskust. Vt. samas: Martti Kass. Presidendi hiiglaslik vastuvõtutelk võtab ilmet. Tartus hakati Vanemuise teatri külje alla hiigeltelki püstitama. Telgis surub president Toomas Hendrik Ilves 24. veebruaril 2007 kutsutud külaliste kätt

  15. Märgakem probleemidega last! / Kristjan Paas, Kaire Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kristjan

    2003-01-01

    2002. a. viis Riigikontroll läbi auditi - koolides ja alaealiste komisjonides läbi viidud küsitlusuuringus selgitati koolikohustuse täitmisega seotud küsimusi, õpilaste koolist puudumist, klassikursuse kordamist. Koolikohustuse mittetäitmise põhjused, täitmist toetavad võimalused.

  16. PAA, WSH, and CIS Overview Self-Study #47656

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Rachel Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-14

    This course presents an overview of the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) regulatory requirements relevant to the Price-Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA, also referred to as nuclear safety), worker safety and health (WSH), and classified information security (CIS) that are enforceable under the DOE enforcement program; describes the DOE enforcement process; and provides an overview of Los Alamos National Laboratory’s (LANL’s) internal compliance program relative to these DOE regulatory requirements. The LANL PAAA Program is responsible for maintaining LANL’s internal compliance program, which ensures the prompt identification, screening, and reporting of noncompliances to DOE regulatory requirements pertaining to nuclear safety, WSH, and CIS to build the strongest mitigation position for the Laboratory with respect to civil or other penalties.

  17. Kaup kai kõrvalt maailma / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 23. juuli lk. 16. Tallinna Sadam investeerib Muuga ja Paldiski lõunasadama tööstusparkide arendamisse paarsada miljoni krooni. Lisa: Number; Panus pidevasse kaubavoogu; Üle 100 hektari tööstusparki

  18. Domestic Hot Water Usage in Hotels; Tappvarmvattenanvaendning paa hotell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Stefan; Werner, Sven [FVB Sverige AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Sandberg, Martin; Wahlstroem, Aasa [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    Historically, design curves for domestic hot water, have been well sized and therefore also the components oversized. The Swedish district heating companies have noticed this and some companies replace large valves with customer-required valves, which give several advantages. There are several reasons why valves and heat exchangers can be customer-required and still the customers demand for hot water comfort can be fulfilled. The domestic hot water flow is composed, the taps are often short, large simultaneous taps are not very likely. Also, the dimensioning flows occur in the winter period, while the components are dimensioned for the summer case. The water pipes level off temporary temperature drops and the user seldom notices these because water with 55 deg C is not used in the tap. For residential buildings there are dimensioning recommendations on domestic hot water flow, but not for hotels. The purpose of this project has been to evaluate the domestic hot water use in relation to size and number of occupied beds. If the patterns of the chosen hotels coincide regarding to the sizes, dimensioning curves for domestic hot water use can be suggested. They can be used when hotels, or buildings with the same use pattern, are being built or restored. Measurements on 3 hotels with different sizes have been made. The hotels have 36, 52 and 158 rooms. The hotels are situated in the cities of Boraas and Kinna in Sweden. A short period of measurements from another hotel in the city of Gaevle (199 rooms) has also been included in this project. The measurements show that large hot water taps in hotels are rare and short. For the hotels, relative, cumulative relative frequencies and likely extreme values have been estimated. For residential buildings, The Swedish District Heating Association have recommendations for dimensioned domestic hot water flows. Formerly, these recommendations have been levelled so a cumulative relative frequency of 1 %, is reached, i.e. 99 % of all hot water taps are below this flow. The new recommended dimensioning curve for residential buildings involve a cumulative relative frequency of 7 %. This can not be directly transferred to hotels due to variations in number of occupied beds during the period of measurements. This project has shown that maximum domestic hot water flow not necessarily occurs when the hotel is fully occupied. Instead, it indicates likely maximum flows for the three hotels. These recommendations are for heat exchangers and primary valves dimensioning. The water pipes in the houses are included in a special dimensioning.

  19. "Jääminek" 40 aastat hiljem / Veste Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Veste, 1931-2002

    2002-01-01

    Mängufilm "Jääminek" : stsenarist Aadu Hindi teose järgi Aleksandr Bortšagovski : režissöör Kaljo Kiisk : Tallinnfilm 1962. Filmi võrreldakse 1943. a. valminud ukraina režissööri Mark Donskoi filmiga "Vikerkaar" ("Raduga")

  20. Saladusloor varjab CIA lennuki lende Eestisse / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2005-01-01

    USA uuriv ajakirjanik Wayne Madsen väidab, et kui 2003. aasta 12. jaanuaril Pärnus maandunud CIA lennuki pardal ei olnud vangid, vedas see ülisalajast ohtlikku laadungit. Eesti valitsus ei kavatse antud lennu kohta Ameerika Ühendriikidelt järelpärimist teha. Vt. samas: Need firmad sõidutavad vange

  1. Jordaania ministrit võlus Liive õlitehas / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Jordaania energeetika ja maavarade minister Khaled Irani kohtus Eesti-visiidil Eesti peaminister Andrus Ansipi ja majandusminister Juhan Partsiga ning külastas Eesti Energia ehitatavat õlitehast. Jordaania valis Eesti Energia põlevkivil põhineva õlitööstuse ja energiatootmise arendajaks

  2. Eestlased vabanesid Riia kombinaadist / Sirje Rank, Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Investeerimispankur Indrek Rahumaa võlakirjade tagatisena Läti ühe suurima piimakombinaadi Rigas Piensaimnieksi suurosanikuks saanud Swedbanki Private Debt Fund ja mitmed Eesti tippinvestorid müüsid oma osaluse USA investeerimisfirmale Darby Overseas Investments

  3. 'Alting som kører paa Motor'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    , constructed, represented, and appropriated as a leisure culture after 1900 through a mediation and consumption junction that was initiated and promote by the automobile consumer organisation United Danish Motorowners (FDM). This is basically the story of unlimited access to Sunday driving or the daytrip...

  4. Architecting the cloud design decisions for cloud computing service models (SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS)

    CERN Document Server

    Kavis, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    An expert guide to selecting the right cloud service model for your business Cloud computing is all the rage, allowing for the delivery of computing and storage capacity to a diverse community of end-recipients. However, before you can decide on a cloud model, you need to determine what the ideal cloud service model is for your business. Helping you cut through all the haze, Architecting the Cloud is vendor neutral and guides you in making one of the most critical technology decisions that you will face: selecting the right cloud service model(s) based on a combination of both business and tec

  5. Glass-covering of large building volumes. An interdisciplinary evaluation of a shopping centre; Oeverglasning av stora byggnadsvolymer; En tvaervetenskaplig utvaerdering av ett koepcentrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeman, R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Technology

    1993-11-01

    Systematized experiences of the function of large glass- covered spaces related to shopping centres, hotels, office buildings etc. are still relatively limited. With the glazed pedestrian precincts of the rebuilt Skaerholmen Centre in Stockholm as the main object of interdisciplinary studies, the aim of this thesis is to provide additional knowledge of large glass-covered spaces (atrium buildings). The studies comprises thermal comfort, temperature conditions, ventilation, energy balance, humidity - mycology, acoustics, operation - maintenance - durability and sociology. To sum up, it is clear that in the Scandinavian climate there is every likelihood of large glass-covered spaces in the public places functioning well from a technical as well as a social point of view. The energy consumption on heating the whole complex, based on theoretical calculations and measurement, is shown to have been reduced by the order of 10%. (author) figs., tabs., 101 refs

  6. Konserthuset Göteborg - 21. oktober 1995 kl. 15.00 Stora Salen. I avslutning till Estival 95 Estniska Kulturdagar i Göteborg : [kontserdi kava

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1995-01-01

    Erkki-Sven Tüür: Insula deserta für strakorkester W. A. Mozart: vesperae solennes de confessore K 339; Eduard Tubin: Piano concertino; L. v. Beethoven: Fantasi c-moll för piano, kör och orkester, op. 80. Göteborger Symphoniker, dirigent Neeme Järvi. Solister: Vardo Rumessen, piano; Kaia Urb, sopran; Riina Airenne, mezzosopran; Mati Kõrts, tenor; Uku Joller, bas. Estniska Gosskören, Venno Laul. Esinejate lühitutvustus

  7. Radiation doses from the use of peat-fuel in heating power plants; Straaldoser vid anvaendning av torvbraensle i stora anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moere, Hans; Hubbard, Lynn Marie

    2003-02-01

    The radiation doses and the need for radiological protection arising from the use of peat-fuel that contain naturally occurring radionuclides and 137 Cs are assessed. Dose calculations for the worst case are performed for two reference ashes, one containing normal concentrations of radionuclides and the other containing high concentrations. The concentrations of radionuclides in the normally active ash reflect the median value of U and Th in energy producing peat bogs. The concentrations in the highly active ash were chosen in such a way that not more than 5 percent of the peat bogs would exceed the values. The doses have been estimated for workers and the general public for different exposure pathways. These are 1) harvesting and handling of peat, 2) releases from heating plants, 3) land filling, 4) landscaping and 5) handling of ashes. Under normal circumstances the resulting doses from the normally active ash are insignificant (<0.01 mSv/year). For the highly active ash the doses are below 0.1 mSv/year under the assumptions made in the investigation. For the general public the doses are also insignificant for the highly active ash except for the influence of a landfill. The dose estimates of the influence from leached water from a landfill are very uncertain due to that too few measurements of environmental samples have been carried out. At today's production of 3.5 TWh per year the peat-ash can amount to between 30,000 and 60,000 tons per year. Today the Swedish Geological Survey limits the dose from peat-use informally. They advise against the harvesting of peat with a uranium content exceeding 200 ppm in an ashed peat sample, which corresponds to 2,470 Bq/kg of 238 U. The resulting doses are estimated to be about half of those estimated for the highly active ash. Thus 10 percent of otherwise suitable peat land is not harvested.

  8. Long tracks Energy: Views on ten years of research on green energy; Lange spor Energi: Blikk paa ti aar med forskning paa miljoevennlig energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coldevin, Grete Haakonsen

    2011-07-01

    RENERGI is the The Research Council of Norway's strategic research program aimed the energy sector. The program has given and gives us central knowledge about technologies, solutions, policies and instruments that could help solve the energy and climate challenges and support the Norwegian business opportunities for value creation.The program period extending from 2004 to 2013. This booklet presents an analysis Research shows the development of the research program has funded from the beginning to the present. The analysis of RENERGI, we call it 'Long Track' follows selected projects and portfolios of projects through more year to track the effectiveness Research Council funding had. And what are the key findings? Experiences from RENERGI and from the precursors to the program, show that increased funding for research in this field triggers innovative research and innovation.The program means adapted to industry characteristics: Energy requires strong communities, and the program has helped to build up such over time. These strong communities nest ground for the establishment of Centres for environmentally friendly energy (FME), the newest addition by the Research Council of instruments in this area. Analysis of research over time are important because they show effect of investing public funds in research. When initiate research, there is great expectations to short-term results. We know it can take time before results come. What gives returns today often based on research many years. Research using these analyzes as part of our knowledge base for future priorities and in our dialogue with research funding ministries. Research teams can use the results to summarize own operations over time. Businesses can benefit greatly Long-term analysis showing that energy research has opened for business start-ups and established companies given new products they can create value from. 'Long Track' emphasizes the importance of thinking long-term: When a research starts up, it is not Obviously what effects it will produce. Often it can take a long time before the research yields results, and perhaps other areas than originally thought. This analysis shows several good examples of this. There are many more RENERGI projects than this analysis covers that have given important results. In sum, confirming our analysis and some broader portfolio analysis RENERGI has contributed significantly to develop solutions for future energy systems. This we take with us in the planning of further research after RENERGI expires.(Author)

  9. A Proposed Smart E-Learning System Using Cloud Computing Services: PaaS, IaaS and Web 3.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Mona M. Nasr

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available E-learning systems need to improve its infrastructure, which can devote the required computation and storage resources for e-learning systems. Microsoft cloud computing technologies although in their early stages, have managed to change the way applications are going to be developed and accessed. The objective of the paper is to combine various technologies to design architecture which describe E-learning systems. Web 3.0 uses widget aggregation, intelligent retrieval, user interest modeling and semantic annotation. These technologies are aimed at running applications as services over the internet on a flexible infrastructure. Cloud computing provides a low cost solution to academic institutions for their researchers, faculty and learners. In this paper we integrate cloud computing as a platform with web 3.0 for building intelligent e-learning systems.

  10. Long tracks Energy: Views on ten years of research on green energy; Lange spor Energi: Blikk paa ti aar med forskning paa miljoevennlig energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coldevin, Grete Haakonsen

    2011-07-01

    RENERGI is the The Research Council of Norway's strategic research program aimed the energy sector. The program has given and gives us central knowledge about technologies, solutions, policies and instruments that could help solve the energy and climate challenges and support the Norwegian business opportunities for value creation.The program period extending from 2004 to 2013. This booklet presents an analysis Research shows the development of the research program has funded from the beginning to the present. The analysis of RENERGI, we call it 'Long Track' follows selected projects and portfolios of projects through more year to track the effectiveness Research Council funding had. And what are the key findings? Experiences from RENERGI and from the precursors to the program, show that increased funding for research in this field triggers innovative research and innovation.The program means adapted to industry characteristics: Energy requires strong communities, and the program has helped to build up such over time. These strong communities nest ground for the establishment of Centres for environmentally friendly energy (FME), the newest addition by the Research Council of instruments in this area. Analysis of research over time are important because they show effect of investing public funds in research. When initiate research, there is great expectations to short-term results. We know it can take time before results come. What gives returns today often based on research many years. Research using these analyzes as part of our knowledge base for future priorities and in our dialogue with research funding ministries. Research teams can use the results to summarize own operations over time. Businesses can benefit greatly Long-term analysis showing that energy research has opened for business start-ups and established companies given new products they can create value from. 'Long Track' emphasizes the importance of thinking long-term: When a research starts up, it is not Obviously what effects it will produce. Often it can take a long time before the research yields results, and perhaps other areas than originally thought. This analysis shows several good examples of this. There are many more RENERGI projects than this analysis covers that have given important results. In sum, confirming our analysis and some broader portfolio analysis RENERGI has contributed significantly to develop solutions for future energy systems. This we take with us in the planning of further research after RENERGI expires.(Author)

  11. Feeding biogas onto the national gas grid - Technical and economical aspects on omitting propane addition; Inmatning av biogas paa naturgasnaetet - Tekniska och ekonomiska aspekter paa slopad propantillsats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelsson, Corfitz

    2012-07-01

    Biogas injection into the natural gas grid is a common practice in Sweden today. In order to condition the biogas to the quality matching the natural gas, propane (approx. 8 %) is injected in the biogas. This is a costly procedure which also introduces fossil components into a renewable gas flow. Because of this, it is desired to terminate the propane injection and inject biogas straight into the gas grid. This might affect certain customers and will affect billing procedures and this study has briefly examined the impact of injection of biogas in the gas grid without propane addition. The main findings are: 1. It seems technically possible to inject biogas without propane into the gas grid. Attention has to be paid to the quality requirements of certain sensitive customers, but most customers can accept the quality variations. 2. It is recommended that the minimum methane content of injected biogas is raised to 98 %. This might affect the operation and choice of upgrading equipment and will have to be evaluated from both a technical and an economical viewpoint in each case. 3. Downgrading the natural gas to biogas quality by air injection is not an option. 4. In order to make simplify billing procedures, the geographic location of biogas site injecting gas into the distribution network is crucial. The biogas site should be placed as close to the transmission network as possible. Further, two case studies concerning biogas injection into the transmission network are briefly discussed.

  12. Templet Web: the use of volunteer computing approach in PaaS-style cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vostokin, Sergei; Artamonov, Yuriy; Tsarev, Daniil

    2018-03-01

    This article presents the Templet Web cloud service. The service is designed for high-performance scientific computing automation. The use of high-performance technology is specifically required by new fields of computational science such as data mining, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and others. Cloud technologies provide a significant cost reduction for high-performance scientific applications. The main objectives to achieve this cost reduction in the Templet Web service design are: (a) the implementation of "on-demand" access; (b) source code deployment management; (c) high-performance computing programs development automation. The distinctive feature of the service is the approach mainly used in the field of volunteer computing, when a person who has access to a computer system delegates his access rights to the requesting user. We developed an access procedure, algorithms, and software for utilization of free computational resources of the academic cluster system in line with the methods of volunteer computing. The Templet Web service has been in operation for five years. It has been successfully used for conducting laboratory workshops and solving research problems, some of which are considered in this article. The article also provides an overview of research directions related to service development.

  13. Empaatia kogemus kunstiteoses kujutatud subjekti suhtes: fenomenoloogiline analüüs / Marge Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Marge, 1976-

    2015-01-01

    Analüüsitakse vaataja esteetilist kogemust kunstiteose suhtes. Autor tugineb Edith Steini empaatia kogemuse uurimusele ja fenomenoloogilisele uurimismeetodile. Vaataja empaatia kogemuse analüüs Maarit Murka maalisarjas "Hairpower" kujutatud subjekti suhtes

  14. Wind power effects on human interests. A synthesis report; Vindkraftens paaverkan paa maenniskors intressen. En syntesrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtsson Ryberg, Johanna [Naturvaardsverket, Stockholm (Sweden); Bluhm, Goesta [Karolinska institutet, Miljoemedicin, Stockholm (Sweden); Bolin, Karl [KTH, Kungliga Tekniska Hoegskolan, Stockholm (Sweden)] [and others

    2012-05-15

    The aim of the project Wind power Effects on Human Interests is to describe, analyse and value research on how wind power may affect human interests, and to present: 'what we can say based on what we know today'. The report addresses managers, officials, wind power projectors and also the general public. Research on how wind power may affect health, economy and businesses, and the landscape is analyzed. The process of gaining approval for wind power connected to above mentioned interests is also studied and valued.

  15. Installations of SNCR on bark-fired boilers; Uppfoeljning av SNCR-installationer paa barkpannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjalmarsson, A.K.; Hedin, K. [AaF-Energikonsult, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Lars [AaF-IPK (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Experience has been collected from the twelve bark-fired boilers in Sweden with selective non catalytic reduction (SNCR) installations to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides. Most of the boilers have slope grates, but there are also two boilers with cyclone ovens and two fluidized bed boilers. In addition to oil there are also possibilities to burn other fuel types in most boilers, such as sludge from different parts of the pulp and paper mills, saw dust and wood chips. The SNCR installations seems in general to be of simple design. In most installations the injection nozzles are located in existing holes in the boiler walls. The availability is reported to be good from several of the SNCR installations. There has been tube leakage in several boilers. The urea system has resulted in corrosion and in clogging of one oil burner. This incident has resulted in a decision not to use SNCR system with the present design of the system. The fuel has also caused operational problems with the SNCR system in several of the installations due to variations in the moisture content and often high moisture content in bark and sludge, causing temperature variations. The availability is presented to be high for the SNCR system at several of the plants, in two of them about 90 %. The results in NO{sub x} reduction vary between the installations depending on boiler, fuel and operation. The emissions are between 45 and 100 mg NO{sub 2}/MJ fuel input and the NO{sub x} reduction rates are in most installations between 30 and 40 %, the lowest 20 and the highest 70 %. 13 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Kriisiaasta - tasu tõusis 300 000krooni : Ülikoolid: rektorite sissetulek kasvab / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti suuremate kõrgkoolide rektorite sissetulek on aastaid kerkinud, sõltumata sellest, kas majandus õitseb või langeb. Mullust edetabelit juhib Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli rektor Peep Sürje, kelle aastatasu kerkis 300 000 krooni võrra. Ka Tartu Ülikooli rektori Alar Karise ja Tallinna Ülikooli rektori Rein Raua palkadest

  17. Wind power's impact on marine life; Vindkraftens paaverkan paa marint liv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    More than half of the 30 projects that have been financed by Vindval, are linked to offshore wind power. The research has studied the effects of wind farms on life on the ground, the impact on fish, such as the eel migration, and different types of foundation's impact on the benthic animals. Several studies have been made about Lillgrund wind farm in the Sound. The greatest impact occurs when wind turbines are built, that in a relatively short period. Most adverse effects can be minimized by various technology measures. Several studies have been made about 'Lillgrund' wind farm in the 'Oeresund'. The greatest impact occurs when wind turbines are built, that in a relatively short period. Most adverse effects can be minimized by various technology measures. Vindval studies show that local conditions have significant impact on how the marine life is affected. It is important with careful planning to avoid establishment of wind farm's in particularly sensitive areas or at certain times of year.

  18. Effects of offshore wind power on the pelagic fish; Effekter av havsbaserad vindkraft paa pelagisk fisk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axenrot, Thomas (SLU, Institutionen foer Akvatiska Resurser, Soetvattenlaboratoriet (Sweden)); Didrikas, Tomas (AquaBiota Water Research AB (Sweden); Stockholms universitet (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    Marine wind parks are being planned for and built in coastal and shallow offshore areas in response to an increasing demand for renewable energy. Today's knowledge is limited about possible effects on fish from habitat change and generated underwater sound when wind parks are running. There may also be consequences for the fishery. Studies on fish hearing have shown that many fishes hear low frequency sound like that produced by wind turbines. This study consists of two parts. The first part of the study investigated pelagic fish abundance and spatial distribution at one wind park and two reference areas (200 m to 10 km distance from fundaments) at five different occasions from 2005 through 2007 in the Kalmar Sound of the Baltic Sea. The highest fish densities was found in the most remote reference area. The difference between areas was statistically significant for fish of the size groups 30-80 mm (stickleback), 80-140 mm (sprat, small herring) and 140-250 mm (adult herring). For fish >250 mm, representing cod and salmon, no statistically significant difference between areas was observed. For one group (sticklebacks) Area was significantly pointed out as the most important factor for the observed differences in fish density. No data on fish densities in the investigated areas were collected before the wind park (Utgrunden 1) was built which is a drawback to this part of the study. The second part of the study focused on possible effects of underwater sound generated by wind turbines on fish behaviour in the close vicinity of the fundaments (2-35 m distance). Stationary horizontal acoustics was used to estimate fish abundance and swimming speed in relation to turbine rotor speed and electricity production. The changes of abundance were not consistent and difficult to interpret. Fish swimming speed decreased with increasing turbine rotor speed and electricity production. However, it cannot be distinguished if this was an effect of sound emitted by wind turbines or wind induced currents

  19. Wind power's impact on birds and bats; Vindkraftens paaverkan paa faaglar och fladdermoess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    Wind turbines can be a danger to birds and bats. Therefore it is important to place the turbines correct. The risks can be minimized with the help of knowledge of birds and bats behavior. It was found in a synthesis report published 2011, where research from Europe and the U.S. are summarized. The report shows which environments should be avoided and the species that are affected in different areas. This popular science brochure is based on the synthesis report 'Wind power's impact on birds and bats'.

  20. Töösturi pojapoeg, kes mässab raha vastu / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2011-01-01

    Tänavused protestiaktsioonid Occupy Wall Street tegid tuntuks Kanadas elava tarbimisühiskonna kriitiku Kalle Lasni. Tallinnas sündinud Kalle Lasni elust, tegevusest, tema tennisistist isast Kristjan Lasnist. Kalle Lasn on ajakirja "Adbusters" asutaja, raamatu "Design Anarchy" autor jm.

  1. Invest more in different energy sources 1999 - 2011; Satsa mer paa olika energikaellor 1999 - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedberg, Per; Holmberg, Soeren

    2012-07-01

    The SOM Institute at Gothenburg Univ. conducts, every fall since 1986, a national survey 'National SOM' in order to identify the Swedish public's habits and attitudes on theme's of society, politics and media. Data is collected yearly through postal questionnaires and investigations are conducted under essentially the same conditions, for the results to be comparable from the different years. The SOM Institute is a collaboration between two departments at Gothenburg Univ.: Dept. of Journalism, Media and Communication, and Dept. of Political Science. Several research projects are involved in the National SOM survey - most with roots in any of these Institutions but also external projects and other actors participate regularly. The results of the National SOM survey are reported in the annual publications, in which the participant researchers present analysis based on recent results, focusing where possible, on long-term advocacy and media trends.

  2. EU eastward enlargement and the Baltic Sea region role in trade integration / Tiiu Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Tiiu, 1949-

    2003-01-01

    Läänemeremaade osast Baltimaade integratsioonis rahvusvahelisse kaubandusse. El-is on kaubavoogude elastsus peaaegu kaks korda suurem kui riikidel väljaspool seda, kusjuures see kehtib võrdselt nii ekspordi kui impordi kohta. Tabelid

  3. Presidendi külalismaja avatakse turistidele märtsis / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ja proua Evelin Ilvese Ärma talu- ja puhkekompleks Erma Park Abja-Paluoja naabruses avatakse külalistele 2007. a. märtsis. Külaliste toad kannavad tuntud ajalooliste ühiskonna- ja kultuuritegelaste nimesid

  4. Lysozyme complexes with thermo- and pH-responsive PNIPAM-b-PAA block copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pippa, Natassa [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy (Greece); Meristoudi, Anastasia; Pispas, Stergios, E-mail: pispas@eie.gr [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute (Greece); Demetzos, Costas [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy (Greece)

    2017-02-15

    Lysozyme is an enzyme responsible for the damage of bacterial cell walls and is abundant in a number of secretions such as tears and human milk. In the present study, we investigated the structure, the physicochemical characteristics, and the temperature-responsiveness of lysozyme complexes with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-b-poly(acrylic acid) block polyelectrolyte in aqueous media. A gamut of light-scattering techniques and fluorescence spectroscopy were used in order to examine the complexation process, as well as the structure, solution behavior, and temperature response of the nanosized complexes. The concentration of copolymer polyelectrolyte was kept constant. The values of the scattering intensity, I{sub 90}, which is proportional to the mass of the species in solution, increased gradually as a function of C{sub LYS,} providing proof of the occurring complexation, while the size of the nanostructures decreased. The structure of the complexes became more open as the C{sub LYS} increased. The increase of the salinity did not affect the structural characteristics of the supramolecular nanoparticulate aggregates. On the other hand, the physicochemical and structural characteristics of the complexes changed upon increasing temperature, and the changes depended on the initial ratio block polyelectrolyte/lysozyme. The knowledge on developing block polyelectrolyte/protein complexes through electrostatic interactions, obtained from this investigation, may be applied to the design of nutraceuticals.

  5. R-skeemil polnud lootust kunagi kohtusse jõuda / Norman Aas ; intervjueerinud Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aas, Norman, 1975-

    2010-01-01

    Riigi peaprokuröri sõnul ei ole erakondade liikmete kampaaniate rahastamise kohta karistusseadustikus sõnagi. Korruptsioon on varasemast keerulisemaks muutunud ja korruptsioonikuritegu on väga kallis uurida

  6. Peaprokurör: kaevake kartellide peale! / Kadri Paas ; kommenteerinud Norman Aas ; Indrek, Kaju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    Seaduseelnõust, mille kohaselt salajasest kartellileppest esimesena võimudele teatanud ettevõte pääseb vastutasuks karistusest. Kommenteerivad peaprokurör Norman Aas ning Neste Eesti peadirektor Indrek Kaju

  7. Siim Kallas seab Lumani argumendid kahtluse alla / Kadri Paas ; kommenteerinud Norman Aas, Juhan Põldroos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    Seaduseelnõust, mille eesmärgiks on tõhustada võitlust kartellidega ja muude raskete konkurentsiõiguse rikkumistega nn leebusprogrammi abil. Kommenteerivad peaprokurör Norman Aas ja Juhan Põldroos

  8. Risoe's activities in 1999; Risoes virksomhedsregnskab 1999. Opfoelgning paa planerne for aaret 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    This report contains an overview of the results obtained at Risoe National Laboratory in 1999. A performance management contract was agreed with the Ministry of Research. The Board of Governors has the obligation to report the annual progress in obtaining specific goals. (au)

  9. Toxicity of aluminium on five aquatic invertebrates; Aluminiums toksisitet paa 5 akvatiske invertebrater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, J [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the experiments done by investigating the effects from the toxicity of aluminium on aquatic invertebrates. The aim of the experiments was to compare the toxicity of unstable aluminium compounds with stable forms of aluminium. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Developments in the emissions trading market 2009; Utvecklingen paa utslaeppsraettsmarknaden 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnstedt, Sophie; Karlberg, Marie; Myrman, Johanna

    2010-07-01

    The Energy Agency has analyzed the development of emissions trading within the EU and globally in 2009. The analysis relates to larger events which mainly affected the prices and traded volumes during the year. The analysis includes the market for European emissions, markets for the project-based mechanisms, development of trade with the assigned emission units (AAUs), the unregulated market and developments in other trading in the world. The report is based on existing studies and monitoring of markets development during January to November 2009

  11. CLOUD COMPUTING: A REVIEW OF PAAS, IAAS, SAAS SERVICES AND PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARíA SALA ZÁRATE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La computación en la nube se ha convertido en uno de los factores relevantes para las empresas, desarrolladores y trabajadores, porque proporciona herramientas y aplicaciones web que permite almacenarinformación en servidores externos. Además, la computación en la nube ofrece ventajas tales como: reducción de costos, acceso a la información desde cualquier lugar, por mencionar sólo algunos. Hoy en día hay varios proveedores de computación en la nube como: Google Apps, Zoho, AppEngine, E2C Amazon, entre otros. Estos proveedores ofrecen software,infraestructura o plataforma como un servicio. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión general de los proveedores de computación en la nube, con el fin de permitir a los usuarios, empresas y desarrolladores seleccionar el que se ajuste a sus necesidades..

  12. Templet Web: the use of volunteer computing approach in PaaS-style cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vostokin Sergei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the Templet Web cloud service. The service is designed for high-performance scientific computing automation. The use of high-performance technology is specifically required by new fields of computational science such as data mining, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and others. Cloud technologies provide a significant cost reduction for high-performance scientific applications. The main objectives to achieve this cost reduction in the Templet Web service design are: (a the implementation of “on-demand” access; (b source code deployment management; (c high-performance computing programs development automation. The distinctive feature of the service is the approach mainly used in the field of volunteer computing, when a person who has access to a computer system delegates his access rights to the requesting user. We developed an access procedure, algorithms, and software for utilization of free computational resources of the academic cluster system in line with the methods of volunteer computing. The Templet Web service has been in operation for five years. It has been successfully used for conducting laboratory workshops and solving research problems, some of which are considered in this article. The article also provides an overview of research directions related to service development.

  13. Ehitaja nõuab kohtu kaudu Evelin Ilveselt võla tasumist / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    AS Nuia Melior on esitanud hagi proua Evelin Ilvese vastu, milles nõutakse Ärma talus tehtud tööde eest arvete tasumist. Firma juhataja Heino Luige sõnul küünib võlg 120 000 kroonini. Vandeadvokaat Madis Pätsi väitel ei ole OÜ Ermamaal ASi Nuia Melior ees võlgnevust, kuna AS Nuia Melior oli Ärma talus teostatavate tööde alltöövõtja ning oli sõlminud lepingu peatöövõtjaga Aus Invest OÜ. President T.H. Ilvese esivanemate talu taastamise peatöövõtja Aus Invest on pankrotis ja firma juht Aivar Aus lahkunud välismaale. Lisa: Eesti presidendid ehitajatega kimpus

  14. Mõrvakahtlusega eesti soost kohtuarsti Teet Härmi kannatuste rada Rootsis / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2008-01-01

    Rootsis 1984. aastal alanud kohtuasjast kohtupatoloog Teet Härmi ja endise perearsti Thomas Allgén'i üle, keda kahtlustatakse prostituudi mõrvamises. Kommenteerivad ka Eesti Ekspressi ajakirjanik ja "Pealtnägija" saatejuht Mihkel Kärmas ning ärimees Valdo Randpere

  15. Comparison of fluorine determination in biological and environmental samples by NAA, PAA and PIXE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havránek, Vladimír; Kučera, Jan; Řanda, Zdeněk; Voseček, Václav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 259, č. 2 (2004), s. 275-282 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV202/97/K038; GA ČR GA104/00/1297 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : activation-analysis Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.457, year: 2004

  16. Presidendi kantselei tellis Arnold Rüütli büsti / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Presidendi kantselei sõlmis kunstnik Endel Tanilooga 31. oktoobril 2007 lepingu president Arnold Rüütli pronksbüsti tegemiseks. Kuju valmib 2008. a. jaanuaris ja paigutatakse tulevikus kantselei roosiaeda

  17. Are we sold out on gas?; Er vi utsolgt paa gass?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Bengt Lie [Norsk Hydro, Oslo (Norway)

    1998-12-01

    Norwegian gas export will face challenges in the coming years. This presentation states that there may be shortage of gas in the short run. This is connected with too high gas export at an early time and unresolved need for gas injection. In the present situation, with ongoing sales negotiations and on the basis of mature reserves without imposed production restrictions, sales can be increased to a level well suited to existing production plants and landing systems. If the demand for gas should exceed the supply, it might be necessary to set up a priority among the customers. This might mean that Great Britain would have first priority, because of the relatively short transport way. Then would come Poland, Denmark and Germany. The EU gas market directive has created uncertainty about the future of Norwegian gas production. The concern caused by the earlier view that a large supply of gas would be a problem because of limited sales opportunities have not been substantiated. It is now time for the companies to enter into a phase in which gas prospecting in step with a dynamic development of the core markets of gas should be part of the companies` strategy to secure a rational long-term resource management

  18. Want to have more voltage on the job; Vil ha mer spenning paa jobben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Marte

    2010-07-01

    The central grid is normally unconnected when it should be upgraded or repaired. More pressure on the lines, however, make both Statnet and Swedish Kraftnaet wanting more work done under voltage. (AG)

  19. Social consequences of transition : who recognize themselves to be poor in Estonia? / Tiiu Paas, Andres Võrk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Tiiu, 1949-

    2003-01-01

    Analüüs, kuidas on omavahel seotud leibkonna sissetulekuga määratud vaesus ja inimeste enda poolt antud hinnang oma majanduslikule olukorrale. Kasutatud on ESA Leibkonna Eelarve Uuringu andmeid aastatest 2000 ja 2001. Tabelid

  20. Priitahtlik pension pürgib palgalisaks / Kadri Paas ; kommenteerinud Erki Kilu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Kogumispensioni seaduse eelnõust, mis näeb ette, et ettevõtjatele võimaldatakse teha oma töötajate eest sissemakseid vabatahtlikku pensionifondi või täiendava kogumispensioni kindlustuslepingusse kohustuseta tasuda erisoodustuse tulumaksu. Kommenteerib Erki Kilu

  1. Reporting emissions on EMEP grid. Methods and principles; Rapportering af luftemissioner paa grid. Metoder og principper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranekjaer Jensen, M.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Winther, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Viuf OErby, P.; Boll Illerup, J.

    2008-03-15

    This report explains methods for reporting emissions on EMEP grid with a resolution of 50km x 50km for the reporting years 1990, 1995, 2000 an 2005. The applied and geographical distributed emission data on grid represents the latest delivery (per March 2007) to UNECE LRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution). Thus data represents the latest recalculation of historical values. The reporting of emissions on EMEP grid with a resolution of 50km x 50km is a part of the Danish submission under the above mentioned convention (UNECE LRTAP). Emission inventories on grid are reported every fifth year and involves all sectors under UNECE LRTAP. The reporting of emissions on grid includes 14 mandatory emission components, which are: SO{sub 2}, NOx NH{sub 3}, NMVOC, CO, TSP, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5}, Pb, Cd, Hg, Dioxin, PAH and HCB. It is furthermore possible to make additional reporting for a range of components. The report summarizes the most crucial principles and considerations according to work with distributing air emissions on grid within predefined categories for gridding defined by the United Nations (UN 2003). For each of the reported categories, the report gives a detailed explanation of the specific level for distributing emissions spatially. For most reporting categories the process of distributing emissions has been carried out at the highly detailed SNAP level, whereas for others it has been a necessity to make aggregates of several SNAP categories for spatial distribution. The report present final maps for selected air pollutants (SOx, NOx and NH{sub 3}) and discuss shortly possible reasons for variations within time and space. Based on current experience, the report finally gives some recommendations for improving future reporting of gridded emission data. The recommendations pin point, that the EMEP program should provide harmonized and well-documented basic spatial data sets for gridding, to encourage each country to deliver high quality and consistent data. At the moment the guidelines for reporting emission data under UNECE LRTAP are undergoing an extensive revision. The updated guidelines will be published in: Guidelines for Estimating and Reporting Emission Data under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. As something quite new a special section concerning spatial mapping is included in the revised guidelines. The content describes methods and available spatial data for spatially distribution of emission data at different levels. (au)

  2. Life cycle perspective on recycling of ashes; Livscykelperspektiv paa aatervinning av askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Susanna

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to, from a life cycle perspective, discuss the consequences of recycling or disposing combustion ashes. The aim was to regard regional as well as global environmental impacts and point at potential conflicts between different environmental objectives, in order to produce basic information for decision-making on criteria and regulations for ash handling.Three different ashes were studied: bottom ash from waste incineration, fly ash from combustion of peat and from forest fuels. For all ashes three different scenarios were studied, two where the ash is recycled, and one where it is disposed. Focus was put on the difference between the three scenarios during 100 years. The use of bottom ash from waste incineration for roads saved crushed rock and energy, but produced more leaching of metals than the disposal alternative. Using this ash in drainage strata saves sand but causes higher metal leaching too. The same conclusions can be drawn for fly ash from peat, here leaching of Arsenic is the main factor. Using the peat ash as road contraction material saves more resources than the use for drainage blankets. For forest fuel ash, both the use as road construction material and recycling to the forest saves resources and energy. Recycling to the forest saves most energy but also the resources of Zinc, Phosphorous and Dolomite. Leaching of metals is most important for the forest recycling, and the nature of this resource recycling can be argued. The results are most sensitive concerning transports and leaching, but also for maintenance of the constructions where the ash is used. For the forest fuel ash, the suppositions about the necessity of compensation for nutrients removed with the fuel, have important effects for the result. Generally it can be said, for all three cases, that the estimates of leaching of metals are very uncertain, and that there is a need to develop the existing models for long term leaching. The three cases demonstrated the importance of applying a life cycle perspective, since different types of environmental impacts dominated in different stages of the system's and construction's life cycle. While resource consumption, energy use and emissions to the atmosphere dominates at production and transport of materials, the emission to water dominates at the use of the functions. An environmental study focussing on the use of e.g. a road construction will then exclude large parts of the impacts

  3. Production development on the Norwegian continental shelf; KonKraft rapport 2; Produksjonsutviklingen paa norsk sokkel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    After almost 40 years of virtually uninterrupted growth, total hydrocarbon production on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) has reached its highest level ever, with a daily output of 4-4.5 million barrels of oil equivalent per day. It is expected to remain at this level for the next 7 years. After 2015 or thereabouts, however, total oil and gas production is forecast to start declining. Oil production is already falling. Gas output has been increasing, but this is not expected to continue offsetting the drop in liquid production beyond 2015 or thereabouts if no action is taken. Only half the combined oil and gas resources predicted by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) will have been produced in 2015. Remaining recoverable resources, including those expected to be found by further exploration, are currently estimated to be 38-77 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe). This estimate could be 25-65 billion boe in 2015. Only 40 per cent of the total expected remaining hydrocarbon resources remains to be discovered today, which explains the wide range in the estimates. This huge potential must be managed well to avoid a sharp decline in production and to support a healthy level of long-term investment. The report on production development on the Norwegian continental shelf is published at a time when major changes are taking place both inside and outside the petroleum industry. Several factors make a review of what can be done to address the production decline particularly urgent. Although the current level of activity in the Norwegian petroleum sector is high, assessing the long-term perspectives for the industry is very important. In many cases, the period between the award of licences and the start of production can be 15 years or more. Decisions taken now may have important implications for levels of production and activity in the 2020s. (Author)

  4. Evaluation of an agricultural biogas plant at Hagavik; Utvaerdering av gaardsbaserad biogasanlaeggning paa Hagavik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edstroem, Mats; Nordberg, Aake; Ringmar, Anders

    2005-07-01

    Hagavik is an organic farm (municipality of Malmoe in Sweden) and the grown crops at the farm are sugar-beet, wheat, tritricale and ley crop (for green manure). The farmer has erected a new farm scale biogas plant with a digester volume of 500 m{sup 3}. The motives for building the plant were to produce biogas for cogeneration and digestate for supplying the farm with nutrients. Biogas substrates, harvested at the farm, are ley crop and sugar-beet tops and external substrates are solid manure from horses and organic waste from industrial bakery. Digestion of fibre-rich substrates as ley crop and straw-rich solid manure at farm scale plants is fairly untested in Sweden. The fibre has a rather big impact on the rheological properties of the substrate mixture and digester slurry and can cause problems with pumping and ineffective stirring. To achieve satisfactory function on the pumps and stirrers the fibre-rich substrates the rheological properties has to be improved. This can be done by 1) mixing the fibre-rich substrates with rather large quantities of liquids which can result in low dry mater content both in substrates an digester slurry 2) reduce the fibre size by mechanical disintegration. The Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering (JTI) has been in charge of the evaluation of the biogas plant. Evaluation of the start-up phase of the plant, regarding the technical and biological function, was accomplished in July-November 2003. During year 2004 focus has been on practical experience running the plant. The plant electricity demand has been measured. Based on those measurements the calculated electricity demand running the plant with a biogas production at 600 m{sup 3}/d (3,54 MWh/d) corresponds to ca 2-3% of the energy content of the biogas. The calculated heat demand corresponds to 15 % of the biogas. At cogeneration (with assumed electrical efficiency of 34% and thermal efficiency of 55%) the net-energy production is 919 MWh/year where 44% will be electricity and the rest heat. Total investment for the plant is about 2,6 MSEK. The farmer has got a government investment subsidy of 0,6 MSEK. The price of the net-energy production has to be at least 0.40 SEK/kWh in order to balance the costs. This calculation includes the investment subsidy.

  5. Evaluating the competitiveness of the countries in the Baltic Sea region / Tiiu Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Tiiu, 1949-

    2004-01-01

    Konkurentsivõime kontseptsioonist, Läänemeremaade konkurentsivõime hindamisest. Uuringu tulemusest selgus, et parim positsioon on regiooni väiksematel (Soome, Taani, Rootsi) riikidel. Üleminekumajandusega maadest on parimad võimalused Eestil. Tabelid. Diagrammid

  6. Alternatives to Conventional Construction Materials on Landfills. A Guide; Alternativa konstruktionsmaterial paa deponier. Vaegledning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rihm, Thomas; Rogbeck, Yvonne; Svedberg, Bo; Eriksson, Maria

    2009-03-15

    Before a landfill can be sited, an application for a permit from the authorities is required. Already in the application process the consequences concerning impact on human health and on the environment must be described, including descriptions of e.g. bottom liners and capping constructions. Since there is a long period of time between when the permit is given and when the capping will be carried out, it is common practice, either to postpone decisions concerning capping details, or to delegate the decisions to the supervisory authorities to be made at a later stage. All constructions must however be approved by the authorities before they can be carried out. A construction must fulfil the demands for its function. For the capping this means that the percolation through it must be low, even in a long time perspective. A construction may not in itself cause adverse environmental effects, e.g. leaching of hazardous substances from the construction material. Thus, there are functional as well as environmental demands. Beside the functional demands given in the Swedish legislation, notably in the ordinance on landfilling, the construction must be physically stable, also in a long time perspective. The materials in the construction must have sufficient strength, and may not change over time, e.g. due to degradation, which could lead to malfunction. Demands on environmental behaviour can be divided into two parts. Humans and animals must be kept from direct contact with dangerous substances including dermal contact, inhalation of dust or gases and oral intake of soil, plants or berries. Secondly, dangerous substances may not be spread with surface or ground water to an extent that could lead to adverse effects on human health or on the environment. The impact on the environment is not only depending of the materials being used, but also on the construction design, where in the landfill the construction is situated and, not least, how the landfill is located. It is therefore the over all impact caused by the construction at the specific site that has to be assessed, not the behaviour of the individual materials. To assess the impact it is however necessary that deliverer of materials can supply the constructor with the relevant information concerning the materials including: Hydraulic properties; Shear strength; Durability; Total content; and Leaching behaviour. There are often well known methods to control the function of a construction. It is more difficult to assess the environmental impact from the construction itself. In this report site specific assessments are recommended. To assess risks associated with dermal contact, inhalation of dust and gas and oral intake, a model for assessing limit values for contaminated soil, presented by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, can be utilised. Concerning the risks associated with contamination of surface and ground water, it is suggested that the assessments should be based on leaching behaviour and the site specific conditions. The leaching behaviour of a construction under real conditions is difficult to estimate. It is therefore suggested that new constructions and constructions with new materials should be tested in pilot scale before they are used in full scale. It is normally difficult to monitor the function of a construction when the capping is completed. Furthermore it is sometimes impossible to correct mistakes made in the construction design or building process. It is of vital importance that there is a good quality assurance system for the materials and for the building process. This report aims at providing guidance concerning: Goals and legislation influencing the design of constructions on a landfill; Functional and environmental requirements of constructions; General conditions for construction work on a landfill site; The capping construction design; Material behaviour; Methodology for assessing environmental behaviour of the construction; A description of some plausible materials; and Quality assurance systems for constructions and construction materials. A few examples of capping constructions at specific sites are also given

  7. Countermeasures to corrosion on water walls. Part 2; Aatgaerder mot eldstadskorrosion paa panntuber. Etapp 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan; Elger, Ragna; Nordling, Magnus; Viklund, Peter

    2011-01-15

    Background: The problems with water wall corrosion have been accelerating over the last years. There are a number of reasons for this. Originally mild steels were successfully used in power plant water walls. The magnetite layer that forms at the fire side of the tubes when the boiler is taken into operation protected from corrosion attack. The fuels at that time (oil, coal, gas) were not able to break down the magnetite by corrosion. In addition, there were no restrictions for pollutions and for the combustion itself that could contribute to corrosion attack. The usage of fossil fuels has decreased substantially over the last 25 years, not least by environmental reasons. As a replacement a number of different kinds of bio mass fuels are used. These are typically more or less corrosive and the magnetite layers are attacked. The corrosion is often supported by reducing conditions as a result of the restrictions of the NO{sub x}-pollution. Also the waste fuelled boilers have huge corrosion problems. This has been the case for the last 25 years but nowadays the number of such plants is so much higher and the service data have been turned up. Corrosion protection of the water wall tubes started to be successful in the beginning of the seventies by the introduction of the composite tube. Such tubes are fabricated by mild steel or a low alloy core and corrosion resistant austenite steel or nickel base as an about 2 mm thick corrosion protective coating. Weld cladding of the water wall tubes was introduced in the 1980's as a significantly cheaper alternative to the composite tubes. Thermal spraying and refractory protection are other methods. These corrosion protection methods have not always been effective. For example, depending on incorrect materials selection, incorrect performance and incorrect method selection for the current corrosion or erosion attack. Therefore, there is a need for increased knowledge of which protection method and material that will work economically for a given situation. In the first phase of the present project a literature survey concerning water wall corrosion protection methods was carried out [1]. Advantages, disadvantages and possibilities by the use of refractories, composite tubes, thermal spraying, hybrid coatings and weld cladding were investigated. An experience survey of problems with and protection of, water wall corrosion in Swedish plants was conducted as well. In an experimental part of the project six different weld clad materials were tested in water walls of five different boilers, representing different types of operation and fuel data. The test materials consisted of some conventional and newly developed weld clads for high temperature corrosion. These trials gave many interesting results but the exposure time was only one year of operation. A second phase of the project has now been carried out. In this study the test materials has been service exposed for another year. In addition, the literature and the experience surveys have been updated. Literature survey: There are some recent developments of water wall corrosion protection methods. One way is to flame spray relatively thick layers onto water wall sections. Then these sections were heat treated by induction heating such as the spray layers sintered see Figure 0.1 below. The sinter material consisted of 15 % Cr, 4,3 % Si, 3.1 % B and 2,5% Mo which gave very high hardness, HV 815. Three years service exposure of test panels gave no significant corrosion at all whereas carbon steel tubes exposed at the same time corroded 1.5 mm. In addition, the output of the boiler increased as a result of flame spray + sintering method. The reason is that refractory, with lower heat transfer properties, otherwise should be the solution for the water wall corrosion

  8. Countermeasures to corrosion on water walls; Aatgaerder mot eldstadskorrosion paa panntuber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan; Sund, Goeran; Pettersson, Rachel; Nordling, Magnus; Hoegberg, Jan

    2007-12-15

    Corrosion of water walls is becoming a problem for an increasing number of boilers. Wider use of biomass and waste for fuel, as well as requirements of reduced NO{sub x} emissions, makes it much more difficult to avoid combustion in a reducing atmosphere adjacent to the water walls. This has increased the need for corrosion protection in many existing boilers. In addition, biomass and waste fuelled plants currently being planned or built require well-functioning water wall protection from the start. The traditional water wall materials - ferritic low alloyed steels - are not easy to replace because of their outstanding heat transfer properties, ability to form a protective oxide layer on the inside of the tubes and low thermal expansion. For this reason, corrosion protection generally involves the use of some kind of coating on the tubes. In this report, the state-of-the-art regarding water wall corrosion protection is described in a literature survey. Methods covered are the use of refractories, overlay weld cladding, composite tubes and thermal spraying. The interest for overlay welding has increased recently since it can offer similar corrosion protection to composite tubes at a significantly reduced cost. Test panels have been exposed and monitored in different boilers. Six weld overlay materials were tested: the well-proven Alloy 625, a modified Alloy 625 in which niobium has been replaced by tungsten, Alloy 59, Alloy 22, a cheaper nickel base alloy 650 which contains some iron and a 310 grade stainless steel. A total of six panels were exposed in the most vulnerable positions in three different boilers. These included waste and biomass combustion as well as different steam data, sizes and types of boilers. Two further facilities, in which the test materials Alloy 625 and Sanicro 28 had already been installed, were also included in the investigation. The duration of service exposure was one operating season. The weld cladding was measured with a thickness gauge before service exposure and at inspection intervals. Disc samples of each test material were also removed from the test panels for metallographic analysis. The results showed significant corrosion of all six weld overlay materials in the boiler with relatively high steam data and highly corrosive fuel. Metal losses were in the range 0.3 - 1.2 mm after one operating season. The 310 stainless steel suffered fairly uniform corrosion, while the nickel-base alloys exhibited localised pitting. Corrosion in the other boilers was much less pronounced, and in many cases no significant reduction in cladding thickness was observed. Chemical analyses of corrosion products and deposits showed large variations in composition, even within small areas, and indicated that the local environment fluctuates widely. Appreciable levels of chloride, alkali and heavy metals were present, and it was concluded that molten salt fluxing is a primary damage mechanism. The large variations in composition mean that more extensive sampling should be carried out to obtain a complete picture of the corrosion processes on water walls. Nevertheless, the results so far indicate that stainless steels of type 310 or Sanicro 28 can compete with the more expensive Ni-base alloys. Service exposure should be continued for another one or two operating seasons in order rank all the materials in relation to the different types of boilers and to draw more general conclusions

  9. A Feasibility Study on LPG as Marine Fuel; En foerstudie paa gasol som marint braensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjartansson, Sveinbjoern

    2012-06-15

    With the upcoming stricter emission rules fast approaching and the requirements for higher quality fuel, it is inevitable that there will be a change of fuel from HFO to cleaner options. These changes are driven by the knowledge of the health problems associated with emissions from ships in coastal areas. One viable option for meeting these demands for reduced emission is to utilize LPG as a marine fuel. This thesis investigates the harmful chemicals that are present in the exhaust gases, followed by an introduction on LPG as marine fuel. Transport options for LPG and existing engine technology is presented and the feasibility of LPG as a fuel option on the European / Swedish market is studied. The conclusion from this study is that sufficient infrastructure for distribution of LPG is in place to serve potential marine market demand. Engine technology for using LPG as fuel has been developed for a wide range of power outputs. The economic incentive in the fuel price difference alone is likely to attract ship owners to invest in LPG fueled fleets.

  10. Influence of land improvement on soil oxidation. Inverkan av grundfoerbaettring paa markens syrehalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalik, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents the theoretical analysis of influence of the land reclamation on soil oxidation. Examination was carried out on dependencies existing among soil moisture content, respiratory activity of the soil, absolute soil porosity, gas-filled soil porosity, coeffficient of oxygen diffusion in soil air and soil liquid, oxygen concentration in soil air and in soil water, oxygen diffusion flux, oxygen diffusion rate and the depth of zone of aeration in soil profile. Some remarks about the influence of soil oxidation on root growth and morphology of soil profile were presented too. Results of own empirical investigations and similar data from literature verify theoretical ideas pointed out in the paper. The methods and results of own measurements of ODR (oxygen diffusion rate) has been presented in detail. The research explains the relationship between soil moisture content and soil oxidation. As a result of the analysis there have been proposed such methods of land improvement that the water and oxygen demands of plant roots and microorganisms would be satisfying. The paper proposes a new method of account of the so-called anaerobic soil moisture content. This moisture should be the highest for irrigation practice and more or less lowest for drainage of soil water. Soil moisture a little lower than anarobic soil water content is enough for warranting the sufficient soil aeration during drainage and irrigation activity. With 82 refs.

  11. Electrochemical aspects on corrosion in Swedish reactor containments; Elektrokemiska aspekter paa korrosion i svenska reaktorinneslutningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullberg, Mats [Studsvik Nuclear AB, SE-611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2006-10-15

    Post-stressed concrete is used in all Swedish nuclear reactor containments. Steel in concrete is normally protected from corrosion by the highly alkaline pore solution in concrete. A passive film develops on the surface of steel in contact with the pore solution. However, corrosion may still occur under special circumstances. It is therefore desirable to monitor the corrosion status of the containment. A review of the corrosion experience with steel in concrete strongly suggests that the potential problem of most concern for the Swedish reactor containments is cavity formation during grouting of tendons and of penetrations in the containment wall. Cavities break the contact between alkaline grout and steel. Corrosion is then possible, provided the relative humidity is high enough. Normal methods for inspection of the corrosion status of steel reinforcement in concrete are not applicable to very heavy structures like reactor containments. Since inspections are difficult to carry out, it is important that they be focused on the most susceptible portions of the containment. This report is an attempt to assemble potentially useful background information. The original intention was to focus on electrochemical methods of investigation. When it was realized that the potential use of electrochemical methods was limited, the scope of the review was broadened. The present as well as previous investigations indicate that nondestructive testing of grouted tendons is the outstanding problem in the condition assessment of Swedish nuclear reactor containments. Grouted tendons are also used in a very large number of bridges built since the early 1950s. The experience gained in connection with bridges has therefore been investigated. The need for a testing method for grouted tendons in bridges has long been strongly felt and development work has been in progress since the early 1970-ies, for example within the Strategic Highway Research Project in the Unite States. Potential methods for nondestructive testing have been evaluated a number of times. No practical testing method for grouted tendons in bridges has thus far been developed or is in its final state of development. To investigate the corrosion status of a grouted tendon, typically a nondestructive method is first used to detect cavities in the duct. An inspection hole is then drilled and the corrosion status of the tendons investigated using an endoscope. Finally, the cavity is grouted using vacuum injection. Selected nondestructive methods have been tested on the Barsebaeck 1 containment within the CONMOD project. High energy radiography was found to be a useful method for detecting cavities in grout. To inspect the corrosion status within cavities, an inspection hole was first drilled. An endoscope was then used. A factor strongly affecting the corrosion rate of a non-passivated steel surface in concrete is the relative humidity. The corrosion rate is high at a relative humidity of 95-98 %, but negligible at a relative humidity of 70 %. In the CONMOD project, a relative humidity of approx. 80 % was measured at the position of the tendons in the Barsebaeck 1 containment. Relative humidity is initially high in concrete, but decreases with time. In heavy designs, like nuclear reactor containments, the concrete dries extremely slowly. In the opinion of the author, a nondestructive testing method for grouted tendons cannot be expected to be available in the foreseeable future. The available alternative is to use intrusive testing in a limited number of places. It is then particularly important to select the places where testing is performed in the best possible way. The selection should be made in a stepwise process. The following procedure is suggested. 1. Calculate the temperature distribution in the containment wall. 2. Measure the relative humidity at selected points within the wall. 3. Map out where cavities in the grout are most probable (vents, etc). 4. Select a number of points where at the same time the relative humidity is high and cavity formation probable. 5. Perform radiography. 6. Drill an inspection hole and investigate the corrosion status using fiber optics if a cavity is indicated. 7. Grout the cavity using vacuum injection. Condition assessment of grouted tendons is a major challenge. However, a well performed grouting provides superior protection against corrosion. Non-grouted tendons are considerably more at risk. The condition assessment of non-grouted tendons in the Swedish nuclear reactor containments must be adapted accordingly.

  12. Households on the electricity market. Information and actions; Hushaall paa elmarknaden. Information och agerande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelander, Aasa

    2008-12-15

    Twelve years ago the consumers in Sweden were given opportunities to choose among electricity suppliers. Sweden was among the first countries to introduce an electricity reform aimed at reconfiguring the electricity market. Today consumers have the opportunity to choose from a wide variety of suppliers and type of contracts. However, still the large majority of consumers have neither chosen a new supplier nor a contract. Previous research has blamed lack of information for the so called passivity. Some of the studies are dated and little attention has been paid to the consumers' motives for not making a choice. The aim of this study is to analyse motives, strategies and need of information among consumers. One type of information is analysed namely the information the energy suppliers provide their costumers. The study shows that the consumers think the information is significant. The information of three energy suppliers are analysed and compared to the consumer's need. In order to understand consumers the consumer as an active subject is stressed. Consequently the consumers not yet having made a choice are seen as active and focus is on their motives and need of information for not making a choice as well as doing so. Different empirical materials have been collected. A survey has been used to gain an over-all-picture of motives, strategies and need of information. In-depth interviews have been carried out to be able to understand the consumers and get more nuanced descriptions related to their life conditions. A text analysis of three energy suppliers' information has been performed. The study shows that consumers not having made any choices present a number of motives. Four groups of motives have been identified; laziness, loyalty (to their supplier), chosen passivity and those who experience some kind of obstacles for taking action. Every group has their special way of reasoning and need of information. They all regard the information from their supplier as important and trustworthy but not inspiring. There is a gap between consumer needs and the information provided. The information is not targeted to different types of consumers nor in terms of the product neither in terms of the type of service they buy or have the possibility to buy. The information provided does not motivate consumer activity. Energy appears to be a low involvement product and information from suppliers confirms their understanding. Motivating consumers to change supplier or contract need other types of information combined with assistance about how to be a active consumer choosing supplier and contract

  13. Households on the energy market. Information and actions; Hushaall paa elmarknaden. Information och agerande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelander, Aasa

    2008-12-15

    Twelve years ago the consumers in Sweden were given opportunities to choose among electricity suppliers. Sweden was among the first countries to introduce an electricity reform aimed at reconfiguring the electricity market. Today consumers have the opportunity to choose from a wide variety of suppliers and type of contracts. However, still the large majority of consumers have neither chosen a new supplier nor a contract. Previous research has blamed lack of information for the so called passivity. Some of the studies are dated and little attention has been paid to the consumers' motives for not making a choice. The aim of this study is to analyse motives, strategies and need of information among consumers. One type of information is analysed namely the information the energy suppliers provide their costumers. The study shows that the consumers think the information is significant. The information of three energy suppliers are analysed and compared to the consumer's need. In order to understand consumers the consumer as an active subject is stressed. Consequently the consumers not yet having made a choice are seen as active and focus is on their motives and need of information for not making a choice as well as doing so. Different empirical materials have been collected. A survey has been used to gain an over-all-picture of motives, strategies and need of information. In-depth interviews have been carried out to be able to understand the consumers and get more nuanced descriptions related to their life conditions. A text analysis of three energy suppliers' information has been performed. The study shows that consumers not having made any choices present a number of motives. Four groups of motives have been identified; laziness, loyalty (to their supplier), chosen passivity and those who experience some kind of obstacles for taking action. Every group has their special way of reasoning and need of information. They all regard the information from their supplier as important and trustworthy but not inspiring. There is a gap between consumer needs and the information provided. The information is not targeted to different types of consumers nor in terms of the product neither in terms of the type of service they buy or have the possibility to buy. The information provided does not motivate consumer activity. Energy appears to be a low involvement product and information from suppliers confirms their understanding. Motivating consumers to change supplier or contract need other types of information combined with assistance about how to be a active consumer choosing supplier and contract

  14. Climate change and pressure on the environment; Klimaforandringer og press paa miljoeet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanestroem, Ingolf

    2007-07-01

    A short review of possible consequences from the augmenting greenhouse gas emissions. The greenhouse effect, temperature increase, indirect effects, erosion, increasing water shortages, rising ocean levels and environmental refugees are listed as possible effects (ml)

  15. Measurements on and simulations of a biogas-fuelled bus; Maetningar paa och simulering av biogasbuss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, L.O.; Nilsson, Johan

    1995-03-01

    Mathematical models for torque/fuel consumption and emissions have been studied for a biogas-fuelled bus used in urban traffic in Linkoeping, Sweden. It is noted that the cycle ECE R-49 is not representative for city buses, but that the Braunschweig cycle gives rather good agreement. 2 refs, 37 figs

  16. Ülevabariigiline operatsioon "Minister Tuiksoo päästmine" / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2005-01-01

    Autori sõnul saatis Põllumajandustootjate Keskliit pärast põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo kihutamist vilkuriga autos laiali tänukirja, et minister nende koosolekule ei hilinenud. Põllumajandusministeeriumi väitel saatis Virumaa Teataja ajakirjanik Imre Termonen ministrile ähvardava ja mõnitava meili

  17. Bioremediation of oil polluted beaches - a feasibility study. Bioremediering av olje paa strand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sveum, P

    1991-09-01

    Bioremediation of oil polluted beaches is considered and should be an alternative to conventional clean-up procedures. Use of non-genetic manipulated bacterias are not expected to be of any risk to human or environment. Caution should be taken during use of some products containing opportunistic bacterias. 115 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Kontserthuset Göteborg. Göteborgs Symfoniker, chefdirigent: Neeme Järvi. Dirigent: Neeme Järvi. Solist: Paata Burchuladze, bas. Kontsertmästare: Per Enoksson, Christer Thorvaldsson. Onsdag 12. mars 1997 Stora salen (brun serie)

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1997-01-01

    Kontserdi kavas juttu: Eduard Tubin. Süit balletist "Kratt", Modest Mussorgski "Surma laulud ja tantsud" ja Jean Sibeliuse sümfoonia N 1, e-moll op. 39 Lk. 2-4: Kruckenberg, Sven: Tubin - Svit ur Kratt. Lk. 8 lühidalt Neeme Järvi edaspidisest tööst

  19. Impact of a 90 m/2 MW wind turbine on birds. En 90 m/2 MW vindmoelles indvirkning paa fuglelivet; Fugles reaktioner paa opfoerelsen og idriftsaettelsen af Tjaereborgmoellen ved Det Danske Vadehav

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinch Pedersen, M; Poulsen, E

    1991-10-01

    It is consluded that the wind turbine has caused a ''vacuum effect'', preventing birds from exploiting the areas close to the wind turbine. The impact of this disturbance on birds is evaluated to be a considerable addition to already existing disturbances from e.g. farming, and has caused further deteriorations of the Tjaereborg polder for breeding, staging and foraging birds. Once the wind turbine has been operating permanently for a longer period it will be possible to evaluate the total impact on birds and thus evluate effects of implementation of a large wind turbine on the avian fauna in the Wadden Sea region. (author) 48 refs.

  20. Granulated wood ash to forest soils. Effects on microorganisms, phosphorus availability, and spatial relationships in the humus layer; Granulerad vedaska till skog paa fastmark. Paaverkan paa fosfortillgaang, mikroorganismer och rumsliga variationsmoenster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarholm, Marianne [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1999-07-01

    The report summarises effects on microorganisms, phosphorus (P) availability and spatial relationships in the humus layer of two spruce forests in south-western Sweden four to seven years after application of 3.2 tonnes (t) (Skogaby), alternatively three or six t (Torup) of granulated wood ash. There were tendencies for increases in pH and in numbers of ciliates, flagellates and small nematodes while no effects were observed for naked amoebae, the major consumers of bacteria among the protozoa. After seven years, the amount of P in microbial biomass in the humus layer in the wood ash treatment (A) in Skogaby was significantly higher than in the control (C), increased amounts of microbial nitrogen and carbon were also recorded. Observations over time indicated that the P availability in the soil first decreased after the ash addition, but later increased above that in the control. The time course was most readily seen in the microbial biomass, which contained 50% of total P in the humus layer, an amount equal to ten times the yearly uptake in trees. The microbial biomass has a much higher P concentration as compared to the needles, the component of the tree with the highest concentration. The P in micro-organisms thus form a buffer against P deficiency for the trees. A test where the {sup 32}P uptake rate of excised mycorrhizal fine roots in the laboratory is used to establish P availability in the field, indicated an increased P availability in (A), which was in contrast to reported decreased uptake of P in trees, decreased P concentration in needles and also in roots, as compared to (C). In six treatments investigated in Skogaby {sup 32}P uptake rates were negatively correlated to the P/C of the microbial biomass. Acid phosphatase activity was always higher in (A) as compared to treatments where soluble P had been added and at two out of five times also higher than in (C ). High phosphatase activity levels were at least partly connected to large amounts of microbial biomass, where fungi were responsible for the increases. Fungal hyphae formed 'cups' around the lower parts of the ash granules, when the moisture situation was favourable, but when the possibility of weathering was investigated by measuring pH under the granules after three years in the field, no decreases was found except in an ammonium sulphate treatment (NS) were no hyphal 'cups' had developed. The. hyphae making up the 'cups' will gather cations leached from the granules. In a study in Torup where 51 soil cores were taken 0.5 m apart in three transects, addition of 3 and 6 t of ash caused significantly increased standard respiration in samples from the upper half of the humus layer four years after addition, without changes in pH. Geostatistical analyses of spatial variation indicated that for respiration, acid phosphatase activity and conductivity, the ash addition in Torup had changed the pattern from one typical for a situation where there is a high external influence and characteristic for Swedish high deposition areas, to another pattern typical for Swedish humus layers of forests less exposed to deposition. The change in pattern was most obvious in the 3 t ash treatment, in the pattern for the 6 t treatment there was again a tendency for an external influence, possibly from the ash. Three tonnes of granulated wood ash were judged as a more suitable dose for soil remediation than six tonnes. Addition of wood ash to a forest floor can be seen as soil remediation and such a treatment can make up for losses of cations from lower soil layers in areas with high deposition. However, Sweden's forests mostly stand on young unweathered bedrock and have large amounts of nutrients stored in the organic forest floor, which can be mobilised when needed. To return P and cations in amounts equivalent to those exported in harvest and to match N added as deposition is not necessary at present to secure sustained tree growth in the next generation, but all the same the right thing to do according to the principal of cautiousness. Returning the increasing amounts of wood ash coming from increased bioenergy use to the forest is also a better long term alternative than storage in a deposit with unknown future problems with leakage e.g. with heavy metals.

  1. Addition of ash on drained forested peatlands in southern Sweden. Effects on forest production, fluxes of greenhouse gases and water chemistry; Tillfoersel av aska i tallskog paa dikad torvmark i soedra Sverige. Effekter paa skogsproduktion, avgaang av vaexthusgaser och vattenkemi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstroem, Ulf; Ernfors, Maria; Jacobson, Staffan; Klemedtsson, Leif; Nilsson, Mats; Ring, Eva

    2006-04-15

    In Sweden, about one million tones of wood ashes are produced annually, of which about 250,000 - 300,000 tones originate from forest residues. Some of the ashes produced are deposited today. One alternative use is bringing back the ashes to the forest, recycling the mineral nutrients and base compounds. In bioashes, most essential mineral nutrients for plants are included, except for N, which is gasified at combustion. On most mineral soils in Sweden, plant available nitrogen is the nutrient limiting tree growth. On organic soils, tree growth is usually increased after addition of phosphorous and potassium. Thus, there is a potential for increased forest production on peatlands after ash fertilization. This can be a profitable measure. Nutrient compensation after harvesting involve ash addition with quite low doses. This is especially important in peatlands after whole-tree harvesting in order to prevent nutrient deficiency and reduced tree growth. However, there is a need for better knowledge concerning other environmental effects before ash addition can be put into large-scale practice. The general objective of this project is to study the effects of wood-ash addition on forest production and some other environmental variables on drained, forested peatlands. The studies concern tree growth, emissions of greenhouse gases and water chemistry (ground water and run off). An important issue addressed was if an expected increased accumulation of carbon (CO{sub 2}) due to increased tree growth can compensate for an expected increased emission of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) from the peat. In addition, the very effective greenhouse gas laughing gas (N2O), must be taken into consideration. In 2003, two field experiments were established in the county of Smaaland in south Sweden, where wood ashes from biofuels were applied. One experiment was designed as a randomized block experiment where effects on forest production and greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) were studied. The other experiment, 10 km away, was established in two drainage areas where emissions of greenhouse gases and water chemistry (ground water and run off) were studied. At the establishment of the experiments, the forests were dominated by Scots pine. In the end of the 1980's, the forest stands had been thinned and the soils drained at both experimental sites. The first experiment included five treatments: an untreated control, and, one low dose (3.3 tonnes DM/ha) and one high dose (6.6 tonnes DM/ha) of crushed ash and 'granulated' wood ash, respectively. It should be noted that the 'granulated' product was of a poor standard. In the second experiment 3.1 tonnes DM/ha of crushed ash was applied. Two years after treatment in no effects of the treatments on tree growth was detected, which could be expected considering the short effect period. There was a statistically significant effect of the addition of crushed ash on concentrations of potassium and boron in the Scots pine needles. For potassium there was an effect of the dose. The addition of wood ash did not change the CO{sub 2}-flux from the soil during the first 2.5 years of study. The annual emissions from the control plots were approximately 8,000 kg CO{sub 2}/ha during 2004 and 12,000 kg CO{sub 2}/ha during 2005. No significant effect of the treatments on the annual CH{sub 4}-flux was detected by analysis of variance, but there was a tendency for increased CH{sub 4}-emissions at the treated plots during late summer and autumn. The annual emissions on the control plots were approximately 3 kg CH{sub 4}/ha during 2004 and 6 kg CH{sub 4}/ha during 2005. N{sub 2}O-flux was only occasionally detected. In 2005, the mean CH{sub 4} emission of the ash fertilized plots was 60% higher (non significant) than the mean of the control plots. This corresponds to an increased emission of 90 kg CO{sub 2}/ha/yr to the atmosphere. To compensate for such an emission, accumulation of tree biomass needs to increase by approximately 2%. In run off, sampled in the main ditches, the electric conductivity increased after addition of 3.1 tonnes of crushed ash, as well as the concentrations of B, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, K, Cl, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, PO{sub 4}-P, S, SO{sub 4}-S and Zn. For most elements, the increase appeared immediately after the ash application, and lasted from a few months to the whole observation period (c. one year). The concentrations of Pb and V was lower than expected during six and nine months, respectively. Thereafter, the Pb-concentration tended to be higher than the control. The concentration of TOC was reduced during eight months, and pH was reduced during three months after the ash addition. The effects on ground water chemistry corresponded to the effects on chemistry in run off. Two months after treatment, the concentrations of B, Ca, Cd, Co, K, Cl{sup -}, Li, Mn, Na, P, S och SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}S were elevated in the groundwater in the ash treated area. For some of the elements this was evident down to 90 - 100 cm depth. The concentrations of As and TOC at 30 - 40 cm tended to be lower in the area treated with ash. The results from this study demonstrate the initial effects (1 - 2.5 years) of wood ash addition in some drained, oligotrophic peatland forests in southern Sweden. Ash addition may affect the turn over of the peat, and potentially affect other ecosystem properties, for several decades. Hence, in order to confirm the duration of the shown short-term effects, to establish the duration of not yet ceased effects, and, establish effects that might show up in a long-term perspective, continuous follow up of the established experiments is important. This long-term monitoring is also a prerequisite of a more complete evaluation of the benefits and possible detrimental effects on the environment of wood ash addition.

  2. Wood-ash addition on a drained forest peatland in Southern Sweden - Effects on water chemistry; Tillfoersel av biobra ensleaska i tallskog paa en dikad torvmark i soedra Sverige - Effekter paa vattenkemin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, Eva; Broemssen, Claudia von; Losjoe, Katarina; Sikstroem Ulf

    2012-02-15

    Wood ash can be used for forest fertilization on peatlands or for nutrient compensation following intensive harvesting. This project was performed in order to investigate effects on water chemistry of applying wood ash to a Scots pine stand on a drained peatland. Ditch-water chemistry was monitored before and after the application of wood ash. Furthermore, groundwater was collected and chemically analyzed both from the ash-treated peatland and from an adjacent untreated reference peatland. Both short term (a few months) and more long term effects (up to three years after application) were detected on water chemistry

  3. Addition of ash on drained forested peatlands in southern Sweden. Effects on forest production, fluxes of greenhouse gases and water chemistry; Tillfoersel av aska i tallskog paa dikad torvmark i soedra Sverige. Effekter paa skogsproduktion, avgaang av vaexthusgaser och vattenkemi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstroem, Ulf; Jacobson, Staffan; Ring, Eva [Skogforsk, Uppsala (Sweden); Ernfors, Maria; Klemedtsson, Leif [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Plant and Environmental Sciences; Nilsson, Mats [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    In Sweden, about one million tones of wood ashes are produced annually, of which about 250,000-300,000 tones originate from biofuels, e.g. forest residues. Some of the ashes produced are deposited today. One alternative use is bringing back the ashes to the forest, recycling the mineral nutrients and base compounds. In bioashes, most essential mineral nutrients for plants are included, except for N, which is gasified at combustion. On most mineral soils in Sweden, plant available nitrogen is the nutrient limiting tree growth. On organic soils, tree growth is usually increased after addition of phosphorous and potassium. Thus, there is a potential for increased forest production on peatlands after ash fertilization. This can be a profitable measure. Nutrient compensation after harvesting involve ash addition with quite low doses. This is especially important in peatlands after whole-tree harvesting in order to prevent nutrient deficiency and reduced tree growth. However, there is a need for better knowledge concerning other environmental effects before ash addition can be put into large-scale practice. The general objective of this project is to study the effects of wood-ash addition on forest production and some other environmental variables on drained, forested peatlands. The studies concern tree growth, emissions of greenhouse gases and water chemistry (ground water and run off). An important issue addressed was if an expected increased accumulation of carbon (CO{sub 2}) due to increased tree growth can compensate for an expected increased emission of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) from the peat. In addition, the very effective greenhouse gas laughing gas (N{sub 2}O), must be taken into consideration. In 2003, two field experiments were established in the county of Smaaland in southeast Sweden, where wood ashes from biofuels were applied. One experiment was designed as a randomized block experiment (273 Anderstorp) where effects on forest production and greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) were studied. The other experiment (274 Bredaryd), 10 km away, was established in two drainage areas where emissions of greenhouse gases and water chemistry (ground water and run off) were studied. At the establishment of the experiments, the forests were dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). In the end of the 1980's, the forest stands had been thinned and the soils drained at both experimental sites. Experiment 273 Anderstorp included five treatments: an untreated control, and, one low dose (3.3 tonnes DM/ha) and one high dose (6.6 tonnes DM/ha) of crushed ash and 'granulated' wood ash, respectively. It should be noted that the 'granulated' product was of a poor standard. In experiment 274 Bredaryd 3.1 tonnes DM/ha of crushed ash was applied. Two years after treatment in 273 Anderstorp no effects of the treatments on tree growth was detected, which could be expected considering the short effect period. There was a statistically significant effect of the addition of crushed ash on concentrations of potassium and boron in the Scots pine needles. For potassium there was an effect of the dose. The addition of wood ash did not change the CO{sub 2}-flux from the soil during the first 2.5 years of study. The annual emissions from the control plots were approximately 8,000 kg CO{sub 2}/ha during 2004 and 12,000 kg CO{sub 2}/ha during 2005. No significant effect of the treatments on the annual CH{sub 4}-flux was detected by analysis of variance, but there was a tendency for increased CH{sub 4}-emissions at the treated plots during late summer and autumn. The annual emissions on the control plots were approximately 3 kg CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} during 2004 and 6 kg CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2} during 2005. N{sub 2}O-flux was only occasionally detected. In 2005, the mean CH{sub 4} emission of the ash fertilized plots was 60% higher (non significant) than the mean of the control plots. This corresponds to an increased emission of 90 kg CO{sub 2}/ha/yr to the atmosphere. To compensate for such an emission, accumulation of tree biomass needs to increase by approximately 2%. In run off, sampled in the main ditches, the electric conductivity increased after addition of 3.1 tonnes of crushed ash, as well as the concentrations of B, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, K, Cl, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, P, PO{sub 4}-P, S, SO{sub 4}-S and Zn. For most elements, the increase appeared immediately after the ash application, and lasted from a few months to the whole observation period (c. one year). The concentrations of Pb and V was lower than expected during six and nine months, respectively. Thereafter, the Pb-concentration tended to be higher than the control. The concentration of TOC was reduced during eight months, and pH was reduced during three months after the ash addition. The effects on ground water chemistry corresponded to the effects on chemistry in run off. Two months after treatment, the concentrations of B, Ca, Cd, Co, K, Cl{sup -}, Li, Mn, Na, P, S and SO{sub 4}-S were elevated in the groundwater in the ash treated area. For some of the elements this was evident down to 90-100 cm depth. The concentrations of As and TOC at 30-40 cm tended to be lower in the area treated with ash. The results from this study demonstrate the initial effects (1-2.5 years) of wood ash addition in some drained, oligotrophic peatland forests in southern Sweden. Ash addition may affect the turn over of the peat, and potentially affect other ecosystem properties, for several decades. Hence, in order to confirm the duration of the shown short-term effects, to establish the duration of not yet ceased effects, and, establish effects that might show up in a long-term perspective, continuous follow up of the established experiments is important. This long-term monitoring is also a prerequisite of a more complete evaluation of the benefits and possible detrimental effects on the environment of wood ash addition.

  4. Energy- and value added services in the electric power market in Sweden; Energi- och mervaerdestjaenster paa elmarknaden i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsson, Peter

    2000-03-01

    This report tries to give a comprehensive picture of the offerings of energy- and value added services on the deregulated Swedish electric power market. A compilation of the service offerings from some 50 electric utilities is given. Market movements within deregulated sectors are treated with special emphasis on the electric power business.

  5. Supply of biofuels in short term and long term; Utbudet av biobraenslen paa kort och laang sikt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundmark, Robert (Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2009-07-01

    The report aims to assess the economics of biofuels-supply in Sweden. This is done by constructing supply curves for the relevant categories of biomass. Further assessment is made on the future supply with a 10- and 25-year perspective, inter alia, to allow the adaptation of forest and agricultural sector technologies to more efficient use of biomass. The presence of regional and international markets is also included in the analysis. The model allows an estimate of a range for each category of biomass. These then form the basis for constructing different aggregate supply curves. The results indicate economic opportunities to increase the harvesting of biomass for a given cost. This increase is dependent on the prevailing cost. However, the results indicate that previous studies overestimate the potential reasons, why a higher degree of confidence is needed in order to formulate various policy measures

  6. Effects of renewable energy sources on the Swedish Environmental Objectives; Foernybara energikaellors inverkan paa de svenska miljoemaalen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molander, Sverker; Ahlborg, Helen; Arvidsson, Rickard; Hammar, Linus; Kushnir, Duncan; Wallin, Are; Westerdahl, Jenny

    2010-11-15

    This report describes the negative impacts from renewable energy sources on the Swedish environmental objectives. The result is presented as a set of conceptual cause-effect diagrams showing the links between the life-cycles of the energy sources to specific environmental objectives. The energy sources covered in the report are hydro power, wind power, thin-film solar cells, silicon-based solar cells, heat pumps, biofuels from crops (such as ethanol and rape seed methyl ester), biofuels from waste (i.e. biogas) and biofuels from the forest (such as wood pellets and chips). No environmental impacts have been quantified in this report, and no comparisons between the energy sources have been performed. However, what has been shown is that the above mentioned energy sources may influence many of the Swedish environmental goals, and that this influence will increase if the current Swedish goals for renewable energies are realized. More detailed studies of the renewable energy sources influences on the environmental goals are thus required in order to avoid negative environmental impacts from future developments of renewable energy sources. This report has, based on current scientific knowledge, tried to point out the most important possible influences from renewable energy technologies, and is therefore a starting point for further studies. The report also gives some recommendations for further research

  7. Demand-based maintenance and operators support based on process models; Behovsstyrt underhaall och operatoersstoed baserat paa process modeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlquist, Erik; Widarsson, Bjoern; Tomas-Aparicio, Elena

    2012-02-15

    There is a strong demand for systems that can give early warnings on upcoming problems in process performance or sensor measurements. In this project we have developed and implemented such a system on-line. The goal with the system is to give warnings about both faults needing urgent actions, as well giving advice on roughly when service may be needed for specific functions. The use of process simulation models on-line can offer a significant tool for operators and process engineers to analyse the performance of the process and make the most correct and fastest decision when problems arise. In this project physical simulation models are used in combination with decision support tools. By using a physical model it is possible to compare the measured data to the data obtained from the simulation and give these deviations as input to a decision support tool with Bayesian Networks (BN) that will result in information about the probability for wrong measurement in the instruments, process problems and maintenance needs. The application has been implemented in a CFB boiler at Maelarenergi AB. After tuning the model the system has been used online during September - October 2010 and May - October 2011, showing that the system is working on-line with respect to running the simulation model but with batch runs with respect to the BN. Examples have been made for several variables where trends of the deviation between simulation results and measured data have been used as input to a BN, where the probability for different faults has been calculated. Combustion up in the separator/cyclones has been detected several times, problems with fuel feed on both sides of the boiler as well. A moisture sensor not functioning as it should and suspected malfunctioning temperature meters as well. Deeper investigations of the true cause of problems have been used as input to tune the BN

  8. Ärma talu ehitanud Aus Invest müüdi Panama riiulifirmale maha / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Ärma talu ehitanud Aus Invest OÜ ei ole maksnud tööde eest kõigile alltöövõtjatele. Proua Evelin Ilvese sõnul on Ermamaa peatöövõtjale kõigi kokkulepitud tööde eest maksnud. 2007. a. mais müüsid Aivar Aus ja Mait Aus Tartu maakohtu registriosakonna andmetel Aus Invest OÜ Panamal registreeritud riiulifirmale Arliana Enterprises Corp. Vt. samas: Nõunik sekkus presidendi teleintervjuusse. Kui telekanali TV3 Lõuna-Eesti reporter Valgamaal visiidil viibivalt Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt ja proua Evelin Ilveselt Ärma talu ehitusega kaasnenud võlgade kohta aru päris, sekkus kõnelusse presidendi avalike suhete nõunik Toomas Sildam. Vt. ka lk. 10: Urmo Soonvald. Ärma triibulised. Ajakirjanik ootab Ärma talu probleemidega seoses suuremat avalikustamist

  9. Are there barriers to competition on the market for energy services?; Finns det konkurrenshinder paa marknaden foer energitjaenster?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Under orders from the Government, offices of Swedish Energy Authority conduct an in-depth analysis of the competitive conditions in various segments of the energy services market. In particular, the competitive relationship between energy suppliers and on the other hand, other companies providing energy services. Also the relationship between municipal-owned companies and other companies providing energy services should be analyzed. The institutional framework is already known, as well as much of the activity in the market. However, there still seems to be perspective on actors' own perceptions of market conditions that should be clarified. For this reason, the starting point for this investigation was the companies' own statements and comments, which were obtained partly through a questionnaire and interviews. A basic assumption has been that the opinions and beliefs also guide companies actions. This means that the actors' own voices form a kind of recurring theme in the study and contributes to a deeper understanding of the actors' motivations. It should be noted that Energy Agency does not necessarily share the views that emerge in this context.

  10. Delegated democracy. Siting selection for the Swedish nuclear waste; Demokrati paa delegation. Lokaliseringen av det svenska kaernavfallet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Hanna Sofia

    2008-11-15

    The present study concerns the siting of the Swedish nuclear waste repository. Four cases are examined: the feasibility studies in Nykoeping and Tierp (cases 1 and 2), as well as three public consultation meetings with conservationist and environmental organisations, and two study visits to nuclear facilities in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar, which were held during what is called the site-investigation phase (cases 3 and 4). The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) began the search for a nuclear waste site in the 1970s. Since 1992 SKB has conducted feasibility studies in eight municipalities, including in the four municipalities mentioned above. At the present time more comprehensive site investigations are underway in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar, two municipalities that already host nuclear power plants as well as storages for nuclear waste. In addition to SKB and the municipalities involved in the site-selection process, politicians, opinion groups, concerned members of the public, and oversight bodies are important actors. The analysis of the cases employs the concepts of 'sub-politics', 'boundary work', and 'expertise', together with the four models of democracy 'representative democracy', participatory democracy', 'deliberative democracy', and 'technocracy'. The aim of the study is to describe the characteristics of Swedish democracy in relation to the disposal of Swedish nuclear waste. The main questions of the study are: Which democratic ideals can be found within SKB's siting process during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process during the site investigations? and Which democratic ideals were influential during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process? The study is based on qualitative methods, and the source materials consist of documents, interviews, and participant observations. In summary, the form of democracy that emerges in the four case studies can be described as delegated democracy. This means that a large part of the political preparatory work is delegated from parliamentary actors and arenas to sub-political actors and arenas. At the same time, this form of democracy is characterised by the final decisions being taken by elected representatives in the parliamentary arena. Most of the requisite information, however, is provided by a sub-political actor in sub-political arenas, as a result of the preparatory work having been delegated to SKB. This provision of information, however, is often intended to win support for SKB's activities. During the preparatory work, various forms of expertise are accorded great influence, while elected politicians, many of whom are laymen, have the final say in the decision making. This expert influence is also a consequence of the fact that the elected politicians have delegated the issue to a corporation and to opinion groups. The nuclear waste democracy is characterised by a division into two parts: on the one hand a process of deliberation between sub-political actors during the preparatory phase, and on the other a representative democracy in connection with decision-making. The large extent to which the preparatory work is delegated to sub-political actors, and the marginal degree of political decision making in parliamentary arenas are what make it possible to call this form of democracy delegated democracy. It will be of great future interest to study the government's public review process, investigation, and decision concerning SKB's application for a permit to construct a repository. First then will we learn the nature of the connection between the sub-political actors' preparatory work and the parliamentary actors' decision, or, put differently, we will then have a picture of how democratic the delegated handling of nuclear waste is

  11. Eesti võimalused EL maaelu strateegias 2007-2013, sealhulgas Leader programm / Kaido Koppel, Eha Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Kaido

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: VI Rural Parliament of Estonian Villages : July 21-23, 2005 in Lepanina, Pärnu County. Eestis rakendub Leader programm täies mahus Euroopa Liidu uuel eelarve perioodil ehk alates aastast 2007. Skeem: Maaelu arengu baas 2007-2013

  12. Accumulation of metals in vegetation established in ash constructions; Ackumulering av metaller i vegetation paa geotekniska askkonstruktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemstroem, Kristian; Wik, Ola (SGI, Statens geotekniska institut (Sweden)); Bramryd, Torleif; Johansson, Michael (Lunds Universitet, Miljoestrategi (Sweden)); Jaegerbrand, Annika (VTI, Statens Vaeg och transportforskningsinstitut (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    The overall aim of this study was to investigate how the use of ash in a long-term perspective affects the surrounding flora and fauna with regard to the accumulation of metals in the ecosystem through plant uptake and exposure to grazing animals. The study included a field study and a cultivation experiment. In the field study, the accumulation of metals and metalloids in leaves of trees and shrubs that had self established and grown in lysimeters with aged MSWI bottom ash and aged biofuel ash was determined. In the cultivation experiment, the accumulation of metals and metalloids from the studied materials in ryegrass was determined. Reference materials in the cultivation experiment were two conventional geotechnical materials, crushed rock and excavated soil. Leaves from trees and bushes in the vicinity of the ash lysimeters were used as reference materials in the field study. Contamination of plant samples with particles, through splashing during rain, dusting, or in connection with sampling, proved to have had a major impact on the measured metal and metalloid concentrations in several grass samples in the cultivation experiment. The results also indicate that contamination of plant samples with particles occurred in the field study. In this case, probably due to atmospheric deposition. The particle contamination complicated the evaluation of some of the results in the project since the intention was to study accumulation by roots from the studied ash materials, but, on the other hand, the particle contamination showed the importance of taking into account the spreading of contaminants through particles as an exposure route for grazing animals. In the field study, only Cd and Zn in aspen, willow and birch exhibited elevated levels in the leaves due to root uptake from MSWI bottom ash compared to the reference samples. In addition, elevated levels of As was observed in leaves from trees in the biofuel ash. The total content of As was similar in all studied ashes but the leachability was significantly higher in the biofuel ash. The measured concentrations in the leaves of ash lysimeters were below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for cattle for all elements except Zn in willow, birch and aspen, where the levels were in the same range as TDI. However, the lower limit for TDI was exceeded for Zn also in some leaf samples from the reference areas. Thus, TDI for Zn seems rather low compared to concentrations that could normally occur in leaves from fast growing trees. Cultivation experiment showed that levels of Cu, Pb and Zn, and to some extent Cr and Cd, were clearly elevated in the ryegrass that grew in MSWI bottom ash. For Cu, Pb and to some extent Zn the concentrations exceeded the TDI for cattle. However, the measured concentrations were clearly affected by contamination of fine particulate MSWI bottom ash matter. This applied particularly to the grass samples from the pots with 100 % ash or reference material and not to those from with ash or reference material mixed with 50 wt % planting soil. In the grass growing in mixtures with 50 wt% MSWI bottom ash and 50 wt% plantation soil, the concentrations in the grasses were of the same magnitude as in the grasses from the reference materials, and below TDI for cattle

  13. Uranium enrichment using gas centrifugation. An analysis focusing export control; Urananrikning med gascentrifugering. En analys med fokus paa exportkontroll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina [Swedish Defense Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, has performed a study on uranium enrichment by gas centrifugation. The theory and principles of gas centrifugation is described in this report and relevant equipment used in the process has been identified. Different aspects of operating a gas centrifuge facility - and its indicators - are also presented. The separation efficiency and the flow of material through a centrifuge are very small, and therefore, a large number of centrifuges in cascades is needed to produce a larger amount of enriched uranium within a reasonable time. Countries with nuclear weapons ambitions often show an interest in gas centrifuges to produce weapons grade uranium - if they have managed to acquire the technology - because of the efficiency of the process and since it is relatively easy to conceal. Most equipment used in gas centrifuge facilities is under export control to prevent clandestine uranium enrichment. The Nuclear Suppliers' Group has compiled lists of nuclear related equipment and components that are of importance to export control. The control lists have also been included in the EU legislation.

  14. Wave loads on foundations for wind turbines. A literature survey; Vaaglaster paa fundament till vindkraftverk - systemdynamik och utmattning: Litteraturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlen, Ingemar

    2001-05-01

    This report is an overview of literature covering the influence of wave loads on foundations for wind power plants. Relevant subjects are wave motion, wave forces on slender structures, wave statistics for the Swedish coast together with planning and certification.

  15. EU enlargement and trade integration : can we distinguish the Baltic Sea region cluster? / Tiiu Paas, Egle Tafenau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Tiiu, 1949-

    2004-01-01

    Uurimistulemused kinnitavad piiriüleste kaubandussidemete olemasolu ning Läänemere regiooni riikide omavahelise kaubandusintegratsiooni tugevust ühinevas Euroopas, millega tuleb EL-i regionaalpoliitika kujundamisel arvestada. Diagrammid. Tabel

  16. Wind power's effects on terrestrial mammals. A synthesis report; Vindkraftens effekter paa landlevande daeggdjur. En syntesrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helldin, Jan Olof; Skarin, Anna; Widemo, Fredrik [SLU, Uppsala (Sweden); Jung, Jens [SLU, Skara (Sweden); Neumann, Wiebke [SLU, Umeaa (Sweden); Olsson, Mattias [SLU (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    - We compiled available knowledge and experience of the impact of wind power on terrestrial mammals, both wild and domestic. The literature in the field is very limited, so we also tried to draw lessons from related fields, such as disturbance from noise, construction work, traffic, hunting and outdoor activities, and the effects of habitat change. - Although the knowledge is generally sparse, the summary shows that it is possible that terrestrial mammals, especially large carnivores and ungulates including domestic reindeer, are affected by wind power development in various ways. - For the larger game species as well as domestic reindeer, the influence from wind power should primarily be due to the network of access roads to the turbines. The main factor is probably the increased access for recreation, hunting and leisure traffic. It is well known that interference from such human activities can impact moose, wild deer, domestic reindeer and large carnivores, and in effect cause a habitat loss. - New wind power farms are expected to be situated in more remote, upland, currently roadless areas, at least in the forested landscape. Such areas may serve as refugia for e.g. large predators or as important grazing areas for ungulates. Accordingly, wind power and associated infrastructure in these areas may have an impact on the population level of these species. - By contrast, the habitat changes caused by access roads are not necessarily a problem for the larger mammal species. Open land, new edge zones and roadsides could rather benefit many wildlife species. Open land and edges create new browsing areas; roads can facilitate animal movement in the landscape or help animals escaping parasitic insects. - The effects of power lines on reindeer tend to differ depending on the geographic scale studied; on a regional scale, an avoidance of large areas around power lines may be observed, while no effects have been shown for reindeer studied near power lines. - A few studies available on wild deer, reindeer and large carnivores during construction work suggest that these animals may temporarily avoid wind farms during this period. However, the data is not conclusive. - Noise emissions from wind turbines can theoretically disturb animal communication, and also visual stimuli (including reflections, shadows and lighting) may annoy or stress both wildlife and livestock. However, the few studies available suggest the lack of such effects, or a swift habituation to the disturbance, and therefore a limited impact. - Animals may also get accustomed to the other disturbances from wind power. For example, both domestic and wild reindeer appear to remain in areas despite human presence, at least when no alternative areas are available. The ability to habituate varies with species, sex, age, individual, time of year, type of disturbance, and how frequent and predictable disturbances are, so overall, habituation cannot be presupposed. - There may be differences in the response to disturbance, depending on landscape and current land use. In already disturbed areas, such as most agricultural landscapes, wind power may not affect the occurring species to the same extent as it would in more sparsely populated forest and mountain areas. - The effects may also depend on the size of the wind farm. At the construction of large wind farms, even small and localised effects may sum up to significant impact, with consequences at the population level. - Our summary highlights the large knowledge gaps in the field and indicates the need for research as well as for efficient environmental monitoring. Of particular need is to study the effects of noise and visual impacts from the turbines. Also studies are needed on the localisation of new wind power in relation to areas of particular value for ungulates and large predators. It is important that the potential cumulative impacts of wind power are considered, as these may lead to consequences at the population level and thus be most relevant from a conservation perspective. - To address the large knowledge gaps, it is crucial that monitoring programs for new wind power are set up to create new, generalisable knowledge. We describe some principles that should be followed to achieve this. It is also important that monitoring programs are coordinated nationally and that the data are analysed on a comprehensive level.

  17. Solar heating, wood chips and pellets at Harpsund. An evaluation; Solvaerme, flis och pellets paa Harpsund. Utvaerdering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Leif; Perers, Bengt

    2006-06-15

    Harpsund is well-known for being the representation residence for the Swedish prime minister. Besides this function, it is also a production unit for milk and meat, with a livestock of about 500 animals. At Harpsund, a new production plant for heating and domestic hot water with a new distribution net was built by the Swedish authorities. Wood chips from the forests belonging to the estate are used for the heat production, together with wood pellets and solar heat. The old heating system was based on a technique with local production in each building and was in need of modernization. The new plant has been designed very attractively - great care has been taken to make it fit into the atmosphere of the surroundings. The solar collectors are placed on the roof of a garage for farming machines. The heat central contains three burners: one for wood chips with thermal power 250 kW, one 400 kW burner for pellets and one small 25 kW burner for pellets. The smallest unit is intended to support the solar system during the summer season. From the garage with the 327 m{sup 2} Aquasol Big AR solar collectors the solar heated glycol/ water is transported to the heat central in a culvert. The distance is 150 m. At the heat central, there is also a heat accumulator with a volume of 40 m{sup 3} of water. This is used both for the burners and for the solar heat. The monitoring and analysis of the plant show that it has good reliability and it is evident that the production capacity is adequate for all conceivable climate conditions. During one year of monitoring, the heat central produced 1,494 MWh of which 86 % came from wood chips, 9 % from pellets and 5 % from solar heat. It is unfavourable that the solar heat has to work against the return temperature of the heat distribution system. Also, the collector area seems to be somewhat too large for the demand for domestic hot water. The result for the specific investment for solar heat is therefore high: 13.21 SEK/kWh,year. It might be possible to improve this result slightly through some optimization measures, possibly to 10.72 SEK/kWh,year. This evaluation presents a thorough analysis of the performance of the solar heating system, together with data for the overall system coordination and details for the temperature dynamics of the heat accumulator. In all, the analysis shows a very attractive plant, well suited for demonstration purposes.

  18. Wind power's impacts on birds and bats - Synthesis report; Vindkraftens paaverkan paa faaglar och fladdermoess - Syntesrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydell, Jens; Hedenstroem, Anders; Green, Martin (Biologiska institutionen, Lunds universitet (Sweden)); Engstroem, Henri (Sveriges Ornitologiska Foerening/ Evolutionsbiologiskt Centrum, Uppsala Universitet (Sweden)); Kyed Larsen, Jesper (Vattenfall Wind Power, Fredericia (Denmark)); Pettersson, Jan (JP Faagelvind, Faerjestaden (Sweden))

    2011-11-15

    Wind power is apparently facing a major expansion and it is probably inevitable that birds and bats will be killed or otherwise adversely affected by wind turbines in the future. However, we believe that the planning framework (30 TWh in 2020) does not conflict with that viable populations of birds and bats are preserved. The risks of negative impacts can be limited significantly by planning and co-operation and using the knowledge that already exists. There are on the other hand also significant knowledge gaps to be filled in order to further reduce uncertainty at future wind projects

  19. Mapping weathering and corrosion damage on biological treatment plants; Kartlaeggning av vittrings- och korrosionsskador paa biologiska behandlingsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boubitsas, Dimitrios; Aakesson, Urban (Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute, CBI, Stockholm (Sweden)); Hellstroem, Hanna; Henriksson, Gunilla (Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Problems regarding that leachate from food waste have been corroding vehicles and concrete slabs has been reported by Biogas- and composting plants. The results from this project show that concrete doesn't have enough resistance in these environments where food waste is treated. No matter which quality of concrete is put in use these problems will occur, though in different speeds. To ensure the function of the concrete construction, the concrete must be protected with a sealing coat. These sealing coats must be able to endure the aggressive nature from leachate coming from food waste and be resistant to mechanical abrasion from vehicles. In the report several seal coatings are shown that have been used for solving measures. Some of these have worked, while others didn't work as well. To be able to ensure the function within the different seal coatings they have to be tested in 'their proper' environment considering the chemical temperature and composition of the leachate. There are no standard methods to perform this, they have to be developed. There are plans for a new study where you bring out specific demands and standard methods for seal coats in food waste environments. Corrosion problems also occur on gathering vehicles for food waste and mechanic equipment at treatment plants, it is desired also to deal with these issues and a study is recommended regarding the influence from food waste on metal materials that are in contact with food waste

  20. Inventory of greenhouse gases at the municipality level. Description of calculation methods; Denmark; Drivhusgasopgoerelse paa kommuneniveau. Beskrivelse af beregningsmetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Lyck, E.; Thomsen, Marianne; Hoffmann, L.; Fauser, P.

    2009-02-15

    This report includes a description of methodologies, data and algorithms behind the inventories of greenhouse gases at the municipality level divided into sectors. The starting point for the sectors in this report is the sectors used for the official Danish emission inventories. A simplified generalization of the equations used in emission calculations is based on the assumption that emissions of a given activity is estimated using data descriptive for the size of the activity multiplied by an emission factor pr unit of activity. Emissions of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are converted to CO{sub 2} equivalents. In this project this generalization and these conversions are also the basis for all methodologies. The sectors included in this report are: the collective power and heating, individual heating, mobile sources, transportation and machinery, industrial processes, solvents, agriculture, land use and waste depositing and wastewater. The methods include calculations of the greenhouse gases that are most important for the sectors. The importance is estimated from the national emission inventory. This report covers methodologies for the greenhouse gases CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. Due to the mentioned importance criteria for some sectors not all greenhouse gases are included. As for the national inventories the calculation is built into several levels (Tiers) with increased requirements for municipalities regarding data. Tier 1 is mainly based on the Danish national greenhouse gas inventory data using appropriate distribution keys for a given activity into municipality level. Tier 2 is more detailed and includes emission factors used in the Danish national greenhouse gas inventories, for some sectors the emission factors are aggregated, while municipalities can enter their own activity data. At Tier 3, which is the most detailed level, there is - for some sectors - the opportunity to enter municipality specific emission factors and activity data. For other sectors Tier 3 is a further disaggregation of emission factors compared to Tier 2. Each municipality may use different tiers for different sectors depending on the data availability. (au)

  1. Disinfection efficiency of peracetic acid (PAA): inactivation of coliphages and bacterial indicators in a municipal wastewater plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, F; De Luca, G; Sacchetti, R; Stampi, S

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficiency of low doses of peracetic acid against viral and bacterial indicators in wastewater and to evaluate if the treatment allows regulatory requirements to be satisfied. A total of 31 samplings were carried out, each involving the collection of secondary effluent and of effluent disinfected with 1.2 or 1.5 mg l(-1) of peracetic acid (contact time 20 minutes). In each sample were measured: somatic coliphages, F-specific RNA bacteriophages, Escherichia coli, total and faecal coliforms, enterococci. Peracetic acid disinfection showed significant differences between the reductions of the microorganisms tested: E. coli showed the highest reduction (1.78 and 2.43 Log respectively with 1.2 and 1.5 mg l(-1) of peracetic acid) and phages the lowest (ranging between 0.52 and 0.60 Log). Only a concentration of 1.5 mg l(-1) of peracetic acid would enable the effluent to be discharged into surface waters in compliance with Italian regulations. The variability of microbial resistance against the peracetic acid disinfection treatment, underlines the importance of assessing disinfection efficiency by using more than one indicator microorganism. The detection of E. coli could be usefully accompanied by tests for more resistant microorganisms such as enterococci or coliphages. In conclusion, peracetic acid can be used for the disinfection of effluents even at low doses, with the advantage of reducing costs and preventing the formation of significant amounts of genotoxic by-products.

  2. Preventive maintenance and life time assessment with respect to cyclic operation; Foerebyggande underhaall och livslaengdsbedoemning med avseende paa cyklisk drift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan

    2011-03-15

    Procedures that may be used for the life time assessments and growth laws for failure mechanisms with respect to cyclic operation has been compiled. Experience and analyzes of the effects of cyclical operation of steam drums, steam boxes, steam accumulators and valves has been compiled. For the strain-induced corrosion cracking in steam drums a correlation between the voltage level and the crack growth rate has been developed.

  3. The Swedish National Defence Research Establishment and the plans for Swedish nuclear weapons; Foersvarets forskningsanstalt och planerna paa svenska kaernvapen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonter, Thomas [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History

    2001-03-01

    This study analyses the Swedish nuclear weapons research since 1945 carried out by the Swedish National Defence Research Establishment (FOA). The most important aspect of this research was dealing with protection in broad terms against nuclear weapons attacks. However, another aspect was also important from early on - to conduct research aiming at a possible production of nuclear weapons. FOA performed an extended research up to 1968, when the Swedish Government signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which meant the end of these production plans. Up to this date, five main investigations about the technical conditions were made, 1948, 1953, 1955, 1957 and 1965, which all together expanded the Swedish know-how to produce a bomb. The Swedish plans to procure nuclear weapons were not an issue in the debate until the mid 50's. The reason for this was simple, prior to 1954 the plans were secretly held within a small group of involved politicians, military and researchers. The change of this procedure did take place when the Swedish Supreme Commander in a public defence report in 1954 favoured a Swedish Nuclear weapons option. In 1958 FOA had reached a technical level that allowed the Parliament to make a decision. Two programs were proposed - the L-programme (the Loading Programme), to be used if the parliament would say yes to a production of nuclear weapons, and the S-programme (the Protection Programme), if the Parliament would say no. The debate on the issue had now created problems for the Social Democratic Government. The Prime Minister, Tage Erlander, who had earlier defended a procurement of nuclear weapons, was now forced to reach a compromise. The compromise was presented to the parliament in a creative manner that meant that only the S-programme would be allowed. The Government argued that the technical level did allow a 'freedom of action' up to at least the beginning of the 60's when Sweden was mature to make a decision on the issue. During this period of 'wait and see' FOA was not allowed to conduct research directed towards producing nuclear weapons. On the other hand, it was stated that it was impossible to make a clear-cut line between protection and construction research within a freedom of action. The Parliament accepted the Government's recommendation. Was then protection research the only research that was performed? The question has been under debate in the media and also the issue for one Government investigation. Former classified FOA documents have now been released and enabled this study. The conclusion of this report is that FOA went further in its efforts to make technical and economical estimations than the defined S-programme allowed, at least in a couple of instances. The findings in this report support the assumption that it was a political game that made the Swedish Government introduce the term protection research to escape criticism, while in practical terms construction research was performed in order to obtain technical and economical estimations for a possible production. A second finding of this report is that Sweden reached latent capacity to produce nuclear weapons in 1955. This is at least two years earlier than what is normally accepted in the international literature on nuclear proliferation. For example, in Stephen M Meyer's classic study The Dynamics of Nuclear Proliferation, Sweden is said to have reached latent capacity in 1957. Meyer's study refers to another study in this respect. An analysis of the declassified documents from FOA concludes that this is at least two years to late. A third aim of this report is to analyse the decommissioning of the nuclear weapons research after the NPT was signed in 1968. The fourth aim is to investigate how much plutonium, natural and depleted uranium and heavy water FOA had at its disposal within the research programme. The result of this investigation is given in appendix 2.

  4. On the right path? Indicators for sustainable development 2010; Paa rett vei? Indikatorer for baerekraftig utvikling 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunvoll, Frode; Smith, Tone

    2010-07-01

    This report presents an updated set of sustainable development indicators and describes the development of the indicators together with relevant supplementary information. Whilst compiling the report, we have had an effective collaboration with a number of institutions, which have supplied data and assessments for the various subject areas. A number of divisions and departments in Statistics Norway have made contributions to their respective specialist areas. The main responsibility for compiling the report has rested with the Division for environmental statistics in the Department of economics, energy and the environment. The report has been edited by senior advisers Frode Brunvoll and Tone Smith. The Norwegian strategy for sustainable development covers six policy areas: International cooperation for sustainable development and combating poverty, Climate, ozone and long-range air pollution, Biodiversity and cultural heritage, Natural resources, Hazardous chemicals, and Sustainable economic and social development. From one to six indicators are presented within each of these areas; 18 in total. The indicators are intended to provide important information on the condition and development of the different areas. Some of the indicators also point to critical factors in relation to sustainable development. Simultaneous to this, the question on sustainable development is so complex that the 18 indicators cannot throw light on all challenges. This report therefore includes supplementary information in the form of additional indicators.(Author)

  5. Regional income convergence during the pre-enlargement period of the European Union / Tiiu Paas, Andres Kuusk, Friso Schlitte

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Tiiu, 1949-

    2006-01-01

    Artikli analüüsiobjektiks on tulutasemete ebavõrdsus ja konvergents EL-25 riikides. Regionaalsete tulutasemete analüüsi tulemused annavad tunnistust olulisest regionaalsest ebavõrdsusest nii Euroopa Liidu vanades kui uutes (analüüsitaval perioodil veel kandidaatriikides) liikmesriikides. Tabelid

  6. Process management - critical safety issues with focus on risk management; Processtyrning - kritiska saekerhetsfraagor med inriktning paa riskhantering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanne, Johan M. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). The Tema Inst. - Technology and Social Change

    2005-12-15

    Organizational changes focused on process orientation are taking place among Swedish nuclear power plants, aiming at improving the operation. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has identified a need for increased knowledge within the area for its regulatory activities. In order to analyze what process orientation imply for nuclear power plant safety a number of questions must be asked: 1. How is safety in nuclear power production created currently? What significance does the functional organization play? 2. How can organizational forms be analysed? What consequences does quality management have for work and for the enterprise? 3. Why should nuclear power plants be process oriented? Who are the customers and what are their customer values? Which customers are expected to contribute from process orientation? 4. What can one learn from process orientation in other safety critical systems? What is the effect on those features that currently create safety? 5. Could customer values increase for one customer without decreasing for other customers? What is the relationship between economic and safety interests from an increased process orientation? The deregulation of the electricity market have caused an interest in increased economic efficiency, which is the motivation for the interest in process orientation. among other means. It is the nuclear power plants' owners and the distributors (often the same corporations) that have the strongest interest in process orientation. If the functional organization and associated practices are decomposed, the prerequisites of the risk management regime changes, perhaps deteriorating its functionality. When nuclear power operators consider the introduction of process orientation, the Nuclear Power Inspectorate should require that 1. The operators perform a risk analysis beforehand concerning the potential consequences that process orientation might convey: the analysis should contain a model specifying how safety is currently achieved and how process orientation might influence that model. 2. The analysis should study employee practices. tacit knowledge and occupational culture and how these interact with the official safety management system. 3. Additionally, the analysis should also study how the current risk management regime depends on the current organizational structure. 4. The operators should motivate their proposed changes and list the potential risks that may occur in terms of responsibility, competencies etc. 5. Operators should define their customers, customer values and processes in such a way that safety is not considered an unnecessary cost: the inspectorate must continue to be a strong customer to the operators. There is a need for additional empirical research about how process orientation is introduced and its effects on safety critical system: such a study would focus on how processes, customers and customer values are defined and the effects in terms of learning, responsibility, commitment, how processes are defined. One could for example study the deregulated railway system. There is also a need for additional research concerning how safety is achieved at the nuclear power stations, focusing employee practices and occupational ideology and the relationship between these and the official safety management system.

  7. Knowledge transfer in Swedish Nuclear Power Plants in connection with retirements; Kompetensoeverfoering paa svenska kaernkraftverk i samband med pensionsavgaangar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Annika; Ohlsson, Kjell; Roos, Anna

    2007-12-13

    This report displays how the Swedish nuclear power plants Forsmark, Oskarshamn and Ringhals work with knowledge management. The report also consists of a literature review of appropriate ways to extract tacit knowledge as well as methods to transfer competence. The report is made up of a smaller number of interviews at the nuclear power plants in combination with a questionnaire distributed to a larger number of people at the plants. The results of the interview study is that only one of the Swedish nuclear power plants have a programme to transfer knowledge from older staff to newer. This is, however, not a programme for everyone. Another plant has a programme for knowledge building, but only for their specialists. At both plants, which lack a programme, the interviewees request more structure in knowledge transfer; even though they feel the current way of transferring knowledge with mentors works well. Besides more structure, interviewees present a wish to have more time for knowledge transfer as well as the opportunity to recruit more than needed. Recruiting more than needed is however not very simple due to multiple causes such as nominal sizing departments and a difficulty of recruiting people to work far from larger cities. The way things are now, many feel too under-staffed and under a lot of time pressure daily to also have time for knowledge transfer besides their normal work.

  8. RECURSO AUDIOVISUAL PAA ENSEÑAR Y APRENDER EN EL AULA: ANÁLISIS Y PROPUESTA DE UN MODELO FORMATIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Marilu Mendoza Zambrano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La usabilidad de los recursos audiovisuales, gráficos y digitales, que en la actualidad se están introduciendo en el sistema educativo se despliega en varios países de la región como Chile, Colombia, México, Cuba, El Salvador, Uruguay y Venezuela. Se analiza y se justifica subtemas relacionados con la enseñanza de los medios, desde la iniciativa de España y Portugal; países que fueron convirtiéndose en protagonistas internacionales de algunos modelos educativos en el contexto universitario. Debido a la extensión y focalización en la informática y las redes de información y comunicación en la internet; el audiovisual como instrumento tecnológico va ganando espacios como un recurso dinámico e integrador; con características especiales que lo distingue del resto de los medios que conforman el ecosistema audiovisual. Como resultado de esta investigación se proponen dos líneas de aplicación: A. Propuesta del lenguaje icónico y audiovisual como objetivo de aprendizaje y/o materia curricular en los planes de estudio universitarios con talleres para el desarrollo del documento audiovisual, la fotografía digital y la producción audiovisual y B. Uso de los recursos audiovisuales como medio educativo, lo que implicaría un proceso previo de capacitación a la comunidad docente en actividades recomendadas al profesorado y alumnado respectivamente. En consecuencia, se presentan sugerencias que permiten implementar ambas líneas de acción académica.PALABRAS CLAVE: Alfabetización Mediática; Educación Audiovisual; Competencia Mediática; Educomunicación.AUDIOVISUAL RESOURCE FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING IN THE CLASSROOM: ANALYSIS AND PROPOSAL OF A TRAINING MODELABSTRACTThe usage of the graphic and digital audiovisual resources in Education that is been applied in the present, have displayed in countries such as Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Cuba, El Salvador, Uruguay, and Venezuela. The analysis and justification of the topics related to the teaching of the media means following the initiative of Spain and Portugal, the international protagonists of some university educational models was made. Due to the extension and focalization in information technology and web communication through the Internet, the audiovisual aid as a technological instrument have gained utility as a dynamic and conciliatory source with special characteristics that differs it form the other sources that belong to the audiovisual aids eco system. As a result of this research; two application means are proposed: A. Proposal of the iconic and audiovisual language as a learning objective and/or as a curriculum subject in the university syllabus that will include workshops for the development of the audiovisual document, digital photography and the audiovisual production. B. Usage of the audiovisual resources as education means which will imply a pre- training process to the teachers in the activities recommended for the teachers and students. As a consequence, suggestions that allow implementing both means of academic actions are presented.KEYWORDS: Media Literacy; Education Audiovisual; Media Competence; Educommunication.

  9. Radiological effects on plants and animals from Clink during operation; Radiologisk paaverkan paa vaexter och djur fraan Clink under drift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallberg, Bengt; Aquilonius, Karin; Skoog, Sofie; Huutoniemi, Tommi (Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)); Torudd, Jesper (Facilia AB, Bromma (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    This report is the basis for the environmental impact study which is submitted in connection with applications for construction and operation of the encapsulation plant and final disposal facility. The report presents the results of calculations of Clabs'/Clinks' contribution to dose rates for biota in the environment around the Simpevarp peninsula. The biota referred to in this report means plants and animals excluding humans. Calculations are for the reported releases from CLAB to air and water, and estimated future emissions from the CLAB and Clink, both for normal operation and any mishaps. For future emissions both so-called realistic and conservative estimates were used

  10. Comparison of Passive and Active Air Sampling (PAAS) Methods for PCBs – A Pilot Study in New York City Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    PCBs were used extensively in school building materials (caulk and lighting fixture ballasts) during the approximate period of 1950-1978. Most of the schools built nationwide during this period have not had indoor air sampling conducted for PCBs. Passive air sampling holds promi...

  11. Deposits on heat exchanging surfaces, causes in the bleaching process and countermeasures; Belaeggningar paa vaermevaexlare, orsaker i blekprocessen och aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Staahl, Charlotte; Widell, Lars [AaF-Celpap AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    Energy conservation in process industry implies to a large extent recovery of heat (or cold) from a process stream and its utilization for another process stream. The savings of energy that can be achieved depend on the process streams, but also on the efficiency of the heat exchange. A small driving temperature difference is a condition for an extensive recovery and a satisfactory preservation of its quality, i.e. its temperature. As process streams contain compounds or components that can precipitate and form deposits on heat exchanging surfaces, the recovery of heat is degraded. In the pulp and paper industry, two trends combine to increase the extent of fouling: a larger degree of closure for the process and a change in pH-profile caused by a switch to elementary chlorine free bleaching. In this study, the occurrence of deposits has been investigated for the mills that produce mechanical pulp and for the fiber line in mills producing chemical pulp. Deposits on the evaporator surfaces are treated in a parallel study. Except for some plants, deposits are not an important problem today. That does not mean that there has not been any problem or that problems will not occur. The origin of deposits lies in the chemistry of the process, but deposits have consequences for the thermal energy management. A list of possible actions in order to avoid deposits or to mitigate their consequences has been dressed in this report. They should be considered with the following order of priority: avoiding that the compounds that may form deposits enter at all the process, section 6.1; avoiding that these compounds form a deposit once they have entered the process, section 6.2; cleaning if nothing else helps or costs too much, section 6.3. Some of these methods are well known or are conventional changes in the processes. Some of these methods are less well proven or less well documented. In a longer time perspective, the kidney technology that is being developed could contribute to lower concentrations of the inorganic components of deposits in the process streams. The formation of oxalate can, however, hardly be avoided. Deposits may nevertheless occur, but their severity will be reduced.

  12. Analysis of transaction costs for the supply and demand for wood fuels; Transaktionskostnadsanalys av utbud och efterfraagan paa traedbraenslen. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, A.; Bohlin, F.; Hektor, B.; Hillring, B.; Parikka, M. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Management and Products

    2001-12-01

    The objective of the project was to analyse the importance of transaction costs for the supply and demand for woodfuels in Sweden. The project covered the period of great expansion of woodfuel use in the district heating sector, from 1980 until present. It uses literature studies, case studies and surveys. New institutional theory and transaction cost theory was applied. Several transaction costs have influenced both supply from the forest owners and demand from the main users, the district heating plants. Many of these transaction costs have been reduced by the market players, through learning, technical improvements and institutional innovations. Actions to reduce transaction costs have accompanied technical improvements of handling and transport. Strategies for woodfuel procurement have also been analysed. Important conclusions of the project for a change in the energy system are presented.

  13. When are we going to take noise seriously?; Arbeid og helse : Naar skal vi ta stoey paa alvor?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehlen, Ingrid Sivind

    2004-07-01

    Noise is often considered as a simple and OK issue in connection with working environments. It can be measured, and its harmful effect on the individual can be measured in hearing tests. In 2003, the Norwegian Labour Inspection was informed about 1921 cases of noise-impaired hearing. Noise is still common in today's working life. Impulsive noise from blows, shots, bangs etc. can cause immediate impaired hearing, but hearing losses can also be incurred by wear during many years of noise. Hearing-impaired people in noisy working conditions often also have diseases such as hypertension, cardiac infarction, blood clots, stomach ulcer, throat and vocal cord problems, muscle pain and sleeplessness. Noise may also cause problems of a more mental character, such as speech problems, stress, fatigue, reduced performance ability, reactivity and power of concentration (which may lead to accidents and fault rate). Few employers have the necessary equipment and skill to do noise measurements and hearing tests.

  14. Triatloniteel käänakuktega / Evelin Kivilo-Paas, Reeli Maasikamäe, Maret Einmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivilo-Paas, Evelin, 1979-

    2012-01-01

    Kolme mehe, Tarmo Tuule, Martin Toomi ja Peeter Lume eksperimendist saavutamaks 9 kuuga paremat sportlikku vormi ja tervislikumat eluviisi. Ülevaade neljandal kuul saavutatust ja Tarmo Tuule triatloniks valmistumisest

  15. Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants; Kartlaeggning av vittrings- och korrosionsskador paa biologiska behandlingsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boubitsas, Dimitrios; Aakesson, Urban (CBI, Boraas (Sweden)); Hellstroem, Hanna; Henriksson, Gunilla (SP, Boraas (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    Problems regarding that leachate from food waste have been corroding vehicles and concrete slabs has been reported by Biogas- and composting plants. This is an issue that has been reported to Swedish Waste Management more often within the same pace as the volume of food waste gathering is increasing all around Sweden. The problem has also been addressed at inspections according to SPCR 120 Biogoedsel and SPCR 152 Kompost, where several plants have requested guidance/support/investigation to help solve their specific issue. Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Inst., has earlier completed some investigations which have been ordered by private plant owners/municipalities and the result from these investigations have often proved that the exposure classification has not been adjusted for its purpose. There is no clear definition regarding construction of concrete that is meant for usage in a receiving hall for food waste. It is likely that concrete for Biogas- and Composting plants are built to meet the demands of agricultural environments. The project will examine the magnitude of the problem regarding corrosion- and weathering damage on concrete slabs and cisterns at biological treatment plants. The project will also culminate to actual solutions for plants that are hit and to give advice to those in the danger zone and those who plan for new constructions. Through a survey handed to Biogas- and composting plants around the country, the width of the problem has been examined and what solutions plants have found and executed to solve this issue. A literature review has been implemented to find specific demands regarding concrete that is meant for a certain environment. Another four treatment plants have been examined. The studies that have been made are chemical analysis of leachate from food waste, analysis of drill cores and analysis of reinforcement corrosion. The results from this project show that concrete doesn't have enough resistance in these environments where food waste is treated. No matter which quality of concrete is put in use these problems will occur, though in different speeds. To ensure the function of the concrete construction, the concrete must be protected with a sealing coat. These sealing coats must be able to endure the aggressive nature from leachate coming from food waste and be resistant to mechanical abrasion from vehicles. In the report several seal coatings are shown that have been used for solving measures. Some of these have worked, while others didn't work as well. To be able to ensure the function within the different seal coatings they have to be tested in 'their proper' environment considering the chemical temperature and composition of the leachate. There are no standard methods to perform this, they have to be developed. There are plans for a new study where you bring out specific demands and standard methods for seal coats in food waste environments. Corrosion problems also occur on gathering vehicles for food waste and mechanic equipment at treatment plants, it is desired also to deal with these issues and a study is recommended regarding the influence from food waste on metal materials that are in contact with food waste

  16. The calculation interest for administration of hydropower in the long-term; Kalkulasjonsrenta for vannkraftforvaltning paa lang sikt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    A review of important findings in newer, economic literature on discount rate in the long term is presented. Based on this review, two questions relating to the administration of Norwegian hydropower resources are briefly discussed. Firstly, which discount rate should be used as basis when valuating the existent Norwegian hydropower plants? Secondly, how should the socio-economic discount rate for investments in hydro projects be determined compared relatively to other types of investments in the power sector? The main conclusion is that the existing rate for administration of hydropower need not be substituted. Neither theory nor empiricism provides a conclusive answer. Certain relevant aspects that may be further investigated are put forth (ml)

  17. Treatment of biofuel ashes for forest recycling; Behandling av aska fraan biobraenslen foer spridning paa skogsmark - etapp 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, H.; Sjoeblom, R. [AaF-Energikonsult, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-03-01

    Logging residues are the easiest available fuel for an increased production of energy in Sweden from renewable sources. A consequence of their removal from the forest is that the cycle of mineral nutrients is broken. The purpose of recycling the ash after this fuel to forest land is to compensate for the removal and close again the nutrient cycle. Recycling nutrients and returning the inorganic components of the biomass removed from the forest should be performed in accordance with general principles of environmental protection, health considerations and the good house-keeping of natural resources. The activities should also be carried out in accordance with the needs of the forest and energy plant owners regarding good technology and economy. This implies that functional requirements originating from these principles and needs should be clearly structured and formulated and that such requirements should provide a basis for the continued development work as well as for the implementation of suitable, economical and efficient systems. Returning inorganic constituents implies that the principle of recirculation is followed as well as that nutrients are brought back which improves accretion in the forest. At the same time, the risk of damage to the forest can be assessed as insignificant. Furthermore the risks to human health are also assessed to be insignificant provided that pertinent precautions are taken to avoid dusting. In the present report, technical and economical aspects of importance for the selection of method as well as for the establishment of a system are described and discussed. The need for further development work is identified in the following areas: functional requirements - operational requirements, sampling, testing and quality assurance, granulation, curing processes and drying/sintering. 102 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  18. Rebound - Effects on the use of energy and environment by improvements in effectiveness; Effekter av effektivisering paa energibruk og miljoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grepperud, Sverre; Rasmussen, Ingeborg

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate possible long run effects on use of energy and CO2-emissions from improved energy efficiency in various production sectors and for some consumption goods. The results suggest that improved energy efficiency decrease energy consumption, but the initial reduction is modified over time due to Rebound effects which arises from changes in income and prices. Wide differences in changed energy use are observed across the sectors evaluated. The report also include an analysis of possible effects from installing new environmental technology or clean up technology at firm level. The consequences of such new technologies are found to depend on the type of technology implemented, but also on the type of environmental regulation a firm is subjected to. (author)

  19. Monitoring of test roads with MSWI bottom ash in the sub-base. Measurements with falling weight deflectometer on test structures in Malmoe and Umeaa. Analyses of ground water and leachate along test structures in Umeaa; Uppfoeljning av slaggrusprovvaegar. Fallviktsmaetning paa provstraeckor paa Toerringevaegen i Malmoe och Daavamyran i Umeaa. Grundvatten- och lakvattenanalyser paa provstraeckor vid Daavamyran i Umeaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arm, Maria; Larsson, Lennart; Tiberg, Charlotta; Lind, Bo; Arvidslund, Ola

    2008-12-15

    A number of test roads and test areas with processed municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash, here called MSWI gravel, have been built in Sweden during the last 10-15 years. The main purpose of the projects reported here was to take advantage of the existing test roads to increase the knowledge of the long-term strength and environmental impact of MSWI gravel, when it is used as a road material. Two test roads with MSWI gravel in the sub-base were monitored through falling weight deflectometer (FWD) measurements and, for one of the roads, by means of sampling and analyses of groundwater and leachate within and along the road. The first road, constructed in 1998, is named Toerringevaegen and is situated outside Malmoe in the south of Sweden. The second road, Daava test road, was constructed in 2001 and is situated outside Umeaa in the north of Sweden. The roads were monitored regarding strength from 2004 to 2008 and Daava test road was also monitored regarding environmental impact from 2006 to 2008. For both roads, comparison was made over time and between the test sections with MSWI gravel and reference sections with crushed rock. Comparison was also made with results from previous studies on these test roads, resulting in a uniquely long monitoring period. The results from Toerringevaegen show that the road section with MSWI gravel in the sub-base retains its strength after several years. The three measurements performed at the Daava road revealed an initially decreasing strength and then a stabilisation. As in previous studies, the strength of the MSWI gravel was found to be about 70% of that of the crushed rock, which has to be taken into account in the design phase. It was concluded that regarding the strength properties MSWI gravel is suitable as sub-base material if the road is properly designed. It can also be used as a filling material, in embankments and as a capping layer. This confirms the conclusions from previous studies. The results from the leachate analyses showed increased cumulative leaching of calcium and sulphate from both sections at the Daava test road, which was surprising. Furthermore, most compounds leached in greater amount from the reference section than from the test section. There was a significant decrease in the leaching of copper, TOC, chloride and sodium over time from the test section, while the decrease of chromium leaching was not as significant. During the first years after construction, the test section leached greater amount of organic compounds analysed than the reference section did, but the concentrations in the leachates decreased significantly and after five-six years they were comparable with those of the reference section. During the last years, the concentrations of organic acids in the leachates from the reference section were higher than in the leachates from the test section. The reason for this is unknown. When results from previous laboratory leaching tests on the MSWI gravel used were compared with the newly proposed maximum values for waste to be used in construction works (general use) and with current limit values for waste disposed in landfills for inert waste, it was clear that chloride, sulphate and copper and initially to some extent chromium were critical compounds. However, all compounds with proposed or fixed limit values were not analysed in the previous study. Comparison between the leachates from the test section and results from previous laboratory leaching of the MSWI gravel showed significantly different patterns. This should be taken into account in the assessment of potential use

  20. All concerned large electricity power enterprises merged into the hand of one owner?: The electricity producers, the government and the national power grid 1936-1946; Samtliga beroerda stora kraftfoeretag sammanfoerda i en aegares hand?: Elproducenterna, staten och det nationella kraftoeverfoeringssystemet 1936-1946

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Martin

    2011-07-01

    In the latter part of the 1930s, the direction of Swedish transport and communications policy changed. The policies which had been formed during the industrialization process, which began in the 1850s, had been characterized by dual regimes. Even if the State-owned public utility enterprises (affaersverken) had the largest market shares within these dual regimes, they coexisted with private enterprises. However, during the 1930s and 40s the segments within the Swedish transport and communication infrastructure which were controlled by the private enterprises were nationalized. Against this background, this paper examines how this relation between the Swedish National Power Board (Vattenfall) and the private electricity enterprises unfolded with regard to the control and ownership of the national power grid. The national power grid is the infrastructure which provides the transmission of power between the power plants and industries and households. During the examined time period, many hydro power plants were constructed in the northern part of Sweden, which was sparsely-populated and agrarian. Consequently, the electricity they produced had to be transmitted to the industrialized and urban parts in the middle and southern parts of Sweden. This situation actualized the need for an expansion of the national power grid. Consequently, new power transmission lines had to be constructed. At first, this situation produced a conflict of interest between the Swedish National Power Board on the one hand and the private electricity enterprises on the other hand as they could not agree upon their respective roles in the process. However, after mediation efforts from the government, the previous cooperation within the dual regime was reestablished. As a result, the Swedish National Power Board and the private electricity enterprises would cooperate regarding the construction of the power transmission lines within the national power grid. Over time, this cooperation was considered so successful that they in 1945 planned to form a joint enterprise for the construction and control of the national power grid. However, the direction of government electricity policy since the last years of the 1930s had been shifting towards emphasizing the need for a State monopoly over the national power grid, rather than upholding the dual regime. At several times, the Social Democratic and Agrarian parties expressed strong suspicion that the private enterprises eventually would put their own commercial interests and not the public interest first if the existing cooperation arrangements were allowed to carry on. In 1946, as a Social Democratic majority government had come into office, the plans for a joint national grid enterprise was rejected. Instead, the Swedish National Power Board was given a monopoly over the national power grid. The national power grid had then been nationalized just as the railways (in 1939), the trunk roads and highways (in 1944) and the civil airports (in 1946). In the paper, this shift in policy is explained by the ambition of the Social Democrats to use transport policy as an instrument and mechanism to influence the direction of the economy as a whole. As for the national power grid, it was deemed necessary to control the production and distribution of electricity in order to ensure the competitiveness and development of Swedish industry. Already in 1934, Professor Gunnar Myrdal had outlined the general principles for a Social Democratic transport policy. Myrdal stated that private enterprises in sectors such as transport and communications should be regarded as profit-maximizing agents, which could not serve the public interest as constructed by the political majority in society. Instead, these tasks had to be performed by companies controlled by a public agent. Accordingly, the dual regimes in the transport and communications sector were replaced by State monopolies as the State-owned public utility enterprises amalgated the operations from the private enterprises into their own structures. In the final part of the paper, this aspect is discussed as an important factor behind the decision to nationalize the transport and communication infrastructure, while other sectors of the economy were left in private ownership (although heavily regulated). Here, an institutionalist perspective is applied. It is argued that as the State-owned public utility enterprises already were dominating agents within their domain, they provided politicians and decision-makers with an existing alternative, into where the private operations only had to be amalgated. As a result, the role of the State-owned public utility enterprises also changed. From being dominating agents in a dual regime, they were transformed into monopolists and would keep that role until the Swedish transport and communication markets were deregulated during the first part of the 1990s.

  1. Views on quality assurance at Finnish and Swedish nuclear power plants and at Halden Reactor; Syn paa kvalitetssaekring vid finlaendska och svenska kaernkraftverk samt vid Haldenreaktorn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammar, L.; Lidh, B. [ES-konsult (Sweden); Wahlstroem, B.; Reiman, T. [VTT Automation (Finland)

    2001-06-01

    The paper reports on a study within the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research, NKS on quality systems at nuclear installations in Finland, Norway and Sweden. In the study a total of 74 people at the NPPs in Barsebaeck, Forsmark, Loviisa, Olkiluoto, Oskarshamn and Ringhals, and at the research reactor in Halden were interviewed in the period 30 August to 13 December 2000 concerning their views in regard of quality and quality systems. The study was concluded with a seminar held in the Ringhals nuclear power plant in Januar 2001. The study covered a number of aspects in regard of quality management, including the quality concept, quality systems, topical quality issues and approaches, rules and procedures, competency and training, the process approach to quality management, the promotion of quality consciousness and future prospects. The study reflects the significant progress made in the management of quality in nuclear power in the Nordic countries since the early phase in the seventies. The most distinctive characteristic of today's approach to quality is seen in that responsibility for the quality is assumed directly in conjunction with the working processes. It could be noted that the work patterns at the nuclear installations have been largely modified during the recent years as a result of persistent endeavours to continuously improve the quality of operation. Challenges were seen in currently reduced revenues due to descending electricity prices and the likely prospect of further increased regulatory safety requirements. The report is aimed for those working with quality issues at the nuclear power plants as well as for those interested in quality management in general or in the safety aspects of nuclear power in particular. (au)

  2. Condition-based maintenance. With application on a heat exchanger and a pump; Tillstaandsbaserat underhaall. Med applikation paa en vaermevaexlare och en pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaberg, Martin; Slaetteke, Ola

    2012-02-15

    Regular maintenance is required to extend the life of a plant's components and maintain optimum operation. Unnecessary outages from maintenance may inflict large monetary losses. Therefore, a cost-effective maintenance system should be condition-based rather than time-based. The optimal maintenance scheme requires a process model and a forecast of the operation conditions of this model. At least one of the model parameters should be affected by the maintenance. To determine the actual status of the plant, the model parameters should be estimated. This requires an analysis of available data to detect degradation of the critical components performance. Base load plants usually operate at maximum production or as close to maximum as possible at stabile conditions during long periods. Since the operating time is long and usually at high load in base load plants, advanced control systems and maintenance planning is most profitable in such plants. Advanced control and process optimization requires dynamic process models. Due to the long operating time of a base load plant, it is natural that its process characteristics change, such as wear and fouling. This means that models must be adapted continuously in order to generate a good approximation and thus a good basis for control and optimization. The problem is that the stable operation condition of a base load plant prevents a good estimate of model parameters through the lack of excitation of the process

  3. Effects of small hydropower plants on low-and moss flora. A feasibility study; Virkninger av smaa vannkraftverk paa lav- og mosefloraen: en forundersoekelse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihlen, Per G.; Bjelland, Torbjoerg; Vaskinn, Kjetil; Johnsen, Geir Helge

    2012-07-01

    We have established a list of lichen- and moss flora of a waterway to be developed for hydropower production (Vangjolo) and in a control water system (Roesgrovi), both in Voss in Hordaland. The waterways have similar bedrock, exposure, vegetation and elevation. To monitor any change in the flora, it was laid out 20 fixed routes from each river systems where low-and moss flora were recorded. To relate this to the monitoring of potential impacts, l flow, humidity, air temperature, water temperature and dew point temperature were logged. It was recorded 66 species total for Roesgrovi and Vangjolo, and 32 mosses, 29 lichens and 5 vascular plants. The results show that the rivers are so similar to the low-and moss flora that they can form the basis for further investigations. This is also shown by the DCA-analyses. The waterways comprises a combination of species with the same requirements as to moisture, and contains species of high and low Ellenberg indicator values for moisture. There is no statistically significant difference between Roesgrovi and Vangjolo in the fixed routes average values. The hydrological and local climatic measurements also show that the river systems are comparable for further study of possible changes after development. (eb)

  4. Influence of sulphur addition on emissions of organic substances during combustion; Inverkan av formen av svaveladditiv paa emissionerna av kolmonoxid och organiska aemnen vid foerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik; Jonsson, Claes; Almark, Matts; Berg, Magnus; Streibel, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2008-02-15

    Reduction of emissions of carbon monoxide and organic substances by injecting either ammonium sulphate or elemental sulphur and the importance of the point of injection has been investigated in full scale in a grate-fired bark boiler. The effect was monitored downstream of the economizer and air preheater, immediately upstream of the electrostatic precipitator. Concentrations determined in the comprehensive monitoring program include principally carbon monoxide, TOC and several organic substances, including PAH, PCDD/F and polychlorinated benzenes (PCBz). Additionally, the gaseous PAH were determined on-line using a novel mass spectrometer, REMPI-TOF MS, that measures specifically the 2- to 4-ring PAH's. All concentrations of substances of interest here fluctuate in concert and peak simultaneously. The relationship between the concentrations is not straightforward: there appears to be a threshold in carbon monoxide concentration. Below this threshold, the concentration of organics is low and above it concentrations increase rapidly with increasing carbon monoxide concentration. It has been confirmed that using sulphur additives not only reduces the concentration of carbon monoxide, but also that of organic substances in the flue gases. These additives do not only reduce the mean level of concentrations, but also dampen the fluctuations in these concentrations. Any measure leading to a reduction in carbon monoxide will also decrease the concentration of most organics, under the conditions prevalent in this boiler. Both additives tested are equally effective per kg of pure sulphur. The point of injection, in the fuel or above the grate, is not important. The PCDD/F concentration in the flue gases is very low even without additives, and the effect of sulphur on these emissions is therefore difficult to observe. Here, the effect is masked by the variation of data. The PAH concentration is lowered by an injection of sulphur additives. The variation in data is though rather large, which may be caused by variation in particle content in the gas samples

  5. Corrosion of steel in concrete in cooling water walls. Report part 1 - Literature survey; Korrosion paa staal i betong i kylvattenvaegar. Delrapport 1 - Litteraturgranskning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindmark, Sture; Sederholm, Bror

    2010-09-15

    The aim of the present literature study has been to collect knowledge about reported concentrations of chloride concentrations in concrete exposed to brackish water and also to get an overview of whether a critical threshold chloride concentration for chloride induced corrosion on steel embedded in concrete has been reported and/or accepted. Only five known reports present chloride concentrations in concrete that has been exposed to brackish water. All three refer to the Baltic sea or the Gulf of Bothnia. Reported chloride concentrations in the concrete is considerably higher (more than a factor of ten) than what would have been expected if the chloride had been present in the concrete only as sea water in the pore system. One reason why high chloride concentrations occur in certain zones of the concrete may be that in these zones, evaporation and capillary suction of salt water may occur alternately. Another reason is that chloride ions are physically and/or chemically bound to the cement paste structure. Chloride binding is reported to be dependent on pH value in the pore solution. In line with this, another report suggests that the pH value of the outer chloride solution (the exposure solution) may be affected by the test sample when tests are carried out in small beakers, like in the laboratory. The author of that report says this might be a reason why critical chloride concentrations with respect to steel corrosion measured in the laboratory and in the field will deviate. As for reported threshold levels, many different values have been reported, differing by more than a factor 100, irrespective of the way of reporting (chloride by cement weight, chloride to hydroxide ratio, chloride to pore solution volume, etc). Some authors claim that in fact no one, single critical chloride concentration exists, but that it will depend on several other factors such as humidity, oxygen availability, pH etc. Furthermore, there are different opinions on whether bound chlorides may contribute to the corrosion process or not. The definitive assessment of a critical chloride concentration certainly involves several difficulties and thus will not be an easy task. However, the work is further more complicated by the fact that, today, different authors use different techniques for detecting start of corrosion , for measuring rate of corrosion, for measuring and reporting concentration of chlorides etc

  6. Interaction innovation and competency development in the Danish energy field; Samspil, innovation og kompetenceudvikling paa det danske energiomraade - resultater af en spoergeskemaundersoegelse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygaard Tanner, A.; Borup, M.; Dannemand Andersen, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, DTU Management, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Gregersen, B. (Aalborg Univ., Institut for Erhvervsstudier, Aalborg (Denmark))

    2009-09-15

    This report presents the results of a questionnaire survey on interaction, innovation and skills development among Danish companies, universities and other organizations within the energy field. The survey was conducted in 2007 and is part of a larger research project on terms of energy technology development. The report's figures compare results focusing on five technology areas: energy efficient technologies, wind, bio energy, hydrogen technologies and solar cells. Furthermore, there is a series of graphs giving the results across the various types of organizations. The report was carried out as a working tool for those who are interested in detailed insight into the results. For further conclusions and discussion of results refer to the book 'New Energy and Innovation in Denmark'.

  7. The effects of greenhouse gas emissions through increased use biofuels - A literature review; Virkningene paa klimagassutslipp ved oekt bruk av biodrivstoff - en litteraturgjennomgang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtsmark, Bjart

    2010-10-15

    Production of biofuels is significantly more energy intensive than production of fossil fuels as petrol and diesel (see for example Field et al. 2007). Moreover, during the production process considerable amounts of fossil energy are used as input (Hille et al. 2006). Replacing fossil fuels with biofuels will therefore not lead to emission reductions as significant as one earlier thought, when the fossil fuel input in relation to production of biofuels was ignored. Moreover, during recent years there has been increased attention towards CO{sub 2}- emissions that will occur as farmers worldwide convert grassland and forests to cropland in order to produce biofuels (Fargione et al. 2008). Such emissions are especially significant when tropical rainforests and peatlands are converted to cropland. As the areas are converted to cropland microbial decomposition of organic carbon stored in the soil are released as CO{sub 2}. In some cases such emissions are high and cause a carbon debt that will require many decades or even centuries to be repaid, as biofuels replace fossil fuels. In the meantime the production and use of biofuels have exaggerated climate change. However, there are more promising cases. For example, converting savannas in Brazil for sugarcane production will cause a carbon debt that will be repaid after approximately 17 years (Fargione et al 2008). The seminal article by Timothy D. Searchinger et al. in Science in February 2008 generated additional uncertainty with regard to the emission reducing effects of biofuels. These authors' main argument was that increased use of existing croplands for biofuels reduces food supply and, therefore, causes higher food prices. This increases the pressure towards further deforestation. However, there are considerable areas of abandoned land that was previously used for forestry or agriculture, and has a low content of carbon stored in the soil. A number of studies underline that producing crops for biofuels on these areas is suitable, also because this could cause that the stock of carbon stored in the soil to increase. However, estimates in Field et al. (2007) suggest that even if all such abandoned land are allocated for biofuels production, it could probably not provide biofuels replacing more than 5 - 8 percent of all fossil fuels used in transport today. As it appears from the research discussed in this report, it is uncertain whether increased use of biofuels in Norway will be a contribution to lower global greenhouse gas emissions. From an overall assessment of the research literature on biofuels, it appears that the Norwegian biofuels policy thus far most likely has given increased global greenhouse gas emissions. This will probably also be the result if the policy is maintained. Hence, the blending mandate ought to be reconsidered in the light of new knowledge that has been achieved subsequent to the design of the Norwegian biofuels policy. There are few if any reasons exempting biofuels from ordinary taxes imposed on fossil fuels. Introduction of a carbon tax on biofuels should also be considered. (Author)

  8. Offshore wind turbines Horns Rev. Evaluation of effects on the environment. (VVM) - VVM statement[Denmark]; Havmoeller Horns Rev. Vurdering af virkninger paa miljoeet. VVM-redegoerelse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    Several environmental investigations have been carried out, which provide the basis for the environmental descriptions and evaluations in this environmental impact statement. The environmental impact statement follows in its construction these instructions: The offshore wind turbine array; An alternative siting of the offshore wind turbine array and alternative landing points of the cable trace; The area and the surroundings, where the offshore wind turbine array might be sited and the area, where the landing cable might be placed; The consequences for the environment resulting from the offshore wind turbine array and the establishing and operation phase of the cable plant; The measures, which might be used to reduce any harmful effects on the environment; Proposal for succeeding measuring and monitoring program; A survey of short comings of the information and the evaluation of the environmental impact. (EHS)

  9. How much Nitrous Oxide is produced in cultivation of biofuels on arable land in Sweden?; Hur mycket lustgas blir det vid odling av biobraenslen paa aakermark i Sverige?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Aasa (Univ. of Goeteborg, Dept. of Earth Sciences, Goeteborg (Sweden). Physical Geography)

    2010-03-15

    Several methods that can be used to estimate the emission of nitrous oxide from arable land are discussed, all of them with their pros and cons. 1 The base for all estimation methods is field measurements, well executed with a technique designed for the production of high quality data. Published field data of good quality were collected from areas in north Europe and America, both from grain and rape crops and unfertilised grasslands where natural background emission is assumed. The compilation shows that grasslands emit in average 0.3 +- 0.1 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year. In crop systems where a high amount of nitrogen is repeatedly added to the soil, the soil N store will contribute to N{sub 2}O emission coming years. This is one reason why emission is higher for unfertilised arable land (where nitrogen have been added previous years) compared to unfertilised grassland, 1 +- 0.1 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year. Fertilised arable lands have higher emission, in average around 3 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year. In comparison, field measurements in Sweden have shown lower emission, 0.6 and 2 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year from clay and sandy soil respectively. 2 The IPCC method is the best known, where the emission from arable land is estimated as a function of added nitrogen. In reality there is no correlation between a low N-addition and the emission of nitrous oxide since the N-addition needs to be high to have influence on the nitrous oxide emission..25 or the new factor 1% of added N has been used in many LCA's as an estimator for nitrous oxide and the uncertainty span of 0,3 and 3% is seldom used. The method underestimates the size of nitrous oxide emission in many systems and cannot estimate a true emission from individual fields. 3 Globally there is a connection between the increase in reactive nitrogen and the increase of atmospheric nitrous oxide, which is the base for a method suggested by Crutzen et al. Nitrous oxide emission has been estimated to be 3-5% of both biological nitrogen fixation and fertiliser production. 4 The complexity of nitrous oxide production has caused attempts to include other influencing factors as well. Two statistical methods and the process model PnET-N-DNDC has been taken as examples. Important for these estimations of emission is the amount of available soil nitrogen and the freezing of soil. Nitrous oxide estimation by these methods results in higher emissions than shown by Swedish field data. 5 Stating and motivating a realistic size of the nitrous oxide emission from agriculture and forestry is important. Therefore field measurements and development of the process model Coup are performed. Coup computes processes in the soil and plant system and has, up to now, mostly been used to understand the processes. From now on it can also be used as a tool for assessing nitrous oxide emission from both forest and agricultural land. Since Swedish field data point to lower emission than the estimation methods provide, we are looking for a method better adapted for the estimation of emissions from Swedish agriculture. We must pinpoint clearly which circumstances lead to the high emissions we want to avoid and, in contrast, which ones give low emissions. For this more field data is of need and process based model calculations to give good answers. If everyone uses a method that shows lower emissions without proving the matter of fact, the total nitrous oxide emission from cropping systems in Europe will be underestimated. The use of the IPCC emission factor often results in lower nitrous oxide emission than 3 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year. Moreover, with the IPCC method fertilised effective cropping systems having a low emission will not get credit since fertiliser addition is the only factor on which emission is calculated. And in a near future the growing agricultural production of food, feed and energy needs a minimum of nitrous oxide emission, which will be ever-increasingly important. I suggest using local data or estimation methods validated on local data for emission assessment from bio-energy cropping systems. If no local data or process model a re available I suggest the use of a method that calculates emissions around the European average value 3 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year

  10. White paper on perspectives of biofuels in Denmark - with focus on 2nd generation bioethanol; Hvidbog om perspektiver for biobraendstoffer i Danmark - med fokus paa 2. generations bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Gy.; Foghmar, J.

    2009-11-15

    The white paper presents the perspectives - both options and barriers - for a Danish focus on production and use of biomass, including sustainable 2nd generation bioethanol, for transport. The white paper presents the current knowledge of biofuels and bioethanol and recommendations for a Danish strategy. (ln)

  11. Analysis of algorithms for detection of resonance frequencies in vibration measurements on super heater tubes; Analys av algoritmer foer detektering av resonansfrekvenser i vibrationsmaetningar paa oeverhettartuber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    Combustion of fuel in thermal power plants emits particles which creates coatings on the super heater tubes. The coatings isolate the tubes and impairs the efficiency of the heat transfer. Cleaning the tubes occurs while the power plant is running but without any knowledge of the actual coating. A change in frequency corresponds to a change in mass of the coatings. This thesis has been focusing in estimating resonance frequencies in vibration measurements made by strain gauges on the tubes. To improve the estimations a target tracking algorithm had been added. The results indicates that it is possible to estimate the resonance frequencies but the algorithms need to be verified on more signals.

  12. Monitoring the Switching of Single BSA-ATTO 488 Molecules Covalently End-Attached to a pH-Responsive PAA Brush

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkilic, Namik; Molenaar, Robert; Claessens, Mireille Maria Anna Elisabeth; Blum, Christian; de Vos, Wiebe Matthijs

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel combination of a responsive polymer brush and a fluorescently labeled biomolecule, where the position of the biomolecule can be switched from inside to outside the brush and vice versa by a change in pH. For this, we grafted ultrathin, amino-terminated poly(acrylic acid) brushes

  13. The Full City loss: Short term effects of oil pollution upon outdoor recreational activities; Full City-havariet : Kortsiktige effekter av oljeforurensning paa friluftsliv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeian, H.; Skaar, M.; Vistad, O.I.; Andersen, O.

    2010-04-15

    In the aftermath of the Full City loss several academic reports will assess the effects from the oil spill upon different aspects of the nature environment, but also upon human activities within this kind of surroundings. In this report the short term effects upon outdoor recreational activities will be evaluated. Short term refers to the period from the oil spill was first observed (July 31th 2009) and until winter arrived. The report is the end product of a pilot project that has been carried out prior to a more comprehensive study where long term effects upon outdoor recreational activities are to be assessed. In the late summer months of 2010 a survey among the population of the most severely affected areas will be implemented. The survey will clarify to what extent people have take popular areas for outdoor recreation into use again and whether there are any changes in the patterns of outdoor recreation, compared to the situation before the oil spill. In addition the survey will illuminate people's attitude to oil pollution along the coast line. In order to assess the effects from oil spill upon outdoor recreation, it has been essential to establish knowledge about the outdoor life in the relevant areas as it was before the Full City loss. Albeit some statistical materials exist on marinas, numbers of second homes, member-ships in clubs and associations etc., available quantified data material have been rather insufficient. The most important source of data has subsequently been found in interviewing a fairly large number of persons. The interview subjects either offered extraordinary insights into specific outdoor activities, or spoke as representatives of the relevant councils and county authorities, whose responsibilities are connected to the management of nature environment and outdoor recreation. In addition to providing an overview of the outdoor recreation patterns, and to assess the concrete effects upon different activities, the report takes peoples risk perception into consideration. In this connection the media represent an important channel of information, knowledge and perspectives. Hence, this report also includes an analysis how the Full City loss has been portrayed in the local, regional and nation press. (Author)

  14. Status of bio energy based on forest material - from the stub to the stove door; Status for bioenergi basert paa skogsvirke - fra stubben til ovnsdoera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lileng, Joern K.; Gjoelsjoe, Simen

    1999-07-01

    It is not well documented in Norway who possesses the competence and who is the user of forest material as bio fuel. Forest material is forest chips, secondary products from forestry, and firewood. The project reported was a literature study that throws light on the problem by referring to central persons and institutions in this field. The report also is a general introduction to bio energy based on forest material. The principle sections deal with (1) Climate policy, (2) Energy carriers based on forest material, (3) Systems for selection and treatment of bio fuel, (4) Methods for calculation of the supply of biomass in the forest, (5) Returning ash to the forest, (6) Transport, (7) Storage, (8) Assessment of bio energy, (9) Abstract of relevant Norwegian reports, (10) Bio energy projects and bio energy actors in Norway and (11) Proposed research projects and research work on forest material as fuel.

  15. Activation cross-section measurements of some proton induced reactions on Ni, Co and Mo for proton activation analysis (PAA) purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alharbi, A.A.; Alzahrani, J.; Azzam, A.; Nuclear Research Center, Cairo

    2011-01-01

    The experimental proton induced reaction cross sections on some elements of the Havar alloy were measured using the activation method and the well established stacked-foil technique combined with high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. They included the reactions nat Ni(p,x) 57 Ni, nat Co(p,x) 58(m+g) Co and nat Mo(p,x) 94g,95g,96(m+g) Tc, the aim being to obtain reliable data in the proton energy range up to 26 MeV for some important reactions to be used in the proton activation analysis of steel or other alloys. Irradiations were performed using the CS-30 Cyclotron at KFSH and RC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The activity measurements were carried out in PNU laboratories, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The experimental excitation functions for the investigated reactions were constructed and compared with the performed computed theoretical nuclear model calculations using two different codes: ALICE-IPPE and TALYS. A comparison between our measured cross-section values and the available published data is also presented, with a view to checking the consistency of the reported experimental work from various laboratories.

  16. Heat integration of an ethanol polygeneration plant based on lignocellulose: Comparing weak acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis; Energiintegrerat etanolkombinat baserat paa lignocellulosa - Jaemfoerelse mellan svagsyrahydrolys och enzymhydrolys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Marcus; Nordman, Roger; Taherzadeh, Mohammad

    2011-07-01

    Plants for bioethanol production have been planned in several cities in Sweden, including Boraas. This report provides answers to general questions regarding how such a facility's energy demand is affected by the external integration with a heat and power plant and the internal energy integration between process units. Heat integration of a bioethanol plant means that energy is reused as much as is technically possible; this sets a practical minimum level for the energy demand of the plant. In the study, ethanol production from cellulose has been simulated using Aspen Plus. Weak acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis have been simulated, each with 50,000 and 100,000 tonnes of ethanol per year, resulting in four simulation cases. In all cases, heat integration is evaluated using pinch analysis. The steam in the ethanol plant has been covered by steam from a heat and power plant similar to that found today in Boraas. It is important to note that the energy quotas reported here includes energy use for upgrading the residual products. This leads to lower energy quotas than would be the case if the upgrading of residuals were allocated outside of the ethanol production. The conclusions from the project are: - The steam demand of the ethanol plant leads to a reduction in both the electricity and heat production of the heat and power plant. For the weak acid hydrolysis, the electricity loss is relatively high, 26-98%, which will affect the revenue significantly. The loss of electricity production is lower for the enzymatic process: 11-47%. - The difference in decreased electricity between the theoretical case of heating the raw material and the two alternative heating cases is about a factor of two, so the design of the heating of raw material is extremely important. - The reduced heat output of the power plant can, in most cases, be balanced by the surplus heat from the ethanol plant, but to completely balance the shortage, heat over 100 deg C must be used. - Energy ratios for the reported cases show that ethanol production from cellulosic raw material ranges from 1.27 to 3.24 for the weak acid process, depending on the choice of process integration alternative, and between 3.51 to 9.56 for the enzymatic process. - The choice of process greatly affects the need for raw materials since the yields differ. The lower yield of the weak acid process means that 60% more material is needed compared with the enzymatic process. - For a future polygeneration plant it is important to consider local conditions, such as the external integration capabilities and the raw materials available. - To ensure that the process also works in a real plant, research and validation of experiments are needed in full scale facilities

  17. RedVent. Turned off ventilation at night in schools - risks and opportunities; RedVent. Avstaengd ventilation paa natten i skolor - risker och moejligheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haegerhed Engman, Linda; Fyhr, Kristina; Langer, Sarka; Ruud, Svein; Ylmen, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Reduced ventilation rates or shutdown ventilation during nights is often being used in school buildings in order to save energy and can decrease the energy cost for heating and ventilation with at least 30 %. Swedish Building Regulations (BBR) allows reduced ventilation flow in non-residential buildings when no one is using the building but it must not give rise to adverse health effects or damage the building or its installations. Potential risks are mould- and moisture damages and indoor air quality problems. Another question is whether the shut down itself might lead to indoor air quality problems due to chemical reactions between outdoor air and indoor emissions built-up during the night. The study was divided into three steps; an interview with property managers and care-taker, calculations of energy saving potentials and a field study. Measurements were per-formed in one classroom for two weeks in April 2010. Different set-ups for ventilation flow during night time and air tightness of the building envelope were studied; ventilation shut down, intermittent ventilation (15 min every second hour) and continuous full speed ventilation during night. In the studied classroom, shutdown ventilation during nights did not significantly affect the indoor air quality in the classroom during the school day even though there were effects seen during the night. We found a somewhat higher moisture accumulation those nights when the ventilation was shut down and some fractions of particles during intermittent ventilation compared to continues full ventilation during night time. This specific school and classroom were well ventilated and there was no moisture supply from new building material or other types of moisture producing activities. Schools with lower day-time ventilation rates, moisture in building construction, IAQ- or dampness problems as well as buildings close to heavy traffic should analyse the conditions for the specific building before reducing ventilation to minimize the risk for adverse indoor air quality and possible health effects. In conclusion, shutdown ventilation during nights and weekends in school buildings have a large energy saving potential. Properly used, i.e. by controlling moisture supply and chemical emissions, evaluating time-schedules and keeping a good communication with the users, we consider it a low risk that the indoor air quality would be affected during school time

  18. UMA ANÁLISE DO PROCESSO GESTIONÁRIO DO PROGRAMA DE AQUISIÇÃO DE ALIMENTOS (PAA: o caso Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Barbosa de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the management of the Federal Food Purchase Program in the state of RN. This analisis is carried through a theoretical review on the evaluation of public policies supported by these article ́s authors as well as by Thoenig and Meny (1992, Draibe (2001, Davis (2006 and Arretche (2006. Methodologically we chose to present a descriptive research and a case study. Semi-structured interviews with staff and managers responsible for implementing the program were conducted as well as observations and document analysis. The instrument issues were based on the theoretical model of Draibe (2001, and the data processed by content analysis. Several weaknesses were perceived considering the decision making and communication categories due to the use of poor planning tools. It was also perceived that the program’s actions are not as decentralized as it is expected to be. They are actually concentrated in certain regions of the state. It is highlighted that the operational subsystem and the logistical actions categories are not guided by accurate and reliable information, thereby causing, form time to time, inefficiency in search of more beneficiaries. It follows that there must be a realignment in management practices of executive programs in Rio Grande do Norte since its bureaucratic apparatus is configured with certain disabilities.

  19. Discharges and Emissions on the Norwegian Continental Shelf : Oil, chemicals and emissions to air; Utslipp paa norsk kontinentalsokkel 2000. Olje, kjemikalier og utslipp til luft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The report gives an overview of the discharges of oil and chemicals to sea and emissions to air from the Norwegian Continental Shelf for 2000. This report is based on the operators annual report to the Norwegian Pollution Control Authorities. (author)

  20. Biodiversity on mire ecosystems and drained peatlands - a basis for environmental peat harvesting; Biologisk maangfald paa myrar och dikad torvmark - underlag foer ett miljoemaessigt torvbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stedingk, Henrik von (Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-07-01

    The interest of peat harvesting has increased, due to the political ambition to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to increase the use of local energy sources. Peatlands drained for forestry, a common resource in Sweden, can be a good energy source in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, under certain conditions. The question is what consequences increased peat harvesting would have on biodiversity in the forest landscape. To answer this question this literature study was performed to summarize what is known about the life of a natural and drained mire, and to discuss what conservation values could be found on a drained peatland. The definition of mire is a wetland with active peat accumulation, even if mires also are distinguished based on specific plant communities. A mire often contains several mire types. Some mire taxa are specialized for living on mires, other organisms have other main habitats but utilize the mire for fulfilling their life cycle. The level of knowledge varies for different organisms. The best known groups are vascular plants and bryophytes. They are also used for classifying mires since their abundance is related to gradients of pH, fertility and water level. Arthropods is a diverse group on mires favored by open moist forests and water pools. Poor mires with restricted flora may be good insect habitats. Birds are found in habitats rich in insects. Large mires are richer in wader species thanks to higher heterogeneity and a variety of insect habitats. The microscopic life in peat is rich and the species composition differs from the forest soil, even if the level of knowledge is limited. Drainage leads to species turn over for many groups of organisms and drainage often leads to a decrease in diversity. However, drained peatlands is a collective concept including different peatland types in different succession phases and different intensity of drainage. Therefore in general, drained peatlands cannot be treated as less important for biodiversity than not drained peatlands. The plant succession following drainage leads to denser vegetation and dominance of forest plants. Often drainage is followed by forestry, leading to even lower nature conservation values. Conservation values on drained peatlands are rarely studied. Potential environments for nature conservation in drained peatlands are: 1) Areas with little drainage influence and preserved mire function. 2) Late forest successions after drainage with deciduous trees and dead wood. 3) Open pine forest or swamp forest that act as refugia for old growth lichens and wood fungi. 4) Pools and stream like older ditches with running water. An inventory focused on conservation values on drained peatlands is recommended. Peat harvesting causes ecosystem shift and species living on the mire disappear. An estimation of biodiversity effects from peat harvesting must include the lost mire, time of exploitation, as well as the after-treatment. A longer time perspective is therefore required when evaluating consequences of peat harvesting. The development of a broader spectra of after-treatment involving biodiversity is essential, as well as a system that guarantees a long term perspective in after-treatment for biodiversity. Methods for evaluating effects on the landscape level from increased peat harvesting are required. Increased peat harvesting on drained peatlands could be in convergence with the Swedish environmental goals, if choice of site and after-treatment is based on landscape analysis focusing on biodiversity

  1. Environmental aspects on LCF-life of Ni-base superalloys during long term operation; Miljoeinverkan paa LCF-egenskaper vid laanga drifttider hos superlegeringar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moverare, Johan; Leijon, Gunnar; Palmert, Frans

    2012-02-15

    The applicability of fine grain polycrystalline nickel base superalloys in gas or steam turbine applications is often limited by their susceptibility to fast intergranular cracking during fatigue in combination with extended hold times at high temperatures and high tensile stresses. This effect is further enhanced in corrosive environments even at moderate temperatures such as 400-600 deg In this study the negative effect of SO{sub 2} + water vapour on the low cycle fatigue resistance of three different nickel based superalloys (Nimonic 901, Inconel 718 and 718 plus) has been studied at 450 deg and 550 deg. A negative effect was found on both the crack initiation and crack propagation process. The effect increases with increasing temperature and is likely to be influenced by both the chemical composition and the grain size of the material. The negative effect of water vapour + SO{sub 2} is manifested by a decreased resistance to cyclic plastic deformation and a transition from transcrystalline to intercrystalline fracture behaviour. In Nimonic 901 this negative effect increases with the degree of plastic deformation. For lower mechanical strain amplitudes where the number of cycles and the total exposure time is increased the environmental impact is reduced. Similar trends can also be noticed for the other alloys. The surface corrosion in air and in SO{sub 2} + water vapour are found to be rather similar in this study and it is therefore concluded that the surface scale can remain adherent and protective if the strains on the oxide scale are low. However, for LCF tests with higher strain ranges, the oxide scale will rupture preferably at the grain boundaries and intergranular microcracks will initiate which promotes inward diffusion of embritteling elements such as oxygen and sulphur. Inconel 718 seems to be more sensitive to SO{sub 2} + water vapour than Nimonic 901 when tested at 450. The overall resistance to LCF is however still higher in Inconel 718 for the test conditions investigated in this study, this is due to the exceptionally good resistance to low cycle fatigue that this alloy has from the start (as seen for the tests in air)

  2. Variations in the wood raw material for pellets manufacture and its influence on the quality of wood pellets; Variationer inom traeraavaran foer pelletstillverkning och deras paaverkan paa pelletskvaliteten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirjis, Raida; Vinterbaeck, Johan; Engberg, Jessica [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Bioenergy; Oehman, Marcus [ETC Energitekniskt Centrum, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this project was to study the variations in properties of raw material and its effect on pellets quality. The project included three parts which together would help describe the relationship between material properties, process parameters and fuel quality. The first part dealt with a small-scale production of pellets using a well defined raw material. The objectives of this part were to study the effect of tree species, stem diameter and storage of raw material on pellets quality. In the second part of the project data concerning characteristics of raw material and product quality were collected from two pellet factories: SAABI AB, where spruce is the major raw material, and Bioenergi i Luleaa AB, which uses mainly sawdust from pine. The objectives of this part of the project were to analyse and evaluate the relationship between raw material properties/process parameters and fuel quality using multivariate data analysis. Part three of this project involved a questionnaire survey in which pellets producers were asked at four occasions during one year of production, to give information about variations in raw material properties during various seasons, characteristics of the material during pressing and to supply data related to process parameters. Data concerning variations in pellet quality during the whole year were also requested. The sawdust used in the first part of the project was originated from small diameter trees (14 cm in average) and large diameter stems (30-36 cm) of Scots pine and Norway spruce. One third of the material was dried at room temperature to a moisture content (MC) around 12 % (fresh weight basis), then frozen until needed. The rest of the material was stored in 32 plastic net bags in a large outdoor pile during the period end of May-January. The average dry matter loss in all assortments after eight months of storage was about 0.5 % per month. An attempt to produce pellets from the fresh and stored material from the various assortments was undertaken using a small Metador press machine. To study the effect of variations in the raw material on pellets quality, the setting of the press equipment was kept unchanged during the pressing of all assortments. Many technical difficulties were encountered during the small-scale manufacturing of the pellets. We only succeeded in pelletizing sawdust from fresh and four-months stored pine but not from 8-months stored pine or spruce assortments. The ash content in sawdust taken from different material was low and varied between 0.2 and 0.35 % of dry weight. The content of ash in the small-scaled produced pellets was close to that of the raw material. The initial average calorific heating values of pine, both thin and large diameter trees, were higher than that of spruce. The concentration of extractives, both those extracted with acetone or with alcohol, were generally higher in pine compared to spruce samples. A marked increase in the concentration of alcohol-soluble extractives was measured during the storing of sawdust from both pine and spruce. The pellets made from this material showed a similar pattern. This increase possibly reflects changes in some chemical components that were affected by the high temperature developed during storage. Attempts to relate the changes occurred in the raw material to the quality of the produced pellets were not totally successful partly due to the large variations within the raw material itself and partly because of the failure to palletise certain assortments. However, general conclusion are still possible to draw. The compact density of individual pellets varied very little between various samples produced by the small-scale pelletizing method. Similar results were obtained in pellets manufactured at the industrial factories. The durability of pellets produced using the small-scale method was generally higher when the raw material was stored before pelletizing. This observation is in agreement with the general opinion of many industrial manufacturers. No clear correlation between the extractives content and pellets durability was observed. Bulk density measurements, reported by the two pellets factories, varied very little between various seasons with possibly a slight increase during the winter. From the results obtained through the first two parts of the project, it was clear that both variables, i.e. raw material properties and process parameters have a considerable effect on pellets quality. Due to various reasons, the results obtained through the survey analyses in the third part of this project, were not sufficient to draw any reliable conclusions concerning the effect of seasonal variations on pellets quality.

  3. Long-term growth responses of ash addition and liming - Preliminary results from a pilot study; Laangtidseffekter paa skogsproduktion efter askaaterfoering och kalkning - Preliminaera resultat fraan en pilotstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstroem, Ulf; Jacobson, Staffan (Skogsbrukets Forskningsinstitut (Skogforsk), Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala (Sweden)); Johansson, Ulf (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, The Unit for field-based forest research, Box 17, SE-310 38 Simlaangsdalen (Sweden)); Kukkola, Mikko; Saarsalmi, Anna (Metla, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa (Finland)); Holt-Hansen, Kjersti (Norsk Institutt for skog og landskap, P.B. 115, NO-1431 Aas (Norway))

    2009-04-15

    Under this pilot study with preliminary results revealed trends in the experimental material which indicated that the addition of ashes or lime in the coniferous forest on mineral soil can lead to reduced stem growth on land with low fertility, unchanged stem growth in medium productive land, while growth may increase land with high fertility. This applied to both periods of 5-15 years and in the longer term (17-23 years; lime). Hence, the hypothesis, regarding the growth being dependent on soil fertility expressed as fertility, could not be rejected. However, previously reported indications of a similar connection with the C/N ratio in the humus was not confirmed in this first evaluation of the material

  4. Study of energy consumption in agriculture. An project commissioned by the Board of Agriculture; Kartlaeggning av jordbrukets energianvaendning. Ett projekt utfoert paa uppdrag av Jordbruksverket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baky, Andras; Sundberg, Martin; Brown, Nils

    2010-07-01

    JTI has, on behalf of the Swedish Board of Agriculture, conducted a study on energy consumption in agriculture. The study also proposes measures to reduce the energy use and includes an outlook towards the future of the Swedish agricultural development. The study is limited to the use of fuel and electricity used for field-work and in farm work and energy for heating. Energy for heating of residential buildings and drying is not included in the mandate. The Swedish agricultural uses about 3.11 TWh of energy in the form of gas, electricity, oil and biofuels, not including drying and greenhouses. In addition, approx. 3.64 TWh of energy are consumed indirectly, 2.31 TWh of which from fertilizer use. The Swedish agriculture is moving towards fewer but larger farms. The number of enterprises has decreased from 26000 in year 2005 to 21700 in 2009. Increased energy production, both as a supplier of raw materials and recipients of products means that energy use is affected. In the future energy use will probably be affected by an increase in farm-based production of energy, primarily biogas for cogeneration. The variations in estimates of energy use are large, and agriculture's total energy use can vary between 1.64 TWh to 4.04 TWh, depending on the data sets used. Since the use of diesel dominate over the use of electricity, it is interesting to focus on reducing diesel consumption. Field work and harvest are the activities where the largest consumption of diesel is made. Measures can be taken are primarily farmers are running in a more energy efficient way. Other measures are: Reduced tillage; Replacing transport with tractor-trailer by truck; Transport of manure with other equipment than their own spreader; Livestock use of energy is primarily electricity for lighting, ventilation, distribution, cleaning, feeding, etc. The largest variations in energy use are associated with animal husbandry. It is difficult to generally comment on actions in order to reduce energy use in the farm. Care and maintenance of ventilation is a simple and effective measure that can reduce energy use by 10%. Smart technology choices, may, dependent on type of stable and local conditions, reduce the use of up to 60%. Well-designed and maintained lighting can save approximately 30%. The use of indirect energy is dominated by the production of fertilizers. It is approximately 2.7 TWh / year, but by using fertilizer manufactured with today's BAT, the indirect energy consumption be reduced to approximately 1.6 TWh/year

  5. Perevägivalla materiaalõiguslik aspekt Eestis : [bakalaureusetöö] / Liisa Paas ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Jaan Sootak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Liisa

    2010-01-01

    Perevägivalla olemusest, statistikast kogutuna õiguskaitseorganites ja meditsiiniasutustes, regulatsioonist seadusandluses (põhiseadus, lastekaitse seadus, karistusseadustik, kriminaalmenetluse seadustik)

  6. Guidelines for calculating impacts on the Swedish environmental objectives from altered energy use; Vaegledning foer att beraekna paaverkan fraan foeraendrad energianvaendning paa de svenska miljoemaalen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Rebecka; Gode, Jenny; Axelsson, Ulrik

    2009-01-15

    The guidelines in this report have been developed by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, within a project financed by the Environmental Objectives Council, the Swedish Energy Agency and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. The idea originated from an earlier project for the Swedish Energy Agency and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, where the potential of a business model for energy efficiency (Energy Performance Contracting, EPC) to contribute to fulfil the national environmental objectives was studied. When environmental impacts from the studied EPC projects was to be calculated, it was evident how many difficult methodological choices one is faced with when trying to follow up the environmental impacts from projects changing the energy use. A second project was then performed to further analyse the issues involved. The result is this guideline report. The guidelines are on the first hand directed at companies and municipalities performing projects with effects on the energy use, that want to calculate impacts from these on the Swedish environmental objectives. The guidelines can also be useful for county administrations, central authorities and other actors with interest in the issues. A starting point for the recommendations is the Swedish environmental objectives, with focus on those of special interest in relation to energy use and airborne emissions. These are Reduced climate impact, Clean air, Natural acidification only, Zero eutrophication and A good built environment. The environmental objectives are mainly concentrated on what affects the Swedish environment. However, not only emissions in Sweden cause such effects, but also emissions in other countries can be transported by air and fall down and cause impacts in Sweden. Thus, the guidelines focus on Sweden, but include to a certain extent also emissions in other countries. Another starting point is that the guidelines are developed to follow up effects from individual projects or measures. This differs in fundamental aspects from follow up of effects within a geographic unit (for example a municipality) or of environmental impacts from an organisation on a yearly basis. When following up environmental impacts from something other than a project perspective, the recommendations given are not doubtlessly applicable, since what are the most correct methodological choices differ depending on the starting point. The report is called guidelines, and not handbook or manual. This is because of the fact that there are many aspects to consider in the topical methodological choices, and the recommendations are to be considered as approximations. The aim of the report is therefore also to function as a knowledge survey in the area of environmental assessment of energy use, with in-depth background information of the recommendations and references to supplementary literature. The guidelines cover stationary energy use (hence, transport is not covered), with primary energy and life cycle perspectives to embrace total environmental impacts and facilitate comparisons between energy carriers. However, comparisons should always be made with caution, since there are several aspects to consider in conversions between energy carriers. Such aspects are how impacts are transferred between local, national and international levels, between Sweden and other countries, or between different environmental objectives. Weighting between such aspects are very difficult, and measures that reduce impacts in general are therefore preferable, when this is possible

  7. Percutaneous coronary interventions - an investigation of radiation protection in Swedish hospitals; Percutan coronar intervention PCI - en straalskyddsutredning av verksamheten paa landets sjukhus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, Anja; Cederlund, Torsten; Zaar, Britta

    2005-05-01

    The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority has investigated the status of radiation protection in connection with percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in Swedish hospitals. A questionnaire was send to hospitals concerning basic radiation protection procedures stated in the Swedish regulations. A questionnaire was also sent out to radiologists and cardiologists and the answers from those who performed interventions were analysed. The study indicates a strong need for improving radiation protection, as an example many hospitals could not present any documents describing methods or radiation protection procedures in connection with these interventions. Moreover, the radiation dose to hands and eyes of the personnel is rarely measured and the fluoroscopic time used for the interventions is not properly analysed. SSI is convinced that many hospitals need to improve radiation protection to meet the demands of the regulations. This could be accomplished by more efficient organized radiation protection work in the hospitals.

  8. Towards an economic sustainable, high yielding and climate-smart agriculture with high landscape values; Paa vaeg mot ett ekonomiskt haallbart, hoegproducerande och klimatsmart jordbruk med hoega landskapsvaerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, Karl-Ivar

    2013-07-15

    In 1995-97, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency carried out a futures study with the aim of identifying ways to achieve environmentally friendly, sustainable Swedish agriculture by 2021. The results indicated that major environmental improvements were possible, while also improving profitability and increasing production of food and bioenergy. At a time half way between 1995 and 2021, the trends predicted in that study were compared against actual developments in agriculture. The analysis showed that most objectives regarding environmental quality were on the way to being achieved relatively well. However, profitability continued to be weak, while food production had decreased and bioenergy production was far below the predicted level. The latter means that agriculture was far from achieving the target of compensating for its emissions of greenhouse gases through bioenergy production substituting for fossil energy. This analysis showed that weak profitability and insufficient production capacity at current prices are the greatest sustainability problems in Swedish agriculture. If profitability cannot be improved, agriculture will decline and its positive effects on the landscape will decrease. If production does not increase, there will have to be continued or increased food imports, which are often less favourable from an environmental perspective than food produced in Sweden. If bioenergy production in agriculture does not drastically increase, it will be difficult to realise the vision of a Sweden without net emissions of greenhouse gases by 2050. The present report updates the futures study. In the evaluation, great emphasis is placed on identifying paths to economically sustainable, high producing and climate-smart agriculture with high landscape values. It is assumed that the current agricultural support system is replaced with environmental payment based on landscape and climate benefits. The views expressed in this report are those of its author and do not necessarily coincide with views held by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.

  9. Effects of the sound from sea-based windmills on fish in the Gulf of Bothnia; Effekter av undervattensljud fraan havsbaserade vindkraftverk paa fisk fraan Bottniska viken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baamstedt, Ulf; Larsson, Stefan; Stenman, Aasa (Umeaa Marine Sciences Centre, Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden)); Magnhagen, Carin (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)); Sigray, Peter (Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    Laboratory studies in large tanks with fish exposed to sound similar to that generated by sea-based windmills at a distance of 80 m, gave the following results: - European perch, brown trout and roach from the Gulf of Bothnia did not show any significant behavioral responses on the individual frequencies between 6 and 180 Hz that were tested. - Predation experiments with brown trout, where mysids were prey, showed large individual variability but no statistically significant effect of the generated sound. - Analysis of the stress hormone cortisol in brown trout and roach did not show any effects from sound treatment. - Analysis of cortisol in European perch showed a weak but statistically significant lower level from sound treated individuals compared to the control. - Analyses of cortisol showed both very large individual variability and differences between species, with the order: brown trout << European perch < roach. In summary, our results show that European perch, brown trout and roach from the Gulf of Bothnia are not affected by the sound corresponding to the frequency and effect found at 80 m distance from a wind mill in the sea. Such sound has therefore probably no effects on the species outside this area. We can not generalize to the area closer to a wind mill, neither to other species of fish. However, out choice of species was made in order to include representatives from three different hearing anatomies, and thereby different capabilities of sensing sound, which make our results more general than if just one species would have been used. Subsequent measurements of particle acceleration and background noise under the conditions used in the fish experiments showed that the design of the experiments was relevant for frequencies above 30 Hz. Experiments using 30 Hz or lower frequencies were disturbed by the background noise, and results from these experiments should therefore not be considered as an effect of sound generated by the hydrophone. In order to evaluate such frequencies, alternative technical equipment that can produce higher sound intensities at low frequencies are required

  10. Governmental exposure connected to possible slide scale execution for future field developments; Statens eksponering knyttet til mulig glideskalautoevelse paa fremtidige feltutbygginger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerstad, Heidi; Sunnevaag, Kjell

    1993-07-01

    In the allotment of exploitation permits the governmental and Statoil parts have in the beginning been 50 % in all. This usually is divided in 30 % to the government and 20 % to Statoil. The slide scale system gives the government the right to increase the propriety share in a development project in connection with approval of the development plans. It is also possible in some permits to use the slide scale at a later date. The slide scale system was abolished for new permits in connection with the state budget discussions in 1993. The practice of giving Statoil and SDOE a share of at least 50 % was also eased. At the allotment time the uncertainty of the resource potential and the economy in the development project was considerable. However the companies have expectations for the location potentials. On this bases they made their allotment applications for exploitation permits. The application also contained an offer for a slide scale. In connection with the allotments the companies and the authorities also negotiated for the slice scale design and level. When the final propriety composition was to be established the slide scale offers were important criterias. The background for the slide scale system is the wish of the authorities to involve a larger part of the basic interest in large findings. The slide scale is an attempt from the authorities to make the system progressive with respect to reserve size. This progressiveness is difficult to obtain by aid of the taxation system because the companies are the objects not the fields. In order to establish a portfolio of possible developments where the slide scale option is present we have used data rom Wood Mackenzie from March 1993. The fields which are used as well as the contribution to the government by the use of a slide scale for the single field in increased present value is shown. The yearly alterations in governmental income are shown for use of the slide scale system for all the fields in the portfolio as well as the accumulated alteration in present value. In the first years the alterations in income is negative as there is little production and large investments in the fields in the portfolio. Furthermore thereis a marked ''dip'' in the income from 2002 to 2007 as there are large investments in the development of Midgard. We also have made the same calculations when Smoerbukk Soer is replaced by a common development of Smoerbukk and Smoerbukk Soer and 34/11 is included in the portfolio. This however, only shows small alterations compared to the basic example. The accumulated governmental income shows an increase towards the year 2013 while the alterations in income will show a positive fluctuation from the year 1999 onwards in the level of 1,00 to 2,00. In the calculations there are used fields and assumptions from Wood Mackenzie, March 1993. These assumptions may seem somewhat optimistic. Therefore the alterations in the governmental income when other price premises are laid down are briefly dealt with. When a currency exchange rate of 7 NOK to 1 $ and a constant oil price are stipulated the limiting value of profits for execution of a slide scale would be apr. 16.5 $ a barrel for the portfolio as a whole.

  11. Ozone and climate - Effects of the excess of critical loads on birches and mountain plants; Ozon og klima - effekter av taalegrenseoverskridelser paa bjoerk og fjellplanter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, L M

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper relates to the environmental effects of high concentrated ozone on the biomass production in Norway. The effects on birches and mountain plants from ozone together with the interaction between ozone and carbon dioxide and their influence on vegetation are discussed

  12. Effects of long-range transported acidification on the bio-diversity in terrestrial ecosystems; Effekter av langtransporterte forsuringer paa biodiversitet i terrestriske oekosystemer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeiland, K [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the environmental effects of long-range transported pollutants on the biodiversity in the terrestrial ecosystems. The paper discusses different chemical substances existing in the atmosphere and their influence on vegetation together with the effects on biodiversity from acidification. 4 refs.

  13. Effects of acidification and cadmium pollution on the populations and habitats of limnetic zooplankton; Effekter av forsuring og kadmium-forurensning paa populasjoner og samfunn av limnisk zooplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schartau, A K.L. [Norsk Inst. for Naturforskning, Trondheim (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with executed field tests on the adding of cadmium alone or combined with acidification of an enclosed space under different nutrient and predatory conditions. The addition of cadmium changed the biomass and the composition of the phytoplankton. In combination with the added nutrient salts, the biomass of special algae increased in the Cd loaded spaces, and the addition of acid changed the effect of Cd concentration by increased production of the same. The effect of a given Cd concentration on the zooplankton varied in a wide range of environmental conditions. 22 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Automatic moisture content determination on biomass with NIR and radio frequency spectroscopy; Automatisk fukthaltsmaetning paa biobraenslen med NIR samt radiofrekvent spektroskopi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlquist, Erik; Nystroem, Jenny; Thorin, Eva; Paz, Ana de la [Maelardalen Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Public Technology; Axrup, Lars [Stora Enso AB (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The goal with the project has been to evaluate two methods for determination of moisture content in biomass fuels and to determine if these methods can be used in practice in connection with delivery control of biomass at power plants. Tests have been performed with different biomass qualities and with two different measurement methods within a large moisture span, 0.6-72%. The two methods have been NIR (Near Infrared spectroscopy), and RF (Radio Frequency spectroscopy). The NIR-method is a surface analysis method, where hydro-carbons like wood have a different absorption pattern than water. The RF-method is a bulk method and utilizes that wood and water have different dielectric constants. Radio waves thus are affected differently by transportation through wet and dry biomass. In this project we have studied how representative sampling can be achieved from a large volume of delivered biomass fuel. We also have performed calibration with mixtures of the different fuels. Sampling has been performed by extracting biomass in a four meter long screw from the large volume as it is poured into a storage vessel. A conveyor belt is then transporting the material to the measurement systems. Two different NIR-instruments, DA (Diod Array) -NIR respective FT (Fourier Transform)- NIR, were placed above the conveyor belt. The material was collected from the belt into the measuring vessel for the RF, a 200 liter 'oil barrel'. The radio waves were sent from the transceiver into the sample from above without direct contact between the biomass and the transceiver antenna. Six different fuels were studied separately. Calibration was performed where the moisture content was varied by mixing relatively dry fuel with humidified biomass in different proportions a day before the measurements. Samples were taken from each mixture in connection with the measurements, from the conveyor belt. The samples were made in such a way that they represented the whole volume as good as possible. The average of five gravimetric analyses from the homogenized overall sample was used to calibrate the instruments. Models were built using multi variable data analysis from the spectra together with these gravimetric reference measurements. The result was that we achieved a RMSEP (standard deviation between the instrument measurement and the reference measurement) of 2,2 % moisture for the RF-methods for all fuels (wood, root-branch-top, flakes, bark and reuse wood) except peat, and for the whole moisture range (30-72% moisture content). A separate calibration was performed on peat, which has a very different density than the other materials. RMSEP for peat was 3.1 % moisture. For a more limited moisture range and only separate fuel fractions the RMSEP could be < 2 %. For the NIR-method the FT-NIR achieved a RMSEP of 1.6 % moisture when all fuels except peat and reuse fuel were used for calibration, and for the whole moisture range (34-72%). For peat the RMSEP was 4.8 % moisture due to the inhomogeneous material. For the DA-NIR instrument the corresponding figures were RMSEP 2.1 and 3.5 %. When we include also sampling from the large volume the instrument measurements will normally be better than the manual sampling followed by the gravimetric analysis used today, with few samples. The gravimetric reference method has a standard deviation of 1,1- 3,6 % moisture depending on the fuel type. To this we have to add the uncertainty in the sampling with respect to the complete delivery of a large volume. As the inaccuracy of the reference method is included in the RMSEP, we can never achieve a better RMSEP than the standard deviation of the reference method. This is important to notice, and partly explains the apparently high values of the RMSEP. The conclusion is that both the RF and the NIR-methods can be used instead of the lab methods used today. These instruments are very fast and the price level should be acceptable compared to the cost of lab-measurements and the possible charging of the wrong value for a specific delivery of fuel.

  15. Tools for system validation. Dynamic modelling of the direct condenser at Sandvik II in Vaexjoe; Hjaelpmedel foer systemvalidering. Dynamisk modellering av direktkondensorn paa Sandvik II i Vaexjoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaberg, Martin [Dynasim AB, Lund (Sweden); Tuszynski, Jan [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The project reported here aimed to test the suitability of existing computer tools for modelling of energy processes. The suggested use for the models are at the early tests and validations of new, refurbished or modernised thermal plants. The technique presented in this report should be applicable for clarification of the scope of delivery and testing for both the process and tile control system. The validation process can thus be simplified, allowing risk reduction and predictability of the commissioning. The main delays and economical misfortune often occurs during commissioning. This report should prove the feasibility of the purchase routines where purchaser, vendor and quality inspection will use a common model of the process to validate system requirements and specifications. Later on it is used to validate structure and predefine testing. Thanks to agreement on the common model, early tests can be conducted on complex systems, minimizing the investment risks. The modelling reported here concerns the direct condenser at Sandvik 11, power and heating plant owned by Vaexjoe Energi AB in Sweden. We have chosen the direct condenser because it is an existing, well-documented and well-defined subsystem of high complexity in both structure and operation. Heavy transients made commissioning and test runs of similar condensers throughout Sweden costly and troublesome. The work resulted in an open, general, and physically correct model. The model can easily be re-dimensioned through physical parameters of common use. The control system modelled corresponds to the actual control system at the Sandvik II plant. Any improvement or deep validation of the controllers was not included in this work. The suitability is shown through four simulation cases. Three cases are based on a registered plant operation during a turbine trip. The first test case uses present plant data, the second an old steam valve actuator and the third uses the old actuator and an error in level measurement. The last test case is a ramped load change from stationary operation to a new higher operation point and then back to the original starting point. The size of the object simulated indicates that modelling is applicable to medium and small plants sizes. That was possible only through availability of the basic simulation tools, here Dymola / Modelica, and the well established model library ENERGY. All adapted to the common PCs of today.

  16. Growth and energy yield when cultivating various energy crops on farming soil. Tillvaext och energiutbyte vid odling av olika energigroedor paa jordbruksmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoerner, L.

    1988-03-01

    In four fields in the south of Sweden different energy crops were tested. In all trials sugar beet, barley, alfalfa, corn, sunflower and quickgrowing species of Salix (energy forest) were grown. In some of the trials broome-grass, potatoes and winter wheat were tested. One trial also included marrow-stem kale, Jerusalem artichoke and a hybride of J artichoke and sunflower. The purpose of the experiment was to illustrate the effect of increasing N-fertilizing and the effect of growing the crops in different climatic conditions. The yield varies between the crops. Some of the crops were harvested in different stages of development. The largest yields were noticed for sugar beet, corn, potatoes and energy forest. For these crops the yield was 11.5-14.5 tons of dry matter per hectare. The yield of potatoes was very large but it is figures for only one place with very good conditions. Barley, sunflower and alfalfa produced 8-10 tons of dry matter per hectare. The smaller yield depends on a short vegetation season for these crops. The year of establishment the energy forest produced about four tons of dry matter in the form of stem wood. When fully established the production has been 12-15 tons of dry matter per hectare and annum. The analysis of plant material indicates small divergences in the content of carbon and heat value.

  17. Gas expanders at M/R Stations in the natural gas distribution network. Pre-project, subreport; Gasexpandere paa distributionsnettets M/R-stationer. Forprojekt, delrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Niels Bjarne

    2010-05-15

    Danish Gas Technology Centre has been carrying out a feasibility project to clarify the possibilities of installing gas expanders at M/R-stations (Measuring and Regulating) in the Distribution system of the natural gas grid. A large number of such expanders are installed around the world. The novelty of this project is to use a heat pump to perform the necessary heating of the gas before the expander, and to ''export'' to the electricity grid the remaining electricity from the generator connected to the expander. The present project includes the small M/R-stations at the gas Distribution grid where pressure is reduced from 40 or 20 bar to 4 bar. The preliminary project (year 1 of project) has investigated whether components for such smaller systems can be found, and it has investigated prices for different quantities. A technical feasibility study has been done. Also, preliminary calculations of payback times has been carried out. A large potential of CO{sub 2}-reduction is present with this technology based on saving of natural gas combustion and on new electricity production displacing existing production without any use of primary energy. The main results and conclusions are: 1) There are component suppliers for expander systems suitable to the size of distribution network M/R stations. 2) Pressure regulators provided at the stations are laid out with significant overcapacity, enabling a simplified installation of the expander systems. 3) If the system is being rolled out across the Danish distribution grid, the realistic saving potential is approx. 2.3 million Nm3 of gas per year and a production of almost 40 million kWh of electricity. 4) If the price is 0.60 DKK/kWh for electricity sold, the simple pay-back is 6-7 years on average, covering a variation from 3 to 16 years at the various stations. The smallest stations are omitted. The best stations covering more than half of the gas flow have a pay-back time between 3 and 6 years. 5) The preliminary project has proven successful and it is recommended to continue the project in a demo-project where a full scale expander system is demonstrated. (LN)

  18. Uranium enrichment using laser and plasma separation - an analysis focussing on export control; Urananrikning med laser och plasmaseparation - en analys med fokus paa exportkontroll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Lena; Wilhelmsen, Katarina; Wirstam, Jens (Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-07-01

    The Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, has under contract work financed by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, performed a study on uranium enrichment by laser-based processes and plasma separation. None of these processes are at present used on an industrial scale for uranium enrichment. However, these are processes of high efficiency which implicates that plants employing any of these processes for production of fissile material for nuclear weapons can be small in size and easily hidden. This has also been the case for laser enrichment. Special emphasis has been put on the understanding of the governing physical principles of the different processes. In the report the AVLIS and MLIS processes are described in some detail while CRISLA and SILEX are treated in less detail. The plasma separation process is described in a separate section. Limiting physical parameters for the different processes are discussed and equipment relevant to the different technologies is described. Further, some indicators of the different processes are identified and listed. In the final chapter known research programs where these processes have been used are listed. Since none of the described technologies has been used on an industrial scale, information on plant design and running is scarce

  19. Costs for Alternatives to District Heating. A study of real costs on local heating markets; Alternativkostnad till fjaerrvaerme. En studie av verkliga kostnader paa lokala vaermemarknader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Annelie; Lehtmets, Marti; Andersson, Sofie

    2008-07-01

    Heating comprise the major part of the cost of supporting a building with necessities like electricity, heat, refuse collection and water and sewage. As these costs increase, it is becoming more interesting to find other solutions in order to reduce them. One alternative is to convert to another heating system. Several price analyses comparing different heating systems have been performed. Avgiftsgruppen publishes one report on a yearly basis, where the costs to support a building with necessities and how they vary between communities are listed. The latest report states that it is less expensive in 75 % of the communities in Sweden to convert from district heating to a pellets boiler or a ground-source pump. However, other studies have established that the heat market is a local market with local conditions. Therefore you need to compare alternative heating costs that are specific to the area instead of estimated average costs at a national level. The purpose of this survey is to study a local heat market in order to verify the real cost of the alternative heating systems to district heating and if these costs vary between different communities. The hypothesis is that it is not possible to generalize the heating cost on a national level. Instead, a local market should be studied to make an accurate cost comparison between heating options. Three communities are studied in order to find real and verified investment costs in pellet boilers and heat pumps. The investments that are of primary interest are those performed in buildings similar to the multi-dwelling house used in earlier price analyses. Furthermore, the building should be located within the distribution network of district heating in order to illustrate the competition between the heating alternatives. The result of the study illustrates the difficulties to find real and verified costs of completed investments in alternative heating systems in buildings that is of primary interest for this study. Contacts with several participants on the market, with representatives from public authorities, consumers, retailers and others, reveals that if investments in other heating systems than district heating are carried out, the building is located outside the district heating network. Also, few buildings are similar to the standard comparison house. The assignment to list real and verified costs has thereby not succeeded fully. However, information on performed investments has been found at the county administrative boards and their database on application for subsidies for conversion of heating system. Even though this information concerns investments in public premises it can be used to show some attributes of the heat market. The annual total cost for heating has been calculated and the result shows that it differs substantially between the premises, up to -44 % and +129 % compared to an average cost per MWh. One conclusion is that the method for price comparison used today is too rough to give a fair comparison. In the context it is important to clarify that price analyses are useful and of great interest to the market, but the present methods needs to be developed to get improved cost comparisons

  20. Ice Forces on Offshore Wind Power Plants. Descriptions of mechanisms and recommendations for dimensioning; Islaster paa vindkraftverk till havs. Beskrivning av mekanismer och rekommendationer foer dimensionering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergdahl, Lars [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Water Environment Transport

    2002-02-01

    Mechanisms for ice-loads on off-shore wind power plants are described, The ice-loads are due to thermal expansion, water level variations, drifting ice and ice-reefing. Ice accretion is briefly treated. Ice instance, ice thickness, ice retention time, water level variations and stream velocities in Swedish waters are compiled. The main text deals with recommendations for dimensioning wind power plants at sea. In the appendices, a thorough review of the physical and mechanical properties of ice is presented.

  1. Risk perspective on final disposal of nuclear waste. Individuals, society and communication; Riskperspektiv paa slutfoervaring av kaernavfall. Individ, samhaelle och kommunikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblad, Inga-Britt (ed.)

    2007-09-29

    This report tries to evaluate the importance of the risk perspective in connection with final storage of nuclear waste. The concept 'risk' has different importance for experts and general public, within different research directions and among stakeholders in the nuclear waste issue. The report has been published in order to give an interdisciplinary scientific perspective on the risk concept. The authors have their background in different disciplines: radiation physics, psychology, media- and communications-science. The report treats four different themes: The first theme concerns perspectives on the risk concept and describes various principles for how risks can be handled in the society. The next theme is about comparing various risks. This section shows that risk comparisons can to be done within the framework of a scientific attitude and during certain given conditions. The third theme elucidates results from research about subjective risk, and shows that a large number of factors influence how risks are considered by individuals, and can influence his risk behavior and also how the individual means that the society will make decisions in risk-related questions. The fourth and last theme is about risk communication. Since the risk concept contains many different aspects it is clear that risk should not only be informed about, but also communicated. If a purely mathematical definition of risk was the only valid form, such information, from experts to the citizens, would possibly be sufficient. But since there are other relevant factors to take into consideration (t.ex the individual's own values), a communicative process must take place, i.e. the citizens should have influence on how risks are compared and managed. In the final theme, the authors have chosen to reflect around the themes above, i.e. different perspectives on the risk concept, risk comparisons, subjective risk view and risk communication are discussed.

  2. Evaluation of future policy instruments - Sub-Project 2; Utvaerdering av framtida styrmedel - Delprojekt 2 inom projektet Perspektiv paa framtida avfallsbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisaillon, Mattias; Dahlen, Lisa; Detterfelt, Lia; Edner, Stig; Toren, Johan

    2013-09-01

    There are several recently introduced and future possible policy instruments that are of great interest to study in order to understand the future for the Swedish waste treatment market. In the energy sector, the use of system analysis models has proven to be effective in order to understand the effects and consequences of policy instruments. In the waste sector, however, such analyses have only been conducted sporadically. This in spite of the introduction of highly influential policy instruments such as producer responsibility, landfill tax and landfill ban, which together have contributed to landfilling of Swedish household waste practically has ceased. The goal of this project was, by using system analysis models, to study and evaluate the newly introduced and future possible policy instruments which affect Swedish waste treatment. The assessment was made in terms of how policy instruments affect: - the distribution of treatment technologies, - waste amounts, - greenhouse gas emissions and - the economics of waste treatment. The project was performed during 2011 and 2012 as a part of the research project 'Perspectives on sustainable waste treatment (PFA)'. During the project, discussions have taken place within the working group and the reference group on which instruments are most interesting and relevant to study. Furthermore, opinions have been gathered from the association Swedish Waste Managements policy instrument group and from various players in the industry at conferences, presentations and workshops.

  3. Imports of waste fuels for energy recovery in Sweden - Sub-Project 1; Import av avfall till energiutvinning i Sverige - Delprojekt 1 inom projektet Perspektiv paa framtida avfallsbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlin, Jenny; Holmstroem, David; Bisaillon, Mattias

    2013-09-01

    Swedish imports of waste fuels may increase to 1.5 million tonnes by 2015, when new waste-fuelled combined heat and power plants are in operation; and to 2.5 million tonnes by 2020, if all planned capacity is built. This is the case if national targets for increased material recycling and biological treatment are reached; which means that smaller amounts of mixed waste remains for incineration. When the import of the waste fuel into Sweden has increased, also need of knowledge has increased, as well as the concerns and fears. The aim of the project 'Imports of waste to energy recovery in Sweden', therefore, is to create an improved basis for decisions and communications concerning the import of waste fuel, as well as to study its conditions, opportunities and obstacles. The target group is interested operators, representatives of public authorities and decision-makers. Data includes analysis of future imported quantities, possible import markets, policy instruments and its effects, concerns and fears, economic aspects and effects on climate change while importing the waste fuel. The project is one of five sub-projects in 'Perspectives on the future waste treatment'. The project has been carried out through data collection, computer modelling, interviews as well as discussion and analysis in the working and reference groups. The goal is estimated to having been reached, the results are already used. From media, there is an interest of the results, and the project has already been referred to and presented at conferences. The results are thus already well-spread.

  4. The future market for biogas from waste - Sub-Project 3; Framtida marknaden foer biogas fraan avfall - Delprojekt 3 inom projektet Perspektiv paa framtida avfallsbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmstroem, David; Bisaillon, Mattias; Eriksson, Ola; Hellstroem, Hanna; Nilsson, Karolina

    2013-09-01

    The overall aim of the project was to study the conditions, opportunities and constraints for the development of the market for biogas from waste in Sweden. Seven areas of importance to the development have been identified in previous projects. The areas are: market and competition, supply and demand for waste, environmental benefits of biogas utilization, technology development, economic value of biogas, political instruments and the handling of digestate. The ambition has been to create a fact and market report for these areas for stake holders such as operators, representatives of authorities and decision makers. The project is a sub-project of 'Perspectives on future waste treatment'. The goal achievement of the project is expected to be good. During the project, there has also been considerable interest in the results, which is already used by a number of operators, both within and outside the project. Thereby, the results have a good spread, even before the project is completed.

  5. Study of application of option B at integrated leakage tests on Swedish reactor containments; Utredning om tillaempning av option B vid integrala taethetsprover paa svenska reaktorinneslutningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Roger [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Reactor Technology

    2004-12-15

    The task of the reactor containment is to protect the environment from radioactive release from the nuclear power plant. The containment is a passive component and one can therefore not verify its success criteria during normal operation. To verify the integrity of the containment one has to perform integrated leakage tests (type A tests). These tests are performed in accordance with either option A or B in the American regulation Appendix J 10 CFR 50. The choice of option is up to the licensee. Option A does not consider the leakage history of the containment. The test interval is fixed and set to three tests equally distributed over ten years. The test pressure shall be at least half of the design basis accident pressure (DBA-pressure). Option B does take the leakage history into consideration and is therefore performance-based. The test interval can be chosen to a maximum of ten years. The test pressure shall be the DBA-pressure. In Sweden the type A tests are performed in accordance with option A. The purpose of this investigation is to investigate whether option B can be used in Sweden without any significant risk impact. Performance of a type A test with half of the design pressure can result in an undetected leak. If a leak is of such characteristic that it does not show any leakage behaviour until it is exposed to a certain level of pressure where it can open itself, the leak can be missed during a test with too low pressure. On the other hand, option B demands a higher test pressure which contributes to the risk during the performance of the type A test. The advantage of a more correct result from the type A test is considered to be greater than the disadvantage of a high test-pressure. Hence, Type A test shall be performed with the realistic DBA-pressure. The work has included a literature study, telephone interviews, local meetings and analyses of existing PSA results and reports in the subject. An investigation of the On-Line Monitoring (OLM) method is also performed. A modification of an existing PSA level 2 study of Ringhals 1 has also contributed with material of importance to this project. The investigation shows that OLM is a well known method internationally. Sweden has also used OLM equipment in test purpose. The method that is used in Sweden is called the SEXTEN model and is exactly the same model that is used in France. The method is surprisingly accurate and can detect leakage areas less than 5 mm{sup 2}. This is a method that is recommended for both option A and B. The Swedish containments have been found with several leakages the last couple of years. Half of these leakages has been found by visual inspections of the containments and does therefore not contribute with any argument against an implementation of option B in Sweden. The other half consists of damages that have occurred due to deviations in the construction. These types of damages can possible be used as an argument against the implementing of option B in Sweden. However, with the knowledge of the nature and location of these types of leakages it is likely that they can be detected by other methods than type-A tests. This means that there is not any strong argument against the implementation of option B. The PSA-studies resulted in a range of the maximum allowed equivalent leakage area for the containment of Ringhals 1. The maximum allowed equivalent leakage area, that would release more than 0.07 % of the cesium content from the core in case of a severe accident (limit in accordance with requirement by the Swedish government from 1986), is between 63 to 174 mm{sup 2}. The acceptance criteria for a type A test corresponds to an equivalent leakage area in the order of 2-3 mm{sup 2}. Therefore one can say that the marginal is great compared to the decision of the Swedish government 1986-02-27. The conclusion of this investigation is that there are positive arguments for the implementation of option B in Sweden, possibly together with tougher restrictions for the maximum allowed test interval and with better and more effective inspections during the time between the ordinary type A tests. The OLM method is recommended to be used in reactor containments without respect to the choice of a leakage testing option. The benefit of the OLM method is too great to not be used in the work of leakage detection.

  6. Deposition of zinc on deposits on tubes in combustion systems - a thermodynamic study; Deponering av zink i belaeggningar paa panntuber - en termodynamisk studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolaeng, Bengt; Sjoeblom, Rolf

    2011-02-15

    The use of recovered wood based fuels sometimes leads to a substantial increase in the rate of corrosion with outages and increase in maintenance costs as a consequence. Therefore, Vaermeforsk has financed two framework programmes on recovered wood based fuels. All results, except those from thermodynamical calculations, support the conclusion that enhanced levels of zinc and chlorine is one of the most important reasons for the development of harmful deposits. The system zinc chloride - potassium chloride contains several intermediate phases, out of which K{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4} has a considerably higher melting point compared to pure zinc chloride. This provides ground for the suspicion that there may be synergetic effects between potassium and zinc and that condensation from the gas phase therefore might take place at a temperature which is higher than that which has been reported earlier. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the correctness of this hypothesis by means of thermodynamical calculations. As a first step, the energy of the intermediate phase K{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4} was modelled utilizing results from electrochemical measurements in salt melt. The thermodynamical calculations were conducted using software which had been developed by BeN Systems including a dedicated database. Thus, all calculations have been carried out independently of those performed previously. In order to ensure full comparability, some calculations were carried out using the same input parameters as used previously and the results were essentially identical. After this, thermodynamical calculations were carried out using a database which included the intermediate phase K{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4}. The results show that the influence of this phase corresponds to an increase in condensation temperature for zinc chloride with more than 200 deg C. A prerequisite for the formation of this phase is that the amount of available chlorine exceeds that of potassium. Similar effects can be expected also for chlorides other than potassium chloride. The effect of condensation of chlorides with a low melting point may be counteracted by presence of sulphur provided that the conditions are oxidizing. In such a case sulphates are more stable than chlorides. Thus, the conclusion of this study is that presence of zinc and chlorine can contribute to the development of deposits with low melting point in boilers. This means that thermodynamical calculations now also support the general conclusions from Vaermeforsk's framework programmes on recovered wood based fuels that these elements are potentially harmful

  7. Survival and growth for pubescent birch, pendula birch and common alder growing on farmland areas; Oeverlevnad och tillvaext hos glasbjoerk, vaartbjoerk och klibbal planterade paa aakermark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Tord

    2000-07-01

    Pendula birches (Betula pendula Roth) and pubescent birches (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were planted on former farmland. Before planting, the ground was harrowed or the ground was sprayed with terbuthylazine. Tree shelters were used as protection against weeds, voles and wild habitat. Birches treated with terbuthylazine showed the lowest survival. Birches growing in tree shelters were tallest and those growing on spots treated with terbuthylazine were smallest. The diameter at 0.1 m did not differ in a statistically significant way between the treatments. In another experiment with different herbicides, common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and pendula birch (Betula pendula Roth) were planted on former farmland that had been treated with glyphosate, terbuthylazine and propyzamide or after ground had been harrowed or not treated. In the study on herbicide-treated plants, birch had the highest plant survival. Mostly, species treated with glyphosate were thicker than species treated in other ways. Both species appeared sensitive to terbuthylazine, but not to glyphosate. Birch was not sensitive for propyzamide in opposite to alder. Some practical recommendations concerning afforestation of former farmland, especially weeding, are given.

  8. Power performance measurements on Wave Star in Nissum Bredning. Final report; Wave energy converter; Effektmaalinger paa Wave Star i Nissum Bredning. Afsluttende rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigaard, P.; Lykke Andersen, T.

    2009-04-15

    The Wave Star test machine in Nissum Bredning was put in continuous operation on 24 July 2006. Over the past 2 1/2 years the produced power was measured continuously and with only minor interruptions. The measurements cover operation for all seasons in a very changeable climate. There is thus gaining operational experience under different wave conditions. In the period the machine has been running with a simple form of control and Power Take Off system (PTO), which form the background for effect measurements with the existing control strategy. Calculations have shown that the use of more advanced forms of control can increase the efficiency of Wave Star significantly. New control systems are therefore still under development with the primary objective to increase performance from the wave energy plant. To test and develop the methods, a new mini-hydraulic station with associated second generation PTO was developed and constructed for testing in Nissum Bredning. The mini-hydraulic station is coupled to a single float, while the other machine's 39 floats are still connected to the existing PTO system. As the existing PTO system can be applied to the 39 floats simultaneously with the new PTO used on 1 float, effect can be measured on the two systems simultaneously. The first tentative experiments with the new second generation PTO seem very promising. During the first measurements made in March 2009 the new system achieved an average yield of 3.1 times the average output from a float on the existing machine. In the coming period more experiments will be performed with the mini-hydraulic station to test the new PTO in various sea conditions. Since the mini-hydraulic station can simulate various forms of control, they also will be tested under real wave conditions in Nissum Bredning. The effect optimization should continue to be subject to a greater targeted effort, as improvements in this area can increase energy production and thus reduce the kWh cost of energy from the Wave Star plants. (ln)

  9. Ash recycling to spruce and beech stands effects on nutrients, growth, nitrogen dynamics and carbon balance; Askaaterfoering till gran- och bokbestaand - effekter paa naering, tillvaext, kvaevedynamik och kolbalans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2006-03-15

    Ash recycling is an important part in a modern, sustainable forestry, especially in whole-tree harvest systems. Nutrients lost at harvest are returned to the forest with the wood-ash. In the project the effects of ash treatment on needle and leaf chemistry, tree growth, soil chemistry, soil water chemistry, and carbon and nitrogen dynamics were studied on 23 Norway spruce sites in south-western Sweden and in ten European beech sites in Scania, southern Sweden. On some of the sites there were previously established ash recycling experiments, but on a majority of the sites ash recycling was performed without experimental lay-out and ash and control plots were established afterwards. The most common dose was two tons of self hardened crushed wood-ash and two tons of Mg-lime. On average seven to eight years after ash recycling the results were 1. increased exchangeable stores of base cations in the soil in the beech and the spruce stands 2. increased base saturation in the beech and the spruce stands and increased BC/Al in the spruce stands 3. increased concentrations and ratios to N of P, Ca, Zn, and S in the needles, the increased P-values are especially important since P is close to or below deficiency levels in a majority of the spruce stands 4. decreased K-concentration in the beech leaves 5. increased tree growth with on average 14 % in the ash treated spruce stands compared to the control plots 6. increased carbon and nitrogen amounts in the biomass in the spruce stands 7. tendencies towards increased amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the soil in the beech stands and no effect in the soil in the spruce stands 8. increased concentrations of Ca, Mg, and SO{sub 4} and no effect on ANC in the soil water 9. no effect on potential net mineralization but increased potential nitrification rates 10. decreased concentration of nitrate in the soil water in the beech stands and no effect in the spruce stands 11. lower system N losses in the beech stands and possibly in the spruce stands The ash treatments appear to have given the positive effects aimed at without negative effects on the carbon balance and the nitrogen dynamics. In addition, tree growth increased in the spruce stands. The positive effects were, however, small on the soil chemistry and the soil water chemistry. The dose two tons of wood-ash and two tons of lime appear to have been too low in order to improve the mineral soil pH and the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in the soil water. This is probably due to desorption of historically deposited sulfate. The dose appears to be too low to compensate for whole tree harvest losses of K and P. It is probable that the increased tree growth was caused by the increased tree P-status. This is reinforced by the positive correlation between the tree growth and the needle P concentration and the lack of correlation between the tree growth and the needle N concentration. The improved nutrient status of the trees and the soil implies an improved future sustainable production capacity and makes the trees more stress resistant. There is a high possibility of good profitability in ash recycling for the land owner.

  10. Study of flue gas condensers with reference to corrosion risks, biofuel quality, techniques and choice of material; Kartlaeggning av roekgaskondenseringsanlaeggningar med avseende paa korrosionsrisker, biobraenslekvaliteter, teknik och materialval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenqvist, Per-Aake

    2012-02-15

    Corrosion in flue gas appliances installed in small and medium sized biomass fired boiler plants has become a problem in an increasing number of sites around Sweden. A trend seems to be that the problems are greater in those plants that use so called terminal chips than those that utilize more homogeneous fuels. In pace with the increasing number of biomass power plants in the country, the demand for cheaper fuel is increased. Through the increasing number of fuel terminals the market is provided even with biofuel mixes in the form of traditional wood chips mixed with bark, forest residue, sawdust, willow, returned wood, etc. Both users and suppliers of boiler and flue gas systems, and fuel suppliers have currently no clear rules or guidelines for relationships between different chemical properties of fuels, technologies, operating data and material. In this report has experience in the form of questionnaires completed by field visits, interviews of operational personnel and literature studies been compiled from a number of plants using different types of flue gas condensers for increased energy output from various types of bio fuels. The purpose of this assignment is to survey the flue gas condensation plant in biomass fired boiler plants for the presence of corrosion damage made in relation to the use of technologies and fuel qualities. A milestone is that the report will be able to be used to support the selection of materials and appropriate techniques for both new facilities and for the repair and improvement of existing ones. Another objective is to compile existing experience and assessment criteria which are reported in the literature. This report describes some typical construction techniques, whenever applicable harmful images and links to various substances present in fuels, ash and condensate

  11. Air quality and precipitation quality monitoring at Tjeldbergodden October 2009 to September 2010; Maalinger av luftkvalitet og nedboerkvalitet paa Tjeldbergodden oktober 2009 - september 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toennessen, Dag; Haugsbakk, Ivar

    2012-07-01

    Air and precipitation quality is measured and the Tjeldbergodden from October 2009 to October 2010. Most of the components values corresponding levels measured on the basis stations in the monitoring of long air and rain contamination. Local emissions and elevated concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in air to about 2.5 times the background value and to vanadium in precipitation. Components chlorine, sodium and magnesium are also somewhat higher than the background stations.(eb)

  12. The potential of utilizing wood ash and peat ash on organic soils in Sweden; Arealer foer skogsgoedsling med traeaska och torvaska paa organogena jordar i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haanell, Bjoern [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Silviculture

    2004-01-01

    Nutrients removed from the forest when branches and treetops are harvested as fuel can be returned to the site by recycling the remaining wood ash after combustion. This compensation measure is presently not carried out to any appreciable extent, partly because there is no economic incentive for the landowner. In sites where this measure has been applied, only on mineral soils (e.g. moraine) until now, greater margins for sustainable maintenance of the long-term site productivity can be expected. The ash contains all elements required for tree growth except for nitrogen (N). Therefore the ash amendment does not result in increased stand growth on these soils because the most important element for a growth response (N) is missing. In contrast, on organic soils N is often abundant whereas the amounts of other mineral nutrients are small. Thus, the elements lacking in the soils of peatland forests are available in the ash. This is especially true for phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). This means that peatland forests provide an opportunity for ash amendment in order to increase forest production. Old fertilization trials using wood ash show that the growth increase can be very large. The aim of this study was to (i) calculate the area of peat covered land that with respect to stand growth responses could be regarded as most suitable for bio-ash (wood ash and peat ash) fertilization, and (ii) assess the amount of bio-ash needed for fertilizing this area. Peat ash, although not as much studied, also has potential to be used to provide nutrients for increasing peatland forest growth. Most of the area calculations were based on data from the National Forest Inventory (NFI) 1997-2001. Sites were selected with guidance from existing knowledge about ash fertilization effects on tree growth and with the aid of registrations made in NFI regarding peat depth, site productivity, drainage, condition of drains, dominating field vegetation, and degree of stand development. Additional calculations were made concerning the area of abandoned peat fields ready for after-use by afforestation. The main part of the site selection was made in five steps. First, the non-productive sites (which produce less than 1 m{sup 3}/ha/yr) were rejected. Also sites with peat cover shallower than 30 cm were excluded. In the next step it was decided to restrict the ash fertilization to areas with drains in good condition, and to sites where the field vegetation was dominated by 'better shrubs' (Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis idaea, Equisetum silvaticum, and tall sedges) or 'low sedge' (Eriophorum vaginatum, Scirpus caespitosus, and other low Cyperaceae plants). Finally, open areas, seedling stands, and young forests were rejected in favour of un-thinned and thinned mid-rotation, and mature and old stands. According to these selection criteria the most suitable sites for ash fertilization are drained, productive peatlands characterized by thinning stands or older stands where the field vegetation is dominated by better shrubs or low sedge plants. The selection comprises 190,000 ha. Most of these areas are located in North Sweden (90,000 ha), whereas Central and South Sweden accounted for 30,000 ha and 70,000 ha, respectively. In addition to this, 2,000-3,000 ha of abandoned peat fields ready for afforestation should be added within a period of about 5 years. The requirement for phosphorus when peatland forests are fertilized is 40-50 kg/ha. From this, and from studies on the variation of phosphorus content and bulk density of wood ash of various origins, it can be calculated that a proper ash fertilization dose would be 3-5 t/ha. The nutrient content in the ash may however often prove lower than in the reported studies, in which case larger doses than 5 t/ha would be required. The present annual production of bio-ash in Sweden is about 250,000-300,000 tonnes. If it were desired to amend all sites (190,000 ha) identified in this study by using 5 tonnes per ha, it would use up 3-4 years of annual production of bio-ash.

  13. Wind power on Gabriel mountain - Follow-up of the consequences for reindeer herding, third year results; Vindkraft paa Gabrielsberget - Uppfoeljning av konsekvenserna foer rennaeringen, tredje aarets resultat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-05-15

    According to the Environmental Court's decision Gabriel Mountain the wind plant's impact on reindeer husbandry followed up by a control program. According to the Environmental Court's decision Gabrielsberget the wind plant's impact on reindeer husbandry followed up by a control program. The control program was initiated in autumn 2008. Reporting to the County Board will be made annually until the trial period ends. The construction of roads on Gabriel Mountains began in November / December 2008. No construction work was carried out, however, during the period that the reindeer were in the area (January-March 2009). The construction work started again in the summer / fall of 2009. The first 20 wind turbines began operating in January 2011. During these periods, the continuous interviews were held with reindeer herders from grazing district Byrkije. Reindeer herding utilization of the area before the wind farm been built and under construction has thus been mapped. Despite good grazing conditions Byrkije experienced difficulty in reindeer herding in and around wind power construction at Gabriel Mountain, especially during the second winter season (2010/11), when construction has been more extensive. Byrkije had to support feeding and use helicopter, something that previous seasons only was done in poor grazing conditions. The herders were also more people who worked actively with the reindeer and the working day has been longer and more strenuous compared to the seasons before the wind farm was built. The reindeer has moved more and were more spread out. The herders have also been forced to retrieve outside reindeer winter Loegdeaa land, something that has rarely happened in previous seasons. The reindeer's movement patterns and utilization of pastures have been different during the construction of the wind farm than in previous years. This report will be based on the new data over the years monitoring program runs.

  14. Use of ashes from straw and grass on agricultural land. Conditions and recommendations; Spridning av aska fraan straabraenslen paa aakermark. Foerutsaettningar och rekommendationer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadders, G.; Floden, S.

    1997-12-31

    The composition of ashes from straw fuel varies depending on the plant species, any fertilisation during the growing season, and weather conditions during the year in question, etc. The composition of ashes will also vary depending on what type of boiler the fuel has been combusted in. In this report the discussion has been restricted to so-called `grate boilers` with a capacity of <5 MW. In such boilers one can distinguish between the so-called `bottom ashes` from the boiler grate and the `fly-ashes` which are extracted from exhaust gases. Today there are no regulations prescribing how ashes from straw and energy crops shall be handled. However, there is a policy on biofuel ash recycling which was developed by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. In their policy the Environmental Protection Agency states that `whatever is removed may be returned`. Through the use of ashes from straw fuels as plant nutrients, the nutrients removed at harvest are returned. At the same time new supplies of minerals from external sources, and thereby following input of undesirable substances such as for instance cadmium, are avoided. The alternative i.e., dumping the ashes in landfills, results in unnecessary costs. In an explanatory note accompanying the agency document, it is stated that the ashes should preferably be returned to the crop and soil from which they had originated. If the ashes are to be spread on other land, the agency proposes that the restrictions imposed on sludge applications be applied here as well. In our opinion, it would be unreasonable for limitations on the use of ashes from agricultural crops as plant nutrients to be more strict than those concerning the use of fertilizers. Since chemical fertilizers can be used on any type of crop, there is no logical reason why the same should not also apply to ashes from straw fuels. Thus we recommend that the application of such ashes to non-energy crops be allowed. If there is reason to suspect high contents of undesirable metals in the soil, a soil analysis should also be performed. However, this advice applies to the use of all types of plant-nutrient amendments, not just straw fuels. Furthermore, it is unreasonable to expect each individual farm to be responsible for carrying out such an analysis. In a number of limited tests with straw ashes, lime spreaders gave better results than conventional manure-spreaders, according to the operator. However, even with this type of spreader the dose was too large. With two pages summary in English. Tables with text in English. 23 refs, 7 tabs

  15. Combined heat and power production based on gas turbine operation with biomass by gasification or powder firing; Kraftvaermeproduktion baserad paa gasturbindrift med biobraensle genom foergasning alternativt pulvereldning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marbe, Aasa; Colmsjoe, Linda

    2006-12-15

    Combined heat and power (CHP) technique is relatively less extended in the Swedish energy system. There is a production of 56,2 TWh in district heating meanwhile only 7,6 TWh electricity comes from CHP. This only corresponds to 6 % of all electricity produced in Sweden (132 TWh). Based on the existing district heating system the amount of electricity produced in CHP-plants could rise from today 7,6 to 20 TWh. The Swedish government has decided to reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} released to atmosphere with 4 % by the year 2012. Furthermore there is a government decision that the nuclear power in a long time perspective will be phased out, so the amount of biofuelled heat and power plants has a huge potential to increase. To be competitive, the technique is to be efficient; hence the amount electricity produced should be as high as possible. Gasification of biofuel where the gas is used in a combined-cycle provides a higher efficiency compared to the traditional steam-cycle technique. To increase the electrical efficiency, an alternative method such as integration of a gas turbine with combustion of powder shape bio fuel in an external combustion chamber could be used. The concept is known as PFBC- technique in which the coal powder is combusted in a pressurised fluidised bed, the warm flue gases are cleaned up and expanded in a gas turbine. The objectives of this project have been to investigate the technical and economical conditions for gasification of bio fuel and for powder combustion in gas turbine for production of heat and power in different districts heat systems. Respectively technique has been studied in two different cases, Boraas Energi AB and ENA Energi AB. In Boraas the existing CHP-plant has been replaced by a bio fuelled gasification plant (IGCC) meanwhile at ENA Energi the existing CHP-plant has been complemented white a powder fuelled (bio) gas turbine. The task group for this report are decision makers of Energy Companies and the report will help them create strategically plans. The results show that techniques based on gasification of biofuel are more expensive than the traditional biofuelled CHP-plant. The gasification technique will be a competitive option if the price of delivered electrical power increases, prices of green certificates increase or if the investment costs compared to the reference alternative is lowered. The global CO{sub 2} exhaust decreases significantly using gasification technique instead of the traditional technique. This is due to the higher amount electrical power produced. This technique requires high operation level and a huge heat demand because of the high investment costs and the limited part load performance. It has also been shown that it is not economically profitable to integrate a bio powder combustion gas turbine to the existing CHP-plant. The reason is the low contribution of generated electricity and the high investment costs. The both techniques require an additional development before it could be used commercially.

  16. Appropriate methodology for the basic characterization of ash for acceptance at landfill; Laemplig metodik foer grundlaeggande karakterisering av aska foer acceptans paa deponi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeblom, Rolf (Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden))

    2011-10-15

    According to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (Naturvaardsverket), waste may be placed in a landfill only after basic characterisation and compliance with certain criteria on limits. This includes percolation tests, prCEN/TS 144053, and batch leaching tests, SS-EN 12457-3. The latter standard states amongst other things that 'the procedure may not be applicable to materials reacting with the leachant', and there are similar statements in the standard for the percolation test. It is stated in the criteria for acceptance (paragraphs 15-16) that (translation by the present author) 'in those cases where the test methods mentioned are not applicable, a method in which chemical equilibrium is intended to be achieved between the waste and the leachant should be used for comparison of equivalent limits'. However, in the very most cases, ashes from incineration and combustion are tested without any consideration of their very well known reactive properties. In this report, methodology has been investigated for the ageing of ashes before they are subjected to leach testing. Ageing has been carried out in air-tight glass vessels (jars) in order to simulate bulk conditions. The variations have included two different water contents together with 0, 1, 4 and 17 weeks of ageing. The ashes investigated are fly ashes form facilities in Halmstad, Joenkoeping, Lidkoeping and Linkoeping. The furnaces at Lidkoeping are of the fluidized bed type and the other ones are of the grate fired type. At the time of sampling, the fuel at Linkoeping comprised largely recycled wood chips, and the other facilities burned mainly domestic waste and waste from industry. The results of the work support a recommendation to age ashes before they are subjected to leach testing. Before ageing, water should be added to a surplus relative to what may be consumed in chemical reactions, but not so superfluously that a mirror comprising free water may remain on the surface. It is recommended that the ageing takes place during at least one week, and preferably for more than one month. In no case was it observed that the ageing gave rise to an increased leach rate. Nonetheless, it is recommended that this is investigated on a case by case basis and for such elements that can be suspected to show an increase in the leach rate with time. For e g zinc, lead and copper, the ageing gave rise to a reduction of the leaching by some order of magnitude. The largest reduction was observed for the highest values. It was assessed that the ageing in many cases may imply that the leaching meets the criteria of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency for disposal of waste on a landfill for non-hazardous waste. The reduction may also imply that ashes can be qualified to be used in geotechnical constructions

  17. How do electricity consumption excluding power intensive manufacturing, react on changes in the spot price?; Hvordan reagerer stroemforbruket i alminnelig forsyning paa endringer i spotpris?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holstad, Magne; Pettersen, Finn Erik L.

    2011-05-15

    The purpose of this report is to analyse how electricity consumption excluding power intensive manufacturing will react on changes in the spot price on the basis of monthly data of the period 1996-2010 and an econometric error correction model. General consumption accounts for approximately 70 percent of the total net consumption of electricity in Norway. Households, services and other manufacturing than the power intensive account for the majority of this consumption. In order to estimate the net effect of the spot price on general electricity consumption, it is important to control for other variables that also affect the consumption. Since much of the electricity in general consumption is used for heating, one obvious and important explanatory variable is temperature. In addition to electricity price and temperature we assume that general consumption also depends on economic activity, price on light heating oil, the share of working days in the current month and a summer holiday dummy. In the consumption equation price can not be considered as an exogenous explanatory variable, since consumption affects price and vice versa. Hence, we have added a price equation that can be considered as an inverted supply equation. Both the consumption and the supply equation are specified dynamically in order to allow for slow adjustment of supply and consumption. The two equations of the model are estimated by two stage least square (2SLS). Full information maximum likelihood (FIML) is the most efficient estimation method in large samples, but a crucial assumption for consistent FIML-estimation is that the disturbance terms are normally distributed. A Jarque-Bera test of the error terms does not support this assumption in our data. R2 in the consumption equation is high. 96 per cent of the variation in the relative change in consumption is explained. In the price equation R2 is considerably lower. We find that if the spot price for Norway increases by 1 percent from one month to another and assume that the value of the other variables remain unchanged, the general electricity consumption falls by 0.05 per cent. Most of the change in the consumption takes place in the current month as the price changes. After two months there are only marginal changes in the consumption. Since the beginning of the data period several changes have taken place in the power market. While the electricity prices were more stable in the 90s, the prices have fluctuated considerably more since 2000 with four price spikes in 2003, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Households have more frequently chosen to switch electric power supplier and/ or contract type. The share of contracts directly linked to the spot price has increased. Together with more implementation of electricity-saving measures this indicates that electricity customers have become more conscious about how much they pay for electricity in the last part of the sample. Nevertheless there is support in the data that the price elasticity has become lower in absolute value in the last part of the data period. One reason can be that the electric boiler consumption which has good substitution possibilities to oil, accounts for a smaller share of the total general electricity consumption in the last years of the data period compared with the first part of the period. Another reason can be that the share of households with the combination electric stove and stove for solid fuels have been reduced in the last part of the period. (Author)

  18. Frosts during the growing season. Frequency of occurrence and effects on current energy forestry. Sommarfroster. Foerekomster och effekter paa befintliga energiskogsodlingar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christersson, L; Fircks, H von; Perttu, K

    1984-01-01

    Frost during the summer is very common in Sweden. Two kinds of summer frosts exists; one is called advection frost which is caused by cold air coming down over the country from the north and the other is an inversion frost caused by long-wave radiation from the ground taking place during calm clear nights. In this way the air closest to the ground is cooled. Eleven experimental areas are described as regards prehistory, vegetation, frequency of summer frosts, and energy forestry tests in progress. The amount of frost injuries is reported. Differences in frost hardiness of fast growing Salix clones in the growing state have been demonstrated. The results support the idea that the formation of ice crystals inside the growing tissues always take place around -2 degree C and that this ice crystal formation damages the growing part of the shoot of all tested clones. A fast growing shoot of Salix species has a longer elongation zone and this explains why a fast-growing shoot is more severly damaged than a slowly growing one at the same frost temperature. If the different clones are in a growing state there are only small differences in the amount of frost damage. On the other hand, there are great differences between the clones in the capacity of the surviving lateral buds to sprout. This capacity is foremost seen in clones of the species Salix dasyclados. Two year older shoots of different Salix species have never been damaged by summer frost because summer frosts do not reach the elongating zone of these shoots. In conclusions measures are listed on how to prevent or decrease the injuries caused by summer frosts. With 21 refs.

  19. Investigation of radioactive pollution on land at Thule and assessment of radiation doses; Undersoegelse af radioaktiv forurening paa landjorden ved Thule og vurdering af straaledoser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-12-15

    Risoe National Laboratory at the Technical University of Denmark has carried out research on the terrestrial contamination in the Thule area, Greenland, after the radioactive contents of four nuclear weapons were dispersed following the crash of an American B-52 bomber in 1968. The results of this research are described in the report ''Thule-2007 - Investigation of radioactive pollution on land''. Based on this report, the National Board of Health made an assessment of radiation doses and the risk for individuals in the Thule area. The results of the assessment are described in the report ''The Thule accident. Assessment of radiation doses from terrestrial radioactive contamination''. The present report is a summary of these two reports. (ln)

  20. Ice on wind power plants. Detection, frequency, minimizing risk for injuries to humans and production loss; Is paa vindkraftverk. Detektering, utbredning, personskaderiskminimering och produktionsbortfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerlund, Rolf (HoloOptics, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    The project had three different objectives:- To calibrate an icing sensor, developed with the support of Vindforsk, according to the amount of ice on the rotor blades.- To determine at which degree of icing measures has to be taken to reduce the risk of public health hazards due to ice throws.- To give a general indication of the performance losses due to icing In the study a coastal shore based turbine (Vestas V44, situated close to Haernoesand in the northern Sweden) was used as the test object, a turbine placed at 176 m above sea level and 4 km away from the open sea. The turbine is also close to an attractive alpine ski-slope. Due to this the plant is closed 2-3 weeks per year to reduce the risk of ice throw. In the study two ice sensors were used, one with automatic de-icing and one without de-icing. The icing signal was sent to the operator and HoloOptics via SMS. The SMS sender was also connected to a temperature sensor. Furthermore, 12 'IceMarkers' were mounted on one of the rotor blades to verify the distribution of ice. To log the output of the turbine a logger was installed. The logger measured the 10 minutes mean power output. Wind-speed, wind-direction and temperatures were available from a mast located at a distance of 400 m to the wind turbine. Study period: March-December 2008 of which, at this location, four month are prone to icing. By the use of the IceMarkers it was found that shortly after the icing began the whole blade was relatively simultaneous covered with, minimum, a thin layer of ice (maybe less than 0,1 mm in thickness). The distribution of ice on the blade was verified by the use of a flash and a camera. However it was found to be difficult to verify at times with fog or precipitation. When temperatures varied around zero C the relation between indication and actual icing was less obvious. Sometimes the blades became/were de-iced without any indication from the corresponding indicator. The indicators themselves, without any signal processing, were found to be too sensitive to rain and dense fog. At most of the indication periods the amount of ice was too little, too thin to be a reel public health issue. At a total the production was stopped seven times. The stops lasted between eight and one hundred hours. Simultaneously a total of three periods of moderate icing occurred. During these times massive ice-beams were found at the leading edge of the blades. However, the performance loss due to icing was only studied closely during the last two month of the project. During this period there was one case of moderate icing (period 33) and five or six cases of light icing. During the period with moderate icing the average thickness of ice was likely to be 4-5 mm. However there was simultaneously a massive build-up of ice beams at the leading edge of the blades, after 4-5 hours 4-10 cm in width and 2-4 cm in thickness. By this time the production capacity was reduces to 50 % of expected. (By that time the operation of the turbine was stopped due to public health risks.) The management of the turbine summarised the use and the outcome of the tests in this way: In spite of the many false indications due to dense fog or rain, the indicator were at help in running the turbine during icing risky periods as they showed when ice NOT was an issue (none ore only a few indications)

  1. Effect of raw material particle-size distribution on combustion characteristics of stem wood pellets; Paaverkan av partikelfraktionsfoerdelningen paa utbraenningshastigheten hos traepellets vid nyttjande av olika soenderdelningsmetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israelsson, Samuel; Henriksson, Gunnar; Boman, Christoffer; Oehman, Marcus

    2007-01-15

    The objective of the project was to determine the effect of raw material particle-size distribution on combustion characteristics of stem wood pellets. Several well defined pellet qualities were produced from raw materials (stem wood of pine and spruce) which had both different particle-size distributions and were produced with different milling equipments (hammer mill/refiner). The pellets were produced in a traditional (bench-scale) pellet mill and in a laboratory pellet mill/press. The combustion characteristics of the individual pellets were determined in a laboratory scale oven. Char yield, -shrinkage, -density and the micro pore volume of the produced char were also determined. Differences in total conversion times of approximately 5 % at experimental condition relevant for typical pellets equipment were determined for the different pellet qualities. The underlying reasons for the obtained differences in the combustion characteristics between the different pellet qualities are discussed in the report

  2. The response of pot plants to reduction of energy consumption peaks in greenhouses. [Heating]. Potteplanters reaktion paa udjaevning af energiforbrugs spidser i vaeksthuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, L.H.; Adriansen, E.; Amsen, M.G.; Nielsen, O.F. (Danish Research Service for Plant and Soil Science, Research Centre for Horticulture, Dept. Hort. Engineering, Institute of Glasshouse Crops, Aarslev (DK))

    1989-01-01

    This experiment was started to avoid difficulties in energy supply, when big areas of greenhouses were connected to district heating. The aim of the experiment was to find ways to reduce energy consumption peaks at dawn and at dusk by means of simple techniques. This paper reports on the results of an experiment where five different pot plants were grown by a temperature control strategy based upon low day and high night room temperature set points (14 deg./22 deg. C) combined with reduced opening speed of the mixing valves. In general it may be concluded that it is possible to produce Chrysanthemum, Begonia, Kalanchoe, Hedera and Ficus with a temperature control strategy which reduces energy consumption peaks at dawn and at dusk without affecting the plant quality. However, it is necessary to apply growth retardants to Chrysanthemum and Kalanchoe to secure a good quality. The production time is reduced for Kalanchoe, increased for Chrysanthemum and Hedera and unchanged for Begonia and Ficus. (author).

  3. Circumstances in a nuclear power plant. Organization of risk and institutionalization of safety; Omstaendigheter paa ett kaernkraftverk. Organisering av risk och institutionalisering av saekerhet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessblad, H

    1999-01-01

    Risk societies are made of risk organisations. This dissertation is an ethnographic study of a risk organisation, of a nuclear power plant. Risk organizations have larger demands on their organization than traditional companies have. Risk societies, to come or already present, have new political agendas. Within a risk society the major task is to reduce and distribute the negative side effects of industrial production, not to increase and distribute well-fare in society, as it has been in an industrial society. This is a study of a risk organisation claimed to produce these negative side effects. The title of this thesis relates to specific occasions in the organisation. The branch concept, circumstances, defines `situations beyond normal performance`, which are to be reported to the nuclear authorities. These circumstances are rarely endangering man or material, but given the nature of nuclear power production, they have a potential to escalate to something larger. This dissertation focuses on how the organisation deals with these issues and reproduces safety as something taken-for-granted. The material is gathered using participant observation of different functions in the plant. The work is based on narration of situations, meetings, interviews, and small talk etc, in every-day-interaction. The dissertation describes how business-as-usual produce safety. It is a description of how values, norms, attitudes, ideas, knowledge are produced and reproduced. These issues are discussed mainly in an institutional theory perspective. What has become apparent is that functions governed by routines and instructions tend to be more flexible and reflecting than those dealing with new tasks, such as problem solving projects. Thus, these new projects tend to reproduce earlier established procedures. Through the narration of the various functions of the plant joined with theoretical discussions, different themes have been found describing how the organisation deals with difficulties and how it reproduces its normal practice. The themes are gathered under `safety is a fine art`. Legitimization of the organisation was related to the plant`s capacity to present an articulated rationality, while safety was in large produced by tacit knowledge

  4. The market will take care of that. Real Investment Practices on the Deregulated Electricity Market; Det daer ordnar marknaden. Investeringspraktik paa den avreglerade marknaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennborg, Petter (Univ. of Gothenburg, Goeteborg (Sweden). School of Business, Economics and Law)

    2009-06-15

    This dissertation deals with market actors' motives and the overall driving forces for undertaking real investments in electricity-generation facilities. Two factors induce interest in this subject. Firstly, the stationary electricity industry faces tremendous real-investment challenges. Secondly, these investments are to be undertaken within the institutional logic of the free market. Thus, the electricity company has to make decisions in a completely new setting. The market logic suggests that actors should maximize profits and respond to market price-signals. Most previous studies on real-investments in the stationary electricity industry apply this perspective. However, empirical research on real investments and organizational decisions-making, emphasizes that this is a normative perspective and it does not represent a valid description of reality when examining decision-making. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to empirically describe how the market- actors develop plausible argumentation and how they act, in practical real-investment situations, thereby enriching our understanding of motives and driving forces. Building on institutional theory, the undertaking of real-investments is considered as the result of a specific social practice, here called real-investment-practice. This theoretical perspective holds that three detailed elements constitute the real-investment-practice: one interpretative-oriented, one process-oriented, and one decision-oriented. Applying this perspective thus allows us to capture the contextual settings; the pattern of behavior characterizing the real-investments' course of events; and the application and the interpretation of analytical evaluation models. In line with this perspective, this PhD Thesis explores three questions: 1) How do the market actors construe the contextual settings, and how is the act of construing translated into real-investments in production capacity? 2) How do the market actors proceed in concrete real-investment situations? 3) How do the market actors justify real-investments in production capacity? Building on twenty-five in-depth interviews, and two extensive case studies, the study shows that the stationary electricity industry is characterized by a technical norm-system, which contains institutionalized logics, and norms of rationality. The act of construing and interpreting is a question of different market actors' attitudes towards the technical norm-system, and the organizational role-definition. In concrete real-investment situations, the market actors must conduct their actions in relation to conflicting norms of rationality. Hence, the market actors justification of real-investments in production capacity is a question of their attitudes towards normative institutions and their ability to predict the future. The study concludes that capacity investments in the deregulated electricity market are not caused by market actors' perceptions concerning profitability per se. Indeed, construing of market prices are important, but the undertaking of capacity investments should rather be described as a result of acts of construing and translating political signals, and the will of exercising power. In order to make possible the undertaking of capacity investments, the individual actor is engaged in activities of stabilizing its internal conditions of production as well as its political environment

  5. The effect of vehicle exhausts on crops and other utility plants close to roads; Trafikavgasers effekter paa groedor och andra nyttovaexter i naerheten av vaegar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleijel, H.; Ahlfors, A.; Skaerby, L.; Pihl Karlsson, G.; Sjoedin, Aa.

    1993-11-01

    This report summarizes the present knowledge concerning the impact of automobile exhausts on plants and the research carried out at IVL in this field during the period 1988-1991. The investigations carried out at motorway E6 south of Gothenburg show: * that the concentrations of ethylene are high enough to cause pronounced effects on the bio indicator petunia, * that the ozone concentrations in the vicinity of the motorway are lower than the regional background concentrations, which was reflected in significantly less visible ozone injury on the ozone bio indicator, subterranean clover, close to the motorway after an ozone episode, * that the less ozone sensitive red clover, in contrast to subterranean clover, showed stimulated growth with increasing distance from the motorway, * that there was a tendency towards higher yields for cereals in the vicinity of the motorway, but the extent of and cause for this growth stimulation is not known at present. The effects of metals from catalytic converters is as yet uncertain, as is the understanding of effects of nitrogen oxides. 45 refs, 16 figs, 7 tabs

  6. Influence of sulphur addition on emissions of organic substances during combustion; Inverkan av formen av svaveladditiv paa emissionerna av kolmonoxid och organiska aemnen vid foerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik; Jonsson, Claes; Almark, Matts; Berg, Magnus; Streibel, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2008-02-15

    Reduction of emissions of carbon monoxide and organic substances by injecting either ammonium sulphate or elemental sulphur and the importance of the point of injection has been investigated in full scale in a grate-fired bark boiler. The effect was monitored downstream of the economizer and air preheater, immediately upstream of the electrostatic precipitator. Concentrations determined in the comprehensive monitoring program include principally carbon monoxide, TOC and several organic substances, including PAH, PCDD/F and polychlorinated benzenes (PCBz). Additionally, the gaseous PAH were determined on-line using a novel mass spectrometer, REMPI-TOF MS, that measures specifically the 2- to 4-ring PAH's. All concentrations of substances of interest here fluctuate in concert and peak simultaneously. The relationship between the concentrations is not straightforward: there appears to be a threshold in carbon monoxide concentration. Below this threshold, the concentration of organics is low and above it concentrations increase rapidly with increasing carbon monoxide concentration. It has been confirmed that using sulphur additives not only reduces the concentration of carbon monoxide, but also that of organic substances in the flue gases. These additives do not only reduce the mean level of concentrations, but also dampen the fluctuations in these concentrations. Any measure leading to a reduction in carbon monoxide will also decrease the concentration of most organics, under the conditions prevalent in this boiler. Both additives tested are equally effective per kg of pure sulphur. The point of injection, in the fuel or above the grate, is not important. The PCDD/F concentration in the flue gases is very low even without additives, and the effect of sulphur on these emissions is therefore difficult to observe. Here, the effect is masked by the variation of data. The PAH concentration is lowered by an injection of sulphur additives. The variation in data is though rather large, which may be caused by variation in particle content in the gas samples

  7. Larger red-shift in optical emissions obtained from the thin films of globular proteins (BSA, lysozyme) – polyelectrolyte (PAA) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, Hrishikesh [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Vigyan Path, Paschim Boragaon, Garchuk, Guwahati 781035, Assam (India); Kundu, Sarathi, E-mail: sarathi.kundu@gmail.com [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Vigyan Path, Paschim Boragaon, Garchuk, Guwahati 781035, Assam (India); Basu, Saibal [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2016-09-30

    Graphical abstract: Thin films of protein-polyelectrolyte complexes show larger red-shift in optical emission. - Highlights: • Globular proteins (lysozyme and BSA) and polyelectrolyte (sodium polyacrylic acid) are used to form protein-polyelectrolyte complexes (PPC). • Larger red-shift in optical emission is obtained from the thin films of PPC. • Red-shift is not obtained from the solution of PPC and pure protein thin films. • Larger red-shift from PPC films is due to the energy dissipation as non-radiative form through interactions with nearby atoms. • Red-shift in optical emission is independent on the thickness of the PPC film. - Abstract: Globular proteins (lysozyme and BSA) and polyelectrolyte (sodium polyacrylic acid) are used to form protein-polyelectrolyte complexes (PPC). Out-of-plane structures of ≈30–60 nm thick PPC films and their surface morphologies have been studied by using X-ray reflectivity and atomic force microscopy, whereas optical behaviors of PPC and protein conformations have been studied by using UV–vis, photoluminescence and FTIR spectroscopy respectively. Our study reveals that thin films of PPC show a larger red-shift of 23 and 16 nm in the optical emissions in comparison to that of pure protein whereas bulk PPC show a small blue-shift of ≈3 nm. A small amount of peak-shift is found to occur due to the heat treatment or concentration variation of the polyelectrolyte/protein in bulk solution but cannot produce such film thickness independent larger red-shift. Position of the emission peak remains nearly unchanged with the film thickness. Mechanism for such larger red-shift has been proposed.

  8. Digestion with initial thermophilic hydrolysis step for sanitation and enhanced methane extraction in wastewater treatment plants; Roetning med inledande termofilt hydrolyssteg foer hygienisering och utoekad metanutvinning paa avloppsreningsverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Emelie; Ossiansson, Elin [BioMil AB, Lund (Sweden); Carlsson, My; Uldal, Martina; Johannesson, Sofia [AnoxKaldnes AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-02-15

    Thermophilic (55 deg) pre-hydrolysis has been shown to improve methane yield, organics reduction and/or treatment capacity when applied to anaerobic digestion (Persson m. fl. 2010). The method has also proven to kill off pathogens, making it an interesting hygienisation alternative to pasteurisation. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has opened up for the possibility to validate new methods for hygienisation, if the pathogen reduction can be proven to be efficient enough. Thermophilic pre-hydrolysis has several possible advantages to pasteurization; e. g. district heating of lower temperature can be used, the stability of the process may increase, as well as the efficiency and extent of the digestion process. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of thermophilic pre-hydrolysis on anaerobic digestion (AD) of sewage sludge with respect to: 1. Biogas/methane production and solids reduction. 2. Correlations between substrate properties, process conditions and effect on the AD process. 3. Pathogen reduction efficiency. 4. Operational consequences. Laboratory trials in continuous and batch mode were conducted on sewage sludge from four Swedish wastewater treatment plants. In the trials thermophilic pre-hydrolysis with consecutive mesophilic AD was compared to conventional one-step mesophilic AD, as well as pre-pasteurisation with consecutive AD. For all the tested sludge samples the reduction of TS and VS increased as a result of thermophilic pre-hydrolysis prior to mesophilic AD. The results with respect to methane yield were not as straightforward. Increased production of biogas was achieved in pilot scale, but the methane production did not improve. In the laboratory trials the effect on methane production varied from -8 % till +18 % for the sludge samples tested. The most positive results were achieved in the test that had the highest organic load and that was fed with a sludge that was low in fat and high in carbohydrates, compared to the other sludge samples. The VS reduction increased more than the methane production as a result of thermophilic pre-hydrolysis prior to mesophilic AD. Possible explanations are loss of hydrogen gas and/or volatile organic compounds in the pre-hydrolysis step, partially aerobic degradation and errors in the gas flow measurements. None of the performed measurements or analyses can confirm the cause, but loss of methane potential through hydrogen release in the pre-hydrolysis step seems most likely. The study has shown that thermophilic pre-hydrolysis has a hygienising effect. In the pilot trial with pre-hydrolysis at 6 hours exposure time and 1.5 days hydraulic retention time the requirements for pathogen reduction that have been suggested for sewage sludge for Salmonella and E-coli were reached, but could not be reached with respect to Enterococcus. In the lab-scale trials with 24 h exposure time the same level of pathogen reduction could not be reached. The results were in these cases inconsequent and difficult to interpret, both from pasteurization and from thermophilic pre-hydrolysis. A possible explanation for this could be that the area of contact per volume is considerably larger in lab scale than in pilot scale. The gas produced in the pre-hydrolysis step needs to be introduced into the main digester in order for it to be fully utilized. If there is a risk that the concentration of hydrogen gas in the pre-hydrolysis step can exceed 25 % by volume, the safety requirements of the plant need to be revised. Simulations have shown that the hydrogen level may momentarily increase after intermittent feeding, so this should be further investigated.

  9. The effect of cleaning on materials wastage in biomass and waste fired power plants; Sotningens inverkan paa materialfoerluster foer bio- och avfallseldade pannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjoernhede, Anders; Henderson, Pamela

    2006-03-15

    The reason for this study is the relatively large material loss caused by soot blowing of heat exchange surface in waste- and biomass fired boilers. The material losses depend on the method of cleaning: Normally soot blowing with a relatively high pressure is used in order to remove deposits on super heater tubes. However, this also damages the tube material. Earlier theories state that the material losses are caused by erosion or rather erosion-corrosion of the tube surface. There is a clear evidence for the existence for this type of damage, but it is often caused by badly adjusted soot blowing equipment. However, even well adjusted equipment causes accelerated metal loss, albeit lower than with badly adjusted soot blowers. This type of material loss is caused by the removal of the outer molten deposit layer. This outer layer of deposit actually acts as a barrier to corrosive species diffusing inwards towards the oxide and uncorroded metal. There is a lamellar oxide under this deposit, which is especially protective if it contains Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MoO{sub 3} or Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The lamellar oxide is damaged by the defects produced by the soot blowing and the diffusion of corrosive species into the metal tube. Since molybdenum probably through molybdenum oxide seems to reduce metal losses due to soot blowing, alloys containing molybdenum should be used. The addition of sulphur, or sulphur compounds like ammonium sulphate reduces the deposit growth rate by about 50%. This means that the soot blowing frequency and therefore metal losses are reduced. There is also an indication that certain metals or alloys reduce the tendency for deposits to stick to tubes. Coating with pure nickel is one example of this, but as nickel is sensitive to soot blowing it is not possible to use nickel in areas affected by soot blowing. A common way of reducing metal losses is to mount tube shields on the most affected tubes. These shields are changed regularly. Normally expensive austenitic stainless steels have been used. Cheaper materials like SiCromAl could be used instead. Research indicates that it is beneficial to leave some deposits on the tube, i.e. not to clean completely. A reduction in the soot blowing pressure or frequency also reduces metal losses.

  10. The power sector in the melting pot. Perspectives for the structure of the sector in eastern Norway; Kraftsektor i stoepeskjeen. Perspektiver for bransjestrukturen paa Oestlandet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Norwegian power sector is undergoing basic changes. All the energy utilities are affected. This report describes the options faced by the owners and the effects of making different choices. It (1) discusses the implications of competition and the new external conditions for publicly owned utilities, (2) analyses the profit obtainable through cooperation and changes in the structure within production, power sale and network activities, and (3) draws up the perspectives of the future structure of the power sector in eastern Norway, where many of the largest suppliers are situated. Two scenarios are discussed for the structure of the power sector in eastern Norway in 2010: (1) Regional focus. The owners have a deliberate attitude to the possibilities of a publicly owned and competitive energy supply and they want to exploit the economic potential to the benefit of the inhabitants of the region. The energy users are offered services that are competitive both on price and quality and the policy instrument is to develop regional solutions that realize the possibilities of large-scale operation and coordination within production, sales and network. (2) Industrial energy supply. Large industrial actors have won most of the auctions as the smaller distribution works were offered for sale. Both scenarios are rooted in changes that have actually occurred or are still in progress. There is no socioeconomic justification for asserting that one scenario is better than the other. The choice of action taken by the owners will first of all affect the distribution of the values managed and created by the power sector. 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Price trends of oil and gas. Influence from the development on the British gas market; Prisutsikter for olje og gass. Vil utviklingen paa det britiske gassmarked smitte?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, B.L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper focuses on the future prospects of oil and gas prices in Europe being influenced by the liberalized market in the United Kingdom. With reference to the Norwegian continental shelf, the market price of oil determines the price of gas because the oil production will be much higher than the production of gas for a long time. From 1998 onwards, a new natural gas pipeline will be operating between the United Kingdom and the Continent having a capacity of 20 billion Sm{sup 3} in both directions. The author gives at first a brief description of the continental market of to day, secondly, a discussion on how to liberalize such a market together with experience obtained in the United Kingdom, and thirdly, the risk of falling prices being similar to the existing bargain prices in the United Kingdom. 11 figs.

  12. Level of activity and short implementation times - are quality and safety suffering?; Aktivitetsnivaa og korte gjennomfoeringstider - gaar det paa kvaliteten og sikkerheten loes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, Gunnar [Oljedirektoratet, Stavanger (Norway)

    1998-07-01

    The level of activity on the Norwegian Shelf has been very high. Activity has increased faster than the capacity in the market. The availability of competence and skilled personnel has been limited. However, by preserving the best in the development, it will be possible to continue the development towards a cost-effective petroleum activity that meets the quality requirements, including safety and working environment. It has been said that the great pace with which today's projects are implemented, everything must be done correctly first time. Although this is a great challenge, the interesting point is that a way of defining quality and quality management may be just that this means doing the right thing first time. Quality is a management responsibility.

  13. Development of new types of sun shielding systems based on daylight conducting sun shielding glass slats; Udvikling af nye typer solafskaermningssystemer baseret paa dagslysdirigerende solafskaermende glaslameller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iversen, A.; Svendsen, Svend (Danmarks Tekniske Univ., DTU Byg, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Laustsen, J.B. (NIRAS A/S (Denmark)); Traberg-Borup, S.; Johnsen, Kjeld (Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut, Aalborg Univ. (Denmark))

    2009-11-15

    The project has developed a new solar shading system consisting of reflective reflective glass slats, which both must act as general sun shading and also be able to improve daylight conditions inside the building when it's needed, by reflecting light further into the room. Simulations with the program IESve / Radiance are performed of daylight conditions in an office room using the developed solar shading concept. The calculation model is used to optimize the glass slat system's shape and dimensions (slat angle, width and distance). The calculations have shown that a slat angle of 30 degrees gives the best daylight conducting effect in overcast weather. At this position, compared with the same facade without sun shading, a slight reduction of daylight factor close to the windows is obtained while the back of the room is largely unchanged. Compared with traditional slat systems the reflective glass slats provide higher daylight factors in the building. Daylight measurements are performed in a daylight laboratory. Measurements show that the daylight factor in cloudy weather is reduced by approx. 20% 1.2 m from the facade where there are usually plenty of light while it is unchanged or slightly higher at the back of the room where there often are problems with too little daylight. On a clear day with direct sunlight and the reflective slats in shading position the result is a reduction of illumination through the whole room. The developed sun shading system reduces sun irradiance in reflective position without diminishing daylight conditions in the building under overcast conditions when the slats are angled in daylight conducting position. The glass slat system's effect on the thermal indoor environment and energy consumption are analyzed using calculations in the program BSim and by measurements of the sun shading system mounted in the Passys test cell at the Technical University of Denmark. (ln)

  14. Benthic processes on and around artificial structures in Swedish coastal waters; Bentiska processer paa och runt artificiella strukturer i Sveriges kustvatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malm, Torleif (Stockholms Universitet, Stockholms marina forskningscentrum (Sweden)); Engkvist, Roland (Linneuniversitetet, Institutionen foer Naturvetenskap, Vaexjoe (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    Within the next few decades, wind farms with an extension of many square kilometres probably will be built in Swedish coastal waters. These installations may affect the ecological communities in various ways, e.g.; by the already known reef-effect, by changing the population structure of key predators such as fish and birds and thereby cause trophic cascades down into the benthic community or by causing changes in the hydrology that may benefit some species, mainly soft bottom species, while others may be disadvantaged. How the wind farms will affect the ecological communities depends probably very much on the initial conditions. During the period 2005-2009 a study was carried out with the aim to investigate the benthic community structure on hard bottoms, before and after larger wind farms have been constructed. The areas explored were Skottarevet in Kattegat, Lillgrund in Oeresund, Utgrunden II in southern Kalmar Strait, Kaarehamn off north-eastern Oeland and Klasaadern off south-western Gotland. For legal and economic reasons, only one farm, Lillgrund was constructed during the project period. Significant differences were found at both species and functional level. The largest divergence was found between the Kattegat and the Baltic Sea with large differences in species composition and in part also with other functional groups. Furthermore, between the Baltic Sea sites, significant differences were also found. The natural communities in the two straits had significantly higher biomass of blue mussels (M. edulis) per square meter compared with the open areas at Gotland and Oeland. In addition,the algal flora differed significantly. Filamentous brown algae favoured by eutrophication dominated the substrate in the straits while the bottoms along the open coastlines were covered with perennial red algae. The wind farm at Lillgrund affected the benthic communities moderately but significant. Mussels and barnacles colonized the surface of the towers and the granite stones in the scour protection quickly. The artificial and natural substrates had a similar community structure after two years. In contrast it seems like the bottom has been affected by the farm throughout the area. Compared with previous years, the natural substrates in 2009 had a larger biomass of mussels and barnacles and a lower biomass of filamentous algae. The differences, however, were small. The conclusion of this study is that wind power farms may potentially cause ecological effects in the benthic communities but as our study lack geographical and temporal extension, this conclusion is weak. As the abiotic conditions around our coasts shift, it is impossible to draw firm conclusions from one site. It is also difficult to draw conclusions from the short period after the construction of the farm. Meteorological and oceanographic processes not related to the wind farm may have contributed to the result

  15. Separating liquids. Oppsamlingsutstyr for fjernelse av forurensninger som flyter paa vaesker, saerlig slike som har lavere spesifikk vekt enn vaesken, fortrinnsvis til rensing av oljeholdig kloakkvann eller spillvann

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, F.; Morva, A.

    1985-04-15

    To remove a contaminating layer of a liquid of lower specific gravity (e.g.oil) floating on a liquid of higher spesific gravity (e.g.seawage), the liquids are forced to flow along a settling tank towards a collector whose open bottom is disposed well below the boundary between the liquids. The top of the collector is sealed to an inclined weir dipping just below the boundary so that the contaminating layer ascends the weir, assisted by air jets from nozzles and flows into the collector. A discharge duct is disposed in the collector with an adjustable inlet arranged in a plane higher than the liquid-liquid boundary but lower than the surface of the contaminating liquid in the collector. The collector and nozzles are supported by floats, and duct is connected to tank outlet by a flexible tube. 1 drawing.

  16. Boiler control using on-line determination of moisture content for incoming fuel; Forskning kring pannstyrning med on-line fukthaltsmaetning paa biobraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avelin, Anders; Dahlquist, Erik; Moden, Per Erik

    2008-10-15

    Incoming fuels to the biomass fueled boiler are the main source for uncertainties in the combustion process. Fuel quality has large impact on the combustion and the heat transfer in the boiler. There are several possibilities to control the boiler when the bed temperature varies. Flue gas recirculation is one of the variables used for control of the bed temperature in the boiler. Another parameter to use for controlling the bed temperature is to adjust the humidification of the combustion air. The parameter with the major influence on the bed temperature is the amount of primary air. These three parameters are all used as control variables for control of the bed temperature. One part of the study has been to investigate how much and how fast each parameter influences bed temperature and how the information of the moisture content in the incoming fuel can be used for feed-forward information for controlling bed temperature. At the reception terminal all the incoming deliveries are registered with quality and moisture content. This study has also investigated how to use the information about the moisture content of incoming fuel, based on NIR measurements on the fuel transported in to the boiler, and the fluctuation of the bed temperature. Another question is how to connect this information for the bed control. This part of the study is used to evaluate if the information to the operators about the moisture content from the NIR has affect on the variation of the bed temperature. A process model has been developed of the Bubbling Fluidised Bed boiler (BFB) that is one of the boilers at the power plant in Eskilstuna. The model has been used to analyze the process. Process models have become more common and important in the heat and power industry. Nowadays process models are used for training of the staff in simulators of the real plant and for offline tests of control systems

  17. Pouw, Wassenburg, de Koning, Hostetter, & Paas (unpublished preprint; Version 2). Does Gesture Strengthen Sensorimotor Knowledge of Objects? The Case of the Size-Weight Illusion

    OpenAIRE

    Paas, Fred; De Koning, Bjorn; Pouw, Wim; Hostetter, Autumn; Wassenburg, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    Co-speech gestures have been proposed to strengthen sensorimotor knowledge related to objects’ weight and manipulability. In this pre-registered study (N =159) designed to provide a robust, direct, and detailed test of this proposal, participants practiced a problem-solving task with small and large objects that were designed to induce a size-weight illusion (i.e., objects weigh the same but are experienced as different in weight). Participants then explained the task with or without co-speec...

  18. Products based on the mixes of fly ashes and fibre sludge (fibre-ashes) for road construction; Produkter baserade paa blandningar av flygaska och fiberslam (fiberaskor) foer vaegbyggande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, Pentti; Maijala Aino; Macsik, Josef

    2005-03-01

    The project has derived benefits from the earlier Finnish research and development as well as from the experience in the fibre-ash materials for geotechnical applications. The fly ashes used for the project have been taken from the same sources as the fly ashes for the earlier Vaermeforsk project 870: FACE. The project's objective was to develop construction materials based on mixtures of fibre sludge and fly ash for geotechnical applications, and for the final commercialisation of the fibre-ash materials. The mixtures are based on fly ashes from energy production (bark, peat and sludge used for incineration) and on kaolin containing fibre sludge from the paper industry. With help of laboratory tests the project has been searching for fibre ashes with excellent technical characteristics like good frost resistance combined with a good bearing capacity and resilience in geotechnical structures. The project's results has given additional knowledge about alternative road construction materials to construct technically good, sustainable and environmentally friendly roads and other constructions with lower costs than the conventional constructions. The results of laboratory tests have shown that this is possible. However, it has to be verified with help of field tests and pilot constructions. The first tasks of the project were to make choices of the appropriate fibre sludge and fly ashes for the project targets. The laboratory tests have been carried out in the geotechnical laboratory of Ramboll Finland Oy (earlier SCC Viatek Oy, SGT - later in the report SGT). After arrival of all test material in the laboratory the test programme started in order to find out the most optimal fibre-ash mixtures with or without any activator. The most potential mixtures were tested for their geotechnical long-term properties (mainly resistance against climatic load) and for their environmental risk potential. The results comprise of several technically, environmentally and economically potential fibre-ash mixtures and recommendations for their further development with the help of field tests and test construction. The most noteworthy benefits of the fibre ashes as soil construction materials are their elasticity and resistance against permanent deformation. These properties make the fibre-ash materials significantly more frost resistant than the conventional materials. Also, the fibre-ashes are easier and simpler to use in the construction process than the fly ashes because the fibre-ashes are practically dust-tight materials. The results of the project will be background information for the further studies, and for the guidelines and commercialisation of e.g. road construction with fibre ashes.

  19. Impacts on the receiving states of Norwegian petroleum investments with an emphasis on Angola; Effekter i mottakerlandene av norske petroleumsivesteringer med hovedvekt paa Angola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordaas, Hildegunn Kyvik; Tvedten, Inge; Wiig, Arne

    1999-07-01

    This report examines how Norwegian petroleum investments may contribute to develop industry and a more even distribution of income in the receiving states. It also examines to what extent such investments may help to improve social development, humane rights, health, the environment and safety. The study concentrates on Norwegian investments in Angola. Offshore petroleum activities are capital-intensive and technologically demanding industry which often becomes an enclave in countries with a weakly developed industrial basis and few skilled workers. The profit from this industry accounts for a very large part of the export earnings and of the earnings of the public sector while at the same time this sector creates relatively few jobs in the local community. Thus, the income from the petroleum industry is not widely distributed. The petroleum sector tends to increase the growth of income during its development period but then causes little further development. This can be remedied by an economic policy that deliberately smoothes differences and by taking macro-economic measures which prevent overheating of the economy and which creates space for development in the private sector in the mainland economy. This is difficult, and few oil-exporting developing countries have succeeded so far. In Angola it is hardly possible under the current circumstances with civil war and the absence of institutions that work. The report emphasises that oil companies can contribute with knowledge transfer to local employees and the local state oil company. They should also help to extract Angola's resources in the most efficient and environmentally friendly way. But the social and economical development is the responsibility of the local authorities. Norwegian authorities may provide technical and economical aid, if desired, but it is stressed that there should be a clear division of roles between the authorities and the oil companies.

  20. Addition of ash and PK with or without N on a peatland in southern Sweden. Effects on tree growth and needle element concentrate; Tillfoersel av aska och PK med eller utan N paa en torvmark i soedra Sverige. Effekter paa traedtillvaext och aemneshalter i barr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstroem, Ulf (Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-04-15

    In Sweden, about 1.3 million tonnes of ash are produced annually. Out of that amount, 150 000 - 300 000 tonnes have been estimated to originate from forest fuels, i.e. ashes that potentially can be brought back to the forest. Apart from being a compensatory measure after intensive forest harvest (e.g. including tops and branches), the ash may be used to increase the tree growth on peat soils (ash fertilization). On peat soils, tree growth is generally increased after addition of ash or phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) fertilizers. However, in some cases also nitrogen (N) addition is required. On sparsely stocked mires, fertilization may promote the regeneration as well as increase the growth of the trees. Sufficient drainage and supply of plant-available N are some prerequisites for increasing tree growth by PK-addition. In 1982, Skogforsk established a field experiment (168 Perstorp) located in the province of Scania in a sparsely stocked Pinus Sylvestris (L.) sapling stand on a ditched mire where different nutrient regimes were tested. The experiment had a randomized block design including four blocks and seven treatments. Ash and different dozes of P (raw phosphate) and K (potassium chloride), with or without simultaneous N addition, were included as well as un untreated control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects on tree growth and needle elemental concentrations 26 years after treatment. The addition of similar dozes of P (approx. 40 kg P/ha), as ash (2.5 tonnes/ha) or as PK-fertilizer rendered similar growth responses. The increase in stem-wood growth was in the order of 1,6 - 1,9 m3/ha/yr during the 26-year period. The N-addition had no additional effect. On the control plots, the growth was more or less negligible (approx. 0,04 m3sk/ha/yr). On average, the high dozes of raw-phosphate and potassium chloride (40 kg P/ha and 80 kg K/ha) gave a higher growth increase than the low dozes (20 kg P/ha and 40 kg K/ha), although this effect was not statistically significant. In the low doze plots, the height growth of the main stems (to be left after a cleaning) indicated a shorter effect period. The increased tree growth on an area basis due to the nutrient addition was an effect of both an increase in the number of trees and an increased growth of these trees. The needle N concentrations indicated a sufficient N status of the Pinus sylvestris trees, which was in line with the lacking response on growth after N fertilization. In addition, the P- and K-concentrations in the needles increased significantly in the treatments with ash or PK, where the growth responses were substantial. In conclusion, sufficient drainage combined with addition of ash or PK-fertilizer on this type of mires can result in a pole stage Pinus sylvestris stand. However, the sustainability of the growth is an open question

  1. Long term effects on water streams of wood ash recycling to a forest plantation; Laangtidsverkan paa avrinnande vatten av askaaterfoering till plantskog. Slutrapport foer en delstudie inom det av Energimyndigheten finansierade projektet 'Skogliga aatgaerder - effekter paa kol-, naering- och tungmetallfloeden'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Hillevi; Nilsson, Torbjoern [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Soils

    2001-12-01

    The chemical composition of runoff from a wood ash fertilized catchment in central Sweden have been studied during eight years after the treatment. The effects of the ash treatment was compared with a 12ayear long reference period and a reference catchment close to the ash treated catchment. The ash treated area was earlier (winter 1980/81) whole-tree-harvested to 90 %. At the same time the reference area was stemwood harvested on 60 % of the area. Both areas were planted with spruce and pine. Granulated ash was spread on the whole-tree-harvested area, by helicopter, on two occasions (1aton per hectare in May 1989 and 2 tonnes per hectare in October 1991). During the first ash application a marked peak in K concentration was observed. The second ash application caused a high peak in K concentration. Short-lived peaks was also observed for pH, electric conductivity, ANC, Mg, Na and Cl. Significant increases of pH, electric conductivity, Ca, K and Cl was observed in runoff water from the ash treated area during the 8-year-period after the last ash spreading. However, during the same period concentrations of NH4-N, N03-N and total N have shown a relative decrease in runoff water from the ash treated area, compared to the reference area.

  2. Effects of biomass removal from forests on soil acidification, nutrient balances and tree growth - Upscaling based on experimental data and model calculations as a base for mapping the need for ash recycling; Effekter av skogsbraensleuttag paa markfoersurning, naeringsbalanser och tillvaext - Uppskalning baserat paa experimentella data och modellberaekningar som grund foer kartlaeggning av behov av askaaterfoering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, Sofie; Akselsson, Cecilia; Olsson, Bengt; Belyazid, Salim; Zetterberg, Therese

    2008-12-15

    Increased biomass removal from forests has become more important as the demand for renewable energy has increased due to climate change. Stump removal, in addition to wholetree harvesting, is now considered in Sweden. However, increased biomass removal may affect the nutrient balances in forest soils causing nutrient depletion and increased acidification . It is therefore important to improve the understanding of the effects of different levels of biomass removal and to assess the need for liming. In this study, the effect of different levels of biomass removal regarding nutrient balances (N, P, Ca, Mg, K and Na), acidification and tree growth has been assessed in three ways; i) assessing the effect of wholetree harvesting from three site experiments, ii) calculations of nutrient balances in forest soils applying a nutrient mass balance model, and iii) dynamic modelling. Three different biomass scenarios have been assessed; stem harvesting, wholetree harvesting, and stump removal. It is important to develop and refine the calculation for stumps, and to develop realistic forestry scenarios for removal of stem, wholetree and stumps. i) Three site experiments : The experiments showed that biomass is reduced by about 15 % at the time of the first thinning following wholetree harvesting. Furthermore, the concentrations of nutrients in the trees are reduced by up to 10 % after wholetree harvesting. The studies also showed that base saturation in the organic layer and in the upper part of the mineral soil was reduced, often between 10 and 30 %, 15 and 26 years after the wholetree harvesting. It was also possible to find a relation between the C/N-ratio in the humus layer and the nitrogen content in the needles. ii) Mass balance calculation: This study shows that there is a great potential to use nutrient mass balance calculations and calculations of excess acidity to assess the rate of depletion for base cations and the need for liming. The mass balance calculation showed losses of Ca and Mg in practically all of Sweden, for stem-, wholetree harvesting and stump removal. These losses were not as significant for K. Increased biomass removal may lead to depletion of P in forest soils in all of Sweden. The calculation also showed that nitrogen accumulates in forest soil at stem harvesting, particularly in the south of Sweden. However, if the biomass removal increases (wholetree harvesting and stump removal), there is a risk of nitrogen depletion in the north, which may result in reduced tree growth. A calculated value for excess acidity was compared with the pool of exchangeable base cations in the root zone of the soil and showed that there are large areas in Sweden where the pool of base cations is depleted rather quickly both in pine and spruce forests. The rate of depletion is significantly quicker in spruce forest and increases with increased biomass removal. These areas may therefore be considered for liming. A sensitivity analysis, testing different levels of nutrient concentrations in trees as input to the mass balance calculation, showed that uncertainties in the nutrient concentrations result in uncertainties in the calculated result with wholetree harvesting, particularly for N, Ca and K. iii) Dynamic modelling: The results of the dynamic modelling was in agreement with the site experiments, regarding decreased base saturation in the organic layer. Furthermore, the dynamic modelling showed that this reduction was still evident at the second harvest, hence indicating that this effect is long lasting. The dynamic modelling showed small or no effects on stem biomass at harvesting where wholetree harvesting had been carried out at the previous harvest occasion. Further work with dynamic modelling (more sites, more scenarios and more forest rotations) can increase the understanding for wholetree harvesting even further

  3. Corrosion of steel in concrete in cooling water walls. Report part 2 - Effects of the relative humidity on chlorine-initiated corrosion of the reinforcing steel; Korrosion paa staal i betong i kylvattenvaegar. Delrapport 2 - Relativa fuktighetens inverkan paa kloridinitierad armeringskorrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Bertil; Ahlstroem, Johan; Sederholm, Bror; Nilsson, Lars-Olof; Lindmark, Sture

    2010-04-15

    Steel in concrete is protected against corrosion by the high pH value of the concrete. The passivity can however be broken if chloride ions penetrate into the concrete. It is presumed that a certain amount of chloride is needed to activate the steel. This value is called the threshold level. Even though many attempts have been performed no reliable value has been found. One of the reasons for this is probably that the threshold value is influenced by the humidity of the concrete. At very high humidity the transport of oxygen to the steel surface is slow and at low humidity the electrical resistance increases. The aim of this investigation has been to determine at what humidity the corrosion rate reaches its highest value. With this as a background new tests can be performed to predict the chloride threshold value. The results indicate that it most probably do exist a threshold value for each concrete quality. At chloride contents above the threshold value the steel looses its passivity. If severe corrosion takes place or not is however strongly dependent on the humidity of the concrete. In a close interval around 95 % relative humidity the steel is attacked by pitting corrosion when the threshold value is exceeded. At lower and higher humidity the passivity is incomplete and the corrosion rate in most cases marginal. Future investigations concerning chloride threshold values is recommended to be performed at a relative humidity of 95 % and by using reference samples according to proposed procedure.

  4. Operators tool to control fibre quality in the production of CTMP/TMP in an energy efficient way. New view shows a potential to reduce energy input; Operatoersverktyg foer styrning av fiberkvalitet vid tillverkning av CTMP/TMP paa ett energieffektivt saett. Ny syn visar paa potential foer energibesparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferritsius, Olof; Johansson, Ola; Ferritsius, Rita

    2011-10-15

    The main objective of the project was to provide operators in the two factories the opportunity to more actively identify causes of variations in energy efficiency in the production of TMP and CTMP. To achieve this, it was done in collaboration with the Umeaa Inst. of Design at Umeaa Univ., new types of operator interfaces that clearly demonstrate when changes are about to occur in the process variables respectively quality variables. In addition, a method was developed to calculate the energy efficiency on-line with regard to quality.

  5. Test households' experiences with a feedback system for power consumption of appliances designed on the basis of user driven innovation. A qualitative study; Testhusholdningers erfaringer med et feedbacksystem for elforbrug paa apparatniveau designet paa basis af brugerdrevet innovation - en kvalitativ undersoegelse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenhoej, A.; Thoegersen, J.

    2010-03-15

    In the project a system was developed and tested to provide electricity consumers detailed feedback on their electricity consumption at equipment level. In twenty test households equipment was installed for collecting consumption data at equipment level, and a 7 inch screen was installed, which showed the household's consumption in (kWh). Electricity consumption could be read continuously and compared with earlier periods, both in total and at appliance level. The evaluation of the families' use of the system was performed both by interviewing the twenty families personally in their homes and by calculating the change in power consumption during the period of the feedback device, based on consumption data supplied by the electric utility. For most households the newly developed system caused many technical problems in the beginning. Yet, consumption data showed that the 19 families, who had no business activities at home, saved an average of approx. 8% on their electricity consumption compared to the previous year. A comparable control group achieved a saving of 0.8% over the same period. Overall, the project shows that if power companies are better to visualize the power consumption to their customers by remote meters and user feedback, this will very likely result in more informed and educated consumers and thus result in electricity savings. The project shows, however, that there are still major technical and design challenges inherent in making such a system effectively. (ln)

  6. Stand growth 20 years after planting on Flakmossen - the significance of drainage and fertilization in an afforestation trial on a peat harvesting field in the province of Vaermland, West Central Sweden; Skogstillvaexten ca 20 aar efter plantering paa Flakmossen - dikningens och goedslingens betydelse vid beskogning paa en avslutad torvtaekt i Vaermland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehto, Bjoern

    2005-04-15

    This study was performed in an afforestation experiment established 1982 on an abandoned peat harvesting area, Flakmossen, in the province of Vaermland, SW Sweden. The experimental design include planting with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), in combination with various drainage intensities (20, 30, and 40 m between ditches), and fertilizer doses 0, 100, and 200 g PK per seedling applied at the date of planting. The aim of this study was to achieve more knowledge about the conditions on afforestation of peat harvesting areas, especially regarding drainage intensity and fertilization requirements, by means of determining the stand growth and yield in the Flakmossen trial. The forest growth did not differ significantly between the drainage intensities tested when the same amount of phosphor and potassium fertilizer was added. Thus, shorter distances between ditches than 40 m can not be recommended. When no fertilization was carried out seedling survival was very low, and the growth of survived seedlings was poor. The largest diameter and height growth were observed in the areas where the highest dose of phosphorus and potassium (200 g/seedling) was given. The results indicate that the average site growth capacity during a rotation period is 7-8 m{sup 3}/ha/yr. This is about 40 % higher than the average for all forest land in the province. The results indicate that afforestation of peat harvesting areas should be considered as effective land use.

  7. Addition of ash on drained forested peatlands in southern Sweden. Effects on forest production, fluxes of greenhouse gases, peat properties, understorey vegetation and groundwater chemistry; Tillfoersel av aska i skog paa dikad torvmark i soedra Sverige. Effekter paa skogsproduktion, floeden av vaexthusgaser, torvegenskaper, markvegetation och grundvattenkemi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstroem, Ulf; Bjoerk, Robert G; Ring, Eva; Ernfors, Maria; Jacobson, Staffan; Nilsson, Mats; Klemedtsson, Leif

    2009-02-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of wood-ash addition on drained peatlands in southern Sweden. Tree growth, greenhouse gases, peat properties, microbial biomass and processes, understory vegetation and groundwater chemistry were measured in three field experiments (some variables were not measured in all experiments): (i) 168 Perstorp, an oligotrophic mire with Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), where 2.5 tonnes d.w. of wood ash/ha (2.5WA) was added in 1982; (ii) 273 Anderstorp, also an oligotrophic mire with Scots pine, where 3.3 tonnes d.w. crushed ash/ha (3.3KA) and 6.6 tonnes d.w. crushed/ha (6.6KA) was added in 2003; (iii) 278 Skogaryd, a minerotrophic mire with Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.), where the same doses of crushed ash as in Anderstorp were added in 2006. Untreated controls were included in all experiments. At Anderstorp, increased tree growth was indicated, at least in the treatment with the highest ash dose during the first five years after treatment. The annual emissions of CO{sub 2}, CH4 and N{sub 2}O from the peat were unaffected. At Skogaryd, the growth was unaffected and the emissions of both CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O were reduced during the first two years after treatment. In general, the significant ash effects (2.5WA and 3.3KA evaluated) on peat characteristics, microbial biomass and processes were found in the upper soil (0-5 cm) at the recently treated sites (Anderstorp and Skogaryd), and at greater depths (5-30 cm) at Perstorp, where the ash was added 25 years ago. In the ash treatment at Perstorp, there was a shift in the plant community structure and a decrease in species diversity of the understory vegetation. However, at this point of time, the forest stand had become substantially denser than on the control plots. Hence, these effects on the understory vegetation may have been an indirect effect of the ash-induced altered tree stand properties. In Skogaryd, no shift in the plant community was found, but an increase in species diversity was detected two years after the application of 6.6KA. In Anderstorp, no effect on the understory vegetation was found. The wood-ash application at Skogaryd resulted in very few statistically significant effects on the 43 measured chemical variables in the groundwater. High background concentrations of for instance B, Ca, Mg and PO4-P probably contributed to this. During the first five years, addition of 3-6 tonnes d.w. crushed wood ash/ha on the studied drained peatlands did not render in an increased Global Warming Potential (GWP), but rather a reduction

  8. Pulse versus continuous peracetic acid applications: effects on Rainbow trout performance, biofilm formation and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peracetic acid (PAA) products are being introduced to aquaculture as sustainable disinfectants. Two strategies are used to apply PAA: short term high dose (1-2 mg L-1 PAA) periodic pulse applications or continuous low dose (< 0.2 mg L-1 PAA) applications. In the present study, these strategies and a...

  9. Architecturally Significant Requirements Identification, Classification and Change Management for Multi-tenant Cloud-Based Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chauhan, Muhammad Aufeef; Probst, Christian W.

    2017-01-01

    presented a framework for requirements classification and change management focusing on distributed Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS) systems as well as complex software ecosystems that are built using PaaS and SaaS, such as Tools as a Service (TaaS). We have demonstrated...

  10. Peracetic acid degradation in freshwater aquaculture systems and possible practical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Meinelt, Thomas; Straus, David L.

    2013-01-01

    , and it decays rapidly when applied to freshwater in aquaculture systems. The rapid decay is beneficial in an environmental context but a challenge to aquaculturists. To assess the impact of organic matter content and temperature on PAA decay, twenty-four batch experiments were set up using PAA doses ranging...... from 0 to 2.0 mg/l. The results revealed that increasing organic matter content significantly facilitated PAA decay, and positive temperature-decay correlations were found. Instantaneous PAA consumption above 0.2 mg/l was observed, and PAA half-lives were found to be in the order of a few minutes....... The relative PAA recovery, calculated as measured PAA concentration over time compared to the PAA concentration applied, decreased with declining dose. Measurements of PAA residuals during water treatment scenarios at three different freshwater fish farms revealed moderate to substantial PAA consumption...

  11. EFFECT OF DEXTRAN-graft-POLYACRYLAMIDE INTERNAL STRUCTURE ON FLOCCULATION PROCESS PARAMETERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezugla, T.; Kutsevol, N.; Shyichuk, A.; Ziolkowska, D.

    2008-01-01

    Dextran-graft-Polyacrylamide copolymers (D-g-PAA) of brush-like architecture were tested as flocculation aids in the model kaolin suspensions. Due to expanded conformation the D-g-PAA copolymers are more effective flocculants than individual PAA with close molecular mass. The internal structure of D-g-PAA copolymers which is determined by number and length of grafted PAA chains, the distance between grafts, etc., has the significant influence on flocculation behavior of such polymers

  12. Thiolated polymers: evaluation of the influence of the amount of covalently attached L-cysteine to poly(acrylic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmberger, Thomas F; Albrecht, Karin; Loretz, Brigitta; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2007-06-01

    It was the aim of this study to investigate the influence of the amount of thiol groups being covalently attached to poly(acrylic acid) 450 kDa on its properties. Five different PAA(450)-L-cysteine conjugates (PAA(450)-Cys) were synthesized bearing 53.0 (PAA I), 113.4 (PAA II), 288.8 (PAA III), 549.1 (PAA IV) and 767.0 (PAA V) micromol immobilized thiol groups per gram polymer. Mucoadhesion studies utilizing the rotating cylinder method, tensile studies and disintegration studies were performed. Self-crosslinking properties were measured by the increase in viscosity. Permeation studies were performed on rat small intestine and Caco-2 monolayers using sodium fluorescein as model drug. Following residence times on the rotating cylinder could be identified: PAA I 3.1; PAA II 5.2; PAA III 22.0; PAA IV 33.8; PAA V 53.7; control 1.3 [h]. The disintegration time of all PAA(450)-Cys tablets was strongly dependent on the degree of thiolation of the polymer. Self-crosslinking studies showed that the different PAA(450)-Cys conjugates (3% m/v) in phosphate buffer, pH 6.8, formed intramolecular disulfide bonds. In case of Caco-2 monolayer transport studies following P(app)-values could be identified: PAA I 9.8; PAA II 10.1; PAA III 11.1; PAA IV 8.9; PAA V 8.2; control 6.4 [P(app)x10(-6), cms(-1)]. Mucoadhesive and self-crosslinking properties are strongly dependent on the degree of thiolation of the polymer and with respect to transport studies, an optimum amount of covalently attached L-cysteine could be identified.

  13. Wastewater disinfection by peracetic acid: assessment of models for tracking residual measurements and inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Domenico; Gehr, Ronald; Bartrand, Timothy A; Liberti, Lorenzo; Notarnicola, Michele; Dell'Erba, Adele; Falsanisi, Dario; Haas, Charles N

    2007-07-01

    With its potential for low (if any) disinfection byproduct formation and easy retrofit for chlorine contactors, peracetic acid (PAA) or use of PAA in combination with other disinfectant technologies may be an attractive alternative to chlorine-based disinfection. Examples of systems that might benefit from use of PAA are water reuse schemes or plants discharging to sensitive receiving water bodies. Though PAA is in use in numerous wastewater treatment plants in Europe, its chemical kinetics, microbial inactivation rates, and mode of action against microorganisms are not thoroughly understood. This paper presents results from experimental studies of PAA demand, PAA decay, and microbial inactivation, with a complementary modeling analysis. Model results are used to evaluate techniques for measurement of PAA concentration and to develop hypotheses regarding the mode of action of PAA in bacterial inactivation. Kinetic and microbial inactivation rate data were collected for typical wastewaters and may be useful for engineers in evaluating whether to convert from chlorine to PAA disinfection.

  14. The relationship between young brown trout density and water quality in tributary streams to lakes in three acidic watersheds; Effekter av vannkvalitet og habitat paa tettheten av aureunger i tilloepsbekker til innsjoeer i tre forsuringsomraader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesthagen, Trygve; Larsen, Bjoern M.; Berger, Hans M.; Forseth, Torbjoern

    1998-09-01

    This publication examines the relationship between young brown trout densities in lake tributaries, and water chemistry and habitat variables. The study was carried out during the autumn in three acidic, freshwater river systems in western and southwestern Norway. The variability in brown trout density in the three watersheds in relation to varying concentrations of calcium and inorganic Al, were investigated. Water chemistry variables seem to limit the density. 38 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Pre-study of dynamic loads on the internals caused by a large pipe break in a BWR; Foerstudie av stroemningsinducerade laster paa interndelar vid brott i huvudcirkulationskretsarna i BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcinkiewicz, Jerzy; Lindgren, Anders [Det Norske Veritas Nuclear Technology AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Det Norske Veritas Nuclear Technology has performed a literature study of dynamic load on a BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) internals caused by a large pipe break. The goal of the study was to improve the knowledge about the physics of phenomena occurring in the RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel) after pipe break in the main circulation system and also to make a review of calculation methods, models and computer programs including their capabilities when calculating the dynamic loads. The report presents description of relevant parts of a BWR, initial and boundary conditions, and phenomena determining the loads - rapid depressurization and propagation of pressure wave (including none-equilibrium). Furthermore, the report generally describes possible methodologies for calculating the dynamic loads on internals after the pipe break and the experiences from calculations the dynamic loads with different methods (computer programs) including comparisons with experimental data. Fluid-Structure Interaction methodology and its importance for calculation of dynamic loads on reactor internals is discussed based on experimental data. A very intensive research program for studying and calculating the dynamic loads on internals after pipe breaks has been performed in USA and Germany during the seventies and the eighties. Several computer programs have been developed and a number of large-scale experiments have been performed to calibrate the calculation methods. In spite of the fact that all experiments were performed for PWR several experiences should be valid also for BWR. These experiences, connected mainly to capabilities of computer programs calculating dynamic loads, are discussed in the report.

  16. Digestion with initial biological hydrolysis step for enhanced methane production in sewage and biogas plants. Exploratory; Roetning med inledande biologiskt hydrolyssteg foer utoekad metanutvinning paa avloppsreningsverk och biogasanlaeggningar. Foerstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    Anaerobic degradation of organic matter is a multi-step process through the action of various groups of microorganisms whose optimum conditions can differ considerably regarding e.g. nutrients, pH demand, sensitivity for changes and patterns for growth and nutrient uptake. One way of optimizing the anaerobic digestion process, and thereby increase the biogas production and the reduction of organic matter, can be to physically divide the anaerobic digestion process in two steps consisting of an initial hydrolysis and acid production step followed by a methane production step in an anaerobic digester. One problem with the biogas processes of today is that not all organic matter that is added to the process becomes available for conversion into biogas. This is particularly evident in digestion of waste water treatment sludge where almost half of the organic matter added remains after anaerobic digestion. More efficient utilization of substrate in biogas plants is an important element to increase the profitability of biogas production. The possibility to use different pre-treatment methods is being discussed to increase the degree of conversion of organic matter into biogas in the digester. Pre-treatment methods are often energy as well as cost demanding and can require the addition of chemicals. To use the microbiological steps in the biogas process more efficiently by adding an initial hydrolysis step is a method that does not require the usage of chemicals or increased energy consumption. This pre-study is based on literature studies related to anaerobic digestion with initial biological hydrolysis and collected knowledge from full-scale plants, universities and suppliers of equipment. Nearly 70 published scientific articles relevant to the subject have been found in the performed literature searches. The articles have been subdivided according to the purpose of each article. A large part of the articles have concerned modelling of anaerobic digestion why a separate section of the report has been devoted to this. The literature study shows that the majority of the experiments with an initial hydrolysis step that have been performed with substrates such as waste water treatment sludge, organic waste or dairy manure have given advantages in the form of for example higher methane yield, increased degree of degradation and/or increased treatment capacity. In addition other advantages have been achieved by the method, for example elimination of foaming in digester, more stable process and pathogen inactivation. It is difficult to draw any general conclusions about optimal pH for hydrolysis. Optimal pH most likely differs, mainly in relation to the composition and characteristics of the substrate. It seems that pH control, in most cases, is not necessary to achieve a satisfactorily process, which is important considering the costs for addition of acid or base in a full scale application. Concerning process temperature an increase up to 55 deg. C have in most studies resulted in a higher hydrolysis rate. Optimal retention time and organic load for optimization of the hydrolysis process depends on the composition and characteristics of the substrate. For each combination of process parameters there is an optimum that changes if any of the process conditions does change. For waste water treatment sludge generally 4-7 days retention time seems to be appropriate and for dairy manure 2-4 days have been used successfully in studied scientific papers. Simulation of hydrolysis can show a clear optimum for which retention time gives the highest hydrolysis rate. This can be used to design a multi-step process so that the hydrolysis rate, and thus the biogas production, can be optimized. Modelling experiments also show that multi-step digestion processes can be simulated with a good correspondence to data. Hydrogen gas can be produced in an initial hydrolysis step which gives the opportunity to produce bio-hythane but can also be a safety risk if the plant is not designed for this. No safety problems with hydrogen formation have however been observed at identified full scale plants. Anaerobic digestion with an initial biological hydrolysis step should be possible to implement at a digestion plant with relatively simple means by mainly the addition of one stirred and insulated tank. The importance and effect of an initial separate hydrolyse step is however dependent on the characteristics of the substrate and other process parameters of the plant such as organic load and actual retention time. The added value achieved by addition of an extra step in the digestion process has to be revised compared to the costs and the additional work required for process monitoring and maintenance. Six full scale plants in Sweden (3), Germany (1) and USA (2) that are in operation, or have done experiments, with separate biological hydrolysis step have been identified.

  17. Coal mining at Lunckefjell, Svalbard. Environmental impact assessment: landscape, vegetation, wildlife and geology; Kulldrift i Lunckefjell paa Svalbard. Konsekvensutredning for tema landskap, vegetasjon og planteliv, dyreliv og geologiske forekomster/fossiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, D.; Eide, N.E.; Erikstad, L.; Coulsen, S.; Andersen, R.

    2010-08-15

    Store Norske Spitsbergen Grubekompani AS (SNSG) plans to start mining in Lunckefjell, Svalbard. The plan includes a new road over the Marthabreen glacier, aggregated supply areas and technical installations in both ends of the road. Existing infrastructure through the mine Svea Nord and in the Svea area will be used for transport and shipping. The Lunckefjell mine has an expected working period of 4-8 years. The area borders Nordenskiold Land National Park. This report covers the following themes of impact assessment scheme: landscape, vegetation and flora, terrestrial wildlife (birds, mammals and invertebrates) and specified sites of geological value (including fossils). The marine wildlife is not included in this report. The assessment put focus on all stages of the mining operation including the establishing and closing periods. In the closing period all technical installations will be removed and the landscape will as far as possible be restored to original state. The mining operation will have a landscape impact on the glacier landscape on Marthabreen. The installations will be visible from Reindalen within the Nordenskiold Land National Park. Under the operating period SNSG will establish technical installations that will alter the present wilderness stat of the area as defined by the INON approach. The future wilderness status will depend on how well the landscape can be restored during the closing period. The plans will not have large effects on specified sites of geological value. The mining operation will give some discharge of polluted water to the hydrologic system of Marthabreen. The main discharge will be pumped out to the Svea area and handled there. The polluted water has a potential effect an invertebrate fauna near the outlet. These areas are, however, without vegetation and have very few invertebrates. It is a long distance over the glacier down to the main valley and more vegetated areas. The pollution will be highly diluted and any resulting pollution of natural systems below the glacier is assessed to be minor. Transport over the glacier in wintertime can have an effect on wildlife. Planned transport frequency will possibly not cause negative effects at the population level. It is however important to limit and concentrate the transport as much as possible. As long as all motorized traffic is restricted to frozen and snow-covered periods the mining operation and transport over land will have no effects on vegetation and flora in the area. The report indicates mitigations linked to all phases of the planned mining operation. (Author)

  18. Swedish nuclear power. A review of the legislation in the nuclear energy field from the second world war til the new millennium; Svensk kaernenergi. En expose oever lagstiftningen paa kaernenergiomraadet fraan andra vaerldskriget till millennieskiftet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomstrand, Edward [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Faculty of Law

    2005-02-01

    This thesis covers the history of the legislation regarding the production of nuclear energy in Sweden. When the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, it became apparent that enormous amounts of energy could be harnessed from uranium nuclei. Among the first Swedish laws written regarding nuclear energy was one enabling the Government to take control of the abundant uranium deposits in Sweden, using a licence-based system. Thereafter, the Government tried to direct what type of nuclear technology should be developed by means of political decisions. However, this objective was not realized for reasons beyond the Government's control. Sweden passed the Atomic Energy Act in 1956. This act was also licence based. Twelve commercial reactors were constructed, making Sweden one of the world's largest producers of nuclear energy per capita. Until the 1970s, there was little political disagreement about nuclear reactors. This changed drastically and after the Three-Mile-Island incident, a referendum concerning nuclear energy was held. The results were and remain difficult to interpret. Nevertheless, certain political decisions were made based on these results leading to legislation prohibiting the Government from licensing new reactors, and even criminalizing preparations for new reactors in Sweden. The struggle then turned to when and how Sweden's nuclear reactors should be phased-out. A law regarding this issue was implemented in 1997 which resulted in the first shutdown of a commercial reactor, Barsebaeck 1, in 1999. It has been argued that this case, RAa 1999 ref. 76, regarding the legality of the shutdown might be the most controversial and comprehensive of the century in Sweden.

  19. Regulation of the monopoly operation based on income framework. A description of background, principles, rules, and special problem areas; Regulering av energiverkenes monopolvirksomhet basert paa inntektsrammer. En beskrivelse av bakgrunn, prinsipper, regelverk, spesielle problemomraader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasto, Ketil

    1997-05-02

    Until 1997, Norwegian electric utilities determined the transfer tariffs so as to fully cover their costs. Since 1993, the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE) has determined an annual maximum yield rate that in principle could only be attained through efficient operation of the grid. According to this report, it has been hard to follow up this principle and network owners have been able to charge maximum yield rates. To remedy some inherent weaknesses of a regulation based on cost coverage, NVE has changed the rules to be based on the income framework determined for each network owner individually. The actual costs no longer determine the tariffs. The network owners must now give preference to measures and costs within the determined income framework. Cost reductions and efficiency improvements are rewarded with increased yield while increased costs give reduced yield. For a rational network owner this provides an incentive for increased efficiency. NVE will change the income framework each year in the five-year period 1997-2001 in relation to inflation, development of energy delivered and the requirements on improved efficiency. This system is expected to contribute to a rational network development which will better attend to the uppermost interests of society

  20. Aviation and Climate - An updated list of status of research on the effects of climate emissions from aircraft; Luftfart og klima. En oppdatert oversikt over status for forskning paa klimaeffekter av utslipp fra fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Marianne T.; Berntsen, Jan S.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S. [Center for international climate and environmental research, Oslo, (Norway)

    2011-07-01

    Today carries approximately 23,000 flights over 2.2 billion passengers annually. On a global basis air travel accounts for almost 2 to 2.5 percent of the total anthropogenic Co2 emissions. Domestic civil aviation in Norway emitted 1.05 million tonnes of Co2 in 2008, according to reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 2011). Emissions from international aviation from Norwegian airports in 2008 was just under 1.2 million tonnes of Co2 (National Inventory Report, 2010). Aviation is a sector that has been growing: in Norway the emissions from domestic aviation increased by 55 percent from 1990 to 2008, and also globally emissions have increased. There has been an even more powerful increase in traffic, but this increase did not been steady: The development is closely linked to the economy and the reduction is observed in periods of economic downturn. New technology and streamlining flight patterns made aircraft more energy efficient, which has helped to reduce emissions, but it has not been enough to compensate for the strong growth in traffic. If this trend continues, the total emissions from aviation increase further. In addition to Co2 consists emissions from airplanes a variety of other components that affect the climate, either directly or indirectly through chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere. This is not unique to aviation, but also apply to other sectors. The impact is complex and complicated, some mechanisms provide a cooling, others warming. Some effects are regional and have a geographic (and per day) variation in radiative forcing. Regional heterogeneous forcing can potentially change temperature and pressure distribution in the atmosphere and hence circulation patterns. The various emissions also have very different lifetimes in the atmosphere and affects the climate of the different time scales. For a number of mechanisms providing climate change are the chemical and meteorological conditions in the atmosphere essential. Changes in those areas or heights planes operates, may thus lead to changes in climate.(eb)

  1. The Wind Power Handbook. Planning and approval of wind power plants on shore and in coastal areas; Vindkraftshandboken. Planering och proevning av vindkraftverk paa land och i kustnaera vattenomraaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-01-15

    The Wind Power Handbook is designed to make it easier for municipalities and wind energy companies to plan wind power projects. It contains the issues to be considered when planning and review, both the legal bases under essentially Planning and Building Act and the Environmental Code and the environmental assessments. The manual is primarily addressed to the municipalities and various operators. There are many interests to be met at a wind power establishment, which requires knowledge and cooperation of the different actors on the planning and approval process to be effective. Here we have gathered important knowledge base to facilitate the process and to contribute to a balanced decision

  2. Ash addition after whole-tree harvesting on fertile sites in southern Sweden Establishment of two field trials; Askaaterfoering efter skogsbraensleuttag paa boerdig skogsmark i soedra Sverige Anlaeggning av tvaa faeltfoersoek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstroem, Ulf; Hoegbom, Lars; Jacobson, Staffan; Lundstroem, Hagos; Ring, Eva

    2012-02-15

    In Sweden, the Swedish Forest Agency recommend ash recycling after whole-tree harvest (WTH), i.e. the whole tree above the stump is harvested. If this recommendation is complied, ash recycling will become a quite extensive forestry practice. To gain more knowledge regarding effects of ash on tree growth, storage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in the upper soil, and soil-water chemistry, two field experiments were established. The experimental design was a randomized block design. Both experiments were installed on quite fertile sites in southern Sweden. On fertile sites (C/N less than 30), ash addition is hypothesized to increase tree growth, reduce the storage of C and N in the upper soil, and increase the concentrations of nitrate in soil water. One experiment (291 Guvarp) was established on a recently harvested clear cut. The sample plots were soil scarified by disc trenching and planted with Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) seedlings. Seedling height was measured at planting, and, two months later, seedling survival and height growth in 2011 was recorded. The other experiment (290 Bala) was located to a Norway spruce stand that was thinned by WTH. The initial registration and sampling comprised stand data and sampling of the upper soil (FH-layer). In addition, suction cups were installed at 50 cm depth for sampling of soil water. The experiments were designed for long-term monitoring, comprising several decades. For most of the variables registered, data did not show any significant differences among means for the plots representing different treatments. Pre-treatment data for individual plots showed acceptable comparability among plots within the blocks, which is a good starting point for detecting future changes caused by the treatments

  3. The return of airships - report 2. Study on wind power expansion in Sweden with focus on transport and logistics issues; Luftskeppens aaterkomst - rapport 2. Studie om vindkraftens utbyggnad i Sverige med fokus paa transport och logistikfraagor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, Matts; Svensson, Ulf

    2011-11-15

    This study deals with the efforts carried out in Sweden in the wind power area as part of the adjustment process of the Swedish energy system. An effort which is important for achieving parliamentary climate goals and other objectives of the energy policy. The purpose of the study is to find attractive solutions to the transportation and logistics issues. If handled in a less advantageous way it can be costly for the society, the businesses, local residents, the natural systems and for the climate. The emphasis and main focus of the study is on transport- and logistics-related issues. First, we compared conventional transport solutions with the option to also use lighter-than-air technology, where the focus has been on comparisons of application and cost standpoint. Secondly, we have put the issues into a broader development framework as the expansion of wind power generates transports affecting use of existing infrastructure, building of new infrastructure and various ecosystem services as well as land use in general

  4. Bonus systems and their effects on safety: an interview-based pilot study at the Swedish nuclear power plants; Bonussystem och dess inverkan paa saekerheten: en intervjubaserad pilotstudie vid de svenska kaernkraftverken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torbioern, Ingemar; Mattson, Malin [Inst. of Psychology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    The aim of this pilot study has been to describe and analyse potential effects on safety-related behaviour and risks associated with the bonus systems currently used at Swedish nuclear plants. To this end and in order to establish a frame of reference several theories on motivation were consulted regarding the relevance of monetary rewards. In addition empirical evidence on effects upon behaviours in general and safety behaviours in particular was taken into consideration, as well as a systems and a rationalist perspective on organisations. The resulting frame of reference was used for a descriptive mapping of the bonus systems and for the formulation of a semi-structured interview schedule intended to capture the experiences of those concerned by the systems. A total of 15 interviews were performed with staff of different functions and organisational positions. Results of the study do not indicate any negative effects on safety-related behaviours. Rather they indicate that safety-behaviours may be promoted insofar as bonus rewards are linked to performance goals concerning safety. All of the bonus-systems may be characterised as low in incentive intensity, i.e. produce small effects on motivation and performance. Still, as the systems differ in design and in the way they are perceived, they also represent different challenges in order to function more efficiently as parameters

  5. Hydrological and hydro-geological effects on wetlands and forest areas from the repository at Forsmark. Results from modelling with MIKE SHE; Hydrologiska och hydrogeologiska effekter paa vaatmarker och skogsomraaden av slutfoervarsanlaeggningen i Forsmark. Resultat fraan modellering med MIKE SHE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, Erik; Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran; Gustafsson, Ann-Marie; Aneljung, Maria; Sabel, Ulrika (DHI Sverige AB, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-06-15

    This report provides background material for investigations and associated impact assessments concerning water operations in terms of withdrawal of groundwater from the final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. The report presents detailed modelling results in the form of supplementary sensitivity analyses and detailed hydrological and hydrogeological analyses of specific nature objects in Forsmark. The sensitivity analyses aim to investigate the sensitivity of the modelling results to i) the meteorological conditions, ii) impervious surfaces and iii) the model description of the present SFR (final repository for short-lived radioactive waste). A number of simulation cases aim to study cumulative effects of groundwater withdrawal from an extended SFR. The simulations are evaluated with respect to the groundwater table drawdown and head changes in the bedrock. The report analyses the hydrogeological and hydrological conditions for a number of selected wetland objects and forest objects. The selection of objects aims to cover different types of valuable nature objects at different geographical locations in relation to the influence area of the groundwater table drawdown. The analysis comprises groundwater levels at all nature objects, whereas wetlands with particularly high nature values have been studied in detail with respect to surface water levels, the need for water supply and object-specific water balances. These studies have been performed for different meteorological conditions in the form of a type (2006) and a statistically normal, dry and wet year, respectively, with a return period of 100 years for the dry- and wet years. All simulations for disturbed conditions with a fully open repository are done with a hydraulic conductivity of K{sub inj} = 10-7 or 10-8 m/s in the grouted zone. The results show that time-dependent precipitation and snow melt have large influence on the temporal variations of the depth to the groundwater table for undisturbed conditions. Precipitation and snow melt also have large influence on the drawdown of the groundwater table due to the groundwater withdrawal from the repository. For a normal year, based on precipitation data from the reference normal period 1961-1990, the annual average size of the influence area is 1.15 km2 for a grouting level of K{sub inj} = 10-7 m/s. Compared to the normal year, the size of the influence area is 17% larger during a dry year and 19% smaller during a wet year. The groundwater table drawdown also varies during individual years. For the type year 2006, the size of the influence area is approximately three times larger in November than in May. Implementation of the present SFR underground facility in the modelling tool MOUSE yields a groundwater inflow to SFR of 6.7 L/s, compared to a measured inflow of some 6 L/s. According to model calculations, the groundwater withdrawal from SFR causes groundwater table drawdown in an area with a size of 0.17 km2. The influence area is concentrated to the SFR pier and areas with vertical fracture zones in the rock, located north and northeast of Lake Bolundsfjaerden. The head change in the bedrock at the level 50 m b s l reaches the model boundary in the northeast. An extension of the SFR facility is planned. According to the modelling results, the extension will only yield small additional groundwater table drawdown and head changes in the bedrock. For the wetland objects, even a relatively small drawdown of the groundwater table may cause vegetation changes and ultimately overgrowth. The forests are not as sensitive to a drawdown of the groundwater table. According to the model calculations, the groundwater withdrawal from the repository yields a groundwater table drawdown that exceeds 0.1 m as an annual average for a normal year in one fifth the studied wetland objects and in half of the forest objects. The fraction of objects with a groundwater table drawdown is higher during a dry year and lower during a wet year. The surface-water depth in the studied wetland objects ranges from a few centimetres to half a metre. It is judged that a number of wetland objects may require water supply in order to maintain an undisturbed water level during groundwater withdrawal from the repository. According to the modelling results, the water-supply requirements are largest during spring and autumn. In one of the wetland objects, the water requirement is 3 L/s as an annual average for the type year 2006. Object-specific water balances and particle tracking calculations show that the inflow to the wetland objects mainly takes place through the Quaternary deposits. This is in accordance with the conceptual model, according to which there is a shallow groundwater flow system with many local recharge and discharge areas. The groundwater withdrawal from the repository implies that the water balance is changed for some of the studied wetland objects.

  6. Effects on the trout and the evertebrate population in the stream Vulluelva during the first year following mass mortality by oil spill; Effekter paa oerret og bunndyr i Vulluelva foerste aaret etter et massivt oljeutslipp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, R.A.; Noest, T.; Finstad, B.

    1996-12-31

    Following the crash of a tanker truck in the autumn of 1994, 27000 litres of petrol, paraffin and diesel oil accidentally spilt into the river Vulluelva, Norway. This report discusses the observed biological effects of the spill. The spill immediately killed the entire brown trout parr population in the lower half of the stream and 30% of the sea trout spawning population. A few weeks later, after extensive clean-up and of heavy flood, significant numbers of trout spawned within a limited river stretch in the lowest part of the stream and not in the normally more favoured spawning habitats further upstream. Analyses of the chloride content of blood plasma of parr and spawners sampled at the final phase of the spawning period showed only a few cases of stressed physiological condition. The significant variation in the observed egg survival in the river stretch preferred for spawning may be related to possible negative impacts by hydrocarbons. The study demonstrates no negative impacts on fry growth during the first season following the contamination. Mass mortality of the zoobenthos followed the oil spill in October 1994 and the populations of the dominating groups were reduced to a very low level. The recovery of zoobenthos was not complete until 9-10 months later. 62 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Link between bird survival and water temperature: the greenhouse effect is a factor in sea-bird killing; Sammenheng mellom fuglenes overlevelse og vanntemperaturen: drivhuseffekten er med paa aa drepe sjoefugl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    In a joint project between NINA and the University of Tromsoe it has been established that a few degrees warmer sea water may mean win or vanish for Norwegian oceanic birds of the Atlantic Ocean. It is not the warm sea water as such that kills the birds, but rather the lack of food. When capellin and sand eel do not tolerate that the water is getting warmer, food scarcity occurs for the seabirds. Sea temperature has already risen during the last few decades and is predicted by climatologists to rise further in the coming years. A rise in water temperature of just 1 {sup o}C in the winter habitat of the white-breasted guillemot has been shown to reduce its survival by four per cent. In the long term this corresponds to a reduction of the life span by more than 50 per cent, from 25 to 11 years. Similar but less clear trends have been found in some of the other species, notably atlantic puffin and razorbill. The exact cause of the temperature effect is still not completely understood, but the direct effect is probably the impact of climatic change on the chain of food. In 2004, British seabird colonies of the North Sea suffered almost complete breeding collapse when the sand eel came close to disappearing from the sea. British scientists explained this as caused by North Sea water being warmed by the greenhouse effect. Reducing the greenhouse effect by curtailing the emission of carbon dioxide would probably alleviate the situation for the affected seabirds. Urgent steps are not easily taken since the critical phase for survival of the seabirds is the winter, when the birds are distributed all over an enormous sea area.

  8. Sweden's primary production and supplies of food - Possible consequences of a lack of fossil energy; Sveriges primaerproduktion och foersoerjning av livsmedel - Moejliga konsekvenser vid en brist paa fossil energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baky, Andras; Widerberg, Anna; Landquist, Birgit; Norberg, Ida; Berlin, Johanna; Engstroem, Jonas; Svanaeng, Karin; Lorentzon, Katarina; Cronholm, Lars-Aake; Pettersson, Ola

    2013-07-01

    This report provides an insight into what may be the consequences for Sweden's food supply if the ability to import sufficient quantities of fossil energy decreases. The situation described is an imaginary situation that arose quickly and unexpectedly by political unrest or natural disaster. There has thus been no preparation for the situation. The length of the crisis is set to a period of 3-5 years. During that time, there is assumed no technological development or other structural change, that will change conditions compared to the current situation. If the crisis becomes more prolonged it will however gradually force major changes. Today's food supply in Sweden and much of the world depends on a constant supply of fossil energy. In the production of food is used, for example, large amounts of diesel, heating oil and mineral fertilizers. This applies to primary production of vegetables and animal breeding but also to a high degree of for user-industries , which ensures that the raw materials become finished food products for consumers. Between the different stages there are transport's in many directions that depend on fossil energy. Three different scenarios are termed low deprivation, lack of resources and high deprivation. They represent different failure scenarios where the availability of fossil energy is assumed to decrease. The three levels are tentatively set as a decrease of 25%, 50% and 75% compared with current levels. These percentages are set as initial discussion-levels from which calculations have been made of how the different stages of production will be affected.

  9. Consequences of increased NOx emission to air during the treatment of gas from Kvitebjoern and the Haltenbanken Soer at Kaarstoe; Konsekvenser av oekte NOx utslipp til luft ved behandling av gass fra Kvitebjoern og Haltenbanken Soer paa Kollsnes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, Cristina

    1998-11-01

    This report discusses the consequences of increasing the emission to air of nitrogen oxides if landing facilities for North-Sea gas is developed at Kaarstoe, Norway. Three alternatives are considered. The pollution from such a facility comes in addition to the existing plant at Kaarstoe, the Aasgard terminal and the planned gas power station. The report considers concentrations in air, deposition to ground, impact on acidification of surface water and the impact of the natural environment. Concentrations in air have been calculated. The assessment of the deposition of nitrogen oxides to ground, the assessment of acidification of surface water and the assessment of the impact on flora and fauna are based on a consequence analysis for a gas power station at Kaarstoe. The influence of the development of the Kaarstoe plant on the local environment is largely determined by the amount of emissions and the tallness of the chimney. The regional impact is not very dependent on the emission conditions and the global impact is independent of the emission conditions and, to some extent, of the emission site.

  10. Need for new effect based on large-scale development of renewable energy in Northern Europe; Behov for ny effect paa basis av storskala utbygging av fornybar energi i Nord-Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorman, Gerard; Grinden, Bjoern; Fuchs, Ida

    2007-02-15

    Changes in the effect balance in Northern Europe between 2005 and 2020 are evaluated. Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany and the Netherlands are the countries included in the analysis. Scenarios from studies conducted in the different countries have been used as starting points. Some scenarios give explicit figures for effect installations, but most only provide estimations on the energy balance. In these cased it has been necessary to estimate how much effect there is behind the energy figures. Utilization time analyses have been employed for this, primarily. Moreover, emphasis has been put on the modelling of wind power's effect contribution, and a method based on the reliability of the production system has been employed, giving an effect varying between 18 and 24 percent in the different scenarios. Also, the need for regulation reserves has been considered. Four scenarios have been outlined along the axes growth in consumption (high/low) and share of renewable energy (high/low). All scenarios show considerable reductions in the effect balance from 2005 to 2020, varying from about 15.000 MW to 22.000 MW. The largest reduction is in Germany, but Sweden too has large reductions in each of the scenarios. The most important underlying causes are the reduction or dismantling of nuclear power and the development of large amounts of wind power, and in Germany also the development of solar power. In Norway too, the effect balance is weakened with the existing scenarios. Here, wind power and small-scale hydroelectric power contribute with relatively much energy, but little effect. The biggest insecurity in the analysis is how much thermal capacity there will be in operation in 2020, especially in Germany. In a system with much wind power, the utilization time for some of the thermal production may be short, and it may be phased out if no support schemes for effect reserves are set up. Thermal capacity as short term backup for wind power will have to compete with other alternatives such as hydropower and reduction in consumption. There are of course some uncertainties related to studies such as this. Some uncertainties can be reduced by looking more thorough at wind power's effect contribution and various forms of bio energy in a Northern European context, and the possibilities of taking advantage of cables between Norway and the continent for effect backup and regulation purposes (ml)

  11. The effects of first-year shoot cut back on willow biomass production during the first and second cutting cycle; Effekter av skottnedklippning efter etableringsaaret paa produktionen under foersta och andra omdrevet i salixodlingar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verwijst, Theo; Nordh, Nils-Erik

    2010-05-15

    During the early phase of commercialisation of willow short rotation forestry in Sweden it was considered to be important to cut down the shoots after the establishment year, and this practice still is maintained today. Several reasons then were put forward for cutting down. The primary goal was to stimulate sprouting of more shoots, thereby obtaining a rapidly closing stand which could compete with weeds. Another reason was that it would enable weed control during the second year. In some of the older clones, which exhibited bow-shaped shoots, cutting down was supposed to lead to more straight growing shoots which rendered less biomass loss at harvest. In the meantime, the practice of cutting down has been abandoned in Denmark, and there are reasons to scrutinise the effects of cutting down on available biomass production figures from Swedish field trials. The main goal with this project was to try to quantify the effects of cutting down on the biomass productivity of willow during the first and later cutting cycles. Thus far, efforts in this research topic have not led to a scientifically documented quantification on the effects, and therefore a scientific basis for hands-on recommendations to willow growers is lacking. The purpose of our work consequently was to generate practical recommendations with regard to the management measure of cutting down, and the audience targeted consisted of willow growers (farmers, land-owners and entrepreneurs) who are deciding about and perform the actual management of willow stands to obtain higher yields. This information also is of large relevance for all extension workers in willow growing. Data have been collected from a field trial which was planted in Flosta, Enkoeping, in 2005. As this was the only experiment on cutting down which ran during the project period, we searched the archives which contained material from another experiment which ran from 1992 to 1996 in Ultuna, Uppsala, and from which some date were collected as late as in 2000. Furthermore, the archives contained data from an experiment at the Brunnby experimental farm in Vaesteraas, which ran from 1991 to 1994. Very few papers on cutting down as a management measure were found in peer-reviewed articles, while foreign manuals for willow growers usually referred to the recommendations as described in the Swedish manuals. Results from the three field trials in Sweden, which were established with the aim to quantify the effects of cutting down of willow shoots after one year on subsequent biomass production, show that no positive effects of cutting down on yield have occurred at all. In contrary, the results altogether show that cutting down has an adverse effect on subsequent biomass production in willow during the first cutting cycle, and that cutting down also may cause a lower productivity during later cutting cycles. We conclude that cutting down, apart from being a costly management measure, leads to production losses in willow cultivation. We recommend that cutting down should not be used as a routine measure after the establishment season. This recommendation contradicts the current recommendation which currently is advocated in Sweden. By means of extension work, current practice should be changed to obtain higher biomass yields and better profit in willow short rotation forests

  12. Improved combustion performance of waste-fired FB-boilers -The influence of the dynamics of the bed on the air-/fuel interaction; Foerbaettrad foerbraenningsprestanda vid avfallsfoerbraenning i FB-pannor -Baeddynamikens inverkan paa luft-/braensleomblandningen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Johanna (Hoegskolan i Boraas (Sweden)); Pallares, David; Thunman, Henrik; Johnsson, Filip (Chalmers (Sweden)); Andersson, Bengt-Aake (E.on/Hoegskolan i Boraas (Sweden)); Victoren, Anders (Metso Power AB (Sweden)); Johansson, Andreas (SP, Boraas (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    One of the key benefits of fluidized bed combustion is that the bed - through mixing of fuel and air and accumulated heat - facilitates combustion at low stoichiometry and with low emissions. Even so, it is not unusual that waste-fired FB-boilers are operated at 6-8% oxygen that corresponds to 30-40% higher flows of gas than theoretically needed. In addition to that and in comparison to grate furnaces, FB-boiler can cause high pressure drop losses because of the fluidization of the bottom bed, which in turn are associated with high costs for power (fans). This work aims therefore at increasing the knowledge for how the dynamics of the bed affects the air and fuel mixture. Methods to explain and characterize the phenomenon have been derived within this work showing: - Distribution of air in a bed for various cases and the influence of pressure drop, bed height and fluidization velocity - A semi-empiric method to calculate an even bubble distribution - The relation between fluidization and fuel distribution for various fluidization flows and fuels - Dispersion rates for various fuels - Volatilization rates for waste in relation to biomass The result can be useful when optimizing units, for instance through finding as low pressure drops as possible with an even bubble distribution, low risk for sintering and unwanted emissions. The work has thereby reached its ultimate goal of increasing the generic knowledge about waste combustion in FB-boiler

  13. Effects of heavy metals and some biotic factors on ectomycorrhizal Scots pine in northern Finland; Effekter av tungmetaller och naagra biotiska faktorer paa tall och dess ektomykorrhiza i norra Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen-Jonnarth, U.

    1996-04-01

    In this work, nickel and copper exposure on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was studied experimentally under field conditions. The significance of some biotic factors was also studied. We wanted to test whether the understorey lichen layer has a protective role against nickel exposure, and whether it has any effects on pine seedlings. Effects of defoliation, simulating sawfly grazing, were also examined, since the reduced photosynthesis can be assumed to affect root growth and ectomycorrhiza negatively. Ectomycorrhizal colonization has been found to decrease in pinyon pine due to defoliation. 19 refs

  14. Guidelines for methodological choices when calculating impacts on the Swedish environmental objectives from changing the energy use; Vaegledning till metodval vid beraekning av paaverkan fraan foeraendrad energianvaendning paa de svenska miljoemaalen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Rebecka; Gode, Jenny; Axelsson, Ulrik

    2009-01-15

    The guidelines in this report have been developed by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, within a project financed by the Environmental Objectives Council, the Swedish Energy Agency and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. The idea originated from an earlier project for the Swedish Energy Agency and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, where the potential of a business model for energy efficiency (Energy Performance Contracting, EPC) to contribute to fulfil the national environmental objectives was studied. When environmental impacts from the studied EPC projects was to be calculated, it was evident how many difficult methodological choices one is faced with when trying to follow up the environmental impacts from projects changing the energy use. A second project was then performed to further analyse the issues involved. The result is this guideline report. The guidelines are on the first hand directed at companies and municipalities performing projects with effects on the energy use, that want to calculate impacts from these on the Swedish environmental objectives. The guidelines can also be useful for county administrations, central authorities and other actors with interest in the issues. A starting point for the recommendations is the Swedish environmental objectives, with focus on those of special interest in relation to energy use and airborne emissions. These are Reduced climate impact, Clean air, Natural acidification only, Zero eutrophication and A good built environment. The environmental objectives are mainly concentrated on what affects the Swedish environment. However, not only emissions in Sweden cause such effects, but also emissions in other countries can be transported by air and fall down and cause impacts in Sweden. Thus, the guidelines focus on Sweden, but include to a certain extent also emissions in other countries. Another starting point is that the guidelines are developed to follow up effects from individual projects or measures. This differs in fundamental aspects from follow up of effects within a geographic unit (for example a municipality) or of environmental impacts from an organisation on a yearly basis. When following up environmental impacts from something other than a project perspective, the recommendations given are not doubtlessly applicable, since what are the most correct methodological choices differ depending on the starting point. The report is called guidelines, and not handbook or manual. This is because of the fact that there are many aspects to consider in the topical methodological choices, and the recommendations are to be considered as approximations. The aim of the report is therefore also to function as a knowledge survey in the area of environmental assessment of energy use, with in-depth background information of the recommendations and references to supplementary literature. The guidelines cover stationary energy use (hence, transport is not covered), with primary energy and life cycle perspectives to embrace total environmental impacts and facilitate comparisons between energy carriers. However, comparisons should always be made with caution, since there are several aspects to consider in conversions between energy carriers. Such aspects are how impacts are transferred between local, national and international levels, between Sweden and other countries, or between different environmental objectives. Weighting between such aspects are very difficult, and measures that reduce impacts in general are therefore preferable, when this is possible

  15. Impact assessment of the effect of natural values of interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn. Laxemar; Konsekvensbedoemning av paaverkan paa naturvaerden vid mellanlagring, inkapsling och slutfoervaring av anvaent kaernbraensle i Oskarshamn. Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Magnus (Ekologigruppen AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    The report describes the natural environment and its natural values in Laxemar Simpevarp, the final disposal facility's impacts on the natural environment and measures that can be taken to reduce these. Both terrestrial and aquatic environments are described. Impact on the natural environments of groundwater reduction is not discussed here but described in a separate report, together with consequences of radiation. The report shall serve as a basis for the Environmental Impact Assessment for the application according to the Environment Act.

  16. Environmental policy based on economic efficiency - The case of policy instrument choice for air quality standards for nitro dioxide and particles; Miljoepolitik paa samhaellsekonomisk grund - En fallstudie om styrmedlet miljoekvalitetsnormer foer partiklar och kvaevedioxid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyddoke, Roger; Nerhagen, Lena

    2010-09-15

    The purpose of the present project is to examine whether or not economic analysis and quantified assessments have been part of the information used when designing and implementing these environmental quality standards. Such assessments are regularly used in the transport sector in Sweden but several studies in Sweden and abroad have found that this is not the case for environmental policies. Most of these studies argue that this type of information is important for an efficient design of policy instruments and abatement measures. Efficient policy design was also considered an important part in the new environmental policy and the Swedish EPA was commissioned to develop methods of integrating costs of environmental impacts into economic and social decision-making models but also to investigate the possibility to use economic policy instruments. In the beginning of the report we provide a theoretical discussion about the value of doing socioeconomic analysis. It is argued that structured and quantified assessments such as cost-benefit or cost-efficiency analysis can help to clarify the extent of the environmental problem and the efficiency of a policy instruments and their impact on the community. Economic reasoning also provides a basis for a discussion about possible reasons for why this type of information may not have been used on a regular basis. The main conclusion from this report is that neither the current design of these environmental quality standards nor the policy instruments chosen have been based on quantified economic assessments. This is so even though Sweden for the emissions considered in this report has adopted limit values that are more far reaching than those stated in EC directives. Moreover, although new evidence regarding the harmfulness of these pollutants has emerged, no adaptations to the original limit values have been undertaken. Nor are the action programmes, which have been implemented in cities where the environmental quality standard (or standards) is exceeded, based on these types of assessments. This is so even though it is a requirement stated in the Environmental Code, but also in the information provided to the local authority by the Swedish EPA. There appears to be several reasons for the lack of economic information and quantified assessment in the decision process. One is introduced already in the government bill which, regarding air quality, states that the objective that low risk levels for human health of emissions in air are not to be exceeded, while at the same time stating that evaluations of the consequences on overall society from different policy measures needs to be done. In practice, the introduction of these strict limit values appears to have reduced the incentives to evaluate the trade-offs between these and other goals in society. There was also room for interpretation of the actual meaning of the Code concerning the environmental quality standards where the Swedish EPA made the interpretation that these were strict values that could not be exceeded (a stop rule). The strict interpretation of the Code also seems to have reduced the incentives to undertake more thorough evaluations. There are however additional reasons for why these analyses are not carried out. One is that evaluations of the policy instrument have only been done by legal expertise while the action programmes have mainly been produced by persons with a background in environmental sciences or transport planning. Not even the National Road Administration, that has a long tradition of cost benefit analysis, has used cost benefit analysis in the area of air quality evaluation regarding road transport. A hypothesis is therefore that this information is not used because the public officials involved in the evaluation do not know the insights potential of cost benefit analysis and hence it is not demanded. We therefore give suggestions, based on lessons from the transport sector, on how requirements on the decision processes can help to encourage the use of this type of information also in the field of environmental policy. Important aspects in this type of process are formalized requirements on information based on scientific evidence but also on more evaluations done by third parties of the assessments underlying the policy proposals of Swedish EPA. Another finding in the study is that the Environmental quality standards have resulted in a great number of activities at different levels of society. At the municipality level measurements of air quality are undertaken and information on these levels is provided to the public, while the Swedish EPA develops regulations and also makes assessments and decides on research programmes. The impact of the standards on air quality and societal costs however has so far been limited since few of the abatement measures presented in the action programmes have been implemented and these are to some extent introduced for other reasons than air quality.

  17. Maintenance strategies and safety on a deregulated market. Mapping of changes in maintenance strategies and their possible consequences; Underhaallsstrategier och saekerhet paa en avreglerad elmarknad. En kartlaeggning av foeraendrade underhaallsstrategier och dess moejliga konsekvenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecklund, Lena [MTO Psykologi AB, Huddinge (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    The overall purpose of the project was to make a survey of the changes in the Swedish nuclear power plants over the last five years. There is a risk that nuclear power companies after a deregulation will focus especially on reducing operation and maintenance costs and that the changes could have a negative effect on the reactor safety. The task has involved summarising the actual changes, describing the present situation, the need for future development and the differences between the plants as well as identifying possible reactor safety related risks. The survey has been carried out in a broad perspective, studying the changes in equipment, maintenance strategies and the work situation of the staff. Three case studies were carried out at the Swedish nuclear power plants. Documentation from the companies has been analysed and a selection of in total 27 'informed' employees in different positions have been interviewed in total. The project also included a fourth case study concerning railway traffic. This branch of business is interesting because of its longer experience on a deregulated and competitive market. Conclusions concerning the companies individually as well as similarities and differences between them are presented in this report. Results: There have been more changes both in strategy and organisation in the last five years than during the preceding 5-10-year-period and the pace has been relatively rapid. The deregulation of the electricity market was implemented January 1997 and became the main motive force for the changes. The staffing has been reduced or unchanged and the work demands have increased. The maintenance skills have been redistributed within the organisation. New methods and equipment, i.e. RCM, and programmable systems make increased demands for analytical and theoretical competence. In the short term, job satisfaction and motivation have in some cases been negatively influenced by the new organisation forms, according to several of the interviewed. The results indicate, in accordance with other research results, that rationalisations and changes must be combined with work development and the participation of the employees to be successful. Outsourcing has been used for some activities. All the companies have established a joint maintenance department for their units. The companies have been moving towards lean organization which has increased the work load of the staff. Therefore more planning is required to get a optimal resource allocation, to avoid problems at work peaks. All the plants have abandoned a downright customer-supplier relation for the benefit of one competent maintenance supplier with a comprehensive view. As a result the contractual undertaking of the maintenance department towards the production units is made on a long term basis. The new maintenance strategy is based on status controls for condition based maintenance and on riskbased analysing methods. There are modern computer-based maintenance systems at all the plants. Computer-based instruments are used direct in the production line where they require a competence shift in the staff. Positive effects that appeared in the interviews are better possibilities for experience feed back and methods development, access to a wider and larger competence and a joint working method. The results show that there are already some positive effects and there are more to be expected. But it is also clear that these effects have neither come as easily nor as fast as was expected. Possible negative effects: there is a risk that the staffing might be too scarce, especially in work peaks, e.g. unexpected shutdowns. A high work load and much overtime work mean greater strain on the staff. Problems with job satisfaction and motivation, chiefly after the change to a matrix organisation. Uncertainties as to responsibility and roles in the new organisation. The practical competence might 'disappear' in the present competence shift focusing on analytical, computer based methods. The difficulties of risk based methods are several: they might not correspond with reality, they might not measure what they are intended to measure and it might be that the probabilistic risk assessment approach is allowed to dominate over the deterministic at the expense of a good balance between them. There is also a risk that the methods are not enough developed, that the knowledge of how the results should be interpreted is limited and that this might lead to the wrong conclusions. With tighter priorities there is an increasing risk that the wrong things are left out. The feeling of 'ownership' towards a certain production unit as well as the team feeling might disappear when the employees work on several units. Deficiencies in the maintenance instructions become evident when the staff are transferred. If the work routines have not been thoroughly documented there is a risk that the staff make mistakes or that the measures are forgotten. A number of conditions have been identified that might influenced the reactor safety negatively in the long term if they are not taken care of. Such conditions are an increased pressure on the staff, high work load and too much overtime, uncertainties as to responsibility and roles, lack of job satisfaction and motivation and deficient maintenance instructions. Economic pressure and a high rate of change might also give negative influence. It is, however, important to stress that the results indicate that the changes are not carried out with a one-sided focus on cost reductions but with a focus on both individual and organisational learning and development. Safety culture has also been an important part of the change operations. It seems, though, as if it has been more difficult to balance the economy and safety messages to the staff.

  18. Effects of liming and ash recycling on the outflow of mercury from forest soils - a theoretical study; Inverkan av kalkning och askaaterfoering paa utfloedet av kvicksilver fraan skogsmark - en teoretisk studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Arne; Nilsson, Ingvar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences

    1994-12-31

    In this report, a theoretical review is made of the probable effects that spreading of lime and woodash in forests will have on the turnover of mercury in soil and on the outflow of mercury into water systems. As a result of historic emissions of mercury into the atmosphere, a large proportion of Swedish forest land has significantly increased concentrations of mercury, which is gradually leaching into lakes and watercourses. If an increased application of lime or woodash to forest soils were to result in a major change in the outflow of mercury, it could in time have a considerable effect on the mercury concentrations in lake fish. The fish in a large number of lakes in the southern part of Sweden already have mercury concentrations which are so high as to make them unsuitable for use as food. In conclusion, the theoretical assessment indicates in general that any effects on the mercury situation in lakes as a result of liming or woodash treatment of forest land are marginal or towards the positive side. It is not likely that these treatments increases the outflow of organic matter from soil. Any worsening of the mercury situation in lakes and watercourses will therefore hardly be the result of soil changes, but rather of processes in lakes and streams. Most of the evidence, however suggests that liming/ash treatment has predominantly positive effects with regard to the lake processes that control mercury levels in fish. At this juncture, available experience indicates that the mercury situation in the environment is in no way a decisive factor in determining where and how lime or ash should be applied to forest land. 64 refs, 2 figs

  19. Modelling of a hybrid plant and development of a control system for the Vaesthamn plant based on artificial neural networks; Modellering av hybridanlaeggning samt utveckling av oevervakningssystem foer Vaesthamnsverket baserat paa Artificiella Neurala Naetverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assadi, Mohsen; Fast, Magnus [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Sciences

    2006-12-15

    The project aim is to model the hybrid plant at Vaesthamnsverket in Helsingborg using artificial neural networks (ANN). The definition of a hybrid plant is that it uses more than one fuel, in this case a natural gas fuelled gas turbine with heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and a biomass fuelled steam boiler with steam turbine. The models in the present project are based on operational data from the plant in contrary to previous projects where synthetic (simulated) data has been used in a large extent. The gas turbine represents the subsystem that has received most attention in previous projects, which will also be the case for the present project although models of the HRSG, steam boiler and steam turbine are created since the whole plant is of interest. The completed ANN sub modules are connected in a network, which can be used for e.g. offline simulation and real-time condition monitoring of the plant. A product, including all sub modules, is created in shape of a user-friendly interface in an MS Excel environment. This user interface can be used for continuous monitoring, training personnel and in planning of the operation. The target group is the plant owners and the original equipment manufacturers (OEM). The plant owners interest lies in receiving a product that can assist them when operating the plant, for instance supply them with information about the grade of degradation. The OEMs main interest lies in investigating the possibilities of delivering ANNs, based on synthetic data, along with their new gas turbines. Vaesthamnsverket have contributed with operational data from the plant as well as support in plant related questions. Siemens have contributed with expert knowledge about their gas turbine, the SGT800. The received data has been examined and filtered before used for training ANN models. The models have been evaluated with independent data. The results are very promising with ANN models showing high prediction accuracy. All subsystems can be modeled with ANN and there are also possibilities of further development. The results have shown that there is potential in developing gas turbine models based on synthetic data but in order to draw any conclusions in this matter further research has to be carried out. A conclusion about the project as a whole is that ANN shows great versatility along with potential to be used within the field of thermal power plants. The project goals are considered to be fulfilled by the authors.

  20. Simultaneous harvesting of straw and chaff - for energy purposes. Influence on bale density, yield, field drying process and combustion characteristics; Samtidig skoerd av halm och agnar foer energiaendamaal - inverkan paa avkastning, baldensitet, faelttorkningsfoerlopp och foerbraenningsegenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, Gunnar; Roennbaeck, Marie

    2010-04-15

    Introductory field experiments were carried out in central Sweden during 2009 for long- and short-stalked winter wheat crops. Two different types of combine harvesters were used with somewhat different methods of kernel separation. Both harvesters were equipped with the Combi System from Rekordverken. This enabled them to mix the chaff in the straw swath as well as distribute this fraction over the working width. The measurement of crop residue moisture immediately after combine harvesting showed that admixture of chaff reduced the initial moisture in the straw swaths. The added chaff increased the total yield of crop residue with 14%, showing that about half the biologically available chaff was harvested. The combustion analyses showed a slight increase in ash content when chaff was mixed in. This did not cause any significant change in net calorific value or ash melting behavior

  1. An evaluation of the project 'City cooperation at Soervestlandet - implementing Energy and environment'; Evaluering av prosjektet 'Storbysamarbeid paa Soervestlandet - iverksetting Energi og miljoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farsund, Arild Aurvaag; Holmen, Ann Karin Tennaas

    2012-11-01

    City Cooperation on the South West Coast, 'Implementing Energy and Environment' has been a short-term project that has spanned from June 2010 to December 2011, with a operational phase of the last six months. Objectives and activities were developed in a collaboration between Stavanger, Business Region Bergen and Kristiansand Municipality. The project intended to provide support for and knowledge of an overall renewable energy industry in southwestern Norway. This evaluation is based on a assessment of whether the objectives and activities outlined in the project description is followed up. This is supplemented with assessments of implementation and benefits for the sector. In general, the activities carried out as described in the project proposal.Through surveys and interviews, activities and positive initiative feedback, but also constructive suggestions that can be helpful for learning the regional funding programs. Study and delegation travel, which formed majority of the activity, is seen as a broad measure that can embrace many. The benefit, however, depends on site added to venues that are of interest to the industry. Journeys are important meeting places for establish or maintain contact with regional and international partners. InBesides networking helps such forums to increase knowledge of the sector, either for specific technological and product knowledge or general knowledge about the industry. This means that this type of travel is useful both for the industry, research communities, developers, funding agencies and policy makers to support the industry. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that some interviewees emphasized that the delegation traveling to those who were carried to Boston Amsterdam should be a main focus of the participants related industry.The major barriers to large cities and industry in their efforts to facilitate for developing a strong renewable sector in southwestern Norway emphasized to be The major barriers to large cities and industry in their efforts to facilitate for developing a strong renewable sector in southwestern Norway emphasized to be associated with national energy policy. Industry players and industry developers experiencing a loss of interest in the field, which affects the development prospects in Norway. New discoveries in the North Sea combined with adequate access to renewable energy, making it difficult to succeed in its arguments about the development of offshore wind. It is stated by some politicians that Norway is not dependent of this renewable energy source. As a result of the policy interest is reduced, the basis to obtain national investors limited. In addition, the industry is experiencing one expertise escape in a time where high activity in the oil industry require the same competence renewable sector. The consequence is that suppliers to the international renewable industry must work individually directly to the relevant market. Regional coordination seems to depend on a common political priorities linked to a domestic market where products can be tested and developed. Until this may be in place, ability largely to assist the industry in its internationalization. In this way the project 'Implementing Energy and Environment' helped both to create arenas and opportunities for knowledge and learning for both players in renewable sector and commercial developers in the region. In connection with development opportunities for cooperation in renewable energy industry between Bergen, Stavanger and Kristiansand we will conclude by returning to the 'engine role' which was widely discussed in the City Project Innovation 2010. Experiences from the project 'Implementing Energy and Environment' appears relevant. First, the three cities continue to make important contributions when it comes to giving industry support and incentives to develop networks regionally and internationally. In the context, quality and relevance to the industry particularly important for the further work with the delegation traveling, either in each city or cooperation between the three cities. Second, apply the aid to clarify the political framework for the industry. If one (still) believe that the oil age will not last forever and that the world needs Norwegian technology that can help make renewable sector more efficient, then measures to raise the political awareness of the industry is important. Visibility of potential is probably the action that can have the best opportunity for breakthroughs, and in such a context, the development of a common test facility could be a road ahead of a more political cooperation between the three cities when it comes to renewable energy.(eb)

  2. Deposition and effects on some aquatic organisms of particulate matter emitted from some peat fuelled power plants in Finland. Deposition och effekter paa naagra vattenlevande organismer av emitterat stoft fraan naagra torveldade kraftverk i Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtsson, C; Fischer, S; Hellstroem, T; Notini, M; Steen, B; Waltersson, E; Landner, L

    1982-01-01

    At three different peat fuelled plants in Finland, environmental studies have been carried out with the aim of obtaining part of the background data necessary for the formulation of environmental guidelines in relation to the future use of peat for energy and heat production in Sweden. The present project was comprised of (a) field studies of the composition pattern of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and of heavy metals in the surroundings of some existing peat fuelled power plants, and (b) laboratory tests with a few aquatic organisms to check the possible biological effects induced by emitted particles. The results of these studies indicate that the deposition of (PAH) in the surroundings of three power plants (measured by snow sampling and by analysis of kale grown in the area) did not exceed the background level, whereas the deposition of heavy metals emitted from one power plant resulted in increased concentrations of Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and possibly of Hg, compared to the assumed background level. Biological tests with particles originating from two different peat fuelled power plants showed that only weak, but obvious, effects could be detected at concentrations corresponding to realistic deposition levels. These effects are supposed to be due to the metal content of the particles rather than to the PAH content. When evaluating the lab results, it should be considered that a certain fixation of metals dissolved in the snow melting water may take place in the soil surface. Therefore, the biological effect studies, carried out so far, do not indicate that peat combustion at the investigated power plants, using efficient flue gas cleaning systems, cause any considerable biological effects in the surroundings of the plants. However, it is evident that the present set of data does not allow a general evaluation of the over-all environmental impact of peat combustion.

  3. The development of fast reactors - Effects on the Swedish system of management of spent fuel; Utveckling av snabba reaktorer - Paaverkan paa det svenska systemet foer hantering av anvaent braensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Forsstroem, Hans [SKB International AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    Since the start of the nuclear power era studies have been performed of how to utilise the uranium energy resource in the most effective way. Only about one percent of the energy potential of uranium is utilised in the light water reactors of today. To improve the utilization other types of reactors are needed. With fast reactors theoretically 50-100 times more energy can be extracted from the uranium. This will require reprocessing of the uranium and multiple recycling of the plutonium. Plutonium and uranium can also be recycled in light water reactors, but this will only improve the uranium utilisation by about 20 %. Recycling of plutonium on a routine basis is presently only done in France. The development of fast reactors has been going on since the end of the 1940ies. During the 1970ies the planning was that a large number of fast reactors and their associated fuel cycle facilities would be in operation by the year 2000. The development has, however, for different reasons been much slower than planned. The general assessment today is that fast reactor, if they will be realised, will hardly give an important contribution to energy production until after 2050. Nuclear power production has instead been dominated by light water reactors similar to the ones in use in Sweden. Light water reactors are believed to continue to dominate during the next decades. To start a fast reactor system plutonium (or highly enriched uranium) will be needed. Such plutonium is contained in spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. This raises the question: Should the spent nuclear fuel be stored so that the potential energy resource in the fuel can be used in the future instead of disposing of it as a waste? The answer to this question will depend on when the material will be useful, i.e. when fast reactors have been introduced on a large scale. It will also depend on the demand for plutonium at this time, i.e. will plutonium be a scarce redundant resource at this point of time. In this context it should be considered that fast reactors will generate their own plutonium, as breeder reactors. Plutonium from other reactors will thus only be needed for the first years of operation. To provide a basis for the answer to the question if the Swedish spent fuel is a resource or a waste this report provides an overview of the present development status for fast reactors and their potential for large scale commercial use. It further describes the impact on the Swedish system for management of spent nuclear fuel if the fuel were to be reprocessed and the uranium and plutonium reused as fuel for fast reactors or for the present reactors.

  4. Problems concerning food production, supply and use caused by radioactive deposition: A study directed towards needs for early decision making after radioactive fallout; Radiakproblem inom livsmedelssektorn: En studie inriktad paa behoven foer beslutsfattande i tidigt skede efter radioaktivt nedfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, R

    1995-12-01

    The primary aim of this study is to analyze and describe how a radioactive deposition after nuclear weapons employment outside Sweden would affect the domestic food production in a short time perspective and in the sequence of events from primary production over processing and transport to food consumption. The study is an attempt at a comprehensive treatment of knowledge needed as a basis for decisions on operative issues, often of a time-urgent nature. Actions to alleviate the problems pertinent to the food supply in the event of radioactive fallout are also discussed, although without any claim of exhaustive coverage. Other aspects, as the economical consequences of the disturbances due to the fallout situation (or of possible counteractions) are not dealt with, however. With certain restrictions mentioned in the text the results are also applicable in connection with radioactive deposition caused by accidental release from a nuclear power plant. 60 refs, 32 figs.

  5. Nõudeõigus ja hüvitatav kahju konkurentsieeskirjade rikkumise tagajärjel tekkivates kahjuhüvitamisnõuetes : [magistritöö] / Tiiu Iverson ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Katri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Iverson, Tiiu

    2010-01-01

    Konkurentsieeskirjade rikkumise majanduslikest tagajärgedest potentsiaalselt kahju kannatanud isikute määratlejana, nõudeõigusest ja selle piiritlemisest, hüvitatava kahju määratlemisest ja piiritlemisest

  6. Diseño de un marco de Referencia para optimizar los recursos de Infraestructura de ti mediante la utilización de una solución de nube bajo el modelo de Iaas, Paas o Saas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodas Caicedo, Jaime Patricio

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this project was to establish a reference framework that would serve as a basis for analysis and evaluation to optimize the use of infrastructure resources, by migrating these resources towards a solution of cloud computing, applied to an Ecuadorian company. A combination of literature and applied research approach was used for the development of the reference framework, bringing together structured steps and guides to evaluate systemically infrastructure resources. With the evolu...

  7. Review of national and international demands on fire protection in nuclear power plants and their application in the Swedish nuclear industry; Oeversikt av nationell och internationell kravbild avseende brandskydd paa kaernkraftverk och hur dessa tillaempas i svensk kaernkraftindustri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredholm, Lotta (Tyrens AB, Malmoe (Sweden))

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this report has been to detect and describe differences between rules regarding fire safety and the interpretation of the rules and make suggestions on how all parties involved are able to develop a harmonized approach to the fire conditions and how fire requirements aspects can be optimized and modernized. International and national laws and requirements for fire protection are compared and analyzed with the content and structure of the USNRCs RG.1189, which is considered the document that has the most complete accounts of the fire requirements both in terms of structure and content. The national laws, rules and guidelines that have been studied are general fire protection rules as well as nuclear specific rules. The studied national rules also includes Safety Analysis Reports (SAR) and Technical Specifications (TS). This study shows that the Swedish SAR and TS are markedly different from each other in how the fire requirements are presented as well as the methodology and level of detail of how they are fulfilled. These differences make it difficult to compare the quality of the fire protection between different sites and it also makes it different to learn from each other. The main reason to the differences are the lack of national guidance of how to fulfil the general requirements. The main conclusion of the screening of national requirements, is that many of the references used in the SAR are not suited for operation at a nuclear plant. The differences are often the purpose, examples of purposes that are not necessarily met by complying with national laws, rules, advices are: - Prevent fire to influence redundant safety equipment in different fire cells. - Prevent fire to influence redundant safety equipment in the same fire cell. - Prevent extensive consequences of fire in cable rooms. - Prevent extensive consequences of fires in oil that are not included in the Swedish regulation for handling highly flammable liquids. The international regulations regarding fire safety at nuclear power plants that have been studied are regulation from USA, Finland, Great Britain, Canada, Germany and the international organisations IAEA and WENRA. The conclusion of this study is that the differences between the regulations mostly are differences in detailed fire safety design. Some differences can not easily be explained by national. Differences and the resulting effect on the overall fire safety is very difficult to evaluate. Regarding how to improve the Swedish regulations regarding fire safety at nuclear power plants there are different possibilities. One is to complement the regulations with acceptable solutions on how to design the fire protection. If this shall be done IAEAs Safety Guides seem to be the easiest of the more detailed fire requirements to adopt to Swedish conditions. Another way of improving the regulation is to give more guidance on how to proof that the rules are fulfilled. In this case the Canadian guidelines may be a good source of ideas and information

  8. Hankemenetluses väikeettevõtjate konkurentsivõimet suurendavate koostöövormide kasutamine : [magistritöö] / Triinu Kinkar ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendajad: Katri Paas-Mohando, Heikki Leesment

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kinkar, Triinu

    2011-01-01

    Väikeettevõtjate koostöövormide liikidest ja nende lubatavusest riigihankeõiguse seisukohalt, koostöövormide konkurentsiõiguslikust käsitlusest, hankija kohustusest, vajadusest ja võimalustest väikeettevõtjate vahelise koostöö suunamiseks

  9. Integrated management plan for the North Sea and Skagerrak: Status description for the petroleum industry with emphasis on the Norwegian continental shelf; Helhetlig forvaltningsplan for Nordsjoeen og Skagerrak: Statusbeskrivelse for petroleumsvirksomheten med hovedvekt paa norsk sokkel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-06-15

    Status description of the petroleum industry covers mainly the Norwegian continental shelf, but it is also given a brief description of the activity in other offshore areas of the North Sea. It shows a list of producing fields, fields under development, developments in the future, findings that are in the planning phase, and completed fields. It also describes the pipelines and other petroleum-related activities at sea and on shore. (AG)

  10. Impact assessment of the impact on nature values of the construction and operation of the repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark; Konsekvensbedoemning av paaverkan paa naturvaerden av anlaeggande och drift av slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle i Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allmer, Johan (Ekologigruppen AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    Construction and operation of a repository at Soederviken in Forsmark, Oesthammar municipality means impact, effects and consequences for the environment. This report describes the natural conditions and natural values in Forsmark with particular focus on Soederviken. Furthermore, an assessment of consequences for the natural environment in the development and operation of a repository at Soederviken. Assessment of impacts from water activities are treated in a special report.

  11. CO{sub 2}-emissions from future waste incineration - Sub-Project 5; CO{sub 2}-utslaepp fraan framtida avfallsfoerbraanning - Delprojekt 5 inom projektet Perspektiv paa framtida avfallsbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisaillon, Mattias; Detterfelt, Lia; Edner, Stig; Maartenssson, Paal

    2013-09-01

    The use of fossil fuels in Swedish district heating systems has fallen sharply. With continued pressure from society to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, it is likely that the use of these fuels will decrease further. The major remaining source of emissions of fossil carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from district heating systems 2020 is waste incineration with energy recovery in the form of electricity and heat. The aim of this project was, from two perspectives (stack perspective and system perspective), to analyze future emissions of fossil CO{sub 2} from Swedish waste incineration in the Swedish district heating systems. By studying both perspectives at the same time, the results answer whether changes in emissions in one perspective give similar or opposite effects seen from the other perspective. The purpose was also to make cost estimates for emission reduction measures affecting waste, energy and material production system. These costs were related to the price of allowances in the EU ETS and to the Swedish carbon tax. The project was performed in 2012 as a part of the research project 'Perspectives on sustainable waste treatment'.

  12. Addition of ash in drained peatland forests in southern Sweden - Forest yield and fluxes of greenhouse gases; Tillfoersel av aska i skog paa dikad torvmark i soedra Sverige - Skogsproduktion och emission av vaexthusgaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstroem Ulf (Skogforsk, Uppsala (Sweden)); Bjoerk, Robert G; Klemedtsson, Leif (Goeteborgs universitet (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of wood-ash application (3.3 and 6.6 tonnes d.w. self-harden crushed wood ash ha-1) in forests on drained peatlands in southern Sweden. Tree growth (three sites) and fluxes of greenhouse gases (one site) were measured in field experiments. In the two experiments (Anderstorp and Bredaryd) in Scots pine stands (Pinus sylvestris L.) on oligotrophic mires, tree growth increased significantly during the seven-eight year long effect periods after ash application. In an earlier study in Anderstorp, the annual emissions of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from the peat were shown to be unaffected by the ash application. In Skogaryd, a Norway spruce stand (Picea abies L. Karst.) on a minerotrophic mire, the growth was indicated to increase during the five-year effect period. In the same experiment, the previously found reduction in emissions of both CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O during the first two years after ash application were no longer significant, although the emissions where lower, for N{sub 2}O only in the high dose ash treatment. CH{sub 4} was unaffected during the whole observed period. During the first five years, application of 3-6 tonnes d.w. crushed wood ash ha-1 in the two studied forests on drained peatlands did not render in an increased Global Warming Potential (GWP), but rather a reduction

  13. Lithium treatment of manio-depressive disorder. Two examples of treatment regimes with varying serum lithium concentration curves; Litiumbehandling af manio-depressiv sygdom. To eksempler paa behandlingsregimer med forskellig serum lithiumkoncentrationskurve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veimer Jensen, H

    1998-07-01

    The importance of serum lithium profile in lithium maintenance treatment of manic-depressive disorder was studied by comparing pro-phylactic efficacy, side-effects and brain lithium level in patients on daily or alternate-day lithium dosing schedules. The aim of the study was to determine firstly, whether it is only necessary for the serum lithium concentration to periodically reach a certain level in order to ensure good prophylactic efficacy, and secondly, whether periodical lowering of the serum lithium level diminishes lithium-related side-effects. This was examined by extending the interval between lithium doses from 1 to 2 days, while maintaining the 12-h serum lithium concentration unchanged so as to achieve an unchanged serum lithium profile during the first 24-h period after lithium intake. The 12-h brain lithium concentration measured by {sup 7}Li-magnetic resonance spectroscopy seemed to be independent of lithium dosing schedule, but correlated significantly with the 12-h serum lithium concentration, suggesting that at identical 12-h serum lithium concentrations, the 12-h brain lithium concentration is similar with both treatment regimens. (EG) 97 refs.

  14. Final disposal Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar. Inflow of ground water and influence on hydrogeologic and hydrologic conditions; Slutfoervar Forsmark, Simpevarp och Laxemar. Inlaeckage av grundvatten samt paaverkan paa hydrogeologiska och hydrologiska foerhaallanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-10-15

    This report summarizes the description of the natural (uninfluenced) hydrogeological and hydrological conditions at the possible final repository locations Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar. For each site, the description is based on SKB's site descriptions version 1.2. The report provides assessments of the inflow and the effects on the surroundings (groundwater drawdown and the associated area of influence) due to construction, operation, and closing of a repository for spent nuclear fuel at the above locations. The assessment of the effects of the repository on its surroundings is primarily based on calculation results from two numerical flow models, DarcyTools and MOUSESHE (for Simpevarp, only DarcyTools has been used). The basis for the modelling is SKB's site descriptions version 1.2, which will be updated in the form of new versions. Moreover, the models are based on a preliminary layout of the repository at each location. Hence, the flow models will be developed further when the site descriptions are updated. The results may also be affected by changes of the repository layout. The modelling projects have been performed in the same order as they are presented in the report (Forsmark, Simpevarp and Laxemar). Some aspects of the numerical models, and the coupling between them, have been developed and improved during the course of work. Examples on major differences between the models include the technique to simulate grouting in DarcyTools, and the possibility to visualize modelling results from this model, for instance on other types of background maps. The results show a small inflow and a small area of influence for a repository at Forsmark. The upper parts of the repository (c 100 m depth and upwards) give the largest contribution to the inflow and the area of influence. This indicates that the effects on the surroundings from the deep and the near surface parts of the repository can be analysed separately. For a repository at Simpevarp and Laxemar, the results show that also the deep parts of the repository yield an inflow and cause a lowering of the groundwater table. Hence, it is more difficult to decouple the deep and the near surface parts of the repository at these locations. A repository at Simpevarp causes a larger inflow but a smaller area of influence, compared to a repository at Laxemar. This difference is most likely due to that Simpevarp is located by the sea, whereas Laxemar is located further inland. However, there are differences in terms of how grouting is simulated in the DarcyTools modelling of the locations, which makes the comparison difficult. A simple estimate, based on the net recharge (annual mean) at each site shows that the model calculated inflow to a repository at Forsmark corresponds to an area of influence from c 1 km{sup 2} (hydraulic conductivity in the grouted zone K{sub inj} 10{sup -7} m/s) to c 0.3 km{sup 2} (K{sub inj} = 10{sup -9} m/s). For a repository at Simpevarp, the inflow corresponds an area of influence from c 36 km{sup 2} (skin factor = 0.1) to c 1.5 km{sup 2} (skin factor = 0.001); in the Simpevarp modelling, a 'skin factor' was utilized to simulate the grouting. For a repository at Laxemar, a similar comparison provides an area of influence from c 11 km{sup 2} (K{sub inj} = 10{sup -7} m/s) to c 6.5 km{sup 2} (K{sub inj} = 10{sup -9} m/s). Since the modelling results are preliminary, they principally express differences between the locations in terms of their hydrogeological and hydrological characteristics. The results are yet too preliminary to demonstrate the effects of a repository on its surroundings in absolute terms. Examples of uncertainties in the modelling include the representation of the bedrock in the 'bedrock models', providing the basis for the modelling; this particularly applies to the upper parts of the bedrock. Moreover, the interaction between Quaternary deposits and bedrock is identified as an important factor for the groundwater drawdown and its area of influence. There may be less exchange of groundwater between Quaternary deposits and bedrock than assumed in the present models, which would imply that the models overestimate the groundwater drawdown around the repository. The interaction between surface water (lakes, watercourses and the sea) and groundwater is another important factor for the drawdown and its area of influence. The exchange between surface and groundwater may be larger than assumed in the modelling. This, in turn, could imply that the inflow becomes larger, but also that the area of influence becomes smaller than shown by the modelling. This larger exchange would also imply that the effects on lakes and watercourses are larger than shown by the modelling.

  15. 100 kW two-staged gasification plant at the Technical University of Denmark. Results until the spring 1998; 100 kW totrinsforgasningsanlaeg paa DTU. Resultater til og med foraaret 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall Bentzen, J.; Brandt, P.; Goebel, B.; Hindsgaul Hansen, C.; Henriksen, U.

    1998-12-31

    During many years Technical University of Denmark (DTU) has worked with thermal conversion of biomass to gas. The aim is to use the gas for production of combined heating and power. DTU has developed a process: two-staged gasification. Compared to other processes of gasification this process has higher energy efficiency and lower tar in the produced gas. This report describes the experiments performed at a 100 kW two-staged gasification. The conclusions of the results were the following: Particle measuring: the particles from the gasification consist mainly of soot; Investigations of gas purifying: a venturi scrubber removes between 60 and 90 % of particles. A simple air filter afterwards removes the rest of the particles resulting in a particle load below 5 mg/Nm{sup 3}. A small bag filter filtrated 97 % of the particles; Tar measuring: the coke bed reduces the content of tar with a factor 5-9; Gas composition: the gas composition is stable and the highest calorific value is about 6 MJ/Nm{sup 3}; Temperature: the temperature in the pyrolysis pipe depends highly of moisture content of fuel. Gas temperature up to 1400 deg. C was measured and the surface temperature of the coke bed is about 950 deg. C; Pressure: phenomenon, which has influence on understanding drop of pressure in coke bed, is propounded; Mass balance: cold gas efficiency is about 90 %; Quality of coke: the coke from the two-staged gasification is qualified as active coal. The gasification is stable and easy to regulate. (EHS) EFP-97. 25 refs.

  16. Adaptation to Climate Change in Risk and Vulnerability Analysis on a Municipal Level, a basis for further work; Anpassning till klimatfoeraendringar i risk- och saarbarhetsanalyser paa kommunal nivaa, underlag foer fortsatt arbete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mossberg Sonnek, Karin; Lindberg, Anna; Lindgren, Johan

    2007-12-15

    The aim of Risk and Vulnerability Analysis (RVA) at local authority level in Sweden is to increase the capacity of local authorities to handle crises and to reduce vulnerability in the community. RVA processes could be an appropriate starting-point for discussions on how the community is influenced by climate change and how its effects could be reduced using various adjustment measures. In the report we present four methods: ROSA, MVA, IBERO and the Car Dun AB method. These have all been developed to support Swedish local authority RVA processes. We also present five international frameworks that have been developed by the organisations UNDP, USAID, UKCIP, C-CIARN and CSIRO to help decision-makers and stakeholders to adapt to climate change. Together, these descriptions form a foundation for continuing the work being done within the project Climatools, in which tools are being produced to be used by local authorities in adapting to climate change. In the report, we also discuss the concepts 'risk', 'vulnerability' and 'adaptation' and how analysis of adaptation to climate change has changed in recent years.

  17. Ecological urban renewal in Vesterbro, Copenhagen - 3 buildings with low-energy and solar energy in practice[Denmark]; Byoekologisk byfornyelse paa Vesterbro - 3 ejendomme med lavenergi- og solenergianvendelse i praksis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vejsig Pedersen, P.

    2000-03-01

    The report is the final report on a demonstration project backed by the Danish Energy Agency concerning solar energy/low energy solutions in relation to ecological urban renewal in Hedebygade, Vesterbro. The report describes developing work relating to solar cells, ventilation with counter current heat recover and total economic and ecological urban optimization, and innovating initiatives relating to 3 buildings with a total of 62 apartments and a business property. The annual energy consumption for heating and hot water can be reduced by a combination of the following means: Use of super low-energy windows; New ventilation solutions with counter current heat recovery and air heating; Use of facade insulation, solar walls and building integrated solar cells; New types of low temperature installations e.g. centrally placed radiators and use of hot water heat exchangers; Improved light conditions by use of glassed rooms. (EHS)

  18. Gassmaks. Study of requirement for national focus on research for increased value-added industrial process of natural gas. Final report; Gassmaks. Utredning av behov for nasjonal satsing paa forskning for oekt verdiskaping fra naturgass gjennom industriell foredling. Endelig rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-08-15

    Final report concludes the importance of establishing the Research and Development program called 'Gassmaks'. The target of this program is increased value added to the natural gas loop. Strengthened know-how, industrial development and international competition force shall contribute to higher value added to community through industrial refining of natural gas. Gassmaks will by research based foundation exploit Norwegian natural gas resources environmental friendly. Highly prioritised are converting and use of natural gas to plastic raw materials, synthesis gas, synthetical fuel, energy processes, carbon materials, metallurgical processes and nutrients as proteins and fat. (AG). 28 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Scenarios for the transportation sector's energy consumption in Denmark. Focus on road transport. Documentation report; Scenarier for transportsektorens energiforbrug i Danmark. Med fokus paa vejtransporten. Dokumentationsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hethey, J.; Kofoed-Wiuff, A.; Lindboe, H.H.

    2011-05-15

    The purpose of this project was to make a number of predictions of how the Danish energy consumption for transport purposes may evolve until 2035. The analyses include the total energy consumption for passenger and freight transport and transportation-related energy consumption in the production industry. Air and maritime transport and freight trains are not considered in the analyses. Five scenarios have been calculated, including a reference scenario, three technology scenarios (efficiency, electric vehicle, a biofuel scenario), and a combined scenario. For all scenarios, the development of fuel consumption is calculated and CO{sub 2} emissions both locally and totally are presented. The analyses show that the total energy consumption and total CO{sub 2} emission had a peak in 2007, after which the already registered decrease is likely to continue. This continued decline happens in spite of continued growth in transport services, primarily due to the assumed and expected development of more fuel-efficient cars. (ln)

  20. Effects of wood-ash addition on nitrogen turnover in a highly nitrogen loaded spruce site. Final project report; Effekter av askaaterfoering paa kvaeveomsaettningen i ett kvaeverikt granbestaand i Halland. Slutrapport foer projektet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe.; Hoegbom, Lars; Nordlund, Sten [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    During two consecutive years, it was studied how a fertilization with 4.2 tonnes pelleted bark ash per ha, made six-seven years earlier, affected soil chemistry, nitrogen turnover and soil-water chemistry on a Norway spruce site in SW Sweden. The actual site has a very acidic soil. At the same time, the supply of inorganic N is rich. Measures against soil acidification, e. g. addition of ash or lime, may significantly influence the turnover of N with a subsequent risk for increased leaching. Thus, there is a potential conflict between two urgent environmental goals, i. e. to decrease acidification and to decrease the N load on aquatic ecosystems. In the humus layer and the upper 5 cm of the mineral soil, pH(H{sub 2}O) had increased with at the most 0.2 units because of the ash addition. The easily extractable amounts of Mg, P and nitrate were slightly increased. The potential nitrification in the humus layer was generally higher in the ash treatment, but the difference. was not statistically significant. The soil water at 50 cm depth was 0.1-0.2 pH-units more acidic where ash had been applied. Simultaneously, there were tendencies for higher concentrations of nitrate, Al and K. This is the first time in Sweden that ash fertilization of a closed forest has given clear indications of an increased N leaching. As expected, the ash fertilization decreased the acidity of the top soil. On the contrary, the runoff became more acidic and more rich in Al. Thus, the ash fertilization has counteracted one of its primary goals, i. e. to produce a runoff less toxic to aquatic life. The acidification of the runoff may partially be because of acid production during nitrification.

  1. Start-up of Hekni Power Station. 3. Investigation of the effects of particles on water chemistry, landlocked salmon and freshwater ecology; Igangkjoering av Hekni Kraftverk. 3. Undersoekelser av partikkeleffekter paa vannkjemi, Byglandsfjordbleke og vassdragsoekologi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerknes, V.; Kvellestad, A.; Berntssen, M.

    1996-06-01

    The new Norwegian hydroelectric power station Hekni Power Station in the river Otra began operation in the autumn of 1995. Out of consideration for the landlocked salmon in the Byglandsfjord, valuable and nationally deserving of preservation as it is, the tunnel was gradually filled with water so as to avoid large amounts of suspended sediments downstream. During start-up, several environmental investigations were made, as discussed in this report: registrations and analyses of the water from Otra, experimental exposure of landlocked salmon, assessment of wild fish and collection of bottom animals from river stretches exposed to suspended sediments and from unexposed control stretches. Exposed salmon show clear evidence of typical gill changes due to acidification while there is no evidence of changes caused by suspended sediment particles. The changes in population densities of wild fish and bottom animals from before start-up to after start-up is primarily related to the altered water discharge. However, the absence of groups of particle sensitive bottom animals after exposure may be due to particle emission from the power station. The chemically unstable particles may have temporarily increased the pH and calcium concentration and reduced the concentration of unstable aluminium in the most affected part of the river system, while the particle level itself may have been too low to cause noticeable effects on fish. The extent to which the bottom ecology may have been damaged is not sufficiently well known. 34 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Green Certificates: A Norwegian perspective regarding a proposed common mandatory electricity certificate market between Norway and Sweden; Groenne sertifikater: Et norsk perspektiv paa saken om et pliktig elsertifikatmarked mellom Sverige og Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbeinstveit, Atle

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents a study in a Norwegian perspective of the political proposal for a common mandatory electricity certificate market between Norway and Sweden. The proposal was withdrawn in February 2006. The study examines whether Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg's second government assessed green certificates as the cause of an unpopular hike in electricity prices, a hypothesis that found some support in this work. Next, it examines the role of the government bureaucracy. A hypothesis is set forth that the government decision followed from standard operational procedures in the bureaucracy. Importantly, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the most significant bureaucratic agents in our case, made their recommendations based on economic principles, which had become a standard operating procedure for them in Norwegian energy and environmental policies. (Author)

  3. Long lines Co2. Results from over 20 years of research on Co2 capture. Thematic booklet; Lange spor CO2. Resultater fra over 20 aar med forskning paa CO2. Temahefte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    CLIMIT program aims to accelerate commercialization of carbon sequestration through economic stimulation of research, development and demonstration. This publication focuses on documenting results of research on carbon sequestration both through the CLIMIT program and other research which can be traced back to the 1980s. This publication is part of a comprehensive plan for documentation of results.(eb)

  4. Characterization of limestone reactivity with SO{sub 2} and sulfur capture modelling under fluidized bed combustion conditions; Bestaemning av kalkstensreaktivitet med avseende paa SO{sub 2} och modellering av avsvavling foer foerbraenning i fluidiserad baedd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattisson, T. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology and Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Lyngfelt, A. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Conversion

    1996-12-01

    During combustion of fossil fuels, SO{sub 2} is released to the atmosphere. Because of environmental concern with acid rain, the capture of SO{sub 2} is a very important process. Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a combustion method where limestone may be added to the furnace chamber to capture SO{sub 2} as the stable product CaSO{sub 4}. In the present work a relatively simple laboratory method has been developed for characterizing limestone reactivity with SO{sub 2}. The reactivity data from such investigations are used, together with residence time and particle size distribution, in a sulfur capture model for fluidized bed boilers that predicts the sulfur capture as a function of the Ca/S molar ratio. In addition, the model predicts the conversion of CaO to CaSO{sub 4} for all particle sizes present in a boiler. The model was developed and verified using data from two boilers, a 12 and a 40 MW circulating fluidized bed boiler, and showed reasonable agreement for both boilers. In addition to the development of a sulfur capture model, the effects of SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} concentrations, particle size, temperature variations, and reducing conditions on the sulfation reaction was studied using a fixed-bed quartz reactor. The sulfation reaction was also studied for long periods of time, up to 60 hours. This was done because of the long residence times of certain particle sizes that may exist in a fluidized bed boiler. From the parameter study it was found that particle size and variations between oxidizing and reducing conditions had a large effect on the sulfation behaviour. The investigation of long sulfation times showed that the reaction continued even at high degrees of conversion, although at a very slow rate. CO{sub 2} concentration had a moderate effect on the sulfation reaction while temperature variations showed no effect on the final conversion between CaO and CaSO{sub 4}. 29 refs, 25 figs, 4 tabs

  5. Sweden's Future Climate in the short- and medium-term perspective. Basis for development of climate adaptation tools; Sveriges framtida klimat paa kort och medellaang sikt. Underlag foer utveckling av verktyg foer klimatanpassning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, Henrik; Parmhed, Oskar

    2008-12-15

    This report studies two questions - how the actual amount of greenhouse gas emissions has changed over time in comparison with previous assumptions and what will happen to Sweden's climate from short and medium term perspectives given the future development of the climate in general. The content of this report shall be used as the basis for continued work in the development of climate adaptation tools that can be used primarily in Sweden. The first section of this report presents the development of actual greenhouse gas emissions in recent years. Eight years have passed since IPCC published its emissions scenarios (SRES) and for this reason a comparison between the emissions levels from the report and the experimental data from observations made in recent years is well due. Measurements show that current levels of emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuels exceed the average of the SRES families as a whole. Among other implications, this means that emission levels are significantly higher than the levels assumed in the climate scenarios of the Swedish Commission on Climate and Vulnerability (Klimat- och saarbarhetsutredningen). There is little support from the experimental data to indicate that this rate of increase will subside. In addition, studies are indicating that the increased emissions are not solely attributable to a rise in population levels and increased wealth (GNP/capita). Another aspect is that the carbon intensity, measured as the amount of carbon dioxide per unit production price, has been declining since 2000. This is entirely contrary to the assumptions made in all of the emissions scenarios in SRES that carbon dioxide efficiency would continue to increase. The report therefore concludes that work with climate adaptation in Sweden must take into consideration to a greater extent than is currently done today the consequences of emissions levels that are in line with or exceed the highest SRES levels. The second section of this report takes a closer look at Sweden's future climate from both a short and medium term perspective. Socio-economic development and future climate conditions combined are the most influential factors in the creation of the context within which decisions about adaptation are made. Climate research generally tends to base the majority of its scenarios on relatively long time perspectives (100 years or more). Efforts to limit greenhouse gas emissions also often need to apply a long-term perspective. However, it is more interesting within the framework of adaptation work to adopt a shorter perspective. There is currently a gap between the focus of climate research and the needs arising in conjunction with the adaptation of society to a changing climate. This report argues that society's need to adapt to a changing climate increases the demand for climate scenarios with shorter perspectives. The report revisits and compares several different estimations of what Sweden's climate might look like in the years 2030 and 2060. It can be stated that the uncertainty in the shorter-term perspective (2030) with regard to forced climate changes is relatively small, which is why focus should therefore lie on resolving the socio-economic uncertainties. However, in the longer-term perspective (2060), the uncertainty related to the development of the climate increases and for this reason a larger range of future climate scenarios should be considered. As a result of this reasoning, only one climate scenario is presented for 2030 while the climate in 2060 includes three scenarios

  6. Calculation methodology for economic comparison between different land uses. With focus on comparisons between energy crops and traditional crops; Kalkylmetodik foer loensamhetsjaemfoerelser mellan olika markanvaendning. Med fokus paa jaemfoerelser mellan energigroedor och traditionella groedor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenqvist, Haakan

    2010-02-15

    There are two main objectives to this report. The first is to describe a calculation method for both short- and long-term analysis of crops, as well as present the basis and reasoning around it. Another objective is to create an approach that lay-people can use to compare energy crops with traditional crops in a sufficiently straight-forward and believable manner. The report describes, discusses and develops the technical aspects to the calculation questions around the analysis of crops that are grown only on small area of land today, but have the potential to be grown on much larger areas in the future. The variable costing calculation approach is used in agriculture as decision-support for what should be produced. The present variable costing calculation approach has been reworked and redeveloped in order to be more applicable as a decision-support tool. This includes its use to decide which crop should be grown in both short- and long-term perspectives, as well as for perennial energy crops. A number of items that impact growing economy and how they can be interpreted in the growing calculations are discussed. Some of the examples are: Fertilization effects; Sales commissions/product prices; Storage/reestablishment; Fertilization of P and K; Crop insurance; Labor costs; Machine costs; Timeliness costs; New production chains and unutilized resources; Interest rates; Land costs; Over overhead costs; and Costs which not are annual. The main objective of this report is a methodological question and not to show the absolute profitability for each particular land use alternative. But even though the calculations have been improved for different land uses, there is material that that can even be used for profitability analyses. This has been performed to a smaller degree in this report. The profitability of Salix growing has been studied for a variety of different conditions. For part of the studies have used the entire growing period of 22 years, part with consideration to three years of established growing. Different rates of fertilization are studied. In the high fertilization cases Nitrogen fertilization with a conventional spreader after harvest, the following year with elevated spreader, and no fertilization the year prior to harvest have been carried out. In the calculation without elevated fertilization, Nitrogen fertilization occurs only the year after harvest. There is even an alternative without any Nitrogen fertilization. In the calculations with sludge, the sludge is the only fertilization that takes place; within these calculations there is even the income inclusion of the receiving of the sludge. There are modest profitability differences between the fertilization options with an exception for sludge fertilization. Fertilization with sludge increases the profitability substantially

  7. Effects of Fluidization Velocity and Bed Particle Size on Bed Defluidization during Biomass Combustion in FB boilers; Effekten av fluidiseringshastighet och kornstorlek paa agglomereringsrisk vid biobraensleeldning i FB-pannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Morgan; Oehman, Marcus [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Applied Physics and Electronics; Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    Studies on the effect of bed particle size and fluidization velocity on the agglomeration/defluidization risk during biomass combustion in BFB/CFB plants have not previously been published. Therefore, the objective of this project has been to determine the influence of these two parameters on the risk for agglomeration in typical biofuel fired fluidized beds. The study has also resulted in information on how variations in the coating characteristics of the bed particles are depending on the fuel ash content and the particle size of the bed material. Furthermore, the conditions at large scale commercial plants have been surveyed with respect to the choice of bed material, fluidization velocity, bed sand consumption etc. Bed materials have been sampled from seven full-scale boilers, four CFB and three BFB. The samples have been sieved to achieve sieve curves, analyzed with respect to the coating characteristics, and studied by experiments in a bench-scale fluidized bed. It could be concluded from the analyses that there are no significant differences in the coating thickness or the coating composition between fine and coarse particles in the bed samples. The bench-scale agglomeration experiments showed that increased fluidization velocity results in bed agglomeration at a higher temperature. This effect was stronger at relatively low fluidization velocities. The fluidization velocity has probably no significant effect on the risk for agglomeration at normal gas velocities in a commercial CFB boiler. Though, it could have an influence on the agglomeration in for example the recycling part of a CFB, where the gas velocity is relatively low. Also in BFB-boilers the fluidization velocity is often low enough to have a significant effect on the risk for agglomeration. By the experiments in this project it has not been possible to determine if the bed particle size has an influence on the agglomeration. Further studies with modified methods are required to find out if the bed particle size has an effect on the risk for agglomeration. The interviews with people at commercial plants have shown that the BFB boilers Idbaecken and Alloeverket have experience of particle size influence on the agglomeration in large-scale plants. Fine sand seems to agglomerate easier than coarse sand. In practice there is also an indirect effect since the bed particle size has a significant influence on the choice of fluidization velocity. The experiments also indicate that the fuel has an effect on the risk for agglomeration, coal and peat in the fuel mix increase the defluidization temperature while forestry residues and short rotation forestry seem to have the opposite effect.

  8. Evaluación higiénica previa de acrilamida en aire durante la preparación de gel de poliacrilamida (PAA en un laboratorio de genética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Blein Sánchez de León

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conocer el nivel aproximado de concentración en aire de Acrilamida, cancerígeno y mutagénico tipo 2, durante la preparación del gel de Poliacrilamida en el Laboratorio, para verificar si la situación higiénica es tolerable, o si no lo es, para tomar medidas preventivas inmediatamente, antes de llevar a cabo una evaluación detallada con arreglo a UNE-EN 689, con un coste notablemente mayor. Metodología: Una vez seleccionadas las etapas de preparación del gel donde hay emisión de Acrilamida, el método higiénico seguido ha sido el PV2004, de NIOSH, para la toma de muestra y el análisis. Resultados: La concentración de Acrilamida detectada en la fase de pesada es de 723% del Valor Limite de Exposición Profesional para exposición diaria y del 145% del Valor Limite de Exposición Profesional para Corta Exposición. En la fase de agitación no se detecto Acrilamida en la muestra. Conclusiones: Es necesario tomar medidas preventivas inmediatamente. Se proponen varias medidas. Una vez aplicadas, se recomienda realizar la evaluación higiénica según UNE-EN 689.Aims: To know the approximate level of Acrylamide, carcinogenic type 2, in air, during the preparation of Polyacrylamide-Gel in the laboratory, in order to determine if the occupational hygiene situation is acceptable or not, in order to, if not, to implement immediately preventive measurements, before carring out an hygienical assessment following the UNE-EN 689 standard, with much higher costs. Methods: After the selection of the gel-preparation stages, where evaporation of Acrylamide takes place, the followed method was PV2004, from NIOSH, for the sample collection and for the analyse. Results: The detected level of Acrylamide in the weighting stage is 723 % of the TLV-TWAand 145% of the TLV-C. In the stirring stage there was found no Acrylamide. Conclusions: It is necessary to implement immediately preventive measurements. Some of them are proposed. Once implemented it is recommended to carry out an hygienical assessment according to UNE-EN 689.

  9. Prestudy: Anaerobic digestion with primary hydrolysis from increased methane production in waste water treatment plants band biogas plants; Foerstudie: Roetning med inledande hydrolyssteg foer utoekad metanutvinning paa avloppsreningsverk och biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Emelie; Ossiansson, Elin (BioMil AB, Lund (Sweden)); Carlsson, My; Uldal, Martina; Olsson, Lars-Erik (AnoxKaldnes AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-04-15

    Anaerobic degradation of organic matter is a multi-step process through the action of various groups of microorganisms whose optimum conditions can differ considerably regarding e.g. nutrient and pH demand, sensitivity for changes and patterns for growth and nutrient uptake. One way of optimizing the anaerobic digestion process, and thereby increase the biogas production and the reduction of organic matter, can be to physically divide the anaerobic digestion process in two steps consisting of an initial hydrolysis and acid production step followed by a methane production step in an anaerobic digester. One problem with the biogas processes of today is that not all organic matter that is added to the process becomes available for conversion into biogas. This is particularly evident in digestion of waste water treatment sludge where almost half of the organic matter added remains after anaerobic digestion. More efficient utilization of substrate in biogas plants is an important element to increase the profitability of biogas production. The possibility to use different pre-treatment methods is being discussed to increase the degree of conversion of organic matter into biogas in the digester. Pre-treatment methods are often energy as well as cost demanding and can require the addition of chemicals. To use the microbiological steps in the biogas process more efficiently by adding an initial hydrolysis step is a method that does not require the usage of chemicals or increased energy consumption. This pre-study is based on literature studies related to anaerobic digestion with initial biological hydrolysis and collected knowledge from full-scale plants, universities and suppliers of equipment. Nearly 70 published scientific articles relevant to the subject have been found in the performed literature searches. The articles have been subdivided according to the purpose of each article. A large part of the articles have concerned modelling of anaerobic digestion why a separate section of the report has been devoted to this. The literature study shows that the majority of the experiments with an initial hydrolysis step that have been performed with substrates such as waste water treatment sludge, organic waste or dairy manure have given advantages in the form of for example higher methane yield, increased degree of degradation and/or increased treatment capacity. In addition other advantages have been achieved by the method, for example elimination of foaming in digester, more stable process and pathogen inactivation. It is difficult to draw any general conclusions about optimal pH for hydrolysis. Optimal pH most likely differs, mainly in relation to the composition and characteristics of the substrate. It seems that pH-control, in most cases, is not necessary to achieve a satisfactorily process, which is important considering the costs for addition of acid or base in a full scale application. Concerning process temperature an increase up to 55 deg C have in most studies resulted in a higher hydrolysis rate. Optimal retention time and organic load for optimization of the hydrolysis process depends on the composition and characteristics of the substrate. For each combination of process parameters there is an optimum that changes if any of the process conditions does change. For waste water treatment sludge generally 4-7 days retention time seems to be appropriate and for dairy manure 2-4 days have been used successfully in studied scientific papers. Simulation of hydrolysis can show a clear optimum for which retention time gives the highest hydrolysis rate. This can be used to design a multi-step process so that the hydrolysis rate, and thus the biogas production, can be optimized. Modelling experiments also show that multistep digestion processes can be simulated with a good correspondence to data. Hydrogen gas can be produced in an initial hydrolysis step which gives the opportunity to produce bio-hythane but can also be a safety risk if the plant is not designed for this. No safety problems with hydrogen formation have however been observed at identified full scale plants. Anaerobic digestion with an initial biological hydrolysis step should be possible to implement at a digestion plant with relatively simple means by mainly the addition of one stirred and insulated tank. The importance and effect of an initial separate hydrolyse step is however dependent on the characteristics of the substrate and other process parameters of the plant such as organic load and actual retention time. The added value achieved by addition of an extra step in the digestion process has to be revised compared to the costs and the additional work required for process monitoring and maintenance. Six full scale plants in Sweden (3), Germany (1) and USA (2) that are in operation, or have done experiments, with separate biological hydrolysis step have been identified.

  10. Notes on methodology and pitfalls in science and research and on communication of results. Some aspects related to EMF; Synpunkter paa metodik och fallgropar inom vetenskap och forskning samt hur resultaten kommuniceras. Naagra aspekter relaterade till EMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedervall, Bjoern (Unit of Med. Radiation Physics and Med. Radiation Biology, Dept. Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    There are many aspects of the controversy around EMF and potential risks that are largely unknown to the wider audience. Such aspects form the basis for the topics discussed in this report. More specifically focus has been on arguments related to possible cause-effect where linguistic barriers and societal 'filters' (for instance by uncritical media) may constitute a problem. Regardless of whether scientists are working with for example molecular biology or epidemiology they are confronted with a number of methodological problems that may be difficult or even impossible to master. Such difficulties are seldom seen in press releases, news media and so on but they may still be part of many scientists' daily challenges. The most difficult communication challenge is probably that if something is absolutely safe it cannot be proven. An unknown virus, bacterium, or chemical contaminant may completely ruin experiments in a molecular biology experiment but at least the experiments can be repeated and often measures can be taken once such a contamination has been found. For epidemiological studies there is always a specific challenge in that the investigations cannot be repeated as people never do the same things under the same conditions and in a predictable manner. It is with this background and context that the author has chosen to treat some methodological problems in science as well as the so-called Hill's criteria for cause-effects. A shorter comment has been made with reference to various aspects of the precautionary principle as it is often referred to in the EMF debate but most often, however, it has seldom been clarified what is meant by precautionary practices or actions. Precaution is closely related to human fear and therefore a corresponding chapter has been included. This report ends with a few looks into the historical rear-view mirror which illuminates the anticipated benefits with the invisible and mystical rather than the potential risks. As is obvious, many disease categories have historically been subjects for magneto therapy and 'cures'

  11. Materials in Sweden for future production of fuel pellets. A review of possible materials in short- and medium long-term; Raavaror foer framtida tillverkning av braenslepellets i Sverige. En kartlaeggning av taenkbara alternativa raavaror paa kort och medellaang sikt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsson, Lars [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    The use of fuel pellets, mainly produced from sawdust and shavings from the Swedish sawmill industry, has increased during the 1990s among small-scale users such as private houses as well as large-scale users such as thermal power stations. During the last years this increase has continued for small-scale use. Due to a significant increase of the pellet prices the last couple of years the increase for the large-scale users seems to have stopped. It is reasonable to believe that these higher prices depend mostly on lack of raw materials for the fuel pellet production. The greater part of sawdust from Swedish saw mills is used in the pellet industry, the board industry or as an internal fuel. It is reasonable to assume a small increase of present raw material available for pellet production without a further decrease in the use for the board industry. Another sawmill by-product, dry chips, may increase in importance as a fuel pellet raw material and give a small contribution while the green chips should be for use in the pulp industry only. If the use of fuel pellets should increase there is a need for new raw materials. In the short-term, thinning material and cull tree could be alternatives that could give pellets with similar characteristics as present fuel pellets. For large-scale consumers with greater ability to handle problems concerning ash, such as sintering and fouling, as well as particle and gaseous emissions a further choice of raw materials could be possible, such as bark, peat and logging residues. In the longer term energy crops could be used as well as lignin, derived from energy effective pulp industry and from possible large-scale production of ethanol from woody biomass. Nearly all of the different raw materials studied in this review have higher amounts of substances not desirable in combustion such as potassium, chlorine and nitrogen. However, pelletizing gives an unique opportunity to mix different raw materials and possible additives in order to obtain a fuel more optimized than the raw materials on there own.

  12. Small-scale bio fuelled heat and power - requirements for standardized technical and fuel solutions from a systems perspective; Smaaskalig biobraenslebaserad kraftvaerme - foerutsaettningar foer standardiserade loesningar med avseende paa teknik och braenslen i ett systemperspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, Olle; Johansson, Kent; Steinwall, Pontus [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Different techniques for small-scale heat and power generation have been investigated. The included cycles are steam turbine, diesel engine, Otto engine, Stirling engine, gas turbine and organic Rankine cycle (ORC). For steam turbines, Stirling engine, and indirectly fired gas turbines, the combustion can be placed in a relatively conventional furnace, which gives a fairly free choice of fuel. In other cycles like the traditional gas turbine cycle, diesel engine and Otto engine, the fuel should be in the gas or liquid phase. Experiments are in progress to use wood pf (pulverised fuel) as fuel. The technique for plants based on steam turbine, diesel engine, Otto engine, conventional gas turbine and ORC based on different forms of bio fuel exist already today. For Stirling engine, gas turbine with HAT cycle (Humid Air Turbine) and indirectly fired gas turbine further development is needed before the technique will be commercially available using bio fuel. An interesting process coupling is a gas engine combined with a gasifier. This coupling can be a competitive choice to the other processes if the problems with gas cleaning can be solved.

  13. Running buses on banana skins - Good examples of the municipalities that make biogas from food waste; Koera buss paa bananskal - Goda exempel fraan kommuner som goer biogas av matavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Ulrika; Steinwig, Caroline (BioMil AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    The municipalities are responsible for taking care of food waste from households, commercial kitchens and restaurants. So there is ample supply of waste that municipalities can produce biogas, but the path is not easy. In this report we highlight some good examples of municipalities that have come a long way in terms of collecting food waste for anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. The idea is that you will be inspired by these examples and perhaps find new ideas and approaches on how more of the food waste could be biogas and biofertilizer in your community

  14. The concentration of heavy metals and PAH's in soot water - suggested methods of treatment; Halten av tungmetaller och PAH:er i sotvatten - foerslag paa behandlingsmetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Bjoern (TecNet Nordic AB, Goeteborg (SE))

    2007-12-15

    What we here call 'soot water' is a contaminated water from seasonal cleaning of the furnace and heating sections with water. Earlier, it was common to discharge this type of water directly to a recipient or to the municipal sewage plant. Today, with new, more restricted regulations, this is not accepted unless the concentrations of different substances is well documented and below official limits. The objective of this project has been to increase the knowledge of soot water from different types of combustion plants and suggest ways to handle/treat this water. The project started with a literature survey of soot water in the Swedish, English and German open literature. The next step was to perform analyses on soot water from combustion of waste, wood chips, wood chips/peat, bio oil and heavy fuel oil. It is very difficult to take a representative sample of soot water. It is especially the amount of particles in the water that may change. Since particles contains high levels of heavy metals, this may severely affect the concentrations of metals in the sample, if included in the analysis. Soot water contains very low concentrations of mercury. The concentrations of PAH is also close to or below the detection limit. On the other hand, all soot water analysed, contains enough concentrations of some metal, to make it unsuitable to be discharged directly to a recipient or drain. Four methods of water treatment have been examined for its capacity to treat soot water with regard to their capacity, operational and economical performance. The result is as follows: Chemical precipitation is the method that is judged to have the highest potential as long as the chlorides and sulphates can be discharged to the recipient or municipal waste plant. Reversed osmosis is judged less suitable for soot water since the water contains calcium, sulfates and carbonates that may clog the membranes. Evaporators is also judged to be of less interest for soot water due to its content of chlorides which will lead to expensive materials and due to its content of calcium and sulfates that may give scaling on heat transfer surfaces. Ion exchange resins can be of some interest for waters that are generally clean, but have one metal with to high concentration. In the report, the use of soot water for cooling of slag, moistening of the fuel, reuse as soot water and cleaning in an existing water treatment plant, have also been discussed. This project have generated a lot of new information about soot water and what soot water contains. Information that is important when discussing its effect on the environment as well as looking for ways to treat the water. The project has also shown the importance of correct sampling and analysis of soot water and discussed ways to treat this water. Information that is requested by personnel on combustion plant, authorities and by companies building treatment plants

  15. Potential and barriers for biogas production in Denmark at widely expanded organic farming with focus on the soil carbon content; Potentiale og barrierer for biogasproduktion i Danmark ved omfattende oekologisk jordbrug med fokus paa dyrkningsjordens kulstofforhold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buch Salomonsen, K.

    2000-06-01

    The Ph.D. thesis describes the influence from continued expansion of organic farming systems to the potential for energy production from biogas in Denmark. The project analyses the consequence from three categories of barriers: 1) Practical barriers, 2) The attitude of organic farmers, and 3) Agricultural biological problems. Economic and political barriers are not examined. When the barriers can be quantified, they are included in the calculation of the maximum biogas potential. When not, the implications of barriers are expressed qualitatively. It has been a particular goal to provide new information on whether agricultural biological problems are a barrier to biogas production in organic farming systems. One important question in this connection is whether biogas production has a negative influence on the soil carbon content compared to composting. This question is investigated by an experiment. The project is based on technical and natural science disciplines, with an interdisciplinary basis ranging over energy planning, agricultural science, microbiology, and crop, and animal operation. (au)

  16. Functionalized linear poly(amidoamine)s are efficient vectors for intracellular protein delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coué, G.M.J.P.C.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.

    2011-01-01

    An effective intracellular protein delivery system was developed based on functionalized linear poly(amidoamine)s (PAAs) that form self-assembled cationic nanocomplexes with oppositely charged proteins. Three differently functionalized PAAs were synthesized, two of these having repetitive disulfide

  17. Development of a cell-seeded modified small intestinal submucosa for urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: A modified 3D porous SIS scaffold seeded with UC and treated with PAA produces better urethroplasty results than cell-seeded untreated SIS scaffolds, or unseeded PAA treated SIS scaffolds.

  18. Long-time effects of run-off water from ash recycling to a planted forest. Final report for a partial study in the project 'Forestry measures - effects on carbon-, nutrients and heavy metal flows' financed by the Swedish Energy Agency; Laangtidsverkan paa avrinnande vatten av askaaterfoering till plantskog. Slutrapport foer en delstudie inom det av Energimyndigheten finansierade projektet 'Skogliga aatgaerder - effekter paa kol-, naering och tungmetalIfloeden'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Torbjoern; Eriksson, Hillevi

    2001-06-01

    The chemical composition of runoff from a wood ash fertilized catchment in central Sweden has been studied during eight years after the treatment. The effects of the ash treatment was compared with a 12 year long reference period and a reference catchment close to the ash treated area was earlier (winter 1980/81) whole-tree-harvested to 90 %. At the same time the reference area was stemwood harvested on 60 % of the area. Both areas were planted with spruce and pine. Granulated ash was spread on the whole-tree-harvested area, by helicopter, on two occasions (1 ton per hectare in May 1989 and 2 tonnes per hectare in October 1991). During the first ash application a marked peak in K concentration was observed. The second ash application caused a high peak in K concentration. Short-lived peaks was also observed for pH, electric conductivity, ANC, Mg, Na and Cl. Significant increases of pH, electric conductivity, Ca, K and Cl was observed in runoff water from the ash treated area during the 8-year-period after the last ash spreading. However, during the same period concentrations of NH{sub 4}-N, NO{sub 3}-N and total N have shown a relative decrease in runoff water from the ash treated area, compared to the reference area.

  19. Effect of water hardness on peracetic acid toxicity to zebrafish, Danio rerio, embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchand, Pierre_André; Strauss, David L.; Wienke, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The use of peracetic acid (PAA) in aquaculture has been suggested as an alternative therapeutic agent. Few data are available concerning fish toxicity by PAA or factors that modify this toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of water hardness on the acute toxicity of PAA...... acidic in low hardness. In conclusion, aquaculturists using PAA should pay attention to water hardness to avoid acidosis...

  20. Department of Defense Use of Commercial Cloud Computing Capabilities and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    models (Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Software as a Service ( SaaS )), and four deployment models (Public...NIST defines three main models for cloud computing: IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS . These models help differentiate the implementation responsibilities that fall...and SaaS . 3. Public, Private, Community, and Hybrid Clouds Cloud services come in different forms, depending on the customer’s specific needs

  1. Elucidating the role of the phenylacetic acid metabolic complex in the pathogenic activity of Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Faith E; Glassbrook, Norman J; Danehower, David A; Cubeta, Marc A

    2012-01-01

    The soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani produces phytotoxic phenylacetic acid (PAA) and hydroxy (OH-) and methoxy (MeO-) derivatives of PAA. However, limited information is available on the specific role that these compounds play in the development of Rhizoctonia disease symptoms and concentration(s) required to induce a host response. Reports that PAA inhibits the growth of R. solani conflict with the established ability of the fungus to produce and metabolize PAA. Experiments were conducted to clarify the role of the PAA metabolic complex in Rhizoctonia disease. In this study the concentration of PAA and derivatives required to induce tomato root necrosis and stem canker, in the absence of the fungus, and the concentration that inhibits mycelial growth of R. solani were determined. The effect of exogenous PAA and derivatives of PAA on tomato seedling growth also was investigated. Growth of tomato seedlings in medium containing 0.1-7.5 mM PAA and derivatives induced necrosis of up to 85% of root system. Canker development resulted from injection of tomato seedling stems with 7.5 mM PAA, 3-OH-PAA, or 3-MeO-PAA. PAA in the growth medium reduced R. solani biomass, with 50% reduction observed at 7.5 mM. PAA, and derivatives were quantified from the culture medium of 14 isolates of R. solani belonging to three distinct anastomosis groups by GC-MS. The quantities ranged from below the limit of detection to 678 nM, below the concentrations experimentally determined to be phytotoxic. Correlation analyses revealed that isolates of R. solani that produced high PAA and derivatives in vitro also caused high mortality on tomato seedlings. The results of this investigation add to the body of evidence that the PAA metabolic complex is involved in Rhizoctonia disease development but do not indicate that production of these compounds is the primary or the only determinant of pathogenicity.

  2. Reflections on the renormalization procedure for gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Hooft, Gerard

    2016-11-01

    Various pieces of insight were needed to formulate the rules for working with gauge theories of the electro-magnetic, weak and strong forces. First, it was needed to understand how to formulate the Feynman rules. We had to learn that there are many different ways to derive them, and it was needed to know how different formulations of the gauge constraint lead to the same final results: the calculated values of the scattering amplitudes. The rules for dealing with the infinities that had to be subtracted were a big challenge, culminating in the discovery of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin symmetry. Fond recollections of the numerous discussions the author had with Raymond Stora on this topic are memorised here. We end with some reflections on the mathematical status of quantum field theories, and the transcription of a letter by R. Stora to the author.

  3. Application and analytical verification of peracetic acid use in different types of freshwater aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2011-01-01

    of water sanitation with PAA application were used to analytically verify actual PAA concentration under real conditions at different kinds of aquaculture systems. A characteristic instant disinfection demand was found to be significantly positively related to water COD content, and PAA half-lives were...... found to be in the order of a few minutes. The study revealed that PAA degrades so rapidly that insufficient disinfection is a likely outcome. The observations have applications for optimizing water treatment strategies with PAA. The investigations also indicated that the rapid degradation and hence...

  4. Application of polyacrylic acid-poly-N,N-dimethyldiallylammonium chloride polyelectrolyte complexes for structuring of polluted soil of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabantseva, T.; Bashenova, A.; Orazzhanova, L.K.; Yashkarova, M.G.; Bimendina, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    The present communication is devoted to investigation of structuring efficiency of polyacrylic acid-poly-N,N-dimethyldiallylammonium chloride (PAA-PDMDAACI) polyelectrolyte complexes. The granulometric analysis of selected soil samples before and after the treatment of aqueous solution of PAA, PDMDAACI and PAA-PDMDAACI complexes at different molar ratio of polymer components and polymer concentrations was carried out. Analysis shows that nonstoichiometric polyelectrolyte complex [PAA]:[PDMDAACI]=3:1 possesses the best structuring effect. But this result is worse than in the case using of [PAA]:[polyethylene glycol]=1:1 inter-polymer complex

  5. Comparing peracetic acid and hypochlorite for disinfection of combined sewer overflows: Effects of suspended-solids and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, M; Loconsole, J; Schockling, A J; Nerenberg, R; Pavissich, J P

    2017-12-01

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is an alternative disinfectant that may be effective for combined sewer overflow (CSO) disinfection, but little is known about the effect of particle size on PAA disinfection efficiency. In this work, PAA and hypochlorite were compared as disinfectants, with a focus on the effect of wastewater particles. Inactivation experiments were conducted on suspended cultures of Escherichia coli and wastewater suspended solids. Tested size fractions included particle diameters disinfection efficiency decreased with increasing solids size. However, solids size had little effect on PAA disinfection. The PAA disinfection efficiency decreased at pH values above 7.5. Live/dead staining revealed that PAA disinfection leaves most cells in a viable but non-culturable condition. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses suggests that PAA and hypochlorite may inactivate E. coli bacteria by similar mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth inhibition of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri by disinfectants containing peracetic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinelt, Thomas; Phan, T.; Behrens, S.

    2015-01-01

    contribute to sustainable aquaculture. The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of 6 commercial PAA products with different molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios to reduce bacterial growth of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri and to determine effective concentrations and exposure times. All...... products reduced colony-forming units (CFUs) of A. salmonicida and Y. ruckeri. Products with higher molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios inhibited growth better than products with lower molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios at the same PAA concentration; this indicates that H2O2 is not the driving force in the reduction of A....... salmonicida and Y. ruckeri growth by PAA in vitro. The practical application of the products with high molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios should be prioritized if these pathogens are diagnosed...

  7. Mechanical properties of polyelectrolyte multilayer self-assembled films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xinhua; Zhang Yongjun; Guan Ying; Yang Shuguang; Xu Jian

    2005-01-01

    The mechanical properties of electrostatic self-assembled multilayer films from polyacrylic acid (PAA) and C 60 -ethylenediamine adduct (C 60 -EDA) or poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) wear experiments. Because of the higher molecular weight of PAH, the wear resistance of the (PAH/PAA) 10 film is higher than that of the (PAH/PAA) 2 (C 60 -EDA/PAA) 8 film; that is, the former is mechanically more stable than the latter. The mechanical stability of both films can be improved significantly by heat treatment, which changes the nature of the linkage from ionic to covalent. The AFM measurement also reveals that the (PAH/PAA) 2 (C 60 -EDA/PAA) 8 film is softer than the (PAH/PAA) 10 film. The friction properties of the heated films were measured. These films can be developed as potential lubrication coatings for microelectromechanical systems

  8. Study of the BRS charge in the Polyakov string by the Kugo-Ojima method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, J.; Rodriguez-Trias, R. (Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias)

    1988-01-01

    Using the method of Kugo and Ojima the authors obtain the Becchi-Rouet-Stora charge in the string theory proposed by Polyakov. When a conformal improved energy-momentum tensor is used, they obtain the same BRS charge that emerges from other methods.

  9. BRS 'Symmetry', prehistory and history

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-06-09

    Jun 9, 2012 ... Abstract. Prehistory – Starting from 't Hooft's (1971) we have a short look at Taylor's and. Slavnov's works (1971–72) and at the lectures given by Rouet and Stora in Lausanne (1973) which determine the transition from pre-history to history. History – We give a brief account of the main analyses and results ...

  10. ANNUAL REPORT ANNUAL REPORT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Raymond Stora has played a key role in the ..... Phoolan Prasad, Editor-in-Chief of the ... University, a Research Officer of Kerala SCERT ...... The accounts for the financial year 2012-2013 were audited by a firm of chartered accountants.

  11. Greenpeace süüdistab Soome metsatööstust / Villu Zirnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirnask, Villu, 1966-

    2006-01-01

    Greenpeace'i teatel impordivad Soome metsafirmad, sh. osaliselt riigile kuuluv Stora Enso, Venemaalt illegaalselt maha võetud metsa. Greepeace'i väitel surub Soome EL-is läbi suunda, mis jätab puidu illegaalsuse kontrolli metsatöösturite endi hooleks

  12. Spinor Field Realizations of Non-critical $W_{2,s}$ Strings

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Yi-Shi; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Li-Jie

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we construct the nilpotent Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin($BRST$) charges of spinor non-critical $W_{2,s}$ strings. The cases of $s=3,4$ are discussed in detail, and spinor realization for $s=4$ is given explicitly. The $BRST$ charges are graded.

  13. Spinor field realizations of non-critical W2,s strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Y.S.; Liu, Y.X.; Zhang, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we construct the nilpotent Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) charges of spinor non-critical W2,s strings. The cases of s=3,4 are discussed in detail, and spinor realization for s=4 is given explicitly. The BRST charges are graded

  14. Puidu import Venemaalt valmistab raskusi / Ketlin Priilinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Priilinn, Ketlin, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 21. nov. lk. 16. Eesti puiduettevõtetele valmistab raskusi puidu import Venemaalt, sest raudteed pidi enam vedada ei saa ning maanteetransport on häiritud. Küsimustele vastab Venemaa Stora Enso Foresti logistikajuht Jevgeni Popov. Kommenteerib Kunda sadama direktor Alaksander Nikolajev. Diagrammid: Eesti Raudtee puiduveomaht; Puiduveomahud Kunda sadama kaudu

  15. Radwaste disposal by incorporation in matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, D.H.; Heacock, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    A process of safe disposal, handling, or storae of radwaste associated with nuclear power productin is described. A feature of the invention is to incorporate the radwaste in a hardenable, matrix-forming mass employing a cement-type binding agent to which alkali or alkaline-earth silicate is added, among other things, to increase liquid absorption. 9 claims

  16. KEEPING THE BOOKS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS: AN EMERGY ANALYSIS OF WEST VIRGINIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergy provides a general accounting mechanism that allows us to view the economy and the environment on the same income statement and balance sheet. This allows an auditor to verify the economic picture by checking it against a more complete representation of the flows and stora...

  17. Supersymmetry algebra cohomology. I. Definition and general structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Friedemann

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns standard supersymmetry algebras in diverse dimensions, involving bosonic translational generators and fermionic supersymmetry generators. A cohomology related to these supersymmetry algebras, termed supersymmetry algebra cohomology, and corresponding 'primitive elements' are defined by means of a BRST (Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin)-type coboundary operator. A method to systematically compute this cohomology is outlined and illustrated by simple examples.

  18. The variational approach to the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manka, R.; Sladkowski, J.

    1987-01-01

    The variational approach to the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model, based on canonical quantization, is presented. It is shown that taking into consideration the Becchi-Rouet-Stora symmetry leads to the correct, temperature-dependent, effective potential. This generalization of the Weinberg-Coleman potential leads to a phase transition of the first kind

  19. Hydrogen plant module (HPM) and vehicle fueled by same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    The goal / objective of the project was to design and fabricate hydrogen plant module (HPM) that is capable of producing : hydrogen fuel onboard a vehicle and that obviates one or more of the present issues related to compressed hydrogen fuel : stora...

  20. Large-N limit of the two-Hermitian-matrix model by the hidden BRST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the large-N limit of the two-Hermitian-matrix model in zero dimensions, using the hidden Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin method. A system of integral equations previously found is solved, showing that it contained the exact solution of the model in leading order of large N

  1. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 78; Issue 6. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 78, Issue 6. June 2012, pages 835-978. Special Issue on Proceedings of the Conference on Symmetries in Gauge Theories - Pertaining to the Work of Raymond Stora. pp 835-836. Foreword · Luis Alvarez-Gaumé Fawzi ...

  2. A pathway-specific microarray analysis highlights the complex and co-ordinated transcriptional networks of the developing grain of field-grown barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Friis, Carsten; Bowra, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the molecular and biochemical interactions associated with amino acid biosynthesis and storage protein accumulation in the developing grains of field-grown barley. Our strategy was to analyse the transcription of genes associated with the biosynthesis of stora...

  3. Constraints, BRST-Cohomology and stochastic quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueffel, H.

    1989-01-01

    After presenting a pedagogical introduction to the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-formalism we introduce stochastic quantization in extended configuration space. The appearance of a specific projection operator and its relationship to the BRST-cohomology is pointed out. 20 refs. (Author)

  4. Fotboll och huliganism i Skandinavien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kristian

    De skandinaviska länderna är lika i en rad hänseenden, exempelvis samhällsstruktur, lagstiftning och kultur. Också när det gäller fotboll finns stora likheter ? Danmark, Norge och Sverige introducerades ungefär samtidigt under 1970- och 80-talen till den engelska fotbollen och dess supporterkultu...

  5. In vivo evaluation of thiolated poly(acrylic acid) as a drug absorption modulator for MRP2 efflux pump substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greindl, Melanie; Föger, Florian; Hombach, Juliane; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2009-08-01

    Recently, several polymers have been reported to modulate drug absorption by inhibition of intestinal efflux pumps such as multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of thiolated poly(acrylic acid) (PAA-Cys) to act as a drug absorption modulator for MRP2 efflux pump substrates in vivo, using sulforhodamine 101 as representative MRP2 substrate. In vitro, the permeation-enhancing effect of unmodified PAA and PAA(250)-Cys(,) displaying 580 micromol free thiol groups per gram polymer, was evaluated by using freshly excised rat intestinal mucosa mounted in Ussing-type chambers. In comparison to that of the buffer control, the sulforhodamine 101 transport in the presence of 0.5% unmodified PAA(250) and 0.5% (w/v) PAA(250)-Cys was 1.3- and 4.0-fold improved, respectively. In vivo, sulforhodamine 101 solutions containing 4% (w/v) unmodified PAA(250) or 4% (w/v) thiolated PAA(250) were orally given to rats. The PAA(250)-Cys solution increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-12)) of sulforhodamine 101 3.8-fold in comparison to control and 2.2-fold in comparison to unmodified PAA(250). This in vivo study revealed that PAA(250)-Cys significantly increased the oral bioavailability of MRP2 substrate sulforhodamine 101.

  6. In vitro free radical scavenging activity of platinum nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Aki; Kajita, Masashi; Kim, Juewon; Kanayama, Atsuhiro; Miyamoto, Yusei [Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bioscience Building 402, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8562 (Japan); Takahashi, Kyoko; Mashino, Tadahiko, E-mail: yusei74@k.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shibakoen, Minato, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan)

    2009-11-11

    A polyacrylic acid (PAA)-protected platinum nanoparticle species (PAA-Pt) was prepared by alcohol reduction of hexachloroplatinate. The PAA-Pt nanoparticles were well dispersed and homogeneous in size with an average diameter of 2.0 {+-} 0.4 nm (n = 200). We used electron spin resonance to quantify the residual peroxyl radical AOO. generated from 2,2-azobis (2-aminopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) by thermal decomposition in the presence of O{sub 2} and a spectrophotometric method to quantify the residual 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. PAA-Pt scavenged these two radicals in a dose-dependent manner. Platinum was the functional component. PAA-Pt reduced the rate of oxygen consumption required for linoleic acid peroxidation initiated by AOO. generated from AAPH, indicating inhibition of the propagation of linolate peroxidation. A thiobarbituric acid test also revealed dose-dependent inhibition of the linolate peroxidation by PAA-Pt. Fifty micromolar platinum, as PAA-Pt, completely quenched 250 {mu}M DPPH radical for 5 min. Even when twice diluted in half, the PAA-Pt still quenched 100% of the 250 {mu}M DPPH radical. The scavenging activity of PAA-Pt is durable. These observations suggest that PAA-Pt is an efficient scavenger of free radicals.

  7. Resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition of a polyimide precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dygert, N L; Schriver, K E; Jr, R F Haglund [Department of Physics and Astronomy and W M Keck Foundation Free-Electron Laser Centre, Vanderbilt University, Nashville TN 37235 (United States)

    2007-04-15

    Poly(amic acid) (PAA), a precursor to polyimide, was successfully deposited on substrates without reaching curing temperature, by resonant infrared pulsed laser ablation. The PAA was prepared by dissolving pyromellitic dianhydride and 4, 4' oxidianiline in the polar solvent Nmethyl pyrrolidinone (NMP). The PAA was deposited in droplet-like morphologies when ablation occurred in air, and in string-like moieties in the case of ablation in vacuum. In the as-deposited condition, the PAA was easily removed by washing with NMP; however, once cured thermally for thirty minutes, the PAA hardened, indicating the expected thermosetting property. Plume shadowgraphy showed very clear contrasts in the ablation mechanism between ablation of the solvent alone and the ablation of the PAA, even at low concentrations. A Wavelength dependence in plume velocity was also observed.

  8. Micelle-assisted signaling of peracetic acid by the oxidation of pyreneboronic acid via monomer-excimer switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiyoung; Lee, Hyo Jin; Cho, Min Jeoung; Chang, Suk-Kyu

    2015-08-15

    A simple fluorescent probe for the industrial oxidant peracetic acid (PAA) was investigated. PAA-assisted oxidative conversion of pyrene-1-boronic acid into 1-hydroxypyrene was used as the signaling tool. Pyreneboronic acid was found to display selective signaling behavior, being more responsive to PAA than to other commonly used practical oxidants such as H2O2 and HOCl. The changes in pyrene monomer fluorescence to excimer were used in the quantitative analysis of PAA. When using the surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide as a micellar additive, the signaling of PAA was markedly enhanced. Selective fluorescence signaling of PAA by pyrene-1-boronic acid with a detection limit of 1.5×10(-6)M in aqueous environment was successfully achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis and application of polyaminoamide as new paraffin inhibitor from vegetable oil

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Gang; Tang, Ying; Zhang, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this work, a series of novel paraffin inhibitor, polyaminoamide (PAA), was designed and prepared by aminolysis and poly-condensation using soybean oil and canola oil as the raw material. The property of the PAAs as paraffin inhibitor was investigated, the results show several PAA samples are potent in paraffin inhibition, and PPC-2 is the most effective one. Besides, the paraffin crystal morphology analysis was carried out to provide the mechanism of paraffin inhibition.

  10. Effect of peracetic acid on biofilms formed by Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from a Brazilian cheese processing plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hwa In Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the effect of peracetic acid (PAA, 0.5% on adherent cells of three strains of Listeria monocytogenes strains belonging to serotypes 4b and 1/2b that had been previously isolated from the environment of a Brazilian cheese plant. The assays were conducted using polystyrene microplates and stainless steel coupons and the adhered cells were treated with PAA for 60, 120 and 180 s. On stainless steel, biofilms were partially inactivated by PAA after 60 s and almost 100% of the cells were damaged within 180 s using epifluorescence microscopy with LIVE/DEAD® staining. On polystyrene microplates, PAA decreased (P<0.05 biofilm biomass produced by the three L. monocytogenes isolates at 60 s, when compared with controls (no PAA treatment. However, PAA did not completely eliminate L. monocytogenes cells on polystyrene microplates (decreasing 1.8-2.5 log cycles after treatment with PAA for 180 s. The correct concentration and contact time of PAA is critical for eliminating biofilms formed by L. monocytogenes on stainless steel surfaces, although further studies are needed for defining efficient PAA treatments to remove adherent cells of this pathogen on plastic polymers.

  11. Green synthesis of antimicrobial and antitumor N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan chloride/poly (acrylic acid)/silver nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Elella, Mahmoud H; Mohamed, Riham R; Abdel-Aziz, Marwa M; Sabaa, Magdy W

    2018-05-01

    The present study is imported to solve two critical problems we face in our daily life which are microbial pollution and colon cancer. One pot green synthesis of a water soluble polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) between cationic polysaccharide as N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC) and anionic polymer as poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) in presence of silver nanoparticles to yield (TMC/PAA/Ag) nanocomposites with different Ag weight ratios. Structure of TMC, PAA and TMC/PAA (PEC) were proved via different analysis tools. TMC/PAA and its Ag nanocomposites are used as antimicrobial agents against different pathogenic bacteria and fungi to solve microbial pollution. TMC/PAA-Silver nanocomposites had the highest antimicrobial activity which increases with increasing Ag %. Cytotoxicity data confirmed also that TMC/PAA/Ag (3%) had the most cytotoxic effect (the less cell viability %) towards colon cancer. TMC/PAA (PEC) was formed through electrostatic interactions between N-quaternized (-N + R 3 ) groups in TMC and carboxylate (-COO - ) groups in PAA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tumedanahaline Eesti kodanik politsei silmis kahtlane element / Eve Heinla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heinla, Eve, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Politsei ei lubanud Briti peaministri visiidi ajal tumedanahalist pakistanlasest Eesti kodanikku Tahir Husseini Raekoja platsile. Vt. samas: Kadri Paas. Suurbritannia peaministrit sõidutas Tallinnas soomlane

  13. City Hub : a cloud based IoT platform for Smart Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Lea, Rodger; Blackstock, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cloud based Smart City hubs are an attractive approach to addressing some of the complex issues faced when deploying PaaS infrastructure for Smart Cities. In this paper we introduce the general notion of IoT hubs and then discusses our work to generalize our IoT hub as a Smart City PaaS. Two key issues are identified, support for hybrid public/private cloud and interoperability. We briefly describe our approach to these issues and discuss our experiences deploying two cloud-based Smart City h...

  14. Peracetic acid oxidation of saline waters in the absence and presence of H ₂O ₂: secondary oxidant and disinfection byproduct formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amisha D; Liu, Zheng-Qian; Salhi, Elisabeth; Höfer, Thomas; von Gunten, Urs

    2015-02-03

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a disinfectant considered for use in ballast water treatment, but its chemical behavior in such systems (i.e., saline waters) is largely unknown. In this study, the reactivity of PAA with halide ions (chloride and bromide) to form secondary oxidants (HOCl, HOBr) was investigated. For the PAA-chloride and PAA-bromide reactions, second-order rate constants of (1.47 ± 0.58) × 10(-5) and 0.24 ± 0.02 M(-1) s(-1) were determined for the formation of HOCl or HOBr, respectively. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is always present in PAA solutions, reduced HOCl or HOBr to chloride or bromide, respectively. As a consequence, in PAA-treated solutions with [H2O2] > [PAA], the HOBr (HOCl) steady-state concentrations were low with a limited formation of brominated (chlorinated) disinfection byproducts (DBPs). HOI (formed from the PAA-iodide reaction) affected this process because it can react with H2O2 back to iodide. H2O2 is thus consumed in a catalytic cycle and leads to less efficient HOBr scavenging at even low iodide concentrations (acid (MBAA), dibromoacetic acid (DBAA), and tribromoacetic acid (TBAA) formed at up to 260, 106, 230, and 89 μg/L, respectively for doses of 2 mM (ca. 150 mg/L) PAA and [H2O2] acid concentrations.

  15. Growth inhibition of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri by disinfectants containing peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinelt, Thomas; Phan, Thy-My; Behrens, Sascha; Wienke, Andreas; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Liu, Dibo; Straus, David L

    2015-04-08

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a therapeutic agent used for disinfection in aquaculture, but it must be investigated thoroughly in order to mitigate diseases without harming the fish. Successful disinfectants (like PAA) should not leave dangerous residues in the environment in order to successfully contribute to sustainable aquaculture. The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of 6 commercial PAA products with different molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios to reduce bacterial growth of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri and to determine effective concentrations and exposure times. All products reduced colony-forming units (CFUs) of A. salmonicida and Y. ruckeri. Products with higher molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios inhibited growth better than products with lower molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios at the same PAA concentration; this indicates that H2O2 is not the driving force in the reduction of A. salmonicida and Y. ruckeri growth by PAA in vitro. The practical application of the products with high molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios should be prioritized if these pathogens are diagnosed.

  16. Oxidation of β-lactam antibiotics by peracetic acid: Reaction kinetics, product and pathway evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kejia; Zhou, Xinyan; Du, Penghui; Zhang, Tuqiao; Cai, Meiquan; Sun, Peizhe; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2017-10-15

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a disinfection oxidant used in many industries including wastewater treatment. β-Lactams, a group of widely prescribed antibiotics, are frequently detected in wastewater effluents and surface waters. The reaction kinetics and transformation of seven β-lactams (cefalexin (CFX), cefadroxil (CFR), cefapirin (CFP), cephalothin (CFT), ampicillin (AMP), amoxicillin (AMX) and penicillin G (PG)) toward PAA were investigated to elucidate the behavior of β-lactams during PAA oxidation processes. The reaction follows second-order kinetics and is much faster at pH 5 and 7 than at pH 9 due to speciation of PAA. Reactivity to PAA follows the order of CFR ∼ CFX > AMP ∼ AMX > CFT ∼ CFP ∼ PG and is related to β-lactam's nucleophilicity. The thioether sulfur of β-lactams is attacked by PAA to generate sulfoxide products. Presence of the phenylglycinyl amino group on β-lactams can significantly influence electron distribution and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) location and energy in ways that enhance the reactivity to PAA. Reaction rate constants obtained in clean water matrix can be used to accurately model the decay of β-lactams by PAA in surface water matrix and only slightly overestimate the decay in wastewater matrix. Results of this study indicate that the oxidative transformation of β-lactams by PAA can be expected under appropriate wastewater treatment conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Resistance to and killing by the sporicidal microbicide peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Mark J; Schwarz, J Spencer; Burke, Peter A; Mcdonnell, Gerald; Denyer, Stephen P; Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2015-03-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms of spore resistance to and killing by the oxidizing microbicide peracetic acid (PAA). Mutants of Bacillus subtilis lacking specific spore structures were used to identify resistance properties in spores and to understand the mechanism of action of PAA. We also assessed the effect of PAA treatment on a number of spore properties including heat tolerance, membrane integrity and germination. The spore coat is essential for spore PAA resistance as spores with defective coats were greatly sensitized to PAA treatment. Small acid-soluble spore proteins apparently provide no protection against PAA. Defects in spore germination, specifically in germination via the GerB and GerK but not the GerA germination receptors, as well as leakage of internal components suggest that PAA is active at the spore inner membrane. It is therefore likely that the inner membrane is the major site of PAA's sporicidal activity. PAA treatment targets the spore membrane, with some of its activity directed specifically against the GerB and GerK germination receptors. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. C-Band SATCOM Range Communications System for ELVs using ESAs and High Dynamics Modem, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development and implementation of passive phased array antennas (PAAs) offers significant performance benefits over the current active arrays. The keys to...

  19. Globus Platform-as-a-Service for Collaborative Science Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Chard, Kyle; Foster, Ian; Tuecke, Steven

    2015-02-01

    Globus, developed as Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) for research data management, also provides APIs that constitute a flexible and powerful Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) to which developers can outsource data management activities such as transfer and sharing, as well as identity, profile and group management. By providing these frequently important but always challenging capabilities as a service, accessible over the network, Globus PaaS streamlines web application development and makes it easy for individuals, teams, and institutions to create collaborative applications such as science gateways for science communities. We introduce the capabilities of this platform and review representative applications.

  20. Effect of Interferon, Polyacrylic Acid, and Polymethacrylic Acid on Tail Lesions in Mice Infected with Vaccinia Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, E.; De Somer, P.

    1968-01-01

    Intravenous inoculation of mice with vaccinia virus produced characteristic lesions of the tail surface which were suppressed by intraperitoneal administration of interferon and polyacrylic acid (PAA). Polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) stimulated the formation of vaccinia virus lesions. For full activity, both interferon and PAA must be given prior to infection. PAA was still significantly effective at small dose levels (3 mg/kg) and achieved protection for at least 4 weeks. Protection increased with increasing molecular weight of the polymer. The mode of action of PAA is discussed. PMID:5676405

  1. Confirmation that pulse and continuous peracetic acid administration does not disrupt the acute stress response in rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesto, Manuel; Liu, Dibo; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2018-01-01

    . If that is true, PAA would also be a good option from the point of view of fish physiology. However, stronger evidence is needed to confirm that the use of PAA is welfare-friendly to fish. Besides habituation, other hypothetical factors such as desensitization, physiological exhaustion or PAA-mediated endocrine...... response was evaluated by measuring plasma cortisol, plasma glucose, plasma lactate and brain serotonergic activity. All fish were equally able to mount a normal physiological stress response to the secondary stressor independent of previous exposure to PAA. This suggests that the decrease in the cortisol...

  2. Comparison between Different Extraction Methods for Determination of Primary Aromatic Amines in Food Simulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Shahrestani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary aromatic amines (PAAs are food contaminants which may exist in packaged food. Polyurethane (PU adhesives which are used in flexible packaging are the main source of PAAs. It is the unreacted diisocyanates which in fact migrate to foodstuff and then hydrolyze to PAAs. These PAAs include toluenediamines (TDAs and methylenedianilines (MDAs, and the selected PAAs were 2,4-TDA, 2,6-TDA, 4,4′-MDA, 2,4′-MDA, and 2,2′-MDA. PAAs have genotoxic, carcinogenic, and allergenic effects. In this study, extraction methods were applied on a 3% acetic acid as food simulant which was spiked with the PAAs under study. Extraction methods were liquid-liquid extraction (LLE, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME, and solid-phase extraction (SPE with C18 ec (octadecyl, HR-P (styrene/divinylbenzene, and SCX (strong cationic exchange cartridges. Extracted samples were detected and analyzed by HPLC-UV. In comparison between methods, recovery rate of SCX cartridge showed the best adsorption, up to 91% for polar PAAs (TDAs and MDAs. The interested PAAs are polar and relatively soluble in water, so a cartridge with cationic exchange properties has the best absorption and consequently the best recoveries.

  3. Comparative Study for Efficacy and Safety of Adenoidectomy according to the Surgical Method: A Prospective Multicenter Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Whun Kim

    Full Text Available There have been several operative techniques for adenoidectomy and their efficacy and morbidity are different according to the technique. This prospective multicenter study was aimed to compare the efficacy and morbidity of coblation adenoidectomy (CA with those of power-assisted adenoidectomy.Prospective multi-institutional study.Children who underwent CA, power-assisted adenoidectomy with cauterization (PAA+C or without cauterization (PAA-C due to adenoid hypertrophy were enrolled from 13 hospitals between July 2013 and June 2014. Mean operation time, degree of intraoperative bleeding and postoperative bleeding rate were evaluated.A total of 388 children (mean age ± standard deviation = 6.6 ± 2.5 years; 245 males and 143 females were included. According to the adenoidectomy technique, the children were classified into 3 groups: (1 CA (n = 116; (2 PAA+C (n = 153; and (3 PAA-C (n = 119. Significant differences were not found in age and sex among three groups. In the CA group, mean operation time was significantly shorter (P < 0.001 and degree of intraoperative bleeding was significantly less (P < 0.001 compared to PAA+C or PAA-C group. Delayed postoperative bleeding rate of PAA-C group was significantly higher than that of CA or PAA+C group (P = 0.016.This prospective multicenter study showed that CA was superior to PAA in terms of mean operation time and degree of intraoperative bleeding.

  4. What makes lithium substituted polyacrylic acid a better binder than polyacrylic acid for silicon-graphite composite anodes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Kevin A.; Ruther, Rose E.; Kukay, Alexander J.; Cao, Pengfei; Saito, Tomonori; Wood, David L.; Li, Jianlin

    2018-04-01

    Lithium substituted polyacrylic acid (LiPAA) has previously been demonstrated as a superior binder over polyacrylic acid (PAA) for Si anodes, but from where does this enhanced performance arise? In this study, full cells are assembled with PAA and LiPAA based Si-graphite composite anodes that dried at temperatures from 100 °C to 200 °C. The performance of full cells containing PAA based Si-graphite anodes largely depend on the secondary drying temperature, as decomposition of the binder is correlated to increased electrode moisture and a rise in cell impedance. Full cells containing LiPAA based Si-graphite composite electrodes display better Coulombic efficiency than those with PAA, because of the electrochemical reduction of the PAA binder. This is identified by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and observed gassing during the electrochemical reaction. Coulombic losses from the PAA and Si SEI, along with depletion of the Si capacity in the anode results in progressive underutilization of the cathode and full cell capacity loss.

  5. The OH-initiated oxidation of atmospheric peroxyacetic acid: Experimental and model studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huihui; Wang, Yin; Li, Huan; Huang, Liubin; Huang, Dao; Shen, Hengqing; Xing, Yanan; Chen, Zhongming

    2017-09-01

    Peroxyacetic acid (PAA, CH3C(O)OOH) plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry, serving as reactive oxidant and affecting radical recycling. However, previous studies revealed an obvious gap between modelled and observed concentrations of atmospheric PAA, which may be partly ascribed to the uncertainty in the kinetics and mechanism of OH-oxidation. In this study, we measured the rate constant of OH radical reaction with PAA (kPAA+OH) and investigated the products in order to develop a more robust atmospheric PAA chemistry. Using the relative rates technique and employing toluene and meta-xylene as reference compounds, the kPAA+OH was determined to be (9.4-11.9) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 298 K and 1 atm, which is about (2.5-3.2) times larger than that parameter used in Master Chemical Mechanism v3.3.1 (MCM v3.3.1) (3.70 × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1). Incorporation of a box model and MCM v3.3.1 with revised PAA chemistry represented a better simulation of atmospheric PAA observed during Wangdu Campaign 2014, a rural site in North China Plain. It is found that OH-oxidation is an important sink of atmospheric PAA in this rural area, accounting for ∼30% of the total loss. Moreover, the major terminal products of PAA-OH reaction were identified as formaldehyde (HCHO) and formic acid (HC(O)OH). The modelled results show that both primary and secondary chemistry play an important role in the large HCHO and HC(O)OH formation under experimental conditions. There should exist the channel of methyl H-abstraction for PAA-OH reaction, which may also provide routes to HCHO and HC(O)OH formation.

  6. Mechanism of Bacillus subtilis spore inactivation by and resistance to supercritical CO2 plus peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlow, B; Korza, G; Blatt, K M S; Fey, J P; Setlow, P

    2016-01-01

    Determine how supercritical CO2 (scCO2 ) plus peracetic acid (PAA) inactivates Bacillus subtilis spores, factors important in spore resistance to scCO2 -PAA, and if spores inactivated by scCO2 -PAA are truly dead. Spores of wild-type B. subtilis and isogenic mutants lacking spore protective proteins were treated with scCO2 -PAA in liquid or dry at 35°C. Wild-type wet spores (aqueous suspension) were more susceptible than dry spores. Treated spores were examined for viability (and were truly dead), dipicolinic acid (DPA), mutations, permeability to nucleic acid stains, germination under different conditions, energy metabolism and outgrowth. ScCO2 -PAA-inactivated spores retained DPA, and survivors had no notable DNA damage. However, DPA was released from inactivated spores at a normally innocuous temperature (85°C), and colony formation from treated spores was salt sensitive. The inactivated spores germinated but did not outgrow, and these germinated spores had altered plasma membrane permeability and defective energy metabolism. Wet or dry coat-defective spores had increased scCO2 -PAA sensitivity, and dry spores but not wet spores lacking DNA protective proteins were more scCO2 -PAA sensitive. These findings suggest that scCO2 -PAA inactivates spores by damaging spores' inner membrane. The spore coat provided scCO2 -PAA resistance for both wet and dry spores. DNA protective proteins provided scCO2 -PAA resistance only for dry spores. These results provide information on mechanisms of spore inactivation of and resistance to scCO2 -PAA, an agent with increasing use in sterilization applications. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Interactions between poly(acrylic acid) and sodium dodecyl sulfate: isothermal titration calorimetric and surfactant ion-selective electrode studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Tam, K C

    2005-03-24

    Interaction between a monodispersed poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) (M(W) = 5670 g/mol, M(w)/M(n) = 1.02) with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was investigated using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), ion-selective electrode (ISE), and dynamic light scattering measurements. Contrary to previous studies, we report for the first time evidence of interaction between SDS and PAA when the degree of neutralization (alpha) of PAA is lower than 0.2. Hydrocarbon chains of SDS cooperatively bind to apolar segments of PAA driven by hydrophobic interaction. The interaction is both enthalpy and entropy favored (deltaH is negative but deltaS is positive). In 0.05 wt % PAA solution, the SDS concentration corresponding to the onset of binding (i.e., CAC) is approximately 2.4 mM and the saturation concentration (i.e., C(S)) is approximately 13.3 mM when alpha = 0. When PAA was neutralized and ionized, the binding was hindered by the enhanced electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged SDS and PAA chains and improved solubility of the polymer. With increasing alpha to 0.2, CAC increases to approximately 6.2 mM, C(S) drops to 8.6 mM, and the interaction is significantly weakened where the amount of bound SDS on PAA is reduced considerably. The values of CAC and C(S) derived from different techniques are in good agreement. The binding results in the formation of mixed micelles on apolar PAA coils, which then expands and dissociates into single PAA chains. The majority of unneutralized PAA molecules exist as single polymer chains stabilized by bound SDS micelles in solution after the saturation concentration.

  8. House owners' views on investing in district heating - a study of applied sales strategies and the customers choice at conversion from electric heating; Smaahusaegarnas syn paa att koepa fjaerrvaerme - en studie av tillaempade foersaeljningsstrategier och kunders val vid konvertering fraan direktverkande el

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sernhed, Kerstin; Pyrko, Jurek [Div. of Efficient Energy Systems, Dept. of Energy Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    This report presents results from the project 'Converting direct resistive electric heating into district heating - customer related aspects'. The main objective of this study was to investigate how specific households within one housing area (Sandsbro in Vaexjoe with 110 one-family houses) experienced the conversion process, in order to understand the reasons behind 'yes' or 'no' responses to the utility's offer. A qualitative approach with semi-structured in-depth interviews with a specially selected sample of households from 10 converted and 13 not converted houses was chosen as the main method. The investigation led to the following conclusions and recommendations: Household reactions to the terms of sale and conversion: Many households felt that the decisions were rushed - there is a need for better planning, especially for the older households. The information provided was evaluated as detailed and sufficient. The 'demonstration villa' was a good idea but the installation should be done more professionally - aesthetics are very important here. Home visits were the only personal contact and should be conducted in all houses in order to answer questions and explain problems. Co-ordination of excavation should be better in order to limit the time the ground is open. A few of the households undertook some of the works themselves to reduce costs but the compensation was often considered as too low to motivate customers. Household opinions on the product and/or service: Almost all households felt that the thermal comfort was better than before - more stable indoor temperature, no problems with overheated radiators or smell of burning dust. On the other hand, hot water comfort was worse - longer waiting time for hot water and too low water temperature during summer. Aesthetics were considered very important and could be crucial for the decision to convert the heating system. Many of the interviewed households were uncertain how to adjust and take care of the system - there is a notable need for information here. Household understanding of the economic terms of the district heating conversion: It was clear that many of the interviewed households did not have a view about the change of energy costs after conversion. It was also difficult for them to make a profitability analysis before the decision. However, the offer was considered to be very favourable in this specific case. It is important that the offer and investment comes at the right time for the households - regardless of the price. One argument raised against district heating conversion was fear of monopoly and high energy costs. All households, even those not converted, were convinced that the investment would be paid back in the future because of an increased property value following conversion. Household reasons to say 'no' to district heating conversion: The household has recently invested in a new heating system or in a secondary system, Negative views about aesthetics of the waterborne system, It's too labour intensive to convert, Wrong facts or misunderstanding. Household reasons to say 'yes' to district heating conversion: Improved thermal comfort, Convenience, Low investment costs, Expectations about lower energy costs, Few alternatives to direct resistive space heating, Better than electricity from an environmental point of view. Statistical analysis proved that variables such as 'age', 'type of household' and 'energy use level' could, to some extent, be related to the decision to convert from electric radiators to district heating.

  9. Energy consumption in farm operation buildings - A survey of 16 farms 2005-2006, complemented by measurements on two farms 2010-2012; Energifoerbrukning i jordbrukets driftsbyggnader - En kartlaeggning av 16 gaardar 2005-2006, kompletterat med maetningar paa tvaa gaardar 2010-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerndahl, Torsten; Neuman, Lars

    2012-07-01

    In Sweden the agricultural sector is estimated to use approximately 3,7 TWh per year as electricity or as fuel. About 34% of this total is estimated to be used in the production of beef, pork, eggs and milk, including the spreading of manures. There is also some energy used for harvesting ley and cereals as feed, which is not included. Most of the energy is used as electricity (approx 63%). These estimates are made by Edstroem et al (2005) who based them on data from elderly studies. Since the farmers have made great efforts to use less energy and there are less enterprises with dairy cows and pigs the total use of energy in farming is less than this estimation. Most of the technical equipment is still the same today on farms of equivalent size and production methods. However, herds of pigs and cattle are bigger now, and therefore new equipment is being used. This report are a revised edition of Hoerndahl, 2007 and Hoerndahl 2009 and new data from Neuman et al (2007) are added. The purpose revision was to update data about energy use on modern farms of a size, and with technical equipment, that could be expected to be in use for the next 10-15 years. This revision was possible due to a project at LRF funded by Agricultural Office.

  10. How low can the low heating load density district heating be? Environmental aspects on low heating load density district heating of the present generation compared to a domestic oil burner; Hur vaermegles kan den vaermeglesa fjaerrvaermen vara? Miljoeaspekter paa vaermegles fjaerrvaerme med dagens teknik jaemfoerd med villaoljepanna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeling, Morgan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Environmental Science

    2005-07-01

    In Sweden we can see an increase of district heating networks in residential areas with low heat density. For the customer the economy is normally the most important argument when deciding to choose district heating. For many customers, however, arguments regarding environmental friendliness are important complimentary arguments. When district heating systems are built with decreased heat density, the environmental impacts from use of district heating will increase, depending on such as increased need of pipes and increased heat losses from the distribution system. The purpose of this study is to investigate if there is a limit, a lowest heat density when it is not any longer beneficial to build district heating when district heating replaces local oil furnace heating. Life cycle inventory data for district heating distribution systems in areas with low heat density has been compared with the use of oil furnaces. The environmental impacts are categorized into Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrofication Potential and Use of Finite Resources. To enhance the assessment three single point indicators have also been used: EcoIndicator99, EPS and ExternE. The economics of using district heating in areas with low heat density has not been regarded in this study. A model comparing the space heating of a single family home with an oil furnace or with district heating has been created. The home has an annual heat need of 20 MWh. The district heating distribution network is characterized by its linear heat density. The linear heat density is a rough description of a district heating network, and thus also the results from the model will be general. Still it can give us a general idea of the environmental limit for district heating in areas with low heat density. An assessment of all results indicate that with the type of technology used at present it is not environmentally beneficial to use district heating with lower linear heat density than 0,2 MWh/m. At higher linear heat densities Swedish average district heating production is the environmentally better choice, when compared to a local oil furnace for a single family home with a annual heat demand of 20 MWh and the assumptions described in Chapter 3 in this report. It is important for the environmental performance of district heating to minimize the heat losses from the distribution system. It is also important to avoid emissions contributing to acidification and eutrofication in the heat production. When considering only these two parameters, district heating is the worse alternative compared to a local oil furnace for all linear heat densities in this study. Better insulated distribution systems, preferably with simultaneous lower environmental impacts at production and network construction, would increase the environmental performance of district heating. Suggestions for such distribution systems should be further investigated.

  11. Consequences of increased NO{sub x} emission to air during the treatment of gas from Kvitebjoern and the Haltenbanken Soer at Kaarstoe; Konsekvenser av oekte NO{sub x} utslipp til luft ved behandling av gass fra Kvitebjoern og Haltenbanken Soer paa Kollsnes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, Cristina

    1998-11-01

    This report discusses the consequences of increasing the emission to air of nitrogen oxides if landing facilities for North-Sea gas is developed at Kaarstoe, Norway. Three alternatives are considered. The pollution from such a facility comes in addition to the existing plant at Kaarstoe, the Aasgard terminal and the planned gas power station. The report considers concentrations in air, deposition to ground, impact on acidification of surface water and the impact of the natural environment. Concentrations in air have been calculated. The assessment of the deposition of nitrogen oxides to ground, the assessment of acidification of surface water and the assessment of the impact on flora and fauna are based on a consequence analysis for a gas power station at Kaarstoe. The influence of the development of the Kaarstoe plant on the local environment is largely determined by the amount of emissions and the tallness of the chimney. The regional impact is not very dependent on the emission conditions and the global impact is independent of the emission conditions and, to some extent, of the emission site.

  12. Veterinary research, monitoring and advisory services in connection with the establishment and operation of a communal biomass conversion plant. Partial project 2 (VET-BIO-2). Veterinaer forskning, overvaagning og raadgivning i forbindelse med etablering og drift af biogasfaellesanlaeg. Delprojekt 2 (VET-BIO-2); Forsknings- og overvaagningsprogram vedroerende bakterier og parasitter med henblik paa opstilling af et driftsovervaagningsprogram for biogasfaellesanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munch, B.; Bonde Larsen, A.

    1990-01-15

    From Feb. '88 through June '89, contents of Salmonella, M. paratuberculosis, total coliforms, faecal streptococci, eggs of Ascaris suum, eggs and larvae of Trichostrongylus spp., and oocysts of bovine Eimeria spp. were quantified in 481 samples of raw and treated biomass collected bi-monthly for up to 12 months from five biogas plants. All five were run semi- continuously, two being thermophilic, one mesophilic, and two mesophilic with thermophilic pre-treatment. Herds delivering slurry to each plant ranged rom 6 - 33 cattle and/or pig herds, and daily input of biomass from 40 - 100 tons. Slurry was treated when mixed with other types of biomass, e.g. waste from pig or poultry slaughterhouses, fish industries or oil mills, and separate samples of these biomasses were examined. It is concluded that thermophilic as well as mesophilic digestion with, thermophilic pre-treatment may be capable of reducing numbers of vegetative pathogenic bacteria and intestinal parasites potentially present in incoming material, thus to allow for unrestricted use of the degassed biomass in this respect. This requires a reducing capacity on faecal streptococci of at least 3-4 log{sub 10} units by digestons based on or including a thermophillic treatment, corresponding to a maximal concentration of these bacteria in treated biomass in the order of magnitude of 10{sup 2} per ml. Minimum temperature and biomass retention time in the reactors as registered automatically, together with determinations of faecal streptococci in the end-product, are suggested as suitable monitoring parameters in these cases, to check on compliance with criteria for unrestricted use of treated biomass. For mesophilic biogas plants adequate restrictions on the use of the end-product will depend on individual process technology and local conditions. (author) 24 refs.

  13. Separation and storage of carbon dioxide in a Nordic systems perspective - a study based on work in the IEA R and D programme on greenhouse gases; Avskiljning och lagring av koldioxid i ett nordiskt systemperspektiv - en studie baserad paa arbete inom IEA:s FoU-program kring vaexthusgaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, Jenny; Hovsenius, Gunnar

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this report has been to summarise state-of-the art regarding carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) from a Nordic energy system point of view. The report is to a great extent based on studies carried out within the IEA Greenhouse Gas RandD Programme up to and including springtime 2005. It will probably take 10-20 years before CCS will be applied in a wider scale within Europe. Meanwhile, other measures are necessary to reduce the emissions of CO{sub 2}. The techniques for CO{sub 2} capturing from fossil fuels can be divided into three categories: 1. Post combustion capture. Absorption with monoethanolamine (MEA) is the most studied option and is used for small as well as large applications at present. The technique can be used for retrofits, but due to high costs it is more likely to be applied for new plants. The environmental consequences are not completely known. 2. Oxyfuel combustion. Combustion with oxygen or oxygen enriched air generates an exhaust gas mainly consisting of carbon dioxide and water, which can be easily separated by condensation. The technique is promising for new plants. 3. Precombustion decarbonisation. The technique involves transformation of the fuel into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The hydrogen can be used for example in a gas turbine for producing electricity. The method is not in commercial use yet, and will probably mainly be used for new plants. After capturing the CO{sub 2}, it is either transported to a storage site or used for enhanced oil/gas recovery. The CO{sub 2} is mainly transported as a liquid through pipelines or by ship. The global potential for storing carbon dioxide is estimated to be very large, especially storage in saline aquifers or depleted oil/gas fields where the potentials are estimated to be 1,000-10,000 G ton of CO{sub 2}, respectively 800-920 G ton of CO{sub 2}. Saline aquifers constitute the main storage potential for Northern Europe as well, with an estimated capacity of 1500 G ton of CO{sub 2} only in aquifers known today. This can be compared to the total European CO{sub 2} emissions of 3 G ton per year. Several aquifers are known within or near the Nordic countries. One aquifer is spreading from south-west of Sweden to northern Germany, and another one from south-east of Gotland towards Kaliningrad, Russia. Eight aquifers have been identified in Denmark, and in Norway, large-scale capture and storage of CO{sub 2} is carried out at a natural gas field in the North Sea. There are also several known aquifers e.g. in Germany. The cost of capture, transport and storage of CO{sub 2} is calculated to be 300-550 SEK/ton CO{sub 2} avoided, of which capturing costs constitute about 75 %. A cost of 300 SEK/ton CO{sub 2} avoided corresponds to an increase in electricity cost of about 0.12-0.25 SEK/kWh. There is a considerable RandD need to reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture. It is also important to ensure that the storage be done in a safe and sustainable manner. Public acceptance and legal issues must also be carefully investigated prior to large-scale application of the technique.

  14. Leaching and retention of nutrients and trace elements in peat nineteen years after wood ash application and afforestation of a terminated peat cutover area; Utlakning och retention av naeringsaemnen och spaaraemnen i torv nitton aar efter vedasktillfoersel och beskogning paa en avslutad torvtaekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Torbjoern; Lundin, Lars (Dept. of Forest Soils, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7001, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-04-15

    Ash application on peatlands for improved biomass production attracts great interest. On drained peatlands in forestry use, application of wood ash would increase the forest production. Before such activities starts on a large-scale, the existing knowledge in this field should be compiled, with the aim to illustrate positive and negative effects of such a measure and to suggest recommendations for wood ash application to drained and afforested peatlands. The aim of this project was to investigate how much of different nutrients and trace elements that was still left in the peat, 19 years after application of 23 tonnes of wood fly ash, 0.6 tonnes of raw phosphate and 0.25 tonnes of superphosphate per hectare to 14 hectares of a terminated peat cutover area. This area was located on a mire, Flakmossen, in west-central Sweden. As it was nearly 40 years since peat harvesting had terminated on this mire, the area was drained before the application of wood ash and phosphorus fertilizer. A tractor-driven cultivator mixed the applied fertilizers with the upper 30-40 cm of the remaining peat and afterwards different tree species were planted in the cultivated peat. Peat sampling, down to 80 cm depth, was carried out before soil treatment, one year after, three years after and 19 years after the soil treatment. Analyses of these peat samples showed that: - After the soil treatments an initial increase of pH in the upper peat layers (0-40 cm depth) was observed, but 19 years after the soil treatments pH had decreased to levels that were lower than before the treatments. This decrease in pH was probably due to an oxidation of sulphur compounds in the peat, which was a result of the drainage. This acidification of the peat could not be buffered by the large dose of applied wood ash. However, it should be observed that the main part of the peat in this field study consists of reed peat, that has a considerable higher sulphur content than other peat types. - Nineteen years after the soil treatment more than 70 % of Mg, 60 % of K, almost 50 % of Mn and more than 20 % of applied Ca had leached out from the peat. The applied amount of P seemed to be retained in peat, humus layer and biomass. A large proportion of P was probably confined to Fe- and Al-oxides in the peat. - Of the applied amounts of trace elements, approximately 50 % of Cd, 25 % of Ba and less than 10 % of Zn had leached out from the peat. For other trace elements it was difficult to make estimations due to the few analyses of these elements before the soil treatments. However, applied Pb has probably not been leached out from the peat. This investigation shows that before application of ashes to afforested peatlands, with the intention to increase the forest production, it is important to analyse both the peat and ashes to optimize the choices of ash, ash treatment (including possible enrichment of the ash with for example K or P), and ash dose. To receive a sustainable high production of stemwood on such peatlands it probably requires that the ash dose in most cases has to be higher than 3 tonnes per hectare (a dose suggested by the Swedish National Board of Forestry)

  15. Epidemiological aspects of the Thule case. Mortality, number of hospital admissions and fertility levels observed amongst the workers employed at the Thule base following the B-52 bomber crash; Epidemiologiske aspekter ved Thulesagen. Doedelighed, hospitalsindlaeggelser og fertilitet blandt arbejdere paa Thulebasen efter nedstyrtning af et B-52 bombefly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juel, K.

    1996-06-01

    In 1968 an American B-52 bomber carrying nuclear bombs crashed near the Thule Air Base in Greenland. Since 1986 it has been suspected that morbidity was elevated among the workers employed during the following clean-up period. The aim was to elucidate certain following epidemiological aspects including possible hazardous effects on the workers` health measured by death rate, hospital admissions and fertility levels, to analyze the mortality pattern of these workers compared to that of the rest of the Danish population, to discuss alternatives for the analysis of possible hazardous effects on workers` health after the crash and the consequences of the political and media coverage. No significant difference was found in the frequency of live-born children among the workers employed during the clean-up period compared to those employed outside this period and to those in the first-named group involved in a specific clean-up operation. The number of hospital admissions was the same in both groups but there were more admissions of psychiatric cases among the workers employed during the clean-up period, amongst these 75% represented alcoholism. No differences were found between the employed groups and the general Danish population with regard to total mortality or mortality from cancer, circulatory diseases or other natural causes or accidents. Prevalent causes of death were lung cancer, heart disease, alcoholism, liver cirrhosis, suicide and accidents. It is concluded that Thule workers did not suffer excess mortality and there is no basis for the theory of mass sterilization. The crash of may have led to a few cases of illness. (AB) 148 refs.

  16. How do the efforts of the energy R and D programme help renew the energy system? Examples of technologies and how the innovation systems around them have contributed to reach the objectives; Hur bidrar insatserna i energiforsknings-programmen till omstaellning av energisystemet? Exempel paa tekniker och hur innovationssystemen runt dem bidragit till nyttiggoerandet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrelja, Robert; Huegard, Aake; Kasche, Peter; Risberg, Sven; Telenius, Bjoern; Vallander, Lars

    2008-07-01

    The present report is a contribution to the analysis and discussion on how the restructuring of the energy system can be accelerated. It gives examples from the energy research program of the period 1998-2004, during which period the Energy Agency supported Research, Development and Demonstration with over 4300 MSEK (about 700 MUSD). A general review of the program is presented, and in particular, the effects on the energy system from the support of research on Salix, Ethanol production, Fuel Pellet production and the development of Hybrid is discussed. The examples show that energy research has made important contributions in specific areas, and how important networks have developed between companies, universities and customers. The examples also show that research alone is not enough for distribution of knowledge and technology. Although the efficiency of Salix cultivation has become very high, the Swedish farmers do not grow Salix to any large extent - thus illustrating the importance of a global perspective for remodelling the energy system. The energy system is not made up of technical components and plants alone, and a restructuring-process must also embrace the actors, organizations and norms of the system, and the laws and incentives that govern their actions. The energy research can accelerate the remodelling of the energy system only if the new knowledge and technologies are developed in a social and institutional context and are strategically combined with regulating, informatory and economic incentives

  17. Environmental monitoring program for the Ormen Lange Onshore Processing Plant and the Reserve Power Plant at Nyhamna, Gossa. Monitoring of vegetation and soil: re-analyses and establishment of new monitoring plots in 2010.; Miljoeovervaakingsprogram for Ormen Lange landanlegg og Reservegasskraftverk paa Nyhamna, Gossa. Overvaaking av vegetasjon og jord: gjenanalyser og nyetablering av overvaakingsfelter i 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarrestad, P.A.; Bakkestuen, V.; Stabbetorp, O.E.; Myklebost, Heidi

    2011-07-01

    The Ormen Lange Onshore Processing Plant in Aukra municipality (Moere og Romsdal county) receives unprocessed gas and condensate from the Ormen Lange field in the Norwegian Sea. During processing of sales gas and condensate, the plant emits CO, Co2, Nox, CH4, NMVOC (including BTEX), SO2 and small amounts of heavy metals, as specified in the discharge permit issued by the Climate and Pollution Directorate. The plant started production in 2007, with A/S Norske Shell as operator. In general, emissions of nitrogen and sulphur-containing gasses may affect terrestrial ecosystems through acidification and fertilization of soil and vegetation. The emissions from the onshore plant are calculated to be below the current critical loads for the terrestrial nature types. However, the nitrogen background level in the area of influence is close to the critical loads for oligotrophic habitats. To be able to document any effects of emissions to air on terrestrial ecosystems, a monitoring program for vegetation and soil was established in 2008 in the area of influence from the Ormen Lange Onshore Plant. The monitoring is planned at regular intervals according to the same methods employed in 2008, with the first reanalysis in 2010. The benefits of the monitoring parameters will be continuously evaluated. Statnett has established a Reserve Power Plant with discharge permits of similar substances in the same area as the Ormen Lange Onshore Processing plant, and participates in an extended monitor program from 2010. In 2008 two monitoring sites were established, one with rather high deposition of nitrogen north of the plant within Gule-Stavmyran nature reserve in Fraena municipality (site Gulmyran) and one south of the plant on the island Gossa (site Aukra). Deposition values have been estimated by the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). Within each site integrated monitoring of the species composition of the vegetation, plant growth, and chemical content of plants and soil is conducted for three distinct habitats: wet oligotrophic heathland, and hummocks and lawns on raised bogs. The site in hummocks was established in 2010, whereas the other sites were re-analyzed with the same methods as in 2008. The parameters are monitored within delimited plots. The vegetation is monitored in permanently marked plots (0.5m x 0.5m), ten for each vegetation type at each site, in total 60 plots. In each plot the abundance of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens are recorded, as well as the cover of the vegetation layers. Plant growth is measured in each site for 20 individuals of Betula nana, Calluna vulgaris, and Sphagnum capillifolium. Five samples of each of Racomitrium lanuginosum, Sphagnum capillifolium and Cladonia arbuscula from each site are collected and analyzed for plant nutrient content and the heavy metals copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Ten soil samples are collected from each habitat at each site and analyzed for ph, Kjeldahl nitrogen, exchangeable elements, cation exchange capacity, and base saturation, a total of 30 samples from each site. The heavy metals Cu, Ni, Hg, Pb, and Zn are measured in samples of peat mud, 10 samples from each site. Peat water is analyzed for chemical nutrients and heavy metals, 10 samples from each site. The chemical analyses are conducted at the Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute and NILU. There is still no indication that any pollution has affected the species composition of the vegetation. The vegetation is stable at both sites, both in wet heathland and in lawns on raised bogs. A few species occurring at low frequency in 2008 were not recorded in 2010, and some previously unrecorded species were found. This is normal for re-analyses of vegetation. There were significant differences in plant growth for Betula nana and Calluna vulgaris between the two sites, with highest growth rate at Aukra. This is most likely due to better climatic. (Author)

  18. Strandby Harbour on solar cooling. Demonstration of 8.000 m{sup 2} solar collectors combined with flue gas cooling with a absorption cooling system; Combined heat and power plant (CHP); Strandby havn paa solkoeling. Demonstration af 8.000 m{sup 2} solfangere kombineret med roeggaskoeling med absorptionskoeleanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Flemming (Strandby Varmevaerk, Strandby (Denmark)); Soerensen, Per Alex (PlanEnergi, Skoerping (Denmark)); Ulbjerg, F. (Ramboell, Odense (Denmark)); Sloth, H. (Houe and Olsen, Thisted (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    The aim of the project was to demonstrate 1) high solar heating ratio (18% annually) at a decentralized natural gas combined heat and power plant; 2) increased efficiency (5% of the heat consumption) in a natural gas CHP by using an extra flue gas cooler and an absorption heat pump; 3) a double tank system where a new tank during winter is used for cooling/ heat storage for the absorption heat pump and during summer for solar heat storage in serial operation with the old tank. The concept of combining solar power, absorption cooling and natural gas-fired small-scale CHP in Strandby met expectations and could be replicated in other CHP plants. However, it is important to note that if major construction modifications in the flue gas condensation system in the boiler or engine are required, the operating hours must not be reduced significantly in the amortisation period for the conversion. (ln)

  19. Regional Focus on Small-scale wind power (<50kW) in southeastern Sweden within the Network for wind farms. Final Report, Project No. 31852-1. ; Regional Satsning paa Smaaskalig vindkraft (<50kW) i sydoestra Sverige inom Naetverket foer vindbruk. Slutrapport, projekt nr 31852-1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrberg, Lennart (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    Energy Agency for Southeast Sweden AB, the Swedish Network for wind farming and the EU project RuralRES have collaborated in this project. The project has resulted in a competence buildup and dissemination of small-scale wind power knowledge. The project has, among other things documented good practices and performs feasibility studies for establishment of small scale wind power. This work has led to an understanding of preconditions for a successful investment in small-scale wind power. The dissemination of this knowledge here in the region, in other parts of Sweden and to other partners in the EU project has contributed to a more realistic level of expectations on small-scale wind power, something that is very important for the industry's continued development. A good wind location is the most important prerequisite for a successful wind power project; this applies to small as well as large-scale wind power. Availability of reliable wind turbines with good performance is important for the development of the industry. Further, it should be reasonably easy to get building permits and permits for electricity connection. The growth might be stimulated by the introduction of net charging and an adaptation of the electricity certificate system for small producers.

  20. House owners' views on investing in district heating - a study of applied sales strategies and the customers choice at conversion from electric heating; Smaahusaegarnas syn paa att koepa fjaerrvaerme - en studie av tillaempade foersaeljningsstrategier och kunders val vid konvertering fraan direktverkande el

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sernhed, Kerstin; Pyrko, Jurek [Div. of Efficient Energy Systems, Dept. of Energy Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    This report presents results from the project 'Converting direct resistive electric heating into district heating - customer related aspects'. The main objective of this study was to investigate how specific households within one housing area (Sandsbro in Vaexjoe with 110 one-family houses) experienced the conversion process, in order to understand the reasons behind 'yes' or 'no' responses to the utility's offer. A qualitative approach with semi-structured in-depth interviews with a specially selected sample of households from 10 converted and 13 not converted houses was chosen as the main method. The investigation led to the following conclusions and recommendations: Household reactions to the terms of sale and conversion: Many households felt that the decisions were rushed - there is a need for better planning, especially for the older households. The information provided was evaluated as detailed and sufficient. The 'demonstration villa' was a good idea but the installation should be done more professionally - aesthetics are very important here. Home visits were the only personal contact and should be conducted in all houses in order to answer questions and explain problems. Co-ordination of excavation should be better in order to limit the time the ground is open. A few of the households undertook some of the works themselves to reduce costs but the compensation was often considered as too low to motivate customers. Household opinions on the prod