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Sample records for berenty reserve madagascar

  1. Systemic effects of Leucaena leucocephala ingestion on ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Graham; Puschner, Birgit; Affolter, Verena; Stalis, Ilse; Davidson, Autumn; Baker, Tomas; Tahara, John; Jolly, Alison; Ostapak, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) is a leguminous tree that is nutritious forage for domestic livestock when ingested in limited amounts. Unfortunately, leucaena contains mimosine, a plant amino acid, that can be toxic when ingested at higher concentrations. Reported toxic effects include alopecia (fur loss), poor body condition, infertility, low birth weight, thyroid gland dysfunction, and organ toxicity. Originally native to Mexico and Central America, leucaena has been introduced throughout the tropics, including Berenty Reserve, Madagascar where it was planted as supplemental browse for livestock. In Berenty, a seasonal syndrome of alopecia in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) is associated with eating leucaena. Although much is known about the toxic effects of leucaena and mimosine on domestic animals and humans, the systemic effects on wildlife had not been studied. In a comparison of lemurs that include leucaena in their diet and those that do not, we found that animals that ingest leucaena absorb mimosine but that ingestion does not affect body condition, cause kidney or liver toxicity, or affect the intestinal tract. Alopecia is due to mimosine's interference of the hair follicle cycle. Leucaena ingestion is associated with higher serum albumin, α-tocopherol, and thyroxine concentrations, suggesting that leucaena may provide some nutritional benefit and that lemurs can detoxify and convert mimosine to a thyroid stimulating metabolite. The primary conservation consequence of leucaena ingestion at Berenty may be increased infant mortality due to the infants' inability cling to their alopecic mothers. The widespread introduction of leucaena throughout the tropics and its rapid spread in secondary forest conditions mean that many other leaf-eating mammals may be including this tree in their diet. Thus, exposure to leucaena should be considered when wildlife health is being evaluated, and the potential effects on wildlife health should be considered when

  2. Notes on bat diversity at Berenty Private Reserve and Beza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys of bat diversity are rare for the southern domain of Madagascar. Mistnetting for bats took place at Berenty Private Reserve in southeastern Madagascar during a six months study in 2009 and at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve in southwestern Madagascar for one month in 2011. At Berenty, Hipposideros ...

  3. Coat condition of ringtailed lemurs, Lemur catta at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar: I. Differences by age, sex, density and tourism, 1996-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Alison

    2009-03-01

    An index of coat condition can be a non-invasive tool for tracking health and stress at population level. Coat condition in ringtailed lemurs, Lemur catta, was recorded during September-November birth seasons of 1996, 1997, 1999, and 2001-2006 at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar. Condition was scored on a scale from 0: full, fluffy coat with guard hairs present, to 5: half or more of body hairless. Adult males did not differ overall from adult females. Coats were worse in adults than in 2-year-old subadults; 1-year-old juveniles were intermediate. Mothers and adult males lost coat condition as the season progressed: non-mother females maintained condition. Years 1999-2002 scored better coats than either 1996-1997 or 2003-2006. Lemurs in high population density areas had worse coats than in natural forest, but tourist presence had less effect than density. Monitoring coat condition in an apparently healthy population reveals differences between population segments, and in a forest fragment with limited immigration or emigration it can track progressive changes, correcting impressions of progressive improvement or degradation over time. Above all it gives a baseline for response to climate changes or eventual pathology. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Oribatid mites from the Vohimana Reserve, Madagascar (Acari: Oribatida, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahunka, S.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Further studies on the oribatid species collected from the Vohimana Reserve (Madagascar are presented. Altogether 13 species are listed, of them two represent new genera (Rugocepheus gen. nov. and Madabelba gen. nov., furthermore seven species are new to science. The other six species were earlier mentioned from different regions of the island, they are however little known.

  5. Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    Madagascar, in the Indian Ocean near Mozambique, is officially known as the Democratic Republic of Madagascar. This republic has 3 branches of government and includes 6 provinces or subdivisions. Since 1981, it has received more than $62 million in grants and concessional sales from the US. There have been other types of assistance as well, including a development assistance program begun in 1985. Its population is largely of mixed Asian and African origin. There exists an historic rivalry between the Catholic coastal people, Cotiers, and the Protestant Merina, who predominate in civil service, business, and the professions. To combat this, the government has set one of its goals to be the highlighting of nationalism. The beginning of Madagascar's written history can be traced to when the Arabs established trading posts along the coastal areas. Eventually, Madagascar moved toward independence from the French and became an autonomous state in 1958. The president is elected for a 7-year term and is the head, during that time, of the Supreme Revolutionary Council. There is a 3-tiered court system, including a lower court for civil and criminal cases, a criminal court for more serious crimes, and a supreme court. The government represents a strong socialist philosophy and outright criticism of the President and his government is not tolerated. The economy of Malagasy is dominated by agriculture, which employs about 85% of the population. Although it faces some serious problems in the areas of foreign exchange and imports/exports, Madagascar is a potentially prosperous country. It boasts diversified agricultural production, it is rich in minerals, and it maintains strong commercial ties to the West. Madagascar's major trading partners are France, the US, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Soviet Union, Qatar, and Japan. Madagascar maintains the Popular Armed Forces for its defense; however, there is a heavy reliance on the Soviet Union for military equipment and

  6. based management in two biosphere reserves in Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N.V.M. Fritz-Vietta, C. Roettger, S. Stoll-Kleemann

    2009-12-02

    Dec 2, 2009 ... tunities are investigated through a case study that scrutinizes ... The paper presents the characteristics of both sites and ... Journal Madagascar Conservation & Development ..... park within the national protected area network (Commission ... local MNP office in Maromandia, as well as the regional MNP.

  7. Berenty Reserve—A Gallery Forest in Decline in Dry Southern Madagascar—Towards Forest Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Winchester

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Berenty Reserve, a fully protected gallery forest beside the Mandrare River is renowned for its lemurs, but the continuous canopy of the main forest is shrinking, fragmenting and degrading. The aim of this study, before any restoration can be considered, is to investigate why canopy-cover is declining and define the forest’s vegetation status and composition. Our study includes analysis of tamarind age (the dominant species and regeneration, forest extent, climate and soil. Measurement of trunk circumference and annual rings indicated a median age of 190 years, near the accepted maximum for tamarinds. There is no regeneration of tamarind seedlings under the canopy and an invasive vine, Cissus quadrangularis suffocates any regeneration on the forest margins. A vegetation survey, based on fifteen transects, broadly characterized three forest areas: continuous canopy near the river, transitional canopy with fewer tall trees, and degraded dryland; the survey also provided a list of the 18 most common tree species. Ring counts of flood-damaged roots combined with measurement to the riverbank show that erosion rates, up to 19.5 cm/year, are not an immediate threat to forest extent. The highly variable climate shows no trend and analysis of forest soil indicates compatibility with plant growth.

  8. A comparison of salivary pH in sympatric wild lemurs (Lemur catta and Propithecus verreauxi) at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L; Yamashita, Nayuta; Lawler, Richard R; Brockman, Diane K; Godfrey, Laurie R; Gould, Lisa; Youssouf, Ibrahim Antho Jacky; Lent, Cheryl; Ratsirarson, Joelisoa; Richard, Alison F; Scott, Jessica R; Sussman, Robert W; Villers, Lynne M; Weber, Martha A; Willis, George

    2008-04-01

    Chemical deterioration of teeth is common among modern humans, and has been suggested for some extinct primates. Dental erosion caused by acidic foods may also obscure microwear signals of mechanical food properties. Ring-tailed lemurs at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR), Madagascar, display frequent severe tooth wear and subsequent tooth loss. In contrast, sympatric Verreaux's sifaka display far less tooth wear and infrequent tooth loss, despite both species regularly consuming acidic tamarind fruit. We investigated the potential impact of dietary acidity on tooth wear, collecting data on salivary pH from both species, as well as salivary pH from ring-tailed lemurs at Tsimanampesotse National Park, Madagascar. We also collected salivary pH data from ring-tailed lemurs at the Indianapolis Zoo, none of which had eaten for at least 12 hr before data collection. Mean salivary pH for the BMSR ring-tailed lemurs (8.098, n=41, SD=0.550) was significantly more alkaline than Verreaux's sifaka (7.481, n=26, SD=0.458). The mean salivary pH of BMSR (8.098) and Tsimanampesotse (8.080, n=25, SD=0.746) ring-tailed lemurs did not differ significantly. Salivary pH for the Indianapolis Zoo sample (8.125, n=16, SD=0.289) did not differ significantly from either the BMSR or Tsimanampesotse ring-tailed lemurs, but was significantly more alkaline than the BMSR Verreaux's sifaka sample. Regardless of the time between feeding and collection of pH data (from several minutes to nearly 1 hr), salivary pH for each wild lemur was above the "critical" pH of 5.5, below which enamel demineralization occurs. Thus, the high pH of lemur saliva suggests a strong buffering capacity, indicating the impact of acidic foods on dental wear is short-lived, likely having a limited effect. However, tannins in tamarind fruit may increase friction between teeth, thereby increasing attrition and wear in lemurs. These data also suggest that salivary pH varies between lemur species, corresponding to broad

  9. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.journalmcd.com

    ern Madagascar, bat surveys in humid forests near Taolagnaro ... 850 ha) dry, deciduous forest (Axel and Maurer. 2010). ..... American Journal of Primatology 73,1: 38–52 ... African islands of Sao Tomé, Grand Comoro and Madagascar, based.

  10. The Madagascar rosewood massacre | Schuurman | Madagascar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sambava - Antalaha - Vohémar - Andapa) region of northeast Madagascar. We present information obtained from sources in the region that documents an unprecedented, highly organized expansion in the illegal timber trade operating openly ...

  11. Madagascar rich and intransparent | Waeber | Madagascar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. African Journals Online: Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development. Madagascar Conservation & Development welcomes the results of original research, field surveys, advances in field and laboratory techniques, book reviews, and informal status reports from research, conservation, development and management programs and in-field projects in ...

  13. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development welcomes the results of original research, field surveys, advances in field and laboratory techniques, book reviews, and informal status reports from research, conservation, development and management programs and in-field projects in Madagascar. In addition, notes on changes ...

  14. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.journalmcd.com

    2012-02-19

    Feb 19, 2012 ... MADAGASCAR CONSERVATION & DEVELOPMENT. VOLUME 7 ... die within a short period of time (e.g., infanticide) (Erhart and. Overdorff 1998 .... been as deep or may have healed by the time of examination. Falls during ...

  16. Lemurs - Ambassadors for Madagascar | Thalmann | Madagascar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this short article on lemurs I give a concise introduction for non-specialists to these conspicuous and unique animals on the island of Madagascar. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mcd.v1i1.44043 · AJOL African ...

  17. Madagascar Conservation & Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the Madagascar Conservation & Development community. Finally, Madagascar Conservation & Development serves as a conduit for debate and discussion and welcomes contributions on any aspect of the legal or scientific status of any species living in Madagascar, or on conservation and development philosophy.

  18. Trigonalidae (Hymenoptera of Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of the primarily hyperparasitoid family Trigonalidae are reported from Madagascar: Orthogonalys brevis Smith & Tripotin, sp. n., Orthogonalys gigantea Benoit, 1951; O. hova Bischoff, 1933; O. maculata Bischoff, 1933; Orthogonalys parahova Smith & Tripotin, sp. n., O. seyrigi Bischoff, 1933; and Trigonalys natalensis Kriechbaumer, 1894. Diagnoses and a key to species are given.

  19. Trigonalidae (Hymenoptera) of Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven species of the primarily hyperparasitoid family Trigonalidae are reported from Madagascar: Orthogonalys brevis Smith and Tripotin, sp. n., Orthogonalys gigantea Benoit, 1951; O. hova Bischoff, 1933; O. maculata Bischoff, 1933; Orthogonalys parahova Smith and Tripotin, sp. n., O. seyrigi Bisch...

  20. Onilahy River, Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Near the southern tip of Madagascar, the Onilahy River (23.5S, 44E) drains a near barren landscape, the result of rapid deforestation for quick profits from the lumber industry with no regard to the environmental impact. At the turn of the century, the island was a lush tropical paradise with about 90 percent of the surface forested. Now, at the close of the century, only about 10 percent of the forests remain in inaccessible rugged terrain.

  1. A Way Forward for Healthcare in Madagascar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Florian; Rabehanta, Nathalie; Baker, Stephen; Panzner, Ursula; Park, Se Eun; Fobil, Julius N; Meyer, Christian G; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphaël

    2016-03-15

    A healthcare utilization survey was conducted as a component of the Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP). The findings of this survey in Madagascar contrasted with those in other sites of the program; namely, only 30% of the population sought healthcare at the government-provided healthcare facilities for fever. These findings promoted us to determine the drivers and barriers in accessing and utilizing healthcare in Madagascar. Here we review the results of the TSAP healthcare utilization initiative and place them in the context of the current organization of the Madagascan healthcare system. Our work highlights the demands of the population for access to appropriate healthcare and the need for novel solutions that can quickly provide an affordable and sustainable basic healthcare infrastructure until a government-funded scheme is in place. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. REDD comes into fashion in Madagascar | Ferguson | Madagascar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Radiation Protection Infrastructure In Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriambololona, R.; Ratovonjanahary, J.F.; Zafimanjato, J.L.R.; Randriantseheno, H.F.; Ramanandraibe, M.J.; Randriantsizafy, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation sources are widely used in medicine, industry, research and education in Madagascar. Safety and security of these sources are the main statutory functions of the Regulatory Authority as defined by the regulations in Radiation Protection in Madagascar. These functions are carried out through the system of notification, authorization and inspection, inventory of radiation source and emergency preparedness. The law no 97-041 on radiation protection and radioactive waste management in Madagascar was promulgated on 2nd January 1998. It governs all activities related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy in Madagascar in order to protect the public, the environment and for the safety of radiation sources. This law complies with the International Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS, IAEA Safety Series no 115). Following the promulgation of the law, four decrees have been enacted by the Malagasy Government. With an effective implementation of these decrees, the ANPSR will be the Highest Administrative Authority in the Field of Radiation Protection and Waste Management in Madagascar. This Regulatory Authority is supported by an Executive Secretariat, assisted by the OTR for Radiation Protection and the OCGDR for Managing Radioactive Waste.The paper includes an overview of the regulatory infrastructure and the organizations of radiation protection in Madagascar

  4. Madagascar Conservation & Development - Vol 4, No 2 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community - based management in two biosphere reserves in Madagascar – distinctions and similarities: What can be learned from different approaches ? EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. NVM Fritz - Vietta, C Röttger, S Stoll - Kleemann.

  5. Madagascar's open landscapes under the spotlight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    species and more than 80% of the bird and amphibian species found in Madagascar existing only in forest habitats (Goodman ... Madagascar is rich in fresh-water wetlands .... rural population can help to provide best practices that preserve.

  6. REDD comes into fashion in Madagascar | Ferguson | Madagascar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the Copenhagen negotiations on the form of post Kyoto mechanisms to tackle climate change approach, firmly on the agenda are proposals to include Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD). REDD could potentially generate tens of millions of dollars annually for. Madagascar, bringing a ...

  7. Madagascar Conservation & Development: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Wildlife Conservation/JGI Switzerland. ISSN: 1662-2510. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals ...

  8. Oculoplastic surgery in Madagascar: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JH Norris

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the oculoplastic practices in Madagascar, including the nature of presenting disease and the surgical procedures performed. The study formed part of the initial phase of a training link between Madagascar and Leeds University Teaching Hospitals Trust. We hoped to identify areas of practice that required more specific surgical training. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies looking specifically at oculoplastic disease prevalence in Madagascar or any African country.

  9. Processing of Madagascar's concentrates; Traitement des concentres de Madagascar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouret, P; Madinier, A

    1949-06-01

    This report describes the equipment (tanks, filters..) of the ore processing workshop of Le Bouchet used for the processing of the uranium ore from Madagascar (autunite). Then it describes the processing scheme: treatment with sodium carbonate, de-complexing of uranyl carbonate with soda, filtering, washing, drying and calcination of sodium uranate. The volume of reagents used, the production rate and the purity of the uranate obtained are given in conclusion. (J.S.)

  10. Environment and petroleum exploration in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratsimandresy, R.; Raveloson, E.A.; Lalaharisaina, J.V.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the environmental problems related to Petroleum Exploration Programs (PEP) in Madagascar and measures taken, in short terms, to minimize environment degradation resulting from these. PEP concerns the three main western sedimentary basins (Ambilobe Basin - Majunga Basin - Morodava basin) of which 12% of the surface are classified as protected area (forests, parks, reserves) in respect of the richness and rareness of wildlife species. PEP's operations (seismic survey and drilling wells), when conducted in these zones, affect the system (access road, people migration), leading to the degradation of the wildlife. For petroleum companies working in those zones, some appropriate measures (adequacy of equipment, engagement to restore damages, environment study) were required before concerned administration could grant the agreement. One example of specific environment damages caused by Petroleum Exploration Operations is mentioned in this paper

  11. Breeding distribution and ecology of the threatened Madagascar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Madagascar Plover Charadrius thoracicus is a threatened wader endemic to Madagascar. We report the first detailed study of its distribution and breeding ecology. Madagascar Plovers breed on the west coast of Madagascar between the Mahavavy delta in the north and Fort-Dauphin in the south-east. Between 2002 ...

  12. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.journalmcd.com

    have important implications for vector - born diseases at the reserve. Arthropod - borne disease agents have been reported in lemurs (Uilenberg 1970, Uilenberg et al. 1972). Haemaphysalis lemuris may be a vector of Babesia cheirogalei and B. propitheci and H. simplex may serve as a vector for B. brygooi (Uilenberg et al.

  13. [Hemoparasites of bats in Madagascar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharimanga, V; Ariey, F; Cardiff, S G; Goodman, S M; Tall, A; Rousset, D; Robert, V

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and density of haemoparasites in wild malagasy bats. Among the 440 bats, belonging to 14 species sampled in 5 localities in different bio-climatic zones of the island, 93 (21%) showed at least 1 haemoparasite with, by order of frequency, Haemoproteidae (15.7% of 440 bats), microfilariae (7.0%) and Trypanosoma (0.7%). Among these 93 bats, 92 (99%) belonged to the family Vespertilionidae. Four bat species, all endemic to the Madagascar region (Madagascar and Comoros), were found to harbour parasites: Miniopterus manavi with Haemoproteidae (38% of 129 individuals), microfilariae (23%) and Trypanosoma (2%); Myotis goudoti with Haemoproteidae (24% of 68 individuals) and microfilariae (1%); Miniopterus gleni with Haemoproteidae (23% of 13 individuals); and Triaenops furculus with Haemoproteidae (4% of 28 individuals). The sex of bats was not linked to parasite prevalence. Within Miniopterus manavi, those individuals with greater weight also had a higher prevalence of microfilariae; and within the individuals harbouring microfilariae the greatest weights corresponded to the highest density of microfilariae. Ten bat species (with 202 individuals examined) were negative for any haemoparasite. This study is the first to provide evidence of haemoparasites in Malagasy bats; it provides interesting insights, especially concerning the parasite distribution per bat species and families, the pathogenicity of this type of parasitism and the parasite transmission by arthropod vectors.

  14. The danger of misunderstanding 'culture' | Keller | Madagascar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. A case study from southwestern Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resource management approach to promote the international po- ..... definition of fokonolona, “all inhabitants of a fokontany” ..... clared public for all Tanalana people and their guests. ..... Déforestation et Droit Coutumier à Madagascar: Les.

  16. A history of conservation politics in Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-04-03

    Apr 3, 1984 ... MADAGASCAR CONSERVATION & DEVELOPMENT ... across multiple geographic and institutional sites. .... lected cases, I provide only general organizational associations for ... began studying ring-tailed lemurs in 1962, followed by Robert ...... Coordination issues in policy implementation networks: an.

  17. Detection in and circulation of Bluetongue virus among domestic ruminants in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Viarouge, Cyril; Ravalohery, Jean-Pierre; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Sailleau, Corinne; Tantely, Michael Luciano; Elissa, Nohal; Cardinale, Eric; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Zientara, Stephan; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2015-04-17

    So far, no published data was available concerning the circulation of Bluetongue virus (BTV) in Madagascar. During a survey on Rift Valley Fever, we were able to detect a virus belonging to BTV. Therefore, we conducted a study aiming at characterizing molecularly the BTV isolated and assess the importance of circulation of BTV in Madagascar. A total of 4393 sera from ruminants selected randomly by stratification and sampled in 30 districts of Madagascar were tested for BTV. Moreover, 175 cattle were followed during 11 months. Phylogenetic analyses were performed from virus isolated from unfed pools of mosquitoes. Overall, the estimated mean seroprevalence of infection at the national level was 95.9% (95% CI: [95.2-96.5]) in cattle and 83.7% (95% CI: [81.4-85.9]) in small ruminants. Estimation of incidence rate was 54 per 100 cattle-years assuming that the incidence rate is constant all year along. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that BTV detected belong to serotype 2. In conclusion, our results showed that BTV is endemic in Madagascar and highly prevalent among cattle. In our study we did not work on the vector involved in transmission of BTV in cattle. Thus, research should be conducted to better describe epidemiology of BTV in Madagascar including vectors and assess economic impact of the disease associated to BTV infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comprehensive Red List assessment reveals exceptionally high extinction risk to Madagascar palms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijoro Rakotoarinivo

    Full Text Available The establishment of baseline IUCN Red List assessments for plants is a crucial step in conservation planning. Nowhere is this more important than in biodiversity hotspots that are subject to significant anthropogenic pressures, such as Madagascar. Here, all Madagascar palm species are assessed using the IUCN Red List categories and criteria, version 3.1. Our results indicate that 83% of the 192 endemic species are threatened, nearly four times the proportion estimated for plants globally and exceeding estimates for all other comprehensively evaluated plant groups in Madagascar. Compared with a previous assessment in 1995, the number of Endangered and Critically Endangered species has substantially increased, due to the discovery of 28 new species since 1995, most of which are highly threatened. The conservation status of most species included in both the 1995 and the current assessments has not changed. Where change occurred, more species have moved to lower threat categories than to higher categories, because of improved knowledge of species and their distributions, rather than a decrease in extinction risk. However, some cases of genuine deterioration in conservation status were also identified. Palms in Madagascar are primarily threatened by habitat loss due to agriculture and biological resource use through direct exploitation or collateral damage. The recent extension of Madagascar's protected area network is highly beneficial for palms, substantially increasing the number of threatened species populations included within reserves. Notably, three of the eight most important protected areas for palms are newly designated. However, 28 threatened and data deficient species are not protected by the expanded network, including some Critically Endangered species. Moreover, many species occurring in protected areas are still threatened, indicating that threatening processes persist even in reserves. Definitive implementation of the new protected

  19. Comprehensive Red List assessment reveals exceptionally high extinction risk to Madagascar palms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoarinivo, Mijoro; Dransfield, John; Bachman, Steven P; Moat, Justin; Baker, William J

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of baseline IUCN Red List assessments for plants is a crucial step in conservation planning. Nowhere is this more important than in biodiversity hotspots that are subject to significant anthropogenic pressures, such as Madagascar. Here, all Madagascar palm species are assessed using the IUCN Red List categories and criteria, version 3.1. Our results indicate that 83% of the 192 endemic species are threatened, nearly four times the proportion estimated for plants globally and exceeding estimates for all other comprehensively evaluated plant groups in Madagascar. Compared with a previous assessment in 1995, the number of Endangered and Critically Endangered species has substantially increased, due to the discovery of 28 new species since 1995, most of which are highly threatened. The conservation status of most species included in both the 1995 and the current assessments has not changed. Where change occurred, more species have moved to lower threat categories than to higher categories, because of improved knowledge of species and their distributions, rather than a decrease in extinction risk. However, some cases of genuine deterioration in conservation status were also identified. Palms in Madagascar are primarily threatened by habitat loss due to agriculture and biological resource use through direct exploitation or collateral damage. The recent extension of Madagascar's protected area network is highly beneficial for palms, substantially increasing the number of threatened species populations included within reserves. Notably, three of the eight most important protected areas for palms are newly designated. However, 28 threatened and data deficient species are not protected by the expanded network, including some Critically Endangered species. Moreover, many species occurring in protected areas are still threatened, indicating that threatening processes persist even in reserves. Definitive implementation of the new protected areas combined with

  20. Madagascar's future climate change intensified actions and policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... actions and policy reforms: fostering local initiatives or business as usual? ... policies in Madagascar, and suggest that there may be fundamental flaws in ... However, World Bank statistics show that, in current terms, Madagascar was ...

  1. Epidemiology of 62 patients admitted to the intensive care unit after returning from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allyn, Jérôme; Angue, Marion; Corradi, Laure; Traversier, Nicolas; Belmonte, Olivier; Belghiti, Myriem; Allou, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    To our knowledge, there is no data on the epidemiology of patients hospitalized in intensive care unit (ICU) after a stay in Madagascar or other low-income countries. It is possible that such data may improve transfer delays and care quality for these patients. In a retrospective study, we reviewed the charts of all patients admitted to ICU of the Reunion Island Felix Guyon University Hospital from January 2011 through July 2013. We identified all patients who had stayed in Madagascar during the 6 months prior to ICU admission. Of 1842 ICU patients, 62 (3.4%) had stayed in Madagascar during the 6 months prior to ICU admission. Patients were 76% male and the median age was 60.5 (48.25-64.75) years; patients were more frequently residents of Madagascar than travellers (56.5%). In most cases, patients were not hospitalized or given antibiotics in Madagascar. The most frequent causes of hospitalization were infections including malaria (21%) and lower respiratory infection (11%). Carriage and infection with multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria on ICU admission were frequent (37% and 9.7%, respectively). The mortality rate in ICU was 21%, and severity acute physiological Score II was 53.5 (37-68). Patients admitted to ICU after a stay to Madagascar are mainly elderly patients with chronic illnesses, and often foreign residents. The admission causes are specific of the country like malaria, or specific to the population concerned such as cardiovascular accidents that could be prevented. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. A rehabilitation training partnership in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianabela, Sonia; Hariharan, Ram; Ford, Helen L; Chamberlain, M Anne

    2015-09-01

    We describe here the development of a mid-level training programme for doctors in Madagascar to direct regional and national rehabilitation services. Eight doctors enrolled and all gained their diplomas and have gone on to form the Association of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine of Madagascar, which is leading further training and service developments. The course was specific to Madagascar's needs, and was devised according to the vision of the senior rehabilitation specialist in the Ministry of Health in Madagascar with support from the University of Antananarivo. The syllabus was developed with a senior Rehabilitation Medicine consultant responsible for setting up a comprehensive range of services and teaching in a University teaching hospital in the UK. Major barriers to success include the economic and political situation in Madagascar, which worsened steadily over the period of the training, the lack of resources for health, rehabilitation and rehabilitation workshops, and the withdrawal of aid. The sustainability of the training and the improved services that have been initiated will be evaluated, but these will be influenced by the situation of the country. It is hoped that this description of a highly practical training using modern teaching methods will be of use in other low-resource countries. Much of the teaching input was given by clinicians from a UK teaching hospital, and this resource will continue to be needed.

  3. Asystasia mosaic Madagascar virus: a novel bipartite begomovirus infecting the weed Asystasia gangetica in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyn, Alexandre; Harimalala, Mireille; Hoareau, Murielle; Ranomenjanahary, Sahondramalala; Reynaud, Bernard; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2015-06-01

    Here, we describe for the first time the complete genome sequence of a new bipartite begomovirus in Madagascar isolated from the weed Asystasia gangetica (Acanthaceae), for which we propose the tentative name asystasia mosaic Madagascar virus (AMMGV). DNA-A and -B nucleotide sequences of AMMGV were only distantly related to known begomovirus sequence and shared highest nucleotide sequence identity of 72.9 % (DNA-A) and 66.9 % (DNA-B) with a recently described bipartite begomovirus infecting Asystasia sp. in West Africa. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this novel virus from Madagascar belongs to a new lineage of Old World bipartite begomoviruses.

  4. Urban household food security, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachander, J

    1997-12-01

    This article discusses the success of the Madagascar Food Security and Nutrition project in decreasing malnutrition and monitoring child health. Success has occurred in the following realms: effective collaboration between government and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), capacity building through investment in training of community workers, increased quality of services provided by community nutrition workers, community involvement, government commitment, and a flexible program design. NGOs were able to respond to community concerns by adding program inputs without losing the focus on core nutrition interventions. Community workers were selected from a group of mothers. Women were trained to monitor the growth of all children under age 5. Children who were severely malnourished were identified and referred to rehabilitation centers for treatment lasting up to 3 weeks. The program offered support and nutrition education for mothers of sick children. One drawback of the treatment program was the inability of mothers to stay for long periods of time during the duration of treatment. The program offers distribution of iodine capsules as part of a long-term salt iodization program that is supported by UNICEF and the World Bank. The program also offers microcredit. Since 1993, 28,000 children under age 5 have been weighed each month. These children came from two provinces and belonged to 300,000 families. The monitored children were 66% of the total number of children aged under 5 years. Malnutrition rates decreased from 46% to 37%.

  5. Genre et scolarisation à Madagascar Gender and schooling in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noro Ravaozanany

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Malgré des progrès récents, le taux de scolarisation des filles reste inférieur à celui des garçons dans la majorité des pays d’Afrique subsaharienne. Les causes de la sous-scolarisation des filles sont nombreuses. Elles tiennent tant à des facteurs d’offre (écoles en nombre insuffisant, éloignées, etc. qu’à des facteurs de demande (investissement dans la scolarisation des filles jugée comme non rentable, crainte de l’émancipation des femmes éduquées, etc.. Dans ce contexte, Madagascar est souvent présentée comme une exception : les taux de scolarisation sont élevés et on observe une grande parité entre les filles et les garçons. Toutefois, au sein même des écoles, les filles et les garçons ne sont pas traités de la même façon. Douze écoles ont été observées, des entretiens ont été menés auprès d’enseignants et des focus group avec des élèves ont été réalisés. Les analyses de ces données montrent que les discours et les pratiques perpétuant des stéréotypes de genre sont nombreux et que ces stéréotypes sont intégrés par les enseignants et par les élèves.Despite rising educational levels across much of the African world, gender inequities in education persist. Girls are less likely to attend school than boys. Researchers have suggested various explanations for the gender gap in education in Africa. The lack of primary schools in many developing countries and norms regarding female education discourage parents from investing in their daughters’ education. In Sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar is an exception: most children receive education; boys and girls are enrolled in primary schools in equal numbers. However, our objective is to explore gender segregation, and the treatment of boys and girls in primary schools during the lessons and playtime. Twelve schools were included in the study; teachers completed in-depth interviews and focus groups with students were interviewed. Our findings

  6. Casuses of deforestation in southwestern Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Ranaivoson, Socrate

    2004-01-01

    Causes of deforestation are discussed in the case of southwestern Madagascar. Distinction is made between direct and indirect causes. The article ends up with an estimation of the value of agricultural land vs. an estimation of benefits from utilisation of non-timber forest products......Causes of deforestation are discussed in the case of southwestern Madagascar. Distinction is made between direct and indirect causes. The article ends up with an estimation of the value of agricultural land vs. an estimation of benefits from utilisation of non-timber forest products...

  7. Dispersing towards Madagascar: Biogeography and evolution of the Madagascan endemics of the Spermacoceae tribe (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Steven B; Groeninckx, Inge; De Block, Petra J; Verstraete, Brecht; Smets, Erik F; Dessein, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Despite the close proximity of the African mainland, dispersal of plant lineages towards Madagascar remains intriguing. The composition of the Madagascan flora is rather mixed and shows besides African representatives, also floral elements of India, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Neotropics. Due to its proportionally large number of Madagascan endemics, the taxonomically troublesome Spermacoceae tribe is an interesting group to investigate the origin and evolution of the herbaceous Rubiaceae endemic to Madagascar. The phylogenetic position of these endemics were inferred using four plastid gene markers. Age estimates were obtained by expanding the Spermacoceae dataset with representatives of all Rubiaceae tribes. This allowed incorporation of multiple fossil-based calibration points from the Rubiaceae fossil record. Despite the high morphological diversity of the endemic herbaceous Spermacoceae on Madagascar, only two colonization events gave rise to their current diversity. The first clade contains Lathraeocarpa, Phylohydrax and Gomphocalyx, whereas the second Madagascan clade includes the endemic genera Astiella, Phialiphora, Thamnoldenlandia and Amphistemon. The tribe Spermacoceae is estimated to have a Late Eocene origin, and diversified during Oligocene and Miocene. The two Madagascan clades of the tribe originated in the Oligocene and radiated in the Miocene. The origin of the Madagascan Spermacoceae cannot be explained by Gondwanan vicariance but only by means of Cenozoic long distance dispersal events. Interestingly, not only colonization from Africa occurred but also long distance dispersal from the Neotropics shaped the current diversity of the Spermacoceae tribe on Madagascar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pneumonic Plague Transmission, Moramanga, Madagascar, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasindrazana, Beza; Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Rakotondramanga, Jean Marius; Birdsell, Dawn N; Ratsitorahina, Maherisoa; Rajerison, Minoarisoa

    2017-03-01

    During a pneumonic plague outbreak in Moramanga, Madagascar, we identified 4 confirmed, 1 presumptive, and 9 suspected plague case-patients. Human-to-human transmission among close contacts was high (reproductive number 1.44) and the case fatality rate was 71%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Yersinia pestis isolates belonged to group q3, different from the previous outbreak.

  9. Pediatric cataract surgery in Madagascar | Randrianotahina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: In Madagascar, presentation for congenital and developmental cataract is very late, visual outcome poor and follow‑up inadequate. There is an urgent need for a childhood blindness program to effectively deal with pediatric cataract, an avoidable cause of blindness and visual disability in children on the island ...

  10. The radiation protection infrastructure in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriambololona, R.; Ratovonjanahary, J.F.; Randriantseheno, H.F.; Ramanandraibe, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    Madagascar is participating in the Model Project RAF/9/024 on 'Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure'. Its radiation protection legislation is based on the BSS. The efforts being made to upgrade the country's regulatory infrastructure and the problems encountered are described below, as is the national information and training programme for the authorities, the public, workers and students. (author)

  11. Madagascar Conservation & Development - Early View (Wetlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Circuit court du marché des produits agricolesj : pour une gestion efficace du paysage ouvert, cas du bassin-versant de Maningory, Madagascar · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Annick Ravaka, Bruno S Ramamonjisoa, Harifidy Rakoto Ratsimba, Aina ...

  12. Madagascar's nascent locally managed marine area network

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    communication, raise the profile and expand the use of the ... community - led approaches to conservation in Madagascar and ... Fishing communities have been managing marine resources in ... munities are finding that once abundant resources are dwin- .... per closure and lead to an enhancement in catch per unit effort.

  13. Biodiversity offsetting – en vogue in Madagascar?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to the World Bank 2010 report, Madagascar is only just about to enter a large - scale exploitation ... tion between companies of the extractive industries, financial institutions such as the International Finance ... Forest Management and Development. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, Switzerland.

  14. Barriers to Student Success in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Abigail R.; Reuter, Kim E.; Gudiel, Arleen A.; Hessert, Bryan P.; Sewall, Brent J.

    2014-01-01

    Various indicators suggest that math and science students in many developing countries are lagging behind their counterparts in other nations. Using Madagascar as a case study, we aimed to: (1) evaluate the effectiveness of education among those enrolled in science and math programs at primary, secondary, and university institutions; and, (2)…

  15. Madagascar's nascent locally managed marine area network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 2004, the creation of locally managed marine areas (LMMAs) in Madagascar has exponentially increased, highlighting the need for improved information sharing between communities and between support organizations. Until recently, however, these LMMAs operated in relative isolation, with little communication or ...

  16. Rosewood of Madagascar: Between democracy and conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2009 an estimated 52,000 tonnes of precious wood from ca. 100,000 rosewood and ebony trees was logged in north - east Madagascar, one third originating from Marojejy National Park and its environs, the remainder from in and around Masoala National Park. At least 500,000 additional trees and many miles of vines ...

  17. Genomic landscape of human diversity across Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierron, Denis; Heiske, Margit; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Rakoto, Ignace; Rabetokotany, Nelly; Ravololomanga, Bodo; Rakotozafy, Lucien M.-A.; Rakotomalala, Mireille Mialy; Razafiarivony, Michel; Rasoarifetra, Bako; Raharijesy, Miakabola Andriamampianina; Razafindralambo, Lolona; Ramilisonina; Fanony, Fulgence; Lejamble, Sendra; Thomas, Olivier; Mohamed Abdallah, Ahmed; Rocher, Christophe; Arachiche, Amal; Tonaso, Laure; Pereda-loth, Veronica; Schiavinato, Stéphanie; Brucato, Nicolas; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Sudoyo, Herawati; Ni, Shengyu; Boland, Anne; Deleuze, Jean-Francois; Beaujard, Philippe; Grange, Philippe; Adelaar, Sander; Stoneking, Mark; Rakotoarisoa, Jean-Aimé; Radimilahy, Chantal; Letellier, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Although situated ∼400 km from the east coast of Africa, Madagascar exhibits cultural, linguistic, and genetic traits from both Southeast Asia and Eastern Africa. The settlement history remains contentious; we therefore used a grid-based approach to sample at high resolution the genomic diversity (including maternal lineages, paternal lineages, and genome-wide data) across 257 villages and 2,704 Malagasy individuals. We find a common Bantu and Austronesian descent for all Malagasy individuals with a limited paternal contribution from Europe and the Middle East. Admixture and demographic growth happened recently, suggesting a rapid settlement of Madagascar during the last millennium. However, the distribution of African and Asian ancestry across the island reveals that the admixture was sex biased and happened heterogeneously across Madagascar, suggesting independent colonization of Madagascar from Africa and Asia rather than settlement by an already admixed population. In addition, there are geographic influences on the present genomic diversity, independent of the admixture, showing that a few centuries is sufficient to produce detectable genetic structure in human populations. PMID:28716916

  18. Debunking three myths about Madagascar's deforestation | Horning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After more than three decades of describing, explaining, and tackling deforestation in Madagascar, the problem persists. Why do researchers, practitioners, politicians, and farmers remain perplexed about this problem? This essay offers that our collective thinking of the past three decades has inadvertently perpetuated ...

  19. The origins of the giant pill-millipedes from Madagascar (Diplopoda: Sphaerotheriida: Arthrosphaeridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesener, Thomas; Raupach, Michael J; Sierwald, Petra

    2010-12-01

    and provides a proper basis for future molecular biogeographic studies in millipedes and soil organisms from Madagascar. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Resurgence of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W ST-11 (cc11) in Madagascar, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoanandrasana, Saïda; Raberahona, Mihaja; Milenkov, Milen; Rakotomahefa Narison, Mbolanirina Lala; Ranaivo Rabetokotany, Felana; Rakotovao, Luc; Randria, Mamy Jean de Dieu; Hong, Eva; Paranhos-Baccalà, Glaucia; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Mala

    2017-02-01

    The resurgence of invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W with sequence type ST-11 (cc11) was observed in Madagascar in 2015-2016. Three cases were investigated in this study. Molecular characterization of the strains suggests the local transmission of a single genotype that may have been circulating for years. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Behavior and diet of the Critically Endangered Eulemur cinereiceps in Manombo forest, southeast Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy J. Stevens; Jonah H. Ratsimbazafy; Fidimalala B. Ralainasolo

    2008-01-01

    Manombo Special Reserve is a parcel of rainforest along the southeastern coast of Madagascar, containing eight lemur species, including the White-collared brown lemur (Eulemur cinereiceps [Eulemur albocollaris]). Following a drastic cyclone in the region in January of 1997, the population of E. cinereiceps at Manombo was reduced by half. Results indicate that individuals of this critically endangered species at Manombo consume a total of 54 plant species belonging to 24 families, with over tw...

  2. Captive Conditions of Pet Lemurs in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kim E; Schaefer, Melissa S

    2016-01-01

    Live extraction of wildlife is a threat to biodiversity and can compromise animal welfare standards. Studies of the captive environments and welfare of pet primates are known, but none has focused on Madagascar. We aimed to expand knowledge about the captive conditions of pet lemurs in Madagascar. We hypothesized that captive lemurs would often be kept in restrictive settings, including small cages, would be fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets and, as a result, would be in bad physical or psychological health. Data were collected via a web-based survey (n = 253 reports) and from the websites and social media pages of 25 hotels. Most lemurs seen by respondents were either kept on a rope/leash/chain or in a cage (67%), though some lemurs were habituated and were not restrained (28%). Most of the time (72%) cages were considered small, and lemurs were rarely kept in captivity together with other lemurs (81% of lemurs were caged alone). Pet lemurs were often fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets, and most (53%) were described as being in bad health. These findings point to a need to undertake outreach to pet lemur owners in Madagascar about the captivity requirements of primates. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Lake Alaotra wetlands: how long can Madagascar's most important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Alaotra wetlands represent the biggest lake and wetland complex in Madagascar and are home of several endemic species. The region constitutes the largest rice production area and inland fishery of Madagascar. Rice and fish are the main local sources of income. While the population has increased fivefold during ...

  4. Colonial conquest in central Madagascar : who resisted what?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.; Abbink, G.J.; Bruijn, M.E. de.; Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    A rising against French colonial rule in central Madagascar (1895-1898) appeared in the 1970s as a good example of resistance to colonialism, sparked by France's occupation of Madagascar. Like many similar episodes in other parts of Africa, it was a history that appeared, in the light of later

  5. Re-Emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast describes the re-emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar during two rainy seasons in 2008 and 2009. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Pierre Rollin discusses what researchers learned about the outbreak and about infections in the larger population in Madagascar.

  6. Development of Environmental Education Programs for Protected Areas in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsby, Alison

    2007-01-01

    Environmental education programs for schools in the peripheral zone of protected areas in Madagascar are still needed in numerous locations. My research investigated the status of environmental education and communication (EE&C) programs at Masoala National Park, Madagascar, as well as the attitudes of local residents toward the park and park…

  7. Description and analysis of hospital pharmacies in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratsimbazafimahefa, H R; Sadeghipour, F; Trouiller, P; Pannatier, A; Allenet, B

    2018-05-01

    Madagascar's health care system has operated without formal hospital pharmacies for more than two decades. The gradual integration of pharmacists in public hospitals since 2012 will allow the structuring of this field. This study was conducted to characterize the current situation regarding all aspects relating to the general functioning of hospital pharmacies and the services provided. This qualitative research used semi-structured interviews. Interviewees' perceptions about the general organization and functioning of hospital pharmacies and details on services provided were collected. The 16 interviewees were Ministry of Health staff members involved in hospital pharmacy, hospital directors, medical staff members and hospital pharmacy managers. Interviews were recorded, translated into French if conducted in Malagasy, and fully transcribed. Verbatim transcripts were coded according to the themes of hospital pharmacy and topical content analysis was performed. The principal issue perceived by interviewees was the heterogeneity of the system in terms of technical and financing management, with a main impact on the restocking of pharmaceutical products. The drug supply chain is not under control: no internal procedure has been established for the selection of pharmaceutical products, the quantification of needs is complex, stock management is difficult to supervise, a standard prescription protocol is lacking, dispensing is performed by unqualified staff, no pharmaceutical preparation is manufactured in the hospitals and administration occurs without pharmaceutical support. Progressive structuring of efficient hospital pharmacy services using the Basel statements for the future of hospital pharmacy is urgently needed to improve health care in Madagascar. Copyright © 2017 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Economie et enseignement a Madagascar. (Economy and Education in Madagascar.) Financement des systemes educatifs: etudes de cas Nationales 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugon, Philippe

    The purpose of this volume is to analyze the problems of school finance in Madagascar, including those that have arisen in the past decade and those anticipated in the present decade (through 1980). More generally, this book examines past and future connections between the economic and educational systems in Madagascar. The author examines the…

  9. On the presence of plutonium in Madagascar following the SNAP-9A satellite failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rääf, C; Holm, E; Rabesiranana, N; Garcia-Tenorio, R; Chamizo, E

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the 238 Pu and 239+240 Pu activity concentration and the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atomic ratio in peat bogs sampled in 2012 from marshlands in central Madagascar. The purpose was to investigate the presence of plutonium isotopes, 238, 239, 240 Pu, from the 1964 satellite failure carrying a SNAP-9A radiothermal generator. With an average 238 Pu/ 239+240 Pu activity ratio of 0.165 ± 0.02 (decay corrected to 1964), the peat bogs in Madagascar exhibit similar values as the ones found in the southeastern African continent, except they are one order of magnitude higher than expected (0.025) from global fallout in the Southern Hemisphere. The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atomic ratio showed a distinct decrease for layers dating back to the mid-1960s (down to 0.069 compared with an anticipated ratio of 0.17 for global fallout), indicating that the SNAP-9A failure also resulted in an elevated deposition of 239 Pu. The obtained results demonstrate that further Pu analysis in Madagascar and in southeastern continental Africa is necessary to fully account for the regional Pu deposition from the SNAP-9A event. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biogeography of the Malagasy Celastraceae: Multiple independent origins followed by widespread dispersal of genera from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Christine D; Simmons, Mark P; Archer, Robert H; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Andriantiana, Jacky

    2016-01-01

    Of the 97 currently recognized genera of Celastraceae, 19 are native to Madagascar, including six endemics. In this study we conducted the most thorough phylogenetic analysis of Celastraceae yet completed with respect to both character and taxon sampling, and include representatives of five new endemic genera. Fifty-one new accessions, together with 328 previously used accessions of Celastrales, were sampled for morphological characters, two rDNA gene regions, and two plastid gene regions. The endemic Malagasy genera are resolved in two separate lineages-Xenodrys by itself and all other endemic genera in a clade that also includes four lineages inferred to have dispersed from Madagascar: Brexia madagascariensis (Mascarene Islands, coastal Africa), Elaeodendron (West Indies, Africa to New Caledonia), and Pleurostylia (Africa to New Caledonia). Of the 12 extant Malagasy Celastraceae lineages identified, eight are clearly of African origin. The origins of the remaining four lineages are less clear, but reasonable possibilities include America, Eurasia, Africa, southern India, Malesia, and Australia. Based on 95% credible age intervals from fossil-calibrated molecular dating, all 12 extant Malagasy Celastraceae lineages appear to have arisen following dispersal after the separation of Madagascar from other landmasses within the last 70 million years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chromoblastomycosis and sporotrichosis, two endemic but neglected fungal infections in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamoelina, T; Raharolahy, O; Rakotozandrindrainy, N; Ranaivo, I; Andrianarison, M; Rakotonirina, B; Maubon, D; Rakotomalala, F A; Rakoto Andrianarivelo, M; Andriantsimahavandy, A; Rapelanoro Rabenja, F; Ramarozatovo, L S; Cornet, M

    2017-09-01

    Chromoblastomycosis and sporotrichosis are endemic fungal infections of tropical and subtropical regions, including Madagascar. The causal fungi develop in the soil or on plants and infect humans through wounds, either directly (wounding by the plant, through thorns, for example), or through the contact of an existing wound with contaminated soil. For this reason, the lesions predominantly occur on the limbs, and these fungi principally infect people working outside with bare hands and/or feet. The subcutaneous lesions of chromoblastomycosis are initially nodular, subsequently becoming warty, tumoral, cauliflower-like and pruriginous, which promotes dissemination. The chronic nature of the infection and its progression over long periods lead to highly disabling lesions in essentially rural and agricultural populations. The lesions of sporotrichosis are also nodular, but more ulcerous, and they form an extended chain following the route of the lymph vessels. Pus, squamous or skin biopsy specimens are used for the mycological examination of these mycoses. Treatment depends on the severity and form of the lesions and is based on antifungal drugs sometimes combined with physical methods. There has been no study of these infections for more than two decades in Madagascar, despite the large numbers of cases seen by doctors in all parts of the island. The nature, diversity and distribution of the plants responsible for contamination have not been described in Madagascar. In this review, we described these two endemic mycoses in terms of their epidemiological, mycological, clinical and therapeutic characteristics, focusing particularly on Madagascar, which is one of the leading foci of these two infections worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Ecology and Conservation Status of Indian Ocean Humpback Dolphins (Sousa plumbea) in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerchio, Salvatore; Andrianarivelo, Norbert; Andrianantenaina, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The Indian Ocean humpback dolphin (Sousa plumbea) has been studied in several range states in the Southwest Indian Ocean, however little information exists on populations in Madagascar. Here, we review available literature and describe a study on S. plumbea conducted between 2004 and 2013 on the west coast of Madagascar, involving boat-based field surveys in the southwest and northwest regions, and interview surveys with local fishers from villages along most of the west coast. Field surveys in the southwest region of Anakao/St. Augustine Bay revealed low encounter rates and mean group size, and markedly declining trends in both from 1999 to 2013. Conversely, in the northwest region around Nosy Be and Nosy Iranja, encounter rates were higher, as were mean group sizes, suggesting an apparently more abundant and less impacted population. Interview surveys revealed by-catch of coastal dolphins along the entire west coast, including S. plumbea, as well as other species. Directed hunting, including drive hunts of groups of dolphins, was reported primarily in the southern regions, in the range of the Vezo Malagasy ethnicity; however, there was evidence of hunting starting in one area in the northwest, where hunting dolphins is normally considered taboo for the predominant Sakalava ethnicity. Thus, the conservation status of S. plumbea in Madagascar appears to be spatially heterogeneous, with some areas where the local population is apparently more impacted than others. Conservation measures are recommended to mitigate further decline in the southwest of Madagascar, while protecting habitat and ensuring resilience in the northwest. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  13. Borehole disposal design concept in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randriamarolahy, J.N.; Randriantseheno, H.F.; Andriambololona, Raoelina

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In Madagascar, sealed radioactive sources are used in several socio-economic sectors such as medicine, industry, research and agriculture. At the end of their useful lives, these radioactive sources become ionizing radiations waste and can be still dangerous because they can cause harmful effects to the public and the environment. 'Borehole disposal design concept' is needed for sitting up a safe site for storage of radioactive waste, in particular, sealed radioactive sources. Borehole disposal is an option for long-term management of small quantities of radioactive waste in compliance with the internationally accepted principles for radioactive waste management. Several technical aspects must be respected to carry out such a site like the geological, geomorphologic, hydrogeology, geochemical, meteorological and demographic conditions. Two sites are most acceptable in Madagascar such as Ankazobe and Fanjakana. A Borehole will be drilled and constructed using standard techniques developed for water abstraction, oil exploration. At the Borehole, the sealed radioactive sources are encapsulated. The capsule is inserted in a container. This type of storage is benefit for the developing countries because it is technologically simple and economic. The construction cost depends on the volume of waste to store and the Borehole depth. The borehole disposal concept provides a good level of safety to avoid human intrusion. The future protection of the generations against the propagation of the ionizing radiations is then assured. (author)

  14. New species of Uropodina from Madagascar (Acari: Mesostigmata)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kontschán, J.; Starý, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 3895, č. 4 (2014), s. 547-569 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acari * Mesostigmata * Uropodina * new genus * new species * Madagascar Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.906, year: 2014

  15. Uncovering a New Current: The Southwest MAdagascar Coastal Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanantsoa, Juliano D.; Penven, P.; Krug, M.; Gula, J.; Rouault, M.

    2018-02-01

    Cruise data sets, satellite remote sensing observations, and model data analyses are combined to highlight the existence of a coastal surface poleward flow in the southwest of Madagascar: the Southwest MAdagascar Coastal Current (SMACC). The SMACC is a relatively shallow (water surface signature of the SMACC extends from 22°S (upstream) to 26.4°S (downstream). The SMACC exhibits a seasonal variability: more intense in summer and reduced in winter. The average volume transport of its core is about 1.3 Sv with a mean summer maximum of 2.1 Sv. It is forced by a strong cyclonic wind stress curl associated with the bending of the trade winds along the southern tip of Madagascar. The SMACC directly influences the coastal upwelling regions south of Madagascar. Its existence is likely to influence local fisheries and larval transport patterns, as well as the connectivity with the Agulhas Current, affecting the returning branch of the global overturning circulation.

  16. Trade of parrots in urban areas of Madagascar | Reuter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Biodiversity offsetting – en vogue in Madagascar? | Waeber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 3 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. A small cohort of Island Southeast Asian women founded Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Murray P; Nelson, Michael G; Tumonggor, Meryanne K; Ricaut, François-X; Sudoyo, Herawati

    2012-07-22

    The settlement of Madagascar is one of the most unusual, and least understood, episodes in human prehistory. Madagascar was one of the last landmasses to be reached by people, and despite the island's location just off the east coast of Africa, evidence from genetics, language and culture all attests that it was settled jointly by Africans, and more surprisingly, Indonesians. Nevertheless, extremely little is known about the settlement process itself. Here, we report broad geographical screening of Malagasy and Indonesian genetic variation, from which we infer a statistically robust coalescent model of the island's initial settlement. Maximum-likelihood estimates favour a scenario in which Madagascar was settled approximately 1200 years ago by a very small group of women (approx. 30), most of Indonesian descent (approx. 93%). This highly restricted founding population raises the possibility that Madagascar was settled not as a large-scale planned colonization event from Indonesia, but rather through a small, perhaps even unintended, transoceanic crossing.

  19. Re-Emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-27

    This podcast describes the re-emergence of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar during two rainy seasons in 2008 and 2009. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Pierre Rollin discusses what researchers learned about the outbreak and about infections in the larger population in Madagascar.  Created: 5/27/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/27/2010.

  20. Normal-Faulting in Madagascar: Another Round of Continental Rifting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.; Pratt, M. J.; Tsiriandrimanana, R.; Andriampenomanana Ny Ony, F. S. T.; Nyblade, A.; Durrheim, R. J.; Tilmann, F. J.; Rumpker, G.; Rambolamanana, G.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Shore, P.

    2017-12-01

    Analyses of seismicity and seismic structure within Madagascar suggest the current occurrence of crustal extension, which may be related to continental rifting associated with a diffuse boundary between the Somalia and Lwandle tectonic plates. Madagascar has participated in two major rifting events as part of the break-up of Gondwana: the break-away of Greater India (Madagascar, India, the Seychelles) away from mainland Africa during the Jurassic and the break-away of India from Madagascar during the Cretaceous. Seismic activity and the structures obtained from it, using data from the 2-year (2011-2013) MACOMO project, suggest that this break-up may not be finished, and that continental rifts may be developing again. There are fairly high levels of intraplate seismicity within Madagascar: over 800 events located during the 22 months of the deployment. For comparison, a 2-year deployment of seismometers within the upper Midwest of the U.S. yielded just 12 intraplate earthquakes. While the Madagascar seismicity occurs across the island, it is strongly concentrated in the central region, where Cenozoic volcanism has occurred through the Holocene, and earthquakes align along N-S-trending lineations associated with N-S-trending pull-apart graben structures. The thickness of the crust is still >40 km in this region, but it is underlain by a large low-velocity structure within the lithosphere and asthenosphere that is observed in our studies of surface-wave, body-wave, and Pn-phase tomography. Normal faulting is not observed everywhere on the island, however; seismicity in the north is largely strike-slip, and seismicity in the south appears to be largely reverse faulting. Several studies have suggested that the diffuse boundary between the Somalia and Lwandle plates runs roughly E-W across Madagascar. Extensional faulting seems to predominate only within central Madagascar, likely associated with the current volcanic activity, which also appears to be associated with the

  1. Imperfect isolation: factors and filters shaping Madagascar's extant vertebrate fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonds, Karen E; Godfrey, Laurie R; Ali, Jason R; Goodman, Steven M; Vences, Miguel; Sutherland, Michael R; Irwin, Mitchell T; Krause, David W

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of phylogenetic topology and estimates of divergence timing have facilitated a reconstruction of Madagascar's colonization events by vertebrate animals, but that information alone does not reveal the major factors shaping the island's biogeographic history. Here, we examine profiles of Malagasy vertebrate clades through time within the context of the island's paleogeographical evolution to determine how particular events influenced the arrival of the island's extant groups. First we compare vertebrate profiles on Madagascar before and after selected events; then we compare tetrapod profiles on Madagascar to contemporary tetrapod compositions globally. We show that changes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic in the proportions of Madagascar's tetrapod clades (particularly its increase in the representation of birds and mammals) are tied to changes in their relative proportions elsewhere on the globe. Differences in the representation of vertebrate classes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic reflect the effects of extinction (i.e., the non-random susceptibility of the different vertebrate clades to purported catastrophic global events 65 million years ago), and new evolutionary opportunities for a subset of vertebrates with the relatively high potential for transoceanic dispersal potential. In comparison, changes in vertebrate class representation during the Cenozoic are minor. Despite the fact that the island's isolation has resulted in high vertebrate endemism and a unique and taxonomically imbalanced extant vertebrate assemblage (both hailed as testimony to its long isolation), that isolation was never complete. Indeed, Madagascar's extant tetrapod fauna owes more to colonization during the Cenozoic than to earlier arrivals. Madagascar's unusual vertebrate assemblage needs to be understood with reference to the basal character of clades originating prior to the K-T extinction, as well as to the differential transoceanic dispersal advantage of other, more

  2. Influenza seasonality in Madagascar: the mysterious African free-runner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Wladimir Jimenez; Guillebaud, Julia; Viboud, Cecile; Razanajatovo, Norosoa Harline; Orelle, Arnaud; Zhou, Steven Zhixiang; Randrianasolo, Laurence; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2015-05-01

    The seasonal drivers of influenza activity remain debated in tropical settings where epidemics are not clearly phased. Antananarivo is a particularly interesting case study because it is in Madagascar, an island situated in the tropics and with quantifiable connectivity levels to other countries. We aimed at disentangling the role of environmental forcing and population fluxes on influenza seasonality in Madagascar. We compiled weekly counts of laboratory-confirmed influenza-positive specimens for the period 2002 to 2012 collected in Antananarivo, with data available from sub-Saharan countries and countries contributing most foreign travelers to Madagascar. Daily climate indicators were compiled for the study period. Overall, influenza activity detected in Antananarivo predated that identified in temperate Northern Hemisphere locations. This activity presented poor temporal matching with viral activity in other countries from the African continent or countries highly connected to Madagascar excepted for A(H1N1)pdm09. Influenza detection in Antananarivo was not associated with travel activity and, although it was positively correlated with all climatic variables studied, such association was weak. The timing of influenza activity in Antananarivo is irregular, is not driven by climate, and does not align with that of countries in geographic proximity or highly connected to Madagascar. This work opens fresh questions regarding the drivers of influenza seasonality globally particularly in mid-latitude and less-connected regions to tailor vaccine strategies locally. © 2015 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Coastal upwelling south of Madagascar: Temporal and spatial variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanantsoa, Juliano D.; Krug, M.; Penven, P.; Rouault, M.; Gula, J.

    2018-02-01

    Madagascar's southern coastal marine zone is a region of high biological productivity which supports a wide range of marine ecosystems, including fisheries. This high biological productivity is attributed to coastal upwelling. This paper provides new insights on the structure, variability and drivers of the coastal upwelling south of Madagascar. Satellite remote sensing is used to characterize the spatial extent and strength of the coastal upwelling. A front detection algorithm is applied to thirteen years of Multi-scale Ultra-high Resolution (MUR) Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) and an upwelling index is calculated. The influence of winds and ocean currents as drivers of the upwelling is investigated using satellite, in-situ observations, and a numerical model. Results reveal the presence of two well-defined upwelling cells. The first cell (Core 1) is located in the southeastern corner of Madagascar, and the second cell (Core 2) is west of the southern tip of Madagascar. These two cores are characterized by different seasonal variability, different intensities, different upwelled water mass origins, and distinct forcing mechanisms. Core 1 is associated with a dynamical upwelling forced by the detachment of the East Madagascar Current (EMC), which is reinforced by upwelling favourable winds. Core 2 appears to be primarily forced by upwelling favourable winds, but is also influenced by a poleward eastern boundary flow coming from the Mozambique Channel. The intrusion of Mozambique Channel warm waters could result in an asynchronicity in seasonality between upwelling surface signature and upwelling favourables winds.

  4. Malagasy dialects and the peopling of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serva, Maurizio; Petroni, Filippo; Volchenkov, Dima; Wichmann, Søren

    2012-01-07

    The origin of Malagasy DNA is half African and half Indonesian, nevertheless the Malagasy language, spoken by the entire population, belongs to the Austronesian family. The language most closely related to Malagasy is Maanyan (Greater Barito East group of the Austronesian family), but related languages are also in Sulawesi, Malaysia and Sumatra. For this reason, and because Maanyan is spoken by a population which lives along the Barito river in Kalimantan and which does not possess the necessary skill for long maritime navigation, the ethnic composition of the Indonesian colonizers is still unclear. There is a general consensus that Indonesian sailors reached Madagascar by a maritime trek, but the time, the path and the landing area of the first colonization are all disputed. In this research, we try to answer these problems together with other ones, such as the historical configuration of Malagasy dialects, by types of analysis related to lexicostatistics and glottochronology that draw upon the automated method recently proposed by the authors. The data were collected by the first author at the beginning of 2010 with the invaluable help of Joselinà Soafara Néré and consist of Swadesh lists of 200 items for 23 dialects covering all areas of the island.

  5. Barriers to student success in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail R. Wills

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various indicators suggest that many students in developing countries are not learning in school. Using Madagascar as a case study, we aimed to: (1 evaluate the effectiveness of education among those enrolled in science and math programs of primary, secondary, and university institutions; and (2 understand barriers to student progression through the education system. To address these aims, we conducted 63 semi-structured interviews in June and August 2012 with science and math teachers in five population centers, across all three levels of the public and private school system. We found that crowded classes, limited resources (pedagogical and infrastructural, an average student age range of seven years per classroom (suggestive of grade repetition and/or late school starting age, and discontinuities in the language of instruction explain why teachers estimated that almost 25% of their students would not finish school. Although most secondary and university teachers taught the sciences only in French, they estimated that just one-third of students could fully understand the language. There were also urban-rural and public-private disparities. Teachers in urban areas were significantly more likely to teach using French than their rural counterparts, while public schools housed significantly larger classes than private institutions. While resource equalisation will help to resolve many of these disparities, improved early training in professional languages and increased local autonomy in designing appropriate curriculums will be necessary to tackle other shortfalls.

  6. Gully erosion in Madagascar: causes and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveloson, Andrea; Székely, Balázs; Visnovitz, Ferenc

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion has been recognized as the main cause of land degradation worldwide and gully erosion is currently considered as one of the most impressive and striking erosion type. This global environmental problem has numerous causes (both natural and anthropogenic) and inflict serious socio-economic problems all around the world. The present study aims to discuss the occurrence and environmental issues related to lavakization in Madagascar and its impact on landscape (badland formation), land use management, flora and fauna, infrastructures, soil properties and human life itself. We assembled and reviewed lavaka researches since 1953. Exact location of the field surveys, cited triggering factors and results of these scientific papers have been studied in detail and compared with our data collected using satellite imagery. Lavaka distribution was analyzed using GIS methods and the relation between their density and different factors was studied. An overview of the many contributing factors (climate, topography, geology, vegetation cover, fault systems, tectonism and land use including inappropriate cultivation and irrigation systems) is given in order to better understand lavaka formation, distribution and impacts. Synthesis of previous researches might help us define area susceptible to gully formation. This can be used to determine prevention priorities for farmers, to manage their lands sustainably. This is ILARG contribution 18.

  7. Influences on women's decision making about intrauterine device use in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottert, Ann; Jacquin, Karin; Rahaivondrafahitra, Bakoly; Moracco, Kathryn; Maman, Suzanne

    2015-04-01

    We explored influences on decision making about intrauterine device (IUD) use among women in the Women's Health Project (WHP), managed by Population Services International in Madagascar. We conducted six small group photonarrative discussions (n=18 individuals) and 12 individual in-depth interviews with women who were IUD users and nonusers. All participants had had contact with WHP counselors in three sites in Madagascar. Data analysis involved creating summaries of each transcript, coding in Atlas.ti and then synthesizing findings in a conceptual model. We identified three stages of women's decision making about IUD use, and specific forms of social support that seemed helpful at each stage. During the first stage, receiving correct information from a trusted source such as a counselor conveys IUD benefits and corrects misinformation, but lingering fears about the method often appeared to delay method adoption among interested women. During the second stage, hearing testimony from satisfied users and receiving ongoing emotional support appeared to help alleviate these fears. During the third stage, accompaniment by a counselor or peer seemed to help some women gain confidence to go to the clinic to receive the IUD. Identifying and supplying the types of social support women find helpful at different stages of the decision-making process could help program managers better respond to women's staged decision-making process about IUD use. This qualitative study suggests that women in Madagascar perceive multiple IUD benefits but also fear the method even after misinformation is corrected, leading to a staged decision-making process about IUD use. Programs should identify and supply the types of social support that women find helpful at each stage of decision making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Madagascar: Heads It's a Continent, Tails It's an Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Maarten J.

    Neither geologists nor biologists have a definition that is capable of classifying Madagascar unambiguously as an island or a continent; nor can they incorporate Malagasy natural history into a single model rooted in Africa or Asia. Madagascar is a microcosm of the larger continents, with a rock record that spans more than 3000 million years (Ma), during which it has been united episodically with, and divorced from, Asian and African connections. This is reflected in its Precambrian history of deep crustal tectonics and a Phanerozoic history of biodiversity that fluctuated between cosmopolitanism and parochialism. Both vicariance and dispersal events over the past 90 Ma have blended a unique endemism on Madagascar, now in decline following rapid extinctions that started about 2000 years ago.

  9. Understanding the Persistence of Plague Foci in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Kreppel, Katharina; Elissa, Nohal; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Carniel, Elisabeth; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Jambou, Ronan

    2013-01-01

    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is still found in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Madagascar reports almost one third of the cases worldwide. Y. pestis can be encountered in three very different types of foci: urban, rural, and sylvatic. Flea vector and wild rodent host population dynamics are tightly correlated with modulation of climatic conditions, an association that could be crucial for both the maintenance of foci and human plague epidemics. The black rat Rattus rattus, the main host of Y. pestis in Madagascar, is found to exhibit high resistance to plague in endemic areas, opposing the concept of high mortality rates among rats exposed to the infection. Also, endemic fleas could play an essential role in maintenance of the foci. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of these factors as well as human behavior in the persistence of plague in Madagascar. PMID:24244760

  10. Surveillance of veterinary drug residues in pork meat in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Rakotoharinome

    2015-06-01

    Table I presents the results of the percentage of positive samples in the various regions of Madagascar. On average 37.2% sam­ples were contaminated by antimicrobial residues. A significant increase from 32 to 39% was observed between 2010 and 2011, respectively. No significant differences were found between samples according to sex, breed or age class in individual ani­mals. No differences between pig farm origins were found either (Figure 1. However, Amoron’i Mania Region, and particularly suburban Ambositra, was the most contaminated area in 2010 (67%; n = 9 and Melaky region (Western Madagascar in 2011. Pork meat samples originating from the same production area were less contaminated by drug residues when the animals were slaughtered in urban abattoirs compared to provincial abat­toirs. In this first step toward a national surveillance system, we confirm that drug residues in animal products are a serious public health concern for Madagascar.

  11. Madagascar sheds new light on the molecular systematics and biogeography of grammitid ferns: New unexpected lineages and numerous long-distance dispersal events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauret, Lucie; Gaudeul, Myriam; Sundue, Michael A; Parris, Barbara S; Ranker, Tom A; Rakotondrainibe, France; Hennequin, Sabine; Ranaivo, Jaona; Selosse, Marc-André; Rouhan, Germinal

    2017-06-01

    contrary to theoretical expectations and empirical evidence in angiosperms, Africa does not act as a dispersal source and Madagascar seems to have a more important influence on the regional dynamics: we observed both in situ species diversification and dispersal out of Madagascar. This influence also extends beyond the region, since one dispersal event probably originated from Madagascar and reached the Subantarctic island of Amsterdam. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. How to use local resources to fight malnutrition in Madagascar? A study combining a survey and a consumer test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaroson Rakotosamimanana, Vonimihaingo; Valentin, Dominique; Arvisenet, Gaëlle

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to understand consumers' habits and belief structures concerning local food products and to develop a new snack as a way to fight against children malnutrition in Madagascar. A large variety of natural food resources grow in Madagascar, like Moringa oleifera (MO) which leaves are rich in nutrients but not consumed. First, a survey conducted in four areas of Madagascar revealed that MO leaves are known for their health benefits but infrequently consumed, probably because of their low satiating power and strong odor. In the studied areas, different levels of consumption were observed, which may be linked to varying levels of familiarity with MO by the local populations, this in turn resulting from different situations regarding geographical and historical availability. In contrary, resources such as cassava are perceived as having negative effects on health but are widely consumed because they are cheap, liked by children and satiating. The second step in the study aimed to propose products that could increase MO consumption without completely changing food practices. The acceptability of snacks associating cassava roots and MO was evaluated by means of hedonic tests performed by children. Between the snacks tested, the preferred snack contained the highest quantity of MO and was sweetened. There was no effect of area on the acceptance of the formulated snacks. This work is an evaluation of the potential of MO in the diet of malnourished population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Presence of Borrelia spp. DNA in ticks, but absence of Borrelia spp. and of Leptospira spp. DNA in blood of fever patients in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen; Ehlers, Julian; Krüger, Andreas; Margos, Gabriele; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Kalckreuth, Vera von; Im, Justin; Pak, Gi Deok; Jeon, Hyon Jin; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Heriniaina, Jean Noël; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Konings, Frank; May, Jürgen; Hogan, Benedikt; Ganzhorn, Jörg; Panzner, Ursula; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Dekker, Denise; Marks, Florian; Poppert, Sven

    2018-01-01

    The occurrence of tick-borne relapsing fever and leptospirosis in humans in Madagascar remains unclear despite the presence of their potential vectors and reservoir hosts. We screened 255 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 148 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Zebu cattle in Madagascar for Borrelia-specific DNA. Borrelia spp. DNA was detected in 21 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 2 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. One Borrelia found in one Rhipicephalus microplus showed close relationship to Borrelia theileri based on genetic distance and phylogenetic analyses on 16S rRNA and flaB sequences. The borreliae from Amblyomma variegatum could not be identified due to very low quantities of present DNA reflected by high cycle threshold values in real-time-PCR. It is uncertain whether these low numbers of Borrelia spp. are sufficient for transmission of infection from ticks to humans. In order to determine whether spirochaete infections are relevant in humans, blood samples of 1009 patients from the highlands of Madagascar with fever of unknown origin were screened for Borrelia spp. - and in addition for Leptospira spp. - by real-time PCR. No target DNA was detected, indicating a limited relevance of these pathogens for humans in the highlands of Madagascar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Community Level Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality in Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This paper explores the effect of risk and socioeconomic factors on maternal mortality at the ... to study maternal mortality, however, studying maternal mortality at the community ... causes of maternal mortality at the country level in ... Antananarivo, the capital city of Madagascar, .... cyclones, and crime can be associated with.

  15. le recours a l'avortement a antananarivo (madagascar)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LPE

    ... Marseille, cedex 03; 2Université d'Antananarivo – Faculté des lettres et sciences humaines Madagascar. .... toutes les conséquences psychologiques, sociales, ..... souvent décrites dans la littérature comme un ..... Une revue de la littérature.

  16. Seed dispersal by vertebrates in Madagascar's forests: review and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed dispersal by vertebrates in Madagascar's forests: review and future directions. ... provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  17. Cyclone resilient landscape : the case of Vatomandry, Madagascar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, E.; Hornman, R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Madagascar, one of the poorest countries in the world, has to deal with cyclones every year. The impact of a cyclone can be devastating, leaving areas with houses damaged, floods and damaged crops. The aftermath has an even greater impact.The floods increase the number of people affected

  18. Six new species of ptyctimous mites (Acari: Oribatida) from Madagascar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2016), s. 485-496 ISSN 0044-586X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Euphthiracaroidea * Madagascar * morphology * new species * ptyctimous mites * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2016

  19. Preliminary fish survey of Lac Tseny in north- western Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Freshwater fishes and their habitats are severely threatened in Madagascar (Benstead et al. 2003) because of over - fishing, exotic species and deforestation (Reinthal and Stiassny 1991,. Sparks and Stiassny 2003, Irwin et al. 2010). Many endemic fish species are now restricted to a tiny proportion of their ...

  20. Seed dispersal by vertebrates in Madagascar's forests: review and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seeds. Thus, understanding plant - frugivore interactions is of critical importance for the conservation and ... ance of many plant species on frugivores for their dispersal. Understanding this ecosystem service can provide us ... edge of this ecosystem service in Madagascar. Understanding seed dispersal is important because ...

  1. Has Madagascar lost its exceptional leptospirosis free-like status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratsitorahina, Maherisoa; Rahelinirina, Soanandrasana; Michault, Alain; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Rajatonirina, Soatiana; Richard, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread but underreported cause of morbidity and mortality. It has rarely been reported in either humans or animals in Madagascar. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of the inhabitants in Moramanga, Madagascar, in June 2011, to estimate the prevalence of human infection using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). This activity was carried out as part of a workshop implemented by the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar, focusing on surveillance with a one week field study and targeting the health staff of the district level. In total, we sampled 678 inhabitants from 263 households. The sex ratio (M/F) was 0.65 and the mean age 26.7 years. We obtained a value of 2.9% for the first recorded seroprevalence of this disease in the human community of Moramanga. Questionnaire responses revealed frequent contacts between humans and rodents in Moramanga. However, activities involving cattle were identified as a risk factor significantly associated with seropositivity (OR=3). Leptospirosis remains a neglected disease in Madagascar. This study highlights the need to quantify the public health impact of this neglected disease in a more large scale, in all the country and to establish point-of-care laboratories in remote areas.

  2. The future of conservation and development in Madagascar: Time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of conservation policy and practice in Madagascar over the last 30 years shows that the Malagasy government, donors and non - governmental organisations (NGOs) have not been short of bold solutions, with ambitious attempts to involve local communities in resource management as well as expand protected ...

  3. Madagascar rosewood, illegal logging and the tropical timber trade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although deforestation rates in the tropics are reportedly slowing, the loss of both forest area and forest quality remains a significant issue for many countries. This is particularly true of Madagascar, where recent government instability has enabled a significant increase in the incidence of illegal logging of Dalbergia species ...

  4. Family Background, School Characteristics, and Children's Cognitive Achievement in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Peter; Randrianarisoa, Jean Claude; Sahn, David E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses linked household, school, and test score data from Madagascar to investigate the relation of household characteristics and school factors to the cognitive skills of children ages 8-10 and 14-16. In contrast to most achievement test studies in developing countries, the study uses representative rather than school-based samples of…

  5. Is Active Tectonics on Madagascar Consistent with Somalian Plate Kinematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, D. S.; Kreemer, C.; Rajaonarison, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) actively breaks apart the Nubian and Somalian tectonic plates. Madagascar finds itself at the easternmost boundary of the EARS, between the Rovuma block, Lwandle plate, and the Somalian plate. Earthquake focal mechanisms and N-S oriented fault structures on the continental island suggest that Madagascar is experiencing east-west oriented extension. However, some previous plate kinematic studies indicate minor compressional strains across Madagascar. This inconsistency may be due to uncertainties in Somalian plate rotation. Past estimates of the rotation of the Somalian plate suffered from a poor coverage of GPS stations, but some important new stations are now available for a re-evaluation. In this work, we revise the kinematics of the Somalian plate. We first calculate a new GPS velocity solution and perform block kinematic modeling to evaluate the Somalian plate rotation. We then estimate new Somalia-Rovuma and Somalia-Lwandle relative motions across Madagascar and evaluate whether they are consistent with GPS measurements made on the island itself, as well as with other kinematic indicators.

  6. Hunting leeches in the dense forests of Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohmann, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Identifying DNA from prey blood stored inside leeches reveals which animals the leeches have preyed on. This can be used to monitor wildlife. To find out whether this new wildlife screening method might be able to aid conservation efforts in Madagascar, the Centre for GeoGenetics has undertaken...

  7. Genetic diversity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Lai, Alessia; Olive, Marie-Marie; Angeletti, Silvia; De Florio, Lucia; Cella, Eleonora; Razafindramparany, Minoharimbola; Ravalohery, Jean-Piere; Andriamamonjy, Seta; Gioffrè, Sonia; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Mottini, Giovanni; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2016-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus belonging to Hepadnaviridae family. Chronic infection with HBV is one major risk factor of hepatic disease. In Madagascar, former studies classified the country as part of high endemic area, as HBV prevalence can reach 23% in general population. However, this prevalence differs largely between urban and rural areas and is estimated to be, respectively, 5% and 26%. The aims of the present study were to describe the genetic diversity of HBV strains from different regions of Madagascar, and to describe the viral gene flow throughout the country by using phylogenetic analysis. This is the first large-scale molecular and phylogenetic study analyzing HBV sequences from 28 different Malagasy areas, never sampled in the past. In this study, the most prevalent genotype/sub-genotypes was E. Migration analysis showed a gene flow from zone 3 (rural) to zone 2 (suburban), and a greater gene flow from the middle part of Madagascar to the north than to the south. It is important to study the HBV infections in Madagascar and to monitor the potential spread of this viral strain inside this country. J. Med. Virol. 88:2138-2144, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Trade of parrots in urban areas of Madagascar | Reuter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The live capture of parrots is causing increasing concern across Africa. In Madagascar, home to three species of parrot (Coracopsis nigra, C. vasa, Agapornis canus), no study has examined how these species are being extracted from the wild and traded. In this study, we examined the procurement, length of ownership, and ...

  9. Eating the dead in Madagascar | Campbell | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They may be supported in societies under stress or in times of famine, to reflect aggression and antisocial behaviour (in cases where the bodies of enemies killed in battle or people who have harmed the family are eaten), or to honour a dead kinsman. It was, for example, noted in Madagascar during the imperial campaigns ...

  10. Community Level Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality in Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    using a unique, nationwide panel of communes (i.e., counties). ... à Madagascar en utilisant un panel national unique de communes (c. ... maternal death one of the leading causes of death ... find that factors like female wages and literacy are .... The poverty gap measures how ..... The previous evidence of the effects of.

  11. Adapting to cyclones in Madagascar's Analanjirofo region | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-22

    Apr 22, 2016 ... This brief showcases some adaptive solutions developed through action research by farmers in the region of Analanjirofo, Madagascar. Research led by the University of Antananarivo found that supporting the development of pepper and vanilla cultivation could help vulnerable clove farmers adapt to ...

  12. Madagascar Conservation & Development - Vol 7, No 1 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suivi du Gecko Phelsuma serraticauda (Squamata : Gekkonidae) dans la région Atsinanana, dans l'est de Madagascar · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. CJ Randrianantoandro, J Noël, T Hobinjatovo, A Bollen, KLM Freeman, RKB Jenkins, 17-22.

  13. Adapting to cyclones in Madagascar's Analanjirofo region | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    22 avr. 2016 ... This brief showcases some adaptive solutions developed through action research by farmers in the region of Analanjirofo, Madagascar. Research led by the University of Antananarivo found that supporting the development of pepper and vanilla cultivation could help vulnerable clove farmers adapt to ...

  14. Sur trois zoanthaires nouveaux pour Tuléar, Madagascar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herberts, C.

    1976-01-01

    Description of three Zoanthids new to the Tulear region (S.W. Madagascar): a macrocnemic species, Epizoanthus cf. minutus Duerden, 1898, and two brachycnemic species, Zoanthus pacificus Walsh & Bowers, 1971, and Z. vietnamensis Pax, 1957. These new records bring the number of zoanthids known from

  15. Madagascar Conservation & Development - Vol 6, No 1 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of sight but no longer out of mind: A climate of change for marine conservation in Madagascar · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Dynamique institutionnelle des transferts de gestion dans le corridor Fandriana - Vondrozo · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  16. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial enteropathogens isolated from stools in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianirina, Frederique; Ratsima, Elisoa Hariniana; Ramparany, Lova; Randremanana, Rindra; Rakotonirina, Hanitra Clara; Andriamanantena, Tahiry; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Rajatonirina, Soatiana; Richard, Vincent; Talarmin, Antoine

    2014-02-25

    Diarrheal diseases are a major public health problem in developing countries, and are one of the main causes of hospital admissions in Madagascar. The Pasteur Institute of Madagascar undertook a study to determine the prevalence and the pathogenicity of bacterial, viral and protozoal enteropathogens in diarrheal and non-diarrheal stools of children aged less than 5 years in Madagascar. We present here the results of the analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacteria isolated during this study. The study was conducted in the community setting in 14 districts of Madagascar from October 2008 to May 2009. Conventional methods and PCR were used to identify the bacteria; antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using an agar diffusion method for enterobacteriaceae and MICs were measured by an agar dilution method for Campylobacter sp. In addition to the strains isolated during this study, Salmonella sp and Shigella sp isolated at the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar from 2005 to 2009 were included in the analysis to increase the power of the study. Twenty-nine strains of Salmonella sp, 35 strains of Shigella sp, 195 strains of diarrheagenic E. coli, 203 strains of C. jejuni and 71 strains of C. coli isolated in the community setting were tested for antibiotic resistance. Fifty-five strains of Salmonella sp and 129 strains of Shigella sp isolated from patients referred to the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar were also included in the study. Many E. coli and Shigella isolates (around 80%) but fewer Salmonella isolates were resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. A small proportion of strains of each species were resistant to ciprofloxacin and only 3% of E. coli strains presented a resistance to third generation cephalosporins due to the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. The resistance of Campylobacter sp to ampicillin was the most prevalent, whereas less than 5% of isolates were resistant to each of the other antibiotics. The

  17. Dose Record Analysis of External Exposure of Workers in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriambololona, R.; Ratovonjanahary, J. F.; Randriantsizafy, R. D.

    2004-01-01

    External personnel monitoring of workers in diagnostic radiology in Madagascar using thermoluminescence techniques has been studied in previous work for the period of 1990 to 2000. The study was based on the average of Hp(0.07) and Hp(10) and on the annual dose distribution. The results showed that mean doses are very low compared with the annual dose limits for workers of 20 mSv per year and are comparable with natural contribution of telluric X and gamma exposure which is evaluated as 3.21 mSv per year in Antananarivo. No trend in the average was observed, however, the last 4 years, the results showed a substantial decrease in the average from 2 mSv to 1 mSv. It was assumed that this was the impact of the implementation by radiation staff in their workplace of the in force regulation which is in compliance with the new basic safety standards. Indeed, since 1996, Madagascar-Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (Madagascar-INSTN) and the Association Nationale de Radioprotection de Madagascar (ANARAPMAD), the Madagascar radiation protection society and associate member of IRPA, set up a national program for training of radiation workers. The number of workers trained during this period is evaluated as 50% of the total number of radiation workers in Madagascar. The present work is a continuation of the above mentioned survey during the period of 2001 to 2003. The training program was upgraded to involve personnel who will be in charge of radiation protection and safety in workplace and the training cycle lasts 2 years instead of 3 days in the previous program. The survey has been extended to include all radiation workers in Madagascar though the medical field is still the main application and represents more than 90 percent of the latter. The results shows that for this last 3 years, an other substantial decrease from 1 mSv to 0.5 mSv was observed in the average. In the dose distribution, more than 98 percent of the Hp(0.07) and more than 99

  18. Corps de la Paix Madagascar Livre du Stagiare. Langue: Malagasy Ofisialy (Peace Corps Madagascar Volunteer Manual. Language: Official Malagasy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshiangale, Mupemba Wa

    This manual for Malagasy is designed for the specific language instruction needs of Peace Corps personnel working in Madagascar. It is written primarily in English and Malagasy, with introductory sections in French. It consists of 29 topical lessons, each geared to a specific domain and competency and containing information on needed materials,…

  19. Corps de la Paix Madagascar Livre du Formateur. Langue: Sakalava (Peace Corps Madagascar Teacher's Manual. Language: Sakalava).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshiangale, Mupemba Wa

    This teacher's manual for Sakalava, a dialect of Malagasy, is designed for the specific language instruction needs of Peace Corps personnel in Madagascar. It is written primarily in French and Sakalava, with some titles in English. It consists of 29 topical lessons, each geared to a specific domain and competency and containing information on…

  20. Caught in the act: Incipient speciation across a latitudinal gradient in a semifossorial mammal from Madagascar, the mole tenrec Oryzorictes hova (Tenrecidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Kathryn M; Hildebrandt, Kyndall B P; Goodman, Steven M; Olson, Link E

    2018-02-28

    Madagascar is one of the world's foremost biodiversity hotspots, yet a large portion of its flora and fauna remains undescribed and the driving forces of in situ diversification are not well understood. Recent studies have identified a widespread, latitudinally structured phylogeographic pattern in Madagascar's humid-forest mammals, amphibians, reptiles, and insects. Several factors may be driving this pattern, namely biogeographic barriers (i.e., rivers or valleys) or past episodes of forest contraction and expansion. In this study, we describe the phylogeographic structure of the small, semifossorial mammal Oryzorictes hova, one of Madagascar's two species of mole tenrec, found throughout Madagascar's eastern humid forest belt, from high-elevation montane forest to low-elevation forests, as well as disturbed habitat such as rice fields. Using one mitochondrial locus, four nuclear loci, and 31 craniomandibular measurements, we identified three distinct populations of O. hova associated with the northern, central, and southern regions of the island. We found little evidence of gene flow among these populations, so we treated each population as a potential species. We validated species limits using two Bayesian methods: BP&P, employing only DNA sequence data, and iBPP using both DNA and morphological data, and we assessed whether these methods are susceptible to producing false positive errors. Molecular and morphological data support the recognition of each of the three populations of O. hova as distinct species, but formal species descriptions will require additional data from type specimens. This study illustrates the importance of using integrative datasets, multiple methodological approaches, and extensive geographic sampling for species delimitation and adds evidence for a widespread phylogeographic pattern in Madagascar's humid forest taxa. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gestion en métapopulation de Propithecus coronatus: une approche originale et multidisciplinaire pour la conservation d’une espèce en danger à Madagascar Metapopulation management of Propithecus coronatus : an original and multidisciplinary approach for the conservation of an endangered species in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Roullet

    2011-10-01

    groups living in fragmented forests subject to human pressure led to the elaboration of a unique and original conservation strategy, that a separated conservation action plan does not make sense. The project aims to set up a metapopulation management approach to P. coronatus conservation, which considers populations to be linked by migration. This is a multidisciplinary project including all crowned sifaka populations in the wild and in captivity. The project involves research and conservation of the newly-discovered populations, study of the protected population in Northwest of Madagascar; habitat structure assessments, ecological monitoring, environmental education, community-based reserve management and ex situ conservation in collaboration with the EEP. This project will serve as a model for the implementation of metapopulation management for endangered species in isolated forest fragments of Madagascar.

  2. The Persistence of Self-Provisioning Among Smallholder Farmers in Northeast Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Rheyna; Turner, B L

    In the Andapa region of northeast Madagascar, smallholders cultivating swidden hill rice ( tavy ) for subsistence are pressing against neighboring nature reserves. A dominant policy approach to reducing this pressure requires that smallholders abandon tavy and purchase rice from proceeds obtained from their environmentally sustainable commercial crops, vanilla and coffee. Economic liberalization policies have succeeded in stimulating the expansion of these commercial crops, but have failed to reduce tavy production. We ask why this dual (subsistence and commercial) production system persists. We test two explanatory views: that either market imperfections deny farmers full entry into the market, or that internal production goals or socio-cultural norms create barriers to full market participation. Results support the latter view, although not for reasons that have been associated with this view in past studies. We propose a new factor that may serve as a barrier to full-market immersion among Andapa tavy farmers, the social relations of property.

  3. Women's knowledge in Madagascar: a health needs assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Evelyn M; Erikson, S L; Andrianirina, E; Smith, Gabrielle

    2012-01-01

    Nutritional and hygienic practices contribute to high morbidity and mortality rates related to malnutrition in Madagascar. This study, a research effort that brought together charitable organisations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and university collaborators, investigates women's health knowledge in the Anosy region of Madagascar. The needs assessment sought to characterise women's knowledge and understanding of nutrition and hygiene. Eight focus groups of 13-60 women each were conducted in the seven most impoverished communes of the Anosy region (n=373). Participants were recruited with the aid of a UK-Malagasy partnered NGO, Azafady. Study findings show that women fully understand the interplay between poor nutrition, hygiene and malnutrition but are unable to change everyday practices because the barriers to better nutrition and hygiene seem beyond their control. These findings may be used to prioritise projects and research seeking to improve nutrition and hygiene, thus reducing malnutrition in the Anosy region.

  4. Development of climatic zones and passive solar design in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakoto-Joseph, O.; Garde, F.; David, M.; Adelard, L.; Randriamanantany, Z.A.

    2009-01-01

    Climate classification is extremely useful to design buildings for thermal comfort purposes. This paper presents the first work for a climate classification of Madagascar Island. This classification is based on the meteorological data measured in different cities of this country. Three major climatic zones are identified. Psychometric charts for the six urban areas of Madagascar are proposed, and suited passive solar designs related to each climate are briefly discussed. Finally, a total of three passive design zones have been identified and appropriate design strategies such as solar heating, natural ventilation, thermal mass are suggested for each zone. The specificity of this work is that: it is the first published survey on the climate classification and the passive solar designs for this developing country

  5. Extinction risks and the conservation of Madagascar's reptiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K B Jenkins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An understanding of the conservation status of Madagascar's endemic reptile species is needed to underpin conservation planning and priority setting in this global biodiversity hotspot, and to complement existing information on the island's mammals, birds and amphibians. We report here on the first systematic assessment of the extinction risk of endemic and native non-marine Malagasy snakes, lizards, turtles and tortoises. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Species range maps from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species were analysed to determine patterns in the distribution of threatened reptile species. These data, in addition to information on threats, were used to identify priority areas and actions for conservation. Thirty-nine percent of the data-sufficient Malagasy reptiles in our analyses are threatened with extinction. Areas in the north, west and south-east were identified as having more threatened species than expected and are therefore conservation priorities. Habitat degradation caused by wood harvesting and non-timber crops was the most pervasive threat. The direct removal of reptiles for international trade and human consumption threatened relatively few species, but were the primary threats for tortoises. Nine threatened reptile species are endemic to recently created protected areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With a few alarming exceptions, the threatened endemic reptiles of Madagascar occur within the national network of protected areas, including some taxa that are only found in new protected areas. Threats to these species, however, operate inside and outside protected area boundaries. This analysis has identified priority sites for reptile conservation and completes the conservation assessment of terrestrial vertebrates in Madagascar which will facilitate conservation planning, monitoring and wise-decision making. In sharp contrast with the amphibians, there is significant reptile diversity and regional endemism in

  6. Exploring Social Resilience in Madagascar's Marine Protected Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Cinner; Mariana M. P. B. Fuentes; Herilala Randriamahazo

    2009-01-01

    We examined and compared aspects of local-level resilience in 13 coastal communities within and adjacent to all of Madagascar's national marine protected areas. Our examination of social resilience focused on indicators of the flexibility of household livelihood portfolios and both formal and informal governance institutions, the capacity of communities to organize, their capacity to learn, and access to household assets and community infrastructure. In general, we found high levels of flexib...

  7. Decoding Dynamic Topography: Geologic and Thermochronologic Constraints From Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, S.; White, N.

    2017-12-01

    Madagascar's topography is characterized by flights of low relief peneplains separated by escarpments. Remarkably, nearly 50% of the landscape is higher than 500 m despite being surrounded by passive margins. Eocene marine limestones crop out at elevations of 400-800 m, staircases of Pleistocene marine terraces fringe the coastline and longitudinal river profiles are disequilibrated. Together, these observations suggest that Madagascar has experienced Neogene epeirogenic uplift. Positive oceanic residual depth anomalies surrounding the island, long wavelength free-air gravity anomalies, Neogene basaltic volcanism and slow sub-plate shear wave velocities show that Neogene uplift is generated by convective circulation within the upper mantle. However, the landscape's erosional response to long wavelength uplift is poorly known. Here, we present 18 apatite fission track and apatite He analyses of granitoid samples from sub-vertical transects in central and northern Madagascar. Apatite fission track ages are 200-250 Ma with mean track lengths of 12 μm. Apatite He ages are highly dispersed in samples from the highlands (i.e. AHe age > 150 Ma) but a narrower, younger range of 30-60 Ma is found on the coastal lowlands. Joint inverse modeling was carried out using the QTQt transdimensional reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm to determine time-temperature histories. Results show that the coastal lowlands experienced up to 1 km of exhumation during the Neogene Period, whilst the central highlands experienced either very slow or negligible exhumation. This spatial distribution is expected when kinematic waves of incision propagate through a fluvially eroding landscape from coast to interior. Inverse modeling of suites of river profiles and forward landscape simulations support this interpretation. Our results show that the landscape response to modest (i.e. 1 km) regional uplift is diachronous and that thermochronologic observations can be used to

  8. Geodynamic Constraints on the Sources of Seismic Anisotropy Beneath Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaonarison, T. A.; Stamps, D. S.; Fishwick, S.

    2017-12-01

    The rheological structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system controls the degree in which the mantle drives surface motions. Seismic anisotropy is a proxy to infer information about previous tectonic events imprinted in lithospheric structures and/or asthenospheric flow pattern in regions absent of active volcanism, however, distinguishing between the shallow and deeper sources, respectively, remains ambiguous. Madagascar is an ideal natural laboratory to study the sources of anisotropy and the rheological implications for lithosphere-asthenosphere system because 1) active volcanism is minimal or absent, 2) there are well-exposed tectonic fabrics for comparison, and 3) numerous geological and geophysical observations provides evidence of present-day tectonic activities. Recent studies suggest new seismic anisotropy observations in southern Madagascar are sourced from both fossilized lithospheric structure and asthenospheric flow driven by rigid lithospheric plate motion. In this work we compare geodynamic simulations of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system with seismic anisotropy data set that includes all of Madagascar. We use the numerical code Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion (ASPECT) to calculate instantaneous deformation in the lithosphere and edge-driven convective flow in the asthenosphere accounting for variations in buoyancy forces and temperature dependent viscosity. The initial temperature conditions are based on interpretations from high resolution regional surface wave tomography. We assume visco-plastic rheology for a uniform crust, dislocation creep for a laterally varying mantle lithospheric structure, and diffusion creep for the asthenosphere. To test for the source of anisotropy we compare our velocity solution azimuths with azimuths of anisotropy at 25 km depth intervals. Calculated asthenospheric flow aligns with measured seismic anisotropy with a 15° WRMS at 175 km depth and possibly down to 250 km suggesting the

  9. Extinction Risks and the Conservation of Madagascar's Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Richard K. B.; Tognelli, Marcelo F.; Bowles, Philip; Cox, Neil; Brown, Jason L.; Chan, Lauren; Andreone, Franco; Andriamazava, Alain; Andriantsimanarilafy, Raphali R.; Anjeriniaina, Mirana; Bora, Parfait; Brady, Lee D.; Hantalalaina, Elisoa F.; Glaw, Frank; Griffiths, Richard A.; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hoffmann, Michael; Katariya, Vineet; Rabibisoa, Nirhy H.; Rafanomezantsoa, Jeannot; Rakotomalala, Domoina; Rakotondravony, Hery; Rakotondrazafy, Ny A.; Ralambonirainy, Johans; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Randriamahazo, Herilala; Randrianantoandro, J. Christian; Randrianasolo, Harison H.; Randrianirina, Jasmin E.; Randrianizahana, Hiarinirina; Raselimanana, Achille P.; Rasolohery, Andriambolantsoa; Ratsoavina, Fanomezana M.; Raxworthy, Christopher J.; Robsomanitrandrasana, Eric; Rollande, Finoana; van Dijk, Peter P.; Yoder, Anne D.; Vences, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Background An understanding of the conservation status of Madagascar's endemic reptile species is needed to underpin conservation planning and priority setting in this global biodiversity hotspot, and to complement existing information on the island's mammals, birds and amphibians. We report here on the first systematic assessment of the extinction risk of endemic and native non-marine Malagasy snakes, lizards, turtles and tortoises. Methodology/Principal Findings Species range maps from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species were analysed to determine patterns in the distribution of threatened reptile species. These data, in addition to information on threats, were used to identify priority areas and actions for conservation. Thirty-nine percent of the data-sufficient Malagasy reptiles in our analyses are threatened with extinction. Areas in the north, west and south-east were identified as having more threatened species than expected and are therefore conservation priorities. Habitat degradation caused by wood harvesting and non-timber crops was the most pervasive threat. The direct removal of reptiles for international trade and human consumption threatened relatively few species, but were the primary threats for tortoises. Nine threatened reptile species are endemic to recently created protected areas. Conclusions/Significance With a few alarming exceptions, the threatened endemic reptiles of Madagascar occur within the national network of protected areas, including some taxa that are only found in new protected areas. Threats to these species, however, operate inside and outside protected area boundaries. This analysis has identified priority sites for reptile conservation and completes the conservation assessment of terrestrial vertebrates in Madagascar which will facilitate conservation planning, monitoring and wise-decision making. In sharp contrast with the amphibians, there is significant reptile diversity and regional endemism in the southern and

  10. Species of Wadicosa (Araneae, Lycosidae): a new species from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronestedt, Torbjörn

    2017-05-10

    Since establishing the wolf spider genus Wadicosa Zyuzin, 1985 (Zyuzin 1985), eleven species have been accepted in it, either by transfer from Lycosa Latreille, 1804 or Pardosa C.L. Koch, 1847 or by original designation (WSC 2017). However, according to Kronestedt (1987), additional species wait to be formally transferred to Wadicosa. The genus is restricted to the Old World, with one species, Wadicosa jocquei Kronestedt, 2015, recently described from Madagascar and surrounding islands.

  11. Sante de la reproduction et avortement a Antananarivo (Madagascar)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Madagascar, l'interruption volontaire de grossesse est totalement interdite. Toutefois, de nombreuses femmes y ont recours, tout particulièrement dans la capitale, Antananarivo. Ces avortements clandestins sont pratiqués par des matrones mais aussi par des médecins libéraux. Cet article présente les résultats d'une ...

  12. Extinction risks and the conservation of Madagascar's reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Richard K B; Tognelli, Marcelo F; Bowles, Philip; Cox, Neil; Brown, Jason L; Chan, Lauren; Andreone, Franco; Andriamazava, Alain; Andriantsimanarilafy, Raphali R; Anjeriniaina, Mirana; Bora, Parfait; Brady, Lee D; Hantalalaina, Elisoa F; Glaw, Frank; Griffiths, Richard A; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hoffmann, Michael; Katariya, Vineet; Rabibisoa, Nirhy H; Rafanomezantsoa, Jeannot; Rakotomalala, Domoina; Rakotondravony, Hery; Rakotondrazafy, Ny A; Ralambonirainy, Johans; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Randriamahazo, Herilala; Randrianantoandro, J Christian; Randrianasolo, Harison H; Randrianirina, Jasmin E; Randrianizahana, Hiarinirina; Raselimanana, Achille P; Rasolohery, Andriambolantsoa; Ratsoavina, Fanomezana M; Raxworthy, Christopher J; Robsomanitrandrasana, Eric; Rollande, Finoana; van Dijk, Peter P; Yoder, Anne D; Vences, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the conservation status of Madagascar's endemic reptile species is needed to underpin conservation planning and priority setting in this global biodiversity hotspot, and to complement existing information on the island's mammals, birds and amphibians. We report here on the first systematic assessment of the extinction risk of endemic and native non-marine Malagasy snakes, lizards, turtles and tortoises. Species range maps from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species were analysed to determine patterns in the distribution of threatened reptile species. These data, in addition to information on threats, were used to identify priority areas and actions for conservation. Thirty-nine percent of the data-sufficient Malagasy reptiles in our analyses are threatened with extinction. Areas in the north, west and south-east were identified as having more threatened species than expected and are therefore conservation priorities. Habitat degradation caused by wood harvesting and non-timber crops was the most pervasive threat. The direct removal of reptiles for international trade and human consumption threatened relatively few species, but were the primary threats for tortoises. Nine threatened reptile species are endemic to recently created protected areas. With a few alarming exceptions, the threatened endemic reptiles of Madagascar occur within the national network of protected areas, including some taxa that are only found in new protected areas. Threats to these species, however, operate inside and outside protected area boundaries. This analysis has identified priority sites for reptile conservation and completes the conservation assessment of terrestrial vertebrates in Madagascar which will facilitate conservation planning, monitoring and wise-decision making. In sharp contrast with the amphibians, there is significant reptile diversity and regional endemism in the southern and western regions of Madagascar and this study highlights the importance of

  13. The fergusonite from Ampasipoana (Madagascar). Alteration mode and uranium transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chervet, J.

    1958-01-01

    The author reports, comments and discusses the general characteristics of the fergusonite, a primary ore of uranium, and more particularly those of a very specific ore extracted from a large deposit located in Madagascar. These characteristics notably concern the composition and the presence and shapes of various crystals. The studied ore contains yttrium phosphate which demonstrated an attack of uranium and yttrium niobate by phosphated acid solutions, and the formation of autunite provided by the fergusonite uranium

  14. Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae susceptibility to Deltamethrin in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Boyer

    Full Text Available The incidence of bubonic plague in Madagascar is high. This study reports the susceptibility of 32 different populations of a vector, the flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae, to the insecticide Deltamethrin. Despite the use of Deltamethrin against fleas, plague epidemics have re-emerged in Madagascar. The majority of the study sites were located in the Malagasy highlands where most plague cases have occurred over the last 10 years. X. cheopis fleas were tested for susceptibility to Deltamethrin (0.05%: only two populations were susceptible to Deltamethrin, four populations were tolerant and 26 populations were resistant. KD50 (50% Knock-Down and KD90 (90% Knock-Down times were determined, and differed substantially from 9.4 to 592.4 minutes for KD50 and 10.4 min to 854.3 minutes for KD90. Susceptibility was correlated with latitude, but not with longitude, history of insecticide use nor date of sampling. Combined with the number of bubonic plague cases, our results suggest that an immediate switch to an insecticide other than Deltamethrin is required for plague vector control in Madagascar.

  15. Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Miraldo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species. Here,we review the current knowledge of the origin and diversification of Malagasy dung beetles. Based on molecular phylogenies, the extant dung beetles originate from eight colonizations, of which four have given rise to extensive radiations. These radiations have occurred in wet forests, while the few extant species in the less successfulradiations occur in open and semi-open habitats. We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles. Phylogeographic analyses of selected species reveal complex patterns with evidence for genetic introgression between old taxa. The introduction of cattle to Madagascar 1500 years ago created a new abundant resource, onto which a few species haveshifted and thereby been able to greatly expand their geographical ranges.

  16. Village poultry production in Madagascar: Production characteristics and epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koko, M.; Maminiaina, O.F.; Ravaomanana, J.; Rakotonindrina, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate the production characteristics of village poultry in Madagascar, a cross sectional survey was done in May, 1999 in zone 1 and in June 1999 in zone 2. Furthermore, a longitudinal survey was done in 33 farms in the two zones during a 12 month period providing information on flock dynamics and causes of mortality. The indigenous chicken in Madagascar represents 91% of the total poultry population. Each farm has on average 11 birds, which survive by scavenging. The average productivity is 33.3 eggs/hen/year and 2.76 clutches/hen/year. The average hatchability is 77.8% and 75% of the eggs are used for renewing the flock. Mortality figures are very high: 42.3% of the chicks die before weaning and 34.5% of the growers die before becoming adults. Mortality of adults is on average 3 1.4%. Mortality is due to various factors, but is mainly due to internal parasites in the chicks (38.5%), especially during the dry season. Newcastle disease (ND) is the most important infectious cause of mortality causing more than 68.8% of the deaths in growers and 75% in the adults. Post mortem results confirmed serological information using the indirect haemagglutination test indicating the importance of ND. However, further study is necessary to identify the wild strains of ND that might circulate in Madagascar. (author) [fr

  17. A geological synthesis of the Precambrian shield in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Robert D.; Roig, J.Y.; Moine, B.; Delor, C.; Peters, S.G.

    2014-01-01

    Available U–Pb geochronology of the Precambrian shield of Madagascar is summarized and integrated into a synthesis of the region’s geological history. The shield is described in terms of six geodynamic domains, from northeast to southwest, the Bemarivo, Antongil–Masora, Antananarivo, Ikalamavony, Androyan–Anosyan, and Vohibory domains. Each domain is defined by distinctive suites of metaigneous rocks and metasedimentary groups, and a unique history of Archean (∼2.5 Ga) and Proterozoic (∼1.0 Ga, ∼0.80 Ga, and ∼0.55 Ga) reworking. Superimposed within and across these domains are scores of Neoproterozoic granitic stocks and batholiths as well as kilometer long zones of steeply dipping, highly strained rocks that record the effects of Gondwana’s amalgamation and shortening in latest Neoproterozoic time (0.560–0.520 Ga). The present-day shield of Madagascar is best viewed as part of the Greater Dharwar Craton, of Archean age, to which three exotic terranes were added in Proterozoic time. The domains in Madagascar representing the Greater Dharwar Craton include the Antongil–Masora domain, a fragment of the Western Dharwar of India, and the Neoarchean Antananarivo domain (with its Tsaratanana Complex) which is broadly analogous to the Eastern Dharwar of India. In its reconstructed position, the Greater Dharwar Craton consists of a central nucleus of Paleo-Mesoarchean age (>3.1 Ga), the combined Western Dharwar and Antongil–Masora domain, flanked by mostly juvenile “granite–greenstone belts” of Neoarchean age (2.70–2.56 Ga). The age of the accretionary event that formed this craton is approximately 2.5–2.45 Ga. The three domains in Madagascar exotic to the Greater Dharwar Craton are the Androyan–Anosyan, Vohibory, and Bemarivo. The basement to the Androyan–Anosyan domain is a continental terrane of Paleoproterozoic age (2.0–1.78 Ga) that was accreted to the southern margin (present-day direction) of the Greater Dharwar Craton in pre

  18. The structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriampenomanana, Fenitra; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Wysession, Michael E.; Durrheim, Raymond J.; Tilmann, Frederik; Julià, Jordi; Pratt, Martin J.; Rambolamanana, Gérard; Aleqabi, Ghassan; Shore, Patrick J.; Rakotondraibe, Tsiriandrimanana

    2017-09-01

    The lithosphere of Madagascar was initially amalgamated during the Pan-African events in the Neoproterozoic. It has subsequently been reshaped by extensional processes associated with the separation from Africa and India in the Jurassic and Cretaceous, respectively, and been subjected to several magmatic events in the late Cretaceous and the Cenozoic. In this study, the crust and uppermost mantle have been investigated to gain insights into the present-day structure and tectonic evolution of Madagascar. We analysed receiver functions, computed from data recorded on 37 broad-band seismic stations, using the H-κ stacking method and a joint inversion with Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity measurements. The thickness of the Malagasy crust ranges between 18 and 46 km. It is generally thick beneath the spine of mountains in the centre part (up to 46 km thick) and decreases in thickness towards the edges of the island. The shallowest Moho is found beneath the western sedimentary basins (18 km thick), which formed during both the Permo-Triassic Karro rifting in Gondwana and the Jurassic rifting of Madagascar from eastern Africa. The crust below the sedimentary basin thickens towards the north and east, reflecting the progressive development of the basins. In contrast, in the east there was no major rifting episode. Instead, the slight thinning of the crust along the east coast (31-36 km thick) may have been caused by crustal uplift and erosion when Madagascar moved over the Marion hotspot and India broke away from it. The parameters describing the crustal structure of Archean and Proterozoic terranes, including average thickness (40 km versus 35 km), Poisson's ratio (0.25 versus 0.26), average shear-wave velocity (both 3.7 km s-1), and thickness of mafic lower crust (7 km versus 4 km), show weak evidence of secular variation. The uppermost mantle beneath Madagascar is generally characterized by shear-wave velocities typical of stable lithosphere (∼4.5 km s-1). However

  19. Dossier Madagascar - Introduction générale Special section on Madagascar - General introduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Gommery

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ce dossier spécial est consacré à Madagascar, le royaume naturel des lémuriens. Douze articles de disciplines diverses ont été regroupés dans le but de présenter une vue générale sur ce qui se fait en primatologie par ou impliquant des francophones. La majorité des travaux présentés concerne la conservation et la protection des lémuriens actuels dont beaucoup sont en danger. Les activités en conservation sont diverses mais les projets relatifs impliquent de plus en plus les relations avec les communautés locales et leur développement. Le soutien et l'engagement de celles-ci est une clé de réussite. Ces projets ne pourraient voir le jour s’il n'y avait pas d'études scientifiques en amont par exemple sur la biologie, le comportement et l'écologie de chaque population ou groupe taxonomique. Pour pouvoir protéger les lémuriens avec l'aide des populations locales, il faut aussi comprendre les traditions et les perceptions des habitants vis-à-vis de ces primates. La diversité des lémuriens était encore plus importante dans un passé assez proche et constitue une partie du patrimoine naturel malgache. Il est important de comprendre le passé pour comprendre l'actuel, et inversement. L'évolution de ces primates reste assez complexe et les recherches récentes permettent de corriger notre vision de celle-ci.This special issue is devoted to Madagascar, the natural kingdom of the lemurs. Twelve articles of various disciplines were gathered to present a general overview on what is done in primatology by or implying French-speaking people. The greatest part of this special issue relates to the conservation and the protection of the extant lemurs of which lot are in danger. The activities in conservation are varied but the projects are more and more in relationship with the local communities and implicated in their development. The support and the commitment of these populations are a key of success. These projects could not come

  20. Rain Forest Tourism - Estimating the Benefits of Tourism Development in a New National Park in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Evan Mercer; R. Kramer; N. Sharma

    1995-01-01

    Travel cost and contingent valuation methods are applied to the problem of estimating the potential consumer surplus available to international nature tourists from a rain forest conservation project in Madagascar. Data are derived from surveys of nature tourists in Madagascar and international, nature tourism professionals in the U.S. and Europe. Typical trip travel...

  1. Dynamics of the pneumonic plague epidemic in Madagascar, August to October 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Shinya; Lee, Hyojung; Miura, Fuminari; Chan, Yat Hin; Jung, Sung-Mok; Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R; Nishiura, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Transmission potential and severity of pneumonic plague in Madagascar were assessed. Accounting for reporting delay, the reproduction number was estimated at 1.73. The case fatality risk was estimated as 5.5%. Expected numbers of exported cases from Madagascar were estimated across the world and all estimates were below 1 person from August to October, 2017.

  2. Chow Down! Using Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches to Explore Basic Nutrition Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2009-01-01

    The Madagascar hissing cockroach ("Gromphadorhina portentosa") is one of the most exciting and enjoyable animals to incorporate into your science curriculum. Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MHCs) do not bite, are easy to handle, produce little odor compared to many terrarium animals, have a fascinating social structure, are easy to breed, teach…

  3. Madagascar Tourism Sector Review : Unlocking the Tourism Potential of an Unpolished Gem

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    The island nation of Madagascar has a treasure trove of tourism assets, ranging from wildlife viewing to beach tourism to cultural encounters. Yet despite its undeniable tourism potential, its growth has been severely stunted by years of political instability and lack of action on necessary policy reforms and initiatives. While there is much that needs to be done for Madagascar to fulfill ...

  4. Use of plants in oral health care by the population of Mahajanga, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjarisoa, Lala Nirina; Razanamihaja, Noëline; Rafatro, Herintsoa

    2016-12-04

    The use of medicinal plants to address oral health problems is not well documented in Madagascar, yet the country is full of endemic flora. The aim of this study was to collect information on the use of plants in the region of Mahajanga, Madagascar, for the treatments of oral diseases mainly tooth decay. The ethnobotanical survey with respect to the use of plants for curing dental problems was carried out in 2012. A cluster sampling at three levels was applied when choosing the study sites. The target population was made up of heads of household. The following data were collected from a semi-structured questionnaire: name of plants, part used, mode of preparation, and administration. The Informant Consensus Factor and Fidelity Level indexes were calculated for each condition treated and used plants. The Results revealed that 93 per cent of the targeted population has used plants to calm dental pain, whereas 44.2% have reported using plants due to financial problems. About 65 species of plants are commonly used for oral health care and 63 of them treated caries. Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. was the most plant used. It was mostly used in crushed form of 5 to 9 leaves which were prepared and placed directly on the affected oral part or in the tooth cavity. In general, the treatment lasted about 5 days or minus. The ICF were 0.83 for caries and 0.81 for periodontal diseases. This ethnobotanical survey will serve as database for further phytochemical and pharmacological study of plants in order to identify their active components and advise the population on the most effective administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis and mortality impact estimation of scaling-up pregnancy test kits in Madagascar, Ethiopia and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesar, Robert J; Audibert, Martine; Comfort, Alison B

    2017-07-01

    Cost-effective, innovative approaches are needed to accelerate progress towards ending preventable infant, child and maternal mortality. To inform policy decisions, we conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of adding urine pregnancy test kits to the maternal and reproductive services package offered at the community level in Madagascar, Ethiopia and Malawi. We used a decision tree model to compare the intervention with the status quo for each country. We also completed single factor sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulations with 10 000 iterations to generate the probability distribution of the estimates and uncertainty limits. Among a hypothetical cohort of 100 000 women of reproductive age, we estimate that over a 1-year period, the intervention would save 26, 35 and 48 lives in Madagascar, Ethiopia, and Malawi, respectively. The Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) for the cost per life saved varies by country: $2311 [95% Uncertainty Interval (UI): $1699; $3454] in Madagascar; $2969 [UI: $2260; $5041] in Ethiopia and $1228 [UI: $918; $1777] in Malawi. This equates to an average cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) averted of $36.28, $47.95 and $21.92, respectively. Based on WHO criteria and a comparison with other maternal, newborn, and child health interventions, we conclude that the addition of urine pregnancy tests to an existing community health worker maternal and reproductive services package is highly cost-effective in all three countries. To optimize uptake of family planning and antenatal care services and, in turn, accelerate the reduction of mortality and DALYs, decision makers and program planners should consider adding urine pregnancy tests to the community-level package of services. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Stroke in a resource-constrained hospital in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenumgård, Pål Sigurd; Rakotondranaivo, Miadana Joshua; Sletvold, Olav; Follestad, Turid; Ellekjær, Hanne

    2017-07-24

    Stroke is reported as the most frequent cause of in-hospital death in Madagascar. However, no descriptive data on hospitalized stroke patients in the country have been published. In the present study, we sought to investigate the feasibility of collecting data on stroke patients in a resource-constrained hospital in Madagascar. We also aimed to characterize patients hospitalized with stroke. We registered socio-demographics, clinical characteristics, and early outcomes of patients admitted for stroke between 23 September 2014 and 3 December 2014. We used several validated scales for the evaluation. Stroke severity was measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), disability by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and function by the Barthel Index (BI). We studied 30 patients. Sixteen were males. The median age was 62.5 years (IQR 58-67). The NIHSS and mRS were completed for all of the patients, and BI was used for the survivors. Three patients received a computed tomography (CT) brain scan. The access to laboratory investigations was limited. Electrocardiographs (ECGs) were not performed. The median NIHSS score was 16.5 (IQR 10-35). The in-hospital stroke mortality was 30%. At discharge, the median mRS score was 5 (IQR 4-6), and the median BI score was 45 (IQR 0-72.5). Although the access to brain imaging and supporting investigations was deficient, this small-scale study suggests that it is feasible to collect essential data on stroke patients in a resource-constrained hospital in Madagascar. Such data should be useful for improving stroke services and planning further research. The hospitalized stroke patients had severe symptoms. The in-hospital stroke mortality was high. At discharge, the disability category was high, and functional status low.

  7. Lower and Middle Cenomanian ammonites from the Morondava Basin, Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, William James; Walaszczyk, Ireneusz; Gale, Andrew S.; Dembicz, Krzysztof; Praszkier, Tomasz

    2013-12-01

    Kennedy, W.J., Walaszczyk, I., Gale, A.S., Dembicz, K. and Praszkier, T. 2013. Lower and Midle Cenomanian ammonites from the Morondava Basin, Madagascar. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63(4), 625-655. Warszawa. Lower and Middle Cenomanian ammonite assemblages have been collected on a bed-by-bed basis from localities at Vohipaly and Mahaboboka, Madagascar, as well as from outcrops around Berekata, all in the Morondava Basin, southwest Madagascar. These collections demonstrate the presence of the upper Lower Cenomanian Mantelliceras dixoni Zone and the lower Middle Cenomanian Cunningtoniceras inerme Zone of the north-western European standard sequence. These records indicate that the striking anomalies in the zonal assemblages of the classic divisions of the Madagascan Cenomanian are based on mixed assemblages, rather than a succession that differs radically from that elsewhere in the world. The dixoni Zone fauna is: Desmoceras cf. latidorsatum (Michelin, 1838), Pachydesmoceras kossmati Matsumoto, 1987, Forbesiceras sp., F. baylissiWright & Kennedy, 1984, F. largilliertianum (d'Orbigny, 1841), Mantelliceras cantianum Spath, 1926a, M. dixoni Spath, 1926b, M. mantelli (J. Sowerby, 1814), M. picteti Hyatt, 1903, M. saxbii (Sharpe, 1857), Sharpeiceras sp., S. falloti (Collignon, 1931), S. mocambiquense (Choffat, 1903), S. cf. florencae Spath, 1925, Acompsoceras renevieri (Sharpe, 1857), A. tenue Collignon, 1964, Calycoceras sp., Mrhiliceras lapparenti (Pervinquière, 1907), Mariella (Mariella) stolizcai (Collignon, 1964), Hypoturrilites taxyfabreae (Collignon, 1964), Turrilites scheuchzerianus Bosc, 1801, Sciponoceras cucullatum Collignon, 1964, and Sciponoceras antanimangaensis (Collignon, 1964). The presence of Calycoceras in a Lower Cenomanian association represents a precocious appearance of a genus typically Middle and Upper Cenomanian in occurrence, and matches records from Tunisia. The inerme Zone yields a more restricted assemblage: Pachydesmoceras kossmati

  8. Biogeography of the two major arbovirus mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae, in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raharimalala Fara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past ten years, the Indian Ocean region has been the theatre of severe epidemics of chikungunya and dengue. These outbreaks coincided with a high increase in populations of Aedes albopictus that outcompete its sister taxon Aedes aegypti in most islands sampled. The objective of this work was to update the entomological survey of the two Aedes species in the island of Madagascar which has to face these arboviroses. Methods The sampling of Aedes mosquitoes was conducted during two years, from October 2007 to October 2009, in fifteen localities from eight regions of contrasting climates. Captured adults were identified immediately whereas immature stages were bred until adult stage for determination. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using two mtDNA genes, COI and ND5 and trees were constructed by the maximum likelihood (ML method with the gene time reversible (GTR model. Experimental infections with the chikungunya virus strain 06.21 at a titer of 107.5 pfu/mL were performed to evaluate the vector competence of field-collected mosquitoes. Disseminated infection rates were measured fourteen days after infection by immunofluorescence assay performed on head squashes. Results The species Aedes aegypti was detected in only six sites in native forests and natural reserves. In contrast, the species Aedes albopictus was found in 13 out of the 15 sites sampled. Breeding sites were mostly found in man-made environments such as discarded containers, used tires, abandoned buckets, coconuts, and bamboo cuts. Linear regression models showed that the abundance of Ae. albopictus was significantly influenced by the sampling region (F = 62.00, p -16 and period (F = 36.22, p = 2.548 × 10-13, that are associated with ecological and climate variations. Phylogenetic analysis of the invasive Ae. albopictus distinguished haplotypes from South Asia and South America from those of Madagascar, but the markers used were not discriminant enough

  9. Geological evolution of the Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt, northern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Schofield, D.I.; Goodenough, K.M.; Horstwood, M.; Tucker, R.; Bauer, W.; Annells, R.; Howard, K. J.; Walsh, G.; Rabarimanana, M.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.

    2009-01-01

    The broadly east-west trending, Late Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt in northern Madagascar has been re-surveyed at 1:100 000 scale as part of a large multi-disciplinary World Bank-sponsored project. The work included acquisition of 14 U-Pb zircon dates and whole-rock major and trace element geochemical data of representative rocks. The belt has previously been modelled as a juvenile Neoproterozoic arc and our findings broadly support that model. The integrated datasets indicate that the Bemarivo Belt is separated by a major ductile shear zone into northern and southern "terranes", each with different lithostratigraphy and ages. However, both formed as Neoproterozoic arc/marginal basin assemblages that were translated southwards over the north-south trending domains of "cratonic" Madagascar, during the main collisional phase of the East African Orogeny at ca. 540 Ma. The older, southern terrane consists of a sequence of high-grade paragneisses (Sahantaha Group), which were derived from a Palaeoproterozoic source and formed a marginal sequence to the Archaean cratons to the south. These rocks are intruded by an extensive suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Antsirabe Nord Suite. Four samples from this suite yielded U-Pb SHRIMP ages at ca. 750 Ma. The northern terrane consists of three groups of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks, including a possible Archaean sequence (Betsiaka Group: maximum depositional age approximately 2477 Ma) and two volcano-sedimentary sequences (high-grade Milanoa Group: maximum depositional age approximately 750 Ma; low grade Daraina Group: extrusive age = 720-740 Ma). These supracrustal rocks are intruded by another suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Manambato Suite, 4 samples of which gave U-Pb SHRIMP ages between 705 and 718 Ma. Whole-rock geochemical data confirm the calc-alkaline, arc-related nature of the plutonic rocks. The volcanic rocks of the Daraina and Milanoa groups also

  10. High detection rate of Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum but low prevalence of anti-rickettsial antibodies in healthy pregnant women in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Christian; Krüger, Andreas; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Derschum, Henri; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pothmann, Daniela; Veit, Alexandra; Hogan, Benedikt; May, Jürgen; Girmann, Mirko; Kramme, Stefanie; Fleischer, Bernhard; Poppert, Sven

    2016-02-01

    Tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are emerging infectious diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Madagascar, the endemicity of tick-borne rickettsiae and their vectors has been incompletely studied. The first part of the present study was conducted in 2011 and 2012 to identify potential anthropophilic tick vectors for SFG rickettsiae on cattle from seven Malagasy regions, and to detect and characterize rickettsiae in these ticks. Amblyomma variegatum was the only anthropophilic tick species found on 262 cattle. Using a novel ompB-specific qPCR, screening for rickettsial DNA was performed on 111 A. variegatum ticks. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 96 of 111 ticks studied (86.5%). Rickettsia africae was identified as the only infecting rickettsia using phylogenetic analysis of ompA and ompB gene sequences and three variable intergenic spacers from 11 ticks. The second part of the study was a cross-sectional survey for antibodies against SFG rickettsiae in plasma samples taken from healthy, pregnant women at six locations in Madagascar, two at sea level and four between 450 and 1300m altitude. An indirect fluorescent antibody test with Rickettsia conorii as surrogate SFG rickettsial antigen was used. We found R. conorii-seropositives at all altitudes with prevalences between 0.5% and 3.1%. Our results suggest that A. variegatum ticks highly infected with R. africae are the most prevalent cattle-associated tick vectors for SFG rickettsiosis in Madagascar. Transmission of SFG rickettsiosis to humans occurs at different altitudes in Madagascar and should be considered as a relevant cause of febrile diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. A non-stationary relationship between global climate phenomena and human plague incidence in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreppel, Katharina S; Caminade, Cyril; Telfer, Sandra; Rajerison, Minoarison; Rahalison, Lila; Morse, Andy; Baylis, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is found in Asia and the Americas, but predominantly in Africa, with the island of Madagascar reporting almost one third of human cases worldwide. Plague's occurrence is affected by local climate factors which in turn are influenced by large-scale climate phenomena such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The effects of ENSO on regional climate are often enhanced or reduced by a second large-scale climate phenomenon, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). It is known that ENSO and the IOD interact as drivers of disease. Yet the impacts of these phenomena in driving plague dynamics via their effect on regional climate, and specifically contributing to the foci of transmission on Madagascar, are unknown. Here we present the first analysis of the effects of ENSO and IOD on plague in Madagascar. We use a forty-eight year monthly time-series of reported human plague cases from 1960 to 2008. Using wavelet analysis, we show that over the last fifty years there have been complex non-stationary associations between ENSO/IOD and the dynamics of plague in Madagascar. We demonstrate that ENSO and IOD influence temperature in Madagascar and that temperature and plague cycles are associated. The effects on plague appear to be mediated more by temperature, but precipitation also undoubtedly influences plague in Madagascar. Our results confirm a relationship between plague anomalies and an increase in the intensity of ENSO events and precipitation. This work widens the understanding of how climate factors acting over different temporal scales can combine to drive local disease dynamics. Given the association of increasing ENSO strength and plague anomalies in Madagascar it may in future be possible to forecast plague outbreaks in Madagascar. The study gives insight into the complex and changing relationship between climate factors and plague in Madagascar.

  12. A non-stationary relationship between global climate phenomena and human plague incidence in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina S Kreppel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is found in Asia and the Americas, but predominantly in Africa, with the island of Madagascar reporting almost one third of human cases worldwide. Plague's occurrence is affected by local climate factors which in turn are influenced by large-scale climate phenomena such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO. The effects of ENSO on regional climate are often enhanced or reduced by a second large-scale climate phenomenon, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD. It is known that ENSO and the IOD interact as drivers of disease. Yet the impacts of these phenomena in driving plague dynamics via their effect on regional climate, and specifically contributing to the foci of transmission on Madagascar, are unknown. Here we present the first analysis of the effects of ENSO and IOD on plague in Madagascar.We use a forty-eight year monthly time-series of reported human plague cases from 1960 to 2008. Using wavelet analysis, we show that over the last fifty years there have been complex non-stationary associations between ENSO/IOD and the dynamics of plague in Madagascar. We demonstrate that ENSO and IOD influence temperature in Madagascar and that temperature and plague cycles are associated. The effects on plague appear to be mediated more by temperature, but precipitation also undoubtedly influences plague in Madagascar. Our results confirm a relationship between plague anomalies and an increase in the intensity of ENSO events and precipitation.This work widens the understanding of how climate factors acting over different temporal scales can combine to drive local disease dynamics. Given the association of increasing ENSO strength and plague anomalies in Madagascar it may in future be possible to forecast plague outbreaks in Madagascar. The study gives insight into the complex and changing relationship between climate factors and plague in Madagascar.

  13. Complementary knowledge sharing: Experiences of nursing students participating in an educational exchange program between Madagascar and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoflåt, Ingrid; Razaonandrianina, Julie; Karlsen, Bjørg; Hansen, Britt Sætre

    2017-02-01

    To describe how Malagasy and Norwegian nursing students experience an educational exchange program in Madagascar. Previous studies show that nursing students participating in an educational exchange program enhanced their cultural knowledge and experienced personal growth. However, few studies have described two-way exchange programs, including experiences from both the hosts' and the guest students' perspectives. This study applies a descriptive qualitative design. Data were collected in 2015 by means of five semi-structured interviews with Malagasy students and two focus group interview sessions with Norwegian students. They were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The study was conducted in Madagascar. The data analyses revealed one main theme and two sub-themes related to the Malagasy and Norwegian nursing students' experiences. Main theme: complementary knowledge sharing; sub-themes: (1) learning from each other and (2) challenges of working together. The findings indicate that both the Malagasy and Norwegian nursing students experienced the exchange program as valuable and essential in exchanging knowledge. They also highlighted challenges, linked mainly to language barriers and the lack of available resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Different periods of uranium and thorium occurrence in Madagascar (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, M.

    1960-01-01

    In Madagascar, the first typical occurrences of thorium and uranium are about 500 million years old. Previously thorium and uranium were rather concentrated in the granitic and charnockitic zones, chiefly in minerals such as monazite, apatite and zircon. At the end of the Precambrian period, metasomatic granites occur especially in the anticlinal series (Andriba orthite granite). The granitization is followed by the formation of the main pegmatitic areas in the Island with Th-U niobotantalates, uraninite and beryl. The pegmatites are well developed in the synclinal series with a poor migmatization or no migmatization at all. In the same time a large uranium and thorium province with uranothorianite deposits appears within the calcomagnesian series of the Southern part of Madagascar. Later, large amounts of monazite were carried down to the detritic Karroo sediments during tile erosion of the metamorphic precambrian rocks. Monazite has been concentrated again by frequent marine incursions, till the present time. In the medium Karroo, near Folakara, uranium minerals occur in direct relation with carbonaceous material. Finally we must note the uranium occurrence in the pleistocene carbonaceous shales of Antsirabe basin, in contact with crystalline rocks. (author) [fr

  15. Developing a spinal cord injury rehabilitation service in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakotonirainy Renaud

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation for people with spinal cord injury in many low- and middle-income countries is not avail-able or is in the early stages of development. However, rehabilitation is recognized as crucial in order to optimize functional recovery and outcomes for patients with spinal cord injury. With an increasing incidence of spinal cord injury, the unmet need for rehabilitation is huge. This report describes the early development of a specialist rehabilitation service for spinal cord injury in Madagascar, one of the poorest countries in the world. The sustained input to an expanding rehabilitation team has led to reductions in avoidable complications. The input of the rehabilitation team has been welcomed by the neurosurgery department, which has recognized fewer delays in patients undergoing surgical treatments. Cost, lack of resources and trained staff, and poor understanding of disability continue to provide challenges. However, the development of the rehabilitation service using low technology, but with a high level of knowledge and systematic management, is a source of considerable pride. This development in Madagascar can be regarded as a model for spinal cord injury rehabilitation in other low-resource settings.

  16. An updated checklist of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Le Goff, Gilbert; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2016-01-01

    An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species). This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species), Aedes (35 species), Anopheles (26 species), Coquillettidia (3 species), Culex (at least 50 species), Eretmapodites (4 species), Ficalbia (2 species), Hodgesia (at least one species), Lutzia (one species), Mansonia (2 species), Mimomyia (22 species), Orthopodomyia (8 species), Toxorhynchites (6 species), and Uranotaenia (73 species). Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%). Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27%) with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar. PMID:27101839

  17. Capture, Movement, Trade, and Consumption of Mammals in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kim E.; Randell, Haley; Wills, Abigail R.; Janvier, Totozafy Eric; Belalahy, Tertius Rodriguez; Sewall, Brent J.

    2016-01-01

    Wild meat trade constitutes a threat to many animal species. Understanding the commodity chain of wild animals (hunting, transportation, trade, consumption) can help target conservation initiatives. Wild meat commodity chain research has focused on the formal trade and less on informal enterprises, although informal enterprises contribute to a large portion of the wild meat trade in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the formal and informal components of these commodity chains by focusing on the mammalian wild meat trade in Madagascar. Our objectives were to: (1) identify hunting strategies used to capture different wild mammals; (2) analyze patterns of movement of wild meat from the capture location to the final consumer; (3) examine wild meat prices, volumes, and venues of sale; and (4) estimate the volume of wild meat consumption. Data were collected in May-August 2013 using semi-structured interviews with consumers (n = 1343 households, 21 towns), meat-sellers (n = 520 restaurants, open-air markets stalls, and supermarkets, 9 towns), and drivers of inter-city transit vehicles (n = 61, 5 towns). We found that: (1) a wide range of hunting methods were used, though prevalence of use differed by animal group; (2) wild meat was transported distances of up to 166 km to consumers, though some animal groups were hunted locally (Madagascar is also likely more formalized than previously thought. PMID:26926987

  18. An updated checklist of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae from Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantely Michaël Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species. This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species, Aedes (35 species, Anopheles (26 species, Coquillettidia (3 species, Culex (at least 50 species, Eretmapodites (4 species, Ficalbia (2 species, Hodgesia (at least one species, Lutzia (one species, Mansonia (2 species, Mimomyia (22 species, Orthopodomyia (8 species, Toxorhynchites (6 species, and Uranotaenia (73 species. Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%. Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27% with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar.

  19. Community-based con- servation in Madagascar, the 'cure-all ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar's wildlife and the conservation importance of several sites; the country has received a .... services, strengthened by community education and strong cross- ... over responsibilities to local communities, including tourism, education ...

  20. Madagascar: open-source software project for multidimensional data analysis and reproducible computational experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Fomel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Madagascar software package is designed for analysis of large-scale multidimensional data, such as those occurring in exploration geophysics. Madagascar provides a framework for reproducible research. By “reproducible research” we refer to the discipline of attaching software codes and data to computational results reported in publications. The package contains a collection of (a computational modules, (b data-processing scripts, and (c research papers. Madagascar is distributed on SourceForge under a GPL v2 license https://sourceforge.net/projects/rsf/. By October 2013, more than 70 people from different organizations around the world have contributed to the project, with increasing year-to-year activity. The Madagascar website is http://www.ahay.org/.

  1. Structural study in ''ITASY'' volcanic region (centre of Madagascar) by geophysical methods (magnetic and audiomagnetotelluric)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratsimbazafy, J.B.

    1988-10-01

    The results obtained by magnetic and magnetotelluric methods of survey of ''ITASY'' volcanic region (centre of Madagascar) and their interpretation in correlation with geological data are presented. 27 refs, 18 figs

  2. A review of mosquitoes associated with Rift Valley fever virus in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantely, Luciano M; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2015-04-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral zoonotic disease occurring throughout Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and Madagascar. The disease is caused by a Phlebovirus (RVF virus [RVFV]) transmitted to vertebrate hosts through the bite of infected mosquitoes. In Madagascar, the first RVFV circulation was reported in 1979 based on detection in mosquitoes but without epidemic episode. Subsequently, two outbreaks occurred: the first along the east coast and in the central highlands in 1990 and 1991 and the most recent along the northern and eastern coasts and in the central highlands in 2008 and 2009. Despite the presence of 24 mosquitoes species potentially associated with RVFV transmission in Madagascar, little associated entomological information is available. In this review, we list the RVFV vector, Culex antennatus, as well as other taxa as candidate vector species. We discuss risk factors from an entomological perspective for the re-emergence of RVF in Madagascar. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. A juvenile subfossil crocodylian from Anjohibe Cave, Northwestern Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C. Mathews

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar’s subfossil record preserves a diverse community of animals including elephant birds, pygmy hippopotamus, giant lemurs, turtles, crocodiles, bats, rodents, and carnivorans. These fossil accumulations give us a window into the island’s past from 80,000 years ago to a mere few hundred years ago, recording the extinction of some groups and the persistence of others. The crocodylian subfossil record is limited to two taxa, Voay robustus and Crocodylus niloticus, found at sites distributed throughout the island. V. robustus is extinct while C. niloticus is still found on the island today, but whether these two species overlapped temporally, or if Voay was driven to extinction by competing with Crocodylus remains unknown. While their size and presumed behavior was similar to each other, nearly nothing is known about the growth and development of Voay, as the overwhelming majority of fossil specimens represent mature adult individuals. Here we describe a nearly complete juvenile crocodylian specimen from Anjohibe Cave, northwestern Madagascar. The specimen is referred to Crocodylus based on the presence of caviconchal recesses on the medial wall of the maxillae, and to C. niloticus based on the presence of an oval shaped internal choana, lack of rostral ornamentation and a long narrow snout. However, as there are currently no described juvenile specimens of Voay robustus, it is important to recognize that some of the defining characteristics of that genus may have changed through ontogeny. Elements include a nearly complete skull and many postcranial elements (cervical, thoracic, sacral, and caudal vertebrae, pectoral elements, pelvic elements, forelimb and hindlimb elements, osteoderms. Crocodylus niloticus currently inhabits Madagascar but is locally extinct from this particular region; radiometric dating indicates an age of ∼460–310 years before present (BP. This specimen clearly represents a juvenile based on the extremely small

  4. Habitat Requirements and Foraging Ecology of the Madagascar Fish-Eagle

    OpenAIRE

    Berkelman, James

    1997-01-01

    With a population estimate of 99 pairs, the Madagascar fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) is one of the rarest birds of prey in the world. I investigated the ecological requirements of the Madagascar fish-eagle in 1994 and 1995 to help determine management action to prevent its extinction. I investigated fish-eagle foraging ecology in 1996 to determine its prey preference and whether fish abundance and availabi...

  5. Subordinate Males Sire Offspring in Madagascar Fish-eagle (Haliaeetus Vociferoides) Polyandrous Breeding Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Tingay, Ruth E.; Culver, Melanie; Hallerman, Eric M.; Fraser, James D.; Watson, Richard T.

    2002-01-01

    The island endemic Madagascar Fish-Eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) is one of the most endangered birds of prey. Certain populations in west-central Madagascar sometimes exhibit a third, and sometimes a fourth, adult involved in breeding activities at a nest. We applied DNA fingerprinting to assess relatedness among 17 individuals at four nests. In all nests with young, a subordinate rather than the dominant male sired the offspring. Within-nest relatedness comparisons showed that some dominan...

  6. Traditional Medicine in Madagascar - Current Situation and the Institutional Context of Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    C. Pierlovisi; L. Pourchez

    2014-01-01

    Following WHO recommandations and in order to improve medical coverage, Madagascar officially recognized in 2007 its traditional medicine as a legitimate practice.UNESCO, to sustain traditional healers in the Indian Ocean, wanted to use anthropological tools to explore the current situation in Madagascar.Despit a plurality of practices, data collected for three months in the Southeast of the Island, allowed us to identify some fundamental aspects of Malagasy traditional medicine, such as the ...

  7. New and little known oribatid mites from Madagascar (Acari: Oribatida. I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahunka, S.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A list of the newly studied and identified oribatids from Madagascar (Malagasy Republic is given. Altogether 17species are mentioned from several sites of the island including four new species and a new subspecies belonging in the familiesSteganacaridae, Oppiidae and Austrachipteriidae, respectively. Two species, Eniochthonius sumatranus Mahunka, 1989 andCultroribula bicuspidata Mahunka, 1978 are recorded for the first time from Madagascar. With 25 figures.

  8. Integrating Phylogenetics and Morphology to Study Diversification and Species Limits in Madagascar's Tenrecs (Tenrecidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Everson, Kathryn; Olson, Link

    2018-01-01

    Madagascar is one of the world's hottest biodiversity hotspots and a natural laboratory for evolutionary research. Tenrecs (Tenrecidae; 32 currently recognized species) – small placental mammals endemic to Madagascar – colonized the island >35 million years ago and have evolved a stunning range of behaviors and morphologies, including heterothermic species; species with hedgehog-like spines; and fossorial, aquatic, and scansorial ecotypes. In 2016, we produced the first taxonomically complete...

  9. Indonesia-Madagascar partnership in agricultural linkages (impartial aims for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Widodo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting in 2011 Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA through the Program of Third Country Experts (TCE invited Indonesian scientists to be involved in the development endeavors for African Countries, including Madagascar especially in attempt to increase productivity of rice as main staple food of Malagasy. Initiation of bilateral cooperation between Indonesia and Madagascar had been stimulated from JICA-TCE, furthermore for developing Indonesian soybean to Madagascar from 2013 to 2015. Madagascar and many African Countries are grouped into the countries requesting global aid for taming hunger as declared under Millennium Development Goals (MDGs ended 2015 that continued into Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs 2030. Fortunately, there is a similarity of languages in Indonesia and Madagascar East and West Africa as heritage from the ancient voyage before western occupation or even Before Christ (BC era as reflected in the relief at wall of Borobudur a Buddhist temple in Magelang Central Java Indonesia. Based on historical background, there is an opportunity to propose Indonesia- Madagascar Partnership in Agricultural Linkages (IMPARTIAL as a new alliance for attaining sustainable development in developing countries at the southern hemisphere. Implementing agricultural innovation to provide adequate food and renewable energy for daily modern livelihood is a key to attain sustainability.

  10. The Duty of the ANARAP-MAD for the Development of Radiation Protection in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratovonjanahary, F.

    2010-01-01

    Association NAtionale de Radio Protection-MADagascar (ANARAP-MAD), to develop the radiation protection in Madagascar; to promote the radiation protection in Madagascar; to set up links with international institutions dealing with the same objectives (I.A.E.A., W.H.O., etc...); to care for the enforcement of the regulation in radiation protection; to propose improvements and amendments; to find solutions to problems relevant to the enforcement of the regulation; to inform and to train in the field of radiation protection; to contribute in the development of the science, all activities carried out by the association are based on the existing legislation in the country. Despite the insufficiency of financial support, the ANARAP-MAD had always made an effort to carry out activities for the development of radiation protection infrastructure in Madagascar. The main problem is also that the regulatory Authority is not yet operational. However, the ANARAP-MAD, with the support of the Madagascar-INSTN, has the challenge to effectively promoting radiation protection in Madagascar

  11. A major seasonal phytoplankton bloom in the Madagascar Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Alan

    2001-11-01

    A hitherto-unnoticed phytoplankton bloom, of dimension 3000×1500 km, occupies the Madagascar Basin in late austral summer, being a prominent feature in SeaWiFS images. A first-order interpretation of the bloom mechanism invokes the seasonal deepening of the mixed layer within a strong mesoscale eddy-field and the consequent entrainment of nutrients into the photic zone. Features of the bloom correspond closely and appropriately with features of the eddy-field as observed by TOPEX-POSEIDON sea level anomalies. The bloom failed to develop in 1998, the second year of a two-year ENSO episode, when anomalously weak Southeast Trades will have failed to deepen the mixed layer as in other years.

  12. Seismic hazard evaluation for major cities in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razafindrakoto, Hoby N.T.; Rambolamanana, Gerard; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2009-09-01

    The seismic hazard in some areas in Madagascar has been assessed at regional scale in terms of peak ground motion values (displacement, velocity, acceleration) and their periods, following the Neodeterministic approach, based on the computation of realistic synthetic seismograms. The main data input integrates all available tectonic, seismicity and structural model information. The largest peak values are 1.6cm/s for the velocity, 0.03g for the acceleration and more than 0.5cm for the displacement. These values are consistent within a range of macroseismic intensity from VI to VII MCS, and indicate that relatively simple prevention measures and retrofitting actions may guarantee a high safety level and a well sustainable development. (author)

  13. Effectiveness of community forest management at reducing deforestation in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasolofoson, Ranaivo Andriarilala; Ferraro, Paul J.; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2015-01-01

    Community Forest Management (CFM) is a widespread conservation approach in the tropics. It is also promoted as a means by which payment for ecosystem services schemes can be implemented. However, evidence on its performance is weak. We investigated the effectiveness of CFM at reducing deforestation...... from 2000 to 2010 in Madagascar. To control for factors confounding impact estimates, we used statistical matching. We also contrasted the effects of CFM by whether commercial use of forest resources is allowed or not. We cannot detect an effect, on average, of CFM compared to no CFM, even when we...... restricted the sample to only where information suggests effective CFM implementation on the ground. Likewise, we cannot detect an effect of CFM where commercial use of natural resources is allowed. However, we can detect a reduction in deforestation in CFM that does not permit commercial uses, compared...

  14. Trends in the extinction of carnivores in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cartagena–Matos, B.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The extinction of top predators, such as mammalian carnivores can lead to dramatic changes in foodweb structure and ecosystem dynamics. Since all native Malagasy terrestrial mammalian carnivores are endemic, their extinction implies a significant loss of biodiversity in Madagascar. Here we review the literature on Madagascar’s mammalian carnivores, aiming to determine which species are most likely to become extinct in the near future in view of the factors threatening their survival. We scored each factor according to its impact on the species. According to our results, the giant–striped mongoose, Galidictis grandidieri, is the most likely species to next become extinct. This is no surprise because this species is considered one of the rarest carnivores in the world, inhabiting only a small, threatened forest ecosystem. Our results emphasize the need for robust data about each species to help and support decision–makers implement conservation measures.

  15. Different periods of uranium and thorium occurrence in Madagascar (1960); Cycles uraniferes et thoriferes a Madagascar (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    In Madagascar, the first typical occurrences of thorium and uranium are about 500 million years old. Previously thorium and uranium were rather concentrated in the granitic and charnockitic zones, chiefly in minerals such as monazite, apatite and zircon. At the end of the Precambrian period, metasomatic granites occur especially in the anticlinal series (Andriba orthite granite). The granitization is followed by the formation of the main pegmatitic areas in the Island with Th-U niobotantalates, uraninite and beryl. The pegmatites are well developed in the synclinal series with a poor migmatization or no migmatization at all. In the same time a large uranium and thorium province with uranothorianite deposits appears within the calcomagnesian series of the Southern part of Madagascar. Later, large amounts of monazite were carried down to the detritic Karroo sediments during tile erosion of the metamorphic precambrian rocks. Monazite has been concentrated again by frequent marine incursions, till the present time. In the medium Karroo, near Folakara, uranium minerals occur in direct relation with carbonaceous material. Finally we must note the uranium occurrence in the pleistocene carbonaceous shales of Antsirabe basin, in contact with crystalline rocks. (author) [French] A Madagascar, le premier cycle uranifere et thorifere bien caracterise se situe aux alentours de 500 millions d'annees. Auparavant, le thorium et l'uranium sont concentres de preference dans les zones granitiques et charnockites sous forme de monazite, apatite ou zircon. Vers la fin du Precambrien, se produisent des granitisations metasomatiques, surtout dans les zones anticlinales (type Andriba a orthite). La fin de cette granitisation s'accompagne de la formation des principaux champs pegmatitiques de l'Ile a niobotantalates uraniferes, uraninite et beryl, qui se developpent de preference dans les series synclinales peu ou pas migmatisees. A cette meme epoque s'individualise au sein des series

  16. Exploring Social Resilience in Madagascar's Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Cinner

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined and compared aspects of local-level resilience in 13 coastal communities within and adjacent to all of Madagascar's national marine protected areas. Our examination of social resilience focused on indicators of the flexibility of household livelihood portfolios and both formal and informal governance institutions, the capacity of communities to organize, their capacity to learn, and access to household assets and community infrastructure. In general, we found high levels of flexibility in formal institutions and livelihood portfolios and high levels of participation in decision-making and community groups. Together, these indicators suggest some latent capacity to adaptively manage resources, but this capacity may be offset by poor levels of trust between communities and resource managers, a poor understanding of the ways in which humans affect marine resources, inadequate feedback of ecological monitoring to communities, inflexibility in informal governance institutions, and a lack of assets to draw upon. We suggest that building desirable resilience in Madagascar's marine protected areas will require the following: investments in community-level infrastructure, projects to generate household income, and enhanced agricultural production to improve the well-being of communities; improvements in the capacity to learn through investments in formal and informal education; enhanced trust between park staff and local communities; empowerment of communities to govern and enforce natural resources; the increased accountability of leaders and transparency of governance processes; adequate cross-scale interaction with local, provincial, and national institutions; and the pursuit of these activities in ways that capitalize on community-specific strengths, such as high flexibility and the presence of sociocultural institutions such as taboos that regulate resource use.

  17. High-Risk Sexual Behavior at Social Venues in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHAN, MARIA R.; RASOLOFOMANANA, JUSTIN R.; McCLAMROCH, KRISTI J.; RALISIMALALA, ANDRIAMAMPIANINA; ZAFIMANJAKA, MAURICE G.; BEHETS, FRIEDA; WEIR, SHARON S.

    2018-01-01

    Background Persistent high levels of sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Madagascar indicate current prevention strategies are inadequate. STI/HIV prevention based in social venues may play an important role in reaching individuals at risk of infection. We identified venues where people meet sexual partners and measured the need and potential for venue-based prevention. Methods Interviews were conducted in 7 Madagascar towns with 1) community informants to identify social venues, 2) individuals socializing at a sample of venues to assess sexual behavior among venue patrons, and 3) venue representatives to assess the potential for venue-based intervention. Results Community informants identified numerous venues (range: 67–211 venues, depending on the town); streets, bars, and hotels were most commonly reported. Among 2982 individuals socializing at venues, 78% of men and 74% of women reported new sexual partnership or sex trade for money, goods, or services in the past 4 weeks and 19% of men and 18% of women reported symptoms suggestive of STI in the past 4 weeks. STI symptom levels were disproportionately high among respondents reporting either sex trade or new sexual partnership in the past 4 weeks. Twenty-eight percent of men and 41% of women reported condom use during the last sex act with a new partner. Although 24% to 45% of venues had hosted STI/HIV interventions, interventions were deemed possible at 73% to 90% venues according to 644 interviews with venue representatives. Conclusions Venue-based intervention is possible and would reach a spectrum of populations vulnerable to STI/HIV including sex workers, their clients, and other high-risk populations. PMID:18496471

  18. Medicinal plants sold in the markets of Antananarivo, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randriamiharisoa, Maria Nirina; Kuhlman, Alyse R; Jeannoda, Vololoniaina; Rabarison, Harison; Rakotoarivelo, Nivo; Randrianarivony, Tabita; Raktoarivony, Fortunat; Randrianasolo, Armand; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2015-07-28

    This study focuses on the large outdoor markets of the capital of Madagascar, Antananarivo. As the largest metropolitan area in Madagascar with a population of nearly two million, the region has great capacity for consumption of medicinal plant remedies despite numerous pharmacies. Medicinal plant use spans all socioeconomic levels, and the diverse metropolitan population allows us to study a wide variety of people who consume these plants for medical purposes. The purpose of this study is to identify and generate a list of medicinal plants sold in the traditional markets with a focus on those collected in the forests around Antananarivo, get an idea of the quantities of medicinal plants sold in the markets around Antananarivo, and assess the economy of the medicinal plant markets. In order to determine which medicinal plants are most consumed in Antananarivo, ethnobotanical enquiries were conducted in the five main markets of the capital city. Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted with medicinal plant traders, suppliers, harvesters and cultivators, with voucher specimens created from the plants discussed. Trade circuit information was established and the income generated by the trade of some of the species was assessed. The inventory of the Antananarivo markets resulted in a list of 89 commercialized plant species. Ten of the 89 were mentioned by 60-100 % of vendors. Profitability for vendors is high and competitive with other salaried positions within Antananarivo. Transportation costs are also high and therefore lower profitability for other members in the supply chain. The markets of Antananarivo have always played a vital cultural role in the lives of urban Malagasy, but our study shows they also play an economic role not only for urban residents but rural harvesters as well. Continued research and monitoring of the non-timber forest products trade in Antananarivo is needed to better understand the impact of trade on the wild plant populations.

  19. Joint pain epidemiology and analgesic usage in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samison, Luc Hervé; Randriatsarafara, Fidiniaina Mamy; Ralandison, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of joint pains and document analgesics usage in an African context. Patients suffering from joint pain were recruited from nine sites located in Antananarivo, Madagascar, including 6 hospital services and 3 clinics. Doctors collected information on the etiology and characteristics of the patients' pain. Analgesics prescribed by these doctors were also documented. In total, 400 patients were enrolled in the study (52.5% women, mean age of 42.34 years ± 17.7 [4-86]). Pain of mechanical type was found in 260 participants, 65%; 95% CI [60.1% to 69.6%] and inflammatory type pains in 128 cases 32%; 95% CI [27.5% to 36.9%]. Mixed pains were found in 12 patients (3%). The median duration of pain prior to the consultation was 6.5 days. The average pain intensity was 57.9 ± 19.9 mm of a total of 100 mm maximum on a visual analogue scale, VAS. The etiologies of mechanical type pains were dominated by fracture, common low back pain and tendonitis. Arthrosis was the dominant cause of inflammatory type pain, followed by rheumatoid arthritis and gout. NSAIDs (74.5%) were the most frequently prescribed analgesics followed by paracetamol (49.5%), weak opioids (23%) and corticosteroids (12.25%). Two-thirds of medical prescriptions (65.3%) were of combined analgesics. These findings demonstrated that mechanical type pains were the main reason for consultations for joint pain in these situations in Antananarivo, Madagascar. The most frequently prescribed pain-relieving medications were NSAIDs, paracetamol, weak opioids and corticosteroids. This descriptive study may be a useful starting point for further epidemiological studies of pain in the African context.

  20. Observations of the southern East Madagascar Current and undercurrent and countercurrent system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauw, J. J.; van Aken, H. M.; Webb, A.; Lutjeharms, J. R. E.; de Ruijter, W. P. M.

    2008-08-01

    In April 2001 four hydrographic sections perpendicular to the southern East Madagascar Current were surveyed as part of the Agulhas Current Sources Experiment. Observations with a vessel mounted and a lowered ADCP produced information on the current field while temperature, salinity, oxygen and nutrient data obtained with a CTD-Rosette system, gave information on the water mass structure of the currents southeast of Madagascar. The peak velocity in the pole-ward East Madagascar Current through these four sections had a typical magnitude of ˜110 cm/s, while the width of this current was of the order of 120 km. The mean pole-ward volume transport rate of this current during the survey above the 5°C isotherm was estimated to be 37 ± 10 Sv. On all four sections an undercurrent was observed at intermediate depths below the East Madagascar Current. Its equator-ward transport rate amounted to 2.8 ± 1.4 Sv. Offshore of the East Madagascar Current the shallow South Indian Ocean Countercurrent was observed. This eastward frontal jet coincided with the barotropic and thermohaline front that separates the saline Subtropical Surface Water from the fresher Tropical Surface Water in the East Madagascar Current. The near-surface geostrophic flow of the East Madagascar Current, derived from satellite altimetry data from 1992 to 2005, suggests a strong variability of this transport due to eddy variability and interannual changes. The long-term pole-ward mean transport of the East Madagascar Current, roughly estimated from those altimetry data amounts to 32 Sv. The upper-ocean water mass of the East Madagascar Current was very saline in 2001, compared to WOCE surveys from 1995. Comparison of our undercurrent data with those of the WOCE surveys in 1995 confirms that the undercurrent is a recurrent feature. Its water mass properties are relatively saline, due to the presence of water originating from the Red Sea outflow at intermediate levels. The saline water was advected from the

  1. Linking coral river runoff proxies with climate variability, hydrology and land-use in Madagascar catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Joseph; de Moel, Hans; Vermaat, Jan E; Bruggemann, J Henrich; Guillaume, Mireille M M; Grove, Craig A; Madin, Joshua S; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Zinke, Jens

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the linkages between coastal watersheds and adjacent coral reefs is expected to lead to better coral reef conservation strategies. Our study aims to examine the main predictors of environmental proxies recorded in near shore corals and therefore how linked near shore reefs are to the catchment physical processes. To achieve these, we developed models to simulate hydrology of two watersheds in Madagascar. We examined relationships between environmental proxies derived from massive Porites spp. coral cores (spectral luminescence and barium/calcium ratios), and corresponding time-series (1950-2006) data of hydrology, climate, land use and human population growth. Results suggest regional differences in the main environmental drivers of reef sedimentation: on annual time-scales, precipitation, river flow and sediment load explained the variability in coral proxies of river discharge for the northeast region, while El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and temperature (air and sea surface) were the best predictors in the southwest region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Water and environment in the Southwest of Madagascar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razanamparany, L

    1993-04-01

    The dry and arid southwest region of Madagascar is not a desert but resembles the Sahel region of West Africa. The chronic water deficit is aggravated by the heat and constant winds that accelerate evapotranspiration on the permeable soils. The dryness occurs because the southwest region lies outside the main pluviogenic systems. Erosion occurs at all seasons. In the winter the sun and winds are the main causes, while the rare storms are more conducive to run-off and to erosion than to absorption. The acute water shortage in the southwest has prompted hydrogeologic research and well-drilling, but the high salt content of the water and other impurities will be a limiting factor for development of the area. The population of the southwest is extremely mobile. Human settlements are concentrated in the valleys and depressions and along major roads. Customary rights to land under the control of the traditional chiefs regulate tenure in most areas. But especially in the river bottoms, the coming of cash crops cultivated with modern equipment has resulted in significant erosion which has aggravated ecological problems. Accelerating soil degradation has led peasants to extend their lands under cultivation to the detriment of forest cover. Cattle herding remains the principal economic activity in the southwest. Herding has progressed from nomadism to pastoralism, but it remains a sign of power and wealth. Transhumance is the strategy of herders faced with shortages of water and pasturage, demographic pressure, and environmental degradation. Raising of sheep and goats constitutes a supplemental food source, medium of exchange, and form of savings. But angora goats graze on everything in their path, devastating their surrounds. Fear of cattle thefts militates against efforts to improve the quality of the stock. The various problems together have prompted a wasteful exploitation of the forest resources. Development strategies for the area explored by the government have all

  3. Spatial Biodiversity Patterns of Madagascar's Amphibians and Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jason L.; Sillero, Neftali; Glaw, Frank; Bora, Parfait; Vieites, David R.; Vences, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Madagascar has become a model region for testing hypotheses of species diversification and biogeography, and many studies have focused on its diverse and highly endemic herpetofauna. Here we combine species distribution models of a near-complete set of species of reptiles and amphibians known from the island with body size data and a tabulation of herpetofaunal communities from field surveys, compiled up to 2008. Though taxonomic revisions and novel distributional records arose since compilation, we are confident that the data are appropriate for inferring and comparing biogeographic patterns among these groups of organisms. We observed species richness of both amphibians and reptiles was highest in the humid rainforest biome of eastern Madagascar, but reptiles also show areas of high richness in the dry and subarid western biomes. In several amphibian subclades, especially within the Mantellidae, species richness peaks in the central eastern geographic regions while in reptiles different subclades differ distinctly in their richness centers. A high proportion of clades and subclades of both amphibians and reptiles have a peak of local endemism in the topographically and bioclimatically diverse northern geographic regions. This northern area is roughly delimited by a diagonal spanning from 15.5°S on the east coast to ca. 15.0°S on the west coast. Amphibian diversity is highest at altitudes between 800–1200 m above sea-level whereas reptiles have their highest richness at low elevations, probably reflecting the comparatively large number of species specialized to the extended low-elevation areas in the dry and subarid biomes. We found that the range sizes of both amphibians and reptiles strongly correlated with body size, and differences between the two groups are explained by the larger body sizes of reptiles. However, snakes have larger range sizes than lizards which cannot be readily explained by their larger body sizes alone. Range filling, i.e., the amount

  4. Spatial Biodiversity Patterns of Madagascar's Amphibians and Reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jason L; Sillero, Neftali; Glaw, Frank; Bora, Parfait; Vieites, David R; Vences, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Madagascar has become a model region for testing hypotheses of species diversification and biogeography, and many studies have focused on its diverse and highly endemic herpetofauna. Here we combine species distribution models of a near-complete set of species of reptiles and amphibians known from the island with body size data and a tabulation of herpetofaunal communities from field surveys, compiled up to 2008. Though taxonomic revisions and novel distributional records arose since compilation, we are confident that the data are appropriate for inferring and comparing biogeographic patterns among these groups of organisms. We observed species richness of both amphibians and reptiles was highest in the humid rainforest biome of eastern Madagascar, but reptiles also show areas of high richness in the dry and subarid western biomes. In several amphibian subclades, especially within the Mantellidae, species richness peaks in the central eastern geographic regions while in reptiles different subclades differ distinctly in their richness centers. A high proportion of clades and subclades of both amphibians and reptiles have a peak of local endemism in the topographically and bioclimatically diverse northern geographic regions. This northern area is roughly delimited by a diagonal spanning from 15.5°S on the east coast to ca. 15.0°S on the west coast. Amphibian diversity is highest at altitudes between 800-1200 m above sea-level whereas reptiles have their highest richness at low elevations, probably reflecting the comparatively large number of species specialized to the extended low-elevation areas in the dry and subarid biomes. We found that the range sizes of both amphibians and reptiles strongly correlated with body size, and differences between the two groups are explained by the larger body sizes of reptiles. However, snakes have larger range sizes than lizards which cannot be readily explained by their larger body sizes alone. Range filling, i.e., the amount of

  5. Education and Training in Madagascar: Toward a Policy Agenda for Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Madagascar is a poor, primarily rural country in which three-quarters of the population has subsisted below the poverty line for at least two decades. In view of the important role of education in the government's poverty reduction agenda, this report documents the current status of educational development in Madagascar and the key constraints on…

  6. Why is Madagascar special? The extraordinarily slow evolution of pelican spiders (Araneae, Archaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Hannah M; Gillespie, Rosemary G; Griswold, Charles E; Wainwright, Peter C

    2015-02-01

    Although Madagascar is an ancient fragment of Gondwana, the majority of taxa studied thus far appear to have reached the island through dispersal from Cenozoic times. Ancient lineages may have experienced a different history compared to more recent Cenozoic arrivals, as such lineages would have encountered geoclimatic shifts over an extended time period. The motivation for this study was to unravel the signature of diversification in an ancient lineage by comparing an area known for major geoclimatic upheavals (Madagascar) versus other areas where the environment has been relatively stable. Archaeid spiders are an ancient paleoendemic group with unusual predatory behaviors and spectacular trophic morphology that likely have been on Madagascar since its isolation. We examined disparities between Madagascan archaeids and their non-Madagascan relatives regarding timing of divergence, rates of trait evolution, and distribution patterns. Results reveal an increased rate of adaptive trait diversification in Madagascan archaeids. Furthermore, geoclimatic events in Madagascar over long periods of time may have facilitated high species richness due to montane refugia and stability, rainforest refugia, and also ecogeographic shifts, allowing for the accumulation of adaptive traits. This research suggests that time alone, coupled with more ancient geoclimatic events allowed for the different patterns in Madagascar. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Climate change and human colonization triggered habitat loss and fragmentation in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmona, Jordi; Heller, Rasmus; Quéméré, Erwan; Chikhi, Lounès

    2017-10-01

    The relative effect of past climate fluctuations and anthropogenic activities on current biome distribution is subject to increasing attention, notably in biodiversity hot spots. In Madagascar, where humans arrived in the last ~4 to 5,000 years, the exact causes of the demise of large vertebrates that cohabited with humans are yet unclear. The prevailing narrative holds that Madagascar was covered with forest before human arrival and that the expansion of grasslands was the result of human-driven deforestation. However, recent studies have shown that vegetation and fauna structure substantially fluctuated during the Holocene. Here, we study the Holocene history of habitat fragmentation in the north of Madagascar using a population genetics approach. To do so, we infer the demographic history of two northern Madagascar neighbouring, congeneric and critically endangered forest dwelling lemur species-Propithecus tattersalli and Propithecus perrieri-using population genetic analyses. Our results highlight the necessity to consider population structure and changes in connectivity in demographic history inferences. We show that both species underwent demographic fluctuations which most likely occurred after the mid-Holocene transition. While mid-Holocene climate change probably triggered major demographic changes in the two lemur species range and connectivity, human settlements that expanded over the last four millennia in northern Madagascar likely played a role in the loss and fragmentation of the forest cover. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Provenance and tectonic significance of the Palaeoproterozoic metasedimentary successions of central and nothern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, B.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Macey, P.H.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Tucker, R.D.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Schofield, D.I.; Goodenough, K.M.; Bauer, W.; Key, R.M.; Potter, C.J.; Armstrong, R.A.; Miller, J.A.; Randriamananjara, T.; Ralison, V.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Bejoma, M.

    2011-01-01

    New detrital zircon U–Pb age data obtained from various quartzite units of three spatially separated supracrustal packages in central and northern Madagascar, show that these units were deposited between 1.8 and 0.8 Ga and have similar aged provenances. The distribution of detrital zircon ages indicates an overwhelming contribution of sources with ages between 2.5 and 1.8 Ga. Possible source rocks with an age of 2.5 Ga are present in abundance in the crustal segments (Antananarivo, Antongil and Masora Domains) either side of a purported Neoproterozoic suture ("Betsimisaraka Suture Zone"). Recently, possible source rocks for the 1.8 Ga age peak have been recognised in southern Madagascar. All three supracrustal successions, as well as the Archaean blocks onto which they were emplaced, are intruded by mid-Neoproterozoic magmatic suites placing a minimum age on their deposition. The similarities in detrital pattern, maximum and minimum age of deposition in the three successions, lend some support to a model in which all of Madagascar's Archaean blocks form a coherent crustal entity (the Greater Dharwar Craton), rather than an amalgamate of disparate crustal blocks brought together only during Neoproterozoic convergence. However, potential source terranes exist outside Madagascar and on either side of the Neoproterozoic sutures, so that a model including a Neoproterozoic suture in Madagascar cannot be dispelled outright.

  9. Presence of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in native amphibians exported from Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Kolby

    Full Text Available The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis is driven by the spread of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd, a highly virulent pathogen threatening global amphibian biodiversity. Although pandemic in distribution, previous intensive field surveys have failed to detect Bd in Madagascar, a biodiversity hotspot home to hundreds of endemic amphibian species. Due to the presence of Bd in nearby continental Africa and the ecological crisis that can be expected following establishment in Madagascar, enhanced surveillance is imperative. I sampled 565 amphibians commercially exported from Madagascar for the presence of Bd upon importation to the USA, both to assist early detection efforts and demonstrate the conservation potential of wildlife trade disease surveillance. Bd was detected in three animals via quantitative PCR: a single Heterixalus alboguttatus, Heterixalus betsileo, and Scaphiophryne spinosa. This is the first time Bd has been confirmed in amphibians from Madagascar and presents an urgent call to action. Our early identification of pathogen presence prior to widespread infection provides the necessary tools and encouragement to catalyze a swift, targeted response to isolate and eradicate Bd from Madagascar. If implemented before establishment occurs, an otherwise likely catastrophic decline in amphibian biodiversity may be prevented.

  10. Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in Madagascar neither Shows Widespread Presence nor Signs of Certain Establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Jonathan E; Skerratt, Lee F

    2015-01-01

    The global spread of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) is associated with amphibian mass mortality, population decline, and extinction. Over the past decade, concern has been expressed for the potential introduction of Bd to Madagascar, a global hotspot of amphibian biodiversity. Following years without detection, widespread Bd presence in Madagascar has now been reported (Bletz et al. 2015a), raising international conservation concern. Before reacting to this finding with a significant management response, the accuracy and context of the data warrant cautious review. Re-examination of a 10-year dataset together with results from more recent surveillance (Kolby et al. 2015) does not yet demonstrate widespread Bd presence. Detection of Bd at "positive" locations in Madagascar has been inconsistent for unknown reasons. Whether Bd is established in Madagascar (i.e. populations are self-sustaining) or instead requires continued introduction to persist also remains uncertain. The deployment of emergency conservation rescue initiatives is expected to target areas where the distribution of Bd and the risk of chytridiomycosis endangering amphibians is believed to overlap. Thus, erroneous description of Bd presence would misdirect limited conservation resources. Standardized surveillance and confirmatory surveys are now imperative to reliably characterize the distribution, potential spread, virulence and overall risk of Bd to amphibians in Madagascar.

  11. Presence of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in native amphibians exported from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Jonathan E

    2014-01-01

    The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis is driven by the spread of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd), a highly virulent pathogen threatening global amphibian biodiversity. Although pandemic in distribution, previous intensive field surveys have failed to detect Bd in Madagascar, a biodiversity hotspot home to hundreds of endemic amphibian species. Due to the presence of Bd in nearby continental Africa and the ecological crisis that can be expected following establishment in Madagascar, enhanced surveillance is imperative. I sampled 565 amphibians commercially exported from Madagascar for the presence of Bd upon importation to the USA, both to assist early detection efforts and demonstrate the conservation potential of wildlife trade disease surveillance. Bd was detected in three animals via quantitative PCR: a single Heterixalus alboguttatus, Heterixalus betsileo, and Scaphiophryne spinosa. This is the first time Bd has been confirmed in amphibians from Madagascar and presents an urgent call to action. Our early identification of pathogen presence prior to widespread infection provides the necessary tools and encouragement to catalyze a swift, targeted response to isolate and eradicate Bd from Madagascar. If implemented before establishment occurs, an otherwise likely catastrophic decline in amphibian biodiversity may be prevented.

  12. Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in Madagascar neither Shows Widespread Presence nor Signs of Certain Establishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Kolby

    Full Text Available The global spread of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd is associated with amphibian mass mortality, population decline, and extinction. Over the past decade, concern has been expressed for the potential introduction of Bd to Madagascar, a global hotspot of amphibian biodiversity. Following years without detection, widespread Bd presence in Madagascar has now been reported (Bletz et al. 2015a, raising international conservation concern. Before reacting to this finding with a significant management response, the accuracy and context of the data warrant cautious review. Re-examination of a 10-year dataset together with results from more recent surveillance (Kolby et al. 2015 does not yet demonstrate widespread Bd presence. Detection of Bd at "positive" locations in Madagascar has been inconsistent for unknown reasons. Whether Bd is established in Madagascar (i.e. populations are self-sustaining or instead requires continued introduction to persist also remains uncertain. The deployment of emergency conservation rescue initiatives is expected to target areas where the distribution of Bd and the risk of chytridiomycosis endangering amphibians is believed to overlap. Thus, erroneous description of Bd presence would misdirect limited conservation resources. Standardized surveillance and confirmatory surveys are now imperative to reliably characterize the distribution, potential spread, virulence and overall risk of Bd to amphibians in Madagascar.

  13. A Qualitative Study Investigating Experiences, Perceptions, and Healthcare System Performance in Relation to the Surveillance of Typhoid Fever in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pach, Alfred; Warren, Michelle; Chang, Irene; Im, Justin; Nichols, Chelsea; Meyer, Christian G; Pak, Gi Deok; Panzner, Ursula; Park, Se Eun; von Kalckreuth, Vera; Baker, Stephen; Rabezanahary, Henintsoa; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Raminosoa, Tiana Mirana; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphaël; Marks, Florian

    2016-03-15

    The burden of typhoid fever (TF) in sub-Saharan Africa is largely unknown but is increasingly thought to be high, given that water and sanitary conditions remain unimproved in many countries. To address this gap in information, the Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP) founded a surveillance system for TF in 10 African countries. This study was a component of the TSAP surveillance project in Madagascar. The study entailed a qualitative assessment of patients' experiences and perceptions of services for febrile symptoms at the studies' rural and urban sentinel public health clinics. The study examined influences on the use of these facilities, alternative sources of care, and providers' descriptions of medical consultations and challenges in providing services. Data were collected through semistructured and open-ended individual interviews and a focus group with patients, caregivers, and medical personnel. Thirty-three patients and 12 healthcare providers participated in the data collection across the 2 healthcare facilities. The quality of services, cost, and travel distance were key factors that enabled access to and use of these clinics. Divergent healthcare-seeking patterns were related to variability in the care utilized, socioeconomic status, and potential distance from the facilities : These factors influenced delivery of care, patient access, and the health facilities' capacity to identify cases of febrile illness such as TF. This approach provided an in-depth investigation and understanding of healthcare-seeking behavior at the study facilities, and factors that facilitated or acted as barriers to their use. Our findings demonstrate the relevance of these public health clinics as sites for the surveillance of TF in their role as central healthcare sources for families and communities within these rural and urban areas of Madagascar. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All

  14. Impact of Twitter intensity, time, and location on message lapse of bluebird's pursuit of fleas in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da'ar, Omar B; Yunus, Faisel; Md Hossain, Nassif; Househ, Mowafa

    The recent outbreak of bubonic plague in Madagascar reminds us of the continuing public health challenges posed by such deadly diseases in various parts of the world years after their eradication. This study examines the role of Twitter in public health disease surveillance with special focus on how Twitter intensity, time, and location issues explain Twitter plague message delay. We retrospectively analyzed the Twitter feeds of the 2014 bubonic plague outbreak in Madagascar. The analyses are based on the plague-related data available in the public domain between November 19th and 27th 2014. The data were compiled in March 2015. We calculated the time differential between the tweets and retweets, and analyzed various characteristics of the Tweets including Twitter intensity of the users. A total of 6873 Twitter users were included in the study, of which 52% tweeted plague-related information during the morning hours (before mid-day), and 87% of the tweets came from the west of the epicenter of the plague. More importantly, while session of tweet lease and relative location had effect on message lapse, absolute location did not. Additionally, we found no evidence of differential effect of location on message lapse based on relative location i.e. tweets from west or east nor number of following. However, there is evidence that more intense Twitter use appears to have significant effect on message lapse such that as the number of tweets became more intense, time differential between the tweets and retweets increased while higher number of retweets diminished message lapse. This study affirms that Twitter can play an important role in ongoing disease surveillance and the timely dissemination of information during public health emergencies independent of the time and space restrictions. Further ways should be explored to embed social media channels in routine public health practice. Copyright © 2017 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by

  15. Maternal health practices, beliefs and traditions in southeast Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jessica L; Short, Samm; Robson, Laura; Andriatsihosena, Mamy Soafaly

    2014-09-01

    Contextualising maternal health in countries with high maternal mortality is vital for designing and implementing effective health interventions. A research project was therefore conducted to explore practices, beliefs and traditions around pregnancy, delivery and postpartum in southeast Madagascar. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 256 pregnant women, mothers of young children, community members and stakeholders; transcripts were analysed to identify and explore predetermined and emerging themes. A questionnaire was also conducted with 373 women of reproductive age from randomly selected households. Data was analysed using STATA. Results confirmed high local rates of maternal mortality and morbidity and revealed a range of traditional health care practices and beliefs impacting on women's health seeking behaviours. The following socio-cultural barriers to health were identified: 1) lack of knowledge, 2) risky practices, 3) delays seeking biomedical care, and 4) family and community expectations. Recommendations include educational outreach and behaviour change communications targeted for women, their partners and family, increased engagement with traditional midwives and healers, and capacity building of formal health service providers.

  16. Transmission of tuberculosis in the prison of Antananarivo (Madagascar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasolofo-Razanamparany, V; Ménard, D; Ratsitorahina, M; Aurégan, G; Gicquel, B; Chanteau, S

    2000-11-01

    The prevalence of tuberculosis in the Antananarivo prison is 16 times higher than that in the general population of Madagascar. We compared the clustering of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains within and outside the prison and studied the transmission of strains in the prison. M. tuberculosis strains isolated in 1994 to 1995 from 146 prisoners and from 260 nonprisoner patients from Antananarivo were typed using the genetic markers IS6110 and direct repeat. We compared the strains isolated from prisoners and nonprisoners and found that the clustering rate was higher within (58.9%) than outside the prison (40%) suggesting that the transmission rate was higher in prison. Of the 146 incarcerated patients, 82 were grouped into 22 clusters. We checked for possible tuberculosis transmission between prisoners with identical strains by epidemiological investigation of the various prison clusters. We found that 9.5% of the incarcerated patients could have been sources of infection and that only 15.1% could have been infected in the prison. One hundred and twenty-seven prison patients were new cases. Epidemiological data suggested that 37% of them resulted from a reactivation of an old infection, due to poor living conditions or recent transmission from an index case outside the prison.

  17. Brachytherapy for treatment of cervix cancer in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignon, T.; Ratovonarivo, H.; Rafaramino, F.; Ruggieri, S.

    1993-01-01

    From March 1986 to June 1988, 60 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix were treated by radiotherapy alone or combined radiotherapy and surgery at the only radiotherapy-oncology department of Madagascar in Antananarivo. There were 20 stage IB, 28 stage II, 5 stage III and 7 cases where initial stage before surgery was unknown. After a limited pre-therapeutic investigation, treatment for stage IB consisted of utero-vaginal brachytherapy followed by a colpo-hysterectomy and external iliac lymphadenectomy. Others received combined external radiotherapy and brachytherapy according to the Fletcher guidelines, although 30 patients also received surgery. An obsolete and inefficient cobalt unit with lack of computerized dosimetry made the management of therapeutic schemas difficult. Nineteen patients (31.6%) were not available for follow-up immediately after the end of the treatment and one patient died from intestinal occlusion during brachytherapy. The overall rate of severe complications was 4.8%. There were 12 recurrences which occurred in stage II or in patients with unknown initial staging. At the time of analysis, 25 patients were alive: 15 stage I and 10 stage II. In this country, cervical carcinomas are the most frequent tumors: only the rehabilitation of radiotherapy facilities will allow results to be improved

  18. Atelier paludisme: an international malaria training course held in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Vincent

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Atelier Paludisme (Malaria Workshop is an international training course organized by the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, which has been held annually for the past five years. The course was designed for both young and experienced researchers, as well as for healthcare professionals, mostly from malaria-endemic countries. Its objective is to provide participants with a broad knowledge of all features of malaria, to improve their skills in project management, to break geographical isolation by using the Internet as a source of documentary information. This six-week course makes use of concepts of andragogy and problem-based learning, i.e. a relationship between participants and tutors, which promotes a process of exchange rather than the simple transmission of knowledge, where participants have to search actively for information. This approach to training, combined with the wide background and experience of those involved, creates positive dynamics and enables participants to acquire new skills, develop their critical and analytical abilities. This paper describes the course and the lessons learned from its evaluation.

  19. Schooling, marriage, and age at first birth in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Peter; Handy, Christopher; Sahn, David E

    2015-01-01

    The low school attainment, early marriage, and low age at first birth of females are major policy concerns in less developed countries. This study jointly estimated the determinants of educational attainment, marriage age, and age at first birth among females aged 12-25 in Madagascar, explicitly accounting for the endogeneities that arose from modelling these related outcomes simultaneously. An additional year of schooling results in a delay to marriage of 1.5 years and marrying 1 year later delays age at first birth by 0.5 years. Parents' education and wealth also have important effects on schooling, marriage, and age at first birth, with a woman's first birth being delayed by 0.75 years if her mother had 4 additional years of schooling. Overall, our results provide rigorous evidence for the critical role of education-both individual women's own and that of their parents-in delaying the marriage and fertility of young women.

  20. A re-evaluation of the Kumta Suture in western peninsular India and its extension into Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armistead, Sheree E.; Collins, Alan S.; Payne, Justin L.; Foden, John D.; De Waele, Bert; Shaji, E.; Santosh, M.

    2018-05-01

    It has long been recognised that Madagascar was contiguous with India until the Late Cretaceous. However, the timing and nature of the amalgamation of these two regions remain highly contentious as is the location of Madagascar against India in Gondwana. Here we address these issues with new U-Pb and Lu-Hf zircon data from five metasedimentary samples from the Karwar Block of India and new Lu-Hf data from eight previously dated igneous rocks from central Madagascar and the Antongil-Masora domains of eastern Madagascar. New U-Pb data from Karwar-region detrital zircon grains yield two dominant age peaks at c. 3100 Ma and c. 2500 Ma. The c. 3100 Ma population has relatively juvenile εHf(t) values that trend toward an evolved signature at c. 2500 Ma. The c. 2500 Ma population shows a wide range of εHf(t) values reflecting mixing of an evolved source with a juvenile source at that time. These data, and the new Lu-Hf data from Madagascar, are compared with our new compilation of over 7000 U-Pb and 1000 Lu-Hf analyses from Madagascar and India. We have used multidimensional scaling to assess similarities in these data in a statistically robust way. We propose that the Karwar Block of western peninsular India is an extension of the western Dharwar Craton and not part of the Antananarivo Domain of Madagascar as has been suggested in some models. Based on εHf(t) signatures we also suggest that India (and the Antongil-Masora domains of Madagascar) were palaeogeographically isolated from central Madagascar (the Antananarivo Domain) during the Palaeoproterozoic. This supports a model where central Madagascar and India amalgamated during the Neoproterozoic along the Betsimisaraka Suture.

  1. Long-term survival despite low genetic diversity in the critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.A.; Tingay, R.E.; Culver, M.; Hailer, F.; Clarke, M.L.; Mindell, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    The critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) is considered to be one of the rarest birds of prey globally and at significant risk of extinction. In the most recent census, only 222 adult individuals were recorded with an estimated total breeding population of no more than 100-120 pairs. Here, levels of Madagascar fish-eagle population genetic diversity based on 47 microsatellite loci were compared with its sister species, the African fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer), and 16 of these loci were also characterized in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Overall, extremely low genetic diversity was observed in the Madagascar fish-eagle compared to other surveyed Haliaeetus species. Determining whether this low diversity is the result of a recent bottleneck or a more historic event has important implications for their conservation. Using a Bayesian coalescent-based method, we show that Madagascar fish-eagles have maintained a small effective population size for hundreds to thousands of years and that its low level of neutral genetic diversity is not the result of a recent bottleneck. Therefore, efforts made to prevent Madagascar fish-eagle extinction should place high priority on maintenance of habitat requirements and reducing direct and indirect human persecution. Given the current rate of deforestation in Madagascar, we further recommend that the population be expanded to occupy a larger geographical distribution. This will help the population persist when exposed to stochastic factors (e.g. climate and disease) that may threaten a species consisting of only 200 adult individuals while inhabiting a rapidly changing landscape. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  2. Genetic structure and gene flow of the flea Xenopsylla cheopis in Madagascar and Mayotte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harimalala, Mireille; Telfer, Sandra; Delatte, Hélène; Watts, Phillip C; Miarinjara, Adélaïde; Ramihangihajason, Tojo Rindra; Rahelinirina, Soanandrasana; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Boyer, Sébastien

    2017-07-20

    The flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) is a vector of plague. Despite this insect's medical importance, especially in Madagascar where plague is endemic, little is known about the organization of its natural populations. We undertook population genetic analyses (i) to determine the spatial genetic structure of X. cheopis in Madagascar and (ii) to determine the potential risk of plague introduction in the neighboring island of Mayotte. We genotyped 205 fleas from 12 sites using nine microsatellite markers. Madagascan populations of X. cheopis differed, with the mean number of alleles per locus per population ranging from 1.78 to 4.44 and with moderate to high levels of genetic differentiation between populations. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified, with different geographical distributions but with some apparent gene flow between both islands and within Malagasy regions. The approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) used to test the predominant direction of flea dispersal implied a recent population introduction from Mayotte to Madagascar, which was estimated to have occurred between 1993 and 2012. The impact of this flea introduction in terms of plague transmission in Madagascar is unclear, but the low level of flea exchange between the two islands seems to keep Mayotte free of plague for now. This study highlights the occurrence of genetic structure among populations of the flea vector of plague, X. cheopis, in Madagascar and suggests that a flea population from Mayotte has been introduced to Madagascar recently. As plague has not been reported in Mayotte, this introduction is unlikely to present a major concern for plague transmission. Nonetheless, evidence of connectivity among flea populations in the two islands indicates a possibility for dispersal by fleas in the opposite direction and thus a risk of plague introduction to Mayotte.

  3. Lithosphere structure in Madagascar as revealed from receiver functions and surface waves analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindraharisaona, E. J.; Tilmann, F. J.; Yuan, X.; Dreiling, J.; Priestley, K. F.; Barruol, G.; Wysession, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    The geological history of Madagascar makes it an ideal place to study the lithospheric structure and its evolution. It comprises Archean to Proterozoic units on the central eastern part, which is surrounded by a Triassic to Jurassic basin formation in the west and Cretaceous volcanics along the coasts. Quaternary volcanic rocks have been embedded in crystalline and sedimentary rocks. The aim of the present work is to characterize the crustal structure and determine the imprint of the dominant geodynamic events that have affected Madagascar: the Pan-African orogeny, the breakup of Gondwanaland and Neogene tectonic activity. From 2011 to 2014 different temporary seismic arrays were deployed in Madagascar. We based the current study mostly on SELASOMA project, which is composed of 50 seismic stations that were installed traversing southern Madagascar from the west to the east, sampling the different geological units. To measured seismic dispersion curves, one a wide period ranges using ambient noise, Rayleigh and Love surface waves. To compute the average crustal Vp/Vs ratio internal crustal structure and discontinuities in the mantle, we use both P- and S-waves receiver functions. To better resolve of the crustal structure, we jointly inverted P-wave receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocity.The crustal extension during the Carboniferous to Cenozoic has thinned the igneous crust down to 15 km in the western Morondava basin by removing much of the lower crust, while the thickness of the upper crust is nearly identical in the sedimentary basin and under Proterozoic and Archaean rocks of the eastern two thirds of Southern Madagascar. In general, the Archean crust is thicker than the Proterozoic, because mafic component is missing in the Proterozoic domain while it forms the bottom of the Archean crust. The lithosphere thickness in the southern part of Madagascar is estimated to be between 90 and 125 km.

  4. The Toarcian Bathonian succession of the Antsiranana Basin (NW Madagascar): Facies analysis and tectono-sedimentary history in the development of the East Africa-Madagascar conjugate margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Mauro; Benvenuti, Marco

    2008-04-01

    The latest Early to Middle Jurassic succession of the Antsiranana Basin (NW Madagascar) records the complex transition from the continental rifting of Gondwana to the drifting of Madagascar-India from East Africa. The Madagascan Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic successions have been included in several paleogeographic and geodynamic models explaining the evolution of the Gondwana margins. Nevertheless, in some cases, as for the Toarcian-Bathonian deposits of the Antsiranana Basin, no significant stratigraphic revision has been carried out since the early 1970s. New field surveys allow reconsidering the stratigraphic and structural context and the palaeoenvironmental meaning of Toarcian-Bathonian successions occurring in different parts of the basin. These successions rest on the Triassic-Early Jurassic Isalo Sandstone which records pre-breakup rift events with a dominantly fluvial deposition. This situation is similar to other continental rift basins of Gondwana. After a regional Toarcian transgression the different portions of the Antsiranana Basin were characterized by significantly diversified and coeval depositional environments. The basin can be subdivided in a SW and NE part separated by a NW-SE trending structural high. In the SW part of the basin (Ampasindava sub-basin) the so-called "Jurassique paralique" [Rerat, J.C., 1964. Note sur les variations de faciès des sèries jurassiques du nord de Madagascar. Comptes Rendus Semaine gèologique, Tananarive, pp. 15-22] or " Facies Mixtes de la Presqu'ile de Ampasindava" [Besairie, H., Collignon, M., 1972. Géologie de Madagascar; I. Les terrains sédimentaires. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar, 35, 1-463], a 1500 m thick prevalently terrigenous deposit, has been subdivided into four units. They document the long-lasting development of coastal-deltaic systems in a highly subsiding area. In the NE portion of the basin (Ankarana-Analamera sub-basin), a coeval mixed carbonate-terrigenous succession subdivided in five units

  5. Surveillance and control of rabies in La Reunion, Mayotte, and Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Mayotte and La Reunion islands are currently free of animal rabies and surveillance is performed by the French Human and Veterinary Public Health Services. However, dog rabies is still enzootic in Madagascar with 4 to 10 confirmed human cases each year. The number of antirabies medical centres in Madagascar is still scarce to provide easy access to the local population for post-exposure rabies prophylaxis. Furthermore, stray dog populations are considerable and attempts to control rabies by mass campaigns of dog vaccination have not received sufficient attention from the national health authorities. To address these challenges, an expanded program to control rabies needs to be initiated by the Malagasy authorities. PMID:24016204

  6. Correlations between silicic volcanic rocks of the St Mary's Islands (southwestern India) and eastern Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melluso, Leone; Sheth, Hetu C.; Mahoney, John J.

    2009-01-01

    The St Mary's, Islands (southwestern India) expose silicic volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks (rhyolites and granophyric dacites) emplaced contemporaneously with the Cretaceous igneous province of Madagascar, roughly 88-90 Ma ago. I he St Mary's Islands rocks have phenocrysts of plagioclase...... and isotopic Compositions very close to those of rhyolites exposed between Vatomandry Ilaka and Mananjary in eastern Madagascar, and are distinctly different from rhyolites front other sectors of the Madagascan province. We therefore postulate that the St Mary's and the Vatomandry-Ilaka Mananjary silicic rock...

  7. Are brucellosis, Q fever and melioidosis potential causes of febrile illness in Madagascar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Ides; Henning, Klaus; Hilbert, Angela; Neubauer, Heinrich; von Kalckreuth, Vera; Dekker, Denise Myriam; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Pak, Gi Deok; Krüger, Andreas; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen; Heriniaina, Jean Noël; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Hogan, Benedikt; May, Jürgen; Marks, Florian; Poppert, Sven; Al Dahouk, Sascha

    2017-08-01

    Brucellosis, Q fever and melioidosis are zoonoses, which can lead to pyrexia. These diseases are often under-ascertained and underreported because of their unspecific clinical signs and symptoms, insufficient awareness by physicians and public health officers and limited diagnostic capabilities, especially in low-resource countries. Therefore, the presence of Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii and Burkholderia pseudomallei was investigated in Malagasy patients exhibiting febrile illness. In addition, we analyzed zebu cattle and their ticks as potential reservoirs for Brucella and C. burnetii, respectively. Specific quantitative real-time PCR assays (qPCRs) were performed on 1020 blood samples drawn from febrile patients. In total, 15 samples (1.5%) were Brucella-positive, mainly originating from patients without travel history, while DNA from C. burnetii and Bu. pseudomallei was not detected. Anti-C. burnetii antibodies were found in four out of 201 zebu serum samples (2%), whereas anti-Brucella antibodies could not be detected. Brucella DNA was detected in a single zebu sample. Three out of 330 ticks analyzed (1%) were positively tested for C. burnetii DNA but with high Ct values in the qPCR assay. Our data suggest that zebus as well as Amblyomma and Boophilus ticks have to be considered as a natural reservoir or vector for C. burnetii, but the risk of cattle-to-human transmission is low. Since bovine brucellosis does not seem to contribute to human infections in Madagascar, other transmission routes have to be assumed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Blindness and cataract surgical services in Atsinanana region, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianaivo, Jean-Baptiste; Anholt, R Michele; Tendrisoa, Diarimirindra Lazaharivony; Margiano, Nestor Jean; Courtright, Paul; Lewallen, Susan

    2014-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and causes of avoidable blindness in Atsinanana Region, Madagascar, with the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) survey. We analyzed the hospital records to supplement the findings for public health care planning. Only villages within a two-hour walk from a road, about half of the population of Atsinanana was included. Seventy-two villages were selected by population-proportional-to-size sampling. In each village, compact segment sampling was used to select 50 people over age 50 for eye examination using standard RAAB methods. Records at the two hospitals providing cataract surgery in the region were analyzed for information on patients who underwent cataract surgery in 2010. Cataract incidence rate and target cataract surgery rate (CSR) was modeled from age-specific prevalence of cataract. The participation rate was 87% and the sample prevalence of blindness was 1.96%. Cataract was responsible for 64% and 85.7% of blindness and severe visual impairment, respectively. Visual impairment was due to cataract (69.4%) and refractive error (14.1%). There was a strong positive correlation between cataract surgical rate by district and the proportion of people living within 2 hours of a road. There were marked differences in the profiles of the cataract patients at the two facilities. The estimated incidence of cataract at the 6/18 level was 2.4 eyes per 100 people over age 50 per year. Although the survey included only people with reasonable access, the main cause of visual impairment was still cataract. The incidence of cataract is such that it ought to be possible to eliminate it as a cause of visual impairment, but changes in service delivery at hospitals and strategies to improve access will be necessary for this change.

  9. Economic valuation of subsistence harvest of wildlife in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Christopher D; Bonds, Matthew H; Brashares, Justin S; Rasolofoniaina, B J Rodolph; Kremen, Claire

    2014-02-01

    Wildlife consumption can be viewed as an ecosystem provisioning service (the production of a material good through ecological functioning) because of wildlife's ability to persist under sustainable levels of harvest. We used the case of wildlife harvest and consumption in northeastern Madagascar to identify the distribution of these services to local households and communities to further our understanding of local reliance on natural resources. We inferred these benefits from demand curves built with data on wildlife sales transactions. On average, the value of wildlife provisioning represented 57% of annual household cash income in local communities from the Makira Natural Park and Masoala National Park, and harvested areas produced an economic return of U.S.$0.42 ha(-1) · year(-1). Variability in value of harvested wildlife was high among communities and households with an approximate 2 orders of magnitude difference in the proportional value of wildlife to household income. The imputed price of harvested wildlife and its consumption were strongly associated (p< 0.001), and increases in price led to reduced harvest for consumption. Heightened monitoring and enforcement of hunting could increase the costs of harvesting and thus elevate the price and reduce consumption of wildlife. Increased enforcement would therefore be beneficial to biodiversity conservation but could limit local people's food supply. Specifically, our results provide an estimate of the cost of offsetting economic losses to local populations from the enforcement of conservation policies. By explicitly estimating the welfare effects of consumed wildlife, our results may inform targeted interventions by public health and development specialists as they allocate sparse funds to support regions, households, or individuals most vulnerable to changes in access to wildlife. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Efficacy of Bendiocarb Used for Indoor Residual Spraying for Malaria Control in Madagascar: Results With Local Anopheles Species (Diptera: Culicidae) From Experimental Hut Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randriamaherijaona, Sanjiarizaha; Nepomichene, Thiery Nirina Jean Jose; Assoukpa, Jade; Madec, Yoann; Boyer, Sébastien

    2017-07-01

    To control malaria in Madagascar, two primary vector control interventions are being scaled up: insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying of bendiocarb, which was implemented in the Malagasy Central Highlands in 2009. The current efficacy of bendiocarb against Anopheles species was evaluated in a small-scale field trial. An experimental hut trial comparing the effectiveness of bendiocarb sprayed on five substrates (cement, wood, tin, mud, and vegetative materials) was carried out against Anopheles species in two study sites located in the eastern foothills of Madagascar. No significant difference was detected in either exophily or blood-feeding rates between treated and untreated huts. The mortality rate was significantly greater in treated huts compared to untreated huts. Efficacy up to 80% was found for 5 mo posttreatment. Although effective, bendiocarb has been used for 7 yr, and therefore an alternative insecticide may be needed to avoid the emergence of resistance. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. La gestion forestière communautaire dans le sud-ouest de Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Is the local common management of forest in South-West of Madagascar a success despite economic benefits ? We focus on what characterize households in villagers, more successful in protecting the forest compared to those villagers, where conflicts prevail. Selecting the successful compared with t...

  12. New and little known species of ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) from Madagascar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4103, č. 6 (2016), s. 587-599 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : taxonomy * ptyctimous mites * new species * morphology * Madagascar Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.972, year: 2016

  13. Diverse Genotypes of Yersinia pestis Caused Plague in Madagascar in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehm, Julia M; Projahn, Michaela; Vogler, Amy J; Rajerison, Minoaerisoa; Andersen, Genevieve; Hall, Carina M; Zimmermann, Thomas; Soanandrasana, Rahelinirina; Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Nottingham, Roxanne; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Scholz, Holger C

    2015-06-01

    Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of human plague and is endemic in various African, Asian and American countries. In Madagascar, the disease represents a significant public health problem with hundreds of human cases a year. Unfortunately, poor infrastructure makes outbreak investigations challenging. DNA was extracted directly from 93 clinical samples from patients with a clinical diagnosis of plague in Madagascar in 2007. The extracted DNAs were then genotyped using three molecular genotyping methods, including, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing, multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) analysis. These methods provided increasing resolution, respectively. The results of these analyses revealed that, in 2007, ten molecular groups, two newly described here and eight previously identified, were responsible for causing human plague in geographically distinct areas of Madagascar. Plague in Madagascar is caused by numerous distinct types of Y. pestis. Genotyping method choice should be based upon the discriminatory power needed, expense, and available data for any desired comparisons. We conclude that genotyping should be a standard tool used in epidemiological investigations of plague outbreaks.

  14. Amphibian and reptile records from around the Betsiboka Delta area in North-Western Madagascar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakotoarison, Andolalao; Erens, Jesse; Ratsoavina, Fanomezana M.; Vences, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    This study summarises amphibian and reptile records from ad hoc surveys in a series of localities in the North-West of Madagascar, largely centred on the delta of the Betsiboka River. Eleven amphibian and approximately 32 reptile species were found, with taxonomic uncertainties remaining for some

  15. A proposal for ethical research conduct in Madagascar | Wilmé ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethical conducts are gaining importance in times of increased globalization and research efforts. This paper presents a code of ethical conduct for researchers who plan to publish their studies with the journal Madagascar Conservation & Development. This paper will be subject to continuous adaptations and discussions.

  16. Aye-aye population genomic analyses highlight an important center of endemism in northern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, George H; Louis, Edward E; Ratan, Aakrosh; Bedoya-Reina, Oscar C; Burhans, Richard C; Lei, Runhua; Johnson, Steig E; Schuster, Stephan C; Miller, Webb

    2013-04-09

    We performed a population genomics study of the aye-aye, a highly specialized nocturnal lemur from Madagascar. Aye-ayes have low population densities and extensive range requirements that could make this flagship species particularly susceptible to extinction. Therefore, knowledge of genetic diversity and differentiation among aye-aye populations is critical for conservation planning. Such information may also advance our general understanding of Malagasy biogeography, as aye-ayes have the largest species distribution of any lemur. We generated and analyzed whole-genome sequence data for 12 aye-ayes from three regions of Madagascar (North, West, and East). We found that the North population is genetically distinct, with strong differentiation from other aye-ayes over relatively short geographic distances. For comparison, the average FST value between the North and East aye-aye populations--separated by only 248 km--is over 2.1-times greater than that observed between human Africans and Europeans. This finding is consistent with prior watershed- and climate-based hypotheses of a center of endemism in northern Madagascar. Taken together, these results suggest a strong and long-term biogeographical barrier to gene flow. Thus, the specific attention that should be directed toward preserving large, contiguous aye-aye habitats in northern Madagascar may also benefit the conservation of other distinct taxonomic units. To help facilitate future ecological- and conservation-motivated population genomic analyses by noncomputational biologists, the analytical toolkit used in this study is available on the Galaxy Web site.

  17. Les baobabs de Madagascar : quel cadre régle- mentaire pour leur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 juin 2014 ... dont trois 'En Danger' sur la liste rouge de l'UICN et trois ... With lemurs, baobabs are the most emblematic species of. Madagascar internationally. .... (CDB 2010) stipulant que 'd'ici à 2020, l'extinction d'espèces menacées ...

  18. A first description of the artisanal shark fishery in northern Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past two decades, small, targeted artisanal shark fisheries have developed in the extreme north of Madagascar, largely in response to the shark fin trade. Few studies have been undertaken to assess the biological characteristics and impact of these fisheries. Here, we developed a profile of the fishery in the region of ...

  19. New species of .i.Notophthiracarus./i. (Acari: Oribatida: Phthiracaroidea) from Madagascar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2014), s. 79-86 ISSN 0003-4541 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : oribatid * ptyctimous mites * new species * morphology * taxonomy * Madagascar Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.161, year: 2014

  20. Genetics of the pig tapeworm in madagascar reveal a history of human dispersal and colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Tetsuya; Carod, Jean-François; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Hoberg, Eric P; Ito, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of human pathogens. The pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serious neglected tropical diseases. Discrete genetic lineages of T. solium in Asia and Africa/Latin America are geographically disjunct; only in Madagascar are they sympatric. Linguistic, archaeological and genetic evidence has indicated that the people in Madagascar have mixed ancestry from Island Southeast Asia and East Africa. Hence, anthropogenic introduction of the tapeworm from Southeast Asia and Africa had been postulated. This study shows that the major mitochondrial haplotype of T. solium in Madagascar is closely related to those from the Indian Subcontinent. Parasitological evidence presented here, and human genetics previously reported, support the hypothesis of an Indian influence on Malagasy culture coinciding with periods of early human migration onto the island. We also found evidence of nuclear-mitochondrial discordance in single tapeworms, indicating unexpected cross-fertilization between the two lineages of T. solium. Analyses of genetic and geographic populations of T. solium in Madagascar will shed light on apparently rapid evolution of this organism driven by recent (<2,000 yr) human migrations, following tens of thousands of years of geographic isolation.

  1. Which Advisory System to Support Innovation in Conservation Agriculture? The Case of Madagascar's Lake Alaotra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Guy; Penot, Eric; Rakotondravelo, Jean Chrysostome; Ramahatoraka, Haja Andrisoa; Dugue, Patrick; Toillier, Aurelie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To promote sustainable agriculture, various development projects are encouraging farmers around Madagascar's Lake Alaotra to adopt conservation agriculture techniques. This article's objective is to analyze the capacity of a project-funded advisory system to accompany such an innovation and to design and implement an advisory method aimed…

  2. The next new species of .i.Notophthiracarus./i. Ramsay, 1966 (Acari, Oribatida, Phthiracaroidea) from Madagascar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedbala, W.; Starý, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2015), s. 63-73 ISSN 1681-5556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Madagascar * new species * oribatid mites * Phthiracaridae * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.708, year: 2015

  3. Candidatus Phytoplasma malaysianum, a novel taxon associated with virescence and phyllody of Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study addressed the taxonomic position and group classification of a phytoplasma responsible for virescence and phyllody symptoms in naturally diseased Madagascar periwinkle plants in western Malaysia. Unique regions in the 16S rRNA gene from the Malaysian periwinkle virescence (MaPV) phytopla...

  4. THE subfossil occurrence and paleoecological significance of small mammals at ankilitelo cave, southwestern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, K.M.; De Blieux, D. D.; Simons, E.L.; Chatrath, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    Small mammals are rarely reported from subfossil sites in Madagascar despite their importance for paleoenvironmental reconstruction, especially as it relates to recent ecological changes on the island. We describe the uniquely rich subfossil small mammal fauna from Ankilitelo Cave, southwestern Madagascar. The Ankilitelo fauna is dated to the late Holocene (???500 years ago), documenting the youngest appearances of the extinct giant lemur taxa Palaeopropithecus, Megaladapis, and Archaeolemur, in association with abundant remains of small vertebrates, including bats, tenrecs, carnivorans, rodents, and primates. The Ankilitelo fauna is composed of 34 mammalian species, making it one of the most diverse Holocene assemblages in Madagascar. The fauna comprises the 1 st report of the short-tailed shrew tenrec (Microgale brevicaudata) and the ring-tailed mongoose (Galidia elegans) in southwestern Madagascar. Further, Ankilitelo documents the presence of southwestern species that are rare or that have greatly restricted ranges today, such as Nasolo's shrew tenrec (M. nasoloi), Grandidier's mongoose (Galidictis grandidieri), the narrow-striped mongoose (Mungotictis decemlineata), and the giant jumping rat (Hypogeomys antimena). A simple cause for the unusual small mammal occurrences at Ankilitelo is not obvious. Synergistic interactions between climate change, recent fragmentation and human-initiated degradation of forested habitats, and community-level processes, such as predation, most likely explain the disjunct distributions of the small mammals documented at Ankilitelo. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  5. Home Sweet Home: How to Build a Madagascar Hissing Cockroach Habitat out of Recycled Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MHC) are amazing insects that can be an integral part of an effective science learning and teaching environment. MHCs have a fascinating social structure. They make excellent pets, teach students how to properly care for animals, and their large size adds to their "wow" factor. These characteristics make them unique…

  6. Synaphridae of Madagascar (Araneae: Araneoidea): A New Family Record for the Afrotropical Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The spider family Synaphridae is reported for the first time from Madagascar. Three new species are described. Africepheia gen. nov. is established for A. madagascariensis sp. nov.; two species of Synaphris Simon, 1894 are described: S. schlingeri sp. nov. and S. toliara sp. nov. Diagnostic

  7. Metabolic chemotypes of CITES protected Dalbergia timbers from Africa, Madagascar, and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Pamela J; Chavarria, Gabriela D; Espinoza, Edgard

    2015-05-15

    The genus Dalbergia includes approximately 250 species worldwide. Of these, 58 species are of economic importance and listed under CITES. Identification of illegal transnational timber trade is a challenge because logs or boards lack the typical descriptors used for species identification such as leaves and flowers; therefore, frequently the lowest taxonomic determination of these tree byproducts is genus. In this study, we explore the use of Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOFMS) in making species determinations of protected Dalbergia trees from Africa, Madagascar, and Asia. Metabolic profiles were collected using DART TOFMS from the heartwood of seven species and the sapwood of 17 species of Dalbergia. Also included in this study are 85 Dalbergia heartwood samples from Madagascar that were only identified to genus. In all, 21 species comprising 235 specimens were analyzed, the metabolic chemotypes were interpreted, and the spectra were analyzed using chemometric tools. Dalbergia cochinchinensis and Dalbergia spp. from Madagascar (both CITES Appendix II) could be differentiated from each other and from the non-protected Dalbergia latifolia and Dalbergia melanoxylon. DART TOFMS is a valuable high-throughput tool useful for making phytochemical classifications of Dalbergia spp. The data produced allows the protected Dalbergias from Madagascar to be distinguished and can differentiate closely related rosewood trees. Published in 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Madagascar, politique forestière : Bilan 1990 – 2013 et propositions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 juin 2014 ... L'accès est libre car les agents forestiers sont trop peu nombreux, mal payés ..... solutions plus durables, déjà testées et mieux maîtrisées. (iii) Les dégradations des ...... trafic de bois de rose malgache. In: Madagascar, le ...

  9. Hybridization between mouse lemurs in an ecological transition zone in southern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligor, M; Ganzhorn, J U; Rakotondravony, D; Ramilijaona, O R; Razafimahatratra, E; Zischler, H; Hapke, A

    2009-02-01

    Hybrid zones in ecotones can be useful model systems for the study of evolutionary processes that shape the distribution and discreteness of species. Such studies could be important for an improved understanding of the complex biogeography of Madagascar, which is renowned for its outstanding degree of small-scale endemism. Certain forest remnants in central Madagascar indicate that transitional corridors across the island could have connected microendemics in different forest types in the past. Evolutionary processes in such corridors are difficult to study because most of these corridors have disappeared due to deforestation in central Madagascar. We studied a hybrid zone in one of the few remaining ecotonal corridors between dry and humid forests in Madagascar, which connects two species of mouse lemurs, Microcebus griseorufus in dry spiny forest and Microcebus murinus in humid littoral forest. We sampled 162 mouse lemurs at nine sites across this boundary. Morphometric analyses revealed intermediate morphotypes of many individuals in transitional habitat. Bayesian clustering of microsatellite genotypes and assignment tests yielded evidence for a mixed ancestry of mouse lemurs in the ecotone, where we also observed significant linkage disequilibria and heterozygote deficiency. In contrast to these observations, mitochondrial haplotypes displayed a sharply delimited boundary at the eastern edge of spiny forest, which was noncoincident with the signals from microsatellite data. Among several alternative scenarios, we propose asymmetric nuclear introgression due to male-biased dispersal, divergent environmental selection, and an expansion of dry spiny forest in the course of aridification as a probable explanation of our observations.

  10. Madagascar : Incentives and Obstacles to Trade - Lessons from Manufacturing Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Cadot; John Nasir

    2002-01-01

    Despite fiscal and administrative reforms pursued by the Government of Madagascar since the mid 1980s, to prod economic and financial liberalization, contributing to steady GDP growth rates, manufacturing production however, still represents a relatively small share of value added. And, the development of import-substituting (IS) firms has been considerably slower, showing stagnating signs...

  11. How well suited are maar lakes of Madagascar for palaeoenvironmental multi-proxy reconstructions? - First results from shallow seismic, sedimentological and hydrological investigations in Central and Northwest Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daut, Gerhard; Jasmin Krahn, Kim; Rabhobisoa, Jean-Jacques; Ornella Moanazafy, Sergénie; Haberzettl, Torsten; Kasper, Thomas; Mäusbacher, Roland; Schwalb, Antje

    2017-04-01

    Madagascar is well known for its unique flora and fauna which are frequently in the focus of scientific investigations. However, studies on environmental changes in Madagascar linked to Quaternary climatic and/or anthropogenic impact are scarce. The aim of this initial study is to evaluate the potential of maar lakes, situated in different climatic zones of Madagascar, for paleoenvironmental studies and to identify promising coring sites with continuous sediment sequences reaching far back in time. Therefore, in November 2016, a shallow seismic profiling campaign, combined with surface sediment, short gravity core (max. 1.8 m), water and plankton sampling was performed on three target sites. These were two deep maar lakes, i.e., Andraikiba (Central Madagascar, 50m waterdepth) as well as Amparahibe (46,5m waterdepth) and Andampy Ambatoloaka, a shallow (5m waterdepth during low tide) former maar lake now connected to the Ocean (both NW-Madagascar. Vertical water parameter measurements in Lake Amparahibe confirm anoxic bottom conditions, while dissolved oxygen values at the water surface are about 7.9 mg/L (103%). Temperature decreases with depth from 29.3 °C to 27.2 °C, and the lake is slightly alkaline with an electrical conductivity of around 245 µS/cm. Since Andampy Ambatoloaka is connected to the ocean, it shows slightly alkaline conditions as well, electrical conductivity is high ( 57.8 mS/cm) and dissolved oxygen and temperature values are relatively stable at about 8.2 mg/L (104%) and 28.1 °C, respectively. The shallow seismic survey shows an infill with layered sediments of >50 m thickness in Lake Andraikiba. In Lake Amparahibe natural gas in the sediment prevented deeper penetration, however the record shows 10 m of undisturbed, layered sediments in the uppermost part. Sediment cores obtained from both lakes consist of dark brownish to blackish, clayey to silty and partly laminated sediments. High values of magnetic susceptibilities (>1800*10-6 SI) and

  12. Agro-Environmental Determinants of Avian Influenza Circulation: A Multisite Study in Thailand, Vietnam and Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mathilde C.; Gilbert, Marius; Desvaux, Stéphanie; Rasamoelina Andriamanivo, Harena; Peyre, Marisa; Khong, Nguyen Viet; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Chevalier, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza have occurred and have been studied in a variety of ecological systems. However, differences in the spatial resolution, geographical extent, units of analysis and risk factors examined in these studies prevent their quantitative comparison. This study aimed to develop a high-resolution, comparative study of a common set of agro-environmental determinants of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in domestic poultry in four different environments: (1) lower-Northern Thailand, where H5N1 circulated in 2004–2005, (2) the Red River Delta in Vietnam, where H5N1 is circulating widely, (3) the Vietnam highlands, where sporadic H5N1 outbreaks have occurred, and (4) the Lake Alaotra region in Madagascar, which features remarkable similarities with Asian agro-ecosystems and where low pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been found. We analyzed H5N1 outbreak data in Thailand in parallel with serological data collected on the H5 subtype in Vietnam and on low pathogenic AIV in Madagascar. Several agro-environmental covariates were examined: poultry densities, landscape dominated by rice cultivation, proximity to a water body or major road, and human population density. Relationships between covariates and AIV circulation were explored using spatial generalized linear models. We found that AIV prevalence was negatively associated with distance to the closest water body in the Red River Delta, Vietnam highlands and Madagascar. We also found a positive association between AIV and duck density in the Vietnam highlands and Thailand, and with rice landscapes in Thailand and Madagascar. Our findings confirm the important role of wetlands-rice-ducks ecosystems in the epidemiology of AI in diverse settings. Variables influencing circulation of the H5 subtype in Southeast Asia played a similar role for low pathogenic AIV in Madagascar, indicating that this area may be at risk if a highly virulent strain is introduced. PMID:25029441

  13. Agro-environmental determinants of avian influenza circulation: a multisite study in Thailand, Vietnam and Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mathilde C; Gilbert, Marius; Desvaux, Stéphanie; Andriamanivo, Harena Rasamoelina; Peyre, Marisa; Khong, Nguyen Viet; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Chevalier, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza have occurred and have been studied in a variety of ecological systems. However, differences in the spatial resolution, geographical extent, units of analysis and risk factors examined in these studies prevent their quantitative comparison. This study aimed to develop a high-resolution, comparative study of a common set of agro-environmental determinants of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in domestic poultry in four different environments: (1) lower-Northern Thailand, where H5N1 circulated in 2004-2005, (2) the Red River Delta in Vietnam, where H5N1 is circulating widely, (3) the Vietnam highlands, where sporadic H5N1 outbreaks have occurred, and (4) the Lake Alaotra region in Madagascar, which features remarkable similarities with Asian agro-ecosystems and where low pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been found. We analyzed H5N1 outbreak data in Thailand in parallel with serological data collected on the H5 subtype in Vietnam and on low pathogenic AIV in Madagascar. Several agro-environmental covariates were examined: poultry densities, landscape dominated by rice cultivation, proximity to a water body or major road, and human population density. Relationships between covariates and AIV circulation were explored using spatial generalized linear models. We found that AIV prevalence was negatively associated with distance to the closest water body in the Red River Delta, Vietnam highlands and Madagascar. We also found a positive association between AIV and duck density in the Vietnam highlands and Thailand, and with rice landscapes in Thailand and Madagascar. Our findings confirm the important role of wetlands-rice-ducks ecosystems in the epidemiology of AI in diverse settings. Variables influencing circulation of the H5 subtype in Southeast Asia played a similar role for low pathogenic AIV in Madagascar, indicating that this area may be at risk if a highly virulent strain is introduced.

  14. In or out-of-Madagascar?--Colonization patterns for large-bodied diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukontaite, Rasa; Ranarilalatiana, Tolotra; Randriamihaja, Jacquelin Herisahala; Bergsten, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    High species diversity and endemism within Madagascar is mainly the result of species radiations following colonization from nearby continents or islands. Most of the endemic taxa are thought to be descendants of a single or small number of colonizers that arrived from Africa sometime during the Cenozoic and gave rise to highly diverse groups. This pattern is largely based on vertebrates and a small number of invertebrate groups. Knowledge of the evolutionary history of aquatic beetles on Madagascar is lacking, even though this species-rich group is often a dominant part of invertebrate freshwater communities in both standing and running water. Here we focus on large bodied diving beetles of the tribes Hydaticini and Cybistrini. Our aims with this study were to answer the following questions 1) How many colonization events does the present Malagasy fauna originate from? 2) Did any colonization event lead to a species radiation? 3) Where did the colonizers come from--Africa or Asia--and has there been any out-of-Madagascar event? 4) When did these events occur and were they concentrated to any particular time interval? Our results suggest that neither in Hydaticini nor in Cybistrini was there a single case of two or more endemic species forming a monophyletic group. The biogeographical analysis indicated different colonization histories for the two tribes. Cybistrini required at least eight separate colonization events, including the non-endemic species, all comparatively recent except the only lotic (running water) living Cybister operosus with an inferred colonization at 29 Ma. In Hydaticini the Madagascan endemics were spread out across the tree, often occupying basal positions in different species groups. The biogeographical analyses therefore postulated the very bold hypothesis of a Madagascan origin at a very deep basal node within Hydaticus and multiple out-of-Madagascar dispersal events. This hypothesis needs to be tested with equally intense taxon sampling

  15. Introduction of rubella-containing-vaccine to Madagascar: implications for roll-out and local elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Amy; Mensah, Keitly; Brook, Cara E; Andrianjafimasy, Miora; Winter, Amy; Buckee, Caroline O; Razafindratsimandresy, Richter; Tatem, Andrew J; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Metcalf, C Jessica E

    2016-04-01

    Few countries in Africa currently include rubella-containing vaccination (RCV) in their immunization schedule. The Global Alliance for Vaccines Initiative (GAVI) recently opened a funding window that has motivated more widespread roll-out of RCV. As countries plan RCV introductions, an understanding of the existing burden, spatial patterns of vaccine coverage, and the impact of patterns of local extinction and reintroduction for rubella will be critical to developing effective programmes. As one of the first countries proposing RCV introduction in part with GAVI funding, Madagascar provides a powerful and timely case study. We analyse serological data from measles surveillance systems to characterize the epidemiology of rubella in Madagascar. Combining these results with data on measles vaccination delivery, we develop an age-structured model to simulate rubella vaccination scenarios and evaluate the dynamics of rubella and the burden of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) across Madagascar. We additionally evaluate the drivers of spatial heterogeneity in age of infection to identify focal locations where vaccine surveillance should be strengthened and where challenges to successful vaccination introduction are expected. Our analyses indicate that characteristics of rubella in Madagascar are in line with global observations, with an average age of infection near 7 years, and an impact of frequent local extinction with reintroductions causing localized epidemics. Modelling results indicate that introduction of RCV into the routine programme alone may initially decrease rubella incidence but then result in cumulative increases in the burden of CRS in some regions (and transient increases in this burden in many regions). Deployment of RCV with regular supplementary campaigns will mitigate these outcomes. Results suggest that introduction of RCV offers a potential for elimination of rubella in Madagascar, but also emphasize both that targeted vaccination is likely to be

  16. Detection of new genetic variants of Betacoronaviruses in Endemic Frugivorous Bats of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razanajatovo, Norosoa H; Nomenjanahary, Lalaina A; Wilkinson, David A; Razafimanahaka, Julie H; Goodman, Steven M; Jenkins, Richard K; Jones, Julia P G; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-12

    Bats are amongst the natural reservoirs of many coronaviruses (CoVs) of which some can lead to severe infection in human. African bats are known to harbor a range of pathogens (e.g., Ebola and Marburg viruses) that can infect humans and cause disease outbreaks. A recent study in South Africa isolated a genetic variant closely related to MERS-CoV from an insectivorous bat. Though Madagascar is home to 44 bat species (41 insectivorous and 3 frugivorous) of which 34 are endemic, no data exists concerning the circulation of CoVs in the island's chiropteran fauna. Certain Malagasy bats can be frequently found in close contact with humans and frugivorous bats feed in the same trees where people collect and consume fruits and are hunted and consumed as bush meat. The purpose of our study is to detect and identify CoVs from frugivorous bats in Madagascar to evaluate the risk of human infection from infected bats. Frugivorous bats belonging to three species were captured in four different regions of Madagascar. We analyzed fecal and throat swabs to detect the presence of virus through amplification of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, which is highly conserved in all known coronaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses were performed from positive specimens. From 351 frugivorous bats, we detected 14 coronaviruses from two endemic bats species, of which 13 viruses were identified from Pteropus rufus and one from Eidolon dupreanum, giving an overall prevalence of 4.5%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Malagasy strains belong to the genus Betacoronavirus but form three distinct clusters, which seem to represent previously undescribed genetic lineages. Our findings suggest that CoVs circulate in frugivorous bats of Madagascar, demonstrating the needs to evaluate spillover risk to human populations especially for individuals that hunt and consume infected bats. Possible dispersal mechanisms as to how coronaviruses arrived on Madagascar are discussed.

  17. In or out-of-Madagascar?--Colonization patterns for large-bodied diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Bukontaite

    Full Text Available High species diversity and endemism within Madagascar is mainly the result of species radiations following colonization from nearby continents or islands. Most of the endemic taxa are thought to be descendants of a single or small number of colonizers that arrived from Africa sometime during the Cenozoic and gave rise to highly diverse groups. This pattern is largely based on vertebrates and a small number of invertebrate groups. Knowledge of the evolutionary history of aquatic beetles on Madagascar is lacking, even though this species-rich group is often a dominant part of invertebrate freshwater communities in both standing and running water. Here we focus on large bodied diving beetles of the tribes Hydaticini and Cybistrini. Our aims with this study were to answer the following questions 1 How many colonization events does the present Malagasy fauna originate from? 2 Did any colonization event lead to a species radiation? 3 Where did the colonizers come from--Africa or Asia--and has there been any out-of-Madagascar event? 4 When did these events occur and were they concentrated to any particular time interval? Our results suggest that neither in Hydaticini nor in Cybistrini was there a single case of two or more endemic species forming a monophyletic group. The biogeographical analysis indicated different colonization histories for the two tribes. Cybistrini required at least eight separate colonization events, including the non-endemic species, all comparatively recent except the only lotic (running water living Cybister operosus with an inferred colonization at 29 Ma. In Hydaticini the Madagascan endemics were spread out across the tree, often occupying basal positions in different species groups. The biogeographical analyses therefore postulated the very bold hypothesis of a Madagascan origin at a very deep basal node within Hydaticus and multiple out-of-Madagascar dispersal events. This hypothesis needs to be tested with equally intense

  18. Madagascar corals reveal a multidecadal signature of rainfall and river runoff since 1708

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Grove

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures (SST influence rainfall variability on multidecadal and interdecadal timescales in concert with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO. Rainfall variations in locations such as Australia and North America are therefore linked to phase changes in the PDO. Furthermore, studies have suggested teleconnections exist between the western Indian Ocean and Pacific Decadal Variability (PDV, similar to those observed on interannual timescales related to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO. However, as instrumental records of rainfall are too short and sparse to confidently assess multidecadal climatic teleconnections, here we present four coral climate archives from Madagascar spanning up to the past 300 yr (1708–2008 to assess such decadal variability. Using spectral luminescence scanning to reconstruct past changes in river runoff, we identify significant multidecadal and interdecadal frequencies in the coral records, which before 1900 are coherent with Asian-based PDO reconstructions. This multidecadal relationship with the Asian-based PDO reconstructions points to an unidentified teleconnection mechanism that affects Madagascar rainfall/runoff, most likely triggered by multidecadal changes in North Pacific SST, influencing the Asian Monsoon circulation. In the 20th century we decouple human deforestation effects from rainfall-induced soil erosion by pairing luminescence with coral geochemistry. Positive PDO phases are associated with increased Indian Ocean temperatures and runoff/rainfall in eastern Madagascar, while precipitation in southern Africa and eastern Australia declines. Consequently, the negative PDO phase that started in 1998 may contribute to reduced rainfall over eastern Madagascar and increased precipitation in southern Africa and eastern Australia. We conclude that multidecadal rainfall variability in Madagascar and the western Indian Ocean needs to be

  19. Geological evolution of the Antongil Craton, NE Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, D.I.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Goodenough, K.M.; De Waele, B.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Key, R.M.; Bauer, W.; Walsh, G.J.; Lidke, D.J.; Ralison, A.V.; Rabarimanana, M.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Randriamananjara, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Antongil Craton, along with the Masora and Antananarivo cratons, make up the fundamental Archaean building blocks of the island of Madagascar. They were juxtaposed during the late-Neoproterozoic to early Palaeozoic assembly of Gondwana. In this paper we give a synthesis of the geology of the Antongil Craton and present previously published and new geochemical and U-Pb zircon analyses to provide an event history for its evolution.The oldest rocks in the Antongil Craton form a nucleus of tonalitic gneiss, characteristic of Palaeo-Mesoarchaean cratons globally, including phases dated between 3320 ?? 14. Ma to 3231 ?? 6. Ma and 3187 ?? 2. Ma to 3154 ?? 5. Ma. A series of mafic dykes was intruded into the Mesoarchaean tonalites and a sedimentary succession was deposited on the craton prior to pervasive deformation and migmatisation of the region. The age of deposition of the metasediments has been constrained from a volcanic horizon to around 3178 ?? 2. Ma and subject to migmatisation at around 2597 ?? 49. Ma. A subsequent magmatic episode generated voluminous, weakly foliated granitic rocks, that also included additions from both reworked older crustal material and younger source components. An earlier granodiorite-dominated assemblage, dated between 2570 ?? 18. Ma and 2542 ?? 5. Ma, is largely exposed in xenoliths and more continuously in the northern part of the craton, while a later monzogranite-dominated phase, dated between 2531 ?? 13. Ma and 2513 ?? 0.4. Ma is more widely developed. Together these record the stabilisation of the craton, attested to by the intrusion of a younger dyke swarm, the age of which is constrained by a sample of metagabbro dated at 2147 ?? 6. Ma, providing the first evidence for Palaeoproterozoic rocks from the Antongil Craton.The youngest events recorded in the isotopic record of the Antongil Craton are reflected in metamorphism, neocrystallisation and Pb-loss at 792 ?? 130. Ma to 763 ?? 13. Ma and 553 ?? 68. Ma. These events are

  20. Tick (Amblyomma chabaudi) infestation of endemic tortoises in southwest Madagascar and investigation of tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Julian; Ganzhorn, Jörg U; Silaghi, Cornelia; Krüger, Andreas; Pothmann, Daniela; Ratovonamana, R Yedidya; Veit, Alexandra; Keller, Christian; Poppert, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the role of endemic ticks as vectors for bacterial and protozoan pathogens for animals and humans in Madagascar and their interaction in anthropogenic habitats where humans, their livestock and native Malagasy species (vectors and hosts) come into more frequent contact than in natural forest ecosystems. The aims of the study were (1) to test whether habitat degradation is associated with increased infestation of tortoises by ticks and (2) to investigate whether ticks carried Babesia, Borrelia or Rickettsia species that might be pathogenic for humans and livestock. We studied hard ticks of two endemic Malagasy tortoises, Astrochelys radiata and Pyxis arachnoides in March and April 2013 in southwest Madagascar. Two tortoise habitats were compared, the National Park of Tsimanampetsotsa and the adjacent degraded pasture and agricultural land at the end of the wet season. Ticks were screened for protozoan and bacterial pathogens via PCR on DNA isolated from ticks using genus-specific primers. Only one out of 42 A. radiata collected from both habitats had ticks. The low prevalence did not allow further analyses of the effect of habitat degradation. Forty-two P. arachnoides were found in the anthropogenic habitat and 36 individuals in the national park. Tick infestation rates of P. arachnoides differed significantly between the two study sites. Tortoises inside the park had lower tick prevalence than outside (8 of 36 (22%) versus 32 of 42 individuals (76%)) and infected animals tended to have fewer ticks inside than outside the park. All ticks collected in both habitats were adults of the ixodid tick Amblyomma chabaudi, which is supposed to be a host-specific tick of P. arachnoides. Screening for Borrelia sp. and Babesia sp. was negative in all ticks. But all A. chabaudi ticks were infected with Rickettsia africae, known to cause spotted fever in humans. Thus, habitat degradation seems to be linked to higher infestation of tortoises with ticks with

  1. The microbiome of Haemaphysalis lemuris (Acari: Ixodidae), a possible vector of pathogens of endangered lemur species in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, Paula; Qurollo, Barbara; Williams, Cathy; Junge, Randall; Klompen, Hans

    2018-05-02

    Lemurs are primate species that are endemic to Madagascar. At present, about 90% of lemur species are endangered, and 5 species are among the 25 most endangered primates worldwide. Health status is a major factor impacting the viability of wild populations of many endangered species including lemurs. Given this context, we analyzed the microbiome of 24 specimens of Haemaphysalis lemuris, the most common tick parasitizing lemurs in their native habitats. Ticks were collected from 6 lemur species and microbiomes analyzed using next-generation sequencing. Our results show that the H. lemuris microbiome is highly diverse, including over 500 taxa, 267 of which were identified to genus level. Analysis of the microbiome also shows that there is a distinct "host" (lemur species) component when explaining the differences among and between microbial communities of H. lemuris. This "host" component seems to overwhelm any "locality" (geographic origin of the sample) component. In addition to the microbiome data, targeted PCR was used to test for the presence of three pathogens recently detected in the blood of wild lemurs: Borrelia sp., Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp., and Babesia sp. Overall, the presence of DNA of Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Francisella spp., and a Babesia sp., in H. lemuris, is consistent with the hypothesis that these ectoparasites may act as vector for these pathogens. Further studies assessing vector competence are needed to confirm this hypothesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. New Anillina from South Africa, Tanzania, Madagascar and Seychelles Islands (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Bembidiini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Mauro Giachino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Author describes two new genera of Bembidiini Anillina (Carabidae: Afranillus gen. n. of the Paranillus phyletic lineage and Afrodipnus gen. n. of the Microtyphlus phyletic lineage and the following new species: Paranillus madecassus sp. n. from Ankarafantsika N.P. (NW Madagascar; Paranillus banari sp. n. from Ranomafana N.P. (Madagascar; Afranillus schuelei sp. n. from Silaka Nat. Res. (Eastern Cape, RSA; Argiloborus praslinicus sp. n. from Praslin Is. (Seychelles; Caeconannus bulirschi sp. n. from Franschhoek pass (Western Cape, RSA; Caeconannus occidentalis sp. n. from Koloniesbos (Western Cape, RSA; Caeconannus orientalis sp. n. from Amatola Mts (Eastern Cape, RSA; Microdipnites zicsii sp. n. from Kwamkoro (Tanga reg., Tanzania; Pelonomites mahunkai sp. n. from Kwamsambia For. (Tanga reg., Tanzania; Afrodipnus transvaalianus sp. n. from Roberts Drift (S. Transvaal, RSA. Comparative morphological data are provided and discussed.

  3. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A report has recently been made public which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) Mission to Madagascar. The IUREP Orientation Phase Mission to Madagascar estimates the Speculative Resources of that country to be within the wide range of 4 000 to 38 000 tonnes uranium. Such resources could lie in areas with known occurrences (uranothorianite, Ft. Dauphin up to 5 000 t U, i.e. 'pegmatoids'; uranocircite, Antsirabe up to 3 000 t U in Neogene sediments; carnotiteautonite, Karoo area up to 30 000 t U in sandstones and in areas with as yet untested environments (e.g. related to unconformities and calcretes). Modifications to existing uranium exploration programmes are suggested and policy alternatives reviewed. No specific budget is proposed. (author)

  4. Spatial variations in Eulemur fulvus rufus and Lepilemur mustelinus densities in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Shawn M

    2007-01-01

    I present data on variations in Eulemur fulvus rufus and Lepilemur mustelinus densities as well as tree characteristics (height, diameter and stem frequency) between edge and interior forest habitats in southeastern Madagascar. Line transect surveys were conducted from June 2003 to November 2005 in edge and interior forest habitats in the Vohibola III Classified Forest. Although E. f. rufus densities were significantly lower in edge habitats than in interior habitats, density estimates for L. mustelinus did not differ significantly between habitats. Trees in edge habitats were significantly shorter, had smaller diameters and had lower stem frequencies (for those >25 cm in diameter) than trees in interior habitats. Spatial characteristics of food abundance and quality may explain lemur density patterns in Vohibola III. Low E. f. rufus densities may reduce seed dispersal in edge habitats, which has important consequences for the long-term viability of forest ecosystems in Madagascar. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Breakup of pangaea and isolation of relict mammals in australia, South america, and madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooden, J

    1972-02-25

    The composition of aboriginal land mammal faunas in Australia and New Guinea (prototherians and metatherians), South America (metatherians and eutherians) and Madagascar (eutherians only) is reconsidered in light of continental drift reconstructions of Mesozoic-Tertiary world paleogeography It is proposed that these three faunas represent successively detached samples of the evolving world mammal fauna as it existed when each of these land masses became faunally isolated from the rest of the world as a result of the progressive fragmentation of Pangaea. Isolation of aboriginal prototherians and metatherians in Australia and New Guinea may date from the Upper JurassicLower Cretaceous; isolation of aboriginal metatherians and eutherians in South America may date from the Middle Cretaceous-Upper Cretaceous; isolation of aboriginal eutherians in Madagascar may date from the Paleocene-Eocene.

  6. Traditional Medicine in Madagascar - Current Situation and the Institutional Context of Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pierlovisi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Following WHO recommandations and in order to improve medical coverage, Madagascar officially recognized in 2007 its traditional medicine as a legitimate practice.UNESCO, to sustain traditional healers in the Indian Ocean, wanted to use anthropological tools to explore the current situation in Madagascar.Despit a plurality of practices, data collected for three months in the Southeast of the Island, allowed us to identify some fundamental aspects of Malagasy traditional medicine, such as the omnipresence of symbolism or the complexity of healers’ roles at the crossroads of social, sacred and therapeutic registries.The study shows that the national policy on traditional medicine improves gradually the promotion of these practices too often undervalued. Nevertheless, the institutional context exposes weaknesses which might explain the difficulty encountered by some tradipractitioners to find their place in this new regulation. Indeed, regarding the current context, a reducing process of the healers' practices is likely to emerge.

  7. A likely microendemic new species of terrestrial iguana, genus Chalarodon, from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Aurelien; Glaw, Frank; Ratsoavina, Fanomezana M; Vences, Miguel

    2015-04-09

    A new species of the hitherto monotypic genus Chalarodon is described from southern Madagascar and a lectotype (ZMB 4360) is designated for C. madagascariensis Peters, 1854. The new species of terrestrial iguana, Chalarodon steinkampi sp. nov., is defined by several morphological characters and by concordant differentiation in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA with >5% uncorrected pairwise genetic distance in the 16S rRNA gene. It can be most clearly recognized by the presence of smooth (vs. keeled) gular and ventral scales, a spotted pattern extending from flanks onto belly, and an unpigmented throat. The new species is known from only a small area between the villages of Amboasary Sud and Esomony, located west of the Andohahela Massif, while C. madagascariensis appears to be widespread over much of southern and western Madagascar. We highlight the need for further exploration of this unprotected region which might host several other microendemic species.

  8. Isotope characterization of shallow aquifers in the Horombe region, South of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareze, L.P.; Rajaobelison, J.; Ramaroson, V.; Raoelina Andriambololona; Andriamiarintsoa, G.; Razafitsalama, P.R.; Rahobisoa, J.J.; Randrianarison, H.; Ranaivoarisoa, A.; Marah, H.

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with the problem of evaluation of the recharge mechanism and the characterization of the groundwater flow system in the basement shallow aquifer, which is one of the groundwater resource in the semi-arid South region of Madagascar. Stable isotopes (deuterium and oxygen-18) and tritium are used to achieve with accuracy the hydrogeological and geochemical dynamics study. Chemical analysis is used to provide complementary information to the investigation. A space distribution of tritium concentration and isotopic composition in groundwater shows evidence of two opposite categories of aquifers, which is confirmed by the chemical analysis results and by the geological features of the study site. Some groundwater flow path directions have been identified in the study area thanks to the tritium concentration space distribution and the geological formation. Besides, the groundwater recharge of the shallow aquifers in the South of Madagascar has been characterized by the exponential mixing model.

  9. Isolation of the New Antiplasmodial Butanolide, Malleastrumolide A, from Malleastrum sp. (Meliaceae) from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yongle; Abedi, Alexander K; Valenciano, Ana Lisa; Fernández-Murga, Maria L; Cassera, Maria B; Rasamison, Vincent E; Applequist, Wendy L; Miller, James S; Kingston, David G I

    2017-12-01

    An extract of Malleastrum sp. (Meliaceae) collected in Madagascar by the Madagascar International Cooperative Biodiversity Group was found to have antimalarial activity, with an IC 50 value between 2.5 and 5 μg ml -1 . After purification by liquid-liquid partition, chromatography on a Diaion open column, C 18 SPE and C 18 reversed phase HPLC, the new butanolide, malleastrumolide A, was isolated. The structure of malleastrumolide A was determined by mass spectrometry, NMR, and ECD. The double bond position was determined by cross-metathesis and mass spectrometry. The compound has antiproliferative activity against the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line with an IC 50 value of 17.4 μm and antiplasmodial activity against the drug-resistant Dd2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum with an IC 50 value of 2.74 μm. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  10. Climate change and human colonization triggered habitat loss and fragmentation in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmona, Jordi; Heller, Rasmus; Quéméré, Erwan

    2017-01-01

    The relative effect of past climate fluctuations and anthropogenic activities on current biome distribution is subject to increasing attention, notably in biodiversity hot spots. In Madagascar, where humans arrived in the last ~4 to 5,000 years, the exact causes of the demise of large vertebrates......-Holocene transition. While mid-Holocene climate change probably triggered major demographic changes in the two lemur species range and connectivity, human settlements that expanded over the last four millennia in northern Madagascar likely played a role in the loss and fragmentation of the forest cover.......—Propithecus tattersalli and Propithecus perrieri—using population genetic analyses. Our results highlight the necessity to consider population structure and changes in connectivity in demographic history inferences. We show that both species underwent demographic fluctuations which most likely occurred after the mid...

  11. How Effective Have Thirty Years of Internationally Driven Conservation and Development Efforts Been in Madagascar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeber, Patrick O; Wilmé, Lucienne; Mercier, Jean-Roger; Camara, Christian; Lowry, Porter P

    2016-01-01

    Conservation and development are intricately linked. The international donor community has long provided aid to tropical countries in an effort to alleviate poverty and conserve biodiversity. While hundreds of millions of $ have been invested in over 500 environmental-based projects in Madagascar during the period covered by a series of National Environmental Action Plans (1993-2008) and the protected areas network has expanded threefold, deforestation remains unchecked and none of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) established for 2000-2015 were likely be met. Efforts to achieve sustainable development had failed to reduce poverty or deliver progress toward any of the MDGs. Cross-sectorial policy adjustments are needed that (i) enable and catalyze Madagascar's capacities rather than deepening dependency on external actors such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and donor countries, and that (ii) deliver improvements to the livelihoods and wellbeing of the country's rural poor.

  12. Laboratory Surveillance of Rabies in Humans, Domestic Animals, and Bats in Madagascar from 2005 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynes, Jean-Marc; Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Razafitrimo, Girard Marcelin; Razainirina, Josette; Jeanmaire, Elisabeth Marie; Bourhy, Hervé; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Background. Rabies virus (RABV) has circulated in Madagascar at least since the 19th century. Objectives. To assess the circulation of lyssavirus in the island from 2005 to 2010. Materials and Methods. Animal (including bats) and human samples were tested for RABV and other lyssavirus using antigen, ribonucleic acid (RNA), and antibodies detection and virus isolation. Results. Half of the 437 domestic or tame wild terrestrial mammal brains tested were found RABV antigen positive, including 54% of the 341 dogs tested. This percentage ranged from 26% to 75% across the period. Nine of the 10 suspected human cases tested were laboratory confirmed. RABV circulation was confirmed in 34 of the 38 districts sampled. No lyssavirus RNA was detected in 1983 bats specimens. Nevertheless, antibodies against Lagos bat virus were detected in the sera of 12 among 50 Eidolon dupreanum specimens sampled. Conclusion. More than a century after the introduction of the vaccine, rabies still remains endemic in Madagascar. PMID:21991442

  13. Laboratory Surveillance of Rabies in Humans, Domestic Animals, and Bats in Madagascar from 2005 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Reynes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rabies virus (RABV has circulated in Madagascar at least since the 19th century. Objectives. To assess the circulation of lyssavirus in the island from 2005 to 2010. Materials and Methods. Animal (including bats and human samples were tested for RABV and other lyssavirus using antigen, ribonucleic acid (RNA, and antibodies detection and virus isolation. Results. Half of the 437 domestic or tame wild terrestrial mammal brains tested were found RABV antigen positive, including 54% of the 341 dogs tested. This percentage ranged from 26% to 75% across the period. Nine of the 10 suspected human cases tested were laboratory confirmed. RABV circulation was confirmed in 34 of the 38 districts sampled. No lyssavirus RNA was detected in 1983 bats specimens. Nevertheless, antibodies against Lagos bat virus were detected in the sera of 12 among 50 Eidolon dupreanum specimens sampled. Conclusion. More than a century after the introduction of the vaccine, rabies still remains endemic in Madagascar.

  14. Integrated dataset of anatomical, morphological, and architectural traits for plant species in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Azizan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a dataset, which provides information on the structural diversity of some endemic tropical species in Madagascar. The data were from CIRAD xylotheque (since 1937, and were also collected during various fieldworks (since 1964. The field notes and photographs were provided by French botanists; particularly by Francis Hallé. The dataset covers 250 plant species with anatomical, morphological, and architectural traits indexed from digitized wood slides and fieldwork documents. The digitized wood slides were constituted by the transverse, tangential, and radial sections with three optical magnifications. The main specific anatomical traits can be found within the digitized area. Information on morphological and architectural traits were indexed from digitized field drawings including notes and photographs. The data are hosted in the website ArchiWood (http://archiwood.cirad.fr. Keywords: Morpho-architectural traits, Plant architecture, Wood anatomy, Madagascar

  15. Temporal phylogeography of Yersinia pestis in Madagascar: Insights into the long-term maintenance of plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J Vogler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis appears to be maintained in multiple, geographically separate, and phylogenetically distinct subpopulations within the highlands of Madagascar. However, the dynamics of these locally differentiated subpopulations through time are mostly unknown. To address that gap and further inform our understanding of plague epidemiology, we investigated the phylogeography of Y. pestis in Madagascar over an 18 year period.We generated whole genome sequences for 31 strains and discovered new SNPs that we used in conjunction with previously identified SNPs and variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs to genotype 773 Malagasy Y. pestis samples from 1995 to 2012. We mapped the locations where samples were obtained on a fine geographic scale to examine phylogeographic patterns through time. We identified 18 geographically separate and phylogenetically distinct subpopulations that display spatial and temporal stability, persisting in the same locations over a period of almost two decades. We found that geographic areas with higher levels of topographical relief are associated with greater levels of phylogenetic diversity and that sampling frequency can vary considerably among subpopulations and from year to year. We also found evidence of various Y. pestis dispersal events, including over long distances, but no evidence that any dispersal events resulted in successful establishment of a transferred genotype in a new location during the examined time period.Our analysis suggests that persistent endemic cycles of Y. pestis transmission within local areas are responsible for the long term maintenance of plague in Madagascar, rather than repeated episodes of wide scale epidemic spread. Landscape likely plays a role in maintaining Y. pestis subpopulations in Madagascar, with increased topographical relief associated with increased levels of localized differentiation. Local ecological factors likely affect the dynamics of individual subpopulations and the

  16. Temporal phylogeography of Yersinia pestis in Madagascar: Insights into the long-term maintenance of plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Amy J; Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Telfer, Sandra; Hall, Carina M; Sahl, Jason W; Hepp, Crystal M; Centner, Heather; Andersen, Genevieve; Birdsell, Dawn N; Rahalison, Lila; Nottingham, Roxanne; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Rajerison, Minoarisoa

    2017-09-01

    Yersinia pestis appears to be maintained in multiple, geographically separate, and phylogenetically distinct subpopulations within the highlands of Madagascar. However, the dynamics of these locally differentiated subpopulations through time are mostly unknown. To address that gap and further inform our understanding of plague epidemiology, we investigated the phylogeography of Y. pestis in Madagascar over an 18 year period. We generated whole genome sequences for 31 strains and discovered new SNPs that we used in conjunction with previously identified SNPs and variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) to genotype 773 Malagasy Y. pestis samples from 1995 to 2012. We mapped the locations where samples were obtained on a fine geographic scale to examine phylogeographic patterns through time. We identified 18 geographically separate and phylogenetically distinct subpopulations that display spatial and temporal stability, persisting in the same locations over a period of almost two decades. We found that geographic areas with higher levels of topographical relief are associated with greater levels of phylogenetic diversity and that sampling frequency can vary considerably among subpopulations and from year to year. We also found evidence of various Y. pestis dispersal events, including over long distances, but no evidence that any dispersal events resulted in successful establishment of a transferred genotype in a new location during the examined time period. Our analysis suggests that persistent endemic cycles of Y. pestis transmission within local areas are responsible for the long term maintenance of plague in Madagascar, rather than repeated episodes of wide scale epidemic spread. Landscape likely plays a role in maintaining Y. pestis subpopulations in Madagascar, with increased topographical relief associated with increased levels of localized differentiation. Local ecological factors likely affect the dynamics of individual subpopulations and the associated

  17. A new perspective on the significance of the Ranotsara shear zone in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Guido; Giese, Jörg; Berger, Alfons; Gnos, Edwin

    2010-12-01

    The Ranotsara shear zone in Madagascar has been considered in previous studies to be a >350-km-long, intracrustal strike-slip shear zone of Precambrian/Cambrian age. Because of its oblique strike to the east and west coast of Madagascar, the Ranotsara shear zone has been correlated with shear zones in southern India and eastern Africa in Gondwana reconstructions. Our assessment using remote sensing data and field-based investigations, however, reveals that what previously has been interpreted as the Ranotsara shear zone is in fact a composite structure with a ductile deflection zone confined to its central segment and prominent NW-SE trending brittle faulting along most of its length. We therefore prefer the more neutral term “Ranotsara Zone”. Lithologies, tectonic foliations, and axial trace trajectories of major folds can be followed from south to north across most of the Ranotsara Zone and show only a marked deflection along its central segment. The ductile deflection zone is interpreted as a result of E-W indentation of the Antananarivo Block into the less rigid, predominantly metasedimentary rocks of the Southwestern Madagascar Block during a late phase of the Neoproterozoic/Cambrian East African Orogeny (c. 550-520 Ma). The Ranotsara Zone shows significant NW-SE striking brittle faulting that reactivates part of the NW-SE striking ductile structures in the flexure zone, but also extends along strike toward the NW and toward the SE. Brittle reactivation of ductile structures along the central segment of the Ranotsara Zone, confirmed by apatite-fission track results, may have led to the formation of a shallow Neogene basin underlying the Ranotsara plain. The present-day drainage pattern suggests on-going normal fault activity along the central segment. The Ranotsara Zone is not a megascale intracrustal strike-slip shear zone that crosscuts the entire basement of southern Madagascar. It can therefore not be used as a piercing point in Gondwana

  18. Neoproterozoic extension in the greater dharwar craton: A reevaluation of the "betsimisaraka suture" in madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, R.D.; Roig, J.-Y.; Delor, C.; Amlin, Y.; Goncalves, P.; Rabarimanana, M.H.; Ralison, A.V.; Belcher, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    The Precambrian shield of Madagascar is reevaluated with recently compiled geological data and new U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) geochronology. Two Archean domains are recognized: the eastern Antongil-Masora domain and the central Antananarivo domain, the latter with distinctive belts of metamafic gneiss and schist (Tsaratanana Complex). In the eastern domain, the period of early crust formation is extended to the Paleo-Mesoarchean (3.32-3.15 Ga) and a supracrustal sequence (Fenerivo Group), deposited at 3.18 Ga and metamorphosed at 2.55 Ga, is identified. In the central domain, a Neoarchean period of high-grade metamorphism and anatexis that affected both felsic (Betsiboka Suite) and mafic gneisses (Tsaratanana Complex) is documented. We propose, therefore, that the Antananarivo domain was amalgamated within the Greater Dharwar Craton (India + Madagascar) by a Neoarchean accretion event (2.55-2.48 Ga), involving emplacement of juvenile igneous rocks, high-grade metamorphism, and the juxtaposition of disparate belts of mafic gneiss and schist (metagreenstones). The concept of the "Betsimisaraka suture" is dispelled and the zone is redefined as a domain of Neoproterozoic metasedimentary (Manampotsy Group) and metaigneous rocks (Itsindro-Imorona Suite) formed during a period of continental extension and intrusive igneous activity between 840 and 760 Ma. Younger orogenic convergence (560-520 Ma) resulted in east-directed overthrusting throughout south Madagascar and steepening with local inversion of the domain in central Madagascar. Along part of its length, the Manampotsy Group covers the boundary between the eastern and central Archean domains and is overprinted by the Angavo-Ifanadiana high-strain zone that served as a zone of crustal weakness throughout Cretaceous to Recent times.

  19. Effectiveness of malaria control interventions in Madagascar: a nationwide case-control survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesteman, Thomas; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Raharimanga, Vaomalala; Randrianasolo, Laurence; Piola, Patrice; Rogier, Christophe

    2016-02-11

    Madagascar, as other malaria endemic countries, depends mainly on international funding for the implementation of malaria control interventions (MCI). As these funds no longer increase, policy makers need to know whether these MCI actually provide the expected protection. This study aimed at measuring the effectiveness of MCI deployed in all transmission patterns of Madagascar in 2012-2013 against the occurrence of clinical malaria cases. From September 2012 to August 2013, patients consulting for non-complicated malaria in 31 sentinel health centres (SHC) were asked to answer a short questionnaire about long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) use, indoor residual spraying (IRS) in the household and intermittent preventive treatment of pregnant women (IPTp) intake. Controls were healthy all-ages individuals sampled from a concurrent cross-sectional survey conducted in areas surrounding the SHC. Cases and controls were retained in the database if they were resident of the same communes. The association between Plasmodium infection and exposure to MCI was calculated by multivariate multilevel models, and the protective effectiveness (PE) of an intervention was defined as 1 minus the odds ratio of this association. Data about 841 cases (out of 6760 cases observed in SHC) and 8284 controls was collected. The regular use of LLIN provided a significant 51 % PE (95 % CI [16-71]) in multivariate analysis, excluding in one transmission pattern where PE was -11 % (95 % CI [-251 to 65]) in univariate analysis. The PE of IRS was 51 % (95 % CI [31-65]), and the PE of exposure to both regular use of LLIN and IRS was 72 % (95 % CI [28-89]) in multivariate analyses. Vector control interventions avoided yearly over 100,000 clinical cases of malaria in Madagascar. The maternal PE of IPTp was 73 %. In Madagascar, LLIN and IRS had good PE against clinical malaria. These results may apply to other countries with similar transmission profiles, but such case-control surveys could be

  20. Tourism and conservation in Madagascar: The importance of Andasibe National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Newsome

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar is renowned for high levels of biodiversity and endemism. As a result of its unique flora and fauna, as well as the high levels of human threat to the environment, such as illegal clearing, hunting and political instability, it is a critical global conservation priority. Andasibe–Mantadia National Park in eastern Madagascar is one of the most popular protected areas visited by tourists. Observations carried out in 2011 showed that even though there were some negative impacts associated with natural-area tourism, the benefits to both the local communities and associated biological conservation outweighed the negatives. Natural-area tourism at Andasibe is well organised, with many local guide associations having partnerships with international organisations and 50% of park fees going directly to local communities. Forest loss is a widespread problem in Madagascar, but at Andasibe the forest is valued for its ecological function and as a generator of profits from natural-area tourism. Exploitation of the park was not observed. Andasibe is an example of how conservation and natural-area tourism can work together in Madagascar for the benefit of local communities and the environment. However, with the current unstable political climate and lack of adequate wider tourism and conservation planning frameworks, awakening to its potential as a leading conservation tourism destination will not be a simple task. Conservation implications: This research demonstrated that ecotourism can be an effective means of achieving conservation objectives, whilst, at the same time, improving the livelihoods of local people. We caution, however, that governments can do a lot more to encourage and support the nexus between tourism and conservation.

  1. Les baobabs de Madagascar : Quel cadre réglementaire pour leur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Avec les lémuriens, les baobabs sont certainement reconnus dans le monde comme l'un des groupes les plus emblématiques de Madagascar. La Grande Île abrite six espèces endémiques dont trois 'En Danger' sur la liste rouge de l'UICN et trois 'Quasi - menacées'. Cet article se propose de passer en revue les ...

  2. Status of the Regulation for safe and secure transport of radioactive materials in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoelina Andriambololona; Zafimanjato, J.L.R.; Solofoarisina, W.C.; Randriantseheno, H.F.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive sources are widely used in medicine, in industrial exploration and development, as well as in basic scientific research and education in Madagascar. The ability to use such radioactive materials in these sectors depends on their safe and secure transport both within and between countries. Transport safety of radioactive materials within the country is regulated. The law No. 97-041 on radiation protection and radioactive waste management in Madagascar promulgated in January 1998 and the decree No.2735/94 dealing the transport of radioactive materials promulgated in June 1994 govern all activities related to the transport of radioactive material. This law was established to meet the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS, IAEA Safety Series 115). It is not fully consistent with current international standards (GS-R-1). Indeed, in order to enhance the security of radioactive sources, Madagascar has implemented the Code of Conduct and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. Faced with delays and denials of shipment of radioactive materials issues, the National Focal Point has been appointed to work with ISC members and the regional networks on the global basis.

  3. Current Perspectives on Plague Vector Control in Madagascar: Susceptibility Status of Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarinjara, Adélaïde; Boyer, Sébastien

    2016-02-01

    Plague is a rodent disease transmissible to humans by infected flea bites, and Madagascar is one of the countries with the highest plague incidence in the world. This study reports the susceptibility of the main plague vector Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 different insecticides belonging to 4 insecticide families (carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids and organochlorines). Eight populations from different geographical regions of Madagascar previously resistant to deltamethrin were tested with a World Health Organization standard bioassay. Insecticide susceptibility varied amongst populations, but all of them were resistant to six insecticides belonging to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides (alphacypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, bendiocarb and propoxur). Only one insecticide (dieldrin) was an efficient pulicide for all flea populations. Cross resistances were suspected. This study proposes at least three alternative insecticides (malathion, fenitrothion and cyfluthrin) to replace deltamethrin during plague epidemic responses, but the most efficient insecticide may be different for each population studied. We highlight the importance of continuous insecticide susceptibility surveillance in the areas of high plague risk in Madagascar.

  4. Rehabilitation in Madagascar: Challenges in implementing the World Health Organization Disability Action Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fary; Amatya, Bhasker; Mannan, Hasheem; Burkle, Frederick M; Galea, Mary P

    2015-09-01

    To provide an update on rehabilitation in Madagascar by using local knowledge to outline the potential barriers and facilitators for implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) Disability Action Plan (DAP). A 14-day extensive workshop programme (September-October 2014) was held at the University Hospital Antananarivo and Antsirabe, with the Department of Health Madagascar, by rehabilitation staff from Royal Melbourne Hospital, Australia. Attendees were rehabilitation professionals (n=29) from 3 main rehabilitation facilities in Madagascar, who identified various challenges faced in service provision, education and attitudes/approaches to people with disabilities. Their responses and suggested barriers/facilitators were recorded following consensus agreement, using objectives listed in the DAP. The barriers and facilitators outlined by participants in implementing the DAP objectives include: engagement of health professionals and institutions using a multi-sectoral approach, new partnerships, strategic collaboration, provision of technical assistance, future policy directions, and research and development. Other challenges for many basic policies included: access to rehabilitation services, geographical coverage, shortage of skilled work-force, limited info-technology systems; lack of care-models and facility/staff accreditation standards; limited health services infrastructure and "disconnect" between acute and community-based rehabilitation. The DAP summary actions were useful planning tools to improve access, strengthen rehabilitation services and community-based rehabilitation, and collate data for outcome research.

  5. Diversification of an emerging pathogen in a biodiversity hotspot: Leptospira in endemic small mammals of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Muriel; Wilkinson, David A; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Goodman, Steven M; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

    2014-06-01

    Biodiversity hotspots and associated endemism are ideal systems for the study of parasite diversity within host communities. Here, we investigated the ecological and evolutionary forces acting on the diversification of an emerging bacterial pathogen, Leptospira spp., in communities of endemic Malagasy small mammals. We determined the infection rate with pathogenic Leptospira in 20 species of sympatric rodents (subfamily Nesomyinae) and tenrecids (family Tenrecidae) at two eastern humid forest localities. A multilocus genotyping analysis allowed the characterization of bacterial diversity within small mammals and gave insights into their genetic relationships with Leptospira infecting endemic Malagasy bats (family Miniopteridae and Vespertilionidae). We report for the first time the presence of pathogenic Leptospira in Malagasy endemic small mammals, with an overall prevalence of 13%. In addition, these hosts harbour species of Leptospira (L. kirschneri, L. borgpetersenii and L. borgpetersenii group B) which are different from those reported in introduced rats (L. interrogans) on Madagascar. The diversification of Leptospira on Madagascar can be traced millions of years into evolutionary history, resulting in the divergence of endemic lineages and strong host specificity. These observations are discussed in relation to the relative roles of endemic vs. introduced mammal species in the evolution and epidemiology of Leptospira on Madagascar, specifically how biodiversity and biogeographical processes can shape community ecology of an emerging pathogen and lead to its diversification within native animal communities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Conservation education in Madagascar: three case studies in the biologically diverse island-continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolins, Francine L; Jolly, Alison; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah; Feistner, Anna T C; Ravoavy, Florent

    2010-05-01

    Few Malagasy children and adults are aware of the rare and unique fauna and flora indigenous to their island-continent, including flagship lemur species. Even the Malagasy ancestral proverbs never mentioned lemurs, but these same proverbs talked about the now extinct hippopotamus. Madagascar's geography, history, and economic constraints contribute to severe biodiversity loss. Deforestation on Madagascar is reported to be over 100,000 ha/year, with only 10-15% of the island retaining natural forest [Green & Sussman, 1990]. Educating children, teacher-training, and community projects about environmental and conservation efforts to protect the remaining natural habitats of endangered lemur species provide a basis for long-term changes in attitudes and practices. Case studies of three conservation education projects located in different geographical regions of Madagascar, Centre ValBio, Madagacar Wildlife Conservation Alaotra Comic Book Project, and The Ako Book Project, are presented together with their ongoing stages of development, assessment, and outcomes. We argue that while nongovernmental organizational efforts are and will be very important, the Ministry of Education urgently needs to incorporate biodiversity education in the curriculum at all levels, from primary school to university. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Crystallographic Study of U-Th bearing minerals in Tranomaro, Anosy Region-Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoa, F.E.; Rabesiranana, N.; Raoelina Andriambololona; Geckeis, H.; Marquardt, C.; Finck, K.

    2011-01-01

    As an alternative to conventional fossil fuel, there is a renewed interest in the nuclear fuel to support increasing energy demand. New studies are then undertaken to characterize Madagascar U-Th bearing minerals. This is the case for the urano-thorianite bearing pyroxenites in the south East of Madagascar. In this region, several quarries were abandoned, after being mined by the French Atomic Energy Commission (C.E.A) in the fifties and sixties and are now explored by new mining companies. For this purpose, seven U-Th bearing mineral samples from old abandoned uranium quarries in Tranomaro, Amboasary Sud, Madagascar, have been collected. To determine the mineral microstructure, they were investigated for qualitative and quantitative identification of crystalline compounds using X-ray powder diffraction analytical method (XRD). Results showed that the U and Th compounds, as minor elements, are present in various crystalline structures. This is important to understand their environmental behaviours, in terms of crystallographic dispersion of U-Th minerals and their impacts on human health.

  8. Status of the regulation for safe and secure transport of radioactive materials in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriambololona, Raoelina; Zafimanjato, J.L.R.; Solofoarisina, W.C.; Randriantseheno, H.F.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive sources are widely used in medicine, in industrial exploration and development, as well as in basic scientific research and education in Madagascar. The ability to use such radioactive materials in these sectors depends on their safe and secure transport both within and between countries. Transport safety of radioactive materials within the country is regulated. The law n° 97-041 on radiation protection and radioactive waste management in Madagascar promulgated in January 1998 and the decree n° 2735/94 dealing the transport of radioactive materials promulgated in June 1994 govern all activities related to the transport of radioactive material. This law was established to meet the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS, IAEA Safety Series 115). It is not fully consistent with current international standards (GS-R-1). Indeed, in order to enhance the security of radioactive sources, Madagascar has implemented the Code of Conduct and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. Faced with delays and denials of shipment of radioactive materials issues, the National Focal Point has been appointed to work with ISC members and the regional networks on the global basis. (author)

  9. Mangrove Carbon Stocks and Ecosystem Cover Dynamics in Southwest Madagascar and the Implications for Local Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Benson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Of the numerous ecosystem services mangroves provide, carbon storage is gaining particular attention for its potential role in climate change mitigation strategies. Madagascar contains 2% of the world’s mangroves, over 20% of which is estimated to have been deforested through charcoal production, timber extraction and agricultural development. This study presents a carbon stock assessment of the mangroves in Helodrano Fagnemotse in southwest Madagascar alongside an analysis of mangrove land-cover change from 2002 to 2014. Similar to other mangrove ecosystems in East Africa, higher stature, closed-canopy mangroves in southwest Madagascar were estimated to contain 454.92 (±26.58 Mg·C·ha−1. Although the mangrove extent in this area is relatively small (1500 ha, these mangroves are of critical importance to local communities and anthropogenic pressures on coastal resources in the area are increasing. This was evident in both field observations and remote sensing analysis, which indicated an overall net loss of 3.18% between 2002 and 2014. Further dynamics analysis highlighted widespread transitions of dense, higher stature mangroves to more sparse mangrove areas indicating extensive degradation. Harnessing the value that the carbon stored within these mangroves holds on the voluntary carbon market could generate revenue to support and incentivise locally-led sustainable mangrove management, improve livelihoods and alleviate anthropogenic pressures.

  10. Application of Radiation Protection on the use of Nuclear Techniques in Madagascar : Case of the INSTN, the CHUA-HJRA and the society COLAS Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RASOANANDRASANA, P.V.

    2012-01-01

    The use of the nuclear techniques can cause an exposure to ionizing radiations of the population and can cause harmful effects to human's health and the environment. Radiation protection is the means to protect workers, the public and the environment against the dangers of ionizing radiations. This work emphasizes improving the teaching of Nuclear Physics. In the first part, we recalled the generalities about nuclear physics and the peaceful use of nuclear techniques in medical, industrial and research. The second part was devoted to the art of protection against ionizing radiations. We studied in the third part the practical application of radiation protection in three institutions using radioactive sources and X-ray device. We have audited the protection techniques in the Secondary Calibration Laboratory for Dosimetry of Madagascar-INSTN, at the CHUA-HJRA Hospital and at the society COLAS Madagascar. These institutions are implementing these techniques to ensure the health of the workers, patients and the public. This work shows that the radiation protection has an important place in hospitals and industries that use radiation sources and devices emitting ionizing radiation. [fr

  11. Description and analysis of the poultry trading network in the Lake Alaotra region, Madagascar: implications for the surveillance and control of Newcastle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Duboz, R; Lancelot, R; Maminiaina, O F; Jourdan, M; Rakotondramaro, T M C; Rakotonjanahary, S N; de Almeida, R Servan; Rakotondravao; Durand, B; Chevalier, V

    2014-07-01

    Madagascar's 36.5-million-head poultry industry holds a foremost place in its economy and the livelihood of its people. Unfortunately, regular Newcastle disease outbreaks associated with high mortality causes high losses for smallholders and threatens their livelihood. Therefore, Madagascar is seeking concrete, achievable and sustainable methods for the surveillance and the control of Newcastle disease. In this paper, we present and analyze the results of a field study conducted in Madagascar between December 2009 and December 2010. The study area was the Lac Alaotra region, a landlocked area in the north-eastern part of the country's center. Poultry trading is suspected of playing a major role in the spread of avian diseases, especially in developing countries characterized by many live-bird markets and middlemen. Therefore, the goals of our study were to: (i) describe and analyze smallholders' poultry trading network in the Lake Alaotra region using social network analysis; (ii) assess the role of the network in the spread of Newcastle disease; and (iii) propose the implementation of a targeted disease surveillance based on the characteristics of the poultry trading network. We focused our field study on the harvesting of two data sets. The first is a complete description of the poultry trading network in the landlocked area of Lac Alaotra, including a description of the poultry movements between groups of villages. The second set of data measures the occurrence of outbreaks in the same area by combining a participatory approach with an event-based surveillance method. These data were used to determine the attributes of the network, and to statistically assess the association between the position of nodes and the occurrence of outbreaks. By using social network analysis techniques combined with a classification method and a logistic model, we finally identified 3 nodes (set of villages), of the 387 in the initial network, to focus on for surveillance and control

  12. On the nature of the Madagascar dipoles: An analysis from Argo profiling floats and altimetry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar-González, Borja; Ponsoni, Leandro; Ridderinkhof, Herman; de Ruijter, Will P. M.; Maas, Leo R. M.

    2016-04-01

    The South East Madagascar Current (SEMC) flows poleward along the eastern coast of Madagascar as a western boundary current which further south provides some of the source waters of the Agulhas Current, either directly or in the form of eddies. We investigate the region of dipole formation south of Madagascar combining vertical T/S profiles from Argo floats, altimetry measurements and an existing eddy detection algorithm. Results from our analysis show that the dipole consists of an anticyclonic intrathermocline eddy (ITE) formed on its southern flank and a cyclonic ITE formed on its northern flank. Both lobes of the dipole exhibit similar T/S properties throughout the water column, although vertically shifted within the thermocline depending on its nature: upward in a cyclonic ITE and downward in an anticyclonic ITE. A subsurface salinity maximum of about 35.5 psu characterizes the upper layers with Subtropical Surface Water (STSW). At intermediate levels, a well defined path of South Indian Central Water (SICW) extends throughout the water column up to reach a minimum in salinity of 34.5 psu, corresponding to Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Below, at deep layers, the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) is found. The intrathermocline nature of the Madagascar dipoles has not been previously reported and represents an important feature to be considered when assessing the heat and salt fluxes driven by eddy movement and contributing to the Agulhas Current. Unlike surface eddies, intrathermocline eddies strongly influence the intermediate/deeper layers in the oceans and, hence, may have a larger contribution in the spreading rates and pathways of water masses. Because the intrathermocline nature of eddies is invisible to altimetry measurements, these results stress the importance of combining altimetry with historical records of Argo profiles which uncover eddy dynamics below the sea surface. Lastly, we further investigate from altimetry the area of dipole formation

  13. Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis in Madagascar: Comparison of immuno-diagnostic techniques and estimation of the prevalence in pork carcasses traded in Antananarivo city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porphyre, V; Betson, M; Rabezanahary, H; Mboussou, Y; Zafindraibe, N J; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Costard, S; Pfeiffer, D U; Michault, A

    2016-03-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis was reported in official veterinary and medical statistics to be highly prevalent in pigs and humans in Madagascar, but few estimates are available for pigs. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis among pigs slaughtered in Antananarivo abattoirs. Firstly, the diagnostic performance of two antigen-ELISA techniques (B158B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an immunoblotting method were compared with meat inspection procedures on a sample of pigs suspected to be infected with (group 1; n=250) or free of (group 2; n=250) T. solium based on direct veterinary inspection in Madagascar. Sensitivity and specificity of the antigen ELISAs were then estimated using a Bayesian approach for detection of porcine cysticercosis in the absence of a gold standard. Then, a third set of pig sera (group 3, n=250) was randomly collected in Antananarivo slaughterhouses and tested to estimate the overall prevalence of T. solium contamination in pork meat traded in Antananarivo. The antigen ELISAs showed a high sensitivity (>84%), but the B158B60 Ag-ELISA appeared to be more specific than the HP10 Ag-ELISA (model 1: 95% vs 74%; model 2: 87% vs 71%). The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Antananarivo slaughterhouses was estimated at 2.3% (95% credibility interval [95%CrI]: 0.09-9.1%) to 2.6% (95%CrI: 0.1-10.3%) depending on the model and priors used. Since the sample used in this study is not representative of the national pig population, village-based surveys and longitudinal monitoring at slaughter are needed to better estimate the overall prevalence, geographical patterns and main risk factors for T. solium contamination, in order to improve control policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Replacing reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the fading significance of the Federal Reserve System's reserve requirements and the recent flowering of required clearing balances, a rapidly growing feature of Reserve Bank operations.

  15. Assessing Soil Conservation Efficiency of Traditional Agricultural Practices by FRN Techniques: Example in the Highlands of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabesiranana, Naivo; Rasolonirina, Martin; Fanantenansoa Solonjara, Asivelo; Nomenjanahary Ravoson, Heritiana; Mabit, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    Soil degradation induced by human activity is a major concern in Madagascar. More than 30% of the island’s total soil area, covering 184 338 km 2 , is degraded. Moreover, soil erosion and sedimentation cause not only on-site degradation of agricultural fertile soils in Madagascar, but also off-site problems such as downstream sediment deposition in floodplains, water streams and reservoirs. Therefore, there is a clear need to acquire reliable data on the pattern and magnitude of soil redistribution under various agricultural practices to promote effective conservation strategies.

  16. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission report: Madagascar. September-October 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, John H.; Brinck, Johan W.

    1981-01-01

    This study, resulting from the IUREP Orientation Mission to Madagascar, includes the reported information on infrastructure, mining regulations and conditions made available to the Mission. Within the structure of the centrally planned economic system, uranium exploration and mining is considered the exclusive activity of OMNIS, an organization founded by the State for that purpose (Office Militaire National pour les Industries Strategiques). Madagascar has a long history of prospection and small-scale exploitation of uranium (thorium and radium). Some of this activity dates back to 1909, culminating in significant production of both uranium and thorium (in excess of 5900 tonnes of uranothorianite) by the CEA and private contractors in the Fort Dauphin area from 1955 to 1968. Past exploration and development work in a number of areas, notably by the CEA, OMNIS and the IAEA/UNDP, is reviewed and the uranium resources and mineral indications reported. The areas rated at present as the more important and which continue to be investigated (by OMNIS, in conjunction with IAEA/UNDP projects) in the order of priority are: the Fort Dauphin area, the Karroo formation and the Neogene lacustrine basin at Antsirabe. The Mission estimates that Madagascar has a moderate potential for undiscovered resources; it is estimated that such speculative resources could lie within the range of 4000 - 38000 tonnes U. In addition there are areas with as yet untested environments and with no known occurrences which may be favourable but which will require prospection. Modifications to existing programmes and new programmes are suggested. Policy alternatives are reviewed

  17. Comparison of marine spatial planning methods in Madagascar demonstrates value of alternative approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Allnutt

    Full Text Available The Government of Madagascar plans to increase marine protected area coverage by over one million hectares. To assist this process, we compare four methods for marine spatial planning of Madagascar's west coast. Input data for each method was drawn from the same variables: fishing pressure, exposure to climate change, and biodiversity (habitats, species distributions, biological richness, and biodiversity value. The first method compares visual color classifications of primary variables, the second uses binary combinations of these variables to produce a categorical classification of management actions, the third is a target-based optimization using Marxan, and the fourth is conservation ranking with Zonation. We present results from each method, and compare the latter three approaches for spatial coverage, biodiversity representation, fishing cost and persistence probability. All results included large areas in the north, central, and southern parts of western Madagascar. Achieving 30% representation targets with Marxan required twice the fish catch loss than the categorical method. The categorical classification and Zonation do not consider targets for conservation features. However, when we reduced Marxan targets to 16.3%, matching the representation level of the "strict protection" class of the categorical result, the methods show similar catch losses. The management category portfolio has complete coverage, and presents several management recommendations including strict protection. Zonation produces rapid conservation rankings across large, diverse datasets. Marxan is useful for identifying strict protected areas that meet representation targets, and minimize exposure probabilities for conservation features at low economic cost. We show that methods based on Zonation and a simple combination of variables can produce results comparable to Marxan for species representation and catch losses, demonstrating the value of comparing alternative

  18. Detecting cryptic speciation in the widespread and morphologically conservative carpet chameleon (Furcifer lateralis) of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, A M; Ingram, C M; Rakotondravony, H A; Louis, E E; Raxworthy, C J

    2012-07-01

    Species delimitation within recently evolved groups can be challenging because species may be difficult to distinguish morphologically. Following the General Lineage Concept, we apply a multiple evidence approach to assess species limits within the carpet chameleon Furcifer lateralis, which is endemic to Madagascar and exported in large numbers for the pet trade. Cryptic speciation within F. lateralis was considered likely because this species (1) has a vast distribution, (2) occupies exceptionally diverse habitats and (3) exhibits subtle regional differences in morphology. Phylogenetic trees reconstructed using nuclear and mitochondrial genes recovered three well-supported clades corresponding with geography. Morphological results based on canonical variates analysis show that these clades exhibit subtle differences in head casque morphology. Ecological niche modelling results found that these phylogenetic groups also occupy unique environmental space and exhibit patterns of regional endemism typical of other endemic reptiles. Combined, our findings provide diverse yet consistent evidence for the existence of three species. Consequently, we elevate the subspecies F. lateralis major to species rank and name a new species distributed in northern and western Madagascar. Initial ecological divergence, associated with speciation of F. lateralis in humid eastern habitat, fits the Ecographic Constraint model for species diversification in Madagascar. By contrast, the second speciation event provides some support for the Riverine Barrier model, with the Mangoky River possibly causing initial isolation between species. These findings thus support two contrasting models of speciation within closely related species and demonstrate the utility of applying a combined-evidence approach for detecting cryptic speciation. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. New material of Beelzebufo, a hyperossified frog (Amphibia: Anura from the late cretaceous of Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E Evans

    Full Text Available The extant anuran fauna of Madagascar is exceptionally rich and almost completely endemic. In recent years, many new species have been described and understanding of the history and relationships of this fauna has been greatly advanced by molecular studies, but very little is known of the fossil history of frogs on the island. Beelzebufo ampinga, the first named pre-Holocene frog from Madagascar, was described in 2008 on the basis of numerous disarticulated cranial and postcranial elements from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian Maevarano Formation of Madagascar. These specimens documented the presence of a hyperossified taxon that differed strikingly from extant Malagasy frogs in its large size and heavy coarse cranial exostosis. Here we describe and analyse new, articulated, and more complete material of the skull, vertebral column, and hind limb, as well as additional isolated elements discovered since 2008. μCT scans allow a detailed understanding of both internal and external morphology and permit a more accurate reconstruction. The new material shows Beelzebufo to have been even more bizarre than originally interpreted, with large posterolateral skull flanges and sculptured vertebral spine tables. The apparent absence of a tympanic membrane, the strong cranial exostosis, and vertebral morphology suggest it may have burrowed during seasonally arid conditions, which have been interpreted for the Maevarano Formation from independent sedimentological and taphonomic evidence. New phylogenetic analyses, incorporating both morphological and molecular data, continue to place Beelzebufo with hyloid rather than ranoid frogs. Within Hyloidea, Beelzebufo still groups with the South American Ceratophryidae thus continuing to pose difficulties with both biogeographic interpretations and prior molecular divergence dates.

  20. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach J Farris

    Full Text Available The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar's largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar's largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica. Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (mean=90 individuals consumed/year, the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans (mean=58 consumed/year, and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox (mean=31 consumed/year. Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are highest

  1. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Zach J; Golden, Christopher D; Karpanty, Sarah; Murphy, Asia; Stauffer, Dean; Ratelolahy, Felix; Andrianjakarivelo, Vonjy; Holmes, Christopher M; Kelly, Marcella J

    2015-01-01

    The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting) affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar's largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar's largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana) occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica). Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (mean=90 individuals consumed/year), the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans) (mean=58 consumed/year), and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox) (mean=31 consumed/year). Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are highest. These various

  2. Medicinal plants used by women from Agnalazaha littoral forest (Southeastern Madagascar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The country of Madagascar is renowned for its high level of biodiversity and endemism, as well as the overwhelming pressures and threats placed on the natural resources by a growing population and climate change. Traditional medicine plays an important role in the daily lives of the Malagasy for various reasons including limited access to healthcare, limited markets and traditional values. The objective of this study was to assess the modern utitilization of the Agnalazaha Forest by the local population in Mahabo-Mananivo, Madagascar, for medicinal plants used by women, and to establish a list of medicinal plants used by women sourced from Agnalazaha Forest. Methods Ethnobotanical studies were conducted over a period of five months in 2010 to determine the diversity of medicinal plants used by women in the commune of Mahabo-Mananivo. In all, 498 people were interviewed, both male and female ranging age from 15 to over 60 years old. Results 152 medicinal plants used by local people were collected during the ethnobotanical studies. Among the recorded species, eight native species are widely used by women. These species are known for their therapeutic properties in treating placental apposition and complications during childbirth as well as tropical illnesses such as malaria, filariasis, and sexual diseases like gonorrhea and syphilis. Conclusions Littoral forests are rare ecosystems that are highly threatened on the island nation of Madagascar. Our investigation into the use of medicinal plants sourced from and around the Agnalazaha Forest by the women of Mahabo-Mananivo reinforces the need for this natural resource as a first line of health care for rural families. PMID:24188563

  3. Seismic Investigations of the Crust and Upper Mantle Structure in Antarctica and Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Cristo

    In the three studies that form this dissertation, seismic data from Antarctica and Madagascar have been analyzed to obtain new insights into crustal structure and mantle flow. Until recently, there have been little seismic data available from these areas for interrogating Earth structure and processes. In Antarctica, I analyzed datasets from temporary deployments of broadband seismic stations in both East and West Antarctica. In Madagascar, I analyzed data from a temporary network of broadband stations, along with data from three permanent stations. The seismic data have been processed and modeled using a wide range of techniques to characterize crust and mantle structure. Crustal structure in the East Antarctic Craton resembles Precambrian terrains around the world in its thickness and shear wave velocities. The West Antarctic Rift System has thinner crust, consistent with crustal thickness beneath other Cretaceous rifts. The Transantarctic Mountains show thickening of the crust from the costal regions towards the interior of the mountain range, and high velocities in the lower crust at several locations, possibly resulting from the Ferrar magmatic event. Ross Island and Marie Byrd Land Dome have elevated crustal Vp/Vs ratios, suggesting the presence of partial melt and/or volcaniclastic material within the crust. The pattern of seismic anisotropy in Madagascar is complex and cannot arise solely due to mantle flow from the African superplume, as previously proposed. To explain the complex pattern of anisotropy, a combination of mechanisms needs to be invoked, including mantle flow from the African superplume, mantle flow from the Comoros hotspot, small scale upwelling in the mantle induced by lithospheric delamination, and fossil anisotropy in the lithospheric mantle along Precambrian shear zones.

  4. Evaluation of the influenza sentinel surveillance system in Madagascar, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoarisoa, Alain; Randrianasolo, Laurence; Tempia, Stefano; Guillebaud, Julia; Razanajatovo, Norosoa; Randriamampionona, Lea; Piola, Patrice; Halm, Ariane; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2017-05-01

    Evaluation of influenza surveillance systems is poor, especially in Africa. In 2007, the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar and the Malagasy Ministry of Public Health implemented a countrywide system for the prospective syndromic and virological surveillance of influenza-like illnesses. In assessing this system's performance, we identified gaps and ways to promote the best use of resources. We investigated acceptability, data quality, flexibility, representativeness, simplicity, stability, timeliness and usefulness and developed qualitative and/or quantitative indicators for each of these attributes. Until 2007, the influenza surveillance system in Madagascar was only operational in Antananarivo and the observations made could not be extrapolated to the entire country. By 2014, the system covered 34 sentinel sites across the country. At 12 sites, nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal samples were collected and tested for influenza virus. Between 2009 and 2014, 177 718 fever cases were detected, 25 809 (14.5%) of these fever cases were classified as cases of influenza-like illness. Of the 9192 samples from patients with influenza-like illness that were tested for influenza viruses, 3573 (38.9%) tested positive. Data quality for all evaluated indicators was categorized as above 90% and the system also appeared to be strong in terms of its acceptability, simplicity and stability. However, sample collection needed improvement. The influenza surveillance system in Madagascar performed well and provided reliable and timely data for public health interventions. Given its flexibility and overall moderate cost, this system may become a useful platform for syndromic and laboratory-based surveillance in other low-resource settings.

  5. Malaria case in Madagascar, probable implication of a new vector, Anopheles coustani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomichene, Thiery N J J; Tata, Etienne; Boyer, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    Indoor spraying of insecticides and the use of insecticide-treated bed nets are key strategies for national malaria vector control in the central highlands of Madagascar. During the year 2013, malaria outbreaks were reported by the National Malaria Control Programme in the highlands, including the district of Ankazobe. Entomological trapping was carried out in April and May 2013 and in March 2014, using human landing catches, collection of mosquitoes resting in stables and in houses by oral aspirators, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps. Detection of Plasmodium in mosquitoes was carried out on head and thorax of anopheline females by ELISA, CSP and PCR (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium vivax, or Plasmodium ovale). Human biting rate (HBR), sporozoite index and entomological infection rate (EIR) were calculated for Anopheles funestus, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles mascarensis, and Anopheles coustani. In Ankazobe district, the presence of malaria vectors such as An. funestus, An. arabiensis and An. mascarensis was confirmed, and a new and abundant potential vector, An. coustani was detected. Indeed, one individual of An. funestus and two An. coustani were detected positive with P. falciparum while one An. mascarensis and four An. coustani were positive with P. vivax. For An. coustani, in March 2014, the EIR varied from 0.01 infectious bites/person/month (ipm) outdoors to 0.11 ipm indoors. For An. funestus, in April 2013, the EIR was 0.13 ipm. The highest HBR value was observed for An. coustani, 86.13 ipm outdoors. The highest sporozoite rate was also for An. coustani, 9.5 % of An. coustani caught in stable was sporozoite positive. The implication of An. coustani in malaria transmission was not previously mentioned in Madagascar. Its very high abundance and the detection of Plasmodium coupled with an opportunistic feeding behaviour in villages with malaria cases supports its role in malaria transmission in Madagascar.

  6. Origin and evolutionary dynamics of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype E in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Alessandra; Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Lai, Alessia; Angeletti, Silvia; Cella, Eleonora; Mottini, Giovanni; Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Balotta, Claudia; Galli, Massimo; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2017-02-01

    Africa is one of the endemic regions of HBV infection. In particular, genotype E is highly endemic in most of sub-Saharan Africa such as West African countries where it represents more than 90% of total infections. Madagascar, which is classified as a high endemic area for HBV and where the most prevalent genotype is E, might play a relevant role in the dispersion of this genotype due to its crucial position in the Indian Ocean. The aim of this study was to investigate the origin, population dynamics, and circulation of HBV-E genotype in Madagascar through high-resolution phylogenetic and phylodynamic approaches. The phylogenetic tree indicated that Malagasy isolates were intermixed and closely related with sequences mostly from West African countries. The Bayesian tree highlighted three statistically supported clusters of Malagasy strains which dated back to the years 1981 (95% HPD: 1971-1992), 1986 (95% HPD: 1974-1996), and 1989 (95% HPD: 1974-2001). Population dynamics analysis showed an exponential increase in the number of HBV-E infections approximately from the year 1975 until 2000s. The migration analysis was also performed and a dynamic pattern of gene flow was identified. In conclusion, this study confirms previous observation of HBV-E circulation in Africa and expands these findings at Madagascar demonstrating its recent introduction, and highlighting the role of the African countries in the spread of HBV-E genotype. Further studies on molecular epidemiology of HBV genotype E are needed to clarify the evolutionary history of this genotype.

  7. Analysis of patterns of bushmeat consumption reveals extensive exploitation of protected species in eastern Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K B Jenkins

    Full Text Available Understanding the patterns of wild meat consumption from tropical forests is important for designing approaches to address this major threat to biodiversity and mitigate potential pathways for transmission of emerging diseases. Bushmeat consumption has been particularly poorly studied in Madagascar, one of the world's hottest biodiversity hotspots. Studying bushmeat consumption is challenging as many species are protected and researchers must consider the incentives faced by informants. Using interviews with 1154 households in 12 communes in eastern Madagascar, as well as local monitoring data, we investigated the importance of socio-economic variables, taste preference and traditional taboos on consumption of 50 wild and domestic species. The majority of meals contain no animal protein. However, respondents consume a wide range of wild species and 95% of respondents have eaten at least one protected species (and nearly 45% have eaten more than 10. The rural/urban divide and wealth are important predictors of bushmeat consumption, but the magnitude and direction of the effect varies between species. Bushmeat species are not preferred and are considered inferior to fish and domestic animals. Taboos have provided protection to some species, particularly the Endangered Indri, but we present evidence that this taboo is rapidly eroding. By considering a variety of potential influences on consumption in a single study we have improved understanding of who is eating bushmeat and why. Evidence that bushmeat species are not generally preferred meats suggest that projects which increase the availability of domestic meat and fish may have success at reducing demand. We also suggest that enforcement of existing wildlife and firearm laws should be a priority, particularly in areas undergoing rapid social change. The issue of hunting as an important threat to biodiversity in Madagascar is only now being fully recognised. Urgent action is required to ensure

  8. Thermal balneotherapy in Antsirabe-Madagascar: water analysis and its applications in an African context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzini, Alessio; Delsignore, Roberto; Martelli, Alessandra; Tocco, Silvio; Vaienti, Enrico; Ceccarelli, Francesco; Pogliacomi, Francesco

    2016-04-15

    The Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Centre of Madagascar can be found in the city of Antsirabe. The health care facility is equipped with 2 thermal sources of bicarbonate water used for post-operative rehabilitation and for the ailment of chronic degenerative illnesses. The aim of this study, which derives from the cooperation between the School of Specialization in Thermal Therapy of the University of Parma and Antsirabe Orthopaedic Hospital, is to analyze the real properties of thermal waters utilized in this centre and to do an overview of its possible applications in this particular African context.

  9. The concept of glocal seafood: a case study of Madagascar shrimps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Beate Pettersen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude de cas considère le concept de produits « glocaux » dans des perspectives théoriques issues de géographie et de marketing, en observant l’effet de la mondialisation sur les systèmes de productions locaux. Ce papier met en valeur le pouvoir relatif des forces locales et globales, et le jeu interactif entre acteurs globaux et locaux à partir de l’étude empirique des crevettes de Madagascar sur le marché français. L’étude montre que les acteurs locaux peuvent définir les stratégies liées aux conditions et à la croissance économique de leur production, tout en étant dépendant des ressources extérieures et étrangères. Le succès des crevettes de Madagascar sur le marché français est donc tributaire de l’interaction et des relations entre les différents acteurs.This paper discusses the concept of glocal seafood through theories drawn from geography and marketing. The central theme of the paper is the effect of globalization processes on local production systems. We discuss the relative power of local and global forces and the interplay between local and global and actors. Moreover, we explain the specific glocalization process of the seafood industry and provide evidence from an empirical study of the success on the French market of shrimps from Madagascar, a pioneering country with regard to developing sustainable fisheries and seafood farming. The case shows that local actors have the power and control to set conditions and define strategies for economic growth in the local seafood industry. However, the local production system in turns depends on foreign resources – financial, technical and human, to create economic growth. The success of Madagascar shrimps is therefore the result of the long term interplay between local and global actors.

  10. A new perspective on the significance of the Ranotsara shear zone in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreurs, Guido; Giese, Jörg; Berger, Alfons

    2010-01-01

    only a marked deflection along its central segment. The ductile deflection zone is interpreted as a result of E-W indentation of the Antananarivo Block into the less rigid, predominantly metasedimentary rocks of the Southwestern Madagascar Block during a late phase of the Neoproterozoic/Cambrian East...... the central segment of the Ranotsara Zone, confirmed by apatite-fission track results, may have led to the formation of a shallow Neogene basin underlying the Ranotsara plain. The present-day drainage pattern suggests on-going normal fault activity along the central segment. The Ranotsara Zone...

  11. Analysis of agency relationships in the design and implementation process of the equity fund in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ayako

    2015-02-04

    There are large gaps in the literature relating to the implementation of user fee policy and fee exemption measures for the poor, particularly on how such schemes are implemented and why many have not produced expected outcomes. In October 2003, Madagascar instituted a user fee exemption policy which established "equity funds" at public health centres, and used medicine sales revenue to subsidise the cost of medicine for the poor. This study examines the policy design and implementation process of the equity fund in Madagascar in an attempt to explore factors influencing the poor equity outcomes of the scheme. This study applied an agency-incentive framework to investigate the equity fund policy design and implementation practices. It analysed agency relationships established during implementation; examined incentive structures given to the agency relationships in the policy design; and considered how incentive structures were shaped and how agents responded in practice. The study employed a case-study approach with in-depth analysis of three equity fund cases in Madagascar's Boeny region. Policy design problems, triggering implementation problems, caused poor equity performance. These problems were compounded by the re-direction of policy objectives by health administrators and strong involvement of the administrators in the implementation of policy. The source of the policy design and implementation failure was identified as a set of principal-agent problems concerning: monitoring mechanisms; facility-based fund management; and the nature and level of community participation. These factors all contributed to the financial performance of the fund receiving greater attention than its ability to financially protect the poor. The ability of exemption policies to protect the poor from user fees can be found in the details of the policy design and implementation; and implications of the policy design and implementation in a specific context determine whether a policy

  12. Plate tectonic reconstruction of India and Madagascar closing through the Mascarene Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shuhail, M.

    anomaly information from Mascarene Basin forced all those studies to follow the IND-ANT-AFR circuit to obtain India-Madagascar reconstruction models in their pre-drift scenario (e.g. Fig. 2a). Since those models were not accounted for the deformation....1029/2007GC001743 3. Royer et al., 2002, Geological Society of London Special Publication 195, 7-23 4. Yatheesh et al., 2006, Gondwana Research 10, 179-185. PhD with the guidance of V. Yatheesh and G.C. Bhattacharya. CSIR-NIO/UGC are acknowledged...

  13. Monomia calla, a new species of swimming crab (Decapoda, Portunidae) from Madagascar and the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Milan; Nguyen, Thanh Son; Ďuriš, Zdeněk

    2015-07-06

    A new species of portunid crab (Brachyura: Portunidae) from southern Madagascar and central Philippines is described. Monomia calla sp. nov. is most similar in morphology to M. lecromi (Moosa, 1996) from the Chesterfield Islands in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, and M. rubromarginata (Lanchester, 1900) from the South China Sea, Singapore, Malay Archipelago and the northern half of Australia. The new species can be easily distinguished from all congeners by the distinctive morphology of the male first gonopod. The number of species of the Indo-West Pacific genus Monomia now stands at 12.

  14. A new Gephyromantis (Phylacomantis frog species from the pinnacle karst of Bemaraha, western Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Crottini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new mantellid frog of the subfamily Mantellinae from the karstic Bemaraha Plateau, western Madagascar. The new species belongs to the genus Gephyromantis, subgenus Phylacomantis, which previously included G. azzurrae, G. corvus and G. pseudoasper. Gephyromantis atsingy sp. n. has a snout-vent length of 35–43 mm and is a scansorial frog living among the Tsingy de Bemaraha pinnacles and inside the caves present in the area. A morphological analysis and biomolecular comparison revealed the degree of differentiation between these four species of the Phylacomantis subgenus. The new species seems to be endemic to Tsingy de Bemaraha.

  15. Analyse macro-sociolinguistique d'une situation de diglossie: le cas de Madagascar (A Macro-Sociolinguistic Analysis of a Diglossic Situation: The Case of Madagascar). Publication H-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambelo, Michel

    The languages used in Madagascar are examined from the following perspectives: the linguistic varieties and functions socially recognized at the community level; the oppositions and complementarities that have become established between languages in contact; and the speakers' attitudes toward those varieties. The report focuses on the following…

  16. Evaluation of the OnSite malaria rapid test performance in Miandrivazo, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaoarisoa, E; Andriamiandranoro, T; Raherinjafy, R; Jahevitra, M; Razanatsiorimalala, S; Andrianaranjaka, V; Randrianarivelojosia, M

    2017-10-01

    The performance of the malaria rapid diagnostic test OnSite-for detecting pan specific pLDH and Plasmodium falciparum specific HRP2 - was assessed during the malaria transmission peak period in Miandrivazo, in the southwestern part of Madagascar from April 20 to May 6, 2010. At the laboratory, the quality control OnSite Malaria Rapid Test according to the WHO/TDR/FIND method demonstrated that the test had good sensitivity. Of the 218 OnSite tests performed at the Miandrivazo Primary Health Center on patients with fever or a recent history of fever, four (1.8%, 95% CI: 0.6-4.9%) were invalid. Ninety four (43,1%) cases of malaria were confirmed by microscopy, of which 90 were P. falciparum malaria and 4 Plasmodium vivax malaria. With a Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.94, the agreement between microscopy and OnSite is excellent. Compared with the rapid test CareStart™ commonly used within the public health structures in Madagascar, the sensitivity and specificity of the OnSite test were 97.9% and 96.8%.

  17. Children's education and home electrification: A case study in northwestern Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaona Daka, Karen; Ballet, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Assessments of the impact of electrification on the quality of life of households in developing countries have increased over the last decade. One aspect that has still received little attention is education and the ability of children to keep up at school. The underlying hypothesis is that electrification enables children to do their homework in the evening and so keep up with their school work. To this first hypothesis we add a second one, concerning the relation between access to electricity and attendance to school according to gender. Although most household tasks are carried out by the mothers, their daughters are also involved, and electrification could have a beneficial effect by making easier for girls to do their homework in the evening and easier for the mothers to help them. We will check the validity of these hypotheses using a case study of 162 children attending school in a small town in northwestern Madagascar. - Research Highlights: → We use a sample of 162 children in Madagascar to test the effect of access to the electricity supply in home to the education of children. → We also test the effect to the electricity supply in home to gender-specificities. → Our results confirm that electrification can contribute to reduce social reproduction with regard to education. → Our results also show that electrification helps to reduce gender inequalities.

  18. Key odorants in cured Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of differing bean quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The odor-active volatiles in Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of two grades, red whole beans as standard quality and cuts beans as substandard quality, were characterized by instrumental and sensory analyses. The higher contents of vanillin and β-damascenone in red whole beans than in cuts beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the sweet and dried fruit-like notes, while the higher contents of guaiacol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid in cuts beans than in red whole beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the phenolic and metallic notes. A sensory evaluation to compare red whole beans and their reconstituted aroma characterized both samples as being similar, while in respect of the phenolic note, the reconstituted aroma significantly differed from the reconstituted aroma with guaiacol added at the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol in cuts beans. It is suggested from these results that the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol could be used as an index for the quality of Madagascar vanilla beans.

  19. The Transplutonium. The superheavy nuclei found in the micas of Madagascar and their interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoelina Andriambololona

    1976-01-01

    Since June 1976, evidence for the existence of superheavy elements is discussed about. After having recalled artificial elements with atomic numbers Z of wich go from Z=95 (Americium) to Z=107 (built in 1976), superheavy elements having Z greater than 110 are considered. They have been discovered by american searchers in giant halos seen in Madagascar micas. The samples have been recoked in the Fort-Dauphin region (Haut Mandrare). The corresponding numbers Z are 114, 115, 116, 124, 125, 125, 126, 127. It seems that the existence of Z=126 element should be accepted with a greater degree of confidence. But different experiences done by other groups seem to show the evidence of superheavy elements in micas looks weaker. Nevertheless, it is interesting to investigate the evidence or the non-evidence of those elements. We estimate the mass numbers A of those superheavy elements in the liquid drop model if we assume that they are stable versus β. The results thus obtained agree with the shell-model ones within 4 % approximation. We propose if the evidence of superheavies is confirmed to give the name of madagascarium to one of them (Z=126) by similitude with francium, lutetium, polonium, berkelium, americium, europium, ...Their evidence was first conjectured in Madagascar micas in 1976. Superheavy nuclei are to be distinguished from hypernuclei. [fr

  20. Achieving Conservation and Equity amidst Extreme Poverty and Climate Risk: The Makira REDD+ Project in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Brimont

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving forest conservation together with poverty alleviation and equity is an unending challenge in the tropics. The Makira REDD+ pilot project located in northeastern Madagascar is a well-suited case to explore this challenge in conditions of extreme poverty and climatic vulnerability. We assessed the potential effect of project siting on the livelihoods of the local population and which households would be the most strongly impacted by conservation measures. Farmers living in hilly areas must resort to slash-and-burn agriculture (tavy since a combination of topographic and climatic constraints, such as cyclones, makes permanent rice cultivation very difficult. These are the people who suffer most from conservation-related restriction measures. For practical reasons the project, unfortunately, did not target these farmers. The main focus was on communities with a lower cyclonic risk that are able to practice permanent rice agriculture in the lowlands. To reduce deforestation without violating the principles of equity, REDD+ projects in Madagascar need to better target populations facing high climatic risks and invest in efforts to improve the farmers’ agricultural systems.

  1. [Arboviroses in the region of Nosy-Bé, Madagascar. Serologic and entomologic data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenille, D; Mathiot, C; Rodhain, F; Coulanges, P

    1988-01-01

    Since 1977, the Pasteur Institute of Madagascar has been studying, during six surveys, the arboviruses of Nosy-Be area, in the north-west of Madagascar. 47.2% out of 271 human sera and 11.3% out of 151 sera of Lemurs, tested for antibodies to 16 arboviruses by the haemagglutination inhibition test, are positive. The results show an important prevalence of Flaviviruses. West Nile and Dengue 1 viruses were probably circulating some years before the surveys. Antibodies against Sindbis and Rift Valley Fever viruses, were found only in few subjects. Bunyamwera and California groups of virus are absent. The rate of positive Lemurs is weak, particularly in Lemur macaco macaco. Flaviviruses are the most frequent. 12,262 haematophagous diptera (11,965 Culicidae belonging to 40 species) were caught. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are both present. Arbovirus isolation attempts from 394 mosquito pools failed; only Mengo virus was isolated from four pools of Eretmapodites quinquevittatus and one pool of Aedes (Skusea) sp.

  2. Natural resources and rural livelihoods: Differences between migrants and non-migrants in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Nawrotzki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Although natural resources play a central role in rural livelihoods across the globe, little research has explored the relationship between migration and natural capital use, particularly in combination with other livelihood capitals (i.e., human, social, financial and physical. OBJECTIVE Grounded in the rural livelihood framework, this paper explores the association between the livelihood capital availability, especially natural capital, for migrants and non-migrants in rural Madagascar. METHODS Data from the 2008/2009 Demographic and Health Survey are used in combination with satellite imagery of vegetation coverage (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI to proxy natural resources. Hierarchical multilevel models allow for inclusion of cross-level interactions between migrant status and proximate natural resources as determinants of the status of livelihood assets. RESULTS Three key findings emerge. First, higher levels of proximate natural resources are associated with greater financial, human, and social capital for both migrants and non-migrants. Second, migrants have, on average, greater financial, physical, human, and social capital than non-migrants, and urban-to-rural migrants do exceptionally well on all capital asset categories. Third, migrants residing in areas with higher levels of natural capital tend to have significantly higher levels of human capital (education. CONCLUSIONS Although we cannot examine livelihood strategies per se, the results suggest variation in livelihood potential among migrants and non-migrants in rural Madagascar, with migrants tending to have greater capital assets. In addition, access to natural resources is a central livelihood strategy.

  3. Statut familial et inégalités face à la scolarisation à Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaunay, Valérie; Gastineau, Bénédicte; Andriamaro, Frédérique

    2013-12-01

    The impact of family status in Madagascar on inequalities in schooling - In this article, in the context of generalised access to primary education and parity between girls and boys, we analyse data from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2009 in Madagascar to examine inequalities in schooling related to children's status in the family. The results confirm the protective benefit for children of living with their biological parents. Fostered children are disadvantaged, especially and increasingly so depending on whether they live with an uncle or aunt, with a distant relative or a non-relative. Conversely, children who reside in the home of a brother or sister are not disadvantaged, a result which reflects the role of elder children in family education strategies. Grandparents play a moderately positive role in schooling. The death of the father is an important factor in dropping out. Finally, children whose parent or parents are not household heads are disadvantaged in terms of schooling compared to children of household heads.

  4. Interactions between plants and primates shape community diversity in a rainforest in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, James P

    2016-07-01

    Models of ecological community assembly predict how communities of interacting organisms may be shaped by abiotic and biotic factors. Competition and environmental filtering are the predominant factors hypothesized to explain community assembly. This study tested the effects of habitat, phylogenetic and phenotypic trait predictors on species co-occurrence patterns and abundances, with the endemic primates of Madagascar as an empirical system. The abundance of 11 primate species was estimated along gradients of elevation, food resource abundance and anthropogenic habitat disturbance at local scales in south-east Madagascar. Community composition was compared to null models to test for phylogenetic and functional structure, and the effects of phylogenetic relatedness of co-occurring species, their trait similarity and environmental variables on species' abundances were tested using mixed models and quantile regressions. Resource abundance was the strongest predictor of community structure. Where food tree abundance was high, closely related species with similar traits dominated communities. High-elevation communities with lower food tree abundance consisted of species that were distantly related and had divergent traits. Closely related species had dissimilar abundances where they co-occurred, partially driven by trait dissimilarity, indicating character displacement. By integrating local-scale variation in primate community composition, evolutionary relatedness and functional diversity, this study found strong evidence that community assembly in this system can be explained by competition and character displacement along ecological gradients. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  5. Children's education and home electrification: A case study in northwestern Madagascar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajaona Daka, Karen, E-mail: karen_rajaona@yahoo.f [University of Versailles St Quentin en Yvelines, 47 Bd Vauban, 78047 Guyancourt Cedex (France); Ballet, Jerome, E-mail: jballetfr@yahoo.f [Centre of Ethics and Economics for Environment and Development in Madagascar, University of Antananarivo, BP905, 101 Antananarivo (Madagascar); Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UMI Resiliences, 32 Avenue Henri Varagnat, 93143 Bondy Cedex (France)

    2011-05-15

    Assessments of the impact of electrification on the quality of life of households in developing countries have increased over the last decade. One aspect that has still received little attention is education and the ability of children to keep up at school. The underlying hypothesis is that electrification enables children to do their homework in the evening and so keep up with their school work. To this first hypothesis we add a second one, concerning the relation between access to electricity and attendance to school according to gender. Although most household tasks are carried out by the mothers, their daughters are also involved, and electrification could have a beneficial effect by making easier for girls to do their homework in the evening and easier for the mothers to help them. We will check the validity of these hypotheses using a case study of 162 children attending school in a small town in northwestern Madagascar. - Research Highlights: {yields} We use a sample of 162 children in Madagascar to test the effect of access to the electricity supply in home to the education of children. {yields} We also test the effect to the electricity supply in home to gender-specificities. {yields} Our results confirm that electrification can contribute to reduce social reproduction with regard to education. {yields} Our results also show that electrification helps to reduce gender inequalities.

  6. High burden of Schistosoma mansoni infection in school-aged children in Marolambo District, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Stephen A; Penney, James M St John; Russell, Hannah J; Howe, Anthony P; Linder, Cortland; Rakotomampianina, Andriamahitsisambatra L D; Nandimbiniaina, Anjara M; Squire, S Bertel; Stothard, J Russell; Bustinduy, Amaya L; Rahetilahy, Alain M

    2017-06-24

    A school-based survey was undertaken to assess prevalence and infection intensity of schistosomiasis in school-aged children in the Marolambo District of Madagascar. School-aged children from six purposively selected schools were tested for Schistosoma haematobium by urine filtration and Schistosoma mansoni using circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) and Kato-Katz stool analysis. The investigators did not address soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in this study. Of 399 school-aged children screened, 93.7% were infected with S. mansoni based on CCA analysis. Kato-Katz analysis of stool revealed S. mansoni infection in 73.6% (215/ 292). Heavy infections (> 400 eggs per gram) were common (32.1%; 69/ 215), with a mean of 482 eggs per gram of stool. Moderate infection intensities were detected in 31.2% (67/ 215) and light infection intensities in 36.7% (79/ 215) of infected participants. No infection with S. haematobium was detected by urine filtration. Intestinal schistosomiasis appears a considerable public health issue in this remote area of Madagascar where there is a pressing need for mass drug administration.

  7. [Contextual factors regarding the effectiveness of tuberculosis control in Madagascar: a nationwide validity study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonirina, E J; Ravaoarisoa, L; Raherinandrasana, A; Vololonarivelo, B; Rakotonjanahary, M; Rakotomanga, J D M; Macq, J

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the nationwide applicability of results from a study in the tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic and treatment centers (DTCs) in a sample of six districts in Madagascar, which identified adaptations of national guidelines and local initiatives that might explain the effectiveness of individual DTCs in improving adherence to TB treatment and thus reducing treatment default. To assess, at a national level, the importance of these adaptations/initiatives for TB treatment adherence. This analytical cross-sectional study assessed the responses to a questionnaire based on the previously identified adaptations/initiatives, which was sent to the heads of all 205 DTCs in Madagascar. Decentralization of TB care decreased the rate of patient default. The private DTCs report better results than public DTCs. Adaptations/initiatives in relation to local contexts often lead to good results. The relation between some adaptations/initiatives and continued adherence sometimes varies with the local context of the DTC; the same initiatives can result in better adherence or in higher of treatment default rates, depending on the setting. These initiatives should be applied after adaptation to the context.

  8. Primates as Predictors of Mammal Community Diversity in the Forest Ecosystems of Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Kathleen M.; Goodman, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    The geographic distribution of species is the typical metric for identifying priority areas for conservation. Since most biodiversity remains poorly studied, a subset of charismatic species, such as primates, often stand as surrogates for total biodiversity. A central question is therefore, how effectively do primates predict the pooled species richness of other mammalian taxa? We used lemurs as indicator species to predict total non-primate mammal community richness in the forest ecosystems of Madagascar. We combine environmental and species occurrence data to ascertain the extent to which primate diversity can predict (1) non-primate mammal α-diversity (species richness), (2) non-primate complementarity, and (3) non-primate β-diversity (species turnover). Our results indicate that primates are effective predictors of non-primate mammal community diversity in the forest ecosystems of Madagascar after controlling for habitat. When individual orders of mammals are considered, lemurs effectively predict the species richness of carnivorans and rodents (but not afrosoricids), complementarity of rodents (but not carnivorans or afrosoricids), and all individual components of β-diversity. We conclude that lemurs effectively predict total non-primate community richness. However, surrogate species alone cannot achieve complete representation of biodiversity. PMID:26334525

  9. Widespread presence of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in wild amphibian communities in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletz, Molly C.; Rosa, Gonçalo M.; Andreone, Franco; Courtois, Elodie A.; Schmeller, Dirk S.; Rabibisoa, Nirhy H. C.; Rabemananjara, Falitiana C. E.; Raharivololoniaina, Liliane; Vences, Miguel; Weldon, Ché; Edmonds, Devin; Raxworthy, Christopher J.; Harris, Reid N.; Fisher, Matthew C.; Crottini, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Amphibian chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has been a significant driver of amphibian declines. While globally widespread, Bd had not yet been reported from within Madagascar. We document surveys conducted across the country between 2005 and 2014, showing Bd's first record in 2010. Subsequently, Bd was detected in multiple areas, with prevalence reaching up to 100%. Detection of Bd appears to be associated with mid to high elevation sites and to have a seasonal pattern, with greater detectability during the dry season. Lineage-based PCR was performed on a subset of samples. While some did not amplify with any lineage probe, when a positive signal was observed, samples were most similar to the Global Panzootic Lineage (BdGPL). These results may suggest that Bd arrived recently, but do not exclude the existence of a previously undetected endemic Bd genotype. Representatives of all native anuran families have tested Bd-positive, and exposure trials confirm infection by Bd is possible. Bd's presence could pose significant threats to Madagascar's unique “megadiverse” amphibians. PMID:25719857

  10. Mantle upwelling beneath Madagascar: evidence from receiver function analysis and shear wave splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jonathan D.; Eakin, Caroline M.

    2017-07-01

    Crustal receiver functions have been calculated from 128 events for two three-component broadband seismomenters located on the south coast (FOMA) and in the central High Plateaux (ABPO) of Madagascar. For each station, crustal thickness and V p / V s ratio were estimated from H- κ plots. Self-consistent receiver functions from a smaller back-azimuthal range were then selected, stacked and inverted to determine shear wave velocity structure as a function of depth. These results were corroborated by guided forward modeling and by Monte Carlo error analysis. The crust is found to be thinner (39 ± 0.7 km) beneath the highland center of Madagascar compared to the coast (44 ± 1.6 km), which is the opposite of what would be expected for crustal isostasy, suggesting that present-day long wavelength topography is maintained, at least in part, dynamically. This inference of dynamic support is corroborated by shear wave splitting analyses at the same stations, which produce an overwhelming majority of null results (>96 %), as expected for vertical mantle flow or asthenospheric upwelling beneath the island. These findings suggest a sub-plate origin for dynamic support.

  11. Implications of Seismically Active Fault Structures in Ankay and Alaotra Regions of Northern and Central Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, S.; Stamps, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to gain a better understanding of the seismically active fault structures in central and northern Madagascar. We study the Ankay and Lake Alaotra regions of Madagascar, which are segmented by multiple faults that strike N-S. In general, normal seismic events occur on faults bounding the Alaotra-Ankay rift basin where Quaternary alluvium is present. Due to this pattern and moderate amounts of low magnitude seismic activity along these faults, it is hypothesized the region currently undergoes E-W extension. In this work we test how variations in fault strength and net slip changes influence expected crustal movement in the region. Using the Coulomb stress failure point as a test of strength we are able to model the Alaotra-Ankay region using MATLAB Coulomb 3.3.01. This program allows us to define realistic Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus of mapped rock compositions in the region, i.e. paragneiss and orthogneiss, create 3D fault geometries, and calculate static stress changes with coinciding surface displacements. We impose slip along multiple faults and calculate seismic moment that we balance by the 3 observed earthquake magnitudes available in the USGS CMT database. Our calculations of surface displacements indicate 1-3 millimeters could be observed across the Alaotra-Ankay rift. These values are within the observable range of precision GNSS observations, therefore our results will guide future research into the area and direct potential GNSS station installation.

  12. Chancroid, primary syphilis, genital herpes, and lymphogranuloma venereum in Antananarivo, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behets, F M; Andriamiadana, J; Randrianasolo, D; Randriamanga, R; Rasamilalao, D; Chen, C Y; Weiss, J B; Morse, S A; Dallabetta, G; Cohen, M S

    1999-10-01

    Ulcer material from consecutive patients attending clinics in Antananarivo, Madagascar, was tested using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) to detect Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, and herpes simplex virus. Sera were tested for syphilis and for IgG and IgM antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis by microimmunofluorescence testing (MIF). By M-PCR, 33% of 196 patients had chancroid, 29% had syphilitic ulcers, and 10% had genital herpes; 32% of the ulcer specimens were M-PCR negative. Compared with M-PCR, syphilis serology was 72% sensitive and 83% specific. The sensitivity of clinical diagnosis of syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes was 93%, 53%, and 0% and specificity was 20%, 52%, and 99%, respectively. Less schooling was associated with increased prevalence of syphilitic ulcers (P=.001). Sixteen patients (8%) were clinically diagnosed with lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV); 1 plausible case of LGV was found by MIF. In Madagascar, primary care of genital ulcers should include syndromic treatment for syphilis and chancroid.

  13. Contribution to optimisation of Environmental Isotopes tracing in Hydrogeology. Case study of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAJAOBELISON, J.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is to suggest some improvements on the theory of interpretation and on the methodological approach for the optimum use of environmental isotopes tracing applied to hydrogeological investigation. A review of the theory of environmental isotopes used in hydrogeology has been made. The main constraints have been highlighted and led to some comments and proposals of improvement, in particular with regard to the continental effect on stable isotopes, to the seasonal variation of groundwater 1 4C content, and to the appropriate model for fractured crystalline aquifers. A literature survey on ten specific scientific papers, dealing with isotopic hydrology in miscellaneous types of aquifers and catchments, allowed to draw a synthesis of the hydrogeological, geochemical and isotopic constraints. A proposal of optimum methodological approach, taking into account the above mentioned constraints, have been inferred. The results of an on-going hydrogeological investigation carried out in the Southern crystalline basement and coastal sedimentary aquifers of Madagascar highlights an unusual methodological approach based on the lack of initial basic hydrogeological data. Besides, it shows to what extent the experience of the above mentioned research works can apply in the specific case of the complex aquifers of Madagascar. The lessons gained from this study contribute to enrich the synthesis of environmental isotopes constraints in hydrogeology and lead to a more realistic methodological approach proposal wich is likely to better make profitable the isotope hydrology technology

  14. The settlement of Madagascar: what dialects and languages can tell us.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Serva

    Full Text Available The dialects of Madagascar belong to the Greater Barito East group of the Austronesian family and it is widely accepted that the Island was colonized by Indonesian sailors after a maritime trek that probably took place around 650 CE. The language most closely related to Malagasy dialects is Maanyan, but Malay is also strongly related especially for navigation terms. Since the Maanyan Dayaks live along the Barito river in Kalimantan (Borneo and they do not possess the necessary skill for long maritime navigation, they were probably brought as subordinates by Malay sailors. In a recent paper we compared 23 different Malagasy dialects in order to determine the time and the landing area of the first colonization. In this research we use new data and new methods to confirm that the landing took place on the south-east coast of the Island. Furthermore, we are able to state here that colonization probably consisted of a single founding event rather than multiple settlements. To reach our goal we find out the internal kinship relations among all the 23 Malagasy dialects and we also find out the relations of the 23 dialects to Malay and Maanyan. The method used is an automated version of the lexicostatistic approach. The data from Madagascar were collected by the author at the beginning of 2010 and consist of Swadesh lists of 200 items for 23 dialects covering all areas of the Island. The lists for Maanyan and Malay were obtained from a published dataset integrated with the author's interviews.

  15. Serological survey of HIV and syphilis in pregnant women in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickmann, Hagen; Schwarz, Norbert G; Girmann, Mirko; Hagen, Ralf M; Poppert, Sven; Crusius, Sabine; Podbielski, Andreas; Heriniaina, Jean N; Razafindrabe, Tsiriniaina; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean P; May, Jürgen; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphaël

    2013-01-01

    Peripartal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, leads to severe consequences for newborns. Preventive measures require awareness of the maternal infection. Although HIV and syphilis testing in Madagascar could be theoretically carried out within the framework of the national pregnancy follow-up scheme, the required test kits are rarely available at peripheral health centres. In this study, we screened blood samples of pregnant Madagascan women for HIV and syphilis seroprevalence to estimate the demand for systemic screening in pregnancy. Retrospective anonymous serological analysis for HIV and syphilis was performed in plasma samples from 1232 pregnant women that were taken between May and July 2010 in Ambositra, Ifanadiana, Manakara, Mananjary, Moramanga and Tsiroanomandidy (Madagascar) during pregnancy follow-up. Screening was based on Treponema pallidum haemagglutination tests for syphilis and rapid tests for HIV, with confirmation of positive screening results on line assays. Out of 1232 pregnant women, none were seropositive for HIV and 37 (3%) were seropositive for Treponema pallidum. Our findings are in line with previous studies that describe considerable syphilis prevalence in the rural Madagascan population. The results suggest a need for screening to prevent peripartal Treponema pallidum transmission, while HIV is still rare. If they are known, Treponema pallidum infections can be easily, safely and inexpensively treated even in pregnancy to reduce the risk of transmission. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. The Role of Demography and Markets in Determining Deforestation Rates Near Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Christopher P.; Holmes, Christopher; Kramer, Karen; Barnett, Barry; Keitt, Timothy H.

    2009-01-01

    The highland forests of Madagascar are home to some of the world's most unique and diverse flora and fauna and to some of its poorest people. This juxtaposition of poverty and biodiversity is continually reinforced by rapid population growth, which results in increasing pressure on the remaining forest habitat in the highland region, and the biodiversity therein. Here we derive a mathematical expression for the subsistence of households to assess the role of markets and household demography on deforestation near Ranomafana National Park. In villages closest to urban rice markets, households were likely to clear less land than our model predicted, presumably because they were purchasing food at market. This effect was offset by the large number of migrant households who cleared significantly more land between 1989–2003 than did residents throughout the region. Deforestation by migrant households typically occurred after a mean time lag of 9 years. Analyses suggest that while local conservation efforts in Madagascar have been successful at reducing the footprint of individual households, large-scale conservation must rely on policies that can reduce the establishment of new households in remaining forested areas. PMID:19536282

  17. Vast underestimation of Madagascar's biodiversity evidenced by an integrative amphibian inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieites, David R; Wollenberg, Katharina C; Andreone, Franco; Köhler, Jörn; Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel

    2009-05-19

    Amphibians are in decline worldwide. However, their patterns of diversity, especially in the tropics, are not well understood, mainly because of incomplete information on taxonomy and distribution. We assess morphological, bioacoustic, and genetic variation of Madagascar's amphibians, one of the first near-complete taxon samplings from a biodiversity hotspot. Based on DNA sequences of 2,850 specimens sampled from over 170 localities, our analyses reveal an extreme proportion of amphibian diversity, projecting an almost 2-fold increase in species numbers from the currently described 244 species to a minimum of 373 and up to 465. This diversity is widespread geographically and across most major phylogenetic lineages except in a few previously well-studied genera, and is not restricted to morphologically cryptic clades. We classify the genealogical lineages in confirmed and unconfirmed candidate species or deeply divergent conspecific lineages based on concordance of genetic divergences with other characters. This integrative approach may be widely applicable to improve estimates of organismal diversity. Our results suggest that in Madagascar the spatial pattern of amphibian richness and endemism must be revisited, and current habitat destruction may be affecting more species than previously thought, in amphibians as well as in other animal groups. This case study suggests that worldwide tropical amphibian diversity is probably underestimated at an unprecedented level and stresses the need for integrated taxonomic surveys as a basis for prioritizing conservation efforts within biodiversity hotspots.

  18. Ecological Variability and Carbon Stock Estimates of Mangrove Ecosystems in Northwestern Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor G. Jones

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves are found throughout the tropics, providing critical ecosystem goods and services to coastal communities and supporting rich biodiversity. Despite their value, world-wide, mangroves are being rapidly degraded and deforested. Madagascar contains approximately 2% of the world’s mangroves, >20% of which has been deforested since 1990 from increased extraction for charcoal and timber and conversion to small to large-scale agriculture and aquaculture. Loss is particularly prominent in the northwestern Ambaro and Ambanja bays. Here, we focus on Ambaro and Ambanja bays, presenting dynamics calculated using United States Geological Survey (USGS national-level mangrove maps and the first localized satellite imagery derived map of dominant land-cover types. The analysis of USGS data indicated a loss of 7659 ha (23.7% and a gain of 995 ha (3.1% from 1990–2010. Contemporary mapping results were 93.4% accurate overall (Kappa 0.9, with producer’s and user’s accuracies ≥85%. Classification results allowed partitioning mangroves in to ecologically meaningful, spectrally distinct strata, wherein field measurements facilitated estimating the first total carbon stocks for mangroves in Madagascar. Estimates suggest that higher stature closed-canopy mangroves have average total vegetation carbon values of 146.8 Mg/ha (±10.2 and soil organic carbon of 446.2 (±36.9, supporting a growing body of studies that mangroves are amongst the most carbon-dense tropical forests.

  19. The biogeographic origin of a radiation of trees in Madagascar: implications for the assembly of a tropical forest biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, Sarah; Dornburg, Alex; Downie, Alexander; Richard, Alison F; Daly, Douglas C; Donoghue, Michael J

    2015-10-05

    Madagascar's rain forests are characterized by extreme and uneven patterns of species richness and endemicity, the biogeographic and evolutionary origins of which are poorly understood. Here we use a time-calibrated phylogeny of a dominant group of trees in Madagascar's eastern rain forests, Canarium, and related Burseraceae (Canarieae), to test biogeographic hypotheses regarding the origin and radiation of the flora of this unique biome. Our findings strongly support the monophyly of Malagasy Canarium, suggesting that this clade represents a previously undocumented in situ radiation. Contrary to expectations of dispersal from Africa during the Oligocene, concurrent with the formation of Madagascar's rain forest biome, our analyses support a late Miocene origin for Malagasy Canarium, probably by long distance dispersal from Southeast Asia. Our study illustrates the importance of considering long distance dispersal as a viable explanation for clades with pantropical distributions diversifying subsequent to the Oligocene, and it highlights the formation of the Indo-Australian Archipelago and associated fast-moving equatorial surface currents, suggesting an under-appreciated evolutionary link among tropical centers of endemism. We postulate that the relatively recent establishment and radiation of Canarium in Madagascar may have been facilitated by the highly stochastic climates associated with these forest ecosystems.

  20. The timing of the tectono-metamorphic evolution at the Neoproterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary in central southern Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Jörg; Berger, Alfons; Schreurs, Guido

    2011-01-01

    of monazite and structural relationships,twodistinct phases of major ductile deformation, the Andreaba and Ihosy phases can be distinguished in central southern Madagascar. Both these deformation phases occur between ~550 and 520 Ma. Coeval with, and outlasting deformation, granitic plutons and dykes were...

  1. Well-Being Is a Process of Becoming: Respondent-Led Research with Organic Farmers in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnworth, Cathy Rozel

    2009-01-01

    Malagasy "players"--farmers, middle men, organic organisations and policy makers--see in export-orientated organic agriculture a way for Madagascar to build upon its historic export strengths: spices, essential oils, medicinal plants and tropical fruits. They point to the "de facto" organic status of most farming in the country…

  2. LDPI Working Paper 11: The mining-conservation nexus: Rio Tinto, development ‘gifts’ and contested compensation in Madagascar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seagle, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper traces a genealogy of land access and legitimisation strategies culminating in the recent convergence of multinational mining and conservation in southeast Madagascar. Drawing on empirical research carried out on the Rio Tinto/QMM ilmenite mine in Fort Dauphin, it focuses on how local

  3. Christianisation, Frenchification and Malgachisation: Mission Education during War and Rebellion in French Colonial Madagascar in the 1940s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnes, Ellen Vea

    2017-01-01

    Education was an instrument in Christian missions' and colonial powers' civilisation projects. At the same time, education was also instrumental in fostering opposition. This article approaches perceptions of education mainly from the perspective of Norwegian Lutheran missionaries in French colonial Madagascar during the 1940s. The focus is on how…

  4. Molecular phylogeny, morphology and bioacoustics reveal five additional species of arboreal microhylid frogs of the genus Anodonthyla from Madagascar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vences, M.; Glaw, F.; Köhler, J.; Wollenberg, K.C.

    2010-01-01

    We provide a partial revision of the microhylid frogs of the genus Anodonthyla, endemic to Madagascar, based on comprehensive molecular, bioacoustic and morphological data sets that include newly collected specimens from multiple localities. The molecular trees provide strong evidence for the

  5. In and out of Madagascar: Dispersal to Peripheral Islands, Insular Speciation and Diversification of Indian Ocean Daisy Trees (Psiadia, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijk, Joeri S.; Noyes, Richard D.; Strasberg, Dominique; Cruaud, Corinne; Gavory, Fredéric; Chase, Mark W.; Abbott, Richard J.; Thébaud, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Madagascar is surrounded by archipelagos varying widely in origin, age and structure. Although small and geologically young, these archipelagos have accumulated disproportionate numbers of unique lineages in comparison to Madagascar, highlighting the role of waif-dispersal and rapid in situ diversification processes in generating endemic biodiversity. We reconstruct the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the genus Psiadia (Asteraceae), a plant genus with near equal numbers of species in Madagascar and surrounding islands. Analyzing patterns and processes of diversification, we explain species accumulation on peripheral islands and aim to offer new insights on the origin and potential causes for diversification in the Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands biodiversity hotspot. Our results provide support for an African origin of the group, with strong support for non-monophyly. Colonization of the Mascarenes took place by two evolutionary distinct lineages from Madagascar, via two independent dispersal events, each unique for their spatial and temporal properties. Significant shifts in diversification rate followed regional expansion, resulting in co-occurring and phenotypically convergent species on high-elevation volcanic slopes. Like other endemic island lineages, Psiadia have been highly successful in dispersing to and radiating on isolated oceanic islands, typified by high habitat diversity and dynamic ecosystems fuelled by continued geological activity. Results stress the important biogeographical role for Rodrigues in serving as an outlying stepping stone from which regional colonization took place. We discuss how isolated volcanic islands contribute to regional diversity by generating substantial numbers of endemic species on short temporal scales. Factors pertaining to the mode and tempo of archipelago formation and its geographical isolation strongly govern evolutionary pathways available for species diversification, and the potential for successful

  6. In or Out-of-Madagascar?—Colonization Patterns for Large-Bodied Diving Beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukontaite, Rasa; Ranarilalatiana, Tolotra; Randriamihaja, Jacquelin Herisahala; Bergsten, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    High species diversity and endemism within Madagascar is mainly the result of species radiations following colonization from nearby continents or islands. Most of the endemic taxa are thought to be descendants of a single or small number of colonizers that arrived from Africa sometime during the Cenozoic and gave rise to highly diverse groups. This pattern is largely based on vertebrates and a small number of invertebrate groups. Knowledge of the evolutionary history of aquatic beetles on Madagascar is lacking, even though this species-rich group is often a dominant part of invertebrate freshwater communities in both standing and running water. Here we focus on large bodied diving beetles of the tribes Hydaticini and Cybistrini. Our aims with this study were to answer the following questions 1) How many colonization events does the present Malagasy fauna originate from? 2) Did any colonization event lead to a species radiation? 3) Where did the colonizers come from—Africa or Asia—and has there been any out-of-Madagascar event? 4) When did these events occur and were they concentrated to any particular time interval? Our results suggest that neither in Hydaticini nor in Cybistrini was there a single case of two or more endemic species forming a monophyletic group. The biogeographical analysis indicated different colonization histories for the two tribes. Cybistrini required at least eight separate colonization events, including the non-endemic species, all comparatively recent except the only lotic (running water) living Cybister operosus with an inferred colonization at 29 Ma. In Hydaticini the Madagascan endemics were spread out across the tree, often occupying basal positions in different species groups. The biogeographical analyses therefore postulated the very bold hypothesis of a Madagascan origin at a very deep basal node within Hydaticus and multiple out-of-Madagascar dispersal events. This hypothesis needs to be tested with equally intense taxon

  7. In and out of Madagascar: dispersal to peripheral islands, insular speciation and diversification of Indian Ocean daisy trees (Psiadia, Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri S Strijk

    Full Text Available Madagascar is surrounded by archipelagos varying widely in origin, age and structure. Although small and geologically young, these archipelagos have accumulated disproportionate numbers of unique lineages in comparison to Madagascar, highlighting the role of waif-dispersal and rapid in situ diversification processes in generating endemic biodiversity. We reconstruct the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the genus Psiadia (Asteraceae, a plant genus with near equal numbers of species in Madagascar and surrounding islands. Analyzing patterns and processes of diversification, we explain species accumulation on peripheral islands and aim to offer new insights on the origin and potential causes for diversification in the Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands biodiversity hotspot. Our results provide support for an African origin of the group, with strong support for non-monophyly. Colonization of the Mascarenes took place by two evolutionary distinct lineages from Madagascar, via two independent dispersal events, each unique for their spatial and temporal properties. Significant shifts in diversification rate followed regional expansion, resulting in co-occurring and phenotypically convergent species on high-elevation volcanic slopes. Like other endemic island lineages, Psiadia have been highly successful in dispersing to and radiating on isolated oceanic islands, typified by high habitat diversity and dynamic ecosystems fuelled by continued geological activity. Results stress the important biogeographical role for Rodrigues in serving as an outlying stepping stone from which regional colonization took place. We discuss how isolated volcanic islands contribute to regional diversity by generating substantial numbers of endemic species on short temporal scales. Factors pertaining to the mode and tempo of archipelago formation and its geographical isolation strongly govern evolutionary pathways available for species diversification, and the

  8. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  9. The late Pleistocene horned crocodile Voay robustus (Grandidier & Vaillant, 1872 from Madagascar in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bickelmann

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Crocodylian material from late Pleistocene localities around Antsirabe, Madagascar, stored in the collection of the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, was surveyed. Several skeletal elements, including skull bones, vertebrae, ribs, osteoderms, and limb bones from at least three large individuals could be unambiguously assigned to the genus Voay Brochu, 2007. Furthermore, the simultaneous occurrence of Voay robustus Grandidier & Vaillant, 1872 and Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, 1768 in Madagascar is discussed. Voay robustus and Crocodylus niloticus are systematically separate but similar in stature and size, which would make them direct rivals for ecological resources. Our hypothesis on the extinction of the species Voay, which was endemic to Madagascar, suggests that C. niloticus invaded Madagascar only after V. robustus became extinct. doi:10.1002/mmng.200800007

  10. The epidemiological transition in Antananarivo, Madagascar: an assessment based on death registers (1900–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Masquelier

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Madagascar today has one of the highest life expectancies in sub-Saharan Africa, despite being among the poorest countries in the continent. There are relatively few detailed accounts of the epidemiological transition in this country due to the lack of a comprehensive death registration system at the national level. However, in Madagascar's capital city, death registration was established around the start of the 20th century and is now considered virtually complete. Objective: We provide an overview of trends in all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Antananarivo to document the timing and pace of the mortality decline and the changes in the cause-of-death structure. Design: Death registers covering the period 1976–2012 were digitized and the population at risk of dying was estimated from available censuses and surveys. Trends for the period 1900–1976 were partly reconstructed from published sources. Results: The crude death rate stagnated around 30‰ until the 1940s in Antananarivo. Mortality declined rapidly after the World War II and then resurged again in the 1980s as a result of the re-emergence of malaria and the collapse of Madagascar's economy. Over the past 30 years, impressive gains in life expectancy have been registered thanks to the unabated decline in child mortality, despite political instability, a lasting economic crisis and the persistence of high rates of chronic malnutrition. Progress in adult survival has been more modest because reductions in infectious diseases and diseases of the respiratory system have been partly offset by increases in cardiovascular diseases, neoplasms, and other diseases, particularly at age 50 years and over. Conclusions: The transition in Antananarivo has been protracted and largely dependent on anti-microbial and anti-parasitic medicine. The capital city now faces a double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases. The ongoing registration of deaths in the capital

  11. Effects of social change on wildlife consumption taboos in northeastern Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Golden

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Madagascar, the constellation of taboos serves as a form of informal regulatory institution and is foundational to Malagasy culture, regardless of class, ethnic group affiliation, and educational background. Many researchers have credited rapid social change as a crucial mechanism for disturbing taboos. Others suggest that taboos are innately historical. However, very little empirical research has assessed the effects of social change on taboos or quantified the stability of taboo systems over time. Here, we use a case study of the ensemble of taboos in northeastern Madagascar, still a critical aspect of social life there, as a lens through which we investigate its degree of stability over time. Our aim was: (1 to describe the food taboos of local Malagasy living in northeastern Madagascar, and (2 to quantitatively assess the stability of these taboos to address certain claims regarding cultural erosion using an empirical, hypothesis-driven approach with rich ethnographic material to aid in interpretation. We investigated the temporal stability of taboos and local adherence to the moral framework, finding that approximately 3.0% of 4857 taboos were not adhered to at least once during the course of a 7-yr follow-up study. Additionally, we quantitatively explored the mediating effects of migration, modernization, and the spread of Western religion on number of taboos and level of adherence. We found that the presence of extra-local groups and migration did not decrease the number of taboos abided by locally, but did increase rates of nonadherence. Modernization accompanied by generational shifts tended to increase rather than erode the number of taboos, and younger individuals adhered to taboos to the same degree as older individuals. The effect of Western religion depended on the denomination, but generally reduced the number of taboos, although it did not affect adherence. The ways in which social change affects the stability of taboos are

  12. Cover sequences at the northern margin of the Antongil Craton, NE Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, W.; Walsh, G.J.; De Waele, B.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Bracciali, L.; Schofield, D.I.; Wollenberg, U.; Lidke, D.J.; Rasaona, I.T.; Rabarimanana, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The island of Madagascar is a collage of Precambrian, generally high-grade metamorphic basement domains, that are locally overlain by unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks and poorly understood low-grade metasediments. In the Antalaha area of NE Madagascar, two distinct cover sequences rest on high-grade metamorphic and igneous basement rocks of the Archaean Antongil craton and the Neoproterozoic Bemarivo belt. The older of these two cover sequences, the Andrarona Group, consists of low-grade metasedimentary rocks. The younger sequence, the newly defined Ampohafana Formation, consists of unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks. The Andrarona Group rests on Neoarchaean granites and monzogranites of the Antongil craton and consists of a basal metagreywacke, thick quartzites and an upper sequence of sericite-chlorite meta-mudstones, meta-sandstones and a volcaniclastic meta-sandstone. The depositional age of the volcaniclastic meta-sandstone is constrained in age by U–Pb laser-ablation ICP-MS analyses of euhedral zircons to 1875 ± 8 Ma (2σ). Detrital zircons of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic age represent an input from the Antongil craton and a newly defined Palaeoproterozoic igneous unit, the Masindray tonalite, which underlies the Andrarona Group, and yielded a U–Pb zircon age of 2355 ± 11 Ma (2σ), thus constraining the maximum age of deposition of the basal part of the Andrarona Group. The Andrarona Group shows a low-grade metamorphic overprint in the area near Antalaha; illite crystallinity values scatter around 0.17°Δ2Θ CuKα, which is within the epizone. The Ampohafana Formation consists of undeformed, polymict conglomerate, cross-bedded sandstone, and red mudstone. An illite crystallinity value of >0.25°Δ2Θ CuKα obtained from the rocks is typical of the diagenetic zone. Occurrences of rhyodacite pebbles in the Ampohafana Formation and the intrusion of a basaltic dyke suggest a deposition in a WSW-ENE-trending graben system during the opening of the Indian

  13. Multiple causes of an unexpected malaria outbreak in a high-transmission area in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesteman, Thomas; Rafalimanantsoa, Solofoniaina A; Razafimandimby, Harimahefa; Rasamimanana, Heriniaina H; Raharimanga, Vaomalala; Ramarosandratana, Benjamin; Ratsimbasoa, Arsene; Ratovonjato, Jocelyn; Elissa, Nohal; Randrianasolo, Laurence; Finlay, Alyssa; Rogier, Christophe; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona

    2016-02-02

    The malaria burden in Madagascar dropped down last decade, largely due to scale-up of control measures. Nevertheless, a significant rise of malaria cases occurred in 2011-2012 in two regions of the rainy South-Eastern Madagascar, where malaria is considered as mesoendemic and the population is supposed to be protected by its acquired immunity against Plasmodium. A multidisciplinary investigation was conducted in order to identify the causes of the outbreak. In March 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 20 randomly selected clusters, involving the rapid diagnostic testing of all ≥6 month-old members of households and a questionnaire about socio-demographic data and exposure to malaria control interventions. Changes in environmental conditions were evaluated by qualitative interview of local authorities, climatic conditions were evaluated by remote-sensing, and stock outs of malaria supplies in health facilities were evaluated by quantitative means. Two long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) were sampled in each cluster in order to evaluate their condition and the remanence of their insecticidal activity. The entomological investigation also encompassed the collection Anopheles vectors in two sites, and the measure of their sensitivity to deltamethrin. The cross-sectional survey included 1615 members of 440 households. The mean Plasmodium infection rate was 25.6 % and the mean bed net use on the day before survey was 71.1 %. The prevalence of Plasmodium infections was higher in 6-14 year-old children (odds ratio (OR) 7.73 [95 % CI 3.58-16.68]), in rural areas (OR 6.25 [4.46-8.76]), in poorest socio-economic tercile (OR 1.54 [1.13-2.08]), and it was lower in individuals sleeping regularly under the bed net (OR 0.51 [0.32-0.82]). Stock outs of anti-malarial drugs in the last 6 months have been reported in two third of health facilities. Rainfalls were increased as compared with the three previous rainy seasons. Vectors collected were sensitive to

  14. The most used medicinal plants by communities in Mahaboboka, Amboronabo, Mikoboka, Southwestern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianarivony, Tabita N; Ramarosandratana, Aro Vonjy; Andriamihajarivo, Tefy H; Rakotoarivony, Fortunat; Jeannoda, Vololoniaina H; Randrianasolo, Armand; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2017-03-09

    This paper reports a study undertaken in three remote communities (Mahaboboka, Amboronabo, Mikoboka), located in Sakaraha, Southwestern Madagascar. Not only villages are far away from sanitary infrastructures and doctors but drugs and consulting fees are unaffordable to villagers. They rely essentially on natural resources for health care as for most of rural areas in Madagascar. This paper aims to document medicinal plants used by communities in Sakaraha and to present the most important plant species used in traditional medicine. Semi - structured interview was conducted within 214 informants in 34 villages of the study area. Different ailments encountered in the site study were classified in various categories. For data analysis, frequency of citation (Fq), Informant Consensus Factor (Fic), Fidelity Level (FL) and Use Value (UV) were assessed to find agreement among informants about the use of plants as remedies. Mann-Whitney, Kruskall-Wallis and Spearman correlation tests were performed to determine use of medicinal plants following social status of informants. A total of 235 medicinal plant species belonging to 198 genera and 75 families were inventoried. The richest families in species used for medicinal purposes were: Fabaceae, Apocynaceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, and Poaceae. Plant species cited by informants were used to treat 76 various ailments classified in 13 categories. Leaves and leafy twigs were the most used plant parts and decoction was the mostly cited way of preparation of these medicinal plants species. In average, local people cited 6.7 ± 6.03 medicinal taxa among them, Cedrelopsis grevei is the most cited medicinal plants (Fq. 0.28). With Cedrelopsis grevei (UV = 0.48), Henonia scoparia (UV = 0.43) are mostly used species. Leonotis nepetifolia (FL = 96%) and Strychnos henningsii (FL = 92%) are plant species claimed by high percentage of informants to treat the Digestive System Disorder. This study

  15. Malagasyprinus, a new genus of the Saprininae from Madagascar with description of two new species (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Saprininae (First contribution to the knowledge of the Histeridae of Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Lackner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of recent phylogenetic analysis of the higher taxa of the Saprininae as well as external morphological characters, especially the presence of deep and large prosternal foveae, and the shape and position of the sensory organs of the antennal club, the species Saprinus (s.str. caeruleatus Lewis, 1905 is excluded from the genus Saprinus and a new genus Malagasyprinus, exclusive to Madagascar, is established for it. The new genus shows mainly characters that are apomorphic for the subfamily and contains another two, highly similar allopatric species M. perrieri sp. n., and M. diana sp. n., described herein. The three species are best separated from each other by the structure of the prosternum and male terminalia, especially the shape of the aedeagus. We re-describe M. caeruleatus comb. n. and provide M. perrieri and M. diana with brief differential diagnoses. All taxon descriptions are accompanied with color habitat photographs, SEM micrographs and drawings of their male genitalia. A key to the species of Malagasyprinus is given. Sensory structures of the antenna of M. caeruleatus comb. n. are likewise depicted herein. The systematic position of the newly erected genus is discussed. A lectotype of Saprinus caeruleatus Lewis, 1905 is designated.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of Ptilophora (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) with descriptions of P. aureolusa, P. malagasya, and P. spongiophila from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Ga Hun; Gall, Line Le; Hwang, Il Ki; Miller, Kathy Ann; Boo, Sung Min

    2018-04-01

    The genus Ptilophora currently includes 16 species occurring mostly in subtidal habitats of the Indo-Pacific Ocean, but its global diversity and biogeography are poorly understood. We analyzed mitochondrial cox1, plastid rbcL and plastid psbA sequences from specimens collected in southern Madagascar during the 2010 Atimo Vatae expedition and studied their morphologies. Both morphological and molecular data sets demonstrated the presence of five species in southern Madagascar: Ptilophora hildebrandtii, P. pterocladioides, and three new species described here, P. aureolusa, P. malagasya, and P. spongiophila. Ptilophora aureolusa is distinguished by its compound pinnae with uniformly spaced pinnules. Ptilophora malagasya has an indistinct midrib and irregularly spaced pinnules. Ptilophora spongiophila, heavily coated with sponges, has cylindrical to flattened main axes, lateral and surface proliferations, and spatulate tetrasporangial sori. The species of Ptilophora found in Madagascar are endemic, except P. hildebrandtii, which also occurs in eastern Africa. Ptilophora comprises four phylogenetic groups that map to eastern Australia, Japan, western Australia/Southeast Asia/Madagascar/eastern Africa, and Madagascar/eastern Africa/Aegean Sea. Biogeographical analysis revealed that the ancestor of Ptilophora originated in Australia, but most of the species radiated from Madagascar. © 2018 Phycological Society of America.

  17. Skyline Reservation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  18. Red Algae (Rhodophyta from the Coast of Madagascar: Preliminary Bioactivity Studies and Isolation of Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Pascaline Rahelivao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several species of red algae (Rhodophyta from the coastal regions of Madagascar have been investigated for their natural products. The most abundant compound was cholesterol (5 in combination with a series of oxidized congeners. The brominated indoles 1–3 along with the sesquiterpene debilone (4 have been isolated from Laurencia complanata. For the first time, debilone (4 has been obtained from a marine plant. From the methanol extract of Calloseris sp., we have achieved the second isolation of the unusual A-ring contracted steroids (−-2-ethoxycarbonyl-2β-hydroxy-A-nor-cholest-5-en-4-one (9 and phorbasterone B (10. The crude extracts of Laurencia complanata exhibited antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Candida albicans.

  19. Detection of a novel DSPP mutation by NGS in a population isolate in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes eBloch-Zupan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A large family from a small village in Madagascar, Antanetilava, is known to present with coloured teeth. Through previous collaboration and 4 successive visits in 1994, 2004, 2005 and 2012, we provided dental care to the inhabitants and diagnosed dentinogenesis imperfecta. Recently, using whole exome sequencing we confirmed the clinical diagnosis by identifying a novel single nucleotide deletion in exon 5 of DSPP. This paper underlines the necessity of long run research, the importance of international and interpersonal collaborations as well as the major contribution of next generation sequencing tools in the genetic diagnosis of rare oro-dental anomalies. This study is registered in ClinicalTrials (https://clinicaltrials.gov under the number NCT02397824.

  20. Pollution of the environment by tannery and textile waste waters in the areas of Antananarivo, Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasoazanany, E.O.; Raoelina Andriambololona; Andrianarivo, R.R.; Randriamanivo, L.V.; Raboanary, R.

    2007-01-01

    Waste water pollution is a major problem throughout the world. It has affected the health and the environment in Antananarivo (capital of Madagascar). Undesirable and toxic heavy metals contained in waste water samples are measured by the technique of total reflection X-ray fluorescence. Chromium is a toxic metal for the environment associated to the tannery. Its concentration (2712.1 μg.L -1 ) is superior to the national norm (2000 μg.L -1 ). Regarding textile factories, the highest value of the conductivity (4670 μS.cm -1 ) is 23 times the national norm (200 μS.cm -1 ). The concentration of lead (251.0 μg.L -1 ) is higher than the national norm (200 μg.L -1 ) and the Belgium norm (100 μg.L -1 ). The present study illustrates the importance of the treatment of waste water of the factories before pouring them in the environment.

  1. Modeling the burden of poultry disease on the rural poor in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy L. Rist

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock represent a fundamental economic and nutritional resource for many households in the developing world; however, a high burden of infectious disease limits their production potential. Here we present an ecological framework for estimating the burden of poultry disease based on coupled models of infectious disease and economics. The framework is novel, as it values humans and livestock as co-contributors to household wellbeing, incorporating feedbacks between poultry production and human capital in disease burden estimates. We parameterize this coupled ecological–economic model with household-level data to provide an estimate of the overall burden of poultry disease for the Ifanadiana District in Madagascar, where over 72% of households rely on poultry for economic and food security. Our models indicate that households may lose 10–25% of their monthly income under current disease conditions. Results suggest that advancements in poultry health may serve to support income generation through improvements in both human and animal health.

  2. Radiological emergency system in Madagascar, case of loss of a source of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randriantsizafy, R.D.; Raoelina Andriambololona; Zafimanjato, J.L.R.

    2012-06-01

    In Madagascar, a national radiological emergency response is not formally established. However, an Ad Hoc Committee of safety and nuclear safety and radiological is in place. The committee is composed of several Government entities and the role of each is identified. This Ad Hoc Committee has demonstrated its effectiveness for real action in 2010 with the loss of industrial radiography Container with Ir-192 source, the emergency is classified in threat category IV. Concerning the theft, the communication with the public and the other state entities, the search for the source and the source recovery were conducted in coordination between the different members. And of course, the lessons were reported during the operation which lasted more than three months

  3. Gold deposit styles and placer gold characterisation in northern and east-central Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitfield, Peter E. J; Styles, Michael T.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Key, Roger M.; Bauer,; Ralison, A

    2009-01-01

    Microchemical characterisation of bedrock and placer gold grains from six gold districts within the Archaean domains and intervening Neoproterozoic Anaboriana-Manampotsy belt of northern and east-central Madagascar show few opaque inclusions (e.g pyrrhotite, Bi tellurides) but wide range of Ag contents (40wt%). Some districts exhibit multiple source populations of grains. The ‘greenstone belt’ terranes have an orogenic gold signature locally with an intrusion-related to epithermal overprint. Proterozoic metasediments with felsic to ultramafic bodies yield dominantly intrusion-related gold. A high proportion of secondary gold (<0.5wt% Ag) is related to recycling of paleoplacers and erosion of post-Gondwana planation surfaces and indicates that some mesothermal gold systems were already partially to wholly removed by erosion by the PermoTriassic.

  4. How Effective Have Thirty Years of Internationally Driven Conservation and Development Efforts Been in Madagascar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmé, Lucienne; Mercier, Jean-Roger; Camara, Christian; Lowry, Porter P.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation and development are intricately linked. The international donor community has long provided aid to tropical countries in an effort to alleviate poverty and conserve biodiversity. While hundreds of millions of $ have been invested in over 500 environmental-based projects in Madagascar during the period covered by a series of National Environmental Action Plans (1993–2008) and the protected areas network has expanded threefold, deforestation remains unchecked and none of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) established for 2000–2015 were likely be met. Efforts to achieve sustainable development had failed to reduce poverty or deliver progress toward any of the MDGs. Cross-sectorial policy adjustments are needed that (i) enable and catalyze Madagascar’s capacities rather than deepening dependency on external actors such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and donor countries, and that (ii) deliver improvements to the livelihoods and wellbeing of the country’s rural poor. PMID:27532499

  5. Impacts of community forest management on human economic well-being across Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasolofoson, Ranaivo Andriarilala; Ferraro, Paul J.; Ruta, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Community Forest Management (CFM) devolves forest management to local communities to achieve conservation and human well-being goals. Yet, the evidence for CFM's impacts is mixed and difficult to interpret because of inadequate attention to rival explanations for the observed empirical patterns....... In a national-scale analysis in Madagascar that carefully considers these rival explanations, we estimate CFM impacts on household living standards, as measured by per capita consumption expenditures. The estimated impact is positive, but small and not statistically different from zero. However, we can...... statistically reject substantial negative impacts (which others have suggested may exist). The estimated impacts vary conditional on household education and proximity to forests: they are more positive and statistically significant for households closer to forest and with more education. To help improve CFM...

  6. Red Algae (Rhodophyta) from the Coast of Madagascar: Preliminary Bioactivity Studies and Isolation of Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahelivao, Marie Pascaline; Gruner, Margit; Andriamanantoanina, Hanta; Andriamihaja, Bakolinirina; Bauer, Ingmar; Knölker, Hans-Joachim

    2015-07-07

    Several species of red algae (Rhodophyta) from the coastal regions of Madagascar have been investigated for their natural products. The most abundant compound was cholesterol (5) in combination with a series of oxidized congeners. The brominated indoles 1-3 along with the sesquiterpene debilone (4) have been isolated from Laurencia complanata. For the first time, debilone (4) has been obtained from a marine plant. From the methanol extract of Calloseris sp., we have achieved the second isolation of the unusual A-ring contracted steroids (-)-2-ethoxycarbonyl-2β-hydroxy-A-nor-cholest-5-en-4-one (9) and phorbasterone B (10). The crude extracts of Laurencia complanata exhibited antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Candida albicans.

  7. Responses to dry season supplementation by dairy cows on the highland zones of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasambainarivo, J.H.; Razafindraibe, H.; Rabehanitriniony, M.; Rasoloarison, R.; Rafalimanantsoa, E.; Barsona, M.R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Three feeding trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of different feed supplements on the productivity of dairy cows. The trials were conducted in 49 farms located in the Highland zones of Madagascar and comprised of 143 crossbred cows. Milk yield was recorded daily and live weight was measured at the beginning and end of each experiment. Progesterone concentration was measured in milk samples taken regularly for investigating post partum ovarian function. Milk production estimates were evaluated through regression analysis. The daily consumption of 0.6 kg urea-molasses minerals blocks (UMMB) resulted in an additional 30 to 55% milk production during the dry season. The nature of the supplemental feeds had no major effect on the onset of ovarian activity, which ranged from 28 to 95 days after calving. An economic analysis showed that the use of UMMB in addition to the usual concentrates was profitable to the dairy farmers. (author)

  8. A necessarily complex model to explain the biogeography of the amphibians and reptiles of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jason L; Cameron, Alison; Yoder, Anne D; Vences, Miguel

    2014-10-09

    Pattern and process are inextricably linked in biogeographic analyses, though we can observe pattern, we must infer process. Inferences of process are often based on ad hoc comparisons using a single spatial predictor. Here, we present an alternative approach that uses mixed-spatial models to measure the predictive potential of combinations of hypotheses. Biodiversity patterns are estimated from 8,362 occurrence records from 745 species of Malagasy amphibians and reptiles. By incorporating 18 spatially explicit predictions of 12 major biogeographic hypotheses, we show that mixed models greatly improve our ability to explain the observed biodiversity patterns. We conclude that patterns are influenced by a combination of diversification processes rather than by a single predominant mechanism. A 'one-size-fits-all' model does not exist. By developing a novel method for examining and synthesizing spatial parameters such as species richness, endemism and community similarity, we demonstrate the potential of these analyses for understanding the diversification history of Madagascar's biota.

  9. Forest Management Devolution: Gap Between Technicians' Design and Villagers' Practices in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rives, Fanny; Carrière, Stéphanie M.; Montagne, Pierre; Aubert, Sigrid; Sibelet, Nicole

    2013-10-01

    In the 1980s, tropical forest-management principles underwent a shift toward approaches giving greater responsibilities to rural people. One argument for such a shift were the long-term relations established between rural people and their natural resources. In Madagascar, a new law was drawn up in 1996 (Gelose law), which sought to integrate rural people into forest management. A gap was observed between the changes foreseen by the projects implementing the Gelose law and the actual changes. In this article, we use the concept of the social-ecological system (SES) to analyze that gap. The differences existing between the planned changes set by the Gelose contract in the village of Ambatoloaka (northwest of Madagascar) and the practices observed in 2010 were conceptualized as a gap between two SESs. The first SES is the targeted one (i.e., a virtual one); it corresponds to the designed Gelose contract. The second SES is the observed one. It is characterized by the heterogeneity of forest users and uses, which have several impacts on forest management, and by very dynamic social and ecological systems. The observed SES has been reshaped contingent on the constraints and opportunities offered by the Gelose contract as well as on other ecological and social components. The consequences and opportunities that such an SES reshaping would offer to improve the implementation of the Gelose law are discussed. The main reasons explaining the gap between the two SESs are as follows: (1) the clash between static and homogeneous perceptions in the targeted SES and the dynamics and heterogeneity that characterize the observed SES; and (2) the focus on one specific use of forest ecosystems (i.e., charcoal-making) in the targeted SES. Forest management in the observed SES depends on several uses of forest ecosystems.

  10. The origin and dispersion of human parasitic diseases in the old world (Africa, Europe and Madagascar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozais, Jean-Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The ancestors of present-day man (Homo sapiens sapiens) appeared in East Africa some three and a half million years ago (Australopithecs), and then migrated to Europe, Asia, and later to the Americas, thus beginning the differentiation process. The passage from nomadic to sedentary life took place in the Middle East in around 8000 BC. Wars, spontaneous migrations and forced migrations (slave trade) led to enormous mixtures of populations in Europe and Africa and favoured the spread of numerous parasitic diseases with specific strains according to geographic area. The three human plasmodia (Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, and P. malariae) were imported from Africa into the Mediterranean region with the first human migrations, but it was the Neolithic revolution (sedentarisation, irrigation, population increase) which brought about actual foci for malaria. The reservoir for Leishmania infantum and L. donovani--the dog--has been domesticated for thousands of years. Wild rodents as reservoirs of L. major have also long been in contact with man and probably were imported from tropical Africa across the Sahara. L. tropica, by contrast, followed the migrations of man, its only reservoir. L. infantum and L. donovani spread with man and his dogs from West Africa. Likewise, for thousands of years, the dog has played an important role in the spread and the endemic character of hydatidosis through sheep (in Europe and North Africa) and dromadary (in the Sahara and North Africa). Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni have existed since prehistoric times in populations living in or passing through the Sahara. These populations then transported them to countries of Northern Africa where the specific, intermediary hosts were already present. Madagascar was inhabited by populations of Indonesian origin who imported lymphatic filariosis across the Indian Ocean (possibly of African origin since the Indonesian sailors had spent time on the African coast before reaching Madagascar

  11. Competition for dead trees between humans and aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) in central eastern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rose T; Raharison, Jean-Luc; Irwin, Mitchell T

    2017-04-01

    The destruction and degradation of forest habitats are major threats to the sustainability of lemur populations in Madagascar. Madagascan landscapes often contain forest fragments that represent refuges for native fauna, while also being used for firewood and timber by local human populations. As undisturbed forest becomes increasingly scarce, understanding resource competition between humans and wildlife in disturbed habitats will be increasingly important. We tested the hypothesis that Malagasy and aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) compete for the limited number of dead trees in rainforest fragments at Tsinjoarivo, Madagascar. We surveyed 2.16 ha within five fragments (range 5-228 ha) surrounding human settlements to quantify the density of dead trees and traces of both human and aye-aye activity. Neither aye-aye nor human traces were distributed according to the availability of particular trees species, and aye-ayes and Malagasy apparently preferred several different species. Although overlap was recorded in tree species used, human use tended to be positively correlated with a species' desirability as firewood, while a negative relationship was seen for aye-ayes. Both consumers used trees of similar diameter at breast height, but those used by aye-ayes tended to be older, suggesting that human use might precede usefulness for aye-ayes. Finally, the density of dead trees and aye-aye traces were highest in smaller fragments, but human traces did not vary across fragment size. Although further study is needed to better quantify the aye-aye diet in this region, these data suggest that aye-ayes and local people compete for dead trees, and this competition could constitute a pressure on aye-aye populations.

  12. A genome sequence resource for the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), a nocturnal lemur from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, George H; Reeves, Darryl; Melsted, Páll; Ratan, Aakrosh; Miller, Webb; Michelini, Katelyn; Louis, Edward E; Pritchard, Jonathan K; Mason, Christopher E; Gilad, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    We present a high-coverage draft genome assembly of the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), a highly unusual nocturnal primate from Madagascar. Our assembly totals ~3.0 billion bp (3.0 Gb), roughly the size of the human genome, comprised of ~2.6 million scaffolds (N50 scaffold size = 13,597 bp) based on short paired-end sequencing reads. We compared the aye-aye genome sequence data with four other published primate genomes (human, chimpanzee, orangutan, and rhesus macaque) as well as with the mouse and dog genomes as nonprimate outgroups. Unexpectedly, we observed strong evidence for a relatively slow substitution rate in the aye-aye lineage compared with these and other primates. In fact, the aye-aye branch length is estimated to be ~10% shorter than that of the human lineage, which is known for its low substitution rate. This finding may be explained, in part, by the protracted aye-aye life-history pattern, including late weaning and age of first reproduction relative to other lemurs. Additionally, the availability of this draft lemur genome sequence allowed us to polarize nucleotide and protein sequence changes to the ancestral primate lineage-a critical period in primate evolution, for which the relevant fossil record is sparse. Finally, we identified 293,800 high-confidence single nucleotide polymorphisms in the donor individual for our aye-aye genome sequence, a captive-born individual from two wild-born parents. The resulting heterozygosity estimate of 0.051% is the lowest of any primate studied to date, which is understandable considering the aye-aye's extensive home-range size and relatively low population densities. Yet this level of genetic diversity also suggests that conservation efforts benefiting this unusual species should be prioritized, especially in the face of the accelerating degradation and fragmentation of Madagascar's forests.

  13. Population Genetic Structure and Isolation by Distance of Helicobacter pylori in Senegal and Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, Bodo; Vololonantenainab, Clairette Romaine Raharisolo; Seck, Abdoulaye; Carod, Jean-François; Dia, Daouda; Garin, Benoit; Ramanampamonjy, Rado Manitrala; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Raymond, Josette; Breurec, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has probably infected the human stomach since our origins and subsequently diversified in parallel with their human hosts. The genetic population history of H. pylori can therefore be used as a marker for human migration. We analysed seven housekeeping gene sequences of H. pylori strains isolated from 78 Senegalese and 24 Malagasy patients and compared them with the sequences of strains from other geographical locations. H. pylori from Senegal and Madagascar can be placed in the previously described HpAfrica1 genetic population, subpopulations hspWAfrica and hspSAfrica, respectively. These 2 subpopulations correspond to the distribution of Niger-Congo speakers in West and most of subequatorial Africa (due to Bantu migrations), respectively. H. pylori appears as a single population in Senegal, indicating a long common history between ethnicities as well as frequent local admixtures. The lack of differentiation between these isolates and an increasing genetic differentiation with geographical distance between sampling locations in Africa was evidence for genetic isolation by distance. The Austronesian expansion that started from Taiwan 5000 years ago dispersed one of the 10 subgroups of the Austronesian language family via insular Southeast Asia into the Pacific and Madagascar, and hspMaori is a marker for the entire Austronesian expansion. Strain competition and replacement of hspMaori by hpAfrica1 strains from Bantu migrants are the probable reasons for the presence of hspSAfrica strains in Malagasy of Southeast Asian descent. hpAfrica1 strains appear to be generalist strains that have the necessary genetic diversity to efficiently colonise a wide host spectrum. PMID:24498084

  14. Landscape attributes driving avian influenza virus circulation in the Lake Alaotra region of Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Guerrini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While the spatial pattern of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has been studied throughout Southeast Asia, little is known on the spatial risk factors for avian influenza in Africa. In the present paper, we combined serological data from poultry and remotely sensed environmental factors in the Lake Alaotra region of Madagascar to explore for any association between avian influenza and landscape variables. Serological data from cross-sectional surveys carried out on poultry in 2008 and 2009 were examined together with a Landsat 7 satellite image analysed using supervised classification. The dominant landscape features in a 1-km buffer around farmhouses and distance to the closest water body were extracted. A total of 1,038 individual bird blood samples emanating from 241 flocks were analysed, and the association between avian influenza seroprevalence and these landcape variables was quantified using logistic regression models. No evidence of the presence of H5 or H7 avian influenza subtypes was found, suggesting that only low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI circulated. Three predominant land cover classes were identified around the poultry farms: grassland savannah, rice paddy fields and wetlands. A significant negative relationship was found between LPAI seroprevalence and distance to the closest body of water. We also found that LPAI seroprevalence was higher in farms characterised by predominant wetlands or rice landscapes than in those surrounded by dry savannah. Results from this study suggest that if highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus were introduced in Madagascar, the environmental conditions that prevail in Lake Alaotra region may allow the virus to spread and persist.

  15. Minimizing new tritium line sensitivity by a quality process implemented at Madagascar-INSTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaobelison, J.; Raoelina Andriambololona; Ramaroson, V.; Andriamiharitsoa, G.; Fareze, L.P.; Razafintsalama, F.F.A.; Marah, H.

    2009-01-01

    A quality process rigorously implemented in the Isotope Hydrology Laboratory of Madagascar-I.N.S.T.N has significantly contributed to minimize the sensitivity of a recently installed tritium line used for groundwater dating. The ISO/CEI 17025 standard has been applied to fifteen (15) groundwater samples collected from different boreholes in the semi-arid South of Madagascar. The results are in agreement with the spikes analyses results which show that the mean value of the enrichment factor is 23.78 and the enrichment parameter is 0.88 for a preliminary test. Such values are much higher than the usual ones (approximately of 18) for a first enrichment, indicating electrolytic cells optimised work. In addition, the standard deviations are respectively 1.6 and 0.02 for the enrichment factor and parameter, meaning therefore that the cells performances are relatively good. In addition, background measurement was carried out on a dead water sample and produced a relatively low value of 1.07cpm, them simultaneous activities measurement of indoor and outdoor control water samples gave approximately the same values. The latter results prove that there is no indoor contamination of the samples. Finally, the groundwater samples analysis results show that the water activities vary from 0.27 TU to 2.97 TU confirming that the tritium line sensitivity is lower than 0.30 TU and that the system is able to determine groundwater ages up to one thousand years (1000 a), whereas usual tritium lines sensitivities are around 0.80 TU.

  16. Assessment of tuberculosis spatial hotspot areas in Antananarivo, Madagascar, by combining spatial analysis and genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratovonirina, Noël Harijaona; Rakotosamimanana, Niaina; Razafimahatratra, Solohery Lalaina; Raherison, Mamy Serge; Refrégier, Guislaine; Sola, Christophe; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Rasolofo Razanamparany, Voahangy

    2017-08-14

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health problem in Madagascar. A crucial element of TB control is the development of an easy and rapid method for the orientation of TB control strategies in the country. Our main objective was to develop a TB spatial hotspot identification method by combining spatial analysis and TB genotyping method in Antananarivo. Sputa of new pulmonary TB cases from 20 TB diagnosis and treatment centers (DTCs) in Antananarivo were collected from August 2013 to May 2014 for culture. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical isolates were typed by spoligotyping on a Luminex® 200 platform. All TB patients were respectively localized according to their neighborhood residence and the spatial distribution of all pulmonary TB patients and patients with genotypic clustered isolates were scanned respectively by the Kulldorff spatial scanning method for identification of significant spatial clustering. Areas exhibiting spatial clustering of patients with genotypic clustered isolates were considered as hotspot TB areas for transmission. Overall, 467 new cases were included in the study, and 394 spoligotypes were obtained (84.4%). New TB cases were distributed in 133 of the 192 Fokontany (administrative neighborhoods) of Antananarivo (1 to 15 clinical patients per Fokontany) and patients with genotypic clustered isolates were distributed in 127 of the 192 Fokontany (1 to 13 per Fokontany). A single spatial focal point of epidemics was detected when ignoring genotypic data (p = 0.039). One Fokontany of this focal point and three additional ones were detected to be spatially clustered when taking genotypes into account (p Madagascar and will allow better TB control strategies by public health authorities.

  17. The origin and dispersion of human parasitic diseases in the Old World (Africa, Europe and Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Nozais

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The ancestors of present-day man (Homo sapiens sapiens appeared in East Africa some three and a half million years ago (Australopithecs, and then migrated to Europe, Asia, and later to the Americas, thus beginning the differentiation process. The passage from nomadic to sedentary life took place in the Middle East in around 8000 BC. Wars, spontaneous migrations and forced migrations (slave trade led to enormous mixtures of populations in Europe and Africa and favoured the spread of numerous parasitic diseases with specific strains according to geographic area. The three human plasmodia (Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, and P. malariae were imported from Africa into the Mediterranean region with the first human migrations, but it was the Neolithic revolution (sedentarisation, irrigation, population increase which brought about actual foci for malaria. The reservoir for Leishmania infantum and L. donovani - the dog - has been domesticated for thousands of years. Wild rodents as reservoirs of L. major have also long been in contact with man and probably were imported from tropical Africa across the Sahara. L. tropica, by contrast, followed the migrations of man, its only reservoir. L. infantum and L. donovani spread with man and his dogs from West Africa. Likewise, for thousands of years, the dog has played an important role in the spread and the endemic character of hydatidosis through sheep (in Europe and North Africa and dromadary (in the Sahara and North Africa. Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni have existed since prehistoric times in populations living in or passing through the Sahara. These populations then transported them to countries of Northern Africa where the specific, intermediary hosts were already present. Madagascar was inhabited by populations of Indonesian origin who imported lymphatic filariosis across the Indian Ocean (possibly of African origin since the Indonesian sailors had spent time on the African coast before

  18. Association between proximity to a health center and early childhood mortality in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Kashima

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between proximity to a health center and early childhood mortality in Madagascar, and to assess the influence of household wealth, maternal educational attainment, and maternal health on the effects of distance. METHODS: From birth records of subjects in the Demographic and Health Survey, we identified 12565 singleton births from January 2004 to August 2009. After excluding 220 births that lacked global positioning system information for exposure assessment, odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs for neonatal mortality and infant mortality were estimated using multilevel logistic regression models, with 12345 subjects (level 1, nested within 584 village locations (level 2, and in turn nested within 22 regions (level 3. We additionally stratified the subjects by the birth order. We estimated predicted probabilities of each outcome by a three-level model including cross-level interactions between proximity to a health center and household wealth, maternal educational attainment, and maternal anemia. RESULTS: Compared with those who lived >1.5-3.0 km from a health center, the risks for neonatal mortality and infant mortality tended to increase among those who lived further than 5.0 km from a health center; the adjusted ORs for neonatal mortality and infant mortality for those who lived >5.0-10.0 km away from a health center were 1.36 (95% CI: 0.92-2.01 and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.06-1.90, respectively. The positive associations were more pronounced among the second or later child. The distance effects were not modified by household wealth status, maternal educational attainment, or maternal health status. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that distance from a health center is a risk factor for early childhood mortality (primarily, infant mortality in Madagascar by using a large-scale nationally representative dataset. The accessibility to health care in remote areas would be a key factor to achieve

  19. The burden of acute disease in Mahajanga, Madagascar - a 21 month study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay C Kannan

    Full Text Available Efforts to develop effective and regionally-appropriate emergency care systems in sub-Saharan Africa are hindered by a lack of data on both the burden of disease in the region and on the state of existing care delivery mechanisms. This study describes the burden of acute disease presenting to an emergency unit in Mahajanga, Madagascar.Handwritten patient registries on all emergency department patients presenting between 1 January 2011 and 30 September 2012 were reviewed and data entered into a database. Data included age, sex, diagnosis, and disposition. We classified diagnoses into Clinical Classifications Software (CCS multi-level categories. The population was 53.5% male, with a median age of 31 years. The five most common presenting conditions were 1 Superficial injury; contusion, 2 Open wounds of head; neck; and trunk, 3 Open wounds of extremities, 4 Intracranial injury, and 5 Unspecified injury and poisoning. Trauma accounted for 48%, Infectious Disease for 15%, Mental Health 6.1%, Noncommunicable 29%, and Neoplasms 1.2%. The acuity seen was high, with an admission rate of 43%. Trauma was the most common reason for admission, representing 19% of admitted patients.This study describes the burden of acute disease at a large referral center in northern Madagascar. The Centre Hôpitalier Universitaire de Mahajanga sees a high volume of acutely ill and injured patients. Similar to other reports from the region, trauma is the most common pathology observed, though infectious disease was responsible for the majority of adult mortality. Typhoid fever other intestinal infections were the most lethal CCS-coded pathologies. By utilizing a widely understood classification system, we are able to highlight contrasts between Mahajanga's acute and overall disease burden as well as make comparisons between this region and the rest of the globe. We hope this study will serve to guide the development of context-appropriate emergency medicine systems in the

  20. Lost in translation: conflicting views of deforestation, land use and identity in western Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the interplay between environmental narratives, identity politics and the management of forest resources in Madagascar. While efforts to conserve the island's biological diversity have centred primarily on the designation of protected areas, policies have increasingly focused on local communities. The experiences of the last 20 years have shown that community-based approaches to conservation offer considerable challenges due to the complex politics of natural resource use, which involve multiple and diverse stakeholders, often with very different and sometimes conflicting values. In this paper, I focus on the environmental perceptions and values of two groups in the Central Menabe region of western Madagascar – conservation organisations and rural households – revealing a contrasting set of views regarding the region's forest. I show that the conservation discourse has changed over time, increasingly emphasising the biological diversity of the region's tropical dry-deciduous forest and prioritising non-consumptive uses of natural resources. Although policy has changed in response to changing values, I show that it has been underpinned by the notion that hatsake (‘slash-and-burn’ agriculture) is an irrational practice driven by necessity rather than choice. Policy has thus sought to provide livelihood alternatives, firstly through forestry, then through changes in cultivation and increasingly through tourism. This misunderstands the local view of the forest, which sees hatsake as a way to make the land productive, as long as it is carried out responsibly according to local fady (taboos). As well as facing problems of translating conservation goals into local values and misunderstanding the motives for forest clearance, policy has been based on a narrative that attaches particular land use practices to ethnic identities. I argue that this ignores the history and fluid reality of both identity and land use.

  1. The Dynamics, Ecological Variability and Estimated Carbon Stocks of Mangroves in Mahajamba Bay, Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor G. Jones

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves are found throughout the tropics, providing critical ecosystem goods and services to coastal communities and supporting rich biodiversity. Globally, mangroves are being rapidly degraded and deforested at rates exceeding loss in many tropical inland forests. Madagascar contains around 2% of the global distribution, >20% of which has been deforested since 1990, primarily from over-harvest for forest products and conversion for agriculture and aquaculture. While historically not prominent, mangrove loss in Madagascar’s Mahajamba Bay is increasing. Here, we focus on Mahajamba Bay, presenting long-term dynamics calculated using United States Geological Survey (USGS national-level mangrove maps contextualized with socio-economic research and ground observations, and the results of contemporary (circa 2011 mapping of dominant mangrove types. The analysis of the USGS data indicated 1050 hectares (3.8% lost from 2000 to 2010, which socio-economic research suggests is increasingly driven by commercial timber extraction. Contemporary mapping results permitted stratified sampling based on spectrally distinct and ecologically meaningful mangrove types, allowing for the first-ever vegetation carbon stock estimates for Mahajamba Bay. The overall mean carbon stock across all mangrove classes was estimated to be 100.97 ± 10.49 Mg C ha−1. High stature closed-canopy mangroves had the highest average carbon stock estimate (i.e., 166.82 ± 15.28 Mg C ha−1. These estimates are comparable to other published values in Madagascar and elsewhere in the Western Indian Ocean and demonstrate the ecological variability of Mahajamba Bay’s mangroves and their value towards climate change mitigation.

  2. US uranium reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, M.V.

    1981-01-01

    The current low level of demand, compounded by rapidly rising costs and low prices, has caused a significant reduction in drilling for uranium in the United States, and the trend is likely to continue for a few more years. The effect on uranium reserves will be fewer additions to reserves because less exploration is being done. Further reductions will occur, especially in low-cost reserves, because of increasing costs, continuing depletion through production, and erosion through the high grading of deposits to fulfill previous contractual commitments. During the past several years, it has been necessary to increase the upper reserve cost level twice to compensate for rising costs. Rising costs are reducing the $15 reserves, the cost category corresponding most closely to the present market price, to an insignificant level. An encouraging factor related to US uranium reserves is that the US position internationally, as far as quantity is concerned, is not bad for the longer term. Also, there is a general opinion that US consumers would rather contract for domestic uranium than for foreign because of greater assurance of supply. Still another factor, nearly impossible to assess, is what effect rising costs in other countries will have on their uranium reserves. The annual conferences between the Grand Junction Area Office staff and major uranium companies provide a broad overview of the industry's perception of the future. It is not optimistic for the short term. Many companies are reducing their exploration and mining programs; some are switching to other more marketable mineral commodities, and a few are investing more heavily in foreign ventures. However, there is general optimism for the long term, and many predict a growth in demand in the mid-1980s. If the industry can survive the few lean years ahead, rising prices may restore its viability to former levels

  3. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  4. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  5. Brazilian uranium reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    Due to a growing demand of electric power to support Brasil's development, the use of nuclear energy will be indispensable. The nuclear fuel cycle for the production of energy, starts with the uranium exploration. The work performed in this field led to the discovery of several deposits in the country, which to-date totalize a reserve of 236,300t of U 308 , ranking Brazil in the 6th place among the nations of the western world holding uranium reserves. (Author) [pt

  6. Analysis of seed phorbol-ester and curcin content together with genetic diversity in multiple provenances of Jatropha curcas L. from Madagascar and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; King, Andrew J; Khan, M Awais; Cuevas, Jesús A; Ramiaramanana, Danièle; Graham, Ian A

    2011-10-01

    Jatropha curcas L. has been promoted as an oilseed crop for use to meet the increased world demand for vegetable oil production, and in particular, as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Seed meal is a protein-rich by-product of vegetable oil extraction, which can either be used as an organic fertilizer, or converted to animal feed. However, conversion of J. curcas seed meal into animal feed is complicated by the presence of toxins, though plants producing "edible" or "non-toxic" seeds occur in Mexico. Toxins present in the seeds of J. curcas include phorbol esters and a type-I ribosome inactivating protein (curcin). Although the edible seeds of J. curcas are known to lack phorbol esters, the curcin content of these seeds has not previously been studied. We analyzed the phorbol ester and curcin content of J. curcas seeds obtained from Mexico and Madagascar, and conclude that while phorbol esters are lacking in edible seeds, both types contain curcin. We also analyzed spatial distribution of these toxins in seeds. Phorbol-esters were most concentrated in the tegmen. Curcin was found in both the endosperm and tegmen. We conclude that seed toxicity in J. curcas is likely to be due to a monogenic trait, which may be under maternal control. We also conducted AFLP analysis and conclude that genetic diversity is very limited in the Madagascan collection compared to the Mexican collection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Conserved and divergent expression patterns of markers of axial development in reptilian embryos: Chinese soft-shell turtle and Madagascar ground gecko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Michio; Kajikawa, Eriko; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Noro, Miyuki; Iwai, Tatsuhiro; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Kobayashi, Kensaku; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Aizawa, Shinichi

    2016-07-01

    The processes of development leading up to gastrulation have been markedly altered during the evolution of amniotes, and it is uncertain how the mechanisms of axis formation are conserved and diverged between mouse and chick embryos. To assess the conservation and divergence of these mechanisms, this study examined gene expression patterns during the axis formation process in Chinese soft-shell turtle and Madagascar ground gecko preovipositional embryos. The data suggest that NODAL signaling, similarly to avian embryos but in contrast to eutherian embryos, does not have a role in epiblast and hypoblast development in reptilian embryos. The posterior marginal epiblast (PME) is the initial molecular landmark of axis formation in reptilian embryos prior to primitive plate development. Ontogenetically, PME may be the precursor of the primitive plate, and phylogenetically, Koller's sickle and posterior marginal zone in avian development may have been derived from the PME. Most of the genes expressed in the mouse anterior visceral endoderm (AVE genes), especially signaling antagonist genes, are not expressed in the hypoblast of turtle and gecko embryos, though they are expressed in the avian hypoblast. This study proposes that AVE gene expression in the hypoblast and the visceral endoderm could have been independently established in avian and eutherian lineages, similar to the primitive streak that has been independently acquired in these lineages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Local people's knowledge with regard to land use activities in southwest Madagascar - Conceptual insights for sustainable land management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz-Vietta, Nadine V M; Tahirindraza, H Stone; Stoll-Kleemann, Susanne

    2017-09-01

    Environmental conditions in the Mahafaly Plateau region in southwest Madagascar are harsh, with a long dry season and a short rainy season. The local people's land use capabilities and skills are adapted to these conditions. Nevertheless, they are currently confronted by drastic climatic changes, including longer dry seasons, which have resulted in food and water scarcities. It is therefore essential to ensure sustainable land management in the region. At present, the main land use activities are agriculture, livestock farming, natural resource collection including timber and non-timber forest products, and the practice of local customs. Land use activities have always resulted in land conversion, yet over time this ecological transformation also leads to the accumulation of knowledge. The aim of the present article is therefore twofold. First, it aims to examine local people's knowledge with regard to land use activities and the transmission of this knowledge from one generation to the next; second, it considers the extent to which local people's knowledge may contribute to the development of sustainable land management. Our research is based on more than 80 qualitative interviews with local inhabitants of the Mahafaly Plateau region. Our analysis of local people's knowledge identifies four categories: ecological knowledge, knowledge related to natural resource usage, knowledge of names, and the interconnection between knowledge and belief. Furthermore, these knowledge categories provide conceptual insights for sustainable land management. Along with the long-term persistence of natural resources and their functions and the satisfaction of basic needs through resource usage, both the recognition of mental images as a regulating mechanism and the maintenance of the relation between the natural and the supernatural world have a role to play in sustainable land management in the study area. Local knowledge transmission processes serve to foster ongoing learning and

  9. Tracing Arab-Islamic Inheritance in Madagascar: Study of the Y-chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA in the Antemoro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capredon, Mélanie; Brucato, Nicolas; Tonasso, Laure; Choesmel-Cadamuro, Valérie; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Rakotondrabe, Andriamihaja Bakomalala; Ratolojanahary, Mamisoa Adelta; Randriamarolaza, Louis-Paul; Champion, Bernard; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Madagascar is located at the crossroads of the Asian and African worlds and is therefore of particular interest for studies on human population migration. Within the large human diversity of the Great Island, we focused our study on a particular ethnic group, the Antemoro. Their culture presents an important Arab-Islamic influence, but the question of an Arab biological inheritance remains unresolved. We analyzed paternal (n=129) and maternal (n=135) lineages of this ethnic group. Although the majority of Antemoro genetic ancestry comes from sub-Saharan African and Southeast Asian gene pools, we observed in their paternal lineages two specific haplogroups (J1 and T1) linked to Middle Eastern origins. This inheritance was restricted to some Antemoro sub-groups. Statistical analyses tended to confirm significant Middle Eastern genetic contribution. This study gives a new perspective to the large human genetic diversity in Madagascar. PMID:24278350

  10. Tracing Arab-Islamic inheritance in Madagascar: study of the Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA in the Antemoro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Capredon

    Full Text Available Madagascar is located at the crossroads of the Asian and African worlds and is therefore of particular interest for studies on human population migration. Within the large human diversity of the Great Island, we focused our study on a particular ethnic group, the Antemoro. Their culture presents an important Arab-Islamic influence, but the question of an Arab biological inheritance remains unresolved. We analyzed paternal (n=129 and maternal (n=135 lineages of this ethnic group. Although the majority of Antemoro genetic ancestry comes from sub-Saharan African and Southeast Asian gene pools, we observed in their paternal lineages two specific haplogroups (J1 and T1 linked to Middle Eastern origins. This inheritance was restricted to some Antemoro sub-groups. Statistical analyses tended to confirm significant Middle Eastern genetic contribution. This study gives a new perspective to the large human genetic diversity in Madagascar.

  11. Uptake of cataract surgery in Sava Region, Madagascar: role of cataract case finders in acceptance of cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafinimpanana, Narivony; Nkumbe, Henry; Courtright, Paul; Lewallen, Susan

    2012-04-01

    The number of people coming for cataract surgery in Madagascar remains low and most ophthalmologists could do many more surgeries than currently done. Knowing why people identified with cataract do not accept surgery will help to design programs that use existing resources more effectively. The study was carried out in Sava Region of Madagascar. People with blinding (acceptance were proximity to hospital (people from Sambava district were twice as likely to present as people from more distant districts) and perceived price of transport and food (being higher for people not accepting). The actual price of surgery was not the main barrier to acceptance of surgery; instead it appears that distance to the hospital and the willingness to pay are important predictors. Strategies to improve uptake need to be revised in order to ensure that people have access to and use cataract surgical services.

  12. Canthyporus reebae sp. nov. from the Itremo and Andringitra mountains of central eastern Madagascar (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Michaël; Ramahandrison, Andriamirado T

    2017-06-01

    Canthyporus reebae sp. nov. is described from the south-eastern part of the Itremo mountain range and from the Andringitra massif in central eastern Madagascar. The new species is the second one of the genus Canthyporus Zimmermann, 1919 to be recorded from Madagascar, the other being C. pauliani Guignot, 1951, so far endemic to the northern massif of Tsaratanana. The habitus and male and female reproductive structures of the new species are illustrated. Canthyporus reebae sp. nov. differs from C. pauliani notably by larger size, less parallel-sided and more evenly convex habitus, paler pronotum, more weakly impressed body surface reticulation, and a different shape of the median lobe of aedeagus. Differences with similar C. hottentottus-group species from mainland Africa are also discussed. Data on habitat preferences of C. reebae sp. nov. and a distribution map of Malagasy Canthyporus are presented and discussed.

  13. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  14. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  15. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  16. Uranium reserves fall: AAEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Figures released by the AAEC show that Australia's reasonably assured resources of uranium recoverable at US$80 a kg fell by 5,000 tonnes during 1980-81. Reserves at 30 June 1981 totalled 294,000 tonnes. This represented 17 per cent of the Western World's low cost reasonably assured resources

  17. Reserve Component Programs, Fiscal Year 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    would fight. War- time missions are executed with United States and foreign forces, just as would occur &WV ft Ra RDdNemv cowei hr ~u~, FY M87 Exwutdm...Luxembourg Somalia Bermuda Greece Madagascar South Korea Bolivia Greenland Malaysia Spain Brazil Grenada Marshall Islands Sweden Cameroon Guam Mexico...Major Dell M. Dempsey, USMCR Ecuadoran Military attache in Panama 0 Colonel James V. Dugar, ANGUS * Young, Colonel Ralph R. (USAR) 0 Colonel

  18. Host Ecology Rather Than Host Phylogeny Drives Amphibian Skin Microbial Community Structure in the Biodiversity Hotspot of Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Bletz, Molly C.; Archer, Holly; Harris, Reid N.; McKenzie, Valerie J.; Rabemananjara, Falitiana C. E.; Rakotoarison, Andolalao; Vences, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Host-associated microbiotas of vertebrates are diverse and complex communities that contribute to host health. In particular, for amphibians, cutaneous microbial communities likely play a significant role in pathogen defense; however, our ecological understanding of these communities is still in its infancy. Here, we take advantage of the fully endemic and locally species-rich amphibian fauna of Madagascar to investigate the factors structuring amphibian skin microbiota on a large scale. Usin...

  19. Estimating Herd Immunity to Amphibian Chytridiomycosis in Madagascar Based on the Defensive Function of Amphibian Skin Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bletz, Molly C.; Myers, Jillian; Woodhams, Douglas C.; Rabemananjara, Falitiana C. E.; Rakotonirina, Angela; Weldon, Che; Edmonds, Devin; Vences, Miguel; Harris, Reid N.

    2017-01-01

    For decades, Amphibians have been globally threatened by the still expanding infectious disease, chytridiomycosis. Madagascar is an amphibian biodiversity hotspot where Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has only recently been detected. While no Bd-associated population declines have been reported, the risk of declines is high when invasive virulent lineages become involved. Cutaneous bacteria contribute to host innate immunity by providing defense against pathogens for numerous animals, inc...

  20. Phylogeography in Response to Reproductive Strategies and Ecogeographic Isolation in Ant Species on Madagascar: Genus Mystrium (Formicidae: Amblyoponinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Natalie R; Fisher, Brian L; Girman, Derek J

    2016-01-01

    The bulk of models used to understand the species diversification on Madagascar have been constructed using vertebrate taxa. It is not clear how these models affect less vagile species that may interact at a variety of spatial scales. Several studies on vertebrates have divided Madagascar into east-west bioclimatic regions, suggesting there is a fundamental division between eastern wet-adapted and western dry-adapted taxa. An alternative model of ecogeographic constraints shows a north-south division. We test whether the diversification in a small arthropod with variable degrees of dispersal conform to either model of ecogeographic constraints proposed for vertebrate taxa. We employ a molecular taxonomic dataset using ~2 kilobases nuDNA (Wg, LW Rh, Abd-A, 28s) and 790 basepairs mtDNA (CO1), along with geographic and habitat data, to examine the diversification patterns of the ant genus Mystrium Roger, 1862, (Subfamily Amblyoponinae) from Madagascar. The nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies were both congruent with morphospecies as indicated in a recent revision of the genus. Species of Mystrium practice different colony reproductive strategies (winged queens vs non-winged queens). Alternate reproductive strategies led to inequalities in female dispersal ability among species, providing an additional layer for examination of the impacts of vagility on divergence, especially when measured using a maternally inherited locus. Mystrium species distribution patterns support these models of ecogeographic constraints. Reproductive strategy effected how Mystrium mtDNA lineages were associated with large-scale habitat distinctions and various topographical features. Furthermore, in some cases we find microgeographic population structure which appears to have been impacted by localized habitat differences (tsingy limestone formations, littoral forest) on a scale much smaller than that found in vertebrates. The current system offers a finer scale look at species

  1. High Prevalence of West Nile Virus in Domestic Birds and Detection in 2 New Mosquito Species in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquart, Marianne; Boyer, Sébastien; Rakotoharinome, Vincent Michel; Ravaomanana, Julie; Tantely, Michael Luciano; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Cardinale, Eric

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne zoonosis transmitted by a large number of mosquito species, and birds play a key role as reservoir of the virus. Its distribution is largely widespread over Africa, Asia, the Americas and Europe. Since 1978, it has frequently been reported in Madagascar. Studies described a high seroprevalence level of the virus in humans in different areas of the island and a human fatal case of WNV infection was reported in 2011. Despite these reports, the epidemiology of WNV in Madagascar, in particular, viral circulation remains unclear. To explore the transmission of WNV in two rural human populations of Madagascar, we investigated local mosquitoes and poultry for evidence of current infections, and determined seroprevalence of candidate sentinel species among the local poultry. These 2 areas are close to lakes where domestic birds, migratory wild birds and humans coexist. Serological analysis revealed WNV antibodies in domestic birds (duck, chicken, goose, turkey and guinea fowl) sampled in both districts (Antsalova 29.4% and Mitsinjo 16.7%). West Nile virus nucleic acid was detected in one chicken and in 8 pools of mosquitoes including 2 mosquito species (Aedeomyia madagascarica and Anopheles pauliani) that have not been previously described as candidate vectors for WNV. Molecular analysis of WNV isolates showed that all viruses detected were part of the lineage 2 that is mainly distributed in Africa, and were most closely matched by the previous Malagasy strains isolated in 1988. Our study showed that WNV circulates in Madagascar amongst domestic birds and mosquitoes, and highlights the utility of poultry as a surveillance tool to detect WNV transmission in a peri-domestic setting.

  2. Three distinct Holocene intervals of stalagmite deposition and nondeposition revealed in NW Madagascar, and their paleoclimate implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riavo Gilbertinie Voarintsoa, Ny; Railsback, Loren Bruce; Brook, George Albert; Wang, Lixin; Kathayat, Gayatri; Cheng, Hai; Li, Xianglei; Edwards, Richard Lawrence; Rakotondrazafy, Amos Fety Michel; Olga Madison Razanatseheno, Marie

    2017-12-01

    Petrographic features, mineralogy, and stable isotopes from two stalagmites, ANJB-2 and MAJ-5, respectively from Anjohibe and Anjokipoty caves, allow distinction of three intervals of the Holocene in NW Madagascar. The Malagasy early Holocene (between ca. 9.8 and 7.8 ka) and late Holocene (after ca. 1.6 ka) intervals (MEHI and MLHI, respectively) record evidence of stalagmite deposition. The Malagasy middle Holocene interval (MMHI, between ca. 7.8 and 1.6 ka) is marked by a depositional hiatus of ca. 6500 years. Deposition of these stalagmites indicates that the two caves were sufficiently supplied with water to allow stalagmite formation. This suggests that the MEHI and MLHI intervals may have been comparatively wet in NW Madagascar. In contrast, the long-term depositional hiatus during the MMHI implies it was relatively drier than the MEHI and the MLHI. The alternating wet-dry-wet conditions during the Holocene may have been linked to the long-term migrations of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). When the ITCZ's mean position is farther south, NW Madagascar experiences wetter conditions, such as during the MEHI and MLHI, and when it moves north, NW Madagascar climate becomes drier, such as during the MMHI. A similar wet-dry-wet succession during the Holocene has been reported in neighboring locations, such as southeastern Africa. Beyond these three subdivisions, the records also suggest wet conditions around the cold 8.2 ka event, suggesting a causal relationship. However, additional Southern Hemisphere high-resolution data will be needed to confirm this.

  3. Rapid Response to Evaluate the Presence of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and Ranavirus in Wild Amphibian Populations in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Jonathan E.; Smith, Kristine M.; Ramirez, Sara D.; Rabemananjara, Falitiana; Pessier, Allan P.; Brunner, Jesse L.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Berger, Lee; Skerratt, Lee F.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a rapid response investigation to evaluate the presence and distribution of amphibian pathogens in Madagascar following our identification of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) and ranavirus in commercially exported amphibians. This targeted risk-based field surveillance program was conducted from February to April 2014 encompassing 12 regions and 47 survey sites. We simultaneously collected amphibian and environmental samples to increase survey sensitivity and performed sampling both in wilderness areas and commercial amphibian trade facilities. Bd was not detected in any of 508 amphibian skin swabs or 68 water filter samples, suggesting pathogen prevalence was below 0.8%, with 95% confidence during our visit. Ranavirus was detected in 5 of 97 amphibians, including one adult Mantidactylus cowanii and three unidentified larvae from Ranomafana National Park, and one adult Mantidactylus mocquardi from Ankaratra. Ranavirus was also detected in water samples collected from two commercial amphibian export facilities. We also provide the first report of an amphibian mass-mortality event observed in wild amphibians in Madagascar. Although neither Bd nor ranavirus appeared widespread in Madagascar during this investigation, additional health surveys are required to disentangle potential seasonal variations in pathogen abundance and detectability from actual changes in pathogen distribution and rates of spread. Accordingly, our results should be conservatively interpreted until a comparable survey effort during winter months has been performed. It is imperative that biosecurity practices be immediately adopted to limit the unintentional increased spread of disease through the movement of contaminated equipment or direct disposal of contaminated material from wildlife trade facilities. The presence of potentially introduced strains of ranaviruses suggests that Madagascar's reptile species might also be threatened by disease

  4. Prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and infrastructure for its diagnosis in Madagascar: implication for the WHO's elimination strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamandimby, Soa Fy; Olive, Marie-Marie; Shimakawa, Yusuke; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Razanajatovo, Iony Manitra; Andrianinarivomanana, Tsarasoa Malala; Ravalohery, Jean-Pierre; Andriamamonjy, Seta; Rogier, Christophe; Héraud, Jean-Michel

    2017-08-04

    WHO developed a global strategy to eliminate hepatitis B by 2030 and set target to treat 80% of people with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection eligible for antiviral treatment. As a first step to achieve this goal, it is essential to conduct a situation analysis that is fundamental to designing national hepatitis plans. We therefore estimated the prevalence of chronic HBV infection, and described the existing infrastructure for HBV diagnosis in Madagascar. We conducted a stratified multi-stage serosurvey of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in adults aged ≥18 years using 28 sentinel surveillance sites located throughout the country. We obtained the list of facilities performing HBV testing from the Ministry of Health, and contacted the person responsible at each facility. A total of 1778 adults were recruited from the 28 study areas. The overall weighted seroprevalence of HBsAg was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.6-8.6). Populations with a low socio-economic status and those living in rural areas had a significantly higher seroprevalence of HBsAg. The ratio of facilities equipped to perform HBsAg tests per 100,000 inhabitants was 1.02 in the capital city of Antananarivo and 0.21 outside the capital. There were no facilities with the capacity to perform HBV DNA testing or transient elastography to measure liver fibrosis. There are only five hepatologists in Madagascar. Madagascar has a high-intermediate level of endemicity for HBV infection with a severely limited capacity for its diagnosis and treatment. Higher HBsAg prevalence in rural or underprivileged populations underlines the importance of a public health approach to decentralize the management of chronic HBV carriers in Madagascar by using simple and low-cost diagnostic tools.

  5. Systematics of the Madagascar Anelosimus spiders: remarkable local richness and endemism, and dual colonization from the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingi Agnarsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the alarming rates of deforestation and forest fragmentation, Madagascar still harbors extraordinary biodiversity. However, in many arthropod groups, such as spiders, this biodiversity remains mostly unexplored and undescribed. The first subsocial Madagascan species of the theridiid spider genus Anelosimus were described in 2005 when six new species were found to coexist in the Périnet forest fragment within Andasibe-Mantadia NP. However, this discovery was based only on a few specimens and the extent of this Madagascan radiation has remained unknown. We here report on a thorough survey of >350 colonies from Périnet, and three pilot surveys into additional Madagascar forests (Ambohitantely, Ranamofana, and Montagne d’Ambre. The morphological, molecular and natural history data from these surveys facilitated a revised taxonomy and phylogenetic hypothesis of Madagascan Anelosimus. This subsocial clade currently comprises six previously known (A. andasibe Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, A. may Agnarsson, 2005, A. nazariani Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, A. sallee Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, A. salut Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, A. vondrona Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005 and 10 new species: A. ata sp. n., A. buffoni sp. n., A. darwini sp. n., A. hookeri sp. n., A. huxleyi sp. n., A. lamarcki sp. n., A. moramora sp. n., A. tita sp. n., A. torfi sp. n., A. wallacei sp. n.. With the exception of A. may and A. vondrona, all other species appear to be single forest endemics. While additional sampling is necessary, these data imply a much higher local richness and endemism in Madagascan forests than in any other comparable area globally. The phylogenetic results establish a sister clade relationship between the subsocial Anelosimus in Madagascar and the American ‘eximius group’, and between the solitary A. decaryi on Madagascar and a solitary American clade. These findings imply duplicate colonizations from America, an otherwise rare biogeographical

  6. Rapid Response to Evaluate the Presence of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Ranavirus in Wild Amphibian Populations in Madagascar.

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    Jonathan E Kolby

    Full Text Available We performed a rapid response investigation to evaluate the presence and distribution of amphibian pathogens in Madagascar following our identification of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd and ranavirus in commercially exported amphibians. This targeted risk-based field surveillance program was conducted from February to April 2014 encompassing 12 regions and 47 survey sites. We simultaneously collected amphibian and environmental samples to increase survey sensitivity and performed sampling both in wilderness areas and commercial amphibian trade facilities. Bd was not detected in any of 508 amphibian skin swabs or 68 water filter samples, suggesting pathogen prevalence was below 0.8%, with 95% confidence during our visit. Ranavirus was detected in 5 of 97 amphibians, including one adult Mantidactylus cowanii and three unidentified larvae from Ranomafana National Park, and one adult Mantidactylus mocquardi from Ankaratra. Ranavirus was also detected in water samples collected from two commercial amphibian export facilities. We also provide the first report of an amphibian mass-mortality event observed in wild amphibians in Madagascar. Although neither Bd nor ranavirus appeared widespread in Madagascar during this investigation, additional health surveys are required to disentangle potential seasonal variations in pathogen abundance and detectability from actual changes in pathogen distribution and rates of spread. Accordingly, our results should be conservatively interpreted until a comparable survey effort during winter months has been performed. It is imperative that biosecurity practices be immediately adopted to limit the unintentional increased spread of disease through the movement of contaminated equipment or direct disposal of contaminated material from wildlife trade facilities. The presence of potentially introduced strains of ranaviruses suggests that Madagascar's reptile species might also be threatened by

  7. Rapid Response to Evaluate the Presence of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and Ranavirus in Wild Amphibian Populations in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Jonathan E; Smith, Kristine M; Ramirez, Sara D; Rabemananjara, Falitiana; Pessier, Allan P; Brunner, Jesse L; Goldberg, Caren S; Berger, Lee; Skerratt, Lee F

    2015-01-01

    We performed a rapid response investigation to evaluate the presence and distribution of amphibian pathogens in Madagascar following our identification of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) and ranavirus in commercially exported amphibians. This targeted risk-based field surveillance program was conducted from February to April 2014 encompassing 12 regions and 47 survey sites. We simultaneously collected amphibian and environmental samples to increase survey sensitivity and performed sampling both in wilderness areas and commercial amphibian trade facilities. Bd was not detected in any of 508 amphibian skin swabs or 68 water filter samples, suggesting pathogen prevalence was below 0.8%, with 95% confidence during our visit. Ranavirus was detected in 5 of 97 amphibians, including one adult Mantidactylus cowanii and three unidentified larvae from Ranomafana National Park, and one adult Mantidactylus mocquardi from Ankaratra. Ranavirus was also detected in water samples collected from two commercial amphibian export facilities. We also provide the first report of an amphibian mass-mortality event observed in wild amphibians in Madagascar. Although neither Bd nor ranavirus appeared widespread in Madagascar during this investigation, additional health surveys are required to disentangle potential seasonal variations in pathogen abundance and detectability from actual changes in pathogen distribution and rates of spread. Accordingly, our results should be conservatively interpreted until a comparable survey effort during winter months has been performed. It is imperative that biosecurity practices be immediately adopted to limit the unintentional increased spread of disease through the movement of contaminated equipment or direct disposal of contaminated material from wildlife trade facilities. The presence of potentially introduced strains of ranaviruses suggests that Madagascar's reptile species might also be threatened by disease

  8. Most children who took part in a comprehensive malnutrition programme in Madagascar reached and maintained the recovery threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnin, Margot; Stoll, Beat; Voahangy, Rajaobelina; Jeannot, Emilien

    2017-06-01

    The benefits of including nutritional education in programmes that tackle moderate and severe acute malnutrition remain poorly documented. This study in Madagascar evaluated the nutritional status of children who took part in an innovative programme that included maternal education, on completion and after a year. Each year, this outpatient programme admits 2400 malnourished children from six months to 59 months in the lower districts of Antananarivo, Madagascar. Children were drawn by lots, and their anthropometric data were measured. A descriptive retrospective longitudinal study was conducted on 573 children who took part between 2010 and 2013. The programme lasted an average of 38 days and, on completion, 82.2% had reached the recovery threshold, and 16.2% had moved up to mild malnutrition. This was achieved with food supplements of 720 kcal per day, despite the Malagasy Public Health recommendation of 1000-1500 kcal per day. After one year, 79.1% were still above the recovery threshold, and 15% had mild malnutrition. The recovery rate was higher for children under 24 months of age (odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.93-4.59). Most children who attended this malnutrition programme with maternal education in Madagascar reached the recovery threshold on completion and had maintained it after one year. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF METHYLMERCURY AND OTHER METAL(LOID)S IN MADAGASCAR UNPOLISHED RICE (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E.; Mgutshini, Noma L.; Bizimis, Michael; Johnson-Beebout, Sarah E.; Ramanantsoanirina, Alain

    2014-01-01

    The rice ingestion rate in Madagascar is among the highest globally; however studies concerning metal(loid) concentrations in Madagascar rice are lacking. For Madagascar unpolished rice (n=51 landraces), levels of toxic elements (e.g., total mercury, methylmercury, arsenic and cadmium) as well as essential micronutrients (e.g., zinc and selenium) were uniformly low, indicating potentially both positive and negative health effects. Aside from manganese (Wilcoxon rank sum, p<0.01), no significant differences in concentrations for all trace elements were observed between rice with red bran (n=20) and brown bran (n=31) (Wilcoxon rank sum, p=0.06–0.91). Compared to all elements in rice, rubidium (i.e., tracer for phloem transport) was most positively correlated with methylmercury (Pearson's r=0.33, p<0.05) and total mercury (r=0.44, p<0.05), while strontium (i.e., tracer for xylem transport) was least correlated with total mercury and methylmercury (r<0.01 for both), suggesting inorganic mercury and methylmercury were possibly more mobile in phloem compared to xylem. PMID:25463705

  10. Estimating Herd Immunity to Amphibian Chytridiomycosis in Madagascar Based on the Defensive Function of Amphibian Skin Bacteria

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    Molly C. Bletz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For decades, Amphibians have been globally threatened by the still expanding infectious disease, chytridiomycosis. Madagascar is an amphibian biodiversity hotspot where Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd has only recently been detected. While no Bd-associated population declines have been reported, the risk of declines is high when invasive virulent lineages become involved. Cutaneous bacteria contribute to host innate immunity by providing defense against pathogens for numerous animals, including amphibians. Little is known, however, about the cutaneous bacterial residents of Malagasy amphibians and the functional capacity they have against Bd. We cultured 3179 skin bacterial isolates from over 90 frog species across Madagascar, identified them via Sanger sequencing of approximately 700 bp of the 16S rRNA gene, and characterized their functional capacity against Bd. A subset of isolates was also tested against multiple Bd genotypes. In addition, we applied the concept of herd immunity to estimate Bd-associated risk for amphibian communities across Madagascar based on bacterial antifungal activity. We found that multiple bacterial isolates (39% of all isolates cultured from the skin of Malagasy frogs were able to inhibit Bd. Mean inhibition was weakly correlated with bacterial phylogeny, and certain taxonomic groups appear to have a high proportion of inhibitory isolates, such as the Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Xanthamonadaceae (84, 80, and 75% respectively. Functional capacity of bacteria against Bd varied among Bd genotypes; however, there were some bacteria that showed broad spectrum inhibition against all tested Bd genotypes, suggesting that these bacteria would be good candidates for probiotic therapies. We estimated Bd-associated risk for sampled amphibian communities based on the concept of herd immunity. Multiple amphibian communities, including those in the amphibian diversity hotspots, Andasibe and Ranomafana, were

  11. Estimating Herd Immunity to Amphibian Chytridiomycosis in Madagascar Based on the Defensive Function of Amphibian Skin Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletz, Molly C; Myers, Jillian; Woodhams, Douglas C; Rabemananjara, Falitiana C E; Rakotonirina, Angela; Weldon, Che; Edmonds, Devin; Vences, Miguel; Harris, Reid N

    2017-01-01

    For decades, Amphibians have been globally threatened by the still expanding infectious disease, chytridiomycosis. Madagascar is an amphibian biodiversity hotspot where Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ( Bd ) has only recently been detected. While no Bd -associated population declines have been reported, the risk of declines is high when invasive virulent lineages become involved. Cutaneous bacteria contribute to host innate immunity by providing defense against pathogens for numerous animals, including amphibians. Little is known, however, about the cutaneous bacterial residents of Malagasy amphibians and the functional capacity they have against Bd . We cultured 3179 skin bacterial isolates from over 90 frog species across Madagascar, identified them via Sanger sequencing of approximately 700 bp of the 16S rRNA gene, and characterized their functional capacity against Bd . A subset of isolates was also tested against multiple Bd genotypes. In addition, we applied the concept of herd immunity to estimate Bd -associated risk for amphibian communities across Madagascar based on bacterial antifungal activity. We found that multiple bacterial isolates (39% of all isolates) cultured from the skin of Malagasy frogs were able to inhibit Bd . Mean inhibition was weakly correlated with bacterial phylogeny, and certain taxonomic groups appear to have a high proportion of inhibitory isolates, such as the Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Xanthamonadaceae (84, 80, and 75% respectively). Functional capacity of bacteria against Bd varied among Bd genotypes; however, there were some bacteria that showed broad spectrum inhibition against all tested Bd genotypes, suggesting that these bacteria would be good candidates for probiotic therapies. We estimated Bd -associated risk for sampled amphibian communities based on the concept of herd immunity. Multiple amphibian communities, including those in the amphibian diversity hotspots, Andasibe and Ranomafana, were estimated to be

  12. "Tazomoka Is Not a Problem". Local Perspectives on Malaria, Fever Case Management and Bed Net Use in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Chiarella; Pourette, Dolorès; Raboanary, Emma; Kesteman, Thomas; Piola, Patrice; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Rogier, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Although its incidence has been decreasing during the last decade, malaria is still a major public health issue in Madagascar. The use of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLIN) remains a key malaria control intervention strategy in Madagascar, however, it encounters some obstacles. The present study aimed to explore the local terminology related to malaria, information channels about malaria, attitude towards bed nets, and health care seeking practices in case of fever. This article presents novel qualitative findings about malaria. Until now, no such data has been published for Madagascar. A comparative qualitative study was carried out at four sites in Madagascar, each differing by malaria epidemiology and socio-cultural background of the populations. Seventy-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with biomedical and traditional caregivers, and members of the local population. In addition, observations of the living conditions and the uses of bed net were conducted. Due to the differences between local and biomedical perspectives on malaria, official messages did not have the expected impact on population in terms of prevention and care seeking behaviors. Rather, most information retained about malaria was spread through informal information circulation channels. Most interviewees perceived malaria as a disease that is simple to treat. Tazomoka ("mosquito fever"), the Malagasy biomedical word for malaria, was not used by populations. Tazo ("fever") and tazomahery ("strong fever") were the terms more commonly used by members of the local population to refer to malaria related symptoms. According to local perceptions in all areas, tazo and tazomahery were not caused by mosquitos. Each of these symptoms required specific health recourse. The usual fever management strategies consisted of self-medication or recourse to traditional and biomedical caregivers. Usage of bed nets was intermittent and was not directly linked to protection against malaria in the eyes

  13. Deforestation and Rice: Using Methods in Modeling and Remote Sensing to Project Patterns of Forest Change in Eastern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, A. H.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Fischer, R.; Huth, A.; Shugart, H. H.

    2013-12-01

    In the species rich tropics, forest conservation is often eclipsed by anthropogenic disturbance, resulting in a heightened need for an accurate assessment of biomass and the gaining of predictive capability before these ecosystems disappear. The combination of multi-temporal remote sensing data, field data and forest growth modeling to quantify carbon stocks and flux is therefore of great importance. In this study, we utilize these methods to (1) improve forest biomass and carbon flux estimates for the study region in Eastern Madagascar, and (2) initialize an individual-based growth model that incorporates the anthropogenic factors causing deforestation to project ecosystem response to future environmental change. Recent studies have shown that there is a direct correlation between the international rice market and rates of deforestation in tropical countries such as Madagascar (see Minten et al., 2006). Further, although law protects the remaining forest areas, dictatorships and recent political unrest have lead to poor or non-existent enforcement of precious wood and forest protection over the past 35 years. Our approach combined multi-temporal remote sensing analysis and ecological modeling using a theoretical and mathematical approach to assess biomass change and to understand how tree growth and life history (growth response patterns) relate to past and present economic variability in Madagascar forests of the eastern Toamasina region. We measured rates of change of deforestation with respect to politics and the price of rice by classifying and comparing biomass using 30m Landsat during 5 political regime time periods (1985-1992, 1993-1996, 1997-2001, 2002-2008, 2009 to present). Forest biomass estimations were calibrated using forest inventory data collected over 3 growing seasons over the study region (130 small circular plots in primary forest). This information was then built into the previously parameterized (Armstrong et al., in prep and Fischer et al in

  14. Madagascar au XXIe siècle : la politique de sa géographie

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    Hervé Rakoto Ramiarantsoa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available De la République humaniste et écologique souhaitée par le président Ratsiraka au développement rapide et durable prôné par Marc Ravalomanana, Madagascar voit la question de son développement, centrale pour une nation classée dans le groupe des Pays Pauvres et Très Endettés, désormais liée à des préoccupations environnementales. Une telle orientation accompagne le choix malgache de s’engager, à partir des années 1980, dans les perspectives proposées par la Banque Mondiale. Les thèmes prioritaires de développement durable, de bonne gouvernance, de lutte contre la pauvreté..., le soulignent. En même temps, le pays entend mener la politique de sa géographie dans cet engagement. Y trouve-t-il son compte ? A travers une réflexion sur les politiques mises en œuvre au plan de l’agriculture et au plan de l’environnement, deux sujets au cœur des problématiques de développement d’un pays très rural, l’article analyse les tensions générées par les interférences des différents niveaux (réalités locales, décisions nationales, injonctions supranationales auxquels se rattachent les notions de développement et d’environnement. Il relève l’absence d’un projet de société qui articule clairement ces différentes échelles afin que, au-delà du paradigme porteur de développement durable, l’environnement soit au service du territoire et de la société malgaches.  From the humanist and ecological Republic wished for by President Ratsiraka to the rapid and sustainable development advocated by Marc Ravalomanana, the question of development, major for Madagascar, classified among the Highly Indebted Poor Countries, is henceforth linked to environmental concerns. This orientation has accompanied the Madagascan choice to embark on the proposals of the World Bank, since the 1980s, and is outlined by priority issues such as good governance, sustainable development, and struggle against poverty. In the same time

  15. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  16. Quality of antiepileptic drugs in sub-Saharan Africa: A study in Gabon, Kenya, and Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Jeremy; Ratsimbazafy, Voa; Nguyen, Thu Trang; Nguyen, Thuy Linh; Dufat, Hanh; Dugay, Annabelle; Ba, Alassane; Sivadier, Guilhem; Mafilaza, Yattussia; Jousse, Cyril; Traïkia, Mounir; Leremboure, Martin; Auditeau, Emilie; Raharivelo, Adeline; Ngoungou, Edgard; Kariuki, Symon M; Newton, Charles R; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2018-06-12

    Epilepsy is a major public health issue in low- and middle-income countries, where the availability and accessibility of quality treatment remain important issues, the severity of which may be aggravated by poor quality antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The primary objective of this study was to measure the quality of AEDs in rural and urban areas in 3 African countries. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Gabon, Kenya, and Madagascar. Both official and unofficial supply chains in urban and rural areas were investigated. Samples of oral AEDs were collected in areas where a patient could buy or obtain them. Pharmacological analytical procedures and Medicine Quality Assessment Reporting Guidelines were used to assess quality. In total, 102 batches, representing 3782 units of AEDs, were sampled. Overall, 32.3% of the tablets were of poor quality, but no significant difference was observed across sites: 26.5% in Gabon, 37.0% in Kenya, and 34.1% in Madagascar (P = .7). The highest proportions of substandard medications were found in the carbamazepine (38.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 21.8-57.8) and phenytoin (83.3%; 95% CI 35.8-99.5) batches, which were mainly flawed by their failure to dissolve. Sodium valproate was the AED with the poorest quality (32.1%; 95% CI 15.8-42.3). The phenobarbital (94.1%; 95% CI 80.3-99.2) and diazepam (100.0%) batches were of better quality. The prevalence of substandard quality medications increased in samples supplied by public facilities (odds ratio [OR] 9.9; 95% CI 1.2-84.1; P < .04) and manufacturers located in China (OR 119.8; 95% CI 8.7-1651.9; P < .001). The prevalence of AEDs of bad quality increased when they were stored improperly (OR 5.4; 95% CI 1.2-24.1; P < .03). No counterfeiting was observed. However, inadequate AED storage conditions are likely to lead to ineffective and possibly dangerous AEDs, even when good-quality AEDs are initially imported. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 International League Against

  17. Genetic data suggest a natural prehuman origin of open habitats in northern Madagascar and question the deforestation narrative in this region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéméré, Erwan; Amelot, Xavier; Pierson, Julie; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte; Chikhi, Lounès

    2012-08-07

    The impact of climate change and anthropogenic deforestation on biodiversity is of growing concern worldwide. Disentangling how past anthropogenic and natural factors contributed to current biome distribution is thus a crucial issue to understand their complex interactions on wider time scales and to improve predictions and conservation strategies. This is particularly important in biodiversity hotspots, such as Madagascar, dominated by large open habitats whose origins are increasingly debated. Although a dominant narrative argues that Madagascar was originally entirely covered by woodlands, which were destroyed by humans, a number of recent studies have suggested that past climatic fluctuations played a major role in shaping current biome distributions well before humans arrived. Here, we address the question of the origin of open habitats in the Daraina region in northern Madagascar, using a multiproxy approach combining population genetics modeling and remote-sensing analyses. We show that (i) contrary to most regions of Madagascar, the forest cover in Daraina remained remarkably stable over the past 60 y, and (ii) the golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli), a forest-dwelling lemur, underwent a strong population contraction before the arrival of the first humans, hence excluding an anthropogenic cause. Prehuman Holocene droughts may have led to a significant increase of grasslands and a reduction in the species' habitat. This contradicts the prevailing narrative that land cover changes are necessarily anthropogenic in Madagascar but does not preclude the later role played by humans in other regions in which recent lemur bottlenecks have been observed.

  18. [Eradication of poliomyelitis and emergence of pathogenic vaccine-derived polioviruses: from Madagascar to Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeyroux, Francis; Colbère-Garapin, Florence; Razafindratsimandresy, Richter; Sadeuh-Mba, Serge; Joffret, Marie-Line; Rousset, Dominique; Blondel, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    The oral poliovaccine, a live vaccine made of attenuated poliovirus strains, is the main tool of the vaccination campaigns organised for eradicating poliomyelitis. these campaigns had led to the decline and, thereafter, to the disappearance of wild poliovirus strains of the three serotypes (1-3) in most parts of the world. However, when the poliovaccine coverage becomes too low, vaccine polioviruses can circulate in insufficiently immunized populations and become then pathogenic by mutations and genetic recombination with other enteroviruses of the same species, in particular some coxsackievirus A. These mutated and recombinant vaccine strains have been implicated in several epidemics of paralytic poliomyelitis. Two polio outbreaks associated with these pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) occurred in 2001-2002 and 2005 in the South of Madagascar where vaccine coverage was low. These cVDPV, of serotype 2 or 3, were isolated from paralyzed children and some of their healthy contacts. Other cVDPV were isolated in the same region from healthy children in 2011, indicating that these viruses were circulating again. Vaccination campaigns could stop the outbreaks in 2002 and 2005, and most probably prevent another one in 2011. Therefore, the genetic plasticity of poliovaccine strains that threatens the benefit of vaccination campaigns is the target of an accurate surveillance and an important theme of studies in the virology laboratories of the Institut Pasteur international network. © 2013 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  19. Etiologies des pleurésies exsudatives: à propos de 424 cas à Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoson, Joëlson Lovaniaina; Andrianasolo, Radonirina Lazasoa; Rakotomizao, Robert Jocelyn; Vololontiana, Marie Danielle Hanta; Ravahatra, Kiady; Rajaoarifetra, Jobeline; Andrianarisoa, Christophe Félix Ange

    2011-01-01

    Introduction La pleurésie constitue un motif fréquent de consultation en pneumologie. Notre travail a pour objectif de déterminer les étiologies des pleurésies exsudatives afin d'en faciliter les démarches étiologiques. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective réalisée chez des patients ayant une pleurésie exsudative et bénéficiant une biopsie pleurale à l'aveugle à l'aide de l'aiguille de Castelain, pendant une période de 5 ans (2005 à 2009). Résultats Parmi les 424 patients inclus, 259 hommes (61,08%) et 165 femmes (38,91%) étaient individualisés. Les pleurésies étaient d'origine tuberculeuse dans 298 cas (70, 28%), métastatique dans 63 cas (14,85%), inflammation non spécifique dans 51 cas (12,02%). Des fibres musculaires striées étaient biopsiées dans 12 cas (2,83%). Conclusion La biopsie pleurale occupe une place prépondérante dans la recherche étiologique des pleurésies d'exsudatives à Madagascar où la tuberculose sévit encore en mode endémique. PMID:22145067

  20. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Madagascar, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $3.5 million of Agency support received, Madagascar ranks 42nd among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (55%), followed by expert services (32%) and training (13%). With a share of 69%, the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund has provided more than two-thirds of the total resources available, while 29% were made available through UNDP and 2% through assistance in kind. Extrabudgetary contributions accounted for less than one per cent. With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector, by far the largest area has been nuclear raw materials (66%), followed by nuclear physics and chemistry (18%). Only small shares have gone to nuclear safety (7%), agriculture (5%) and nuclear engineering and technology (4%)

  1. Aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) feeding strategies at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar: an indirect sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefczek, Timothy M; Farris, Zach J; Wright, Patricia C

    2012-01-01

    In this research, we focused on aye-aye populations in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. From August to December 2008, we tested how aye-aye feeding was influenced by presence/absence of both fruiting and non-fruiting Canarium trees. Deadwood feeding traces were used as a proxy for evidence of Canarium feeding. We enumerated deadwood feeding traces in 20 locations, 10 with Canarium, 10 without. Each location contained two transects (80 m L × 20 m W) for a total area of 5.6 ha. Feeding trace results for Canarium locations compared to non-Canarium locations were not significant (Z = -1.926, p = 0.083); however, feeding trace results were significant when comparing fruiting and non-fruiting Canarium locations (Z = -2.417, p = 0.016). These results highlight the importance of Canarium in the diet of aye-ayes and demonstrate how the distribution of this resource may influence the foraging behavior of aye-ayes. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Effective Stimulus Parameters for Directed Locomotion in Madagascar Hissing Cockroach Biobot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C Erickson

    Full Text Available Swarms of insects instrumented with wireless electronic backpacks have previously been proposed for potential use in search and rescue operations. Before deploying such biobot swarms, an effective long-term neural-electric stimulus interface must be established, and the locomotion response to various stimuli quantified. To this end, we studied a variety of pulse types (mono- vs. bipolar; voltage- vs. current-controlled and shapes (amplitude, frequency, duration to parameters that are most effective for evoking locomotion along a desired path in the Madagascar hissing cockroach (G. portentosa in response to antennal and cercal stimulation. We identified bipolar, 2 V, 50 Hz, 0.5 s voltage controlled pulses as being optimal for evoking forward motion and turns in the expected contraversive direction without habituation in ≈50% of test subjects, a substantial increase over ≈10% success rates previously reported. Larger amplitudes for voltage (1-4 V and current (50-150 μA pulses generally evoked larger forward walking (15.6-25.6 cm; 3.9-5.6 cm/s but smaller concomitant turning responses (149 to 80.0 deg; 62.8 to 41.2 deg/s. Thus, the radius of curvature of the initial turn-then-run locomotor response (≈10-25 cm could be controlled in a graded manner by varying the stimulus amplitude. These findings could be used to help optimize stimulus protocols for swarms of cockroach biobots navigating unknown terrain.

  3. Earthworms and Plant Residues Modify Nematodes in Tropical Cropping Soils (Madagascar: A Mesocosm Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Villenave

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-living nematodes present several characteristics that have led to their use as bioindicators of soil quality. Analyzing the structure of nematofauna is a pertinent way to understand soil biological processes. Earthworms play an important role in soil biological functioning and organic matter dynamics. Their effects on soil nematofauna have seldom been studied. We studied the effect of the tropical endogeic earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus, on nematode community structure in a 5-month field mesocosm experiment conducted in Madagascar. Ten different treatments with or without earthworms and with or without organic residues (rice, soybean were compared. Organic residues were applied on the soil surface or mixed with the soil. The abundance of nematodes (bacterial and fungal feeders was higher in presence of P. corethrurus than in their absence. The type of plant residues as well as their localisation had significant effects on the abundance and composition of soil nematodes. The analysis of nematode community structure showed that earthworm activity led to an overall activation of the microbial compartment without specific stimulation of the bacterial or fungal compartment.

  4. AMS Radiocarbon Dating of Large Za Baobabs (Adansonia za) of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrut, Adrian; Patrut, Roxana T; Danthu, Pascal; Leong Pock-Tsy, Jean-Michel; Rakosy, Laszlo; Lowy, Daniel A; von Reden, Karl F

    2016-01-01

    The article reports the radiocarbon investigation of Anzapalivoro, the largest za baobab (Adansonia za) specimen of Madagascar and of another za, namely the Big cistern baobab. Several wood samples collected from the large inner cavity and from the outer part/exterior of the tree were investigated by AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating. For samples collected from the cavity walls, the age values increase with the distance into the wood up to a point of maximum age, after which the values decrease toward the outer part. This anomaly of age sequences indicates that the inner cavity of Anzapalivoro is a false cavity, practically an empty space between several fused stems disposed in a ring-shaped structure. The radiocarbon date of the oldest sample was 780 ± 30 bp, which corresponds to a calibrated age of around 735 yr. Dating results indicate that Anzapalivoro has a closed ring-shaped structure, which consists of 5 fused stems that close a false cavity. The oldest part of the biggest za baobab has a calculated age of 900 years. We also disclose results of the investigation of a second za baobab, the Big cistern baobab, which was hollowed out for water storage. This specimen, which consists of 4 fused stems, was found to be around 260 years old.

  5. AMS Radiocarbon Dating of Large Za Baobabs (Adansonia za of Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Patrut

    Full Text Available The article reports the radiocarbon investigation of Anzapalivoro, the largest za baobab (Adansonia za specimen of Madagascar and of another za, namely the Big cistern baobab. Several wood samples collected from the large inner cavity and from the outer part/exterior of the tree were investigated by AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating. For samples collected from the cavity walls, the age values increase with the distance into the wood up to a point of maximum age, after which the values decrease toward the outer part. This anomaly of age sequences indicates that the inner cavity of Anzapalivoro is a false cavity, practically an empty space between several fused stems disposed in a ring-shaped structure. The radiocarbon date of the oldest sample was 780 ± 30 bp, which corresponds to a calibrated age of around 735 yr. Dating results indicate that Anzapalivoro has a closed ring-shaped structure, which consists of 5 fused stems that close a false cavity. The oldest part of the biggest za baobab has a calculated age of 900 years. We also disclose results of the investigation of a second za baobab, the Big cistern baobab, which was hollowed out for water storage. This specimen, which consists of 4 fused stems, was found to be around 260 years old.

  6. [Social marketing to increase the rate of cataract surgery in the Sava region of Madagascar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkumbe, H E; Razafinimpanana, N; Rakotondrajoa, L P

    2013-01-01

    Lack of information is one of the main reasons why people who are visually impaired or blind as a result of cataracts do not visit eye care centers for surgery that can restore their sight. This study was conducted to determine the best ways to inform the main target groups about the possibility of restoring sight to those whose visual impairment and blindness is due to cataracts and about outreach visits by the mobile eye clinic of FLM SALFA, Sambava, in the Sava region of Madagascar from November 2008 through October 2009. Two community eye health workers conducted awareness campaigns and delivered posters to radio stations, religious leaders, and administrative authorities of the 17 most populated municipalities in the region of Sava, two weeks before these visits. All participants who visited the mobile clinic were interviewed, and the ophthalmologist's diagnosis was noted on the questionnaire. Women accounted for 51.5% of the 955 participants. Radio was the most effective means of communication in the region overall, and specifically for reaching men (P=0.044); churches were more successful for reaching women (P = 0.000). Cataract was diagnosed in 16.2% of men and 8.1% of women (p = 0.0001). To significantly increase the number of people, especially women, having cataract surgery in the Sava region, it is essential to work closely with the leaders of all religious groups, as well as with radio stations.

  7. The influence of tropical cyclones in gully formation: A case study from Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveloson, Andrea; Szabó, Amanda; Székely, Balázs

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion has been recognized as the main cause of land degradation worldwide and gully erosion is currently considered as one of the most striking erosion type. Madagascar is one of the most affected country with special gullies called lavakas. Despite of the several decade long research, the reasons and the mechanism of their formation are still unknown. Anthropogenic factors, specific combination of lithology, weathering profile and topography are most often stated but numerous publications mention climate as a main factor. We studied the role of climatic conditions and tropical cyclones since 2014. This study aims to analyze lavaka distribution with GIS methods and to find relation between lavaka density, lavaka density change and climatic conditions. Lavakas have been identified in 17 selected study sites by visual recognition using satellite images from years 2000-2009 and 2003-2008. A total of 1330 km2 has been processed at 1 km x 1 km grid cell scale. The total number of recognized lavakas was 1592 in the 17 sites that corresponds to a varying lavaka density of 0 and 8.53 km-2. Data show that the appearance of lavakas is related to the spatial distribution and the inter-annual variability of precipitation and this connection is further strengthened by the tropical cyclones. Furthermore, among our 17 study sites changes in lavaka density were observed between 2000-2009 and 2003-2008 only in areas frequently hit by cyclones in the last 20 years.

  8. Polyphase Neoproterozoic orogenesis within the east Africa- Antarctica orogenic belt in central and northern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, R.M.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Goodenough, K.M.; Waele, D.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Styles, M.T.; Conrad, J.; Encarnacion, J.; Lidke, D.J.; O'connor, E. A.; Potter, C.; Smith, R.A.; Walsh, G.J.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.

    2011-01-01

    Our recent geological survey of the basement of central and northern Madagascar allowed us to re-evaluate the evolution of this part of the East Africa-Antarctica Orogen (EAAO). Five crustal domains are recognized, characterized by distinctive lithologies and histories of sedimentation, magmatism, deformation and metamorphism, and separated by tectonic and/or unconformable contacts. Four consist largely of Archaean metamorphic rocks (Antongil, Masora and Antananarivo Cratons, Tsaratanana Complex). The fifth (Bemarivo Belt) comprises Proterozoic meta-igneous rocks. The older rocks were intruded by plutonic suites at c. 1000 Ma, 820-760 Ma, 630-595 Ma and 560-520 Ma. The evolution of the four Archaean domains and their boundaries remains contentious, with two end-member interpretations evaluated: (1) all five crustal domains are separate tectonic elements, juxtaposed along Neoproterozoic sutures and (2) the four Archaean domains are segments of an older Archaean craton, which was sutured against the Bemarivo Belt in the Neoproterozoic. Rodinia fragmented during the early Neoproterozoic with intracratonic rifts that sometimes developed into oceanic basins. Subsequent Mid- Neoproterozoic collision of smaller cratonic blocks was followed by renewed extension and magmatism. The global 'Terminal Pan-African' event (560-490 Ma) finally stitched together the Mid-Neoproterozoic cratons to form Gondwana. ?? The Geological Society of London 2011.

  9. Post-collisional magmatism in the central East African Orogen: The Maevarano Suite of north Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, K.M.; Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Key, R.M.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Tucker, R.D.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.

    2010-01-01

    Late tectonic, post-collisional granite suites are a feature of many parts of the Late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian East African Orogen (EAO), where they are generally attributed to late extensional collapse of the orogen, accompanied by high heat flow and asthenospheric uprise. The Maevarano Suite comprises voluminous plutons which were emplaced in some of the tectonostratigraphic terranes of northern Madagascar, in the central part of the EAO, following collision and assembly during a major orogeny at ca. 550 Ma. The suite comprises three main magmatic phases: a minor early phase of foliated gabbros, quartz diorites, and granodiorites; a main phase of large batholiths of porphyritic granitoids and charnockites; and a late phase of small-scale plutons and sheets of monzonite, syenite, leucogranite and microgranite. The main phase intrusions tend to be massive, but with variably foliated margins. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data show that the whole suite was emplaced between ca. 537 and 522 Ma. Geochemically, all the rocks of the suite are enriched in the LILE, especially K, and the LREE, but are relatively depleted in Nb, Ta and the HREE. These characteristics are typical of post-collisional granitoids in the EAO and many other orogenic belts. It is proposed that the Maevarano Suite magmas were derived by melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle that had been enriched in the LILE during earlier subduction events. The melting occurred during lithospheric delamination, which was associated with extensional collapse of the East African Orogen. ?? 2009 Natural Environment Research Council.

  10. Reproductive phenology of the tomato frog, Dyscophus antongili, in an urban pond of Madagascar's east coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori Segev

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on daily monitoring around an urban pond in the coastal town of Maroantsetra, from 2003-2011, we provide an analysis of the yearly reproductive activity of the tomato frog (Dyscophus antongilii, a large-sized and prominent red-coloured microhylid frog from north-eastern Madagascar. Frogs were observed all year round but despite the limited climatic seasonality in the region it was possible to identify a high activity period between January-May and a lower activity period between June-December. Freshly laid eggs were found in all months except November, and with highest incidence between January and May, while calling was heard in all months. We found a positive correlation between daily adult counts and minimum air temperature. On the contrary rainfall did not significantly predict activity, although boosts of calling and egg-laying especially in the austral winter were observed after heavy rainfall events. We define D. antongilii in Maroantsetra as a sporadic wet season breeder that reproduces at irregular intervals following heavy rain events.

  11. Optimization of deconvolution software used in the study of spectra of soil samples from Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANDRIAMADY NARIMANANA, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to perform the deconvolution of gamma spectra by using the deconvolution peak program. Synthetic spectra, reference materials and ten soil samples with various U-238 activities from three regions of Madagascar were used. This work concerns : soil sample spectra with low activities of about (47±2) Bq.kg -1 from Ankatso, soil sample spectra with average activities of about (125±2)Bq.kg -1 from Antsirabe and soil sample spectra with high activities of about (21100± 120) Bq.kg -1 from Vinaninkarena. Singlet and multiplet peaks with various intensities were found in each soil spectrum. Interactive Peak Fit (IPF) program in Genie-PC from Canberra Industries allows to deconvoluate many multiplet regions : quartet within 235 keV-242 keV, Pb-214 and Pb-212 within 294 keV -301 keV; Th-232 daughters within 582 keV - 584 keV; Ac-228 within 904 keV -911 keV and within 964 keV-970 keV and Bi-214 within 1401 keV - 1408 keV. Those peaks were used to quantify considered radionuclides. However, IPF cannot resolve Ra-226 peak at 186,1 keV. [fr

  12. Earthworms and Plant Residues Modify Nematodes in Tropical Cropping Soils (Madagascar): A Mesocosm Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villenave, C.; Kichenin, E.; Djigal, D.; Blanchart, E.; Rabary, B.; Djigal, D.

    2010-01-01

    Free-living nematodes present several characteristics that have led to their use as bio indicators of soil quality. Analyzing the structure of nematofauna is a pertinent way to understand soil biological processes. Earthworms play an important role in soil biological functioning and organic matter dynamics. Their effects on soil nematofauna have seldom been studied. We studied the effect of the tropical endogeic earthworm, Pontoscolex corethrurus, on nematode community structure in a 5-month field mesocosm experiment conducted in Madagascar. Ten different treatments with or without earthworms and with or without organic residues (rice, soybean) were compared. Organic residues were applied on the soil surface or mixed with the soil. The abundance of nematodes (bacterial and fungal feeders) was higher in presence of P. corethrurus than in their absence. The type of plant residues as well as their localisation had significant effects on the abundance and composition of soil nematodes. The analysis of nematode community structure showed that earthworm activity led to an overall activation of the microbial compartment without specific stimulation of the bacterial or fungal compartment.

  13. Highly sulphated galactan from Halymenia durvillei (Halymeniales, Rhodophyta), a red seaweed of Madagascar marine coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoradosoa, T A; Delattre, C; Laroche, C; Wadouachi, A; Dulong, V; Picton, L; Andriamadio, P; Michaud, P

    2009-08-01

    Halymenia durvillei is a red seaweed with a great potential as sulphated galactan producer collected in the coastal waters of small island of Madagascar (Nosy-be in Indian Ocean). To elucidate the structure of its polysaccharide, NMR (1H and 13C), FTIR, HPAEC and different colorimetric methods were carried out. It has been shown that this polysaccharide, consisted mainly of galactose, was branched by xylose and galactose in minor amounts. Arabinose and fucose were also detected. This galactan was found highly sulphated (42%, w/w) and pyruvylated (1.8%, w/w). Analysis of glycosidic linkages by CPG-MS and 13C NMR indicated that the polysaccharide has the defining linear backbone of alternating 3-beta-D-galactopyranosyl units and 4-linked alpha-L/D-galactopyranosyl residues. 3,6-Anhydrogalactose units have been also detected in minor quantity. This lambda-carrageenan like polysaccharide has shown original sulphatation patterns with 2-O (26%) or 2/6-O (58%) sulphated 3-linked beta-D-galactopyranosyl units and 6-O (19%) or 2/6-O (47%) 4-linked alpha-L/D-galactopyranosyl residues.

  14. Assessing hygienic behavior of Apis mellifera unicolor (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the endemic honey bee from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasolofoarivao, H; Delatte, H; Raveloson Ravaomanarivo, L H; Reynaud, B; Clémencet, J

    2015-06-01

    Hygienic behavior (HB) is one of the natural mechanisms of honey bee for limiting the spread of brood diseases and Varroa destructor parasitic mite. Objective of our study was to measure HB of Apis mellifera unicolor colonies (N = 403) from three geographic regions (one infested and two free of V. destructor) in Madagascar. The pin-killing method was used for evaluation of the HB. Responses were measured from 3 h 30 min to 7 h after perforation of the cells. Colonies were very effective in detecting perforated cells. In the first 4 h, on average, they detected at least 50% of the pin-killed brood. Six hours after cell perforation, colonies tested (N = 91) showed a wide range of uncapped (0 to 100%) and cleaned cells (0 to 82%). Global distribution of the rate of cleaned cells at 6 h was multimodal and hygienic responses could be split in three classes. Colonies from the three regions showed a significant difference in HB responses. Three hypotheses (geographic, genetic traits, presence of V. destructor) are further discussed to explain variability of HB responses among the regions. Levels of HB efficiency of A. mellifera unicolor colonies are among the greatest levels reported for A. mellifera subspecies. Presence of highly hygienic colonies is a great opportunity for future breeding program in selection for HB.

  15. Taboos and forest governance: informal protection of hot spot dry forest in southern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengö, Maria; Johansson, Kristin; Rakotondrasoa, Fanambinantsoa; Lundberg, Jakob; Andriamaherilala, Jean-Aimé; Rakotoarisoa, Jean-Aimé; Elmqvist, Thomas

    2007-12-01

    In the dry forest of southern Madagascar, a region of global conservation priority, formally protected areas are nearly totally absent. We illustrate how the continued existence of unique forest habitats in the Androy region is directly dependent on informal institutions, taboos, regulating human behavior. Qualitative interviews to map and analyze the social mechanisms underlying forest protection have been combined with vegetation analyses of species diversity and composition. Of 188 forest patches, 93% were classified as protected, and in Southern Androy all remaining forest patches larger than 5 ha were protected. Eight different types of forests, with a gradient of social fencing from open access to almost complete entry prohibitions, were identified. Transgressions were well enforced with strong sanctions of significant economic as well as religious importance. Analyses of species diversity between protected and unprotected forests were complicated because of size differences and access restrictions. However, since, for example, in southern Androy >90% of the total remaining forest cover is protected through taboos, these informal institutions represent an important, and presently the only, mechanism for conservation of the highly endemic forest species. We conclude that social aspects, such as local beliefs and legitimate sanctioning systems, need to be analyzed and incorporated along with biodiversity studies for successful conservation.

  16. Quantifying the Short-Term Costs of Conservation Interventions for Fishers at Lake Alaotra, Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea P C Wallace

    Full Text Available Artisanal fisheries are a key source of food and income for millions of people, but if poorly managed, fishing can have declining returns as well as impacts on biodiversity. Management interventions such as spatial and temporal closures can improve fishery sustainability and reduce environmental degradation, but may carry substantial short-term costs for fishers. The Lake Alaotra wetland in Madagascar supports a commercially important artisanal fishery and provides habitat for a Critically Endangered primate and other endemic wildlife of conservation importance. Using detailed data from more than 1,600 fisher catches, we used linear mixed effects models to explore and quantify relationships between catch weight, effort, and spatial and temporal restrictions to identify drivers of fisher behaviour and quantify the potential effect of fishing restrictions on catch. We found that restricted area interventions and fishery closures would generate direct short-term costs through reduced catch and income, and these costs vary between groups of fishers using different gear. Our results show that conservation interventions can have uneven impacts on local people with different fishing strategies. This information can be used to formulate management strategies that minimise the adverse impacts of interventions, increase local support and compliance, and therefore maximise conservation effectiveness.

  17. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil from Helichrysum faradifani endemic to Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Pavela, Roman; Rakotosaona, Rianasoambolanoro; Randrianarivo, Emmanuel; Nicoletti, Marcello; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-11-03

    Helichrysum faradifani (Asteraceae) is a perennial shrub growing in rocky and sandy places of Madagascar. The plant is used in the Malagasy traditional medicine as a wound-healing agent, disinfectant and for the treatment of syphilis, diarrhea, cough and headache. In the present work, we analysed the chemical composition of the essential oil distilled from the aerial parts of H. faradifani by GC-MS and evaluated its insecticidal activity against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae of the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus by acute toxicity assays. The most sensitive were 2nd instar (LC 50  = 85.7 μL L -1 ) larvae. For the 3rd and 4th instar larvae, the estimated LC 50 were 156.8 and 134.1 μL L -1 , respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (51.6%) were the major fraction of the essential oil, with the bicyclic α-fenchene (35.6%) as the predominant component. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (34.0%) were the second major group characterising the oil, with γ-curcumene (17.7%) as the most abundant component.

  18. Extreme vulnerability of smallholder farmers to agricultural risks and climate change in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Celia A; Rakotobe, Zo Lalaina; Rao, Nalini S; Dave, Radhika; Razafimahatratra, Hery; Rabarijohn, Rivo Hasinandrianina; Rajaofara, Haingo; Mackinnon, James L

    2014-04-05

    Across the tropics, smallholder farmers already face numerous risks to agricultural production. Climate change is expected to disproportionately affect smallholder farmers and make their livelihoods even more precarious; however, there is limited information on their overall vulnerability and adaptation needs. We conducted surveys of 600 households in Madagascar to characterize the vulnerability of smallholder farmers, identify how farmers cope with risks and explore what strategies are needed to help them adapt to climate change. Malagasy farmers are particularly vulnerable to any shocks to their agricultural system owing to their high dependence on agriculture for their livelihoods, chronic food insecurity, physical isolation and lack of access to formal safety nets. Farmers are frequently exposed to pest and disease outbreaks and extreme weather events (particularly cyclones), which cause significant crop and income losses and exacerbate food insecurity. Although farmers use a variety of risk-coping strategies, these are insufficient to prevent them from remaining food insecure. Few farmers have adjusted their farming strategies in response to climate change, owing to limited resources and capacity. Urgent technical, financial and institutional support is needed to improve the agricultural production and food security of Malagasy farmers and make their livelihoods resilient to climate change.

  19. Case-control study of the etiology of infant diarrheal disease in 14 districts in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindra Randremanana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Its microbiological causes and clinico-epidemiological aspects were examined during the rainy seasons from 2008 to 2009 in 14 districts in Madagascar. METHODS: Stool specimens of 2196 children with acute diarrhea and 496 healthy children were collected in a community setting. Intestinal parasites were diagnosed by microscopy and bacteria by culturing methods. Rota-, astro and adenoviruses were identified using commercially available ELISA kits and rotaviruses were confirmed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. RESULTS: Intestinal microorganisms were isolated from 54.6% of diarrheal patients and 45.9% of healthy subjects (p = <0.01. The most common pathogens in diarrheic patients were intestinal parasites (36.5%. Campylobacter spp. and Rotavirus were detected in 9.7% and 6.7% of diarrheic patients. The detection rates of Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas intestinalis and Giardia lamblia were much greater in diarrheal patients than in non diarrheal subjects (odds ratios of 5.1, 3.2, 1.7 respectively. The abundance of other enteropathogens among the non diarrheal group may indicate prolonged excretion or limited pathogenicity. CONCLUSION: In developing countries, where the lack of laboratory capacities is great, cross sectional studies of enteropathogens and their spatial distribution, including diarrheal and non diarrheal subjects, are interesting tools in order to advise regional policies on treatment and diarrheic patient management.

  20. Mollecarbamates, Molleureas, and Molledihydroisoquinolone, o-Carboxyphenethylamide Metabolites of the Ascidian Didemnum molle Collected in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issac, Michal; Aknin, Maurice; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne; Pond, Christopher D; Barrows, Louis R; Kashman, Yoel; Carmeli, Shmuel

    2017-06-23

    The extract of a sample of the tunicate Didemnum molle (MAY13-117) collected in Mayotte afforded eight new metabolites, mollecarbamates A-D (1-4) and molleureas B-E (5-8), along with the two known natural products, N,N'-diphenylethyl urea (10) and molleurea A (11). Another sample of D. molle (MAD11-BA065) collected in Baie des Assassins, Madagascar, afforded molledihydroisoquinolone (9). Mollecarbamates 1-4 are a family of compounds that possess repeating o-carboxyphenethylamide units and a carbamate moiety, while the molleureas 5-8 contain tetra- and penta-repeating carboxyphenethylamide units and a urea bridge in different positions. Molledihydroisoquinolone (9) is a cyclic form of o-carboxyphenethylamide. We propose that these unique natural products are most probably produced by an unprecedented biosynthetic pathway that contains a yet unknown chorismate mutase variant. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by interpretation of the data from 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and MS/MS analyses of the positive ESIMS experiments. Compounds 1-8 were tested against pathogenic bacteria and in a cytoprotective HIV cell based assay but did not show any significant effects in these assays.

  1. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  2. Two new giant pill-millipede species of the genus Zoosphaerium endemic to the Bemanevika area in northern Madagascar (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida, Arthrosphaeridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagorny, Christina; Wesener, Thomas

    2017-05-09

    Madagascar is one of the world's most important hotspots of biodiversity and a center for localized endemism. Among the highly endemic faunal elements are the giant pill-millipedes, order Sphaerotheriida, which are severely understudied in Madagascar. Here we provide descriptions of two new species of endemic giant-pill millipedes of the genus Zoosphaerium Pocock, 1895: Zoosphaerium bemanevika n. sp. and Zoosphaerium minutus n. sp.. Zoosphaerium bemanevika n. sp. belongs to the Z. coquerelianum species-group, while Z. minutus n. sp. is not assignable to a species-group. An updated key to the 19 species of the Z. coquerelianum group is provided. Zoosphaerium minutus n. sp. has a body length of Madagascar, an only recently protected area that represents a Malagasy center of endemism.

  3. Microscopic and molecular characterization of Hepatozoon domerguei (Apicomplexa) and Foleyella furcata (Nematoda) in wild endemic reptiles from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, João P; Crottini, Angelica; Harris, David James

    2014-01-01

    Madagascar is one of the world's top twelve "megadiversity" hot spots hosting unique and threatened flora and fauna. Parasites are a major component of biodiversity but remain largely uncharacterized in wildlife. In this study we combine microscopic and molecular assessment of hemoparasites in endemic reptile species from Madagascar. We detected three distinct parasites: the apicomplexans Hepatozoon and Sarcocystis, and filarial nematodes. The prevalence and intensity of these apicomplexans were low overall, while microfilarial infections in chameleons were relatively high. We detected mixed infections of two Hepatozoon haplotypes in Madagascarophis colubrinus, and of Hepatozoon and microfilariae in a Furcifer sp. Phylogenetic analyses of Hepatozoon showed evidence of prey-predator transmission, with identical sequences found in the snakes M. colubrinus and Ithycyphus oursi, and their prey Furcifer sp. Based on previous studies regarding the life cycle of Hepatozoon domerguei Landau, Chabaud, Michel, and Brygoo, 1970 in these hosts and due to their morphological similarity, we propose that this Hepatozoon haplotype is Hepatozoon domerguei. Future studies, including the examination of invertebrate hosts, are needed to verify this preliminary taxonomic identification. A distinct hemogregarine haplotype was found in Oplurus sp., which displayed morphologically different gametocytes, some of which were apparently inside leukocytes. The Sarcocystis identified from Tracheloptychus petersi was identical to that reported in a North African snake, indicating that the same lineage is found in geographically distinct regions. By combining morphological and genetic information, Foleyella furcata (Linstow, 1899) filarial nematodes were identified in several Furcifer chameleons. This study provides insights into the distribution, diversity and host-parasite interactions of hemoparasites in wild reptile populations from Madagascar. © J.P. Maia et al., published by EDP Sciences

  4. Integrated Analysis of Environment, Cattle and Human Serological Data: Risks and Mechanisms of Transmission of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Marie-Marie; Chevalier, Véronique; Grosbois, Vladimir; Tran, Annelise; Andriamandimby, Soa-Fy; Durand, Benoit; Ravalohery, Jean-Pierre; Andriamamonjy, Seta; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Rogier, Christophe; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2016-07-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne disease affecting ruminants and humans. Madagascar was heavily affected by RVF in 2008-2009, with evidence of a large and heterogeneous spread of the disease. The identification of at-risk environments is essential to optimize the available resources by targeting RVF surveillance in Madagascar. Herein, the objectives of our study were: (i) to identify the environmental factors and areas favorable to RVF transmission to both cattle and human and (ii) to identify human behaviors favoring human infections in Malagasy contexts. First, we characterized the environments of Malagasy communes using a Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). Then, we analyzed cattle and human serological data collected at national level using Generalized Linear Mixed Models, with the individual serological status (cattle or human) as the response, and MFA factors, as well as other potential risk factors (cattle density, human behavior) as explanatory variables. Cattle and human seroprevalence rates were positively associated to humid environments (p<0.001). Areas with high cattle density were at risk (p<0.01; OR = 2.6). Furthermore, our analysis showed that frequent contact with raw milk contributed to explain human infection (OR = 1.6). Finally, our study highlighted the eastern-coast, western and north-western parts as high-risk areas for RVF transmission in cattle. Our integrated approach analyzing environmental, cattle and human datasets allow us to bring new insight on RVF transmission patterns in Madagascar. The association between cattle seroprevalence, humid environments and high cattle density suggests that concomitant vectorial and direct transmissions are critical to maintain RVF enzootic transmission. Additionally, in the at-risk humid environment of the western, north-western and the eastern-coast areas, suitable to Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes, vectorial transmission probably occurs in both cattle and human. The relative contribution of

  5. Predicting plant diversity patterns in Madagascar: understanding the effects of climate and land cover change in a biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry A Brown

    Full Text Available Climate and land cover change are driving a major reorganization of terrestrial biotic communities in tropical ecosystems. In an effort to understand how biodiversity patterns in the tropics will respond to individual and combined effects of these two drivers of environmental change, we use species distribution models (SDMs calibrated for recent climate and land cover variables and projected to future scenarios to predict changes in diversity patterns in Madagascar. We collected occurrence records for 828 plant genera and 2186 plant species. We developed three scenarios, (i.e., climate only, land cover only and combined climate-land cover based on recent and future climate and land cover variables. We used this modelling framework to investigate how the impacts of changes to climate and land cover influenced biodiversity across ecoregions and elevation bands. There were large-scale climate- and land cover-driven changes in plant biodiversity across Madagascar, including both losses and gains in diversity. The sharpest declines in biodiversity were projected for the eastern escarpment and high elevation ecosystems. Sharp declines in diversity were driven by the combined climate-land cover scenarios; however, there were subtle, region-specific differences in model outputs for each scenario, where certain regions experienced relatively higher species loss under climate or land cover only models. We strongly caution that predicted future gains in plant diversity will depend on the development and maintenance of dispersal pathways that connect current and future suitable habitats. The forecast for Madagascar's plant diversity in the face of future environmental change is worrying: regional diversity will continue to decrease in response to the combined effects of climate and land cover change, with habitats such as ericoid thickets and eastern lowland and sub-humid forests particularly vulnerable into the future.

  6. Illegal captive lemurs in Madagascar: Comparing the use of online and in-person data collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kim E; Schaefer, Melissa S

    2017-11-01

    Although it is illegal to capture, sell, and trade lemurs, the live capture of lemurs in Madagascar is ongoing and may have impacted over 28,000 lemurs between 2010 and 2013. Only one study has examined this trade and did so using in-person interviews in northern Madagascar. The current study sought to expand this existing dataset and examine the comparability of online surveys to more traditional on-location data collection methods. In this study, we collected data through a web-based survey resulting in 302 sightings of 685 captive lemurs. We also collected data from 171 hotel and 43 restaurant websites and social media profiles. Survey submissions included sightings of 30 species from 10 genera, nearly twice as many species as identified via the in-person interviews. Lemur catta, Varecia variegata, and Eulemur fulvus were the most common species sighted in captivity. Captive lemurs were reported in 19 of Madagascar's 22 administrative regions and most were seen in urban areas near their habitat ranges. This represents a wider geographic distribution of captive lemurs than previously found through in-person interviews. The online survey results were broadly similar to those of the in-person surveys though greater in species and geographic diversity demonstrating advantages to the use of online surveys. The online research methods were low in cost (USD $100) compared to on-location data collection (USD $12,000). Identified disadvantages included sample bias; most of the respondents to the online survey were researchers and many captive sightings were near study sites. The results illustrate the benefits of incorporating a social science approach using online surveys as a complement to traditional fieldwork. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22541, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Chloroquine clinical failures in P. falciparum malaria are associated with mutant Pfmdr-1, not Pfcrt in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Andriantsoanirina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular studies have demonstrated that mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene (Pfcrt play a major role in chloroquine resistance, while mutations in P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene (Pfmdr-1 act as modulator. In Madagascar, the high rate of chloroquine treatment failure (44% appears disconnected from the overall level of in vitro CQ susceptibility (prevalence of CQ-resistant parasites 60% of isolates, but did not explore their association with P. falciparum chloroquine resistance. To document the association of Pfmdr-1 alleles with chloroquine resistance in Madagascar, 249 P. falciparum samples collected from patients enrolled in a chloroquine in vivo efficacy study were genotyped in Pfcrt/Pfmdr-1 genes as well as the estimation of the Pfmdr-1 copy number. Except 2 isolates, all samples displayed a wild-type Pfcrt allele without Pfmdr-1 amplification. Chloroquine treatment failures were significantly associated with Pfmdr-1 86Y mutant codon (OR = 4.6. The cumulative incidence of recurrence of patients carrying the Pfmdr-1 86Y mutation at day 0 (21 days was shorter than patients carrying Pfmdr-1 86N wild type codon (28 days. In an independent set of 90 selected isolates, in vitro susceptibility to chloroquine was not associated with Pfmdr-1 polymorphisms. Analysis of two microsatellites flanking Pfmdr-1 allele showed that mutations occurred on multiple genetic backgrounds. In Madagascar, Pfmdr-1 polymorphism is associated with late chloroquine clinical failures and unrelated with in vitro susceptibility or Pfcrt genotype. These results highlight the limits of the current in vitro tests routinely used to monitor CQ drug resistance in this unique context. Gaining insight about the mechanisms that regulate polymorphism in Pfmdr1 remains important, particularly regarding the evolution and spread of Pfmdr-1 alleles in P. falciparum populations under changing drug pressure which may have important

  8. Integrated Analysis of Environment, Cattle and Human Serological Data: Risks and Mechanisms of Transmission of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Marie Olive

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a vector-borne disease affecting ruminants and humans. Madagascar was heavily affected by RVF in 2008-2009, with evidence of a large and heterogeneous spread of the disease. The identification of at-risk environments is essential to optimize the available resources by targeting RVF surveillance in Madagascar. Herein, the objectives of our study were: (i to identify the environmental factors and areas favorable to RVF transmission to both cattle and human and (ii to identify human behaviors favoring human infections in Malagasy contexts.First, we characterized the environments of Malagasy communes using a Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA. Then, we analyzed cattle and human serological data collected at national level using Generalized Linear Mixed Models, with the individual serological status (cattle or human as the response, and MFA factors, as well as other potential risk factors (cattle density, human behavior as explanatory variables. Cattle and human seroprevalence rates were positively associated to humid environments (p<0.001. Areas with high cattle density were at risk (p<0.01; OR = 2.6. Furthermore, our analysis showed that frequent contact with raw milk contributed to explain human infection (OR = 1.6. Finally, our study highlighted the eastern-coast, western and north-western parts as high-risk areas for RVF transmission in cattle.Our integrated approach analyzing environmental, cattle and human datasets allow us to bring new insight on RVF transmission patterns in Madagascar. The association between cattle seroprevalence, humid environments and high cattle density suggests that concomitant vectorial and direct transmissions are critical to maintain RVF enzootic transmission. Additionally, in the at-risk humid environment of the western, north-western and the eastern-coast areas, suitable to Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes, vectorial transmission probably occurs in both cattle and human. The relative contribution

  9. Microscopic and molecular characterization of Hepatozoon domerguei (Apicomplexa and Foleyella furcata (Nematoda in wild endemic reptiles from Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia João P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar is one of the world’s top twelve “megadiversity” hot spots hosting unique and threatened flora and fauna. Parasites are a major component of biodiversity but remain largely uncharacterized in wildlife. In this study we combine microscopic and molecular assessment of hemoparasites in endemic reptile species from Madagascar. We detected three distinct parasites: the apicomplexans Hepatozoon and Sarcocystis, and filarial nematodes. The prevalence and intensity of these apicomplexans were low overall, while microfilarial infections in chameleons were relatively high. We detected mixed infections of two Hepatozoon haplotypes in Madagascarophis colubrinus, and of Hepatozoon and microfilariae in a Furcifer sp. Phylogenetic analyses of Hepatozoon showed evidence of prey-predator transmission, with identical sequences found in the snakes M. colubrinus and Ithycyphus oursi, and their prey Furcifer sp. Based on previous studies regarding the life cycle of Hepatozoon domerguei Landau, Chabaud, Michel, and Brygoo, 1970 in these hosts and due to their morphological similarity, we propose that this Hepatozoon haplotype is Hepatozoon domerguei. Future studies, including the examination of invertebrate hosts, are needed to verify this preliminary taxonomic identification. A distinct hemogregarine haplotype was found in Oplurus sp., which displayed morphologically different gametocytes, some of which were apparently inside leukocytes. The Sarcocystis identified from Tracheloptychus petersi was identical to that reported in a North African snake, indicating that the same lineage is found in geographically distinct regions. By combining morphological and genetic information, Foleyella furcata (Linstow, 1899 filarial nematodes were identified in several Furcifer chameleons. This study provides insights into the distribution, diversity and host-parasite interactions of hemoparasites in wild reptile populations from Madagascar.

  10. Diversité de la macrofaune des sols cultivés sur les Hautes-Terres de Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakotomanga, D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop management and soil macrofauna diversity in the Highlands of Madagascar. Description of the subject. This article deals with soil macrofauna as a key component of soil biological functioning. Objectives. This original study, performed in 2015, aimed to compare the effect of contrasted land uses and cultural practices on soil macrofauna in a crop-livestock area in the Madagascar Highlands. Five cropping systems were investigated: annual crops under tillage with low (LAMF and high (LAEF manure inputs, permanent tilled forage crops with high manure inputs (CFEF, crops under conservation agriculture without tillage or permanent mulch cover and with medium manure inputs (ACMF, and permanent pastures without tillage and without manure (PP0F. Method. In each of these five cropping systems, soil macrofauna was sampled in 12 plots from experimental trials and smallholder farms at the end of the rainy season. In each plot, soil macrofauna was hand-sorted from five soil monoliths at a 0-30 cm depth. Results. Fifty-two species were identified and organized into 15 orders and six functional groups. In the annual cropping systems (ACMF, the absence of tillage and the presence of a permanent soil cover increased soil macrofauna diversity and density without reducing harmful white grubs (Scarabeoid beetle larvae, while earthworm density was reduced in comparison with the CFEF system. In conventional tillage cropping systems, manure input intensity (LAMF versus LAEF had no specific effects on white grubs or earthworms. Conclusions. This study on soil macrofauna in the Highlands of Madagascar helped to establish which agricultural practices and farming systems are favourable to beneficial soil invertebrates such as earthworms, and unfavourable to harmful insects such as white grubs. This will help farmers to achieve a more sustainable crop management.

  11. Primates in peril: the significance of Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo for global primate conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermeier, Russell A.; Wich, Serge; Gouveia, Sidney; Dobrovolski, Ricardo; Nijman, Vincent; Rylands, Anthony B.; Johnson, Steig; Rodrigues de Melo, Fabiano; Schwitzer, Christoph; Roos, Christian; Cheyne, Susan M.; Martins Kierulff, Maria Cecilia; Raharivololona, Brigitte; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah; Supriatna, Jatna; Boonratana, Ramesh; Wedana, Made; Setiawan, Arif

    2018-01-01

    Primates occur in 90 countries, but four—Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)—harbor 65% of the world’s primate species (439) and 60% of these primates are Threatened, Endangered, or Critically Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017-3). Considering their importance for global primate conservation, we examine the anthropogenic pressures each country is facing that place their primate populations at risk. Habitat loss and fragmentation are main threats to primates in Brazil, Madagascar, and Indonesia. However, in DRC hunting for the commercial bushmeat trade is the primary threat. Encroachment on primate habitats driven by local and global market demands for food and non-food commodities hunting, illegal trade, the proliferation of invasive species, and human and domestic-animal borne infectious diseases cause habitat loss, population declines, and extirpation. Modeling agricultural expansion in the 21st century for the four countries under a worst-case-scenario, showed a primate range contraction of 78% for Brazil, 72% for Indonesia, 62% for Madagascar, and 32% for DRC. These pressures unfold in the context of expanding human populations with low levels of development. Weak governance across these four countries may limit effective primate conservation planning. We examine landscape and local approaches to effective primate conservation policies and assess the distribution of protected areas and primates in each country. Primates in Brazil and Madagascar have 38% of their range inside protected areas, 17% in Indonesia and 14% in DRC, suggesting that the great majority of primate populations remain vulnerable. We list the key challenges faced by the four countries to avert primate extinctions now and in the future. In the short term, effective law enforcement to stop illegal hunting and illegal forest destruction is absolutely key. Long-term success can only be achieved by focusing local and global public

  12. Host Ecology Rather Than Host Phylogeny Drives Amphibian Skin Microbial Community Structure in the Biodiversity Hotspot of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletz, Molly C; Archer, Holly; Harris, Reid N; McKenzie, Valerie J; Rabemananjara, Falitiana C E; Rakotoarison, Andolalao; Vences, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Host-associated microbiotas of vertebrates are diverse and complex communities that contribute to host health. In particular, for amphibians, cutaneous microbial communities likely play a significant role in pathogen defense; however, our ecological understanding of these communities is still in its infancy. Here, we take advantage of the fully endemic and locally species-rich amphibian fauna of Madagascar to investigate the factors structuring amphibian skin microbiota on a large scale. Using amplicon-based sequencing, we evaluate how multiple host species traits and site factors affect host bacterial diversity and community structure. Madagascar is home to over 400 native frog species, all of which are endemic to the island; more than 100 different species are known to occur in sympatry within multiple rainforest sites. We intensively sampled frog skin bacterial communities, from over 800 amphibians from 89 species across 30 sites in Madagascar during three field visits, and found that skin bacterial communities differed strongly from those of the surrounding environment. Richness of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and phylogenetic diversity differed among host ecomorphs, with arboreal frogs exhibiting lower richness and diversity than terrestrial and aquatic frogs. Host ecomorphology was the strongest factor influencing microbial community structure, with host phylogeny and site parameters (latitude and elevation) explaining less but significant portions of the observed variation. Correlation analysis and topological congruency analyses revealed little to no phylosymbiosis for amphibian skin microbiota. Despite the observed geographic variation and low phylosymbiosis, we found particular OTUs that were differentially abundant between particular ecomorphs. For example, the genus Pigmentiphaga (Alcaligenaceae) was significantly enriched on arboreal frogs, Methylotenera (Methylophilaceae) was enriched on aquatic frogs, and Agrobacterium (Rhizobiaceae

  13. Host Ecology Rather Than Host Phylogeny Drives Amphibian Skin Microbial Community Structure in the Biodiversity Hotspot of Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletz, Molly C.; Archer, Holly; Harris, Reid N.; McKenzie, Valerie J.; Rabemananjara, Falitiana C. E.; Rakotoarison, Andolalao; Vences, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Host-associated microbiotas of vertebrates are diverse and complex communities that contribute to host health. In particular, for amphibians, cutaneous microbial communities likely play a significant role in pathogen defense; however, our ecological understanding of these communities is still in its infancy. Here, we take advantage of the fully endemic and locally species-rich amphibian fauna of Madagascar to investigate the factors structuring amphibian skin microbiota on a large scale. Using amplicon-based sequencing, we evaluate how multiple host species traits and site factors affect host bacterial diversity and community structure. Madagascar is home to over 400 native frog species, all of which are endemic to the island; more than 100 different species are known to occur in sympatry within multiple rainforest sites. We intensively sampled frog skin bacterial communities, from over 800 amphibians from 89 species across 30 sites in Madagascar during three field visits, and found that skin bacterial communities differed strongly from those of the surrounding environment. Richness of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and phylogenetic diversity differed among host ecomorphs, with arboreal frogs exhibiting lower richness and diversity than terrestrial and aquatic frogs. Host ecomorphology was the strongest factor influencing microbial community structure, with host phylogeny and site parameters (latitude and elevation) explaining less but significant portions of the observed variation. Correlation analysis and topological congruency analyses revealed little to no phylosymbiosis for amphibian skin microbiota. Despite the observed geographic variation and low phylosymbiosis, we found particular OTUs that were differentially abundant between particular ecomorphs. For example, the genus Pigmentiphaga (Alcaligenaceae) was significantly enriched on arboreal frogs, Methylotenera (Methylophilaceae) was enriched on aquatic frogs, and Agrobacterium (Rhizobiaceae

  14. Host Ecology Rather Than Host Phylogeny Drives Amphibian Skin Microbial Community Structure in the Biodiversity Hotspot of Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly C. Bletz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Host-associated microbiotas of vertebrates are diverse and complex communities that contribute to host health. In particular, for amphibians, cutaneous microbial communities likely play a significant role in pathogen defense; however, our ecological understanding of these communities is still in its infancy. Here, we take advantage of the fully endemic and locally species-rich amphibian fauna of Madagascar to investigate the factors structuring amphibian skin microbiota on a large scale. Using amplicon-based sequencing, we evaluate how multiple host species traits and site factors affect host bacterial diversity and community structure. Madagascar is home to over 400 native frog species, all of which are endemic to the island; more than 100 different species are known to occur in sympatry within multiple rainforest sites. We intensively sampled frog skin bacterial communities, from over 800 amphibians from 89 species across 30 sites in Madagascar during three field visits, and found that skin bacterial communities differed strongly from those of the surrounding environment. Richness of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs and phylogenetic diversity differed among host ecomorphs, with arboreal frogs exhibiting lower richness and diversity than terrestrial and aquatic frogs. Host ecomorphology was the strongest factor influencing microbial community structure, with host phylogeny and site parameters (latitude and elevation explaining less but significant portions of the observed variation. Correlation analysis and topological congruency analyses revealed little to no phylosymbiosis for amphibian skin microbiota. Despite the observed geographic variation and low phylosymbiosis, we found particular OTUs that were differentially abundant between particular ecomorphs. For example, the genus Pigmentiphaga (Alcaligenaceae was significantly enriched on arboreal frogs, Methylotenera (Methylophilaceae was enriched on aquatic frogs, and Agrobacterium

  15. Primates in peril: the significance of Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo for global primate conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Alejandro; Garber, Paul A; Mittermeier, Russell A; Wich, Serge; Gouveia, Sidney; Dobrovolski, Ricardo; Nekaris, K A I; Nijman, Vincent; Rylands, Anthony B; Maisels, Fiona; Williamson, Elizabeth A; Bicca-Marques, Julio; Fuentes, Agustin; Jerusalinsky, Leandro; Johnson, Steig; Rodrigues de Melo, Fabiano; Oliveira, Leonardo; Schwitzer, Christoph; Roos, Christian; Cheyne, Susan M; Martins Kierulff, Maria Cecilia; Raharivololona, Brigitte; Talebi, Mauricio; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah; Supriatna, Jatna; Boonratana, Ramesh; Wedana, Made; Setiawan, Arif

    2018-01-01

    Primates occur in 90 countries, but four-Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)-harbor 65% of the world's primate species (439) and 60% of these primates are Threatened, Endangered, or Critically Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017-3). Considering their importance for global primate conservation, we examine the anthropogenic pressures each country is facing that place their primate populations at risk. Habitat loss and fragmentation are main threats to primates in Brazil, Madagascar, and Indonesia. However, in DRC hunting for the commercial bushmeat trade is the primary threat. Encroachment on primate habitats driven by local and global market demands for food and non-food commodities hunting, illegal trade, the proliferation of invasive species, and human and domestic-animal borne infectious diseases cause habitat loss, population declines, and extirpation. Modeling agricultural expansion in the 21st century for the four countries under a worst-case-scenario, showed a primate range contraction of 78% for Brazil, 72% for Indonesia, 62% for Madagascar, and 32% for DRC. These pressures unfold in the context of expanding human populations with low levels of development. Weak governance across these four countries may limit effective primate conservation planning. We examine landscape and local approaches to effective primate conservation policies and assess the distribution of protected areas and primates in each country. Primates in Brazil and Madagascar have 38% of their range inside protected areas, 17% in Indonesia and 14% in DRC, suggesting that the great majority of primate populations remain vulnerable. We list the key challenges faced by the four countries to avert primate extinctions now and in the future. In the short term, effective law enforcement to stop illegal hunting and illegal forest destruction is absolutely key. Long-term success can only be achieved by focusing local and global public

  16. Multielement analysis of minerals from Madagascar by X-ray emission induced by protons and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotoarisoa, C.

    1990-12-01

    This study is a part of a large multidisciplinary program for the study of soil formation in the south east of Madagascar near the uranothorianite deposit of Tranomaro explaining the particular interest for rare earths, uranium and thorium. X-ray emission principles and physical processes of a X-ray spectra are briefly recalled. The choice of analysis method depends upon sensitivity simplicity and rapidity. Experimental techniques are described and results obtained are discussed. Methods used for qualitative and quantitative interpretation of spectra are exposed. In conclusion performance and limits of the method are examined [fr

  17. Top soil radioactivity assessment in a high natural radiation background area: the case of Vinaninkarena, Antsirabe-Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabesiranana, Naivo; Rasolonirina, Martin; Terina, Franck; Solonjara, Asivelo F; Andriambololona, Raoelina

    2008-11-01

    The village of Vinaninkarena, Antsirabe, Madagascar (47 degrees 02'40''E, 19 degrees 57'17''S) is located in a high natural radioactivity area. In order to evaluate the natural radionuclide content in soil, sampling was done on-site by the transect method (85 soil samples) and off-site through transects across and beyond the region (up to a range of 100 km), to determine the natural radioactivity variation within vs. outside the region, and to detect significant differences, taking into account spatial variability.

  18. 77 FR 21846 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Board is amending Regulation D, Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions, to simplify the administration of reserve requirements. The final rule creates a...

  19. Rainforest pharmacopeia in Madagascar provides high value for current local and prospective global uses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Golden

    Full Text Available Botanical diversity provides value to humans through carbon sequestration, air and water purification, and the provisioning of wild foods and ethnomedicines. Here we calculate the value of botanical ethnomedicines in a rainforest region of Madagascar, the Makira Protected Area, using a substitution method that combines replacement costs and choice modeling. The Makira watershed may comprise approximately 0.8% of global botanical diversity and possesses enormous value both in its ability to provision botanical ethnomedicines to local people and as a source of potentially novel pharmaceutical drugs for society as a whole. Approximately 241 locally-recognized species are used as ethnomedicines, including 113 agricultural or weed species. We equated each ethnomedicinal treatment to the monetary value of a comparable pharmaceutical treatment adjusted by personal preferences in perceived efficacy (rather than from known or assumed medicinal equivalency. The benefit value of these botanical ethnomedicines per individual is $5.40-7.90 per year when using the value of highly subsidized Malagasy pharmaceuticals and $100.60-287.40 when using the value of American pharmaceuticals. Using local pharmaceuticals as substitutes, the value per household is $30.24-44.30 per year, equivalent to 43-63% of median annual household income, demonstrating their local importance. Using the value of American pharmaceuticals, the amount is equivalent to 22-63% of the median annual health care expenditures for American adults under 45 in 2006. The potential for developing novel biomedicines from the Makira watershed's unique flora ranges in untapped benefit value from $0.3-5.7 billion for American pharmaceutical companies, non-inclusive of the importance of providing novel medicines and improved healthcare to society. This study provides evidence of the tremendous current local and prospective global value of botanical ethnomedicines and furthers arguments for the

  20. Cross-sectional survey of knowledge of obstetric danger signs among women in rural Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ania; Lacour, Oriane; Scaringella, Stefano; Herinianasolo, Josea; Benski, Anne Caroline; Stancanelli, Giovanna; Vassilakos, Pierre; Petignat, Patrick; Schmidt, Nicole Christine

    2018-02-05

    Antenatal care (ANC) has the potential to identify and manage obstetric complications, educate women about risks during pregnancy and promote skilled birth attendance during childbirth. The aim of this study was to assess women's knowledge of obstetric danger signs and factors associated with this knowledge in Ambanja, Madagascar. It also sought to evaluate whether the participation in a mobile health (mHealth) project that aimed to provide comprehensive ANC to pregnant women in remote areas influenced women's knowledge of obstetric danger signs. From April to October 2015, a non-random, convenience sample of 372 women in their first year postpartum were recruited, including 161 who had participated in the mHealth project. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Knowledge of at least one danger sign varied from 80.9% of women knowing danger sign(s) in pregnancy, to 51.9%, 50.8% and 53.2% at delivery, postpartum and in the newborn, respectively. Participation in the mHealth intervention, higher household income, and receipt of information about danger signs during pregnancy were associated with knowledge of danger signs during delivery, in bivariate analysis; only higher household income and mHealth project participation were independently associated. Higher educational attainment and receipt of information about danger signs in antenatal care were associated with significantly higher odds of knowing danger sign(s) for the newborn in both bivariate and multivariate analysis. Knowledge of obstetric danger signs is low. Information provision during pregnancy and with mHealth is promising. This trial was retrospectively registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Register (identifier ISRCTN15798183 ; August 22, 2015).

  1. Estimating temporal changes in soil carbon stocks at ecoregional scale in Madagascar using remote-sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinand, C.; Maire, G. Le; Vieilledent, G.; Razakamanarivo, H.; Razafimbelo, T.; Bernoux, M.

    2017-02-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays an important role in climate change regulation notably through release of CO2 following land use change such a deforestation, but data on stock change levels are lacking. This study aims to empirically assess SOC stocks change between 1991 and 2011 at the landscape scale using easy-to-access spatially-explicit environmental factors. The study area was located in southeast Madagascar, in a region that exhibits very high rate of deforestation and which is characterized by both humid and dry climates. We estimated SOC stock on 0.1 ha plots for 95 different locations in a 43,000 ha reference area covering both dry and humid conditions and representing different land cover including natural forest, cropland, pasture and fallows. We used the Random Forest algorithm to find out the environmental factors explaining the spatial distribution of SOC. We then predicted SOC stocks for two soil layers at 30 cm and 100 cm over a wider area of 395,000 ha. By changing the soil and vegetation indices derived from remote sensing images we were able to produce SOC maps for 1991 and 2011. Those estimates and their related uncertainties where combined in a post-processing step to map estimates of significant SOC variations and we finally compared the SOC change map with published deforestation maps. Results show that the geologic variables, precipitation, temperature, and soil-vegetation status were strong predictors of SOC distribution at regional scale. We estimated an average net loss of 10.7% and 5.2% for the 30 cm and the 100 cm layers respectively for deforested areas in the humid area. Our results also suggest that these losses occur within the first five years following deforestation. No significant variations were observed for the dry region. This study provides new solutions and knowledge for a better integration of soil threats and opportunities in land management policies.

  2. Spatial linkages between coral proxies of terrestrial runoff across a large embayment in Madagascar

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    C. A. Grove

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Coral cores provide vital climate reconstructions for site-specific temporal variability in river flow and sediment load. Yet, their ability to record spatial differences across multiple catchments is relatively unknown. Here, we investigate spatial linkages between four coral proxies of terrestrial runoff and their relationships between sites. Coral cores were drilled in and around Antongil Bay, the largest bay in Madagascar, and individually analysed for fifteen years of continuous luminescence (G / B, Ba / Ca, δ18Osw and δ13C data. Each coral core was drilled close to individual river mouths (≥ 7 km, and proxy data were compared to modelled river discharge and sediment runoff data for the three corresponding catchments. A reasonable agreement between terrestrial runoff proxies with modelled river discharge and sediment yield was observed. Some inconsistencies between proxy and modelled data are likely linked to proxy behaviour, watershed size and local environmental physiochemical parameters. In general, the further a coral resided from its river source, the weaker the proxy relationship was with modelled data and other corals, due to mixing gradients and currents. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that two coral Ba / Ca and luminescence (G / B records influenced by the same watershed are reproducible. Furthermore, a strong Ba / Ca relationship was observed between two cores from distant watersheds, with baseline averages in agreement with modelled sediment runoff data. As humic acids behave conservatively in the water column, luminescence (G / B data gave the highest regional correlations between cores, and showed the most consistent relationship with site specific modelled discharge. No statistical relationship was observed between cores in terms of interannual δ18Osw and δ13C, meaning corals were recording a localised signal at their respective sites, confounded by vital

  3. Patterns of loss and regeneration of tropical dry forest in Madagascar: the social institutional context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmqvist, Thomas; Pyykönen, Markku; Tengö, Maria; Rakotondrasoa, Fanambinantsoa; Rabakonandrianina, Elisabeth; Radimilahy, Chantal

    2007-05-02

    Loss of tropical forests and changes in land-use/land-cover are of growing concern worldwide. Although knowledge exists about the institutional context in which tropical forest loss is embedded, little is known about the role of social institutions in influencing regeneration of tropical forests. In the present study we used Landsat images from southern Madagascar from three different years (1984, 1993 and 2000) and covering 5500 km(2), and made a time-series analysis of three distinct large-scale patterns: 1) loss of forest cover, 2) increased forest cover, and 3) stable forest cover. Institutional characteristics underlying these three patterns were analyzed, testing the hypothesis that forest cover change is a function of strength and enforcement of local social institutions. The results showed a minor decrease of 7% total forest cover in the study area during the whole period 1984-2000, but an overall net increase of 4% during the period 1993-2000. The highest loss of forest cover occurred in a low human population density area with long distances to markets, while a stable forest cover occurred in the area with highest population density and good market access. Analyses of institutions revealed that loss of forest cover occurred mainly in areas characterized by insecure property rights, while areas with well-defined property rights showed either regenerating or stable forest cover. The results thus corroborate our hypothesis. The large-scale spontaneous regeneration dominated by native endemic species appears to be a result of a combination of changes in precipitation, migration and decreased human population and livestock grazing pressure, but under conditions of maintained and well-defined property rights. Our study emphasizes the large capacity of a semi-arid system to spontaneously regenerate, triggered by decreased pressures, but where existing social institutions mitigate other drivers of deforestation and alternative land-use.

  4. Patterns of loss and regeneration of tropical dry forest in Madagascar: the social institutional context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Elmqvist

    Full Text Available Loss of tropical forests and changes in land-use/land-cover are of growing concern worldwide. Although knowledge exists about the institutional context in which tropical forest loss is embedded, little is known about the role of social institutions in influencing regeneration of tropical forests. In the present study we used Landsat images from southern Madagascar from three different years (1984, 1993 and 2000 and covering 5500 km(2, and made a time-series analysis of three distinct large-scale patterns: 1 loss of forest cover, 2 increased forest cover, and 3 stable forest cover. Institutional characteristics underlying these three patterns were analyzed, testing the hypothesis that forest cover change is a function of strength and enforcement of local social institutions. The results showed a minor decrease of 7% total forest cover in the study area during the whole period 1984-2000, but an overall net increase of 4% during the period 1993-2000. The highest loss of forest cover occurred in a low human population density area with long distances to markets, while a stable forest cover occurred in the area with highest population density and good market access. Analyses of institutions revealed that loss of forest cover occurred mainly in areas characterized by insecure property rights, while areas with well-defined property rights showed either regenerating or stable forest cover. The results thus corroborate our hypothesis. The large-scale spontaneous regeneration dominated by native endemic species appears to be a result of a combination of changes in precipitation, migration and decreased human population and livestock grazing pressure, but under conditions of maintained and well-defined property rights. Our study emphasizes the large capacity of a semi-arid system to spontaneously regenerate, triggered by decreased pressures, but where existing social institutions mitigate other drivers of deforestation and alternative land-use.

  5. Rapid Assessment of Ecosystem Service Co-Benefits of Biodiversity Priority Areas in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A Neugarten

    Full Text Available The importance of ecosystems for supporting human well-being is increasingly recognized by both the conservation and development sectors. Our ability to conserve ecosystems that people rely on is often limited by a lack of spatially explicit data on the location and distribution of ecosystem services (ES, the benefits provided by nature to people. Thus there is a need to map ES to guide conservation investments, to ensure these co-benefits are maintained. To target conservation investments most effectively, ES assessments must be rigorous enough to support conservation planning, rapid enough to respond to decision-making timelines, and often must rely on existing data. We developed a framework for rapid spatial assessment of ES that relies on expert and stakeholder consultation, available data, and spatial analyses in order to rapidly identify sites providing multiple benefits. We applied the framework in Madagascar, a country with globally significant biodiversity and a high level of human dependence on ecosystems. Our objective was to identify the ES co-benefits of biodiversity priority areas in order to guide the investment strategy of a global conservation fund. We assessed key provisioning (fisheries, hunting and non-timber forest products, and water for domestic use, agriculture, and hydropower, regulating (climate mitigation, flood risk reduction and coastal protection, and cultural (nature tourism ES. We also conducted multi-criteria analyses to identify sites providing multiple benefits. While our approach has limitations, including the reliance on proximity-based indicators for several ES, the results were useful for targeting conservation investments by the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF. Because our approach relies on available data, standardized methods for linking ES provision to ES use, and expert validation, it has the potential to quickly guide conservation planning and investment decisions in other data-poor regions.

  6. Hemispherically in-phase precipitation variability over the last 1700 years in a Madagascar speleothem record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroxton, Nick; Burns, Stephen J.; McGee, David; Hardt, Ben; Godfrey, Laurie R.; Ranivoharimanana, Lovasoa; Faina, Peterson

    2017-05-01

    Paleoclimate studies of tropical rainfall have led to a recognition of a predominant pattern of anti-phase behavior between the Northern and Southern hemispheres at both orbital and millennial timescales. Less certain is how regional tropical rainfall patterns have changed in the late Holocene, under boundary conditions and on timescales which are most relevant to the tropics' response to a warming world. Several high-resolution southern hemisphere rainfall records are at odds with meridional movement of the mean Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone location as the major driver of Holocene tropical rainfall variability, with regional precipitation patterns resembling modern day El-Niño Southern Oscillation end members. To test emerging ideas on sub-millennial tropical rainfall variability, additional records from the southern hemisphere are required. We present a new speleothem δ18O record from Anjohibe Cave, northwestern Madagascar, which provides a quasi-annual record of monsoonal strength and precipitation amount for the last 1700 years. The majority of δ18O variability in the record is at the decadal scale, and shows little to no correlation with major climate indices or cyclical climate drivers. At lower frequencies, changes in mean speleothem δ18O show good correlation with other regional precipitation records both north and south of the equator. The regional coherency of tropical rainfall across the west Indian Ocean resembles expansion and contraction of the tropical rain belt and positive-Indian Ocean Dipole-like conditions at different timescales. The cause of this coherency could be related to symmetrical changes in continental sensible heating, or to a low frequency sea surface temperature climate mode.

  7. Examining cross-equatorial precipitation variability in the western Indian Ocean using stalagmites from Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroxton, N.; Burns, S. J.; McGee, D.; Hardt, B. F.; Godfrey, L.; Ranivoharimanana, L.; Faina, P.

    2017-12-01

    The behavior of the world's monsoon systems and the position of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) resulting from large global climatic changes is reasonably well understood at orbital and millennial timescales. However, under the boundary conditions and relatively modest forcing of the last 2000 years it is not yet clear how tropical monsoon systems changed and why. The traditional schema of north-south translation of the ITCZ is being challenged by new theories relating to meridional expansion and contraction of the tropical rain belt, and/or to changes in zonal circulation patterns resembling modern El-Niño Southern Oscillation end members. Located at a hotspot of zonal and meridional climate forcing, stalagmites from the western Indian Ocean can provide new insights into past rainfall variability and uncover the driving mechanisms. Here, we present results from a new southern hemisphere speleothem record from Anjohibe cave, northwestern Madagascar, covering the last 1,700 years. We demonstrate that our quasi-annual, precisely dated, stable oxygen isotope record serves as a proxy for the strength of the northwestern Madagascan monsoon. The record shows a multi-decadal, in-phase relationship with its northern hemisphere monsoon counterpart from Oman - contrary to the expected antiphase relationship that would result from north-south ITCZ translation. At the centennial scale, the Madagascan record correlates well with precipitation records from Eastern Africa. We discuss the potential causes of western Indian Ocean precipitation coherency, and how it relates to either symmetrical changes in continental sensible heating, or to a low frequency zonal sea-surface temperature mode.

  8. The allometry of parrot BMR: seasonal data for the Greater Vasa Parrot, Coracopsis vasa, from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Barry G; Perrin, Mike R; Brown, Mark

    2011-12-01

    In this study we examined the allometry of basal metabolic rate (BMR) of 31 parrot species. Unlike previous reports, we show that parrots per se do not display BMRs that are any different to other captive-raised birds of their body size. An ordinary least squares regression fitted the data best and body mass explained 95% of the variation in BMR. There was no phylogenetic signal in the BMR data. We also provide new data for the Greater Vasa Parrot (Coracopsis vasa) of Madagascar. We tested the hypotheses that C. vasa may, because of its insular existence, display conservative energetic traits (low BMR, use of adaptive heterothermy) similar to those observed in several Malagasy mammals. However, this was not the case. C. vasa had a higher BMR than other parrots, especially during summer, when BMR was up-regulated by 50.5% and was 95.7% higher than predicted from an ordinary least squares (OLS) allometry of parrots (BMR = 0.042M (b) (0.649) , BMR in Watts, M (b) in grammes). Compared with BMR data for 94 captive-raised bird species, the winter and summer BMRs were, respectively, 45.5 and 117.8% higher than predicted by a phylogenetic generalised least squares (PGLS) allometry (BMR = 0.030M (b) (0.687) , BMR in Watts, M (b) in grammes). The summer up-regulation of BMR is the highest recorded for a bird of any size to date. We suggest that the costs of a high summer BMR may be met by the unusual cooperative breeding system of C. vasa in which groups of males feed the female and share paternity. The potential breeding benefits of a high summer BMR are unknown.

  9. Phylogenomics and taxonomy of Lecomtelleae (Poaceae), an isolated panicoid lineage from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Guillaume; Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Coissac, Eric; Ralimanana, Hélène; Vorontsova, Maria S

    2013-10-01

    An accurate characterization of biodiversity requires analyses of DNA sequences in addition to classical morphological descriptions. New methods based on high-throughput sequencing may allow investigation of specimens with a large set of genetic markers to infer their evolutionary history. In the grass family, the phylogenetic position of the monotypic genus Lecomtella, a rare bamboo-like endemic from Madagascar, has never been appropriately evaluated. Until now its taxonomic treatment has remained controversial, indicating the need for re-evaluation based on a combination of molecular and morphological data. The phylogenetic position of Lecomtella in Poaceae was evaluated based on sequences from the nuclear and plastid genomes generated by next-generation sequencing (NGS). In addition, a detailed morphological description of L. madagascariensis was produced, and its distribution and habit were investigated in order to assess its conservation status. The complete plastid sequence, a ribosomal DNA unit and fragments of low-copy nuclear genes (phyB and ppc) were obtained. All phylogenetic analyses place Lecomtella as an isolated member of the core panicoids, which last shared a common ancestor with other species >20 million years ago. Although Lecomtella exhibits morphological characters typical of Panicoideae, an unusual combination of traits supports its treatment as a separate group. The study showed that NGS can be used to generate abundant phylogenetic information rapidly, opening new avenues for grass phylogenetics. These data clearly showed that Lecomtella forms an isolated lineage, which, in combination with its morphological peculiarities, justifies its treatment as a separate tribe: Lecomtelleae. New descriptions of the tribe, genus and species are presented with a typification, a distribution map and an IUCN conservation assessment.

  10. Modeling groundwater age using tritium and groundwater mineralization processes - Morondava sedimentary basin, Southwestern Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAMAROSON, V.

    2007-01-01

    The tritium method in the lumped parameter approach was used for groundwater dating in the Morondava sedimentary basin, Southwestern Madagascar. Tritium data were interpreted by the dispersion model. The modeling results, with P D values between 0.05 and 0.7, show that shallow groundwater age is ranging from 17 to 56 years. Different types of chemical composition were determined for these shallow ground waters, among others, Ca-HCO 3 , Ca-Na-HCO 3 , Ca-Na-Mg-HCO 3 , Ca-K-HCO 3 -NO 3 -SO 4 , Na-Cl, or Ca-Na-Mg-Cl. Likewise, deeper ground waters show various chemical type such as Ca-Na-HCO 3 , Ca-Mg-Na H CO 3 , Ca-Na-Mg-HCO 3 , Ca-Na-Mg-HCO 3 -Cl-SO 4 , Ca-Mg-HCO 3 , Na-Ca-Mg-HCO 3 -SO 4 -Cl, Na-Cl-HCO 3 or Na-HCO 3 -Cl. To evaluate the geochemical processes, the NETPATH inverse geochemical modeling type was implemented. The modeling results show that silicate minerals dissolution , including olivine, plagioclase, and pyroxene is more important than calcite or dolomite dissolution, for both shallow and deeper groundwater . In the Southern part of the study area, while halite dissolution is likely to be the source of shallow groundwater chloride concentration rise, the mineral precipitation seems to be responsible for less chloride content in deeper groundwater. Besides, ion exchange contributes to the variations of major cations concentrations in groundwater. The major difference between shallow and deep groundwater mineralization process lies in the leaching of marine aerosols deposits by local precipitation, rapidly infiltrated through the sandy formation and giving marine chemical signature to shallow groundwater [fr

  11. The short-term impacts of a cyclone on seagrass communities in Southwest Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté-Laurin, Marie-Claude; Benbow, Sophie; Erzini, Karim

    2017-04-01

    Cyclones are large-scale disturbances with highly destructive potential in coastal ecosystems. On February 22, 2013, a powerful tropical cyclone made landfall on the southwest coast of Madagascar, a region which is infrequently hit by such extreme weather events coming from the Mozambique Channel. Seagrass ecosystems, which provide valuable ecosystems services to local communities, are especially vulnerable because they thrive in shallow waters. The impact of Cyclone Haruna on seagrass diversity, height and coverage and associated fish diversity, abundance and biomass was assessed in 3 sites near Andavadoaka (22°07‧S, 43°23‧E) before and after the event using fish underwater visual census, video-transects, and seagrass quadrats. The cyclone caused a significant loss in seagrass cover at all 3 sites. Thalassia hemprichii and Syringodium isoetifolium were the most affected species. Andavadoaka beach, the most exposed site, which was also subject to human use and was most fragmented, suffered the largest negative effects of the cyclone. Cyclone Haruna was not found to significantly affect fish assemblages, which are highly mobile organisms able to use a diversity of niches and adjacent habitats after seagrass fragmentation. Extensive sampling and longer time-scale studies would be needed to fully evaluate the cyclone impact on communities of seagrass and fish, and track potential recovery in seagrass coverage. The intensity and destructive potential of cyclones is expected to increase with global warming, which is of concern for developing countries that encompass most of the world's seagrass beds. This study provided a unique and key opportunity to monitor immediate impacts of an extreme disturbance in a region where cyclones rarely hit coastal ecosystems and where local populations remain highly dependent on seagrass meadows.

  12. Omura's whales (Balaenoptera omurai) off northwest Madagascar: ecology, behaviour and conservation needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerchio, Salvatore; Andrianantenaina, Boris; Lindsay, Alec; Rekdahl, Melinda; Andrianarivelo, Norbert; Rasoloarijao, Tahina

    2015-10-01

    The Omura's whale (Balaenoptera omurai) was described as a new species in 2003 and then soon after as an ancient lineage basal to a Bryde's/sei whale clade. Currently known only from whaling and stranding specimens primarily from the western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans, there exist no confirmed field observations or ecological/behavioural data. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first genetically confirmed documentation of living Omura's whales including descriptions of basic ecology and behaviour from northwestern Madagascar. Species identification was confirmed through molecular phylogenetic analyses of biopsies collected from 18 adult animals. All individuals shared a single haplotype in a 402 bp sequence of mtDNA control region, suggesting low diversity and a potentially small population. Sightings of 44 groups indicated preference for shallow-water shelf habitat with sea surface temperature between 27.4°C and 30.2°C. Frequent observations were made of lunge feeding, possibly on zooplankton. Observations of four mothers with young calves, and recordings of a song-like vocalization probably indicate reproductive behaviour. Social organization consisted of loose aggregations of predominantly unassociated single individuals spatially and temporally clustered. Photographic recapture of a female re-sighted the following year with a young calf suggests site fidelity or a resident population. Our results demonstrate that the species is a tropical whale without segregation of feeding and breeding habitat, and is probably non-migratory; our data extend the range of this poorly studied whale into the western Indian Ocean. Exclusive range restriction to tropical waters is rare among baleen whale species, except for the various forms of Bryde's whales and Omura's whales. Thus, the discovery of a tractable population of Omura's whales in the tropics presents an opportunity for understanding the ecological factors driving potential convergence of life

  13. Symbolic capital and health: the case of women's sex work in Antananarivo, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoebenau, Kirsten

    2009-06-01

    Public health research on sex work has been criticized both for representing sex work as a monolithic entity and for focusing only on individual behavioral determinants of health. When broader determinants are acknowledged, they are often described in solely economic terms (ie, comparing health risks of higher class versus lower class sex workers). Drawing from Pierre Bourdieu, I describe women's sex work in Antananarivo, Madagascar as a social 'field' and demonstrate that this field is both highly complex and highly structured. Fourteen months of ethnographic fieldwork (December 2002-December 2003; May-June 2004) in Antananarivo with women sex workers (n approximately 60) and community members (n approximately 85) informed a description of the community's understanding of the sex work field and its contrast to the lived experience of key informant sex workers. Women who sell sex were categorized by their communities into three social positions--ambony (high), antonony (middle) and ambany (low)--which were differentiated by economic capital (earnings per sexual exchange) and symbolic capital (prestige associated with race, ethnicity and moral demeanor). Women who occupied the antonony social position held the greatest volumes of symbolic capital both because they were identified as belonging to the local dominant ethnic group, and because they demonstrated discretion and shame in their sex work practice. Alternatively, women who occupied the ambony and ambany positions openly practiced their sex work and were associated with ethnic or racial minority identities, contributing to their lower volumes of symbolic capital. Symbolic capital influenced unique health vulnerabilities, such as to sexually transmitted disease, by social position through mechanisms operating from the institutional to the interpersonal level. This analysis illustrates the value of examining sex work as a social field, specifically the importance of capturing more than economic capital in order

  14. Large-Scale Habitat Corridors for Biodiversity Conservation: A Forest Corridor in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjona Ramiadantsoa

    Full Text Available In biodiversity conservation, habitat corridors are assumed to increase landscape-level connectivity and to enhance the viability of otherwise isolated populations. While the role of corridors is supported by empirical evidence, studies have typically been conducted at small spatial scales. Here, we assess the quality and the functionality of a large 95-km long forest corridor connecting two large national parks (416 and 311 km2 in the southeastern escarpment of Madagascar. We analyze the occurrence of 300 species in 5 taxonomic groups in the parks and in the corridor, and combine high-resolution forest cover data with a simulation model to examine various scenarios of corridor destruction. At present, the corridor contains essentially the same communities as the national parks, reflecting its breadth which on average matches that of the parks. In the simulation model, we consider three types of dispersers: passive dispersers, which settle randomly around the source population; active dispersers, which settle only in favorable habitat; and gap-avoiding active dispersers, which avoid dispersing across non-habitat. Our results suggest that long-distance passive dispersers are most sensitive to ongoing degradation of the corridor, because increasing numbers of propagules are lost outside the forest habitat. For a wide range of dispersal parameters, the national parks are large enough to sustain stable populations until the corridor becomes severely broken, which will happen around 2065 if the current rate of forest loss continues. A significant decrease in gene flow along the corridor is expected after 2040, and this will exacerbate the adverse consequences of isolation. Our results demonstrate that simulation studies assessing the role of habitat corridors should pay close attention to the mode of dispersal and the effects of regional stochasticity.

  15. Successful contracting of prevention services: fighting malnutrition in Senegal and Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, T; Diallo, I; Ndiaye, B; Rakotosalama, J

    1999-12-01

    There are very few documented large-scale successes in nutrition in Africa, and virtually no consideration of contracting for preventive services. This paper describes two successful large-scale community nutrition projects in Africa as examples of what can be done in prevention using the contracting approach in rural as well as urban areas. The two case-studies are the Secaline project in Madagascar, and the Community Nutrition Project in Senegal. The article explains what is meant by 'success' in the context of these two projects, how these results were achieved, and how certain bottlenecks were avoided. Both projects are very similar in the type of service they provide, and in combining private administration with public finance. The article illustrates that contracting out is a feasible option to be seriously considered for organizing certain prevention programmes on a large scale. There are strong indications from these projects of success in terms of reducing malnutrition, replicability and scale, and community involvement. When choosing that option, a government can tap available private local human resources through contracting out, rather than delivering those services by the public sector. However, as was done in both projects studied, consideration needs to be given to using a contract management unit for execution and monitoring, which costs 13-17% of the total project's budget. Rigorous assessments of the cost-effectiveness of contracted services are not available, but improved health outcomes, targeting of the poor, and basic cost data suggest that the programmes may well be relatively cost-effective. Although the contracting approach is not presented as the panacea to solve the malnutrition problem faced by Africa, it can certainly provide an alternative in many countries to increase coverage and quality of services.

  16. Rapid Assessment of Ecosystem Service Co-Benefits of Biodiversity Priority Areas in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamaro, Luciano; Cano, Carlos Andres; Grantham, Hedley S.; Hole, David; Juhn, Daniel; McKinnon, Madeleine; Rasolohery, Andriambolantsoa; Steininger, Marc; Wright, Timothy Max

    2016-01-01

    The importance of ecosystems for supporting human well-being is increasingly recognized by both the conservation and development sectors. Our ability to conserve ecosystems that people rely on is often limited by a lack of spatially explicit data on the location and distribution of ecosystem services (ES), the benefits provided by nature to people. Thus there is a need to map ES to guide conservation investments, to ensure these co-benefits are maintained. To target conservation investments most effectively, ES assessments must be rigorous enough to support conservation planning, rapid enough to respond to decision-making timelines, and often must rely on existing data. We developed a framework for rapid spatial assessment of ES that relies on expert and stakeholder consultation, available data, and spatial analyses in order to rapidly identify sites providing multiple benefits. We applied the framework in Madagascar, a country with globally significant biodiversity and a high level of human dependence on ecosystems. Our objective was to identify the ES co-benefits of biodiversity priority areas in order to guide the investment strategy of a global conservation fund. We assessed key provisioning (fisheries, hunting and non-timber forest products, and water for domestic use, agriculture, and hydropower), regulating (climate mitigation, flood risk reduction and coastal protection), and cultural (nature tourism) ES. We also conducted multi-criteria analyses to identify sites providing multiple benefits. While our approach has limitations, including the reliance on proximity-based indicators for several ES, the results were useful for targeting conservation investments by the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF). Because our approach relies on available data, standardized methods for linking ES provision to ES use, and expert validation, it has the potential to quickly guide conservation planning and investment decisions in other data-poor regions. PMID:28006005

  17. Comparing Methods for Prioritising Protected Areas for Investment: A Case Study Using Madagascar's Dry Forest Reptiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie J Gardner

    Full Text Available There are insufficient resources available to manage the world's existing protected area portfolio effectively, so the most important sites should be prioritised in investment decision-making. Sophisticated conservation planning and assessment tools developed to identify locations for new protected areas can provide an evidence base for such prioritisations, yet decision-makers in many countries lack the institutional support and necessary capacity to use the associated software. As such, simple heuristic approaches such as species richness or number of threatened species are generally adopted to inform prioritisation decisions. However, their performance has never been tested. Using the reptile fauna of Madagascar's dry forests as a case study, we evaluate the performance of four site prioritisation protocols used to rank the conservation value of 22 established and candidate protected areas. We compare the results to a benchmark produced by the widely-used systematic conservation planning software Zonation. The four indices scored sites on the basis of: i species richness; ii an index based on species' Red List status; iii irreplaceability (a key metric in systematic conservation planning; and, iv a novel Conservation Value Index (CVI, which incorporates species-level information on endemism, representation in the protected area system, tolerance of habitat degradation and hunting/collection pressure. Rankings produced by the four protocols were positively correlated to the results of Zonation, particularly amongst high-scoring sites, but CVI and Irreplaceability performed better than Species Richness and the Red List Index. Given the technological capacity constraints experienced by decision-makers in the developing world, our findings suggest that heuristic metrics can represent a useful alternative to more sophisticated analyses, especially when they integrate species-specific information related to extinction risk. However, this can

  18. Sauvegarde et valorisation du fonds d’archives familiales de Jean-Joseph Rabearivelo à Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Ink

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Figure essentielle et encore mal connue de la littérature malgache et internationale, Jean-Joseph Rabearivelo (1903‑1937 fut à la fois poète, journaliste et critique, dramaturge et romancier, historien de sa tradition, collecteur et traducteur de textes anciens comme de textes modernes. L’aventure qui débuta fin 2008 pour aboutir à la publication de ses œuvres complètes (AUF/ITEM, CNRS Éditions, Coll. Planète libre, Paris, 2 tomes, 2010 et 2012 consistait à sauvegarder l’important fonds d’archives familiales (plus de 800 manuscrits, tapuscrits, textes édités ou documents de travail confié par les ayant droits à l’Institut Français de Madagascar (Antananarivo, par un travail de tri, de numérisation et de mise en conditionnement neutre, in situ, et à le valoriser par l’édition des textes, pour une grande part inédits, dans une approche scientifique à caractère génétique. Expérience novatrice, structurée par une méthodologie devant constamment s’adapter aux exigences géographique, scientifique et éditoriale, elle est également à considérer comme un cas d’école, pour une meilleure approche des fonds d’archives littéraires, aujourd’hui en péril dans bon nombre de pays du Sud.

  19. Nutrition education for illiterate children in southern Madagascar--addressing their needs, perceptions and capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahr, Johanna; Wuestefeld, Marzella; Ten Haaf, Joep; Krawinkel, Michael B

    2005-06-01

    A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) study was conducted in three villages of Bekily District in southern Madagascar prior to the implementation of a health education programme with children. The participatory learning concept of the Child-to-Child approach was followed to involve the children in the planning and implementation of the programme, which was covered by the German Agency for Technical Cooperation. To this effect, qualitative research methods such as Participatory Learning and Action techniques (focus group discussions, mapping and matrix ranking, etc.) were applied. The survey was conducted between August and December 1999. It involved a total of 55 school-aged children (6-14 years) along with 21 mothers and 34 fathers, representing different ethnic groups and educational backgrounds. The results show that children's KAP related to health and nutrition strongly reflect those of adults. They are not aware of a possible link between bad hygiene and the occurrence of diseases. According to them, diarrhoea or malaria is caused by consuming too large amounts of certain foods. Even if they know about certain elementary hygiene behaviours, they do not practise this in their everyday life. A major objective of the health education programme for children should be to tackle the discrepancy between hygiene-related knowledge and behaviour. Through the participatory study approach the children revealed their ability to contribute to the programme development. In using appropriate communication channels, the Child-to-Child health education programme is expected to influence the health behaviours of both adults and children. The health education programme should be combined with a literacy programme to address the children's desire to learn reading and writing.

  20. A preliminary early-season flower-visitation web for the Kirindy Forest, Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary V. Price

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropical dry deciduous forest is an endangered ecosystem whose plant-pollinator relationships are little known. We characterised a portion of the web of interactions between flowering plants and flower visitors in the Kirindy Forest of the Menabe region of west-central Madagascar. Taking a plant-centered approach, we observed individuals of the 5 most abundant native plant species that were coming into flower at the end of the annual dry season, and recorded all identifiable flower-visitors. Taking a visitor-centered approach, we walked a network of established trails and listened for distinctive calls of a common flower-visiting bird, noting the plant species visited. The former approach revealed connections among the early-flowering species via birds and insects, whereas the latter confirmed these connections and added an additional plant species. Flowers of the 6 plant species were visited on average by 5.5 animal species, while 10 visitor species for which we had reasonable samples frequented on average the flowers of 3.3 plant species. These qualitative results resemble those reported from other temperate and tropical webs, in that interactions appeared to be relatively generalised by pollinator species and body plan (e.g., birds vs. bees. Also in agreement, the visitation web was significantly nested, with more-specialised species tending to interact with mutualistic partners that were themselves more generalised. In addition to documenting previously-unreported interactions, therefore, this preliminary web conforms to more widespread patterns emerging for pollination systems at the community level.

  1. Tritium as tracer of groundwater pollution extension: case study of Andralanitra landfill site, Antananarivo-Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaroson, Voahirana; Rakotomalala, Christian Ulrich; Rajaobelison, Joel; Fareze, Lahimamy Paul; Razafitsalama, Falintsoa A.; Rasolofonirina, Mamiseheno

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to understand the extension of groundwater pollution downstream of a landfill, Andralanitra-Antananarivo-Madagascar. Twenty-one samples, composed of dug well waters, spring waters, river, and lake, were measured in stable isotopes ( δ 2H, δ 18O) and tritium. Results showed that only two dug well waters, collected at the immediate vicinity of the landfill, have high tritium activities (22.82 TU and 10.43 TU), probably of artificial origin. Both upstream and further downstream of the landfill, tritium activities represent natural source, with values varying from 0.17 TU to 1.46 TU upstream and from 0.88 TU to 1.88 TU further downstream. Stable isotope data suggest that recharge occurs through infiltration of slightly evaporated rainfall. Using the radioactive decay equation, the calculated tracer ages related to two recent ground water samples collected down gradient of the landfill lay between [8-15] years and [4-7] years, taking into account the uncertainty of tritium measurements. For the calculation, a value of 2.36 TU was taken as A o. The latter was estimated based on similarity between stable isotope compositions of nearby spring and dug well waters as well as tritium activities of the local precipitation. Calculation of the tritium activities from the contaminated water point having 22.82 TU to further downstream using the calculated tracer ages showed values of one order of magnitude higher than the measured values. The absence of hydrological connection from the contaminated water point to further downstream the landfill would explain the lower tritium activities measured. Groundwater pollution seems to be limited to the closest proximity of the landfill.

  2. Comparing Methods for Prioritising Protected Areas for Investment: A Case Study Using Madagascar's Dry Forest Reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Charlie J; Raxworthy, Christopher J; Metcalfe, Kristian; Raselimanana, Achille P; Smith, Robert J; Davies, Zoe G

    2015-01-01

    There are insufficient resources available to manage the world's existing protected area portfolio effectively, so the most important sites should be prioritised in investment decision-making. Sophisticated conservation planning and assessment tools developed to identify locations for new protected areas can provide an evidence base for such prioritisations, yet decision-makers in many countries lack the institutional support and necessary capacity to use the associated software. As such, simple heuristic approaches such as species richness or number of threatened species are generally adopted to inform prioritisation decisions. However, their performance has never been tested. Using the reptile fauna of Madagascar's dry forests as a case study, we evaluate the performance of four site prioritisation protocols used to rank the conservation value of 22 established and candidate protected areas. We compare the results to a benchmark produced by the widely-used systematic conservation planning software Zonation. The four indices scored sites on the basis of: i) species richness; ii) an index based on species' Red List status; iii) irreplaceability (a key metric in systematic conservation planning); and, iv) a novel Conservation Value Index (CVI), which incorporates species-level information on endemism, representation in the protected area system, tolerance of habitat degradation and hunting/collection pressure. Rankings produced by the four protocols were positively correlated to the results of Zonation, particularly amongst high-scoring sites, but CVI and Irreplaceability performed better than Species Richness and the Red List Index. Given the technological capacity constraints experienced by decision-makers in the developing world, our findings suggest that heuristic metrics can represent a useful alternative to more sophisticated analyses, especially when they integrate species-specific information related to extinction risk. However, this can require access to

  3. Spirometric reference values in urban children in Madagascar: poverty is a risk factor for low lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Peter Th; Arison, Lala; Rahajamiakatra, Abel; Raserijaona, Francis; Niggemann, Bodo

    2014-01-01

    Studies about children with respiratory diseases in Africa are impeded by the dearth of reliable data for the vast majority of countries on the continent. This study was conducted to establish representative reference values, therefore allowing a more accurate evaluation of lung function in Malagasy children. One thousand two hundred thirty-six students from three public and five private schools aged 8-12 years were recruited. A total of 1,093 children were healthy, had a valid lung function measurement and were thus deemed evaluable for this study. Lung function data were collected on consecutive days in Antananarivo, Madagascar's capital, using spirometry and a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The lung volumes found were substantially lower compared to Caucasian and African equations. The mean Z-score (Stanojevic) for the forced vital capacity (FVC) found was -1.45 and -0.93 for the forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) with significant differences between private and public schools (FVC: P = 0.0023, FEV1: P = 0.0004). The equations established for school children in Madagascar's capital Antananarivo showed lung function values were lower than reference values for the same age group seen not only in European, but also in African American and African children. The unique ethnicity of the Malagasy people, which combines Southeast-Asian with substantial African influences, the heavy burden of pollution and poverty may explain these differences. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. In Madagascar, Use Of Health Care Services Increased When Fees Were Removed: Lessons For Universal Health Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garchitorena, Andres; Miller, Ann C; Cordier, Laura F; Ramananjato, Ranto; Rabeza, Victor R; Murray, Megan; Cripps, Amber; Hall, Laura; Farmer, Paul; Rich, Michael; Orlan, Arthur Velo; Rabemampionona, Alexandre; Rakotozafy, Germain; Randriantsimaniry, Damoela; Gikic, Djordje; Bonds, Matthew H

    2017-08-01

    Despite overwhelming burdens of disease, health care access in most developing countries is extremely low. As governments work toward achieving universal health coverage, evidence on appropriate interventions to expand access in rural populations is critical for informing policies. Using a combination of population and health system data, we evaluated the impact of two pilot fee exemption interventions in a rural area of Madagascar. We found that fewer than one-third of people in need of health care accessed treatment when point-of-service fees were in place. However, when fee exemptions were introduced for targeted medicines and services, the use of health care increased by 65 percent for all patients, 52 percent for children under age five, and over 25 percent for maternity consultations. These effects were sustained at an average direct cost of US$0.60 per patient. The pilot interventions can become a key element of universal health care in Madagascar with the support of external donors. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. Marketing complementary foods and supplements in Burkina Faso, Madagascar, and Vietnam: lessons learned from the Nutridev program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyeron, Olivier; Denizeau, Mirrdyn; Berger, Jacques; Trèche, Serge

    2010-06-01

    Sustainable approaches to improving infant and young child feeding are needed. The Nutridev program worked in Vietnam, Madagascar, and Burkina Faso to test different strategies to improve complementary feeding using fortified products sold to families. To review the experiences of programs producing and marketing fortified complementary foods and to report on the feasibility of local production and marketing of fortified complementary foods to increase usage of high-quality foods among children of low-income families in a self-sustaining manner. Project documents, surveys of mothers, and production and sales reports were reviewed. Nutridev experience in Vietnam, Madagascar, and Burkina Faso demonstrates that it is possible to produce affordable, high-quality complementary foods and supplements locally in developing countries. Strategies to make products readily available to the targeted population and to convince this population to consume them yielded mixed results, varying greatly based on the strategy utilized and the context in which it was implemented. In several contexts, the optimal approach appears to be strengthening the existing food distribution network to sell complementary foods and supplements, with the implementation of a temporary promotion and nutrition education network in partnership with local authorities (e.g., health services) to increase awareness among families about the fortified complementary food product and optimal feeding practices. In urban areas, where the density of the population is high, design and implementation of specific networks very close to consumers seems to be a good way to combine economic sustainability and good consumption levels.

  6. First description of autumn migration of Sooty Falcon Falco concolor from the United Arab Emirates to Madagascar using satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Sàlim; Douglas, David C.; Khan, Shahid Noor; Nazeer Shah, Junid; Ali Al Hammadi, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    The movement and migration pattern of the 'Near Threatened' Sooty Falcon Falco concolor is poorly known. Sooty Falcons breed on the islands of the Arabian Gulf after arriving from their non-breeding areas that are mainly in Madagascar. In the first satellite tracking of the species we fitted a 9.5 g Argos solar powered transmitter on an adult breeding Sooty Falcon off the western coast of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. The bird successfully undertook autumn migration to Madagascar, a known wintering area for the species. We document the Sooty Falcon's autumn migration route and stop-over sites. The adult Sooty Falcon initiated its migration at night and with tailwinds, and travelled mainly during daytime hours for 13 days over an inland route of more than 5,656 km. The three stop-over sites in East Africa were characterised by moderate to sparse shrub cover associated with potential sources of water. We discuss the migration pattern of the tracked bird in relation to importance of non-breeding areas for Sooty Falcons and recent declines in numbers in their breeding range.

  7. Population genetic structure of Taenia solium from Madagascar and Mexico: implications for clinical profile diversity and immunological technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Rodrigo; Piñero, Daniel; Ramanankandrasana, Bienvenue; Dumas, Michel; Bouteille, Bernard; Fleury, Agnes; Sciutto, Edda; Larralde, Carlos; Fragoso, Gladis

    2003-11-01

    Taenia solium is a cestode parasitic of humans and pigs that strongly impacts on public health in developing countries. Its larvae (cysticercus) lodge in the brain, causing neurocysticercosis, and in other tissues, like skeletal muscle and subcutaneous space, causing extraneuronal cysticercosis. Prevalences of these two clinical manifestations vary greatly among continents. Also, neurocysticercosis may be clinically heterogeneous, ranging from asymptomatic forms to severely incapacitating and even fatal presentation. Further, vaccine design and diagnosis technology have met with difficulties in sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. Parasite diversity underlying clinical heterogeneity and technological difficulties is little explored. Here, T. solium genetic population structure and diversity was studied by way of random amplified polymorphic DNA in individual cysticerci collected from pigs in Madagascar and two regions in Mexico. The amplification profiles of T. solium were also compared with those of the murine cysticercus Taenia crassiceps (ORF strain). We show significant genetic differentiation between Madagascar and Mexico and between regions in Mexico, but less so between cysticerci from different localities in Mexico and none between cysticerci from different tissues from the same pig. We also found restricted genetic variability within populations and gene flow was estimated to be low between populations. Thus, genetic differentiation of T. solium suggests that different evolutionary paths have been taken and provides support for its involvement in the differential tissue distribution of cysticerci and varying degrees of severity of the disease. It may also explain difficulties in the development of vaccines and tools for immunodiagnosis.

  8. A distinctive new frog species (Anura, Mantellidae supports the biogeographic linkage of two montane rainforest massifs in northern Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Scherz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of the genus Gephyromantis, subgenus GephyromantisVatomantis (Mantellidae, Mantellinae, from moderately high elevation (1164–1394 m a.s.l. on the Marojejy, Sorata, and Andravory Massifs in northern Madagascar. The new species, Gephyromantis (Vatomantis lomorina sp. n. is highly distinct from all other species, and was immediately recognisable as an undescribed taxon upon its discovery. It is characterised by a granular, mottled black and green skin, reddish eyes, paired subgular vocal sacs of partly white colour, bulbous femoral glands present only in males and consisting of three large granules, white ventral spotting, and a unique, amplitude-modulated advertisement call consisting of a series of 24–29 rapid, quiet notes at a dominant frequency of 5124–5512 Hz. Genetically the species is also strongly distinct from its congeners, with uncorrected pairwise distances ≥10 % in a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene to all other nominal Gephyromantis species. A molecular phylogeny based on 16S sequences places it in a clade with species of the subgenera Laurentomantis and Vatomantis, and we assign it to the latter subgenus based on its morphological resemblance to members of Vatomantis. We discuss the biogeography of reptiles and amphibians across the massifs of northern Madagascar, the evidence for a strong link between Marojejy and Sorata, and the role of elevation in determining community sharing across this landscape.

  9. Evaluating the effectiveness of conservation and development investments in reducing deforestation and fires in Ankeniheny-Zahemena Corridor, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Karyn; Jones, Kelly W; Hewson, Jennifer; Rasolohery, Andriambolantsoa; Rambeloson, Andoniaina; Andrianjohaninarivo, Tokihenintsoa; Harvey, Celia A

    2017-01-01

    Forest conservation and REDD+ projects invest millions of dollars each year to reduce local communities' dependence on forests and prevent forest loss and degradation. However, to date, there is limited evidence on whether these investments are effective at delivering conservation outcomes. We explored the relationships between 600+ small-scale conservation and development investments that occurred from 2007 to 2014 and conservation outcomes (deforestation rates and fire detections) within Ankeniheny-Zahamena Corridor in Madagascar using linear fixed effects panel regressions. We derived annual changes in forest cover and fires from satellite remote sensing. We found a statistically significant correlation between presence of any investment and reduced deforestation rates in 2010 and 2011 -years with accelerated deforestation elsewhere in the study area. This result indicated investments abated deforestation rates during times of political instability and lack of governance following a 2009 coup in Madagascar. We also found a statistically significant relationship between presence of any investment and reduced fire detections in the study area, suggesting investments had an impact on reducing burning of forest for agriculture. For both outcomes (i.e., deforestation rates and fire detections), we found that more dollars invested led to greater conservation outcomes (i.e. fewer fires or less deforestation), particularly when funding was sustained for one to two years. Our findings suggest that conservation and development investments can reduce deforestation and fire incidence, but also highlight the many challenges and complexities in assessing relationships between investments and conservation outcomes in a dynamic landscape and a volatile political context.

  10. Using Survey Data to Identify Opportunities to Reach Women with An Unmet Need for Family Planning: The Example of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekers, Dominique; Ratovonanahary, Raseliarison; Andrianantoandro, Tokinirina; Randrianarisoa, Hiangotiana

    2016-01-01

    In several African countries fertility levels have stagnated or increased slightly. However, many women still report an unmet need for family planning. Therefore achieving further fertility declines requires programs that increase demand for family planning, but that also address the existing unmet need. One way to improve contraceptive access in a cost-effective manner might be to integrate family planning services into other existing health services. This paper analyzes secondary data from the 2012-2013 Millennium Development Goals (MDG) survey in Madagascar to estimate the number of women with an unmet need for family planning that might benefit from integrating family planning services into other health services. In Madagascar, one third of the demand for family planning is not met; an estimated 820,000 women have an unmet need for family planning. A substantial portion of these women can be reached by integrating family planning services into existing maternal and child health services. Health providers are uniquely positioned to help address method-related reasons for non-use of family planning, such as concerns about health problems and side-effects. Given the large unmet need for family planning, programs should not exclusively focus on increasing the demand for family planning, but also seek new ways to address the existing unmet need. Our study illustrates that simple analyses of existing health survey data can be an important tool for informing the design of programs to tackle this unmet need.

  11. Elucidating transmission dynamics and host-parasite-vector relationships for rodent-borne Bartonella spp. in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara E. Brook

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella spp. are erythrocytic bacteria transmitted via arthropod vectors, which infect a broad range of vertebrate hosts, including humans. We investigated transmission dynamics and host-parasite-vector relationships for potentially zoonotic Bartonella spp. in invasive Rattus rattus hosts and associated arthropod ectoparasites in Madagascar. We identified five distinct species of Bartonella (B. elizabethae 1, B. elizabethae 2, B. phoceensis 1, B. rattimassiliensis 1, and B. tribocorum 1 infecting R. rattus rodents and their ectoparasites. We fit standard epidemiological models to species-specific age-prevalence data for the four Bartonella spp. with sufficient data, thus quantifying age-structured force of infection. Known zoonotic agents, B. elizabethae 1 and 2, were best described by models exhibiting high forces of infection in early age class individuals and allowing for recovery from infection, while B. phoceensis 1 and B. rattimassiliensis 1 were best fit by models of lifelong infection without recovery and substantially lower forces of infection. Nested sequences of B. elizabethae 1 and 2 were recovered from rodent hosts and their Synopsyllus fonquerniei and Xenopsylla cheopsis fleas, with a particularly high prevalence in the outdoor-dwelling, highland-endemic S. fonquerniei. These findings expand on force of infection analyses to elucidate the ecological niche of the zoonotic Bartonella elizabethae complex in Madagascar, hinting at a potential vector role for S. fonquerniei. Our analyses underscore the uniqueness of such ecologies for Bartonella species, which pose a variable range of potential zoonotic threats.

  12. Short- to mid-term impact of conservation agriculture on yield variability of upland rice: evidence from farmer's fields in Madagascar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruelle, G.; Naudin, K.; Scopel, E.; Domas, R.; Rabeharisoa, L.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Family farming in the tropics suffers from low crop productivity mainly due to a combination of poor soil fertility, low investment capacity, and a variable climate. The Lake Alaotra region of Madagascar is no exception and rainfed production is particularly hard hit. To evaluate the agronomic

  13. Boys Go Fishing, Girls Work at Home: Gender Roles, Poverty and Unequal School Access among Semi-Nomadic Fishing Communities in South Western Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento Moreira, Catarina; Rabenevanana, Man Wai; Picard, David

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from data gathered in South Western Madagascar in 2011, the work explores the combination of poverty and traditional gender roles as a critical factor in determining unequal school access among young people from semi-nomadic fishing communities. It demonstrates that from the age of early puberty, most boys go fishing with their fathers and…

  14. "Even with Higher Education You Remain a Woman": A Gender Perspective on Higher Education and Social Change in the Toliara Region of Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjortnes, Marianne; Zachariassen, Heidi Holt

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates some issues related to gender and education based on a qualitative, empirical study of women in higher education in the Toliara region of Madagascar. The focus is on how women's participation in higher education has created changes in gender relations, and how these women have succeeded in achieving higher education. In…

  15. Salsola sp. A of Flora Zambesiaca from the coast of Mozambique is Caroxylon littoralis (Amaranthaceae subfam. Salsoloideae), hitherto only known from Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Holt, Sune

    2017-01-01

    We have identified plants from the coast of the Inhambane Province, Mozambique, with the incompletely known species Salsola sp. A of Flora Zambesiaca and with Caroxylon littoralis (Moq.) Akhani & Roalson (Salsola littoralis Moq.), a species hitherto believed to be endemic to Madagascar and Île...

  16. Look at That!: Using Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches to Develop and Enhance the Scientific Inquiry Skill of Observation in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Middle school students can develop and enhance their observation skills by participating in teacher-guided scientific inquiry (NRC 1996) activities where they observe animals that tend to act in known, predictable ways. Madagascar hissing cockroaches ("Gromphadorhina portentosa") are one such animal. This article presents beginning, intermediate,…

  17. Description of .i.Trigonuropoda (Foveolatatrigon) mahunkaorum./i. sp. n. (Acari: Uropodina: Trigonuropodidae): the first record of the genus .i.Trigonuropoda./i. in Madagascar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kontschán, J.; Starý, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2013), s. 409-415 ISSN 1681-5556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trigonuropoda * Madagascar * new species * identification key Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2013

  18. Ecological Effects of the Invasive Giant Madagascar Day Gecko on Endemic Mauritian Geckos: Applications of Binomial-Mixture and Species Distribution Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buckland, S.; Cole, N.C.; Aguirre-Gutiérrez, J.; Gallagher, L.E.; Henshaw, S.M.; Besnard, A.; Tucker, R.M.; Bachraz, V.; Ruhomaun, K.; Harris, S.

    2014-01-01

    The invasion of the giant Madagascar day gecko Phelsuma grandis has increased the threats to the four endemic Mauritian day geckos (Phelsuma spp.) that have survived on mainland Mauritius. We had two main aims: (i) to predict the spatial distribution and overlap of P. grandis and the endemic geckos

  19. Status of fossil fuel reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laherrere, J.

    2005-01-01

    Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

  20. 77 FR 66361 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... (Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions) published in the Federal Register on April 12, 2012. The... simplifications related to the administration of reserve requirements: 1. Create a common two-week maintenance...

  1. An Evaluation of Preparedness, Delivery and Impact of Surgical and Anesthesia Care in Madagascar: A Framework for a National Surgical Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Emily; White, Michelle C; Baxter, Linden S; Ravelojaona, Vaonandianina Agnès; Rakotoarison, Hasiniaina Narindria; Andriamanjato, Hery Harimanitra; Close, Kristin L; Herbert, Alison; Raykar, Nakul; Saluja, Saurabh; Shrime, Mark G

    2017-05-01

    The Lancet Commission on Global Surgery (LCoGS) described the lack of access to safe, affordable, timely surgical, and anesthesia care. It proposed a series of 6 indicators to measure surgery, accompanied by time-bound targets and a template for national surgical planning. To date, no sub-Saharan African country has completed and published a nationwide evaluation of its surgical system within this framework. Mercy Ships, in partnership with Harvard Medical School and the Madagascar Ministry of Health, collected data on the 6 indicators from 22 referral hospitals in 16 out of 22 regions of Madagascar. Data collection was by semi-structured interviews with ministerial, medical, laboratory, pharmacy, and administrative representatives in each region. Microsimulation modeling was used to calculate values for financial indicators. In Madagascar, 29% of the population can access a surgical facility within 2 h. Surgical workforce density is 0.78 providers per 100,000 and annual surgical volume is 135-191 procedures per 100,000 with a perioperative mortality rate of 2.5-3.3%. Patients requiring surgery have a 77.4-86.3 and 78.8-95.1% risk of incurring impoverishing and catastrophic expenditure, respectively. Of the six LCoGS indicator targets, Madagascar meets one, the reporting of perioperative mortality rate. Compared to the LCoGS targets, Madagascar has deficits in surgical access, workforce, volume, and the ability to offer financial risk protection to surgical patients. Its perioperative mortality rate, however, appears better than in comparable countries. The government is committed to improvement, and key stakeholder meetings to create a national surgical plan have begun.

  2. Les activités de conservation des lémuriens par le Groupe d’Etude et de Recherche sur les Primates de Madagascar (GERP Conservation activities of lemurs by the Madagascar Primate Research Group (GERP- Groupe d’Etude et de Recherche sur les Primates de Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Marie Randrianarison

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Le Groupe d’Etude et de Recherche sur les Primates de Madagascar, une association de conservation, a été créée en 1994 grâce à l’initiative des Enseignants Chercheurs et étudiants du Département de Paléontologie et d’Anthropologie Biologique et du Département de Biologie Animale de l’Université d’Antananarivo. Le GERP regroupe actuellement des membres scientifiques multidisciplinaires Malgaches et étrangers dont la majorité d’entre eux est constituée par des primatologues. Les principales actions du GERP se focalisent sur les travaux de recherche sur les Primates Prosimiens de Madagascar, l’établissement de leur plan de conservation, la découverte de nouvelles espèces de lémuriens, la translocation et le transfert des lémuriens vivant dans des milieux défrichés ou précaires, le suivi et l’abondance des lémuriens ainsi que la révision de leurs aires de distribution. Les résultats des recherches effectuées sur la conservation ont permis de publier des articles dans des revues de renommée nationale et internationale sur la Primatologie. En outre, le renforcement de capacité et l’éducation de la communauté de base, des systèmes éducatifs primaires et supérieurs sur la conservation des lémuriens et l’appui aux activités de développement durable de la population locale s’avèrent nécessaires pour que la conservation des lémuriens soit pérenne.The Madagascar Primate Research Group (GERP - Groupe d’Etude et de Recherche sur les Primates de Madagascar is a conservation-focused association created in 1994 by the initiative of researcher lecturers and students from the Department of Paleontology and Biological Anthropology and the Department of Animal Biology of the University of Antananarivo. The GERP membership consists of multidisciplinary scientists, both Malagasy and foreign, the majority of whom are primatologists. The principle actions of the association are focused on research on the

  3. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  4. The Mikea Forest Under Threat (southwest Madagascar : How public policy leads to conflicting territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Blanc-Pamard

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available With 10 million hectares, forest covers only 16% of the territory of Madagascar in 2005. Deforestation is attaining alarming proportions and is recognized as a major environmental problem. This process has recently accelerated, particularly in the southwest of the country. The main factor promoting deforestation is slash-and-burn maize cultivation. Pioneer agriculture is developing rapidly at the expense of the forest. Loss of forest is linked to several factors: demographic pressure caused by immigration, saturation of the most fertile lands, the relaxation of state regulations on forest clearing, and above all the role of maize cultivation associated with a booming export market. The maize fever causes irreversible destruction of the dry forest since the process of deforestation is followed by a process of savannization. Land clearing is a strategy for controlling resources and development of a territory. It was not until the late 1990s that environmental policies were designed to reduce the loss of forest cover and conserve the endemic flora and fauna of such a large area. The creation of the Mikea national park is currently underway. But the process has been slowed by an ilmenite mining project which poses a new threat to the forest. Furthermore, since 2008, an oil exploration licence has been granted in this area. The conflicting land uses of three government-sponsored projects destabilize local populations who have been encouraged by the state to preserve the forest.En 2005, avec 10 millions d’hectares, la forêt ne couvrait que 16 % du territoire de Madagascar. La déforestation atteint des niveaux alarmants et est reconnue comme un problème environnemental majeur. Ce processus s’est récemment accéléré, en particulier dans le sud-ouest du pays. La principale cause de déforestation est la culture du maïs sur brûlis et l’agriculture de défrichage se développe rapidement aux dépens de la forêt. Le recul de la forêt est li

  5. Razanandrongobe sakalavae, a gigantic mesoeucrocodylian from the Middle Jurassic of Madagascar, is the oldest known notosuchian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Dal Sasso

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Razanandrongobe sakalavae Maganuco, Dal Sasso & Pasini, 2006 is a large predatory archosaur from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian of the Mahajanga Basin, NW Madagascar. It was diagnosed on the basis of teeth and a fragmentary maxilla, but its affinities were uncertain. Here we describe new cranial remains (above all, an almost complete right premaxilla and a caudally incomplete left dentary that greatly improve our knowledge on this enigmatic species and reveal its anatomy to be crocodylomorph. The right premaxilla indicates that the rostrum was deep, wide, and not pointed; it bears five teeth that are sub-vertical and just slightly curved lingually; the mesial teeth are U-shaped in cross-section and have serrated carinae on the lingual side; the aperturae nasi osseae (external bony nares are confluent and face rostrally; and there is no lateral groove at the premaxillomaxillary suture for reception of a hypertrophied lower caniniform tooth. The preserved portion of the left dentary has an edentulous tip and bears eight large mandibular teeth of which the mesial (1–3 are the largest, but none is a hypertrophied caniniform tooth; the mandibular (dentary symphysis extends caudally to the level of the third tooth; the splenial is not preserved, but its sutural marks on the dentary indicate that it contributed to the mandibular symphysis for at least 20% of the symphyseal length in dorsal aspect. On the basis of this new data, some previously uncertain features of the holotype maxilla—such as the margin of the suborbital fenestra, the contact surfaces for the palatine, the ectopterygoid, and the jugal—are now apparent. Testing of the phylogenetic position of the species within Crocodylomorpha indicates that R. sakalavae is a mesoeucrocodylian. It also represents one of the earliest events of exacerbated increase in body size along the evolutionary history of the group. In addition, it is by far the oldest notosuchian. A cranial reconstruction of

  6. Consuming sex: the association between modern goods, lifestyles and sexual behaviour among youth in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethnographic evidence suggests that transactional sex is sometimes motivated by youth’s interest in the consumption of modern goods as much as it is in basic survival. There are very few quantitative studies that examine the association between young people’s interests in the consumption of modern goods and their sexual behaviour. We examined this association in two regions and four residence zones of Madagascar: urban, peri-urban and rural Antananarivo, and urban Antsiranana. We expected risky sexual behaviour would be associated with interests in consuming modern goods or lifestyles; urban residence; and socio-cultural characteristics. Methods We administered a population-based survey to 2, 255 youth ages 15–24 in all four residence zones. Focus group discussions guided the survey instrument which assessed socio-demographic and economic characteristics, consumption of modern goods, preferred activities and sexual behaviour. Our outcomes measures included: multiple sexual partners in the last year (for men and women); and ever practicing transactional sex (for women). Results Overall, 7.3% of women and 30.7% of men reported having had multiple partners in the last year; and 5.9% of women reported ever practicing transactional sex. Bivariate results suggested that for both men and women having multiple partners was associated with perceptions concerning the importance of fashion and a series of activities associated with modern lifestyles. A subset of lifestyle characteristics remained significant in multivariate models. For transactional sex bivariate results suggested perceptions around fashion, nightclub attendance, and getting to know a foreigner were key determinants; and all remained significant in multivariate analysis. We found peri-urban residence more associated with transactional sex than urban residence; and ethnic origin was the strongest predictor of both outcomes for women. Conclusions While we found indication of an association

  7. Sources of Quaternary volcanism in the Itasy and Ankaratra volcanic fields, Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoazanamparany, C.; Widom, E.; Kuentz, D. C.; Raharimahefa, T.; Rakotondrazafy, F. M. A.; Rakotondravelo, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    We present new major and trace element and Sr, Nd, Pb and Os isotope data for Quaternary basaltic lavas and tephra from the Itasy and Ankaratra volcanic fields, representing the most recent volcanism in Madagascar. Mafic magmas from Itasy and Ankaratra exhibit significant inter- and intra-volcanic field geochemical heterogeneity. The Itasy eruptive products range in composition from foidite to phonotephrite whereas Ankaratra lavas range from basanite to trachybasalts. Trace element signatures of samples from both volcanic fields are very similar to those of ocean island basalts (OIB), with significant enrichment in Nb and Ta, depletion in Rb, Cs, and K, and relatively high Nb/U and Ce/Pb. However, the Itasy volcanic rocks show enrichment relative to those of Ankaratra in most incompatible elements, indicative of a more enriched source and/or lower degrees of partial melting. Significant inter- and intra-volcanic field heterogeneity is also observed in Sr, Nd, Pb and Os isotope signatures. The Itasy volcanic rocks generally have less radiogenic Sr and Nd isotopic ratios but more radiogenic Pb isotopic signatures than the Ankaratra volcanic field. Together, the Itasy and Ankaratra volcanic rocks form a well-defined negative correlation in Sr vs. Pb isotopes that could be attributed to lithospheric contamination or variable degrees of mixing between distinct mantle sources. However, the lack of correlation between isotopes and indices of crustal contamination (e.g. MgO and Nb/U) are inconsistent with shallow lithospheric contamination, and instead suggest mixing between compositionally distinct mantle sources. Furthermore, although Sr-Pb isotope systematics are apparently consistent with mixing between two different sources, distinct trends in Sr vs. Nd isotopes displayed by samples from Itasy and Ankaratra, respectively, argue for more complex source mixing involving three or more sources. The current data demonstrate that although the Itasy and Ankaratra volcanic

  8. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Zach J.; Golden, Christopher D.; Karpanty, Sarah; Murphy, Asia; Stauffer, Dean; Ratelolahy, Felix; Andrianjakarivelo, Vonjy; Holmes, Christopher M.; Kelly, Marcella J.

    2015-01-01

    highest. These various anthropogenic pressures and their effects on carnivore populations, especially increases in exotic carnivores and hunting, have wide-ranging, global implications and demand effective management plans to target the influx of exotic carnivores and unsustainable hunting that is affecting carnivore populations across Madagascar and worldwide. PMID:26375991

  9. Establishment of a community managed marine reserve in the Bay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Bay of Ranobe, in southwest Madagascar, once noted for its high biodiversity and fish abundance, is under increasing pressure from overfishing, pollution, sedimentation and tourism. The declining health of the coral reef is reflected in fishery productivity and survey data on biological diversity. Sustainable conservation ...

  10. Below-ground biomass production and allometric relationships of eucalyptus coppice plantation in the central highlands of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razakamanarivo, Ramarson H.; Razakavololona, Ando; Razafindrakoto, Marie-Antoinette; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Albrecht, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Short rotations of Eucalyptus plantations under coppice regime are extensively managed for wood production in Madagascar. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass production and partitioning and their potential in terms of carbon sequestration. If above-ground biomass (AGB) can be estimated based on established allometric relations, below-ground (BGB) estimates are much less common. The aim of this work was to develop allometric equations to estimate biomass of these plantations, mainly for the root components. Data from 9 Eucalyptus robusta stands (47–87 years of plantation age, 3–5 years of coppice-shoot age) were collected and analyzed. Biomass of 3 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weight of AGB components (leaves, branches and stems) were estimated as a function of basal area of all shoots per stump and dry weight for BGB components (mainly stump, coarse root (CR) and medium root (MR)) were estimated as a function of stump circumference. Biomass was then computed using allometric equations from stand inventory data. Stand biomass ranged from 102 to 130 Mg ha −1 with more than 77% contained in the BGB components. The highest dry weight was allocated in the stump and in the CR (51% and 42% respectively) for BGB parts and in the stem (69%) for AGB part. Allometric relationships developed herein could be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations which present similar stand density and growing conditions; anyhow, more is needed to be investigated in understanding biomass production and partitioning over time for this kind of forest ecosystem. -- Highlights: ► We studied the potential of old eucalyptus coppices in Madagascar to mitigate global warming. ► Biomass measurement, mainly for below-ground BGB (stump, coarse-medium-and fine roots) was provided. ► BGB allometry relationships for short rotation forestry under coppice were established. ► BGB were found to be important with their 102-130MgC ha -1 (<77% of the C in

  11. Child malnutrition in Ifanadiana district, Madagascar: associated factors and timing of growth faltering ahead of a health system strengthening intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuskee, Sarah; Garchitorena, Andres; Miller, Ann C; Hall, Lara; Ouenzar, Mohammed Ali; Rabeza, Victor R; Ramananjato, Ranto H; Razanadrakato, Hery-Tiana Rahaniraka; Randriamanambintsoa, Marius; Barry, Michele; Bonds, Matthew H

    2018-01-01

    Child malnutrition, a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, is particularly severe in Madagascar, where 47% of children under 5 years are stunted (low height-for-age) and 8% are wasted (low weight-for-height). Widespread poverty and a weak health system have hindered attempts to implement life-saving malnutrition interventions in Madagascar during critical periods for growth faltering. This study aimed to shed light on the most important factors associated with child malnutrition, both acute and chronic, and the timing of growth faltering, in Ifanadiana, a rural district of Madagascar. We analyzed data from a 2014 district-representative cluster household survey, which had information on 1175 children ages 6 months to 5 years. We studied the effect of child health, birth history, maternal and paternal health and education, and household wealth and sanitation on child nutritional status. Variables associated with stunting and wasting were modeled separately in multivariate logistic regressions. Growth faltering was modeled by age range. All analyses were survey-adjusted. Stunting was associated with increasing child age (OR = 1.03 (95%CI 1.02-1.04) for each additional month), very small birth size (OR = 2.32 (1.24-4.32)), low maternal weight (OR = 0.94 (0.91-0.97) for each kilogram, kg) and height (OR = 0.95 (0.92-0.99) for each centimeter), and low paternal height (OR = 0.95 (0.92-0.98)). Wasting was associated with younger child age (OR = 0.98 (0.97-0.99)), very small birth size (OR = 2.48 (1.23-4.99)), and low maternal BMI (OR = 0.84 (0.75-0.94) for each kg/m 2 ). Height-for-age faltered rapidly before 24 months, then slowly until age 5 years, whereas weight-for-height faltered rapidly before 12 months, then recovered gradually until age 5 years but did not reach the median. Intergenerational transmission of growth faltering and early life exposures may be important determinants of malnutrition in Ifanadiana. Timing of growth

  12. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reserves Represented by Random Walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipe, J A; Ferreira, M A M; Andrade, M

    2012-01-01

    The reserves problem is studied through models based on Random Walks. Random walks are a classical particular case in the analysis of stochastic processes. They do not appear only to study reserves evolution models. They are also used to build more complex systems and as analysis instruments, in a theoretical feature, of other kind of systems. In this work by studying the reserves, the main objective is to see and guarantee that pensions funds get sustainable. Being the use of these models considering this goal a classical approach in the study of pensions funds, this work concluded about the problematic of reserves. A concrete example is presented.

  14. The first record of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm (Schyzocotyle acheilognathi from an endemic cichlid fish in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholz T.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Asian fish tapeworm, Schyzocotyle acheilognathi (Yamaguti, 1934 (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea, is an invasive parasite of freshwater fishes that have been reported from more than 200 freshwater fish worldwide. It was originally described from a small cyprinid, Acheilognathus rombeus, in Japan but then has spread, usually with carp, minnows or guppies, to all continents including isolated islands such as Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Cuba or Sri Lanka. In the present account, we report the first case of the infection of a native cichlid fish, Ptychochromis cf. inornatus (Perciformes: Cichlidae, endemic to Madagascar, with S. acheilognathi. The way of introduction of this parasite to the island, which is one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots, is briefly discussed.

  15. Comparison of biomedical evaluation for white-fronted brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus albifrons) from four sites in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Randall E; Dutton, Christopher J; Knightly, Felicia; Williams, Cathy V; Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa T; Louis, Edward E

    2008-12-01

    Health and nutritional assessments of wildlife are important management tools and can provide a means to evaluate ecosystem health. Such examinations were performed on 37 white-fronted brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus albifrons) from four sites in Madagascar. Comparison of health parameters between sites revealed statistically significant differences in body weight, body temperature, respiratory rate, hematology parameters (white cell count, hematocrit, segmented neutrophil count, and lymphocyte count), serum chemistry parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, serum alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, chloride, and creatinine phosphokinase), and nutrition parameters (copper, zinc, ferritin, retinol, tocopherol, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol). Two of 10 lemurs tested were positive for toxoplasmosis; none of 10 were positive for Cryptosporidium or Giardia. Enteric bacteria and endo- and ectoparasites were typical. Statistically different values in hematology and chemistry values probably do not reflect clinically significant differences, whereas nutrition parameter differences are likely related to season, soil, and forage availability.

  16. Availability and cost of major and first-line antiepileptic drugs: a comprehensive evaluation in the capital of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Jeremy; Raharivelo, Adeline; Ratsimbazafy, Voa; Nizard, Mandy; Auditeau, Emilie; Newton, Charles R; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of epilepsy is high in Madagascar (23.5/1000), as is the treatment gap (estimated at 92 %). The health system of the country is underfunded; some AEDs are used, and the national drug policy does not encourage price regulation or the administration of generic agents. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the availability and cost of solid oral AED formulations in Antananarivo, capital of Madagascar. Data were gathered from all officially registered pharmacies (according to the drug agency list, updated in 2015) by means of telephone interviews lasting no more than 10 min and conducted by a native Malagasy speaker. With regard to other sources (hospitals, illicit sales) data were obtained at specific visits. The study received ethical approval from the Madagascar Ministry of Health. A total of 91 of 100 pharmacies (the nine not included were because of an inoperative phone number), two of three public hospitals, and two illegal outlets were investigated. Sodium valproate was available in 84.6 % of the pharmacies, while carbamazepine and phenobarbital were available in 68.1 % and 36.3 % of the pharmacies, respectively, but phenytoin was not available in any supply chain. There were more originator brands than generic formulations, with a higher cost (range 20.3-81.1 %, median 40.7 %) compared to the equivalent generic. The public system had only a very limited choice of AED, but offered the lowest costs. Illicit sources were more expensive by 54.3 % for carbamazepine and 62.5 % for phenobarbital. Concerning the annual cost of treatment, the average percentage of the gross national income per capita based on the purchasing power parity was 29.8 %/19.0 % (brand/generic) for sodium valproate, 16.4 %/7.3 % (brand/generic) for carbamazepine, 8.9 %/5.1 % (brand/generic) for phenobarbital. The main sources of AEDs were private pharmacies, but the stocks held were low. The financial burden was still important in the capital of Madagascar

  17. A Fatal Neuroinvasive West Nile Virus Infection in a Traveler Returning from Madagascar: Clinical, Epidemiological and Veterinary Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrieu, Sophie; Cardinale, Eric; Ocquidant, Philippe; Roger, Matthieu; Lepec, Richard; Delatte, Hélène; Camuset, Guillaume; Desprès, Philippe; Brottet, Elise; Charlin, Cyril; Michault, Alain

    2013-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman living in Reunion Island and returning from Madagascar was hospitalized for neuroinvasive encephalitis and died 1 month later. West Nile virus (WNV) infection was biologically confirmed by detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) reactive with WNV antigens in both cerebrospinal fluid and serum, and weak neutralizing activity was also detected. A veterinary survey performed in her traveling area showed a seroprevalence of WNV of 28.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.1–36.3) in adult poultry, confirming an active circulation of the virus. Development of a severe form could be related to a weak antibody response, because the patient presented low IgM and IgG titers. This case report underlines the constant risk of emergence of West Nile in Indian Ocean territories, including Reunion Island where competent vectors are widely present during the whole year. PMID:23751400

  18. An unexpected recurrent transmission of Rift Valley fever virus in cattle in a temperate and mountainous area of Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Chevalier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever is an acute, zoonotic viral disease of domestic ruminants, caused by a phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae family. A large outbreak occurred in Madagascar in 2008-2009. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the point prevalence of antibodies against Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV in cattle in the Anjozorobe district, located in the wet and temperate highland region of Madagascar and yet heavily affected by the disease, and analyse environmental and trade factors potentially linked to RVFV transmission. A serological study was performed in 2009 in 894 bovines. For each bovine, the following variables were recorded: age, location of the night pen, minimum distance from the pen to the nearest water point and the forest, nearest water point type, and herd replacement practices. The serological data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. The overall anti-RVFV IgG seroprevalence rate was 28% [CI95% 25-31]. Age was statistically linked to prevalence (p = 10(-4, being consistent with a recurrent RVFV circulation. Distance from the night pen to the nearest water point was a protective factor (p = 5.10(-3, which would be compatible with a substantial part of the virus transmission being carried out by nocturnal mosquito vectors. However, water point type did not influence the risk of infection: several mosquito species are probably involved. Cattle belonging to owners who purchase animals to renew the herd were significantly more likely to have seroconverted than others (p = 0.04: cattle trade may contribute to the introduction of the virus in this area. The minimum distance of the night pen to the forest was not linked to the prevalence. This is the first evidence of a recurrent transmission of RVFV in such an ecosystem that associates a wet, temperate climate, high altitude, paddy fields, and vicinity to a dense rain forest. Persistence mechanisms need to be further investigated.

  19. A new leaf-tailed gecko of the Uroplatus ebenaui group (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Madagascar's central eastern rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratsoavina, Fanomezana Mihaja; Ranjanaharisoa, Fiadanantsoa Andrianja; Glaw, Frank; Raselimanana, Achille P; Miralles, Aurélien; Vences, Miguel

    2015-08-21

    We describe a new leaf-tailed gecko species of the Uroplatus ebenaui group from the eastern central rainforests of Madagascar, which had previously been considered as a confirmed candidate species. Our description of Uroplatus fiera sp. nov. relies on integrating evidence from molecular and morphological characters and is based on newly collected material from two localities. A phylogenetic analysis based on multiple mitochondrial DNA fragments places the new species as sister to a lineage of uncertain status (Uroplatus ebenaui [Ca8]), and the clade consisting of these two lineages is sister to a further undescribed candidate species (U. ebenaui [Ca1]). This entire clade is sister to U. phantasticus plus another candidate species. The new species differs from these close relatives, and all other congenerics, by strong differences in DNA sequences of mitochondrial genes (>8.5% uncorrected p-distance in 16S rDNA to all nominal species of the genus) and lacks shared alleles with any of the nominal species in the nuclear CMOS gene. From its closest relatives the new species further differs in its much smaller tail size (relative to U. phantasticus), and a narrower tail, fewer supralabials, and more toe lamellae (relative to U. ebenaui [Ca1]). Morphologically the new species is most similar to U. ebenaui but differs in its larger body size and unpigmented oral mucosa. Given its distribution in central eastern Madagascar, with records from near Fierenana and Ambatovy, its range overlaps with that of U. phantasticus. Based on examination of the U. phantasticus holotype, we confirm that this latter has a blackish pigmented oral mucosa as do those specimens typically attributed to this nomen, thereby confirming its distinctness from U. fiera sp. nov., in which the mucosa is unpigmented.

  20. Rivaling the World's Smallest Reptiles: Discovery of Miniaturized and Microendemic New Species of Leaf Chameleons (Brookesia) from Northern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaw, Frank; Köhler, Jörn; Townsend, Ted M.; Vences, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Background One clade of Malagasy leaf chameleons, the Brookesia minima group, is known to contain species that rank among the smallest amniotes in the world. We report on a previously unrecognized radiation of these miniaturized lizards comprising four new species described herein. Methodology/Principal Findings The newly discovered species appear to be restricted to single, mostly karstic, localities in extreme northern Madagascar: Brookesia confidens sp. n. from Ankarana, B. desperata sp. n. from Forêt d'Ambre, B. micra sp. n. from the islet Nosy Hara, and B. tristis sp. n. from Montagne des Français. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes of all nominal species in the B. minima group congruently support that the four new species, together with B. tuberculata from Montagne d'Ambre in northern Madagascar, form a strongly supported clade. This suggests that these species have diversified in geographical proximity in this small area. All species of the B. minima group, including the four newly described ones, are characterized by very deep genetic divergences of 18–32% in the ND2 gene and >6% in the 16S rRNA gene. Despite superficial similarities among all species of this group, their status as separate evolutionary lineages is also supported by moderate to strong differences in external morphology, and by clear differences in hemipenis structure. Conclusion/Significance The newly discovered dwarf chameleon species represent striking cases of miniaturization and microendemism and suggest the possibility of a range size-body size relationship in Malagasy reptiles. The newly described Brookesia micra reaches a maximum snout-vent length in males of 16 mm, and its total length in both sexes is less than 30 mm, ranking it among the smallest amniote vertebrates in the world. With a distribution limited to a very small islet, this species may represent an extreme case of island dwarfism. PMID:22348069