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Sample records for berenices open cluster

  1. Chemical composition of A and F dwarf members of the Coma Berenices open cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Gebran, M; Richard, O

    2007-01-01

    Abundances of 18 chemical elements have been derived for 11 A (normal and Am) and 11 F dwarfs members of the Coma Berenices open cluster in order to set constraints on evolutionary models including transport processes (radiative and turbulent diffusion)calculated with the Montreal code. A spectral synthesis iterative procedure has been applied to derive the abundances from selected high quality lines in high resolution high signal-to-noise echelle spectra obtained with ELODIE at the Observatoire de Haute Provence. The chemical pattern found for the A and F dwarfs in Coma Berenices is reminiscent of that found in the Hyades and the UMa moving group. In graphs representing the abundances [X/H] versus the effective temperature, the A stars often display abundances much more scattered around their mean values than the F stars do. Large star-to-star variations are detected for A stars in their abundances which we interpret as evidence of transport processes competing with radiative diffusion. The F stars have sola...

  2. Chemical composition of A and F dwarf members of the Coma Berenices open cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebran, M.; Monier, R.; Richard, O.

    2008-02-01

    Aims:Abundances of 18 chemical elements have been derived for 11 A (normal and Am) and 11 F dwarfs members of the Coma Berenices open cluster in order to set constraints on evolutionary models including transport processes (radiative and turbulent diffusion) calculated with the Montréal code. Methods: A spectral synthesis iterative procedure has been applied to derive the abundances from selected high quality lines in high resolution high signal-to-noise échelle spectra obtained with ELODIE at the Observatoire de Haute Provence. Results: The chemical pattern found for the A and F dwarfs in Coma Berenices is reminiscent of that found in the Hyades and the UMa moving group. In graphs representing the abundances [X/H] versus the effective temperature, the A stars often display abundances much more scattered around their mean values than the F stars do. Large star-to-star variations are detected for A stars in their abundances of C, O, Na, Sc, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Sr, Y, Zr and Ba which we interpret as evidence of transport processes competing with radiative diffusion. The abundances of Mn, Ni, Sr and Ba are strongly correlated with that of iron for A and Am stars. In contrast the ratios [C/Fe] and [O/Fe] appear to be anticorrelated with [Fe/H] as found earlier for field A dwarfs. All Am stars in Coma Berenices are deficient in C and O and overabundant in elements heavier than Fe but not all are deficient in calcium and/or scandium. The F stars have solar abundances for almost all elements except for Mg, Si, V and Ba. The derived abundances patterns, [X/H] versus atomic number, for the slow rotator HD 108642 (A2m) and the moderately fast rotator HD 106887 (A4m) were compared to the predictions of self consistent evolutionary model codes including radiative and different amounts of turbulent diffusion. None of the models reproduces entirely the overall shape of the abundance pattern. Conclusions: While part of the discrepancies between derived and predicted abundances may

  3. The main-sequence rotation-colour relation in the Coma Berenices open cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, A Collier; Hebb, L; Skinner, G; Anderson, D R; Christian, D J; Clarkson, W I; Enoch, B; Irwin, J; Joshi, Y; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Horne, K D; Kane, S R; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; Norton, A J; Parley, N; Pollacco, D; Ryans, R; Scholz, A; Skillen, I; Smalley, B; Street, R A; West, R G; Wilson, D M; Wheatley, P J

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a photometric survey of rotation rates in the Coma Berenices (Melotte 111) open cluster, using data obtained as part of the SuperWASP exoplanetary transit-search programme. The goal of the Coma survey was to measure precise rotation periods for main-sequence F, G and K dwarfs in this intermediate-age (~600 Myr) cluster, and to determine the extent to which magnetic braking has caused the stellar spin periods to converge. We find a tight, almost linear relationship between rotation period and J-K colour with a root-mean square scatter of only 2 percent. The relation is similar to that seen among F, G and K stars in the Hyades. Such strong convergence can only be explained if angular momentum is not at present being transferred from a reservoir in the deep stellar interiors to the surface layers. We conclude that the coupling timescale for angular momentum transport from a rapidly-spinning radiative core to the outer convective zone must be substantially shorter than the cluster age, a...

  4. Abundance determination of A, Am and F stars in the Pleiades and Coma Berenices clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebran, M.; Monier, R.; Richard, O.

    2008-04-01

    Abundances of 18 chemical elements have been derived for 27 A/Am and 16 F stars members of the Pleiades and Coma Berenices open clusters. We have specifically computed, with the Montrèal code, a series of evolutionary models for two A star members of these two clusters. None of the models reproduces entirely the overall shape of the abundance patterns. The inclusion of competing processes such as rotational mixing in the radiative zones of these stars seems necessary to improve the agreement between observed and predicted abundance patterns.

  5. Abundances determination of A, Am and F stars in the Pleiades and Coma Berenices clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Gebran, M; Richard, O

    2008-01-01

    Abundances of 18 chemical elements have been derived for 27 A/Am and 16 F stars members of the Pleiades and Coma Berenices open clusters. We have specifically computed, with the Montr\\'eal code, a series of evolutionary models for two A stars members of these two clusters. None of the models reproduces entirely the overall shape of the abundances patterns. The inclusion of competing processes such as rotational mixing in the radiative zones of these stars seems necessary to improve the agreement between observed and predicted abundances patterns.

  6. New red jewels in Coma Berenices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III (SDSS-III) Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) radial velocity observations in the near-infrared H-band to explore the membership of the nearby (86.7 ± 0.9 pc) open cluster Coma Berenices (Melotte 111), concentrating on the poorly populated low-mass end of the main sequence. Using SDSS-III APOGEE radial velocity measurements, we confirm the membership of eight K/M dwarf members, providing the first confirmed low-mass members of the Coma Berenices cluster. Using R ∼ 2000 spectra from IRTF-SpeX, we confirm the independently luminosity classes of these targets, and find their metallicities to be consistent with the known solar mean metallicity of Coma Berenices and of M dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. In addition, the APOGEE spectra have enabled measurement of vsin i for each target and detection for the first time of the low-mass secondary components of the known binary systems Melotte 111 102 and Melotte 111 120, as well as identification of the previously unknown binary system 2MASS J12214070+2707510. Finally, we use Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope photometry to measure photometric variability and rotation periods for a subset of the Coma Berenices members.

  7. New red jewels in Coma Berenices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Deshpande, Rohit; Bender, Chad F.; Hearty, Frederick R.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Cargile, Phillip A.; Pepper, Joshua; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Siverd, Robert J.; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, VU Station 1807, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Cottaar, Michiel [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Allende Prieto, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), C/Vía Láctea, s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Fleming, Scott W. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21211 (United States); Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Jackson, Kelly M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, TCU Box 298840, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Majewski, Steven R.; Nidever, David L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Weaver, Benjamin A., E-mail: rct151@psu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); and others

    2014-02-20

    We have used Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III (SDSS-III) Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) radial velocity observations in the near-infrared H-band to explore the membership of the nearby (86.7 ± 0.9 pc) open cluster Coma Berenices (Melotte 111), concentrating on the poorly populated low-mass end of the main sequence. Using SDSS-III APOGEE radial velocity measurements, we confirm the membership of eight K/M dwarf members, providing the first confirmed low-mass members of the Coma Berenices cluster. Using R ∼ 2000 spectra from IRTF-SpeX, we confirm the independently luminosity classes of these targets, and find their metallicities to be consistent with the known solar mean metallicity of Coma Berenices and of M dwarfs in the solar neighborhood. In addition, the APOGEE spectra have enabled measurement of vsin i for each target and detection for the first time of the low-mass secondary components of the known binary systems Melotte 111 102 and Melotte 111 120, as well as identification of the previously unknown binary system 2MASS J12214070+2707510. Finally, we use Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope photometry to measure photometric variability and rotation periods for a subset of the Coma Berenices members.

  8. Galactic Open Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Von Hippel, T

    2005-01-01

    The study of open clusters has a classic feel to it since the subject predates anyone alive today. Despite the age of this topic, I show via an ADS search that its relevance and importance in astronomy has grown faster in the last few decades than astronomy in general. This is surely due to both technical reasons and the interconnection of the field of stellar evolution to many branches of astronomy. In this review, I outline what we know today about open clusters and what they have taught us about a range of topics from stellar evolution to Galactic structure to stellar disk dissipation timescales. I argue that the most important astrophysics we have learned from open clusters is stellar evolution and that its most important product has been reasonably precise stellar ages. I discuss where open cluster research is likely to go in the next few years, as well as in the era of 20m telescopes, SIM, and GAIA. Age will continue to be of wide relevance in astronomy, from cosmology to planet formation timescales, an...

  9. Eclipsing binaries in open clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Clausen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August......Stars: fundamental parameters - Stars : binaries : eclipsing - Stars: Binaries: spectroscopic - Open clusters and ass. : general Udgivelsesdato: 5 August...

  10. Chemical composition of A and F dwarfs members of the Hyades open cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebran, M.; Vick, M.; Monier, R.; Fossati, L.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: Abundances of 15 chemical elements have been derived for 28 F and 16 A stars members of the Hyades open cluster in order to set constraints on self-consistent evolutionary models that include radiative and turbulent diffusion. Methods: A spectral synthesis, iterative procedure was applied to derive the abundances from selected high-quality lines in high-resolution, high-signal-to-noise spectra obtained with SOPHIE and AURELIE at the Observatoire de Haute Provence. Results: The abundance patterns found for A and F stars in the Hyades resemble those observed in Coma Berenices and Pleiades clusters. In graphs representing the abundances versus the effective temperature, A stars often display much more scattered abundances around their mean values than the coolest F stars do. Large star-to-star variations are detected in the Hyades A dwarfs in their abundances of C, Na, Sc, Fe, Ni, Sr, Y, and Zr, which we interpret as evidence of transport processes competing with radiative diffusion. In A and Am stars, the abundances of Cr, Ni, Sr, Y, and Zr are found to be correlated with that of Fe as in the Pleiades and in Coma Berenices. The ratios C/Fe and O/Fe are found to be anticorrelated with Fe/H as in Coma Berenices. All Am stars in the Hyades are deficient in C and O and overabundant in elements heavier than Fe but not all are deficient in Ca and/or Sc. The F stars have solar abundances for almost all elements except for Si. The overall shape of the abundance pattern of the slow rotator HD 30210 cannot be entirely reproduced by models including radiative diffusion and different amounts of turbulent diffusion. Conclusions: While part of the discrepancies between derived and predicted abundances could come from non-LTE effects, including competing processes such as rotational mixing and/or mass loss seems necessary in order to improve the agreement between the observed and predicted abundance patterns. Tables 5 to 8 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via

  11. Chemically peculiar A/F stars in open clusters of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebran, M.; Monier, R.

    2010-12-01

    Abundance anomalies have been determined at the surface of many field and open cluster A and F dwarfs. These abundance anomalies are most likely caused by microscopic diffusion at work within the stable envelopes of A stars. However diffusion can be counteracted by several other mixing processes such as convection, rotational mixing and mass loss. We present a short review of the surface abundance patterns of A/F stars in the Pleiades (100 Myr), Coma Berenices (450 Myr) and Hyades (650 Myr) open clusters. Real star-to-star variations of the abundances were found for several chemical elements in the A dwarfs in these clusters. The derived abundances are then compared to evolutionary models from the Montreal group. These comparisons strongly suggest the occurence of hydrodynamical processes at play within the radiative zones of these stars and hindering the effects of microscopic diffusion (mixing processes/mass loss). In the frame of Gaia mission, simulations are presented that predict the number of A stars and open clusters that Gaia will observe in the Galaxy.

  12. Chemically Peculiar A/F Stars in Open Clusters of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Gebran, M

    2010-01-01

    Abundance anomalies have been determined at the surface of many field and open cluster A and F dwarfs. These abundance anomalies are most likely caused by microscopic diffusion at work within the stable envelopes of A stars. However diffusion can be counteracted by several other mixing processes such as convection, rotational mixing and mass loss. We present a short review of the surface abundance patterns of A/F stars in the Pleiades (100 Myr), Coma Berenices (450 Myr) and Hyades (650 Myr) open clusters. Real star-to-star variations of the abundances were found for several chemical elements in the A dwarfs in these clusters. The derived abundances are then compared to evolutionary models from the Montreal group. These comparisons strongly suggest the occurence of hydrodynamical processes at play within the radiative zones of these stars and hindering the effects of microscopic diffusion (mixing processes/mass loss). In the frame of Gaia mission, simulations are presented that predict the number of A stars an...

  13. Yellow supergiants in open clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superluminous giant stars (SLGs) have been reported in young globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These stars appear to be in the post-asymptotic-giant-branch phase of evolution. This program was an investigation of galactic SLG candidates in open clusters, which are more like the LMC young globular clusters. These were chosen because luminosity, mass, and age determinations can be made for members since cluster distances and interstellar reddenings are known. Color magnitude diagrams were searched for candidates, using the same selection criteria as for SLGs in the LMC. Classification spectra were obtained of 115 program stars from McGraw-Hill Observatory and of 68 stars from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Chile. These stars were visually classified on the MK system using spectral scans of standard stars taken at the respective observations. Published information was combined with this program's data for 83 stars in 30 clusters. Membership probabilities were assigned to these stars, and the clusters were analyzed according to age. It was seen that the intrinsically brightest supergiants are found in the youngest clusters. With increasing cluster age, the absolute luminosities attained by the supergiants decline. Also, it appears that the evolutionary tracks of luminosity class II stars are more similar to those of class I than of class III

  14. Seismic constraints on open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Piau, L; Turck-Chièze, S

    2005-01-01

    We derive knowledge on the global and structural parameters of low-mass stars using asteroseismology and taking advantage of the stellar collective behavior within open clusters. We build stellar models and compute the seismic signal expected from main sequence objects in the 0.8-1.6 Msun range. We first evaluate apparent magnitudes and oscillations-induced luminosity fluctuations expected in the Hyades, the Pleiades and the alpha Persei clusters. The closest cluster presents a feasible challenge to observational asteroseismology in the present and near future. We combine seismological and classical computations to address three questions: what can be inferred about 1) mass, 2) composition and 3) extension of outer convection zones of solar analogs in the Hyades. The first issue relies on the strong sensitivity of the large separation to mass. Then large separations and second differences are used to respectively constrain metal and helium fractions in the Hyades.When plotted for several masses, the relation ...

  15. Chemical composition of A and F dwarfs members of the Hyades open cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Gebran, M; Monier, R; Fossati, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Abundances of 15 chemical elements have been derived for 28 F and 16 A stars members of the Hyades open cluster in order to set constraints on self-consistent evolutionary models including radiative and turbulent diffusion. A spectral synthesis iterative procedure was applied to derive the abundances from selected high quality lines in high resolution high signal-to-noise spectra obtained with SOPHIE and AURELIE at the Observatoire de Haute Provence. The abundance patterns found for A and F stars in the Hyades resemble those observed in Coma Berenices and Pleiades clusters. In graphs representing the abundances versus the effective temperature, A stars often display abundances much more scattered around their mean values than the coolest F stars do. Large star-to-star variations are detected in the Hyades A dwarfs in their abundances of C, Na, Sc, Fe, Ni, Sr, Y and Zr, which we interpret as evidence of transport processes competing with radiative diffusion. In A and Am stars, the abundances of Cr, Ni, Sr, Y a...

  16. Berenice Abbott (1898-1991, photographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Mélia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available C’est la première fois que Berenice Abbott est exposée à Paris. Les cent vingt images et trente documents présentés au Jeu de Paume sont regroupés en quatre grandes séries, qui correspondent aux quatre grandes phases de sa carrière photographique. La première partie retrace son œuvre de portraitiste, qui commence à Paris au début des années 1920, où elle photographie des anonymes, mais aussi beaucoup d’artistes et d’écrivains tels que Marcel Duchamp, Jean Cocteau, James Joyce, ou encore Djuna...

  17. PULSATING VARIABLE STARS IN THE COMA BERENICES DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present B, V, I time-series photometry of the Coma Berenices dwarf spheroidal galaxy, a faint Milky Way (MW) satellite, recently discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have obtained V, B - V and V, V - I color-magnitude diagrams that reach V ∼ 23.0-23.2 mag showing the galaxy turnoff at V ∼ 21.7 mag, and have performed the first study of the variable star population of this new MW companion. Two RR Lyrae stars (a fundamental-mode, RRab, and a first overtone, RRc, pulsator) and a short period variable with period P = 0.12468 days were identified in the galaxy. The RRab star has a rather long period of P ab = 0.66971 days and is about 0.2 mag brighter than the RRc variable and other nonvariable stars on the galaxy horizontal branch (HB). In the period-amplitude diagram, the RRab variable falls closer to the loci of Oosterhoff type-II systems and evolved fundamental-mode RR Lyrae stars in the Galactic globular cluster M3. The average apparent magnitude of the galaxy HB, (V HB) = 18.64 ± 0.04 mag, leads to a distance modulus for the Coma dSph μ0 = 18.13 ± 0.08 mag, corresponding to a distance d = 42+2-1 kpc, by adopting a reddening E(B - V) = 0.045 ± 0.015 mag and a metallicity [Fe/H] =-2.53 ± 0.05 dex.

  18. Collaborative Research of Open Star Clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alisher S. Hojaev

    2005-06-01

    Preliminary results on observations of open clusters are presented. The project has been initiated in the framework of the Uzbek–Taiwan and Taiwan–Baltic collaboration, mainly to upgrade and make use of facilities at Maidanak Observatory. We present detailed, multiwavelength studies of the young cluster NGC 6823 and the associated complex nebulosity, to diagnose the young stellar population and star formation history in the region. In addition, 7 compact open clusters have been monitored for stellar variability. We show how observations like these could feasibly be used to look for exoplanet transit events. We also expect to join the Whole-Earth Telescope effort in future campaigns for asteroseismology.

  19. Mass of Open Cluster NGC 7789

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhen-Yu; DU Cui-Hua; MA Jun; ZHOU Xu

    2009-01-01

    Mass of open cluster NGC 7789 in the Galaxy is determined by three methods: the photometric method based on mass-luminosity relations of stars in the cluster Mpho=7712.5M⊙; the dynamical method based on virial theorem Mvir= 6996.1Mo; and the tidal radius method based on the interaction between the cluster and the Galaxy Mtta= 5152.5M⊙. The mean mass of this cluster is estimated to be Mc= 6620.4± 762.5M⊙.

  20. Chemical composition of A and F dwarfs members of the Pleiades open cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebran, M.; Monier, R.

    2008-05-01

    Aims: We derive the abundances of 18 chemical elements for 16 A-dwarf, both normal and chemically-peculiar, and 5 F-dwarf members of the Pleiades open cluster to place constraints on evolutionary models. Methods: Abundances and rotational and microturbulent velocities were derived by fitting synthetic spectra to high-resolution (R ~ 42 000 and R ~ 75 000) observations of high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). Results: The abundances exhibit correlation with neither the effective temperature nor the projected rotational velocity. Interestingly, A stars exhibit larger star-to-star variations in C, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Sr, Y, Zr and Ba, than F stars. F stars have solar abundances of almost all elements. In A stars, the abundances of Si, Ti and Cr are correlated with that of Fe, and the [X/Fe] ratios are solar for these three elements. The derived abundances are compared with the predictions of evolutionary models for the age of Pleiades (100 Myr). For F stars, small predicted underabundances of light elements and overabundances of Cr, Fe and Ni are confirmed by our findings. For A stars, the predicted overabundances in iron-peak elements are confirmed for a few stars only. Conclusions: The large scatter in the abundances of A stars, discovered previously in the Hyades, Coma Berenices, UMa group, and in field stars, appears to be a characteristic property of dwarf A stars. Hydrodynamical processes competing with radiative diffusion in the radiative zone of A dwarfs, could account for the scatter in abundances that we determine. Based on observations performed at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (France). Tables [see full textsee full text] and [see full textsee full text] are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Open clusters in AurOB2

    CERN Document Server

    Marco, A

    2016-01-01

    We study the area around the HII region Sh 2-234, including the young open cluster Stock 8, to investigate the extent and definition of the association Aur OB2 and the possible role of triggering in massive cluster formation. We obtained Str\\"omgren and J,H,Ks photometry for Stock 8 and Str\\"omgren photometry for two other cluster candidates in the area, which we confirm as young open clusters and name Alicante 11 and Alicante 12. We took spectroscopy of 33 early-type stars in the area, including the brightest cluster members. We calculate a common distance of $2.80^{+0.27}_{-0.24}$ kpc for the three open clusters and surrounding association. We derive an age 4-6 Ma for Stock 8, and do not find a significantly different age for the other clusters or the association. The star LSV +34 23, with spectral type O8 II(f), is likely the main source of ionization of Sh 2-234. We observe an important population of pre-main sequence stars, some of them with disks, associated with the B-type members lying on the main-seq...

  2. Open clusters in Auriga OB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Amparo; Negueruela, Ignacio

    2016-06-01

    We study the area around the H II region Sh 2-234, including the young open cluster Stock 8, to investigate the extent and definition of the association Aur OB2 and the possible role of triggering in massive cluster formation. We obtained Strömgren and J, H, KS photometry for Stock 8 and Strömgren photometry for two other cluster candidates in the area, which we confirm as young open clusters and name Alicante 11 and Alicante 12. We took spectroscopy of ˜33 early-type stars in the area, including the brightest cluster members. We calculate a common distance of 2.80^{+0.27}_{-0.24} kpc for the three open clusters and surrounding association. We derive an age 4-6 Ma for Stock 8, and do not find a significantly different age for the other clusters or the association. The star LS V +34°23, with spectral type O8 II(f), is likely the main source of ionization of Sh 2-234. We observe an important population of pre-main-sequence stars, some of them with discs, associated with the B-type members lying on the main sequence. We interpret the region as an area of recent star formation with some residual and very localized ongoing star formation. We do not find evidence for sequential star formation on a large scale. The classical definition of Aur OB2 has to be reconsidered, because its two main open clusters, Stock 8 and NGC 1893, are not at the same distance. Stock 8 is probably located in the Perseus arm, but other nearby H II regions whose distances also place them in this arm show quite different distances and radial velocities and, therefore, are not connected.

  3. Shape parameters of Galactic open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kharchenko, N V; Petrov, M I; Piskunov, A E; Röser, S; Schilbach, E; Scholz, R -D

    2008-01-01

    (abridged) In this paper we derive observed and modelled shape parameters (apparent ellipticity and orientation of the ellipse) of 650 Galactic open clusters identified in the ASCC-2.5 catalogue. We provide the observed shape parameters of Galactic open clusters, computed with the help of a multi-component analysis. For the vast majority of clusters these parameters are determined for the first time. High resolution ("star by star") N-body simulations are carried out with the specially developed $\\phi$GRAPE code providing models of clusters of different initial masses, Galactocentric distances and rotation velocities. The comparison of models and observations of about 150 clusters reveals ellipticities of observed clusters which are too low (0.2 vs. 0.3), and offers the basis to find the main reason for this discrepancy. The models predict that after $\\approx 50$ Myr clusters reach an oblate shape with an axes ratio of $1.65:1.35:1$, and with the major axis tilted by an angle of $q_{XY} \\approx 30^\\circ$ with...

  4. THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER BERKELEY 55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negueruela, Ignacio; Marco, Amparo, E-mail: ignacio.negueruela@ua.es, E-mail: amparo.marco@ua.es [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    We present UBV photometry of the highly reddened and poorly studied open cluster Berkeley 55, revealing an important population of B-type stars and several evolved stars of high luminosity. Intermediate-resolution far-red spectra of several candidate members confirm the presence of one F-type supergiant and six late supergiants or bright giants. The brightest blue stars are mid-B giants. Spectroscopic and photometric analyses indicate an age 50 {+-} 10 Myr. The cluster is located at a distance d Almost-Equal-To 4 kpc, consistent with other tracers of the Perseus Arm in this direction. Berkeley 55 is thus a moderately young open cluster with a sizable population of candidate red (super)giant members, which can provide valuable information about the evolution of intermediate-mass stars.

  5. Prospecting for chemical tags among open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, David L

    2016-01-01

    Determinations of the chemical composition of red giants in a large sample of open clusters show that the abundances of the heavy elements La, Ce, Nd and Sm but not so obviously Y and Eu vary from one cluster to another across a sample all having about the solar metallicity. For La, Ce, Nd and Sm the amplitudes of the variations at solar metallicity scale approximately with the main s-process contribution to solar system material. Consideration of published abundances of field stars suggest that such a spread in heavy element abundances is present for the thin and thick disk stars of different metallicity. This new result provides an opportunity to chemically tag stars by their heavy elements and to reconstruct dissolved open clusters from the field star population.

  6. Sejong Open Cluster Survey. I. NGC 2353

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Beomdu; Karimov, R; Ibrahimov, M

    2011-01-01

    UBVI CCD photometry of NGC 2353 is obtained as part of the "Sejong Open cluster Survey" (SOS). Using the photometric membership criteria we selelct probable members of the cluster. We derive the reddening and distance to the cluster, i.e. E(B-V) = 0.10 +/- 0.02 mag and 1.17 +/- 0.04 kpc, respectively. We find that the projected distribution of the probable members on the sky is elliptical in shape rather than circular. The age of the cluster is estimated to be log(age)=8.1 +/- 0.1, older than what was found in previous studies. The minimum value of binary fraction is estimated to be about 48 +/- 5 percent from a Gaussian function fit to the distribution of the distance moduli of the photometric members. Finally, we also obtain the luminosity function and the initial mass function (IMF). The slope of the IMF is Gamma = -1.3 +/- 0.2.

  7. Photometric study of five open star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lata, Sneh; Sharma, Saurabh; Bonatto, Charles; Yadav, Ram Kesh

    2013-01-01

    $UBVRI$ photometry of the five open clusters Czernik 4, Berkeley 7, NGC 2236, NGC 7226 and King 12 has been carried out using ARIES 104 cm telescope, Nainital. Fundamental cluster parameters such as foreground reddening $E(B-V)$, distance, and age have been derived by means of the observed two colour and colour-magnitude diagrams, coupled to comparisons with theoretical models. $E(B-V)$ values range from 0.55 to 0.74 mag, while ages derived for these clusters range from $\\sim$10 to $\\sim$500 Myr. We have also studied the spatial structure, mass function and mass segregation effects. The present study shows that evaporation of low mass stars from the halo of the clusters increases as they evolve.

  8. Gravitational interactions between globular and open clusters: an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Marcos, R de la Fuente; Reilly, D

    2014-01-01

    Historically, it has been assumed that globular and open clusters never interact. However, recent evidence suggests that: globular clusters passing through the disk may be able to perturb giant molecular clouds (GMCs) triggering formation of open clusters and some old open clusters may be linked to accreted globulars. Here, we further explore the existence of possible dynamical connections between globular and open clusters, and realize that the most obvious link must be in the form of gravitational interactions. If open clusters are born out of GMCs, they have to move in similar orbits. If we accept that globulars can interact with GMCs, triggering star formation, it follows that globular and open clusters must also interact. Consistently, theoretical arguments as well as observational evidence, show that globular and open clusters certainly are interacting populations and their interactions are far more common than usually thought, especially for objects part of the bulge/disk. Monte Carlo calculations conf...

  9. NGC 7789: An open cluster case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbeek, Jamie C.; Friel, Eileen D.; Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Mészáros, Szabolcs [Indiana University Astronomy Department, Swain West 319, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Jacobson, Heather R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Johnson, Christian I., E-mail: joverbee@indiana.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We have obtained high-resolution spectra of 32 giants in the open cluster NGC 7789 using the Wisconsin–Indiana–Yale–NOAO Hydra spectrograph. We explore differences in atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances caused by the use of the linelist developed for the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) compared to one based on Arcturus used in our previous work. [Fe/H] values decrease when using the GES linelist instead of the Arcturus-based linelist; these differences are probably driven by systematically lower (∼−0.1 dex) GES surface gravities. Using the GES linelist we determine abundances for 10 elements—Fe, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Na, Ni, Zr, Ba, and La. We find the cluster's average metallicity [Fe/H] = 0.03 ± 0.07 dex, in good agreement with literature values, and a lower [Mg/Fe] abundance than has been reported before for this cluster (0.11 ± 0.05 dex). We also find the neutron-capture element barium to be highly enhanced—[Ba/Fe] = +0.48 ± 0.08—and disparate from cluster measurements of neutron-capture elements La and Zr (−0.08 ± 0.05 and 0.08 ± 0.08, respectively). This is in accordance with recent discoveries of supersolar Ba enhancement in young clusters along with more modest enhancement of other neutron-capture elements formed in similar environments.

  10. The Hyades open cluster is chemically inhomogeneous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.; Yong, D.; Asplund, M.; Ramírez, I.; Meléndez, J.

    2016-04-01

    We present a high-precision differential abundance analysis of 16 solar-type stars in the Hyades open cluster based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≈ 350-400) spectra obtained from the McDonald 2.7-m telescope. We derived stellar parameters and differential chemical abundances for 19 elements (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ba) with uncertainties as low as ˜0.01-0.02 dex. Our main results include: (1) there is no clear chemical signature of planet formation detected among the sample stars, i.e. no correlations in abundances versus condensation temperature; (2) the observed abundance dispersions are a factor of ≈1.5-2 larger than the average measurement errors for most elements; (3) there are positive correlations, of high statistical significance, between the abundances of at least 90 per cent of pairs of elements. We demonstrate that none of these findings can be explained by errors due to the stellar parameters. Our results reveal that the Hyades is chemically inhomogeneous at the 0.02 dex level. Possible explanations for the abundance variations include (1) inhomogeneous chemical evolution in the proto-cluster environment, (2) supernova ejection in the proto-cluster cloud and (3) pollution of metal-poor gas before complete mixing of the proto-cluster cloud. Our results provide significant new constraints on the chemical composition of open clusters and a challenge to the current view of Galactic archaeology.

  11. Be phenomenon in open clusters: Results from a survey of emission-line stars in young open clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, B.; Subramaniam, A.; Bhatt, B. C.

    2008-01-01

    Emission-line stars in young open clusters are identified to study their properties, as a function of age, spectral type and their evolutionary state. 207 open star clusters were observed using slitless spectroscopy method and 157 emission stars were identified in 42 clusters. We have found 54 new emission-line stars in 24 open clusters, out of which 19 clusters are found to house emission stars for the first time. About 20% clusters harbour emission stars. The fraction of clusters housing em...

  12. The intermediate age open cluster NGC 2660

    CERN Document Server

    Sandrelli, S; Tosi, M P; Marconi, G

    1999-01-01

    We present CCD UBVI photometry of the intermediate old open cluster NGC2660, covering from the red giants region to about seven magnitudes below the main sequence turn-off. Using the synthetic Colour - Magnitude Diagram method, we estimate in a self-consistent way values for distance modulus ((m-M)0 ~= 12.2), reddening (E(B-V) ~= 0.40), metallicity ([Fe/H] about solar), and age (age ~ 1 Gyr). A 30% population of binary stars turns out to be probably present.

  13. The Hyades open cluster is chemically inhomogeneous

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, F; Yong, D.; Asplund, M.; Ramirez, I.; Melendez, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a high-precision differential abundance analysis of 16 solar-type stars in the Hyades open cluster based on high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ~ 350 - 400) spectra obtained from the McDonald 2.7m telescope. We derived stellar parameters and differential chemical abundances for 19 elements (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Ba) with uncertainties as low as ~ 0.01 - 0.02 dex. Our main results include: (1) there is no clear chemical ...

  14. The highly polarized open cluster Trumpler 27

    CERN Document Server

    Feinstein, C; Vázquez, R A; Niemela, V S; Cerruti, M A; Feinstein, Carlos; Baume, Gustavo; Vazquez, Ruben; Niemela, Virpi; Cerruti, Miguel Angel

    2000-01-01

    We have carried out multicolor linear polarimetry (UBVRI) of the brightest stars in the area of the open cluster Trumpler 27. Our data show a high level of polarization in the stellar light with a considerable dispersion, from $P = 4%$ to $P = 9.5%$. The polarization vectors of the cluster members appear to be aligned. Foreground polarization was estimated from the data of some non-member objects, for which two different components were resolved: the first one associated with a dust cloud close to the Sun producing $P_{\\lambda max}=1.3%$ and $\\theta=146$ degrees, and a second component, the main source of polarization for the cluster members, originated in another dust cloud, which polarizes the light in the direction of $\\theta= 29.5$ degrees. From a detailed analysis, we found that the two components have associated values $E_{B-V} 0.75$ for the other. Due the difference in the orientation of both polarization vectors, almost 90 degrees (180 degrees at the Stokes representation), the first cloud ($\\theta \\...

  15. O, Na, Ba and Eu abundance patterns in open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    MacLean, B T; Lattanzio, J

    2014-01-01

    Open clusters are historically regarded as single-aged stellar populations representative of star formation within the Galactic disk. Recent literature has questioned this view, based on discrepant Na abundances relative to the field, and concerns about the longevity of bound clusters contributing to a selection bias: perhaps long-lived open clusters are chemically different to the star formation events that contributed to the Galactic disk. We explore a large sample of high resolution Na, O, Ba & Eu abundances from the literature, homogenized as much as reasonable including accounting for NLTE effects, variations in analysis and choice of spectral lines. Compared to a template globular cluster and representative field stars, we find no significant abundance trends, confirming that the process producing the Na-O anti-correlation in globular clusters is not present in open clusters. Furthermore, previously reported Na-enhancement of open clusters is found to be an artefact of NLTE effects, with the open cl...

  16. CN Variations in High Metallicity Globular and Open Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Martell, Sarah L

    2009-01-01

    We present a comparison of CN bandstrength variations in the high-metallicity globular clusters NGC 6356 and NGC 6528 with those measured in the old open clusters NGC 188, NCG 2158 and NGC 7789. Star-to-star abundance variations, of which CN differences are a readily observable sign, are commonplace in moderate-metallicity halo globular clusters but are unseen in the field or in open clusters. We find that the open clusters have narrow, unimodal distributions of CN bandstrength, as expected from the literature, while the globular clusters have broad, bimodal distributions of CN bandstrength, similar to moderate-metallicity halo globular clusters. This result has interesting implications for the various mechanisms proposed to explain the origin of globular cluster abundance inhomogeneities, and suggests that the local environment at the epoch of cluster formation plays a vital role in regulating intracluster enrichment processes.

  17. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances from Spanish Observatories survey (OCCASO)

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera, R; Balaguer-Núñez, L; Jordi, C; Pancino, E; Allende-Prieto, C; Blanco-Cuaresma, S; Mártinez-Vázquez, C E; Murabito, S; del Pino, A; Aparicio, A; Gallart, C; Recio-Blanco, A

    2014-01-01

    We present the motivation, design and current status of the Open Cluster Chemical Abundances from Spanish Observatories survey (OCCASO). Using the high resolution spectroscopic facilities available at Spanish observatories, OCCASO will derive chemical abundances in a sample of 20 to 25 open clusters older than 0.5 Gyr. This sample will be used to study in detail the formation and evolution of the Galactic disc using open clusters as tracers.

  18. CN Variations in High Metallicity Globular and Open Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Martell, Sarah L.; Smith, Graeme H.

    2009-01-01

    We present a comparison of CN bandstrength variations in the high-metallicity globular clusters NGC 6356 and NGC 6528 with those measured in the old open clusters NGC 188, NCG 2158 and NGC 7789. Star-to-star abundance variations, of which CN differences are a readily observable sign, are commonplace in moderate-metallicity halo globular clusters but are unseen in the field or in open clusters. We find that the open clusters have narrow, unimodal distributions of CN bandstrength, as expected f...

  19. Open-cluster density profiles derived using a kernel estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznev, Anton F.

    2016-03-01

    Surface and spatial radial density profiles in open clusters are derived using a kernel estimator method. Formulae are obtained for the contribution of every star into the spatial density profile. The evaluation of spatial density profiles is tested against open-cluster models from N-body experiments with N = 500. Surface density profiles are derived for seven open clusters (NGC 1502, 1960, 2287, 2516, 2682, 6819 and 6939) using Two-Micron All-Sky Survey data and for different limiting magnitudes. The selection of an optimal kernel half-width is discussed. It is shown that open-cluster radius estimates hardly depend on the kernel half-width. Hints of stellar mass segregation and structural features indicating cluster non-stationarity in the regular force field are found. A comparison with other investigations shows that the data on open-cluster sizes are often underestimated. The existence of an extended corona around the open cluster NGC 6939 was confirmed. A combined function composed of the King density profile for the cluster core and the uniform sphere for the cluster corona is shown to be a better approximation of the surface radial density profile.The King function alone does not reproduce surface density profiles of sample clusters properly. The number of stars, the cluster masses and the tidal radii in the Galactic gravitational field for the sample clusters are estimated. It is shown that NGC 6819 and 6939 are extended beyond their tidal surfaces.

  20. Open star cluster: formation, parameters, membership and importance

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Gireesh C

    2016-01-01

    We have been represented the collective information of estimation procedures of parameters of the open clusters and put them together for showing the importance of clusters to understand their role in stellar evolution phenomenon. Moreover, we have been discussed about analytic techniques to determine the structural and dynamical properties of galactic clusters. The members of clusters provide unique opportunity to determine their basic parameters such as: age, metallicity, distance, reddening etc. The membership probabilities of stars of clusters is assigned through the various approaches and each approach provides different number of probable members of the cluster. Here, we have been briefly discussed about various approaches to determine the stellar membership within clusters.

  1. The Sejong Open Cluster Survey (SOS). IV. the Young Open Clusters NGC 1624 and NGC 1931

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Beomdu; Sung, Hwankyung; Bessell, Michael S.; Kim, Jinyoung S.; Hur, Hyeonoh; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2015-04-01

    Young open clusters located in the outer Galaxy provide us with an opportunity to study star formation activity in a different environment from the solar neighborhood. We present a UBVI and Hα photometric study of the young open clusters NGC 1624 and NGC 1931 that are situated toward the Galactic anticenter. Various photometric diagrams are used to select the members of the clusters and to determine the fundamental parameters. NGC 1624 and NGC 1931 are, on average, reddened by = 0.92 ± 0.05 and 0.74 ± 0.17 mag, respectively. The properties of the reddening toward NGC 1931 indicate an abnormal reddening law ({{R}V,cl} = 5.2 ± 0.3). Using the zero-age main sequence fitting method we confirm that NGC 1624 is 6.0 ± 0.6 kpc away from the Sun, whereas NGC 1931 is at a distance of 2.3 ± 0.2 kpc. The results from isochrone fitting in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram indicate the ages of NGC 1624 and NGC 1931 to be less than 4 and 1.5-2.0 Myr, respectively. We derived the initial mass function (IMF) of the clusters. The slope of the IMF ({{{Γ }}NGC 1624} = -2.0 ± 0.2 and {{{Γ }}NGC 1931} = -2.0 ± 0.1) appears to be steeper than that of the Salpeter/Kroupa IMF. We discuss the implication of the derived IMF based on simple Monte-Carlo simulations and conclude that the property of star formation in the clusters does not seem to be significantly different from that in the solar neighborhood.

  2. Sejong Open Cluster Survey (SOS) - IV. The Young Open Clusters NGC 1624 and NGC 1931

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Beomdu; Bessell, Michael S; Kim, Jinyoung S; Hur, Hyeonoh; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2015-01-01

    Young open clusters located in the outer Galaxy provide us with an opportunity to study star formation activity in a different environment from the solar neighborhood. We present a UBVI and H alpha photometric study of the young open clusters NGC 1624 and NGC 1931 that are situated toward the Galactic anticenter. Various photometric diagrams are used to select the members of the clusters and to determine the fundamental parameters. NGC 1624 and NGC 1931 are, on average, reddened by = 0.92 +/- 0.05 and 0.74 +/- 0.17 mag, respectively. The properties of the reddening toward NGC 1931 indicate an abnormal reddening law (Rv,cl = 5.2 +/- 0.3). Using the zero-age main sequence fitting method we confirm that NGC 1624 is 6.0 +/- 0.6 kpc away from the Sun, whereas NGC 1931 is at a distance of 2.3 +/- 0.2 kpc. The results from isochrone fitting in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram indicate the ages of NGC 1624 and NGC 1931 to be less than 4 Myr and 1.5 - 2.0 Myr, respectively. We derived the initial mass function (IMF) o...

  3. On the metallicity of open clusters. III. Homogenised sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netopil, M.; Paunzen, E.; Heiter, U.; Soubiran, C.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Open clusters are known as excellent tools for various topics in Galactic research. For example, they allow accurately tracing the chemical structure of the Galactic disc. However, the metallicity is known only for a rather low percentage of the open cluster population, and these values are based on a variety of methods and data. Therefore, a large and homogeneous sample is highly desirable. Aims: In the third part of our series we compile a large sample of homogenised open cluster metallicities using a wide variety of different sources. These data and a sample of Cepheids are used to investigate the radial metallicity gradient, age effects, and to test current models. Methods: We used photometric and spectroscopic data to derive cluster metallicities. The different sources were checked and tested for possible offsets and correlations. Results: In total, metallicities for 172 open cluster were derived. We used the spectroscopic data of 100 objects for a study of the radial metallicity distribution and the age-metallicity relation. We found a possible increase of metallicity with age, which, if confirmed, would provide observational evidence for radial migration. Although a statistical significance is given, more studies are certainly needed to exclude selection effects, for example. The comparison of open clusters and Cepheids with recent Galactic models agrees well in general. However, the models do not reproduce the flat gradient of the open clusters in the outer disc. Thus, the effect of radial migration is either underestimated in the models, or an additional mechanism is at work. Conclusions: Apart from the Cepheids, open clusters are the best tracers for metallicity over large Galactocentric distances in the Milky Way. For a sound statistical analysis, a sufficiently large and homogeneous sample of cluster metallicities is needed. Our compilation is currently by far the largest and provides the basis for several basic studies such as the statistical

  4. The Hyades open cluster is chemically inhomogeneous

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, F; Asplund, M; Ramirez, I; Melendez, J

    2016-01-01

    We present a high-precision differential abundance analysis of 16 solar-type stars in the Hyades open cluster based on high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ~ 350 - 400) spectra obtained from the McDonald 2.7m telescope. We derived stellar parameters and differential chemical abundances for 19 elements (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Ba) with uncertainties as low as ~ 0.01 - 0.02 dex. Our main results include: (1) There is no clear chemical signature of planet formation detected among the sample stars, i.e., no correlations in abundances versus condensation temperature. (2) The observed abundance dispersions are a factor of ~ 1.5 - 2 larger than the average measurement errors for most elements. (3) There are positive correlations, of high statistical significance, between the abundances of at least 90% of pairs of elements. We demonstrate that none of these findings can be explained by errors due to the stellar parameters. Our results reveal that the Hyades ...

  5. Stellar Nucleosynthesis in the Hyades Open Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Schuler, S C; The, L -S

    2009-01-01

    We report a comprehensive light element (Li, C, N, O, Na, Mg, and Al) abundance analysis of three solar-type main sequence (MS) dwarfs and three red giant branch (RGB) clump stars in the Hyades open cluster using high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectroscopy. For each group (MS or RGB), the CNO abundances are found to be in excellent star-to-star agreement. Our results confirm that the giants have undergone the first dredge-up and that material processed by the CN cycle has been mixed to the surface layers. The observed abundances are compared to predictions of a standard stellar model based on the Clemson-American University of Beirut (CAUB) stellar evolution code. The model reproduces the observed evolution of the N and O abundances, as well as the previously derived 12C/13C ratio, but it fails to predict by a factor of 1.5 the observed level of 12C depletion. Li abundances are derived to determine if non-canonical extra mixing has occurred in the Hyades giants. The Li abundance of the giant gamma T...

  6. WIYN Open Cluster Study XXXII: Stellar Radial Velocities in the Old Open Cluster NGC 188

    CERN Document Server

    Geller, Aaron M; Harris, Hugh C; McClure, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    (Abridged) We present the results of our ongoing radial-velocity (RV) survey of the old (7 Gyr) open cluster NGC 188. Our WIYN 3.5m data set spans a time baseline of 11 years, a magnitude range of 12<=V<=16.5 (1.18-0.94 MSun), and a 1 deg. diameter region on the sky. With the addition of a Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) data set we extend our bright limit to V = 10.8 and, for some stars, extend our time baseline to 35 years. Our magnitude limits include solar-mass main-sequence stars, subgiants, giants, and blue stragglers (BSs), and our spatial coverage extends radially to 17 pc (~13 core radii). For the WIYN data we find a measurement precision of 0.4 km/s for narrow-lined stars. We have measured RVs for 1046 stars in the direction of NGC 188, finding 473 to be likely cluster members. We detect 124 velocity-variable cluster members, all of which are likely to be dynamically hard-binary stars. Using our single member stars, we find an average cluster RV of -42.36 +/- 0.04 km/s. We use our pre...

  7. On the metallicity of open clusters. III. Homogenised sample

    CERN Document Server

    Netopil, M; Heiter, U; Soubiran, C

    2016-01-01

    Open clusters are known as excellent tools for various topics in Galactic research. For example, they allow accurately tracing the chemical structure of the Galactic disc. However, the metallicity is known only for a rather low percentage of the open cluster population, and these values are based on a variety of methods and data. Therefore, a large and homogeneous sample is highly desirable. In the third part of our series we compile a large sample of homogenised open cluster metallicities using a wide variety of different sources. These data and a sample of Cepheids are used to investigate the radial metallicity gradient, age effects, and to test current models. We used photometric and spectroscopic data to derive cluster metallicities. The different sources were checked and tested for possible offsets and correlations. In total, metallicities for 172 open cluster were derived. We used the spectroscopic data of 100 objects for a study of the radial metallicity distribution and the age-metallicity relation. W...

  8. Variability of Be Stars in Southern Open Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    McSwain, M. Virginia; Huang, Wenjin; Gies, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    We recently discovered a large number of highly active Be stars in the open cluster NGC 3766, making it an excellent location to study the formation mechanism of Be star disks. To explore whether similar disk appearances and/or disappearances are common among the Be stars in other open clusters, we present here multiple epochs of H-alpha spectroscopy for 296 stars in eight open clusters. We identify 12 new transient Be stars and confirm 17 additional Be stars with relatively stable disks. By ...

  9. A revised moving cluster distance to the Pleiades open cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Galli, P A B; Bouy, H; Bouvier, J; Olivares, J; Teixeira, R

    2016-01-01

    Aims: We provide a new distance estimate for the Pleiades based on the moving cluster method, which will be useful to further discuss the so-called Pleiades distance controversy and compare it with the very precise parallaxes from the Gaia space mission. Methods: We apply a refurbished implementation of the convergent point search method to an updated census of Pleiades stars to calculate the convergent point position of the cluster from stellar proper motions. Then, we derive individual parallaxes for 64 cluster members using radial velocities compiled from the literature, and approximate parallaxes for another 1146 stars based on the spatial velocity of the cluster. This represents the largest sample of Pleiades stars with individual distances to date. Results: The parallaxes derived in this work are in good agreement with previous results obtained in different studies (excluding Hipparcos) for individual stars in the cluster. We report a mean parallax of $7.44\\pm 0.08$~mas and distance of $134.4^{+2.9}_{-2...

  10. Open-cluster density profiles derived using a kernel estimator

    CERN Document Server

    Seleznev, Anton F

    2016-01-01

    Surface and spatial radial density profiles in open clusters are derived using a kernel estimator method. Formulae are obtained for the contribution of every star into the spatial density profile. The evaluation of spatial density profiles is tested against open-cluster models from N-body experiments with N = 500. Surface density profiles are derived for seven open clusters (NGC 1502, 1960, 2287, 2516, 2682, 6819 and 6939) using Two-Micron All-Sky Survey data and for different limiting magnitudes. The selection of an optimal kernel half-width is discussed. It is shown that open-cluster radius estimates hardly depend on the kernel half-width. Hints of stellar mass segregation and structural features indicating cluster non-stationarity in the regular force field are found. A comparison with other investigations shows that the data on open-cluster sizes are often underestimated. The existence of an extended corona around the open cluster NGC 6939 was confirmed. A combined function composed of the King density pr...

  11. New analysis in the field of open cluster Collinder 223

    OpenAIRE

    Tadross, A. L.

    2003-01-01

    The present study of the open cluster Collinder 223 (Cr 223) has been mainly depended on the photoelectric data of Claria & Lapasset (1991; hereafter CL91). This data of CL91 has been used with the cluster's image of AAO-DSS in order to re-investigate and improve the main parameters of Cr 223. Stellar count has been achieved to determine the stellar density, the cluster's center and the cluster's diameter. In addition, the luminosity function, mass function, and the total mass of the cluster ...

  12. The spatial distribution of stars in open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Nestor

    2009-01-01

    In this work we study the internal spatial structure of 16 open clusters in the Milky Way spanning a wide range of ages. For this, we use the minimum spanning tree method (the Q parameter, which enables one to classify the star distribution as either radially or fractally clustered), King profile fitting, and the correlation dimension (Dc) for those clusters with fractal patterns. On average, clusters with fractal-like structure are younger than those exhibiting radial star density profiles. There is a significant correlation between Q and the cluster age measured in crossing time units. For fractal clusters there is a significant correlation between the fractal dimension and age. These results support the idea that stars in new-born clusters likely follow the fractal patterns of their parent molecular clouds, and eventually evolve toward more centrally concentrated structures. However, there can exist stellar clusters as old as 100 Myr that have not totally destroyed their fractal structure. Finally, we have...

  13. A Swift/UVOT Study of Open Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPorte, Samuel; Siegel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Star clusters, due to being coeval populations of similar stars, provide a convenient snapshot of a stellar population to study and compare to theoretical models of stellar evolution. They also serve as the empirical baseline for studies of distant unresolved stellar populations. However, few studies have been performed of detailed color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of young open clusters in the near ultraviolet. We present a sample of 92 open clusters compiled using Swift's Ultra-Violet and Optical Telescope (UVOT). We construct CMDs and perform isochrone fitting for the most luminous clusters to determine how well the theoretical models reproduce the salient features of the CMDs. We find that the isochrones provide excellent fits to the primary color-magnitude loci, lending confidence to models of unresolved stellar populations and providing, in the future, an opportunity to use open clusters to probe the UV properties of foreground dust.

  14. uvbybeta photometry of early type open cluster and field stars

    CERN Document Server

    Handler, G

    2011-01-01

    The beta Cephei stars and slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars are massive main sequence variables. The strength of their pulsational driving strongly depends on the opacity of iron-group elements. As many of those stars naturally occur in young open clusters, whose metallicities can be determined in several fundamental ways, it is logical to study the incidence of pulsation in several young open clusters. To provide the foundation for such an investigation, Str\\"omgren-Crawford uvbybeta photometry of open cluster target stars was carried out to determine effective temperatures, luminosities, and therefore cluster memberships. In the course of three observing runs, uvbybeta photometry for 168 target stars was acquired and transformed into the standard system by measurements of 117 standard stars. The list of target stars also included some known cluster and field beta Cephei stars, as well as beta Cephei and SPB candidates that are targets of the asteroseismic part of the Kepler satellite mission. The uvbybeta phot...

  15. First PPMXL photometric analysis of open cluster Ruprecht 15

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashraf Latif Tadross

    2012-01-01

    We present the first in a series studying the astrophysical parameters of open clusters using the PPMXL* database whose data are applied to study Ruprecht 15.The astrophysical parameters of Ruprecht 15 have been estimated for the first time.

  16. Elemental abundances of intermediate age open cluster NGC 3680

    CERN Document Server

    Mitschang, A W; Zucker, D B

    2012-01-01

    We present a new abundance analysis of the intermediate age Galactic open cluster NGC 3680, based on high resolution, high signal-to-noise VLT/UVES spectroscopic data. Several element abundances are presented for this cluster for the first time, but most notably we derive abundances for the light and heavy s-process elements Y, Ba, La, and Nd. The serendipitous measurement of the rare-earth r-process element Gd is also reported. This cluster exhibits a significant enhancement of Na in giants as compared to dwarfs, which may be a proxy for an O to Na anti-correlation as observed in Galactic globular clusters but not open clusters. We also observe a step-like enhancement of heavy s-process elements towards higher atomic number, contrary to expectations from AGB nucleosynthesis models, suggesting that the r-process played a significant role in the generation of both La and Nd in this cluster

  17. Morphology of Open Clusters NGC 1857 and Czernik 20 using Clustering Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Souradeep; Pandaokar, Samay; Singh, Parikshit Kishor

    2016-01-01

    The morphology and cluster membership of the Galactic open clusters - Czernik 20 and NGC 1857 were analyzed using two different clustering algorithms. We present the maiden use of density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) to determine open cluster morphology from spatial distribution. The region of analysis has also been spatially classified using a statistical membership determination algorithm. We utilized near infrared (NIR) data for a suitably large region around the clusters from the United Kingdom Infrared Deep Sky Survey Galactic Plane Survey star catalogue database, and also from the Two Micron All Sky Survey star catalogue database. The densest regions of the cluster morphologies (1 for Czernik 20 and 2 for NGC 1857) thus identified were analyzed with a K-band extinction map and color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). To address significant discrepancy in known distance and reddening parameters, we carried out field decontamination of these CMDs and subsequent isochrone fitting of...

  18. Open clusters in a dispersing molecular cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H C; Chen, Hui-Chen; Ko, Chung-Ming

    2006-01-01

    Star clusters are formed in molecular clouds which are believed to be the birth places of most stars. From recent observational data, Lada & Lada(2003) estimated that only 4 to 7% of the proto-clusters have survived. Many factors could cause this high infant mortality. Galactic tidal forces, close encounters with molecular clouds and shock heating are among the possible causes but they have a longer timescale than typical lifetime of molecular clouds. Another possible reason is mass loss in very beginning of cluster evolution in the form of UV radiation, stellar winds or supernova explosions. Mass loss is the main factor we study in this work by using N-body simulations. We find that most proto-clusters survive for more than 40 Myr even when the mass loss rate is high.

  19. The CFHT Open Star Cluster Survey II -- Deep CCD Photometry of the Old Open Star Cluster NGC 6819

    CERN Document Server

    Singh-Kalirai, J; Fahlman, G G; Cuillandre, J C; Ventura, P; D'Antona, F; Bertin, E; Marconi, G; Durrell, P R; Kalirai, Jasonjot Singh; Richer, Harvey B.; Fahlman, Gregory G.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Ventura, Paolo; Antona, Francesca D'; Bertin, Emmanuel; Marconi, Gianni; Durrell, Patrick R.

    2001-01-01

    We present analysis of deep CCD photometry for the very rich, old open star cluster NGC 6819. These CFH12K data results represent the first of nineteen open star clusters which were imaged as a part of the CFHT Open Star Cluster Survey. We find a tight, very rich, main-sequence and turn-off consisting of over 2900 cluster stars in the V, B-V color-magnitude diagram (CMD). Main-sequence fitting of the un-evolved cluster stars with the Hyades star cluster yields a distance modulus of (m-M)v = 12.30 +/- 0.12, for a reddening of E(B-V) = 0.10. These values are consistent with a newly calculated theoretical stellar isochrone of age 2.5 Gyrs, which we take to be the age of the cluster. Detailed star counts indicate a much larger cluster extent (R = 9.5' +/- 1.0'), by a factor of ~2 over some previous estimates. Incompleteness tests confirm a slightly negatively sloped luminosity function extending to faint (V ~ 23) magnitudes which is indicative of a dynamically evolved cluster. Further luminosity function and mass...

  20. Map-based trigonometric parallaxes of open clusters: Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatewood, George

    1995-01-01

    This is the fourth study in a series to determine the direct trigonometric parallaxes of four of the nearest open star clusters, the Hyades, the Pleiades, the Praesepe, and the nearby cluster in Coma (Gatewood et al. 1990; Gatewood et al. 1992); Gatewood & Kiewiet de Jonge 1994). The results for the open star cluster in Coma are compared with those of the other three clusters, and the members are found to be significantly subluminous. The trigonometric parallax of the cluster is estimated from that of three members studied with the Multichannel Astrometric Photometer (MAP) at the Thaw Refractor of the University of Pittsburgh's Allegheny Observatory. The weighted mean parallax of the cluster is +13.53 +/- 0.54 mass (0.00054 min), corresponding to a distance modulus of 4.34 +/- 0.09 mag. The U-B excess of the Coma cluster members may be used to adjust the observed absolute magnitudes and the B-V measurements as suggested by Sandage & Eggen (1959). The agreement obtained in this manner suggests that, like subdwarf stars, the stars of the Coma cluster appear subluminous because of line blanketing. One of the three members observed in this study was recognized as a member by its parallax and is the faintest known member of the cluster.

  1. Variable Stars in the Open Cluster NGC 7142

    CERN Document Server

    Sandquist, Eric L; Shetrone, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    We present new discoveries of variable stars near the turnoff of the old open cluster NGC 7142. Contrary to previous studies, we detect eight contact or near contact eclipsing binaries (including three near the cluster turnoff), and most of these have good probability of being cluster members. We also identified one long-period variable that resides far to the red of the cluster giant branch, and four new detached eclipsing binaries. We have re-examined the question of distance and reddening for the cluster, and find that the distance is larger and reddening lower than in most previous studies. In turn this implies that NGC 7142 is probably slightly younger than M67, about 3 Gyr old. With an age of this size, NGC 7142 would be one of a small group of clusters with main sequence turnoff stars at the transition between convective and radiative cores.

  2. Singlet-paired coupled cluster theory for open shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, John A; Henderson, Thomas M; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2016-06-28

    Restricted single-reference coupled cluster theory truncated to single and double excitations accurately describes weakly correlated systems, but often breaks down in the presence of static or strong correlation. Good coupled cluster energies in the presence of degeneracies can be obtained by using a symmetry-broken reference, such as unrestricted Hartree-Fock, but at the cost of good quantum numbers. A large body of work has shown that modifying the coupled cluster ansatz allows for the treatment of strong correlation within a single-reference, symmetry-adapted framework. The recently introduced singlet-paired coupled cluster doubles (CCD0) method is one such model, which recovers correct behavior for strong correlation without requiring symmetry breaking in the reference. Here, we extend singlet-paired coupled cluster for application to open shells via restricted open-shell singlet-paired coupled cluster singles and doubles (ROCCSD0). The ROCCSD0 approach retains the benefits of standard coupled cluster theory and recovers correct behavior for strongly correlated, open-shell systems using a spin-preserving ROHF reference. PMID:27369507

  3. A kinematic study of Open Clusters: implications for their origin

    CERN Document Server

    Putte, D Vande; Ferreras, Ignacio; Mignani, R P; Cropper, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Galactic population of Open Clusters provides an insight into star formation in the Galaxy. The Open Cluster catalogue by Dias et al.(2002) provides a rich source of data, including kinematic information that enabled us to calculate the orbit of 481 Open Clusters. This large sample made it possible to carry out a systematic analysis of Open Cluster orbits, using parameters based on orbit eccentricity and separation from the Galactic plane. We show that these two parameters may be indicative of origin, and find them to be correlated. We also find them to be correlated with metallicity, another parameter suggested elsewhere to be a marker for origin. We also find that high values of any of these two parameters entail a low metallicity ([Fe/H]$<-$0.2). The resulting analysis points to four Open Clusters in the catalogue being of extra-Galactic origin by impact of High Velocity Cloud on the disk: Berkeley21, 32, 99, and Melotte66, with a further four being possibly due to this origin (NGC2158, 2420, 7789, ...

  4. Wide Field CCD photometry around nine open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, S; Ogura, K; Mito, H; Tarusawa, K; Sagar, R

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study the evolution of core and corona of nine open clusters using the projected radial density profiles derived from homogeneous CCD photometric data obtained through the 105-cm Kiso Schmidt telescope. The age and galactocentric distance of the target clusters varies from 16 Myr to 2000 Myr and 9 kpcto 10.8 kpc respectively. Barring Be 62, which is young open cluster, other clusters show a uniform reddening across the cluster region. The reddening in Be 62varies from $E(B-V)_{min}$= 0.70 mag to $E(B-V)_{max}$= 1.00 mag. The corona of six of the clusters in the present sample is found to be elongated, however on the basis of the present sample it is not possible to establish any correlation between the age and shape of the core. The elongated core in the case of young cluster Be 62 may reflect the initial conditions in the parental molecular cloud. The other results of the present study are (i) Core radius `$r_c$' and corona size $`r_{cn}$'/cluster radius $`r_{cl}$' are linearly correlated. (...

  5. Open clusters and associations in the Gaia era

    CERN Document Server

    Moraux, E

    2016-01-01

    Open clusters and associations are groups of young stars, respectively bound and unbound, that share the same origin and disperse over time into the galactic field. As such, their formation and evolution are the key to understand the origin and properties of galactic stellar populations. Moreover, since their members have about the same age, they are ideal laboratories to study the properties of young stars and constrain stellar evolution theories. In this contribution, I present our current knowledge on open clusters and associations. I focus on the methods used to derive the statistical properties (IMF, spatial distribution, IMF) of young stars and briefly discuss how they depend on the environment. I then describe how open clusters can be used as probes to investigate the structure, dynamics and chemical composition of the Milky Way. I conclude by presenting the Gaia mission and discuss how it will revolutionize this field of research.

  6. Be phenomenon in open clusters: Results from a survey of emission-line stars in young open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Mathew, Blesson; Bhatt, Bhuwan Chandra

    2008-01-01

    Emission-line stars in young open clusters are identified to study their properties, as a function of age, spectral type and their evolutionary state. 207 open star clusters were observed using slitless spectroscopy method and 157 emission stars were identified in 42 clusters. We have found 54 new emission-line stars in 24 open clusters, out of which 19 clusters are found to house emission stars for the first time. About 20% clusters harbour emission stars. The fraction of clusters housing emission stars is maximum in both the 0--10 and 20--30 Myr age bin ($\\sim$ 40% each) and in the other age bins, this fraction ranges between 10% -- 25%, upto 80 Myr. We have used optical colour magnitude diagram (CMD) along with Near-IR Colour-Colour diagram (NIR CCDm) to classify the emission stars into Classical Be (CBe) stars and Herbig Be (HBe) stars. Most of the emission stars in our survey belong to CBe class ($\\sim$ 92%) while a few are HBe stars ($\\sim$ 6%) and HAe stars ($\\sim$1%). The CBe stars are located all alo...

  7. The Principal Parameters of Unstudied Open Clusters with NIR Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Tadross, A L

    2010-01-01

    We studied the principal parameters of some previously unstudied open star clusters using the JHK Near-IR photometry (2MASS survey). These clusters have been selected from the updated Catalogs of Dais and Webda. Based on the 2MASS database and the DSS visual images, some homogeneous methods and algorithms have been applied. The astrometry and photometric principal parameters are determined for the first time.

  8. Simulation of old open clusters for UVIT on ASTROSAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ultra Violet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) is one of the payloads on the first Indian multiwavelength satellite ASTROSAT, which is expected to be launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in the year 2015. We have performed simulations of UV studies of old open clusters for the UVIT. The colour magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and spatial appearances have been created using 10 filters associated with the FUV channel (130–180 nm) and NUV channel (200–300 nm) that are available for observations on the UVIT, for the three old open clusters M67, NGC 188 and NGC 6791. The CMDs are simulated for different filter combinations, and they are used to identify the loci of various evolutionary sequences, white dwarfs, blue stragglers, red giants, subgiants, turn off stars and the main sequence of the clusters. The present work helps in identifying a potential area of study in the case of these three old open clusters by considering the availability of filters and the detection limits of the instrument. We also recommend filter combinations, which can be used to detect and study the above mentioned evolutionary stages. The simulations and the results presented here are essential for the optimal use of the UVIT for studies of old open clusters. (paper)

  9. Open Clusters as Tracers of the Galactic Disk

    OpenAIRE

    Cantat-Gaudin, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Open clusters (OCs) are routinely used as reliable tracers of the properties and evolution of the galactic disk, as they can be found at all galactocentric distances and span a wide range of ages. More than 3000 OCs are listed in catalogues, although few have been studied in details. The goal of this work is to study the properties of open clusters. This work was conducted in the framework of the Gaia-ESO Survey(GES). GES is an observational campaign targeting more than 100,000 stars in a...

  10. Star cluster ecology IVa Dissection of an open star cluster-photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zwart, S F P; Hut, P; Makino, J; Zwart, Simon F. Portegies; Millan, Stephen L. W. Mc; Hut, Piet; Makino, Junichiro

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of star clusters is studied using N-body simulations in which the evolution of single stars and binaries are taken self-consistently into account. Initial conditions are chosen to represent relatively young Galactic open clusters, such as the Pleiades, Praesepe and the Hyades. The calculations include a realistic mass function, primordial binaries and the external potential of the parent Galaxy. Our model clusters are generally significantly flattened in the Galactic tidal field, and dissolve before deep core collapse occurs. The binary fraction decreases initially due to the destruction of soft binaries, but increases later because lower mass single stars escape more easily than the more massive binaries. At late times, the cluster core is quite rich in giants and white dwarfs. There is no evidence for preferential evaporation of old white dwarfs, on the contrary the formed white dwarfs are likely to remain in the cluster. Stars tend to escape from the cluster through the first and second Lagra...

  11. Astrophysical parameters of ten poorly studied open star clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashraf Latif Tadross; Reda El-Bendary; Anas Osman; Nader Ismail; Abdel Aziz Bakry

    2012-01-01

    We present the fundamental parameters of ten open star clusters,nominated from Kronberger et al.who presented some newly discovered stellar groups on the basis of the Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry and Digitized Sky Survey visual images.Star counts and photometric parameters (radius,membership,distance,color excess,age,luminosity function,mass function,total mass,and dynamical relaxation time) have been determined for these ten clusters for the first time.In order to calibrate our procedures,the main parameters (distance,age,and color excess) have been reestimated for another five clusters,which are also studied by Kronberger et al.

  12. Astrophysical parameters of ten new discovered open star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Tadross, A L; Osman, A; Ismail, N; Bakry, A

    2011-01-01

    We present here the fundamental parameters of ten open star clusters, nominated from Kronberger et al. (2006) who presented some new discovered stellar groups on the basis of 2MASS photometry and DSS visual images. Star counts and photometric parameters (radius, membership, distances, color excess, age, luminosity function, mass function, total mass, and the dynamical relaxation time) have been determined for these ten clusters for the first time. In order to calibrate our procedures, the main parameters (distance, age, and color excesses) have been re-estimated for another five clusters, which are studied by Kronberger et al. (2006) as well.

  13. Zirconium, Barium, Lanthanum and Europium Abundances in Open Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, H R; 10.1088/0004-6256/145/4/107

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the s-process elements Zr, Ba, and La and the r-process element Eu in a sample of 50 stars in 19 open clusters. Stellar abundances of each element are based on measures of a minimum of two lines per species via both equivalent width and spectrum synthesis techniques. We investigate cluster mean neutron-capture abundance trends as a function of cluster age and location in the Milky Way disk and compare them to results found in other studies in the literature. We find a statistically significant trend of increasing cluster [Ba/Fe] as a function of decreasing cluster age, in agreement with recent findings for other open cluster samples, supporting the increased importance of low-mass asymptotic giant branch stars to the generation of s-process elements. However, the other s-process elements, [La/Fe] and [Zr/Fe], do not show similar dependences, in contrast to theoretical expectations and the limited observational data from other studies. Conversely, cluster [Eu/Fe] ratios show a slight ...

  14. NGC 1252: a high altitude, metal poor open cluster remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Marcos, R de la Fuente; Bidin, C Moni; Carraro, G; Costa, E

    2013-01-01

    If stars form in clusters but most stars belong to the field, understanding the details of the transition from the former to the latter is imperative to explain the observational properties of the field. Aging open clusters are one of the sources of field stars. The disruption rate of open clusters slows down with age but, as an object gets older, the distinction between the remaining cluster or open cluster remnant (OCR) and the surrounding field becomes less and less obvious. As a result, finding good OCR candidates or confirming the OCR nature of some of the best candidates still remain elusive. One of these objects is NGC 1252, a scattered group of about 20 stars in Horologium. Here we use new wide-field photometry in the UBVI pass-bands, proper motions from the Yale/San Juan SPM 4.0 catalogue, and high resolution spectroscopy concurrently with results from N-body simulations to decypher NGC 1252's enigmatic character. Spectroscopy shows that most of the brightest stars in the studied area are chemically,...

  15. Photometric Monitoring of Open Clusters I. The Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Hebb, L; Gilmore, G; Hebb, Leslie; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Gilmore, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    Open clusters, which have age, abundance, and extinction information from studies of main-sequence turn off stars, are the ideal location in which to determine the mass-luminosity-radius relation for low-mass stars. We have undertaken a photometric monitoring survey of open clusters in the Galaxy designed to detect low-mass eclipsing binary systems through variations in their relative light curves. Our aim is to provide an improved calibration of the mass-luminosity-radius relation for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs, to test stellar structure and evolution models, and to help quantify the contribution of low-mass stars to the global mass census in the Galaxy. In this paper we present our survey, describing the data and outlining the analysis techniques. We study six nearby open clusters, with a range of ages from $\\sim 0.2$ to 4 Gyr and metallicities from approximately solar to -0.2dex. We monitor a field-of-view of > 1 square degree per target cluster, well beyond the characteristic cluster radius, over tim...

  16. Old Open Clusters as Tracers of Galactic Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Bragaglia, A; Marconi, G; Carretta, E

    1999-01-01

    Old open clusters are useful tools to study the Galactic disk properties, both present and past. Populous samples with properties determined both accurately and homogenously are necessary to draw reliable conclusions. We present here our recent work in the field and introduce and discuss results on metallicities.

  17. Characterization and Photometric Membership of the Open Cluster NGC1981

    CERN Document Server

    Maia, F F S; Santos, J F C

    2010-01-01

    Open clusters belonging to star-forming complexes are the leftovers from the initial stellar generations. The study of these young systems provides constraints to models of star formation and evolution as well as to the properties of the Galactic disc. We aimed at investigating NGC1981, a young open cluster in the Orion Nebula Region, using near-IR and BV (RI)C photometric data.We devised a method that accounts for the field contamination and allows to derive photometric membership for the cluster stars. A new cluster centre was determined by Gaussian fittings to the 2-D stellar distribution on the sky, and has been used used to obtain the radial stellar density profile and the structural parameters. Mass functions were computed for stars inside the cluster limiting radius and total mass estimated from them. Although more easily distinguished by its grouping of 6 relatively bright stars, an underlying population of faint pre-main sequence stars is evident in the cluster area. We showed that this population is...

  18. A Star Catalog for the Open Cluster NGC188

    CERN Document Server

    Stetson, P B; Van den Berg, D A; Stetson, Peter B.; Clure, Robert D. Mc; Berg, Don A. Vanden

    2004-01-01

    We present new BVRI broad-band photometry for the old open cluster NGC188 based upon analysis of 299 CCD images either obtained by us, donated by colleagues, or retrieved from public archives. We compare our results on a star-by-star basis with data from eleven previous photometric investigations of the cluster. We homogenize and merge the data from all the photometric studies, and also merge membership probabilities from four previous proper-motion studies of the cluster field. Fiducial cluster sequences in the BV (Johnson) RI (Cousins) photometric system of Landolt (1992, AJ, 104, 340) represent the principal result of this paper. These have been compared to reference samples defined by (a) Landolt's standard stars, (b) the old open clusters M67 and NGC6791, and (c) stars within 25 pc having modern photometry and precise Hipparcos parallaxes. In a companion paper we show that our derived cluster results agree well with the predictions of modern stellar-interior and -evolution theory, given reasonable estima...

  19. BVI photometry of the very old open cluster Berkeley 17

    CERN Document Server

    Bragaglia, A; Marconi, G; Tosi, M; Andreuzzi, Gloria; Bragaglia, Angela; Marconi, Gianni; Tosi, Monica

    2006-01-01

    We have obtained BVI CCD imaging of Berkeley 17, an anticentre open cluster that competes with NGC 6791 as the oldest known open cluster. Using the synthetic colour magnitude diagrams (CMD) technique with three sets of evolutionary tracks we have determined that its age is 8.5 - 9.0 Gyr, it distance modulus is (m-M)_0 = 12.2, with a reddening of E(B-V) = 0.62 - 0.60. Differential reddening, if present, is at the 5 % level. All these values have been obtained using models with metallicity about half of solar (Z=0.008 or Z=0.01 depending on the stellar evolution tracks), which allows us to reproduce the features of the cluster CMD better than other metallicities. Finally, from the analysis of a nearby comparison field we think to have intercepted a portion of the disrupting Canis Major dwarf galaxy.

  20. Testing the chemical tagging technique with open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S; Heiter, U; Asplund, M; Carraro, G; Costado, M T; Feltzing, S; González-Hernández, J I; Jiménez-Esteban, F; Korn, A J; Marino, A F; Montes, D; Roman, I San; Tabernero, H M; Tautvaišienė, G

    2015-01-01

    Context. Stars are born together from giant molecular clouds and, if we assume that the priors were chemically homogeneous and well-mixed, we expect them to share the same chemical composition. Most of the stellar aggregates are disrupted while orbiting the Galaxy and most of the dynamic information is lost, thus the only possibility of reconstructing the stellar formation history is to analyze the chemical abundances that we observe today. Aims. The chemical tagging technique aims to recover disrupted stellar clusters based merely on their chemical composition. We evaluate the viability of this technique to recover co-natal stars that are no longer gravitationally bound. Methods. Open clusters are co-natal aggregates that have managed to survive together. We compiled stellar spectra from 31 old and intermediate-age open clusters, homogeneously derived atmospheric parameters, and 17 abundance species, and applied machine learning algorithms to group the stars based on their chemical composition. This approach...

  1. The open cluster NGC 7142: interstellar extinction, distance and age

    CERN Document Server

    Straizys, V; Boyle, R P; Zdanavicius, K; Zdanavicius, J; Laugalys, V; Kazlauskas, A

    2013-01-01

    The results of medium-band photometry of 1037 stars in the area of old open cluster NGC 7142 down to V = 20.1 mag in the Vilnius seven-colour system are presented. Photometric results are used to classify in spectral and luminosity classes about 80 percent of stars down to V = 18.5 mag, to identify cluster members, to determine the main cluster parameters and to investigate the interstellar extinction in this direction. The average extinction A_V of the cluster is about 1.1 mag, E(B-V) = 0.35, and its distance is 2.3 kpc (the distance modulus 11.8 mag). The age of the cluster, 3.0 Gyr, is estimated from the intrinsic colour-magnitude diagram with individual dereddening of each star and the Padova isochrones. The surface distribution of the extinction is shown. The reddening of the eclipsing variable V375 Cep is found to be close to the average reddening of the cluster. Probably, the cluster contains five red clump giants, two asymptotic branch stars and four blue stragglers.

  2. A comprehensive study of the open cluster NGC 6866

    CERN Document Server

    Bostanci, Z F; Yontan, T; Bilir, S; Guver, T; Ak, S; Cakirli, O; Ozdarcan, O; Paunzen, E; De Cat, P; Fu, J N; Zhang, Y; Hou, Y; Li, G; Wang, Y; Zhan, W; Shi, J; Wu, Y

    2015-01-01

    We present CCD $UBVRI$ photometry of the field of the open cluster NGC 6866. Structural parameters of the cluster are determined utilizing the stellar density profile of the stars in the field. We calculate the probabilities of the stars being a physical member of the cluster using their astrometric data and perform further analyses using only the most probable members. The reddening and metallicity of the cluster were determined by independent methods. The LAMOST spectra and the ultraviolet excess of the F and G type main-sequence stars in the cluster indicate that the metallicity of the cluster is about the solar value. We estimated the reddening $E(B-V)=0.074 \\pm 0.050$ mag using the $U-B$ vs $B-V$ two-colour diagram. The distance modula, the distance and the age of NGC 6866 were derived as $\\mu = 10.60 \\pm 0.10$ mag, $d=1189 \\pm 75$ pc and $t = 813 \\pm 50$ Myr, respectively, by fitting colour-magnitude diagrams of the cluster with the PARSEC isochrones. The Galactic orbit of NGC 6866 indicates that the cl...

  3. CCD photometry of distant open clusters; 2, NGC 6791

    CERN Document Server

    Kaluzny, J; Kaluzny, Janusz; Rucinski, Slavek

    1995-01-01

    Three new photometric CCD-based datasets are presented for NGC~6791. They consist of deep UBV photometry (to V_{lim} =24, B_{lim}=24, U_{lim} = 23) of the central parts of the cluster and of selected fields around it, and of relatively shallower UBVI photometry for the whole cluster (23' \\times 23'). The data have been used to discuss the reddening, metallicity and age ofNGC~6791, a cluster which is particularly important because of (1)~its most-advanced age among open clusters, (2)~metallicity higher than solar and (3)~particularly large number of member stars. We discovered two new very blue stars increasing the total of sdB objects in the cluster to ten. They are located in a very narrow range magnitudes V=17.7 \\pm 0.5; their blue colors strongly constrain our determination of the reddening of the cluster to E(B-V)=0.17 \\pm 0.01. We detected no other blue stars except a population of faint objects with V \\approx 22 in the center of the cluster. We have used the new theoretical isochrones in a differential ...

  4. Membership determination of open cluster NGC 188 based on the DBSCAN clustering algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-precision proper motions and radial velocities of 1046 stars are used to determine member stars using three-dimensional (3D) kinematics for open cluster NGC 188 based on the density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) clustering algorithm. By implementing this algorithm, 472 member stars in the cluster are obtained with 3D kinematics. The color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of the 472 member stars using 3D kinematics shows a well-defined main sequence and a red giant branch, which indicate that the DBSCAN clustering algorithm is very effective for membership determination. The DBSCAN clustering algorithm can effectively select probable member stars in 3D kinematic space without any assumption about the distribution of the cluster or field stars. Analysis results show that the CMD of member stars is significantly clearer than the one based on 2D kinematics, which allows us to better constrain the cluster members and estimate their physical parameters. Using the 472 member stars, the average absolute proper motion and radial velocity are determined to be (PMα, PMδ) = (−2.58 ± 0.22, +0.17 ± 0.18) mas yr−1 and Vr = −42.35 ± 0.05 km s−1, respectively. Our values are in good agreement with values derived by other authors

  5. 3D cluster members and near-infrared distance of open cluster NGC 6819

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin-Hua; Xu, Shou-Kun; Chen, Li

    2015-12-01

    In order to obtain clean members of the open cluster NGC 6819, the proper motions and radial velocities of 1691 stars are used to construct a three-dimensional (3D) velocity space. Based on the DBSCAN clustering algorithm, 537 3D cluster members are obtained. From the 537 3D cluster members, the average radial velocity and absolute proper motion of the cluster are Vr = +2.30 ± 0.04 km s-1 and (PMRA, PMDec) = (-2.5 ± 0.5, -4.3 ± 0.5) mas yr-1, respectively. The proper motions, radial velocities, spatial positions and color-magnitude diagram of the 537 3D members indicate that our membership determination is effective. Among the 537 3D cluster members, 15 red clump giants can be easily identified by eye and are used as reliable standard candles for the distance estimate of the cluster. The distance modulus of the cluster is determined to be (m - M)0 = 11.86 ± 0.05 mag (2355 ± 54 pc), which is quite consistent with published values. The uncertainty of our distance modulus is dominated by the intrinsic dispersion in the luminosities of red clump giants (˜ 0.04 mag).

  6. TNG photometry of the open cluster NGC 6939

    CERN Document Server

    Andreuzzi, G; Tosi, M P; Marconi, G

    2003-01-01

    We present CCD UBVI photometry of the intermediate age open cluster NGC 6939 for three TNG-DOLORES fields. The fields A and B cover the center of the cluster; the third one is located about 30 arcmin away, and is used for field stars decontamination. The V-I, B-V and U-B color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), obtained joining very different exposures show: i) a Main Sequence (MS) extending down to V = 24, much deeper (~ 5 magnitudes) than any previous study; ii) a clearly defined Turn Off (TO) and iii) a well populated Red Giant Clump (RC) at about V = 13.

  7. Open Clusters in the Kepler Field, II. NGC 6866

    CERN Document Server

    Janes, Kenneth; Meibom, Soeren; Hoq, Sadia

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a maximum-likelihood procedure to fit theoretical isochrones to the observed cluster color-magnitude diagrams of NGC 6866, an open cluster in the Kepler Spacecraft field of view. The Markov-Chain Monte Carlo algorithm permits exploration of the entire parameter space of a set of isochrones to find both the best solution and the statistical uncertainties. For clusters in the age range of NGC 6866, with few if any red giant members, a purely photometric determination of the cluster properties is not well-constrained. Nevertheless, based on our UBVRI photometry alone, we have derived the distance, reddening, age and metallicity of the cluster and established estimates for the binary nature and membership probability of individual stars. We derive the following values for the cluster properties: $(m-M)_V = 10.98\\pm 0.24$, $E(B-V) = 0.16\\pm 0.04$ (so the distance = 1250 pc), age $= 705\\pm170$\\ Myr and $Z = 0.014\\pm 0.005$.

  8. CCD $UBV(RI)_{C}$ Photometry of Twenty Open Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Oralhan, Inci Akkaya; Schuster, William J; Michel, Raúl; Chavarría, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental astrophysical parameters have been derived for 20 open clusters (O\\!Cs) using CCD~$U\\!BV\\!(RI)_C$ photometric data observed with the 84~cm telescope at the San Pedro M\\'artir National Astronomical Observatory, M\\'exico. The interstellar reddenings, metallicities, distances, and ages have been compared to the literature values. Significant differences are usually due to the usage of diverse empirical calibrations and differing assumptions, such as concerning cluster metallicity, as well as distinct isochrones which correspond to differing element-abundance ratios, internal stellar physics, and photometric systems. Different interstellar reddenings, as well as varying reduction and cluster-membership techniques, are also responsible for these kinds of systematic differences and errors. The morphological ages, which are derived from the morphological indices ($\\delta V$ and $\\delta 1$) in the CM diagrams, are in good agreement with the isochrone ages of 12 O\\!Cs, those with good red clump (RC) and re...

  9. SPECTRAL MORPHOLOGY AND ROTATION IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Grosso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have performed spectral classification and measurements of the axial rotation velocity for the brightest stars in the region of the open cluster NGC 6025. A distance modulus of 9.80±0.06 (pe and an age of 84 million years were derived. The brightest star of the cluster, HD 143448 was classified as B1Ve and it is a blue straggler as proposed by other authors (see Mermilliod 1982. We found three peculiar stars (two Si and one Hg-Mn. Another star in the field shows emission but is probably a non-member. We also found two SB2 binaries. The average axial rotation for the cluster members seems to be 73% of the average rotation of the field stars with the same temperature.

  10. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances from Spanish Observatories Survey (OCCASO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, R.; Casamiquela, L.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Jordi, C.; Pancino, E.; Allende-Prieto, C.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Murabito, S.; del Pino, A.; Aparicio, A.; Gallart, C.; Recio-Blanco, A.

    2016-10-01

    We present the motivation, design and current status of the Open Cluster Chemical Abundances from Spanish Observatories survey (OCCASO). Using the high resolution spectroscopic facilities available at Spanish observatories, OCCASO will derive chemical abundances in a sample of 20 to 25 OCs older than 0.5 Gyr. This sample will be used to study in detail the formation and evolution of the Galactic disk using OCs as tracers.

  11. Ensemble Asteroseismology of the Young Open Cluster NGC 2244

    CERN Document Server

    Aerts, Conny; Marcos-Arenal, Pablo; Moravveji, Ehsan; Degroote, Pieter; Papics, Peter; Tkachenko, Andrew; De Ridder, Joris; Briquet, Maryline; Thoul, Anne; Saesen, Sophie; Mowlavi, Nami; Barblan, Fabio; Neiner, Coralie; Pavlovski, Kresimir; Guzik, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Our goal is to perform in-depth ensemble asteroseismology of the young open cluster NGC2244 with the 2-wheel Kepler mission. While the nominal Kepler mission already implied a revolution in stellar physics for solar-type stars and red giants, it was not possible to perform asteroseismic studies of massive OB stars because such targets were carefully avoided in the FoV in order not to disturb the exoplanet hunting. Now is an excellent time to fill this hole in mission capacity and to focus on the metal factories of the Universe, for which stellar evolution theory is least adequate. Our white paper aims to remedy major shortcomings in the theory of stellar structure and evolution of the most massive stars by focusing on a large ensemble of stars in a carefully selected young open cluster. Cluster asteroseismology of very young stars such as those of NGC2244 has the major advantage that all cluster stars have similar age, distance and initial chemical composition, implying drastic restrictions for the stellar mo...

  12. Kinematics of the Open Cluster System in the Galaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Liang Zhao; Li Chen; Zhong-Liang Zu

    2006-01-01

    Absolute proper motions and radial velocities of 202 open clusters in the solar neighborhood, which can be used as tracers of the Galactic disk, are used to investigate the kinematics of the Galaxy in the solar vicinity, including the mean heliocentric velocity components (u1, u2, u3) of the open cluster system, the characteristic velocity dispersions (σ1,σ2,σ3), Oort constants (A, B) and the large-scale radial motion parameters (C, D) of the Galaxy. The results derived from the observational data of proper motions and radial velocities of a subgroup of 117 thin disk young open clusters by means of a maximum likelihood algorithm are: (u1, u2, u3) = (-16.1±1.0,-7.9 ± 1.4, -10.4±1.5)km s-1,(σ1,σ2,σ3)=(17.0±0.7,12.2±0.9,8.0±1.3) km s-1, (A,B)= (14.8 ±1.0,-13.0±2.7) kms-1 kpc-1,and(C,D) = (1.5±0.7,-1.2±1.5) kms-1 kpc-1. A discussion on the results and comparisons with what was obtained by other authors is given.

  13. The CFHT Open Star Cluster Survey I -- Cluster Selection and Data Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Singh-Kalirai, J; Fahlman, G G; Cuillandre, J C; Ventura, P; D'Antona, F; Bertin, E; Marconi, G; Durrell, P R; Kalirai, Jasonjot Singh; Richer, Harvey B.; Fahlman, Gregory G.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Ventura, Paolo; Antona, Francesca D'; Bertin, Emmanuel; Marconi, Gianni; Durrell, Patrick R.

    2001-01-01

    We present this paper in conjuction with the following as the first results in the CFHT Open Star Cluster Survey. This survey is a large BVR imaging data set of 19 open star clusters in our Galaxy. This data set was taken with the CFH12K mosaic CCD (42' X 28') and the majority of the clusters were imaged under excellent photometric, sub-arcsecond seeing conditions. The combination of multiple exposures extending to deep (V ~ 25) magnitudes with short (< 10 second) frames allows for many different studies. The primary aim of this survey is to catalogue the white dwarf stars in these clusters and establish observational constraints on the initial-final mass relationship for these stars and the upper mass limit to white dwarf production. Additionally, we hope to better determine the properties of the clusters, such as age and distance, and also test evolution and dynamical theories by analyzing luminosity and mass functions. In order to more easily incorporate this data in further studies, we have produced a ...

  14. Nine new open clusters within 500 pc from the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Roeser, Siegfried; Goldman, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    One of the results of the Milky Way Star Clusters (MWSC) survey by Kharchenko et al. (2013) was the detection of a slight under-density of old (ca. 1 Gyr) clusters within the nearest kilo-parsec from the Sun. This under-density may be due to an ineffectiveness in the detection of larger structures with lower surface brightness. We report on our attempts to reveal such clusters. We derived proper motions from a combination of Tycho-2 with URAT1, and obtained a mean precision of about 1.4 mas/y per co-ordinate for 1.3 million stars north of -20 degree declination. We cut the sky into narrow proper motion slices and searched for spatial over-densities of stars in each slice. In optical and near-infrared colour-magnitude diagrams stars from over-densities were than examined to determine if they are compatible with isochrones of a cluster. We estimated the field star contamination using our data and the Besancon Galactic model.We detected 9 hitherto unknown open clusters in the vicinity of the Sun with ages betwee...

  15. A Bayesian Analysis of the Ages of Four Open Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffery, Elizabeth J; van Dyk, David A; Stenning, David C; Robinson, Elliot; Stein, Nathan; Jefferys, W H

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we apply a Bayesian technique to determine the best fit of stellar evolution models to find the main sequence turn off age and other cluster parameters of four intermediate-age open clusters: NGC 2360, NGC 2477, NGC 2660, and NGC 3960. Our algorithm utilizes a Markov chain Monte Carlo technique to fit these various parameters, objectively finding the best-fit isochrone for each cluster. The result is a high-precision isochrone fit. We compare these results with the those of traditional "by-eye" isochrone fitting methods. By applying this Bayesian technique to NGC 2360, NGC 2477, NGC 2660, and NGC 3960, we determine the ages of these clusters to be 1.35 +/- 0.05, 1.02 +/- 0.02, 1.64 +/- 0.04, and 0.860 +/- 0.04 Gyr, respectively. The results of this paper continue our effort to determine cluster ages to higher precision than that offered by these traditional methods of isochrone fitting.

  16. Galactic Kinematics from Data on Open Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bobylev, V V; Shirokova, K S

    2016-01-01

    Open star clusters from the MWSC (Milky Way Star Clusters) catalogue have been used to determine the Galactic rotation parameters. The circular rotation velocity of the solar neighborhood around the Galactic center has been found from data on more than 2000 clusters of various ages to be V_0=236+/-6 km s^{-1} for the adopted Galactocentric distance of the Sun R_0=8.3+/-0.2 kpc. The derived angular velocity parameters are \\Omega_0=28.48+/-0.36 km s^{-1} kpc^{-1}, \\Omega'_0=-3.50+/-0.08 km s^{-1} kpc^{-2}, and \\Omega"_0= 0.331+/-0.037 km s^{-1} kpc^{-3}. The influence of the spiral density wave has been detected only in the sample of clusters younger than 50 Myr. For these clusters the amplitudes of the tangential and radial velocity perturbations are f_\\theta=5.6+/-1.6 km s^{-1} and f_R=7.7+/-1.4 km s^{-1}, respectively; the perturbation wavelengths are \\lambda_\\theta=2.6+/-0.5 kpc (i_\\theta=-11+/-2 degrees) and \\lambda_R=2.1+/-0.5 kpc (i_R=-9+/-2 degrees) for the adopted four-armed model (m=4). The Sun's phas...

  17. WIYN Open Cluster Study. XIX. Main Sequence Fitting Distances to Open Clusters Using V-K Color-Magnitude Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Sarajedini, A; Grocholski, A; Tiede, G P; Sarajedini, Ata; Brandt, Ken; Grocholski, Aaron; Tiede, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    We have combined existing optical magnitudes for stars in seven open clusters and 54 field stars with the corresponding JHKs photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Combining optical with near-IR photometry broadens the color baseline minimizing the influence of photometric errors and allows better discrimination between cluster stars and contaminating foreground and background populations. The open clusters in this study include NGC 2516, M35, M34, NGC 3532, M37, M67, and NGC 188. The field stars we are using possess high quality Hipparcos parallaxes and well-determined metal abundances allowing us to empirically determine the dependence of (V-K) color on metal abundance in the range -0.45<=[Fe/H]<=+0.35. Using this relation along with the parallaxes of the field stars, we are able to construct an unevolved main sequence in the [Mv,(V-K)o] diagram for a specific abundance. These diagrams are then used to fit to the cluster main sequences in the [V,V-K] color-magnitude diagram in order to...

  18. Spectroscopic Abundances in the Open Cluster NGC 6819

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Brown, Donald B.; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.; Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Rich, Evan; Twarog, Bruce A.

    2015-04-01

    High-dispersion spectra of 333 stars in the open cluster NGC 6819, obtained using the HYDRA spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope, have been analyzed to determine the abundances of iron and other metals from lines in the 400 Å region surrounding the Li 6708 Å line. Our spectra, with signal-to-noise per pixel ranging from 60 to 300, span the luminosity range from the tip of the red giant branch to a point two magnitudes below the top of the cluster turnoff. We derive radial and rotational velocities for all stars, as well as [Fe/H] based on 17 iron lines, [Ca/H], [Si/H], and [Ni/H] in the 247 most probable, single members of the cluster. Input Teff estimates for model atmosphere analysis are provided by (B-V) colors merged from several sources, with individual reddening corrections applied to each star relative to a cluster mean of E(B-V) = 0.16. Extensive use is made of ROBOSPECT, an automatic equivalent width measurement program; its effectiveness on large spectroscopic samples is discussed. From the sample of likely single members, [Fe/H] = -0.03 ± 0.06, where the error describes the median absolute deviation about the sample median value, leading to internal precision for the cluster below 0.01 dex. The final uncertainty in the cluster abundance is therefore dominated by external systematics due to the temperature scale, surface gravity, and microturbulent velocity, leading to [Fe/H] = -0.02 ± 0.02 for a sub-sample restricted to main sequence and turnoff stars. This result is consistent with our recent intermediate-band photometric determination of a slightly subsolar abundance for this cluster. [Ca/Fe], [Si/Fe], and [Ni/Fe] are determined to be solar within the uncertainties. NGC 6819 has an abundance distribution typical of solar metallicity thin disk stars in the solar neighborhood. WIYN Open Cluster study LXV.

  19. A Dynamical Evolution Study of 40 2MASS Open Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Güneş, Orhan; Bonatto, Charles

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical evolution of 40 open clusters (OCs) by means of their astrophysical parameters derived from field-decontaminated 2MASS photometry. We find a bifurcation in the planes core radius vs. age and cluster radius vs. age, in which part of the clusters appear to expand with time probably due to the presence of stellar black holes while others seem to shrink due to dynamical relaxation. Mass functions (MFs) are built for 3$/$4 of the sample (31 OCs), which are used to search for indications of mass segregation and external dynamical processes by means of relations among astrophysical, structural and evolutionary parameters. We detect a flattening of MF slopes ocurring at the evolutionary parameters $\\tau_{core}\\leq 32$ and $\\tau_{overall}\\leq 30$, respectively. Within the uncertainties involved, the overall MF slopes of 14 out of 31 OCs with $m_{overall} > 500~M_{\\odot}$ are consistent with Kroupa's initial mass function, implying little or no dynamical evolution for these clusters. The re...

  20. Spectroscopic Abundances in the Open Cluster, NGC 6819

    CERN Document Server

    Lee-Brown, Donald B; Deliyannis, Constantine P; Rich, Evan; Twarog, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    High-dispersion spectra of 333 stars in the open cluster NGC 6819, obtained using the HYDRA spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5m telescope, have been analyzed to determine the abundances of iron and other metals from lines in the 400 A region surrounding the Li 6708 A line. Our spectra, with signal-to-noise per pixel (SNR) ranging from 60 to 300, span the luminosity range from the tip of the red giant branch to a point two magnitudes below the top of the cluster turnoff. We derive radial and rotational velocities for all stars, as well as [Fe/H] based on 17 iron lines, [Ca/H], [Si/H], and [Ni/H] in the 247 most probable, single members of the cluster. Input temperature estimates for model atmosphere analysis are provided by (B-V) colors merged from several sources, with individual reddening corrections applied to each star relative to a cluster mean of E(B-V) = 0.16. Extensive use is made of ROBOSPECT, an automatic equivalent width measurement program; its effectiveness on large spectroscopic samples is discussed. F...

  1. Variable stars in the field of open cluster NGC 2126

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-Fang Liu; Zhen-Yu Wu; Xiao-Bin Zhang; Jiang-Hua Wu; Jun Ma; Zhao-Ji Jiang; Jian-Sheng Chen; Xu Zhou

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of a time-series CCD photometric survey of variable stars in the field of open cluster NGC 2126. In about a one square degree field covering the cluster, a total of 21 variable candidates are detected during this survey, of which 16 are newly found. The periods, classifications and spectral types of 14 newly discovered variables are discussed, which consist of six eclipsing binary systems, three pulsating variable stars, three long period variables, one RS CVn star, and one W UMa or δ Scuti star. In addition, there are two variable candidates, the properties of which cannot be determined. By a method based on fitting observed spectral energy distributions of stars with theoretical ones, the membership probabilities and the fundamental parameters of this cluster are determined. As a result, five variables are probably members of NGC 2126. The fundamental parameters of this cluster are determined as: metallicity to be 0.008 Z , age log(t)=8.95, distance modulus (m - M)0 = 10.34 and reddening value E(B -V) = 0.55 mag.

  2. Polarimetry of an Intermediate-age Open Cluster: NGC 5617

    CERN Document Server

    Orsatti, Ana Maria; Vergne, M Marcela; Martinez, Ruben E; Vega, E Irene

    2010-01-01

    We present polarimetric observations in the UBVRI bands of 72 stars located in the direction of the medium age open cluster NGC 5617. Our intention is to use polarimetry as a tool membership identification, by building on previous investigations intended mainly to determine the cluster's general characteristics rather than provide membership suitable for studies such as stellar content and metallicity, as well as study the characteristics of the dust lying between the Sun and the cluster. The obsevations were carried out using the five-channel photopolarimeter of the Torino Astronomical Observatory attached to the 2.15m telescope at the Complejo Astron\\'omico El Leoncito (CASLEO; Argentina. We are able to add 32 stars to the list of members of NGC 5617, and review the situation for others listed in the literature. In particular, we find that five blue straggler stars in the region of the cluster are located behind the same dust as the member stars are and we confirm the membership of two red giants. The propo...

  3. WIYN open cluster study. LIX. Radial velocity membership of the evolved population of the old open cluster NGC 6791

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The open cluster NGC 6791 has been the focus of much recent study due to its intriguing combination of old age and high metallicity (∼8 Gyr, [Fe/H] = +0.30), as well as its location within the Kepler field. As part of the WIYN Open Cluster Study, we present precise (σ = 0.38 km s–1) radial velocities for proper motion candidate members of NGC 6791 from Platais et al. Our survey, extending down to g' ∼ 16.8, is comprised of the evolved cluster population, including blue stragglers, giants, and horizontal branch stars. Of the 280 proper-motion-selected stars above our magnitude limit, 93% have at least one radial velocity measurement and 79% have three measurements over the course of at least 200 days, sufficient for secure radial-velocity-determined membership of non-velocity-variable stars. The Platais et al. proper motion catalog includes 12 anomalous horizontal branch candidates blueward of the red clump, of which we find only 4 to be cluster members. Three fall slightly blueward of the red clump and the fourth is consistent with being a blue straggler. The cleaned color-magnitude diagram shows a richly populated red giant branch and a blue straggler population. Half of the blue stragglers are in binaries. From our radial velocity measurement distribution, we find the cluster's radial velocity dispersion to be σ c = 0.62 ± 0.10 km s–1. This corresponds to a dynamical mass of ∼4600 M ☉.

  4. WIYN open cluster study. LIX. Radial velocity membership of the evolved population of the old open cluster NGC 6791

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Gosnell, Natalie M.; Mathieu, Robert D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Platais, Imants, E-mail: tofflemi@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: imants@pha.jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The open cluster NGC 6791 has been the focus of much recent study due to its intriguing combination of old age and high metallicity (∼8 Gyr, [Fe/H] = +0.30), as well as its location within the Kepler field. As part of the WIYN Open Cluster Study, we present precise (σ = 0.38 km s{sup –1}) radial velocities for proper motion candidate members of NGC 6791 from Platais et al. Our survey, extending down to g' ∼ 16.8, is comprised of the evolved cluster population, including blue stragglers, giants, and horizontal branch stars. Of the 280 proper-motion-selected stars above our magnitude limit, 93% have at least one radial velocity measurement and 79% have three measurements over the course of at least 200 days, sufficient for secure radial-velocity-determined membership of non-velocity-variable stars. The Platais et al. proper motion catalog includes 12 anomalous horizontal branch candidates blueward of the red clump, of which we find only 4 to be cluster members. Three fall slightly blueward of the red clump and the fourth is consistent with being a blue straggler. The cleaned color-magnitude diagram shows a richly populated red giant branch and a blue straggler population. Half of the blue stragglers are in binaries. From our radial velocity measurement distribution, we find the cluster's radial velocity dispersion to be σ {sub c} = 0.62 ± 0.10 km s{sup –1}. This corresponds to a dynamical mass of ∼4600 M {sub ☉}.

  5. A populous intermediate-age open cluster and evidence of an embedded cluster among the FSR globular cluster candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Bica, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    We study the nature of the globular cluster (GC) candidates FSR 1603 and FSR 1755 selected from the catalogue of \\citet{FSRcat}. Their properties are investigated with 2MASS field-star decontaminated photometry, which is used to build colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), and stellar radial density profiles (RDPs). FSR 1603 has the open cluster (OC) Ruprecht 101 as optical counterpart, and we show it to be a massive intermediate age cluster (IAC). Relevant parameters of FSR 1603 are the age $\\approx1$ Gyr, distance from the Sun $\\ds\\approx2.7$ kpc, Galactocentric distance $\\dgc\\approx6.4$ kpc, core radius $\\rc\\approx1.1$ pc, mass function slope $\\chi\\approx1.8$, observed stellar mass (for stars with mass in the range $\\rm 1.27 \\ms\\leq m\\leq2.03 \\ms$) $\\mObs\\approx500 \\ms$, and a total (extrapolated to $\\rm m=0.08 \\ms$) stellar mass $\\mTot\\approx2300 \\ms$. FSR 1755, on the other hand, is not a populous cluster. It may be a sparse young cluster embedded in the H II region Sh2-3, subject to an absorption $\\aV\\approx...

  6. Fundamental Parameters of Some New Discovered Open star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    El-Bendary, R

    2010-01-01

    We present here the fundamental properties of some newly discovered open star clusters (Teutsch 144, Alessi 53, Riddle 4 and Juchrt 12) using the JHK Near-IR photometry (2MASS survey) of Cutri et al. (2003). These clusters have been selected from Kronberger et al. (2006) who presented some new discovered stellar groups on the basis of 2MASS photometry and the DSS visual images. The astrometry and photometric parameters are determined using the stellar density distributions and color-magnitude diagrams fittings. Center, radius, membership, distances, reddening, age, luminosity function, mass function, total mass, and the dynamical relaxation time have been estimated for the first time. This paper is a part of Reda's PhD project.

  7. A new look at open cluster NGC 6520

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, Andrew P., E-mail: Andy.Odell@nau.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We use CCD and photoelectric photometry with Strömgren filters along with medium resolution spectra to investigate NGC 6520, an open cluster very nearly in the direction of the galactic center. We find an age of 60 Myr, a distance of 2 kpc, and an average reddening E(b – y) = 0.295, which increases toward the south. The average heliocentric radial velocity of the B stars is –29 km s{sup –1}, while the velocity of the nearby Barnard 86 is about 0 (heliocentric; –11 km s{sup –1} compared to the LSR). This velocity difference amounts to about 1.8 kpc since the cluster formed, implying that it is extremely doubtful NGC 6520 is related to Barnard 86.

  8. First, Second and Third Massive Stars in Open Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Mints, Alexey

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study possibilities of using first, second and third massive stars in open clusters to estimate total cluster mass and membership. We built estimator functions with the use of numerical simulations and analytical approximations and studied the precision and error distribution of the obtained estimator functions. We found that the distribution of the mass of first, second and third massive stars shows strong power-law tails at the high-mass end, thus it is better to use median or mode values instead of average ones. We show that the third massive star is a much better estimator then the first as it is more precise and less dependent on parameters such as maximum allowed stellar mass.

  9. Variable stars in the open cluster NGC 2141

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yanping

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a search for variable stars in the open cluster NGC 2141. Ten variable stars are detected, among which nine are new variable stars and they are classified as three short period W UMa type eclipsing binaries, two EA type eclipsing binaries, one EB type eclipsing binary, one very short period RS CVn type eclipsing binary, one d type RR Lyrae variable star, and one unknown type variable star. The membership and physical properties are discussed, based on their light curves, positions in the CMDs, spatial locations and periods. A known EB type eclipsing binary is also identified as a blue struggler candidate of the cluster. Furthermore, we find that all eclipsing contact binaries have prominently asymmetric eclipses and O Connell effect (O Connell 1951) which increases with the decrease of the orbital periods. This suggests that the O Connell effect is probably related to the evolution of the orbital period in short period eclipsing binary systems.

  10. clOpenCL - supporting distributed heterogeneous computing in HPC clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Albano; Rufino, José; Pina, António; Santos, Luis Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Clusters that combine heterogeneous compute device architectures, coupled with novel programming models, have created a true alternative to traditional (homogeneous) cluster computing, allowing to leverage the performance of parallel applications. In this paper we introduce clOpenCL, a platform that supports the simple deployment and efficient running of OpenCL-based parallel applications that may span several cluster nodes, expanding the original single-node OpenCL model. clOpenCL is deploye...

  11. The OPD Photometric Survey of Open Clusters II. robust determination of the fundamental parameters of 24 open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Monteiro, Hektor; Hickel, Gabriel R; Caetano, Thiago C

    2016-01-01

    In the second paper of the series we continue the investigation of open cluster fundamental parameters using a robust global optimization method to fit model isochrones to photometric data. We present optical UBVRI CCD photometry (Johnsons-Cousins system) observations for 24 neglected open clusters, of which 14 have high quality data in the visible obtained for the first time, as a part of our ongoing survey being carried out in the 0.6m telescope of the Pico dos Dias Observatory in Brazil. All objects were then analyzed with a global optimization tool developed by our group which estimates the membership likelihood of the observed stars and fits an isochrone from which a distance, age, reddening, total to selective extinction ratio $R_{V}$ (included in this work as a new free parameter) and metallicity are estimated. Based on those estimates and their associated errors we analyzed the status of each object as real clusters or not, finding that two are likely to be asterisms. We also identify important discre...

  12. Open Clusters as Tracers of the Galactic Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantat-Gaudin, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Open clusters (OCs) are routinely used as reliable tracers of the properties and evolution of the galactic disk, as they can be found at all galactocentric distances and span a wide range of ages. More than 3000 OCs are listed in catalogues, although few have been studied in details. The goal of this work is to study the properties of open clusters. This work was conducted in the framework of the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES). GES is an observational campaign targeting more than 100,000 stars in all major components of the Milky Way, including stars in a hundred open clusters. It uses the FLAMES instrument at the VLT to produce high and medium-resolution spectra, which provide accurate radial velocities and individual elemental abundances. In this framework, the goals of the Thesis are: * to study the properties of OCs and of their stars from photometry and spectroscopy to derive their age, the extinction and the chemical composition of the stars, to begin to build a homogeneous data base. Looking at literature data it is clear that different authors derive substantially different chemical compositions, and in general OC parameters. * the study of OCs and their chemical homogeneity (or inhomogeneity) can cast light on what is still an open issue: the presence of multiple populations in clusters. While multiple generations of stars are now ubiquitously found in globular clusters in the Milky Way and in the Magellanic Clouds, they have not been yet detected in open clusters. What is the main driver of the self-pollution process? * to study the cluster formation process. All, or at least a significant fraction of stars form in clusters. Young clusters (a few Myr) can retain some of the properties of the molecular cloud they originate from and give us insight about the cluster assembly process. The first GES data release contains data for the young OC Gamma Velorum, in which two (dynamically different) subpopulations have been identified. This cluster can serve as a test case

  13. DEBRIS DISKS OF MEMBERS OF THE BLANCO 1 OPEN CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope to obtain Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) 24 μm photometry for 37 members of the ∼100 Myr old open cluster Blanco 1. For the brightest 25 of these stars (where we have 3σ uncertainties less than 15%), we find significant mid-IR excesses for eight stars, corresponding to a debris disk detection frequency of about 32%. The stars with excesses include two A stars, four F dwarfs, and two G dwarfs. The most significant linkage between 24 μm excess and any other stellar property for our Blanco 1 sample of stars is with binarity. Blanco 1 members that are photometric binaries show few or no detected 24 μm excesses whereas a quarter of the apparently single Blanco 1 members do have excesses. We have examined the MIPS data for two other clusters of similar age to Blanco 1-NGC 2547 and the Pleiades. The AFGK photometric binary star members of both of these clusters also show a much lower frequency of 24 μm excesses compared to stars that lie near the single-star main sequence. We provide a new determination of the relation between the V - K s color and K s - [24] color for main sequence photospheres based on Hyades members observed with MIPS. As a result of our analysis of the Hyades data, we identify three low mass Hyades members as candidates for having debris disks near the MIPS detection limit.

  14. Abundances and kinematics for ten anticentre open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Cantat-Gaudin, T; Vallenari, A; Sordo, R; Bragaglia, A; Magrini, L

    2016-01-01

    Open clusters are distributed all across the disk and are convenient tracers of its properties. In particular, outer disk clusters bear a key role for the investigation of the chemical evolution of the Galactic disk. The goal of this study is to derive homogeneous elemental abundances for a sample of ten outer disk OCs, and investigate possible links with disk structures such as the Galactic Anticenter Stellar Structure. We analyse high-resolution spectra of red giants, obtained from the HIRES@Keck and UVES@VLT archives. We derive elemental abundances and stellar atmosphere parameters by means of the classical equivalent width method. We also performed orbit integrations using proper motions. The Fe abundances we derive trace a shallow negative radial metallicity gradient of slope -0.027+/-0.007 dex.kpc-1 in the outer 12 kpc of the disk. The [alpha/Fe] gradient appears flat, with a slope of 0.006+/-0.007 dex.kpc-1 . The two outermost clusters (Be 29 and Sau 1) appear to follow elliptical orbits. Be 20 also ex...

  15. Cage Opening of a Carborane Ligand by Metal Cluster Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard D; Kiprotich, Joseph; Peryshkov, Dmitry V; Wong, Yuen Onn

    2016-05-01

    The reaction of Os3 (CO)10 (NCMe)2 with closo-o-C2 B10 H10 has yielded two interconvertible isomers Os3 (CO)9 (μ3 -4,5,9-C2 B10 H8 )(μ-H)2 (1 a) and Os3 (CO)9 (μ3 -3,4,8-C2 B10 H8 )(μ-H)2 (1 b) formed by the loss of the two NCMe ligands and one CO ligand from the Os3 cluster. Two BH bonds of the o-C2 B10 H10 were activated in its addition to the osmium cluster. A second triosmium cluster was added to the 1 a/1 b mixture to yield the complex Os3 (CO)9 (μ-H)2 (μ3 -4,5,9-μ3 -7,11,12-C2 B10 H7 )Os3 (CO)9 (μ-H)3 (2) that contains two triosmium triangles attached to the same carborane cage. When heated, 2 was transformed to the complex Os3 (CO)9 (μ-H)(μ3 -3,4,8-μ3 -7,11,12-C2 B10 H8 )Os3 (CO)9 (μ-H) (3) by a novel opening of the carborane cage with loss of H2 . PMID:26971388

  16. Roche volume filling and the dissolution of open star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Ernst, A; Just, A; Noel, T

    2015-01-01

    From direct N-body simulations we find that the dynamical evolution of star clusters is strongly influenced by the Roche volume filling factor. We present a parameter study of the dissolution of open star clusters with different Roche volume filling factors and different particle numbers. We study both Roche volume underfilling and overfilling models and compare with the Roche volume filling case. We find that in the Roche volume overfilling limit of our simulations two-body relaxation is no longer the dominant dissolution mechanism but the changing cluster potential. We call this mechnism "mass-loss driven dissolution" in contrast to "two-body relaxation driven dissolution" which occurs in the Roche volume underfilling regime. We have measured scaling exponents of the dissolution time with the two-body relaxation time. In this experimental study we find a decreasing scaling exponent with increasing Roche volume filling factor. The evolution of the escaper number in the Roche volume overfilling limit can be d...

  17. Dynamic analysis of constellation of Coma Berenices galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a preceding note, the equations of the simplest dynamical model accounting for most of available data on Coma Cluster have been established. One finds typically: the optical core radius 30', the X-ray core radius 18'; the total radius of Coma is found to be approximately 3 deg, while the X-ray emission is restricted to within a radius 75'. The galaxy central mass density ranges around: 10-27 g/cm-3 and the central electron density is 2x10-3 cm-3. The mean dynamical mass of Coma is 8x1014M of the sun (H0=50km/s/Mpc). 2/3 of the total mass is due to galaxies up to msub(ν)=19.4 and the remaining 1/3 is due to the X-ray emitting plasma. This total mass depends on the temperature gradient, which can be more or less steep

  18. Lithium in Open Cluster Red Giants Hosting Substellar Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    We have measured stellar parameters, [Fe/H], lithium abundances, rotation, and (12)C/13C in a small sample of red giants (RGs) in three open clusters that are each home to a RG star that hosts a substellar companion (SSC) (NGC 2423 3, NGC 4349 127, and BD+12 1917 in M67). Our goal is to explore whether the presence of SSCs influences the Li content. Both (12)C/13C and stellar rotation are measured as additional tracers of stellar mixing. One of the companion hosts, NGC 2423?3, is found to be Li-rich with A(Li)(sub NLTE) = 1.56 dex, and this abundance is significantly higher than the A(Li) of the two comparison stars in NGC 2423. All three SSC hosts have the highest A(Li) and (12)C/13C when compared to the control RGs in their respective clusters; however, except for NGC 2423?3, at least one control star has similarly high abundances within the uncertainties. Higher A(Li) could suggest that the formation or presence of planets plays a role in the degree of internal mixing on or before the RG branch. However, a multitude of factors affect A(Li) during the RG phase, and when the abundances of our sample are compared with the abundances of RGs in other open clusters available in the literature, we find that they all fall well within a much larger distribution of A(Li) and (12)C/13C. Thus, even the high Li in NGC 2423 3 cannot be concretely tied to the presence of the SSC.

  19. WIYN OPEN CLUSTER STUDY LII: WIDE-FIELD CCD PHOTOMETRY OF THE OLD OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6819

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a comprehensive photometric study of the old open cluster, NGC 6819, using 1° × 1° field VI MOSAIC CCD imaging taken with the WIYN 0.9 m telescope. The resultant color-magnitude diagram (CMD) shows a well-developed main sequence (MS) extending from V ∼ 14.5 mag down to our photometric limit of V ∼ 21 mag. Fitting theoretical isochrones with the adopted values of the reddening and metallicity (E(B – V) = 0.14, [Fe/H] = +0.09 dex) to the observed CMD yields a distance modulus of (m – M)0 = 11.93 ± 0.10 and an age of ∼2.6 Gyr for NGC 6819. Our wide-field imaging reveals that NGC 6819 is larger in areal extent (R = 13') than previously thought. The wide field also benefits our estimate of the degree of field star contamination, and ultimately yields improved measurements of the structural parameters (rc = 2.'80, rt = 38.'2, and rh = 7') and tidal mass of the cluster (M tid = 3542.4 M ☉). The flattened luminosity and mass functions indicate that NGC 6819 has experienced mass segregation as a result of its dynamical evolution. Our variability study of the cluster blue straggler star (BSS) population using the Welch-Stetson variability index (I WS) has revealed a number of variable BSS candidates.

  20. jClustering, an open framework for the development of 4D clustering algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Mateos-Pérez

    Full Text Available We present jClustering, an open framework for the design of clustering algorithms in dynamic medical imaging. We developed this tool because of the difficulty involved in manually segmenting dynamic PET images and the lack of availability of source code for published segmentation algorithms. Providing an easily extensible open tool encourages publication of source code to facilitate the process of comparing algorithms and provide interested third parties with the opportunity to review code. The internal structure of the framework allows an external developer to implement new algorithms easily and quickly, focusing only on the particulars of the method being implemented and not on image data handling and preprocessing. This tool has been coded in Java and is presented as an ImageJ plugin in order to take advantage of all the functionalities offered by this imaging analysis platform. Both binary packages and source code have been published, the latter under a free software license (GNU General Public License to allow modification if necessary.

  1. jClustering, an Open Framework for the Development of 4D Clustering Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Pérez, José María; García-Villalba, Carmen; Pascau, Javier; Desco, Manuel; Vaquero, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    We present jClustering, an open framework for the design of clustering algorithms in dynamic medical imaging. We developed this tool because of the difficulty involved in manually segmenting dynamic PET images and the lack of availability of source code for published segmentation algorithms. Providing an easily extensible open tool encourages publication of source code to facilitate the process of comparing algorithms and provide interested third parties with the opportunity to review code. The internal structure of the framework allows an external developer to implement new algorithms easily and quickly, focusing only on the particulars of the method being implemented and not on image data handling and preprocessing. This tool has been coded in Java and is presented as an ImageJ plugin in order to take advantage of all the functionalities offered by this imaging analysis platform. Both binary packages and source code have been published, the latter under a free software license (GNU General Public License) to allow modification if necessary. PMID:23990913

  2. Be Stars in the Open Cluster NGC 6830

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Po-Chieh; Lin, Chien-Cheng; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Lee, Chien-De; Konidaris, Nick; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Ip, Wing-Huen; Chen, Wen-Ping; Chen, Hui-Chen; Malkan, Matthew A.; Chang, Chan-Kao; Laher, Russ; Huang, Li-Ching; Cheng, Yu-Chi; Edelson, Rick; Ritter, Andreas; Quimby, Robert; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Ofek, Eran. O.; Surace, Jason; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    2016-05-01

    We report the discovery of two new Be stars, and re-identify one known Be star in the open cluster NGC 6830. Eleven Hα emitters were discovered using the Hα imaging photometry of the Palomar Transient Factory Survey. Stellar membership of the candidates was verified with photometric and kinematic information using 2MASS data and proper motions. The spectroscopic confirmation was carried out by using the Shane 3 m telescope at the Lick observatory. Based on their spectral types, three Hα emitters were confirmed as Be stars with Hα equivalent widths greater than -10 Å. Two objects were also observed by the new spectrograph spectral energy distribution-machine (SED-machine) on the Palomar 60-inch Telescope. The SED-machine results show strong Hα emission lines, which are consistent with the results of the Lick observations. The high efficiency of the SED-machine can provide rapid observations for Be stars in a comprehensive survey in the future.

  3. Be Stars in the Open Cluster NGC 6830

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Po-Chieh; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Lee, Chien-De; Konidaris, Nick; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Ip, Wing-Huen; Chen, Wen-Ping; Chen, Hui-Chen; Malkan, Matthew A; Chang, Chan-Kao; Laher, Russ; Huang, Li-Ching; Cheng, Yu-Chi; Edelson, Rick; Ritter, Andreas; Quimby, Robert; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Ofek, Eran O; Surace, Jason; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of 2 new Be stars, and re-identify one known Be star in the open cluster NGC 6830. Eleven H-alpha emitters were discovered using the H-alpha imaging photometry of the Palomar Transient Factory Survey. Stellar membership of the candidates was verified with photometric and kinematic information using 2MASS data and proper motions. The spectroscopic confirmation was carried out by using the Shane 3-m telescope at Lick observatory. Based on their spectral types, three H-alpha emitters were confirmed as Be stars with H-alpha equivalent widths > -10 Angstrom. Two objects were also observed by the new spectrograph SED-Machine on the Palomar 60 inch Telescope. The SED-Machine results show strong H-alpha emission lines, which are consistent with the results of the Lick observations. The high efficiency of the SED-Machine can provide rapid observations for Be stars in a comprehensive survey in the future.

  4. BATC 15 Band Photometry of the Open Cluster NGC 188

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jiaxin; Wu, Zhenyu; Wang, Song; Zhou, Xu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents CCD multicolour photometry for the old open cluster NGC 188. The observations were carried out as a part of the Beijing--Arizona--Taiwan--Connecticut Multicolour Sky Survey from 1995 February to 2008 March, using 15 intermediate-band filters covering 3000--10000 \\AA. By fitting the Padova theoretical isochrones to our data, the fundamental parameters of this cluster are derived: an age of $t=7.5\\pm 0.5$ Gyr, a distant modulus of $(m-M)_0=11.17\\pm0.08$, and a reddening of $E(B-V)=0.036\\pm0.010$. The radial surface density profile of NGC 188 is obtained by star count. By fitting the King model, the structural parameters of NGC 188 are derived: a core radius of $R_{c}=3.80'$, a tidal radius of $R_{t}=44.78'$, and a concentration parameter of $C_{0}=\\log(R_{t}/R_{c})=1.07$. Fitting the mass function to a power-law function $\\phi(m) \\propto m^{\\alpha}$, the slopes of mass functions for different spatial regions are derived. We find that NGC 188 presents a slope break in the mass function. The b...

  5. Searching for Be stars in the open cluster NGC 663

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, P. C.; Lin, C. C.; Chen, W. P.; Lee, C. D.; Ip, W. H.; Ngeow, C. C. [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, 300 Jhongda Road, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, M/S 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present Be star candidates in the open cluster NGC 663, identified by Hα imaging photometry with the Palomar Transient Factory Survey, as a pilot program to investigate how the Be star phenomena, the emission spectra, extended circumstellar envelopes, and fast rotation, correlate with massive stellar evolution. Stellar membership of the candidates was verified by 2MASS magnitudes and colors and by proper motions (PMs). We discover four new Be stars and exclude one known Be star from being a member due to its inconsistent PMs. The fraction of Be stars to member stars [N(Be)/N(members)] in NGC 663 is 3.5%. The spectral type of the 34 Be stars in NGC 663 shows bimodal peaks at B0–B2 and B5–B7, which is consistent with the statistics in most star clusters. Additionally, we also discover 23 emission-line stars of different types, including non-member Be stars, dwarfs, and giants.

  6. Sejong Open Cluster Survey (SOS). III. The Young Open Cluster NGC 1893 in the H II Region W8

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Beomdu; Kim, Jinyoung S; Bessell, Michael S; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2014-01-01

    We present a UBV I and H alpha photometric study of the young open cluster NGC 1893 in the H II region W8 (IC 410 or Sh 2-236). A total of 65 early-type members are selected from photometric diagrams. A mean reddening of the stars is = 0.563 +/- 0.083 mag. The published photometric data in the near- and mid-infrared passbands are used to test the reddening law toward the cluster, and we confirm that the reddening law is normal (R_V = 3.1). Zero-age main sequence fitting gives a distance modulus of V_0 - M_V = 12.7 +/- 0.2 mag, equivalent to 3.5 +/- 0.3 kpc. From H alpha photometry 125 H alpha emission stars and candidates are identified as pre-main sequence (PMS). The lists of young stellar objects and X-ray sources published by previous studies allow us to select a large number of PMS members down to 1 M_sun. Isochrone fitting in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram gives a turn-off age of 1.5 Myr and the median age of 1.9 Myr from the PMS members with a spread of 5 Myr. We derive the initial mass function (IMF)...

  7. Not an open cluster after all: the NGC 6863 asterism in Aquila

    CERN Document Server

    Bidin, Christian Moni; Marcos, Carlos de la Fuente; Carraro, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Shortly after birth, open clusters start dissolving; gradually losing stars into the surrounding star field. The time scale for complete disintegration depends both on their initial membership and location within the Galaxy. Open clusters undergoing the terminal phase of cluster disruption or open cluster remnants (OCRs) are notoriously difficult to identify. From an observational point, a combination of low number statistics and minimal contrast against the general stellar field conspire to turn them into very challenging objects. To make the situation even worst, random samples of field stars often display features that may induce to classify them erroneously as extremely evolved open clusters. In this paper, we provide a detailed study of the stellar content and kinematics of NGC 6863, a compact group of a few stars located in Aquila and described by the POSS as a non existent cluster. Nonetheless, this object has been recently classified as OCR. The aim of the present work is to either confirm or disprove...

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abundances in Galactic open clusters (Marsakov+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsakov, V. A.; Gozha, M. L.; Koval', V. V.; Shpigel', L. V.

    2016-07-01

    Spectroscopic determinations of the relative abundances of alpha-elements (O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti), slow neutron capture elements (Y, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Zr), rapid neutron capture element (Eu), and elements with an odd number of protons (Na, Al) are collected for 90 open clusters of the Galaxy. Metallicities are presented for 346 clusters. In addition catalog contains positions, ages, velocities, elements of Galactic orbits for open clusters. (2 data files).

  9. A New Analysis in the Field of the Open Cluster Collinder 223

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. L. Tadross

    2004-01-01

    The present study of the open cluster Collinder 223 (Cr 223) depended greatly on the photoelectric data of Claria and Lapasset. We use the data in conjunction with the AAO/DSS1 image of the cluster in a re-investigation to improve the main parameters of Cr 223, including the stellar density, the position of the cluster's center, the cluster's diameter. Its luminosity function, mass function, and total mass are also estimated.

  10. Red Clump stars in Kepler open cluster NGC 6819

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedigamba O.P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We measure the large frequency separation, Δν, and the frequency of maximum amplitude, νmax, for 10 Red Clump (RC single member (SM stars in the Kepler open cluster NGC 6819. We derive luminosities and masses for each individual RC star. A comparison of the observations with an isochrone of Age = 2.5 Gyr, Z = 0.017 with no mass loss using a statistical techniques is made. A fractional mass loss of 5 ± 3 percent is obtained if we assume that no correction to Δν between RC and red-giant branch (RGB is necessary. However, models suggest that an effective correction of about 1.9 percent in Δν is required to obtain the correct mass of RC stars owing to the different internal structures of stars in the two evolutionary stages. In this case we find that the mass loss in the red giant branch is not significantly different from zero. This finding confirms that of [6]. It is clear that the mass estimate obtained by asteroseismology is not sufficient to deduce the mass loss on the red giant branch. However, it is clearly only a few percent at most.

  11. Do open star clusters evolve toward energy equipartition?

    CERN Document Server

    Spera, Mario; Jeffries, Robin D

    2016-01-01

    We investigate whether open clusters (OCs) tend to energy equipartition, by means of direct N-body simulations with a broken power-law mass function. We find that the simulated OCs become strongly mass segregated, but the local velocity dispersion does not depend on the stellar mass for most of the mass range: the curve of the velocity dispersion as a function of mass is nearly flat even after several half-mass relaxation times, regardless of the adopted stellar evolution recipes and Galactic tidal field model. This result holds both if we start from virialized King models and if we use clumpy sub-virial initial conditions. The velocity dispersion of the most massive stars and stellar remnants tends to be higher than the velocity dispersion of the lighter stars. This trend is particularly evident in simulations without stellar evolution. We interpret this result as a consequence of the strong mass segregation, which leads to Spitzer's instability. Stellar winds delay the onset of the instability. Our simulati...

  12. A search for open cluster Cepheids in the Galactic plane

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaodian; Deng, Licai

    2014-01-01

    We analyse all potential combinations of Galactic Cepheids and open clusters (OCs) in the most up-to-date catalogues available. Isochrone fitting and proper-motion calcula- tion are applied to all potential OC{Cepheid combinations. Five selection criteria are used to select possible OC Cepheids: (i) the Cepheid of interest must be located within 60 arcmin of the OC's centre; (ii) the Cepheid's proper motion is located within the 1 sigma distribution of that of its host OC; (iii) the Cepheid is located in the instability strip of its postulated host OC; (iv) the Cepheid and OC distance moduli should differ by less than 1 mag; and (v) the Cepheid and OC ages (and, where available, their metal- licities) should be comparable: {\\Delta}log(t yr^-1) < 0.3. Nineteen possible OC Cepheids are found based on our near-infrared (NIR) analysis; eight additional OC{Cepheid associations may be genuine pairs for which we lack NIR data. Six of the Cepheids analysed at NIR wavelengths are new, high-probability OC Cepheids, ...

  13. Sejong Open Cluster Survey (SOS). 0. Target Selection and Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sung, Hwankyung; Bessell, Michael S; Kim, Jinyoung S; Hur, Hyenoh; Chun, Moo-Young; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2013-01-01

    Star clusters are superb astrophysical laboratories containing cospatial and coeval samples of stars with similar chemical composition. We have initiated the Sejong Open cluster Survey (SOS) - a project dedicated to providing homogeneous photometry of a large number of open clusters in the SAAO Johnson-Cousins' $UBVI$ system. To achieve our main goal, we have paid much attention to the observation of standard stars in order to reproduce the SAAO standard system. Many of our targets are relatively small, sparse clusters that escaped previous observations. As clusters are considered building blocks of the Galactic disk, their physical properties such as the initial mass function, the pattern of mass segregation, etc. give valuable information on the formation and evolution of the Galactic disk. The spatial distribution of young open clusters will be used to revise the local spiral arm structure of the Galaxy. In addition, the homogeneous data can also be used to test stellar evolutionary theory, especially conc...

  14. Photometry Using Kepler "Superstamps" of Open Clusters NGC 6791 & NGC 6819

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, Charles A; Stello, Dennis; Bedding, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    The Kepler space telescope has proven to be a gold mine for the study of variable stars. Unfortunately, Kepler only returns a handful of pixels surrounding each star on the target list, which omits a large number of stars in the Kepler field. For the open clusters NGC 6791 and NGC 6819, Kepler also reads out larger superstamps which contain complete images of the central region of each cluster. These cluster images can potentially be used to study additional stars in the open clusters. We present preliminary results from using traditional photometric techniques to identify and analyze additional variable stars from these images.

  15. The same frequency of planets inside and outside open clusters of stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meibom, Søren; Torres, Guillermo; Fressin, Francois; Latham, David W; Rowe, Jason F; Ciardi, David R; Bryson, Steven T; Rogers, Leslie A; Henze, Christopher E; Janes, Kenneth; Barnes, Sydney A; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Isaacson, Howard; Fischer, Debra A; Howell, Steve B; Horch, Elliott P; Jenkins, Jon M; Schuler, Simon C; Crepp, Justin

    2013-07-01

    Most stars and their planets form in open clusters. Over 95 per cent of such clusters have stellar densities too low (less than a hundred stars per cubic parsec) to withstand internal and external dynamical stresses and fall apart within a few hundred million years. Older open clusters have survived by virtue of being richer and denser in stars (1,000 to 10,000 per cubic parsec) when they formed. Such clusters represent a stellar environment very different from the birthplace of the Sun and other planet-hosting field stars. So far more than 800 planets have been found around Sun-like stars in the field. The field planets are usually the size of Neptune or smaller. In contrast, only four planets have been found orbiting stars in open clusters, all with masses similar to or greater than that of Jupiter. Here we report observations of the transits of two Sun-like stars by planets smaller than Neptune in the billion-year-old open cluster NGC6811. This demonstrates that small planets can form and survive in a dense cluster environment, and implies that the frequency and properties of planets in open clusters are consistent with those of planets around field stars in the Galaxy.

  16. Searching for multiple stellar populations in the massive, old open cluster Berkeley 39

    CERN Document Server

    Bragaglia, A; Carretta, E; D'Orazi, V; Sneden, C; Lucatello, S

    2012-01-01

    The most massive star clusters include several generations of stars with a different chemical composition (mainly revealed by an Na-O anti-correlation) while low-mass star clusters appear to be chemically homogeneous. We are investigating the chemical composition of several clusters with masses of a few 10^4 Msun to establish the lower mass limit for the multiple stellar population phenomenon. Using FLAMES@VLT spectra we determine abundances of Fe, O, Na, and several other elements (alpha, Fe-peak, and neutron-capture elements) in the old open cluster Berkeley 39. This is a massive open cluster: M~10^4 Msun, approximately at the border between small globular clusters and large open clusters. Our sample size of about 30 stars is one of the largest studied for abundances in any open cluster to date, and will be useful to determine improved cluster parameters, such as age, distance, and reddening when coupled with precise, well-calibrated photometry. We find that Berkeley 39 is slightly metal-poor, =-0.20, in ag...

  17. 2MASS photometry and kinematical studies of open cluster NGC 188

    CERN Document Server

    Elsanhoury, W H; Chupina, N V; Vereshchagin, S V; Sariya, Devesh P; Yadav, R K S; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present our results for the photometric and kinematical studies of old open cluster NGC 188. We determined various astrophysical parameters like limited radius, core and tidal radii, distance, luminosity and mass functions, total mass, relaxation time etc. for the cluster using 2MASS catalog. We obtained the cluster's distance from the Sun as 1721+/-41 pc and log (age)= 9.85+/-0.05 at Solar metallicity. The relaxation time of the cluster is smaller than the estimated cluster age which suggests that the cluster is dynamically relaxed. Our results agree with the values mentioned in the literature. We also determined the cluster's apex coordinates as (281.88 deg, -44.76 deg) using AD-diagram method. Other kinematical parameters like space velocity components, cluster center and elements of Solar motion etc. have also been computed.

  18. Abundance analysis of an extended sample of open clusters: A search for chemical inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Arumalla B. S.; Giridhar, Sunetra; Lambert, David L.

    We have initiated a program to explore the presence of chemical inhomogeneities in the Galactic disk using the open clusters as ideal probes. We have analyzed high-dispersion echelle spectra (R ≥ 55,000) of red giant members for eleven open clusters to derive abundances for many elements. The membership to the cluster has been confirmed through their radial velocities and proper motions. The spread in temperatures and gravities being very small among the red giants, nearly the same stellar lines were employed thereby reducing the random errors. The errors of average abundance for the cluster were generally in 0.02 to 0.07 dex range. Our present sample covers galactocentric distances of 8.3 to 11.3 kpc and an age range of 0.2 to 4.3 Gyrs. Our earlier analysis of four open clusters (Reddy A.B.S. et al., 2012, MNRAS, 419,1350) indicate that abundances relative to Fe for elements from Na to Eu are equal within measurement uncertainties to published abundances for thin disk giants in the field. This supports the view that field stars come from disrupted open clusters. In the enlarged sample of eleven open clusters we find cluster to cluster abundance variations for some s- and r- process elements, with certain elements such as Zr and Ba showing large variation. These differences mark the signatures that these clusters had formed under different environmental conditions (Type II SN, Type Ia SN, AGB stars or a mixture of any of these) unique to the time and site of formation. These eleven clusters support the widely held impression that there is an abundance gradient such that the metallicity [Fe/H] at the solar galactocentric distance decreases outwards at about -0.1 dex per kpc.

  19. The Gaia-ESO Survey: the inner disk, intermediate-age open cluster Trumpler 23

    CERN Document Server

    Overbeek, J C; Donati, P; Smiljanic, R; Jacobson, H R; Hatzidimitriou, D; Held, E V; Magrini, L; Bragaglia, A; Randich, S; Vallenari, A; Cantat-Gaudin, T; Tautvaisiene, G; Jimenez-Esteban, F; Frasca, A; Geisler, D; Villanova, S; Tang, B; Munoz, C; Marconi, G; Carraro, G; Roman, I San; Drazdauskas, A; Zenoviene, R; Gilmore, G; Jeffries, R D; Flaccomio, E; Pancino, E; Bayo, A; Costado, M T; Damiani, F; Jofre, P; Monaco, L; Prisinzano, L; Sousa, S G; Zaggia, S

    2016-01-01

    Context: Trumpler 23 is a moderately populated, intermediate-age open cluster within the solar circle at a Rgc ~6 kpc. It is in a crowded field very close to the Galactic plane and the color-magnitude diagram shows significant field contamination and possible differential reddening; it is a relatively understudied cluster for these reasons, but its location makes it a key object for determining Galactic abundance distributions. Aims: New data from the Gaia-ESO Survey enable the first ever radial velocity and spectroscopic metallicity measurements for this cluster. We aim to use velocities to isolate cluster members, providing more leverage for determining cluster parameters. Methods: Gaia-ESO Survey data for 167 potential members have yielded radial velocity measurements, which were used to determine the systemic velocity of the cluster and membership of individual stars. Atmospheric parameters were also used as a check on membership when available. Literature photometry was used to re-determine cluster param...

  20. The distance to the young open cluster Westerlund 2

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Majaess, D; Baume, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    A new X-ray, {\\it UBVR}$I_c$, and {\\it JHK$s$} study of the young cluster Westerlund 2 was undertaken to resolve discrepancies tied to the cluster's distance. Existing spectroscopic observations for bright cluster members and new multi-band photometry imply a reddening relation towards Westerlund~2 described by $E_{U-B}/E_{B-V}=0.63 + 0.02\\;E_{B-V}$. Variable-extinction analyses for Westerlund~2 and nearby IC 2581 based upon spectroscopic distance moduli and ZAMS fitting yield values of $R_V=A_V/E_{B-V}=3.88\\pm0.18$ and $3.77\\pm0.19$, respectively, and confirm prior assertions that anomalous interstellar extinction is widespread throughout Carina (e.g., Turner 2012). The results were confirmed by applying the color difference method to {\\it UBVR$I_c$JH$K_s$} data for 19 spectroscopically-observed cluster members, yielding $R_V=3.85\\pm0.07$. The derived distance to Westerlund~2 of $d=2.85\\pm0.43$ kpc places the cluster on the far side of the Carina spiral arm. The cluster's age is no more than $\\tau \\sim2\\time...

  1. Sejong Open Cluster Survey (SOS). II. IC 1848 Cluster in the H II Region W5 West

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Beomdu; Kim, Jinyoung S; Bessell, Michael S; Karimov, Rivkat

    2013-01-01

    IC 1848 is one of the young open clusters in the giant star forming Cas OB6 association. Several interesting aspects relating to star formation processes in giant star forming regions attracted us to study the initial mass function (IMF), star formation mode, and properties of pre-main sequence stars (PMS). A UBVI and H alpha photometric study of the young open cluster IC 1848 was conducted as part of the "Sejong Open cluster Survey" (SOS). We have selected 105 early-type members from photometric diagrams. Their mean reddening is = 0.660 +/- 0.054 mag. Using the published photometric data with near- and mid-infrared archival data we confirmed the normal reddening law (R_V = 3.1) toward the cluster (IC 1848). A careful zero-age main sequence fitting gives a distance modulus of V_0 - M_V = 11.7 +/- 0.2 mag, equivalent to 2.2 +/- 0.2 kpc. H alpha photometry and the list of young stellar objects identified by Koenig et al. permitted us to select a large number of PMS stars comprising 196 H alpha emission stars, ...

  2. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Properties of the intermediate age open cluster NGC 4815

    CERN Document Server

    Friel, E D; Bragaglia, A; Jacobson, H R; Magrini, L; Prisinzano, L; Randich, S; Tosi, M; Cantat-Gaudin, T; Vallenari, A; Smiljanic, R; Carraro, G; Sordo, R; Maiorca, E; Tautvaisviene, G; Sestito, P; Zaggia, S; Jimenez-Esteban, F M; Gilmore, G; Jeffries, R D; Alfaro, E; Bensby, T; Koposov, S E; Korn, A J; Pancino, E; Recio-Blanco, A; Franciosini, E; Hill, V; Jackson, R J; de Laverny, P; Morbidelli, L; Sacco, G G; Worley, C C; Hourihane, A; Costado, M T; Jofre, P; Lind, K

    2014-01-01

    NGC 4815 is a populous ~500 Myr open cluster at a Galactocentric radius of 7 kpc observed in the first six months of the Gaia-ESO Survey. Located in the inner Galactic disk, NGC 4815 is an important tracer of the abundance gradient, where few intermediate age open clusters are found. We use the survey derived radial velocities, stellar atmospheric parameters, metallicity, and elemental abundances for stars targeted as potential members of this cluster to carry out an analysis of cluster properties. The radial velocity distribution of stars in the cluster field is used to define the cluster systemic velocity and derive likely cluster membership for stars observed by the Gaia-ESO Survey. We investigate the distributions of Fe and Fe-peak elements, alpha-elements, and the light elements Na and Al and characterize the cluster's internal chemical homogeneity comparing it to the properties of radial velocity non-member stars. Utilizing these cluster properties, the cluster color-magnitude diagram is analyzed and th...

  3. Sodium and Oxygen Abundances in the Open Cluster NGC 6791 from APOGEE H-Band Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Bergemann, Maria; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Souto, Diogo; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Frinchaboy, Peter; Zasowski, Gail; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Holtzman, Jon; Perez, Ana E. Garcia; Majewski, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    The open cluster NGC 6791 is among the oldest, most massive and metal-rich open clusters in the Galaxy. High-resolution $H$-band spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) of 11 red giants in NGC 6791 are analyzed for their chemical abundances of iron, oxygen, and sodium. The abundances of these three elements are found to be homogeneous (with abundance dispersions at the level of $\\sim$ 0.05 - 0.07 dex) in these cluster red giants, which span much of the...

  4. ON THE ORIGIN OF HIGH-ALTITUDE OPEN CLUSTERS IN THE MILKY WAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Medina, L. A.; Pichardo, B.; Moreno, E.; Peimbert, A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-264, 04510, México, D.F., México (Mexico); Velazquez, H., E-mail: lamartinez@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 877, 22860 Ensenada, B.C., México (Mexico)

    2016-01-20

    We present a dynamical study of the effect of the bar and spiral arms on the simulated orbits of open clusters in the Galaxy. Specifically, this work is devoted to the puzzling presence of high-altitude open clusters in the Galaxy. For this purpose we employ a very detailed observationally motivated potential model for the Milky Way and a careful set of initial conditions representing the newly born open clusters in the thin disk. We find that the spiral arms are able to raise an important percentage of open clusters (about one-sixth of the total employed in our simulations, depending on the structural parameters of the arms) above the Galactic plane to heights beyond 200 pc, producing a bulge-shaped structure toward the center of the Galaxy. Contrary to what was expected, the spiral arms produce a much greater vertical effect on the clusters than the bar, both in quantity and height; this is due to the sharper concentration of the mass on the spiral arms, when compared to the bar. When a bar and spiral arms are included, spiral arms are still capable of raising an important percentage of the simulated open clusters through chaotic diffusion (as tested from classification analysis of the resultant high-z orbits), but the bar seems to restrain them, diminishing the elevation above the plane by a factor of about two.

  5. The San Pedro Mártir Open Cluster Survey: Progress, Techniques, Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, W.; Michel, R.; Dias, W.; Tapia-Peralta, T.; Vázquez, R.; Macfarland, J.; Chavarría, C.; Santos, C.; Moitinho, A.

    2007-05-01

    A CCD UBVRI survey of northern open clusters is being undertaken at San Pedro Mártir, Mexico, and performed using always the same instrumental setup (telescope, CCD, filters), reduction methods, and system of standards (Landolt). To date more than 300 clusters (mostly unstudied previously) have been observed, and about half the data reduced using aperture-photometry and PSF techniques. Our analysis procedures are being refined by studying in detail a small subset of these clusters. For example, the heavily reddened clusters Be80 and Be95 are being examined in the color-color diagrams: (B-V,U-B) and (B-V,R-I) to better understand the problems of curvature and variable reddening. For clusters for which our U data reaches the F-type stars, such as NGC2192 and NGC7296, techniques are being examined for estimating both the reddening E(B-V) and metallicity [Fe/H] via the use of the (U-B) excess. If the clusters also have "red clump" stars, such as NGC1798 and Do02, these procedures can be iterated between the clump and main sequence stars to establish even better the values of E(B-V) and [Fe/H]. Finally, color-magnitude diagrams, such as (B-V,V) and (V-I,V), are being employed together with the Schmidt-Kaler colors and Padova isochrones to obtain distances and ages for these clusters. A java-based computer program is being developed to help in the visualization and analysis of these photometric data. This system is capable of displaying each cluster simultaneously in different color-color and color-magnitude diagrams and has an interactive way to identify a star, or group of stars, in one diagram and to see were it falls in the other diagrams, facilitating the elimination of field stars and the apperception of cluster features. This program is capable of displaying up to 16 different diagrams for one cluster and processing up to 20 clusters at the same time. Our aims are the following: (1) a common UBVRI photometric scale for open clusters, (2) an atlas of color

  6. Dynamical Features of Open Star Cluster: DOLIDZE 14

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Gireesh C

    2015-01-01

    The radial density profile (RDP) of cluster DOLIDZE 14 provides the radius of 9.8 arcmin, it is based on consideration of first plateau region of RDP. This value is less than the radius which comes through consideration of the second plateau region. The stars, which are inside of the cluster radius, are used to estimate the distance-modulus and E(I-R) by fitting theoretical isochrone on the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD). The best fitted stellar isochrone of solar matellacity provides these values as 11.15 mag and 0.25 mag, respectively. These results are used to estimate the mass-function slope of the cluster, which comes to be different that of Salpeter-Value. The enhancement of brighter stars does not found within the cluster region which indicates its old age. The Mass-Segregation phenomena of cluster is found between massive and lighter stars but not found in fainter stars, having magnitude greater than 15 mag in I-band. The relaxation-time is very little in the comparison of its age. The mean proper mot...

  7. Mass effect on the lithium abundance evolution of open clusters: Hyades, NGC 752, and M 67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, M.; Duarte, T.; Pace, G.; do Nascimento, J.-D.

    2016-05-01

    Lithium abundances in open clusters provide an effective way of probing mixing processes in the interior of solar-type stars and convection is not the only mixing mechanism at work. To understand which mixing mechanisms are occurring in low-mass stars, we test non-standard models, which were calibrated using the Sun, with observations of three open clusters of different ages, the Hyades, NGC 752, and M 67. We collected all available data, and for the open cluster NGC 752, we redetermine the equivalent widths and the lithium abundances. Two sets of evolutionary models were computed, one grid of only standard models with microscopic diffusion and one grid with rotation-induced mixing, at metallicity [Fe/H] = 0.13, 0.0, and 0.01 dex, respectively, using the Toulouse-Geneva evolution code. We compare observations with models in a color-magnitude diagram for each cluster to infer a cluster age and a stellar mass for each cluster member. Then, for each cluster we analyze the lithium abundance of each star as a function of mass. The data for the open clusters Hyades, NGC 752, and M 67, are compatible with lithium abundance being a function of both age and mass for stars in these clusters. Our models with meridional circulation qualitatively reproduce the general trend of lithium abundance evolution as a function of stellar mass in all three clusters. This study points out the importance of mass dependence in the evolution of lithium abundance as a function of age. Comparison between models with and without rotation-induced mixing shows that the inclusion of meridional circulation is essential to account for lithium depletion in low-mass stars. However, our results suggest that other mechanisms should be included to explain the Li-dip and the lithium dispersion in low-mass stars.

  8. Massive open star clusters using the VVV survey. V. Young clusters with an OB stellar population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Alegría, S.; Borissova, J.; Chené, A.-N.; Bonatto, C.; Kurtev, R.; Amigo, P.; Kuhn, M.; Gromadzki, M.; Carballo-Bello, J. A.

    2016-04-01

    Context. The ESO public survey VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) has contributed with deep multi-epoch photometry of the Galactic bulge and the adjacent part of the disk over 526 sq. deg. More than a hundred cluster candidates have been reported thanks to this survey. Aims: We present the fifth article in a series of papers focused on young and massive clusters discovered in the VVV survey. In this paper, we present the physical characterization of five clusters with a spectroscopically confirmed OB-type stellar population. Methods: To characterize the clusters, we used near-infrared photometry (J, H, and KS) from the VVV survey and near-infrared K-band spectroscopy from ISAAC at VLT, following the methodology presented in the previous articles of the series. Results: All clusters in our sample are very young (ages between 1-20 Myr), and their total mass are between (1.07+0.40-0.30)×102 M⊙ and (4.17+4.15-2.08)×103 M⊙. We observed a relation between the clusters total mass Mecl and the mass of their most massive stellar member mmax, for clusters with an age <10 Myr. Based on observations taken within the ESO VISTA Public Survey VVV (programme ID 179.B-2002), and with ISAAC/VLT (programme 087.D-0341(A)).

  9. FK Comae Berenices, King of Spin: The COCOA-PUFS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas R.; Kashyap, V.; Saar, S.; Huenemoerder, D.; Korhonen, H.; Drake, J. J.; Testa, P.; Cohen, O.; Garraffo, C.; Granzer, T.; Strassmeier, K.

    2016-03-01

    COCOA-PUFS is an energy-diverse, time-domain study of the ultra-fast spinning, heavily spotted, yellow giant FK Comae Berenices (FK Com: HD117555; G4 III). This single star is thought to be a recent binary merger, and is exceptionally active by measure of its intense ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray emissions, and proclivity to flare. COCOA-PUFS was carried out with the Hubble Space Telescope in the UV (1200-3000 Å), using mainly its high-performance Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, but also high precision Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph; Chandra X-ray Observatory in the soft X-rays (0.5-10 keV), utilizing its High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer; together with supporting photometry and spectropolarimetry in the visible from the ground. This is an introductory report on the project. FK Com displayed variability on a wide range of timescales over all wavelengths during the week-long main campaign, including a large X-ray flare; “super-rotational broadening” of the far-ultraviolet “hot lines” (e.g., Si iv 1393 Å 8 × 104 K) together with chromospheric Mg ii 2800 Å and C ii 1335 Å (1-3 × 104 K); large Doppler swings suggestive of bright regions alternately on advancing and retreating limbs of the star; and substantial redshifts of the epoch-average emission profiles. These behaviors paint a picture of a highly extended, dynamic, hot (˜10 MK) coronal magnetosphere around the star, threaded by cooler structures perhaps analogous to solar prominences and replenished continually by surface activity and flares. Suppression of angular momentum loss by the confining magnetosphere could temporarily postpone the inevitable stellar spindown, thereby lengthening this highly volatile stage of coronal evolution. COordinated Campaign of Observations and Analysis, Photosphere to Upper Atmosphere, of a Fast-rotating Star.

  10. The Remarkable Far-Ultraviolet Spectrum of FK Comae Berenices: King of Spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas R.; Harper, Graham M.; Brown, Alexander; Korhonen, Heidi; Ilyin, Ilya V.; Redfield, Seth; Wood, Brian E.

    2006-06-01

    A Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) pointing on the ultrafast rotating yellow giant FK Comae Berenices (HD 117555; vsini~163 km s-1) recorded emission profiles of C III λ977 (T~8×104 K) and O VI λ1031 (T~3×105 K) that are exceptionally broad and asymmetric, but nearly identical in shape, aside from a blueward absorption component in the latter (identified as interstellar O I, rather than, say, a C III outflow feature). The FWHMs exceed 500 km s-1, twice the broadest far-UV line shape of any normal late-type star observed to date, but similar to the Hα profiles of FK Com, and following the trend of other fast spinning early G giants that often display ``superrotational'' broadening of their UV ``hot'' lines. Although the red-asymmetric O VI λ1031 profile is suggestive of an outflow at ~3×105 K, the weaker member of the doublet, λ1037, does not display the differential absorption pattern expected from a warm wind. Furthermore, at times the chromospheric Mg II λ2796 + λ2803 composite profile, from a collection of International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) echellegrams obtained two decades earlier, is nearly identical in shape to red-asymmetric O VI λ1031. A contemporaneous optical Doppler map places the photospheric dark spots mainly in the polar regions of the approaching hemisphere. The dominantly redward biased profiles of C III and O VI could be explained if the associated emission zones were leading the starspots in phase and partially rooted in lower latitudes.

  11. FK COMAE BERENICES, KING OF SPIN: THE COCOA-PUFS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, Thomas R. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Kashyap, V.; Saar, S.; Drake, J. J.; Testa, P.; Cohen, O.; Garraffo, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Huenemoerder, D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Korhonen, H. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland); Granzer, T.; Strassmeier, K., E-mail: Thomas.Ayres@Colorado.edu [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    COCOA-PUFS is an energy-diverse, time-domain study of the ultra-fast spinning, heavily spotted, yellow giant FK Comae Berenices (FK Com: HD117555; G4 III). This single star is thought to be a recent binary merger, and is exceptionally active by measure of its intense ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray emissions, and proclivity to flare. COCOA-PUFS was carried out with the Hubble Space Telescope in the UV (1200–3000 Å), using mainly its high-performance Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, but also high precision Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph; Chandra X-ray Observatory in the soft X-rays (0.5–10 keV), utilizing its High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer; together with supporting photometry and spectropolarimetry in the visible from the ground. This is an introductory report on the project. FK Com displayed variability on a wide range of timescales over all wavelengths during the week-long main campaign, including a large X-ray flare; “super-rotational broadening” of the far-ultraviolet “hot lines” (e.g., Si iv 1393 Å; 8 × 10{sup 4} K) together with chromospheric Mg ii 2800 Å and C ii 1335 Å (1–3 × 10{sup 4} K); large Doppler swings suggestive of bright regions alternately on advancing and retreating limbs of the star; and substantial redshifts of the epoch-average emission profiles. These behaviors paint a picture of a highly extended, dynamic, hot (∼10 MK) coronal magnetosphere around the star, threaded by cooler structures perhaps analogous to solar prominences and replenished continually by surface activity and flares. Suppression of angular momentum loss by the confining magnetosphere could temporarily postpone the inevitable stellar spindown, thereby lengthening this highly volatile stage of coronal evolution.

  12. Massive open star clusters using the VVV survey V. Young clusters with an OB stellar population

    CERN Document Server

    Alegría, S Ramírez; Chené, A -N; Bonatto, C; Kurtev, R; Amigo, P; Kuhn, M; Gromadzki, M; Carballo-Bello, J A

    2016-01-01

    The ESO public survey VISTA Variables in the V\\'ia L\\'actea (VVV) has contributed with deep multi-epoch photometry of the Galactic bulge and the adjacent part of the disk over 526 square degrees. More than a hundred cluster candidates have been reported thanks to this survey. We present the fifth article in a series of papers focused on young and massive clusters discovered in the VVV survey. In this paper, we present the physical characterization of five clusters with a spectroscopically confirmed OB-type stellar population. To characterize the clusters, we used near-infrared photometry ($J$, $H,$ and $K_S$) from the VVV survey and near-infrared $K$-band spectroscopy from ISAAC at VLT, following the methodology presented in the previous articles of the series. All clusters in our sample are very young (ages between 1-20 Myr), and their total mass are between $(1.07^{+0.40}_{-0.30})\\cdot10^2$ $M_{\\odot}$ and $(4.17^{+4.15}_{-2.08})\\cdot10^3$ $M_{\\odot}$. We observed a relation between the clusters total mass ...

  13. Mass effect on the lithium abundance evolution of open clusters: Hyades, NGC 752, and M67

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, Matthieu; Pace, Giancarlo; Nascimento, José Dias do

    2016-01-01

    Lithium abundances in open clusters provide an effective way of probing mixing processes in the interior of solar-type stars and convection is not the only mixing mechanism at work. To understand which mixing mechanisms are occurring in low-mass stars, we test non-standard models, which were calibrated using the Sun, with observations of three open clusters of different ages, the Hyades, NGC 752, and M67. We collected all available data, and for the open cluster NGC 752, we redetermine the equivalent widths and the lithium abundances. Two sets of evolutionary models were computed, one grid of only standard models with microscopic diffusion and one grid with rotation-induced mixing, at metallicity [Fe/H] = 0.13, 0.0, and 0.01 dex, respectively, using the Toulouse-Geneva evolution code. We compare observations with models in a color-magnitude diagram for each cluster to infer a cluster age and a stellar mass for each cluster member. Then, for each cluster we analyze the lithium abundance of each star as a funct...

  14. Study of open clusters within 1.8 kpc and understanding the Galactic structure

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Yogesh C; Pandey, Anil K; Joshi, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Based on an almost complete sample of Galactic open star clusters within 1.8 kpc, we perform a comprehensive statistical analysis of various cluster parameters like spatial position, age, size, mass and extinction in order to understand the general properties of the open cluster system in the Galaxy and the Galactic structure. Based on the distribution of 1241 open clusters about the Galactic plane and in different age bins, we find the average Galactic scale height as Zh = 60+/-2 pc for the youngest cluster population having Age <700 Myr, however, it increases up to 64+/-2 pc when we also include older population of clusters. The solar offset is found to be 6.2+/-1.1 pc above the formal Galactic plane. We derive a local mass density of \\rho_0 = 0.090+/-0.005 Msun/pc^3 and found a negligibly small amount of dark matter in the solar neighbourhood. The reddening in the direction of clusters suggests a strong correlation with their vertical distance from the Galactic plane having a respective slope of dE(B-V)...

  15. The fractal dimensions of the spatial distribution of young open clusters in the solar neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Fuente Marcos, R.; de La Fuente Marcos, C.

    2006-06-01

    Context: .Fractals are geometric objects with dimensionalities that are not integers. They play a fundamental role in the dynamics of chaotic systems. Observation of fractal structure in both the gas and the star-forming sites in galaxies suggests that the spatial distribution of young open clusters should follow a fractal pattern, too. Aims: .Here we investigate the fractal pattern of the distribution of young open clusters in the Solar Neighbourhood using a volume-limited sample from WEBDA and a multifractal analysis. By counting the number of objects inside spheres of different radii centred on clusters, we study the homogeneity of the distribution. Methods: .The fractal dimension D of the spatial distribution of a volume-limited sample of young open clusters is determined by analysing different moments of the count-in-cells. The spectrum of the Minkowski-Bouligand dimension of the distribution is studied as a function of the parameter q. The sample is corrected for dynamical effects. Results: .The Minkowski-Bouligand dimension varies with q in the range 0.71-1.77, therefore the distribution of young open clusters is fractal. We estimate that the average value of the fractal dimension is = 1.7± 0.2 for the distribution of young open clusters studied. Conclusions: .The spatial distribution of young open clusters in the Solar Neighbourhood exhibits multifractal structure. The fractal dimension is time-dependent, increasing over time. The values found are consistent with the fractal dimension of star-forming sites in other spiral galaxies.

  16. The Monitor project: Searching for occultations in young open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Aigrain, S; Irwin, J; Hebb, L; Irwin, M; Favata, F; Moraux, E; Pont, F; Aigrain, Suzanne; Hodgkin, Simon; Irwin, Jonathan; Hebb, Leslie; Irwin, Mike; Favata, Fabio; Moraux, Estelle; Pont, Frederic

    2006-01-01

    The Monitor project is a photometric monitoring survey of nine young (1-200Myr) clusters in the solar neighbourhood to search for eclipses by very low mass stars and brown dwarfs and for planetary transits in the light curves of cluster members. It began in the autumn of 2004 and uses several 2 to 4m telescopes worldwide. We aim to calibrate the relation between age, mass, radius and where possible luminosity, from the K-dwarf to the planet regime, in an age range where constraints on evolutionary models are currently very scarce. Any detection of an exoplanet in one of our youngest targets (<=10Myr) would also provide important constraints on planet formation and migration timescales and their relation to proto-planetary disc lifetimes. Finally, we will use the light curves of cluster members to study rotation and flaring in low-mass pre-main sequence stars. The present paper details the motivation, science goals and observing strategy of the survey. We present a method to estimate the sensitivity and num...

  17. The stellar content of the young open cluster Trumpler 37

    CERN Document Server

    Errmann, R; Marschall, L; Torres, G; Mugrauer, M; Chen, W P; H, S C -L; Briceno, C; Chini, R; Bukowiecki, Ł; Dimitrov, D P; Kjurkchieva, D; Jensen, E L N; Cohen, D H; Wu, Z -Y; Pribulla, T; Vaňko, M; Krushevska, V; Budaj, J; Oasa, Y; Pandey, A K; Fernandez, M; Kellerer, A; Marka, C

    2013-01-01

    With an apparent cluster diameter of 1.5{\\deg} and an age of ~4 Myr, Trumpler 37 is an ideal target for photometric monitoring of young stars as well as for the search of planetary transits, eclipsing binaries and other sources of variability. The YETI consortium has monitored Trumpler 37 throughout 2010 and 2011 to obtain a comprehensive view of variable phenomena in this region. In this first paper we present the cluster properties and membership determination as derived from an extensive investigation of the literature. We also compared the coordinate list to some YETI images. For 1872 stars we found literature data. Among them 774 have high probability of being member and 125 a medium probability. Based on infrared data we re-calculate a cluster extinction of 0.9-1.2 mag. We can confirm the age and distance to be 3-5 Myr and ~870 pc. Stellar masses are determined from theoretical models and the mass function is fitted with a power-law index of alpha=1.90 (0.1-0.4 M_sun) and alpha=1.12 (1-10 M_sun).

  18. Photometry Using Kepler “Superstamps” of Open Clusters NGC 6791 & NGC 6819

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuehn Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kepler space telescope has proven to be a gold mine for the study of variable stars. Usually, Kepler only reads out a handful of pixels around each pre-selected target star, omitting a large number of stars in the Kepler field. Fortunately, for the open clusters NGC 6791 and NGC 6819, Kepler also read out larger “superstamps” which contained complete images of the central region of each cluster. These cluster images can be used to study additional stars in the open clusters that were not originally on Kepler’s target list. We discuss our work on using two photometric techniques to analyze these superstamps and present sample results from this project to demonstrate the value of this technique for a wide variety of variable stars.

  19. On the Origin of High-Altitude Open Clusters in the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Medina, L A; Moreno, E; Peimbert, A; Velazquez, H

    2016-01-01

    We present a dynamical study of the effect of the bar and spiral arms on the simulated orbits of open clusters in the Galaxy. Specifically, this work is devoted to the puzzling presence of high-altitude open clusters in the Galaxy. For this purpose we employ a very detailed observationally motivated potential model for the Milky Way and a careful set of initial conditions representing the newly born open clusters in the thin disk. We find that the spiral arms are able to raise an important percentage of open clusters (about one-sixth of the total employed in our simulations, depending on the structural parameters of the arms) above the Galactic plane to heights beyond 200 pc, producing a bulge-shaped structure toward the center of the Galaxy. Contrary to what was expected, the spiral arms produce a much greater vertical effect on the clusters than the bar, both in quantity and height; this is due to the sharper concentration of the mass on the spiral arms, when compared to the bar. When a bar and spiral arms ...

  20. Evolution of stellar collision products in open clusters. II. A grid of low-mass collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Glebbeek, E

    2008-01-01

    In a companion paper we studied the detailed evolution of stellar collision products that occurred in an $N$-body simulation of the old open cluster M67 and compared our detailed models to simple prescriptions. In this paper we extend this work by studying the evolution of the collision products in open clusters as a function of mass and age of the progenitor stars. We calculated a grid of head-on collisions covering the section of parameter space relevant for collisions in open clusters. We create detailed models of the merger remnants using an entropy-sorting algorithm and follow their subsequent evolution during the initial contraction phase, through the main sequence and up to the giant branch with our detailed stellar evolution code. We compare the location of our models in a colour-magnitude diagram to the observed blue straggler population of the old open clusters M67 and NGC 188 and find that they cover the observed blue straggler region of both clusters. For M67, collisions need to have taken place r...

  1. X-ray emission from open star clusters with Spectrum-Rontgen-Gamma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K.P.; Ojha, D.K.; Schnopper, H.W.;

    1998-01-01

    The study of X-ray emission from co-evolving populations of stars in open dusters is extremely important for understanding the dynamo activity among the stars. With this objective, we propose to observe a number of open clusters in the X-ray and UV bands using SPECTRUM-Rontgen-Gamma. The high...... throughput of SPECTRUM-Rontgen-Gamma will help detect main sequence stars like Sun in middle-aged and old clusters. We will study the relationships between various parameters - age, rotation, abundance, UBV colors, X-ray luminosity, coronal temperature etc. X-ray spectra of younger and brighter populations...

  2. Stellar Open Clusters' Membership Probabilities: an N-Dimensional Geometrical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sampedro, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We present a new geometrical method aimed at determining the members of open clusters. The methodology estimates, in an N-dimensional space, the membership probabilities by means of the distances between every star and the cluster central overdensity. It can handle different sets of variables, which have to satisfy the simple condition of being more densely distributed for the cluster members than for the field stars (as positions, proper motions, radial velocities and/or parallaxes are). Unlike other existing techniques, this fact makes the method more flexible and so can be easily applied to different datasets. To quantify how the method identifies the clus- ter members, we design series of realistic simulations recreating sky regions in both position and proper motion subspaces populated by clusters and field stars. The re- sults, using different simulated datasets (N = 1, 2 and 4 variables), show that the method properly recovers a very high fraction of simulated cluster members, with a low number of misc...

  3. Astrophysical and Structural Parameters of the Open Clusters NGC 6866, NGC 7062, and NGC 2360

    CERN Document Server

    Gunes, O; Bonatto, C

    2012-01-01

    We derive astrophysical and structural parameters of the poorly studied open clusters NGC 6866, NGC 7062, and NGC 2360 based on filtered 2MASS (J, J -H) diagrams, and stellar radial density profiles. The field star decontamination technique is utilised for selecting high-probability cluster members. The E(B -V) reddening values of the three clusters derived from 2MASS JHKs agree with those inferred from UBV and uvby-{\\beta} photometries. We find that the core mass function slopes are flatter than the halo's for the three clusters. The large core and cluster radii of NGC 6866 and NGC 2360 indicate an expanded core, which may suggest the presence of stellar mass black-holes. NGC 2360 is located in the third quadrant (l = 229.80), where Giant Molecular Clouds are scarce that, together with its relatively large mass (~ 1800 msun), might explain its longevity(~ 1.8Gyr) in the Galaxy.

  4. First detection of a low-mass stellar halo around the young open cluster Eta Chamaeleontis

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Simon J; Bessell, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    We have identified several lithium-rich low-mass (0.08open cluster Eta Chamaeleontis, nearly four times the radius of previous search efforts. Of these stars we propose 4 new probable cluster members, and 3 possible members requiring further investigation. These findings are consistent with a dynamical origin for the current configuration of the cluster, without the need to invoke an abnormal Initial Mass Function deficient in low-mass objects. Candidates were selected on the basis of DENIS and 2MASS photometry, NOMAD astrometry and extensive follow-up spectroscopy.

  5. A comprehensive photometric study of dynamically evolved small van den Bergh-Hagen open clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2016-09-01

    We present results from Johnson UBV, Kron-Cousins RI and Washington CT1T2 photometries for seven van den Bergh-Hagen (vdBH) open clusters, namely, vdBH 1, 10, 31, 72, 87, 92, and 118. The high-quality, multi-band photometric data sets were used to trace the cluster stellar density radial profiles and to build colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and colour-colour (CC) diagrams from which we estimated their structural parameters and fundamental astrophysical properties. The clusters in our sample cover a wide age range, from ˜ 60 Myr up to 2.8 Gyr, are of relatively small size (˜ 1 - 6 pc) and are placed at distances from the Sun which vary between 1.8 and 6.3 kpc, respectively. We also estimated lower limits for the cluster present-day masses as well as half-mass relaxation times (tr). The resulting values in combination with the structural parameter values suggest that the studied clusters are in advanced stages of their internal dynamical evolution (age/tr ˜ 20 - 320), possibly in the typical phase of those tidally filled with mass segregation in their core regions. Compared to open clusters in the solar neighbourhood, the seven vdBH clusters are within more massive (˜ 80 - 380M$⊙$), with higher concentration parameter values (c ˜ 0.75-1.15) and dynamically evolved ones.

  6. Specialized organizations and ambidextrous clusters in the open innovation paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrary, Michel

    2011-01-01

    By comparing Lucent Technologies and Cisco Systems over twenty years, one illustrates that a firm that outsources exploration through an Acquisition and Development (A&D) strategy of start-ups and exploitation specialization can be more innovative and competitive than an ambidextrous organization. The success of an A&D strategy depends on the embeddedness of the firm in the network of organizations comprised of an open innovation system and supported by an inter-organizational process of inno...

  7. Non-radial Pulsations in the Open Cluster NGC 3766

    CERN Document Server

    Roettenbacher, Rachael M; McSwain, M Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Non-radial pulsations (NRPs) are a proposed mechanism for the formation of decretion disks around Be stars and are important tools to study the internal structure of stars. NGC 3766 has an unusually large fraction of transient Be stars, so it is an excellent location to study the formation mechanism of Be star disks. High resolution spectroscopy can reveal line profile variations from NRPs, allowing measurements of both the degree, l, and azimuthal order, m. However, spectroscopic studies require large amounts of time with large telescopes to achieve the necessary high S/N and time domain coverage. On the other hand, multi-color photometry can be performed more easily with small telescopes to measure l only. Here, we present representative light curves of Be stars and non-emitting B stars in NGC 3766 from the CTIO 0.9m telescope in an effort to study NRPs in this cluster.

  8. CCD UBV Photometry and Kinematics of the Open Cluster NGC 225

    CERN Document Server

    Bilir, S; Yontan, T; Guver, T; Bakis, V; Ak, T; Ak, S; Paunzen, E; Eker, Z

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of CCD $UBV$ photometric and spectroscopic observations of the open cluster NGC 225. In order to determine the structural parameters of NGC 225, we calculated the stellar density profile in the cluster's field. We estimated the probabilities of the stars being physical members of the cluster using the existing astrometric data. The most likely members of the cluster were used in the determination of the astrophysical parameters of the cluster. We calculated the mean radial velocity of the cluster as $V_{r}=-8.3\\pm 5.0$ km s$^{-1}$ from the optical spectra of eight stars in the cluster's field. Using the U-B vs B-V two-colour diagram and UV excesses of the F-G type main-sequence stars, the reddening and metallicity of NGC 225 were inferred as $E(B-V)=0.151\\pm 0.047$ mag and $[Fe/H]=-0.11\\pm 0.01$ dex, respectively. We fitted the colour-magnitude diagrams of NGC 225 with the PARSEC isochrones and derived the distance modulus, distance and age of the cluster as $\\mu_{V}=9.3\\pm 0.07$ mag, d...

  9. RACE-OC Project: Rotation and variability in the open cluster NGC2099 (M37)

    CERN Document Server

    Messina, S; Parihar, Padmakar; Kang, Y B; Kim, S -L; Rey, S -C; Lee, C -U

    2008-01-01

    Rotation and solar-type magnetic activity are closely related to each other in stars of G or later spectral types. Presence and level of magnetic activity depend on star's rotation and rotation itself is strongly influenced by strength and topology of the magnetic fields. Open clusters represent especially useful targets to investigate the connection between rotation and activity. The open cluster NGC2099 has been studied as a part of the RACE-OC project, which is aimed at exploring the evolution of rotation and magnetic activity in the late-type members of open clusters of different ages. Time series CCD photometric observations of this cluster were collected during January 2004. The relations between activity manifestations, such as the light curve amplitude, and global stellar parameters are investigated. We have discovered 135 periodic variables, 122 of which are candidate cluster members. Determination of rotation periods of G- and K-type stars has allowed us to better explore evolution of angular moment...

  10. Two 'b's in the Beehive: The Discovery of the First Hot Jupiters in an Open Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, S N; Latham, D W; Buchhave, L A; Cantrell, J R; Dahm, S E; Fürész, G; Szentgyorgyi, A H; Geary, J C; Torres, G; Bieryla, A; Berlind, P; Calkins, M C; Esquerdo, G A; Stefanik, R P

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery of two giant planets orbiting stars in Praesepe (also known as the Beehive Cluster), the first known hot Jupiters in an open cluster. Pr0201b orbits a V=10.52 late F dwarf with a period of 4.4264 +/- 0.0070 days and has a minimum mass of 0.540 +/- 0.039 Mjup, and Pr0211b orbits a V=12.06 late G dwarf with a period of 2.1451 +/- 0.0012 days and has a minimum mass of 1.844 +/- 0.064 Mjup. Because they reside in a cluster, the ages of these planets are amongst the best-determined of any planet outside our own solar system. As we endeavor to learn more about the frequency and characteristics of planets, the environment in which most stars form -- open clusters like Praesepe -- may provide essential clues to this end. This discovery will allow, for the first time, a direct estimate of the short-period giant planet frequency in open clusters.

  11. Age and helium content of the open cluster NGC 6791 from multiple eclipsing binary members. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, K.; VandenBerg, D. A.; Bruntt, H.;

    2012-01-01

    Models of stellar structure and evolution can be constrained by measuring accurate parameters of detached eclipsing binaries in open clusters. Multiple binary stars provide the means to determine helium abundances in these old stellar systems, and in turn, to improve estimates of their age. In th...

  12. A RAVE Investigation on Galactic open Clusters I. Radial velocities and metallicities

    CERN Document Server

    Conrad, C; Kharchenko, N V; Piskunov, A E; Schilbach, E; Röser, S; Boeche, C; Kordopatis, G; Siebert, A; Williams, M; Munari, U; Matijevič, G; Grebel, E K; Zwitter, T; de Jong, R S; Steinmetz, M; Gilmore, G; Seabroke, G; Freeman, K; Navarro, J F; Parker, Q; Reid, W; Watson, F; Gibson, B K; Bienaymé, O; Wyse, R; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Siviero, A

    2013-01-01

    Context. Galactic open clusters (OCs) mainly belong to the young stellar population in the Milky Way disk, but are there groups and complexes of OCs that possibly define an additional level in hierarchical star formation? Current compilations are too incomplete to address this question, especially regarding radial velocities (RVs) and metallicities ($[M/H]$). Aims. Here we provide and discuss newly obtained RV and $[M/H]$ data, which will enable us to reinvestigate potential groupings of open clusters and associations. Methods.We extracted additional RVs and $[M/H]$ from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) via a cross-match with the Catalogue of Stars in Open Cluster Areas (CSOCA). For the identified OCs in RAVE we derived RV and $[M/H]$ from a cleaned working sample and compared the results with previous findings. Results. Although our RAVE sample does not show the same accuracy as the entire survey, we were able to derive reliable RV for 110 Galactic open clusters. For 37 OCs we publish RV for the first t...

  13. Variable stars in two open clusters within the Kepler/K2-Campaign-0 field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nardiello, D.; Bedin, L. R.; Nascimbeni, V.;

    2015-01-01

    and exoplanetary transits in four fields containing five nearby open clusters spanning a broad range of ages. More in detail, our project will (1) constitute a preparatory survey for the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher for the Northern hemisphere (HARPS-N) mounted at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo...

  14. Spectral analysis of A and F dwarf members of the open cluster M6: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıçoǧlu, T.; Monier, R.; Fossati, L.

    2010-12-01

    We present the first abundance analysis of CD-32 13109 (NGC 6405 47), member of the M6 open cluster. The photospheric abundances of 14 chemical elements were determined by comparing synthetic spectra and observed spectra of the star. Findings show that this star should be an Am star.

  15. Amplitudes of solar-like oscillations: constraints from red giants in open clusters observed by Kepler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Stello; D. Huber; T. Kallinger; S. Basu; B. Mosser; S. Hekker; S. Mathur; R.A. Garcia; T.R. Bedding; H. Kjeldsen; R.L. Gilliland; G.A. Verner; W.J. Chaplin; O. Benomar; S. Meibom; F. Grundahl; Y.P. Elsworth; J. Molenda-Zakowicz; R. Szabo; J. Christensen-Dalsgaard; P. Tenenbaum; J.D. Twicken; K. Uddin

    2011-01-01

    Scaling relations that link asteroseismic quantities to global stellar properties are important for gaining understanding of the intricate physics that underpins stellar pulsations. The common notion that all stars in an open cluster have essentially the same distance, age, and initial composition i

  16. Evolution of stellar collision products in open clusters : II. A grid of low-mass collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glebbeek, E.; Pols, O.R.

    2008-01-01

    In a companion paper we studied the detailed evolution of stellar collision products that occurred in an N-body simulation of the old open cluster M 67 and compared our detailed models to simple prescriptions. In this paper we extend this work by studying the evolution of the collision products in o

  17. SODIUM AND OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6791 FROM APOGEE H-BAND SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Katia; Souto, Diogo [Observatório Nacional, São Cristóvão, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Smith, Verne V. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer A. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bergemann, Maria [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomy, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Mészáros, Szabolcs [ELTE Gothard Astrophysical Observatory, H-9704 Szombathely (Hungary); Shetrone, Matthew D. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Prieto, Carlos Allende [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Schiavon, Ricardo P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Frinchaboy, Peter [Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX (United States); Zasowski, Gail [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry [Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); García Pérez, Ana E.; Majewski, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Nidever, David [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Beers, Timothy [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Carrera, Ricardo [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, E-38200 Tenerife (Spain); Geisler, Doug [Departamento de Astronomia, Casilla 160-C, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Gunn, James, E-mail: kcunha@on.br [Department of Astrophysics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); and others

    2015-01-10

    The open cluster NGC 6791 is among the oldest, most massive, and metal-rich open clusters in the Galaxy. High-resolution H-band spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) of 11 red giants in NGC 6791 are analyzed for their chemical abundances of iron, oxygen, and sodium. The abundances of these three elements are found to be homogeneous (with abundance dispersions at the level of ∼0.05-0.07 dex) in these cluster red giants, which span much of the red-giant branch (T {sub eff} ∼ 3500-4600 K), and include two red clump giants. From the infrared spectra, this cluster is confirmed to be among the most metal-rich clusters in the Galaxy (([Fe/H]) = 0.34 ± 0.06) and is found to have a roughly solar value of [O/Fe] and slightly enhanced [Na/Fe]. Our non-LTE calculations for the studied Na I lines in the APOGEE spectral region (16373.86 Å and 16388.85 Å) indicate only small departures from LTE (≤0.04 dex) for the parameter range and metallicity of the studied stars. The previously reported double population of cluster members with different Na abundances is not found among the studied sample.

  18. Study of open clusters within 1.8 kpc and understanding the Galactic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Y. C.; Dambis, A. K.; Pandey, A. K.; Joshi, S.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Significant progress has been made in recent years to understand the formation and evolution of our Galaxy, but we still lack a complete understanding of the Galaxy and its structure. Aims: Using an almost complete sample of Galactic open star clusters within 1.8 kpc, we aim to understand the general properties of the open cluster system in the Galaxy and probe the Galactic structure. Methods: We first extracted 1241 open clusters within 1.8 kpc of the Sun from the Milky Way Star Clusters (MWSC) catalog. Considering it an almost complete sample of clusters within this distance, we performed a comprehensive statistical analysis of various cluster parameters such as spatial position, age, size, mass, and extinction. Results: We find an average cluster scale height of zh = 60 ± 2 pc for clusters younger than 700 Myr, which increases to 64 ± 2 pc when we include all the clusters. The zh is found to be strongly dependent on RGC and age, and on an average, zh is more than twice as large as in the outer region than in the inner region of the solar circle, except for the youngest population of clusters. The solar offset is found to be 6.2 ± 1.1 pc above the formal Galactic plane. We derive a local mass density of ρ0 = 0.090 ± 0.005 M⊙/ pc3 and estimate a negligibly small amount of dark matter in the solar neighborhood. The reddening in the direction of clusters suggests a strong correlation with their vertical distance from the Galactic plane with a respective slope of dE(B-V) / dz = 0.40 ± 0.04 and 0.42 ± 0.05 mag/kpc below and above the Galactic plane. We observe a linear mass-radius and mass-age relations in the open clusters and derive the slopes of dR/ d(log M) = 2.08 ± 0.10 and d(log M) / d(log T) = -0.36 ± 0.05, respectively. Conclusions: The dependence of the spatial distribution of clusters on their age points to a complex interplay between cluster formation and survivability within the Galaxy. The geometrical characteristics of a significant

  19. Investigation of Galactic open cluster remnants: the case of NGC 7193

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Mateus de Souza; Barbosa, Wagner José Corradi; Maia, Francisco Ferreira de Souza; Piatti, Andrés Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Galactic open clusters (OCs) that survive the early gas-expulsion phase are gradually destroyed over time by the action of disruptive dynamical processes. Their final evolutionary stages are characterized by a poorly populated concentration of stars called open cluster remnant (OCR). This study is devoted to assess the real physical nature of the OCR candidate NGC 7193. GMOS/Gemini spectroscopy of 53 stars in the inner target region were obtained to derive radial velocities and atmospheric parameters. We also employed photometric and proper motion data. The analysis method consists of the following steps: (i) analysis of the statistical resemblance between the cluster and a set of field samples with respect to the sequences defined in colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs); (ii) a 5-dimensional iteractive exclusion routine was employed to identify outliers from kinematical and positional data; (iii) isochrone fitting to the $K_{s}\\times(J-K_{s})$ CMD of the remaining stars and the dispersion of spectral types along...

  20. Comparing the OpenMP, MPI, and Hybrid Programming Paradigm on an SMP Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Hao-Qiang; anMey, Dieter; Hatay, Ferhat F.

    2003-01-01

    Clusters of SMP (Symmetric Multi-Processors) nodes provide support for a wide range of parallel programming paradigms. The shared address space within each node is suitable for OpenMP parallelization. Message passing can be employed within and across the nodes of a cluster. Multiple levels of parallelism can be achieved by combining message passing and OpenMP parallelization. Which programming paradigm is the best will depend on the nature of the given problem, the hardware components of the cluster, the network, and the available software. In this study we compare the performance of different implementations of the same CFD benchmark application, using the same numerical algorithm but employing different programming paradigms.

  1. Amplitudes of solar-like oscillations: constraints from red giants in open clusters observed by Kepler

    CERN Document Server

    Stello, D; Kallinger, T; Basu, S; Mosser, B; Hekker, S; Mathur, S; Garcia, R A; Bedding, T R; Kjeldsen, H; Gilliland, R L; Verner, G A; Chaplin, W J; Benomar, O; Meibom, S; Grundahl, F; Elsworth, Y P; Molenda-Zakowicz, J; Szabó, R; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Tenenbaum, P; Twicken, J D; Uddin, K

    2011-01-01

    Scaling relations that link asteroseismic quantities to global stellar properties are important for gaining understanding of the intricate physics that underpins stellar pulsation. The common notion that all stars in an open cluster have essentially the same distance, age, and initial composition, implies that the stellar parameters can be measured to much higher precision than what is usually achievable for single stars. This makes clusters ideal for exploring the relation between the mode amplitude of solar-like oscillations and the global stellar properties. We have analyzed data obtained with NASA's Kepler space telescope to study solar-like oscillations in 100 red giant stars located in either of the three open clusters, NGC 6791, NGC 6819, and NGC 6811. By fitting the measured amplitudes to predictions from simple scaling relations that depend on luminosity, mass, and effective temperature, we find that the data cannot be described by any power of the luminosity-to-mass ratio as previously assumed. As a...

  2. The OCCASO survey: Presentation and radial velocities of twelve Milky Way Open Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Casamiquela, L; Jordi, C; Balaguer-Núñez, L; Pancino, E; Hidalgo, S L; Martínez-Vázquez, C E; Murabito, S; del Pino, A; Aparicio, A; Blanco-Cuaresma, S; Gallart, C

    2016-01-01

    Open clusters (OCs) are crucial for studying the formation and evolution of the Galactic disc. However, the lack of a large number of OCs analyzed homogeneously hampers the investigations about chemical patterns and the existence of Galactocentric radial and vertical gradients, or an age-metallicity relation. To overcome this, we have designed the Open Cluster Chemical Abundances from Spanish Observatories survey (OCCASO). We aim to provide homogeneous radial velocities, physical parameters and individual chemical abundances of six or more Red Clump stars for a sample of 25 old and intermediate-age OCs visible from the Northern hemisphere. To do so, we use high resolution spectroscopic facilities (R> 62,000) available at Spanish observatories. We present the motivation, design and current status of the survey, together with the first data release of radial velocities for 77 stars in 12 OCs, which represents about 50% of the survey. We include clusters never studied with high-resolution spectroscopy before (NG...

  3. Asteroseismic inferences on red giants in open clusters NGC 6791, NGC 6819, and NGC 6811 using Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hekker, S.; Basu, S.; Stello, D.;

    2011-01-01

    Context. Four open clusters are present in the Kepler field of view and timeseries of nearly a year in length are now available. These timeseries allow us to derive asteroseismic global oscillation parameters of red-giant stars in the three open clusters NGC 6791, NGC 6819 and NGC 6811. From thes...

  4. WIYN Open Cluster Study. LXXII. A uvbyCa Hbeta CCD Analysis of the Metal-Deficient Open Cluster, NGC 2506

    CERN Document Server

    Anthony-Twarog, B J; Twarog, B A

    2016-01-01

    Precision uvbyCa Hbeta photometry of the metal-deficient, old open cluster, NGC 2506, is presented. The survey covers an area 20 by 20 arcminutes, and extends to V~18 for b-y and Hbeta and to V~17.0 for c_1 and hk. For V < 16.0, photometric scatter among the indices leads to the recovery of 6 known variables within the cluster core and 5 new variables in the outer 5 arcmin of the survey field. Proper motions, radial velocities, and precise multicolor indices are used to isolate a highly probable sample of cluster members from the very rich color-magnitude diagram (CMD). From 257 highly probable members at the cluster turnoff, we derive a reddening estimate of E(b-y) = 0.042 +/- 0.001 (E(B-V) = 0.058 +/- 0.001), where the errors refer to the internal standard errors of the mean. [Fe/H] is derived from the A/F dwarf members using both m_1 and hk, leading to [Fe/H] = -0.296 +/- 0.011 (sem) and -0.317 +/- 0.004 (sem), respectively. The weighted average, heavily dominated by hk, is [Fe/H] = -0.316 +/- 0.033. Ba...

  5. UBVI CCD Photometry of the Open Cluster NGC 4609 and Hogg 15

    CERN Document Server

    Kook, S -H; Bessell, M S

    2010-01-01

    UBVI CCD photometry is obtained for the open clusters NGC 4609 and Hogg 15 in Crux. For NGC 4609, CCD data are presented for the first time. From new photometry we derive the reddening, distance modulus and age of each cluster - NGC 4609 : E(B-V) = 0.37 +/- 0.03, V_0 - M_V = 10.60 +/- 0.08, log tau = 7.7 +/- 0.1; Hogg 15 : E(B-V) = 1.13 +/- 0.11, V_0 - M_V = 12.50 +/- 0.15, log tau <= 6.6. The young age of Hogg 15 strongly implies that WR 47 is a member of the cluster. We have also determined the mass function of these clusters and have obtained a normal slope (Gamma = -1.2 +/- 0.3) for NGC 4609 and a somewhat shallow slope (Gamma = -0.95 +/- 0.5) for Hogg 15.

  6. openPC : a toolkit for public cluster with full ownership

    CERN Document Server

    Akbar, Z; Hermanto, B; Handoko, L T

    2010-01-01

    The openPC is a set of open source tools that realizes a parallel machine and distributed computing environment divisible into several independent blocks of nodes, and each of them is remotely but fully in any means accessible for users with a full ownership policy. The openPC components address fundamental issues relating to security, resource access, resource allocation, compatibilities with heterogeneous middlewares, user-friendly and integrated web-based interfaces, hardware control and monitoring systems. These components have been deployed successfully to the LIPI Public Cluster which is open for public use. In this paper, the unique characteristics of openPC due to its rare requirements are introduced, its components and a brief performance analysis are discussed.

  7. Open Cluster Neutron Capture Element Abundances and Milky Way Disk Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Heather R.; Friel, E. D.

    2012-01-01

    Open clusters, whose ages and distances can be precisely determined, are useful probes of the chemical evolution of the Milky Way disk. The sample sizes of clusters subject to homogeneous analysis of high resolution spectra have grown in recent years, and increased attention has turned to measuring the abundances of neutron capture elements. The relative abundances of r-process elements (e.g., europium) to s-process elements (e.g., barium, lanthanum and zirconium) in cluster stars reveal the relative contributions of Type II supernovae and low-mass AGB stars to the chemical evolution of the galactic disk. A recent study of cluster s-process element abundances has revealed a surprising trend of increasing s-process element abundance ([s/Fe]) with decreasing cluster age, at odds with current s-process yield predictions (D'Orazi et al. 2009, Maiorca et al. 2011). We have undertaken an analysis of Zr, Ba, La, and Eu abundances in 17 open clusters based on high resolution optical spectra. The sample spans 700 Myr to 10 Gyr in age and Rgc 7-22 kpc in galactocentric distance, allowing for the exploration of neutron capture [x/Fe] ratios as a function of age and location in the disk. Preliminary results confirm the trend of enhanced [s/Fe] with decreasing cluster age found by other studies, though with a weaker correlation. Here we present the latest results of this analysis, including newly-determined abundances for the r-process element Eu for an expanded cluster sample that includes outer disk objects. This research is supported by a National Science Foundation Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship to HRJ under award AST-0901919.

  8. A search for white dwarfs in the Galactic plane: the field and the open cluster population

    CERN Document Server

    Raddi, R; Gaensicke, B T; Hermes, J J; Napiwotzki, R; Koester, D; Tremblay, P -E; Barentsen, G; Farnhill, J H; Mohr-Smith, M; Drew, J E; Groot, P J; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Parker, Q A; Steeghs, D; Zijlstra, A

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prospects for systematic searches of white dwarfs at low Galactic latitudes, using the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) H$\\alpha$ Photometric Survey of the Galactic plane and Bulge (VPHAS+). We targeted 17 white dwarf candidates along sightlines of known open clusters, aiming to identify potential cluster members. We confirmed all the 17 white dwarf candidates from blue/optical spectroscopy, and we suggest five of them to be likely cluster members. We estimated progenitor ages and masses for the candidate cluster members, and compared our findings to those for other cluster white dwarfs. A white dwarf in NGC 3532 is the most massive known cluster member (1.13 M$_{\\odot}$), likely with an oxygen-neon core, for which we estimate an $8.8_{-4.3}^{+1.2}$ M$_{\\odot}$ progenitor, close to the mass-divide between white dwarf and neutron star progenitors. A cluster member in Ruprecht 131 is a magnetic white dwarf, whose progenitor mass exceeded 2-3 M$_{\\odot}$. We stress that wider searches, and improved...

  9. Stellar contents and star formation in the young open cluster Stock 8

    CERN Document Server

    Jose, Jessy; Ojha, D K; Ogura, K; Chen, W P; Bhatt, B C; Ghosh, S K; Mito, H; Maheswar, G; Sharma, Saurabh

    2007-01-01

    We present $UBVI_c$ CCD photometry of the young open cluster Stock 8 with the aim to study the basic properties and star formation scenario in this region. The radius of the cluster is found to be $\\sim 6^{\\prime}$ ($\\sim 3.6$ pc) and the reddening within the cluster region varies from $E(B-V)=0.40$ to 0.60 mag. The cluster is located at a distance of $2.05 \\pm 0.10$ kpc. Using H$\\alpha$ slitless spectroscopy and 2MASS NIR data we identified H$\\alpha$ emission and NIR excess young stellar objects (YSOs), respectively. The colour-magnitude diagrams of these YSOs reveal that majority of these objects have ages between 1 to 5 Myr indicating a non-coeval star formation in the cluster. Massive stars in the cluster region reveal an average age of $\\le$ 2 Myr. In the cluster region ($r \\le 6^\\prime$) the slope of the mass function (MF), $\\Gamma$, in the mass range $\\sim 1.0 \\le M/M_\\odot < 13.4$ can be represented by a power law having a slope of $-1.38\\pm0.12$, which agrees well with Salpeter value (-1.35). In t...

  10. Proper motions and membership probabilities of stars in the region of open cluster NGC 3766

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, R K S; Sagar, R

    2013-01-01

    Relative proper motions and cluster membership probabilities have been derived for ~ 2500 stars in the field of the open star cluster NGC 3766. The cluster has been observed in $B$ and $V$ broadband filters at two epochs separated by ~ 6 years using a wide-field imager mounted on the WFI@ESO2.2m telescope. All CCD frames were reduced using the astrometric techniques described in Anderson et al. (2006). The proper motion r.m.s. error for stars brighter than $V$ ~ 15 mag is 2.0 mas/yr but it gradually increases up to ~4 mas/yr at $V$ ~20 mag. Using proper motion data, membership probabilities have been derived for the stars in the region of the cluster. They indicate that three Be and one Ap stars are member of the cluster. The reddening $E(B-V)=0.22\\pm0.05$ mag, a distance 2.5$\\pm$0.5 kpc and an age of ~ 20 Myr are derived using stars of $P_{\\mu}>70%$. Mass function slope $x=1.60\\pm0.10$ is derived for the cluster and cluster was found to be dynamically relaxed. Finally, we provide positions, calibrated $B$ an...

  11. Stellar open clusters' membership probabilities: an N-dimensional geometrical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampedro, Laura; Alfaro, Emilio J.

    2016-04-01

    We present a new geometrical method aimed at determining the members of open clusters. The methodology estimates, in an N-dimensional space, the membership probabilities by means of the distances between every star and the cluster central overdensity. It can handle different sets of variables, which have to satisfy the simple condition of being more densely distributed for the cluster members than for the field stars (as positions, proper motions, radial velocities and/or parallaxes are). Unlike other existing techniques, this fact makes the method more flexible and so can be easily applied to different data sets. To quantify how the method identifies the cluster members, we design series of realistic simulations recreating sky regions in both position and proper motion subspaces populated by clusters and field stars. The results, using different simulated data sets (N = 1, 2 and 4 variables), show that the method properly recovers a very high fraction of simulated cluster members, with a low number of misclassified stars. To compare the goodness of our methodology, we also run other existing algorithms on the same simulated data. The results show that our method has a similar or even better performance than the other techniques. We study the robustness of the new methodology from different subsamplings of the initial sample, showing a progressive deterioration of the capability of our method as the fraction of missing objects increases. Finally, we apply all the methodologies to the real cluster NGC 2682, indicating that our methodology is again in good agreement with preceding studies.

  12. Rotation periods of late-type stars in the young open cluster IC 2602

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, S A; Prosser, C F; Stauffer, J R; Barnes, Sydney A.; Sofia, Sabatino; Prosser, Charles F.; Stauffer, John R.

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of a monitoring campaign aimed at deriving rotation periods for a representative sample of stars in the young (30 Myr) open cluster IC 2602. Rotation periods were derived for 29 of 33 stars monitored. The periods derived range from 0.2d (one of the shortest known rotation periods of any single open cluster star) to about 10d (which is almost twice as long as the longest period previously known for a cluster of this age). We are able to confirm 8 previously known periods and derive 21 new ones, delineating the long period end of the distribution. Despite our sensitivity to longer periods, we do not detect any variables with periods longer than about 10d. The combination of these data with those for IC 2391, an almost identical cluster, leads to the following conclusions: 1) The fast rotators in a 30 Myr cluster are distributed across the entire 0.5 < B-V < 1.6 color range. 2) 6 stars in our sample are slow rotators, with periods longer than 6d. 3) The amplitude of variability depen...

  13. Time-series spectroscopy of two candidate double degenerates in the open cluster NGC 6633

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Kurtis A; Chakraborty, Subho; Gianninas, A; Canton, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae are heavily used tools in precision cosmology, yet we still are not certain what the progenitor systems are. General plausibility arguments suggest there is potential for identifying double degenerate Type Ia supernova progenitors in intermediate-age open star clusters. We present time-resolved high-resolution spectroscopy of two white dwarfs in the field of the open cluster NGC 6633 that had previously been identified as candidate double degenerates in the cluster. However, three hours of continuous observations of each candidate failed to detect any significant radial velocity variations at the > 10 km/s level, making it highly unlikely that either white dwarf is a double degenerate that will merge within a Hubble Time. The white dwarf LAWDS NGC 6633 4 has a radial velocity inconsistent with cluster membership at the 2.5 sigma level, while the radial velocity of LAWDS NGC 6633 7 is consistent with cluster membership. We conservatively conclude that LAWDS 7 is a viable massive double degen...

  14. Sodium and Oxygen Abundances in the Open Cluster NGC 6791 from APOGEE H-Band Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cunha, Katia; Johnson, Jennifer A; Bergemann, Maria; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Shetrone, Matthew D; Souto, Diogo; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Schiavon, Ricardo P; Frinchaboy, Peter; Zasowski, Gail; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Holtzman, Jon; Perez, Ana E Garcia; Majewski, Steven R; Nidever, David; Beers, Timothy; Carrera, Ricardo; Geisler, Doug; Gunn, James; Hearty, Fred; Ivans, Inese; Martell, Sarah; Pinsonneault, Marc; Schneider, Donald P; Sobeck, Jennifer; Stello, Dennis; Stassun, Keivan G; Skrutskie, Michael; Wilson, John C

    2014-01-01

    The open cluster NGC 6791 is among the oldest, most massive and metal-rich open clusters in the Galaxy. High-resolution $H$-band spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) of 11 red giants in NGC 6791 are analyzed for their chemical abundances of iron, oxygen, and sodium. The abundances of these three elements are found to be homogeneous (with abundance dispersions at the level of $\\sim$ 0.05 - 0.07 dex) in these cluster red giants, which span much of the red-giant branch (T$_{\\rm eff}$ $\\sim$ 3500K - 4600K), and include two red-clump giants. From the infrared spectra, this cluster is confirmed to be among the most metal-rich clusters in the Galaxy ($$ = 0.34 $\\pm$ 0.06), and is found to have a roughly solar value of [O/Fe] and slightly enhanced [Na/Fe]. Non-LTE calculations for the studied Na I lines in the APOGEE spectral region ($\\lambda$16373.86\\AA\\ and $\\lambda$16388.85\\AA) indicate only small departures from LTE ($\\leq$ 0.04 dex) for the parameter range and metallic...

  15. Chemical abundance analysis of the old, rich open cluster Trumpler 20

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Monaco, Lorenzo; Beccari, Giacomo; Ahumada, Javier; Boffin, Henri

    2014-01-01

    Trumpler 20 is an open cluster located at low Galactic longitude, just beyond the great Carina spiral arm, and whose metallicity and fundamental parameters were very poorly known until now. As it is most likely a rare example of an old, rich open cluster -- possibly a twin of NGC 7789 -- it is useful to characterize it. To this end, we determine here the abundance of several elements and their ratios in a sample of stars in the clump of Trumpler 20. The primary goal is to measure Trumpler 20 metallicity, so far very poorly constrained, and revise the cluster's fundamental parameters. We present high-resolution spectroscopy of eight clump stars. Based on their radial velocities, we identify six bona fide cluster members, and for five of them (the sixth being a fast rotator) we perform a detailed abundance analysis. We find that Trumpler 20 is slightly more metal-rich than the Sun, having [Fe/H]=+0.09$\\pm$0.10. The abundance ratios of alpha-elements are generally solar. In line with recent studies of clusters a...

  16. uvbyβ photometry of early type open cluster and field stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, G.

    2011-04-01

    Context. The β Cephei stars and slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars are massive main sequence variables. The strength of their pulsational driving strongly depends on the opacity of iron-group elements. As many of those stars naturally occur in young open clusters, whose metallicities can be determined in several fundamental ways, it is logical to study the incidence of pulsation in several young open clusters. Aims: To provide the foundation for such an investigation, Strömgren-Crawford uvbyβ photometry of open cluster target stars was carried out to determine effective temperatures, luminosities, and therefore cluster memberships. Methods: In the course of three observing runs, uvbyβ photometry for 168 target stars was acquired and transformed into the standard system by measurements of 117 standard stars. The list of target stars also included some known cluster and field β Cephei stars, as well as β Cephei and SPB candidates that are targets of the asteroseismic part of the Kepler satellite mission. Results: The uvbyβ photometric results are presented. The data are shown to be on the standard system, and the properties of the target stars are discussed: 140 of these are indeed OB stars, a total of 101 targets lie within the β Cephei and/or SPB star instability strips, and each investigated cluster contains such potential pulsators. Conclusions: These measurements will be taken advantage of in a number of subsequent publications. Based on measurements obtained at McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin.Tables 3-6 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/528/A148

  17. Coma cluster of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Atlas Image mosaic, covering 34' x 34' on the sky, of the Coma cluster, aka Abell 1656. This is a particularly rich cluster of individual galaxies (over 1000 members), most prominently the two giant ellipticals, NGC 4874 (right) and NGC 4889 (left). The remaining members are mostly smaller ellipticals, but spiral galaxies are also evident in the 2MASS image. The cluster is seen toward the constellation Coma Berenices, but is actually at a distance of about 100 Mpc (330 million light years, or a redshift of 0.023) from us. At this distance, the cluster is in what is known as the 'Hubble flow,' or the overall expansion of the Universe. As such, astronomers can measure the Hubble Constant, or the universal expansion rate, based on the distance to this cluster. Large, rich clusters, such as Coma, allow astronomers to measure the 'missing mass,' i.e., the matter in the cluster that we cannot see, since it gravitationally influences the motions of the member galaxies within the cluster. The near-infrared maps the overall luminous mass content of the member galaxies, since the light at these wavelengths is dominated by the more numerous older stellar populations. Galaxies, as seen by 2MASS, look fairly smooth and homogeneous, as can be seen from the Hubble 'tuning fork' diagram of near-infrared galaxy morphology. Image mosaic by S. Van Dyk (IPAC).

  18. Membership and Segregation Effects in the Young Open Cluster NGC 6530

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Liang Zhao; Li Chen; Wen Wen

    2006-01-01

    From photographic plate data of Shanghai Astronomical Observatory with a time baseline of 87 years, proper motions and membership probabilities of 364 stars in the open cluster NGC 6530 region are reduced. On the basis of membership determination, luminosity function and segregation effect of the cluster are discussed with details. Spatial mass segregation is obviously present in NGC 6530 while there is no clear evidence for a velocity-mass (or velocity-luminosity) dependence. The observed spatial mass segregation for NGC 6530might be due to a combination of initial conditions and relaxation process.

  19. Subsampled open-reference clustering creates consistent, comprehensive OTU definitions and scales to billions of sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Ram Rideout

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a performance-optimized algorithm, subsampled open-reference OTU picking, for assigning marker gene (e.g., 16S rRNA sequences generated on next-generation sequencing platforms to operational taxonomic units (OTUs for microbial community analysis. This algorithm provides benefits over de novo OTU picking (clustering can be performed largely in parallel, reducing runtime and closed-reference OTU picking (all reads are clustered, not only those that match a reference database sequence with high similarity. Because more of our algorithm can be run in parallel relative to “classic” open-reference OTU picking, it makes open-reference OTU picking tractable on massive amplicon sequence data sets (though on smaller data sets, “classic” open-reference OTU clustering is often faster. We illustrate that here by applying it to the first 15,000 samples sequenced for the Earth Microbiome Project (1.3 billion V4 16S rRNA amplicons. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest OTU picking run ever performed, and we estimate that our new algorithm runs in less than 1/5 the time than would be required of “classic” open reference OTU picking. We show that subsampled open-reference OTU picking yields results that are highly correlated with those generated by “classic” open-reference OTU picking through comparisons on three well-studied datasets. An implementation of this algorithm is provided in the popular QIIME software package, which uses uclust for read clustering. All analyses were performed using QIIME’s uclust wrappers, though we provide details (aided by the open-source code in our GitHub repository that will allow implementation of subsampled open-reference OTU picking independently of QIIME (e.g., in a compiled programming language, where runtimes should be further reduced. Our analyses should generalize to other implementations of these OTU picking algorithms. Finally, we present a comparison of parameter settings in

  20. Amplitudes of solar-like oscillations: Constraints from red giants in open clusters observed by Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel; Kallinger, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    with NASA's Kepler space telescope to study solar-like oscillations in 100 red giant stars located in either of the three open clusters, NGC 6791, NGC 6819, and NGC 6811. By fitting the measured amplitudes to predictions from simple scaling relations that depend on luminosity, mass, and effective...... temperature, we find that the data cannot be described by any power of the luminosity-to-mass ratio as previously assumed. As a result we provide a new improved empirical relation which treats luminosity and mass separately. This relation turns out to also work remarkably well for main-sequence and subgiant......Scaling relations that link asteroseismic quantities to global stellar properties are important for gaining understanding of the intricate physics that underpins stellar pulsations. The common notion that all stars in an open cluster have essentially the same distance, age, and initial composition...

  1. Google Classroom and Open Clusters: An Authentic Science Research Project for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chelen H.; Linahan, Marcella; Cuba, Allison Frances; Dickmann, Samantha Rose; Hogan, Eleanor B.; Karos, Demetra N.; Kozikowski, Kendall G.; Kozikowski, Lauren Paige; Nelson, Samantha Brooks; O'Hara, Kevin Thomas; Ropinski, Brandi Lucia; Scarpa, Gabriella; Garmany, Catharine D.

    2016-01-01

    STEM education is about offering unique opportunities to our students. For the past three years, students from two high schools (Breck School in Minneapolis, MN, and Carmel Catholic High School in Mundelein, IL) have collaborated on authentic astronomy research projects. This past year they surveyed archival data of open clusters to determine if a clear turnoff point could be unequivocally determined. Age and distance to each open cluster were calculated. Additionally, students requested time on several telescopes to obtain original data to compare to the archival data. Students from each school worked in collaborative teams, sharing and verifying results through regular online hangouts and chats. Work papers were stored in a shared drive and on a student-designed Google site to facilitate dissemination of documents between the two schools.

  2. The Gaia-ESO Survey: CNO Abundances in Open Clusters of our Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazdauskas, A.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Mikolaitis, Š.; Barisevičius, G.; Puzeras, E.; Stonkutė, E.; Chorniy, Y.; GES Collaborators

    2016-10-01

    We present the current status of CNO abundance investigations in evolved stars of Galactic open clusters observed in the currently ongoing Gaia-ESO survey. The spectra were observed with the VLT UVES spectrograph and analysed using a differential model atmosphere method. The C/N ratios of stars in the investigated open clusters were compared with the ratios predicted by stellar evolutionary models. For the corresponding stellar turn-off masses from 1.15 to 3.3 M⊙, the observed C/N ratio values are close to the predictions of standard first dredge-up and thermohaline extra-mixing models. The recent model in which the thermohaline- and rotation-induced extra-mixing act together seems to provide C/N values that are too low.

  3. Mass function study of open star clusters Haffner 11 and Czernik 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, D.; Yadav, R. K. S.; Durgapal, A. K.

    2016-08-01

    We analysis VI CCD data of two open clusters Haffner 11 and Czernik 31 in order to determine their luminosity function, mass function and mass-segregation for the first time. The observed luminosity function is corrected for both data incompleteness and field star contamination. Theoretical stellar evolutionary isochrones are used to convert luminosity function into mass function. The Mass function slopes are derived as 1.22 ± 0.42 and 1.55 ± 0.38 for Haffner 11 and Czernik 31 respectively. They agree with the Salpeter value (x = 1.35) within the errors. The effect of mass segregation are observed in both the clusters. The estimated dynamical relaxation time is less than age of the clusters. This indicates that they are dynamically relaxed. The cause of relaxation may be due to the dynamical evolution or imprint of star formation or both.

  4. Metal Abundances of Red Clump Stars in Open Clusters I. NGC 6819

    CERN Document Server

    Bragaglia, A; Gratton, R G; Tosi, M P; Bonanno, G; Bruno, P; Cali`, A; Claudi, R; Cosentino, R; Desidera, S; Farisato, G; Rebeschini, M; Scuderi, S

    2001-01-01

    We present an analysis of high dispersion spectra (R~40000) of three red clump stars in the old open cluster NGC 6819. The spectra were obtained with SARG, the high dispersion spectrograph of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. The spectra were analyzed using both equivalent widths measured with an automatic procedure, and comparisons with synthetic spectra. NGC 6819 is found to be slightly metal-rich ([Fe/H]= +0.09 +/-0.03, internal error); there are no previous high resolution studies to compare with. Most element-to-element abundance ratios are close to solar; we find a slight excess of Si, and a significant Na overabundance. Our spectra can also be used to derive the interstellar reddening towards the cluster, by comparing the observed colours with those expected from line excitation: we derive E(B-V)=0.14 +/-0.04, in agreement with the most recent estimate for this cluster.

  5. vbyCaHbeta CCD Photometry of Clusters. VIII. The Super-Metal Rich, Old Open Cluster NGC 6791

    CERN Document Server

    Anthony-Twarog, B J; Mayer, L

    2006-01-01

    CCD photometry on the intermediate-band vbyCaHbeta system is presented for the metal-rich, old open cluster, NGC 6791. Preliminary analysis led to [Fe/H] above +0.4 with an anomalously high reddening and an age below 5 Gyr. A revised calibration between (b-y)_0 and [Fe/H] at a given temperature shows that the traditional color-metallicity relations underestimate the color of the turnoff stars at high metallicity. With the revised relation, the metallicity from hk and the reddening for NGC 6791 become [Fe/H] = +0.45 +/- 0.04 and E(b-y) = 0.113 +/- 0.012 or E(B-V) = 0.155 +/- 0.016. Using the same technique, reanalysis of the photometry for NGC 6253 produces [Fe/H] = +0.58 +/-0.04 and E(b-y) = 0.120 +/- 0.018 or E(B-V) = 0.160 +/- 0.025. The errors quoted include both the internal and external errors. For NGC 6791, the metallicity from m_1 is a factor of two below that from hk, a result that may be coupled to the consistently low metal abundance from DDO photometry of the cluster and the C-deficiency found from...

  6. Abundance Gradient from Open Clusters and Implications for the Galactic Disk Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We compile a new sample of 89 open clusters with ages, distances and metallicities available. We derive a radial iron gradient of about -0.099±0.008dex kpc-1(urweighted) for the whole sample, which is somewhat greater than the most recent determination of oxygen gradient from nebulae and young stars. By dividing the clusters into age groups, we show that the iron gradient was steeper in the past and has evolved slowly in time. Current data show a substantial scatter of the cluster metallicities indicating that the Galactic disk has undergone a very rapid, inhomogeneous enrichment. Also, based on a simple, but quite successful model of chemical evolution of the Milky Way disk, we make a detailed calculation of the iron abundance gradient and its time evolution. The predicted current iron gradient is about -0.072 dex kpc-1. The model also predicts a steady flattening of the iron gradient with time, which agrees with the result from our open cluster sample.

  7. Chemical Abundances in a Sample of Red Giants in the Open Cluster NGC 2420 from APOGEE

    CERN Document Server

    Souto, Diogo; Smith, Verne; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Pinsonneault, Marc; Zamora, Olga; García-Hernández, D Anibal; Bovy, Szabolcs Meszaros Jo; Pérez, Ana Elia García; Anders, Friedrich; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Carrera, Ricardo; Frinchaboy, Peter; Holtzman, Jon; Ivans, Inese; Majewski, Steve; Shetrone, Matthew; Sobeck, Jennifer; Pan, Kaike; Tang, Baitian; Villanova, Sandro; Geisler, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    NGC 2420 is a $\\sim$2 Gyr-old well-populated open cluster that lies about 2 kpc beyond the solar circle, in the general direction of the Galactic anti-center. Most previous abundance studies have found this cluster to be mildly metal-poor, but with a large scatter in the obtained metallicities for this open cluster. Detailed chemical abundance distributions are derived for 12 red-giant members of NGC 2420 via a manual abundance analysis of high-resolution (R = 22,500) near-infrared ($\\lambda$1.5 - 1.7$\\mu$m) spectra obtained from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey. The sample analyzed contains 6 stars that are identified as members of the first-ascent red giant branch (RGB), as well as 6 members of the red clump (RC). We find small scatter in the star-to-star abundances in NGC 2420, with a mean cluster abundance of [Fe/H] = -0.16 $\\pm$ 0.04 for the 12 red giants. The internal abundance dispersion for all elements (C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni...

  8. The initial luminosity and mass functions of the Galactic open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Piskunov, A E; Schilbach, E; Röser, S; Scholz, R -D; Zinnecker, H

    2008-01-01

    (... abridged) The observed luminosity function can be constructed in a range of absolute integrated magnitudes $I_{M_V}= [-10, -0.5]$ mag, i.e. about 5 magnitudes deeper than in the most nearby galaxies. It increases linearly from the brightest limit to a turnover at about $I_{M_V}\\approx-2.5$. The slope of this linear portion is $a=0.41\\pm0.01$, which agrees perfectly with the slope deduced for star cluster observations in nearby galaxies. (...) We find that the initial mass function of open clusters (CIMF) has a two-segment structure with the slopes $\\alpha=1.66\\pm0.14$ in the range $\\log M_c/M_\\odot=3.37...4.93$ and $\\alpha=0.82\\pm0.14$ in the range $\\log M_c/M_\\odot=1.7...3.37$. The average mass of open clusters at birth is $4.5\\cdot 10^3 M_\\odot$, which should be compared to the average observed mass of about $700 M_\\odot$. The average cluster formation rate derived from the comparison of initial and observed mass functions is $\\bar{\\upsilon}=0.4 \\mathrm{kpc}^{-2}\\mathrm{Myr}^{-1}$. Multiplying by the a...

  9. Updated properties of the old open cluster Melotte 66: Searching for multiple stellar populations

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Monaco, Lorenzo; Milone, Antonino; Mateluna, Renee

    2014-01-01

    Multiple generations of stars are routinely encountered in globular clusters but no convincing evidence has been found in Galactic open clusters to date. In this paper we use new photometric and spectroscopic data to search for multiple stellar population signatures in the old, massive open cluster, Melotte~66. The cluster is known to have a red giant branch wide in color, which could be an indication of metallicity spread. Also the main sequence is wider than what is expected from photometric errors only. This evidence might be associated with either differential reddening or binaries. Both hypothesis have, however, to be evaluated in detail before recurring to the presence of multiple stellar populations. New, high-quality, CCD UBVI photometry have been acquired to this aim with high-resolution spectroscopy of seven clump stars, that are complemented with literature data. Our photometric study confirms that the width of the main sequence close to the turn off point is entirely accounted for by binary stars ...

  10. Chemical abundance gradients from open clusters in the Milky Way disk: results from the APOGEE survey

    CERN Document Server

    Cunha, Katia; Souto, Diogo; Thompson, Benjamin; Zasowski, Gail; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Carrera, Ricardo; Chiappini, Cristina; Donor, John; Garcia-Hernandez, Anibal; Perez, Ana Elia Garcia; Hayden, Michael R; Holtzman, Jon; Jackson, Kelly M; Johnson, Jennifer A; Majewski, Steven R; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Meyer, Brianne; Nidever, David L; O'Connell, Julia; Schiavon, Ricardo P; Schultheis, Mathias; Shetrone, Matthew; Simmons, Audrey; Smith, Verne V; Zamora, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Metallicity gradients provide strong constraints for understanding the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. We report on radial abundance gradients of Fe, Ni, Ca, Si, and Mg obtained from a sample of 304 red-giant members of 29 disk open clusters, mostly concentrated at galactocentric distances between ~8 - 15 kpc, but including two open clusters in the outer disk. The observations are from the APOGEE survey. The chemical abundances were derived automatically by the ASPCAP pipeline and these are part of the SDSS III Data Release 12. The gradients, obtained from least squares fits to the data, are relatively flat, with slopes ranging from -0.026 to -0.033 dex/kpc for the alpha-elements [O/H], [Ca/H], [Si/H] and [Mg/H] and -0.035 dex/kpc and -0.040 dex/kpc for [Fe/H] and [Ni/H], respectively. Our results are not at odds with the possibility that metallicity ([Fe/H]) gradients are steeper in the inner disk (R_GC ~7 - 12 kpc) and flatter towards the outer disk. The open cluster sample studied spans a significant ran...

  11. Chemical abundance analysis of the Open Clusters Berkeley 32, NGC 752, Hyades and Praesepe

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera, R

    2011-01-01

    Context. Open clusters are ideal test particles to study the chemical evolution of the Galactic disc. However the existing high-resolution abundance determinations, not only of [Fe/H], but also of other key elements, is largely insufficient at the moment. Aims. To increase the number of Galactic open clusters with high quality abundance determinations, and to gather all the literature determinations published so far. Methods. Using high-resolution (R~30000), high-quality (S/N$>60 per pixel), we obtained spectra for twelve stars in four open clusters with the fiber spectrograph FOCES, at the 2.2 Calar Alto Telescope in Spain. We use the classical equivalent widths analysis to obtain accurate abundances of sixteen elements: Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Mg, Na, Nd, Ni, Sc, Si, Ti, V, Y. Oxygen abundances have been derived through spectral synthesis of the 6300 A forbidden line. Results. We provide the first determination of abundance ratios other than Fe for NGC 752 giants, and ratios in agreement with the litera...

  12. The substellar mass function in the central region of the open cluster Praesepe from deep LBT observations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, W; Goldman, B; Henning, Th; Caballero, J A; Bailer-Jones, C A L

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the mass function (MF) of open clusters of different ages allow us to probe the efficiency with which brown dwarfs (BDs) are evaporated from clusters to populate the field. Surveys in old clusters (age > 100 Myr) do not suffer so severely from several problems encountered in young clusters, such as intra-cluster extinction and large uncertainties in BD models. Here we present the results of a deep photometric survey to study the MF of the old open cluster Praesepe (age 590 Myr and distance 190 pc), down to a 5 sigma detection limit at i~25.6 mag (~40M_Jup). We identify 62 cluster member candidates, of which 40 are substellar, from comparison with predictions from a dusty atmosphere model. The MF rises from the substellar boundary until ~60M_Jup and then declines. This is quite different from the form inferred for other open clusters older than 50 Myr, but seems to be similar to those found in very young open cluster, whose MFs peak at ~10M_Jup. Either Praesepe really does have a different MF from o...

  13. Accurate age determinations of several nearby open clusters containing magnetic Ap stars

    CERN Document Server

    Silaj, J

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Our aim is to obtain ages that are as accurate as possible for the seven nearby open clusters alpha Per, Coma Ber, IC 2602, NGC 2232, NGC 2451A, NGC 2516, and NGC 6475, each of which contains at least one magnetic Ap or Bp star. Simultaneously, we test the current calibrations of Te and luminosity for the Ap/Bp star members, and identify clearly blue stragglers in the clusters studied. Methods: We explore the possibility that isochrone fitting in the theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (i.e. log (L/L&sun;) vs. log Te), rather than in the conventional colour-magnitude diagram, can provide more precise and accurate cluster ages, with well-defined uncertainties. Results: Well-defined ages are found for all the clusters studied. For the nearby clusters studied, the derived ages are not very sensitive to the small uncertainties in distance, reddening, membership, metallicity, or choice of isochrones. Our age determinations are all within the range of previously determined values, but the associated u...

  14. Anchors for the Cosmic Distance Scale: the Cepheid QZ Normae in the Open Cluster NGC 6067

    CERN Document Server

    Majaess, D; Bidin, C Moni; Soto, M; Gieren, W; Cohen, R; Mauro, F; Geisler, D; Bonatto, C; Borissova, J; Minniti, D; Turner, D; Lane, D; Madore, B; Carraro, G; Berdnikov, L

    2013-01-01

    Cepheids are key to establishing the cosmic distance scale. Therefore it's important to assess the viability of QZ Nor, V340 Nor, and GU Nor as calibrators for Leavitt's law via their purported membership in the open cluster NGC 6067. The following suite of evidence confirms that QZ Nor and V340 Nor are members of NGC 6067, whereas GU Nor likely lies in the foreground: (i) existing radial velocities for QZ Nor and V340 Nor agree with that established for the cluster (-39.4+-1.2 km/s) to within 1 km/s, whereas GU Nor exhibits a markedly smaller value; (ii) a steep velocity-distance gradient characterizes the sight-line toward NGC 6067, thus implying that objects sharing common velocities are nearly equidistant; (iii) a radial profile constructed for NGC 6067 indicates that QZ Nor is within the cluster bounds, despite being 20' from the cluster center; (iv) new BVJH photometry for NGC 6067 confirms the cluster lies d=1.75+-0.10 kpc distant, a result that matches Wesenheit distances computed for QZ Nor/V340 Nor ...

  15. Detection of solar-like oscillations from Kepler photometry of the open cluster NGC 6819

    CERN Document Server

    Stello, Dennis; Bruntt, Hans; Mosser, Benoit; Stevens, Ian R; Brown, Timothy M; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen; Gilliland, Ronald L; Kjeldsen, Hans; Arentoft, Torben; Ballot, Jerome; Barban, Caroline; Bedding, Timothy R; Chaplin, William J; Elsworth, Yvonne P; Garcia, Rafael A; Goupil, Marie-Jo; Hekker, Saskia; Huber, Daniel; Mathur, Savita; Meibom, Soren; Samadi, Reza; Sangaralingam, Vinothini; Baldner, Charles S; Belkacem, Kevin; Biazzo, Katia; Brogaard, Karsten; Suarez, Juan Carlos; D'Antona, Francesca; Demarque, Pierre; Esch, Lisa; Gai, Ning; Grundah, Frank; Lebreton, Yveline; Jiang, Biwei; Jevtic, Nada; Karoff, Christoffer; Miglio, Andrea; Molenda-Zakowicz, Joanna; Montalban, Josefina; Noels, Arlette; Cortes, Teodoro Roca; Roxburgh, Ian W; Serenelli, Aldo M; Silva, Victor; Sterken, Aguirre Christiaan; Stine, Peter; Szabo, Robert; Weiss, Achim; Borucki, William J; Koch, David; Jenkins, Jon M

    2010-01-01

    Asteroseismology of stars in clusters has been a long-sought goal because the assumption of a common age, distance and initial chemical composition allows strong tests of the theory of stellar evolution. We report results from the first 34 days of science data from the Kepler Mission for the open cluster NGC 6819 -- one of four clusters in the field of view. We obtain the first clear detections of solar-like oscillations in the cluster red giants and are able to measure the large frequency separation and the frequency of maximum oscillation power. We find that the asteroseismic parameters allow us to test cluster-membership of the stars, and even with the limited seismic data in hand, we can already identify four possible non-members despite their having a better than 80% membership probability from radial velocity measurements. We are also able to determine the oscillation amplitudes for stars that span about two orders of magnitude in luminosity and find good agreement with the prediction that oscillation a...

  16. A comprehensive photometric study of dynamically evolved small van den Bergh-Hagen open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Piatti, Andrés E

    2016-01-01

    We present results from Johnson $UBV$, Kron-Cousins $RI$ and Washington $CT_1T_2$ photometries for seven van den Bergh-Hagen (vdBH) open clusters, namely, vdBH\\,1, 10, 31, 72, 87, 92, and 118. The high-quality, multi-band photometric data sets were used to trace the cluster stellar density radial profiles and to build colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and colour-colour (CC) diagrams from which we estimated their structural parameters and fundamental astrophysical properties. The clusters in our sample cover a wide age range, from $\\sim$ 60 Myr up to 2.8 Gyr, are of relatively small size ($\\sim$ 1 $-$ 6 pc) and are placed at distances from the Sun which vary between 1.8 and 6.3 kpc, respectively. We also estimated lower limits for the cluster present-day masses as well as half-mass relaxation times ($t_r$). The resulting values in combination with the structural parameter values suggest that the studied clusters are in advanced stages of their internal dynamical evolution (age/$t_r$ $\\sim$ 20 $-$ 320), possibly...

  17. Peculiarities of the abundances of neutron-capture elements in Galactic open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Marsakov, V A; Koval', V V; Shpigel', L V

    2016-01-01

    The properties of the relative abundances of rapid and slow neutron-capture elements are studied using a catalog containing spectroscopic abundance determinations for 14~elements produced in various nuclear-synthesis processes for 90~open clusters. The catalog also contains the positions, ages, velocities, and elements of the Galactic orbits of the clusters. The relative abundances of both $r$-elements (Eu) and $s$-elements (Y, Ba, La, and Ce) in clusters with high, elongated orbits and in field stars of the Galactic thin disk display different dependences on metallicity, age, Galactocentric distance, and the elements of the Galactic orbits, supporting the view that these objects have different natures. In young clusters, not only barium, but also the three other studied $s$-elements display significantly higher relative abundances than field stars of the same metallicity. The relative abundances of Eu are lower in high-metallicity clusters (${\\rm [Fe/H]} > -0.1$) with high, elongated orbits than in field gia...

  18. Candidate free-floating super-Jupiters in the young sigma Orionis open cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Bihain, G; Osorio, M R Zapatero; Béjar, V J S; Villó-Pérez, I; Díaz-Sánchez, A; Pérez-Garrido, A; Caballero, J A; Bailer-Jones, C A L; Navascués, D Barrado y; Eislöffel, J; Forveille, T; Goldman, B; Henning, T; Martín, E L; Mundt, R

    2009-01-01

    Free-floating substellar candidates with estimated theoretical masses of as low as ~5 Jupiter masses have been found in the ~3 Myr old sigma Orionis open cluster. As the overlap with the planetary mass domain increases, the question of how these objects form becomes important. The determination of their number density and whether a mass cut-off limit exists is crucial to understanding their formation. We propose to search for objects of yet lower masses in the cluster and determine the shape of the mass function at low mass. Using new- and (re-analysed) published IZJHKs[3.6]-[8.0]-band data of an area of 840 arcmin2, we performed a search for LT-type cluster member candidates in the magnitude range J=19.5-21.5 mag, based on their expected magnitudes and colours. Besides recovering the T type object S Ori 70 and two other known objects, we find three new cluster member candidates, S Ori 72-74, with J=21 mag and within 12 arcmin of the cluster centre. They have theoretical masses of 4 (-2,+3) M_Jup and are amon...

  19. The SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline. II. Validation with Galactic Globular and Open Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.S.; Beers, T.C.; Sivarani, T.; Johnson, J.A.; An, D.; Wilhelm, R.; Prieto, C.Allende; Koesterke, L.; Re Fiorentin, P.; Bailer-Jones, C.A.L.; Norris, J.E.

    2007-10-01

    The authors validate the performance and accuracy of the current SEGUE (Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration) Stellar Parameter Pipeline (SSPP), which determines stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity) by comparing derived overall metallicities and radial velocities from selected likely members of three globular clusters (M 13, M 15, and M 2) and two open clusters (NGC 2420 and M 67) to the literature values. Spectroscopic and photometric data obtained during the course of the original Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-1) and its first extension (SDSS-II/SEGUE) are used to determine stellar radial velocities and atmospheric parameter estimates for stars in these clusters. Based on the scatter in the metallicities derived for the members of each cluster, they quantify the typical uncertainty of the SSPP values, {sigma}([Fe/H]) = 0.13 dex for stars in the range of 4500 K {le} T{sub eff} {le} 7500 K and 2.0 {le} log g {le} 5.0, at least over the metallicity interval spanned by the clusters studied (-2.3 {le} [Fe/H] < 0). The surface gravities and effective temperatures derived by the SSPP are also compared with those estimated from the comparison of the color-magnitude diagrams with stellar evolution models; they find satisfactory agreement. At present, the SSPP underestimates [Fe/H] for near-solar-metallicity stars, represented by members of M 67 in this study, by {approx} 0.3 dex.

  20. The stellar and substellar mass function in central region of the old open cluster Praesepe from deep LBT observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the mass function of open clusters of different ages allow us to study the efficiency with which brown dwarfs are evaporated from clusters to populate the field. Surveys in relatively old clusters (age ≳100 Myr do not suffer from problems found in young clusters, such as intra-cluster extinction and large uncertainties in brown dwarf models. In this paper, we present the results of a photometric survey to study the mass function of the old open cluster Praesepe (age of ~590 Myr and distance of ~190 pc, down to the substellar regime. We have performed optical (riz and Y-band photometric survey of Praesepe with the Large Binocular Telescope Camera, for a spatial coverage of 0.61 deg2 from ~90 MJ down to a 5σ detection limit at 40 MJ.

  1. Hybrid MPI-OpenMP Paradigm on SMP Clusters: MPEG-2 Encoder and N-Body Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Duy, Truong Vinh Truong; Yamazaki, Katsuhiro; Ikegami, Kosai; Oyanagi, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Clusters of SMP nodes provide support for a wide diversity of parallel programming paradigms. Combining both shared memory and message passing parallelizations within the same application, the hybrid MPI-OpenMP paradigm is an emerging trend for parallel programming to fully exploit distributed shared-memory architecture. In this paper, we improve the performance of MPEG-2 encoder and n-body simulation by employing the hybrid MPI-OpenMP programming paradigm on SMP clusters. The hierarchical im...

  2. Properties of the open cluster Tombaugh 1 from high resolution spectroscopy and uvbyCaH$\\beta$ photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, João V Sales; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J; Bidin, Christian Moni; Costa, Edgardo; Twarog, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Open clusters can be the key to deepen our knowledge on various issues involving the structure and evolution of the Galactic disk and details of stellar evolution because a cluster's properties are applicable to all its members. However the number of open clusters with detailed analysis from high resolution spectroscopy and/or precision photometry imposes severe limitation on studies of these objects. To expand the number of open clusters with well-defined chemical abundances and fundamental parameters, we investigate the poorly studied, anticenter open cluster Tombaugh 1. Using precision uvbyCaH$\\beta$ photometry and high resolution spectroscopy, we derive the cluster's properties and, for the first time, present detailed abundance analysis of 10 potential cluster stars. Using radial position from the cluster center and multiple color indices, we have isolated a sample of unevolved probable, single-star members of Tombaugh 1. The weighted photometric metallicity from $m_1$ and $hk$ is [Fe/H] = -0.10 $\\pm$ 0....

  3. Abundance analysis of B, A and F dwarfs in the M6 open cluster: Spectrum synthesis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliçoğlu, T.; Monier, R.; Fossati, L.

    2012-12-01

    The chemical abundances of 10 stars in the M6 open cluster (˜100 Myr) were derived using spectrum synthesis. The stars were observed using the FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph. We found star-to-star variations in abundances for A type stars. General enrichment of Si, Cr, and Y were obtained for the cluster.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galactic open clusters in RAVE (Conrad+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, C.; Scholz, R.-D.; Kharchenko, N. V.; Piskunov, A. E.; Schilbach, E.; Roser, S.; Boeche, C.; Kordopatis, G.; Siebert, A.; Williams, M.; Munari, U.; Matijevic, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Zwitter, T.; de Jong, R. S.; Steinmetz, M.; Gilmore, G.; Seabroke, G.; Freeman, K.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q.; Reid, W.; Watson, F.; Gibson, B. K.; Bienayme, O.; Wyse, R.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Siviero, A.

    2014-01-01

    The presented tables summarise new radial velocities and average metallicities for Galactic open clusters extracted from the Catalogue of Open Cluster Data (COCD; Kharchenko et al. 2005, Cat. J/A+A/438/1163, J/A+A/440/403). The data were obtained from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE; Kordopatis et al. 2013AJ....146..134K) through a cross match with the stellar catalogues related to the COCD. The RV and [M/H] values were computed as weighted means, considering the individual uncertainties of the included members and their cluster membership probability based on position, proper motion, and photometry. The three uncertainties listed originate from different calculations: "RVRAVE" and "MetRAVE" are the weighted mean values for RV and [M/H] "errRV" and "errMet" are equivalent to the uncertainty of the mean values "sigRV" and "sigMet" are the standard deviations of the mean values "eRV" and "eMet" weighted mean values of the individual uncertainties of the included open cluster (OC) members For the calculations we primarily considered most probable OC members (best members) with a membership probability of at least 61%. Only in cases where just one or no most probable members was available we also included possible members (good members) with membership probabilities above 14%. In the table we include the numbers for both types of members separately: best members -> "bmem" and good members -> "gmem". We included reference values for RVs from the second version of the Catalogue of Radial Velocities with Astrometric Data (CRVAD-2) and the Catalogue of Radial Velocities of Open Clusters and Associations (CRVOCA) provided by Kharchenko et al. 2007, Cat. III/254). The CRVAD-2 reference values were computed according to the RAVE values for identified OC members. The CRVOCA references were directly extracted from the catalogue and number of OC members used are given in column "nmem". The reference values for [M/H] were obtained from the online compilation provided by Dias

  5. Old open clusters in the Sagittarius dSph tidal stream -- kith or kin?

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    A widely supported formation scenario for the Galactic disc is that it formed inside-out from material accumulated via accretion events. The Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr dSph) is the best example of a such accretion, and its ongoing disruption has resulted in that its stars are being deposited in the Milky Way halo and outer disc. It is therefore appealing to search for possible signatures of the Sgr dSph contribution to the build-up of the Galactic disc. Interestingly, models of the Sgr dSph stream indicate clearly that the trailing tail passes through the outer Galactic disc, at the same galactocentric distance as some anti-centre old open star clusters. We investigate in this Letter the possibility that the two outermost old open clusters, Berkeley~29 and Saurer~1, could have formed inside the Sgr dSph and then left behind in the outer Galactic disc as a result of tidal interaction with the Milky Way. The actual location of these two star clusters, inside the Sgr dSph trailing tail, is compatib...

  6. The chemical compositions of solar twins in the open cluster M67

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, F; Yong, D; Melendez, J; Ramirez, I; Karakas, A I; Carlos, M; Marino, A F

    2016-01-01

    Stars in open clusters are expected to share an identical abundance pattern. Establishing the level of chemical homogeneity in a given open cluster deserves further study as it is the basis of the concept of chemical tagging to unravel the history of the Milky Way. M67 is particularly interesting given its solar metallicity and age as well as being a dense cluster environment. We conducted a strictly line-by-line differential chemical abundance analysis of two solar twins in M67: M67-1194 and M67-1315. Stellar atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances were obtained with high precision using Keck/HIRES spectra. M67-1194 is essentially identical to the Sun in terms of its stellar parameters. M67-1315 is warmer than M67-1194 by ~ 150 K as well as slightly more metal-poor than M67-1194 by ~ 0.05 dex. M67-1194 is also found to have identical chemical composition to the Sun, confirming its solar twin nature. The abundance ratios [X/Fe] of M67-1315 are similar to the solar abundances for elements with atomic n...

  7. Search for giant planets in M67 III: excess of hot Jupiters in dense open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Brucalassi, A; Saglia, R; Ruiz, M T; Bonifacio, P; Leao, I; Martins, B L Canto; de Medeiros, J R; Bedin, L R; Biazzo, K; Melo, C; Lovis, C; Randich, S

    2016-01-01

    Since 2008 we used high-precision radial velocity (RV) measurements obtained with different telescopes to detect signatures of massive planets around main-sequence and evolved stars of the open cluster (OC) M67. We aimed to perform a long-term study on giant planet formation in open clusters and determine how this formation depends on stellar mass and chemical composition. A new hot Jupiter (HJ) around the main-sequence star YBP401 is reported in this work. An update of the RV measurements for the two HJ host-stars YBP1194 and YBP1514 is also discussed. Our sample of 66 main-sequence and turnoff stars includes 3 HJs, which indicates a high rate of HJs in this cluster (~5.6% for single stars and ~4.5% for the full sample ). This rate is much higher than what has been discovered in the field, either with RV surveys or by transits. High metallicity is not a cause for the excess of HJs in M67, nor can the excess be attributed to high stellar masses. When combining this rate with the non-zero eccentricity of the o...

  8. A super lithium-rich red-clump star in the open cluster Trumpler 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, L.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Bonifacio, P.; Villanova, S.; Carraro, G.; Caffau, E.; Steffen, M.; Ahumada, J. A.; Beletsky, Y.; Beccari, G.

    2014-04-01

    Context. The existence of lithium-rich low-mass red giant stars still represents a challenge for stellar evolution models. Stellar clusters are privileged environments for this kind of investigation. Aims: To investigate the chemical abundance pattern of the old open cluster Trumpler 5, we observed a sample of four red-clump stars with high-resolution optical spectrographs. One of them (#3416) reveals extremely strong lithium lines in its spectrum. Methods: One-dimensional, local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis was performed on the spectra of the observed stars. A 3D-NLTE analysis was performed to derive the lithium abundance of star #3416. Results: Star #3416 is super Li-rich with A(Li) = 3.75 dex. The lack of 6Li enrichment (6Li/7Li Cameron & Fowler mechanism. Conclusions: We identified a super Li-rich core helium-burning, red-clump star in an open cluster. Internal production is the most likely cause of the observed enrichment. Given the expected short duration of a star's Li-rich phase, enrichment is likely to have occurred at the red clump or in the immediately preceding phases, namely during the He-flash at the tip of the red giant branch (RGB) or while ascending the brightest portion of the RGB. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program ID 088.D-0045(A).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Elemental Abundance Analysis of the Early Type Members of the Open Cluster M6: Preliminary Results

    CERN Document Server

    Kilicoglu, T; Fossati, L

    2014-01-01

    Differences in chemical composition among main sequence stars within a given cluster are probably due to differences in their masses and other effects such as radiative diffusion, magnetic field, rotation, mixing mechanisms, mass loss, accretion and multiplicity. The early type main-sequence members of open clusters of different ages allow to study the competition between radiative diffusion and mixing mechanisms. We have analysed low and high resolution spectra covering the spectral range 4500 - 5840 Angs. of late B, A, and F type members of the open Cluster M6 (age about 100 Myr). The spectra were obtained using the FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph mounted at UT2, the 8 meter class VLT telescope. The effective temperatures, surface gravities and microturbulent velocities of the stars were derived using both photometric and spectral methods. We have also performed a chemical abundance analysis using synthetic spectra. The abundances of the elements were determined for C, O, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Y, ...

  10. Spatial dependence of 2MASS luminosity and mass functions in the old open cluster NGC 188

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatto, C; Santos, J F C

    2005-01-01

    Luminosity and mass functions in the old open cluster NGC 188 are analysed by means of J and H 2MASS photometry. Within the uncertainties, the observed projected radial density profile of NGC 188 departs from the two-parameter King model in two inner regions, which reflects the non-virialized dynamical state and possibly, some degree of non-sphericity in the spatial shape of this old open cluster. Fits with two and three-parameter King models to the radial distribution of stars resulted in a core radius of 1.3 pc and a tidal radius of 21 pc. The present 2MASS analysis resulted in significant slope variations with distance in the mass function $\\phi(m)\\propto m^{-(1+\\chi)}$, being flat in the central parts ($\\chi=0.6\\pm0.7$) and steep in the cluster outskirts ($\\chi=7.2\\pm0.6$). The overall mass function has a slope $\\chi=1.9\\pm0.7$, slightly steeper than a standard Salpeter mass function. Solar metallicity Padova isochrone fits to the near-infrared colour-magnitude diagram of NGC 188 resulted in an age of $7....

  11. X-ray and optical spectroscopy of the massive young open cluster IC1805

    CERN Document Server

    Rauw, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Very young open clusters are ideal places to study the X-ray properties of a homogeneous population of early-type stars. In this respect, the IC1805 open cluster is very interesting as it hosts the O4If$^+$ star HD15570 thought to be in an evolutionary stage intermediate between a normal O-star and a Wolf-Rayet star. Such a star could provide a test for theoretical models aiming at explaining the empirical scaling relation between the X-ray and bolometric luminosities of O-type stars. We have observed IC1805 with XMM-Newton and further collected optical spectroscopy of some of the O-star members of the cluster. The optical spectra allow us to revisit the orbital solutions of BD+60$^{\\circ}$ 497 and HD15558, and provide the first evidence of binarity for BD+60$^{\\circ}$ 498. X-ray emission from colliding winds does not appear to play an important role among the O-stars of IC1805. Notably, the X-ray fluxes do not vary significantly between archival X-ray observations and our XMM-Newton pointing. The very fast r...

  12. Galactic Globular and Open Clusters in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. Crowded Field Photometry and Cluster Fiducial Sequences in ugriz

    CERN Document Server

    An, Deokkeun; Clem, James L; Yanny, Brian; Rockosi, Constance M; Morrison, Heather L; Harding, Paul; Gunn, James E; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Beers, Timothy C; Cudworth, Kyle M; Ivans, Inese I; Ivezic, Zeljko; Lee, Young Sun; Lupton, Robert H; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Dan; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey; Snedden, Stephanie; Watters, Shannon; York, Donald G

    2008-01-01

    We present photometry for globular and open cluster stars observed with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). In order to exploit over 100 million stellar objects with r < 22.5 mag observed by SDSS, we need to understand the characteristics of stars in the SDSS ugriz filters. While star clusters provide important calibration samples for stellar colors, the regions close to globular clusters, where the fraction of field stars is smallest, are too crowded for the standard SDSS photometric pipeline to process. To complement the SDSS imaging survey, we reduce the SDSS imaging data for crowded cluster fields using the DAOPHOT/ALLFRAME suite of programs and present photometry for 17 globular clusters and 3 open clusters in a SDSS value-added catalog. Our photometry and cluster fiducial sequences are on the native SDSS 2.5-meter ugriz photometric system, and the fiducial sequences can be directly applied to the SDSS photometry without relying upon any transformations. Model photometry for red giant branch and main...

  13. Protoplanetary and Transitional Disks in the Open Stellar Cluster IC 2395

    CERN Document Server

    Balog, Zoltan; Rieke, G H; Kiss, L L; Muzerolle, James; Gutermuth, R A; Bell, Cameron P M; Vinko, J; Su, K Y L; Young, E T; Gaspar, Andras

    2016-01-01

    We present new deep UBVRI images and high-resolution multi-object optical spectroscopy of the young (~ 6 - 10 Myr old), relatively nearby (800 pc) open cluster IC 2395. We identify nearly 300 cluster members and use the photometry to estimate their spectral types, which extend from early B to middle M. We also present an infrared imaging survey of the central region using the IRAC and MIPS instruments on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, covering the wavelength range from 3.6 to 24 microns. Our infrared observations allow us to detect dust in circumstellar disks originating over a typical range of radii ~ 0.1 to ~ 10AU from the central star. We identify 18 Class II, 8 transitional disk, and 23 debris disk candidates, respectively 6.5%, 2.9%, and 8.3% of the cluster members with appropriate data. We apply the same criteria for transitional disk identification to 19 other stellar clusters and associations spanning ages from ~ 1 to ~ 18 Myr. We find that the number of disks in the transitional phase as a fracti...

  14. A study of variable stars in the open cluster NGC 1582 and its surrounding field

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Fang-Fang; Ma, Lu; Liu, Jin-Zhong; Zhang, Yu; Niu, Hu-Biao; Yang, Tao-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Charge-Coupled Device time-series photometric observations of the open cluster NGC 1582 and its surrounding field with Johnson B, V and R filters by using Nanshan 1m telescope of Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory. 19 variable stars and 3 variable candidates were detected in a 45 {\\times} 48.75 field around the cluster. 12 of the variable stars are newly-discovered variable objects. The physical properties, classifications, and membership of the 22 objects are studied through their light curves, their positions on the color-magnitude diagram, and with the archival data from the Naval Observatory Merged Astrometric Dataset. Among these objects, 5 are eclipsing binary systems, 6 are pulsating variable stars including one known Delta Scuti star and one newly-discovered RR Lyrae star. The distance of the RR Lyrae star is estimated to be 7.9 {\\pm} 0.3 kpc, indicates that the star locates far behind the cluster. 4 variable stars are probable members of the cluster, and 13 of the 22 objects ar...

  15. Photometric and spectroscopic study of the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 2355

    CERN Document Server

    Donati, P; Carretta, E; D'Orazi, V; Tosi, M; Cusano, F; Carini, R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the evolutionary status and properties of the old open cluster NGC 2355, located in the Galactic anticentre direction, as a part of the long term programme BOCCE. NGC 2355 was observed with LBC@LBT using the Bessel $B$, $V$, and $I_c$ filters. The cluster parameters have been obtained using the synthetic colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) method, as done in other papers of this series. Additional spectroscopic observations with FIES@NOT of three giant stars were used to determine the chemical properties of the cluster. Our analysis shows that NGC 2355 has metallicity slightly less than solar, with [Fe/H]$=-0.06$ dex, age between 0.8 and 1 Gyr, reddening $E(B-V)$ in the range 0.14 and 0.19 mag, and distance modulus $(m-M)_0$ of about 11 mag. We also investigated the abundances of O, Na, Al, $\\alpha$, iron-peak, and neutron capture elements, showing that NGC 2355 falls within the abundance distribution of similar clusters (same age and metallicity). The Galactocentric distance of NGC~2355 p...

  16. Young open clusters in the galactic star forming region NGC 6357

    CERN Document Server

    Massi, Fabrizio; di Carlo, Elisa; Brand, Jan; Beltrán, Maria Teresa; Marconi, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    NGC6357 is an active star forming region with very young massive open clusters (OC). These clusters contain some of the most massive stars in the Galaxy and strongly interact with nearby giant molecular clouds (GMC). We study the young stellar populations of the region and of the OC Pismis24, focusing on their relationship with the nearby GMCs. We seek evidence of triggered star formation propagating from the clusters. We used new deep JHKs photometry, along with unpublished deep IRAC/Spitzer MIR photometry, complemented with optical HST/WFPC2 high spatial resolution photometry and X-ray Chandra observations, to constrain age, initial mass function, and star formation modes in progress. We carefully examine and discuss all sources of bias (saturation, confusion, different sensitivities, extinction). NGC6357 hosts three large young stellar clusters, of which Pismis24 is the most prominent. We found that Pismis24 is a very young (~1-3 Myr) OC with a Salpeter-like IMF and a few thousand members. A comparison bet...

  17. The Detached Eclipsing Binary KV29 and the Age of the Open Cluster M11

    CERN Document Server

    Bavarsad, Ernest A; Shetrone, Matthew D; Orosz, Jerome A

    2016-01-01

    We present an extensive set of photometry and radial velocities for the detached eclipsing binary KV 29 in the intermediate-aged open cluster M11 (NGC 6705). Spectroscopy shows that the system is double-lined and all available evidence (proper motion, photometry, and position on the CMD) indicates it is a member of the cluster. We find the period of the binary to be $4.64276\\pm0.00001$ days. We find masses $3.604^{+0.002}_{-0.011}M_\\odot$ and $1.837^{+0.001}_{-0.006}M_\\odot$, and radii $5.392^{+0.018}_{-0.035}R_\\odot$ and $1.656^{+0.007}_{-0.044}R_\\odot$ for the primary and secondary stars, respectively. Because the primary star in the binary is rapidly evolving and is brighter than the cluster turnoff in a color-magnitude diagram, the measurement of its radius leads to a strong constraint on the cluster age. We find the age of M11 to be $222^{+2}_{-3}\\pm15$ Myr, where the quoted uncertainties come from statistical errors in the calculated masses and radii, and systematic uncertainties due to the ambiguity of...

  18. Complex open-framework germanate built by 8-coordinated Ge 10 clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Huijuan

    2012-11-19

    A novel open-framework germanate |(C 5H 14N 2) 2(C 5H 12N 2) 0.5(H 2O) 2.5|[Ge 12.5O 26(OH) 2] with three-dimensional 10- and 11-ring channels, denoted as SU-67, has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions using 2-methylpiperazine (MPP) as the structure-directing agent (SDA). The synthesis is intimately related to that of JLG-5, a tubular germanate built from Ge 7 clusters. The influences of synthesis parameters are discussed. A strong influence of the hydrofluoric acid quantity on the resulting cluster building units can be concluded. The framework of SU-67 is based on an elaborate topological pattern of connected Ge 10 clusters forming intersecting 10- and 11-ring channels and has a low framework density (12.4 Ge atoms per 1000 ̊ 3). We have discovered that the topology of SU-67 is a new 8-connected nce-8-I4 1/acd net. Strong hydrogen bonding among the organic SDAs, water molecules, and Ge 10 clusters resulted in helical networks in SU-67. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  19. Variable Stars in the Field of the Open Cluster NGC 2126

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shun-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Wu, Jiang-Hua; Ma, Jun; Jiang, Zhao-Ji; Chen, Jian-Sheng; Zhou, Xu

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of a time-series CCD photometric survey of variable stars in the field of the open cluster NGC 2126. In about one square degree field covering the cluster, a total number of 21 variable candidates are detected during this survey, of which 16 are newly found. The periods, classifications and spectral types of 14 newly discovered variables are discussed, which consist of six eclipsing binaries systems, three pulsating variable stars, three long period variables, one RS CVn star, and one W UMa or $\\delta$ Scuti star. In addition, there are two variable candidates, the properties of which cannot be determined in this paper. By a method based on fitting spectral energy distributions(SEDs) of stars with theoretical ones, the membership probabilities and the fundamental parameters of this cluster are determined. As a result, five variables are probably members of NGC 2126. The fundamental parameters of the this cluster are determined as: the metallicity to be 0.008 $Z_\\odot$, the age $\\log(t)$=...

  20. Lithium abundance evolution in open clusters: Hyades, NGC752, and M67

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, Matthieu; Nascimento, José Dias do

    2013-01-01

    Mixing mechanisms bring the Li from the base of the convective zone to deeper and warmer layers where it is destroyed. These mechanisms are investigated by comparing observations of Li abundances in stellar atmospheres to models of stellar evolution. Observations in open cluster are especially suitable for this comparison, since their age and metallicity are homogeneous among their members and better determined than in field stars. In this work, we compare the evolution of Li abundances in three different clusters: the Hyades, NGC752, and M67. Our models are calculated with microscopic diffusion and transport of chemicals by meridional circulation, and calibrated on the Sun. These comparisons allow us to follow the evolution of Li abundance as a function of stellar mass in each cluster and as a function of the age by comparing this evolution in each cluster. We evaluate the efficiency of the mixing mechanisms used in the models, and we try to identify the lacking mechanisms to reproduce the observed evolution...

  1. Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfei Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DBSCAN is a well-known density-based clustering algorithm which offers advantages for finding clusters of arbitrary shapes compared to partitioning and hierarchical clustering methods. However, there are few papers studying the DBSCAN algorithm under the privacy preserving distributed data mining model, in which the data is distributed between two or more parties, and the parties cooperate to obtain the clustering results without revealing the data at the individual parties. In this paper, we address the problem of two-party privacy preserving DBSCAN clustering. We first propose two protocols for privacy preserving DBSCAN clustering over horizontally and vertically partitioned data respectively and then extend them to arbitrarily partitioned data. We also provide performance analysis and privacy proof of our solution..

  2. NGC6791: A case study of using CN and CH band strengths to detect chemical inhomogeneities in open clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberg, Owen; Martell, S. L.; Friel, E. D.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the CN and CH molecular band strengths for cluster members of the open cluster NGC 6791 using low resolution (R ~ 2000) SEGUE spectra. The spectra were taken as part of the validation process for the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline (SSPP) and released in the eighth SDSS data release. If there are star-to-star abundance variations present at a given evolutionary state in a stellar population, they may be observed through variations in the molecular band strengths at that stage. Characterizing these variations in globular clusters has shown that the band strengths form a bimodal distribution, indicative of cluster members with different chemical abundances and possibly multiple generations of stars. In this work, we use this technique on an open cluster (NGC 6791) to address the possibility of abundance variations present in the cluster. Performing this analysis on other open clusters has resulted in unimodal distributions of CN and CH band strengths, as expected from their typical physical characteristics. NGC 6791, however, provides an interesting case study for this analysis due to its high mass ~5 x 10 4 solar masses, old age ~ 8 Gyr, and high metallicity [Fe/H] ~ +0.4 dex, making it a less than typical open cluster. For this reason, NGC 6791 has been the subject of other studies (see Twarog, et al. 2011; Geisler, et al. 2012; Carrera, 2012) focused on detecting abundance variations in the cluster using broadband photometry, high resolution spectra, and molecular band strengths. These studies have found some evidence for abundance variations among the cluster members, but there is still debate as to whether these findings are conclusive. In this study, we do not find evidence to support abundance variations between cluster members of NGC 6791.

  3. Photometric study of W UMa type binaries in the old open cluster Berkeley 39

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kandulapati Sriram; Yellapragada Ravi Kiron; Pasagada Vivekananda Rao

    2009-01-01

    The study of W UMa binary systems gives a wealth of information about their nature as well as their parent bodies(if any).like clusters.In this paper,we present the Ⅰ passband photometric solutions of four W UMa binaries in the open cluster Berkeley 39 using the latest version of the W-D program.The result shows that two binary systems are W-subtype W UMa binary systems and the other two systems are H-subtype W UMa binary systems.No third body has been found in any of the four systems.we found a correlation between the period and mass-ratio as well as temperature and mass-ratio for the respective variables,which is similar to the relationship between mass ratio and total mass of the contact binaries as shown by van't Veer and Li et al.

  4. Quantitative Stellar Spectral Classification. IV. Application to the Open Cluster IC 2391

    CERN Document Server

    García, J; Velásquez, R

    2008-01-01

    In this work we perform the first test of a stellar spectral classification method (Stock & Stock 1999) by applying it to early type stars. The sample of stars are the members of the open cluster IC 2391 that have high-resolution spectra available in the UVES Project of Paranal Observatory. We show that, in general, absolute magnitudes $M_V$ and intrinsic colors $(B-V)_0$ can be recovered within the uncertainties stated in the original calibration ($\\sim 0.4$ for the magnitudes and $\\sim 0.03$ for the colors). This accuracy allows us to estimate distances and to infer membership of individual stars to obtain an average distance to the cluster of $156\\pm 24$ pc, which is in good agreement with previous reported determinations. Finally, we identify and discuss the real strengths and limitations of this method and we suggest how it can be improved for future studies.

  5. Apex determination and detection of stellar clumps in the open cluster M 67

    CERN Document Server

    Vereshchagin, S V; Sariya, Devesh P; Yadav, R K S; Kumar, Brijesh

    2014-01-01

    We determined the cluster apex coordinates, studied the substructures and performed membership analysis in the central part (34'X33') of the open cluster M 67. We used the individual stellar apexes method developed earlier and classical technique of proper motion diagrams in coordinate system connected with apex. The neighbour-to-neighbour distance technique was applied to detect space details. The membership list was corrected and some stars were excluded from the most probable members list. The apex coordinates have been determined as: A0=132.97deg+/-0.81deg and D0=11.85deg+/-0.90deg. The 2D-space star density field was analysed and high degree of inhomogeneity was found.

  6. Search for transiting exoplanets and variable stars in the open cluster NGC 7243

    CERN Document Server

    Garai, Z; Hambálek, L; Errmann, R; Adam, Ch; Buder, S; Butterley, T; Dhillon, V S; Dincel, B; Gilbert, H; Ginski, Ch; Hardy, L K; Kellerer, A; Kitze, M; Kundra, E; Littlefair, S P; Mugrauer, M; Nedoroščík, J; Neuhäuser, R; Pannicke, A; Raetz, S; Schmidt, J G; Schmidt, T O B; Seeliger, M; Vaňko, M; Wilson, R W

    2016-01-01

    We report results of the first five observing campaigns for the open stellar cluster NGC 7243 in the frame of project Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative (YETI). The project focuses on the monitoring of young and nearby stellar clusters, with the aim to detect young transiting exoplanets, and to study other variability phenomena on time-scales from minutes to years. After five observing campaigns and additional observations during 2013 and 2014, a clear and repeating transit-like signal was detected in the light curve of J221550.6+495611. Furthermore, we detected and analysed 37 new eclipsing binary stars in the studied region. The best fit parameters and light curves of all systems are given. Finally, we detected and analysed 26 new, presumably pulsating variable stars in the studied region. The follow-up investigation of these objects, including spectroscopic measurements of the exoplanet candidate, is currently planned.

  7. Deep Infrared ZAMS Fits to Benchmark Open Clusters Hosting delta Scutis

    CERN Document Server

    Majaess, Daniel J; Lane, David J; Krajci, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to secure precise distances for cluster delta Scutis in order to investigate their properties via a VI Wesenheit framework. Deep JHKs colour-colour and ZAMS relations derived from ~700 unreddened stars featuring 2MASS photometry and precise HIP parallaxes (d~1 pulsators. A distance est ablished to NGC 1817 from delta Scutis (d~1.7 kpc) via a universal VI Wesenheit template agrees with estimates in the literature, assuming the variables delineate the n>~1 boundary. Small statistics in tandem with other factors presently encumber the use of mmag delta Scutis as viable distance indicators to intermediate-age open clusters, yet a VI Wesenheit approach is a pertinent means for studying delta Scutis in harmony with other methods.

  8. H-alpha and H-beta Photometry of Selected Open Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joner, Michael D.; Hintz, E. G.

    2012-05-01

    We present new data for the open clusters M35, M67, NGC 188, NGC 752, NGC 869, and NGC 884 secured at the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory using standard H-beta filters as well as standard filters for the recently defined BYU H-alpha photometric system. Aside from being well suited for surveys and studies of emmision line objects such as HMXBs and YSOs, the combination of these two reddening independent indices provides a reliable temperature measure for individual stars within a cluster with the H-alpha index reaching stars of slightly cooler temperature than can be found from H-beta measurements. We acknowledge the Brigham Young University College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences for continued support of the research programs at the West Mountain Observatory. Partial supprot for this research was received through NSF grant AST #0618209.

  9. Linked-cluster perturbation theory for closed and open-shell systems: derivation of effective. pi. -electron hamiltonians. [Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandow, B.H.

    1977-01-01

    The Brueckner--Goldstone form of linked-cluster perturbation theory is derived, together with its open-shell analog, by an elementary time-independent approach. This serves to focus attention on the physical interpretation of the results. The open-shell expansion is used to provide a straightforward justification for the effective ..pi..-electron Hamiltonians of planar organic molecules.

  10. Chemical abundances of A-type dwarfs in the young open cluster M6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kílíçoǧlu, T.; Monier, R.; Fossati, L.

    2011-12-01

    Elemental abundance analysis of five members in the open cluster M6 (age ˜90 myr) were performed using FLAMES-GIRAFFE spectrograph mounted on 8-meter class VLT telescopes. The abundances of 14 chemical elements were derived. Johnson and Geneva photometric systems, hydrogen line profile fittings, and ionization equilibrium were used to derive the atmospheric parameters of the stars. Synthetic spectra were compared to the observed spectra to derive chemical abundances. The abundance analysis of these five members shows that these stars have an enhancement (or solar composition) of metals in general, with some exceptions. C, O, Ca, Sc, Ni, Y, and Ba exhibit the largest star-to-star abundance variations.

  11. Determination of proper motions and membership of the open star cluster NGC2548

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Zi Yu; Balaguer-Nuñez, L; Jordi, C; Zhao, J L; Guibert, J

    2001-01-01

    Absolute proper motions, their corresponding errors and membership probabilities of 501 stars in the intermediate-age open cluster NGC2548 region are determined from MAMA measurements of 10 photographic plates. The plates have the maximum epoch difference of 82 years and they were taken with the double astrograph at Zo-Se station of Shanghai Observatory, which has an aperture of 40 cm and a plate scale of 30"/mm. The average proper motion precision is 1.18 mas/yr. These proper motions are used to determine the membership probabilities of stars in the region. The number of stars with membership probabilities higher than 0.7 is 165.

  12. Membership Determination of Open Cluster M48 Based on BATC Thirteen-Band Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Z Y; Ma, J; Jiang, Z J; Chen, J S; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Zhou, Xu; Ma, Jun; Jiang, Zhao-Ji; Chen, Jian-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Beijing-Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut (BATC) multi-band photometric data in the field of open cluster M48 are used to determine its membership. By comparing observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of stars with theoretical ones, membership probabilities of 750 stars with limiting magnitude of 15.0 in BATC $c$ band ($\\lambda_{eff}=4194$ \\AA) are determined. 323 stars with membership probabilities higher than 30% are considered as candidate members of M48. Comparing membership probabilities of 229 common stars obtained by the present method and the proper-motion based methods, a 80% agreement among these methods is obtained.

  13. Evidence of tidal distortions and mass-loss from the old open cluster NGC 6791

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandro, E.; Miocchi, P.; Carraro, G.; Jílková, L.; Moitinho, A.

    2015-05-01

    We present the first evidence of clear signatures of tidal distortions in the density distribution of the fascinating open cluster NGC 6791. We used deep and wide-field data obtained with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope covering a 2° × 2° area around the cluster. The 2D density map obtained with the optimal matched filter technique shows a clear elongation and an irregular distribution starting from ˜300 arcsec from the cluster centre. At larger distances, two tails extending in opposite directions beyond the tidal radius are also visible. These features are aligned to both the absolute proper motion and to the Galactic Centre directions. Moreover, other overdensities appear to be stretched in a direction perpendicular to the Galactic plane. Accordingly to the behaviour observed in the density map, we find that both the surface brightness and the star count density profiles reveal a departure from a King model starting from ˜600 arcsec from the centre. These observational evidence suggest that NGC 6791 is currently experiencing mass-loss likely due to gravitational shocking and interactions with the tidal field. We use this evidence to argue that NGC 6791 should have lost a significant fraction of its original mass. A larger initial mass would in fact explain why the cluster survived so long. Using available recipes based on analytic studies and N-body simulations, we derived the expected mass-loss due to stellar evolution and tidal interactions and estimated the initial cluster mass to be Mini = (1.5-4) × 105 M⊙.

  14. Proper motions and CCD photometry of stars in the region of the open cluster NGC 6866

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, V. N.; Ananjevskaja, Yu. K.; Gorshanov, D. L.; Polyakov, E. V.

    2010-05-01

    We present the results of our comprehensive study of the Galactic open star cluster NGC 6866. The positions of stars in the investigated region have been obtained with the “Fantasy” automatic measuring machine from 10 plates of the normal astrograph at the Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory. The size of the investigated field is 40' × 40', the limiting magnitude is B ˜ 16{·/ m }6, and the maximum epoch difference is 79 yr. For 1202 field stars, we have determined the relative proper motions with an rms error of 2.5 mas yr-1. Out of them, 423 stars may be considered cluster members with a probability P > 70% according to the astrometric criterion. Photometric diagrams have been used as an additional criterion. We have performed two-color BV CCD photometry of stars with the Pulkovo ZA-320M mirror astrograph. The U magnitudes from the literature have also been used to construct the two-color diagrams. A total of 267 stars have turned out to be members of NGC 6866 according to the two criteria. We present refined physical parameters of the cluster and its age estimate (5.6 × 108 yr). The cluster membership of red and blue giants, variable, double, and multiple stars is considered. We have found an almost complete coincidence of the positions of one of the stars in the region (a cluster nonmember) and a soft X-ray source in the ROSAT catalog. The “Fantasy” automatic measuring machine is described in the Appendix.

  15. Ab initio Bogoliubov coupled cluster theory for open-shell nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signoracci, A.; Duguet, T.; Hagen, G.; Jansen, G. R.

    2015-06-01

    Background: Ab initio many-body methods have been developed over the past 10 yr to address closed-shell nuclei up to mass A ≈130 on the basis of realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions. A current frontier relates to the extension of those many-body methods to the description of open-shell nuclei. Several routes to address open-shell nuclei are currently under investigation, including ideas that exploit spontaneous symmetry breaking. Purpose: Singly open-shell nuclei can be efficiently described via the sole breaking of U(1) gauge symmetry associated with particle-number conservation as a way to account for their superfluid character. While this route was recently followed within the framework of self-consistent Green's function theory, the goal of the present work is to formulate a similar extension within the framework of coupled cluster theory. Methods: We formulate and apply Bogoliubov coupled cluster (BCC) theory, which consists of representing the exact ground-state wave function of the system as the exponential of a quasiparticle excitation cluster operator acting on a Bogoliubov reference state. Equations for the ground-state energy and the cluster amplitudes are derived at the singles and doubles level (BCCSD) both algebraically and diagrammatically. The formalism includes three-nucleon forces at the normal-ordered two-body level. The first BCC code is implemented in m scheme, which will permit the treatment of doubly open-shell nuclei via the further breaking of SU(2) symmetry associated with angular momentum conservation. Results: Proof-of-principle calculations in an Nmax=6 spherical harmonic oscillator basis for O,1816 and 18Ne in the BCCD approximation are in good agreement with standard coupled cluster results with the same chiral two-nucleon interaction, while 20O and 20Mg display underbinding relative to experiment. The breaking of U(1) symmetry, monitored by computing the variance associated with the particle-number operator, is relatively

  16. A Survey of Open Clusters in the u'g'r'i'z' Filter System. 3. Results for the Cluster NGC 188

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornal, Bartosz; Tucker, Douglas L.; Smith, J.Allyn; Allam, Sahar S.; Rider, Cristin J.; Sung, Hwankyung; /Jagiellonian U. /Fermilab /Austin Peay State U. /Wyoming U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Sejong U.

    2006-11-01

    The authors continue the series of papers describing the results of a photometric survey of open star clusters, primarily in the southern hemisphere, taken in the u'g'r'i'z' filter system. The entire observed sample covered more than 100 clusters, but here they present data only on NGC 188, which is one of the oldest open clusters known in the Milky Way. They fit the Padova theoretical isochrones to the data. Assuming a solar metallicity for NGC 188, they find a distance of 1700 {+-} 100 pc, an age of 7.5 {+-} 0.7 Gyr, and a reddening E(B-V) of 0.025 {+-} 0.005. This yields a distance modulus of 11.23 {+-} 0.14.

  17. The possibility of determining open-cluster parameters from BVRI photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Monteiro, Hektor

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades we witnessed an increase in studies of open clusters of the Galaxy, especially because of the good determination for a wide range of values of parameters such as age, distance, reddening, and proper motion. The reliable determination of the parameters strongly depends on the photometry available and especially on the U filter, which is used to obtain the color excess E(B-V) through the color-color diagram (U-B) by (B-V) by fitting a zero age main-sequence. Owing to the difficulty of performing photometry in the U band, many authors have tried to obtain E(B-V) without the filter. But because of the near linearity of the color-color diagrams that use the other bands, combined with the fact that most fitting procedures are highly subjective (many done "by eye") the reliability of those results has always been questioned. Our group has recently developed, a tool that performs isochrone fitting in open-cluster photometric data with a global optimization algorithm, which removes the need to visu...

  18. Old open clusters in the inner Galaxy: FSR1744, FSR89 and FSR31

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatto, Charles

    2007-01-01

    We establish the nature and derive fundamental and structural parameters of the recently catalogued objects FSR1744, FSR89 and FSR31. This work intends to provide clues to constrain the Galactic tidal disruption efficiency, improve statistics of the open cluster parameter space, and better define their age-distribution function inside the Solar circle. Properties of the objects are investigated by means of 2MASS colour-magnitude diagrams and stellar radial density profiles built with field star decontaminated photometry. Diagnostic-diagrams for structural parameters are used to help disentangle dynamical from high-background effects affecting such centrally projected open clusters. FSR1744, FSR89 and FSR31 are Gyr-class OCs located at Galactocentric distances 4.0 - 5.6kpc. Compared to nearby OCs, they have small core and limiting radii. With respect to the small number of OCs observed in the inner Galaxy, the emerging scenario in the near-infrared favours disruption driven by dynamical evolution rather than o...

  19. HD 285507b: An Eccentric Hot Jupiter in the Hyades Open Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, S N; Latham, D W; Buchhave, L A; Torres, G; Stefanik, R P; Berlind, P; Bieryla, A; Calkins, M C; Esquerdo, G A; Fürész, G; Geary, J C; Szentgyorgyi, A H

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of the first hot Jupiter in the Hyades open cluster. HD 285507b orbits a V=10.47 K4.5V dwarf ($M_* = 0.734 M_\\odot$; $R_* = 0.656 R_\\odot$) in a slightly eccentric ($e = 0.086^{+0.018}_{-0.019}$) orbit with a period of $6.0881^{+0.0019}_{-0.0018}$ days. The induced stellar radial velocity corresponds to a minimum companion mass of $M_{\\rm p} \\sin{i} = 0.917 \\pm 0.033 M_{\\rm Jup}$. Line bisector spans and stellar activity measures show no correlation with orbital phase, and the radial velocity amplitude is independent of wavelength, supporting the conclusion that the variations are caused by a planetary companion. Follow-up photometry indicates with high confidence that the planet does not transit. HD 285507b joins a small but growing list of planets in open clusters, and its existence lends support to a planet formation scenario in which a high stellar space density does not inhibit giant planet formation and migration. We calculate the circularization timescale for HD 285507b to be la...

  20. New Neutron-Capture Measurements in 23 Open Clusters. I. The R-Process

    CERN Document Server

    Overbeek, Jamie C; Jacobson, Heather R

    2016-01-01

    Neutron-capture elements, those with Z > 35, are the least well-understood in terms of nucleosynthesis and formation environments. The rapid neutron-capture, or r-process, elements are formed in the environments and/or remnants of massive stars, while the slow neutron-capture, or s-process, elements are primarily formed in low-mass AGB stars. These elements can provide much information about Galactic star formation and enrichment, but observational data is limited. We have assembled a sample of 68 stars in 23 open clusters that we use to probe abundance trends for six neutron-capture elements (Eu, Gd, Dy, Mo, Pr, and Nd) with cluster age and location in the disk of the Galaxy. In order to keep our analysis as homogenous as possible, we use an automated synthesis fitting program, which also enables us to measure multiple (3-10) lines for each element. We find that the pure r-process elements (Eu, Gd, and Dy) have positive trends with increasing cluster age, while the mixed r- and s- process elements (Mo, Pr, a...

  1. The Open Connectome Project Data Cluster: Scalable Analysis and Vision for High-Throughput Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Randal; Roncal, William Gray; Kleissas, Dean; Lillaney, Kunal; Manavalan, Priya; Perlman, Eric; Berger, Daniel R; Bock, Davi D; Chung, Kwanghun; Grosenick, Logan; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Weiler, Nicholas C; Deisseroth, Karl; Kazhdan, Michael; Lichtman, Jeff; Reid, R Clay; Smith, Stephen J; Szalay, Alexander S; Vogelstein, Joshua T; Vogelstein, R Jacob

    2013-01-01

    We describe a scalable database cluster for the spatial analysis and annotation of high-throughput brain imaging data, initially for 3-d electron microscopy image stacks, but for time-series and multi-channel data as well. The system was designed primarily for workloads that build connectomes- neural connectivity maps of the brain-using the parallel execution of computer vision algorithms on high-performance compute clusters. These services and open-science data sets are publicly available at openconnecto.me. The system design inherits much from NoSQL scale-out and data-intensive computing architectures. We distribute data to cluster nodes by partitioning a spatial index. We direct I/O to different systems-reads to parallel disk arrays and writes to solid-state storage-to avoid I/O interference and maximize throughput. All programming interfaces are RESTful Web services, which are simple and stateless, improving scalability and usability. We include a performance evaluation of the production system, highlighting the effec-tiveness of spatial data organization. PMID:24401992

  2. Bayesian Investigation of Isochrone Consistency Using the Old Open Cluster NGC 188

    CERN Document Server

    Hills, Shane; Courteau, Stephane; Geller, Aaron M

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed comparison of the differences in parameters derived for a star cluster from its color-magnitude diagrams depending on the filters and models used. We examine the consistency and reliability of fitting three widely-used stellar evolution models to fifteen combinations of optical and near-IR photometry for the old open cluster NGC 188. The optical filter response curves match those of the theoretical systems and are thus not the source of fit inconsistencies. NGC 188 is ideally suited to the present study thanks to a wide variety of high-quality photometry and available proper motions and radial velocities which enable us to remove non-cluster members and many binaries. Our Bayesian fitting technique yields inferred values of age, metallicity, distance modulus, and absorption as a function of the photometric band combinations and stellar models. We show that the historically-favored three band combinations of UBV and VRI can be meaningfully inconsistent with each other and with lo...

  3. The Binary Fraction and Mass Segregation in Alpha Persei Open Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Sheikhi, Najmeh; Khalaj, Pouria; Haghi, Hosein; Zonoozi, Akram Hasani; Baumgardt, Holger

    2016-01-01

    We have obtained membership probabilities of stars within a field of radius $\\sim3^\\circ$ around the centre of the open cluster Alpha Persei using proper motions and photometry from the PPMXL and WISE catalogues. We have identified 810 possible stellar members of Alpha Persei. We derived the global and radial present-day mass function (MF) of the cluster and found that they are well matched by two-stage power-law relations with different slopes at different radii. The global MF of Alpha Persei shows a turnover at $m=0.62\\,\\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}$ with low and high-mass slopes of $\\alpha_\\mathrm{low}=0.50\\pm0.09$ ($0.1cluster increases from $2.01$ inside $1\\hbox{$.\\!\\!^\\circ$}10$ to $2.63$ outside $2\\hbox{$.\\!\\!^\\circ$}2$, whereas the mean stellar mass decreases from $0.95$ to $0.57\\,\\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}$ in the same regions, signifying clear evidence of mass seg...

  4. Galactic Globular and Open Cluster Fiducial Sequences in the Pan-STARRS1 Photometric System

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Edouard J; Schlafly, Edward F; Platais, Imants; Bell, Eric F; Martin, Nicolas F; Rix, Hans-Walter; Slater, Colin T; Burgett, William S; Chambers, Kenneth C; Draper, Peter W; Hodapp, Klaus W; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Magnier, Eugene A; Metcalfe, Nigel; Tonry, John L; Wainscoat, Richard J; Waters, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We present the fiducial sequences of a sample of Galactic star clusters in the five bands of the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) photometric system (g_P1, r_P1, i_P1, z_P1, y_P1). These empirical sequences -- which include the red giant and sub-giant branches, the main sequence, and the horizontal branch -- were defined from deep colour-magnitude diagrams reaching below the oldest main-sequence turn-offs of 13 globular and 3 old open clusters covering a wide range of metallicities (-2.4 < [Fe/H] < +0.4). We find excellent agreement for the nine clusters in common with previous studies in similar photometric systems when transformed to the PS1 system. Because the photometric and spectroscopic properties of these stellar populations are accurately known, the fiducials provide a solid basis for the interpretation of observations in the PS1 system, as well as valuable constraints to improve the empirical colour--$T_{eff}$ relations.

  5. Photometric and proper motion study of neglected open cluster NGC 2215

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, M T; McKinnon, D H; Dias, W S; Sacchi, M; Scott, B; Zolinski, M; Danaia, L; Edwards, R

    2015-01-01

    Optical UBVRI photometric measurements using the Faulkes Telescope North were taken in early 2011 and combined with 2MASS JHK$_s$ and WISE infrared photometry as well as UCAC4 proper motion data in order to estimate the main parameters of the galactic open cluster NGC 2215 of which large uncertainty exists in the current literature. Fitting a King model we estimate a core radius of 1.12$'\\pm$0.04$'$ (0.24$\\pm$0.01pc) and a limiting radius of $4.3'\\pm$0.5$'$ (0.94$\\pm$0.11pc) for the cluster. The results of isochrone fits indicates an age of $log(t)=8.85\\pm0.10$ with a distance of $d=790\\pm90$pc, a metallicity of $[Fe/H]=-0.40\\pm0.10$ dex and a reddening of $E(B-V)=0.26\\pm0.04$. A proportion of the work in this study was undertaken by Australian and Canadian upper secondary school students involved in the Space to Grow astronomy education project, and is the first scientific publication to have utilized our star cluster photometry curriculum materials.

  6. Photometric and Proper Motion Study of the Neglected Open Cluster NGC 2215

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, M. T.; Inwood, L.; McKinnon, D. H.; Dias, W. S.; Sacchi, M.; Scott, B.; Zolinski, M.; Danaia, L.; Edwards, R.

    2015-06-01

    Optical UBVRI photometric measurements using the Faulkes Telescope North were taken in early 2011 and combined with 2MASS JHKs and WISE infrared photometry as well as UCAC4 proper motion data in order to estimate the main parameters of the galactic open cluster NGC 2215 of which large uncertainty exists in the current literature. Fitting a King model we estimate a core radius of 1.‧12 ± 0.‧04 (0.24 ± 0.01 pc) and a limiting radius of 4.‧3 ± 0.‧5 (0.94 ± 0.11 pc) for the cluster. The results of isochrone fits indicates an age of log (t)=8.85+/- 0.10 with a distance of d=790+/- 90 pc, a metallicity of [Fe/H]=-0.40+/- 0.10 dex, and a reddening of E(B-V)=0.26+/- 0.04. A proportion of the work in this study was undertaken by Australian and Canadian upper secondary school students involved in the Space to Grow astronomy education project, and is the first scientific publication to have utilized our star cluster photometry curriculum materials.

  7. New Neutron-capture Measurements in 23 Open Clusters. I. The r-Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Jamie C.; Friel, Eileen D.; Jacobson, Heather R.

    2016-06-01

    Neutron-capture elements, those with Z > 35, are the least well understood in terms of nucleosynthesis and formation environments. The rapid neutron-capture, or r-process, elements are formed in the environments and/or remnants of massive stars, while the slow neutron-capture, or s-process, elements are primarily formed in low-mass AGB stars. These elements can provide much information about Galactic star formation and enrichment, but observational data are limited. We have assembled a sample of 68 stars in 23 open clusters that we use to probe abundance trends for six neutron-capture elements (Eu, Gd, Dy, Mo, Pr, and Nd) with cluster age and location in the disk of the Galaxy. In order to keep our analysis as homogeneous as possible, we use an automated synthesis fitting program, which also enables us to measure multiple (3–10) lines for each element. We find that the pure r-process elements (Eu, Gd, and Dy) have positive trends with increasing cluster age, while the mixed r- and s-process elements (Mo, Pr, and Nd) have insignificant trends consistent with zero. Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, and Dy have similar, slight (although mostly statistically significant) gradients of ∼0.04 dex kpc‑1. The mixed elements also appear to have nonlinear relationships with R GC.

  8. On the lithium dip in the metal poor open cluster NGC 2243

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    François, P. [GEPI, Paris-Meudon Observatory, 61 Avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Pasquini, L.; Palsa, R. [ESO, European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Biazzo, K. [INAF, Capodimonte Astronomical Observatory, via Moiariello 16, 80131 Naples (Italy); Bonifacio, P. [GEPI, Paris-Meudon Observatory, Place Jules Janssen 92190, Meudon (France)

    2014-05-02

    Lithium is a key element for studying the mixing mechanisms operating in stellar interiors. It can also be used to probe the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and the Big Bang nucleosynthesis. Measuring the abundance of Lithium in stars belonging to Open Clusters (hereafter OC) allows a detailed comparison with stellar evolutionary models. NGC 2243 is particularly interesting thanks to its relative low metallicity ([Fe/H]=−0.54 ± 0.10 dex). We performed a detailed analysis of high-resolution spectra obtained with the multi-object facility FLAMES at the VLT 8.2m telescope. Lithium abundance has been measured in 27 stars. We found a Li dip center of 1.06 M{sub ⊙}, which is significantly smaller than that observed in solar metallicity and metal-rich clusters. This finding confirms and strengthens the conclusion that the mass of the stars in the Li dip strongly depends on stellar metallicity. The mean Li abundance of the cluster is log n(Li) = 2.70 dex, which is substantially higher than that observed in 47 Tue. We derived an iron abundance of [Fe/H]=−0.54±0.10 dex for NGC 2243, in agreement (within the errors) with previous findings.

  9. TIME-RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF THE POLAR EU CANCRI IN THE OPEN CLUSTER MESSIER 67

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present time-resolved spectroscopic and polarimetric observations of the AM Her system EU Cnc. EU Cnc is located near the core of the old open cluster Messier 67; new proper motion measurements indicate that EU Cnc is indeed a member of the star cluster, and this system therefore is useful to constrain the formation and evolution of magnetic cataclysmic variables. The spectra exhibit two-component emission features with independent radial velocity variations as well as time-variable cyclotron emission indicating a magnetic field strength of 41 MG. The period of the radial velocity and cyclotron hump variations are consistent with the previously known photometric period, and the spectroscopic flux variations are consistent in amplitude with previous photometric amplitude measurements. The secondary star is also detected in the spectrum. We also present polarimetric imaging measurements of EU Cnc that show a clear detection of polarization, and the degree of polarization drops below our detection threshold at phases when the cyclotron emission features are fading or not evident. The combined data are all consistent with the interpretation that EU Cnc is a low-state polar in the cluster Messier 67. The mass function of the system gives an estimate of the accretor mass of MWD ≥ 0.68 M☉ with MWD ≈ 0.83 M☉ for an average inclination. We are thus able to place a lower limit on the progenitor mass of the accreting white dwarf of ≥1.43 M☉.

  10. Analysis of Detached Eclipsing Binaries near the Turnoff of the Open Cluster NGC 7142

    CERN Document Server

    Sandquist, Eric L; Serio, Andrew W; Orosz, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    We analyze extensive BVRI photometry and radial velocity measurements for three double-lined deeply-eclipsing binary stars in the field of the old open cluster NGC 7142. The short period (P = 1.9096825 d) detached binary V375 Cep is a high probability cluster member, and has a total eclipse of the secondary star. The characteristics of the primary star (M=1.288+/-0.017 Sun) at the cluster turnoff indicate an age of 3.6 Gyr (with a random uncertainty of 0.25 Gyr), consistent with earlier analysis of the color-magnitude diagram. The secondary star (M = 0.871+/-0.008 Msun) is not expected to have evolved significantly, but its radius is more than 10% larger than predicted by models. Because this binary system has a known age, it is useful for testing the idea that radius inflation can occur in short period binaries for stars with significant convective envelopes due to the inhibition of energy transport by magnetic fields. The brighter star in the binary also produces a precision estimate of the distance modulus...

  11. The old anticentre open cluster Berkeley 32: membership and fundamental parameters

    CERN Document Server

    D'Orazi, V; Fabrizio, L D; Held, E V; Tosi, M

    2006-01-01

    We have obtained medium-low resolution spectroscopy and BVI CCD imaging of Berkeley 32, an old open cluster which lies in the anticentre direction. From the radial velocities of 48 stars in the cluster direction we found that 31 of them, in crucial evolutionary phases, are probable cluster members, with an average radial velocity of +106.7 (sigma = 8.5) km/s. From isochrone fitting to the colour magnitude diagrams of Berkeley 32 we have obtained an age of 6.3 Gyr, (m-M)0 = 12.48 and E(B-V) = 0.10. The best fit is obtained with Z=0.008. A consistent distance, (m-M)0 ~= 12.6 +/- 0.1, has been derived from the mean magnitude of red clump stars with confirmed membership; we may assume (m-M)0 ~= 12.55 +/- 0.1. The colour magnitude diagram of the nearby field observed to check for field stars contamination looks intriguingly similar to that of the Canis Major overdensity.

  12. Evidences of tidal distortion and mass loss from the old open cluster NGC 6791

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We present the first evidence of clear signatures of tidal distortions in the density distribution of the fascinating open cluster NGC~6791. We find that the 2D density map shows a clear elongation and an irregular distribution starting from $\\sim 300^{\\prime\\prime}$ from the cluster center and two tails extending in opposite directions beyond the tidal radius. These features are aligned to both the absolute proper motion and to the Galactic centre directions. Accordingly we find that both the surface brightness and star count density profiles reveal a departure from a King model starting from $\\sim600^{\\prime\\prime}$. These observational evidences suggest that NGC~6791 is currently undergoing mass-loss likely due to gravitational shocking and interactions with the tidal field of the Milky Way. We derive the expected mass-loss due to stellar evolution and tidal interactions and we estimate the initial cluster mass to be $M_{ini} = (1.5-4.0 ) \\times 10^5 M_{\\odot}$.

  13. Discovery of an open cluster with a possible physical association with a planetary nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatto, Charles; Santos, Joao F C

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new open cluster (OC) in the Galaxy at $\\ell=167.0^\\circ$ and $b=-1.0^\\circ$. Its field includes the planetary nebula (PN) PK 167-0.1. We study the possible associations of the PN/OC pairs NGC 2818/NGC 2818A, NGC 2438/M 46 (NGC 2437), PK 6+2.5/NGC 6469, as well as of the PN PK 167-0.1 with New Cluster 1. The analyses are based on near-infrared colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and stellar radial density profiles (RDPs). NGC 6469 is located in a heavily contaminated bulge field. The CMD morphology, especially for the latter two cases, is defined with a field star decontamination algorithm applied to the 2MASS \\jj, \\hh, and \\ks photometry. Field decontamination for the OCs NGC 2818A and M 46 produced better defined CMDs and more accurate cluster parameters than in the literature. Those pieces of evidence point to M 46 as physically associated with the PN NGC 2438. The same occurs for the OC NGC 2818A and the PN NGC 2818, however previous radial velocity arguments indicate that they a...

  14. New Neutron-capture Measurements in 23 Open Clusters. I. The r-Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Jamie C.; Friel, Eileen D.; Jacobson, Heather R.

    2016-06-01

    Neutron-capture elements, those with Z > 35, are the least well understood in terms of nucleosynthesis and formation environments. The rapid neutron-capture, or r-process, elements are formed in the environments and/or remnants of massive stars, while the slow neutron-capture, or s-process, elements are primarily formed in low-mass AGB stars. These elements can provide much information about Galactic star formation and enrichment, but observational data are limited. We have assembled a sample of 68 stars in 23 open clusters that we use to probe abundance trends for six neutron-capture elements (Eu, Gd, Dy, Mo, Pr, and Nd) with cluster age and location in the disk of the Galaxy. In order to keep our analysis as homogeneous as possible, we use an automated synthesis fitting program, which also enables us to measure multiple (3–10) lines for each element. We find that the pure r-process elements (Eu, Gd, and Dy) have positive trends with increasing cluster age, while the mixed r- and s-process elements (Mo, Pr, and Nd) have insignificant trends consistent with zero. Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, and Dy have similar, slight (although mostly statistically significant) gradients of ˜0.04 dex kpc‑1. The mixed elements also appear to have nonlinear relationships with R GC.

  15. Variability Survey in the Open Cluster Stock 14 and the Surrounding Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Drobek, D; Shobbrook, R R; Narwid, A

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a photometric variability survey in the young open cluster Stock 14 and the surrounding fields. In total, we detected 103 variable stars of which 88 are new discoveries. We confirm short-period, low-amplitude light variations in two eclipsing members of the cluster, HD 101838 and HD 101794. In addition, we find two new beta Cephei stars of which one, HD 101993, is also a member. The sample of pulsating cluster members is supplemented by one multimode slowly pulsating B-type star and several single-mode candidates of this type. The other pulsating stars in our sample are mostly field stars. In particular, we found fourteen delta Scuti stars including one gamma Dor/delta Sct hybrid pulsator. From our UBV photometry we derived new parameters of Stock 14: the mean reddening E(B-V) = 0.21 +/- 0.02 mag, the true distance modulus, 11.90 +/- 0.05 mag, and the age, 20 +/- 10 Myr. Finally, we use the new photometry to analyze changes of the 6.322-d orbital period of the bright eclipsing binary...

  16. Evidence of tidal distortions and mass loss from the old open cluster NGC 6791

    CERN Document Server

    Dalessandro, E; Carraro, G; Jilkova, L; Moitinho, A

    2015-01-01

    We present the first evidence of clear signatures of tidal distortions in the density distribution of the fascinating open cluster NGC 6791. We used deep and wide-field data obtained with the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope covering a 2x2 square degrees area around the cluster. The two-dimensional density map obtained with the optimal matched filter technique shows a clear elongation and an irregular distribution starting from ~300" from the cluster center. At larger distances, two tails extending in opposite directions beyond the tidal radius are also visible. These features are aligned to both the absolute proper motion and to the Galactic center directions. Moreover, other overdensities appear to be stretched in a direction perpendicular to the Galactic plane. Accordingly to the behaviour observed in the density map, we find that both the surface brightness and the star count density profiles reveal a departure from a King model starting from ~600" from the center. These observational evidence suggest that ...

  17. Abundance analysis of red clump stars in the old, inner disc, open cluster NGC 4337: a twin of NGC 752?

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Villanova, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Open star clusters older than ~ 1 Gyr are rare in the inner Galactic disc. Still, they are objects that hold crucial information for probing the chemical evolution of these regions of the Milky Way. We aim at increasing the number of old open clusters in the inner disc for which high-resolution metal abundances are available. Here we report on NGC 4337, which was recently discovered to be an old, inner disc open cluster. We present the very first high-resolution spectroscopy of seven clump stars that are all cluster members. We performed a detailed abundance analysis for them. We find that NGC 4337 is marginally more metal-rich than the Sun, with [Fe/H]=+0.12$\\pm$0.05. The abundance ratios of $\\alpha$-elements are generally solar. At odds with recent studies on intermediate-age and old open clusters in the Galactic disc, Ba is under-abundant in NGC 4337 compared with the Sun. Our analysis of the iron-peak elements (Cr and Ni) does not reveal anything anomalous. Based on these results, we estimate the cluster ...

  18. The Open Cluster Chemical Analysis and Mapping Survey: Local Galactic Metallicity Gradient with APOGEE using SDSS DR10

    CERN Document Server

    Frinchaboy, Peter M; Jackson, Kelly M; O'Connell, Julia; Meyer, Brianne; Zasowski, Gail; Majewski, Steven R; Chojnowksi, S Drew; Johnson, Jennifer A; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Beers, Timothy C; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Cunha, Katia; Ebelke, Garrett; Perez, Ana Elia Garcia; Hearty, Frederick R; Holtzman, Jon; Kinemuchi, Karen; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Marchante, Moses; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Muna, Demitri; Nidever, David L; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Schiavon, Ricardo P; Schneider, Donald P; Shetrone, Matthew; Simmons, Audrey; Snedden, Stephanie; Smith, Verne V; Wilson, John C

    2013-01-01

    The Open Cluster Chemical Analysis and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey aims to produce a comprehensive, uniform, infrared-based dataset for hundreds of open clusters, and constrain key Galactic dynamical and chemical parameters from this sample. This first contribution from the OCCAM survey presents analysis of 141 members stars in 28 open clusters with high-resolution metallicities derived from a large uniform sample collected as part of the SDSS-III/Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). This sample includes the first high-resolution metallicity measurements for 22 open clusters. With this largest ever uniformly observed sample of open cluster stars we investigate the Galactic disk gradients of both [M/H] and [alpha/M]. We find basically no gradient across this range in [alpha/M], but [M/H] does show a gradient for R_{GC} < 10 kpc and a significant flattening beyond R_{GC} = 10 kpc. In particular, whereas fitting a single linear trend yields an [M/H] gradient of -0.09 +/- 0.03$ dex/kpc -...

  19. Bayesian investigation of isochrone consistency using the old open cluster NGC 188

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, Shane; Courteau, Stéphane [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 Canada (Canada); Von Hippel, Ted [Department of Physical Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); Geller, Aaron M., E-mail: shane.hills@queensu.ca, E-mail: courteau@astro.queensu.ca, E-mail: ted.vonhippel@erau.edu, E-mail: a-geller@northwestern.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This paper provides a detailed comparison of the differences in parameters derived for a star cluster from its color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs) depending on the filters and models used. We examine the consistency and reliability of fitting three widely used stellar evolution models to 15 combinations of optical and near-IR photometry for the old open cluster NGC 188. The optical filter response curves match those of theoretical systems and are thus not the source of fit inconsistencies. NGC 188 is ideally suited to this study thanks to a wide variety of high-quality photometry and available proper motions and radial velocities that enable us to remove non-cluster members and many binaries. Our Bayesian fitting technique yields inferred values of age, metallicity, distance modulus, and absorption as a function of the photometric band combinations and stellar models. We show that the historically favored three-band combinations of UBV and VRI can be meaningfully inconsistent with each other and with longer baseline data sets such as UBVRIJHK{sub S}. Differences among model sets can also be substantial. For instance, fitting Yi et al. (2001) and Dotter et al. (2008) models to UBVRIJHK{sub S} photometry for NGC 188 yields the following cluster parameters: age = (5.78 ± 0.03, 6.45 ± 0.04) Gyr, [Fe/H] = (+0.125 ± 0.003, −0.077 ± 0.003) dex, (m−M){sub V} = (11.441 ± 0.007, 11.525 ± 0.005) mag, and A{sub V} = (0.162 ± 0.003, 0.236 ± 0.003) mag, respectively. Within the formal fitting errors, these two fits are substantially and statistically different. Such differences among fits using different filters and models are a cautionary tale regarding our current ability to fit star cluster CMDs. Additional modeling of this kind, with more models and star clusters, and future Gaia parallaxes are critical for isolating and quantifying the most relevant uncertainties in stellar evolutionary models.

  20. The substellar mass function in the central region of the open cluster Praesepe from deep LBT observations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei; Goldman, Bertrand; Henning, Thomas; Caballero, Jose A; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A L

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the mass function (MF) of open clusters of different ages allow us to probe the efficiency with which brown dwarfs evaporate from clusters to populate the field. Surveys of older clusters (age >100 Myr) are not affected so severely by several problems encountered in young clusters, such as intra-cluster extinction and large uncertainties in brown dwarf models. We present the results of a deep photometric survey to study the MF of the central region of the old open cluster Praesepe (age~590$^{+150}_{-120}$ Myr, distance ~190$^{+6.0}_{-5.8}$ pc), down to the substellar regime. We performed an optical ($riz$ and $Y$-band) photometric survey of Praesepe using the Large Binocular Telescope Camera covering an area of ~0.59 deg$^2$ in the cluster centre from $i$~19.0 mag (~100 M_Jup) down to a 5$\\sigma$ detection limit at $i$~25.6mag (~40 M_Jup). The survey is approximately 95% complete at $i=23.8$ mag and $z=22.0$ mag (~55 M_Jup). We identify 59 cluster member candidates, of which 37 are substellar, by c...

  1. A CHANDRA X-RAY STUDY OF THE INTERACTING BINARIES IN THE OLD OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6791

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Berg, Maureen [Astronomical Institute ' ' Anton Pannekoek' ' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verbunt, Frank [Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Belloni, Tomaso [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Bedin, Luigi R. [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Platais, Imants, E-mail: M.C.vandenBerg@uva.nl [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    We present the first X-ray study of NGC 6791, one of the oldest open clusters known (8 Gyr). Our Chandra observation is aimed at uncovering the population of close interacting binaries down to L{sub X} Almost-Equal-To 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1} (0.3-7 keV). We detect 86 sources within 8' of the cluster center, including 59 inside the half-mass radius. We identify 20 sources with proper-motion cluster members, which are a mix of cataclysmic variables (CVs), active binaries (ABs), and binaries containing sub-subgiants. With follow-up optical spectroscopy, we confirm the nature of one CV. We discover one new, X-ray variable candidate CV with Balmer and He II emission lines in its optical spectrum; this is the first X-ray-selected CV in an open cluster. The number of CVs per unit mass is consistent with the field, suggesting that the 3-4 CVs observed in NGC 6791 are primordial. We compare the X-ray properties of NGC 6791 with those of a few old open (NGC 6819, M 67) and globular clusters (47 Tuc, NGC 6397). It is puzzling that the number of ABs brighter than 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1} normalized by cluster mass is lower in NGC 6791 than in M 67 by a factor {approx}3-7. CVs, ABs, and sub-subgiants brighter than 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1} are under-represented per unit mass in the globular clusters compared to the oldest open clusters, and this accounts for the lower total X-ray luminosity per unit mass of the former. This indicates that the net effect of dynamical encounters may be the destruction of even some of the hardest (i.e., X-ray-emitting) binaries.

  2. Comparative assessment of bone pose estimation using Point Cluster Technique and OpenSim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Rebecca L; Chaudhari, Ajit M W; Siston, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Estimating the position of the bones from optical motion capture data is a challenge associated with human movement analysis. Bone pose estimation techniques such as the Point Cluster Technique (PCT) and simulations of movement through software packages such as OpenSim are used to minimize soft tissue artifact and estimate skeletal position; however, using different methods for analysis may produce differing kinematic results which could lead to differences in clinical interpretation such as a misclassification of normal or pathological gait. This study evaluated the differences present in knee joint kinematics as a result of calculating joint angles using various techniques. We calculated knee joint kinematics from experimental gait data using the standard PCT, the least squares approach in OpenSim applied to experimental marker data, and the least squares approach in OpenSim applied to the results of the PCT algorithm. Maximum and resultant RMS differences in knee angles were calculated between all techniques. We observed differences in flexion/extension, varus/valgus, and internal/external rotation angles between all approaches. The largest differences were between the PCT results and all results calculated using OpenSim. The RMS differences averaged nearly 5° for flexion/extension angles with maximum differences exceeding 15°. Average RMS differences were relatively small (OpenSim, suggesting that the choice of marker weighting is not critical to the results of the least squares inverse kinematics calculations. The largest difference between techniques appeared to be a constant offset between the PCT and all OpenSim results, which may be due to differences in the definition of anatomical reference frames, scaling of musculoskeletal models, and/or placement of virtual markers within OpenSim. Different methods for data analysis can produce largely different kinematic results, which could lead to the misclassification of normal or pathological gait. Improved

  3. Massive open star clusters using the VVV survey IV. WR 62-2, a new very massive star in the core of the VVV CL041 cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Chené, A -N; Borissova, J; O'Leary, E; Martins, F; Hervé, A; Kuhn, M; Kurtev, R; Fuentes, P Consuelo Amigo; Bonatto, C; Minniti, D

    2015-01-01

    Context The ESO Public Survey VISTA Variables in the V\\'ia L\\'actea (VVV) provides deep multi-epoch infrared observations for an unprecedented 562 sq. degrees of the Galactic bulge and adjacent regions of the disk. Nearly 150 new open clusters and cluster candidates have been discovered in this survey. Aims We present the fourth article in a series of papers focussed on young and massive clusters discovered in the VVV survey. This article is dedicated to the cluster VVV CL041, which contains a new very massive star candidate, WR 62-2. Methods Following the methodology presented in the first paper of the series, wide-field, deep JHKs VVV observations, combined with new infrared spectroscopy, are employed to constrain fundamental parameters (distance, reddening, mass, age) of VVV CL041. Results We confirm that the cluster VVV CL041 is a young (less than 4 Myrs) and massive (3 +/- 2 x 10^3 Msol) cluster, and not a simple asterism. It is located at a distance of 4.2 +/- 0.9 kpc, and its reddening is A_V = 8.0 +/-...

  4. UB CCD photometry of the old, metal rich, open clusters NGC 6791, NGC 6819 and NGC 7142

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, G; Bertone, E; Buson, L

    2013-01-01

    We report on a UV-oriented imaging survey in the fields of the old, metal-rich open clusters, NGC 6791, NGC 6819 and NGC 7142. These three clusters represent both very near and ideal stellar aggregates to match the distinctive properties of the evolved stellar populations, as in elliptical galaxies and bulges of spirals. The CMD of the three clusters is analyzed in detail, with special emphasis to the hot stellar component. We report, in this regard, one new extreme horizontal-branch star candidate in NGC 6791. For NGC 6819 and 7142, the stellar luminosity function points to a looser radial distribution of faint lower Main Sequence stars, either as a consequence of cluster dynamical interaction with the Galaxy or as an effect of an increasing fraction of binary stars toward the cluster core, as actually observed in NGC 6791 too.

  5. Pre-main-sequence stars in the young open cluster NGC 1893: II. Evidence for triggered massive star formation

    OpenAIRE

    Negueruela, Ignacio; Marco, Amparo; Israel, Gianluca; Bernabeu, Guillem

    2007-01-01

    (Abridged) The open cluster NGC 1893, illuminating the HII region IC410, contains a moderately large population of O-type stars and is one of the youngest clusters observable in the optical range. We have probed the stellar population of NGC 1893 in an attempt to determine its size and extent. We classify a large sample of cluster members with new intermediate resolution spectroscopy. We use H-alpha slitless spectroscopy of the field to search for emission line objects, identifying 18 emissio...

  6. Constraining angular momentum transport processes in stellar interiors with red-giant stars in the open cluster NGC6819

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagarde, N

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clusters are excellent test benches for verification and improvement of stellar evolution theory. The recent detection of solar-like oscillations in G-K giants in the open cluster NGC6819 with Kepler provides us with independent constraints on the masses and radii of stars on the red giant branch, as well as on the distance to clusters and their ages. We present, for NGC6819, evolutionary models by considering rotation-induced mixing ; and the theoretical low-l frequencies of our stellar models.

  7. Enhanced production of barium in low-mass stars: evidence from open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    D'Orazi, Valentina; Randich, Sofia; Galli, Daniele; Busso, Maurizio; Sestito, Paola

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of a trend of increasing barium abundance with decreasing age for a large sample of Galactic open clusters. The observed pattern of [Ba/Fe] vs. age can be reproduced with a Galactic chemical evolution model only assuming a higher Ba yield from the $s$-process in low-mass stars than the average one suggested by parametrized models of neutron-capture nucleosynthesis. We show that this is possible in a scenario where the efficiency of the extra-mixing processes producing the neutron source $^{13}$C is anti-correlated with the initial mass, with a larger efficiency for lower masses. This is similar to the known trend of extended mixing episodes acting in H-rich layers and might suggest a common physical mechanism.

  8. Detection of a new phosphorus rich star in the open cluster M6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliçoğlu, T.; Monier, R.; Fossati, L.

    2012-12-01

    We present the first spectroscopic analysis of HD318101, a member of the M6 (NGC 6405, age 100 Myr) open cluster, using low and high resolution (R˜7500, R˜25000) spectra stretching from 4500 to 5840 Å. The atmospheric parameters of the star were determined from Geneva photometry and hydrogen line modeling (T_e = 15400 ± 500 K, log g = 4.0 ± 0.25). The abundances of 8 elements were determined by fitting synthetic spectral lines to the observed ones. We derived a strong overabundance of phosphorus (+1.69 dex, relative to the Sun) from several P II lines. We also found helium to be underabundant (-0.37 dex). These abundance anomalies suggest that HD318101 could be a He-weak PGa type star (CP4).

  9. Monitoring young associations and open clusters with Kepler in two-wheel mode

    CERN Document Server

    Aigrain, S; Angus, R; Bouvier, J; Flaccomio, E; Gillen, E; Guzik, J; Hebb, L; Hodgkin, S; McQuillan, A; Micela, G; Moraux, E; Parviainen, H; Randich, S; Reece, S; Roberts, S; Zwintz, K

    2013-01-01

    We outline a proposal to use the Kepler spacecraft in two-wheel mode to monitor a handful of young associations and open clusters, for a few weeks each. Judging from the experience of similar projects using ground-based telescopes and the CoRoT spacecraft, this program would transform our understanding of early stellar evolution through the study of pulsations, rotation, activity, the detection and characterisation of eclipsing binaries, and the possible detection of transiting exoplanets. Importantly, Kepler's wide field-of-view would enable key spatially extended, nearby regions to be monitored in their entirety for the first time, and the proposed observations would exploit unique synergies with the GAIA ESO spectroscopic survey and, in the longer term, the GAIA mission itself. We also outline possible strategies for optimising the photometric performance of Kepler in two-wheel mode by modelling pixel sensitivity variations and other systematics.

  10. Performance Modeling of Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Scientific Applications on Large-scale Multicore Cluster Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore clusters: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and Blue Gene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore clusters because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyro kinetic Toroidal Code in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore clusters. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore clusters. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. HD 285507b: An eccentric hot Jupiter in the hyades open cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of the first hot Jupiter in the Hyades open cluster. HD 285507b orbits a V = 10.47 K4.5V dwarf (M * = 0.734 M ☉; R * = 0.656 R ☉) in a slightly eccentric (e=0.086−0.019+0.018) orbit with a period of 6.0881−0.0018+0.0019 days. The induced stellar radial velocity corresponds to a minimum companion mass of M Psin i = 0.917 ± 0.033 M Jup. Line bisector spans and stellar activity measures show no correlation with orbital phase, and the radial velocity amplitude is independent of wavelength, supporting the conclusion that the variations are caused by a planetary companion. Follow-up photometry indicates with high confidence that the planet does not transit. HD 285507b joins a small but growing list of planets in open clusters, and its existence lends support to a planet formation scenario in which a high stellar space density does not inhibit giant planet formation and migration. We calculate the circularization timescale for HD 285507b to be larger than the age of the Hyades, which may indicate that this planet's non-zero eccentricity is the result of migration via interactions with a third body. We also demonstrate a significant difference between the eccentricity distributions of hot Jupiters that have had time to tidally circularize and those that have not, which we interpret as evidence against Type II migration in the final stages of hot Jupiter formation. Finally, the dependence of the circularization timescale on the planetary tidal quality factor, Q P, allows us to constrain the average value for hot Jupiters to be logQP=6.14−0.25+0.41.

  12. The chemical compositions and evolutionary status of red giants in the open cluster NGC 6940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcek Topcu, G.; Afşar, M.; Sneden, C.

    2016-08-01

    We present the high resolution (R ≈ 60 000), high signal-to-noise (S/N ≃ 120) spectroscopic analysis of 12 red giant members of the Galactic open cluster NGC 6940. We applied Yonsei-Yale isochrones to the colour-magnitude diagram, which suggested an age of 1.1 Gyr for the cluster with a turn-off mass of 2 M⊙. Atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, [Fe/H] and ξt) were determined via equivalent widths of Fe I, Fe II, Ti I, and Ti II lines. Calculated mean metallicity of the cluster is = 0.04 ± 0.02. We derived abundances of α (Mg, Si, Ca), Fe-group (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn), and n-capture (Y, La, Nd, Eu) elements to be about solar. Light odd-Z elements Na and Al are slightly enhanced in MMU 108 and MMU 152 by ˜0.34 dex and ˜0.16 dex, respectively. Abundances of light elements Li, C, N, O, and 12C/13C ratios were derived from spectrum syntheses of the Li I resonance doublet at 6707 Å, [O I] line at 6300 Å, C2 Swan bandheads at 5164 Å and 5635 Å, and strong 12, 13CN system lines in the 7995-8040 Å region. Most carbon isotopic ratios are similar to those found in other solar-metallicity giants, but MMU 152 has an unusual value of 12C/13C =6. Evaluation of the LiCNO abundances and 12C/13C ratios along with the present theoretical models suggests that all the red giants in our sample are core-helium-burning clump stars.

  13. Near-Infrared Photometric Study of the Old Open Cluster Trumpler 5

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sang Chul; Sung, Eon-Chang

    2009-01-01

    We present JHK near-infrared photometric study for the old open cluster (OC) Trumpler 5 (Tr 5), based on the 2MASS data. From the color-magnitude diagrams of Tr 5, we have located the position of the red giant clump (RGC) stars, and used the mean magnitude of the RGC stars in K-band to estimate the distance to Tr 5, d = 3.1 +/- 0.1 kpc ((m-M)_0 = 12.46 +/- 0.04). From fitting the theoretical isochrones of Padova group, we have estimated the reddening, metallicity, and age : E(B-V) = 0.64 +/- 0.05, [Fe/H] = -0.4 +/- 0.1 dex, and t =2.8 +/- 0.2 Gyr (log t=9.45 +/- 0.04), respectively. These parameters generally agree well with those obtained from the previous studies on Tr 5 and confirms that this cluster is an old OC with metallicity being metal-poorer than solar abundance, located in the anti-Galactic center region.

  14. EPIC 219388192 b - an inhabitant of the brown dwarf desert in the Ruprecht 147 open cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Grzegorz; Gandolfi, Davide; Dai, Fei; Lanza, Antonino F; Hirano, Teruyuki; Barragán, Oscar; Fukui, Akihiko; Bruntt, Hans; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D; Prieto-Arranz, Jorge; Kiilerich, Amanda; Nespral, David; Hatzes, Artie P; Albrecht, Simon; Deeg, Hans; Winn, Joshua N; Yu, Liang; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Grziwa, Sascha; Smith, Alexis M S; Moroni, Pier G Prada; Guenther, Eike W; Van Eylen, Vincent; Csizmadia, Szilard; Fridlund, Malcolm; Cabrera, Juan; Eigmüller, Philipp; Erikson, Anders; Korth, Judith; Narita, Norio; Pätzold, Martin; Rauer, Heike; Ribas, Ignasi

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of EPIC 219388192 b, a transiting brown dwarf in a 5.3-day orbit around a member star of Ruprecht-147, the oldest nearby open cluster association, which was photometrically monitored by K2 during its Campaign 7. We combine the K2 time-series data with ground-based adaptive optics imaging and high resolution spectroscopy to rule out false positive scenarios and determine the main parameters of the system. EPIC 219388192 b has a radius of $R_\\mathrm{b}$=$0.937\\pm0.042$~$\\mathrm{R_{Jup}}$ and mass of $M_\\mathrm{b}$=$36.50\\pm0.09$~$\\mathrm{M_{Jup}}$, yielding a mean density of $59.0\\pm8.1$~$\\mathrm{g\\,cm^{-3}}$. The host star is nearly a Solar twin with mass $M_\\star$=$0.99\\pm0.05$~$\\mathrm{M_{\\odot}}$, radius $R_\\star$=$1.01\\pm0.04$~$\\mathrm{R_{\\odot}}$, effective temperature $\\mathrm{T_{eff}}$=$5850\\pm85$~K and iron abundance [Fe/H]=$0.03\\pm0.08$~dex. Its age, spectroscopic distance, and reddening are consistent with those of Ruprecht-147, corroborating its cluster membership. EPIC 21938...

  15. A probable pre-main sequence chemically peculiar star in the open cluster Stock 16

    CERN Document Server

    Netopil, M; Paunzen, E; Zwintz, K; Pintado, O I; Bagnulo, S

    2014-01-01

    We used the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph of the ESO-Very Large Telescope to obtain a high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum of Stock 16-12, an early-type star which previous Delta-a photometric observations suggest being a chemically peculiar (CP) star. We used spectral synthesis to perform a detailed abundance analysis obtaining an effective temperature of 8400 +/- 400 K, a surface gravity of 4.1 +/- 0.4, a microturbulence velocity of 3.4 +0.7/-0.3 km/s, and a projected rotational velocity of 68 +/- 4 km/s. We provide photometric and spectroscopic evidence showing the star is most likely a member of the young Stock 16 open cluster (age 3-8 Myr). The probable cluster membership, the star's position in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, and the found infrared excess strongly suggest the star is still in the pre-main-sequence (PMS) phase. We used PMS evolutionary tracks to determine the stellar mass, which ranges between 1.95 and 2.3 Msun, depending upon the adopted spectroscopic o...

  16. A uvbyCaHbeta CCD Analysis of the Open Cluster Standard, NGC 752

    CERN Document Server

    Twarog, B A; Deliyannis, C P; Thomas, D T

    2015-01-01

    Precision uvbyCaHbeta photometry of the nearby old open cluster, NGC 752, is presented. The mosaic of CCD fields covers an area ~42' on a side with internal precision at the 0.005 to 0.010 mag level for the majority of stars down to V~15. The CCD photometry is tied to the standard system using an extensive set of published photoelectric observations adopted as secondary standards within the cluster. Multicolor indices are used to eliminate as nonmembers a large fraction of the low probability proper-motion members near the faint end of the main sequence, while identifying 24 potential dwarf members between V=15.0 and 16.5, eight of which have been noted before from Vilnius photometry. From 68 highly probable F dwarf members, we derive a reddening estimate of E(b-y)= 0.025 +/- 0.003 (E(B-V) = 0.034 +/- 0.004), where the error includes the internal photometric uncertainty and the systematic error arising from the choice of the standard (b-y), Hbeta relation. With reddening fixed, [Fe/H] is derived from the F dw...

  17. Weak Elliptical Distortion of the Milky Way Potential traced by Open Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi Zhu

    2008-01-01

    From photometric observations and star counts, the existence of a bar in the cen-tral few kpc of the Galaxy is suggested. It is generally thought that our Galaxy is surrounded by a massive invisible halo. The gravitational potential of the Galaxy is therefore made non-axisymmetric generated by the central tfiaxial bar, by the outer triaxial halo, and/or by the spiral structures. Selecting nearly 300 open clusters with complete spatial velocity measure-ments and ages, we were able to construct the rotation curve of the Milky Way within a range of 3 kpc of the Sun. Using a dynamic model for an assumed elliptical disk, a clear weak el-liptical potential of the disk with ellipticity of ε(R0) = 0.060 ± 0.012 is detected, the Sun is found to be near the minor axis, displaced by 30°± 3°. The motion of the clusters is suggested to be on an oval orbit rather than on a circular one.

  18. Complex stellar system ESO65SC03: Open cluster or remnant?

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Gireesh C; Joshi, S; Chowdhury, S; Tyagi, R K

    2015-01-01

    We present a complete spatial and dynamical study of the poorly populated stellar system ESO65SC03. The radial distribution of the system gives a core and cluster radii of 1.10+/-0.63 arcmin and 5.36+/-0.24 arcmin, respectively. The surface number density profile (SNDP) does not show any clear enhancement of the surface stellar number density between the stars of the system and the field regions. We derive the optimum isochrone solution for a particular grid size in the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) using the statistical cleaning procedure. Using the statistically cleaned CMDs, we find the distance modulus, (m-M)_0, and reddening, E({B-V}), of the system to be 11.8+/-0.2 mag and 0.45 mag, respectively. The mean proper motion of this system is -5.37+/-0.81 mas/yr and 0.31+/-0.40 in RA and DEC directions, respectively. The mean proper motion of this system is found to be almost similar to the field region. The mass function for the brighter stars is found to be too high for the system to be an open cluster. Th...

  19. Chemical composition of intermediate mass stars members of the M6 (NGC 6405) open cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Kılıçoğlu, Tolgahan; Richer, Jacques; Fossati, Luca; Albayrak, Berahitdin

    2015-01-01

    We present here the first abundance analysis of 44 late B, A and F-type members of the young open cluster M6 (NGC 6405, age about 75 Myrs). Spectra, covering the 4500 to 5800 \\AA{} wavelength range, were obtained using the FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph attached to the ESO Very Large Telescopes (VLT). We determined the atmospheric parameters using calibrations of the Geneva photometry and by adjusting the $H_{\\beta}$ profiles to synthetic ones. The abundances of up to 20 chemical elements, were derived for 19 late B, 16 A and 9 F stars by iteratively adjusting synthetic spectra to the observations. We also derived a mean cluster metallicity of $\\mathrm{[Fe/H]=0.07\\pm0.03}$ dex from the iron abundances of the F-type stars. We find that, for most chemical elements, the normal late B and A-type stars exhibit larger star-to-star abundance variations than the F-type stars do probably because of the faster rotation of the B and A stars. The abundances of C, O, Mg, Si and Sc appear to be anticorrelated to that of Fe, w...

  20. The evolution of the Milky Way: New insights from open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Arumalla B S; Giridhar, Sunetra

    2016-01-01

    We have collected high-dispersion echelle spectra of red giant members in the twelve open clusters (OCs) and derived stellar parameters and chemical abundances for 26 species by either line equivalent widths or synthetic spectrum analyses. We confirm the lack of an age-metallicity relation for OCs but argue that such a lack of trend for OCs arise from the limited coverage in metallicity compared to that of field stars which span a wide range in metallicity and age. We confirm that the radial metallicity gradient of OCs is steeper (flatter) for Rgc 12 kpc). We demonstrate that the sample of clusters constituting a steep radial metallicity gradient of slope $-$0.052$\\pm$0.011 dex kpc$^{-1}$ at Rgc 12 kpc are relatively old, thick disc members with a striking spread in age and height above the midplane (0.5 < |z| < 2.5 kpc). Our investigation reveals that the OCs and field stars yield consistent radial metallicity gradients if the comparison is limited to samples drawn from the similar vertical heights. ...

  1. A super lithium-rich red-clump star in the open cluster Trumpler 5

    CERN Document Server

    Monaco, L; Bonifacio, P; Villanova, S; Carraro, G; Caffau, E; Steffen, M; Ahumada, J A; Beletsky, Y; Beccari, G

    2014-01-01

    Context. The existence of lithium-rich low-mass red giant stars still represents a challenge for stellar evolution models. Stellar clusters are privileged environments for this kind of investigation. Aims. To investigate the chemical abundance pattern of the old open cluster Trumpler\\,5, we observed a sample of four red-clump stars with high-resolution optical spectrographs. One of them (#3416) reveals extremely strong lithium lines in its spectrum. Methods. One-dimensional, local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis was performed on the spectra of the observed stars. A 3D-NLTE analysis was performed to derive the lithium abundance of star #3416. Results. Star #3416 is super Li-rich with A(Li)=3.75\\,dex. The lack of $^6$Li enrichment ($^6$Li/$^7$Li$<$2%), the low carbon isotopic ratio ($^{12}$C/$^{13}$C=14$\\pm$3), and the lack of evidence for radial velocity variation or enhanced rotational velocity ($v\\sin i = 2.8\\,$\\kms) all suggest that lithium production has occurred in this star through the Cameron &...

  2. New variable stars discovered in the fields of three Galactic open clusters using the VVV Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Palma, Tali; Dékány, Istvan; Clariá, Juan J; Alonso-García, Javier; Gramajo, Luciana V; Alegría, Sebastian Ramírez; Bonatto, Charles

    2016-01-01

    This project is a massive near-infrared (NIR) search for variable stars in highly reddened and obscured open cluster (OC) fields projected on regions of the Galactic bulge and disk. The search is performed using photometric NIR data in the $J$-, $H$- and $K_s$- bands obtained from the Vista Variables in the V\\'ia L\\'actea (VVV) Survey. We performed in each cluster field a variability search using Stetson's variability statistics to select the variable candidates. Later, those candidates were subjected to a frequency analysis using the Generalized Lomb-Scargle and the Phase Dispersion Minimization algorithms. The number of independent observations range between 63 and 73. The newly discovered variables in this study, 157 in total in three different known OCs, are classified based on their light curve shapes, periods, amplitudes and their location in the corresponding color-magnitude $(J-K_s,K_s)$ and color-color $(H-K_s,J-H)$ diagrams. We found 5 possible Cepheid stars which, based on the period-luminosity rel...

  3. Variable stars in the open cluster NGC 6791 and its surrounding field

    CERN Document Server

    De Marchi, F; Montalto, M; Piotto, G; Desidera, S; Bedin, L R; Claudi, R; Ferro, A Arellano; Bruntt, H; Stetson, P B

    2007-01-01

    Aims: This work presents a high--precision variability survey in the field of the old, super metal-rich open cluster NGC 6791. Methods: The data sample consists of more than 75,000 high-precision CCD time series measurements in the V band obtained mainly at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, with additional data from S. Pedro Martir and Loiano observatories, over a time span of ten nights. The field covers an area of 42x28 arcmin^2. Results: We have discovered 260 new variables and re-determined periods and amplitudes of 70 known variable stars. By means of a photometric evaluation of the membership in NGC 6791, and a preliminary membership based on the proper motions, we give a full description of the variable content of the cluster and surrounding field in the range 16

  4. The Chemical Compositions and Evolutionary Status of Red Giants in the Open Cluster NGC 752

    CERN Document Server

    Topcu, G Böcek; Schaeuble, M; Sneden, C

    2014-01-01

    We present detailed chemical compositions of 10 red giant star members of the Galactic (open) cluster NGC 752, derived from high-resolution (R $\\approx$ 60,000), high signal-to-noise ($S/N$ $\\geq$ 140) spectra. We confirmed cluster memberships by measuring the stellar radial velocities, and by deriving model atmosphere parameters ($T_{eff}$, logg, [Fe/H] and $\\xi_{t}$) from equivalent widths of Fe I, Fe II, Ti I, and Ti II lines. The metallicity we obtained for NGC 752 ([Fe/H]=$-$0.02$\\pm$0.05) is in good agreement with previous studies. We derived abundances of $\\alpha$ (Mg, Si, Ca), light odd-Z (Na, Al), Fe-group (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn), $n$-capture (Y, La, Nd, Eu), and $p$-capture (Li, C, N, O) species for each star. Furthermore, we also derived abundances of the LiCNO $p$-capture element group and carbon isotopic ratios, using synthetic spectrum analyses of the Li I 6707~\\AA\\ resonance doublet, the [O I] line at 6300~\\AA, the CH G-band features near 4311 and 4325 \\AA, the C$_{2}$ bandheads...

  5. Massive open star clusters using the VVV survey. IV. WR 62-2, a new very massive star in the core of the VVV CL041 cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chené, A.-N.; Ramírez Alegría, S.; Borissova, J.; O'Leary, E.; Martins, F.; Hervé, A.; Kuhn, M.; Kurtev, R.; Consuelo Amigo Fuentes, P.; Bonatto, C.; Minniti, D.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The ESO Public Survey VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) provides deep multi-epoch infrared observations for an unprecedented 562 sq. deg of the Galactic bulge and adjacent regions of the disk. Nearly 150 new open clusters and cluster candidates have been discovered in this survey. Aims: We present the fourth article in a series of papers focussed on young and massive clusters discovered in the VVV survey. This article is dedicated to the cluster VVV CL041, which contains a new very massive star candidate, WR 62-2. Methods: Following the methodology presented in the first paper of the series, wide-field, deep JHKs VVV observations, combined with new infrared spectroscopy, are employed to constrain fundamental parameters (distance, reddening, mass, age) of VVV CL041. Results: We confirm that the cluster VVV CL041 is a young (less than 4 Myr) and massive (3 ± 2 × 103 M⊙) cluster, and not a simple asterism. It is located at a distance of 4.2 ± 0.9 kpc, and its reddening is AV = 8.0 ± 0.2 mag, which is slightly lower than the average for the young clusters towards the centre of the Galaxy. Spectral analysis shows that the most luminous star of the cluster, of the WN8h spectral type, is a candidate to have an initial mass larger than 100 M⊙. Based on observations taken within the ESO VISTA Public Survey VVV, Programme ID 179.B-2002, and on observations with VLT/ISAAC at ESO (programme 087.D.0341A) and Flamingos-2 at Gemini (programme GS-2014A-Q-72).The photometric catalogue is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/584/A31

  6. Properties of the Open Cluster Tombaugh 1 from High-resolution Spectroscopy and uvbyCaHβ Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales Silva, João V.; Carraro, Giovanni; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.; Moni Bidin, Christian; Costa, Edgardo; Twarog, Bruce A.

    2016-01-01

    Open clusters can be the key to deepening our knowledge on various issues involving the structure and evolution of the Galactic disk and details of stellar evolution because a cluster’s properties are applicable to all its members. However, the number of open clusters with detailed analysis from high-resolution spectroscopy or precision photometry imposes severe limitations on studies of these objects. To expand the number of open clusters with well-defined chemical abundances and fundamental parameters, we investigate the poorly studied, anticenter open cluster Tombaugh 1. Using precision uvbyCaHβ photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy, we derive the cluster’s reddening, obtain photometric metallicity estimates, and, for the first time, present a detailed abundance analysis of 10 potential cluster stars (nine clump stars and one Cepheid). Using the radial position from the cluster center and multiple color indices, we have isolated a sample of unevolved, probable single-star members of Tombaugh 1. From 51 stars, the cluster reddening is found to be E(b-y) = 0.221 ± 0.006 or E(B-V) = 0.303 ± 0.008, where the errors refer to the internal standard errors of the mean. The weighted photometric metallicity from m1 and hk is [Fe/H] = ‑0.10 ± 0.02, while a match to the Victoria-Regina Strömgren isochrones leads to an age of 0.95 ± 0.10 Gyr and an apparent modulus of (m-M) = 13.10 ± 0.10. Radial velocities identify six giants as probable cluster members, and the elemental abundances of Fe, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Ni, Y, Ba, Ce, and Nd have been derived for both the cluster and the field stars. Tombaugh 1 appears to be a typical inner thin disk, intermediate-age open cluster of slightly subsolar metallicity, located just beyond the solar circle, with solar elemental abundance ratios except for the heavy s-process elements, which are a factor of two above solar. Its metallicity is consistent with a steep metallicity gradient in the galactocentric region

  7. X-ray and optical spectroscopy of the massive young open cluster IC 1805

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauw, G.; Nazé, Y.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Very young open clusters are ideal places to study the X-ray properties of a homogeneous population of early-type stars. In this respect, the IC 1805 open cluster is very interesting as it hosts the O4 If+ star HD 15570 thought to be in an evolutionary stage intermediate between a normal O-star and a Wolf-Rayet star. Aims: Such a star could provide a test for theoretical models aiming at explaining the empirical scaling relation between the X-ray and bolometric luminosities of O-type stars. Methods: We have observed IC 1805 with XMM-Newton and further collected optical spectroscopy of some of the O-star members of the cluster. Results: The optical spectra allow us to revisit the orbital solutions of BD+60° 497 and HD 15558, and provide the first evidence of binarity for BD+60° 498. X-ray emission from colliding winds does not appear to play an important role among the O-stars of IC 1805. Notably, the X-ray fluxes do not vary significantly between archival X-ray observations and our XMM-Newton pointing. The very fast rotator BD+60° 513, and to a lesser extent the O4 If+ star HD 15570 appear somewhat underluminous. Whilst the underluminosity of HD 15570 is only marginally significant, its amplitude is found to be compatible with theoretical expectations based on its stellar and wind properties. A number of other X-ray sources are detected in the field, and the brightest objects, many of which are likely low-mass pre-main sequence stars, are analyzed in detail. Based on observations collected with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA member states and the USA (NASA), and with the TIGRE telescope (La Luz, Mexico).Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/594/A82

  8. Open cluster Dolidze 25: Stellar parameters and the metallicity in the Galactic anticentre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negueruela, I.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Lorenzo, J.; Castro, N.; Herrero, A.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The young open cluster Dolidze 25, in the direction of the Galactic anticentre, has been attributed a very low metallicity, with typical abundances between -0.5 and -0.7 dex below solar. Aims: We intend to derive accurate cluster parameters and accurate stellar abundances for some of its members. Methods: We have obtained a large sample of intermediate- and high-resolution spectra for stars in and around Dolidze 25. We used the fastwind code to generate stellar atmosphere models to fit the observed spectra. We derive stellar parameters for a large number of OB stars in the area, and abundances of oxygen and silicon for a number of stars with spectral types around B0. Results: We measure low abundances in stars of Dolidze 25. For the three stars with spectral types around B0, we find 0.3 dex (Si) and 0.5 dex (O) below the values typical in the solar neighbourhood. These values, even though not as low as those given previously, confirm Dolidze 25 and the surrounding H ii region Sh2-284 as the most metal-poor star-forming environment known in the Milky Way. We derive a distance 4.5 ± 0.3 kpc to the cluster (rG ≈ 12.3 kpc). The cluster cannot be older than ~3 Myr, and likely is not much younger. One star in its immediate vicinity, sharing the same distance, has Si and O abundances at most 0.15 dex below solar. Conclusions: The low abundances measured in Dolidze 25 are compatible with currently accepted values for the slope of the Galactic metallicity gradient, if we take into account that variations of at least ±0.15 dex are observed at a given radius. The area traditionally identified as Dolidze 25 is only a small part of a much larger star-forming region that comprises the whole dust shell associated with Sh2-284 and very likely several other smaller H ii regions in its vicinity. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, the Mercator Telescope, and the telescopes of the Isaac Newton Group.

  9. A Chandra X-ray study of the interacting binaries in the old open cluster NGC6791

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Maureen van den; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Belloni, Tomaso; Bedin, Luigi R; Platais, Imants

    2013-01-01

    We present the first X-ray study of NGC6791, one of the oldest open clusters known (8 Gyr). Our Chandra observation is aimed at uncovering the population of close interacting binaries down to Lx ~ 1e30 erg/s (0.3-7 keV). We detect 86 sources within 8 arcmin of the cluster center, including 59 inside the half-mass radius. We identify twenty sources with proper-motion cluster members, which are a mix of cataclysmic variables (CVs), active binaries (ABs), and binaries containing sub-subgiants. With follow-up optical spectroscopy we confirm the nature of one CV. We discover one new, X-ray variable candidate CV with Balmer and HeII emission lines in its optical spectrum; this is the first X-ray--selected CV confirmed in an open cluster. The number of CVs per unit mass is consistent with the field, suggesting that the 3-4 CVs observed in NGC6791 are primordial. We compare the X-ray properties of NGC6791 with those of a few old open (NGC6819, M67) and globular clusters (47Tuc, NGC6397). It is puzzling that the numbe...

  10. Communication: Spin densities within a unitary group based spin-adapted open-shell coupled-cluster theory: Analytic evaluation of isotropic hyperfine-coupling constants for the combinatoric open-shell coupled-cluster scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report analytical calculations of isotropic hyperfine-coupling constants in radicals using a spin-adapted open-shell coupled-cluster theory, namely, the unitary group based combinatoric open-shell coupled-cluster (COSCC) approach within the singles and doubles approximation. A scheme for the evaluation of the one-particle spin-density matrix required in these calculations is outlined within the spin-free formulation of the COSCC approach. In this scheme, the one-particle spin-density matrix for an open-shell state with spin S and MS = + S is expressed in terms of the one- and two-particle spin-free (charge) density matrices obtained from the Lagrangian formulation that is used for calculating the analytic first derivatives of the energy. Benchmark calculations are presented for NO, NCO, CH2CN, and two conjugated π-radicals, viz., allyl and 1-pyrrolyl in order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed scheme

  11. Asteroseismology of the Open Clusters NGC 6791, NGC 6811, and NGC 6819 from 19 Months of Kepler Photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsaro, Enrico; Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel;

    2012-01-01

    We studied solar-like oscillations in 115 red giants in the three open clusters, NGC 6791, NGC 6811, and NGC 6819, based on photometric data covering more than 19 months with NASA's Kepler space telescope. We present the asteroseismic diagrams of the asymptotic parameters δν02, δν01, and ϵ, which...

  12. A new solar fluorine abundance and a fluorine determination in the two open clusters M67 and NGC 6404

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiorca, E.; Randich, S.; Magrini, L. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Uitenbroek, H. [National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Uttenthaler, S. [University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Türkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Busso, M., E-mail: maiorca@arcetri.astro.it [INFN, Sezione di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2014-06-20

    We present a new determination of the solar fluorine abundance together with abundance measurements of fluorine in two Galactic open clusters. We analyzed a sunspot spectrum, observed by L. Wallace and W. Livingston with the Fourier Transform Spectrometer at the McMath/Pierce Solar Telescope situated on Kitt Peak, and spectra of four giants in the old cluster M67 (∼4.5 Gyr) and three giants in the young cluster NGC 6404 (∼0.5 Gyr), obtained with the CRIRES spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. Fluorine was measured through the synthesis of the available HF lines. We adopted the recent set of experimental molecular parameters of HF delivered by the HITRAN database, and found a new solar fluorine abundance of A(F) = 4.40 ± 0.25, in good agreement with the M67 average fluorine abundance of A(F) = 4.49 ± 0.20. The new solar abundance is in a very good agreement with the meteoritic value. The modern spectrosynthesis tools used and the agreement with the meteoritic value and with the results in open cluster M67, known to be a solar analogue, make our solar determination very robust. At the same time, the fluorine measurement in the above-mentioned open clusters is the first step toward understanding its evolution during the last ∼10 Gyr in the Galactic disk. In order to develop this project, a larger sample of open clusters is required, in order to allow us to trace the evolution of fluorine as a function of time and, in turn, to better understand its origin.

  13. The CFHT Open Star Cluster Survey. IV. Two Rich, Young Open Star Clusters: NGC 2168 (M35) and NGC 2323 (M50)

    CERN Document Server

    Singh-Kalirai, J; Richer, H B; Ventura, P; Kalirai, Jasonjot S.; Fahlman, Gregory G.; Richer, Harvey B.; Ventura, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    We continue our study of rich Galactic clusters by presenting deep CCD observations of both NGC 2168 (M35) and NGC 2323 (M50). Both clusters are found to be rich (NGC 2168 contains at least 1000 stars brighter than V = 22 and NGC 2323 contains approximately 2100 stars brighter than our photometric limit of V = 23) and young (age of NGC 2168 = 180 Myrs, age of NGC 2323 = 130 Myrs). The color-magnitude diagrams for the clusters exhibit clear main sequences stretching over 14 magnitudes in the V, B-V plane. Comparing these long main sequences with those of earlier clusters in the survey, as well as with the Hyades, has allowed for accurate distances to be established for each cluster (dist. of NGC 2168 = 912 +/- 70/65 pc, dist. of NGC 2323 = 1000 +/- 81/75 pc). Analysis of the luminosity and mass functions suggest that despite their young ages, both clusters are somewhat dynamically relaxed exhibiting signs of mass-segregation. This is especially interesting in the case of NGC 2323, which has an age of only 1.3 ...

  14. Deep and Wide Photometry of Two Open Clusters NGC 1245 and NGC 2506: Dynamical Evolution and Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, S H; Ann, H B

    2013-01-01

    We studied the structure of two old open clusters, NGC 1245 and NGC 2506, from a wide and deep VI photometry data acquired using the CFH12K CCD camera at CFHT. We devised a new method for assigning cluster membership probability to individual stars using both spatial positions and positions in the colour-magnitude diagram. From analyses of the luminosity functions at several cluster-centric radii and the radial surface density profiles derived from stars with different luminosity ranges, we found that the two clusters are dynamically relaxed to drive significant mass segregation and evaporation of some fraction of low-mass stars. There seems to be a signature of tidal tail in NGC 1245 but the signal is too low to be confirmed.

  15. New variable stars discovered in the fields of three Galactic open clusters using the VVV survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, T.; Minniti, D.; Dékány, I.; Clariá, J. J.; Alonso-García, J.; Gramajo, L. V.; Ramírez Alegría, S.; Bonatto, C.

    2016-11-01

    This project is a massive near-infrared (NIR) search for variable stars in highly reddened and obscured open cluster (OC) fields projected on regions of the Galactic bulge and disk. The search is performed using photometric NIR data in the J-, H- and Ks- bands obtained from the Vista Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) Survey. We performed in each cluster field a variability search using Stetson's variability statistics to select the variable candidates. Later, those candidates were subjected to a frequency analysis using the Generalized Lomb-Scargle and the Phase Dispersion Minimization algorithms. The number of independent observations range between 63 and 73. The newly discovered variables in this study, 157 in total in three different known OCs, are classified based on their light curve shapes, periods, amplitudes and their location in the corresponding color-magnitude (J -Ks ,Ks) and color-color (H -Ks , J - H) diagrams. We found 5 possible Cepheid stars which, based on the period-luminosity relation, are very likely type II Cepheids located behind the bulge. Among the newly discovered variables, there are eclipsing binaries, δ Scuti, as well as background RR Lyrae stars. Using the new version of the Wilson & Devinney code as well as the "Physics Of Eclipsing Binaries" (PHOEBE) code, we analyzed some of the best eclipsing binaries we discovered. Our results show that these studied systems turn out to be ranging from detached to double-contact binaries, with low eccentricities and high inclinations of approximately 80°. Their surface temperatures range between 3500 K and 8000 K.

  16. Searching for chemical signatures of multiple stellar populations in the old, massive open cluster NGC 6791

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragaglia, Angela; Carretta, Eugenio [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, C1400, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Gratton, Raffaele G.; Lucatello, Sara [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bernath, Peter F. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, 4541 Hampton Boulevard, Norfolk, VA 23529-0126 (United States); Brooke, James S. A.; Ram, Ram S., E-mail: angela.bragaglia@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: eugenio.carretta@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: raffaele.gratton@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: sara.lucatello@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: pbernath@odu.edu, E-mail: jsabrooke@gmail.com, E-mail: rr662@york.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-20

    Galactic open and globular clusters (OCs, GCs) appear to inhabit separate regions of the age-mass plane. However, the transition between them is not easily defined because there is some overlap between high-mass, old OCs and low-mass, young GCs. We are exploring the possibility of a clear-cut separation between OCs and GCs using an abundance feature that has been found so far only in GCs: (anti)correlations between light elements. Among the coupled abundance trends, the Na-O anticorrelation is the most widely studied. These anticorrelations are the signature of self-enrichment, i.e., of a formation mechanism that implies multiple generations of stars. Here we concentrate on the old, massive, metal-rich OC NGC 6791. We analyzed archival Keck/HIRES spectra of 15 NGC 6791 main-sequence turnoff and evolved stars, concentrating on the derivation of C, N, O, and Na abundances. We also used WIYN/Hydra spectra of 21 evolved stars (one is in common). Given the spectral complexity of the very metal-rich NGC 6791 stars, we employed spectrum synthesis to measure most of the abundances. We confirmed the cluster super-solar metallicity and abundances of Ca and Ni that have been derived in past studies. More importantly, we did not detect any significant star-to-star abundance dispersion in C, N, O, and Na. Based on the absence of a clear Na-O anticorrelation, NGC 6791 can still be considered a true OC, hosting a single generation of stars and not a low-mass GC.

  17. Chemical composition of evolved stars in the young open clusters NGC 4609 and NGC 5316

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazdauskas, Arnas; Tautvaišienė, Gražina; Smiljanic, Rodolfo; Bagdonas, Vilius; Chorniy, Yuriy

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution spectral analysis is performed for the first time in evolved stars of two young open clusters: NGC 4609 and NGC 5316, of about 80 and 100 Myr in age, respectively, and turn-off masses above 5 M⊙. Stellar evolution models predict an extra-mixing event in evolved stars, which follows the first dredge-up and happens later on the red giant branch. However, it is still not understood how this process affects stars of different masses. In this study, we determine abundances of the mixing sensitive elements carbon and nitrogen, carbon isotope 12C/13C ratios, as well as 20 other elements produced by different nucleosynthetic processes (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Eu). We compared our results with the latest theoretical models of evolutionary mixing processes. We find that the obtained 12C/13C and C/N ratios and [Na/Fe] agree quite well with the model which takes into account thermohaline- and rotation-induced mixing but within error limits also agree with the standard first dredge-up model. Comparison of oxygen, magnesium, and other α-elements with theoretical models of Galactic chemical evolution revealed that both clusters follow the thin disc α-element trends. Neutron-capture element abundances in NGC 4609 are apparently reflecting its birthplace in the thin disc, while NGC 5316 has marginally higher abundances, which would indicate its birthplace in an environment more enriched with neutron-capture elements.

  18. Tombaugh 2: The First Open Cluster with a Significant Abundance Spread or Embedded in a Cold Stellar Stream?

    CERN Document Server

    Frinchaboy, P M; Villanova, S; Carraro, G; Majewski, S R; Geisler, D

    2008-01-01

    We present new abundances and radial velocities for stars in the field of the open cluster Tombaugh 2, which has been suggested to be associated with the Galactic Anticenter Stellar Structure (also known as the Monoceros stream). Using VLT/FLAMES with the UVES and GIRAFFE spectrographs, we find a radial velocity (RV) of = 121 \\pm 0.4 km/s using eighteen Tombaugh 2 cluster stars. Our abundance analysis of RV-selected members finds that Tombaugh 2 is more metal-rich than previous studies have found; moreover, unlike the previous work, our larger sample also reveals that stars with the velocity of the cluster show a relatively large spread in chemical properties (e.g., Delta[Fe/H] > 0.2). This is the first time a possible abundance spread has been observed in an open cluster, though this is one of several possible explanations for our observations. While there is an apparent trend of [alpha/Fe] with [Fe/H], the distribution of abundances of these "RV cluster members" also may hint at a possible division into tw...

  19. PHR1315-6555: a bipolar planetary nebula in the compact Hyades-age open cluster ESO96-SC04

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Quentin A; Miszalski, Brent; Kovacevic, Anna V; Frinchaboy, Peter M; Dobbie, Paul D; Koppen, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed study of a bipolar, possible Type I planetary nebula (PN), PHR1315-6555 (PN G305.3-03.1), that was discovered as part of the Macquarie/AAO/Strasbourg H-alpha planetary nebula project (MASH) and that we considered at the time was an excellent candidate for membership of the distant, compact, intermediate-age open cluster, ESO 96-SC04. The strong evidence for this association is presented here making this the only known example of a PN physically associated with a Galactic open cluster. Cluster membership is extremely important as it allows for very precise estimates of the fundamental properties of the PN as the cluster is at a known distance. The PN was discovered by one of us (QAP) during systematic MASH searches for new Galactic PNe of the AAO/UKST H-alpha survey and had been missed in earlier broadband surveys, including specific CCD studies of the host cluster. We present original discovery images and CTIO 4m MOSAIC-II camera follow-up narrow-band images that reveal its bipolar morph...

  20. WIYN open cluster study. LX. Spectroscopic binary orbits in NGC 6819

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliman, Katelyn E.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Gosnell, Natalie M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Geller, Aaron M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Meibom, Søren [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Platais, Imants, E-mail: milliman@astro.wisc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We present the current state of the WOCS radial-velocity (RV) survey for the rich open cluster NGC 6819 (2.5 Gyr) including 93 spectroscopic binary orbits with periods ranging from 1.5 to 8000 days. These results are the product of our ongoing RV survey of NGC 6819 using the Hydra Multi-Object Spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. We also include a detailed analysis of multiple prior sets of optical photometry for NGC 6819. Within a 1° field of view, our stellar sample includes the giant branch, the red clump, and blue straggler candidates, and extends to almost 2 mag below the main sequence (MS) turnoff. For each star observed in our survey we present all RV measurements, the average RV, and velocity variability information. Additionally, we discuss notable binaries from our sample, including eclipsing binaries (WOCS 23009, WOCS 24009, and WOCS 40007), stars noted in Kepler asteroseismology studies (WOCS 4008, WOCS 7009, and WOCS 8007), and potential descendants of past blue stragglers (WOCS 1006 and WOCS 6002). We find the incompleteness-corrected binary fraction for all MS binaries with periods less than 10{sup 4} days to be 22% ± 3% and a tidal circularization period of 6.2{sub −1.1}{sup +1.1} days for NGC 6819.

  1. The extent of mixing in stellar interiors: the open clusters Collinder 261 and Melotte 66

    CERN Document Server

    Drazdauskas, Arnas; Randich, Sofia; Bragaglia, Angela; Mikolaitis, Šarūnas; Janulis, Rimvydas

    2016-01-01

    Context: Determining carbon and nitrogen abundances in red giants provides useful diagnostics to test mixing processes in stellar atmospheres. Aims: Our main aim is to determine carbon-to-nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios for evolved giants in the open clusters Collinder 261 and Melotte 66 and to compare the results with predictions of theoretical models. Methods: High-resolution spectra were analysed using a differential model atmosphere method. Abundances of carbon were derived using the C_2 Swan (0,1) band head at 5635.5 A. The wavelength interval 7940-8130 A, which contains CN features, was analysed to determine nitrogen abundances and carbon isotope ratios. The oxygen abundances were determined from the [O_I] line at 6300 A. Results: The mean values of the elemental abundances in Collinder 261, as determined from seven stars, are: [C/Fe]=-0.23 +- 0.02 (s.d.), [N/Fe]=0.18 +- 0.09, [O/Fe]=-0.03 +- 0.07. The mean 12^C/13^C ratio is 11 +- 2, considering four red clump stars and 18 for one star above the clu...

  2. Stellar variability in open clusters. I. A new class of variable stars in NGC 3766

    CERN Document Server

    Mowlavi, N; Saesen, S; Eyer, L

    2013-01-01

    Aims. We analyze the population of periodic variable stars in the open cluster NGC 3766 based on a 7-year multi-band monitoring campaign conducted on the 1.2 m Swiss Euler telescope at La Silla, Chili. Methods. The data reduction, light curve cleaning and period search procedures, combined with the long observation time line, allow us to detect variability amplitudes down to the milli-magnitude level. The variability properties are complemented with the positions in the color-magnitude and color-color diagrams to classify periodic variable stars into distinct variability types. Results. We find a large population (36 stars) of new variable stars between the red edge of slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars and the blue edge of delta Sct stars, a region in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram where no pulsation is predicted to occur based on standard stellar models. The bulk of their periods ranges from 0.1 to 0.7 d, with amplitudes between 1 and 4 mmag for the majority of them. About 20% of stars in that region of t...

  3. Magnetic effects and oversized M dwarfs in the young open cluster NGC 2516

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, James

    2013-01-01

    By combining rotation periods with spectroscopic determinations of projected rotation velocity, Jackson, Jeffries & Maxted (2009) have found that the mean radii for low-mass M-dwarfs in the young, open cluster NGC 2516 are larger than model predictions at a given absolute I magnitude or I - K color and also larger than measured radii of magnetically inactive M-dwarfs. The relative radius difference is correlated with magnitude, increasing from a few per cent at MI = 7 to greater than 50 per cent for the lowest luminosity stars in their sample at MI about 9.5. Jackson et al (2009) have suggested that a two-temperature star spot model is capable of explaining the observations, but their model requires spot coverage fractions of at least 50 per cent in rapidly rotating M-dwarfs. Here we examine these results in terms of stellar models that include the inhibiting effects of magnetic fields on convective energy transport, with and without the effects of star spots. We find that a pure spot model is inconsisten...

  4. Close binary stars in the solar-age Galactic open cluster M67

    CERN Document Server

    Yakut, K; Kalomeni, B; Van Winckel, H; Waelkens, C; De Cat, P; Bauwens, E; Vuckovic, M; Saesen, S; Guillou, L Le; Parmaksizoglu, M; Uluc, K; Khamitov, I; Raskin, G; Aerts, C

    2009-01-01

    We present multi-colour time-series CCD photometry of the solar-age galactic open cluster M67 (NGC 2682). About 3600 frames spread over 28 nights were obtained with the 1.5 m Russian-Turkish and 1.2 m Mercator telescopes. High-precision observations of the close binary stars AH Cnc, EV Cnc, ES Cnc, the $\\delta$ Scuti type systems EX Cnc and EW Cnc, and some long-period variables belonging to M67 are presented. Three full multi-colour light curves of the overcontact binary AH Cnc were obtained during three observing seasons. Likewise we gathered three light curves of EV Cnc, an EB-type binary, and two light curves of ES Cnc, a blue straggler binary. Parts of the light change of long-term variables S1024, S1040, S1045, S1063, S1242, and S1264 are obtained. Period variation analysis of AH Cnc, EV Cnc, and ES Cnc were done using all times of mid-eclipse available in the literature and those obtained in this study. In addition, we analyzed multi-colour light curves of the close binaries and also determined new fre...

  5. Multi-site campaign on the open cluster M67. I. Observations and photometric reductions

    CERN Document Server

    Stello, D; Bedding, T R; Bouzid, M Y; Bruntt, H; Csubry, Z; Dind, Z E; Frandsen, S; Gilliland, R L; Jacob, A P; Jensen, H R; Kang, Y B; Kim, S L; Kiss, L L; Kjeldsen, H; Koo, J R; Lee, J A; Lee, C U; Nuspl, J; Sterken, C; Szabó, R

    2006-01-01

    We report on an ambitious multi-site campaign aimed at detecting stellar variability, particularly solar-like oscillations, in the red giant stars in the open cluster M67 (NGC 2682). During the six-week observing run, which comprised 164 telescope nights, we used nine 0.6-m to 2.1-m class telescopes located around the world to obtain uninterrupted time-series photometry. We outline here the data acquisition and reduction, with emphasis on the optimisation of the signal-to-noise of the low amplitude (50-500 micromag) solar-like oscillations. This includes a new and efficient method for obtaining the linearity profile of the CCD response at ultra high precision (~10 parts per million). The noise in the final time series is 0.50 mmag per minute integration for the best site, while the noise in the Fourier spectrum of all sites combined is 20 micromag. In addition to the red giant stars, this data set proves to be very valuable for studying high-amplitude variable stars such as eclipsing binaries, W UMa systems a...

  6. Chemical composition of A and F dwarfs members of the Pleiades open cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Gebran, M

    2008-01-01

    Abundances of 18 chemical elements have been derived for 16 A (normal and chemically peculiar CP) and 5 F dwarfs members of the Pleiades open cluster in order to set constraints on evolutionary models. The abundances, rotational velocities and microturbulent velocities were derived by iteratively adjusting synthetic spectra to observations at high resolution (R~42000 and R~75000) and high signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios. The abundances obtained do not exhibit any clear correlation with the effective temperature nor the projected rotational velocity. Interestingly, A stars exhibit larger star-to-star variations in C, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Sr, Y, Zr and Ba than F stars. F stars exhibit solar abundances for almost all the elements. In A stars, the abundances of Si, Ti and Cr are found to be correlated with that of Fe, the [X/Fe] ratios being solar for these three elements. The derived abundances have been compared to the predictions of published evolutionary models at the age of Pleiades (100 Myr). For the F stars, th...

  7. Chromospheric activity among fast rotating M-dwarfs in the open cluster NGC 2516

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, R J

    2010-01-01

    We report radial velocities (RVs), projected equatorial velocities (v sin i) and CaII triplet (CaT) chromospheric activity indices for 237 late-K to mid-M candidate members of the young open cluster NGC 2516. These stars have rotation periods between 0.1 and 15 days. Intermediate resolution spectra were obtained using the Giraffe spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. Membership was confirmed on the basis of RVs for 210 targets. We see a marked increase in the fraction of rapidly rotators as we move to cooler spectral types. About 20 per cent of M0-M1 stars have v sin i >15km/s, increasing to 90 per cent of M4 stars. Activity indices derived from the first two lines of the CaT (8498A and 8542A) show differing dependencies on rotation period and mass for stars lying above and below the fully convective boundary. Higher mass stars, of spectral type K3-M2.5, show chromospheric activity which increases with decreasing Rossby number (the ratio of period to convective turnover time), saturating for Rossby number...

  8. A New Catalog of Variable Stars in the Field of the Open Cluster M37

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, S -W; Hartman, J D

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive re-analysis of stellar photometric variability in the field of the open cluster M37 following the application of a new photometry and de-trending method to MMT/Megacam image archive. This new analysis allows a rare opportunity to explore photometric variability over a broad range of time-scales, from minutes to a month. The intent of this work is to examine the entire sample of over 30,000 objects for periodic, aperiodic, and sporadic behaviors in their light curves. We show a modified version of the fast $\\chi^{2}$ periodogram algorithm (F$\\chi^{2}$) and change-point analysis (CPA) as tools for detecting and assessing the significance of periodic and non-periodic variations. The benefits of our new photometry and analysis methods are evident. A total of 2306 stars exhibit convincing variations that are induced by flares, pulsations, eclipses, starspots, and unknown causes in some cases. This represents a 60% increase in the number of variables known in this field. Moreover, 30 of t...

  9. Searching for Chemical Signatures of Multiple Stellar Populations in the Old, Massive Open Cluster NGC 6791

    CERN Document Server

    Bragaglia, A; Carretta, E; Gratton, R G; Lucatello, S; Bernath, P F; Brooke, J S A; Ram, R S

    2014-01-01

    Galactic open and globular clusters (OCs, GCs) appear to inhabit separate regions of the age-mass plane. However, the transition between them is not easily defined because there is some overlap between high-mass, old OCs and low-mass, young GCs. We are exploring the possibility of a clear-cut separation between OCs and GCs using an abundance feature that has been found so far only in GCs: (anti)correlations between light elements. Among the coupled abundance trends, the Na-O anticorrelation is the most widely studied. These anticorrelations are the signature of self-enrichment, i.e., of a formation mechanism that implies multiple generations of stars. Here we concentrate on the old, massive, metal-rich OC NGC 6791. We analyzed archival Keck/HIRES spectra of 15 NGC 6791 main sequence turn-off and evolved stars, concentrating on the derivation of C, N, O, and Na abundances. We also used WIYN/Hydra spectra of 21 evolved stars (one is in common). Given the spectral complexity of the very metal-rich NGC 6791 stars...

  10. Chemical composition of evolved stars in the young open clusters NGC 4609 and NGC 5316

    CERN Document Server

    Drazdauskas, Arnas; Smiljanic, Rodolfo; Bagdonas, Vilius; Chorniy, Yuriy

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution spectral analysis is performed for the first time in evolved stars of two young open clusters: NGC 4609 and NGC 5316, of about 80 and 100 Myr in age, respectively, and turn-off masses above 5 Msun. Stellar evolution models predict an extra-mixing event in evolved stars, which follows the first dredge-up and happens later on the red giant branch. However, it is still not understood how this process affects stars of different masses. In this study, we determine abundances of the mixing sensitive elements carbon and nitrogen, carbon isotope 12C/13C ratios, as well as 20 other elements produced by different nucleosynthetic processes (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Eu). We compared our results with the latest theoretical models of evolutionary mixing processes. We find that the obtained 12C/13C and C/N ratios and [Na/Fe] agree quite well with the model which takes into account thermohaline- and rotation-induced mixing but within error limits also agree...

  11. Relativistic equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method using open-shell reference wavefunction

    CERN Document Server

    Pathak, Himadri; Nayak, Malaya K; Vaval, Nayana; Pal, Sourav

    2016-01-01

    The open-shell reference relativistic equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method within its four-component description is successfully implemented with the consideration of single- and double- excitation approximation. The one-body and two-body matrix elements required for the correlation calculation are generated using Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian. As a first attempt, the implemented method is employed to calculate a few of the low-lying ionized states of heavy atomic (Ag, Cs, Au, Fr, Lr) and valence ionization potential of molecular (HgH, PbF) systems, where the effect of relativity does really matter to obtain highly accurate results. Not only the relativistic effect, but also the effect of electron correlation is crucial in these heavy atomic and molecular systems. To justify the fact, we have taken two further approximations in the four-component relativistic equation-of-motion framework to quantify how the effect of electron correlation plays a role in the calculated values at different level of the approxi...

  12. Reddening, Distance, and Stellar Content of the Young Open Cluster Westerlund 2

    CERN Document Server

    Hur, Hyeonoh; Sung, Hwankyung; Bessell, Michael S; Lim, Beomdu; Chun, Moo-Young; Sohn, Sangmo Tony

    2014-01-01

    We present deep $UBVI_C$ photometric data of the young open cluster Westerlund 2. An abnormal reddening law of $R_{V,cl}=4.14\\pm0.08$ was found for the highly reddened early-type members ($E(B-V)\\geq 1.45$), whereas a fairly normal reddening law of $R_{V,fg}=3.33\\pm0.03$ was confirmed for the foreground early-type stars ($E(B-V)_{fg}<1.05$). The distance modulus was determined from zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) fitting to the reddening-corrected colour-magnitude diagram of the early-type members to be $V_0-M_V=13.9\\pm0.14$ (random error) $_{-0.1}^{+0.4}$ (the upper limit of systematic error) mag ($d = 6.0 \\pm 0.4 _{-0.3}^{+1.2}$ kpc). To obtain the initial mass function, pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars were selected by identifying the optical counterparts of Chandra X-ray sources and mid-infrared emission stars from the Spitzer GLIMPSE source catalog. The initial mass function shows a shallow slope of $\\Gamma=-1.1 \\pm 0.1$ down to $\\log m = 0.7$. The total mass of Westerlund 2 is estimated to be at least 7,4...

  13. CCD Photometric Study of the Contact Binary TX Cnc in the Young Open Cluster NGC 2632

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Liu; Soonthornthum, BOONRUCKSAR; Liying, Zhu; Jiajia, He; Yuan, J -Z

    2011-01-01

    TX Cnc is a member of the young open cluster NGC 2632. In the present paper, four CCD epochs of light minimum and a complete V light curve of TX Cnc are presented. A period investigation based on all available photoelectric or CCD data showed that it is found to be superimposed on a long-term increase ($dP/dt=+3.97\\times{10^{-8}}$\\,days/year), and a weak evidence suggests that it includes a small-amplitude period oscillation ($A_3=0.^{d}0028$; $T_3=26.6\\,years$). The light curves in the V band obtained in 2004 were analyzed with the 2003 version of the W-D code. It was shown that TX Cnc is an overcontact binary system with a degree of contact factor $f=24.8%(\\pm0.9%)$. The absolute parameters of the system were calculated: $M_1=1.319\\pm0.007M_{\\odot}$, $M_2=0.600\\pm0.01M_{\\odot}$; $R_1=1.28\\pm0.19R_{\\odot}$, $R_2=0.91\\pm0.13R_{\\odot}$. TX Cnc may be on the TRO-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian (2001a, b; 2003a), and may contains an invisible tertiary component ($m_3\\approx0.097M_{\\o...

  14. X-ray spectral and timing characteristics of the stars in the young open cluster IC 2391

    OpenAIRE

    Marino, A.; Micela, G.; Peres, G; Pillitteri, I.; Sciortino, S.

    2004-01-01

    We present X-ray spectral and timing analysis of members of the young open cluster IC 2391 observed with the XMM-Newton observatory. We detected 99 X-ray sources by analysing the summed data obtained from MOS1, MOS2 and pn detectors of the EPIC camera; 24 of them are members, or probable members, of the cluster. Stars of all spectral types have been detected, from the early-types to the late-M dwarfs. Despite the capability of the instrument to recognize up to 3 thermal components, the X-ray ...

  15. GeMs/GSAOI observations of La Serena 94: an old and far open cluster inside the solar circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João F. C., Jr.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Maia, Francisco F. S.; Neichel, Benoit

    2016-02-01

    Physical properties were derived for the candidate open cluster La Serena 94, recently unveiled by the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) survey. Thanks to the exquisite angular resolution provided by Gemini South multiconjugate adaptive optics system/Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GeMS/GSAOI), we could characterize this system in detail, for the first time, with deep photometry in JHKs bands. Decontaminated JHKs diagrams reach about 5 mag below the cluster turnoff in H. The locus of red clump giants in the colour-colour diagram, together with an extinction law, was used to obtain an average extinction of AV = 14.18 ± 0.71. The same stars were considered as standard candles to derive the cluster distance, 8.5 ± 1.0 kpc. Isochrones were matched to the cluster colour-magnitude diagrams to determine its age, log t(yr) = 9.12 ± 0.06, and metallicity, Z = 0.02 ± 0.01. A core radius of rc = 0.51 ± 0.04 pc was found by fitting King models to the radial density profile. By adding up the visible stellar mass to an extrapolated mass function, the cluster mass was estimated as M=(2.65± 0.57)× 10^3 M⊙, consistent with an integrated magnitude of M_{K_s}=-5.82± 0.16 and a tidal radius of rt = 17.2 ± 2.1 pc. The overall characteristics of La Serena 94 confirm that it is an old open cluster located in the Crux spiral arm towards the fourth Galactic quadrant and distant 7.30 ± 0.49 kpc from the Galactic Centre. The cluster distorted structure, mass segregation and age indicate that it is a dynamically evolved stellar system.

  16. UB CCD Photometry of the Old, Metal-rich, Open Clusters NGC 6791, NGC 6819, and NGC 7142

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, G.; Buzzoni, A.; Bertone, E.; Buson, L.

    2013-11-01

    We report on a UV-oriented imaging survey in the fields of the old, metal-rich open clusters NGC 6791, NGC 6819, and NGC 7142. With their super-solar metallicity and ages >~ 3-8 Gyr, these three clusters represent both very near and ideal stellar aggregates to match the distinctive properties of the evolved stellar populations, as in elliptical galaxies and bulges of spirals. Following a first discussion of NGC 6791 observations in an accompanying paper, here we complete our analysis, also presenting for NGC 6819 and NGC 7142 the first-ever U CCD photometry. The color-magnitude diagram of the three clusters is analyzed in detail, with special emphasis on the hot stellar component. We report, in this regard, one new extreme horizontal-branch star candidate in NGC 6791. For NGC 6819 and 7142, the stellar luminosity function clearly points to a looser radial distribution of faint lower main sequence stars, either as a consequence of cluster dynamical interaction with the Galaxy or as an effect of an increasing fraction of binary stars toward the cluster core, as also observed in NGC 6791. Compared to a reference theoretical model for the Galaxy disk, the analysis of the stellar field along the line of sight of each cluster indicates that a more centrally concentrated thick disk, on a scale length shorter than ~2.8 kpc, might better reconcile the lower observed fraction of bright field stars and their white-dwarf progeny.

  17. Chemical Composition of Intermediate-mass Star Members of the M6 (NGC 6405) Open Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıçoğlu, T.; Monier, R.; Richer, J.; Fossati, L.; Albayrak, B.

    2016-03-01

    We present here the first abundance analysis of 44 late B-, A-, and F-type members of the young open cluster M6 (NGC 6405, age about 75 Myr). Low- and medium-resolution spectra, covering the 4500-5840 Å wavelength range, were obtained using the FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph attached to the ESO Very Large Telescopes. We determined the atmospheric parameters using calibrations of the Geneva photometry and by adjusting the Hβ profiles to synthetic ones. The abundances of up to 20 chemical elements, from helium to mercury, were derived for 19 late B, 16 A, and 9 F stars by iteratively adjusting synthetic spectra to the observations. We also derived a mean cluster metallicity of [Fe/H] = 0.07 ± 0.03 dex from the iron abundances of the F-type stars. We find that for most chemical elements, the normal late B- and A-type stars exhibit larger star-to-star abundance variations than the F-type stars probably because of the faster rotation of the B and A stars. The abundances of C, O, Mg, Si, and Sc appear to be anticorrelated with that of Fe, while the opposite holds for the abundances of Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Y, and Ba as expected if radiative diffusion is efficient in the envelopes of these stars. In the course of this analysis, we discovered five new peculiar stars: one mild Am, one Am, and one Fm star (HD 318091, CD-32 13109, GSC 07380-01211, CP1), one HgMn star (HD 318126, CP3), and one He-weak P-rich (HD 318101, CP4) star. We also discovered a new spectroscopic binary, most likely a SB2. We performed a detailed modeling of HD 318101, the new He-weak P-rich CP star, using the Montréal stellar evolution code XEVOL which self-consistently treats all particle transport processes. Although the overall abundance pattern of this star is properly reproduced, we find that detailed abundances (in particular the high P excess) resisted modeling attempts even when a range of turbulence profiles and mass-loss rates were considered. Solutions are proposed which are still under

  18. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF INTERMEDIATE-MASS STAR MEMBERS OF THE M6 (NGC 6405) OPEN CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kılıçoğlu, T.; Albayrak, B. [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, 06100, Tandoğan, Ankara (Turkey); Monier, R. [LESIA, UMR 8109, Observatoire de Paris Meudon, Place J. Janssen, Meudon (France); Richer, J. [Département de physique, Université de Montréal, 2900, Boulevard Edouard-Montpetit, Montréal QC, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Fossati, L., E-mail: tkilicoglu@ankara.edu.tr, E-mail: balbayrak@ankara.edu.tr, E-mail: Richard.Monier@obspm.fr, E-mail: Jacques.Richer@umontreal.ca, E-mail: lfossati@astro.uni-bonn.de [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie der Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    We present here the first abundance analysis of 44 late B-, A-, and F-type members of the young open cluster M6 (NGC 6405, age about 75 Myr). Low- and medium-resolution spectra, covering the 4500–5840 Å wavelength range, were obtained using the FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph attached to the ESO Very Large Telescopes. We determined the atmospheric parameters using calibrations of the Geneva photometry and by adjusting the H{sub β} profiles to synthetic ones. The abundances of up to 20 chemical elements, from helium to mercury, were derived for 19 late B, 16 A, and 9 F stars by iteratively adjusting synthetic spectra to the observations. We also derived a mean cluster metallicity of [Fe/H] = 0.07 ± 0.03 dex from the iron abundances of the F-type stars. We find that for most chemical elements, the normal late B- and A-type stars exhibit larger star-to-star abundance variations than the F-type stars probably because of the faster rotation of the B and A stars. The abundances of C, O, Mg, Si, and Sc appear to be anticorrelated with that of Fe, while the opposite holds for the abundances of Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Y, and Ba as expected if radiative diffusion is efficient in the envelopes of these stars. In the course of this analysis, we discovered five new peculiar stars: one mild Am, one Am, and one Fm star (HD 318091, CD-32 13109, GSC 07380-01211, CP1), one HgMn star (HD 318126, CP3), and one He-weak P-rich (HD 318101, CP4) star. We also discovered a new spectroscopic binary, most likely a SB2. We performed a detailed modeling of HD 318101, the new He-weak P-rich CP star, using the Montréal stellar evolution code XEVOL which self-consistently treats all particle transport processes. Although the overall abundance pattern of this star is properly reproduced, we find that detailed abundances (in particular the high P excess) resisted modeling attempts even when a range of turbulence profiles and mass-loss rates were considered. Solutions are proposed which are

  19. High Performance Data Clustering: A Comparative Analysis of Performance for GPU, RASC, MPI, and OpenMP Implementations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Luobin; Chiu, Steve C.; Liao, Wei-Keng; Thomas, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to Beowulf clusters and shared-memory machines, GPU and FPGA are emerging alternative architectures that provide massive parallelism and great computational capabilities. These architectures can be utilized to run compute-intensive algorithms to analyze ever-enlarging datasets and provide scalability. In this paper, we present four implementations of K-means data clustering algorithm for different high performance computing platforms. These four implementations include a CUDA implementation for GPUs, a Mitrion C implementation for FPGAs, an MPI implementation for Beowulf compute clusters, and an OpenMP implementation for shared-memory machines. The comparative analyses of the cost of each platform, difficulty level of programming for each platform, and the performance of each implementation are presented. PMID:25309040

  20. High Performance Data Clustering: A Comparative Analysis of Performance for GPU, RASC, MPI, and OpenMP Implementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Luobin; Chiu, Steve C; Liao, Wei-Keng; Thomas, Michael A

    2014-10-01

    Compared to Beowulf clusters and shared-memory machines, GPU and FPGA are emerging alternative architectures that provide massive parallelism and great computational capabilities. These architectures can be utilized to run compute-intensive algorithms to analyze ever-enlarging datasets and provide scalability. In this paper, we present four implementations of K-means data clustering algorithm for different high performance computing platforms. These four implementations include a CUDA implementation for GPUs, a Mitrion C implementation for FPGAs, an MPI implementation for Beowulf compute clusters, and an OpenMP implementation for shared-memory machines. The comparative analyses of the cost of each platform, difficulty level of programming for each platform, and the performance of each implementation are presented.

  1. The Implementation of Binned Kernel Density Estimation to Determine Open Clusters' Proper Motions: Validation of the Method

    CERN Document Server

    Priyatikanto, Rhorom

    2014-01-01

    Stellar membership determination of an open cluster is an important process to do before further analysis. Basically, there are two classes of membership determination method: parametric and non-parametric. In this study, an alternative of non-parametric method based on Binned Kernel Density Estimation that accounts measurements errors (simply called BKDE-e) is proposed. This method is applied upon proper motions data to determine cluster's membership kinematically and estimate the average proper motions of the cluster. Monte Carlo simulations show that the average proper motions determination using this proposed method is statistically more accurate than ordinary Kernel Density Estimator (KDE). By including measurement errors in the calculation, the mode location from the resulting density estimate is less sensitive to non-physical or stochastic fluctuation as compared to ordinary KDE that excludes measurement errors. For the typical mean measurement error of 7 mas/yr, BKDE-e suppresses the potential of misc...

  2. High Performance Data Clustering: A Comparative Analysis of Performance for GPU, RASC, MPI, and OpenMP Implementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Luobin; Chiu, Steve C; Liao, Wei-Keng; Thomas, Michael A

    2014-10-01

    Compared to Beowulf clusters and shared-memory machines, GPU and FPGA are emerging alternative architectures that provide massive parallelism and great computational capabilities. These architectures can be utilized to run compute-intensive algorithms to analyze ever-enlarging datasets and provide scalability. In this paper, we present four implementations of K-means data clustering algorithm for different high performance computing platforms. These four implementations include a CUDA implementation for GPUs, a Mitrion C implementation for FPGAs, an MPI implementation for Beowulf compute clusters, and an OpenMP implementation for shared-memory machines. The comparative analyses of the cost of each platform, difficulty level of programming for each platform, and the performance of each implementation are presented. PMID:25309040

  3. Revealing the Chamaeleon: First detection of a low-mass stellar halo around the young open cluster Eta Chamaeleontis

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Simon J; Bessell, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    We have identified several lithium-rich low-mass (0.08open cluster Eta Chamaeleontis, nearly four times the radius of previous search efforts. We propose 4 new probable cluster members and 3 possible members requiring further investigation. Candidates were selected on the basis of DENIS and 2MASS photometry, NOMAD astrometry and extensive follow-up spectroscopy. Several of these stars show substantial variation in their H-alpha emission line strengths on timescales of days to months, with at least one event attributable to accretion from a circumstellar disk. These findings are consistent with a dynamical origin for the current configuration of the cluster, without the need to invoke an abnormally top-heavy Initial Mass Function, as proposed by some authors.

  4. A Detached Eclipsing Binary near the Turnoff of the Open Cluster NGC 6819 and Determining Age Using Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Lauren; Sandquist, E. L.; Mathieu, R. D.;

    2013-01-01

    tightly, and can also lead to inferences about chemical composition (such as helium abundance). As part of our study of the old 2.5 Gyr) open cluster NGC 6819 in the Kepler field, we present results for the DEB Auner 665 (WOCS 24009) with a short period of 3.6 days. We make use of photometric observations...... in the mass-radius plane. Our target is to reduce the uncertainty on the cluster age to less than 10% using results from A665 and other known DEBs. The results for this system will also help produce a valuable test of the asteroseismic mass estimates for giant stars in the cluster (Stello et al. 2011). We...

  5. Rotational and radial velocities of 1.3-2.2 M {sub ☉} red giants in open clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlberg, Joleen K., E-mail: jcarlberg@dtm.ciw.edu [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This study presents the rotational distribution of red giant (RG) stars in 11 old to intermediate age open clusters. The masses of these stars are all above the Kraft break, so they lose negligible amounts of their birth angular momentum (AM) during the main-sequence (MS) evolution. However, they do span a mass range with quite different AM distributions imparted during formation, with the stars less massive than ∼1.6M {sub ☉} arriving on the MS with lower rotation rates than the more massive stars. The majority of RGs in this study are slow rotators across the entire red giant branch regardless of mass, supporting the picture that intermediate-mass stars rapidly spin down when they evolve off the MS and develop convection zones capable of driving a magnetic dynamo. Nevertheless, a small fraction of RGs in open clusters show some level of enhanced rotation, and faster rotators are as common in these clusters as in the field RG population. Most of these enhanced rotators appear to be red clump stars, which is also true of the underlying stellar sample, while others are clearly RGs that are above or below the clump. In addition to rotational velocities, the radial velocities (RVs) and membership probabilities of individual stars are also presented. Cluster heliocentric RVs for NGC 6005 and Pismis 18 are reported for the first time.

  6. WIYN Open Cluster Study. X. The K-Band Magnitude of the Red Clump as a Distance Indicator

    CERN Document Server

    Grocholski, A J; Grocholski, Aaron J.; Sarajedini, Ata

    2002-01-01

    In an effort to improve the utility of the helium burning red clump luminosity as a distance indicator, we explore the sensitivity of the K-band red clump absolute magnitude Mk(RC) to metallicity and age. We rely upon JK photometry for 14 open clusters and two globulars from the 2nd Incremental Data Release of the 2MASS Point Source Catalog. The distances, metallicities, and ages of the open clusters are all on an internally consistent system, while the K(RC) values are measured from the 2MASS data. For clusters younger than ~2 Gyr, Mk(RC) is insensitive to metallicity but shows a dependence on age. In contrast, for clusters older than ~2 Gyr, Mk(RC) is influenced primarily by the metallicity of the population and shows little or no dependence on the age. Theoretical red clump models based on the formalism of Girardi et al. reinforce this finding. Over comparable metallicity and age ranges, our average Mk(RC) value is in accord with that based on solar-neighborhood red clump stars with HIPPARCOS parallaxes. L...

  7. Faint open clusters with 2MASS: BH 63, Lyng\\aa 2, Lyng\\aa 12 and King 20

    CERN Document Server

    Bica, E; Blumberg, R; Bica, Eduardo; Bonatto, Charles; Blumberg, Renato

    2006-01-01

    Structural and dynamical parameters of faint open clusters are probed with quality 2MASS-photometry and analytical procedures developed for bright clusters. We derive fundamental parameters of the faint open clusters Lynga2, BH63, Lyng12 and King20, the last three of which have no prior determinations. We also focus on the structure and dynamical state of these clusters. 2MASS photometry with errors smaller than 0.2mag are used to build CMDs, RDPs, CMDs, luminosity and mass functions. Colour-magnitude filters are used to isolate probable member stars. Field-star decontamination is applied to Lynga2, Lynga12 and King20. Reddening values are in the range 0.22-1.9, with BH63 the most reddened object. Ages of Lynga2, King20, Lynga12 and BH63 are ~90, ~200, ~560 and 700Myr, respectively. The RDPs of Lynga12 and King20 are well-represented by King profiles. Total stellar masses (extrapolating the MFs to stars with 0.08Mo) range from ~340Mo (BH63) to ~2300Mo (Lynga12). Observed masses are \\~1/4$ of these values. In ...

  8. Spectroscopic studies of yellow supergiants in the open cluster NGC 129

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenko, I. A.

    2015-09-01

    Spectroscopic studies of three yellow supergiants in the open cluster NGC 129, the classical Cepheid DL Cas, SAO 21450, and SAO 21482, have been performed on the basis of high-resolution spectra. For the two nonvariable cluster supergiants, the atmospheric parameters and chemical composition have been determined for the first time. SAO 21450 ( T eff = 6541 ± 16 K, log g = 2.00, V t = 4.20 km s-1) has nearly solar abundances of the key elements in the evolution of yellow supergiants (CNO, Na, Mg, and Al), while SAO 21482 ( T eff = 4506 ± 50 K, log g = 1.10, V t = 9.90 km s-1) exhibits an overabundance of carbon ([C/H] = +0.34 dex) and aluminum and nearly solar N, O, Na, and Mg abundances. The abundances of the key elements in the Cepheid DL Cas are typical for an object that has passed the first dredge-up: a C underabundance, N and Na overabundances, and nearly solar O, Mg, and Al abundances. In all objects, the abundances of iron [Fe/H] = -0.01 dex, α-elements, Fe-peak elements, and r- and s-process elements are virtually identical and nearly solar. The radial velocities of SAO 21482 measured from metal absorption lines have confirmed its membership in NGC 129. The knifelike shape of the H α and H β line profiles in SAO 21482 and the asymmetry of the Mg Ib 5183.618 Å line in SAO 21482 and DL Cas as well as the absorption lines of neutral atoms and ions of metals in the Cepheid suggest the existence of extended gaseous envelopes around them. The positions of the objects on the T eff- L diagram among the tracks of evolutionary masses for the objects show the following: (1) the primary component of SAO 21450 has a mass of 6.6 M ⊙ and approaches the blue edge of the Cepheid instability strip (CIS) for the first time, while its companion of possible spectral type B5 V has a mass of 4.8 M ⊙; (2) DL Cas is on the path of its CIS with a mass of 5.8 M ⊙ and has lost ~1.5 M ⊙ after the first dredge-up; (3) SAO 21482 with a mass of no more than 7.3 M ⊙ has

  9. Variable stars in two open clusters within the Kepler 2-Campaign-0 field: M 35 and NGC 2158

    CERN Document Server

    Nardiello, D; Nascimbeni, V; Libralato, M; Cunial, A; Piotto, G; Bellini, A; Borsato, L; Brogaard, K; Granata, V; Malavolta, L; Marino, A F; Milone, A P; Ochner, P; Ortolani, S; Tomasella, L; Clemens, M; Salaris, M

    2014-01-01

    We present a multi-year survey aimed at collecting (1) high-precision (~5 milli-mag), (2) fast-cadence (~3 min), and (3) relatively long duration (~10 days) multi-band photometric series. The goal of the survey is to discover and characterize efficiently variable objects and exoplanetary transits in four fields containing five nearby open clusters spanning a broad range of ages. More in detail, our project will (1) constitute a preparatory survey for HARPS-N@TNG, which will be used for spectroscopic follow-up of any target of interest that this survey discovers or characterizes, (2) measure rotational periods and estimate the activity level of targets we are already monitoring with HARPS and HARPS-N for exoplanet transit search, and (3) long term characterization of selected targets of interest in open clusters within the planned K2 fields. In this first paper we give an overview of the project, and report on the variability of objects within the first of our selected fields, which contains two open clusters:...

  10. MAGNETIC EFFECTS AND OVERSIZED M DWARFS IN THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER NGC 2516

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, James; Mullan, Dermott J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    By combining rotation periods with spectroscopic determinations of projected rotation velocity, Jackson et al. have found that the mean radii for low-mass M-dwarfs in the young, open cluster NGC 2516 are larger than model predictions at a given absolute I magnitude or I - K color and also larger than measured radii of magnetically inactive M-dwarfs. The relative radius difference is correlated with magnitude, increasing from a few percent at M{sub I} = 7 to greater than 50% for the lowest luminosity stars in their sample at M{sub I} {approx} 9.5. Jackson et al. have suggested that a two-temperature star spot model is capable of explaining the observations, but their model requires spot coverage fractions of at least 50% in rapidly rotating M-dwarfs. Here we examine these results in terms of stellar models that include the inhibiting effects of magnetic fields on convective energy transport, with and without the effects of star spots. We find that a pure spot model is inconsistent with the color-magnitude diagram. The observations of radii versus color and radii versus absolute magnitude in NGC 2516 are consistent with models which include only magnetic inhibition or a combination of magnetic inhibition and spots. At a given mass we find a large dispersion in the strength of the vertical component of the magnetic field in the stellar photosphere but the general trend is that the vertical field increases with decreasing mass from a few hundred Gauss at 0.65 M{sub Sun} to 600-900 G, depending on spot coverage, in the lowest mass stars in the sample at 0.25 M{sub Sun }.

  11. Assessment of the accuracy of coupled cluster perturbation theory for open-shell systems. I. Triples expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Janus J.; Matthews, Devin A.; Jørgensen, Poul; Gauss, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    The accuracy at which total energies of open-shell atoms and organic radicals may be calculated is assessed for selected coupled cluster perturbative triples expansions, all of which augment the coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) energy by a non-iterative correction for the effect of triple excitations. Namely, the second- through sixth-order models of the recently proposed CCSD(T-n) triples series [J. J. Eriksen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064108 (2014)] are compared to the acclaimed CCSD(T) model for both unrestricted as well as restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock (UHF/ROHF) reference determinants. By comparing UHF- and ROHF-based statistical results for a test set of 18 modest-sized open-shell species with comparable RHF-based results, no behavioral differences are observed for the higher-order models of the CCSD(T-n) series in their correlated descriptions of closed- and open-shell species. In particular, we find that the convergence rate throughout the series towards the coupled cluster singles, doubles, and triples (CCSDT) solution is identical for the two cases. For the CCSD(T) model, on the other hand, not only its numerical consistency, but also its established, yet fortuitous cancellation of errors breaks down in the transition from closed- to open-shell systems. The higher-order CCSD(T-n) models (orders n > 3) thus offer a consistent and significant improvement in accuracy relative to CCSDT over the CCSD(T) model, equally for RHF, UHF, and ROHF reference determinants, albeit at an increased computational cost.

  12. GeMs/GSAOI observations of La Serena 94: an old and far open cluster inside the solar circle

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, J F C; Carrasco, E R; Maia, F F S; Neichel, B

    2015-01-01

    Physical properties were derived for the candidate open cluster La Serena 94, recently unveiled by the VVV collaboration. Thanks to the exquisite angular resolution provided by GeMS/GSAOI, we could characterize this system in detail, for the first time, with deep photometry in JHK$_{s}$ - bands. Decontaminated JHK$_{s}$ diagrams reach about 5 mag below the cluster turnoff in H. The locus of red clump giants in the colour - colour diagram, together with an extinction law, was used to obtain an average extinction of $A_V =14.18 \\pm 0.71$. The same stars were considered as standard - candles to derive the cluster distance, $8.5 \\pm 1.0$ kpc. Isochrones were matched to the cluster colour - magnitude diagrams to determine its age, $\\log{t(yr)}=9.12\\pm 0.06$, and metallicity, $Z=0.02\\pm0.01$. A core radius of $r_{c}=0.51\\pm 0.04$ pc was found by fitting King models to the radial density profile. By adding up the visible stellar mass to an extrapolated mass function, the cluster mass was estimated as $M=(2.65\\pm0.57...

  13. The SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline. IV. Validation with an Extended Sample of Galactic Globular and Open Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolinski, Jason P.; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; /Michigan State U. /Michigan State U., JINA; An, Deokkeun; /Ewha Women' s U., Seoul; Bickerton, Steven J.; /Princeton U., Astrophys. Sci. Dept.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; /Ohio State U., Dept. Astron.; Loomis, Craig P.; /Princeton U., Astrophys. Sci. Dept.; Rockosi, Constance M.; /Lick Observ.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Astrophys.; Yanny, Brian; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    Spectroscopic and photometric data for likely member stars of five Galactic globular clusters (M 3, M 53, M 71, M 92, and NGC 5053) and three open clusters (M 35, NGC 2158, and NGC 6791) are processed by the current version of the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline (SSPP), in order to determine estimates of metallicities and radial velocities for the clusters. These results are then compared to values from the literature. We find that the mean metallicity (<[Fe/H]>) and mean radial velocity (hRVi) estimates for each cluster are almost all within 2{sigma} of the adopted literature values; most are within 1{sigma}. We also demonstrate that the new version of the SSPP achieves small, but noteworthy, improvements in <[Fe/H]> estimates at the extrema of the cluster metallicity range, as compared to a previous version of the pipeline software. These results provide additional confidence in the application of the SSPP for studies of the abundances and kinematics of stellar populations in the Galaxy.

  14. A color-period diagram for the open cluster M 48 (NGC 2548), and its rotational age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sydney A.; Weingrill, Joerg; Granzer, Thomas; Spada, Federico; Strassmeier, Klaus G.

    2015-11-01

    Rotation periods are increasingly being used to derive ages for cool single field stars. Such ages are based on an empirical understanding of how cool stars spin down, acquired by constructing color-period diagrams (CPDs) for a series of open clusters. Our main aims here are to construct a CPD for M 48, to compare this with other clusters of similar age to check for consistency, and to derive a rotational age for M 48 using gyrochronology. We monitored M 48 photometrically for over 2 months with AIP's STELLA I 1.2 m telescope and the WiFSIP 4K imager in Tenerife. Light curves with 3 mmag precision for bright (V ~ 14 mag) stars were produced and then analysed to provide rotation periods. A cluster CPD has then been constructed. We report 62 rotation periods for cool stars in M 48. The CPD displays a clear slow/I-sequence of rotating stars, similar to those seen in the 625 Myr-old Hyades and 590 Myr-old Praesepe clusters, and below both, confirming that M 48 is younger. A similar comparison with the 250 Myr-old M 34 cluster shows that M 48 is older and does not possess any fast/C-sequence G or early K stars like those in M 34, although relatively fast rotators do seem to be present among the late-K and M stars. A more detailed comparison of the CPD with rotational evolution models shows that the cluster stars have a mean age of 450 Myr, and its (rotating) stars can be individually dated to ± 117 Myr (26%). Much of this uncertainty stems from intrinsic astrophysical spread in initial periods, and almost all stars are consistent with a single age of 450 Myr. The gyro-age of M 48 as a whole is 450 ± 50 Myr, in agreement with the previously determined isochrone age of 400 ± 100 Myr. Based on data obtained with the STELLA robotic telescopes in Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated by AIP and IAC; this paper presents results for the STELLA Open Cluster Survey (SOCS).Appendices A and B are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe cluster photometry

  15. The Open Cluster NGC 6811: An Eclipsing Binary, the Turnoff, and Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Jessen-Hansen, Jens; Shetrone, Matthew D.;

    . The cluster's turnoff also falls completely within the instability strip, and the majority of the brightest main sequence stars have now been identified as δ Scuti pulsators. The eclipsing binary KIC 9777062/Sanders 195 is a cluster member slightly fainter than the turnoff, containing one star that falls...

  16. Asteroseismology of the Hyades with K2: first detection of main-sequence solar-like oscillations in an open cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, Mikkel N; Aguirre, Víctor Silva; Chaplin, William J; Serenelli, Aldo M; García, Rafael A; Latham, David W; Casagrande, Luca; Bieryla, Allyson; Davies, Guy R; Viani, Lucas S; Buchhave, Lars A; Miglio, Andrea; Soderblom, David R; Valenti, Jeff A; Stefanik, Robert P; Handberg, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    The Hyades open cluster was targeted during Campaign 4 (C4) of the NASA K2 mission, and short-cadence data were collected on a number of cool main-sequence stars. Here, we report results on two F-type stars that show detectable oscillations of a quality that allows asteroseismic analyses to be performed. These are the first ever detections of solar-like oscillations in main-sequence stars in an open cluster.

  17. Communication: Spin densities within a unitary group based spin-adapted open-shell coupled-cluster theory: Analytic evaluation of isotropic hyperfine-coupling constants for the combinatoric open-shell coupled-cluster scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Dipayan, E-mail: datta.dipayan@gmail.com; Gauss, Jürgen, E-mail: gauss@uni-mainz.de [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2015-07-07

    We report analytical calculations of isotropic hyperfine-coupling constants in radicals using a spin-adapted open-shell coupled-cluster theory, namely, the unitary group based combinatoric open-shell coupled-cluster (COSCC) approach within the singles and doubles approximation. A scheme for the evaluation of the one-particle spin-density matrix required in these calculations is outlined within the spin-free formulation of the COSCC approach. In this scheme, the one-particle spin-density matrix for an open-shell state with spin S and M{sub S} = + S is expressed in terms of the one- and two-particle spin-free (charge) density matrices obtained from the Lagrangian formulation that is used for calculating the analytic first derivatives of the energy. Benchmark calculations are presented for NO, NCO, CH{sub 2}CN, and two conjugated π-radicals, viz., allyl and 1-pyrrolyl in order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed scheme.

  18. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Inhibited extra mixing in two giants of the open cluster Trumpler 20?

    CERN Document Server

    Smiljanic, R; Randich, S; Magrini, L; Bragaglia, A; Pasquini, L; Vallenari, A; Tautvaisiene, G; Biazzo, K; Frasca, A; Donati, P; Mena, E Delgado; Casey, A R; Geisler, D; Villanova, S; Tang, B; Sousa, S G; Gilmore, G; Bensby, T; Francois, P; Koposov, S E; Lanzafame, A C; Pancino, E; Recio-Blanco, A; Costado, M T; Hourihane, A; Lardo, C; de Laverny, P; Lewis, J; Monaco, L; Morbidelli, L; Sacco, G G; Worley, C C; Zaggia, S; Martell, S

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of two Li-rich giants, with A(Li) ~ 1.50, in an analysis of a sample of 40 giants of the open cluster Trumpler 20 (with turnoff mass ~ 1.8 Msun). The cluster was observed in the context of the Gaia-ESO Survey. The atmospheric parameters and Li abundances were derived using high-resolution UVES spectra. The Li abundances were corrected for nonlocal thermodynamical equilibrium (non-LTE) effects. Only upper limits of the Li abundance could be determined for the majority of the sample. Two giants with detected Li turned out to be Li rich: star MG 340 has A(Li) non-LTE = 1.54 \\pm 0.21 dex and star MG 591 has A(Li) non-LTE = 1.60 \\pm 0.21 dex. Star MG 340 is on average ~ 0.30 dex more rich in Li than stars of similar temperature, while for star MG 591 this difference is on average ~ 0.80 dex. Carbon and nitrogen abundances indicate that all stars in the sample have completed the first dredge-up. The Li abundances in this unique sample of 40 giants in one open cluster clearly show that extra ...

  19. New SPB stars in the field of the young open cluster NGC 2244 discovered by the MOST photometric satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Gruber, D; Kuschnig, R; Fossati, L; Handler, G; Zwintz, K; Weiss, W W; Matthews, J M; Guenther, D B; Moffat, A F J; Rucinski, S M; Sasselov, D

    2011-01-01

    During two weeks of nearly continuous optical photometry of the young open cluster NGC 2244 obtained by the MOST satellite, we discovered two new SPB stars, GSC 00154-00785 and GSC 00154-01871. We present frequency analyses of the MOST light curves of these stars, which reveal two oscillation frequencies (0.61 and 0.71 c/d) in GSC 00154-00785 and two (0.40 and 0.51 c/d) in GSC 00154-01871. These frequency ranges are consistent with g-modes of $\\ell \\leq 2$ excited in models of main-sequence or pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars of masses 4.5 - 5 $M_{\\odot}$ and solar composition $(X, Z)= (0.7, 0.02)$. Published proper motion measurements and radial velocities are insufficient to establish unambiguously cluster membership for these two stars. However, the PMS models which fit best their eigenspectra have ages consistent with NGC 2244. If cluster membership can be confirmed, these would be the first known PMS SPB stars, and would open a new window on testing asteroseismically the interior structures of PMS stars.

  20. Comprehensive abundance analysis of red giants in the open clusters NGC 752, NGC 1817, NGC 2360 and NGC 2506

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Arumalla B S; Lambert, David L

    2011-01-01

    We have analyzed high-dispersion echelle spectra ($R \\ga 50,000$) of red giant members for four open clusters to derive abundances for many elements. The spread in temperatures and gravities being very small among the red giants nearly the same stellar lines were employed thereby reducing the random errors. The errors of average abundance for the cluster were generally in 0.02 to 0.07 dex range. Our present sample covers galactocentric distances of 8.3 to 10.5 kpc. The [Fe/H] values are $-0.02\\pm$0.05 for NGC 752, $-0.07\\pm$0.06 for NGC 2360, $-0.11\\pm$0.05 for NGC 1817 and $-0.19\\pm$0.06 for NGC 2506. Abundances relative to Fe for elements from Na to Eu are equal within measurement uncertainties to published abundances for thin disk giants in the field. This supports the view that field stars come from disrupted open clusters.

  1. Brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Praesepe open cluster: a dynamically unevolved mass function?

    CERN Document Server

    Boudreault, S; Goldman, B; Henning, T; Caballero, J A

    2009-01-01

    [Abridged] In this paper, we present the results of a photometric survey to identify low mass and brown dwarf members of the old open cluster Praesepe (age of 590[+150][-120]Myr and distance of 190[+6.0][-5.8]pc) and use this to infer its mass function which we compare with that of other clusters. We have performed an optical (Ic-band) and near-infrared (J and Ks-band) photometric survey of Praesepe with a spatial coverage of 3.1deg^2. With 5sigma detection limits of Ic=23.4 and J=20.0, our survey is sensitive to objects with masses from about 0.6 to 0.05Msol. The mass function of Praesepe rises from 0.6Msol down to 0.1Msol and then turns-over at ~0.1Msol. The rise observed is in agreement with the mass function derived by previous studies, including a survey based on proper motion and photometry. Comparing our mass function with that for another open cluster with a similar age, the Hyades (age ~ 600Myr), we see a significant difference. Possible reasons are that dynamical evaporation has not influenced the H...

  2. A color-period diagram for the open cluster M 48 (NGC 2548), and its rotational age

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Sydney A; Granzer, Thomas; Spada, Federico; Strassmeier, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Rotation periods are increasingly being used to derive ages for cool single field stars. Such ages are based on an empirical understanding of how cool stars spin down, acquired by constructing color-period diagrams (CPDs) for a series of open clusters. Our main aims here are to construct a CPD for M 48, to compare this with other clusters of similar age to check for consistency, and to derive a rotational age for M 48 using gyrochronology. We monitored M 48 photometrically for over 2 months with AIP's STELLA I 1.2 m telescope and the WiFSIP 4K imager in Tenerife. Light curves with 3 mmag precision for bright (V~14 mag) stars were produced and then analysed to provide rotation periods. A cluster CPD has then been constructed. We report 62 rotation periods for cool stars in M 48. The CPD displays a clear slow/I-sequence of rotating stars, similar to those seen in the 625 Myr-old Hyades and 590 Myr-old Praesepe clusters, and below both, confirming that M 48 is younger. A similar comparison with the 250 Myr-old M...

  3. ASTEROSEISMOLOGY OF THE OPEN CLUSTERS NGC 6791, NGC 6811, AND NGC 6819 FROM 19 MONTHS OF KEPLER PHOTOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsaro, Enrico [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Astrophysics Section, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel; Bedding, Timothy R.; Benomar, Othman; White, Timothy R. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bonanno, Alfio [I.N.A.F.-Astrophysical Observatory of Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Brogaard, Karsten [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Kallinger, Thomas [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Mosser, Benoit [LESIA-Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Denis Diderot, F-92195 Meudon cedex (France); Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Mathur, Savita [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen; Garcia, Rafael A. [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Hekker, Saskia [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kjeldsen, Hans [Danish AsteroSeismology Centre (DASC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Meibom, Soren [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hall, Jennifer R. [Orbital Sciences Corporation/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); and others

    2012-10-01

    We studied solar-like oscillations in 115 red giants in the three open clusters, NGC 6791, NGC 6811, and NGC 6819, based on photometric data covering more than 19 months with NASA's Kepler space telescope. We present the asteroseismic diagrams of the asymptotic parameters {delta}{nu}{sub 02}, {delta}{nu}{sub 01}, and {epsilon}, which show clear correlation with fundamental stellar parameters such as mass and radius. When the stellar populations from the clusters are compared, we see evidence for a difference in mass of the red giant branch stars and possibly a difference in structure of the red clump stars, from our measurements of the small separations {delta}{nu}{sub 02} and {delta}{nu}{sub 01}. Ensemble echelle diagrams and upper limits to the linewidths of l = 0 modes as a function of {Delta}{nu} of the clusters NGC 6791 and NGC 6819 are also shown, together with the correlation between the l = 0 ridge width and the T{sub eff} of the stars. Lastly, we distinguish between red giant branch and red clump stars through the measurement of the period spacing of mixed dipole modes in 53 stars among all the three clusters to verify the stellar classification from the color-magnitude diagram. These seismic results also allow us to identify a number of special cases, including evolved blue stragglers and binaries, as well as stars in late He-core burning phases, which can be potentially interesting targets for detailed theoretical modeling.

  4. The mass-ratio and eccentricity distributions of red giants in open clusters, barium and S stars

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Swaelmen, Mathieu; Jorissen, Alain; Van Eck, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify diagnostics distinguishing between pre- and post-mass-transfer systems, the mass-ratio distribution and period - eccentricity (P - e) diagram of barium and S stars are compared to those of the sample of binary red giants in open clusters from Mermilliod et al. (2007). From the analysis of the mass-ratio distribution for the cluster binary giants, we find an excess of systems with companion masses between 0.58 and 0.87 Msun, typical for white dwarfs. They represent 22% of the sample, which are thus candidate post-mass-transfer systems. Among these candidates which occupy the same locus as the barium and S stars in the (P-e) diagram, only 33% (= 4/12) show a chemical signature of mass transfer in the form of s-process overabundances (from rather moderate -- about 0.3 dex -- to more extreme -- about 1 dex). These s-process-enriched cluster stars show a clear tendency to be in the clusters with the lowest metallicity in the sample, confirming the classical prediction that the s-process nucleo...

  5. New Rotation Periods in the Open Cluster NGC 1039 (M 34), and a Derivation of its Gyrochronology Age

    CERN Document Server

    James, David J; Meibom, Soren; Lockwood, Wesley; Levine, Stephen E; Deliyannis, Constantine; Platais, Imants; Steinhauer, Aaron; Hurley, Briana K

    2010-01-01

    Employing photometric rotation periods for solar-type stars in NGC 1039 [M 34], a young, nearby open cluster, we use its mass-dependent rotation period distribution to derive the cluster's age in a distance independent way, i.e., the so-called gyrochronology method. We present an analysis of 55 new rotation periods,using light curves derived from differential photometry, for solar type stars in M 34. We also exploit the results of a recently-completed, standardized, homogeneous BVIc CCD survey of the cluster in order to establish photometric cluster membership and assign B-V colours to each photometric variable. We describe a methodology for establishing the gyrochronology age for an ensemble of solar-type stars. Empirical relations between rotation period, photometric colour and stellar age (gyrochronology) are used to determine the age of M 34. Based on its position in a colour-period diagram, each M 34 member is designated as being either a solid-body rotator (interface or I-star), a differentially rotatin...

  6. JMS: An Open Source Workflow Management System and Web-Based Cluster Front-End for High Performance Computing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K Brown

    Full Text Available Complex computational pipelines are becoming a staple of modern scientific research. Often these pipelines are resource intensive and require days of computing time. In such cases, it makes sense to run them over high performance computing (HPC clusters where they can take advantage of the aggregated resources of many powerful computers. In addition to this, researchers often want to integrate their workflows into their own web servers. In these cases, software is needed to manage the submission of jobs from the web interface to the cluster and then return the results once the job has finished executing. We have developed the Job Management System (JMS, a workflow management system and web interface for high performance computing (HPC. JMS provides users with a user-friendly web interface for creating complex workflows with multiple stages. It integrates this workflow functionality with the resource manager, a tool that is used to control and manage batch jobs on HPC clusters. As such, JMS combines workflow management functionality with cluster administration functionality. In addition, JMS provides developer tools including a code editor and the ability to version tools and scripts. JMS can be used by researchers from any field to build and run complex computational pipelines and provides functionality to include these pipelines in external interfaces. JMS is currently being used to house a number of bioinformatics pipelines at the Research Unit in Bioinformatics (RUBi at Rhodes University. JMS is an open-source project and is freely available at https://github.com/RUBi-ZA/JMS.

  7. Distance and the Initial Mass Function of Young Open Clusters In The Eta Carina Nebula: Tr 14 and Tr 16

    CERN Document Server

    Hur, Hyeonoh; Bessell, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    We present new UBVI_C CCD photometry of the young open clusters Trumpler 14 (Tr 14) and Trumpler 16 (Tr 16) in the eta Carina nebula. We also identify the optical counterpart of Chandra X-ray sources and Two Micron All Sky Survey point sources. The members of the clusters were selected from the proper motion study, spectral types, reddening characteristics, and X-ray or near-IR excess emission. An abnormal reddening law R_V,cl=4.4\\pm0.2 was obtained for the stars in the eta Carina nebula using the 141 early-type stars with high proper motion membership probability (P_u\\geq70). We determined the distance to each cluster and conclude that Tr 14 and Tr 16 have practically the same distance modulus of V_0-M_V=12.3\\pm0.2 mag (d=2.9\\pm0.3 kpc). The slope of the initial mass function was determined to be {\\Gamma}=-1.3\\pm0.1 for Tr 14, {\\Gamma}=-1.3\\pm0.1 for Tr 16, and {\\Gamma}=-1.4\\pm0.1 for all members in the observed region for the stars with log m\\geq0.2. We also estimated the age of the clusters to be about 1 -...

  8. Assessment of the accuracy of coupled cluster perturbation theory for open-shell systems. I. Triples expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Eriksen, Janus Juul; Jørgensen, Poul; Gauss, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy with which total energies of open-shell species may be calculated using coupled cluster perturbative triples expansions is investigated. In particular, the acclaimed CCSD(T) model, in which a non-iterative correction for the effect of triple excitations is added to the coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) energy, is compared to the second- through sixth-order models of the recently proposed CCSD(T-n) triples series for both unrestricted as well as restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock (UHF/ROHF) reference determinants. By comparing UHF- and ROHF-based statistical results for a test set of 18 atoms and small radicals with comparable RHF-based results, it is found that not only the numerical consistency of the CCSD(T) model, but also its fortuitous cancellation of errors for closed-shell systems break down in the transition from closed- to open-shell systems. For the higher-order models of the CCSD(T-n) series, however, no behavioral differences are found between the correlated descriptions of c...

  9. Transdermal clonidine in the prophylaxis of episodic cluster headache: an open study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, M; Attanasio, A; Grazzi, L; Libro, G; D'Amico, D; Moschiano, F; Bussone, G

    1997-10-01

    Transdermal clonidine has recently been reported to be efficacious in the prophylaxis of cluster headache. A 2-week course of transdermal clonidine (5 mg the first week, 7.5 mg the second week) preceded by a 5-day run-in period, was administered to 16 patients with episodic cluster headache in an active cluster period. In 5 patients, the painful attacks disappeared after the seventh day of treatment. For the group as a whole, no significant variations in headache frequency, pain intensity, or attack duration were observed between the run-in period and the first and second weeks of treatment (ANOVA). Further studies are necessary to clarify the effectiveness of transdermal clonidine in the prophylaxis of episodic cluster headache.

  10. CCD Photometry of NGC 2482 and Five Previously Unobserved Open Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Krisciunas, Kevin; Dias, Wilton

    2014-01-01

    We present BV and u'g'r'i' CCD photometry of the central region of NGC 2482. We also present BVu'g' CCD photometry of five clusters that have been poorly studied in the past: Ruprecht 42, Ruprecht 51, Ruprecht 153, Ruprecht 154; and AH03 J0748-26.9, which to our knowledge has not been studied before. Using a global optimization technique that eliminates much of the subjectivity previously inherent in main sequence fitting studies, we obtain values of the distances, ages, and metallicities of the clusters, with robust estimates of the uncertainties of these fundamental parameters. Four of our clusters are less than ~1.3 kpc beyond the Sun's distance from the Galactic Center and have essentially solar metallicity. The metallicities of those clusters more distant from the Galactic Center are consistent with a 0.3 dex step to lower [Fe/H] found in other studies.

  11. High Performance LINUX Clusters With OSCAR, Rocks, OpenMosix & MPI

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, Joseph D

    2005-01-01

    This new guide covers everything you need to plan, build, and deploy a high-performance Linux cluster. You'll learn about planning, hardware choices, bulk installation of Linux on multiple systems, and other basic considerations. Learn about the major free software projects and how to choose those that are most helpful to new cluster administrators and programmers. Guidelines for debugging, profiling, performance tuning, and managing jobs from multiple users round out this immensely useful book

  12. DETECTION OF WHITE DWARF COMPANIONS TO BLUE STRAGGLERS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 188: DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR RECENT MASS TRANSFER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosnell, Natalie M.; Mathieu, Robert D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Geller, Aaron M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Sills, Alison [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Leigh, Nathan [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-183, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Knigge, Christian, E-mail: gosnell@astro.wisc.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 IBJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-01

    Several possible formation pathways for blue straggler stars have been developed recently, but no one pathway has yet been observationally confirmed for a specific blue straggler. Here we report the first findings from a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar Blind Channel far-UV photometric program to search for white dwarf companions to blue straggler stars. We find three hot and young white dwarf companions to blue straggler stars in the 7 Gyr open cluster NGC 188, indicating that mass transfer in these systems ended less than 300 Myr ago. These companions are direct and secure observational evidence that these blue straggler stars were formed through mass transfer in binary stars. Their existence in a well-studied cluster environment allows for observational constraints of both the current binary system and the progenitor binary system, mapping the entire mass transfer history.

  13. Analysis of the chemical evolution of the Galactic disk via dynamical simulations of the open cluster system

    OpenAIRE

    Tecce, T. E.; Pellizza, L. J.; Piatti, A. E.

    2006-01-01

    For several decades now, open clusters have been used to study the structure and chemical evolution of the disk of our Galaxy. Due to the fact that their ages and metallicities can be determined with relatively good precision, and since they can be observed even at great distances, they are excellent tracers of the variations in the abundance of heavy chemical elements with age and position in the Galactic disk. In the present work we analyze the star formation history and the chemical evolut...

  14. A search for flares and mass ejections on young late-type stars in the open cluster Blanco-1

    OpenAIRE

    Leitzinger, M.; Odert, P.; Greimel, R.; Korhonen, H.; Guenther, E. W.; Hanslmeier, A.; H. Lammer; Khodachenko, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    We present a search for stellar activity (flares and mass ejections) in a sample of 28 stars in the young open cluster Blanco-1. We use optical spectra obtained with ESO's VIMOS multi-object spectrograph installed on the VLT. From the total observing time of $\\sim$ 5 hours, we find four H$\\alpha$ flares but no distinct indication of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on the investigated dK-dM stars. Two flares show "dips" in their light-curves right before their impulsive phases which are similar ...

  15. Search for and Characterization of Open Clusters Toward the Galactic Anti-center with Pan-STARRS1

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, C C

    2013-01-01

    We have used a star-count algorithm based the Panoramic Survey Telescope And Rapid Response System 3$\\pi$ survey data aim to identify and characterize uncharted open clusters (OCs). With limiting magnitudes of about 22 mag in \\gps, \\rps, \\ips\\ bands and about 20 mag in \\zps\\ and \\yps\\ bands, our data are 100 times more sensitive than currently available surveys. We analyzed a trial region within $20\\deg\\times20\\deg$ field toward the Galactic anticenter and found 1660 density enhancement regions of which 79 (out of 129) are known OCs, and 949 are OC candidates.

  16. Single stars in the Hyades open cluster. Fiducial sequence for testing stellar and atmospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytova, Taisiya G.; Brandner, Wolfgang; Tognelli, Emanuele; Prada Moroni, Pier Giorgio; Da Rio, Nicola; Röser, Siegfried; Schilbach, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Context. Age and mass determinations for isolated stellar objects remain model-dependent. While stellar interior and atmospheric theoretical models are rapidly evolving, we need a powerful tool to test them. Open clusters are good candidates for this role. Aims: We aim to create a fiducial sequence of stellar objects for testing stellar and atmospheric models. Methods: We complement previous studies on the Hyades multiplicity by Lucky Imaging observations with the AstraLux Norte camera. This allows us to exclude possible binary and multiple systems with companions outside a 2-7 AU separation and to create a single-star sequence for the Hyades. The sequence encompasses 250 main-sequence stars ranging from A5V to M6V. Using the Tool for Astrophysical Data Analysis (TA-DA), we create various theoretical isochrones applying different combinations of interior and atmospheric models. We compare the isochrones with the observed Hyades single-star sequence on J vs. J-Ks, J vs. J-H, and Ks vs. H-Ks color-magnitude diagrams. As a reference we also compute absolute fluxes and magnitudes for all stars from X-ray to mid-infrared based on photometric measurements available in the literature(ROSAT X-ray, GALEX UV, APASS gri, 2MASS JHKs, and WISE W1 to W4). Results: We find that combinations of both PISA and DARTMOUTH stellar interior models with BT-Settl 2010 atmospheric models describe the observed sequence well. We use PISA in combination with BT-Settl 2010 models to derive theoretical predictions for physical parameters (Teff, mass, log g) of 250 single stars in the Hyades. The full sequence covers the mass range of 0.13-2.30 M⊙, and effective temperatures between 3060 K and 8200 K. Conclusions: Within the measurement uncertainties, the current generation of models agree well with the single-star sequence. The primary limitations are the uncertainties in the measurement of the distances to individual Hyades members, and uncertainties in the photometry. Gaia parallaxes

  17. The Evolution of Primordial Binary Open Star Clusters: Mergers, Shredded Secondaries and Separated Twins

    CERN Document Server

    Marcos, Raúl de la Fuente

    2010-01-01

    The basic properties of the candidate binary cluster population in the Magellanic Clouds and Galaxy are similar. The fraction of candidate binary systems is $\\sim$10% and the pair separation histogram exhibits a bimodal distribution commonly attributed to their transient nature. However, if primordial pairs cannot survive for long as recognizable bound systems, how are they ending up? Here, we use simulations to confirm that merging, extreme tidal distortion and ionization are possible depending on the initial orbital elements and mass ratio of the pair. The nature of the dominant evolutionary path largely depends on the strength of the local tidal field. Merging is observed for initially close primordial binary clusters but also for wider pairs in nearly parabolic orbits. Its caracteristic timescale depends on the initial orbital semi-major axis, eccentricity, and cluster pair mass ratio, becoming shorter for closer, more eccentric equal mass pairs. Shredding or extreme tidal distortion of the less massive c...

  18. Age of the Kepler Open Cluster NGC 6811 from an Eclipsing Binary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitner, Marika; Sandquist, E. L.; Shetrone, M. D.;

    2013-01-01

    provide an extremely precise age for the cluster. We present the results of modeling Kepler and ground-based photometry as well as radial velocities obtained at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, Nordic Optical Telescope, and MMT. We demonstrate that the stars have masses near 1.6 and 1.4 solar masses...... clump stars in the cluster (Stello et al. 2011). We gratefully acknowledge support from the NSF for M.L. as part of the REU program at San Diego State University under grant AST-0850564 and to E.L.S under grant AST-0908536, and NASA under grant NNX12AC88G....

  19. BOCCE, The Bologna Open Clusters Chemical Evolution Project: a large, homogeneous sample of Galactic open clusters. (Spanish Title: %t Proyecto BOCCE (The Bologna Open Clusters Chemical Evolution Project): una gran muestra homogénea de cúmulos abiertos galácticos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, A. V.; Bragaglia, A.; Tosi, M.; Marconi, G.

    The BOCCE project is a photometric and spectroscopic survey of Galactic open clusters (OCs), to be used as tracers of the properties and evolution of the Galactic disk. The main OCs parameters are derived in a precise and homogeneous way, and they will be used, for example, to determine the metallicity distribution in the Galactic disk and how it has evolved with time. We have presently data for about 40 OCs. We present here part of our last effort, concerning the photometric data obtained for NGC 2849.

  20. Variable stars in one open cluster within the Kepler/K2-Campaign-5 field: M 67 (NGC 2682)

    CERN Document Server

    Nardiello, D; Bedin, L R; Piotto, G; Ochner, P; Cunial, A; Borsato, L; Granata, V

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we continue the release of high-level data products from the multiyear photometric survey collected at the 67/92 cm Schmidt Telescope in Asiago. The primary goal of the survey is to discover and to characterise variable objects and exoplanetary transits in four fields containing five nearby open clusters spanning a broad range of ages. This second paper releases a photometric catalogue, in five photometric bands, of the Solar-age, Solar-metallicity open cluster M 67 (NGC 2682). Proper motions are derived comparing the positions observed in 2013 at the Asiago's Schmidt Telescope with those extracted from WFI@2.2m MPG/ESO images in 2000. We also analyse the variable sources within M 67. We detected 68 variables, 43 of which are new detection. Variable periods and proper-motion memberships of a large majority of sources in our catalogue are improved with respect to previous releases. The entire catalogue will be available in electronic format. Besides the general interest on an improved catalogue, ...

  1. Globular and Open Clusters Observed by SDSS/SEGUE: the Giant Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Heather L; Clem, James L; An, Deokkeun; Connor, Thomas; Schechtman-Rook, Andrew; Harding, Paul; Casagrande, Luca; Rockosi, Constance; Yanny, Brian; Beers, Timothy C; Johnson, Jennifer A; Schneider, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    We present griz observations for the clusters M92, M13 and NGC 6791 and gr photometry for M71, Be 29 and NGC 7789. In addition we present new membership identifications for all these clusters, which have been observed spectroscopically as calibrators for the SDSS/SEGUE survey; this paper focuses in particular on the red giant branch stars in the clusters. In a number of cases, these giants were too bright to be observed in the normal SDSS survey operations, and we describe the procedure used to obtain spectra for these stars. For M71, also present a new variable reddening map and a new fiducial for the gr giant branch. For NGC 7789, we derived a transformation from Teff to g-r for giants of near solar abundance, using IRFM Teff measures of stars with good ugriz and 2MASS photometry and SEGUE spectra. The result of our analysis is a robust list of known cluster members with correctly dereddened and (if needed) transformed gr photometry for crucial calibration efforts for SDSS and SEGUE.

  2. Opening the Treasure Chest: A Newborn Star Cluster Emerges from its Dust Pillar in Carina

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, N; Bally, J; Smith, Nathan; Stassun, Keivan G.; Bally, John

    2005-01-01

    We present detailed observations of the Treasure Chest, a compact nebula at the head of a dust pillar in the southern Carina nebula. This object is of interest because it is an example of a dense young cluster containing at least one massive star, the formation of which may have been triggered by feedback from the very massive stars in the Carina nebula, and possibly Eta Car itself. We investigate both the nebular and stellar content of the object. Near-IR emission-line images reveal a cavity inside the head of the dust pillar, which contains a dense cluster of young stars, while the observed spectrum of the nebula is consistent with an H II region ionized by an O9.5 V star. After subtracting contamination of field stars within the Carina nebula itself, we compare the cluster's color magnitude diagram with pre-main-sequence isochrones to derive a likely cluster age less than about 0.1 Myr. This is in reasonable agreement with the dynamical age of a few times 10^4 yr for the expanding nebular cavity, indicatin...

  3. GLOBULAR AND OPEN CLUSTERS OBSERVED BY SDSS/SEGUE: THE GIANT STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Heather L.; Ma, Zhibo; Connor, Thomas; Schechtman-Rook, Andrew; Harding, Paul [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Clem, James L. [Department of Physics, Grove City College, 100 Campus Dr., Grove City, PA 16127 (United States); An, Deokkeun [Department of Science Education, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Casagrande, Luca [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, The Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia); Rockosi, Constance [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia IL 60510 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46656 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Schneider, Donald P., E-mail: hlm5@case.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We present griz observations for the clusters M92, M13 and NGC 6791 and gr photometry for M71, Be 29 and NGC 7789. In addition we present new membership identifications for all these clusters, which have been observed spectroscopically as calibrators for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)/SEGUE survey; this paper focuses in particular on the red giant branch stars in the clusters. In a number of cases, these giants were too bright to be observed in the normal SDSS survey operations, and we describe the procedure used to obtain spectra for these stars. For M71, we also present a new variable reddening map and a new fiducial for the gr giant branch. For NGC 7789, we derived a transformation from T{sub eff} to g–r for giants of near solar abundance, using IRFM T{sub eff} measures of stars with good ugriz  and 2MASS photometry and SEGUE spectra. The result of our analysis is a robust list of known cluster members with correctly dereddened and (if needed) transformed gr photometry for crucial calibration efforts for SDSS and SEGUE.

  4. Alpha clusters in medium light nuclei: recent results and open questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of alpha cluster structures in light nuclei is well established. This paper concentrates on the medium light nuclei between 16O and 44Ti. Especially the nucleus 32S has been examined in detail and new data is presented. The elastic scattering data of alpha particles on 28Si forming 32S shows a peculiar disappearance of cross section at 31 MeV excitation energy and above. Also, the energy versus J(J + 1) plot shows at least one clear rotational-like band of alpha cluster states, with the main energy levels split into many narrow and closely lying levels with the same spin. Furthermore, few experiments have been carried out investigating the alpha cluster structure of non-nα nuclei, especially on the proton rich side of stability. The evidence at hand indicates that adding neutrons retains some alpha cluster structures and in some cases might even enhance them, but adding protons seems to destroy the structures. (author)

  5. Main-sequence variable stars in young open cluster NGC 1893

    CERN Document Server

    Lata, Sneh; Pandey, A K; Richichi, Andrea; Eswaraiah, C; Kumar, Brajesh; Kappelmann, Norbert; Sharma, Saurabh

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present time series photometry of 104 variable stars in the cluster region NGC 1893. The association of the present variable candidates to the cluster NGC 1893 has been determined by using $(U-B)/(B-V)$ and $(J-H)/(H-K)$ two colour diagrams, and $V/(V-I)$ colour magnitude diagram. Forty five stars are found to be main-sequence variables and these could be B-type variable stars associated with the cluster. We classified these objects as $\\beta$ Cep, slowly pulsating B stars and new class variables as discussed by Mowlavi et al. (2013). These variable candidates show $\\sim$0.005 to $\\sim$0.02 mag brightness variations with periods of $<$ 1.0 d. Seventeen new class variables are located in the $H-R$ diagram between the slowly pulsating B stars and $\\delta$ Scuti variables. Pulsation could be one of the causes for periodic brightness variations in these stars. The X-ray emission of present main-sequence variables associated with the cluster lies in the saturated region of X-ray luminosity vers...

  6. The anticentre old open clusters Berkeley 27, Berkeley 34, and Berkeley 36: new additions to the BOCCE project

    CERN Document Server

    Donati, P; Cignoni, M; Cocozza, G; Tosi, M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the investigation of the evolutionary status of three open clusters: Berkeley 27, Berkeley 34, and Berkeley 36, all located in the Galactic anti-centre direction. All of them were observed with SUSI2@NTT using the Bessel B, V, and I filters. The cluster parameters have been obtained using the synthetic colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) method i.e. the direct comparison of the observational CMDs with a library of synthetic CMDs generated with different evolutionary sets (Padova, FRANEC, and FST). This analysis shows that Berkeley 27 has an age between 1.5 and 1.7 Gyr, a reddening E(B-V) in the range 0.40 and 0.50, and a distance modulus (m-M)_0 between 13.1 and 13.3; Berkeley 34 is older with an age in the range 2.1 and 2.5 Gyr, E(B-V) between 0.57 and 0.64, and (m-M)_0 between 14.1 and 14.3; Berkeley 36, with an age between 7.0 and 7.5 Gyr, has a reddening E(B-V)~0.50 and a distance modulus (m-M)_0 between 13.1 and 13.2. For all the clusters our analysis suggests a sub-solar metallicity ...

  7. CCD UBVR photometry of two old open clusters: King 11 and Be42. Comparison with theoretical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the Johnson-Cousins UBVR CCD photometry of the stars in King 11 and Be 42, two open clusters towards the galactic anticenter. We obtain the colour-magnitude (C-M) diagram, the colour excess, the reddening, the metallicity, and the distance modulus of the two clusters. We find that King 11, showing a C-M diagram similar to that of NGC 188 and M 67 ought to have a solar-like metallicity, whereas Be 42 is less metal-rich. The C-M diagram of King 11 is discussed in detail. In these models, contrary to what happens with the formulation of convective overshoot the central convection is not allowed to expand against gradients in molecular weight. We find that these models fit much better the overall morphology of the C-M diagram. This analysis is not possible for Be 42 due to the scarcely populated C-M diagram. Finally, we derive the luminosity function and present day mass function for the main sequence stars of the two clusters

  8. X-ray spectral and timing characteristics of the stars in the young open cluster IC 2391

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, A; Peres, G; Pillitteri, I; Sciortino, S

    2004-01-01

    We present X-ray spectral and timing analysis of members of the young open cluster IC 2391 observed with the XMM-Newton observatory. We detected 99 X-ray sources by analysing the summed data obtained from MOS1, MOS2 and pn detectors of the EPIC camera; 24 of them are members, or probable members, of the cluster. Stars of all spectral types have been detected, from the early-types to the late-M dwarfs. Despite the capability of the instrument to recognize up to 3 thermal components, the X-ray spectra of the G, K and M members of the cluster are well described with two thermal components (at kT$_1 \\sim$ 0.3-0.5 keV and kT$_2 \\sim$ 1.0-1.2 keV respectively) while the X-ray spectra of F members require only a softer 1-T model. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test applied to the X-ray photon time series shows that approximately 46% of the members of IC 2391 are variable with a confidence level $>$99%. The comparison of our data with those obtained with ROSAT/PSPC, nine years earlier, and ROSAT/HRI, seven years earlier, sho...

  9. Photometric Study on Stellar Magnetic Activity: I. Flare Variability of Red Dwarf Stars in the Open Cluster M37

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, S -W; Hartman, J D

    2015-01-01

    Based on one-month long MMT time-series observations of the open cluster M37, we monitored light variations of nearly 2500 red dwarfs and successfully identified 420 flare events from 312 cluster M dwarf stars. For each flare light curve, we derived observational and physical parameters, such as flare shape, peak amplitude, duration, energy, and peak luminosity. We show that cool stars produce serendipitous flares energetic enough to be observed in the $r$-band, and their temporal and peak characteristics are almost the same as those in traditional $U$-band observations. We also found many large-amplitude flares with inferred $\\Delta u > 6$ mag in the cluster sample which had been rarely reported in previous ground-based observations. Following the ergodic hypothesis, we investigate in detail statistical properties of flare parameters over a range of energy ($E_{r}$ $\\simeq$ $10^{31}-10^{34}$ erg). As expected, there are no statistical differences in the distributions of flare timescales, energies, and freque...

  10. X-ray observations of eight young open star clusters : I. Membership and X-ray Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatt, Himali; Singh, K P; Sagar, Ram; Kumar, Brijesh

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of X-ray source contents of eight young open clusters with ages between 4 to 46 Myr using archival X-ray data from XMM-Newton. The probable cluster memberships of the X-ray sources have been established on the basis of multi-wavelength archival data, and samples of 152 pre-main sequence (PMS) low mass ( 10 M_\\odot) stars have been generated. X-ray spectral analyses of high mass stars reveal the presence of high temperature plasma with temperature <2 keV, and mean L_X/L_{bol} of 10^{-6.9}. In the case of PMS low mass stars, the plasma temperatures have been found to be in the range of 0.2 keV to 3 keV with a median value of ~1.3 keV, with no significant difference in plasma temperatures during their evolution from 4 to 46 Myr. The X-ray luminosity distributions of the PMS low mass stars have been found to be similar in the young star clusters under study. This may suggest a nearly uniform X-ray activity in the PMS low mass stars of ages ~4--14 Myr. These observed values o...

  11. Multiplexing Precision RVs: Searching for Close-in Gas Giants in Open Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, John I., III; Mateo, Mario; White, Russel J.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2016-07-01

    We present a multiplexed high-resolution (R ˜ 50,000 median) spectroscopic survey designed to detect exoplanet candidates in two southern star clusters (NGC 2516 and NGC 2422) using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) on the Magellan/Clay telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. With 128 available fibers in our observing mode, we are able to target every star in the core half-degree of each cluster that could plausibly be a solar-analog member. Our template-based spectral fits provide precise measurements of fundamental stellar properties—T eff (±30 K), [Fe/H] and [α/Fe] (±0.02 dex), and {v}r{sin}(i) (±0.3 km s-1)—and radial velocities (RVs) by using telluric absorption features from 7160 to 7290 Å as a wavelength reference for 251 mid-F to mid-K stars (126 in NGC 2516 and 125 in NGC 2422) that comprise our survey. In each cluster, we have obtained ˜10-12 epochs of our targets. Using repeat observations of an RV standard star, we show our approach can attain a single-epoch velocity precision of 25-60 m s-1 over a broad range of signal-to-noise ratios throughout our observational baseline of 1.1 years. Our technique is suitable for nonrapidly rotating stars cooler than mid-F. In this paper, we describe our observational sample and analysis methodology and present a detailed study of the attainable precision and measurement capabilities of our approach. Subsequent papers will provide results for stars observed in the target clusters, analyze our data set of RV time series for stellar jitter and stellar and substellar companions, and consider the implications of our findings on the clusters themselves.

  12. Hybrid Parallel Computation of OpenFOAM Solver on Multi-Core Cluster Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    OpenFOAM, an open source industrial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool, which contains dozens of simulation application inside. A traditional approach to accelerate physical simulation process is to employ more powerful supercomputer. However, It is bound to expense large amount of hardware resources. In recent years, parallel and distributed computing is becoming an efficient way to solve such computational intensive application. This thesis pick up the most used compressible reacting s...

  13. The OPD photometric survey of open clusters I. Techniques, program details and first results of robust determination of the fundamental parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, T. C.; Dias, W. S.; Lépine, J. R. D.; Monteiro, H. S.; Moitinho, A.; Hickel, G. R.; Oliveira, A. F.

    2015-07-01

    Open clusters are considered valuable objects for the investigation of galactic structure and dynamics since their distances, ages and velocities can be determined with good precision. According to the New Catalog of Optically Visible Open Clusters and Candidates (Dias et al., 2002) about 10% of the optically revealed open clusters remain unstudied. However, previous analysis (Moitinho, 2010) has indicated that not considering this unstudied population introduces significant biases in the study of the structure and evolution of the Milky Way. In addition, a systematic revision of the data contained in the catalog, collected from the literature, is needed, due to its inhomogeneity. In this first paper of a series, we present the observational strategy, data reduction and analysis procedures of a UBRVI photometric survey of southern open star clusters carried out at Pico dos Dias Observatory (Brazil). The aim of the program is to contribute to an unbiased, homogenous collection of cluster fundamental parameters. We show that the implementation of a sequence of systematic procedures considerably improves the quality of the results. To illustrate the methods we present the first results based on one night of observations. The parameters, reddening, distance, age and metallicity, were obtained by fitting theoretical isochrones to cluster color-color and multidimensional color-magnitude diagrams, applying a cross-entropy optimization algorithm developed by our group, which takes into account UBVRI photometric data weighted using a membership-likelihood estimation.

  14. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Inhibited extra mixing in two giants of the open cluster Trumpler 20?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiljanic, R.; Franciosini, E.; Randich, S.; Magrini, L.; Bragaglia, A.; Pasquini, L.; Vallenari, A.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Biazzo, K.; Frasca, A.; Donati, P.; Delgado Mena, E.; Casey, A. R.; Geisler, D.; Villanova, S.; Tang, B.; Sousa, S. G.; Gilmore, G.; Bensby, T.; François, P.; Koposov, S. E.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Pancino, E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Costado, M. T.; Hourihane, A.; Lardo, C.; de Laverny, P.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.; Martell, S.

    2016-06-01

    Aims: We report the discovery of two Li-rich giants, with A(Li) ~ 1.50, in an analysis of a sample of 40 giants of the open cluster Trumpler 20 (with turnoff mass ~1.8 M⊙). The cluster was observed in the context of the Gaia-ESO Survey. Methods: The atmospheric parameters and Li abundances were derived using high-resolution UVES spectra. The Li abundances were corrected for nonlocal thermodynamical equilibrium (non-LTE) effects. Results: Only upper limits of the Li abundance could be determined for the majority of the sample. Two giants with detected Li turned out to be Li rich: star MG 340 has A(Li)non-LTE = 1.54 ± 0.21 dex and star MG 591 has A(Li)non-LTE = 1.60 ± 0.21 dex. Star MG 340 is on average ~0.30 dex more rich in Li than stars of similar temperature, while for star MG 591 this difference is on average ~0.80 dex. Carbon and nitrogen abundances indicate that all stars in the sample have completed the first dredge-up. Conclusions: The Li abundances in this unique sample of 40 giants in one open cluster clearly show that extra mixing is the norm in this mass range. Giants with Li abundances in agreement with the predictions of standard models are the exception. To explain the two Li-rich giants, we suggest that all events of extra mixing have been inhibited. This includes rotation-induced mixing during the main sequence and the extra mixing at the red giant branch luminosity bump. Such inhibition has been suggested in the literature to occur because of fossil magnetic fields in red giants that are descendants of main-sequence Ap-type stars. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programme 188.B-3002 (The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey).

  15. Multiplexing Precision RVs: Searching for Close in Gas Giants in Open Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, John I; White, Russel J; Shectman, Stephen A; Crane, Jeffrey D; Olszewski, Edward W

    2016-01-01

    We present a multiplexed, high-resolution (R~50,000 median) spectroscopic survey designed to detect exoplanet candidates in two southern star clusters (NGC 2516 and NGC 2422) using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) on the Magellan/Clay telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. With 128 available fibers in our observing mode, we are able to target every star in the core half-degree of each cluster that could plausibly be a solar-analog member. Our template-based spectral fits provide precise measurements of fundamental stellar properties - $T_{eff}$ ($\\pm$30 K), [Fe/H] and [$\\alpha$/Fe] ($\\pm$0.02 dex), and $v_r\\sin(i)$ ($\\pm$0.3 km/s) - and radial velocities (RVs) by using telluric absorption features from 7160 to 7290 $\\AA$ as a wavelength reference for 251 mid-F to mid-K stars (126 in NGC 2516 and 125 in NGC 2422) that comprise our survey. In each cluster we have obtained ~10-12 epochs of our targets. Using repeat observations of an RV standard star we show our approach can attain a single-epoch veloci...

  16. Comparing the OpenMP, MPI, and Hybrid Programming Paradigm on an SMP Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Haoqiang; anMey, Dieter; Hatay, Ferhat F.

    2003-01-01

    With the advent of parallel hardware and software technologies users are faced with the challenge to choose a programming paradigm best suited for the underlying computer architecture. With the current trend in parallel computer architectures towards clusters of shared memory symmetric multi-processors (SMP), parallel programming techniques have evolved to support parallelism beyond a single level. Which programming paradigm is the best will depend on the nature of the given problem, the hardware architecture, and the available software. In this study we will compare different programming paradigms for the parallelization of a selected benchmark application on a cluster of SMP nodes. We compare the timings of different implementations of the same CFD benchmark application employing the same numerical algorithm on a cluster of Sun Fire SMP nodes. The rest of the paper is structured as follows: In section 2 we briefly discuss the programming models under consideration. We describe our compute platform in section 3. The different implementations of our benchmark code are described in section 4 and the performance results are presented in section 5. We conclude our study in section 6.

  17. Age and helium content of the open cluster NGC 6791 from multiple eclipsing binary members. II. age dependencies and new insights

    CERN Document Server

    Brogaard, K; Bruntt, H; Grundahl, F; Frandsen, S; Bedin, L R; Milone, A P; Dotter, A; Feiden, G A; Stetson, P B; Sandquist, E; Miglio, A; Stello, D; Jessen-Hansen, J

    2012-01-01

    Models of stellar structure and evolution can be constrained by measuring accurate parameters of detached eclipsing binaries in open clusters. Multiple binary stars provide the means to determine helium abundances in these old stellar systems, and in turn, to improve estimates of their age. In the first paper of this series, we demonstrated how measurements of multiple eclipsing binaries in the old open cluster NGC6791 sets tighter constraints on the properties of stellar models than has previously been possible, thereby potentially improving both the accuracy and precision of the cluster age. Here we add additional constraints and perform an extensive model comparison to determine the best estimates of the cluster age and helium content, employing as many observational constraints as possible. We improve our photometry and correct empirically for differential reddening effects. We then perform an extensive comparison of the CMDs and eclipsing binary measurements to Victoria and DSEP isochrones to estimate cl...

  18. Radial velocities and metallicities from infrared Ca II triplet spectroscopy of open clusters II. Berkeley 23, King 1, NGC 559, NGC 6603 and NGC 7245

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera, R; Ospina, N; Balaguer-Nuñez, L; Jordi, C; Monteagudo, L

    2015-01-01

    Context: Open clusters are key to studying the formation and evolution of the Galactic disc. However, there is a deficiency of radial velocity and chemical abundance determinations for open clusters in the literature. Aims: We intend to increase the number of determinations of radial velocities and metallicities from spectroscopy for open clusters. Methods: We acquired medium-resolution spectra (R~8000) in the infrared region Ca II triplet lines (~8500 AA) for several stars in five open clusters with the long-slit IDS spectrograph on the 2.5~m Isaac Newton Telescope (Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, Spain). Radial velocities were obtained by cross-correlation fitting techniques. The relationships available in the literature between the strength of infrared Ca II lines and metallicity were also used to derive the metallicity for each cluster. Results: We obtain = 48.6+/-3.4, -58.4+/-6.8, 26.0+/-4.3 and -65.3+/-3.2 km s-1 for Berkeley 23, NGC 559, NGC 6603 and NGC 7245, respectively. We found [Fe/H] =-0.25+...

  19. The Young Open Clusters King 12, NGC 7788, and NGC 7790: Pre-main-sequence Stars and Extended Stellar Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidge, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    The stellar contents of the open clusters King 12, NGC 7788, and NGC 7790 are investigated using MegaCam images. Comparisons with isochrones yield an age King 12, 20-40 Myr for NGC 7788, and 60-80 Myr for NGC 7790 based on the properties of stars near the main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) in each cluster. The reddening of NGC 7788 is much larger than previously estimated. The luminosity functions (LFs) of King 12 and NGC 7788 show breaks that are attributed to the onset of pre-main-sequence (PMS) objects, and comparisons with models of PMS evolution yield ages that are consistent with those measured from stars near the MSTO. In contrast, the r' LF of main-sequence stars in NGC 7790 is matched to r' = 20 by a model that is based on the solar neighborhood mass function. The structural properties of all three clusters are investigated by examining the two-point angular correlation function of blue main-sequence stars. King 12 and NGC 7788 are each surrounded by a stellar halo that extends out to a radius of 5 arcmin (~3.4 pc). It is suggested that these halos form in response to large-scale mass ejection early in the evolution of the clusters, as predicted by models. In contrast, blue main-sequence stars in NGC 7790 are traced out to a radius of ~7.5 arcmin (~5.5 pc), with no evidence of a halo. It is suggested that all three clusters may have originated in the same star-forming complex, but not in the same giant molecular cloud. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  20. A theoretical evidence for cooperative enhancement in aerogen-bonding interactions: Open-chain clusters of KrOF2 and XeOF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Vessally, Esmail

    2016-10-01

    The cooperativity of aerogen-bonding interactions is studied in open-chain (KrOF2)n=2-6 and (XeOF2)n=2-6 clusters. The formation mechanism and bonding properties of these clusters are investigated by means of molecular electrostatic potentials, natural bond orbital and noncovalent interaction index analyses. The small variation of average interaction energy from the pentamer to hexamer cluster reveals that cooperativity effects are almost completely saturated in the larger clusters. The cooperative effects in the clusters also make an increase in the average 83Kr or 129Xe chemical shielding isotropies and total spin-spin coupling constants across the aerogen-bonding.

  1. Beryllium abundances along the evolutionary sequence of the open cluster IC 4651 - New test for hydrodynamical stellar models

    CERN Document Server

    Smiljanic, Rodolfo; Charbonnel, Corinne; Lagarde, Nadege

    2009-01-01

    [abridged] Previous analyses of lithium abundances in main sequence and red giant stars have revealed the action of mixing mechanisms other than convection in stellar interiors. Beryllium abundances in stars with lithium abundance determinations can offer valuable complementary information on the nature of these mechanisms. Our aim is to derive beryllium abundances along the whole evolutionary sequence of an open cluster, IC 4651. These Be abundances are used together with previously determined Li abundances, in the same sample stars, to investigate the mixing mechanisms in a range of stellar masses and evolutionary stages. New beryllium abundances are determined from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise UVES spectra using spectrum synthesis and model atmospheres. The careful synthetic modelling of the Be lines region is used to calculate reliable abundances in rapidly rotating stars. The observed behavior of Be and Li is compared to theoretical predictions from stellar models including rotation-induced mixi...

  2. The dynamical evolution of multi-planet systems in open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Hao, W; Spurzem, R

    2013-01-01

    The majority of stars form in star clusters and many are thought to have planetary companions. We demonstrate that multi-planet systems are prone to instabilities as a result of frequent stellar encounters in these star clusters much more than single-planet systems. The cumulative effect of close and distant encounters on these planetary systems are investigated using Monte Carlo scattering experiments. We consider two types of planetary configurations orbiting Sun-like stars: (i) five Jupiter-mass planets in the semi-major axis range 1-42 AU orbiting a Solar mass star, with orbits that are initially co-planar, circular, and separated by 10 mutual Hill radii, and (ii) the four gas giants of our Solar system. Planets with short orbital periods are not directly affected by encountering stars. However, secular evolution of perturbed systems may result in the ejection of the innermost planets or in physical collisions of the innermost planets with the host star, up to many thousands of years after a stellar encou...

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: On the metallicity of open clusters. II. (Heiter+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiter, U.; Soubiran, C.; Netopil, M.; Paunzen, E.

    2013-11-01

    In Table 1 we list the basic information for each star and each metallicity determination in the starting sample, which should be sufficient to extract the corresponding atmospheric parameters from the PASTEL catalogue. Table 4 lists the weighted mean metallicities for each OC and each paper, which were computed using the metallicities from the references in Table 1. For the weights we used the inverse square of the individual errors quoted by the authors. Table 4 also gives the ranges of effective temperature (Teff) and surface gravity (logg) of the stars corresponding to each paper. After removing all determinations with Teff outside the range 4400 to 6500K and with logg<2.0, we constructed a list of recommended cluster metallicities, which we call the final high-resolution sample. The weighted mean metallicities for each cluster in the final sample are given in Table 11, and the individual determinations included in the final sample are identified in Table 1 (first column). (3 data files).

  4. GU Mon, a high-mass eclipsing overcontact binary in the young open cluster Dolidze 25

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenzo, J; Vilardell, F; Simón-Díaz, S; Pastor, P; Majuelos, M Méndez

    2016-01-01

    Context. The eclipsing binary GU Mon is located in the star-forming cluster Dolidze 25, which has the lowest metallicity measured in a Milky Way young cluster. Aims. GU Mon has been identified as a short-period eclipsing binary with two early B-type components. We set out to derive its orbital and stellar parameters. Methods. We present a comprehensive analysis, including B and V light curves and 11 high-resolution spectra, to verify the orbital period and determine parameters. We use the stellar atmosphere code FASTWIND to obtain stellar parameters and create templates for cross-correlation. We obtain a model to fit the light and radial-velocity curves using the Wilson-Devinney code iteratively and simultaneously. Results. The two components of GU Mon are identical stars of spectral type B1 V, with the same mass and temperature. The lightcurves are typical of an EW-type binary. The spectroscopic and photometric analyses agree on a period of 0.896640 +- 0.000007 d. We determine a mass of 9.0 +- 0.6 Msun for e...

  5. Determining the Age of the Kepler Open Cluster NGC 6819 With a New Triple System and Other Eclipsing Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Brewer, Lauren N; Mathieu, Robert D; Milliman, Katelyn; Geller, Aaron M; Jeffries, Mark W; Orosz, Jerome A; Brogaard, Karsten; Platais, Imants; Bruntt, Hans; Grundahl, Frank; Stello, Dennis; Frandsen, Soeren

    2016-01-01

    As part of our study of the old (~2.5 Gyr) open cluster NGC 6819 in the Kepler field, we present photometric (Kepler and ground-based BVRcIc) and spectroscopic observations of the detached eclipsing binary WOCS 24009 (Auner 665; KIC 5023948) with a short orbital period of 3.6 days. WOCS 24009 is a triple-lined system, and we verify that the brightest star is physically orbiting the eclipsing binary using radial velocities and eclipse timing variations. The eclipsing binary components have masses M_B =1.090+/-0.010 Msun and M_C =1.075+/-0.013 Msun, and radii R_B =1.095+/-0.007 Rsun and R_C =1.057+/-0.008 Rsun. The bright non-eclipsing star resides at the cluster turnoff, and ultimately its mass will directly constrain the turnoff mass: our preliminary determination is M_A =1.251+/-0.057 Msun. A careful examination of the light curves indicates that the fainter star in the eclipsing binary undergoes a very brief period of total eclipse, which enables us to precisely decompose the light of the three stars and pl...

  6. Open clusters towards the Galactic center: chemistry and dynamics. A VLT spectroscopic study of NGC6192, NGC6404, NGC6583

    CERN Document Server

    Magrini, Laura; Zoccali, Manuela; Jilkova, Lucie; Carraro, Giovanni; Galli, Daniele; Maiorca, Enrico; Busso, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the study of the Galactic metallicity gradient and its time evolution, we present new high-resolution spectroscopic observations obtained with FLAMES and the fiber link to UVES at VLT of three open clusters (OCs) located within $\\sim$7~kpc from the Galactic Center (GC): NGC~6192, NGC~6404, NGC~6583. We also present new orbit determination for all OCs with Galactocentric distances (R$_{\\rm{GC}}) \\leq$8~kpc and metallicity from high-resolution spectroscopy. We aim to investigate the slope of the inner disk metallicity gradient as traced by OCs and at discussing its implication on the chemical evolution of our Galaxy. We have derived memberships of a group of evolved stars for each clusters, obtaining a sample of 4, 4, and 2 member stars in NGC~6192, NGC~6404, and NGC~6583, respectively. Using standard LTE analysis we derived stellar parameters and abundance ratios for the iron-peak elements Fe, Ni, Cr, and for the $\\alpha$-elements Al, Mg, Si, Ti, Ca. We calculated the orbits of the OCs curr...

  7. A CCD Search for Variable Stars of Spectral Type B in the Northern Hemisphere Open Clusters. VIII. NGC 6834

    CERN Document Server

    Jerzykiewicz, M; Pigulski, A; Kołaczkowski, Z; Kim, S -L

    2011-01-01

    We present results of a CCD variability search in the field of the young open cluster NGC 6834. We discover 15 stars to be variable in light. The brightest, a multiperiodic Gamma Doradus-type variable is a foreground star. The eight fainter ones, including a Gamma Cassiopeiae-type variable, two Lambda Eridani-type variables, an ellipsoidal variable, an EB-type eclipsing binary, and three variable stars we could not classify, all have E(B-V) within proper range, thus fulfilling the necessary condition to be members. One of the three unclassified variables may be a non-member on account of its large angular distance from the center of the cluster. Four of the six faintest variable stars, which include two eclipsing binaries and two very red stars showing year-to-year variations, are certain non-members. One of the remaining two faintest variable stars, an EA-type eclipsing binary may be a member, while the faintest one, a W Ursae Majoris-type variable, is probably a non-member. For 6937 stars we provide the V m...

  8. The Gaia-ESO Survey: pre-main-sequence stars in the young open cluster NGC 3293

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, A. J.; Sampedro, L.; Alfaro, E. J.; Costado, M. T.; Yun, J. L.; Frasca, A.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Drew, J. E.; Eislöffel, J.; Blomme, R.; Morel, T.; Lobel, A.; Semaan, T.; Randich, S.; Jeffries, R. D.; Micela, G.; Vallenari, A.; Kalari, V.; Gilmore, G.; Flaccomio, E.; Carraro, G.; Lardo, C.; Monaco, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Morbidelli, L.; Lewis, J.; Koposov, S.; Hourihane, A.; Worley, C.; Casey, A.; Franciosini, E.; Sacco, G.; Magrini, L.

    2016-08-01

    The young open cluster NGC3293 is included in the observing program of the Gaia-ESO survey (GES). The radial velocity values provided have been used to assign cluster membership probabilities by means of a single-variable parametric analysis. These membership probabilities are compared to the results of the photometric membership assignment of NGC3293, based on UBVRI photometry. The agreement of the photometric and kinematic member samples amounts to 65 per cent, and could increase to 70 per cent as suggested by the analysis of the differences between both samples. A number of photometric PMS candidate members of spectral type F are found, which are confirmed by the results from VPHAS photometry and SED fitting for the stars in common with VPHAS and GES data sets. Excesses at mid- and near-infrared wavelengths, and signs of Hα emission, are investigated for them. Marginal presence of Hα emission or infilling is detected for the candidate members. Several of them exhibit moderate signs of U excess and weak excesses at mid-IR wavelengths. We suggest that these features originate from accretion discs in their last stages of evolution.

  9. A Comprehensive Stellar Astrophysical Study of the Old Open Cluster M67 with Kepler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Robert D.; Vanderburg, Andrew; K2 M67 Team

    2016-06-01

    M67 is among the best studied of all star clusters. Being at an age and metallicity very near solar, at an accessible distance of 850 pc with low reddening, and rich in content (over 1000 members including main-sequence dwarfs, a well populated subgiant branch and red giant branch, white dwarfs, blue stragglers, sub-subgiants, X-ray sources and CVs), M67 is a cornerstone of stellar astrophysics.The K2 mission (Campaign 5) has obtained long-cadence observations for 2373 stars, both within an optimized central superaperture and as specified targets outside the superaperture. 1,432 of these stars are likely cluster members based on kinematic and photometric criteria.We have extracted light curves and corrected for K2 roll systematics, producing light curves with noise characteristics qualitatively similar to Kepler light curves of stars of similar magnitudes. The data quality is slightly poorer than for field stars observed by K2 due to crowding near the cluster core, but the data are of sufficient quality to detect seismic oscillations, binary star eclipses, flares, and candidate transit events. We are in the process of uploading light curves and various diagnostic files to MAST; light curves and supporting data will also be made available on ExoFOP.Importantly, several investigators within the M67 K2 team are independently doing light curve extractions and analyses for confirmation of science results. We also are adding extensive ground-based supporting data, including APOGEE near-infrared spectra, TRES and WIYN optical spectra, LCOGT photometry, and more.Our science goals encompass asteroseismology and stellar evolution, alternative stellar evolution pathways in binary stars, stellar rotation and angular momentum evolution, stellar activity, eclipsing binaries and beaming, and exoplanets. We will present early science results as available by the time of the meeting, and certainly including asteroseismology, blue stragglers and sub-subgiants, and newly discovered

  10. Assessment of the accuracy of coupled cluster perturbation theory for open-shell systems. II. Quadruples expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Janus J.; Matthews, Devin A.; Jørgensen, Poul; Gauss, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    We extend our assessment of the potential of perturbative coupled cluster (CC) expansions for a test set of open-shell atoms and organic radicals to the description of quadruple excitations. Namely, the second- through sixth-order models of the recently proposed CCSDT(Q-n) quadruples series [J. J. Eriksen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064108 (2014)] are compared to the prominent CCSDT(Q) and ΛCCSDT(Q) models. From a comparison of the models in terms of their recovery of total CC singles, doubles, triples, and quadruples (CCSDTQ) energies, we find that the performance of the CCSDT(Q-n) models is independent of the reference used (unrestricted or restricted (open-shell) Hartree-Fock), in contrast to the CCSDT(Q) and ΛCCSDT(Q) models, for which the accuracy is strongly dependent on the spin of the molecular ground state. By further comparing the ability of the models to recover relative CCSDTQ total atomization energies, the discrepancy between them is found to be even more pronounced, stressing how a balanced description of both closed- and open-shell species—as found in the CCSDT(Q-n) models—is indeed of paramount importance if any perturbative CC model is to be of chemical relevance for high-accuracy applications. In particular, the third-order CCSDT(Q-3) model is found to offer an encouraging alternative to the existing choices of quadruples models used in modern computational thermochemistry, since the model is still only of moderate cost, albeit markedly more costly than, e.g., the CCSDT(Q) and ΛCCSDT(Q) models.

  11. GU Monocerotis: A high-mass eclipsing overcontact binary in the young open cluster Dolidze 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, J.; Negueruela, I.; Vilardell, F.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Pastor, P.; Méndez Majuelos, M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The eclipsing binary GU Mon is located in the star-forming cluster Dolidze 25, which has the lowest metallicity measured in a Milky Way young cluster. Aims: GU Mon has been identified as a short-period eclipsing binary with two early B-type components. We set out to derive its orbital and stellar parameters. Methods: We present a comprehensive analysis, including B and V light curves and 11 high-resolution spectra, to verify the orbital period and determine parameters. We used the stellar atmosphere code FASTWIND to obtain stellar parameters and create templates for cross-correlation. We obtained a model to fit the light and radial-velocity curves using the Wilson-Devinney code iteratively and simultaneously. Results: The two components of GU Mon are identical stars of spectral type B1 V with the same mass and temperature. The light curves are typical of an EW-type binary. The spectroscopic and photometric analyses agree on a period of 0.896640 ± 0.000007 d. We determine a mass of 9.0 ± 0.6 M⊙ for each component and for temperatures of 28 000 ± 2000 K. Both values are consistent with the spectral type. The two stars are overfilling their respective Roche lobes, sharing a common envelope and, therefore the orbit is synchronised and circularised. Conclusions: The GU Mon system has a fill-out factor above 0.8, containing two dwarf B-type stars on the main sequence. The two stars are in a very advanced stage of interaction, with their extreme physical similarity likely due to the common envelope. The expected evolution of such a system very probably leads to a merger while still on the main sequence. Photometry tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/590/A45

  12. High-resolution spectroscopic observations of binary stars and yellow stragglers in three open clusters: NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales Silva, J. V.; Peña Suárez, V. J.; Katime Santrich, O. J.; Pereira, C. B.; Drake, N. A.; Roig, F., E-mail: joaovictor@on.br, E-mail: jearim@on.br, E-mail: osantrich@on.br, E-mail: claudio@on.br, E-mail: drake@on.br, E-mail: froig@on.br [Observatório Nacional/MCT, Rua Gen. José Cristino, 77, 20921-400 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-11-01

    Binary stars in open clusters are very useful targets in constraining the nucleosynthesis process. The luminosities of the stars are known because the distances of the clusters are also known, so chemical peculiarities can be linked directly to the evolutionary status of a star. In addition, binary stars offer the opportunity to verify a relationship between them and the straggler population in both globular and open clusters. We carried out a detailed spectroscopic analysis to derive the atmospheric parameters for 16 red giants in binary systems and the chemical composition of 11 of them in the open clusters NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822. We obtained abundances of C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Si, Ti, Ni, Cr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd. The atmospheric parameters of the studied stars and their chemical abundances were determined using high-resolution optical spectroscopy. We employ the local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. The abundances of the light elements were derived using the spectral synthesis technique. We found that the stars NGC 2360-92 and 96, NGC 3680-34, and NGC 5822-4 and 312 are yellow straggler stars. We show that the spectra of NGC 5822-4 and 312 present evidence of contamination by an A-type star as a secondary star. For the other yellow stragglers, evidence of contamination is given by the broad wings of the Hα. Detection of yellow straggler stars is important because the observed number can be compared with the number predicted by simulations of binary stellar evolution in open clusters. We also found that the other binary stars are not s-process enriched, which may suggest that in these binaries the secondary star is probably a faint main-sequence object. The lack of any s-process enrichment is very useful in setting constraints for the number of white dwarfs in the open cluster, a subject that is related to the birthrate of these kinds of stars in open clusters and also to the age of a

  13. A constraint on the formation timescale of the young open cluster NGC 2264: Lithium abundance of pre-main sequence stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Beomdu; Kim, Jinyoung S; Bessell, Michael S; Hwang, Narae; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2016-01-01

    The timescale of cluster formation is an essential parameter in order to understand the formation process of star clusters. Pre-main sequence (PMS) stars in nearby young open clusters reveal a large spread in brightness. If the spread were considered as a result of a real spread in age, the corresponding cluster formation timescale would be about 5 -- 20 Myr. Hence it could be interpreted that star formation in an open cluster is prolonged for up to a few tens of Myr. However, difficulties in reddening correction, observational errors, and systematic uncertainties introduced by imperfect evolutionary models for PMS stars, can result in an artificial age spread. Alternatively, we can utilize Li abundance as a relative age indicator of PMS star to determine the cluster formation timescale. The optical spectra of 134 PMS stars in NGC 2264 have been obtained with MMT/Hectochelle. The equivalent widths have been measured for 86 PMS stars with a detectable Li line (3500 < T_eff [K] <= 6500). Li abundance unde...

  14. Strong evidences for a nonextensive behavior of the rotation period in Open Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    de Freitas, D B; Soares, B B; Silva, J R P

    2014-01-01

    Time-dependent nonextensivity in a stellar astrophysical scenario combines nonextensive entropic indices $q_{K}$ derived from the modified Kawaler's parametrization, and $q$, obtained from rotational velocity distribution. These $q$'s are related through a heuristic single relation given by $q\\approx q_{0}(1-\\Delta t/q_{K})$, where $t$ is the cluster age. In a nonextensive scenario, these indices are quantities that measure the degree of nonextensivity present in the system. Recent studies reveal that the index $q$ is correlated to the formation rate of high-energy tails present in the distribution of rotation velocity. On the other hand, the index $q_{K}$ is determined by the stellar rotation-age relationship. This depends on the magnetic field configuration by using the expression $q_{K}=1+4aN/3$, where $a$ and $N$ denote the saturation level of the star magnetic field and its topology, respectively. In the present study, we show that the connection $q-q_{K}$ is also consistent with 548 rotation period data...

  15. The iron-sulfur cluster assembly machineries in plants: current knowledge and open questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy eCouturier

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many metabolic pathways and cellular processes occurring in most sub-cellular compartments depend on the functioning of iron-sulfur (Fe-S proteins, whose cofactors are assembled through dedicated protein machineries. Recent advances have been made in the knowledge of the functions of individual components through a combination of genetic, biochemical and structural approaches, primarily in prokaryotes and non-plant eukaryotes. Whereas most of the components of these machineries are conserved between kingdoms, their complexity is likely increased in plants owing to the presence of additional assembly proteins and to the existence of expanded families for several assembly proteins. This review focuses on the new actors discovered in the past few years, such as glutaredoxin, BOLA and NEET proteins as well as MIP18, MMS19, TAH18, DRE2 for the cytosolic machinery, which are integrated into a model for the plant Fe-S cluster biogenesis systems. It also discusses a few issues currently subjected to an intense debate such as the role of the mitochondrial frataxin and of glutaredoxins, the functional separation between scaffold, carrier and iron-delivery proteins and the crosstalk existing between different organelles.

  16. UV variability and accretion dynamics in the young open cluster NGC 2264

    CERN Document Server

    Venuti, Laura; Irwin, Jonathan; Stauffer, John; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rebull, Luisa; Cody, Ann Marie; Alencar, Silvia; Micela, Giuseppina; Flaccomio, Ettore; Peres, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We explore UV and optical variability signatures for several hundred members of NGC 2264 (3 Myr). We performed simultaneous u- and r-band monitoring over two full weeks with CFHT/MegaCam. About 750 young stars are probed; 40% of them are accreting. Statistically distinct variability properties are observed for accreting and non-accreting cluster members. The accretors exhibit a significantly higher level of variability than the non-accretors, especially in the UV. The amount of u-band variability correlates statistically with UV excess in disk-bearing objects, which suggests that accretion and star-disk interaction are the main sources of variability. Cool magnetic spots, several hundred degrees colder than the photosphere and covering from 5 to 30% of the stellar surface, appear to be the leading factor of variability for the non-accreting stars. In contrast, accretion spots, a few thousand degrees hotter than the photosphere and covering a few percent of the stellar surface, best reproduce the variability o...

  17. Studies of a possible new Herbig Ae/Be star in the open cluster NGC 7380

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Blesson Mathew; D. P. K. Banerjee; N. M. Ashok; Annapurni Subramaniam; Bhaskaran Bhavya; Vishal Joshi

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the star 2MASS J22472238+5801214 with the aim of identifying its true nature which has hitherto been uncertain.This object,which is a member of the young cluster NGC 7380,has been variously proposed to be a Be star,a D-type symbiotic and a Herbig Ae/Be star in separate studies.Here we present optical spectroscopy,near-IR photometry and narrow band Hα imaging of the nebulosity in its environment.Analysis of all these results,including the spectral energy distribution constructed from available data,strongly indicate the source to be a Herbig Ae/Be star.The star is found to be accompanied by a nebulosity with an interesting structure.A bow-shock shaped structure,similar to a cometary nebula,is seen very close to the star with its apex oriented towards the photoionizing source of this region (i.e.the star DH Cep).An interesting spectroscopic finding,from the forbidden [SⅡ] 6716,6731 (A) and [OI] 6300 (A) lines,is the detection of a blue-shifted high velocity outflow (200 ±50 km s- 1) from the star.

  18. Studies of a possible new Herbig Ae/Be star in the open cluster NGC 7380

    CERN Document Server

    Mathew, Blesson; Ashok, N M; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Bhavya, B; Joshi, Vishal

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the star 2MASS J22472238+5801214 with the aim of identifying its true nature which has hitherto been uncertain. This object, which is a member of the young cluster NGC 7380, has been variously proposed to be a Be star, a D-type symbiotic and a Herbig Ae/Be star in separate studies. Here we present optical spectroscopy, near-IR photometry and narrow band H-alpha imaging of the nebulosity in its environment. Analysis of all these results, including the spectral energy distribution constructed from available data, strongly indicate the source to be a Herbig Ae/Be star. The star is found to be accompanied by a nebulosity with an interesting structure. A bow shock shaped structure, similar to a cometary nebula, is seen very close to the star with its apex oriented towards the photoionizing source of this region (i.e. the star DH Cep). An interesting spectroscopic finding, from the forbidden [SII] 6716, 6731 \\AA and [OI] 6300 \\AA lines, is the detection of a blue-shifted high velocity outflow ...

  19. Stellar models with microscopic diffusion and rotational mixing; 2, application to open clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Chaboyer, B; Pinsonneault, M H; Chaboyer, Brian; Demarque, P; Pinsonneault, M H

    1994-01-01

    Stellar models with masses ranging from 0.5 to 1.3~M_\\odot were constructed in order to compare to young cluster observations of Li and of rotation velocities. The amount of Li depletion in cool stars is sensitive to the amount of overshoot at the base of the surface convection zone, and the exact metallicity of the models. Even when this uncertainty is taken into account, the Li observations are a severe constraint for the models and rule out standard models, and pure diffusion models. Stellar models which include diffusion and rotational mixing in the radiative regions of stars are able to simultaneously match the Li abundances observed in the Pleiades, UMaG, Hyades, Praesepe, NGC 752 and M67. They also match the observed rotation periods in the Hyades. However, these models are unable to simultaneously explain the presence of the rapidly rotating late G and K stars in the Pleiades and the absence of rapidly rotating late F and early G stars.

  20. Sejong Open Cluster Survey (SOS) - V. The Active Star Forming Region SH 2-255-257

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Beomdu; Sung, Hwankyung; Hur, Hyeonoh; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Bessell, Michael S.; Kim, Jinyoung S.; Lee, Kang Hwan; Park, Byeong-Gon; Jeong, Gwanghui

    2015-12-01

    There is much observational evidence that active star formation is taking place in the H II regions Sh 2-255-257. We present a photometric study of this star forming region (SFR) using imaging data obtained in passbands from the optical to the mid-infrared, in order to study the star formation process. A total of 218 members were identified using various selection criteria based on their observational properties. The SFR is reddened by at least E(B-V) = 0.8 mag, and the reddening law toward the region is normal (R_V = 3.1). From the zero-age main sequence fitting method it is confirmed that the SFR is 2.1 ± 0.3 kpc from the Sun. The median age of the identified members is estimated to be about 1.3 Myr from a comparison of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD) with stellar evolutionary models. The initial mass function (IMF) is derived from the HRD and the near-infrared (J, J-H) color-magnitude diagram. The slope of the IMF is about Γ = -1.6 ± 0.1, which is slightly steeper than that of the Salpeter/Kroupa IMF. It implies that low-mass star formation is dominant in the SFR. The sum of the masses of all the identified members provides the lower limit of the cluster mass (169 M_{⊙}). We also analyzed the spectral energy distribution (SED) of pre-main sequence stars using the SED fitting tool of Robitaille et al., and confirm that there is a significant discrepancy between stellar mass and age obtained from two different methods based on the SED fitting tool and the HRD.

  1. CNO abundances and carbon isotope ratios in evolved stars of the open clusters NGC 2324, NGC 2477, and NGC 3960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautvaišienė, Gražina; Drazdauskas, Arnas; Bragaglia, Angela; Randich, Sofia; Ženovienė, Renata

    2016-10-01

    Aims: Our main aim is to determine carbon-to-nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios for evolved giants in the open clusters NGC 2324, NGC 2477, and NGC 3960, which have turn-off masses of about 2 M⊙, and to compare them with predictions of theoretical models. Methods: High-resolution spectra were analysed using a differential synthetic spectrum method. Abundances of carbon were derived using the C2 Swan (0, 1) band heads at 5135 and 5635.5 Å. The wavelength interval 7940-8130 Å with strong CN features was analysed to determine nitrogen abundances and carbon isotope ratios. The oxygen abundances were determined from the [O i] line at 6300 Å. Results: The mean values of the CNO abundances are [C/Fe] = -0.35 ± 0.06 (s.d.), [N/Fe] = 0.28 ± 0.05, and [O/Fe] = -0.02 ± 0.10 in seven stars of NGC 2324; [C/Fe] = -0.26 ± 0.02, [N/Fe] = 0.39 ± 0.04, and [O/Fe] = -0.11 ± 0.06 in six stars of NGC 2477; and [C/Fe] = -0.39 ± 0.04, [N/Fe] = 0.32 ± 0.05, and [O/Fe] = -0.19 ± 0.06 in six stars of NGC 3960. The mean C/N ratio is equal to 0.92 ± 0.12, 0.91 ± 0.09, and 0.80 ± 0.13, respectively. The mean 12C /13C ratio is equal to 21 ± 1, 20 ± 1, and 16 ± 4, respectively. The 12C /13C and C/N ratios of stars in the investigated open clusters were compared with the ratios predicted by stellar evolution models. Conclusions: The mean values of the 12C /13C and C/N ratios in NGC 2324 and NGC 2477 agree well with the first dredge-up and thermohaline-induced extra-mixing models, which are similar for intermediate turn-off mass stars. The 12C /13C ratios in the investigated clump stars of NGC 3960 span from 10 to 20. The mean carbon isotope and C/N ratios in NGC 3960 are close to predictions of the model in which the thermohaline- and rotation-induced (if rotation velocity at the zero-age main sequence was 30% of the critical velocity) extra-mixing act together. Based on observations collected at ESO telescopes under programmes 072.D-0550 and 074.D-0571.

  2. DETERMINING THE AGE OF THE KEPLER OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6819 WITH A NEW TRIPLE SYSTEM AND OTHER ECLIPSING BINARY STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, Lauren N.; Sandquist, Eric L.; Jeffries, Mark W. Jr.; Orosz, Jerome A. [San Diego State University, Department of Astronomy, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); and others

    2016-03-15

    As part of our study of the old (∼2.5 Gyr) open cluster NGC 6819 in the Kepler field, we present photometric (Kepler and ground-based BVR{sub C}I{sub C}) and spectroscopic observations of the detached eclipsing binary WOCS 24009 (Auner 665; KIC 5023948) with a short orbital period of 3.6 days. WOCS 24009 is a triple-lined system, and we verify that the brightest star is physically orbiting the eclipsing binary using radial velocities and eclipse timing variations. The eclipsing binary components have masses M{sub B} = 1.090 ± 0.010 M{sub ⊙} and M{sub C} = 1.075 ± 0.013 M{sub ⊙}, and radii R{sub B} = 1.099 ± 0.006 ± 0.005 R{sub ⊙} and R{sub C} = 1.069 ± 0.006 ± 0.013 R{sub ⊙}. The bright non-eclipsing star resides at the cluster turnoff, and ultimately its mass will directly constrain the turnoff mass: our preliminary determination is M{sub A} = 1.251 ± 0.057 M{sub ⊙}. A careful examination of the light curves indicates that the fainter star in the eclipsing binary undergoes a very brief period of total eclipse, which enables us to precisely decompose the light of the three stars and place them in the color–magnitude diagram (CMD). We also present improved analysis of two previously discussed detached eclipsing stars in NGC 6819 (WOCS 40007 and WOCS 23009) en route to a combined determination of the cluster’s distance modulus (m − M){sub V} = 12.38 ± 0.04. Because this paper significantly increases the number of measured stars in the cluster, we can better constrain the age of the CMD to be 2.21 ± 0.10 ± 0.20 Gyr. Additionally, using all measured eclipsing binary star masses and radii, we constrain the age to 2.38 ± 0.05 ± 0.22 Gyr. The quoted uncertainties are estimates of measurement and systematic uncertainties (due to model physics differences and metal content), respectively.

  3. X-ray Observations of Eight Young Open Star Clusters: I. Membership and X-ray Luminosity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Himali Bhatt; J. C. Pandey; K. P. Singh; Ram Sagar; Brijesh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    We present a detailed investigation of X-ray source contents of eight young open clusters with ages between 4 to 46 Myr using archival X-ray data from XMM-NEWTON. The probable cluster memberships of the X-ray sources have been established on the basis of multi-wavelength archival data, and samples of 152 pre-main sequence (PMS) low mass (< 2⊙), 36 intermediate mass (2-10⊙) and 16 massive (> 10⊙) stars have been generated. X-ray spectral analyses of high mass stars reveal the presence of high temperature plasma with temperature < 2 keV, and mean /bol of 10-6.9. In the case of PMS low mass stars, the plasma temperatures have been found to be in the range of 0.2 keV to 3 keV with a median value of ∼ 1.3 keV, with no significant difference in plasma temperatures during their evolution from 4 to 46 Myr. The X-ray luminosity distributions of the PMS low mass stars have been found to be similar in the young star clusters under study. This may suggest a nearly uniform X-ray activity in the PMS low mass stars of ages ∼ 4–14 Myr. These observed values of /bol are found to have a mean value of 10-3.6 ± 0.4, which is below the X-ray saturation level. The /bol values for the PMS low mass stars are well correlated with their bolometric luminosities, that implies its dependence on the internal structure of the low mass stars. The difference between the X-ray luminosity distributions of the intermediate mass stars and the PMS low mass stars has not been found to be statistically significant. Their /bol values, however have been found to be significantly different from each other with a confidence level greater than 99.999% and the strength of X-ray activity in the intermediate mass stars is found to be lower compared to the low mass stars. However, the possibility of X-ray emission from the intermediate mass stars due to a low mass star in close proximity of the intermediate mass star can not be ruled out.

  4. Massive open star clusters using the VVV survey III: A young massive cluster at the far edge of the Galactic bar

    CERN Document Server

    Alegría, S Ramírez; Chené, A N; O'Leary, E; Amigo, P; Minniti, D; Saito, R K; Geisler, D; Kurtev, R; Hempel, M; Gromadzki, M; Clarke, J R A; Negueruela, I; Marco, A; Fierro, C; Bonatto, C; Catelan, M

    2014-01-01

    Context: Young massive clusters are key to map the Milky Way's structure, and near-IR large area sky surveys have contributed strongly to the discovery of new obscured massive stellar clusters. Aims: We present the third article in a series of papers focused on young and massive clusters discovered in the VVV survey. This article is dedicated to the physical characterization of VVV CL086, using part of its OB-stellar population. Methods: We physically characterized the cluster using $JHK_S$ near-infrared photometry from ESO public survey VVV images, using the VVV-SkZ pipeline, and near-infrared $K$-band spectroscopy, following the methodology presented in the first article of the series. Results: Individual distances for two observed stars indicate that the cluster is located at the far edge of the Galactic bar. These stars, which are probable cluster members from the statistically field-star decontaminated CMD, have spectral types between O9 and B0V. According to our analysis, this young cluster ($1.0$ Myr $...

  5. Absolute dimensions of eclipsing binaries. XXIV. The Be star system DW Carinae, a member of the open cluster Collinder 228

    CERN Document Server

    Southworth, J; Southworth, John

    2006-01-01

    DW Carinae is a close but detached early B-type eclipsing binary in the young open cluster Cr 228. We have measured accurate physical properties of its components (masses and radii to 1%) and used these to derive the age, metallicity and distance of Cr 228. The rotational velocities of both components of DW Car are high, so we have investigated the performance of double-Gaussian fitting, one- and two-dimensional cross-correlation and spectral disentangling for measuring radial velocities in the presence of strong line blending. Gaussian and cross-correlation analyses require substantial corrections for the effects of line blending, which are only partially successful for cross-correlation. Disentangling is to be preferred because it does not assume anything about the shapes of spectral lines, and is not significantly affected by blending. Complete Stromgren uvby light curves have been obtained and accurate radii have been measured from them using the Wilson-Devinney program, constrained by an accurate spectro...

  6. CNO abundances and carbon isotope ratios in evolved stars of the open clusters NGC 2324, NGC 2477, and NGC 3960

    CERN Document Server

    Tautvaisiene, Grazina; Bragaglia, Angela; Randich, Sofia; Zenoviene, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Our main aim is to determine carbon-to-nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios for evolved giants in the open clusters NGC 2324, NGC 2477, and NGC 3960, which have turn-off masses of about 2 Msun, and to compare them with predictions of theoretical models. High-resolution spectra were analysed using a differential synthetic spectrum method. Abundances of carbon were derived using the C2 Swan (0,1) band heads at 5135 and 5635.5 A. The wavelength interval 7940-8130 A with strong CN features was analysed to determine nitrogen abundances and carbon isotope ratios. The oxygen abundances were determined from the [Oi] line at 6300 A. The mean values of the CNO abundances are [C/Fe]=-0.35+-0.06 (s.d.), [N/Fe]=0.28+-0.05, and [O/Fe]=-0.02+-0.10 in seven stars of NGC 2324; [C/Fe]=-0.26+-0.02, [N/Fe]=0.39+-0.04, and [O/Fe]=-0.11+-0.06 in six stars of NGC 2477; and [C/Fe]=-0.39+-0.04, [N/Fe]=0.32+-0.05, and [O/Fe]=-0.19+-0.06 in six stars of NGC 3960. The mean C/N ratio is equal to 0.92+-0.12, 0.91+-0.09, and 0.80+-0.13, resp...

  7. A search for flares and mass ejections on young late-type stars in the open cluster Blanco-1

    CERN Document Server

    Leitzinger, M; Greimel, R; Korhonen, H; Guenther, E W; Hanslmeier, A; Lammer, H; Khodachenko, M L

    2014-01-01

    We present a search for stellar activity (flares and mass ejections) in a sample of 28 stars in the young open cluster Blanco-1. We use optical spectra obtained with ESO's VIMOS multi-object spectrograph installed on the VLT. From the total observing time of $\\sim$ 5 hours, we find four H$\\alpha$ flares but no distinct indication of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on the investigated dK-dM stars. Two flares show "dips" in their light-curves right before their impulsive phases which are similar to previous discoveries in photometric light-curves of active dMe stars. We estimate an upper limit of $<$4 CMEs per day per star and discuss this result with respect to a semi- empirical estimation of the CME rate of main-sequence stars. We find that we should have detected at least one CME per star with a mass of 1-15$\\times10^{16}$ g depending on the star's X-ray luminosity, but the estimated H$\\alpha$ fluxes associated with these masses are below the detection limit of our observations. We conclude that the paramet...

  8. Assessment of the accuracy of coupled cluster perturbation theory for open-shell systems. II. Quadruples expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Eriksen, Janus J; Jørgensen, Poul; Gauss, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    We extend our assessment of the potential of perturbative coupled cluster (CC) expansions for a test set of open-shell species to the description of quadruple excitations. In doing so, we compare the prominent CCSDT(Q) and lambda-CCSDT(Q) (a-CCSDT(Q)) models, in which the CC singles, doubles, and triples (CCSDT) energy is augmented by similar corrections for quadruple excitations, to the second- through sixth-order models of the CCSDT(Q-n) quadruples series, which is based on a CCSDT rather than an HF zeroth-order state. By comparing the models in terms of the size-intensive recovery of as well as the total deviation from the quadruples contribution to CC singles, doubles, triples, and quadruples (CCSDTQ) energies, we find (i) that the accuracy offered by the CCSDT(Q) and a-CCSDT(Q) models is strongly dependent on the spin of the molecular ground state - like for the CCSD(T) model in the first part of the present series [arXiv:1512.02846] - and (ii) that the performance of the CCSDT(Q-n) models is practically...

  9. Photometric Investigation of the Total-Eclipsing Contact Binary V12 in the Intermediate-age Open Cluster NGC 7789

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, S -B; Wang, J -J; Ali, G B; Liu, L; Haroon, A -A

    2014-01-01

    NGC 7789 is an intermediate-age open cluster with an age that is similar to the mean age of contact binary stars. V12 is a bright UMa-type binary star with an orbital period of 0.397 day. The first complete light curves of V12 in V, R, and I bands are presented and analyzed with the W-D (Wilson and Devinney) method. The results shows that V12 is an intermediate-contact binary (f = 43%) with a mass ratio of 3.848, and it is a W-type contact binary where the less massive component is slightly hotter than the more massive one. The asymmetries of the light curves are explained by the presence of a dark spot on the more massive component. The derived orbital inclination (i = 83.6o) indicates that it is a total eclipsing binary, which suggests that the determined parameters are reliable. The orbital period may show a long-term increase at a rate of P = +2.48 x 10-6 days/year that reveals a rapid mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. However, more observations are needed to confirm t...

  10. An XMM-Newton view of the young open cluster NGC 6231 -- II. The OB star population

    CERN Document Server

    Sana, H; Naze, Y; Gosset, E; Vreux, J M

    2006-01-01

    In this second paper, we pursue the analysis of the 180 ks XMM-Newton campaign towards the young open cluster NGC 6231 and we focus on its rich OB star population. We present a literature-based census of the OB stars in the field of view with more than one hundred objects, among which 30% can be associated with an X-ray source. All the O-type stars are detected in the X-ray domain as soft and reasonably strong emitters. In the 0.5-10.0 keV band, their X-ray luminosities scale with their bolometric luminosities as $\\log L_\\mathrm{X} - \\log L_\\mathrm{bol}=-6.912\\pm0.153$. Such a scaling law holds in the soft (0.5-1.0 keV) and intermediate (1.0-2.5 keV) bands but breaks down in the hard band. While the two colliding wind binaries in our sample clearly deviate from this scheme, the remaining O-type objects show a very limited dispersion (40% or 20% according to whether `cool' dwarfs are included or not), much smaller than that obtained from previous studies. At our detection threshold and within our sample, the s...

  11. Relativistic equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method using open-shell reference wavefunction: Application to ionization potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Himadri; Sasmal, Sudip; Nayak, Malaya K; Vaval, Nayana; Pal, Sourav

    2016-08-21

    The open-shell reference relativistic equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method within its four-component description is successfully implemented with the consideration of single- and double- excitation approximations using the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian. At the first attempt, the implemented method is employed to calculate ionization potential value of heavy atomic (Ag, Cs, Au, Fr, and Lr) and molecular (HgH and PbF) systems, where the effect of relativity does really matter to obtain highly accurate results. Not only the relativistic effect but also the effect of electron correlation is crucial in these heavy atomic and molecular systems. To justify the fact, we have taken two further approximations in the four-component relativistic equation-of-motion framework to quantify how the effect of electron correlation plays a role in the calculated values at different levels of theory. All these calculated results are compared with the available experimental data as well as with other theoretically calculated values to judge the extent of accuracy obtained in our calculations. PMID:27544090

  12. New insights on Ba over-abundance in open clusters. Evidence for the intermediate neutron-capture process at play?

    CERN Document Server

    Mishenina, T; Carraro, G; Kovtyukh, V; Monaco, L; Korotin, S; Shereta, E; Yegorova, I; Herwig, F

    2014-01-01

    Recently an increasing number of studies were devoted to measure the abundances of neutron-capture elements heavier than iron in stars belonging to Galactic Open Clusters (OCs). OCs span a sizeable range in metallicity -0.6<[Fe/H]<+0.4), and they show abundances of light elements similar to disk stars of the same age. A different pattern is observed for heavy elements. A large scatter is observed for Ba, with most OCs showing [Ba/Fe] and [Ba/La] overabundant with respect to the Sun. The origin of this overabundance is not clearly understood. With the goal of providing new observational insights we determined radial velocities, atmospheric parameters and chemical composition of 27 giant stars members of five OCs: Cr 110, Cr 261, NGC 2477, NGC 2506 and NGC 5822. We used high-resolution spectra obtained with the UVES spectrograph at ESO Paranal. We perform a detailed spectroscopic analysis of these stars to measure the abundance of up to 22 elements per star. We study the dependence of element abundance on...

  13. A search for flares and mass ejections on young late-type stars in the open cluster Blanco-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitzinger, M.; Odert, P.; Greimel, R.; Korhonen, H.; Guenther, E. W.; Hanslmeier, A.; Lammer, H.; Khodachenko, M. L.

    2014-09-01

    We present a search for stellar activity (flares and mass ejections) in a sample of 28 stars in the young open cluster Blanco-1. We use optical spectra obtained with European Southern Observatory's Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph installed on the Very Large Telescope. From the total observing time of ˜5 h, we find four Hα flares but no distinct indication of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on the investigated dK-dM stars. Two flares show `dips' in their light curves right before their impulsive phases which are similar to previous discoveries in photometric light curves of active dMe stars. We estimate an upper limit of <4 CMEs per day per star and discuss this result with respect to a empirical estimation of the CME rate of main-sequence stars. We find that we should have detected at least one CME per star with a mass of ≤ 3 × 1017 g depending on the star's X-ray luminosity, but the estimated Hα fluxes associated with these masses are below the detection limit of our observations. We conclude that the parameter which mainly influences the detection of stellar CMEs using the method of Doppler-shifted emission caused by moving plasma is not the spectral resolution/velocity but the flux/mass of the CME.

  14. New open cluster Cepheids in the VVV survey tightly constrain near-infrared period--luminosity relations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaodian; Deng, Licai

    2016-01-01

    Classical Cepheids are among the most useful Galactic and nearby extragalactic distance tracers because of their well-defined period--luminosity relations (PLRs). Open cluster (OC) Cepheids are important objects to independently calibrate these PLRs. Based on Data Release 1 of the {\\sl VISTA} Variables in the V\\'ia L\\'actea survey, we have discovered four new, faint and heavily reddened OC Cepheids, including the longest-period OC Cepheid known, ASAS J180342$-$2211.0 in Teutsch 14a. The other OC--Cepheid pairs include NGC 6334 and V0470 Sco, Majaess 170 and ASAS J160125$-$5150.3, and Teutsch 77 and BB Cen. ASAS J180342$-$2211.0, with a period of $\\log P = 1.623$ [days] is important to constrain the slope of the PLR. The currently most complete $JHK_{\\rm s}$ Galactic Cepheid PLRs are obtained based on a significantly increased sample of 31 OC Cepheids, with associated uncertainties that are improved by 40 per cent compared with previous determinations (in the $J$ band). The NIR PLRs are in good agreement with ...

  15. Lithium Inventory of 2 $M_\\odot$ Red Clump Stars in Open Clusters: A Test of the Helium Flash Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Carlberg, Joleen K; Smith, Verne V

    2016-01-01

    The temperature distribution of field Li-rich red giants suggests the presence of a population of Li-rich red clump (RC) stars. One proposed explanation for this population is that all stars with masses near 2 $M_\\odot$ experience a short-lived phase of Li-richness at the onset of core He-burning. Many of these stars have low 12C/13C, a signature of deep mixing that is presumably associated with the Li regeneration. To test this purported mechanism of Li enrichment, we measured abundances in 38 RC stars and 6 red giant branch (RGB) stars in four open clusters selected to have RC masses near 2 $M_\\odot$. We find six Li-rich stars (A(Li) > 1.50 dex) of which only two may be RC stars. None of the RC stars have Li exceeding the levels observed in the RGB stars, but given the brevity of the suggested Li-rich phase and the modest sample size, it is probable that stars with larger Li-enrichments were missed simply by chance. However, we find very few stars in our sample with low 12C/13C. Such low 12C/13C, seen in ma...

  16. Hydrogen-bonded ring closing and opening of protonated methanol clusters H(+)(CH3OH)(n) (n = 4-8) with the inert gas tagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Cheng; Hamashima, Toru; Yamazaki, Ryoko; Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Yuta; Mizuse, Kenta; Fujii, Asuka; Kuo, Jer-Lai

    2015-09-14

    The preferential hydrogen bond (H-bond) structures of protonated methanol clusters, H(+)(MeOH)n, in the size range of n = 4-8, were studied by size-selective infrared (IR) spectroscopy in conjunction with density functional theory calculations. The IR spectra of bare clusters were compared with those with the inert gas tagging by Ar, Ne, and N2, and remarkable changes in the isomer distribution with the tagging were found for clusters with n≥ 5. The temperature dependence of the isomer distribution of the clusters was calculated by the quantum harmonic superposition approach. The observed spectral changes with the tagging were well interpreted by the fall of the cluster temperature with the tagging, which causes the transfer of the isomer distribution from the open and flexible H-bond network types to the closed and rigid ones. Anomalous isomer distribution with the tagging, which has been recently found for protonated water clusters, was also found for H(+)(MeOH)5. The origin of the anomaly was examined by the experiments on its carrier gas dependence. PMID:26235389

  17. Chemical abundance analysis of the Open Clusters Cr110, NGC2099 (M37), NGC2420, NGC7789 and M67 (NGC2682)

    CERN Document Server

    Pancino, E; Rossetti, E; Gallart, C

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) The present number of Galactic Open Clusters that have high-resolution abundance determinations, not only of [Fe/H], but also of other key elements, is largely insufficient to enable a clear modeling of the Galactic Disk chemical evolution. We obtained high-resolution (R~30000), high quality (S/N~50-100 per pixel), echelle spectra with FOCES, at Calar Alto, for 3 red clump stars in each of five Open Clusters. We used the classical Equivalent Width analysis method to obtain accurate abundances of 16 elements. We also derived the oxygen abundance through spectral synthesis of the 6300A forbidden line. Three of the clusters were never studied previously with high-resolution: we found [Fe/H]=+0.03 +/- 0.02 dex for Cr110; [Fe/H]=+0.01 +/- 0.05 dex for NGC2099 (M37) and [Fe/H]=-0.05 +/- 0.03 dex for NGC2420. For the remaining clusters, we find: [Fe/H]=+0.05 +/- 0.02 dex for M67 and [Fe/H]=+0.04 +/- 0.07 dex for NGC7789. We provide the first high-resolution based velocity estimate for Cr110, V=41.0 +/- 3....

  18. Asteroseismology of old open clusters with Kepler: direct estimate of the integrated red giant branch mass-loss in NGC 6791 and 6819

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miglio, A.; Brogaard, Karsten Frank; Stello, D.;

    2012-01-01

    Mass-loss of red giant branch (RGB) stars is still poorly determined, despite its crucial role in the chemical enrichment of galaxies. Thanks to the recent detection of solar-like oscillations in G–K giants in open clusters with Kepler, we can now directly determine stellar masses for a statistic......Mass-loss of red giant branch (RGB) stars is still poorly determined, despite its crucial role in the chemical enrichment of galaxies. Thanks to the recent detection of solar-like oscillations in G–K giants in open clusters with Kepler, we can now directly determine stellar masses...... for a statistically significant sample of stars in the old open clusters NGC 6791 and 6819. The aim of this work is to constrain the integrated RGB mass-loss by comparing the average mass of stars in the red clump (RC) with that of stars in the low-luminosity portion of the RGB [i.e. stars with L≲L(RC)]. Stellar...... distance determination. In the near future, additional constraints from frequencies of individual pulsation modes and spectroscopic effective temperatures will allow further stringent tests of the Δν and νmax scaling relations, which provide a novel, and potentially very accurate, means of determining...

  19. Lithium Inventory of 2 Solar Mass Red Clump Stars in Open Clusters: A Test of the Helium Flash Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.

    2016-01-01

    The temperature distribution of field Li-rich red giants suggests the presence of a population of Li-rich red clump (RC) stars. One proposed explanation for this population is that all stars with masses near 2 solar mass experience a shortlived phase of Li-richness at the onset of core He-burning. Many of these stars have low C-12/C-13, a signature of deep mixing that is presumably associated with the Li regeneration. To test this purported mechanism of Li enrichment, we measured abundances in 38 RC stars and 6 red giant branch (RGB) stars in four open clusters selected to have RC masses near 2 solar mass. We find six Li-rich stars (A(Li) greater than or equal to 1.50 dex) of which only two may be RC stars. None of the RC stars have Li exceeding the levels observed in the RGB stars, but given the brevity of the suggested Li-rich phase and the modest sample size, it is probable that stars with larger Li-enrichments were missed simply by chance. However, we find very few stars in our sample with low C-12/C-13. Such low C-12/C-13, seen in many field Li-rich stars, should persist even after lithium has returned to normal low levels. Thus, if Li synthesis during the He flash occurs, it is a rare, but potentially long-lived occurrence rather than a short-lived phase for all stars. We estimate a conservative upper limit of the fraction of stars going through a Li-rich phase to be less than 47%, based on stars that have low C-12/C-13 for their observed A(Li).

  20. Lithium Inventory of 2 M ⊙ Red Clump Stars in Open Clusters: A Test of the Helium Flash Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.

    2016-08-01

    The temperature distribution of field Li-rich red giants suggests the presence of a population of Li-rich red clump (RC) stars. One proposed explanation for this population is that all stars with masses near 2 M ⊙ experience a short-lived phase of Li-richness at the onset of core He-burning. Many of these stars have low 12C/13C, a signature of deep mixing that is presumably associated with the Li regeneration. To test this purported mechanism of Li enrichment, we measured abundances in 38 RC stars and 6 red giant branch (RGB) stars in four open clusters selected to have RC masses near 2 M ⊙. We find six Li-rich stars (A(Li) ≥ 1.50 dex) of which only two may be RC stars. None of the RC stars have Li exceeding the levels observed in the RGB stars, but given the brevity of the suggested Li-rich phase and the modest sample size, it is probable that stars with larger Li-enrichments were missed simply by chance. However, we find very few stars in our sample with low 12C/13C. Such low 12C/13C, seen in many field Li-rich stars, should persist even after lithium has returned to normal low levels. Thus, if Li synthesis during the He flash occurs, it is a rare, but potentially long-lived occurrence rather than a short-lived phase for all stars. We estimate a conservative upper limit of the fraction of stars going through a Li-rich phase to be \\lt 47 % , based on stars that have low 12C/13C for their observed A(Li).

  1. Star clusters and associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All 33 papers presented at the symposium were inputted to INIS. They dealt with open clusters, globular clusters, stellar associations and moving groups, and local kinematics and galactic structures. (E.S.)

  2. Stellar lifetime and ultraviolet properties of the old metal-rich Galactic open cluster NGC6791: a pathway to understand the UV upturn of elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Buzzoni, Alberto; Carraro, Giovanni; Buson, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    The evolutionary properties of the old metal-rich Galactic open cluster NGC6791 are assessed, based on deep UB photometry and 2Mass JK data. For 4739 stars in the cluster, bolometric luminosity and effective temperature have been derived from theoretical (U-B) and (J-K) color fitting. The derived H-R diagram has been matched with the UVBLUE grid of synthetic stellar spectra to obtain the integrated SED of the system, together with a full set UV (Fanelli) and optical (Lick) narrow-band indices. The cluster appears to be a fairly good proxy of standard elliptical galaxies, although with significantly bluer infrared colors, a shallower 4000A Balmer break, and a lower Mg2 index. The confirmed presence of a dozen hot stars, along their EHB evolution, leads the cluster SED to consistently match the properties of the most active UV-upturn galaxies, with 1.7+/-0.4% of the total bolometric luminosity emitted shortward of 2500A. The cluster Helium abundance results Y=0.30 +/-0.04, while the Post-MS implied stellar life...

  3. Cooperative effects and strengths of hydrogen bonds in open-chain cis-triaziridine clusters (n = 2-8): a DFT investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hua-Jie; Xiao, He-Ming; Dong, Hai-Shan; Zhu, Wei-Hua

    2006-02-16

    We employ DFT/B3LYP method to investigate linear open-chain clusters (n = 2-8) of the cis-triaziridine molecule that is a candidate molecule for high energy density materials (HEDM). Our calculations indicate that the pervasive phenomena of cooperative effects are observed in the clusters of n = 3-8, which are reflected in changes in lengths of N...H hydrogen bonds, stretching frequencies, and intensities of N-H bonds, dipole moments, and charge transfers as cluster size increases. The n(N) --> sigma*(N-H) interactions, i.e., the charge transfers from lone pairs (n(N)) of the N atoms into antibonds (sigma*) of the N-H bonds acting as H-donors, can be used to explain the observed cooperative phenomena. The approaches based upon natural bond orbital (NBO) method and theory of atoms in molecule (AIM) to evaluating N...H strengths are found to be equivalent. In the process of N...H bonding, cooperative nature of n(N) --> sigma*(N-H) interactions promotes formation of stronger N...H bonds as reflected in increases in the capacities of cis-triaziridine clusters to concentrate electrons at the bond critical points of N...H bonds. The calculated nonadditive energies also show that the cooperative effects due to n(N) --> sigma*(N-H) interactions indeed provide additional stabilities for the clusters. PMID:16466259

  4. Chemical evolution of A- and B-type stars in open clusters: observed abundances vs. diffusion models. Am stars in the Praesepe cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, L.; Bagnulo, S.; Monier, R.; Khan, S. A.; Kochukhov, O.; Landstreet, J. D.; Wade, G. A.; Weiss, W. W.

    2008-04-01

    We have decided to address the problem of how abundances and peculiarities change during main sequence evolution. We have setup a program to measure the atmospheric abundance patterns from tens of A-type star members of clusters of different ages, and compare the results with theory predictions. In this paper we present the overall project and we focus on the results obtained for a sample of Am stars of the Praesepe cluster (log t= 8.85 ± 0.15; González-García et al., 2006). We have obtained spectra for eight Am stars, two normal A-type stars and one blue straggler, that are probable members of the Praesepe cluster. For all of these stars we have determined fundamental parameters and photospheric abundances for a large number of chemical elements. For seven stars we also obtained spectra in circular polarisation and applied the LSD technique to measure the mean longitudinal magnetic field. We have found good agreement between abundance predictions of diffusion models and measured abundances, except for Na and S. Li appears to be overabundant in three stars of our sample. No magnetic field was detected in any of the analysed stars.

  5. The complex stellar populations in the lines of sight to open clusters in the third Galactic quadrant

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Baume, Gustavo L; Turner, David G

    2015-01-01

    Multi-color photometry of the stellar populations in five fields in the third Galactic quadrant centred on the clusters NGC 2215, NGC 2354, Haffner 22, Ruprecht 11, and ESO489SC01 is interpreted in terms of a warped and flared Galactic disk, without resort to an external entity such as the popular Monoceros or Canis Major overdensities. Except for NGC 2215, the clusters are poorly or unstudied previously. The data generate basic parameters for each cluster, including the distribution of stars along the line of sight. We use star counts and photometric analysis, without recourse to Galactic-model-based predictions or interpretations, and confirms earlier results for NGC 2215 and NGC 2354. ESO489SC01 is not a real cluster, while Haffner~22 is an overlooked cluster aged about 2.5 Gyr. Conclusions for Ruprecht~11 are preliminary, evidence for a cluster being marginal. Fields surrounding the clusters show signatures of young and intermediate-age stellar populations. The young population background to NGC~2354 and ...

  6. s-Processing in the Galactic Disk. I. Super-Solar Abundances of Y, Zr, La, Ce in Young Open Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Maiorca, E; Busso, M; Magrini, L; Palmerini, S

    2011-01-01

    In a recent study, based on homogeneous barium abundance measurements in open clusters, a trend of increasing [Ba/Fe] ratios for decreasing cluster age was reported. We present here further abundance determinations, relative to four other elements hav- ing important s-process contributions, with the aim of investigating whether the growth found for [Ba/Fe] is or not indicative of a general property, shared also by the other heavy elements formed by slow neutron captures. In particular, we derived abundances for yttrium, zirconium, lanthanum and cerium, using equivalent widths measurements and the MOOG code. Our sample includes 19 open clusters of different ages, for which the spectra were obtained at the ESO VLT telescope, using the UVES spectrometer. The growth previously suggested for Ba is confirmed for all the elements analyzed in our study. This fact implies significant changes in our views of the Galactic chemical evolution for elements beyond iron. Our results necessarily require that very low-mass AGB...

  7. Performance Characteristics of Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Implementations of NAS Parallel Benchmarks SP and BT on Large-Scale Multicore Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, X.

    2011-07-18

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) are well-known applications with fixed algorithms for evaluating parallel systems and tools. Multicore clusters provide a natural programming paradigm for hybrid programs, whereby OpenMP can be used with the data sharing with the multicores that comprise a node, and MPI can be used with the communication between nodes. In this paper, we use Scalar Pentadiagonal (SP) and Block Tridiagonal (BT) benchmarks of MPI NPB 3.3 as a basis for a comparative approach to implement hybrid MPI/OpenMP versions of SP and BT. In particular, we can compare the performance of the hybrid SP and BT with the MPI counterparts on large-scale multicore clusters, Intrepid (BlueGene/P) at Argonne National Laboratory and Jaguar (Cray XT4/5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Our performance results indicate that the hybrid SP outperforms the MPI SP by up to 20.76 %, and the hybrid BT outperforms the MPI BT by up to 8.58 % on up to 10 000 cores on Intrepid and Jaguar. We also use performance tools and MPI trace libraries available on these clusters to further investigate the performance characteristics of the hybrid SP and BT. © 2011 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The British Computer Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating gyrochronology on the zero-age-main-sequence: rotation periods in the southern open cluster Blanco 1 from the Kelt-South survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cargile, P. A.; Pepper, J.; Siverd, R.; Stassun, K. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); James, D. J. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Serena (Chile); Kuhn, R. B., E-mail: p.cargile@vanderbilt.edu [South African Astronomical Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2014-02-10

    We report periods for 33 members of Blanco 1 as measured from Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope-South light curves, the first reported rotation periods for this benchmark zero-age-main-sequence open cluster. The distribution of these stars spans from late-A or early-F dwarfs to mid-K with periods ranging from less than a day to ∼8 days. The rotation period distribution has a morphology similar to the coeval Pleiades cluster, suggesting the universal nature of stellar rotation distributions. Employing two different gyrochronology methods, we find an age of 146{sub −14}{sup +13} Myr for the cluster. Using the same techniques, we infer an age of 134{sub −10}{sup +9} Myr for the Pleiades measured from existing literature rotation periods. These rotation-derived ages agree with independently determined cluster ages based on the lithium depletion boundary technique. Additionally, we evaluate different gyrochronology models and quantify levels of agreement between the models and the Blanco 1/Pleiades rotation period distributions, including incorporating the rotation distributions of clusters at ages up to 1.1 Gyr. We find the Skumanich-like spin-down rate sufficiently describes the rotation evolution of stars hotter than the Sun; however, we find cooler stars rotating faster than predicted by a Skumanich law, suggesting a mass dependence in the efficiency of stellar angular momentum loss rate. Finally, we compare the Blanco 1 and Pleiades rotation period distributions to available nonlinear angular momentum evolution models. We find they require a significant mass dependence on the initial rotation rate of solar-type stars to reproduce the observed range of rotation periods at a given stellar mass and are furthermore unable to predict the observed over-density of stars along the upper envelope of the clusters' rotation distributions.

  9. A search for Li-rich giants in a sample of 12 open clusters: Li enhancement in two stars with substellar companions

    CERN Document Server

    Mena, E Delgado; Sousa, S G; Kunitomo, M; Adibekyan, V; Zaworska, P; Santos, N C; Israelian, G; Lovis, C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to search for Li-rich giants in a sample of clusters where planets have been searched, thus we can study the planet engulfment scenario to explain Li replenishment using a proper comparison sample of stars without detected giant planets. We derived Li abundances for a sample of 67 red giant stars in 12 different open clusters using standard spectral synthesis techniques and high resolution spectra (from HARPS and UVES). We also determined masses, ages and radius from PARSEC stellar isochrones to constrain the evolutionary stage of these stars. We find three stars in different clusters with clearly enhanced Li abundances compared to other stars within the cluster. Interestingly, the only two stars with a detected substellar companion in our sample belong to that group. One of the planet hosts, NGC2423No3, might lie close to the luminosity bump on the HR diagram, a phase where Li production by the Cameron-Fowler process is supported by extra-mixing to bring fresh Li up to the surface. On...

  10. Characterization of the Young Open Cluster G144.9+0.4 in the Camelopardalis OB1 Association

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Chien-Cheng; Panwar, Neelam

    2013-01-01

    Our star-count analysis of the 2MASS point sources resulted in an identification of the star cluster G144.9+0.4. The cluster was found, but not characterized, by \\citet{glu10}. We show that the cluster is physically associated with the Cam\\,OB1 association at a distance of about 1 kpc and with an age of 1--2 Myr. Pre-main sequence stars are identified, on the basis of photometric and proper motion data. A total of 91 additional OB star candidates were found in the subgroup 1A and 1B, a significant increase from the currently known 43 OB stars. The OB members show an age spread that indicates a sustained star formation for at least the last 10--15 years. The young cluster G144.9+0.4 represents the latest episode of sequence star formation in this cloud complex.

  11. An Observational Study of Tidal Synchronization in Solar-Type Binary Stars in the Open Clusters M35 and M34

    OpenAIRE

    Meibom, Soren; Mathieu, Robert D.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2006-01-01

    We present rotation periods for the solar-type primary stars in 13 close (a~< 5 AU) single-lined spectroscopic binaries with known orbital periods (P) and eccentricities (e). All binaries are members of the open clusters M35 (150Myr) and M34 (250Myr). The binary orbital parameters and the rotation periods of the primary stars were determined from time-series spectroscopy and time-series photometry, respectively. Knowledge of the ages, orbital periods, and eccentricities of these binaries comb...

  12. Galactic Globular and Open Clusters in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. II. Test of Theoretical Stellar Isochrones

    CERN Document Server

    An, Deokkeun; Masseron, Thomas; Delahaye, Franck; Johnson, Jennifer A; Terndrup, Donald M; Beers, Timothy C; Ivans, Inese I; Ivezic, Zeljko

    2009-01-01

    We perform an extensive test of theoretical stellar models for main-sequence stars in ugriz, using cluster fiducial sequences obtained in the previous paper of this series. We generate a set of isochrones using the Yale Rotating Evolutionary Code (YREC) with updated input physics, and derive magnitudes and colors in ugriz from MARCS model atmospheres. These models match cluster main sequences over a wide range of metallicity within the errors of the adopted cluster parameters. However, we find a large discrepancy of model colors at the lower main sequence (Teff < ~4500 K) for clusters at and above solar metallicity. We also reach similar conclusions using the theoretical isochrones of Girardi et al. and Dotter et al., but our new models are generally in better agreement with the data. Using our theoretical isochrones, we also derive main-sequence fitting distances and turn-off ages for five key globular clusters, and demonstrate the ability to derive these quantities from photometric data in the Sloan Digi...

  13. Design of a Golf Swing Injury Detection and Evaluation open service platform with Ontology-oriented clustering case-based reasoning mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Hao-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, people can easily use a smartphone to get wanted information and requested services. Hence, this study designs and proposes a Golf Swing Injury Detection and Evaluation open service platform with Ontology-oritened clustering case-based reasoning mechanism, which is called GoSIDE, based on Arduino and Open Service Gateway initative (OSGi). GoSIDE is a three-tier architecture, which is composed of Mobile Users, Application Servers and a Cloud-based Digital Convergence Server. A mobile user is with a smartphone and Kinect sensors to detect the user's Golf swing actions and to interact with iDTV. An application server is with Intelligent Golf Swing Posture Analysis Model (iGoSPAM) to check a user's Golf swing actions and to alter this user when he is with error actions. Cloud-based Digital Convergence Server is with Ontology-oriented Clustering Case-based Reasoning (CBR) for Quality of Experiences (OCC4QoE), which is designed to provide QoE services by QoE-based Ontology strategies, rules and events for this user. Furthermore, GoSIDE will automatically trigger OCC4QoE and deliver popular rules for a new user. Experiment results illustrate that GoSIDE can provide appropriate detections for Golfers. Finally, GoSIDE can be a reference model for researchers and engineers.

  14. Design of a Golf Swing Injury Detection and Evaluation open service platform with Ontology-oriented clustering case-based reasoning mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Hao-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, people can easily use a smartphone to get wanted information and requested services. Hence, this study designs and proposes a Golf Swing Injury Detection and Evaluation open service platform with Ontology-oritened clustering case-based reasoning mechanism, which is called GoSIDE, based on Arduino and Open Service Gateway initative (OSGi). GoSIDE is a three-tier architecture, which is composed of Mobile Users, Application Servers and a Cloud-based Digital Convergence Server. A mobile user is with a smartphone and Kinect sensors to detect the user's Golf swing actions and to interact with iDTV. An application server is with Intelligent Golf Swing Posture Analysis Model (iGoSPAM) to check a user's Golf swing actions and to alter this user when he is with error actions. Cloud-based Digital Convergence Server is with Ontology-oriented Clustering Case-based Reasoning (CBR) for Quality of Experiences (OCC4QoE), which is designed to provide QoE services by QoE-based Ontology strategies, rules and events for this user. Furthermore, GoSIDE will automatically trigger OCC4QoE and deliver popular rules for a new user. Experiment results illustrate that GoSIDE can provide appropriate detections for Golfers. Finally, GoSIDE can be a reference model for researchers and engineers. PMID:26444809

  15. The K2 M67 Study: Revisiting old friends with K2 reveals oscillating red giants in the open cluster M67

    CERN Document Server

    Stello, D; Casagrande, L; Gilliland, R; Aguirre, V S; Sandquist, E; Leiner, E; Mathieu, R; Soderblom, D R

    2016-01-01

    Observations of stellar clusters have had a tremendous impact in forming our understanding of stellar evolution. The open cluster M67 has a particularly important role as a calibration benchmark for stellar evolution theory due to its near solar composition and age. As a result, it has been observed extensively, including attempts to detect solar-like oscillations in its main sequence and red giant stars. However, any asteroseismic inference has so far remained elusive due to the difficulty in measuring these extremely low amplitude oscillations. Here we report the first unambiguous detection of solar-like oscillations in the red giants of M67. We use data from the Kepler ecliptic mission, K2, to measure the global asteroseismic properties. We find a model-independent seismic-informed distance of 816+/-11pc, or (m-M)o=9.57+/-0.03mag, an average red-giant mass of 1.36+/-0.01Msun, in agreement with the dynamical mass from an eclipsing binary near the cluster turn-off, and ages of individual stars compatible wit...

  16. Age and helium content of the open cluster NGC 6791 from multiple eclipsing binary members. I. Measurements, methods, and first results

    CERN Document Server

    Brogaard, K; Grundahl, F; Clausen, J V; Frandsen, S; VandenBerg, D A; Bedin, L R

    2010-01-01

    Earlier measurements of the masses and radii of the detached eclipsing binary V20 in the open cluster NGC 6791 were accurate enough to demonstrate that there are significant differences between current stellar models. Here we improve on those results and add measurements of two additional detached eclipsing binaries, the cluster members V18 and V80. The enlarged sample sets much tighter constraints on the properties of stellar models than has hitherto been possible, thereby improving both the accuracy and precision of the cluster age. We employed (i) high-resolution UVES spectroscopy of V18, V20 and V80 to determine their spectroscopic effective temperatures, [Fe/H] values, and spectroscopic orbital elements, and (ii) time-series photometry from the Nordic Optical Telescope to obtain the photometric elements. The masses and radii of the V18 and V20 components are found to high accuracy, with errors on the masses in the range 0.27-0.36% and errors on the radii in the range 0.61-0.92%. V80 is found to be magnet...

  17. CCD photometric search for peculiar stars in open clusters. V. NGC 2099, NGC 3114, NGC 6204, NGC 6705 and NGC 6756

    CERN Document Server

    Paunzen, E; Pintado, O I

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated 1008 objects in the area of five intermediate age open clusters (NGC 2099, NGC 3114, NGC 6204, NGC 6705 and NGC 6756) via the narrow band Delta a-system. The detection limit for photometric peculiarity is very low (always less than 0.009mag) due to the high number of individual frames used (193 in total). We have detected six peculiar objects in NGC 6705 and NGC 6756 from which one in the latter is almost certainly an unreddened late type foreground star. The remaining five stars are probably cluster members and bona fide chemically peculiar objects (two are lambda Bootis type candidates). Furthermore, we have investigated NGC 3114, a cluster for which already photoelectric Delta a-measurements exist. A comparison of the CCD and photoelectric values shows very good agreement. Again, the high capability of our CCD Delta a-photometric system to sort out true peculiar objects together with additional measurements from broad or intermediate band photometry is demonstrated.

  18. 基于SMP集群系统的MPI-OpenMP混合并行FDTD算法研究%Research on MPI-OpenMP Hybrid Parallel FDTD Algorithm Based on SMP Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱良杰; 宋祖勋; 刘真

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of FDTD parallel algorithm based on MPI, a new two-level paralleled algorithm is presented in this paper. Two new parallel FDTD algorithms based on the MPI-OpenMP hybrid programming model were realized in combination with the features of both MPI and OpenMP programming models. After analysis of the metal column scattering problem. the hybrid programming algorithm is compared with pure MPI FDTD parallel algorithm on SMP cluster platform in the laboratary. The results indicate that the hybrid parallel algorithm has better speed-up ratio and bandwidth utilization factor.%针对基于MPI的传统FDTD并行算法存在的缺点,提出了优化的FDTD两级化并行算法.结合MPI和OpenMP编程模型的特点,实现了基于SMP集群系统平台的MPI-OpenMP混合编程模型的两种并行FDTD算法.在实验室搭建的SMP集群系统平台上,通过对一金属长方体的散射问题分析,把混合编程算法同基于MPI的FDTD并行算法进行了比较.结果表明,混合并行算法具有更好的加速比和带宽利用率.

  19. A Hipparcos study of the Hyades open cluster Improved colour-absolute magnitude and Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    De Bruijne, J H J; De Zeeuw, P T; Bruijne, Jos H.J. de; Hoogerwerf, Ronnie

    2001-01-01

    Hipparcos parallaxes fix distances to individual stars in the Hyades cluster with an accuracy of 6%. We use the Hipparcos (and Tycho-2) proper motions, which have a larger relative precision than the trigonometric parallaxes, to derive ~3 times more precise distance estimates, by assuming that all members share the same space motion. The improved parallaxes as a set are statistically consistent with the Hipparcos parallaxes. The new parallaxes confirm that the Hipparcos measurements are correlated on small angular scales, consistent with the limits specified in the Hipparcos Catalogue, though with significantly smaller `amplitudes' than claimed by Narayanan & Gould. The colour-absolute magnitude diagram of the cluster based on the new paral- laxes shows a well-defined main sequence with two gaps/turn-offs. These features provide the first direct observational support of Boehm-Vitense's prediction that (the onset of) surface convection in stars affects their B-V colours. We present and discuss the theoreti...

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Open clusters within 1.8 kpc of the Sun (Joshi+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Y. C.; Dambis, A. K.; Pandey, A. K.; Joshi, S.

    2016-07-01

    The basic cluster data were taken from the Kharchenko et al. (2013, Cat. J/A+A/558/A53), Schmeja et al. (2014, Cat. J/A+A/568/A51) and Scholz et al. (2015, Cat. J/A+A/581/A39) which uses all-sky catalogue 2MASS (2Mass with Astrometry), that was extracted from the all-sky catalogues PPMXL (Roeser et al. 2010, Cat. I/317) and 2MASS (Cutri et al. 2003, Cat. II/246). Additionally, we incorporated data on masses from Piskunov (2007, Cat. J/A+A/468/151/table2). We also added X, Y and Z positions, and galactocentric distance of the clusters determined in the present study. (1 data file).

  1. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Stellar radii in the young open clusters NGC 2264, NGC 2547 and NGC 2516

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, R J; Randich, S; Bragaglia, A; Carraro, G; Costado, M T; Flaccomio, E; Lanzafame, A C; Lardo, C; Monaco, L; Morbidelli, L; Smiljanic, R; Zaggia, S

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly rotating, low-mass members of eclipsing binary systems have measured radii significantly larger than predicted by standard models. It has been proposed that magnetic activity is responsible for radius inflation. By estimating the radii of low-mass stars in three young clusters (NGC 2264, NGC 2547, NGC 2516, with ages of 5, 35 and 140 Myr respectively), we aim to establish whether similar radius inflation is seen in single, magnetically active stars. We use radial velocities from the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) and published photometry to establish cluster membership and combine GES measurements of vsini with published rotation periods to estimate average radii for groups of fast-rotating cluster members as a function of their luminosity and age. The average radii are compared with the predictions of both standard evolutionary models and variants that include magnetic inhibition of convection and starspots. At a given luminosity, the stellar radii in NGC 2516 and NGC 2547 are larger than predicted by standar...

  2. Cluster Analysis of Educational Data: an Example of Quantitative Study on the answers to an Open-Ended Questionnaire

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglia, Onofrio Rosario; Fazio, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    In the last years many studies examined the consistency of students' answers in a variety of contexts. Some of these papers tried to develop more detailed models of the consistency of students' reasoning, or to subdivide a sample of students into intellectually similar subgroups. The problem of taking a set of data and separating it into subgroups where the elements of each subgroup are more similar to each other than they are to elements not in the subgroup has been extensively studied through the methods of Cluster Analysis. This method can separate students into groups that can be recognized and characterized by common traits in their answers, without any prior knowledge of what form those groups would take (unbiased classification). In this paper we start from a detailed analysis of the data coding needed in Cluster Analysis, in order to discuss the meaning and the limits of the interpretation of quantitative results. Then two methods commonly used in Cluster Analysis are described and the variables and p...

  3. Stellar variability in open clusters. II. Discovery of a new period-luminosity relation in a class of fast-rotating pulsating stars in NGC 3766

    CERN Document Server

    Mowlavi, N; Semaan, T; Eggenberger, P; Barblan, F; Eyer, L; Ekström, S; Georgy, C

    2016-01-01

    $Context.$ Pulsating stars are windows to the physics of stars enabling us to see glimpses of their interior. Not all stars pulsate, however. On the main sequence, pulsating stars form an almost continuous sequence in brightness, except for a magnitude range between $\\delta$ Scuti and slowly pulsating B stars. Against all expectations, 36 periodic variables were discovered in 2013 in this luminosity range in the open cluster NGC 3766, the origins of which was a mystery. $Aims.$ We investigate the properties of those new variability class candidates in relation to their stellar rotation rates and stellar multiplicity. $Methods.$ We took multi-epoch spectra over three consecutive nights using ESO's Very Large Telescope. $Results.$ We find that the majority of the new variability class candidates are fast-rotating pulsators that obey a new period-luminosity relation. We argue that the new relation discovered here has a different physical origin to the period-luminosity relations observed for Cepheids. $Conclusio...

  4. A Performance-Prediction Model for PIC Applications on Clusters of Symmetric MultiProcessors: Validation with Hierarchical HPF+OpenMP Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Briguglio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A performance-prediction model is presented, which describes different hierarchical workload decomposition strategies for particle in cell (PIC codes on Clusters of Symmetric MultiProcessors. The devised workload decomposition is hierarchically structured: a higher-level decomposition among the computational nodes, and a lower-level one among the processors of each computational node. Several decomposition strategies are evaluated by means of the prediction model, with respect to the memory occupancy, the parallelization efficiency and the required programming effort. Such strategies have been implemented by integrating the high-level languages High Performance Fortran (at the inter-node stage and OpenMP (at the intra-node one. The details of these implementations are presented, and the experimental values of parallelization efficiency are compared with the predicted results.

  5. A PSF-based approach to Kepler/K2 data - III. Search for exoplanets and variable stars within the open cluster M 67 (NGC 2682)

    CERN Document Server

    Nardiello, D; Bedin, L R; Piotto, G; Borsato, L; Granata, V; Malavolta, L; Nascimbeni, V

    2016-01-01

    In the third paper of this series we continue the exploitation of Kepler/K2 data in dense stellar fields using our PSF-based method. This work is focused on a ~720-arcmin^2 region centred on the Solar-metallicity and Solar-age open cluster M 67. We extracted light curves for all detectable sources in the Kepler channels 13 and 14, adopting our technique based on the usage of a high-angular-resolution input catalogue and target-neighbour subtraction. We detrended light curves for systematic errors, and searched for variables and exoplanets using several tools. We found 451 variables, of which 299 are new detection. Three planetary candidates were detected by our pipeline in this field. Raw and detrended light curves, catalogues, and K2 stacked images used in this work will be released to the community.

  6. A PSF-based approach to Kepler/K2 data - III. Search for exoplanets and variable stars within the open cluster M 67 (NGC 2682)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardiello, D.; Libralato, M.; Bedin, L. R.; Piotto, G.; Borsato, L.; Granata, V.; Malavolta, L.; Nascimbeni, V.

    2016-08-01

    In the third paper of this series we continue the exploitation of Kepler/K2 data in dense stellar fields using our PSF-based method. This work is focused on a ˜720-arcmin2 region centred on the Solar-metallicity and Solar-age open cluster M 67. We extracted light curves for all detectable sources in the Kepler channels 13 and 14, adopting our technique based on the usage of a high-angular-resolution input catalogue and target-neighbour subtraction. We detrended light curves for systematic errors, and searched for variables and exoplanets using several tools. We found 451 variables, of which 299 are new detection. Three planetary candidates were detected by our pipeline in this field. Raw and detrended light curves, catalogues, and K2 stacked images used in this work will be released to the community.

  7. CSI 2264: Investigating rotation and its connection with disk accretion in the young open cluster NGC 2264

    CERN Document Server

    Venuti, L; Cody, A M; Stauffer, J R; Micela, G; Rebull, L M; Alencar, S H P; Sousa, A P; Hillenbrand, L A; Flaccomio, E

    2016-01-01

    The low spin rates measured for solar-type stars at an age of a few Myr (~10% of the break-up velocity) indicate that some mechanism of angular momentum regulation must be at play in the early pre-main sequence. We characterize the rotation properties for members of the region NGC 2264 (~3 Myr), and investigate the accretion-rotation connection at an age where about 50% of the stars have already lost their disks. We examined a sample of 500 cluster members whose photometric variations were monitored in the optical for 38 consecutive days with CoRoT. Light curves were analyzed for periodicity using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, the autocorrelation function and the string-length method. The period distribution obtained for the cluster consists of a smooth distribution centered around P=5.2 d with two peaks at P=1-2 d and 3-4 d. A separate analysis of CTTS and WTTS indicates that the P=1-2 d peak is associated with the latter, while both groups contribute to the P=3-4 d peak. The comparison between CTTS and WTTS...

  8. Mapping accretion and its variability in the young open cluster NGC 2264: a study based on u-band photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Venuti, Laura; Flaccomio, Ettore; Alencar, Silvia H P; Irwin, Jonathan; Stauffer, John R; Cody, Ann Marie; Teixeira, Paula S; Sousa, Alana P; Micela, Giuseppina; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Peres, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    We aim at characterizing the accretion properties of several hundred members of the star-forming cluster NGC 2264 (3 Myr). We performed a deep u,g,r,i mapping and a simultaneous u+r monitoring of the region with CFHT/MegaCam in order to directly probe the accretion process from UV excess measurements. Photometric properties and stellar parameters are determined homogeneously for about 750 monitored young objects, spanning the mass range 0.1-2 Mo. About 40% are classical (accreting) T Tauri stars, based on various diagnostics (H_alpha, UV and IR excesses). The remaining non-accreting members define the (photospheric+chromospheric) reference UV emission level over which flux excess is detected and measured. We revise the membership status of cluster members based on UV accretion signatures and report a new population of 50 CTTS candidates. A large range of UV excess is measured for the CTTS population, varying from a few 0.1 to 3 mag. We convert these values to accretion luminosities and obtain mass accretion r...

  9. s-PROCESSING IN THE GALACTIC DISK. I. SUPER-SOLAR ABUNDANCES OF Y, Zr, La, AND Ce IN YOUNG OPEN CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a recent study based on homogeneous barium abundance measurements in open clusters (OCs), a trend of increasing [Ba/Fe] ratios for decreasing cluster age was reported. We present here further abundance determinations, relative to four other elements having important s-process contributions, with the aim of investigating whether or not the growth found for [Ba/Fe] is indicative of a general property, shared also by the other heavy elements formed by slow neutron captures. In particular, we derived abundances for yttrium, zirconium, lanthanum, and cerium, using equivalent width measurements and the MOOG code. Our sample includes 19 OCs of different ages, for which the spectra were obtained by the ESO Very Large Telescope using the UVES spectrometer. The growth previously suggested for Ba is confirmed for all the elements analyzed in our study. This fact implies significant changes in our views of the Galactic chemical evolution for elements beyond iron. Our results necessarily require that very low mass asymptotic giant branch stars (M∼sun) produce larger amounts of s-process elements (and hence activate the 13C-neutron source more effectively) than previously expected. Their role in producing neutron-rich elements in the Galactic disk has been so far underestimated, and their evolution and neutron-capture nucleosynthesis should now be reconsidered.

  10. The Old, Super-Metal-Rich Open Cluster, NGC 6791 - Elemental Abundances in Turn-off Stars from Keck/HIRES Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; Deliyannis, Constantine P

    2014-01-01

    The study of star clusters has advanced our understanding of stellar evolution, Galactic chemical evolution and nucleosynthesis. Here we investigate the composition of turn-off stars in the intriguing open cluster, NGC 6791, which is old, but super-metal-rich with high-resolution (46,000) Keck/HIRES spectra. We find [Fe/H] = +0.30 +/-0.02 from measurements of some 40 unblended, unsaturated lines of both Fe I and Fe II in eight turn-off stars. Our O abundances come from the O I triplet near 7774 A and we do a differential analysis relative to the Sun from our Lunar spectrum also obtained with Keck/HIRES. The O results are corrected for small nLTE effects. We find consistent ratios of [O/Fe]n with a mean of $-$0.06 +/-0.02. This continues the trend of decreasing [O/Fe] with increasing [Fe/H] found in field stars that are also both old and metal-rich. The small range in our oxygen abundances is consistent with a single population of stars. Our results for the alpha elements [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Ti/Fe]...

  11. Stellar variability in open clusters . II. Discovery of a new period-luminosity relation in a class of fast-rotating pulsating stars in NGC 3766

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowlavi, N.; Saesen, S.; Semaan, T.; Eggenberger, P.; Barblan, F.; Eyer, L.; Ekström, S.; Georgy, C.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Pulsating stars are windows to the physics of stars enabling us to see glimpses of their interior. Not all stars pulsate, however. On the main sequence, pulsating stars form an almost continuous sequence in brightness, except for a magnitude range between δ Scuti and slowly pulsating B stars. Against all expectations, 36 periodic variables were discovered in 2013 in this luminosity range in the open cluster NGC 3766, the origins of which was a mystery. Aims: We investigate the properties of those new variability class candidates in relation to their stellar rotation rates and stellar multiplicity. Methods: We took multi-epoch spectra over three consecutive nights using ESO's Very Large Telescope. Results: We find that the majority of the new variability class candidates are fast-rotating pulsators that obey a new period-luminosity relation. We argue that the new relation discovered here has a different physical origin to the period-luminosity relations observed for Cepheids. Conclusions: We anticipate that our discovery will boost the relatively new field of stellar pulsation in fast-rotating stars, will open new doors for asteroseismology, and will potentially offer a new tool to estimate stellar ages or cosmic distances. Based on observations made with the FLAMES instruments on the VLT/UT2 telescope at the Paranal Observatory, Chile, under the program ID 69.A-0123(A).

  12. The Age and Distance of the Kepler Open Cluster NGC 6811 from an Eclipsing Binary, Turnoff Star Pulsation, and Giant Asteroseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Jessen-Hansen, J.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Brogaard, Karsten; Meibom, Søren; Leitner, Marika; Stello, Dennis; Bruntt, Hans; Antoci, Victoria; Orosz, Jerome A.; Grundahl, Frank; Frandsen, Søren

    2016-11-01

    We present the analysis of an eccentric, partially eclipsing long-period (P = 19.23 days) binary system KIC 9777062 that contains main-sequence stars near the turnoff of the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 6811. The primary is a metal-lined Am star with a possible convective blueshift to its radial velocities, and one star (probably the secondary) is likely to be a γ Dor pulsator. The component masses are 1.603 ± 0.006(stat.) ± 0.016(sys.) and 1.419 ± 0.003 ± 0.008 {M}ȯ , and the radii are 1.744 ± 0.004 ± 0.002 and 1.544 ± 0.002 ± 0.002 {R}ȯ . The isochrone ages of the stars are mildly inconsistent: the age from the mass–radius combination for the primary (1.05 ± 0.05 ± 0.09 Gyr, where the last quote was systematic uncertainty from models and metallicity) is smaller than that from the secondary (1.21 ± 0.05 ± 0.15 Gyr) and is consistent with the inference from the color–magnitude diagram (1.00 ± 0.05 Gyr). We have improved the measurements of the asteroseismic parameters Δν and ν max for helium-burning stars in the cluster. The masses of the stars appear to be larger (or alternately, the radii appear to be smaller) than predicted from isochrones using the ages derived from the eclipsing stars. The majority of stars near the cluster turnoff are pulsating stars: we identify a sample of 28 δ Sct, 15 γ Dor, and 5 hybrid types. We used the period–luminosity relation for high-amplitude δ Sct stars to fit the ensemble of the strongest frequencies for the cluster members, finding {(m-M)}V=10.37+/- 0.03. This is larger than most previous determinations, but smaller than values derived from the eclipsing binary (10.47 ± 0.05). Based on observations made with the Hobby–Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, and with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the

  13. Probing The Lower Mass Limit for Supernova Progenitors and the High-Mass End of the Initial-Final Mass Relation from White Dwarfs in the Open Cluster M35 (NGC 2168)

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Kurtis A; Koester, Detlev

    2008-01-01

    We present a photometric and spectroscopic study of the white dwarf population of the populous, intermediate-age open cluster M35 (NGC 2168); this study expands upon our previous study of the white dwarfs in this cluster. We spectroscopically confirm 14 white dwarfs in the field of the cluster: 12 DAs, 1 hot DQ, and 1 DB star. For each DA, we determine the white dwarf mass and cooling age, from which we derive the each star's progenitor mass. These data are then added to the empirical initial-final mass relation (IFMR), where the M35 WDs contribute significantly to the high-mass end of the relation. The resulting points are consistent with previously-published linear fits to the IFMR, modulo moderate systematics introduced by the uncertainty in the star cluster age. Based on this cluster alone, the observational lower limit on the maximum mass of white dwarf progenitors is found to be ~5.1-5.2 solar masses at the 95% confidence level; including data from other young open clusters raises this limit as high as ...

  14. THE OLD, SUPER-METAL-RICH OPEN CLUSTER, NGC 6791—ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES IN TURN-OFF STARS FROM KECK/HIRES SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of star clusters has advanced our understanding of stellar evolution, Galactic chemical evolution, and nucleosynthesis. Here we investigate the composition of turn-off stars in the intriguing open cluster, NGC 6791, which is old, but super-metal-rich with high-resolution (R = 46,000) Keck/HIRES spectra. We find [Fe/H] = +0.30 ± 0.02 from measurements of some 40 unblended, unsaturated lines of both Fe I and Fe II in eight turn-off stars. Our O abundances come from the O I triplet near 7774 Å and we perform a differential analysis relative to the Sun from our Lunar spectrum also obtained with Keck/HIRES. The O results are corrected for small nLTE effects. We find consistent ratios of [O/Fe]n with a mean of –0.06 ± 0.02. This is low with respect to field stars that are also both old and metal-rich and continue the trend of decreasing [O/Fe] with increasing [Fe/H]. The small range in our oxygen abundances is consistent with a single population of stars. Our results for the alpha elements [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Ti/Fe] are near solar and compare well with those of the old, metal-rich field stars. The two Fe-peak elements, Cr and Ni, are consistent with Fe. These turn-off-star abundances provide benchmark abundances to investigate whether there are any observable abundance differences with the giants that might arise from nuclear-burning and dredge-up processes. Determinations of upper limits were found for Li by spectrum synthesis and are consistent with the upper limits in similar stars in the relatively old, super-metal-rich cluster NGC 6253. Our results support the prediction from standard theory that higher-metallicity stars deplete more Li. Probably no stars in NGC 6791 have retained their initial Li

  15. THE OLD, SUPER-METAL-RICH OPEN CLUSTER, NGC 6791—ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES IN TURN-OFF STARS FROM KECK/HIRES SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant Boesgaard, Ann; Lum, Michael G. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Deliyannis, Constantine P., E-mail: boes@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: mikelum@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: cdeliyan@indiana.edu [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University 727 East 3rd Street, Swain Hall West 319, Bloomington, IN 47405-7105 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The study of star clusters has advanced our understanding of stellar evolution, Galactic chemical evolution, and nucleosynthesis. Here we investigate the composition of turn-off stars in the intriguing open cluster, NGC 6791, which is old, but super-metal-rich with high-resolution (R = 46,000) Keck/HIRES spectra. We find [Fe/H] = +0.30 ± 0.02 from measurements of some 40 unblended, unsaturated lines of both Fe I and Fe II in eight turn-off stars. Our O abundances come from the O I triplet near 7774 Å and we perform a differential analysis relative to the Sun from our Lunar spectrum also obtained with Keck/HIRES. The O results are corrected for small nLTE effects. We find consistent ratios of [O/Fe]{sub n} with a mean of –0.06 ± 0.02. This is low with respect to field stars that are also both old and metal-rich and continue the trend of decreasing [O/Fe] with increasing [Fe/H]. The small range in our oxygen abundances is consistent with a single population of stars. Our results for the alpha elements [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Ti/Fe] are near solar and compare well with those of the old, metal-rich field stars. The two Fe-peak elements, Cr and Ni, are consistent with Fe. These turn-off-star abundances provide benchmark abundances to investigate whether there are any observable abundance differences with the giants that might arise from nuclear-burning and dredge-up processes. Determinations of upper limits were found for Li by spectrum synthesis and are consistent with the upper limits in similar stars in the relatively old, super-metal-rich cluster NGC 6253. Our results support the prediction from standard theory that higher-metallicity stars deplete more Li. Probably no stars in NGC 6791 have retained their initial Li.

  16. Photometric and H-alpha studies of two extreme mass-ratio short period contact binaries in the direction of open cluster Praesepe

    CERN Document Server

    Rukmini, J

    2016-01-01

    We present the high precession photometric studies in V band and spectroscopic studies centered around H-alpha line for two extreme mass-ratio short period contact binaries ASAS J082243+1927.0 (V1) and ASAS J085710+1856.8 (V2). The variables in study are in the direction of open cluster Praesepe. From the light curve analysis V1 was found to be a low mass-ratio over-contact binary of A-type, with a mass ratio q 0.121 and fill-out factor f 72%, and V2 was found to be a low mass contact binary of W-type, with a mass-ratio q 1.29 and fill-out factor f 11% (marginal contact). The study of H-alpha absorption line profile of both the variables shows variation in equivalent widths (EWs) with orbital phases. The mean EWs of the H-alpha line were obtained as 1.6+or-0.13 A and 1.18+or-0.12 A for V1 and V2 respectively. The variation of H-alpha absorption with respect to phase is explained to be due to chromospheric activity in V1, as evident from the O Connell effect and that due to chromospheric flares, winds or photo...

  17. The GAPS programme with HARPS-N at TNG XI. Pr~0211 in M~44: the first multi-planet system in an open cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Malavolta, L; Piotto, G; Quinn, S N; Borsato, L; Granata, V; Bonomo, A S; Marzari, F; Bedin, L R; Rainer, M; Desidera, S; Lanza, A F; Poretti, E; Sozzetti, A; White, R J; Latham, D W; Cunial, A; Libralato, M; Nardiello, D; Boccato, C; Claudi, R U; Cosentino, R; Covino, E; Gratton, R; Maggio, A; Micela, G; Molinari, E; Pagano, I; Smareglia, R; Affer, L; Andreuzzi, G; Aparicio, A; Benatti, S; Bignamini, A; Borsa, F; Damasso, M; Di Fabrizio, L; Harutyunyan, A; Esposito, M; Fiorenzano, A F M; Gandolfi, D; Giacobbe, P; Hernández, J I González; Maldonado, J; Masiero, S; Molinaro, M; Pedani, M; Scandariato, G

    2016-01-01

    Open cluster (OC) stars share the same age and metallicity, and, in general, their age and mass can be estimated with higher precision than for field stars. For this reason, OCs are considered an important laboratory to study the relation between the physical properties of the planets and those of their host stars, and the evolution of planetary systems. We started an observational campaign within the GAPS collaboration to search for and characterize planets in OCs We monitored the Praesepe member Pr0211 to improve the eccentricity of the Hot-Jupiter (HJ) already known to orbit this star and search for additional planets. An eccentric orbit for the HJ would support a planet-planet scattering process after its formation. From 2012 to 2015, we collected 70 radial velocity (RV) measurements with HARPS-N and 36 with TRES of Pr0211. Simultaneous photometric observations were carried out with the robotic STELLA telescope in order to characterize the stellar activity. We discovered a long-term trend in the RV residu...

  18. Stellar Boron Abundances near the Main-sequence Turnoff of the Open Cluster NGC 3293 and Implications for the Efficiency of Rotationally Driven Mixing in Stellar Envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proffitt, Charles R.; Lennon, Daniel J.; Langer, Norbert; Brott, Ines

    2016-06-01

    Spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph covering the B iii resonance line have been obtained for 10 early-B stars near the turnoff of the young Galactic open cluster NGC 3293. This is the first sample of boron abundance determinations in a single, clearly defined population of early-B stars that also covers a substantial range of projected rotational velocities. In most of these stars we detect partial depletion of boron at a level consistent with that expected for rotational mixing in single stars, but inconsistent with expectations for depletion from close binary evolution. However, our results do suggest that the efficiency of rotational mixing is at or slightly below the low end of the range predicted by the available theoretical calculations. The two most luminous targets observed have a very large boron depletion and may be the products of either binary interactions or post-main-sequence evolution. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with proposal GO-12520.

  19. The Age and Distance of the Kepler Open Cluster NGC 6811 from an Eclipsing Binary, Turnoff Star Pulsation, and Giant Asteroseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Sandquist, Eric L; Shetrone, Matthew D; Brogaard, Karsten; Meibom, Soren; Leitner, Marika; Stello, Dennis; Bruntt, Hans; Antoci, Victoria; Orosz, Jerome A; Grundahl, Frank; Frandsen, Soren

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis of an eccentric, partially eclipsing long-period ($P=19.23$ d) binary system KIC 9777062 that contains main sequence stars near the turnoff of the intermediate age open cluster NGC 6811. The primary is a metal-lined Am star with a possible convective blueshift to its radial velocities, and one star (probably the secondary) is likely to be a $\\gamma$ Dor pulsator. The component masses are $1.603\\pm0.006$(stat.)$\\pm0.016$(sys.) and $1.419\\pm0.003\\pm0.008 M_\\odot$, and the radii are $1.744\\pm0.004\\pm0.002$ and $1.544\\pm0.002\\pm0.002 R_\\odot$. The isochrone ages of the stars are mildly inconsistent: the age from the mass-radius combination for the primary ($1.05\\pm0.05\\pm0.09$ Gyr, where the last quote was systematic uncertainty from models and metallicity) is smaller than that from the secondary ($1.21\\pm0.05\\pm0.15$ Gyr) and is consistent with the inference from the color-magnitude diagram ($1.00\\pm0.05$ Gyr). We have improved the measurements of the asteroseismic parameters $\\Delta \

  20. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. XIX. Tomography of Milky Way Substructures in the NGVS Footprint

    CERN Document Server

    Lokhorst, Deborah; McConnachie, Alan; Navarro, Julio F; Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Liu, Chengze; Peng, Eric W; Gwyn, Stephen D J; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2016-01-01

    The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) is a deep $u^*giz$ survey targeting the Virgo cluster of galaxies at 16.5~Mpc. This survey provides high-quality photometry over an $\\sim$ 100 deg$^2$ region straddling the constellations of Virgo and Coma Berenices. This sightline through the Milky Way is noteworthy in that it intersects two of the most prominent substructures in the Galactic halo: the Virgo Over-Density (VOD) and Sagittarius stellar stream (close to its bifurcation point). In this paper, we use deep $u^*gi$ imaging from the NGVS to perform tomography of the VOD and Sagittarius stream using main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) stars as a halo tracer population. The VOD, whose centroid is known to lie at somewhat lower declinations ($\\alpha \\sim 190^\\circ$, $\\delta \\sim -5^\\circ$) than is covered by the NGVS, is nevertheless clearly detected in the NGVS footprint at distances between $\\sim$ 8 and 25~kpc. By contrast, the Sagittarius stream is found to slice directly across the NGVS field at distances be...

  1. The GAPS programme with HARPS-N at TNG. XI. Pr 0211 in M 44: the first multi-planet system in an open cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavolta, L.; Nascimbeni, V.; Piotto, G.; Quinn, S. N.; Borsato, L.; Granata, V.; Bonomo, A. S.; Marzari, F.; Bedin, L. R.; Rainer, M.; Desidera, S.; Lanza, A. F.; Poretti, E.; Sozzetti, A.; White, R. J.; Latham, D. W.; Cunial, A.; Libralato, M.; Nardiello, D.; Boccato, C.; Claudi, R. U.; Cosentino, R.; Covino, E.; Gratton, R.; Maggio, A.; Micela, G.; Molinari, E.; Pagano, I.; Smareglia, R.; Affer, L.; Andreuzzi, G.; Aparicio, A.; Benatti, S.; Bignamini, A.; Borsa, F.; Damasso, M.; Di Fabrizio, L.; Harutyunyan, A.; Esposito, M.; Fiorenzano, A. F. M.; Gandolfi, D.; Giacobbe, P.; González Hernández, J. I.; Maldonado, J.; Masiero, S.; Molinaro, M.; Pedani, M.; Scandariato, G.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Open cluster (OC) stars share the same age and metallicity, and, in general, their age and mass can be estimated with higher precision than for field stars. For this reason, OCs are considered an importantlaboratory to study the relation between the physical properties of the planets and those of their host stars, and the evolution of planetary systems. However, only a handful of planets have been discovered around OC main-sequence stars so far, all of them in single-planet systems. For this reason we started an observational campaign within the GAPS collaboration to search for and characterize planets in OCs Aims: We monitored the Praesepe member Pr 0211 to improve our knowledge of the eccentricity of the hot Jupiter (HJ) that is already known to orbit this star and search for additional intermediate-mass planets. An eccentric orbit for the HJ would support a planet-planet scattering process rather than a disk-driven migration after its formation. Methods: From 2012 to 2015, we collected 70 radial velocity (RV) measurements with HARPS-N and 36 with TRES of Pr 0211. Simultaneous photometric observations were carried out with the robotic STELLA telescope to characterize the stellar activity. We discovered a long-term trend in the RV residuals that we show as being due to the presence of a second, massive, outer planet. Orbital parameters for the two planets are derived by simultaneously fitting RVs and photometric light curves, with the activity signal modelled as a series of sinusoids at the rotational period of the star and its harmonics. Results: We confirm that Pr 0211b has a nearly circular orbit (e = 0.02 ± 0.01), with an improvement of a factor two with respect to the previous determination of its eccentricity, and estimate that Pr 0211c has a mass Mp sin i = 7.9 ± 0.2 MJ, a period P> 3500 days and a very eccentric orbit (e> 0.60). This kind of peculiar system may be typical of open clusters if the planet-planet scattering phase, which lead to the

  2. An asteroseismic membership study of the red giants in three open clusters observed by Kepler: NGC6791, NGC6819, and NGC6811

    CERN Document Server

    Stello, D; Gilliland, R L; Grundahl, F; Hekker, S; Mosser, B; Kallinger, T; Mathur, S; García, R A; Huber, D; Basu, S; Bedding, T R; Brogaard, K; Chaplin, W J; Elsworth, Y P; Molenda-Żakowicz, J; Szabó, R; Still, M; Jenkins, J M; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Kjeldsen, H; Serenelli, A M; Wohler, B

    2011-01-01

    Studying star clusters offers significant advances in stellar astrophysics due to the combined power of having many stars with essentially the same distance, age, and initial composition. This makes clusters excellent test benches for verification of stellar evolution theory. To fully exploit this potential, it is vital that the star sample is uncontaminated by stars that are not members of the cluster. Techniques for determining cluster membership therefore play a key role in the investigation of clusters. We present results on three clusters in the Kepler field of view based on a newly established technique that uses asteroseismology to identify fore- or background stars in the field, which demonstrates advantages over classical methods such as kinematic and photometry measurements. Four previously identified seismic non-members in NGC6819 are confirmed in this study, and three additional non-members are found -- two in NGC6819 and one in NGC6791. We further highlight which stars are, or might be, affected ...

  3. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina;

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both the...... partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  4. Experiences Using Hybrid MPI/OpenMP in the Real World: Parallelization of a 3D CFD Solver for Multi-Core Node Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele Jost; Bob Robins

    2010-01-01

    Today most systems in high-performance computing (HPC) feature a hierarchical hardware design: shared-memory nodes with several multi-core CPUs are connected via a network infrastructure. When parallelizing an application for these architectures it seems natural to employ a hierarchical programming model such as combining MPI and OpenMP. Nevertheless, there is the general lore that pure MPI outperforms the hybrid MPI/OpenMP approach. In this paper, we describe the hybrid MPI/OpenMP paralleliz...

  5. Scalable Density-Based Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan;

    2011-01-01

    For knowledge discovery in high dimensional databases, subspace clustering detects clusters in arbitrary subspace projections. Scalability is a crucial issue, as the number of possible projections is exponential in the number of dimensions. We propose a scalable density-based subspace clustering...... synthetic databases show that steering is efficient and scalable, with high quality results. For future work, our steering paradigm for density-based subspace clustering opens research potential for speeding up other subspace clustering approaches as well....

  6. Flip-flops of FK Comae Berenices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hackman, T.; Mantere, M.J.; Jetsu, L.;

    2013-01-01

    of photometric observations with two different time series analysis methods, with a special emphasis on detecting flip-flop type events from the data. Methods. We apply the continuous period search and carrier fit methods on long-term standard Johnson-Cousins V-observations from the years 1995...

  7. Flip-flops of FK Comae Berenices

    CERN Document Server

    Hackman, Thomas; Mantere, Maarit J; Jetsu, Lauri; Korhonen, Heidi; Granzer, Thomas; Kajatkari, Perttu; Lehtinen, Jyri; Strassmeier, K G

    2012-01-01

    FK Comae is a rapidly rotating magnetically active star, the light curve of which is modulated by cool spots on its surface. It was the first star where the flip-flop phenomenon was discovered. Therefore, it is of interest to perform a more thorough study of the evolution of the spot activity in FK Com. In this study, we analyse 15 years of photometric observations with two different time series analysis methods, with a special emphasis on detecting flip-flop type events from the data. We apply the continuous period search and carrier fit methods on long-term standard Johnson-Cousins V-observations from the years 1995-2010. The observations were carried out with two automated photometric telescopes, Phoenix-10 and Amadeus T7 located in Arizona. We identify complex phase behaviour in 6 of the 15 analysed data segments. We identify five flip-flop events and two cases of phase jumps, where the phase shift is \\Delta \\phi 0.031. The flip-flop cannot be interpreted as a single phenomenon, where the main activity j...

  8. Isotopic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectra of isotopically mixed clusters (dimers of SF6) are calculated as well as transition frequencies. The result leads to speculations about the suitability of the laser-cluster fragmentation process for isotope separation. (Auth.)

  9. Rotation periods for cool stars in the 4 Gyr-old open cluster M67, the solar-stellar connection, and the applicability of gyrochronology to at least solar age

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Sydney A; Fritzewski, Dario; Strassmeier, Klaus G

    2016-01-01

    We report rotation periods for 20 cool (FGK) main sequence member stars of the 4 Gyr-old open cluster M 67 (= NGC 2682), obtained by analysing data from Campaign 5 of the K2 mission with the Kepler Space Telescope. The rotation periods delineate a sequence in the color-period diagram (CPD) of increasing period with redder color. This sequence represents a cross-section at the cluster age of the surface P = P (t, M), suggested in prior work to extend to at least solar age. The current Sun is located marginally (approx. one sigma) above M 67 in the CPD, as its relative age leads us to expect, and lies on the P = P (t, M) surface to within measurement precision. We therefore conclude that the solar rotation rate is normal, as compared with cluster stars, a fact which strengthens the solar-stellar connection. The agreement between the M\\,67 rotation period measurements and prior predictions further implies that rotation periods, especially when coupled with appropriate supporting work such as spectroscopy, can pr...

  10. Early intervention for depression and anxiety in 16-18-year-olds: Protocol for a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial of open-access psychological workshops in schools (DISCOVER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Daniel; Sclare, Irene; Stahl, Daniel; Morant, Nicola; Bonin, Eva-Maria; Brown, June S L

    2016-05-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the development of mental health problems. The DISCOVER intervention aims to provide accessible, acceptable and cost-effective psychological support for stressed adolescents in inner-city secondary schools. The intervention uses age-appropriate cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) methods and materials, delivered in an interactive 1-day workshop with additional telephone support. An open-access entry route allows students to self-refer. This protocol describes a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing DISCOVER with a waitlist control condition. The study will run across 10 clusters (secondary schools) in the inner London Boroughs of Southwark and Lambeth. Participants are students aged over 16years who are seeking help with anxiety and/or depressive symptoms. Key feasibility parameters relate to the proportion of students willing to participate in the research following publicity events; the proportion of students who complete the intervention; and response rates for outcome measures. Outcome variance estimates and intra-cluster correlations will be obtained for future power calculations. Qualitative methods will be used to explore the acceptability of the intervention and research procedures for students and school staff. The feasibility of an economic evaluation will also be examined. The results will (i) determine the appropriateness of proceeding to a definitive full-scale trial; and (ii) inform the development of an optimised version of the DISCOVER intervention that can be tested within feasible parameters. PMID:26883283

  11. Meaningful Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2004-05-26

    We present an approach to the disambiguation of cluster labels that capitalizes on the notion of semantic similarity to assign WordNet senses to cluster labels. The approach provides interesting insights on how document clustering can provide the basis for developing a novel approach to word sense disambiguation.

  12. 中文网络百科开放分类层次结构树及其聚类算法研究%Research on Chinese online encyclopedia open category hierarchy tree and clustering algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾真; 尹红风; 李天瑞

    2013-01-01

    To use open category to categorize and retrieve the encyclopedia entries,this paper proposed the open category clustering algorithm based on word co-occurrence and semantic analysis,and the method of generating open category hierarchy trees.It proposed a hierarchy tree clustering algorithm based on similarity and correlation computing for increasing the quality of hierarchy trees.Experimental data set was downloaded from Hudong online encyclopedia.The experimental results show that the proposed algorithms achieve high precision and the generated hierarchy trees effectively improve the efficiency of encyclopedia entries retrieval.%为利用开放分类进行百科条目的分类和检索,提出了基于词共现和语义分析的开放分类聚类算法以及开放分类层次结构树构建方法;为了进一步提高层次结构树的聚合度,提出了基于相似度和相关度计算的层次结构树聚类算法.以互动百科开放分类为实验数据集,实验结果表明,所构建的开放分类层次结构树的准确率较高,利用开放分类层次结构树有效提高了百科条目检索的效率.

  13. Clustering Game Behavior Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders; Sifa, Rafet

    2015-01-01

    and other techniques for player profiling and play style analysis have, therefore, become popular in the nascent field of game analytics. However, the proper use of clustering techniques requires expertise and an understanding of games is essential to evaluate results. With this paper, we address game data...... scientists and present a review and tutorial focusing on the application of clustering techniques to mine behavioral game data. Several algorithms are reviewed and examples of their application shown. Key topics such as feature normalization are discussed and open problems in the context of game analytics...

  14. Experiences Using Hybrid MPI/OpenMP in the Real World: Parallelization of a 3D CFD Solver for Multi-Core Node Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Jost

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Today most systems in high-performance computing (HPC feature a hierarchical hardware design: shared-memory nodes with several multi-core CPUs are connected via a network infrastructure. When parallelizing an application for these architectures it seems natural to employ a hierarchical programming model such as combining MPI and OpenMP. Nevertheless, there is the general lore that pure MPI outperforms the hybrid MPI/OpenMP approach. In this paper, we describe the hybrid MPI/OpenMP parallelization of IR3D (Incompressible Realistic 3-D code, a full-scale real-world application, which simulates the environmental effects on the evolution of vortices trailing behind control surfaces of underwater vehicles. We discuss performance, scalability and limitations of the pure MPI version of the code on a variety of hardware platforms and show how the hybrid approach can help to overcome certain limitations.

  15. Clusters containing open-shell molecules. III. Quantum five-dimensional/two-surface bound-state calculations on ArnOH van der Waals clusters (X2Π, n=4 to 12).

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, M Z; Bačić, Z.; Hutson, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of the bound states of the open-shell OH radical in its ground electronic state(X2Π) interacting with n Ar atoms, for n from 4 to 12. After freezing the geometry of the Arn cage or subunit at the equilibrium structure (preceding paper), we carry out nonadiabatic five-dimensional quantum dynamics calculations on two coupled potential energy surfaces, using an extension of the method previously applied to closed-shell ArnHFclusters [J. Chem. Phys. 103, 18...

  16. Data Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2012-03-01

    On obtaining a new data set, the researcher is immediately faced with the challenge of obtaining a high-level understanding from the observations. What does a typical item look like? What are the dominant trends? How many distinct groups are included in the data set, and how is each one characterized? Which observable values are common, and which rarely occur? Which items stand out as anomalies or outliers from the rest of the data? This challenge is exacerbated by the steady growth in data set size [11] as new instruments push into new frontiers of parameter space, via improvements in temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution, or by the desire to "fuse" observations from different modalities and instruments into a larger-picture understanding of the same underlying phenomenon. Data clustering algorithms provide a variety of solutions for this task. They can generate summaries, locate outliers, compress data, identify dense or sparse regions of feature space, and build data models. It is useful to note up front that "clusters" in this context refer to groups of items within some descriptive feature space, not (necessarily) to "galaxy clusters" which are dense regions in physical space. The goal of this chapter is to survey a variety of data clustering methods, with an eye toward their applicability to astronomical data analysis. In addition to improving the individual researcher’s understanding of a given data set, clustering has led directly to scientific advances, such as the discovery of new subclasses of stars [14] and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) [38]. All clustering algorithms seek to identify groups within a data set that reflect some observed, quantifiable structure. Clustering is traditionally an unsupervised approach to data analysis, in the sense that it operates without any direct guidance about which items should be assigned to which clusters. There has been a recent trend in the clustering literature toward supporting semisupervised or constrained

  17. Cluster Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Cansisting of eight scientists from the State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Xiamen University, this creative research group is devoted to the research of cluster chemistry and creation of nanomaterials.After three-year hard work, the group scored a series of encouraging progresses in synthesis of clusters with special structures, including novel fullerenes, fullerene-like metal cluster compounds as well as other related nanomaterials, and their properties study.

  18. The age-mass-metallicity-activity relation for solar-type stars: comparisons with asteroseismology and the NGC 188 open cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Oliveira, D.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Schiavon, R. P.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The Mount Wilson Ca ii index log(R'_HK) is the accepted standard metric of calibration for the chromospheric activity versus age relation for FGK stars. Recent results claim its inability to discern activity levels, and thus ages, for stars older than ~2 Gyr, which would severely hamper its application to date disk stars older than the Sun. Aims: We present a new activity-age calibration of the Mt. Wilson index that explicitly takes mass and [Fe/H] biases into account; these biases are implicit in samples of stars selected to have precise ages, which have so far not been appreciated. Methods: We show that these selection biases tend to blur the activity-age relation for large age ranges. We calibrate the Mt. Wilson index for a sample of field FGK stars with precise ages, covering a wide range of mass and [Fe/H] , augmented with data from the Pleiades, Hyades, M 67 clusters, and the Ursa Major moving group. Results: We further test the calibration with extensive new Gemini/GMOS log ()R'HK) data of the old, solar [Fe/H] clusters, M 67 and NGC 188. The observed NGC 188 activity level is clearly lower than M 67. We correctly recover the isochronal age of both clusters and establish the viability of deriving usable chromospheric ages for solar-type stars up to at least ~6 Gyr, where average errors are ~0.14 dex provided that we explicitly account for the mass and [Fe/H] dimensions. We test our calibration against asteroseismological ages, finding excellent correlation (ρ = + 0.89). We show that our calibration improves the chromospheric age determination for a wide range of ages, masses, and metallicities in comparison to previous age-activity relations.

  19. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Novel Mixed Nido-like and Half-open Cubane-like Cluster [(n-Bu)4N]3[MoS4Cu5Br6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU,Quai(刘泉); XU,Qing-Feng(徐庆锋); ZHANG,Yong(张勇); CHEN,Jin-Xiang(陈金香); ZHOU,Zhi-Feng(周志峰); LANG,Jian-Ping(郎建平)

    2002-01-01

    Reaction of (NH4)2MoS4 with [Cu(MeCN)4] (BF4) and (nBu)4NBr in CH2Cl2 afforded a new hexanuclear cluster [ ( nBu)4N]3[MoS4Cu5Br6] (1). 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P21/c, with lattice parameters a =1.17383(4) nm, b = 2.40136(4) nm, c = 2.64112(5) nm,β =94.2020(5)°, V=7.4247(5) nm3andZ=4. The structure of the [MoS4Cu5Br6]3- trianion of 1 is composed of one nidolike [MoS3Cu3] core and one half-open cubane-like [MoS3Cu3Br] core, which are interconnected by sharing the of 0.2622(6)-0.2692(5) nm.

  20. The Age-Mass-Metallicity-Activity relation of solar-type stars: Comparisons with asteroseismology and the NGC 188 open cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Schiavon, Ricardo P

    2016-01-01

    The Mount Wilson Ca II index log$(R'_{\\rm HK})$ is the accepted standard metric of calibration for the chromospheric activity versus age relation of FGK stars. Recent results claim its inability to discern activity levels, and thus ages, for stars older than $\\sim$2 Gyr, which would severely hamper its application to date disk stars older than the Sun. We present a new activity-age calibration of the Mt. Wilson index explicitly taking into account mass and $[$Fe/H$]$ biases, implicit in samples of stars selected to have precise ages, that have so far gone unappreciated. We show that these selection biases tend to blur the activity-age relation for large age ranges. We calibrate the Mt. Wilson index for a sample of field FGK stars with precise ages, covering a wide range of mass and $[$Fe/H$]$, augmented with data from the Pleiades, Hyades, M67 clusters, and the Ursa Major moving group. We further test the calibration with extensive new Gemini/GMOS log$(R'_{\\rm HK})$ data of the old, solar $[$Fe/H$]$ clusters ...