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Sample records for berberis mentorensis

  1. Specific Heat and Thermal Conductivity of Berberis Fruit (Berberis vulgaris

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    Mortaza Aghbashlo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberis fruit was known as a medicinal and ornamental plant in the world. It is used in medicine to cure the liver, neck and stomach cancer, blood purification and mouth scent. In order to design of equipments and facilities for the drying, preservation and processing of berberis, it is necessary to know about the specific heat and thermal conductivity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the specific heat and thermal conductivity of berberis as well as to develop mathematical models for estimation of them. The method of mixtures and hot wire as a heating source was used for measuring the specific heat and thermal conductivity of berberis fruit, respectively. The selected variables to simulate variations of berberis thermal properties were moisture content and temperature. The measurements were done at 50, 60 and 70°C temperature levels and 19.3%, 38.5%, 55.4% and 74.3% (w.b moisture content levels. The results show that the specific heat and thermal conductivity of berberis increased linearly from 1.9653 to 3.2811 kJ/kg°C and 0.1324 to 0.4898 W/m°C, respectively with increase in the experimental range of the variables. However, the effect of moisture content on increasing the specific heat and thermal conductivity is more than that of temperature. Regression equations were established which could be used to reasonably estimate the values of the specific heat and thermal conductivity as a function of specified moisture content and temperature.

  2. Alcaloides de la Berberis glauca

    OpenAIRE

    González, Antonio G.; Bretón, José Luis; Nieto Ramírez, I.

    1984-01-01

    [ES] En la Berberis glauca, procedente del páramo de Choachi, (Colombia), se detectaron 8 alcaloides; 5 de ellos, fueron identificados con la berberina, extraordinariamente abundante en esta planta, berlambina, columbamina, jatrorrhizina y palmatina, por medio de sus datos físicos y espectroscópicos, formación de tetrahidroderivados y comparación directa cuando fue posible. Los otros tres no han sido identificados.

  3. Specific Heat and Thermal Conductivity of Berberis Fruit (Berberis vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Mortaza Aghbashlo; Mohammad H. Kianmehr; Seyed R. Hassan-Beygi

    2008-01-01

    Berberis fruit was known as a medicinal and ornamental plant in the world. It is used in medicine to cure the liver, neck and stomach cancer, blood purification and mouth scent. In order to design of equipments and facilities for the drying, preservation and processing of berberis, it is necessary to know about the specific heat and thermal conductivity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the specific heat and thermal conductivity of berberis as well as to develop mathe...

  4. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Berberis Species

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    Najmeh Mokhber-Dezfuli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, sedative, anti-cholinergic, cholagogic, anti-leishmaniasis, and anti-malaria. The main compounds found in various species of Berberis, are berberine and berbamine. Phytochemical analysis of various species of this genus revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and triterpenes. Although there are some review articles on Berberis vulgaris (as the most applied species, there is no review on the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of other well-known species of the genus Berberis. For this reason, the present review mainly focused on the diverse secondary metabolites of various species of this genus and the considerable pharmacological and biological activities together with a concise story of the botany and cultivation.

  5. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of berberis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhber-Dezfuli, Najmeh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh

    2014-01-01

    The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae) includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, sedative, anti-cholinergic, cholagogic, anti-leishmaniasis, and anti-malaria. The main compounds found in various species of Berberis, are berberine and berbamine. Phytochemical analysis of various species of this genus revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and triterpenes. Although there are some review articles on Berberis vulgaris (as the most applied species), there is no review on the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of other well-known species of the genus Berberis. For this reason, the present review mainly focused on the diverse secondary metabolites of various species of this genus and the considerable pharmacological and biological activities together with a concise story of the botany and cultivation. PMID:24600191

  6. Phytochemical and antioxidant studies of Berberis lycium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Shaista; Tahir, Kalim; Rashid, Naghmana; Naz, Sidra; Masood, Bilal; Shah, Muhammad Ajmal

    2013-11-01

    Six compounds have been isolated from methanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Berberis lycium (Barberry). Four out of six isolated compounds are reported for the first time from this plant. Purification of different compounds has been accomplished by conventional extraction and chromatographic techniques. The compounds have been structurally characterized by IR, Low Resolution MS, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR spectroscopic techniques. All plant extracts and isolated compounds were assayed for the first time for their antioxidant activity. PMID:24191322

  7. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Berberis Species

    OpenAIRE

    Najmeh Mokhber-Dezfuli; Soodabeh Saeidnia; Ahmad Reza Gohari; Mahdieh Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi

    2014-01-01

    The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae) includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-a...

  8. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellites from Calafate (Berberis microphylla, Berberidaceae

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    Benjamín Varas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Southern barberry or calafate (Berberis microphylla is a shrub species endemic to the Patagonian region of South America that is used for human consumption. The fruit is very rich in vitamin C and anthocyanins and has a very high antioxidant capacity. There have been only a few genetic studies of this and other closely related species. Methods and Results: Here we present the first 18 microsatellite markers of B. microphylla that were characterized using 66 accessions of calafate from Patagonia. On average, they had 7.6 alleles per marker, with an expected heterozygosity of 0.688. The informativeness of these markers was also evaluated in another 15 Berberis species, including most of the native and endemic Chilean species. Conclusions: The results confirm that these new simple sequence repeat markers are very polymorphic and potentially useful in genetic studies in any species of the genus Berberis.

  9. Berberis lycium a Medicinal Plant with Immense Value

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    Monika Sood2

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Berberis lycium belong to family Berberidaceae is an evergreen shrub growing in Himalayan region. The various parts of the plant like root, bark, stem, leaves and fruits are used by the people as a medicine or food. This plant has also gained wide acceptance for its medicinal value in ayurvedic drugs. The plant is known to prevent liver disorders, abdominal disorders, skin diseases, cough, ophthalmic etc. Moreover the pharmacological studies have shown that plant is hypoglycemic, hyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective, anticarcinogenic and antipyretic properties. The fruits of the plant are also very nutritious and are rich source of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, anthocyanin etc. These fruits are consumed in raw form or are utilized in the preparation of juices, jams, preserve etc. by the local inhabitants. In the present article an attempt has been made to summarize the various properties of Berberis lycium plant.

  10. Rationalization of Traditional Uses of Berberis lycium in Gastrointestinal Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rahaman, Muhammad Shafeeq ur; Chaudhary, Mueen Ahmad; Ahmad, Bashir; Alamgeer, Alamgeer

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Berberis lycium (Sumbal) is abundantly available in the northern areas of Pakistan and extensively used in local practice for the treatment of several human diseases. The objective of this study was to explore pharmacological basis for its use in gastrointestinal disorders. Materials and Methods: Crude aqueous (Bl.Aq) and methanolic (Bl.Meth) extracts of B. lycium were studied on isolated gut preparations of rabbit (jejunum) and guinea pig (ileum) by using in-vitro techniques. Tissues w...

  11. Detailed pharmacognostical studies on Berberis aristata DC plant

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    Bhawana Rathi; Juhi Sahu; Sameksha Koul; R L Kosha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Berberis aristata DC (Berberidaceae) commonly known in Hindi as "Dāruhaldi" and "Citra," is an important medicinal herb native to Northern Himalaya region. The plant is used traditionally in Indian system of medicine as an antibacterial, antiperiodic, antidiarrheal and anticancer and it is also used in the treatment of ophthalmic infections. Its root, stem and leaves also find their use in treatment of various ailments and hence is used extensively in Ayurveda. Materials and M...

  12. Especies nuevas del género berberis - ii

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    Camargo G., Luis Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    En Caldasia (9) 44: 313-351, 1966, publiqué la primera parte de las especies nuevas e incluí entonces a Colombia, Ecuador y Venezuela. En esta entrega se presentan solamente algunas novedades colombianas, como un avance de la monografía que sobre el género Berberis en Colombia estoy preparandopara el programa del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales: "Flora deColombia" .

  13. Changes in Botrytis cinerea Conidia Caused by Berberis vulgaris Extract

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    Marcel PARVU; Alina Elena PARVU; Constantin CRACIUN; Barbu-Tudoran, Lucian; VLASE, LAURIAN; Mircea TAMAS; Oana ROSCA-CASIAN; Ovidiu PERSECA; Ana-Maria MOLNAR

    2010-01-01

    Testing plant extracts for controlling fungal diseases is a main biocontrol method. More interesting is to see what happens to the fungus treated with the plant extract. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Berberis vulgaris extract on Botrytis cinerea and to examine the ultrastructural changes in B. cinerea conidia caused by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), using SEM and TEM. The antifungal activity of B. vulgaris bark extract was investigated...

  14. Tyrosinase inhibition kinetic studies of standardized extract of Berberis aristata.

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    Biswas, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Chaudhary, Sushil K

    2016-06-01

    The stem bark and wood of Berberis aristata DC (Daruharidra) are one of the principal ingredients of traditional skin lighting and exfoliating scrub preparation in India. The standardised extract of B. aristata was screened to evaluate their in vitro antityrosinase activity and inhibition kinetics. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies were carried out with different solvent fractions of the methanol extract of B. aristata (MEBA). RP-HPLC analysis was used to determine the berberine content in extract and fractions of B. aristata. MEBA showed maximum berberine content. Extract and fractions of B. aristata contain the maximum amount of alkaloids than other constituents. In tyrosinase inhibition assay, MEBA was found to possess highest dose-dependent monophenolase and moderate diphenolase activity. The enzyme kinetic study revealed that MEBA possessed mixed type inhibition of monophenolase activity of tyrosinase. These bioactivities indicate that the MEBA has antihyperpigmentation potential in human skin. PMID:26212353

  15. Estimation of berberine in ayurvedic formulations containing Berberis aristata.

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    Rout, Kedar Kumar; Pradhan, Subhalaxmi; Mishra, Sagar Kumar

    2008-01-01

    A sensitive, simple, rapid, and efficient high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed and validated for the analysis of berberine in marketed Ayurvedic formulations containing Berberis aristata DC for regulatory purposes. Chromatography of methanolic extracts of these formulations was performed on silica gel 60 F254 aluminum-backed TLC plates of 0.2 mm layer thickness. The plate was developed up to 66 mm with the ternary-mobile phase butanol-acetic acid-water (8 + 1 + 1, v/v/v) at 33 +/- 5 degrees C with 5 min of tank saturation. The marker, berberine, was quantified at its maximum absorbance of 350 nm. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation values were found to be 5 and 10 ng/spot. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed a good linear relationship with correlation coefficient = 0.9994 in the concentration range of 10 to 50 ng/spot for berberine with respect to peak area. The instrumental precision was found to be 0.49% coefficient of variation (CV), and repeatability of the method was 0.73% CV. Recovery values from 98.27 to 99.11% indicate excellent accuracy of the method. The developed HPTLC method is very accurate, precise, and cost-effective, and it has been successfully applied to the assay of marketed formulations containing B. aristata for determination of berberine. PMID:18980133

  16. Changes in Botrytis cinerea Conidia Caused by Berberis vulgaris Extract

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    Marcel PARVU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Testing plant extracts for controlling fungal diseases is a main biocontrol method. More interesting is to see what happens to the fungus treated with the plant extract. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Berberis vulgaris extract on Botrytis cinerea and to examine the ultrastructural changes in B. cinerea conidia caused by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, using SEM and TEM. The antifungal activity of B. vulgaris bark extract was investigated using agar dilution method, and compared to that of berberine. Fluconazole was used as the positive antimycotic control. It was found that (1 B. vulgaris bark extract had significant antifungal activity against B. cinerea, and its effect was stronger than that of pure berberine. It was also noted that (2B. vulgaris MIC caused severe structural changes of the conidia, comparable with berberine MIC effect; therefore (3 B. vulgaris bark extract might be recommended to be tested as a biocontrol agent against B. cinerea.

  17. Antifungal activity of aqueous extracts and of Berberine isolated from Berberis heterophylla

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    Freile, Mónica; Giannini, Fernando Angel; Sortino, Maximiliano; Zamora, Miguel; Juárez, Américo; Zacchino, Susana; Enriz, Ricardo Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Se evaluó la actividad antifúngica in-vitro de extractos acuosos de Berberis heterophylla como así también la actividad antifúngica in vitro e in vivo de berberina aislada de Berberis heterophylla. Además, se determinó la toxicidad aguda en peces y en estadíos larvarios de Bufo arenarum. Berberina presentó una moderada pero significativa actividad antifúngica frente a dermatofitos. La actividad antifúngica in vivo/ in vitro de este compuesto, combinada con su baja toxicidad en comparación con...

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Stigmast-5-en-3β-ol from Heartwood of Berberis aristata

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    Deepti Katiyar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have already been performed involving the roots and stems of Berberis aristata DC var aristata (Berberidaceae and thus the present investigation has been carried out for the phytochemical study of ethanolic extract of the heartwood of Berberis aristata. The drug(1.8kg was exhaustively extracted in 95% ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The column chromatography was performed for isolating the various phytoconstituents using the solvents of increasing polarity. The isolated compounds were structurally elucidated using various spectral data analysis, i.e., IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and positive ion FAB MS. One of the isolated compounds was characterized as Stigmast-5-en-3-ol.

  19. Detailed pharmacognostical studies on Berberis aristata DC plant

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    Bhawana Rathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Berberis aristata DC (Berberidaceae commonly known in Hindi as "Dāruhaldi" and "Citra," is an important medicinal herb native to Northern Himalaya region. The plant is used traditionally in Indian system of medicine as an antibacterial, antiperiodic, antidiarrheal and anticancer and it is also used in the treatment of ophthalmic infections. Its root, stem and leaves also find their use in treatment of various ailments and hence is used extensively in Ayurveda. Materials and Methods: Samples of the whole plants of B. aristata were collected and identified. Hand and microtome sections were taken, stained and mounted and the cell content and cell wall structure were studied according to the method described by Kay and Johansen. Representative sketches were made with the help of camera Lucida. Methods for determining the quantitative values were the same as described elsewhere. For fluorescence analysis, the powder of the root, stem and leaf were examined under ultraviolet light. Total ash, acid insoluble ash and water-soluble ash values and water- and alcohol-soluble extractives were determined. Results: The detailed investigations carried on the pharmacognosy of the root; stem and leaf of B. aristata have brought out some salient diagnostic features, which allow one to differentiate it from other substitutes and or adulterants. The determination of quantitative values, fluorescence analysis and the use of lycopodium spore analysis has specifically contributed to this differentiation. Conclusion: From the foregoing observation on the pharmacognosy of root, stem and leaf of B. aristata DC, the salient diagnostic characters of three parts have been presented, which can allow one to differentiate it from other substitutes and or adulterants.

  20. Berbanine: a new isoquinoline-isoquinolone alkaloid from Berberis vulgaris (Berberidaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošťálková, A.; Novák, Z.; Pour, M.; Jirošová, Anna; Opletal, L.; Kuneš, J.; Cahlíková, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2013), s. 441-442. ISSN 1934-578X Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Berberis vulgaris * Berberidaceae * alkaloid * isoquinoline-isoquinolone dimer * berbanine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2013

  1. An experimental genetic system using Berberis vulgaris confirms sexual recombination in Puccinia striiformis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Algaba, Julian; Walter, Stephanie; Sørensen, Chris Khadgi;

    An effort to develop an experimental genetic system for the stripe (yellow) rust fungus using Berberis vulgaris as an alternate host has been made by INRA Grignon (F) and GRRC (DK). The first attempts to achieve infection using European isolates and B. vulgaris plants from France were unsuccessfu...

  2. The hidden treasure in Europe’s garden plants: Case examples; Berberis darwinni and Bergenia cordifolia

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    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2013-01-01

    Numerous plants cultivated in European gardens have a history of traditional medicinal uses. Some are native to Europe, while others are introduced from other geographical regions. Systematic pharmacological and phytochemical studies on these plants could yield valuable lead compounds of pharmacological significance. In this short communication, two case examples using Berberis darwinii and Bergenia cordifolia are presented.

  3. Flavonols, alkaloids, and antioxidant capacity of edible wild berberis species from patagonia.

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    Ruiz, Antonieta; Zapata, Moises; Sabando, Constanza; Bustamante, Luis; von Baer, Dietrich; Vergara, Carola; Mardones, Claudia

    2014-12-24

    There are 20 species of the Berberidaceae family described in Chile, whose fruits are edible and show high anthocyanin and hydroxycinnamic acid levels. Berberis microphylla G. Forst, commonly known as calafate, is the most extensively distributed. Flavonols and alkaloids in seed, pulp, skin, and whole calafate berry extracts and other Berberis were studied using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and HPLC with fluorescence detector. Berry samples from different locations in Chilean Patagonia, including different phenological stages, were systematically addressed. Results were compared with other organs of the plant and with other Berberis species. Total flavonol concentration in calafate (n = 65) was 1.33 ± 0.54 μmol/g. Glycosyl metabolites of quercetin and isorhamnetin were the most abundant. Similar profiles were observed in calafate from distinct locations, but important differences were observed for the other edible Berberis species. Calafate pulp and skin have higher flavonol concentrations than seeds, and the maturation process reduced its levels. TEACCUPRAC and TEACABTS of whole calafate extracts and fractions are also explored. Finally, only berberine was detected in the fruit (0.001%), mainly in seeds. Results contribute to the promotion of this berry as a superfruit from Patagonia. PMID:25495577

  4. Cutting of the Berberis laurina Billb. Using Different Concentrations of Indolebutyric Acid Estaquia de Berberis laurina Billb. utilizando diferentes concentrações de ácido indol butírico

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    Michelle Melissa Althaus; Luciana Christina Leal; Fernanda Christina Silveira; Katia Christina Zuffellato-Ribas; Luciana Lopes Fortes Ribas

    2011-01-01

    Berberis laurina Billb. (Berberidaceae) is a native shrub from Floresta Ombrófila Mista ecological formation, very ornamental and useful specie for recovery of degraded areas. With medical applications, its fruit is edible and its roots are used as dye. This paper aims to analyze lhe induction of lhe rooting of Berberis laurina stem cuttings employing indolebutyric acid (IBA) in O, 1000 and 2000 mgL-1 concentrations, using the vermiculite as growing medium. In october 200...

  5. Isolation of Berberine from Berberis vulgaris Linn. and Standardization of Aqueous extract by RP-HPLC

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    Deepak Pradhan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Berberis vulgaris L. belongs to family Berberidaceae is native to Europe and the British Isles in Iran. Barberries is an important production of South Khorasan; biggest producer of barberries in Iran. It is a deciduous shrub having yellow flowers and scarlet colored fruit in the form of berries. Twenty two alkaloids have been reported so far from root, stem leaves and fruit of this plant, which are of medicinal importance. From preliminary Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, alkaloid, protein, amino acid, saponin, tannin and flavonoid. One of the major Isoquinoline alkaloid is Berberine. From the present investigation an attempt has been made to standardize aqueous extract of Berberis vulgaris on the basis %age Berberine content by RP-HPLC.

  6. Study on antibacterial and antioxidant activity of Berberis vulgaris aqueous extracts from Iran

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    Zahra dashti; Nabi shariatifar; Abdolreza Mohammadi Nafchi

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant and antibacterial are group from food additive that use on food as preservative. The objective of this study was to determine antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Berberis vulgaris fruit the using different in vitro methodologies. The aquatic and ethanolic extracts, at a concentration from 35to 40 μg/ml, showed a significant antibacterial effect expressed as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against both Gramnegative and Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, Pseudom...

  7. Biochemical components of Berberis lycium fruit and its effects on lipid profile in diabetic rats

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    Rahimi Madiseh Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat, and lipid metabolism resulting from defect in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. It not only leads to hyperglycemia but also may cause hyperlipidemia. Herbal medicines have always been considered as a healthy source of life. Although medicinal herbs and their derivatives have long been used for hyperlipidemia, their definite effects have not yet been proven by valid research. The aim of this study was to measure minerals in B. lycium fruit and to evaluate the effects of its ethanolic extract on lipid profile in diabetic rats. Methods: For this study 40 male Wistar rats were used and were divided into five equal groups. For induction of diabetes in animals, alloxan monohydrate was used. The animals were under treatment for 42 days. For healthy and diabetic control groups distilled water, for positive diabetic control metformin, for the fourth and fifth diabetic groups Berberis lycium extract in respectively 200 and 600 mg/kg dose were used, daily. Blood samples were collected from heart and lipid profile was measured with autoanalyzer and HPLC. Results: The results of the study indicated that iron level in Berberis lycium fruit was considerably high. In diabetic rats administered with Berberis lycium fruit extract in 600 mg/kg dose, the lipid profile decreased significantly (p<0.05. Conclusion: The present investigation showed that the Berberis lycium fruit extract alleviates lipid profile level and might be used efficiently in hyperlipidemia, especially in diabetic patients. It may also be beneficial in iron deficiency.

  8. Environmental effect on the leaf morphology and anatomy of Berberis microphylla G. Forst

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    Silvia Radice; Miriam E. Arena

    2015-01-01

    Berberis microphylla G. Forst is a fruit shrub native from Patagonia, considered as a non-timber forest product. In recent years, there has been an increased demand for its fruits, both for fresh and industrialized consumption, being the establishment of commercial orchards in different sites a need to meet this demand. B. microphylla cloned plants have been introduced from Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego to Buenos Aires province in order to evaluate its phenotypic plasticity and the possibility of...

  9. Berberis Fruit Extract and Biochemical Parameters in Patients With Type II Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Moazezi, Zolikha; Qujeq, Durdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common medical problem. There is in fact a growing body of literature on plants used for the treatment of diabetes. Plant materials attracted considerable interest of scientists. In this respect, in the past few years, attempts were made to use natural plant products for the treatment of patients with diabetes. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Berberis fruit extract to achieve glycemic control in patients with Type II diabet...

  10. A quick overview on some aspects of endocrinological and therapeutic effects of Berberis vulgaris L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Zarei; Saeed Changizi Ashtiyani; Soheila Taheri; Majid Ramezani

    2015-01-01

    Many herbaceous plants contain compounds that have biological effects in addition to their medicinal properties. They have compounds with numerous properties, including hypo lipidemic, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and hepato protective ones, which have been analyzed at different levels. One of these plants, with the scientific name of Berberis vulgaris, is barberry. The most important compounds identified in this plant are berberine, oxycontin, palmatine, bervulcine, berbamine, columbamine, jat...

  11. Penggunaan Ekstrak Buah Barberry (Berberis Nepalensis (DC.) Spreng.) Sebagai Pewarna Dalam Sediaan Lipstik

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    Sinurat, Novalina

    2013-01-01

    Barberry fruits (Berberis nepalensis (DC.) Spreng.) is one of millions biological resources which has a potention to be used as a natural colorant, because it has an attractive color. Barberry reddish purple color caused by anthocyanin pigment which can be used as a natural colorant. Natural colorant can be used to avoid a synthetic colorant that possible dangerous our health. The aim of this study was to make lipstick formula using natural colorant from barberry fruits extract. Barberr...

  12. Universal plant DNA barcode loci may not work in complex groups: a case study with Indian berberis species.

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    Sribash Roy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The concept of DNA barcoding for species identification has gained considerable momentum in animals because of fairly successful species identification using cytochrome oxidase I (COI. In plants, matK and rbcL have been proposed as standard barcodes. However, barcoding in complex genera is a challenging task. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the species discriminatory power of four reportedly most promising plant DNA barcoding loci (one from nuclear genome--ITS, and three from plastid genome--trnH-psbA, rbcL and matK in species of Indian Berberis L. (Berberidaceae and two other genera, Ficus L. (Moraceae and Gossypium L. (Malvaceae. Berberis species were delineated using morphological characters. These characters resulted in a well resolved species tree. Applying both nucleotide distance and nucleotide character-based approaches, we found that none of the loci, either singly or in combinations, could discriminate the species of Berberis. ITS resolved all the tested species of Ficus and Gossypium and trnH-psbA resolved 82% of the tested species in Ficus. The highly regarded matK and rbcL could not resolve all the species. Finally, we employed amplified fragment length polymorphism test in species of Berberis to determine their relationships. Using ten primer pair combinations in AFLP, the data demonstrated incomplete species resolution. Further, AFLP analysis showed that there was a tendency of the Berberis accessions to cluster according to their geographic origin rather than species affiliation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We reconfirm the earlier reports that the concept of universal barcode in plants may not work in a number of genera. Our results also suggest that the matK and rbcL, recommended as universal barcode loci for plants, may not work in all the genera of land plants. Morphological, geographical and molecular data analyses of Indian species of Berberis suggest probable reticulate evolution and thus

  13. Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Fruit Aqueous Extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

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    Ashraf, Hossein; Heidari, Reza; Nejati, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Use of medicinal plants for attenuation of hyperglycemia and restoration of lipids disorder to normal level is clinically very important. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of Berberis integerrima Bge. fruit aqueous extract (BIFAE) on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin (STZ) - induced diabetic rats. The STZ-induced diabetic rats were treated by fruit aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. at doses (250 and 500 mg/Kg bw) and glibenclamide (0.6 mg/Kg bw) f...

  14. Study on antibacterial and antioxidant activity of Berberis vulgaris aqueous extracts from Iran

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    Zahra dashti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antibacterial are group from food additive that use on food as preservative. The objective of this study was to determine antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Berberis vulgaris fruit the using different in vitro methodologies. The aquatic and ethanolic extracts, at a concentration from 35to 40 μg/ml, showed a significant antibacterial effect expressed as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC against both Gramnegative and Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC=16 microg/ml, Proteus vulgaris (MIC=32 microg/ml and Escherichia coli (MIC=32 microg/ml were the most inhibited. The antioxidant activity were determined by the 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay and a β-carotene bleaching assay, and compared with that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT. The data were expressed as the mean ± the standard deviation and they were statistically analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA (P<0.05. Results: The results showed that among all the solvent extracts, water extractof Berberis vulgaris friut had high antioxidant activities as measured by DPPH scavenging (28.62±0.01, 20.58±0.12 and 50.78±0.17, 142.9±1.12, 56.08±2.72, 120.43±0.85 μg/ml and inhibition of linoleic cid oxidation, respectively (77, 86,70, 58, 72, 62%. These parameters for BHT were 10±0.02 μg/ml, and 95.24%±0.14. Conclusion: The findings indicated that the water extracts of Berberis vulgaris friut can act both as natural antioxidants and antibacterial and as a possible food supplement or be used in pharmaceutical industry after complementary tests.

  15. SEASONAL AND AGE VARIATIONS OF BERBERINE CONTENT IN INTRODUCED BERBERIS SIBIRICA PALL.

    OpenAIRE

    Иван Васильевич Нечепуренко; Нина Ивановна Комарова; Олег Николаевич Потёмкин; Нариман Фаридович Салахутдинов

    2014-01-01

    The content of isoquinoline alkaloid berberine was studied by means of HPLC in the roots and the above-ground part of introduced Berberis sibirica Pall. of various ages collected during different periods of three vegetative seasons. The roots contain 3–5 times more berberine than the stems. The content of berberine in 7-year-old roots varies slightly during the season; its mean value was 1.10% and maximum content was found in July (1,16±0.03%). The roots of the age of 3 years contain fewer be...

  16. Especies nuevas del género berberis de colombia, ecuador y venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    EI presente estudio es la primicia de una revisión taxonómica del género Berberis que hice en U. S. National Museum (Department of Botany), Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. Una parte de él fue presentado a la Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C., en 1960, como requisito parcial para tesis del grado "Master of Science". Las numerosas colecciones indeterminadas de este género procedentes de Suramérica y existentes en los Herbarios de National Museum, Smithsonian Instituti...

  17. Role of Berberis spp. as alternate hosts in generating new races of Puccinia graminis and P. striiformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common barberry and several other Berberis spp. serve as the alternate hosts to two important rust pathogens of small grains and grasses, Puccinia graminis and P. striiformis. Barberry eradication has been practiced for centuries as a means to control stem rust. Diverse virulence variations have...

  18. Investigations in to Ecological Consequences and Threats from Ethnoecological and Ethnobotanical Practices Across Karakorum Mountain Ranges: A Case Study Berberis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Khan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphologically inaccessible mighty mountain ranges of Karakoram, Hindukush, Himalaya and Pamir have been mother sanctuaries for several ecologically attuned civilizations. Modern changes underway across ethnoecological and ethnobotanical settings among these mountain traditional communities have drastically depreciated folk wisdom and ecological equilibrium. Ethno-climatic agencies have threatened several species and Berberis pseudumbellata subsp. gilgitica has become critically endangered. Present study was an attempt to discover ethnobotanical insights and exploration of threatening factors affecting Berberis species. Survey (n=373 revealed that communities use Berberis meeting various purposes including medicinal (92.2%; SE±0.057; 0.409 MT/annum-a, firewood (19.3%; SE±37.375; 6.589 MT/a, commercial (2.41%; SE±1.692; 0.048 MT/a, cultural (2.41%, fodder (16.08%; SE±11.474; 8.724 MT/a, fencing (19.03%; SE±6.895; 3.352 MT/a and grazing (100%; SE±1.035. Data was analyzed using Pearson correlational coefficient, student t-test and descriptive statistical tools. Study exhibits highly significant relationship (p< 0.000 among different age groups, ethnomedicinal uses and conservation status of Berberis.

  19. Century-old Mystery of Puccinia striiformis Life History Solved with the Identification of Berberis as an Alternate Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    The life history of Puccinia striiformis remains a mystery because the alternate host has never been found. Inoculation of grasses using aeciospores from naturally infected Berberis chinensis and B. koreana resulted in infection on Poa pratensis, producing uredinia typical of stripe rust caused by P...

  20. Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Murine Model by Alcoholic Extract of Berberis vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalalianfard A

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of Berberis vulgaris extract on the experimental ulcers of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL on Balb/c mice, a study was undertaken over a 12 months period. Forty Balb/c mice were divided into 2 main groups A and B. Each main group in turn was divided into 5 sub groups of 4 mice and each sub group were inoculated subcutaneously by 0.1ml liquid phase culture containing promastigotes of Leishmania major. After 2-3 weeks, nodules and ulcers appeared on 37 of 40 inoculated mice. Ethanol extract of the stem and leaves as well as roots of Berberis vulgaris in different concentrations, were used topically on CL lesions of 4 sub groups A and B, respectively. Ethanol alone was used on the lesions of control mice. The surface area of lesions were measured before and 1-2 weeks after treatment. Direct Geimsa stained smear prepared 20 days after treatment. The results showed that after 2 weeks, a statistically significant decrease of ulcer size of treated mice observed, while in the control group the lesion growth continued. The examinations showed that using higher concentration of the extract caused more decrease in surface area of CL lesions on day 15 and negative direct smear on day 20. Alcoholic extract of B.vulgaris root was more effective than leaves and stem extract. Alcoholic extract of B vulgaris might be further used in animal model.

  1. Effect of Moisture Content on Mechanical Properties and Terminal Velocity of Berberis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Velayati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of mechanical properties of Berberis not only is useful for design and optimization of transportation, processing and packaging equipment but also can prevent mechanical injuries and losses. In this study force, deformation, energy and toughness were measured at different moisture content levels including 70-76, 45-50, 25-30 and 7-10 percent (w.b.. The decrease of moisture content caused increasing rupture force from 1.387 to 2.679 N, decreasing shape deformation from 3.387 to 2.413mm, increasing toughness from 4.297 to 8.220 J/cm3 and decreasing rupture energy from 0.921 to 0.661mJ. Effects of loading speed, force orientation and their interaction were investigated on just fresh Berberis fruit. It was indicated that only force orientation was effective on all investigated properties except toughness. The moisture content was identified as an effective parameter on terminal velocity. It decreased from 9 to 4.5 m/s with decrease of moisture content from 76 to 7 percent (w.b..

  2. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Roots and Fruits of Berberis libanotica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hosry, Leina; Boyer, Laurent; Garayev, Elnur E; Mabrouki, Fathi; Bun, Sok-Siya; Debrauwer, Laurent; Auezova, Lizette; Cheble, Edmond; Elias, Riad

    2016-05-01

    Fourteen compounds belonging to different chemical classes were characterized in the roots and fruits extracts from Berberis libanotica, using the same HPLC-DAD-MS method. Thirteen were reported, for the first time, from the fruits whereas the roots contained mostly alkaloids of which 3 out of 5 are reported for the first time. Their structures were established on the basis of MS data as gallic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), delphinidin (3), oxyacanthine (4), rutin (5), hyperoside (6), berbamine (7), isoquercitrin (8), quercitrin (9), jatrorrhizine (10), palmatine (11), berberine (12), quercetin (13) and luteolin (14). Extracts containing compounds 4 and 7 showed significant cytotoxicity against the HT29 cell line with an IC50 of 12.2-26.1 μg/mL. Fruits extracts, due mostly to compounds 1 and 2, showed potent antioxidant activities with an EC50 of 0.0025-0.019 mg/mL. PMID:27319140

  3. Male function for ensuring pollination and reproductive success in Berberis lycium Royle: A novel mechanism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supriya Sharma; Verma Susheel

    2016-03-01

    In Berberis lycium anthers on alternate stamens dehisce, thus prolonging the male function so that pollination is affected and reproduction is ensured. The large pollen sac of each bithecous anther after the appearance of longitudinal dehiscence slit moves away from the filament while remaining attached at the tip of the connective and then orients in such a way that pollen-laden surface faces the stigma. No pollen is available to receptive stigma as pollen grains remain stuck to the anther sac. They do not get dispersed even by wind. Pollination and consequently reproduction is ensured through the intervention of insect, which does not affect pollen transfer to the stigma directly but by touching the base of the staminal filament while foraging nectar secreted by nectaries at the base of corolla, thus leading to staminal movement. This makes the dehisced anthers stick to the stigma and deposit pollen there.

  4. Windows of opportunity: historical and ecological controls on Berberis thunbergii invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGasperis, Brian G; Motzkin, Glenn

    2007-12-01

    Attempts to determine characteristics that render habitats invasible to nonnative species have met with limited success. This may be because most studies focus on modern habitat conditions and do not consider invasibility in the context of a historically dynamic landscape in which both the abundance of a species and the invasibility of a site may change. We surveyed 159 currently forested sites for the occurrence and abundance of Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry), an invasive, nonnative shrub in forests of the northeastern United States, relative to modern environmental conditions, contemporary logging activity, and two periods of historical land use. Berberis thunbergii occurred more frequently and was more abundant in post-agricultural forests than in continuously wooded sites. This relationship was stronger for agricultural sites that were abandoned and reforested after B. thunbergii was introduced to the region than for sites that reforested prior to B. thunbergii introduction. In contrast, recent forest harvesting did not influence the occurrence or abundance of B. thunbergii. Modern soil fertility explained a significant portion of the variation in B. thunbergii occurrence, whereas site history considerably improved predictions of population density and helped evaluate potential invasion mechanisms. While land-use history covaries with soil fertility and distance to putative seed sources, the strong relationship between modern abundance patterns and historical agriculture suggests that B. thunbergii colonized recently abandoned agricultural lands in the early 20th century and then persisted and spread locally during subsequent reforestation. Our results indicate that interpretations of both native community composition and modern plant invasions must consider the importance of historical landscape changes and the timing of species introduction along with current environmental conditions. PMID:18229845

  5. Comparative Study of Berberis vulgaris Fruit Extract and Berberine Chloride Effects on Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Ghannadi, Alireza; Mahzouni, Parvin; Jaffari-Shirazi, Elham

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of anthocyanins are abundant in berberry fruits suggesting that they may have beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-colitic effect of Berberis vulgaris fruit extract (BFE) compared to berberine chloride (BEC) and corticosteroids using an animal model of acetic acid induced experimental colitis. BFE with three different doses (375, 750, and 1500 mg/Kg) was administered orally o...

  6. Evaluation of antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of the extracts of Berberis vulgaris and Nigella sativa against Leishmania tropica

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Mahmoudvand; Fariba Sharififar; Monireh Sezavar Rahmat; Razieh Tavakoli; Ebrahim Saedi Dezaki; Sareh Jahanbakhsh; Iraj Sharifi

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem, and the alarming spread of parasite resistance underlines the importance of discovering new therapeutic products. The present study aims to investigate the in vitro antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of the ethanolic extract of Berberis vulgaris fruits and chloroform extract of Nigella sativa seeds against Leishmania tropica. Methods: In this study, antileishmanial activity of B. vulgaris and N. sativa extracts...

  7. In Vitro Study of Berberis vulgaris, Actinidia deliciosa and Allium cepa L. Antibacterial Effects on Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Anzabi Younes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: One control method of pathogenic microorganisms is using synthetic chemical preservatives and antibiotics. Because of being generally recognized as safe, antibacterial compounds with organic origin are considered important for health. This study was done in order to investigate the antibacterial effects of methanol extracts of the Berberis vulgaris (Barberry), Actinidia deliciosa (Kiwi) and Allium cepa L. (Onions) on the standard strain (ATCC:19114) of Listeria monocytogenes (L. mo...

  8. Comparison of the Effects of Myrtus Communis L, Berberis Vulgaris and Metronidazole Vaginal Gel alone for the Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Mansoureh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a growing tendency towards herbal medicines for treatment of vaginitis. Antibacterial and antifungal effects of Myrtus communis L and Berberis vulgaris have been demonstrated invitro and invivo. Aim This study aimed to compare the therapeutic effects of the vaginal gel of Berberis vulgaris 5% (in metronidazole base) and Myrtus communis L 2% (in metronidazole base) with only metronidazole vaginal gel 0.75% on bacterial vaginosis. Materials and Methods This study was a randomized clinical trial research on 120 married women aged 18-40 years affected by bacterial vaginosis attended for treatment to gynaecology clinic of Hajar Hospital (Shahrekord, Iran). They were randomly divided into three groups of 40 participants. Diagnostic criteria were Amsel’s criteria. Myrtus communis L, Berberis vulgaris vaginal gel or metronidazole vaginal gel for five-night usage were prescribed to each group, and after 7 days therapeutic effects were assessed. Data analysis was performed using ANOVA and Chi-square tests. Results A statistically significant difference was observed with regard to treatment response among the study groups (p<0.001), with Myrtus communis L and Berberis vulgaris groups having a better response than metronidazole gel alone. Moreover, there was no significant difference between Myrtus communis L and Berberis vulgaris groups (p= 0.18). The patients in groups of Myrtus communis L or Berberis vulgaris in metronidazole base did not experience any relapse, but in metronidazole group, 30% of patients experienced relapse during three weeks follow up. Conclusion Findings of the study showed that treatment with a combination of Myrtus communis L or Berberis vulgaris in metronidazole base improve the efficacy of bacterial vaginosis therapy.

  9. Optimization, characterization, and biological activity of polysaccharides from Berberis dasystachya Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lijuan; Suo, Yourui; Yang, Yongjing; Meng, Jing; Hu, Na

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the extraction of water-soluble polysaccharides (BDPs) from Berberis dasystachya Maxim using dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) was discussed. A Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology has been employed to optimize extraction parameters of DMAE. The BDPs have been analyzed in order to identify a variety of chemical properties. Antioxidant and anti-tumor activities in vitro have been studied by DPPH, ABTS, reducing power assay, and MTT assay, respectively. The results obtained showed that the optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ratio of water to raw material (X1) 25.84mg/L, extraction power (X2) 433.13W, extraction time (X3) 35.18min, and the maximum yield of extraction was 6.472±0.384%, which was in good agreement with the predicted value. The physicochemical tests demonstrated that the BDPs mainly consist of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and lactose in a molar ratio of 1:17.3:1.33:7:2.33:1.78; the average molecular weight of the BDPs was estimated to be from 2.95×10(5) and 1.52×10(3)Da, respectively. Furthermore, the BDPs exhibited effective antioxidant and anti-proliferative properties in vitro. Such pharmaceutical activities could prove useful for potential future applications involving the berries of B. dasystachya Maxim. PMID:26484601

  10. Effect of different extraction protocols on anticancer and antioxidant activities of Berberis koreana bark extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Syed Abdul; Kwon, Min Chul; Han, Jae Gun; Ha, Ji He; Chung, Hyang Suk; Ahn, Juhee; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2009-03-01

    High-pressure extraction and ultrasonification extraction techniques were employed to extract bioactive compounds from Berberis koreana. This study aimed to determine the effect of ultrasonification in a high pressure process on the extraction yield, and the anticancer and antioxidant activities of the B. koreana bark extract. The effect of high-pressure extraction time when carried out for 5 and 15 min (HP5 and HP15) was also investigated. The best extraction yield with maximum percentage of phenolic compounds was obtained using high pressure with sonification (HPWS) extraction method. Experimental results indicated that HPWS altered the antioxidant activities, including the scavenging capacity of diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and xanthine oxidase. HP5 and HP15 with conventional extraction have almost similar bioactivity, but showed lower antioxidant and anticancer activities compared to HPWS. The results showed that the application of ultrasonification improved the extraction efficiency for bioactive compounds and, as deduced from chromatographic profiles, it may have allowed the release of new compounds. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed evidence of rupturing of the tissue surface treated with HPWS, in contrast to conventional extraction, HP5, and HP15. The HPWS extraction was not only more efficient but also convenient for the recovery and purification of the active compounds of hard plant tissues. PMID:19269602

  11. Polyphenols and antioxidant activity of calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) fruits and other native berries from Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Antonieta; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Mardones, Claudia; Vergara, Carola; Herlitz, Erika; Vega, Mario; Dorau, Carolin; Winterhalter, Peter; von Baer, Dietrich

    2010-05-26

    Calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) is a native berry grown in the Patagonian area of Chile and Argentina. In the present study the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied and also compared with data obtained for other berry fruits from southern Chile including maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ) and murtilla ( Ugni molinae ). Polyphenolic compounds in calafate fruit were essentially present in glycosylated form, 3-glucoside conjugates being the most abundant anthocyanins. The anthocyanin content in calafate berries (17.81 +/- 0.98 micromol g(-1)) and flavonol level (0.16 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1)) are comparable with those found in maqui (17.88 +/- 1.15 and 0.12 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1), respectively); however, maqui shows lower flavan-3-ol concentration than calafate (0.11 +/- 0.01 and 0.24 +/- 0.03 micromol g(-1), respectively). Maqui and calafate show high antioxidant activity, which correlates highly with total polyphenol content and with anthocyanin concentration. PMID:20438111

  12. A quick overview on some aspects of endocrinological and therapeutic effects of Berberis vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Ali; Changizi-Ashtiyani, Saeed; Taheri, Soheila; Ramezani, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Many herbaceous plants contain compounds that have biological effects in addition to their medicinal properties. They have compounds with numerous properties, including hypo lipidemic, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and hepato protective ones, which have been analyzed at different levels. One of these plants, with the scientific name of Berberis vulgaris, is barberry. The most important compounds identified in this plant are berberine, oxycontin, palmatine, bervulcine, berbamine, columbamine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, and berbamine. In addition to alkaloids, organic acids such as chelidonic acid, citric acid, malic acid, resin, tannin, pectinic, and mucilagic substances are among the ingredients of barberry. In this paper, it was attempted to determine the role and effect of the extract of barberry on various body organs. The results showed that berberine actually increases insulin sensitivity and is capable of inhibiting alpha glucosidase, adipogenesis, and thus acts as an anti-obesity and hypoglycemic agent. Berberine reduces the density of serum cholesterol and triglycerides and can improve the function of liver enzymes, therefore, it can be suggested as a hypo lipidemic and hepato protective plant extract. The hepato protective effects of this extract are probably due to its antioxidant properties. Studies showed that barberry have numerous health benefits, including anti-inflammatory ones. Moreover, it can be used as a medicinal herb to treat a variety of disorders, such as diabetes, liver disease, gallbladder pain, digestive, urinary tract diseases, and gallstones. However, more studies on this issue and doing more focused and intensive researches in this field are recommended. PMID:26693406

  13. Amplicon pyrosequencing reveals the soil microbial diversity associated with invasive Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii DC.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, V C; Pelletreau, K N; Rumpho, M E

    2014-03-01

    The soil microbial community acts as a reservoir of microbes that directly influences the structure and composition of the aboveground plant community, promotes plant growth, increases stress tolerance and mediates local patterns of nutrient cycling. Direct interactions between plants and rhizosphere-dwelling microorganisms occur at, or near, the surface of the root. Upon introduction and establishment, invasive plants modify the soil microbial communities and soil biochemistry affecting bioremediation efforts and future plant communities. Here, we used tag-encoded FLX amplicon 454 pyrosequencing (TEFAP) to characterize the bacterial and fungal community diversity in the rhizosphere of Berberis thunbergii DC. (Japanese barberry) from invasive stands in coastal Maine to investigate effects of soil type, soil chemistry and surrounding plant cover on the soil microbial community structure. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were the dominant bacterial phyla, whereas fungal communities were comprised mostly of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla members, including Agaricomycetes and Sordariomycetes. Bulk soil chemistry had more effect on the bacterial community structure than the fungal community. An effect of geographic location was apparent in the rhizosphere microbial communities, yet it was less significant than the effect of surrounding plant cover. These data demonstrate a high degree of spatial variation in the rhizosphere microbial communities of Japanese barberry with apparent effects of soil chemistry, location and canopy cover on the microbial community structure. PMID:24118303

  14. Spine production is induced by fire: a natural experiment with three Berberis species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Juan; Raffaele, Estela

    2004-12-01

    Earlier studies indicate that some plant species allocate more mass to produce longer spines in shoots resprouting after browsing. Here we present, for the first time, evidence that fire induces a similar response. Many terrestrial herbivores may benefit from fire through the enhanced availability of fast growing species colonizing or re-sprouting in burned areas. It is less clear whether post-fire plant growth responds to the enhanced risk of herbivory by an increased investment in defensive traits. In this study, we tested whether the production of spines is influenced by the set of environmental conditions that result from fire events. We compared the resource allocation pattern of resprouting shoots from three Berberis species growing in two areas that burned 1999 with samples collected from unburned areas within the same plant communities. We divided the shoot into three main components: supporting tissue (twigs), assimilating tissue (leaves) and defensive structures (spines). We found that plants resprouting after fire allocated more mass to spines and leaves but not twigs. This resulted in a higher density of both spines and leaves. Spines were significantly longer in plants resprouting after fire. Leaves were shorter at the apical end of the shoot, but did not show any significant change in size following fire. We suggest that this type of post-fire response may be a general adaptation to pruning and leaf picking by browsing herbivores in arid and semi-arid regions. Changes in the browsing pressure following fire will determine the fitness value of this response.

  15. A quick overview on some aspects of endocrinological and therapeutic effects of Berberis vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zarei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many herbaceous plants contain compounds that have biological effects in addition to their medicinal properties. They have compounds with numerous properties, including hypo lipidemic, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and hepato protective ones, which have been analyzed at different levels. One of these plants, with the scientific name of Berberis vulgaris, is barberry. The most important compounds identified in this plant are berberine, oxycontin, palmatine, bervulcine, berbamine, columbamine, jatrorrhizine, coptisine, and berbamine. In addition to alkaloids, organic acids such as chelidonic acid, citric acid, malic acid, resin, tannin, pectinic, and mucilagic substances are among the ingredients of barberry. In this paper, it was attempted to determine the role and effect of the extract of barberry on various body organs. The results showed that berberine actually increases insulin sensitivity and is capable of inhibiting alpha glucosidase, adipogenesis, and thus acts as an anti-obesity and hypoglycemic agent. Berberine reduces the density of serum cholesterol and triglycerides and can improve the function of liver enzymes, therefore, it can be suggested as a hypo lipidemic and hepato protective plant extract. The hepato protective effects of this extract are probably due to its antioxidant properties. Studies showed that barberry have numerous health benefits, including anti-inflammatory ones. Moreover, it can be used as a medicinal herb to treat a variety of disorders, such as diabetes, liver disease, gallbladder pain, digestive, urinary tract diseases, and gallstones. However, more studies on this issue and doing more focused and intensive researches in this field are recommended.

  16. Influence of drying conditions on the effective moisture diffusivity, energy of activation and energy consumption during the thin-layer drying of berberis fruit (Berberidaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Kianmehr, Mohammad H.; Samimi-Akhijahani, Hadi [Department of Agriculture Machinery, University of Tehran, Aboreyhan Campus (Iran)

    2008-10-15

    Berberis is known as a medicinal and ornamental plant in the world. Berberis fruit is used in medicine to cure liver, neck and stomach cancer, blood purification and mouth scent. Dried berberis fruit using new technology was preserved for relatively long time. Thin-layer drying simulation was used to obtain experiment data, using laboratory scale hot-air dryer of the static tray. Fick's second law was used as a major equation to calculate the moisture diffusivity with some simplification. The calculated value of moisture diffusivity varied from a minimum of 3.320 x 10{sup -10} to a maximum of 9 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s and the value of energy activation from a minimum of 110.837 to a maximum of 130.61 kJ/mol of from 50 C to 70 C with drying air velocities of 0.5-2 m/s. The high value of the energy of activation for berberis fruit probably related to the tissue of berberis fruit and high moisture content (about 74.28%w.b), and intensive changes in D{sub eff} values for a different air temperature at constant air velocity. The input energy values and specific energy requirement for thin-drying of berberis fruit were found to be in the range of 0.643348-35.20032 (kWh) and 20.9355-1110.0700 (kWh/kg) from 50 C to 70 C with drying air velocities of 0.5-2 m/s, respectively. (author)

  17. Influence of drying conditions on the effective moisture diffusivity, energy of activation and energy consumption during the thin-layer drying of berberis fruit (Berberidaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberis is known as a medicinal and ornamental plant in the world. Berberis fruit is used in medicine to cure liver, neck and stomach cancer, blood purification and mouth scent. Dried berberis fruit using new technology was preserved for relatively long time. Thin-layer drying simulation was used to obtain experiment data, using laboratory scale hot-air dryer of the static tray. Fick's second law was used as a major equation to calculate the moisture diffusivity with some simplification. The calculated value of moisture diffusivity varied from a minimum of 3.320 x 10-10 to a maximum of 9 x 10-9 m2/s and the value of energy activation from a minimum of 110.837 to a maximum of 130.61 kJ/mol of from 50 deg. C to 70 deg. C with drying air velocities of 0.5-2 m/s. The high value of the energy of activation for berberis fruit probably related to the tissue of berberis fruit and high moisture content (about 74.28%w.b), and intensive changes in Deff values for a different air temperature at constant air velocity. The input energy values and specific energy requirement for thin-drying of berberis fruit were found to be in the range of 0.643348-35.20032 (kWh) and 20.9355-1110.0700 (kWh/kg) from 50 deg. C to 70 deg. C with drying air velocities of 0.5-2 m/s, respectively

  18. Protoscolecidal Effect of Berberis vulgaris Root Extract and Its Main Compound, Berberine in Cystic Echinococcosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mahmoudvand

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE, a zoonotic parasitic infection caused by the metacestode (larvae stage of dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus and recognized as a major economic and public health concern in the world. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro scolicidal effect of methanolic extract of Berberis vulgaris L. roots and its main compound, berberine against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts.For this purpose, protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of the methanolic extract (0.25-2 mg/ml and berberine (0.062- 0.5 mg/ml were used for 5 to 30 min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed by eosin exclusive test.In the present study, all of the various concentrations of the B. vulgaris methanolic extract (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/ml and berberine (0.062, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml revealed significant (P<0.05 scolicidal effects against protoscoleces of E. granulosus in a dose-dependent manner. Both berberine and methanolic extract exhibited 100% inhibition against protoscoleces of E. granulosus at the concentration of 2.0 and 0.5 mg/ml after 10 min incubation, respectively.According to the results, both B. vulgaris methanolic extract and berberine alone demonstrated high scolicidal activities against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts in low concentration and short exposure time on in vitro model. However, in vivo efficacy of B. vulgaris and berberine also requires to be evaluated using an animal model with hydatid infection.

  19. BERBERIS BALUCHISTANICA: ASSESSMENT OF NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS TO REPRIEVE FROM OXIDATIVE STRESS

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    Muhammad Athar Abbasi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to assess the antioxidant potential of various fractions of Berberis baluchistanica Ahrendt. The organic fractions were obtained by adding distilled water in crude methanolic extract of the plant and subsequently partitioning with organic solvents namely, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively. Phytochemical screening showed presence of useful antioxidants in more amounts in polar fractions of this plant. The antioxidant activity of all these fractions and remaining aqueous fraction was evaluated by using five methods: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay ferric thiocyanate assay by Linoleic acid, total phenolic contents (TPC and total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdenum method. Ethyl acetate soluble fraction possessed 87.98±1.08% inhibition of DPPH radical at a concentration of 60µg/mL as compared to other fractions. The IC50 of this fraction was 15.96 ± 1.50µg/mL, relative to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, a reference standard, having IC50 of 12.33±0.87 µg/mL. It also have strong degree of total antioxidant activity i.e. 0.98 ± 0.07 (absorbance at 695 nm as well as highest FRAP value (360 ± 1.4 TEµM/mL, highest total phenolic contents (143.51 ± 1.68 GAE mg/g and highest value of inhibition of lipid peroxidation (52.496 ± 1.16% at concentration of 500 µg/mL as compared to the other studied fractions. n-Butanol fraction also showed good results.

  20. Environmental effect on the leaf morphology and anatomy of Berberis microphylla G. Forst

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    Silvia Radice

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Berberis microphylla G. Forst is a fruit shrub native from Patagonia, considered as a non-timber forest product. In recent years, there has been an increased demand for its fruits, both for fresh and industrialized consumption, being the establishment of commercial orchards in different sites a need to meet this demand. B. microphylla cloned plants have been introduced from Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego to Buenos Aires province in order to evaluate its phenotypic plasticity and the possibility of fruit production. At the same time, a comparative study on the morphology and anatomy of the mature leaves of B. microphylla grown in two different environmental conditions was carried out. Moreno leaves were significantly larger than Ushuaia leaves in all the morphological parameters registered, while Ushuaia leaves were more circular than Moreno leaves with the highest roundness and elongation indexes. Nevertheless, histological sections showed that Ushuaia leaves have one more layer of palisade cells respect to Moreno leaves. Ushuaia leaves showed higher palisade cells, larger abaxial epidermal cells and thicker cuticles than Moreno leaves. The stomatal density was superior on Moreno leaves. Scanning Electron Microscope of abaxial epidermis showed a surface with numerous ridges of different forms that prevent the layout of epidermal cells on Moreno leaves. Appearance of this surface is glossy and oily. On the contrary, epidermal cells are well recognized on Ushuaia leaves. Stomata of anomocytic type were observed and surface looks waxy. Auto-fluorescence on leaf cross sections were observed on the vascular bundles and partially on the epidermis cells. B. microphylla leaves showed a high phenotypic plasticity between the two sites of cultivation. The changes in the leaf morphology and structure observed in Moreno leaves could indicate that the plants are trying to adjust its morphology to the new culture conditions i.e. higher temperatures and lower

  1. Berberis libanotica Ehrenb extract shows anti-neoplastic effects on prostate cancer stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Merahbi, Rabih; Liu, Yen-Nien; Eid, Assaad; Daoud, Georges; Hosry, Leina; Monzer, Alissar; Mouhieddine, Tarek H; Hamade, Aline; Najjar, Fadia; Abou-Kheir, Wassim

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), including those of advanced prostate cancer, are a suggested reason for tumor resistance toward conventional tumor therapy. Therefore, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed for targeting CSCs. Despite the minimal understanding of their modes of action, natural products and herbal therapies have been commonly used in the prevention and treatment of many cancers. Berberis libanotica Ehrenb (BLE) is a plant rich in alkaloids which may possess anti-cancer activity and a high potential for eliminating CSCs. We tested the effect of BLE on prostate cancer cells and our data indicated that this extract induced significant reduction in cell viability and inhibited the proliferation of human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, PC3 and 22Rv1) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. BLE extract induced a perturbation of the cell cycle, leading to a G0-G1 arrest. Furthermore, we noted 50% cell death, characterized by the production of high levels of reactive oxidative species (ROS). Inhibition of cellular migration and invasion was also achieved upon treatment with BLE extract, suggesting a role in inhibiting metastasis. Interestingly, BLE extract had a major effect on CSCs. Cells were grown in a 3D sphere-formation assay to enrich for a population of cancer stem/progenitor cells. Our results showed a significant reduction in sphere formation ability. Three rounds of treatment with BLE extract were sufficient to eradicate the self-renewal ability of highly resistant CSCs. In conclusion, our results suggest a high therapeutic potential of BLE extract in targeting prostate cancer and its CSCs. PMID:25380390

  2. Sexual structures and recombination of the wheat rust fungus Puccinia striiformis on Berberis vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Algaba, Julian; Walter, Stephanie; Sørensen, Chris K; Hovmøller, Mogens S; Justesen, Annemarie F

    2014-09-01

    An isolate of the basidiomycete Puccinia striiformis, which causes yellow (stripe) rust on wheat, was selfed on the newly discovered alternate host, Berberis vulgaris. This allowed a study of the segregation of molecular markers and virulence in the progeny isolates, and of the development of fungal sexual structures and spore forms. Pycnia and aecia were obtained after inoculation of B. vulgaris with basidiospores resulting from germinating teliospores from infected wheat leaves. Subsequent inoculation of wheat with aeciospores from bulked aecia resulted in 16 progeny isolates of the S1 generation. Genotyping with 42 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers confirmed a parental origin of progeny isolates. Of the 42 analyzed loci, 15 were heterozygous in the parental isolate and 14 revealed segregation in the progenies. This resulted in 11 new multilocus genotypes (MLGs), which confirmed segregation following sexual reproduction. Additionally, parental and progeny isolates were phenotyped using a genetic stock of wheat genotypes representing 21 resistance genes. All S1 progeny isolates had virulence for 14 out of 15 loci where the parental isolate was virulent. This was consistent with the hypothesis that virulence in plant pathogens is often recessive to avirulence, i.e., only expressed in a homozygous state. Furthermore, no segregation was observed for five out of six loci, for which the parental isolate had an avirulent phenotype. The results for one of the two segregating virulence/avirulence loci suggested that the parental isolate was heterozygous with Avr alleles resulting in different but clearly avirulent phenotypes. The other locus indicated that additional genes modifying the phenotypic expression of avirulence were involved. PMID:25042987

  3. Optimization extraction conditions for improving phenolic content and antioxidant activity in Berberis asiatica fruits using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belwal, Tarun; Dhyani, Praveen; Bhatt, Indra D; Rawal, Ranbeer Singh; Pande, Veena

    2016-09-15

    This study for the first time designed to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant potential of Berberis asiatica fruits using response surface methodology (RSM). Solvent selection was done based on the preliminary experiments and a five-factors-three-level, Central Composite Design (CCD). Extraction temperature (X1), sample to solvent ratio (X3) and solvent concentration (X5) significantly affect response variables. The quadratic model well fitted for all the responses. Under optimal extraction conditions, the dried fruit sample mixed with 80% methanol having 3.0 pH in a ratio of 1:50 and the mixture was heated at 80 °C for 30 min; the measured parameters was found in accordance with the predicted values. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis at optimized condition reveals 6 phenolic compounds. The results suggest that optimization of the extraction conditions is critical for accurate quantification of phenolics and antioxidants in Berberis asiatica fruits, which may further be utilized for industrial extraction procedure. PMID:27080887

  4. Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Fruit Aqueous Extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Hossein; Heidari, Reza; Nejati, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Use of medicinal plants for attenuation of hyperglycemia and restoration of lipids disorder to normal level is clinically very important. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of Berberis integerrima Bge. fruit aqueous extract (BIFAE) on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin (STZ) - induced diabetic rats. The STZ-induced diabetic rats were treated by fruit aqueous extract of Berberis integerrima Bge. at doses (250 and 500 mg/Kg bw) and glibenclamide (0.6 mg/Kg bw) for 42 days by gavage. Blood glucose levels and body weights of rats were measured on weeks 0, 2, 4 and 6. Total lipid levels were determined in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats after administration of the BIFAE and glibenclamide for 42 days. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed a significant (P<0.001) increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) while body weight and high density lipoprotein HDL-cholesterolan (HDL-C) were significantly(P<0.001) decreased compared to normal rats. Daily administration of BIFAE did not possess the hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic activity in STZ- diabetic rats during 6-week treatment period. Results indicate the usage of BIFAE in traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes may need more investigation. PMID:25587320

  5. Preliminary study about the possible glycemic clinical advantage in using a fixed combination of Berberis aristata and Silybum marianum standardized extracts versus only Berberis aristata in patients with type 2 diabetes

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    Di Pierro F

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Pietro Putignano,2 Nicola Villanova,3 Luca Montesi,3 Simona Moscatiello,3 Giulio Marchesini3 1Scientific Department, Velleja Research, Milano, Italy; 2Outpatient Diabetic Clinic, University Hospital San Gerardo, Monza, Italy; 3Diseases of Metabolism, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy Background: Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid widely used to improve the glucidic and lipidic profiles of patients with hypercholesterolemia, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. The limitation of berberine seems to be its poor oral bioavailability, which is affected by the presence, in enterocytes, of P-glycoprotein – an active adenosine triphosphate (ATP-consuming efflux protein that extrudes berberine into the intestinal lumen, thus limiting its absorption. According to some authors, silymarin, derived from Silybum marianum, could be considered a P-glycoprotein antagonist. Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the role played by a possible P-glycoprotein antagonist (silymarin, when added to a product containing Berberis aristata extract, in terms of benefits to patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The study enrolled 69 patients with type 2 diabetes in suboptimal glycemic control who were treated with diet, hypoglycemic drugs, and in cases of concomitant alterations of the lipid profile, hypolipidemic agents. The patients received an add-on therapy consisting of either a standardized extract of Berberis aristata (titrated in 85% berberine corresponding to 1,000 mg/day of berberine, or Berberol®, a fixed combination containing the same standardized extract of Berberis aristata plus a standardized extract of Silybum marianum (titrated as .60% in silymarin, for a total intake of 1,000 mg/day of berberine and 210 mg/day of silymarin. Results: Both treatments similarly improved fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and liver enzyme levels, whereas glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1

  6. Radiating sterilization of fruits of the barberry ordinary berberis vulgaris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The riches of flora of Azerbaijan with its specific saturation represent a huge raw-material base for a farmaceutical industry. In territory of republic 3 kinds of a barberry wildly grow, a perspective kind is the barberry ordinary Berberis vulgaris L.In the medical purposes leaves, a root, stalks and fruits of a barberry are applied. Berries as water tincture are applied at rheumatism, a malaria, a diabetes [I.A.Damirov and etn-tilde 1988; Hofbauer F., Askeril M, 2002, etc.], at diseases of a gastroenteric path, easy, at diseases of a mouth [Ikram M, 1975]. Biochemical processes in the collected raw material during first time proceed, as in an alive plant, that is synthesis of biologi-cally active substances prevails. On a measure natural losing water in connection with the termination of receipt of a moisture and nutrients, processes of an exchange are shifted aside disintegration that results in decrease of biologically active substances in vegetative raw material. However in some cases the processes proceeding in drying raw material result on the contrary, in increase in the maintenance of working substances. Therefore improvement of ways of drying and processing of medicinal raw material by influence of small dozes ? - radiations c the purpose of reception of the high-quality raw material, connected with growing need of a global farmaceutical industry for herbs and phitopreparats is an actual problem. As a result of experimental researches conditions of radiating sterilization of fruits of a barberry ?-radiation are picked up at small dozes and at different values ionizating radiations. Fruits of a barberry were irradiated with ?-radiation on radioisotope installation 60n-tildei-circumflex at values of a doze of an irradiation in limits from 1.0 up to 1.5eGr at duration of an irradiation till 30 minutes. The qualitative control were carried out chromatografic (thin layer chromatography) and spectral (UV-VIS and IR) methods later 6, 12 and 24 months

  7. Effect of Water Based Infusion of Aloe barbedensis, Pimpinella anisum, Berberis lycium, Trigonella foenum-graecum and Allium sativum on The Performance of Broiler Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Fazal Raziq, Sarzamin Khan*, Naila Chand, Asad Sultan, Muhammad Mushtaq, Rafiullah, Sayed Muhammad Suhail1 and Alam Zeb2

    2012-01-01

    Present study explored the potentials of medicinal plants (Aloe barbedensis, Pimpinella anisum, Berberis lycium, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Allium sativum) mixture in broiler chicks at a ratio of 1:3:1:2:1, respectively. For this purpose 240 chicks were randomly assigned into four major groups, namely; A, B, C and D. Each group was further divided into two subgroups with three replicates of 10 chicks each. One of the subgroups was vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND), Infectious bronchit...

  8. Preventive Effect of Berberis Integerrima on the Serum Levels of Glucose and Lipids in Streptozotocin (STZ)-Induced Diabetes in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Ashraf; Reza Heydari; Vahid Nejati; Minoo Ilkhanipoor

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective: Use of medicinal plants for attenuation of hyperglycemia and restoration of lipids to normal level is clinically very important. We decided to assess the preventive role of aqueous extract of Berberis Integerrima root on the serum levels of glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: Forty male rats were divided into 5 groups as follows: 1- normal (N); 2- normal + barberry (N+B) (they received barberry root...

  9. Cutting of the Berberis laurina Billb. Using Different Concentrations of Indolebutyric Acid Estaquia de Berberis laurina Billb. utilizando diferentes concentrações de ácido indol butírico

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    Michelle Melissa Althaus

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Berberis laurina Billb. (Berberidaceae is a native shrub from Floresta Ombrófila Mista ecological formation, very ornamental and useful specie for recovery of degraded areas. With medical applications, its fruit is edible and its roots are used as dye. This paper aims to analyze lhe induction of lhe rooting of Berberis laurina stem cuttings employing indolebutyric acid (IBA in O, 1000 and 2000 mgL-1 concentrations, using the vermiculite as growing medium. In october 2003, stem cuttings were collected from eight stock plants, located in Fazenda Rio Grande - PR. Semi-hardwood cuttings were preppared with 8.0 cm long by 0.35 cm of diameter shape, containing three leaves on the top, cut in a half,  the base was cut in diagonal and the top was cut straight, receiving a treatment with sodium hipochlorite (0.5% for 10 minutes. The experiment was being conducted in a greenhouse. After 90 days an analysis was taken from the rooting rate, rate of the number of roots formed per cuttings, length of the three biggest  roots formed per cuttings, rate of the initial leaves which have survived since the cutting’s manufacture per cutting, rate of sprout presence per cutting, rate of not rooted living cuttings and rate of dead cuttings. The analyzed variables did not show a significative difference using 5% of probability, except for the rate of not rooted living cuttings which had differed  statistically; however, the rooting rate was above the ones found in studies made with another species of  Berberis (20.0 - 30.0 %. IBA did not improve the  rooting of B. laurina.Berberis Iaurina (Berberidaceae é um arbusto nativo da Floresta Ombrófila Mista, de grande potencial ornamental, também utilizado em recuperação de áreas degradadas. Possui aplicação medicinal, seu  fruto é comestível e suas raízes são utilizadas como  corantes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a indução do enraizamento de estacas caulinares

  10. Quantitative determination of isoquinoline alkaloids and chlorogenic acid in Berberis species using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Awantika; Bajpai, Vikas; Kumar, Sunil; Arya, Kamal Ram; Sharma, Kulwant Rai; Kumar, Brijesh

    2015-06-01

    Berberis species are well known and used extensively as medicinal plants in traditional medicine. They have many medicinal values attributable to the presence of alkaloids having different pharmacological activities. In this study, a method was developed and validated as per international conference on harmonization guidelines using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry operated in the multiple reaction monitoring mode for nine bioactive compounds, including protoberberine alkaloids, aporphine alkaloids and chlorogenic acid. This method was applied in different plant parts of eight Berberis species to determine variations in content of nine bioactive compounds. The separation was achieved on an ACQUITY UPLC CSH™ C18 column using a gradient mobile phase at flow rate 0.3 mL/min. Calibration curves for all the nine analytes provided optimum linear detector response (with R(2) ≥0.9989) over the concentration range of 0.5-1000 ng/mL. The precision and accuracy were within RSDs ≤2.4 and ≤2.3%, respectively. The results indicated significant variation in the total contents of the nine compounds in Berberis species. PMID:25847792

  11. Antidiabetic and Synergistic Effects of Anthocyanin Fraction from Berberis integerrima Fruit on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Model

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    Zahra Sabahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a complex endocrine disorder. There is a serious attempt to identify antidiabetic compounds from natural sources to use with other drugs for reduction of diabetes complications. Present study is based on the investigation of antihyperglycemic effect of anthocyanin fraction of Berberis integerrima Bunge (AFBI fruits on some physiological parameters (glucose level, glycogen content, and body weight in normal and streptozotocin-induced (STZ-induced diabetic rats and evaluation of synergic effect of this fraction with metformin and glibenclamide. Male Sprague dawley rats were divided into nine groups: healthy control group, diabetic control group, diabetic groups treated with anthocyanin fraction (200, 400 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively; diabetic groups treated with glibenclamide and metformin separately, diabetic groups treated with glibenclamide + anthocyanin fraction (1000 mg/kg, metformin + anthocyanin fraction (1000 mg/kg. Treatment of diabetic rats with AFBI (400, 1000mg/kg significantly decreased blood glucose as compared with control. Moreover, AFBI (400, 1000mg/kg significantly increased liver glycogen and body weight compared to control. Nevertheless, there were no synergistic effects between anthocyanin fraction and metformin or glibenclamide on blood glucose, liver glycogen, and body weight. The results of this study indicate that AFBI possesses hypoglycemic effects and may be considered for evaluation in future diabetes clinical studies.

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Alkaloid Fractions from Berberis microphylla G. Forst and Study of Synergism with Ampicillin and Cephalothin

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    Loreto Manosalva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberis microphylla is a native plant that grows in Patagonia and is commonly used by aboriginal ethnic groups in traditional medicine as an antiseptic for different diseases. The present study evaluated the antibacterial and synergistic activity of alkaloid extracts of B. microphylla leaves, stems and roots used either individually or in combination with antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The in vitro antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root alkaloid extracts had significant activity only against Gram-positive bacteria. Disc diffusion tests demonstrated that the root extract showed similar activity against B. cereus and S. epidermidis compared to commercial antibiotics, namely ampicillin and cephalothin, and pure berberine, the principal component of the alkaloid extracts, was found to be active only against S. aureus and S. epidermidis with similar activity to that of the root extract. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the alkaloid extracts ranged from 333 to 83 μg/mL, whereas minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs varied from 717 to 167 μg/mL. In addition, synergistic or indifferent effects between the alkaloid extracts and antibiotics against bacterial strains were confirmed.

  13. Antioxidant Properties of Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae Roots Extract and Protective Effects on Astroglial Cell Cultures

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    Agata Campisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae is a bushy-spiny shrub common on Mount Etna (Sicily. We demonstrated that the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl contains prevalently berberine and berbamine, possesses antimicrobial properties, and was able to counteract the upregulation evoked by glutamate of tissue transglutaminase in primary rat astroglial cell cultures. Until now, there are no reports regarding antioxidant properties of B. aetnensis C. Presl collected in Sicily. Air-dried, powdered roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl were extracted, identified, and quantified by HPLC. We assessed in cellular free system its effect on superoxide anion, radicals scavenging activity of antioxidants against free radicals like the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. In primary rat astroglial cell cultures, exposed to glutamate, we evaluated the effect of the extract on glutathione levels and on intracellular production of reactive oxygen species generated by glutamate. The alkaloid extract of B. aetnensis C. Presl inhibited superoxide anion, restored to control values, the decrease of GSH levels, and the production of reactive oxygen species. Potent antioxidant activities of the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl may be one of the mechanisms by which the extract is effective against health disorders associated to oxidative stress.

  14. Antibacterial Activity of Alkaloid Fractions from Berberis microphylla G. Forst and Study of Synergism with Ampicillin and Cephalothin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosalva, Loreto; Mutis, Ana; Urzúa, Alejandro; Fajardo, Victor; Quiroz, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Berberis microphylla is a native plant that grows in Patagonia and is commonly used by aboriginal ethnic groups in traditional medicine as an antiseptic for different diseases. The present study evaluated the antibacterial and synergistic activity of alkaloid extracts of B. microphylla leaves, stems and roots used either individually or in combination with antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The in vitro antibacterial activities of leaf, stem and root alkaloid extracts had significant activity only against Gram-positive bacteria. Disc diffusion tests demonstrated that the root extract showed similar activity against B. cereus and S. epidermidis compared to commercial antibiotics, namely ampicillin and cephalothin, and pure berberine, the principal component of the alkaloid extracts, was found to be active only against S. aureus and S. epidermidis with similar activity to that of the root extract. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the alkaloid extracts ranged from 333 to 83 μg/mL, whereas minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) varied from 717 to 167 μg/mL. In addition, synergistic or indifferent effects between the alkaloid extracts and antibiotics against bacterial strains were confirmed. PMID:26760994

  15. 黑果小檗总黄酮含量测定及体外抗氧化活性研究%Determination of total flavonoids and study on the antioxidation abiltity of berberis heteropoda schrenk in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; SUN Ying-ping; LI Si-dong

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the content of total flavonoids in different parts of Berberis heteropoda Schrenk and to study the an-tioxidant activity so as to provide references for efficient utilization of the herbal plant. Methods We determined the total flavonoids of Berberis heteropoda Schrenk by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, evaluated the antioxidant activity of the extracts from different parts of Berberis heteropoda Schrenk in scavenging DPPH radicals, hydroxy radicals and oxygen radicals. Results The contents of total flavonoids were richer in fruits of Berberis heteropoda Schrenk than in stem bark and root bark. In addition, the extracts from the fruits of Berberis heteropoda Schrenk showed higher antioxidant activity than the stems. Conclusion The extracts of Berberis Heteropoda Schrenk show antioxidant capacity,thus can provide a basis for the development of natural antioxidants.%目的 测定黑果小檗各部位中总黄酮含量并评价其体外抗氧化活性,为有效利用黑果小檗资源提供参考.方法 采用紫外分光光度法测定黑果小檗中总黄酮的含量,并通过DPPH、羟自由基和氧自由基清除法评价黑果小檗提取物的抗氧化活性.结果 黑果小檗果实中总黄酮含量较高;其次为茎皮及根皮;果实提取液的抗氧化活性较强,茎皮次之.结论 黑果小檗提取物具有一定的抗氧化能力,本研究可为天然抗氧化剂的开发提供依据.

  16. In Vitro Inhibitory Effect of Berberis vulgaris (Berberidaceae and Its Main Component, Berberine against Different Leishmania Species.

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    Hossein Mahmoudvand

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis has been identified as a major public health problem in tropical and sub-tropical countries. The present study was aimed to investigate antileishmanial effects of various extracts of Berberis vulgaris also its active compoenent, berberine against Leishmania tropica and L. infantum species on in vitro experiments.In this study in vitro antileishmanial activity of various extracts of B. vulgaris also its active compoenent, berberine against promastigote and amastigote stages of L. tropica and L. infantum was evaluated, using MTT assay and in a macrophage model, respectively. Furthermore, infectivity rate and cytotoxicity effects of B. vulgaris and berberine in murine macrophage cells were investigated.The findings of optical density (OD and IC50 indicated that B. vulgaris particulary berberine significantly (P<0.05 inhibited the growth rate of promastigote stage of L.tropica and L.infantum in comparison to meglumine antimoniate (MA. In addition, B. vulgaris and berberine significantly (P<0.05 decreased the mean number of amastigotes in each macrophage as compared with positive control. In the evaluation of cytotoxicity effects, it could be observed that berberine as compared with B. vulgaris exhibited more cytotoxicity against murine macrophages. Results also showed that when parasites were pre-incubated with B. vulgaris their ability to infect murine macrophages was significantly decreased.B.vulgaris particularly berberine exhibited potent in vitro leishmanicidal effects against L. tropica and L.infantum. Further works are required to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of B.vulgaris on Leishmania species using clinical settings.

  17. Evaluation of antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of the extracts of Berberis vulgaris and Nigella sativa against Leishmania tropica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mahmoudvand

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem, and the alarming spread of parasite resistance underlines the importance of discovering new therapeutic products. The present study aims to investigate the in vitro antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of the ethanolic extract of Berberis vulgaris fruits and chloroform extract of Nigella sativa seeds against Leishmania tropica. Methods: In this study, antileishmanial activity of B. vulgaris and N. sativa extracts on promastigote and amastigote stages of L. tropica in comparison to meglumine antimoniate (MA was evaluated, using MTT assay and macrophage model, respectively. MTT test was also used to assess the cytotoxicity of extracts on murine macrophages. The significance of differences was determined by analysis of variances (ANOVA and student’s t-test using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that ethanolic extract of B. vulgaris (IC50 4.83 μg/ml and chloroform extract of N. sativa (IC50 7.83 μg/ml significantly reduced the viability of promastigotes of L. tropica in comparison to MA (IC50 11.26 μg/ml. Furthermore, extracts of B. vulgaris (IC50 24.03 μg/ml and N. sativa (IC50 30.21 μg/ml significantly decreased the growth rate of amastigotes in each macrophage as compared with positive control (p <0.05. Our findings also revealed that extracts of B. vulgaris and N. sativa had no significant cytotoxicity against murine macrophages. Conclusion: The B. vulgaris and N. sativa extracts exhibited an effective leishmanicidal activity against L. tropica on in vitro model. Further, works are required to evaluate the exact effect of these extracts on Leishmania species using a clinical setting.

  18. In Vitro Study of Berberis vulgaris, Actinidia deliciosa and Allium cepa L. Antibacterial Effects on Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzabi Younes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One control method of pathogenic microorganisms is using synthetic chemical preservatives and antibiotics. Because of being generally recognized as safe, antibacterial compounds with organic origin are considered important for health. This study was done in order to investigate the antibacterial effects of methanol extracts of the Berberis vulgaris (Barberry, Actinidia deliciosa (Kiwi and Allium cepa L. (Onions on the standard strain (ATCC:19114 of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes, as it seems that it is possible to find some important organic and health safe anti-Listerial compounds. Materials and Methods: After collecting the mentioned plants phytology study was done. Then methanol extracts of named plants were prepared and antibacterial effects of these plants against the mentioned strain of L. monocytogenes by the Disk Diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC methods were performed. Also Ampicillin (10 μg/disc was used as the reference antibacterial substance. In order to find the relationship between antibacterial properties of plants extracts independent t test, chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA tests were used. Results: Results showed that the extracts of all the three studied plants had antibacterial effects on L. monocytogenes. Average diagonal of growing area in disk diffusion test for barberry, kiwi and onions in order was 12, 15.5 and 11 mm. Also MIC of mentioned plants extracts in order was 125, 62.5, and 125 μg/ml and MBC of named plants was 500, 250 and 500 μg/ ml, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this work showed that methanol extracts of kiwi had stronger anti-Listerial effect than barberry’s and onion’s extracts.

  19. Identification of eighteen Berberis species as alternate hosts of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and virulence variation in the pathogen isolates from natural infection of barberry plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Long; Wang, Zhiyan; Chen, Xianming; Zhang, Hongchang; Yao, Juanni; Zhan, Gangming; Chen, Wen; Huang, Lili; Kang, Zhensheng

    2013-09-01

    ABSTRACT The wheat stripe rust pathogen (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) population in China has been reported to be a distinct genetic group with higher diversity than those in many other countries. Genetic recombination in the P. striiformis f. sp. tritici population has been identified with molecular markers but whether sexual reproduction occurs in China is unknown. In this study, we surveyed barberry plants for infection by rust fungi in the stripe rust "hotspot" regions in Gansu, Sichuan, and Shaanxi provinces; collected barberry plants and inoculated plants of 20 Berberis spp. with germinated teliospores under controlled greenhouse conditions for susceptibility to P. striiformis f. sp. tritici; and tested P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates obtained from aecia on naturally infected barberry plants on the wheat genotypes used to differentiate Chinese P. striiformis f. sp. tritici races to determine virulence variations. Different Berberis spp. were widely distributed and most surveyed plants had pycnia and aecia of rust fungi throughout the surveyed regions. In total, 28 Berberis spp. were identified during our study. From 20 Berberis spp. tested with teliospores of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici from wheat plants, 18 species were susceptible under greenhouse conditions. Among 3,703 aecia sampled from barberry plants of three species (Berberis shensiana, B. brachypoda, and B. soulieana) under natural infections in Gansu and Shaanxi provinces, four produced P. striiformis f. sp. tritici uredinia on susceptible wheat 'Mingxian 169'. Sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the four isolates from barberry shared 99% identity with the P. striiformis f. sp. tritici sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database. The four isolates had virulence patterns different from all previously reported races collected from wheat plants. Furthermore, 82 single-uredinium isolates obtained from the four barberry isolates had

  20. Rapid screening and distribution of bioactive compounds in different parts of Berberis petiolaris using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Awantika Singh; Vikas Bajpai; Mukesh Srivastava; Kamal Ram Arya; Brijesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Berberis petiolaris Wall. ex G. Don, an unexplored medicinal plant belonging to the family Berberidaceae, is a large deciduous shrub found in Western Himalaya between 1800-3000 m. Chemical profiling of fruit, leaf, root and stem was done by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry followed by multivariate analysis for discrimination among the plant parts. The bioactive compounds, including magnoflorine, berberine, jatrorrhizine, thalifendine/berberrubine, demethyleneberberine, reticuline, 8-oxoberberine, N-methyltetrahydroberberine, tetrahydropalmatine, tetrahydroberberine and palmatine, were identified by their exact mass measurement and the corresponding molecular formula of each compound. A comparative study of distribution pattern for all these bioactive alkaloids showed qualitative and quantitative variations in different parts of B. petiolaris. Principal component analysis clearly dis-criminated each part of B. petiolaris plant.

  1. 青海省不同纬度小檗属3种植物不同部位小檗碱变化规律研究%Study on Regularity of Berberine in Various Organs of Three Kinds of Berberis in Different Latitude of Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向前胜; 王宁; 赵越; 邹林有; 孙奎; 王凯月

    2015-01-01

    Along with changes of latitude , we studied the change regularity of berberine with three kind of Berberis in Qinghai province , and used the method for the determination of Sankezhen , which was from the people ’ s Re-public of China Pharmacopoeia 2010 Edition to determine the contents of berberine in various organs of three kinds of Berberis grown in different latitude .The results showed that the contents of berberine in medicinal parts of Ber-beris vernae showed increasing trend with latitude decrease , the contents of berberine of Berberis diaphana showed the increasing trend with latitude increase , the contents of berberine of Berberis dasystachya showed first increasing then decreasing trend with the latitude increase .%为了研究青海3种小檗属植物小檗碱含量随纬度的变化规律,采用2010年版中华人民共和国药典中三颗针的测定方法测定小檗碱含量。结果表明,西北小檗各部位小檗碱的含量随纬度降低呈现出升高的趋势,鲜黄小檗则随纬度降低而减少,直穗小檗随纬度的降低而呈现先降低后增加的趋势。

  2. Clonal expansion and seedling recruitment of Oregon grape (Berberis nervosa) in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests: comparisons with salal (Gaultheria shallon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, D.; Tappeiner, J. C., II

    1997-01-01

    Seedling regeneration and morphology of Oregon grape (Berberis nervosa Pursh) and salal (Gaultheria shallon Pursh) were studied in thinned and unthinned Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in the central Coast Range, Oregon. Above- and below-ground growth of both species were significantly and negatively correlated with stand density. Oregon grape appears to have less potential for vegetative spread than does salal. It produced two to three times fewer rhizome extensions, and rhizome extensions were only half as long as those of salal. Oregon grape seedlings were common in areas of moss ground cover among patches of the two species. Salal seedlings were restricted to decaying logs. Seedling densities of Oregon grape in thinned stands were more than six times those in unthinned stands. For Oregon grape, understory establishment is accomplished by seedling establishment and recruitment of new genets. In contrast, salal maintains itself in forest understories primarily through vegetative growth, since its seedling establishment is restricted mainly to decayed wood. Continual recruitment of new aerial stems or ramets enables Oregon grape to maintain a dense cover once it is established in the understory.

  3. A PROSPECTIVE PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW OF MEDICINAL HERBS, CUCUMIS MELO AND BERBERIS VULGARIS, COMMONLY USED IN THE TREATMENT OF RENAL DISEASES IN PAKISTAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Naveed; Khan, Salimullah; Khan, Abad; Ahmad, Waqar; Shah, Yasar; Ahmad, Lateef; Ullah, Ihsan

    2015-01-01

    The kidneys are important organs which have many functions in the body, including the production of hormones, absorbtion of minerals and the filtration of blood, producing urine. Their failure can be fatal, therefore, to focus the study of such herbs which may be useful in treating renal disease is the need of hour. In Pakistan, Cucumis melo and Berberis vulgaris has been commonly used for renal problems. In both of these plants were found flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenes, which may stand for their renal protective properties. Their reported vitamin E contents and antioxidant potentials also provide a base for their defensive mechanism, may be due to their free radical scavenging properties. Further, their diuretic and urinary tract anti-ulcer properties also support their traditional use in renal diseases. Their anti-histaminic and anti-cholinergic properties also provide symptomatic treatment by decreasing prostaglandin level and due to antispasmodic properties. Concluding, both of these plants can be used for renal problems, especially Cucumis melo, which have both the nutritive and medicinal properties. Therefore, the renal disease patients are advised to take much of this particular fruit, especially their seeds to make their kidneys healthy. PMID:26647620

  4. Rapid screening for the adulterants of Berberis aristata using direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry and principal component analysis for discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Vikas; Singh, Awantika; Arya, Kamal Ram; Srivastava, Mukesh; Kumar, Brijesh

    2015-01-01

    Adulteration or substitution of commercial Berberis aristata and its herbal products with inferior-quality substituents is very common. Metabolic profiling of B. aristata, along with its common adulterants/contaminants/substituents such as B. asiatica, Mahonia borealis and Coscinium fenestratum, was rapidly carried out using direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART MS) to generate the chemical fingerprints for the differentiation of these species. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of mainly alkaloids. The identified alkaloids were berberrubine, berberine, jatrorrhizine, ketoberberine, palmatine, dihydropalmatine or 7,8-dihydro-8-hydroxyberberine, berbamine and pakistanamine. Berberine, which was mainly reported from the root and stem bark of B. aristata, was also identified in the leaf along with chlorogenic acid. The DART MS data have been subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). The resulting score plots showed clustering and clear differentiation of the species and plant parts. It is thus apparent that the technique of DART MS followed by PCA is a quick and reliable method for the direct profiling of B. aristata and its adulterant plants and plant parts. The study reports the rapid analytical method to identify the possibility of illegal adulteration/contamination/substitution in potential plant materials and herbal extracts. PMID:25739096

  5. In vitro and in vivo antimutagenic effects of DIG, a herbal preparation of Berberis vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale and Arctium lappa, against mitomycin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio, C; Boyer, L; De Meo, M; Laurant, C; Elias, R; Ollivier, E

    2015-07-01

    DIG, a liquid herbal preparation made from a mixture of diluted mother tinctures of Berberis vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale and Arctium lappa, was assessed for its antimutagenic properties against mitomycin C. The micronucleus assay on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells was used to evaluate the in vitro anticlastogenic activity of DIG compared to those of separately diluted mother tinctures. The micronucleus assay was performed on mouse erythrocytes and the comet assay was performed on mouse liver, kidney, lung, brain and testicles to assess the protective effects of DIG (0.2 and 2 % at libitum) against an intraperitoneal injection of mitomycin C (1 mg Kg(-1)) in mice. DIG exerted a powerful anticlastogenic activity, under both pretreatment and simultaneous treatment conditions as assessed by the micronucleus assay in CHO-K1 cells. Its protective activity was greater than that observed for each mother tincture. DIG reduced micronuclei levels in mouse erythrocytes and suppressed >80 % of DNA strand breaks in the liver, kidney, lung, brain and testicles of mice exposed to mitomycin C. PMID:25666712

  6. Berberine and a Berberis lycium extract inactivate Cdc25A and induce {alpha}-tubulin acetylation that correlate with HL-60 cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Musa [Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad (Pakistan); Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14 (Austria); Giessrigl, Benedikt; Vonach, Caroline; Madlener, Sibylle [Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prinz, Sonja [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14 (Austria); Herbaceck, Irene; Hoelzl, Christine [Department of Medicine I, Institute of Cancer Research, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a (Austria); Bauer, Sabine; Viola, Katharina [Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mikulits, Wolfgang [Department of Medicine I, Institute of Cancer Research, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a (Austria); Quereshi, Rizwana Aleem [Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad (Pakistan); Knasmueller, Siegfried; Grusch, Michael [Department of Medicine I, Institute of Cancer Research, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a (Austria); Kopp, Brigitte [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14 (Austria); Krupitza, Georg, E-mail: georg.krupitza@meduniwien.ac.at [Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-01-05

    Berberis lycium Royle (Berberidacea) from Pakistan and its alkaloids berberine and palmatine have been reported to possess beneficial pharmacological properties. In the present study, the anti-neoplastic activities of different B. lycium root extracts and the major constituting alkaloids, berberine and palmatine were investigated in p53-deficient HL-60 cells. The strongest growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects were found in the n-butanol (BuOH) extract followed by the ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-, and the water (H{sub 2}O) extract. The chemical composition of the BuOH extract was analyzed by TLC and quantified by HPLC. 11.1 {mu}g BuOH extract (that was gained from 1 mg dried root) contained 2.0 {mu}g berberine and 0.3 {mu}g/ml palmatine. 1.2 {mu}g/ml berberine inhibited cell proliferation significantly, while 0.5 {mu}g/ml palmatine had no effect. Berberine and the BuOH extract caused accumulation of HL-60 cells in S-phase. This was preceded by a strong activation of Chk2, phosphorylation and degradation of Cdc25A, and the subsequent inactivation of Cdc2 (CDK1). Furthermore, berberine and the extract inhibited the expression of the proto-oncogene cyclin D1. Berberine and the BuOH extract induced the acetylation of {alpha}-tubulin and this correlated with the induction of apoptosis. The data demonstrate that berberine is a potent anti-neoplastic compound that acts via anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic mechanisms independent of genotoxicity.

  7. Berberine and a Berberis lycium extract inactivate Cdc25A and induce α-tubulin acetylation that correlate with HL-60 cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberis lycium Royle (Berberidacea) from Pakistan and its alkaloids berberine and palmatine have been reported to possess beneficial pharmacological properties. In the present study, the anti-neoplastic activities of different B. lycium root extracts and the major constituting alkaloids, berberine and palmatine were investigated in p53-deficient HL-60 cells. The strongest growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects were found in the n-butanol (BuOH) extract followed by the ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-, and the water (H2O) extract. The chemical composition of the BuOH extract was analyzed by TLC and quantified by HPLC. 11.1 μg BuOH extract (that was gained from 1 mg dried root) contained 2.0 μg berberine and 0.3 μg/ml palmatine. 1.2 μg/ml berberine inhibited cell proliferation significantly, while 0.5 μg/ml palmatine had no effect. Berberine and the BuOH extract caused accumulation of HL-60 cells in S-phase. This was preceded by a strong activation of Chk2, phosphorylation and degradation of Cdc25A, and the subsequent inactivation of Cdc2 (CDK1). Furthermore, berberine and the extract inhibited the expression of the proto-oncogene cyclin D1. Berberine and the BuOH extract induced the acetylation of α-tubulin and this correlated with the induction of apoptosis. The data demonstrate that berberine is a potent anti-neoplastic compound that acts via anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic mechanisms independent of genotoxicity.

  8. Virulence and Simple Sequence Repeat Marker Segregation in a Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Population Produced by Selfing a Chinese Isolate on Berberis shensiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Zhan, Gangming; Chen, Xianming; Tungruentragoon, Angkana; Lu, Xia; Zhao, Jie; Huang, Lili; Kang, Zhensheng

    2016-02-01

    Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stripe rust, frequently produces new races overcoming resistance in wheat cultivars. A recently identified race, V26 with virulence to Yr26 and many other stripe rust resistance genes, has a high potential to cause epidemics in China. In this study, teliospores from a single-urediniospore isolate of V26 (Pinglan 17-7) produced on the wheat line 92R137 (Yr26) were used to produce a sexual population through selfing by infecting Berberis shensiana plants under controlled conditions. One hundred and eighteen progeny isolates and the parental isolate were phenotyped for virulence/avirulence on 24 Yr gene lines of wheat. These progeny isolates were all avirulent to Yr5, Yr8, Yr15, and YrTr1 and virulent to Yr1, Yr2, Yr7, Yr9, Yr10, Yr17, Yr24, Yr25, Yr26, YrA, YrExp2, and YrV23, indicating that the parental isolate is homozygous avirulent or homozygous virulent at these loci. The progeny population segregated for avirulence to Yr6, Yr43, and YrSP at one locus (3 avirulent:1 virulent ratio); for virulence to Yr27 and Yr28 at one locus (3 virulent:1 avirulent); and for Yr4, Yr32, and Yr44 at two loci (15 virulent:1 avirulent). Among the eight segregating avirulence/virulence loci, association was found between virulence to Yr4 and Yr32, as well as between virulence to Yr6 and Yr43 based on χ(2) tests. From 82 genotypically different progeny isolates, 24 pathotypes and 82 multilocus genotypes were identified. The results show that a highly diverse population can be produced from a single isolate by selfing on a barberry plant and sexually produced population can be used to genetically characterize virulence of the stripe rust pathogen. PMID:26551448

  9. Preventive Effect of Berberis Integerrima on the Serum Levels of Glucose and Lipids in Streptozotocin (STZ-Induced Diabetes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ashraf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Use of medicinal plants for attenuation of hyperglycemia and restoration of lipids to normal level is clinically very important. We decided to assess the preventive role of aqueous extract of Berberis Integerrima root on the serum levels of glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in Streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: Forty male rats were divided into 5 groups as follows: 1- normal (N; 2- normal + barberry (N+B (they received barberry root extract for 6 weeks; 3- diabetic (D (they received STZ, 65 mg/kg BW /i.p.; 4- diabetic + barberry before (D+Bb (they received barberry root extract for 3 weeks before STZ injection and continued for another three weeks; and 5- diabetic + barberry after (D+Ba (three days after STZ injection, they received barberry root extract for 3 weeks. The experimental groups received barberry root extract (500 mg/kg bw intra gastric by gavage for 6 weeks and the experimental period for each rat was 6 weeks.Results: Diabetic rats showed a significant increase in serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, and food intake as well as a decrease in HDL-C, body weight and serum insulin, compared to the other groups. Administration of the barberry root extract in diabetic rats restored these changes towards normal to some extent.Conclusion: In this study, for the first time, we showed that the administration of the barberry root extract before diabetes induction resulted in better amelioration in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, and lipid profile, compared to the group receiving it after induction: this indicates that the barberry root extract can play both a preventive and a therapeutic role in such patients.

  10. Effect of Water Based Infusion of Aloe barbedensis, Pimpinella anisum, Berberis lycium, Trigonella foenum-graecum and Allium sativum on The Performance of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazal Raziq, Sarzamin Khan*, Naila Chand, Asad Sultan, Muhammad Mushtaq, Rafiullah, Sayed Muhammad Suhail1 and Alam Zeb2

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Present study explored the potentials of medicinal plants (Aloe barbedensis, Pimpinella anisum, Berberis lycium, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Allium sativum mixture in broiler chicks at a ratio of 1:3:1:2:1, respectively. For this purpose 240 chicks were randomly assigned into four major groups, namely; A, B, C and D. Each group was further divided into two subgroups with three replicates of 10 chicks each. One of the subgroups was vaccinated against Newcastle disease (ND, Infectious bronchitis (IB and Infectious bursal disease (IBD according to locally adopted vaccination schedule keeping the other subgroup as non vaccinated control. Experimental birds in groups A, B, and C were provided with mentioned infusion @ 20, 10 and 5ml per liter of drinking water while group D was maintained as control. Relevant data were recorded throughout the experiment and or at the termination of the experiment and subjected to statistical analysis. Significantly low mean feed intake (3258.3g and better FCR (1.87 was recorded in group A. Other parameters like weight gain (1739.7g, antibody titer against ND (7.1, IBD (3300.5 and high density lipoprotein (71.6 g/dl were significantly increased in chicks from group A. Similarly, blood cholesterol (145.6 g/dl, triglyceride (145.8 g/dl and low density lipoprotein (57.5 g/dl were significantly reduced in group A. Overall vaccinated group had higher (P<0.05 antibody titer 7.2, 1796.2, 3202.8 against ND, IB and IBD, respectively compared to non-vaccinated group and had no influence on lipid profile. It was concluded that the infusion from the above plants in mentioned composition may not only be effectively used for improved broiler performance and better immunity but also to reduce the cholesterol level.

  11. 大孔树脂纯化喀什小檗花色苷%Purification of Anthocyanins from Berberis kaschgarica by Macroporous Resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏亚丽; 杨玲

    2011-01-01

    研究XAD-7HP大孔树脂分离纯化喀什小檗花色苷的纯化工艺条件。通过树脂筛选和单因素实验确定适宜工艺参数:吸附时间是4h,体积分数60%乙醇溶液为洗脱液,解析时间100min,上样液pH值2.0,吸附温度为30℃,上样质量浓度为750mg/L,洗脱流速为1.0mL/min,。该工艺生产的花色苷产品为紫黑色粉末,色价和花色苷含量比纯化前分别提高了2.21倍和3.15倍。%The condition of purification of anthocyanins from Berberis kaschgarica by XAD-7HP macroporous resins was studied.The tests of screened resins and single-factor were used to determin the optimal technological parameters: 4 hours of adsorption time,60%ethanol as eluant,desorption time 100 min,pH 2.0,temperature 30℃.The concentration of anthocyanins is 750 mg /L and flow rate is 1.0 mL/min.Under the above optimum conditions,content of anthocyanins and colour value increased 3.15 and 2.21 times respectively in dark purple powder final product.

  12. ИНТРОДУКЦИЯ СОРТОВ CORNUS L. И BERBERIS L. В УСЛОВИЯХ ЛЕСОСТЕПИ АЛТАЙСКОГО КРАЯ

    OpenAIRE

    Пугач, В.; Усенко, В.

    2012-01-01

    В условиях лесостепи Алтайского края изучены особенности перезимовки после относительно теплой (2009 г.), очень суровой (2010 г.) и суровой (2011 г.) зим, сроки начала вегетации и цветения и оценена декоративность в фазу массового цветения сортов декоративно-лиственных кустарников Cornus alba L. (Argenteomarginata, Variegata, Spaethii), Cornus stolonifera (Flaviramea), Berberis thunbergii DS. (Bonanza Gold, Goldalita, Grin Carpet, Kobold, Maria, Red Pillar, Helmond Pillar, Erecta) и Berberis ...

  13. Влияние климатических изменений на фенологические особенности видов рода Berberis L. в условиях белгородкой области

    OpenAIRE

    Жиленко, Вилена; Сорокопудов, Владимир

    2013-01-01

    В статье приводятся данные по изменениям фенологического ритма видов растений рода Berberis L. в условиях Белгородской области, в связи с климатическими изменениями. В статье приводятся многолетние наблюдения в Ботаническом саду Белгородского государственного национального исследовательского университета.The article provides data on changes of phenological rhythm of plants of Berberis L. in the Belgorod region, due to climate change. The article provides a multi-year monitoring in the Botanic...

  14. ОПЫТ КУЛЬТИВИРОВАНИЯ ВИДОВ РОДА BERBERIS L. НА СЕВЕРЕ (РЕСПУБЛИКА КОМИ)

    OpenAIRE

    Скупченко, Людмила; Зайнуллина, Клавдия; Скроцкая, Ольга

    2014-01-01

    Выявлены особенности сезонного развития и динамики роста побегов у 20 видов и форм рода Berberis L. различного географического происхождения в среднетаежной подзоне Республики Коми. Установлено сохранение ритма сезонного развития, определен период роста однолетних побегов. Выделены виды, характеризующиеся наиболее коротким периодом роста побегов в течение вегетационного сезона, что свидетельствует о возможности их культивирования на Севере. Характерной чертой биологии изучаемых видов барбарис...

  15. Thin Layer Modeling of the Convective Drying of Barberry Fruit (Berberis vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Sharifi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the drying kinetics of seedless barberry fruit was studied at 55, 65 and 75˚C air temperatures and 1±0.2 m/s air velocity in a laboratory thin layer dryer with forced convection. Samples were subjected to two different pretreatments (citric acid and vapor. The drying of seedless barberry fruit took place in the falling rate drying period. Ten thin layer-drying models were fitted to the experimental moisture ratio. Compared with other models the Midilli et al. (2002 drying model was found to satisfactorily describe the drying curves of barberry with highest amounts of coefficient of determination (r2 and lowest amounts of reduced chi-square(x2, Mean Bias Error (MBE and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff of barberry increased as the drying air temperature increased. An Arrhenius relation with activation energy values of 45.577 kJ/mol (citric acid pretreatment expressed the effect of temperature on the diffusivity.

  16. Immunomodulatory effects of barberry’s (Berberis integerrima) ingredients on macrophages:an in-vitro study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirin Fateh; Shaghayegh Pishkhan Dibazar; Saeed Daneshmandi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate suppressive effects of barberry ingredients on macrophage. Methods: Barberry alcoholic and aqueous extracts were obtained and tested on macrophages and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Nitric oxide levels were determined using Griess method and MTT assay which were done for evaluation of macrophage viability. Supernatant tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) were measured by ELISA kits. Results: MTT reduction capability was the same in all groups, unless the group with higher doses of extracts (P Conclusions: This study showed anti-inflammatory functions of barberry’s ingredients on macrophages, and at the same time displayed a low cytotoxic effect. Changes in cytokine production was various as data shows decrease in TNF-α and IL-6 levels and induction in IL-12 released by macrophages. These data propose diverse medical use of barberry in treatment of different disorders but with more precision.

  17. Universal Plant DNA Barcode Loci May Not Work in Complex Groups: A Case Study with Indian Berberis Species

    OpenAIRE

    Sribash Roy; Antariksh Tyagi; Virendra Shukla; Anil Kumar; Singh, Uma M.; Lal Babu Chaudhary; Bhaskar Datt; Bag, Sumit K.; Singh, Pradhyumna K.; Nair, Narayanan K.; Tariq Husain; Rakesh Tuli

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concept of DNA barcoding for species identification has gained considerable momentum in animals because of fairly successful species identification using cytochrome oxidase I (COI). In plants, matK and rbcL have been proposed as standard barcodes. However, barcoding in complex genera is a challenging task. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the species discriminatory power of four reportedly most promising plant DNA barcoding loci (one from nuclear genome--ITS...

  18. Comparison of Water Consumption of Berberis thunbergii ‘Atropurpurea Nana’ ve Ilex aquifolium Plants Used in the Landscape Areas

    OpenAIRE

    BAYRAMOĞLU, Elif; DEMİREL, Öner

    2014-01-01

    Water is one of the most important natural resources to sustain the continuity of life. Together with the rapidly growing population has been consumed natural resources in the world and nonrenewable resources began to decline. The most important role in the maintenance is recognized of the irrigation especially open green areas remain evergreen. However, in the areas of landscape design practices of crop water consumption can be achieved by taking into consideration terms. Considering the use...

  19. ARTEMISIA DRACUNCULUS, PUNICA GRANATUM AND BERBERIS VULGARIS INHIBITORY EFFECTS ON PLATELET ADHESION AND COAGULATION FACTORS IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Razieh Yazdanparast et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Excessive platelet activity is one of the most important factors responsible for the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and, also, play important role in coagulation cascade. In this study, the comparative effects of methanol extracts of three herbs on adhesion of the activated platelets to fibrinogen coated plates and clotting factors were investigated. Artemisia dracunculus, Punica granatum and Brberis vulgaris are used as blood anti-coagulatory plants in Iranian folk medicine. Platelets were prepared and incubated with different concentration of the test samples (50-200 μg/ml for 60 min. The treated and un-treated platelets were then activated with thrombin (0.25U/ml and their adhesions to fibrinogen coated plates were investigated. Based on obtained data, the methanol extract of Artemisia dracunculus, Brberis vulgaris and Punica granatum at a concentration of 200 μg /ml reduced platelet adhesion to coated wells by 35%, 25% and 20%, respectively. In addition, the effects of the crude extracts of each plant on atherogenic lipoproteins were also examined. The results indicated that the LDL and cholesterol concentration were dramatically reduced by 56% and 36%, respectively, by B. vulgaris. This result provided the scientific basis for the traditional use of A.dracunculus and B. vulgaris in treatment of cardiovascular related disorders.

  20. ARTEMISIA DRACUNCULUS, PUNICA GRANATUM AND BERBERIS VULGARIS INHIBITORY EFFECTS ON PLATELET ADHESION AND COAGULATION FACTORS IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Razieh Yazdanparast et al

    2012-01-01

    Excessive platelet activity is one of the most important factors responsible for the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and, also, play important role in coagulation cascade. In this study, the comparative effects of methanol extracts of three herbs on adhesion of the activated platelets to fibrinogen coated plates and clotting factors were investigated. Artemisia dracunculus, Punica granatum and Brberis vulgaris are used as blood anti-coagulatory plants in Iranian folk medicine. Platelets ...

  1. Anti-inflammatory and anti-granuloma activity of Berberis aristata DC. in experimental models of inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The result of the present study thus demonstrates the anti-inflammatory and anti-granuloma activity of BAHE which may be attributed to its inhibitory activity on macrophage-derived cytokine and mediators.

  2. 7 CFR 301.38-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... culture, suckers, or crown division. For the purposes of this subpart, a Berberis plant will be considered... placed under a screen with a control plant, i.e., a known rust-susceptible variety of Berberis... subpart. Seedling. Any plant of the genera Berberis, Mahoberberis, and Mahonia grown from seed and...

  3. Evaluation of the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Berberis vulgaris root on the activity of liver enzymes in male hypercholesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Taheri

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Noticing the antioxidant properties of B. vulgaris root extract  and its effects on reducing the activity of liver enzymes, the extract of this plant can be a good choice for improving the function of liver.

  4. In vitro action of plant extracts on Botrytis gladiolorum

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel PARVU

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro effect of extacts from Berberis vulgaris and Chelidonium majus was studied against Botrytis gladiolorum fungus isolated from Gladiolus spp. We evaluated in vitro the effect of total extracts from Berberis vulgaris and Chelidonium majus on sporulation, and sclerotia formation. Plant extracts from Berberis vulgaris, containing 1% alkaloids, and Chelidonium majus, 0,25% alkaloids, were added to PDA at alkaloid concentrations of 25 to 250 micrograme/ml. Extract from both plants had i...

  5. In vitro action of plant extracts on Botrytis gladiolorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel PARVU

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro effect of extacts from Berberis vulgaris and Chelidonium majus was studied against Botrytis gladiolorum fungus isolated from Gladiolus spp. We evaluated in vitro the effect of total extracts from Berberis vulgaris and Chelidonium majus on sporulation, and sclerotia formation. Plant extracts from Berberis vulgaris, containing 1% alkaloids, and Chelidonium majus, 0,25% alkaloids, were added to PDA at alkaloid concentrations of 25 to 250 micrograme/ml. Extract from both plants had increasing inhibitory activity against Botrytis gladiolorum fungus with increasing alkaloid concentration.

  6. IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC EFFICACY OF NATIVE PLANTS AGAINST HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Nyla; Anwar, Sadaf; Mahmood, Qaisar; Zia, Muhammad Abid; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of two medicinally important plants against Haemonchus contortus in small ruminants. Fruit peel of Punica granatum Linn. (vern. Anar), leaves and roots of Berberis lycium Royle (vern. Sumbal) were tested for their anthelmintic efficacy. Methanolic extracts of the test plants from various plant parts were tested for anthelmintic efficacy against the Haemonchus contortous using albendazole as a reference standard. The results revealed that both the plant extracts exhibited potent anthelmintic activity at concentrations higher than 50 mg/mL when tested against their respective standard drug. In case of Berberis lycium Royle when the results were compared, methanolic roots extracts showed more potent activity as compared to leaves extracts at the same concentration. It was observed that the in vitro anthelmintic potential of Punica granatum Linn. fruit peel and Berberis lyceium Royale root can be used to treat helminth infections after in vivo trails. PMID:26665413

  7. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Plants Used for the Treatment of Stomach, Diabetes, and Ophthalmic Diseases in Sudhan Gali, Kashmir, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Waseem; M. Amin Ullah Shah; Rizwana Aleem Qureshi; Iqbal Muhammad; Rabia Afza; Saeeda Yousaf

    2006-01-01

    The present paper represents the ethnopharmacological survey of Sudhan Gali, Kashmir, Pakistan. The study revealed that 12 plant species belonging to 11 famihes were used for the treatment of stomach, diabetes and ophthalmic diseases by the local people in Sudhan GaB. Achillea millefolium, Aconitun heterophyllum, Berberis lycium, Polygonum amplexicaule, Mentha longifolia, Paeonia emodi, Plantago lanceolata were locally used for stomach related problemstreatment; Berberis lycium, Skimmia lareola, Solanum dulcamara for diabetes and Geranium wallichianum, Artemisia vulgaris, Solanum dulcamara, and Corydalis crassifolia used for the treatment of ophthalmic diseases. Two species Berberis lycium and Solanum dulcamara have multipurpose value. Former is used to treat stomach as well as diabetes while latter is used to treat not only to diabetes but also ophthalmic diseases. According to IUCN categories, out of these 12 plant species collected and marketed, Polygonum amplexicaule and Paeonia emodi are endangered, Aconitum heterophyllum; Berberis lycium species are vulnerable while Plantago lanceolata and Skimmia lareola species are rare.The availability of these medicinal plants has decreased during the past 20 years and these are facing a drastic biotic pressure due to their extensive usage and non-scientific methods of collection. It is quite evident that these valuable native medicinal plants species are going to decline in number and ultimately will become extinct if no timely proper conservation strategies are adopted.

  8. 75 FR 29191 - Black Stem Rust; Additions of Rust-Resistant Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Black Stem Rust; Additions of Rust-Resistant Varieties AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: We...-resistant Berberis species or cultivars and 2 varieties to the list of rust-resistant Mahonia species...

  9. 78 FR 27855 - Black Stem Rust; Additions of Rust-Resistant Species and Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Black Stem Rust; Additions of Rust-Resistant Species and Varieties AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Direct final rule... list of rust-resistant Berberis species and varieties and one variety to the list of...

  10. Plant species first recognised as naturalised for New South Wales over the period 2000–2001

    OpenAIRE

    Hosking, John R.; Conn, Barry J.; Lepschi, Brendan J.

    2015-01-01

    Information is provided on the taxonomy and distribution of 40 species of naturalised or naturalising plants newly recorded for New South Wales during the period 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2001. These species are: Abrus precatorius subsp. precatorius, Acacia pulchella var. pulchella, Agave vivipara, Alnus glutinosa, Berberis thunbergii, Bryophyllum daigremontianum x Bryophyllum delagoense, Callisia fragrans, Celtis sinensis, Chamaesyce ophthalmica, Cotoneaster ?horizontalis, Cupressus ariz...

  11. Preliminary phytochemical screening of some Indian Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, A.

    2009-01-01

    Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and cardie glycoside distribution in five medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Asteracantha longifolia (L.) Nees, Psassiflora edulis Sims, Berberis tinctoria Lesch, Sphaeranthus indicus Linn, and Solanum trilobatum Linn. All the plants were found to contain Phenols, Cardiac glycosides, Steroids, Saponins and Tannin except for the absen...

  12. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF KUMAUN HIMALAYA AGAINST SOME PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sati, S. C.; POONAM TAKULI; Kumar, P.; K. KHULBE

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial property of methanol, ethanol and hexane extracts of Berberis aristata, Chenopodium ambrosioides and Tinospora cordifolia grown in Kumaun Himalayan were investigated against some pathogenic gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Escherichia coli, Xanthomonas phaseoli and Erwinia chrysanthemi) using disc diffusion method. Methanol extract of B. aristata was found with highest inhibitory activity against E. chrysanth...

  13. 7 CFR 301.38-3 - Protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... rust-susceptible plants of the genera Berberis, Mahoberberis, and Mahonia under the cooperative Federal... inspection program under which every plant nursery within the State is inspected at least once each year...

  14. 75 FR 54461 - Black Stem Rust; Additions of Rust-Resistant Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... subject is placed under a screen with a control plant--a known rust-susceptible species of Berberis... / Wednesday, September 8, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant...: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: We are amending...

  15. [Ability of typical greenery shrubs of Beijing to adsorb and arrest PM2.5 ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dan; Wang, Bin; Wang, Yun-qi; Zhang, Hui-lan; Yang, Song-nan; Li, Ang

    2014-09-01

    Four typical types of green shrubs of Beijing (Euonymus japonicus, Buxus microphylla, Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea, Taxus cuspidate cv. nana) were selected to study their capacities in adsorbing and arresting PM2.5 using both field observations and air chamber simulations. Concurrently, in order to analyze the pollution characteristics of Beijing in winter and spring, the PM2.5 concentrations of December 2012 to May 2013 were collected. Experimental results showed that: From the gas chamber experiments, the ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5 was in the order of Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea > Buxus microphylla > Taxus cuspidate cv. nana > Euonymus japonicus, mainly due to the differences in leaf characteristics; Outside measurement results showed that the ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5 was ranked as Buxus microphylla > Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea > Taxus cuspidate cv. nana > Euonymus japonicus. Chamber simulation and outdoor observation showed that Buxus microphylla and Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea had strong ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5; Meanwhile, the slight differences between the chamber simulation and outdoor observation results might be related to plant structure. Compared to tree species, the planting condition of shrub species was loose, and it greened quickly; By analyzing the Beijing PM2.5 concentration values in winter and spring, it was found that the PM2.5 concentration was particularly high in the winter of Beijing, and evergreen shrubs maintained the ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5. PMID:25518685

  16. 7 CFR 301.38-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., fruits, and other plant parts capable of propagation from the following rust-resistant Berberis species... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... 'Amstelveen' (2) All plants, seedlings, seeds, fruits, and other plant parts capable of propagation from...

  17. 7 CFR 301.38-4 - Interstate movement of regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 301.38-4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT... protected area: (i) All rust-susceptible Berberis, Mahoberberis, and Mahonia plants, seeds, fruits, and other plant parts capable of propagation, except Mahonia cuttings for decorative purposes. (ii) All...

  18. Fruit mineral contents of six wild species of the North Andean Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damascos, María A; Arribere, Maria; Svriz, Maya; Bran, Donaldo

    2008-10-01

    The fruit mineral contents (K, Ca, Ba, Br, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe, Na, Rb, Cs, and Sr) of four native and two exotic naturalized shrubs growing in different areas of the Andean Patagonian region of Argentina were investigated. Native species Berberis darwinii, Berberis microphylla (Berberidaceae), Aristotelia chilensis (Elaeocarpaceae) and Ribes magellanicum (Saxifragaceae) produce small berries while the fruits of the exotic species Rosa rubiginosa and Rosa canina (Rosaceae) are aggregates of aquenes. They are used to prepare jams, tea, liquors, and ice creams. Native shrub fruits had higher content of Br, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, and Na than those of the exotic naturalized species. Rosa species showed the highest contents of Ca and Ba in their fruits (the mean content doubled those of the native plant fruits). The fruit nutrient content found in the studied species was similar or higher than other values reported for fruits of temperate and tropical species in the world. PMID:18512032

  19. Berberine Prolongs Life Span and Stimulates Locomotor Activity of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Navrotskaya, V. V.; Oxenkrug, G.; Vorobyova, L. I.; Summergrad, P.

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster mutants with deficient kynurenine (KYN) formation from tryptophan (TRP) have longer life span than wild type flies. Administration of alpha-methyl-TRP and 5-methyl-TRY, the inhibitors of TRP-KYN metabolism, prolonged life span in wild-type flies. Both inhibitors are not available for human use. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Berberis aristata, is known as the herb widely used in traditional Chinese and Indian medicine. Berberin is a strong inhibitor ...

  20. Endophytic fungi Ⅷ. Two new records from medicinal plants in China%内生真菌Ⅷ.中国药用植物内生真菌两个新记录种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙剑秋; 郭良栋; 臧威

    2007-01-01

    @@ In a survey of endophytic fungi associated with medicinal plants in Beijing, two new records, Phoma jolyana and Microsphaeropsis conielloides, were isolated from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., Forsythia giraldiana Lingelsh., F. suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, F. suspensa 'duanzhi', Rhus potaninii Maxim. and Berberis poiretii Schneid. These fungi are redescribed and illustrated in this paper. The dried cultures are deposited in the Herbarium Mycologicum Academiae Sinicae (HMAS) in Beijing.

  1. Berberine inhibits intestinal secretory response of Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli enterotoxins.

    OpenAIRE

    Sack, R B; Froehlich, J L

    1982-01-01

    Berberine, an alkaloid from the plant Berberis aristata, which has been known since ancient times as an antidiarrheal medication in India and China, inhibited by approximately 70% the secretory responses of the heat-labile enterotoxins of Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli in the rabbit ligated intestinal loop model. The drug was effective when given either before or after enterotoxin binding and when given either intraluminally or parenterally; it did not inhibit the stimulation of adenyla...

  2. EFFECT OF DARUHARIDRA AND PUNARNAVA IN HEPATOCELLULAR JAUNDICE: A CLINICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Bhuwal; Pandey Hari Shankar; Dwivedi Kamal Nayan

    2011-01-01

    A clinical study was done on twenty patients of hepatocellular Jaundice. Ghanasatva (water soluble solid) of Daruharidra (Berberis aristata DC.)(Root and Stem) and leave juice of Punarnava (Boerhavia diffusa Linn.) was given to patients after their enrollment in study. Signs and symptoms of hepatocellular jaundice as yellow colour of eyes, nails, urine and loss of appetite, weakness, nausea, vomiting, fever, epigastric discomfort as well as biochemical assessment was done as GBP, S. bilirubin...

  3. Chilean Native Fruit Extracts Inhibit Inflammation Linked to the Pathogenic Interaction Between Adipocytes and Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-Farias, Marjorie; Vasquez, Karla; Ovalle-Marin, Angelica; Fuentes, Francisco; Parra, Claudia; Quitral, Vilma; Jimenez, Paula; Garcia-Diaz, Diego F.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by an increase in the infiltration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, causing an inflammatory condition associated with, for example, the development of insulin resistance. Thus, anti-inflammatory-based treatments could emerge as a novel and interesting approach. It has been reported that Chilean native fruits maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and calafate (Berberis microphylla) present high contents of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflam...

  4. Anti-hemolytic, hemagglutination inhibition and bacterial membrane disruptive properties of selected herbal extracts attenuate virulence of Carbapenem Resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Pallavi; Chawla, Raman; Narula, Alka; Goel, Rajeev; Arora, Rajesh; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Expression of a multitude of virulence factors by multi-drug resistant microbial strains, e.g., Carbapenem Resistant Escherichia coli (Family: Enterobacteriaceae; Class: Gammaproteobacteria), is responsible for resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics. Hemolysin production and induction of hemagglutination by bacterial surface receptors inflicts direct cytotoxicity by destroying host phagocytic and epithelial cells. We have previously reported that Berberis aristata, Camellia sinensis, Cyperus rotundus Holarrhena antidysenterica and Andrographis paniculata are promising herbal leads for targeting Carbapenem resistant Escherichia coli. These herbal leads were analyzed for their anti-hemolytic potential by employing spectrophotometric assay of hemoglobin liberation. Anti-hemagglutination potential of the extracts was assessed by employing qualitative assay of visible RBC aggregate formation. Camellia sinensis (PTRC-31911-A) exhibited anti-hemolytic potential of 73.97 ± 0.03%, followed by Holarrhena antidysenterica (PTRC-8111-A) i.e., 68.32 ± 0.05%, Berberis aristata (PTRC-2111-A) i.e., 60.26 ± 0.05% and Cyperus rotundus (PTRC-31811-A) i.e., 53.76 ± 0.03%. Comprehensive, visual analysis of hemagglutination inhibition revealed that only Berberis aristata (PTRC-2111-A) and Camellia sinensis (PTRC-31911-A) exhibited anti-hemagglutination activity. However, Andrographis paniculata (PTRC-11611-A) exhibited none of the inhibitory activities. Furthermore, the pair wise correlation analysis of the tested activities with quantitative phytochemical descriptors revealed that an increased content of alkaloid; flavonoids; polyphenols, and decreased content of saponins supported both the activities. Additionally, flow cytometry revealed that cell membrane structures of CRE were damaged by extracts of Berberis aristata (PTRC-2111-A) and Camellia sinensis (PTRC-31911-A) at their respective Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations, thereby confirming noteworthy antibacterial

  5. GROWINGINSİVASSALVIA SP. (SAGE) COLORSMAY BE OBTAINED FROMPLANTSANDFASTNESS VALUES

    OpenAIRE

    KAYNAR, HÜLYA; TONUS, EMİNE

    2014-01-01

    Dyeing by vegetables dyes studied for centuries has become importantagain nowadays.Moreover, the carpets woved with wool yarn dyed with vegetable dye are prefered. In our country having many dye vegetables inside its natural vegetables, one of the places in which vegetable dyes are used at most is Sivas. Quality and reputation worldwide spanning the history of Sivas carpets is very old. The dye vegetables such as Salvia sp., Juglans regia, Alkanna tinctoria, Berberis vulgaris, Pinus brutia te...

  6. Inferring the contribution of sexual reproduction, migration and off-season survival to the temporal maintenance of microbial populations: a case study on the wheat fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Gladieux, Pierre; Rahman, Hidayatur; Saqib, Muhammad S; Fiaz, Muhammad; Ahmad, Habib; Leconte, Marc; Gautier, Angélique; Justesen, Annemarie F; Hovmøller, Mogens S; Enjalbert, Jérôme; de Vallavieille-Pope, Claude

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the mode of temporal maintenance of plant pathogens is an important domain of microbial ecology research. Due to the inconspicuous nature of microbes, their temporal maintenance cannot be studied directly through tracking individuals and their progeny. Here, we suggest a series of population genetic analyses on molecular marker variation in temporally spaced samples to infer about the relative contribution of sexual reproduction, off-season survival and migration to the temporal maintenance of pathogen populations. We used the proposed approach to investigate the temporal maintenance of wheat yellow rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici (PST), in the Himalayan region of Pakistan. Multilocus microsatellite genotyping of PST isolates revealed high genotypic diversity and recombinant population structure across all locations, confirming the existence of sexual reproduction in this region. The genotypes were assigned to four genetic groups, revealing a clear differentiation between zones with and without Berberis spp., the alternate host of PST, with an additional subdivision within the Berberis zone. The lack of any differentiation between samples across two sampling years, and the very infrequent resampling of multilocus genotypes over years at a given location was consistent with limited over-year clonal survival, and a limited genetic drift. The off-season oversummering population in the Berberis zone, likely to be maintained locally, served as a source of migrants contributing to the temporal maintenance in the non-Berberis zone. Our study hence demonstrated the contribution of both sexual recombination and off-season oversummering survival to the temporal maintenance of the pathogen. These new insights into the population biology of PST highlight the general usefulness of the analytical approach proposed. PMID:24354737

  7. Expression of secondary metabolites in plants and their useful perspective in animal health

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Parsaeimehr; Elmira Sargsyan; Anush Vardanyan

    2011-01-01

    In today’s world the usage of useful secondary metabolites derived from plants metabolismspathways plays important roles in pharmaceutical productions and applications. These metabolites suchas Apigenin an anti-infection, anti-viral, anti-carcinogenic derived from Anthemis nobilis plants orBerberine an anti- microorganism, Anti diabetic, anti-inflammatory activity, anti-cancer, LDL cholesterolreducer derived from Berberis aquifolium, are constantly used in pharmaceutics. This paper tries topr...

  8. In vitro Screening for Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Antidiabetic Properties of Some Korean Native Plants on Mt. Halla, Jeju Island

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, T. K.; Kim, H.C.; Kim, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Prunus padus, Lonicera caerulea, Berberis amurensis, and Ribes maximowiczianum, which are mainly distributed on Mt. Halla, Jeju Island, have been investigated for their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic activities. The methanol extracts of R. maximowiczianum leaves and P. padus branches exhibited significant and dose-dependent antioxidant activity including electron-donation ability and reducing power. To analyze the antimicrobial activity, each extract was tested by...

  9. Long-Term Effects of White-Tailed Deer Exclusion on the Invasion of Exotic Plants: A Case Study in a Mid-Atlantic Temperate Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Xiaoli; Norman A. Bourg; William J McShea; Turner, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    Exotic plant invasions and chronic high levels of herbivory are two of the major biotic stressors impacting temperate forest ecosystems in eastern North America, and the two problems are often linked. We used a 4-ha deer exclosure maintained since 1991 to examine the influence of a generalist herbivore, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), on the abundance of four exotic invasive (Rosa multiflora, Berberis thunbergii, Rubus phoenicolasius and Microstegium vimineum) and one native (Cyno...

  10. A novel synthetic derivative of the natural product berbamine inhibits cell viability and induces apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cells, associated with activation of JNK/AP-1 signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fan; Nam, Sangkil; Zhao, Robin; Tian, Yan; Liu, Lucy; Horne, David A.; Jove, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor in children and adolescents. There is a critical need to find more potent drugs for patients with metastatic or recurrent disease. Berbamine (BBM) is a natural compound derived from the Berberis amurensis plants. BBM and its derivatives have been shown to have antitumor effects in several cancers. Here, we report that a novel synthetic berbamine derivative, BBMD3, inhibits cell viability and induces apoptosis of G292, KHOS, and MG-63 human os...

  11. Wood Anatomy of Some Turkish Plants with Special Reference to Perforated Ray Cells

    OpenAIRE

    MEREV, Nesime; GERÇEK, Ziya; SERDAR, Bedri

    2005-01-01

    This study is a further contribution to a series describing perforated ray cells and the wood anatomy of some Dicotyledons families and their taxa indigenous to Turkey: Berberis vulgaris L. (Berberidaceae), Colutea armena Boiss & Huet (Fabaceae), Coronilla emerus L. (Fabaceae), Chamaecytisus hirsutus (L.) Link. (Fabaceae), Cytisus villosus Pourr. (Fabaceae), Hedera helix L. (Araliaceae), Paliurus spina-christii Mill. (Rhamnaceae), Pistacia lentiscus L. (Anacardiaceae), Salix triandra L. s...

  12. MODERN PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES- A CONSERVAION TOOL FOR CERTAIN ENDEMIC MEDICINAL PLANTS IN NILGIRI BIOSPHERE RESERVE

    OpenAIRE

    Paulsamy, S.; Arumugasamy, K

    2002-01-01

    There plant species of medicinal and vegatational fire break importance such as Berberis tinctoria, Elaegnus kologa and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa were identified in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and their eco-physiological behaviors were analysed. The study revealed that generally all the there species were having shorter period of seed dormacy, poor viability of seeds and higher mortality of saplings. These poor eco-physiological features are the major factors for their limited distribution, lesser ...

  13. Phenacoccinae de Centro y Sudamérica (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae): Sistemática y Filogenia Central and South American Phenacoccinae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae): Systematics and Phylogeny

    OpenAIRE

    María Cristina Granara De Willink; Claudia Szumik

    2007-01-01

    Se presenta un estudio sistemático y cladístico de las especies de Phenacoccus Cockerell neotropicales. Se describen e ilustran 18 especies nuevas: Phenacoccus argentinus Granara de Willink, Ph. berberis Granara de Willink, Ph. chubutensis Granara de Willink, Ph. ornatus Granara de Willink, Ph. persimilis Granara de Willink (Argentina); Ph. erythrinus Granara de Willink (Brasil y Argentina); Ph. peruvianus Granara de Willink (Argentina y Perú); Ph. sisymbriifolium Granara de Willink (Argentin...

  14. Využití mykorhizy při vegetativním množení dřevin bylinnými řízky

    OpenAIRE

    Králová, Olga

    2015-01-01

    My thesis tested efect of mycorrhizal fungy on herbal cutting. There was two terms propagation of four species. Syringa meyeri 'Palibin', Forsythia x intermedia 'Maluch', Cornus alba and Berberis thunbergii 'Rose Glow'. Experiment had two variantion and three repeats. Plants couldn't be nursed. Most of the results are inconclusive, because of the high losses. For species of Syringa meyeri 'Palibin' was demonstrated high influence of mycorrhizal fungi. There were also differences in terms. Ove...

  15. Synergy in a medicinal plant: Antimicrobial action of berberine potentiated by 5′-methoxyhydnocarpin, a multidrug pump inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Stermitz, Frank R; Lorenz, Peter; Tawara, Jeanne N.; Zenewicz, Lauren A.; Lewis, Kim

    2000-01-01

    Multidrug resistance pumps (MDRs) protect microbial cells from both synthetic and natural antimicrobials. Amphipathic cations are preferred substrates of MDRs. Berberine alkaloids, which are cationic antimicrobials produced by a variety of plants, are readily extruded by MDRs. Several Berberis medicinal plants producing berberine were found also to synthesize an inhibitor of the NorA MDR pump of a human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. The inhibitor was identified as 5′-methoxyhydnocarpin (5′-...

  16. Effect of light on the growth and photosynthesis of an invasive shrub in its native range

    OpenAIRE

    Damascos, Marina; Lediuk, Karen; Varela, Santiago A.; Barthélémy, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species' success may depend on ecophysiological attributes present in their native area or those derived from changes that took place in the invaded environment. We studied the growth and photosynthetic capacity of Berberis darwinii shrubs growing under different light conditions (gap, forest edge and below the canopy) in their native area of Patagonia, Argentina. Leaf photosynthesis results determined in the native area were discussed in relation to information provided by studies c...

  17. Vliv struktury pěstebních školkařských substrátů na kvalitu produkce

    OpenAIRE

    Flaschková, Karolína

    2014-01-01

    The experimental plots Department of Breeding and Propagation of Ornamental Plants Gardening faculties in Lednice, was founded in 2013-year vegetation attempt. Experi-mentally evaluated the influence of substrates on the root system of ornamental plants. The experimental wood-fault was used Berberis thunbergii 'Golden Ring'. Experimental medium was creature-no RKS II substrate and the substrate for broadleaf blended with soil conditioner. The plants were evaluated morphological parameters suc...

  18. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity, liver profile test, and mutagenic activity of five plants used in traditional Mexican medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Cornejo-Garrido; Martha Salinas-Sandoval; Arely Díaz-López; Patricia Jácquez-Ríos; Myriam Arriaga-Alba; Cynthia Ordaz-Pichardo

    2015-01-01

    Berberis hartwegii Benth., Berberidaceae, Hamelia patens Jacq., Rubiaceae, Dendropanax arboreus (L.) Decne & Planch., Araliaceae, Erythrina herbacea L., Fabaceae, and Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lam., Rutaceae, acetone extracts were selected on the basis of their use in traditional Mexican medicine to treat scabies or skin diseases. Anti-dermatophyte activity in vitro was evaluated using the agar dilution assay, and the therapeutic efficacy of B. hartwegii and Z. caribaeum were tested against exper...

  19. Quality Evaluation of Ayurvedic Crude Drug Daruharidra, Its Allied Species, and Commercial Samples from Herbal Drug Markets of India

    OpenAIRE

    Sharad Srivastava; Rawat, A. K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Berberis aristata known as “Daruharidra” in Ayurveda is a versatile medicinal plant used singly or in combination with other medicinal plants for treating a variety of ailments like jaundice, enlargement of spleen, leprosy, rheumatism, fever, morning/evening sickness, snakebite, and so forth. A major bioactive marker of this genus is an alkaloid berberine, which is known for its activity against cholera, acute diarrhea, amoebiasis, and latent malaria and for the treatment of oriental sore cau...

  20. Development of monoclonal antibody against isoquinoline alkaloid coptisine and its application for the screening of medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jun-Sik; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; YUAN, CHUN-SU; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2004-01-01

    In the development of immunoassay technique, the design of hapten containing a functional group suitable for protein conjugate is the key step for the preparation of antibodies against small molecules. Coptisine (MW 320), a bioactive constituent of Berberis and Coptis species, is small as an immunogen. In addition, coptisine has no reactive group in molecule for conjugating with a protein. To overcome this problem, 9-O-carboxymethyl-berberrubine was designed and conjugated with carrier protei...

  1. Verwilderde Japanse planten in Nederland, ingevoerd door Von Siebold

    OpenAIRE

    Christenhusz, Maarten J. M.; Uffelen, van, R.L.M.

    2001-01-01

    Between 1829 and 1866 the Bavarian physician Philipp F.B. von Siebold (1796—1866) introduced many garden plants from Japan into Europe, some to be the first Japanese plants to reach Europe. Several of these species became naturalized in the Dutch flora. Completely naturalized are Fallopia japonica and Rosa rugosa, and probably also Berberis thunbergii, Cyrtomium falcatum, Ligustrum ovalifolium, Petasites japonica, and Rosa multiflora. Elaeagnus pungens, E. umbellata, Lycium chinense, Pachysan...

  2. Inhibitory effects by ayurvedic plants on prostate enlargement induced in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul K Dumbre; Manisha B Kamble; Patil, Vijay R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ayurveda recommends several plants and plant preparation for conditions of urogenital disorders as per its principles. Objectives: Ayurvedic plants Tamala (Cinnamomum tamala); Daruhalad (Berberis aristata); Ativish (Aconitum heterophyllum) were studied for mechanisms of prostatic hyperplasia induced in rats. Materials and Methods: Prostatic enlargement was induced in castrated rats by testosterone injection s.c. for 21 days and simultaneously plants were dosed orally daily. On day...

  3. PROFILE OF HEAVY METALS IN MEDICINAL PLANTS COLLECTED FROM KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Rehman, Hussain Ullah, Nisar Ahmad, Aziz Ur Rehman, Nimat Ullah, Shan Zeb, Imran and Ijaz Ahmad*

    2013-01-01

    Essential and non-essential heavy metals like Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co,  Cd, Cr and Pb were analyzed in nine selected medicinal plants namely Persea duthiei, Suaeda monoica, Oxalis corniculata, Hibiscus rosa, Erythrina variegates, Curcuma longa, Berberis lyceum, Zanthoxylum alatum and Quercus dilatata by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. These medicinal plants were selected for our investigation having in mind their extensive use in traditional medicine for various ailments by local physicia...

  4. Notes on Erysiphales (Ascomycetes) from Patagonia, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Havrylenko, Maria; Takamatsu, Susumu

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen Erysiphaceous taxa found on 20 host plant species in Patagonia are documented. A new species Oidium maculatae (type host: Viola maculata) is described. Berberis linearifolia, Buddleja globosa, Prosopis alpataco and Viola maculata, are new host plants for Erysiphales.Three new combinations on fungi and host plant species were founded: Erysiphe howeana – Fuchsia magellanica; E.patagoniaca – Nothofagus pumilio and N. antarctica. The genus Sawadaea and the species S. bicornis on Acer negu...

  5. Spatial variation of post-dispersal seed removal by rodents in highland microhabitats of Spain and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    García-Castaño, Juan L.; Jordano, Pedro; J. Kollmann

    2006-01-01

    Few data are available and little is known about spatial variation in post-dispersal seed removal at different levels throughout the geographic range of a plant species. Here, we compare post-dispersal seed removal by rodents within and among sites in two distinct regions, the south-eastern Spanish Mediterranean highlands and the Swiss Jura. Seed removal was assessed experimentally for four fleshy- fruited species (Berberis vulgaris, Crataegus monogyna, Rosa spp. and Taxus baccata...

  6. Quality evaluation of ayurvedic crude drug daruharidra, its allied species, and commercial samples from herbal drug markets of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sharad; Rawat, A K S

    2013-01-01

    Berberis aristata known as "Daruharidra" in Ayurveda is a versatile medicinal plant used singly or in combination with other medicinal plants for treating a variety of ailments like jaundice, enlargement of spleen, leprosy, rheumatism, fever, morning/evening sickness, snakebite, and so forth. A major bioactive marker of this genus is an alkaloid berberine, which is known for its activity against cholera, acute diarrhea, amoebiasis, and latent malaria and for the treatment of oriental sore caused by Leishmania tropica. Although the roots of B. aristata are considered as the official drug (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India), the study revealed that different species of Berberis, namely. B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium are also used under the name of Daruharidra in different parts of the country. Detailed physicochemical and phytochemical studies of subjects like total ash, acid insoluble ash, tannins, and total alkaloids were calculated from the shade dried powdered material according to the recommended procedures. Further, heavy metal studies and quantitative estimation of berberine through HPTLC have also been performed as per ICH guidelines. A detailed study of four Berberis species, namely B. aristata, B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium, which are implicated as Daruharidra and collected from wild and ten commercial samples procured from various important drug markets in India has been carried out, which may be useful to pharmaceutical industries for the authentication of the commercial samples and exploring the possibilities of using other species as a substitute of B. aristata. PMID:23431340

  7. Quality Evaluation of Ayurvedic Crude Drug Daruharidra, Its Allied Species, and Commercial Samples from Herbal Drug Markets of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberis aristata known as “Daruharidra” in Ayurveda is a versatile medicinal plant used singly or in combination with other medicinal plants for treating a variety of ailments like jaundice, enlargement of spleen, leprosy, rheumatism, fever, morning/evening sickness, snakebite, and so forth. A major bioactive marker of this genus is an alkaloid berberine, which is known for its activity against cholera, acute diarrhea, amoebiasis, and latent malaria and for the treatment of oriental sore caused by Leishmania tropica. Although the roots of B. aristata are considered as the official drug (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, the study revealed that different species of Berberis, namely. B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium are also used under the name of Daruharidra in different parts of the country. Detailed physicochemical and phytochemical studies of subjects like total ash, acid insoluble ash, tannins, and total alkaloids were calculated from the shade dried powdered material according to the recommended procedures. Further, heavy metal studies and quantitative estimation of berberine through HPTLC have also been performed as per ICH guidelines. A detailed study of four Berberis species, namely B. aristata, B. asiatica, B. chitria, and B. lycium, which are implicated as Daruharidra and collected from wild and ten commercial samples procured from various important drug markets in India has been carried out, which may be useful to pharmaceutical industries for the authentication of the commercial samples and exploring the possibilities of using other species as a substitute of B. aristata.

  8. Studies on quantitative determination of total alkaloids and berberine in five origins of crude medicine "Sankezhen".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Luyang; Long, Weifang; Wan, Xiangluan; Ding, Qi; Zhang, Fei; Wan, Dingrong

    2015-02-01

    The roots of Berberis plants are widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine called "Sankezhen", having the activities of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory, and the ingredients are alkaloids. This work aims to study and compare the total alkaloids and individual alkaloid (berberine) contents in roots and stems from five origins of Berberis plants (Berberis soulieana Schneid., B. henryana Schneid., B. triacanthophora Fedde, B. gagnepainii Schneid. and B. bergmanniae Schneid.) and provides some references for resource and quality evaluation of the medicine. Acid dye colorimetry and high-performance liquid chromatography were used in the determination. The results showed that the contents for the total alkaloids in root and stem samples were in the range of 1.60-4.72% and 0.76-2.70%, while those of the berberine were 0.70-2.92% and 0.23-1.07%. With higher contents of the total alkaloids and berberine, the roots of B. soulieana, B. gagnepainii and B. bergmanniae were good sources of "Sankezhen". Meanwhile, the contents were also high in stems of the three plants, indicating that the stems were likely to be alternative sources of "Sankezhen" after further research. As the results of precision, stability and recovery tests shown, the methods were simple, rapid and reliable, and provided valuable basis for quality evaluation and new resource investigation of "Sankezhen". PMID:25013028

  9. Berberine Antifungal Activity in Fluconazole-Resistant Pathogenic Yeasts: Action Mechanism Evaluated by Flow Cytometry and Biofilm Growth Inhibition in Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Anderson Ramos; de Andrade Neto, João Batista; da Silva, Cecília Rocha; Campos, Rosana de Sousa; Costa Silva, Rose Anny; Freitas, Daniel Domingues; do Nascimento, Francisca Bruna Stefany Aires; de Andrade, Larissa Nara Dantas; Sampaio, Letícia Serpa; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa; Magalhães, Hemerson Iury Ferreira; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Nobre Júnior, Hélio Vitoriano

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of fungal infections and, in particular, the incidence of fungal antibiotic resistance, which is associated with biofilm formation, have significantly increased, contributing to morbidity and mortality. Thus, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. In this context, natural products have emerged as a major source of possible antifungal agents. Berberine is a protoberberine-type isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the roots, rhizomes, and stem bark of natural herbs, such as Berberis aquifolium, Berberis vulgaris, Berberis aristata, and Hydrastis canadensis, and of Phellodendron amurense Berberine has been proven to have broad antibacterial and antifungal activity. In the present study, the potential antifungal effect of berberine against fluconazole-resistant Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans strains, as well as against the biofilm form of Candida spp., was assessed. The antifungal effect of berberine was determined by a broth microdilution method (the M27-A3 method of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) and flow cytometry techniques, in which the probable mechanism of action of the compound was also assessed. For biofilm assessment, a colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the susceptibility of sessile cells. The isolates used in the study belonged to the Laboratory of Bioprospection and Experiments in Yeast (LABEL) of the Federal University of Ceará. After 24 and 72 h, fluconazole-resistant Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans strains showed berberine MICs equal to 8 μg/ml and 16 μg/ml, respectively. Cytometric analysis showed that treatment with berberine caused alterations to the integrity of the plasma and mitochondrial membranes and DNA damage, which led to cell death, probably by apoptosis. Assessment of biofilm-forming isolates after treatment showed statistically significant reductions in biofilm cell activity (P < 0.001). PMID:27021328

  10. Indicator species of essential forest tree species in the Burdur district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negiz, Mehmet Güvenç; Eser, Yunus; Kuzugüdenll, Emre; Izkan, Kürşad

    2015-01-01

    The forests of Burdur district for long have been subjected to over grazing and individual selection. As a result of this, majority of the forest areas in the district were degraded. In the district, afforestation efforts included majority of forestry implementations. It is well known that selecting suitable species plays an important role for achieving afforestation efforts. In this context, knowing the indicator species among the target species would be used in afforestation efforts, studies on the interrelationships between environmental factors and target species distribution is vital for selecting suitable species for a given area. In this study, Anatolian Black pine (Pinus nigra), Red pine (Pinus brutia), Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa) and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani), essential tree species, were considered as target species. The data taken from 100 sample plots in Burdur district was used. Interspecific correlation analysis was performed to determine the positive and negative indicator species among each of the target species. As a result of ICA, 2 positive (Berberis crataegina, Juniperus oxycedrus), 2 negative (Phillyrea latifolia, Quercus coccifera) for Crimean Juniper, I positive (Juniperus oxycedrus), 3 negative (Onopordium acanthium, Fraxinus ornus, Phillyrea latifolia) for Anatolian black pine, 3 positive (Paliurus spina-christi, Quercus coccifer, Crataegus orientalis), 2 negative (Berberis crataegina, Astragalus nanus) for Red pine and 3 positive (Berberis crataegina, Rhamnus oleoides, Astragalus prusianus) 2 negative (Paliurus spina-christi, Quercus cerris) for Taurus cedarwere defined as indicator plant species. In this way, practical information was obtained for selecting the most suitable species, among the target species, for afforestation efforts in Burdur district. PMID:26591889

  11. 具有协同解热作用的植物组方

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘怡(摘)

    2007-01-01

    一种具有协同解热作用的组方由具芒小檗Berberis aristata、心叶青牛胆Tinospora cordifolia、糖胶树Alstonia scholaris、穿心莲Andrographis paniculata和草果药Hedychium spicatum以及适量添加剂组成。将这些植物的叶、根或茎干燥粉碎,以有机溶媒提取,减压浓缩,冻干即得本品。

  12. Evaluation of Synergetic Anticancer Activity of Berberine and Curcumin on Different Models of A549, Hep-G2, MCF-7, Jurkat, and K562 Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya Balakrishna; M. Hemanth kumar

    2015-01-01

    Ayurvedic system of medicine is using Berberis aristata and Curcuma longa herbs to treat different diseases including cancer. The study was performed to evaluate the synergetic anticancer activity of Berberine and Curcumin by estimating the inhibition of the cell proliferation by cytotoxicity assay using MTT method on specified human cell lines (A549, Hep-G2, MCF-7, Jurkat, and K562). All the cells were harvested from the culture and seeded in the 96-well assay plates at seeding density of 2....

  13. Medicinal plants of Chile: evaluation of their anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Orlando M; Maya, Juan D; Ferreira, Jorge; Christen, Philippe; San Martin, José; López-Muñoz, Rodrigo; Morello, Antonio; Kemmerling, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    The extracts of several plants of Central Chile exhibited anti-Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes activity. Most active extracts were those obtained from Podanthus ovatifolius, Berberis microphylla, Kageneckia oblonga, and Drimys winteri. The active extract of Drimys winteri (IC50 51.2 microg/mL) was purified and three drimane sesquiterpenes were obtained: polygodial, drimenol, and isodrimenin. Isodrimenin and drimenol were found to be active against the trypomastigote form of T. cruzi with IC50 values of 27.9 and 25.1 microM, respectively. PMID:23923616

  14. Notes florístiques de les conques altes dels rius Segre i Llobregat. III

    OpenAIRE

    Aymerich, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Al present article, hi aportem dades d’un interès especial per a la flora regional de les conques superiors del Segre i el Llobregat (Pirineus orientals), referides a tàxons fins ara desconeguts a la zona o molt rars. Els tàxons al·lòctons Epilobium ciliatum Raf. (invasor) i Berberis vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris i Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud. (casuals) constitueixen una novetat per a la flora de Catalunya. També confirmem la presència actual de Bidens cernuus L., espècie que, aparentmen...

  15. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS OF KUMAUN HIMALAYA AGAINST SOME PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. SATI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial property of methanol, ethanol and hexane extracts of Berberis aristata, Chenopodium ambrosioides and Tinospora cordifolia grown in Kumaun Himalayan were investigated against some pathogenic gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Escherichia coli, Xanthomonas phaseoli and Erwinia chrysanthemi using disc diffusion method. Methanol extract of B. aristata was found with highest inhibitory activity against E. chrysanthemi (ZOI, 11±0.3mm. Whereas lowest inhibition was recorded in ethanolic extract of B. aristata against E. coli. The hexane extract of B. aristata and methanolic extract of C. ambrosioides were found totally inactive against all the pathogens tested.

  16. Expression of secondary metabolites in plants and their useful perspective in animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Parsaeimehr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world the usage of useful secondary metabolites derived from plants metabolismspathways plays important roles in pharmaceutical productions and applications. These metabolites suchas Apigenin an anti-infection, anti-viral, anti-carcinogenic derived from Anthemis nobilis plants orBerberine an anti- microorganism, Anti diabetic, anti-inflammatory activity, anti-cancer, LDL cholesterolreducer derived from Berberis aquifolium, are constantly used in pharmaceutics. This paper tries topresent some information about some of these metabolites and the usage of them.

  17. Antibacterial Dyeing of Wool with Natural Cationic Dye Using Metal Mordants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminoddin HAJI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Berberine colorant extracted from berberis vulgaris root was applied on wool fiber using alum (aluminum potassium sulfate, copper sulfate and potassium dichromate as mordant. The effect of treatment variables such as amount of mordant, time and temperature on the color strength of dyed fibers was examined. The fastness properties of dyed wool against washing, light and wet rubbing were evaluated. the use of metal mordants increased the color strength of the dyed goods. Increase in dyeing time and temperature caused deeper shades. All mordants, increased the rub fastness and wash fastness of dyed samples, but the light fastness was increased except in case of alum. Berberine is a cationic dye and because of it's quaternary ammonium structure can act as an antibacterial agent. So, dyed samples were tested for antibacterial activity using AATCC test method 100-2004. The dyed wool represented a high level of antibacterial activity. The extract of the berberis vulgaris can be considered as a natural dye of acceptable fastness properties together with excellent antibacterial activity for woolen textiles.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.3.2437

  18. Los pobladores productores de alimentos en las Sierras de Córdoba. Primeras evidencias arqueobotánicas en los sitios Arroyo Tala Cañada 1 y C.Pun. 39

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura López

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Los grupos prehispánicos tardíos que ocuparon las Sierras de Córdoba entre ca. 1200- 300 AP se caracterizaron por poseer una estrategia predominantemente agrícola, que se complementaba con el pastoreo y la caza- recolección (Berberián y Roldán 2001; Pastor y Medina 2003, 2004. Sin embargo, no se realizaron hasta el presente estudios específicos sobre restos arquebotánicos que hayan aportado un panorama acerca del aprove- chamiento de vegetales silvestres y/o cultivados. Por el contrario, el conocimiento sobre el empleo de estos recursos provino de evidencias indirectas, como la ubicación de las bases residenciales en terrenos potencialmente cultivables, la presencia de sitios pequeños al aire libre interpretados como campos de cultivo (Berberián y Roldán 2001; Medina y Pastor 2004 y el hallazgo de instrumentos relacio- nados con el laboreo agrícola (azuelas y con la molienda de granos (conanas y morteros.

  19. Plant medicines of Indian origin for wound healing activity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tuhin Kanti; Mukherjee, Biswapati

    2003-03-01

    Research on wound healing drugs is a developing area in modern biomedical sciences. Scientists who are trying to develop newer drugs from natural resources are looking toward the Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine. Several drugs of plant, mineral, and animal origin are described in the Ayurveda for their wound healing properties under the term Vranaropaka. Most of these drugs are derived from plant origin. Some of these plants have been screened scientifically for the evaluation of their wound healing activity in different pharmacological models and patients, but the potential of most remains unexplored. In a few cases, active chemical constituents were identified. Some Ayurvedic medicinal plants, namely, Ficus bengalensis, Cynodon dactylon, Symplocos racemosa, Rubia cordifolia, Pterocarpus santalinus, Ficus racemosa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Berberis aristata, Curcuma longa, Centella asiatica, Euphorbia nerifolia, and Aloe vera, were found to be effective in experimental models. This paper presents a limited review of plants used in Ayurvedic medicine. PMID:15866825

  20. Genetic variation in Puccinia graminis collected from oats, rye, and barberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Anna; Djurle, Annika; Samils, Berit; Yuen, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Puccinia graminis, the causal agent of stem rust, was collected from its alternate host barberry (Berberis spp.) and two different uredinial hosts, oats (Avena sativa) and rye (Secale cereale). The samples were analyzed using 11 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. There were large differences between fungal populations on oats (P. graminis f. sp. avenae) and rye (P. graminis f. sp. secalis), and the genetic variation within the different formae speciales was also high. It was possible to distinguish between the two formae speciales on barberry. Additional genotypic groups not present in the field samples from oats and rye were also identified on barberry. Our results confirm the importance of barberry in maintaining the populations of P. graminis in Sweden and the importance of the sexual stage for the survival of the pathogen. PMID:22734559

  1. EFFECT OF DARUHARIDRA AND PUNARNAVA IN HEPATOCELLULAR JAUNDICE: A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Bhuwal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A clinical study was done on twenty patients of hepatocellular Jaundice. Ghanasatva (water soluble solid of Daruharidra (Berberis aristata DC.(Root and Stem and leave juice of Punarnava (Boerhavia diffusa Linn. was given to patients after their enrollment in study. Signs and symptoms of hepatocellular jaundice as yellow colour of eyes, nails, urine and loss of appetite, weakness, nausea, vomiting, fever, epigastric discomfort as well as biochemical assessment was done as GBP, S. bilirubin, S. alkaline phosphate, SGOT, SGPT & HBsAg etc. were recorded before and after treatment. Self control method was adopted in this study, patients of haemolytic and obstructive jaundice and jaundice due to carcinoma of liver, GB, pancreas etc. were excluded from the study. Assessment suggests improvement in patients suffering from hepatocellular jaundice after three months of treatment.

  2. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Standardisation of Polyherbal Tablets For Hepatoprotective Activity Against Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity

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    Vilas A. Arsul

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Literature survey revealed that phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin from Phyllanthus niruri, wedenolactone from Eclipta alba, and kutkin from Picrorhiza kurroa are responsible for hepatoprotective activity, and phenolic and flavonoids are responsible for antioxidant activity. A selected polyherbal formulation composed of 7 herbal extract mixtures such as Phyllanthus niruri, Eclipta alba, Cichorium intybus, Boerhaavia diffusa, Embelia ribes, Berberis aristata and Picrorhiza kurroa. The phytochemical evaluation was carried out by estimation of total phenolic content and total flavonoids. The antioxidant activity was compared with ascorbic acid (ASC and Rutin as standard. The hepatoprotective activity in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity were studied. Assessment of liver function was made by estimating the activities of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, Cholesterol, Bilirubin and Total protein. From the study it is seen that formulation exhibit significant activity.

  3. Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial action of silver nanoparticles from root bark extract of Berberislycium Royle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Ansar; Murtaza, Ghulam; Bhatti, Tariq Mahmood; Kausar, Rehana; Ahmed, Muhammad Jamil

    2016-01-01

    Various biological methods are being recognized for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles, which are used in several fields. The phytosynthesis of nanoparticles came out as a cost effective and enviro-friendly approach. When root bark extract of Berberis lycium was treated with silver ions, they reduced to silver nanoparticles, which were spherical, crystalline, size ranged from 10-100nm and capped by biomolecules. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). The plant mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles showed pronounced antimicrobial activities against both Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebseilla pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis). The plant mediated process proved to be non-toxic and low cost contender as reducing agent for synthesizing stable silver nanoparticles. PMID:26826826

  4. Low proton conductance of plant cuticles and its relevance to the acid-growth theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, S.A.; Seymour, V.; Cleland, R.E.

    1981-09-01

    Evidence obtained on the relation between the pH of the medium and the growth of intact stem sections is compatible with the acid-growth theory only if the proton conductance of the cuticle is an effective barrier to the entry or exit of protons from the tissue. By measuring the rate at which protons cross frozen-thawed epidermal strips of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) and soybean hypocotyls (Glycine max Morr.) and enzymically isolated cuticles of Berberis aquifolium Persh. and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) fruit, we have now demonstrated the low proton conductance of the cuticular layer. Unless the conductance is enhanced by abrasion of the cuticle or by removal of the cuticular waxes, proton movement into and out of a tissue across the cuticle will be significant only over long time periods.

  5. In vitro Screening for Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Antidiabetic Properties of Some Korean Native Plants on Mt. Halla, Jeju Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, T K; Kim, H C; Kim, J S

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Prunus padus, Lonicera caerulea, Berberis amurensis, and Ribes maximowiczianum, which are mainly distributed on Mt. Halla, Jeju Island, have been investigated for their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic activities. The methanol extracts of R. maximowiczianum leaves and P. padus branches exhibited significant and dose-dependent antioxidant activity including electron-donation ability and reducing power. To analyze the antimicrobial activity, each extract was tested by a serial two-fold dilution method against five selected gram-positive bacteria and four gram-negative bacteria, and this suggested that P. padus branches possessed the maximum antimicrobial activity against most of the gram-positive bacteria tested. In addition, the methanol extracts of P. padus branches exhibited the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 1.0±0.1 μg/ml, indicating that P. padus is a promising source as a herbal medicine. PMID:26997693

  6. Effects of berberine in the gastrointestinal tract - a review of actions and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunqiu; Yu, Zhen; Li, Yongyu; Fichna, Jakub; Storr, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid present in several plant species, including Coptis sp. and Berberis sp. In traditional medicine, extracts of berberine are used in the treatment of diarrhea of different origins. Recent studies have shown that berberine and its derivatives have significant biological effects on gastrointestinal (GI) and other functions and may become therapeutics for the treatment of diarrhea, gastroenteritis, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory conditions. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on the actions of berberine in the GI tract. Binding and target sites, activated intracellular pathways, as well as the absorption and metabolism of berberine are discussed. Effects that may be useful in future clinical treatment, like antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects are critically reviewed and potential clinical applications are presented in detail. PMID:25183302

  7. Sensitization of Candida albicans to terbinafine by berberine and berberrubine

    Science.gov (United States)

    LAM, PIKLING; KOK, STANTON HON LUNG; LEE, KENNETH KA HO; LAM, KIM HUNG; HAU, DESMOND KWOK PO; WONG, WAI YEUNG; BIAN, ZHAOXIANG; GAMBARI, ROBERTO; CHUI, CHUNG HIN

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans (C. albicans) is an opportunistic fungal pathogen, particularly observed in immunocompromised patients. C. albicans accounts for 50–70% of cases of invasive candidiasis in the majority of clinical settings. Terbinafine, an allylamine antifungal drug, has been used to treat fungal infections previously. It has fungistatic activity against C. albicans. Traditional Chinese medicines can be used as complementary medicines to conventional drugs to treat a variety of ailments and diseases. Berberine is a quaternary alkaloid isolated from the traditional Chinese herb, Coptidis Rhizoma, while berberrubine is isolated from the medicinal plant Berberis vulgaris, but is also readily derived from berberine by pyrolysis. The present study demonstrates the possible complementary use of berberine and berberrubine with terbinafine against C. albicans. The experimental findings assume that the potential application of these alkaloids together with reduced dosage of the standard drug would enhance the resulting antifungal potency. PMID:27073630

  8. [Models for biomass estimation of four shrub species planted in urban area of Xi'an city, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zheng-Yang; Liu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Four common greening shrub species (i. e. Ligustrum quihoui, Buxus bodinieri, Berberis xinganensis and Buxus megistophylla) in Xi'an City were selected to develop the highest correlation and best-fit estimation models for the organ (branch, leaf and root) and total biomass against different independent variables. The results indicated that the organ and total biomass optimal models of the four shrubs were power functional model (CAR model) except for the leaf biomass model of B. megistophylla which was logarithmic functional model (VAR model). The independent variables included basal diameter, crown diameter, crown diameter multiplied by height, canopy area and canopy volume. B. megistophylla significantly differed from the other three shrub species in the independent variable selection, which were basal diameter and crown-related factors, respectively. PMID:24765849

  9. Eriophyoid mites from Qinghai Province, northwestern China with descriptions of nine new species (Acari, Eriophyoidea

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    Hao-Sen Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eriophyoid mites from Qinghai Province, northwestern China were studied herein. Up to now, only six species have been reported from Qinghai Province. In field surveys, 17 eriophyoid mite species were collected, among which nine species were found new to science. The new species and their host plants are listed as follows: Acaphyllisa tuberculumae sp. n. on Populus sp. (Salicaceae; Proiectus xiningensis sp. n. on Pinus sp. (Pinaceae; Phyllocoptes beishaniensis sp. n. on Spiraea mongolica Maxim. (Rosaceae; Tetra pruniana sp. n. on Prunus tomentosa Thunb. (Rosaceae Rupr. (Berberidaceae; Tetra pyriana sp. n. on Pyrus calleryana Decne. (Rosaceae; Tetra simonia sp. n. on Populus simonii Carr. (Salicaceae; Diptacus berberinus sp. n. on Berberis amurensis Rupr. (Berberidaceae; Diptacus mengdaensis sp. n. on Lonicera elisae Franch. (Caprifoliaceae; Rhyncaphytoptus spinus sp. n. on Lonicera rupicola Hook. f. et Thoms. (Caprifoliaceae. Aculops ulmi Hong & Xue, 2005 was re-described.

  10. Biodiversity Status, Distribution and Use Pattern of Some Ethno-Medicinal Plants

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    Priti KUMARI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The erosion of plant biodiversity is a matter of global concern. Due to unawareness the building blocks of entire ecosystems are disappearing. Some medicinal plants like Taxus baccata Linn., Thymus serpyllum Linn., Coleus forskohli Will., Oroxylum indicum Linn., Valeriana hardwickii Wall., Malaxis acuminata D.Don, Habenaria edgeworthii Hook. f.ex.Collett., Costus speciosus (Koen. Sm., Dioscorea deltodea Wall., Gloriosa superba Linn., Polygonatum cirrhifolium Wall. and Polygonatum verticillatum Linn., Thalictrum foliolosum DC., Berberis aristata DC., Baliospermum montanum Will., Bergenia ciliata (Haworth Sternb., Clerodendrum serratum Linn., Valeriana jatamansii Jones, Celastrus paniculatus Will., Habenaria intermedeia D. Don, and Curculigo orchioides Gaerth are reached on the border of extinction. The 2008 IUCN Red List shows that the number of threatened plant species is increasing gradually (IUCN 2008. Therefore, there is an immediate need for conservation steps to be taken up along with promotion of conservation of medicinal plants.

  11. Historic Mining and Agriculture as Indicators of Occurrence and Abundance of Widespread Invasive Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calinger, Kellen; Calhoon, Elisabeth; Chang, Hsiao-Chi; Whitacre, James; Wenzel, John; Comita, Liza; Queenborough, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances often change ecological communities and provide opportunities for non-native species invasion. Understanding the impacts of disturbances on species invasion is therefore crucial for invasive species management. We used generalized linear mixed effects models to explore the influence of land-use history and distance to roads on the occurrence and abundance of two invasive plant species (Rosa multiflora and Berberis thunbergii) in a 900-ha deciduous forest in the eastern U.S.A., the Powdermill Nature Reserve. Although much of the reserve has been continuously forested since at least 1939, aerial photos revealed a variety of land-uses since then including agriculture, mining, logging, and development. By 2008, both R. multiflora and B. thunbergii were widespread throughout the reserve (occurring in 24% and 13% of 4417 10-m diameter regularly-placed vegetation plots, respectively) with occurrence and abundance of each varying significantly with land-use history. Rosa multiflora was more likely to occur in historically farmed, mined, logged or developed plots than in plots that remained forested, (log odds of 1.8 to 3.0); Berberis thunbergii was more likely to occur in plots with agricultural, mining, or logging history than in plots without disturbance (log odds of 1.4 to 2.1). Mining, logging, and agriculture increased the probability that R. multiflora had >10% cover while only past agriculture was related to cover of B. thunbergii. Proximity to roads was positively correlated with the occurrence of R. multiflora (a 0.26 increase in the log odds for every 1-m closer) but not B. thunbergii, and roads had no impact on the abundance of either species. Our results indicated that a wide variety of disturbances may aid the introduction of invasive species into new habitats, while high-impact disturbances such as agriculture and mining increase the likelihood of high abundance post-introduction. PMID:26046534

  12. [A new herbs traceability method based on DNA barcoding-origin-morphology analysis--an example from an adulterant of 'Heiguogouqi'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xuan; Zhang, Xiao-qin; Song, Xiao-na; Zang, Yi-mei; Li Yan-peng; Ma, Chang-hua; Zhao, Bai-xiao; Liu, Chun-sheng

    2014-12-01

    The fruit of Lycium ruthenicum is a common folk medicine in China. Now it is popular for its antioxidative effect and other medical functions. The adulterants of the herb confuse consumers. In order to identify a new adulterant of L. ruthenicum, a research was performed based on NCBI Nucleotide Database ITS Sequence, combined analysis of the origin and morphology of the adulterant to traceable varieties. Total genomic DNA was isolated from the materials, and nuclear DNA ITS sequences were amplified and sequenced; DNA fragments were collated and matched by using ContingExpress. Similarity identification of BLAST analysis was performed. Besides, the distribution of plant origin and morphology were considered to further identification and verification. Families and genera were identified by molecular identification method. The adulterant was identified as plant belonging to Berberis. Origin analysis narrowed the range of sample identification. Seven different kinds of plants in Berberis were potential sources of the sample. Adulterants variety was traced by morphological analysis. The united molecular identification-origin-morphology research proves to be a preceding way to medical herbs traceability with time-saving and economic advantages and the results showed the new adulterant of L. ruthenicum was B. kaschgarica. The main differences between B. kaschgarica and L. ruthenicum are as follows: in terms of the traits, the surface of B. kaschgarica is smooth and crispy, and that of L. ruthenicum is shrinkage, solid and hard. In microscopic characteristics, epicarp cells of B. aschgarica thickening like a string of beads, stone cells as the rectangle, and the stone cell walls of L. ruthenicum is wavy, obvious grain layer. In molecular sequences, the length of ITS sequence of B. kaschgarica is 606 bp, L. ruthenicum is 654 bp, the similarity of the two sequences is 53.32%. PMID:25898573

  13. Extracts from Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plants Inhibit Acetylcholinesterase, a Known Alzheimer’s Disease Target

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    Dorothea Kaufmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE is a common treatment for early stages of the most general form of dementia, Alzheimer’s Disease (AD. In this study, methanol, dichloromethane and aqueous crude extracts from 80 Traditional Chinese Medical (TCM plants were tested for their in vitro anti-acetylcholinesterase activity based on Ellman’s colorimetric assay. All three extracts of Berberis bealei (formerly Mahonia bealei, Coptis chinensis and Phellodendron chinense, which contain numerous isoquinoline alkaloids, substantially inhibited AChE. The methanol and aqueous extracts of Coptis chinensis showed IC50 values of 0.031 µg/mL and 2.5 µg/mL, therefore having an up to 100-fold stronger AChE inhibitory activity than the already known AChE inhibitor galantamine (IC50 = 4.33 µg/mL. Combinations of individual alkaloids berberine, coptisine and palmatine resulted in a synergistic enhancement of ACh inhibition. Therefore, the mode of AChE inhibition of crude extracts of Coptis chinensis, Berberis bealei and Phellodendron chinense is probably due to of this synergism of isoquinoline alkaloids. All extracts were also tested for their cytotoxicity in COS7 cells and none of the most active extracts was cytotoxic at the concentrations which inhibit AChE. Based on these results it can be stated that some TCM plants inhibit AChE via synergistic interaction of their secondary metabolites. The possibility to isolate pure lead compounds from the crude extracts or to administer these as nutraceuticals or as cheap alternative to drugs in third world countries make TCM plants a versatile source of natural inhibitors of AChE.

  14. Biochemical changes in barberries during adventitious root formation: the role of indole-3-butyric acid and hydrogen peroxide

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    Ali Tehranifar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, phenolic compounds and total sugars (TS were investigated during root formation in cuttings of Berberis vulgaris var. asperma (BVA and Berberis thunbergii var. atropurpurea (BTA treated with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and IBA+H2O2. Rooting was observed on BTA cuttings but not on BVA cuttings. The BTA cuttings treated with IBA and IBA+H2O2 showed higher rooting percentages, number of roots, and root length over the control. Those treated with IBA+H2O2 recorded the lowest peroxidase activity after planting. BTA cuttings treated with IBA+H2O2 showed the highest peroxidase activity at 50 d after planting; BVA cuttings under different treatments showed no significant difference for peroxidase activity at planting time or up to 80 d after planting. PPO activity for the BTA cuttings in the control treatment was lower than for other treatments during root formation. The cuttings in the IBA and IBA+H2O2 treatments showed increased PPO activity from 0 to 50 d after planting and a slight decrease in PPO activity from 60 to 80 d after planting. PPO activity for the BVA cuttings was significantly lower than for BTA during root formation. The BTA cuttings treated with IBA and IBA+H2O2 showed the highest phenolic compound content during root formation. The BVA cuttings displayed higher TS than BTA during the initial stage of root formation. A comparison of the anatomical structure of easy-to-root and difficult-to-root cuttings indicated that physical inhibitors did not affect the rooting capacity of BVA.

  15. Historic Mining and Agriculture as Indicators of Occurrence and Abundance of Widespread Invasive Plant Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellen Calinger

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic disturbances often change ecological communities and provide opportunities for non-native species invasion. Understanding the impacts of disturbances on species invasion is therefore crucial for invasive species management. We used generalized linear mixed effects models to explore the influence of land-use history and distance to roads on the occurrence and abundance of two invasive plant species (Rosa multiflora and Berberis thunbergii in a 900-ha deciduous forest in the eastern U.S.A., the Powdermill Nature Reserve. Although much of the reserve has been continuously forested since at least 1939, aerial photos revealed a variety of land-uses since then including agriculture, mining, logging, and development. By 2008, both R. multiflora and B. thunbergii were widespread throughout the reserve (occurring in 24% and 13% of 4417 10-m diameter regularly-placed vegetation plots, respectively with occurrence and abundance of each varying significantly with land-use history. Rosa multiflora was more likely to occur in historically farmed, mined, logged or developed plots than in plots that remained forested, (log odds of 1.8 to 3.0; Berberis thunbergii was more likely to occur in plots with agricultural, mining, or logging history than in plots without disturbance (log odds of 1.4 to 2.1. Mining, logging, and agriculture increased the probability that R. multiflora had >10% cover while only past agriculture was related to cover of B. thunbergii. Proximity to roads was positively correlated with the occurrence of R. multiflora (a 0.26 increase in the log odds for every 1-m closer but not B. thunbergii, and roads had no impact on the abundance of either species. Our results indicated that a wide variety of disturbances may aid the introduction of invasive species into new habitats, while high-impact disturbances such as agriculture and mining increase the likelihood of high abundance post-introduction.

  16. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

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    Brauer Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and

  17. Simulation and Analysis of Urban Expansion in Yantai City%烟台市城镇扩展时空格局模拟与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金卫; 王周龙; 吴晓青; 周迪

    2011-01-01

    根据1990—2009年历史时期的城镇扩展情况,基于元胞自动机的SLEUTH城市模型,运用数理统计、景观指数等分析方法对城镇扩展时空分异特征进行分析,并对烟台市辖区2010—2030年间的城镇扩展时空格局进行了预测.结果表明,烟台市城镇扩展具有明显的时空分异特征,1990—2009年和2009—2030年城镇扩展热点区明显不同,城镇景观格局也呈现出阶段性变化特征,2025年以后城镇景观复杂性特征增强,区域景观生态风险加大,需要采取有力措施约束和引导城镇建设用地的扩展.%28 endophytic fungi were isolated from the root, stem, leaf and fruit of Berberis thumbergii cv. Atro-purpurea. The endophytic fungi were cultivated in liquid medium and the cultures were dried, grinded, and then extracted with acetone. The anti-bacterial activities of the acetone extracts on three species of bacteria were tested by agar diffusion method. The results showed that the acetone extracts of 18 strains of endophytic fungi exhibited an anti-bacterial circle (their diameter is more than 10 mm) against at least one indicator, and is of the total number of endophytic fungi 64.3 %. The endophytic fungi with anti-bacterial activities in all tissues of Berberis thumbergii cr are resourceful and R1, S1, S7, L2 and L4 have a wider antibacterial spectrum.

  18. Effects of berberine on acquisition and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference in mice

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    Faezeh Vahdati Hassani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It has been shown that berberine, a major component of Berberis vulgaris extract, modulates the activity of several neurotransmitter systems including dopamine (Da and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA contributing to rewarding and reinforcing effects of morphine. Drug craving and relapsing even after a long time of abstinence therapy are the most important problems of addiction. In the present study, we investigated the alleviating effects of berberine on the acquisition and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP in mice. Materials and Methods: In male NMRI mice, the acquisition of CPP was established by 40 mg/kg of morphine sulphate injection and extinguished after the extinction training and reinstated by a 10 mg/kg injection of morphine.  The effects of different doses of berberine (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg on the acquisition and reinstatement induced by morphine were evaluated in a conditioned place preference test. Results: The results showed that intraperitoneal administration of berberine (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg did not induce conditioned appetitive or aversive effects. Injection of berberine (10 and 20 mg/kg 2 h before the morphine administration reduced acquisition of morphine-induced CPP. In addition, same doses of berberine significantly prevented the reinstatement of morphine-induced CPP. Conclusion: These results suggest that berberine can reduce the acquisition and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference and may be useful in treatment of morphine addiction.

  19. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF TRIPHALADI YOGA: AN AYURVEDIC POLY- HERBAL FORMULATION

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    Radhika K Varma

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Ayurvedic classical texts administration of potent psycho-physical rejuvenator formulations comes under Rasayana chikitsa which frees one of diseases, improves quality of life and delays senile degenerative changes. Eleven among the most commonly used anti-oxidant, adaptogenic potent, well established rejuvenator herbs viz., Hareetaki (Terminalia chebula Retz, Vibheetaki (Terminalia bellerica Roxb Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Linn, Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers, Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris Linn, Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn, Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum Linn., Haridra (Curcuma longa Linn, Daruharidra (Berberis aristata DC, Shunthi (Zingiber officinale Rosc, Punarnava (Boerhavia diffusa L were administered along with unequal quantity of ghee and honey as Anupana (vehicle to delay senile changes and reverse cataract formation in the eyes. For the first time the herbal compound in the powder form was subjected to Pharmacognstical evaluation, physico-chemical screening, phyto-chemical analysis and HPTLC studies. The presence of Scalariform vessels, Acicular crystals, Border pitted vessel, Starch grains were the characteristic features observed in the microscopy. The Phyto-chemical analysis indicated presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids and glycosides.

  20. Diet and nutrient balance of red panda in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthi, Saroj; Coogan, Sean C. P.; Aryal, Achyut; Raubenheimer, David

    2015-10-01

    We identified the winter plant species consumed by red panda in the Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve of eastern Nepal and compared this to the early-summer diet which was determined previously by Panthi et al. (2012). In addition, we estimated the proximate nutritional content of the leaves identified in red panda diet for both seasons, and we used nutritional geometry to explore macronutrient balance of leaves from the two different sampling periods. We identified six different plants in winter scats, which were the same as found in the previously determined early-summer diet. Arundinaria spp. bamboos were the main species found (82.1 % relative frequency), followed by Acer spp. (6.3 %), Betula utilis (4.6 %), Quercus semicarpifolia (3.7 %), Berberis spp. (1.3 %), and lichens (1.0 %), leaving 2.0 % unidentified. Geometric analysis suggested that the macronutrient balance of seasonal diets were similar in nutrient balance to the most frequently consumed Arundinaria spp. Differences in macronutrient balance may indicate seasonal nutrient preferences, such as increased carbohydrate intake in winter for thermogenesis, and increased protein and lipid intake in early summer to support reproduction and lactation; however, these differences may also indicate differences in resource availability. Habitat conserved for red panda in the region should include sufficient Arundinaria spp. as well as lesser consumed plants which may serve as complimentary foods.

  1. Liver tonics:review of plants used in Iranian traditional medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tahmineh; Akbarzadeh; Reyhaneh; Sabourian; Mina; Saeedi; Hossein; Rezaeizadeh; Mahnaz; Khanavi; Mohammad; Reza; Shams; Ardekani

    2015-01-01

    Considering the fact that liver is one of the most important organs in our body,it deserves special attention and protection.Among various recommended supplements,complementary and alternative medicines particularly herbal remedies have received much attention owing to their truly healing properties.This review profits from Iranian traditional medicine and presents advantageous herbal guide directions for liver protection.According to credible Iranian medical literature such as Al Qanun Fil Tibb.Al-Havi and Makhzan-al-Aadvia.a wide spectrum of plants have been found to be useful for cleansing and protecting the liver.Some herbs such as ghafes(Agrimonia eupatoria),kasni(Cichorium intybus),anar(Punica granatum),darchin(Cinnamomum zeylanicum),za’feran(Crocus sativus),gole-sorkh(Rosa damascena) and zereshk(Berberis vulgaris) appeared to get strong consideration and were well documented as outstanding liver tonics.We conducted a comprehensive review of available Iranian medical resources such as scientific information database and medical sciences databases which cover all in vitro and in vivo studies of medicinal plants as liver tonics and hepatoprotcctive candidates.Literature survey was accomplished using multiple databases including PubMed,ISI web of knowledge,and Google Scholar.

  2. Microencapsulation optimization of natural anthocyanins with maltodextrin, gum Arabic and gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan Mahdavi, Sahar; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Assadpoor, Elham; Dehnad, Danial

    2016-04-01

    The barberry (Berberis vulgaris) extract which is a rich source of anthocyanins was used for spray drying encapsulation with three different wall materials, i.e., combination of maltodextrin and gum Arabic (MD+GA), maltodextrin and gelatin (MD+GE), and maltodextrin (MD). Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied for optimization of microencapsulation efficiency and physical properties of encapsulated powders considering wall material type as well as different ratios of core to wall materials as independent variables. Physical characteristics of spray-dried powders were investigated by further analyses of moisture content, hygroscopicity, degree of caking, solubility, bulk and absolute density, porosity, flowability and microstructural evaluation of encapsulated powders. Our results indicated that samples produced with MD+GA as wall materials represented the highest process efficiency and best powder quality; the optimum conditions of microencapsulation process for barberry anthocyanins were found to be the wall material content and anthocyanin load of 24.54% and 13.82%, respectively. Under such conditions, the microencapsulation efficiency (ME) of anthocyanins could be as high as 92.83%. PMID:26772915

  3. Evaluation of Synergetic Anticancer Activity of Berberine and Curcumin on Different Models of A549, Hep-G2, MCF-7, Jurkat, and K562 Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishna, Acharya; Kumar, M Hemanth

    2015-01-01

    Ayurvedic system of medicine is using Berberis aristata and Curcuma longa herbs to treat different diseases including cancer. The study was performed to evaluate the synergetic anticancer activity of Berberine and Curcumin by estimating the inhibition of the cell proliferation by cytotoxicity assay using MTT method on specified human cell lines (A549, Hep-G2, MCF-7, Jurkat, and K562). All the cells were harvested from the culture and seeded in the 96-well assay plates at seeding density of 2.0 × 10(4) cells/well and were incubated for 24 hours. Test items Berberine with Curcumin (1 : 1), Curcumin 95% pure, and Berberine 95% pure were exposed at the concentrations of 1.25, 0.001, and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively, and incubated for a period of 48 hours followed by dispensing MTT solution (5 mg/mL). The cells were incubated at 37 ± 1°C for 4 hours followed by addition of DMSO for dissolving the formazan crystals and absorbance was read at 570 nm. Separate wells were prepared for positive control, controls (only medium with cells), and blank (only medium). The results had proven the synergetic anticancer activity of Berberine with Curcumin inducing cell death greater percentage of >77% when compared to pure curcumin with <54% and pure Berberine with <45% on average on all cell line models. PMID:26247019

  4. Evaluation of Synergetic Anticancer Activity of Berberine and Curcumin on Different Models of A549, Hep-G2, MCF-7, Jurkat, and K562 Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya Balakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurvedic system of medicine is using Berberis aristata and Curcuma longa herbs to treat different diseases including cancer. The study was performed to evaluate the synergetic anticancer activity of Berberine and Curcumin by estimating the inhibition of the cell proliferation by cytotoxicity assay using MTT method on specified human cell lines (A549, Hep-G2, MCF-7, Jurkat, and K562. All the cells were harvested from the culture and seeded in the 96-well assay plates at seeding density of 2.0 × 104 cells/well and were incubated for 24 hours. Test items Berberine with Curcumin (1 : 1, Curcumin 95% pure, and Berberine 95% pure were exposed at the concentrations of 1.25, 0.001, and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively, and incubated for a period of 48 hours followed by dispensing MTT solution (5 mg/mL. The cells were incubated at 37 ± 1°C for 4 hours followed by addition of DMSO for dissolving the formazan crystals and absorbance was read at 570 nm. Separate wells were prepared for positive control, controls (only medium with cells, and blank (only medium. The results had proven the synergetic anticancer activity of Berberine with Curcumin inducing cell death greater percentage of >77% when compared to pure curcumin with <54% and pure Berberine with <45% on average on all cell line models.

  5. Meiotic studies in some selected angiosperms from the Kashmir Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Mudassir JEELANI; Santosh KUMARI; Raghbir Chand GUPTA

    2012-01-01

    As a part of our program to explore and evaluate genetic diversity of flowering plants of the Kashmir Himalayas,meiotic studies have been carried out on 150 wild species.Of these,Caltha alba (2n =32),Delphinium roylei (2n =16),D.uncinatum (2n =16),Ranunculus palmatifidus (2n =28),and Sedum heterodontum (2n =14) have been cytologically worked out for the first time.New intraspecific diploid or polyploid cytotypes have been recorded for Alchemilla vulgaris (2n =34,96),Arabis amplexicaulis (2n =16),Impatiens amphorata (2n =14),Ⅰ.racemosa (2n =12),Ⅰ.sutcata (2n =16,12),Meconopsis latifolia (2n =14),Potentilla supina (2n =14),Saxifraga cernua (2n =16),Sium latijugam (2n =24),and Vicatia coniifolia (2n =44).Four species,Arabidopsis thaliana (2n =10),Berberis vulgaris (2n =28),Potentilla nubicola (2n =14),and P.sericea (2n =28),have been cytologically reported for the first time from India.A large number of meiotic abnormalities have been observed in most of these species,leading to a reduction in pollen fertility and production of heterogeneous-sized pollen grains.

  6. Activity of isoflavones and berberine on vasomotor symptoms and lipid profile in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianci, Antonio; Cicero, Arrigo F G; Colacurci, Nicola; Matarazzo, Maria Grazia; De Leo, Vincenzo

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a food supplement combination based on isoflavones and berberine (ISB) in the treatment of menopausal symptoms and dyslipidaemia. Isoflavones are extracted from soy and absorbed in the body after being activated by lactobacillus. Berberine, extracted from the plant Berberis aristata, lowers plasma cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) by increasing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors and reducing hepatic synthesis of TG. One hundred twenty women with a mean age of 54.8 ± 0.6 years were enrolled and randomized to treatment with ISB (estromineral lipid [EL] = 60 cases) or calcium and vitamin D(3) (CaD = 60 cases). Menopausal symptoms, plasma cholesterol, and TG were evaluated at baseline, and after 4 and 12 weeks. EL treatment significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol (-13.5% ± 0.7 vs -0.2% ± 0.5), LDL cholesterol (-12.4% ± 1.5 vs + 0.8 % ± 0.7) and TG (-18.9% ± 2.5 vs -1.3% ± 1.2) and improved menopausal symptoms compared with CaD treatment. Safety parameters were unchanged during the study. The combination of berberine and isoflavones was effective in lowering cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in menopausal women with moderate dyslipidaemia and in improving their quality of life. PMID:22313171

  7. Potential benefits of berberine in the management of perimenopausal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliceti, Cristiana; Rizzo, Paola; Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in women after menopause and 56% of all causes of death in Western European countries. Nowadays, with increasing life span, women spend approximately one-third of their life-time in postmenopausal state; therefore, the development of new strategies to improve the prevention and treatment of menopause-associated pathologies is important topic in clinical practice. The studies to assess the safety of hormone replacement therapy in women with estrogen deficiency have not been conclusive due to the relative contraindications; therefore, hormone replacement therapy is prescribed only in selected cases and for a limited time. For this reason, today women are encouraged to use naturally available compounds to prevent or to attenuate menopausal symptoms and correlated pathologies, with fewer side effects. Among these compounds, berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid derived from plants of the generis Berberis, has been recognized as being capable of decreasing oxidative stress, LDL, triglycerides, and insulin resistance and of improving the mood. This review describes the cellular and clinical effects associated with the use of berberine, which suggest that this molecule could be an effective natural supplement to ensure a smooth peri- and postmenopausal transition. PMID:25785174

  8. Plant Functional Variability in Response to Late-Quaternary Climate Change Recorded in Ancient Packrat Middens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, C. A.; Potts, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    Responses of plant functional traits to environmental variability are of enduring interest because they constrain organism performance and ecosystem function. However, most inferences regarding plant functional trait response to climatic variability have been limited to the modern period. To better understand plant functional response to long-term climate variability and how adjustments in leaf morphology may contribute to patterns of species establishment, persistence, or extirpation, we measured specific leaf area (SLA) from macrofossils preserved in ancient packrat middens collected along the Arizona/New Mexico border, USA. Our record spanned more than 32,000 years and included six woodland and Chihuahuan Desert species: Berberis cf. haematocarpa, Juniperus cf. coahuilensis, Juniperus osteosperma, Larrea tridentata, Prosopis glandulosa and Parthenium incanum. We predicted that regional climatic warming and drying since the late Pleistocene would result in intraspecific decreases in SLA. As predicted, SLA was positively correlated with midden age for three of the six species (L. tridentata, J. osteosperma, B. cf. haematocarpa). SLA was also negatively correlated with December (L. tridentata, J. cf. coahuilensis) or June (B. cf. haematocarpa, J. osteosperma) insolation. A unique record of vegetation community dynamics, plant macrofossils preserved in packrat middens also represent a rich and largely untapped source of information on long-term trends in species functional response to environmental change.

  9. Ethnomedicine in Himalaya: a case study from Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshhetri Hari B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional plant use in Nepal has been documented for millennia. The importance of plants as medicine has not diminished in any way in recent times, and traditional medicines are still the most important health care source for the vast majority of the population. This paper examines the ethnobotany and traditional use of plants extracted from the vulnerable alpine zone in the Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal. The results of this ethnobotanical study indicate that a very large number of plant species is used as traditional medicines. There were 107, 59, 44 and 166 species of ethnomedicinal importance in surveyed areas of Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang district respectively. Of these, 84 common species, used at least in two districts, were selected to enumerate their ethnomedicinal properties. The 84 species belonged to 75 genera and 39 families. The commonest species in this pharmacopoeia were: Allium wallichii, Cordyceps sinensis, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, and Rheum australe. A total of 21 species were most common in three districts and 59 in two districts. The genera Aconitum, Allium, Arisaema, Berberis, Corydalis, Gentiana, Hippophae, Juniperus and Rhododendron each possessed two species with ethnomedicinal use. Labiatae was the most medicinally important family with five species used, followed by Araceae, Compositae, Liliaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Umbelliferae, each contributing four species.

  10. Biodiversity Conservation through Traditional Beliefs System: A Case Study from Kumaon Himalayas, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh SINGH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Malay Nath sacred grove of Kumaon Himalaya, India, in appreciation of its role in biodiversity conservation. The whole grove is dedicated to the local deity “Malay Nath”, and showing semi-temperate type vegetation of the region. Rituals and cultural beliefs of the local peoples of Kumaon are plays significant role in conserving biodiversity. The study aimed at the documentation and inventory of the sacred grove, its phytodiversity, threats and conservation in the Indian Himalayan of Kumaon region, and to this, systematic field surveys were conducted during 2007-2010 covering all four seasons viz., summer, rainy, winter and spring. A total of 64 species in 58 genera under 47 families were identified, of which 35 species are flowering plants and 29 species are non-flowering plants. The dominant family was Parmeliaceae of lichen which recorded the maximum 6 species. 35 plant species under 32 genera and 23 families are used as an ethno-medicinal and the information about the ethno-medicinal plants was gathered from knowledgeable elderly local peoples of the area. Hedychium spicatum, Bergenia ciliata, Origanum vulgare, Berberis asiatica, etc. are highly exploited species and need to be conserved.

  11. Berberine: New Insights from Pharmacological Aspects to Clinical Evidences in the Management of Metabolic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliceti, Cristiana; Franco, Placido; Spinozzi, Silvia; Roda, Aldo; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2016-01-01

    Berberine is a quaternary ammonium salt from the protoberberine group of isoquinoline alkaloids found in such plants as gender Berberis. Berberine is recognised to improve glucose and lipid metabolism disorders and preliminary clinical evidences suggest the ability of berberine to reduce endothelial inflammation improving vascular health, even in patients already affected by cardiovascular diseases, suggesting a possible interesting role of berberine and its metabolites in clinical practice. However, its physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetic, and metabolism are not fully elucidated and contradictory data have been reported. This review provides a summary regarding the pharmacological and biological features of berberine, with a focus on berberine as well as their pharmacologically active metabolites and the different mechanisms underlying their activities in order to clarify the correct use of berberine supplementation, alone or in association with other nutraceuticals, for the management of metabolic disorders associated to increased cardiovascular disease risk. A particular attention has also been given to the available clinical trials assessing its short- and middle- term use tolerability, safety and efficacy in various conditions, such as dyslipidaemia, impaired fasting glucose, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27063256

  12. Ethnobotanical uses of biofencing plants in Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Devi, Usha

    2013-12-15

    The aim of this study is to document the traditional knowledge on the utilization of Biofencing plants of Himachal Pradesh, Northwest Himalaya. The study was imperative because of dearth in the data pertaining to Biofencing plants in the study areas. The whole study area was stratified into three zones and a widespread field survey and random sampling method was adopted to assess the live fencing diversity of the region. The region occupies total 61 species. 10 (trees), 45 (shrubs), 4 (herbs) and 2 were climbers. These belong to the 25 families. Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Berberidaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Euphorbiaceae are dominant families. Among genera, Berberis and Rosa are dominant. Of the total, 55 species are medicinally important and among these 20% are used for stomach disorders; 17% (skin complaints), 14% (asthma), 11% (fever and joint pains), 3% (aphrodisiac and snake bite), 1% (anticancerous and nerve disorders). Ethnobotanical assessment showed that 33 of the recorded species are used as fuel, 20 (edible), 8 (fodder) and 4 (fiber and ornamental). This traditional knowledge of Biofencing plants contributes to the conservation of biodiversity and provides resource of economic and ecological interest and also decreasing the pressure on forests. So there is need to encourage the practice of using plant species for fencing in this region. PMID:24517012

  13. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity, liver profile test, and mutagenic activity of five plants used in traditional Mexican medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cornejo-Garrido

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Berberis hartwegii Benth., Berberidaceae, Hamelia patens Jacq., Rubiaceae, Dendropanax arboreus (L. Decne & Planch., Araliaceae, Erythrina herbacea L., Fabaceae, and Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lam., Rutaceae, acetone extracts were selected on the basis of their use in traditional Mexican medicine to treat scabies or skin diseases. Anti-dermatophyte activity in vitro was evaluated using the agar dilution assay, and the therapeutic efficacy of B. hartwegii and Z. caribaeum were tested against experimental tinea pedis. The infected animals were treated intragastrically daily for seven days with 2.5 and 5 mg/kg of acetone extracts. The acetone extract of H. patens exhibited 100% growth inhibition against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum at 100.0 and 50.0 µg/ml, respectively, and B. hartwegii inhibited growth of M. canis and T. mentagrophytes at 100.0 µg/ml. Effective treatments with 2.5 mg/kg of Z. caribaeum and B. hartwegii extract were comparable with 1 mg/kg of clotrimazole in mice. Liver profile tests and histological analyses did not exhibit any signs of toxicity and the Ames test indicated that both extracts were safe when evaluated in strains TA98, TA100 and TA102. Our results suggest the potential for the future development of new antifungal drugs from B. hartwegii or Z. caribaeum.

  14. Inhibitory effects by ayurvedic plants on prostate enlargement induced in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul K Dumbre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayurveda recommends several plants and plant preparation for conditions of urogenital disorders as per its principles. Objectives: Ayurvedic plants Tamala (Cinnamomum tamala; Daruhalad (Berberis aristata; Ativish (Aconitum heterophyllum were studied for mechanisms of prostatic hyperplasia induced in rats. Materials and Methods: Prostatic enlargement was induced in castrated rats by testosterone injection s.c. for 21 days and simultaneously plants were dosed orally daily. On day 22 rats were sacrificed and prostate was removed; weight and volume of prostate was measured; histopathology performed. Inflammation was induced by injecting carrageenan in rat hind paw and inhibition was studied by measuring rat paw oedema at different time points. Results: Tamala showed significant effect where it reduced prostatic enlargement and improved hyperplastic changes, while Daruhalad and Ativisha did not show any significant effect. All of them showed mild to moderate anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion: Study concludes that Tamala may benefit in prostate disorder by virtue of inhibition of androgen mechanisms in prostate and modulating inflammatory mediators in prostate. Daruhalad and Ativisha did not show any effect in this model of prostate enlargement while the anti-inflammatory effect may propose one of the useful properties when included in various formulations.

  15. Antibacterial activity of local herbs collected from Murree (Pakistan) against multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumonae, E. coli and methyciline resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Qaisar; Shaheen, Saira; Javed, Uzma; Shaheen, Uzma; Iqrar, Irum; Ismail, Muhammad

    2013-07-01

    Exploring healing power in plants emerged in prehistory of human civilization. Sustaining good health has been achieved over the millions of years by use of plant products in various traditional sockets. A major contribution of medicinal plants to health care systems is their limitless possession of bioactive components that stimulate explicit physiological actions. Luckily Pakistan is blessed with huge reservoir of plants with medicinal potential and some of them; we focused in this study for their medicinal importance.In this study we checked the antibacterial activity inherent in Ricinus communis, Solanum nigrum, Dodonaea viscose and Berberis lyceum extracts for multidrug resistance bacterial strains Klebsiella pneumonae, E. coli and methyciline resistant Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA showed sensitivity for Ricinus communis. Multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumonae was sensitive with Pine roxburgii and Ricinus communis but weakly susceptible for Solanum nigrum. Multidrug resistant E. coli was resistant to all plant extracts. Treatment of severe infections caused by the bacterial strains used in this study with Ricinus communis, Pine roxburgii and Solanum nigrum can lower the undesired side effects of synthetic medicine and also reduce the economic burden. PMID:23811466

  16. Hypoglycemic effects of three Iranian edible plants; jujube, barberry and saffron: Correlation with serum adiponectin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Mina; Asghari, Somaye; Zohoori, Elham; Karamian, Mehdi

    2015-11-01

    One of the most common disorders of the endocrine system is diabetes mellitus. This disease is associated with dyslipidemia. Adiponectin is a protein hormone that secreted by adipocytes and has an important role in regulating of glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways. This study was designed to investigate the changes in serum level of adiponectin in diabetic rats treated with hydroalcoholic extracts of three medicinal plants; jujube (Ziziphus jujuba), barberry (Berberis vulgaris) and saffron (Crocus sativus) in comparison with quercetin. Streptozotocin -induced diabetic male rats were gavaged with specified doses of the extracts (25 and 100mg/kg) for two weeks. At the end of treatment period, fasting blood specimens were collected. The levels of adiponectin, fasting blood sugar (FBS), total Cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C and LDL-C were measured. Statistical analysis showed that serum levels of triglyceride and VLDL decreased significantly (Pplant extracts had no effect on cholesterol. Jujube in two doses (25 and 100mg/kg) could increased significantly HDL-C (P<0.05) with no effect on total cholesterol and LDL-C. Serum adiponectin level increased in all treated groups. These beneficial effects of C. sativus, B. vulgaris and Z. jujube extracts and quercetin in diabetic rats may be associated with increase in adiponectin level. PMID:26639503

  17. Synthesis of berberine loaded polymeric nanoparticles by central composite design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Meenakshi; Sheorain, Jyoti; Kumari, Santosh

    2016-04-01

    Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid which is extracted from bark and roots of Berberis vulgaris plant. It has been used in ayurvedic medicine as it possess antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anticancer, antioxidant properties etc. But poor solubility of berberine leads to poor stability and bioavailability in medical formulations decreasing its efficacy. Hence nanoformulations of berberine can help in removing the limiting factors of alkaloid enhancing its utilization in pharmaceutical industry. Sodium alginate polymer was used to encapsulate berberine within nanoparticles by emulsion solvent evaporation method using tween 80 as a surfactant. Two factors and three level in central composite design was used to study the formulation. The optimized formulation (1% v/v of Tween 80 and 0.01% w/v of sodium alginate) of polymeric nanoparticles was taken for further evaluations. The size of synthesized nanoparticles was found to be 71.18 nm by particle size analysis (PSA). The berberine loaded polymeric nanoparticles showed better antibacterial activity compared to aqueous solution of berberine by well diffusion assay.

  18. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing, genotyping error estimation and de novo assembly optimization for population genetic inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastretta-Yanes, A; Arrigo, N; Alvarez, N; Jorgensen, T H; Piñero, D; Emerson, B C

    2015-01-01

    Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) provides researchers with the ability to record genetic polymorphism across thousands of loci for nonmodel organisms, potentially revolutionizing the field of molecular ecology. However, as with other genotyping methods, RADseq is prone to a number of sources of error that may have consequential effects for population genetic inferences, and these have received only limited attention in terms of the estimation and reporting of genotyping error rates. Here we use individual sample replicates, under the expectation of identical genotypes, to quantify genotyping error in the absence of a reference genome. We then use sample replicates to (i) optimize de novo assembly parameters within the program Stacks, by minimizing error and maximizing the retrieval of informative loci; and (ii) quantify error rates for loci, alleles and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. As an empirical example, we use a double-digest RAD data set of a nonmodel plant species, Berberis alpina, collected from high-altitude mountains in Mexico. PMID:24916682

  19. Ethno-medicinal plants used to cure jaundice by traditional healers of mashhad, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh; Joharchi, Mohammad Reza; Taghavizadehyazdi, Mohammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Jaundice is the commonest ailments affecting the citizens of both developed and poor Asians countries including Iran. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used by the traditional healers for the treatment of jaundice was conducted in the Mashhad city, Northeastern Iran. A total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 26 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against jaundice. The plant families which contained the most commonly used species for their effects are: Fabaceae (5 species), Polygonaceae (4 sp.), Asteraceae (3 sp.), Plantaginaceae (2 sp.) and Salicaceae (2 sp.). The plants were arranged with correct nomenclature along with their common name, family, the part used and their medicinal value. The use of decoction is the most preferred method of herbal preparation. In all cases, the treatment involved oral administration of the extracts 2 to 3 times daily from a week to month till the problem disappears. Cichorium intybus, Salix alba, Cotoneaster nummularius, Descurainia sophia, Malva sylvestris, Berberis integrrima, Rumex acetosella, Phyllanthus emblica and Alhagi maurorum were repeatedly mentioned by the traditional healers as the most widely used for the treatment of jaundice in the study area. The study indicates that the local inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for treatment. This paper suggested that further clinical experimentation is needed to scientifically evaluate these widely used herbal remedies for possible bioactive effects. PMID:24734067

  20. Floristic diversity and distribution pattern of plant communities along altitudinal gradient in Sangla Valley, Northwest Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Rana, J C; Devi, Usha; Randhawa, S S; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Himalayas are globally important biodiversity hotspots and are facing rapid loss in floristic diversity and changing pattern of vegetation due to various biotic and abiotic factors. This has necessitated the qualitative and quantitative assessment of vegetation here. The present study was conducted in Sangla Valley of northwest Himalaya aiming to assess the structure of vegetation and its trend in the valley along the altitudinal gradient. In the forest and alpine zones of the valley, 15 communities were recorded. Study revealed 320 species belonging to 199 genera and 75 families. Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Apiaceae, and Ranunculaceae were dominant. Among genera, Artemisia followed by Polygonum, Saussurea, Berberis, and Thalictrum were dominant. Tree and shrub's density ranged from 205 to 600 and from 105 to 1030 individual per hectare, respectively, whereas herbs ranged from 22.08 to 78.95 individual/m(2). Nearly 182 species were native to the Himalaya. Maximum altitudinal distribution of few selected climate sensitive species was found to be highest in northeast and north aspects. This study gives an insight into the floristic diversity and community structure of the fragile Sangla Valley which was hitherto not available. PMID:25383363

  1. Potential Benefits of Berberine in the Management of Perimenopausal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Caliceti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in women after menopause and 56% of all causes of death in Western European countries. Nowadays, with increasing life span, women spend approximately one-third of their life-time in postmenopausal state; therefore, the development of new strategies to improve the prevention and treatment of menopause-associated pathologies is important topic in clinical practice. The studies to assess the safety of hormone replacement therapy in women with estrogen deficiency have not been conclusive due to the relative contraindications; therefore, hormone replacement therapy is prescribed only in selected cases and for a limited time. For this reason, today women are encouraged to use naturally available compounds to prevent or to attenuate menopausal symptoms and correlated pathologies, with fewer side effects. Among these compounds, berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid derived from plants of the generis Berberis, has been recognized as being capable of decreasing oxidative stress, LDL, triglycerides, and insulin resistance and of improving the mood. This review describes the cellular and clinical effects associated with the use of berberine, which suggest that this molecule could be an effective natural supplement to ensure a smooth peri- and postmenopausal transition.

  2. Application of pH-zone refining hydrostatic countercurrent chromatography (hCCC) for the recovery of antioxidant phenolics and the isolation of alkaloids from Siberian barberry herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukula-Koch, Wirginia; Koch, Wojciech; Angelis, Apostolis; Halabalaki, Maria; Aligiannis, Nektarios

    2016-07-15

    The development of a fast hCCC method tailored to recover phenolics of Siberian barberry (Berberis sibirica, Berberidaceae) responsible for the observed strong antioxidant activity was performed. Initially, the optimization of extraction procedure was evaluated based on the antiradical potential assessment (DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu assays). 100 °C methanol ASE extract exhibited the highest antiradical activity (IC50=60 ± 4 μg/mL), and a significant TPC (159 ± 2 mgGAE/g). Thorough determination of phenolic content by UHPLC-DAD-ESI(-)HRMS revealed the presence of 10 phenolics as major constituents, and several groups of alkaloids. pH-zone refining hCCC was chosen as the most promising method for the extract's fractionation due to the ionizable character of its constituents. For this purpose a MtBE-H2O (1:1) system with 10mM TEA and HCl was applied leading to a phenolic fraction, free of alkaloids, with higher antioxidant capacity (IC50=25 μg/mL, TPC=178 mg GAE/g). Additionally, fractionation of alkaloids was achieved resulting isolation of pharmacologically important alkaloids: magnoflorine and berberine. PMID:26948630

  3. Medicinal plant treatments for fleas and ear problems of cats and dogs in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya

    2008-09-01

    Research conducted in 2003/2004 documented and validated (in a non-experimental way) ethnoveterinary medicines used by small-scale, organic livestock farmers in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Interviews were conducted with 60 participants who were organic farmers or holistic medicinal/veterinary practitioners. A workshop was held with selected participants to discuss the plant-based treatments. This paper reports on the medicinal plants used for fleas in cats and dogs. Fleas and flies are treated with Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae), Citrus x limon (L.), Juniperus communis L. var. depressa Pursh. (Cupressaceae), Lavandula officinalis L. (Labiatae), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), and Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don (Cupressaceae). All of the plants used have insecticidal activity. Ear problems are treated with Achillea millefolium L., Calendula officinalis L., and Helichrysum angustifolium (Roth.) G. Don. (Asteraceae), Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Berberis aquifolium Pursh./Mahonia aquifolium (Berberidaceae), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), Lobelia inflata L. (Campanulaceae), Matricaria recutita L., Melaleuca alternifolia L. (Myrtaceae), Origanum vulgare L. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry (Myrtaceae), Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae), and Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae). PMID:18563443

  4. 45S rDNA在多种植物中期染色体上的定位%Physical Mapping of 45S rDNA on Metaphase Chromosomes in Several Plant Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘博; 陈成彬; 李秀兰; 陈瑞阳; 宋文芹

    2006-01-01

    应用荧光原位杂交技术首次确定了日本小檗(Berberis thunbergii DC)、车前(Plantago major L.)、野芹菜(Sanicula lamelligera Hance)、荔枝(Litchi chinensis Sonn.)、槭树(Acer buergerianum Miq.)、天目琼花(Viburnum sargentii Koehne.)、丹参(Salvia miltorrhiza Bunge.)、榆树(Ulmus pumila L.)中45S rDNA在中期染色体上的位置.根据rDNA的位点数和位置的变化,分为四种类型:①在日本小檗、车前和野芹菜中,荧光信号正好位于随体染色体的次缢痕或端部;②荔枝和槭树,分别有1对和3对染色体具随体,但荧光原位杂交却检测到3对和5对染色体上具有杂交信号;③天目琼花,具有4对随体染色体,但仅在其中一对随体上显示了杂交信号;④在丹参和榆树中,有的杂交信号位于着丝粒部位或长臂的末端,杂交信号的数目成奇数.黄瓜(Cucumis sativus L.)的染色体45S rDNA信号正好位于6条染色体的着丝粒部位,这与Dal-Hoe和Hoshi等人的结果是一致的.上述结果表明:45S rDNA可以作为染色体的一个识别指标,对识别染色体的个体性具有一定的参考价值.另外还对45S rDNA位点分布的多态性进行了讨论.%The genomic distribution of ribosomal RNA genes has been determined for the first time by fluo rescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in Berberis thunbergii DC. , Plantago major L. , Sanicula lamelligera Hance, Litchi chinensis Sonn. , Acer buergerianum Miq. , Viburnum sargentii Koehne. , Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. , and Ulmus pumila L.. These species could be divided into four groups based on the difference on the number and sites of their rDNA loci: the fluorescence signals lay in the secondary constrictions or the terminal regions of SAT-chromosomes in B. thunbergii, P. major, and S. lamelligera; 3 and 5 pairs of signals were de tected in L. chinensis and A. buergerianum, respectively which had 1 and 3 pairs of satellites respectively ; there were 4 pairs of SAT-chromosomes in V

  5. Pilot study on the additive effects of berberine and oral type 2 diabetes agents for patients with suboptimal glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Nicola Villanova,2 Federica Agostini,2 Rebecca Marzocchi,2 Valentina Soverini,2 Giulio Marchesini21Scientific Department, Velleja Research, Milano, 2Diseases of Metabolism, S Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, ItalyBackground: Suboptimal glycemic control is a common situation in diabetes, regardless of the wide range of drugs available to reach glycemic targets. Basic research in diabetes is endeavoring to identify new actives working as insulin savers, use of which could delay the introduction of injectable insulin or reduce the insulin dose needed. Commonly available as a nutraceutical, berberine is a potential candidate.Methods and results: Because its low oral bioavailability can be overcome by P-glycoprotein inhibitors like herbal polyphenols, we have tested the nutraceutical combination of Berberis aristata extract and Silybum marianum extract (Berberol® in type 2 diabetes in terms of its additive effect when combined with a conventional oral regimen for patients with suboptimal glycemic control. After 90 days of treatment, the nutraceutical association had a positive effect on glycemic and lipid parameters, significantly reducing glycosylated hemoglobin, basal insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. A relevant effect was also observed in terms of liver function by measuring aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase. The product had a good safety profile, with distinctive gastrointestinal side effects likely due to its acarbose-like action.Conclusion: Although further studies should be carried out to confirm our data, Berberol could be considered a good candidate as an adjunctive treatment option in diabetes, especially in patients with suboptimal glycemic control.Keywords: berberine, silymarin, glycosylated hemoglobin, diabetes

  6. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid; Asadi-Samani; Najme; Kafash-Farkhad; Nafiseh; Azimi; Ali; Fasihi; Ebrahim; Alinia-Ahandani; Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver.In this review,we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine,with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CCI4 agent.In this study,online databases including Web of Science.PubMed.Scopus,and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013.Search terms consisted of medicinal plants,traditional medicine,folk medicine,hepatoprotective.Iran,liver,therapeutic uses,compounds,antioxidant.CCI4.anti-inflammatory,and antihepatotoxic,hepatitis,alone or in combination.Allium hirtifolium Boiss..Apium graveolens L..Cynara scolyinus.Berberis vulgaris L..,Calendula officinalis,Nigella sativa L..Taraxacum officinale.Tragopogon porrifolius.Prangos ferulacea L..Allium sativum,Marribium vulgare,Ammi majus L..Citrullus lanatus Thunb.Agrimonia eupatoria L.and Primus armeniaca L.are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine.Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents,silymarin,P-sitosterol,betalain,neoandrographolide.phyllanthin.andrographolide.curcumin.picroside.hypophyllanlhin.kutkoside,and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties.Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future,the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  7. Citizen science contributes to our knowledge of invasive plant species distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crall, Alycia W.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Young, Nicholas E.; Panke, Brendon; Renz, Mark; Stohlgren, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science is commonly cited as an effective approach to expand the scale of invasive species data collection and monitoring. However, researchers often hesitate to use these data due to concerns over data quality. In light of recent research on the quality of data collected by volunteers, we aimed to demonstrate the extent to which citizen science data can increase sampling coverage, fill gaps in species distributions, and improve habitat suitability models compared to professionally generated data sets used in isolation. We combined data sets from professionals and volunteers for five invasive plant species (Alliaria petiolata, Berberis thunbergii, Cirsium palustre, Pastinaca sativa, Polygonum cuspidatum) in portions of Wisconsin. Volunteers sampled counties not sampled by professionals for three of the five species. Volunteers also added presence locations within counties not included in professional data sets, especially in southern portions of the state where professional monitoring activities had been minimal. Volunteers made a significant contribution to the known distribution, environmental gradients sampled, and the habitat suitability of P. cuspidatum. Models generated with professional data sets for the other four species performed reasonably well according to AUC values (>0.76). The addition of volunteer data did not greatly change model performance (AUC > 0.79) but did change the suitability surface generated by the models, making them more realistic. Our findings underscore the need to merge data from multiple sources to improve knowledge of current species distributions, and to predict their movement under present and future environmental conditions. The efficiency and success of these approaches require that monitoring efforts involve multiple stakeholders in continuous collaboration via established monitoring networks.

  8. Chilean native fruit extracts inhibit inflammation linked to the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Farias, Marjorie; Vasquez, Karla; Ovalle-Marin, Angelica; Fuentes, Francisco; Parra, Claudia; Quitral, Vilma; Jimenez, Paula; Garcia-Diaz, Diego F

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is characterized by an increase in the infiltration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, causing an inflammatory condition associated with, for example, the development of insulin resistance. Thus, anti-inflammatory-based treatments could emerge as a novel and interesting approach. It has been reported that Chilean native fruits maqui (Aristotelia chilensis) and calafate (Berberis microphylla) present high contents of polyphenols, which are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of extracts of these fruits to block the pathogenic interaction between adipocytes and macrophages in vitro and to compare its effect with blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) extract treatment, which has been already described to possess several biomedical benefits. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with 5 μg/mL lipopolysaccharides (LPS), with conditioned media (CM) from fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, or in a coculture (CC) with 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in the presence or absence of 100 μM [total polyphenolic content] of each extract for 24 h. The gene expression and secretion profile of several inflammatory markers were evaluated. Nitric oxide secretion induced by LPS, CM, and CC was reduced by the presence of maqui (-12.2%, -45.6%, and -14.7%, respectively) and calafate (-27.6%, -43.9%, and -11.8%, respectively) extracts. Gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-α was inhibited and of IL-10 was induced by maqui and calafate extract incubation. In conclusion, the extracts of these fruits present important inhibitory-like features over the inflammatory response of the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages, comprising a potential therapeutic tool against comorbidities associated with obesity development. PMID:25302660

  9. БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ОСОБЕННОСТИ НЕКОТОРЫХ ДИКОРАСТУЩИХ ПЛОДОВЫХ ПОРОД, ИНТРОДУЦИРОВАННЫХ В ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОМ БОТАНИЧЕСКОМ САДУ ТАДЖИКИСТАНА

    OpenAIRE

    Назаров, А.; Хисориев, Х.; Коннов, А.

    2012-01-01

    Приведены материалы многолетних исследований по изучению биологических особенностей (ритм и продолжительность роста, ритмы цветения, плодоношения, внутрипочечного развития вегетативных и генеративных органов, а также период покоя и устойчивость) 10 дикорастущих плодовых пород (Cydonia oblonga Mill., Berberis densiflora Boiss. еt Buhse, B. iliensis M. Pop., B. nummularia Bunge, B. turcomanica Karel., B. integerrima Bunge, Punica granatum L., Elaeagnus angustifolia L., Prunus sоgdiana Vass., Mo...

  10. Physical and Chemical Properties and Combustibility of Main Wood Species in the Central Part of Tianshan Mountains%天山中部林区主要树种理化性质及燃烧性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁瀛; 张思玉; 努尔古丽; 张毓涛; 程平

    2011-01-01

    对天山中部林区9种主要树种的含水率、热值、灰分及抽提物进行测定,利用多元统计方法和可燃性指数综合评价体系,对天山中部主要树种的变化特征进行综合评价.树种燃烧性大小依次为:方枝柏>天山云杉>黑果小檗>山楂>忍冬>欧洲山杨>山柳>天山花楸>宽刺蔷薇.这些研究可为新疆天山森林林火发生预报、林火行为预报、灭火指挥、营林用火、生物防火等方面提供重要依据.%Forest fuel is burning elements of forest fire, and the various species have different combustibility. In this study we measured the moisture content, caloric values, ash content and extractives content of 9 main woody species in the central part of Tianshan Mountains. The variation characteristics of fuel index of different woody species were evaluated by the integrative evaluation system with multivariate statistical methods and combustible indicators. The result showed that Sabina saltuaria > Picea schrenkiana var. Tianschanica > Berberis heteropoda > Crataegus pinnatifida > Lonicera tatarica > Populus tremula > Salix depressa > Sorbus tianschanica > Rosa platyacantha. Therefore, this study would provide a basis for forest fire occurrence prediction, forest fire action prediction, extinguishing direct, forestation firing, biology fireproofing and so on.

  11. The phenological patterns of dominant plants in Xinglongshan Natural Reserve and the response to the regional climate change%兴隆山自然保护区优势植物的物候格局对气候变化的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁军; 王静; 潘世成; 刘瑞; 孟秀祥

    2016-01-01

    have the signiifcant change, especially for Sorbaria kirilowii andBerberis diaphana. The former species has shorter grow season for later spring phenophase and earlier autumn phenophases, reaching 15.49 d ∙ a−1, and for the later species, the whole phenological period delay.Discussion The result of regional climate change in this research is similar with the former research result, namely have the same change tendency of increase in temperature and decrease in precipitation. However, because Xinglongshan National Natural Reserve is located at the Qinghai, Tibet and Mengxin Plateau, the coastal area of these plateaus, affected by the factors such as topography, its temperature change rate is a bit slow than the average rate in China. What is more, the research scope, Yuzhong County is located in the southeast of Lanzhou City, the southern part of Gansu Province, where is in the scale that arid and semi-arid move to south, and the annual precipitation decreased. The change pattern of phenophases is identical with the former research in northern part of China from 1982 — 1999. Sorbaria kirilowii andBerberis diaphana show different change tendency and response to regional climate change because its own characteristics, especially the cold tolerance of the later one.Conclusions The regional climate change in Xinglongshan National Natural Reserve have the tendency of increasing in temperature and decrease in precipitation, which is similar with most former study on relative area, and the change of phenophases of 14 observed plants, also the dominant plants in this study area, showing the tendency of delaying or in advance because of own characters. There are two plants, namelySorbaria kirilowii andBerberis diaphana, showing significant change among 14 observations. The former one has a shorter growing season caused by higher temperature and less precipitation, while the later one has the tendency of delaying on all kinds of phenophases because of its better resistant ability against cold. Recommendations and

  12. Protective mechanisms of berberine against experimental autoimmune myocarditis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuefei; Zhang, Xinghua; Ye, Lin; Yuan, Haitao

    2016-04-01

    Berberine, an alkaloid derivative extracted from numerous plants of the general Berberis and Coptis, has been reported to have immunomodulatory effects against immune-mediated disorders in emerging studies. In this study, the effects of berberine and its underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated from the myosin-induced myocardial injury in rats. Lewis rats were immunized with porcine cardiac myosin to induce experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM), treated with berberine and specific JAK inhibitor AG490 as a positive control. Our data showed that both berberine and AG490 significantly reduced the impaired cardiac function and the pathophysiological severity, impeded high levels of anti-cardiac myosin antibody of EAM rats. Th17 and Th1 cells as well as their cytokines IL-17 and IFN-γ were up-regulated in EAM. However, the excessive increase of Th17/Th1 responses was restored by berberine and AG490. We also examined the expression level of phosphorylated proteins of JAK-STAT pathway which has a key role in the Th17 and Th1 lineage commitment. The phosphorylated (p)-STAT1,STAT3 and STAT4 increased significantly in EAM, while berberine notably attenuated their excessive expression. This effect of berberine was equivalent to that of AG490 blockade. Our current study demonstrated that berberine could ameliorate EAM and the underling mechanisms may be due to the fact that berberine differentially modulates the activities of p-STAT1, p-STAT3 and p-STAT4 to suppress Th17 and Th1 cell differentiation. PMID:27044832

  13. A novel synthetic derivative of the natural product berbamine inhibits cell viability and induces apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cells, associated with activation of JNK/AP-1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Nam, Sangkil; Zhao, Robin; Tian, Yan; Liu, Lucy; Horne, David A; Jove, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor in children and adolescents. There is a critical need to find more potent drugs for patients with metastatic or recurrent disease. Berbamine (BBM) is a natural compound derived from the Berberis amurensis plants. BBM and its derivatives have been shown to have antitumor effects in several cancers. Here, we report that a novel synthetic berbamine derivative, BBMD3, inhibits cell viability and induces apoptosis of G292, KHOS, and MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells. Induction of apoptosis in these tumor cells depends on activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Since pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) and caspase-9 inhibitor (Z-LEHD-FMK) could block the cleavage of PARP, the apoptosis induced by BBMD3 is through intrinsic signaling pathway. BBMD3 increased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK), resulting in increase of phosphorylated c-Jun and total c-Fos, the major components of transcriptional factor AP-1. JNK inhibitor could partially suppress antitumor effect of BBMD3 on osteosarcoma cells. BBMD3 increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), could block the phosphorylation of JNK and c-Jun induced by BBMD3. BBMD3 increased the expression of the pro-apototic gene Bad, associated with apoptosis induction. Finally, BBMD3 also decreased the expression of cyclin D1 and D2, the positive cell cycle regulators, which is correlated with growth inhibition in osteosarcoma cells. Collectively, these findings indicate that BBMD3 is a potentially promising drug for the treatment of human osteosarcoma. PMID:24025361

  14. Long-Term Effects of White-Tailed Deer Exclusion on the Invasion of Exotic Plants: A Case Study in a Mid-Atlantic Temperate Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoli; Bourg, Norman A; McShea, William J; Turner, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    Exotic plant invasions and chronic high levels of herbivory are two of the major biotic stressors impacting temperate forest ecosystems in eastern North America, and the two problems are often linked. We used a 4-ha deer exclosure maintained since 1991 to examine the influence of a generalist herbivore, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), on the abundance of four exotic invasive (Rosa multiflora, Berberis thunbergii, Rubus phoenicolasius and Microstegium vimineum) and one native (Cynoglossum virginianum) plant species, within a 25.6-ha mature temperate forest dynamics plot in Virginia, USA. We identified significant predictors of the abundance of each focal species using generalized linear models incorporating 10 environmental and landscape variables. After controlling for those predictors, we applied our models to a 4-ha deer exclusion site and a 4-ha reference site, both embedded within the larger plot, to test the role of deer on the abundance of the focal species. Slope, edge effects and soil pH were the most frequent predictors of the abundance of the focal species on the larger plot. The abundance of C. virginianum, known to be deer-dispersed, was significantly lower in the exclosure. Similar patterns were detected for B. thunbergii, R. phoenicolasius and M. vimineum, whereas R. multiflora was more abundant within the exclosure. Our results indicate that chronic high deer density facilitates increased abundances of several exotic invasive plant species, with the notable exception of R. multiflora. We infer that the invasion of many exotic plant species that are browse-tolerant to white-tailed deer could be limited by reducing deer populations. PMID:27019356

  15. ETHNOMEDICINAL AND PHYTOECONOMIC ELABORATION OF LILOWNAI VALLEY, DISTRICT SHANGLA, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Zafar Alam

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The flora of Pakistan and especially that of Northren Part has tremendous scope to evaluate their ethnomedicinal importance for more realistic way to justify their traditional usage and applications. Based on this, an ethnomedicinal survey was carried out in the Lilownai valley, District Shangla, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan in summer 2008 and reinvestigated during 2010-2011.The study showed that the local population not only use indigenous medicinal plants for curing various diseases but also earn their livelihood by selling some of them in the local market. One hundred and twenty five medicinal plants are being used by local people in the study valley in which a diversified application of these species have been observed. These include (24 species astringent and for other skin problems, (16 species laxative, (14 species stomachic, (14 species diuretic, (11 species carminative, (10 species anthelmintic, (10 species used in reproductive disorders, (9 species are used in various hepatic disorders, (9 species used in various CNS disorders, (8 species antispasmodic, (8 species expectorant, (7 species antirheumatic, (5 species antiseptic, (4 species antidiabetic, (4 species purgative, (4 species aphrodisiac, (3 speciesanticancer, (2 species antihypertensive and (2 species for ophthalmic use. Similarly the remaining species have one or more medicinal use(s. Seventeen species of them are also collected for trade purposes that include Ajuga bracteosa, Paeonia emodi, Berberis lycium, Mentha longifolia, Diospyrus lotus, Skimmia lauriola, Zanthoxylum alatum, Morchella esculenta, , Bistorta amplexicaulis, Podophyllum emodi, Dryopteris jaxtapostia, Allium sativum, Cichorum intybus, Plectranthus rugosus, Dioscorea deltoidea, Juglans regia and Polygonatum multiflorum. Market survey revealed that the collectors are often not aware of the high market value and medicinal application so most of the collected material is sold to local middle man at very low price

  16. Berberine in combination with cisplatin suppresses breast cancer cell growth through induction of DNA breaks and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuwan; Jing, Zuolei; Li, Yan; Mao, Weifeng

    2016-07-01

    Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from medicinal plants such as Hydrastis canadensis, Berberis aristata and Coptis chinensis. BBR displays a number of beneficial roles in the treatment of various types of cancers, yet the precise mechanisms of its action remain unclear. Cisplatin is an effective cancer chemotherapeutic agent and functions by generating DNA damage, promoting DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis; however, its efficacy is challenged by the resistance of tumor cells in clinical application. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of BBR in combination with cisplatin on human breast cancer cells. MTT assay showed that BBR inhibited breast cancer MCF-7 cell growth with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 52.178±1.593 µM and the IC50 value of cisplatin was 49.541±1.618 µM, while in combination with 26 µM BBR, the IC50 value of cisplatin was 5.759±0.76 µM. BBR sensitized the MCF-7 cells to cisplatin in a time- and dose-dependent manner. After treatment of BBR and cisplatin, the cellular pro-apoptotic capase-3 and cleaved capspase-3 and caspase-9 were upregulated and the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was downregulated. Importantly, BBR restrained the expression of cellular PCNA, and immunofluoresence analysis of γH2AX showed that BBR increased the DNA damages induced by cisplatin. Taken together, the results demonstrated that BBR sensitized MCF-7 cells to cisplatin through induction of DNA breaks and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. PMID:27177238

  17. Effect of light on the growth and photosynthesis of an invasive shrub in its native range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svriz, Maya; Damascos, María A; Lediuk, Karen D; Varela, Santiago A; Barthélémy, Daniel

    2014-06-26

    Invasive species success may depend on ecophysiological attributes present in their native area or derived from changes that took place in the invaded environment. We studied the growth and photosynthetic capacity of Berberis darwinii shrubs growing under different light conditions (gap, forest edge and below the canopy) in their native area of Patagonia, Argentina. Leaf photosynthesis results determined in the native area were discussed in relation to information provided by studies carried out under the same light conditions in an invaded area in New Zealand. Shoot elongation, leaf production, stem and leaf biomass per shoot and specific leaf area (SLA, cm(2) g(-1)) were determined in five adult plants, randomly selected in each of three light conditions in two forest sites. Net photosynthesis as a function of PPFD (Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density), stomatal conductance (gs), maximum light-saturated photosynthesis rate (Pmax), Pmass (on mass bases) and water-use efficiency (WUEi) were determined in plants of one site. We predicted that functional traits would differ between populations of native and invasive ranges. In their native area, plants growing under the canopy produced the longest shoots and had the lowest values for shoot emergence and foliar biomass per shoot, while their SLA was higher than gap and forest edge plants. Leaf number and stem biomass per shoot were independent of light differences. Leaves of gap plants showed higher Pmax, Pmass and gs but lower WUEi than plants growing at the forest edge. In its native range B. darwinii grows under different light conditions by adjusting shoot and leaf morphology and physiology. Plants of B. darwinii growing under the same light conditions show similar physiology in native and invasive ranges. This means that for B. darwinii, intra-specific variation of the functional traits studied here do not condition successful spread in new areas. PMID:24969502

  18. Indigenous use and bio-efficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa District, Central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Emmanuel K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By revealing historical and present plant use, ethnobotany contributes to drug discovery and socioeconomic development. Nepal is a natural storehouse of medicinal plants. Although several ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the country, many areas remain unexplored. Furthermore, few studies have compared indigenous plant use with reported phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Methods Ethnopharmacological data was collected in the Rasuwa district of Central Nepal by conducting interviews and focus group discussions with local people. The informant consensus factor (FIC was calculated in order to estimate use variability of medicinal plants. Bio-efficacy was assessed by comparing indigenous plant use with phytochemical and pharmacological properties determined from a review of the available literature. Criteria were used to identify high priority medicinal plant species. Results A total of 60 medicinal formulations from 56 plant species were documented. Medicinal plants were used to treat various diseases and disorders, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal problems, followed by fever and headache. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants (57% of the species, followed by trees (23%. The average FIC value for all ailment categories was 0.82, indicating a high level of informant agreement compared to similar studies conducted elsewhere. High FIC values were obtained for ophthalmological problems, tooth ache, kidney problems, and menstrual disorders, indicating that the species traditionally used to treat these ailments are worth searching for bioactive compounds: Astilbe rivularis, Berberis asiatica, Hippophae salicifolia, Juniperus recurva, and Swertia multicaulis. A 90% correspondence was found between local plant use and reported plant chemical composition and pharmacological properties for the 30 species for which information was available. Sixteen medicinal plants were

  19. Long-Term Effects of White-Tailed Deer Exclusion on the Invasion of Exotic Plants: A Case Study in a Mid-Atlantic Temperate Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Shen

    Full Text Available Exotic plant invasions and chronic high levels of herbivory are two of the major biotic stressors impacting temperate forest ecosystems in eastern North America, and the two problems are often linked. We used a 4-ha deer exclosure maintained since 1991 to examine the influence of a generalist herbivore, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, on the abundance of four exotic invasive (Rosa multiflora, Berberis thunbergii, Rubus phoenicolasius and Microstegium vimineum and one native (Cynoglossum virginianum plant species, within a 25.6-ha mature temperate forest dynamics plot in Virginia, USA. We identified significant predictors of the abundance of each focal species using generalized linear models incorporating 10 environmental and landscape variables. After controlling for those predictors, we applied our models to a 4-ha deer exclusion site and a 4-ha reference site, both embedded within the larger plot, to test the role of deer on the abundance of the focal species. Slope, edge effects and soil pH were the most frequent predictors of the abundance of the focal species on the larger plot. The abundance of C. virginianum, known to be deer-dispersed, was significantly lower in the exclosure. Similar patterns were detected for B. thunbergii, R. phoenicolasius and M. vimineum, whereas R. multiflora was more abundant within the exclosure. Our results indicate that chronic high deer density facilitates increased abundances of several exotic invasive plant species, with the notable exception of R. multiflora. We infer that the invasion of many exotic plant species that are browse-tolerant to white-tailed deer could be limited by reducing deer populations.

  20. Screening of potential medicinal plants from District Sawat specific for controlling women diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethnobotany provides a scientific rationale to identify medicinally important plant species, especially for finding new drugs that play vital role in the treatment of different diseases. This ethnobotanical survey of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) was carried out to identify medicinally important plant species that are traditionally used to treat gynecological disorders and infectious diseases, and to study their antimicrobial potential against pathogens that cause infections in females. The antimicrobial activities were investigated using the well diffusion method against four different bacterial strains and one fungal strain. Results showed that out of 12 plants studied, seven plants exhibited inhibitory effects against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Woodfordia fruticosa, Quercus dilatata, Erythrina variegata, Ficus religiosa and Berberis lycium showed high antifungal activity against C. albicans with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 2.5, 1.25, 0.625, 1.25, 0.3125 mg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 5, 2.5, 1.25, 2.5, 0.625 mg/ml, respectively. Both Woodfordia fruticosa and Quercus dilatata showed antimicrobial potential against E. coli and K. pneumoniae with similar MIC values of 2.5 mg/ml and MBC values of 5 mg/ml. Plants exhibiting inhibitory potential against S. aureus were Woodfordia fruticosa, Quercus dilatata, Azadirachta indica and Curcuma longa and all of them possessed similar MIC values of 5 mg/ml and MBC values of 2.5 mg/ml, respectively. None of the plants showed antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proximate analysis showed that in comparative assessment of the various species, Zanthoxylum alatum had the highest fat and energy values. (author)

  1. L’herbari de l’Institut Botànic de Barcelona com una eina per la conservació dels tàxons endèmics i amenaçats de Catalunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavioli, L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The herbarium of the Botanic Institute of Barcelona (BC is the largest collection of plants of Catalonia and the second of Spain due to its volume, and it is representative of the flora of the western Mediterranean region. It includes, apart from the general collection, other historical collections (from 17th to early 20th century. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate if the endemic and threatened taxa of Catalonia are represented in the herbarium. We also provide chronological and geographical information of herborization intensity, as well as altitudinal, chorological, chronological, phenological and over-collection risk new data. We analyzed the general collection and part of informatized historical herbaria (Cadevall, Hieraciotheca Gallica et Hispanica, Institució Catalana d’Història Natural, Salvador, Societat Botànica Barcelonesa and Trèmols [volumes I-XXI]. Specimens collected from Catalonia have been found to represent 82.24% of the 304 endemic and threatened taxa. The areas with more herborization pressure were Ribes Valley, Montserrat, Port Massif, Cardó Mountains, Montseny and Montsec Mountains. The new chorological data provided expands the distribution of Berberis vulgaris L. subsp. seroi O. Bolòs & Vigo and Stachys maritima Gouan. New altitudinal and phenological data are provided for nine and 40 taxa, respectively.

    El herbario del Instituto Botánico de Barcelona (BC es la colección de plantas más importante de Cataluña y la segunda de España y es representativo de la flora de la región mediterránea occidental. Incluye la colección general y otras colecciones históricas (desde el siglo XVII hasta principios del XX. Los objetivos principales de este trabajo han sido evaluar la representatividad de los táxones endémicos y amenazados de Cataluña en el herbario así como aportar información de tipo cronológico y geográfico de intensidad de recolección y

  2. Report details poverty-population-environment link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This summary reports on the state of environmental conditions in 1993 and is a reprint from an ICPD publication. This summary refers to a Roundtable Meeting held in November 1993, preliminary to the 1994 UN Conference on the Environment and Development, and an environmental report by Mary Berberis. The report identifies five regions with serious environmental degradation and resource depletion (the Bay of Bengal; the former forested uplands of Indonesia, Nepal, the Philippines, and Thailand; the forests of Central America; the arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa; and the small South Pacific island states). These regions are not just beset with environmental problems, but those problems are exacerbated by problems with land supply and use, poverty, waste, and lack of technology. The report emphasizes that a focus solely on population growth issues obscures the urgent demand for dealing with poverty alleviation, land reform, waste reduction, and improved technologies. Environmental degradation is also caused to a great extent by unsustainable patterns of consumption by affluent groups and by the processes of urban expansion, deforestation, and cultivation of marginal lands in both developed and developing countries. Mary Barberis in her summary of the literature on the causes of environmental conditions considers that the most serious environmental damage is generated by conditions of poverty and population pressure. Environmentally unsound practices are supported by inappropriate farming and soil management techniques, unequal access to resources, and government policies. The example of Bangladesh illustrates that urban population growth has occurred mostly in poor areas, and the problems of water supply, drainage, solid waste disposal, and sanitation are compounded by population growth. Rivers and marine fisheries is contaminated by urban discharges, untreated industrial waste, and fertilizers. Increased salinization degrades the land. Harvesting of wood depletes

  3. 十八味诃子利尿丸质量标准的研究%Quality standards of the 18 taste myrobalan diuretic pill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩秀兰; 张志成; 常立德

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish the method of quality control of 18 taste myrobalan diuretic pil . Method: TLC at the same time to identify agents in safflower, Symplocos leaves, the Lithospermum Velvet Berberis skin; using an HPLC method for the determination of the content of the preparation of gal ic acid. Column: Agilent-C18 column (250mm × 4.6mm, 5µm). Methanol - water - phosphoric acid (10:90:0.01) as the mobile phase. Flow rate of 1.0ml • min-1, and the detection wavelength was 273 nm, column temperature: 30℃. Result: gal ic acid 0.412-2.06µg range a good linear relationship (r = 0.9998), the average recovery was 99.8%, RSD 0.5%(n=5). Conclusion:This method is sensitive, accurate, good separation results can be used for the quality evaluation.%目的:建立十八味诃子利尿丸质量控制方法。方法:采用 TLC 法同时鉴别制剂中红花、山矾叶、小檗皮;采用 HPLC 方法测定制剂中没食子酸的含量。色谱柱:Agilent-C18柱(250mm×4.6mm,5µm)。甲醇-水-磷酸(10:90:0.01)为流动相。流速为1.0ml·min-1,检测波长273nm,柱温:30℃.结果:没食子酸在0.412-2.06µg 范围内线性关系良好,r=0.9998,平均回收率为99.8%,RSD 为0.5%(n=5).结论:该方法灵敏、准确、分离效果好,可用于该制剂的质量评价。

  4. Assessment of Diversity, Distribution, Conservation Status and Preparation of Management Plan for Medicinal Plants in the Catchment Area of Parbati Hydroelectric Project Stage -Ⅲ in Northwestern Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.S. Samant; Jitendra S. Butola; Aman Sharma

    2007-01-01

    The developmental activities, particularly the construction of hydroelectric projects are causing a great loss of biodiversity in the Indian Himalayan Region. The Himachal Pradesh, a part of IHR is well known for the development of hydroelectric projects.The Parbati H.E. Project is amongst the major projects of the State. The different stages of the project are all causing loss of biodiversity of the area.Stage Ⅲ of the Parbati H.E. Project is a run of the river scheme on the Sainj River downstream of Power House of Parbati H.E. Project Stage Ⅱ. The project shall utilize regulated discharge of Parbati H.E.Project Stage Ⅱ and inflow of River Sainj for power generation, and has been contemplated as a peaking station operating in tandem with Stage Ⅱ. The present study has been undertaken to see the impact of hydroelectric project on the biodiversity, particularly on medicinal plants. A total of 104 species of medicinal plants, belonging to different life forms, i.e.,trees (23 spp.), shrubs (22 spp.), herbs (57 spp.) and ferns (2 spp.) were recorded. The species have been analyzed and studied for their distribution,classification, altitudinal zones, part (s) used,indigenous uses, nativity, endemism and rarity.Different parts of these species, such as whole plants,roots (including rhizomes and tubers), leaves, flowers,fruits, seeds, stems, barks, spikes, nuts and insect galls are used by the inhabitants for curing various diseases and ailments. 30 species are native to the Himalayan region, 9 species native to the Himalayan region and adjacent countries also and 65 species are non-natives. 9 species are near endemics. Considering the whole Himalaya as a biogeographic unit (sensu lato),the near endemics are endemic to the Himalaya.Among these species, Zanthoxylum armatum is categorized as Endangered and Valeriana wallichii as Vulnerable. Hedychium spicatum, Rhus javanica,Berberis lycium, Thalictrum foliolossum, Salvia lanata, Rubia cordifolia and Bergenia

  5. О ПЕРЕЗИМОВКЕ ДРЕВЕСНЫХ РАСТЕНИЙ В БОТАНИЧЕСКОМ САДУ ИНСТИТУТА БИОЛОГИИ КОМИ НАУЧНОГО ЦЕНТРА В 2009-2010 ГГ

    OpenAIRE

    Мартынов, Л.

    2012-01-01

    Проведена оценка зимостойкости после зимы 2009-2010 гг., интродуцированных в ботаническом саду 390 таксонов древесных растений. Из общего числа обследованных растений выявлено 256 таксонов, получивших различную степень обмерзания, или 66%. Приводится список наиболее сильно пострадавших видов. Отмечается особенность перезимовки видов невысоких кустарников родов Philadelphus L., Physocarpus Maxim., Berberis L., Rosa L. Оценивается зимостойкость растений после перезимовки согласно их географичес...

  6. Environmental changes in two lakes of Northern Patagonia (Chile): A 1000 yr reconstruction based on pollen and charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Vargas; Laura, Torres; Alberto, Araneda; Fabiola, Cruces; Fernando, Torrejón; Denisse, Alvarez; G, Bizama; Nathalie, Fagel; Roberto, Urrutia

    2010-05-01

    We aim to reconstruct the environmental changes experimented in Patagonian ecosystems during the last 1000 years. We analyze sediment cores from two lakes (Thompson and Burgos), located in Aysen Region, Southern Chile. The samples were obtained using a gravity corer and sampled at intervals of 1 cm to 30 cm depth and every 5 cm until the end of the core. Thompson lake sediment core was sampled every 5 cm. Age model is based on radiocarbon datings on bulk sediments and macroremains. In Burgos lake we evidence two main climatic changes. A wet period between 876-1444 AD is marked by the presence of Pteridophytes. A colder and dryer period is then evidenced by an increase of Berberis sp between 1444 and 1656 AD. From 1834 AD to Present the sediment record is mainly affected by human activities. High concentrations of carbon particles and a sharp change in pollen assemblage (increase of Poaceae, decrease of Nothofagus dombeyi-Type) are indicators of two large fire events. The lacustrine sediment of Thompson is characterized by a wetter period, between 874 - 1168 AD, with abundance of Pteridophytes. Then from 1168 AD to Present the environmental conditions of the watershed were characterized by lower ferns and fire events. Two major fires were evidenced between 1850 AD and Present. Like in Burgos they are marked by major changes in plant associations (sharp increase in Poaceae, drastic loss of Nothofagus dombeyi-Type). Wet periods identified in both lakes at the base of the sediment record could correspond to manifestations of a warm climate anomaly like the Medieval Warm Period. The dry and cold period, especially obvious in the Burgos record, could be associated to a cold climate anomaly. Finally the great changes in vegetation that occurred from the year ~ 1830 in the basin of the two lakes were directly related to human activities (forest cutting) developed during the ninetheenth and twentieth centuries. This research is funded by both Chilean and Belgian projects

  7. Whole-plant allocation to storage and defense in juveniles of related evergreen and deciduous shrub species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyka, T P; Karolewski, P; Żytkowiak, R; Chmielarz, P; Oleksyn, J

    2016-05-01

    In evergreen plants, old leaves may contribute photosynthate to initiation of shoot growth in the spring. They might also function as storage sites for carbohydrates and nitrogen (N). We hence hypothesized that whole-plant allocation of carbohydrates and N to storage in stems and roots may be lower in evergreen than in deciduous species. We selected three species pairs consisting of an evergreen and a related deciduous species: Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh) Nutt. and Berberis vulgaris L. (Berberidaceae), Prunus laurocerasus L. and Prunus serotina Ehrh. (Rosaceae), and Viburnum rhytidophyllum Hemsl. and Viburnum lantana L. (Adoxaceae). Seedlings were grown outdoors in pots and harvested on two dates during the growing season for the determination of biomass, carbohydrate and N allocation ratios. Plant size-adjusted pools of nonstructural carbohydrates in stems and roots were lower in the evergreen species of Berberidaceae and Adoxaceae, and the slope of the carbohydrate pool vs plant biomass relationship was lower in the evergreen species of Rosaceae compared with the respective deciduous species, consistent with the leading hypothesis. Pools of N in stems and roots, however, did not vary with leaf habit. In all species, foliage contained more than half of the plant's nonstructural carbohydrate pool and, in late summer, also more than half of the plant's N pool, suggesting that in juvenile individuals of evergreen species, leaves may be a major storage site. Additionally, we hypothesized that concentration of defensive phenolic compounds in leaves should be higher in evergreen than in deciduous species, because the lower carbohydrate pool in stems and roots of the former restricts their capacity for regrowth following herbivory and also because of the need to protect their longer-living foliage. Our results did not support this hypothesis, suggesting that evergreen plants may rely predominantly on structural defenses. In summary, our study indicates that leaf habit has

  8. Soil moisture redistribution as a mechanism of facilitation in savanna tree-shrub clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, C B; Barnes, P W; Archer, S; McMurtry, C R

    2005-08-01

    Plant-soil water relations were examined in the context of a selective removal study conducted in tree-shrub communities occupying different but contiguous soil types (small discrete clusters on shallow, duplex soils versus larger, extensive groves on deep, sandy soils) in a subtropical savanna parkland. We (1) tested for the occurrence of soil moisture redistribution by hydraulic lift (HL), (2) determined the influence of edaphic factors on HL, and (3) evaluated the significance of HL for overstory tree-understory shrub interactions. Diel cycling and nocturnal increases in soil water potential (Psisoil), characteristic signatures of HL, occurred intermittently throughout an annual growth cycle in both communities over a range of moisture levels (Psisoil=-0.5 to -6.0 MPa) but only when soils were distinctly stratified with depth (dry surface/wet deep soil layers). The magnitude of mean (+/-SE) diel fluctuations in Psisoil (0.19+/-0.01 MPa) did not differ on the two community types, though HL occurred more frequently in groves (deep soils) than clusters (shallow soils). Selective removal of either Prosopis glandulosa overstory or mixed-species shrub understory reduced the frequency of HL, indicating that Prosopis and at least one other woody species was conducting HL. For Zanthoxylum fagara, a shallow-rooted understory shrub, Prosopis removal from clusters decreased leaf water potential (Psileaf) and net CO2 exchange (A) during periods of HL. In contrast, overstory removal had neutral to positive effects on more deeply-rooted shrub species (Berberis trifoliolata and Condalia hookeri). Removal of the shrub understory in groves increased A in the overstory Prosopis. Results indicate the following: (a) HL is common but temporally dynamic in these savanna tree-shrub communities; (b) edaphic factors influencing the degree of overstory/understory development, rooting patterns and soil moisture distribution influence HL; (c) net interactions between overstory and

  9. Population Diversity ofPuccinia graminis is Sustained Through Sexual Cycle on Alternate Hosts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Jin; Matt Rouse; Jim Groth

    2014-01-01

    A high degree of virulence diversity has been maintained in the population ofPuccinia graminis f. sp.tritici (Pgt) in northwestern United States. AlthoughBerberis vulgaris is present in the region andPgthas been isolated from aecial infections onB. vulgaris, the population is too diverse to be explained by the limited presence ofB. vulgaris alone. Since 2008, we have isolatedP. graminis from aecial infections on fruits ofMahonia repens andMahonia aquifolium from northwestern United States. These two native woody shrub species, widely distributed in western North America, were once classiifed as resistant to P. graminis based on artiifcial inoculations. By isolatingP. graminis from aecia, we established that M. repens andM. aquifolium along withB. vulgaris (albeit infrequent) serve as the alternate hosts ofP. graminis in the region. The isolates ofP. graminis from Mahonia of North America had diverse virulence patterns and most of the isolates could be differentiated on Morocco, Line E, Chinese Spring, Little Club, LMPG-6, Rusty, and other genotypes that are considered to be universally susceptible to mostPgt isolates. This discovery explained the persistence of virulence diversity ofPgt observed in isolates derived from uredinia on cereal crops in the region. In addition to cereal crops, uredinial stage of theP. graminis population is sustained by wild grasses, especiallyElymus glaucus, a native grass sharing the same habitat with the rusted Mahonia spp. Although virulence to some important stem rust resistance genes was observed in some isolates derived from Mahonia of North America when tested against single stem rust resistance gene stocks, the overall virulence is very limited in these isolates. This is likely a result of limited selection pressure on the rust population. In contrast to northwestern United Sates, thePgt population in east of the Rocky Mountains of North America has declined steadily with a single race, QFCSC, being predominant in the last

  10. Biodiversity of medicinal plants in north east India: their systematic utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Shankar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010 North eastern India comprising of eight states namely Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura is widely rich in biodiversity belonging to different climatic conditions varying from tropical subtropical, temperate and alpine zones which covers the major occurrence of medicinal plants. The different states of North east India are falling into different hill zones like Eastern Himalaya beginning from Sikkim to Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh, Naga hills covering the areas of Nagaland and Manipur states, Lusai hills with Mizoram and Tripura states and Garo, Jayantiya and Khasi hills occupying the state of Meghalaya. The biodiversity distribution extents even to neighbouring countries like China, Mayayanmar and Bangladesh. Classification of different hills of north eastern India provides the distribution of specific medicinal plants like Sikkim is the richest source for Berginia ciliate, Cordiceps sinensis, Hippophae species, Nardostachys jatamansi, Picrorrhiza kurrooa, Swertia chirayita; Arunachal Pradesh for Acorus calamus, Aquillaria agallocha,  Berberis aristata, Cinnamomum tamala, C. zeylanica, Coptis teeta, Cordiceps sinensis, Embelia ribes, Paris polyphylla, Rubia cordifolia, Gynocordia odorata, Illicium griffithii, Taxus wallichiana, Valeriana jatamansi; Nagaland and Manipur for Smilax glabra, Asparagus adscendens with less occurrence of Rubia cordifolia, Taxus wallichiana, Thallictrum foliolosum etc; Jayantiya hill of Meghalaya comprises of wider distribution of Embelia ribes; Lusai hill covering the state of Mizoram and eastern plains of Tripura comprises of Holorhena antidysenterica, Mallotus phillippinensis, Saraca asoka, Smilax glabra, Stephania glabra and Terminalia chebula. Plants

  11. 兰州盆地早第三纪植物及古气候意义%Early Tertiary fossil plants and paleoclimate of Lanzhou Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿宝印; 陶君容; 颉光普

    2001-01-01

    化石采自甘肃省兰州盆地咸水河组底部, 经研究认为有29种, 归属20属12科。它们是:樟科Lauraceae (Daphnogene), 木通科Lardizabalaceae (Akebia), 小檗科Berberidaceae (Berberis), 榆科Ulmaceae (Planera, Ulmus, Zelkova),桦木科Betulaceae (Alnus,Carpinus),杨梅科 Myricaceae(Myrica),杨柳科Salicaceae (Populus,Salix),紫金牛科Myrsinaceae(Ardisia),蔷薇科Rosaceae (Prunus, Sorbus, Sorbaria, Spiraea),豆科 Leguminosae (Gleditsia, Sophora),漆树科 Anacardiaceae (Rhus),忍冬科Caprifoliaceae(Viburnum)等。经植物区系组成与叶相分析显示, 该植物区系的大多数成员是落叶阔叶乔、灌木, 少数为常绿灌木。其中特殊的分子是Rhus turcomanica Korov. ex Vassilvesk, 该成分是早第三纪中、晚期的标志化石植物。另一化石植物Sorbaria callicomifolia Kornilova 曾出现在中亚的早渐新世, 最晚至早中新世。同一层位采集的孢粉样分析结果显示:该组合仅约20种, 种类相对贫乏, 并以被子植物的花粉占优势。其中出现裸子植物的麻黄粉, 被子植物的白刺粉及蒿粉等, 这几个类型均指示沉积时期经历干旱气候。综合植物大化石及孢粉分析研究, 均出现一些指示气候为亚热带干旱或周期性干旱气候的特点, 并据Rhus turcomanica出现的最晚记录, 推测咸水河组底部的地质时代大约是早渐新世晚期。%Fossil plants from the lower part of Xianshuihe Formation in the Lanzhou Basin, Gansu Province were studied. The flora contains 29 species, representing 20 genera and 12 families, which include Lauraceae (Daphnogene), Lardizabalaceae (Akebia), Berberidaceae (Berberis), Ulmaceae (Planera, Ulmus, Zelkova), Betulaceae (Alnus,Carpinus), Myricaceae(Myrica), Salicaceae (Populus,Salix), Myrsinaceae(Ardisia), Rosaceae (Prunus, Sorbus, Sorbaria, Spiraea), Leguminosae (Gleditsia, Sophora), Anacardiaceae (Rhus), Caprifoliaceae(Viburnum). An analysis of the floristic elements and their

  12. Phenacoccinae de Centro y Sudamérica (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae: Sistemática y Filogenia Central and South American Phenacoccinae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae: Systematics and Phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Granara De Willink

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio sistemático y cladístico de las especies de Phenacoccus Cockerell neotropicales. Se describen e ilustran 18 especies nuevas: Phenacoccus argentinus Granara de Willink, Ph. berberis Granara de Willink, Ph. chubutensis Granara de Willink, Ph. ornatus Granara de Willink, Ph. persimilis Granara de Willink (Argentina; Ph. erythrinus Granara de Willink (Brasil y Argentina; Ph. peruvianus Granara de Willink (Argentina y Perú; Ph. sisymbriifolium Granara de Willink (Argentina y Uruguay; Ph. chilindrinae Granara de Willink, Ph. cornicirculus Granara de Willink, Ph. ruellia Granara de Willink, Ph. setosus Granara de Willink, Ph. sonoraensis Granara de Willink (México; Ph. hirsutus Granara de Willink (Puerto Rico; Ph. multicerarii Granara de Willink (Venezuela; Ph. sisalanus Granara de Willink (Haití y República Dominicana; Ph. toconaoensis Granara de Willink (Chile, y Ph. uruguayensis Granara de Willink (Uruguay. Todas las especies de Phenacoccus conocidas anteriormente para la región (24 en total son diagnosticadas. También se citan, ilustran y describen Phenacoccus artemisiae Ehrhorn y Ph. graminicola Leonardi, encontradas por primera vez en la Argentina. Se incluyen claves de géneros de Phenacoccinae neotropicales y de las especies de Phenacoccus neotropicales y también una lista de plantas hospederas de los Phenacoccus, que contiene 48 Familias Botánicas y 124 especies. Finalmente se realizó un análisis cladístico de los Phenacoccinae neotropicales, que incluye además de Phenacoccus los siguientes géneros: Brasiliputo Williams & Granara de Willink, Brevennia Goux, Chileputo Williams & Granara de Willink, Heliococcus Sulc, Heterococcus Ferris, Mammicoccus Balachowsky, Peliococcus Borchsenius, Pellizzaricoccus Kozár. Una matriz de 60 taxones (que incluye 10 géneros y 111 caracteres morfológicos, fue analizada mediante el criterio de parsimonia con el género Puto Signoret como taxón raíz. Los resultados

  13. Over-summering of wheat stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici in the California Central valley: A case study Supervivencia estival de la roya estriada (Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici del trigo en el Valle Central de California: Estudio de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huib Tollenaar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the over-summering of wheat stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici in the California Central Valley (CCV, temperature records from various locations in the CCV during the period 1950-2009 were examined for the occurrence of lethal maximum temperatures for the uredinia and uredinio-mycelium of this fungus. The lethal upper threshold temperature for the uredinial stage of P.s. tritici, estimated to be 40.5 °C on the basis of data published elsewhere, and the sum, accumulated during ten consecutive days, of the respective lethal temperature quotients (ALTQio, accounting for the partial lethal effect of the daily ambient temperatures between 30 and 40.5 °C on the uredinial stage of P.s. tritici, were used as yardsticks for thermal lethality. The results indicate that, in these 60 yr, the uredinia and the uredinio-mycelium of P.s. tritici could not possibly have over-summered at any of the locations studied. The Sierra Nevada Mountains, together with the Tulelake Basin and the coastal zone of the Pacific Ocean are the only two areas in California with appropriate environmental conditions for the summer-survival of the uredinial stage of stripe rust. Therefore, it is presumed that the inoculum for the initial infections of P.s. tritici in wheat fields in the CCV during the following growing season originates in either one or both of these areas, although, a potential third source of inoculum for the initial infections of stripe rust in the CCV could also be involved. Namely, the possible presence of telia with viable teliospores of P.s. tritici in autumn on straw of the threshed wheat fields or on volunteer wheat plants in the CCV, in conjunction with the accidental concurrence of nearby stripe rust susceptible barberry (Berberis spp., could lead to the development of alternative, endogenous sources of inoculum in the CCV.Para estudiar la supervivencia estival de la roya estriada (Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici del trigo

  14. Peculiarities of vegetation restoration of low mountain massif 'Degelen' of Semipalatinsk Test Sites after nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Geo-botanical researches in low mountain massif 'Degelen' Semipalatinsk Test Site were conducted out in 1994-2000 in the frames of INTAS 93-1422 and INTAS 96-2072 projects. 209 underground nuclear explosions were conducted out in horizontal adits in granite low mountain massif in 1968-1989. At present PED γ-irradiation reaches 100-500 μR/h in 14 adits, 500-1000 μR/h - in 8 adits, 1000-5000 μR/h - in 5 adits. Crests of the main mountain ridges and their lateral spurs were destroyed by multiple influence of blasts of nuclear explosions. 'Zones of split' appeared at the tops of the mountain ridges. Technogene screens appeared on the slopes of the mountain ridges. Radioactive springs appeared as a result of opening of water-bearing horizons under nuclear explosions. 'Zones of split' consist of granite fragments measuring 0.1-3.0 meters. Higher plants were not revealed on ground with big rock fragments. Single individuals of Urtica wens, Setaria viridis are found on ground with small rock fragments. Rarefied aggregations constituted by Artemisia frigida, Festuca valesiaca, Agropyron cristatum develop in small depressions with accumulation of fine earth. Single individuals of petrophytes (Orostachys spinosa, Sedum hybridum, S. purpureum, Patrinia intermedia) appeared on small plots of slightly damaged areas of crests of the mountain ridges. Technogene screens are constituted by granite fragments measuring 0.03-1.0 meter. Higher plants were not found here. Only lower part of the screens sometimes is covered by shrubs - Rosa spinosissima, R. laxa, Spiraea trilobata, Lonicera microphylla, Berberis sibirica are found more rarely. Aggregations of weed plants (Artemisia scoparia, A. sieversiana, Amaranthus retroflexus) develop on orifice-side areas of the adits. We revealed development of adaptation signs of Melilotus albus and Kochia sieversiana growing in conditions of radiation pollution (PED of γ-irradiation 200-700 μR/h). Shape and dimensions of blade

  15. Effects of invasive plant species on pollinator service and reproduction in native plants at Acadia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, C.J.; Drummond, F.; Ginsberg, H.

    2007-01-01

    Invasive plant species can have profound negative effects on natural communities by competively excluding native species. Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry), Frangula alnus (glossy or alder buckthorn) and Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) are invasive species known to reduce native plant diversity and are thus of great concern to Acadia National Park. Pollinators visit them for nectar and pollen. The effects of invasive plant species on pollinator behavior were investigated by comparing pollinator visitation to co-flowering native and invasive species with visitation to native species growing alone. The effect of invasives on pollination of native plants was studied by comparing fruit set in patches of the native species growing near invasives with patches far from invasive species in Acadia National Park. The coflowering pairs were as follows: in the spring native Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry) was paired with B. thunbergii; in early summer native Viburnum nudum (wild raisin) was paired with F. alnus ; in late summer native Spiraea alba (meadowsweet) was paired with L. salicaria. We investigated whether these invasives competed with native plants for pollinators in Acadia and thus negatively affected native plant reproduction. Our objectives were to determine: 1) the influence, if any, of each invasive on pollinator visitation to a co-flowering native species, 2) factors that might affect visitation, 3) invasive pollen transfer to native plants, and 4) whether invasives influence native plant reproduction (fruit set). Our findings indicate that at times the number of flower visitors to natives was lower or the species composition of visitors different when invasives were present, that invasives sometimes attracted more pollinators, that generally the invasives were more rewarding as far as nectar and pollen availability for pollinators, and that generally native plant fruit set and seed set was not significantly lowered in the presence of

  16. A ten-year audit of traditional Chinese medicine and other natural product research published in the Chinese Medical Journal (2000-2009)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard A. Collins

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinical research encompasses a wide variety of disciplines. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and natural product research have made great contributions to preventing and treating illness. The number and content of original research reports evaluating TCM and natural products have not previously been described. Information in this area will identify areas of relative strength and weakness in terms of knowledge gaps with respect to clinical conditions and natural product remedies.Methods Original research reports (i.e. original articles, brief reports, and research letters) published in the Chinese Medical Journal (CMJ) from January 2000 to December 2009 evaluating TCM and other natural products were reviewed.The United Kingdom Clinical Research Collaboration (UK-CRC) Health Research Classification System was used to analyze the type of health research conducted. Further analysis on the major illnesses addressed and the major herbal components utilized was conducted.Results One hundred and seventeen original research reports involving TCM or other natural products were identified,comprising 3.82% of the CMJ output in the period covered by this study. Of the different materia medica described in these reports, 74.4% were derived exclusively from plant material, 10.3% from animals, 3.4% from fungi, 1.7% from minerals, and 10.3% were of mixed (plant / animal / fungal / mineral) composition. Twelve herbs were investigated exclusively or were constituents of 66/87 (75.9%) of the plant-based materia medica investigated. Panax ginseng was the most commonly investigated herb or constituent (14/87, 16.1%), followed by Astragalus membranaceus (9/87, 10.3%),Coptis chinensis/Berberis spp. (7/87, 8.0%) and Rheum spp. (7/87, 8.0%). Four UK-CRC health categories accounted for the majority of TCM and other natural product research (cancer, 20.9%; cardiovascular, 19.2%; oral/gastrointestinal,9.8%; and inflammatory/immune, 9.0%). The most common research activity was

  17. Especies leñosas nativas claves para la restauración ecológica del Embalse de Chisacá, Colombia, con base en rasgos importantes de su historia de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Ramírez Natalia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron cinco especies nativas leñosas, como claves para la restauración de plantaciones de Pinus patula
    y Corredor ripario potrerizado del embalse de Chisacá (localidad de Usme, Bogotá, Colombia 3.000-3.250
    msnm; 4°08’59’’ N; 74°17’62’’ W, con base en Rasgos de de Historia de Vida (RHV y otras características de
    especies presentes en estas áreas. Teniendo en cuenta el objetivo del estudio y las características de las áreas
    degradadas se seleccionaron y analizaron 23 rasgos a cada una de las especies evaluadas en los distintos ambientes. En la zona de pinos se estudiaron 23 especies, 21 en el corredor ripario potrerizado y 20 en el Matorral Bajo. Se estableció un sistema de calificación para las posibles respuestas de cada uno de los rasgos según su incidencia en la restauración ecológica de las áreas a restaurar. Posteriormente, se calificaron los resultados de los rasgos de cada una de las especies y se calculó una calificación final de éstas. Se recomiendan como especies claves para la restauración las cinco especies que obtuvieron mayor calificación final. Teniendo en cuenta lo anterior se recomiendan como especies claves para la restauración de la zona de pinos las especies Hesperomeles goudotiana (72,41%, Vallea stipularis (67,82%, Symplocos s theiformis (67,82%, Holodiscus argenteus (65,52%, y Myrcianthes leucoxyla (65,52% y para el corredor ripario potrerizado las especies Hesperomeles goudotiana (75,86%, Brugmansia sanguinea (74,71%, Myrcianthes leucoxyla (68,97%, Berberis goudotii (65,48% y Vallea stipularis (64,37%. La selección de especies claves para la restauración con base en RHV parece ser una metodología adecuada, siempre y cuando la selección de rasgos se haga cuidadosamente, teniendo en cuenta
    los objetivos del estudio y que las especies consideradas se estudien en cada ambiente donde se desarrollen. En
    efecto, se observó que los rasgos responden de