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Sample records for benzyl alcohol

  1. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  2. In situ spectroscopic investigation of oxidative dehydrogenation and disproportionation of benzyl alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Nowicka, E.; HOFMANN, J.P.; Parker, S. F.; Sankar, M.; Lari, G.M.; Kondrat, S.A.; Knight, D. W.; Bethell, D; Weckhuysen, B.M.; G. J. Hutchings

    2013-01-01

    In the solvent free oxidation of benzyl alcohol, using supported gold–palladium nanoalloys, toluene is often one of major by-products and it is formed by the disproportionation of benzyl alcohol. Gold–palladium catalysts on acidic supports promote both the disproportionation of benzyl alcohol and oxidative dehydrogenation to form benzaldehyde. Basic supports completely switch off disproportionation and the gold–palladium nanoparticles catalyse the oxidative dehydrogenation reaction exclusivel...

  3. A convenient procedure for the synthesis of allyl and benzyl ethers from alcohols and phenols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Surya Prakash Rao; S P Senthilkumar

    2001-06-01

    Allyl and benzyl ethers of alcohols can be prepared conveniently and in high yield with allyl and benzyl bromide in the presence of solid potassium hydroxide without use of any solvent. Phenols can be converted to allyl ethers but are inert to benzylation under above conditions.

  4. Depolymerization of lignin by microwave-assisted methylation of benzylic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guodian; Qiu, Xueqing; Zhao, Ying; Qian, Yong; Pang, Yuxia; Ouyang, Xinping

    2016-10-01

    A new two-step lignin depolymerization strategy was developed, in which the benzylic alcohols in lignin was methylated under microwave irradiation, followed by a hydrogenolysis for the cleavage of βO4 bond with Pd/C as the catalyst. The results showed that an efficient and selective catalytic methylation of benzylic alcohols was achieved with various lignin model compounds, and the acidic environment promoted the methylation of benzylic alcohol. Methylation of benzylic alcohol increased the βO4 bond cleavage rate by 55.9%, and improved products selectivity. Preliminary study of lignin depolymerization illustrated that methylation pretreatment of benzylic alcohols facilitated lignin depolymerization to produce aromatic monomers and reduced the oxygen content of aromatic monomers. PMID:27420159

  5. Structure and dynamics at the liquid surface of benzyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietter, J.; Morgner, H. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultaet, Universitaet Witten/Herdecke, Stockumerstrasse 10, D-58453 Witten-Annen (Germany)

    1999-02-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation of a liquid layer of benzyl alcohol has been performed in order to compare the results with those obtained in experimental studies of our group. The main result of the experimental work was a strong orientational ordering of the benzyl alcohol molecules in the surface as well as an exceptionally large surface potential of ca. 0.6 V. According to the experiments the surface molecules orientate in such a way that the benzene ring points toward the vapor phase while the CH{sub 2} group and the OH group are directed towards the bulk of the liquid. The simulation confirms this orientation of the surface molecules. The surface potential resulting from the simulation is 350 mV. The simulation reveals that the rather large surface potential can be understood as a consequence of the mean orientation of the molecular dipole moment in the surface region. The mean orientation of the molecules themselves in the surface is due to the tendency of the system to maintain the hydrogen bonding structure of the bulk in the surface region as well. The preferential orientation of the surface molecules causes a change of the dynamics of the individual components of the molecules when switching from bulk to surface which depends on the separation of these components from the polar group. This becomes most obvious in case of the reorientation dynamics of the molecular axes, e.g. the reorientation of the benzene ring is faster than the reorientation of the OH group. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Toxicity of benzyl alcohol in adult and neonatal mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzyl alcohol (BA) is an aromatic alcohol, which is used as a bacteriostat in a variety of parenteral preparations. In 1982, it was implicated as the agent responsible for precipitating The Gasping Syndrome in premature neonates. The investigate further this toxicity, BA was administered, intraperiotoneally, to adult and neonatal CD-1 male mice. Gross behavioral changes were monitored. Low doses produced minimal toxic effects within an initial 4 hour observation period. At the end of this time, the LD50 was determined to be 1000 mg/kg for both age groups. Death was due to respiratory arrest in all cases. Rapid absorption and conversion of BA to its primary metabolite, benzaldehyde, was demonstrated by gas chromatographic analysis of plasma from both experimental groups. The conversion of BA to benzaldehyde was confirmed in in vitro by using both horse-liver and mouse liver ADH. The inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) by pyrazole was similarly demonstrated in both enzyme systems. 14C-labelled BA was utilized to determine the distribution of BA and its metabolites in the body, and to possibly pinpoint a target organ of toxicity

  7. Benzyl alcohol increases voluntary ethanol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etelälahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P

    2014-09-01

    The anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats. In recent experiments we received opposite results, with decreased voluntary ethanol intake in both high drinking AA and low drinking Wistar rats after nandrolone treatment. The difference between the two studies was that we used pure nandrolone decanoate in oil, whereas in the previous study the nandrolone product Deca-Durabolin containing benzyl alcohol (BA) was used. The aims of the present study were to clarify whether the BA treatment could promote ethanol drinking and to assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axes (HPAGA) in the potential BA effect. Male AA and Wistar rats received subcutaneously BA or vehicle oil for 14 days. Hereafter followed a 1-week washout and consecutively a 3-week voluntary alcohol consumption period. The median (± median absolute deviation) voluntary ethanol consumption during the drinking period was higher in BA-treated than in control rats (4.94 ± 1.31 g/kg/day vs. 4.17 ± 0.31 g/kg/day, p = 0.07 and 1.01 ± 0.26 g/kg/day vs. 0.38 ± 0.27 g/kg/day, p = 0.05, for AA and Wistar rats, respectively; combined effect p Deca-Durabolin containing BA need to be re-evaluated. PMID:24871566

  8. A novel and selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols with polymer-supported periodic acid under mild aprotic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Reza Pourali; Mehrosadat Tabaean; S. Mohamad Reza Nazifi

    2012-01-01

    A new polymeric oxidizing reagent was prepared by supporting periodic acid on poly(1,4-phenylene-2,5-pyridine dicarboxyamide).This polymeric reagent was used for the selective oxidation of primary benzylic alcohols to the corresponding benzaldehydes in CH3CN at reflux conditions.Excellent selectivity was observed between primary benzyl alcohols and secondary ones as well as non-benzylic alcohols in the oxidation reactions.Allylic alcohols were also converted to the corresponding aldehydes with good yields.

  9. Kinetic Studies on the Selective Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohols in Organic Medium under Phase Transfer Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bijudas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic studies on the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and substituted benzyl alcohols in benzene as the reaction medium have been studied by using potassium dichromate under phase transfer catalysis (PTC. The phase transfer catalysts (PT catalysts used were tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB and tetrabutylphosphonium bromide (TBPB.  Benzyl alcohols were selectively oxidised to corresponding benzaldehydes in good yield (above 90%.  The order of reactivity among the studied benzyl alcohols is p - OCH3 > p - CH3 > - H > p - Cl.  Plots of log k2 versus Hammett's substituent constant (s has been found to be curve shaped and this suggests that there should be a continuous change in transition state with changes in substituent present in the substrate from electron donating to electron withdrawing. A suitable mechanism has been suggested in which the rate determining step involves both C - H bond cleavage and C - O bond formations in concerted manner. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.Received: 16th March 2014; Revised: 18th May 2014; Accepted: 18th May 2014[How to Cite: Bijudas, K., Bashpa, P., Nair, T.D.R. (2014. Kinetic Studies on the Selective Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol and Substituted Benzyl Alcohols in Organic Medium under Phase Transfer Catalysis. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (2: 142-147. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.2.6476.142-147][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.2.6476.142-147] 

  10. Solubilities of benzoic acid in binary (benzyl alcohol + benzaldehyde) solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Solubilities of benzoic acid in (benzyl alcohol + benzaldehyde) mixtures were measured at 1 atm. • The experimental temperature ranges at (298.35 to 355.65) K. • Effects of benzyl alcohol mass concentration at (0.00 to 1.00) on the solubilities of benzoic acid were studied. • The experimental data were correlated with NRTL model. • Thermodynamic functions of dissolution of benzoic acid in (benzyl alcohol + benzaldehyde) mixtures were discussed. - Abstract: The solubility of benzoic acid in binary (benzyl alcohol + benzaldehyde) solvent mixtures was measured at temperature from (298.35 to 355.65) K and atmospheric pressure. The measured solubility increases with the increasing temperature at constant solvent composition. The effects of mass fraction benzaldehyde in the solvent mixtures at (0.0 to 1.00) on the solubility were studied. The measured solubility decreases with the increasing mass fraction of benzaldehyde. The experimental results were correlated with the non-random two-liquid (NRTL) equations, and good agreement between the correlated and the experimental values was obtained. Thermodynamic functions for the solution of benzoic acid in binary (benzyl alcohol + benzaldehyde) solvent mixtures were calculated with the van’t Hoff plot. The apparent dissolution Gibbs free energy change was also calculated

  11. Reactivity of H. formed in the radiolysis of benzyl alcohol containing tetracycline hydrochloride at 77 K+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiolysis of tetracycline hydrochloride dissolved in benzyl alcohol was studied at 77 K by ESR. The H. and e- which are formed in the radiolysis of benzyl alcohol at 77 K migrate over a distance corresponding to about 95 and 995 molecules of solvent, respectively, before they are captured by the tetracycline hydrochloride solute. The migration of H. in neopentane matrix is more favoured than in benzyl alcohol matrix. When the mole ratio between solute and solvent is 1:10000, the reactivity of H. observed by ESR is the following: a) 20% of H. reacts preferentially with solute; b) 80% of H. reacts exclusively with the solvent in the first collision. (author)

  12. Efficient oxidation of benzyl alcohol with heteropolytungstate as reaction-controlled phase-transfer catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A series of heteropolytungstates has been synthesized and utilized as catalysts to catalyze oxidation of benzyl alcohol with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. The results indicated that three of these catalysts showed the properties of reaction-controlled phasetransfer catalysis, and they had excellent catalytic ability to the oxidation of benzyl alcohol. No other by-products were detected by gas chromatography. Once the hydrogen peroxide was consumed completely, the catalyst precipitated from solvent, and the results of the catalyst recycle showed that the catalyst had high stability.

  13. Mild and selective vanadium-catalyzed oxidation of benzylic, allylic, and propargylic alcohols using air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Susan K; Wu, Ruilian; Silks, L A Pete

    2011-04-15

    Transition metal-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation is an attractive method for the synthesis of carbonyl compounds, but most catalytic systems feature precious metals and require pure oxygen. The vanadium complex (HQ)(2)V(V)(O)(O(i)Pr) (2 mol %, HQ = 8-quinolinate) and NEt(3) (10 mol %) catalyze the oxidation of benzylic, allylic, and propargylic alcohols with air. The catalyst can be easily prepared under air using commercially available reagents and is effective for a wide range of primary and secondary alcohols. PMID:21434606

  14. Electrocatalytic activity of surface adsorbed ruthenium-alizarin complexone toward the oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface electrochemical behavior of an adsorbed alizarin complexone (abbreviated as AC) and its surface coordination with Ru(II) were studied in aqueous solution at a pH range of 0-6. The surface complex of ruthenium with AC displays strong electrocatalytic activities toward benzyl alcohol. Based on the rotating disk electrode measurement, it is believed that the electrocatalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol is a two-electron and two-proton process with benzaldehyde as a major product. On the other hand, ruthenium-AC surface complex has also shown catalytic activities toward electro-oxidation of several small organic molecules such as methanol, formic acid, formaldehyde, ethanol, and acetaldehyde

  15. Inhibition of a Gold-Based Catalyst in Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation: Understanding and Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Skupien

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Benzyl alcohol oxidation was carried out in toluene as solvent, in the presence of the potentially inhibiting oxidation products benzaldehyde and benzoic acid. Benzoic acid, or a product of benzoic acid, is identified to be the inhibiting species. The presence of a basic potassium salt (K2CO3 or KF suppresses this inhibition, but promotes the formation of benzyl benzoate from the alcohol and aldehyde. When a small amount of water is added together with the potassium salt, an even greater beneficial effect is observed, due to a synergistic effect with the base. A kinetic model, based on the three main reactions and four major reaction components, is presented to describe the concentration-time profiles and inhibition. The inhibition, as well as the effect of the base, was captured in the kinetic model, by combining strong benzoic acid adsorption and competitive adsorption with benzyl alcohol. The effect of the potassium salt is accounted for in terms of neutralization of benzoic acid.

  16. Gold( i )-catalysed dehydrative formation of ethers from benzylic alcohols and phenols

    KAUST Repository

    Veenboer, Richard M. P.

    2015-01-01

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. We report the cross-dehydrative reaction of two alcohols to form unsymmetrical ethers using NHC-gold(i) complexes (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene). Our progress in developing this reaction into a straightforward procedure is discussed in detail. The optimised methodology proceeds under mild reaction conditions and produces water as the sole by-product. The synthetic utility of this environmentally benign methodology is exemplified by the formation of a range of new ethers from readily available phenols bearing electron withdrawing substituents and secondary benzylic alcohols with various substituents. Finally, we present experimental results to account for the chemoselectivity obtained in these reactions.

  17. Development of Highly Effective Nanoparticle Spinel Catalysts for Aerobic Oxidation of Benzylic Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI,Hong-Bing(纪红兵); WANG,Le-Fu(王乐夫)

    2002-01-01

    Spinel catalyst MnFe1.8Cu0.15Ru0.05O4 with particle size of about 42 nm is an effective heterogeneous catalyst for the oxidation of benzylic alcohols. The substitution of Fe for Cu improves its catalytic activity. Based on the characterization of BET, XPS and EXAFS, two factors influencing the structure and texture of the catalyst caused by the substitution of Cu for Fe may be assumed: physical factor responsible for the increasing of surface area; chemical factor responsible for the transformation of Ru-O bonds to Ru = O bonds. β-Elimination is considered to be an important step in the reaction.

  18. Synthesis of Nickel Hexacyanoferrate Nanoparticles and Their Potential as Heterogeneous Catalysts for the Solvent-Free Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shah R. ALI; Prakash CHANDRA; Mamta LATWAL; Shalabh K. JAIN; Vipin K. BANSAL; Sudhanshu P. SINGH

    2011-01-01

    Nickel hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis,thermal analysis,infrared spectroscopy,and X-ray diffraction.A FE-SEM image of the nickel hexacyanoferrate showed that it consists of nearly spherical particles with sizes ranging from 30 to 70 nm.The synthesized material was found to be a heterogeneous catalyst useful for the solvent-free oxidation of benzyl alcohol with H2O2 as an oxidant.A 36% conversion of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde was achieved under optimized reaction conditions using specific parameters such as the amount of catalyst,the temperature,the benzyl alcohol to H2O2 molar ratio,and the reaction time.

  19. Highly Dispersed Gold Nanoparticles Supported on SBA-15 for Vapor Phase Aerobic Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Sreedhar, Bojja; Chary, Komandur V R

    2015-02-01

    Gold nanoparticles supported on SBA-15 are prepared by homogenous deposition-precipitation method (HDP) using urea as the precipitating agent. The structural features of the synthesized catalysts were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption (BET), pore size distribution (PSD), CO chemisorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The catalytic activity and stability of the Au/SBA-15 catalysts are investigated during the vapor phase aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The BJH pore size distribution results of SBA-15 support and Au/SBA-15 catalysts reveals that the formation of mesoporous structure in all the samples. TEM results suggest that Au nanoparticles are highly dispersed over SBA-15 and long range order of hexagonal mesopores of SBA-15 is well retained even after the deposition of Au metallic nanoparticles. XPS study reveals the formation of Au (0) after chemical reduction by NaBH4. The particle size measured from CO-chemisorption and TEM analysis are well correlated with the TOF values of the reaction. Au/SBA-1 5 catalysts are found to show higher activity compare to Au/TiO2 and Au/MgO catalysts during the vapor phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The catalytic functionality are well substantiated with particle size measured from TEM. The crystallite size of Au in both fresh and spent catalysts were measured from X-ray diffraction. PMID:26353720

  20. Study of the Chemical Mechanism Involved in the Formation of Tungstite in Benzyl Alcohol by the Advanced QEXAFS Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olliges‐Stadler, Inga; Stötzel, Jan; Koziej, Dorota;

    2012-01-01

    Insight into the complex chemical mechanism for the formation of tungstite nanoparticles obtained by the reaction of tungsten hexachloride with benzyl alcohol is presented herein. The organic and inorganic species involved in the formation of the nanoparticles were studied by time‐dependent gas c...

  1. Ir/Sn dual-reagent catalysis towards highly selective alkylation of arenes and heteroarenes with benzyl alcohols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sujit Roy; Susmita Podder; Joyanta Choudhury

    2008-09-01

    A catalytic combination of [Ir(COD)Cl]2-SnCl4 efficiently promotes the reactions of arenes and heteroarenes with 1°/2°/3° benzyl alcohols as the alkylating agents to afford the corresponding diarylmethane and triarylmethane derivatives in high yields. The scope and limitation of the reaction with respect to catalyst and substrates variation has been studied in detail.

  2. Mechanochemical Synthesis of TiO2 Nanocomposites as Photocatalysts for Benzyl Alcohol Photo-Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyi Ouyang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 (anatase phase has excellent photocatalytic performance and different methods have been reported to overcome its main limitation of high band gap energy. In this work, TiO2-magnetically-separable nanocomposites (MAGSNC photocatalysts with different TiO2 loading were synthesized using a simple one-pot mechanochemical method. Photocatalysts were characterized by a number of techniques and their photocatalytic activity was tested in the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Extension of light absorption into the visible region was achieved upon titania incorporation. Results indicated that the photocatalytic activity increased with TiO2 loading on the catalysts, with moderate conversion (20% at high benzaldehyde selectivity (84% achieved for 5% TiO2-MAGSNC. These findings pointed out a potential strategy for the valorization of lignocellulosic-based biomass under visible light irradiation using designer photocatalytic nanomaterials.

  3. Benzyl alcohol oxidation in supercritical carbon dioxide: spectroscopic insight into phase behaviour and reaction mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravati, Matteo; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Baiker, Alfons

    2005-01-21

    Selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde with molecular oxygen over an alumina-supported palladium catalyst was performed with high rate at about 95% selectivity in supercritical carbon dioxide. The experiments in a continuous flow fixed-bed reactor showed that the pressure has a strong influence on the reaction rate. A marked increase of the rate (turnover frequency) from 900 h(-1) to 1800 h(-1) was observed when increasing the pressure from 140 to 150 bar. Video monitoring of the bulk fluid phase behavior and the simultaneous investigation by transmission and attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared spectroscopy at two positions of the view cell showed that the sharp increase in activity is correlated to a transition from a biphasic to a monophasic reaction mixture. In the single phase region, both oxygen and benzyl alcohol are dissolved in the supercritical CO2 phase, which leads to a reduction of the mass transport resistances (both in the external fluid film and in the catalyst pores) and thus to the high reaction rate measured in the catalytic experiments. The phase transition could be effectively and easily monitored by transmission and ATR-IR spectroscopy despite the small concentration of the dense liquid like phase. Deposition of the Pd/Al2O3 catalyst on the ATR-crystal at the bottom of the view cell allowed to gain insight into the chemical changes and mass transfer processes occurring in the solid/liquid interface region during reaction. Analyzing the shift of the upsilon2 bending mode of CO2 gave information on the fluid composition in and outside the catalyst pores. Moreover, the catalytic reaction could be investigated in situ in this spectroscopic batch reactor cell by monitoring simultaneously the reaction progress, the phase behaviour and the catalytic interface. PMID:19785149

  4. A green and efficient oxidation of benzylic alcohols using H2O2 catalyzed by montmorillonite K-10 supported CoCl2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Ezabadi; Ghloam Reza Najafi; Mohammad M.Hashemi

    2008-01-01

    Primary and secondary benzylic alcohols were oxidized to the corresponding carbonyl compounds in good to high yields by environmentally friendly and green oxidant,H2O2 catalyzed by montmorillonite K-10 supported cobalt(II) chloride.

  5. Plasmonic Au/CdMoO4 photocatalyst: Influence of surface plasmon resonance for selective photocatalytic oxidation of benzylic alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Au/CdMoO4 composites were constructed for the first time. • Au/CdMoO4 showed superior activity for selective oxidation of benzylic alcohol. • The visible light photocatalytic activity is ascribed to the SPR effect of Au. - Abstract: Novel visible-light-driven plasmonic Au/CdMoO4 photocatalysts were synthesized by hydrothermal process following chemical reduction process. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show the catalysts exhibited strong visible light absorption due to the surface plasmon resonance effect of Au nanoparticles. Compared to CdMoO4, Au/CdMoO4 composites displayed superior photocatalytic activities for the selective oxidation of benzylic alcohol to benzaldehyde under visible light. The highest conversion was obtain by the 1.6% Au loaded CdMoO4. The mechanism for the selective oxidation of benzylic alcohol in the Au/CdMoO4 system is proposed

  6. Effect of Isotacticity of Linear Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) on its Gelation in Benzyl Alcohol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHANDRA SEKHAR BISWAS; KHEYANATH MITRA; SHIKHA SINGH; DINESH K PATEL; BISWAJIT MAITI; PRALAY MAITI; BISWAJIT RAY

    2016-06-01

    Thermoreversible gelation of three different isotactic linear poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM)s having meso dyad (m) values 62, 68 and 81% has been observed in benzyl alcohol. All the gels weretransparent in nature. SEM image of the dried gels showed fibrillar network morphology. Melting temperatureof the gels gradually increased with the increase in the concentration. XRD data of dry polymers and their correspondingdry gels showed shifting in the peak positions. Rheological study showed that stronger gels wereformed with increasing isotacticity of PNIPAM while lower isotactic sample exhibited typical polymer meltrheology. The formation of a plunge in the storage modulus as well as in the viscosity plot at the same frequencyrange indicates the reversible nature of the structure breaking/reformation under frequency sweep. Moreover,the mechanical strength of the gel decreased with increase in temperature. UV-Vis kinetic study also indicatedthe change in the conformation and aggregation of PNIPAM chains during gelation. Molecular modelling calculationshowed that the number of solvent molecules involved in forming gel (polymer-solvent compound)decreased with the increase in the isotacticity of the polymer. Gelation rate of these gels was studied as a functionof temperature, concentration and isotacticity using test-tube tilting method. It increased with the increasein the concentration and isoacticity of the polymer, and with the decrease in the temperature. Critical gelationconcentration of the gel gradually increased with the decrease in the isotacticity and with the increase in thetemperature. All these experimental results indicated that gelation occurs presumably through polymer-solventcompound formation.

  7. Facile solvothermal synthesis of NIR absorbing CsxWO3 nanorods by benzyl alcohol route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near infrared absorbing CsxWO3 nanoparticles with uniform particle size distribution were synthesized in two hours by solvothermal method. Benzyl alcohol was used as a main solvent and a reactant to facilitate a controlled reaction and stabilization in the presence of oleic acid as a capping agent. Different reaction conditions such as reaction time, reaction temperature, and oleic acid amount were studied and reported. Hexagonal CsxWO3 nanorods with average size of 80 nm were obtained in 2 h reaction time, at 240 °C reaction temperature, and 10% vol. oleic acid. Aqueous dispersion of the nanorods showed high transparency (about 80–90%) in visible light with strong near infrared (NIR) light shielding (80–90%). This indicates that CsxWO3 is an attractive material to employ in heat-shielding transparent coatings for windows of buildings and automobiles. Using this simple process, it is possible to synthesize homogenous CsxWO3 nanorods with low temperature and short reaction time. Moreover, the process offers an opportunity for large-scale synthesis of NIR absorbing nanorods. (paper)

  8. Alkali and alkaline earth metal salts of boron anionic complexes with o-hydroxy-benzyl alcohols (saligenin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salts of two anionic boron complexes with 2 hydroxy-benzyl alcohol-[BA2- and [B(OH)2A]- - were synthesized. The first complex was separated in the form of anhydrous potassium and cesium salts, the second one - in the form of sodium (dihydrate), calcium (dihydrate) and barium (tetrahydrate and anhydrous salt) salts. Conditions of formation are discussed. Solubility in water and organic solvents, interplanar distances of crystal lattice were determined. The compounds were studied by the methods of infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis. Hypothetical composition of the compounds is given

  9. Visible-light-driven selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol and thioanisole by molecular ruthenium catalyst modified hematite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lichen; Li, Fei; Wang, Yong; Li, Hua; Jiang, Xiaojuan; Sun, Licheng

    2016-08-11

    Molecular ruthenium catalysts were found to selectively catalyze the oxidation of thioanisole to sulfoxide with a yield up to 100% in the presence of visible light and sacrificial reagents when they were anchored onto hematite powder. The composite photocatalysts also showed about 5 times higher efficiencies in benzyl alcohol oxidation than the system composed of dispersed molecular catalysts and hematite particles in aqueous solution. A photoelectrochemical cell based on a molecular catalyst modified hematite photoanode was further fabricated, which exhibited high activity towards the oxidation of organic substrates. PMID:27411498

  10. A study of transglucosylation kinetic in an enzymatic synthesis of benzyl alcohol glucoside by α-glucosidase from S. cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, M.; Dimitrijević, A.; Trbojević, J.; Milosavić, N.; Gavrović-Jankulović, M.; Bezbradica, D.; Veličković, D.

    2013-12-01

    α-1,4-Glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an enzyme which is widely used in synthesis of different drugs. Glucosidase inhibitors are studied as potential drugs for prevention of HIV and diabetes. For understanding of these processes it is very important to have insights in the transglucosylation activity of this enzyme. In this paper the kinetics of transglucosylation reaction catalyzed by this enzyme in the synthesis of benzyl alcohol glucoside was studied and all relevant kinetic constants for this system are found. It was shown one additional property of transglycosylation reactions catalyzed by glycosidases—inhibition by both, glucose acceptor and glucose donor, and mechanisms for these inhibitions were proposed.

  11. Anchoring Tri(8-QuinolinolatoIron Onto Sba-15 for Partial Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol Using Water as the Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaoyuan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tri(8-quinolinolatoiron complex immobilized onto SBA-15 catalyst has been synthesized through a stepwise procedure. The characterization results indicated that the BET surface area, total pore volume and average pore width decrease after stepwise modification of SBA-15, while the structure keeps intact. Catalytic tests showed that FeQ3-SBA-15 catalyzes the oxidation reaction well with 34.8% conversion of benzyl alcohol and 74.7% selectivity to benzaldehyde when water is used as the solvent after 1 h reaction. In addition, homogeneous catalyst tri(8-quinolinolatoiron exhibits very bad catalytic behavior using water as the solvent.

  12. Tetranuclear vanadium complex, (VO)(4)(hpic)(4): a recyclable catalyst for oxidation of benzyl alcohols with molecular oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Shintaro; Ueta, Yukihiro; Yoshida, Jun; Nomoto, Akihiro; Yano, Shigenobu; Ueshima, Michio; Ogawa, Akiya

    2009-11-28

    Vanadium(iv) complexes bearing 3-hydroxypicolinic acid (H(2)hpic) as ligands, VO(Hhpic)(2) (1) and the cyclic tetramer (VO)(4)(hpic)(4) (2), have excellent catalytic ability for the oxidation of a variety of primary and secondary benzyl alcohols with molecular oxygen in acetonitrile or protic solvents such as ethanol and water, affording the corresponding aldehydes and ketones, respectively. Construction of multi-nuclear complexes by the selection of ligands attains higher turnover numbers and recycling of the catalyst. PMID:19885511

  13. A novel serotonin transporter ligand: (5-Iodo-2-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenoxy)-benzyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Z.-P.; Choi, S.-R.; Hou, Catherine; Mu Mu; Kung, M.-P. E-mail: kunghf@sunmac.spect.upenn.edu; Acton, Paul D.; Kung, Hank F

    2000-02-01

    The serotonin transporters (SERT) are the primary binding sites for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, commonly used antidepressants such as fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine. Imaging of SERT with positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography in humans would provide a useful tool for understanding how alterations of this system are related to depressive illnesses and other psychiatric disorders. In this article the synthesis and characterization of [{sup 125}I]ODAM [(5-iodo-2-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenoxy)-benzyl alcohol, 9)] as an imaging agent in the evaluation of central nervous system SERT are reported. A new reaction scheme was developed for the preparation of compound 9, ODAM, and the corresponding tri-n-butyltin derivative 10. Upon reacting 10 with hydrogen peroxide and sodium[{sup 125}I]iodide, the radiolabeled [{sup 125}I]9 was obtained in good yield (94% yield, radiochemical purity >95%). In an initial binding study using cortical membrane homogenates of rat brain, ODAM displayed a good binding affinity with a value of K{sub i}=2.8{+-}0.88 nM. Using LLC-PK{sub 1} cells specifically expressing the individual transporter (i.e. dopamine [DAT], norepinephrine [NET], and SERT, respectively), ODAM showed a strong inhibition on SERT (K{sub i}=0.12{+-}0.02 nM). Inhibition constants for the other two transporters were lower (K{sub i}=3.9{+-}0.7 {mu}M and 20.0 {+-} 1.9 nM for DAT and NET, respectively). Initial biodistribution study in rats after an intravenous (IV) injection of [{sup 125}I]ODAM showed a rapid brain uptake and washout (2.03, 1.49, 0.79, 0.27, and 0.07% dose/organ at 2, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min, respectively). The hypothalamus region where the serotonin neurons are located exhibited a high specific uptake. Ratios of hypothalamus-cerebellum/cerebellum based on percent dose per gram of these two regions showed values of 0.35, 0.86, 0.86, 0.63, and 0.34 at 2, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min, post-IV injection

  14. Sulfamic acid as a cost-effective and recyclable solid acid catalyst for Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indole with α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound and benzyl alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Yang; Juan Zhang; Tian Tian Chen; De Mei Sun; Ji Li; Xue Fen Wu

    2011-01-01

    Sulfamic acid was proved to be a cost-effective and recyclable catalyst for Friedel-Crafts type reaction of indole with α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound and benzyl alcohol. Various indoles, α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and a benzyl alcohol were successfully used in this type of reaction, and the corresponding products were obtained in good to excellent yields.

  15. Selective Aerobic Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol Driven by Visible Light on Gold Nanoparticles Supported on Hydrotalcite Modified by Nickel Ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapeng Guo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of hydrotalcite (HT and hydrotalcite modified by the transition metal ion Ni(II was prepared with a modified coprecipitation method before being loaded with gold nanoparticles. The gold supported on Ni3Al hydrotalcite with a Ni2+/Al3+ molar ratio of 3:1 was investigated. Different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UV-vis diffuse reflection spectrum (UV-vis DRS were applied to characterize the catalysts. A single-phase catalyst with high crystallinity, a layered structure and good composition was successfully fabricated. Good conversions and superior selectivities in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and its derivatives were obtained with visible light due to the effect of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR of gold nanoparticles and the synergy of the transition metal ion Ni(II. This reaction was proven to be photocatalytic by varying the intensity and wavelength of the visible light. The catalyst can be recycled three times. A corresponding photocatalytic mechanism of the oxidation reaction of benzyl alcohol was proposed.

  16. Transition metal-free oxidation of benzylic alcohols to carbonyl compounds by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of acidic silica gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ghafuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds has become an important issue in the process industry as well as many other applications. In this method, various benzylic alcohols were successfully converted to corresponding aldehydes and ketones under transition metal-free condition using hydrogen peroxide in the presence of some amount of catalytic acidic silica gel. Silica gel is inexpensive and available. One of the most important features of this method is its short reaction time.

  17. High efficient photocatalytic selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde by solvothermal-synthesized ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhixin, E-mail: czx@fzu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Photocatalysis, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Instrumental Measurement and Analysis Center, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Xu, Jingjing; Ren, Zhuyun [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Photocatalysis, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); He, Yunhui; Xiao, Guangcan [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Photocatalysis, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Instrumental Measurement and Analysis Center, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Hexagonal ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} samples have been synthesized by a solvothermal method. Their properties have been determined by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet–visible-light diffuse reflectance spectra, field emission scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption–desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectra. These results demonstrate that ethanol solvent has significant influence on the morphology, optical and electronic nature for such marigold-like ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres. The visible light photocatalytic activities of the ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} have been evaluated by selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde using molecular oxygen as oxidant. The results show that 100% conversion along with >99% selectivity are reached over ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} prepared in ethanol solvent under visible light irradiation (λ>420 nm) of 2 h, but only 58% conversion and 57% yield are reached over ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} prepared in aqueous solvent. A possible mechanism of the high photocatalytic activity for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol over ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} is proposed and discussed. - Graphical abstract: Marigold-like ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres were synthesized by a solvothermal method. The high visible photocatalytic activities of ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} were evaluated by selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde under mild conditions. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Marigold-like ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres were synthesized by a solvothermal method. • The solvents have a remarkably influence on the morphology and properties of samples. • It is the first time to apply ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol. • ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} shows high photocatalytic activity for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol.

  18. High efficient photocatalytic selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde by solvothermal-synthesized ZnIn2S4 microspheres under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hexagonal ZnIn2S4 samples have been synthesized by a solvothermal method. Their properties have been determined by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet–visible-light diffuse reflectance spectra, field emission scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption–desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectra. These results demonstrate that ethanol solvent has significant influence on the morphology, optical and electronic nature for such marigold-like ZnIn2S4 microspheres. The visible light photocatalytic activities of the ZnIn2S4 have been evaluated by selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde using molecular oxygen as oxidant. The results show that 100% conversion along with >99% selectivity are reached over ZnIn2S4 prepared in ethanol solvent under visible light irradiation (λ>420 nm) of 2 h, but only 58% conversion and 57% yield are reached over ZnIn2S4 prepared in aqueous solvent. A possible mechanism of the high photocatalytic activity for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol over ZnIn2S4 is proposed and discussed. - Graphical abstract: Marigold-like ZnIn2S4 microspheres were synthesized by a solvothermal method. The high visible photocatalytic activities of ZnIn2S4 were evaluated by selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde under mild conditions. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Marigold-like ZnIn2S4 microspheres were synthesized by a solvothermal method. • The solvents have a remarkably influence on the morphology and properties of samples. • It is the first time to apply ZnIn2S4 for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol. • ZnIn2S4 shows high photocatalytic activity for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol

  19. Influence of Preparation Methods of Nano Au/MCM-41 Catalysts for Vapor Phase Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Kumar, Vanama Pavan; Vishwanathan, Venkataraman; Chary, V R

    2015-12-01

    The Au/MCM-41 nano catalysts were synthesized from four different methods, viz., homogeneous deposition-precipitation, micro-emulsion, impregnation and polyol and their catalytic activities were tested for the vapor phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. The physico-chemical properties of the catalysts were investigated by XRD, TEM, BET surface area, PSD, CO-chemisorption and XPS techniques. The effect of preparation methods, nature of the metal, support and the metal-support interaction in Au/MCM-41 catalysts were studied for the title reaction. The Au/MCM-41 catalysts synthesized from HDP method has shown higher and better catalytic activity as compared to the catalysts prepared by other methods. PMID:26682438

  20. The role of mesoporosity and Si/Al ratio in the catalytic etherification of glycerol with benzyl alcohol using ZSM-5 zeolites

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Arellano, Camino; Grau Atienza, Aida; Serrano Torregrosa, Elena; Antonio A. Romero; García Martínez, Javier; Luque, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study of the influence of three different acid solids as catalysts (conventional zeolites Z15c with Si/Al = 19.5 and Z40c with Si/Al = 48.2, and a hierarchical zeolite Z40c-H with Si/Al = 50.0) for the etherification of glycerol with benzyl alcohol was performed. The catalytic activity and selectivity of these zeolites was elucidated at different catalyst contents. Three different ethers (3-benzyloxy-1,2-propanediol, which is a mono-benzyl-glycerol ether (MBG) and 1,3-dibenzylox...

  1. Development of 3-methoxy-4-benzyloxybenzyl alcohol (MBBA) resin as polymer-supported synthesis support: Preparation and benzyl ether cleavage by DDQ oxidation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qiang Huang; Bao-Zhong Zheng; Quan Long

    2010-03-01

    3-Methoxy-4-benzyloxybenzyl alcohol (MBBA) resin was synthesized by a two-step sequence under microwave irradiation involving the reaction of commercially available Merrifield resin with vanillin, followed by reduction with sodium borohydride. MBBA resin was treated with bromides in the presence of sodium hydride to afford the corresponding resin-bound benzyl ethers. Cleavage of the resin-bound benzyl ethers from the MBBA resin was carried out using 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoqunone (DDQ) to give the corresponding alcohols in good yields. Moreover, the recovery, regeneration, and reuse of this polymer support could be achieved easily. MBBA resin can be developed as a kind of solid-phase synthesis bead of alcohols.

  2. Ruthenium(II)-PNN pincer complex catalyzed dehydrogenation of benzyl alcohol to ester: A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jingcong; Wen, Li; Lv, Xiaobo; Qi, Yong; Yin, Hailiang

    2016-04-01

    The molecular mechanism of the dehydrogenation of primary alcohol to ester catalyzed by the ruthenium(II)-PNN pincer complex Ru(H)(η2-BH4)(PNN), [PNN: (2-(di-tert-butylphosphinomethyl)-6-(diethlaminomethyl)-pyridine)] has been investigated using density functional theory calculations. The catalytic cycle includes three stages: (stage I) alcohol dehydrogenation to form aldehyde, (stage II) coupling of aldehyde with alcohol to give hemiacetal or ester, and (stage III) hemiacetal dehydrogenation to form ester. Two dehydrogenation reactions occur via the β-H elimination mechanism rather than the bifunctional double hydrogen transfer mechanism, which could be rationalized as the fluxional behavior of the BH4- ligand. At the second stage, the coupling reaction requires alcohol or the ruthenium catalyst as mediator. The formation of hemiacetal through the alcohol-mediated pathway is kinetically favorable than the ruthenium catalyst-mediated one, which may be attributed to the smaller steric hindrance when the aldehyde approaches the alcohol moiety in the reaction system. Our results would be helpful for experimental chemists to design more effective transition metal catalysts for dehydrogenation of alcohols.

  3. Preparation of manganese oxide immobilized on SBA-15 by atomic layer deposition as an efficient and reusable catalyst for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol in the liquid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manganese oxide supported on mesoporous silica SBA-15 catalyst (Mn-SBA-15) was tested with Mn contents in the range of 0.8–23 wt%. Samples were prepared by the controlled grafting process of atomic layer deposition (ALD). Other sample was prepared for comparisons by the wet impregnation method. These samples were characterized by the techniques of ICP, XRD, SEM, Raman, FT-IR spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance UV–Vis, TGA-DSC, and N2 absorption–desorption surface area measurement. Results indicated that anchored manganese oxide particles have been successfully synthesized over the surface of SBA-15. These samples contained Red-Ox ion pairs of Mn2+ and Mn3+ highly dispersed on the mesoporous silica surface. The impregnated sample exhibited lower surface area and contained Red-Ox ion pairs of Mn3+ and Mn4+ more aggregated particles on the SBA-15 surface. Results determined Mn-SBA-15 as an efficient and selective catalyst for oxidation of benzyl alcohol with tert-butylhydroperoxide in liquid phase. In accordance with expectations, there was a negligible amount of leaching of immobilized manganese oxide from the support during the reaction, because of strong surface interaction between manganese oxide and hydroxyls groups. The influences of reaction temperature, reaction time, solvent, TBHP/benzyl alcohol molar ratio, amount of catalyst and reusability were investigated. Under optimized conditions (0.2 g catalyst, TBHP/benzyl alcohol molar ratio 1, solvent acetonitrile; T = 90 °C; reaction time 8 h), results achieved 70% conversion of benzyl alcohol and 100% selectivity to benzaldehyde. - Highlights: • Manganese oxide immobilized on SBA-15 were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD). • Oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde over this catalyst were investigated. • Effects of loading of manganese oxide, T, oxidant/alcohol ratio were investigated. • The leaching of manganese oxide from support during the reaction was negligible. • Under optimized

  4. Preparation of manganese oxide immobilized on SBA-15 by atomic layer deposition as an efficient and reusable catalyst for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol in the liquid phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavi, Vahid, E-mail: v-mahdavi@araku.ac.ir; Mardani, Mahdieh

    2015-04-01

    Manganese oxide supported on mesoporous silica SBA-15 catalyst (Mn-SBA-15) was tested with Mn contents in the range of 0.8–23 wt%. Samples were prepared by the controlled grafting process of atomic layer deposition (ALD). Other sample was prepared for comparisons by the wet impregnation method. These samples were characterized by the techniques of ICP, XRD, SEM, Raman, FT-IR spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance UV–Vis, TGA-DSC, and N{sub 2} absorption–desorption surface area measurement. Results indicated that anchored manganese oxide particles have been successfully synthesized over the surface of SBA-15. These samples contained Red-Ox ion pairs of Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+} highly dispersed on the mesoporous silica surface. The impregnated sample exhibited lower surface area and contained Red-Ox ion pairs of Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} more aggregated particles on the SBA-15 surface. Results determined Mn-SBA-15 as an efficient and selective catalyst for oxidation of benzyl alcohol with tert-butylhydroperoxide in liquid phase. In accordance with expectations, there was a negligible amount of leaching of immobilized manganese oxide from the support during the reaction, because of strong surface interaction between manganese oxide and hydroxyls groups. The influences of reaction temperature, reaction time, solvent, TBHP/benzyl alcohol molar ratio, amount of catalyst and reusability were investigated. Under optimized conditions (0.2 g catalyst, TBHP/benzyl alcohol molar ratio 1, solvent acetonitrile; T = 90 °C; reaction time 8 h), results achieved 70% conversion of benzyl alcohol and 100% selectivity to benzaldehyde. - Highlights: • Manganese oxide immobilized on SBA-15 were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD). • Oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde over this catalyst were investigated. • Effects of loading of manganese oxide, T, oxidant/alcohol ratio were investigated. • The leaching of manganese oxide from support during the reaction was

  5. Oxidation of o-chloro and o-hydroxy benzyl alcohols catalyzed by copper (II tetraphenylporphyrin nanoparticles synthesized by mixed solvent method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatollah Rahimi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP and copper tetraphenylporphyrin (CuTPP were synthesized and characterized by IR, UV-Vis, 1HNMR and 13CNMR. The CuTPP nanoparticles were synthesized by sonication and mixed solvent methods. These nanoparticles were characterized by AFM and SEM images and UV-Vis spectra. The catalytic activity of nanoparticles was investigated by oxidation of o-choloro and o-hydroxy benzyl alcohols in presence of molecular oxygen and isobutyraldehyde. The yields of oxidation of o-hydroxy benzyl alcohol by the two catalysts, CuTPP NPs and CuTPP, are 96.5% and ~ 2%, respectively. It is very obvious that the oxidation at the presence of CuTPP NPs catalyst is very high but selectivity for both reactants is 100%.‎

  6. Oxidation of o-chloro and o-hydroxy benzyl alcohols catalyzed by copper (II) tetraphenylporphyrin nanoparticles synthesized by mixed solvent method

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmatollah Rahimi; Ensieh Gholamrezapor; Mohammad Reza Naimi-Jamal; Mahboubeh Rabbani

    2012-01-01

    Tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) and copper tetraphenylporphyrin (CuTPP) were synthesized and characterized by IR, UV-Vis, 1HNMR and 13CNMR. The CuTPP nanoparticles were synthesized by sonication and mixed solvent methods. These nanoparticles were characterized by AFM and SEM images and UV-Vis spectra. The catalytic activity of nanoparticles was investigated by oxidation of o-choloro and o-hydroxy benzyl alcohols in presence of molecular oxygen and isobutyraldehyde. The yields of oxidation of o-hyd...

  7. Selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol with tert-butylhydroperoxide catalysed via Mn (II) 2, 2-bipyridine complexes immobilized over the mesoporous hexagonal molecular sieves (HMS)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vahid Mahdavi; Mahdieh Mardani

    2012-09-01

    A series ofMn(II)bipy complexes with different loading of Mn2+ supported on HMS was prepared. These samples were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TG-DSC), Ultraviolet and Visible spectra (UV-Vis) and Fourier transforms Infrared (FT-IR). The catalytic activity of the supportedMn(II)bipy complexes, [Mn(bipy)2]2+/HMS was evaluated in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol in the liquid phase using tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP) as an oxidant. The effects of Mn2+ loading and various solvents on the conversion and selectivity were studied. A second order function for the variation in catalytic activity with respect to the loading of Mn2+ ions in different catalyst samples was observed. The activity of the [Mn(bipy)2]2+/HMS catalyst differs with the type of the solvent and in this case, acetonitrile gives the best conversion results. The kinetic of benzyl alcohol oxidation was investigated at temperatures of 27, 46, 60, 75 and 90°C using [Mn(bipy)2]2+/HMS and excess TBHP. The order of reaction with respect to benzyl alcohol was determined to be pseudo-first order. The value of the apparent activation energy was also determined.

  8. Plasmonic Au/CdMoO{sub 4} photocatalyst: Influence of surface plasmon resonance for selective photocatalytic oxidation of benzylic alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Jinhong, E-mail: bijinhong@fzu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Minhou, Fujian 350108 (China); Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Zhou, Zhiyong; Chen, Mengying [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Minhou, Fujian 350108 (China); Liang, Shijing [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Minhou, Fujian 350108 (China); Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); He, Yunhui; Zhang, Zizhong [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Wu, Ling, E-mail: wuling@fzu.edu.cn [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Au/CdMoO{sub 4} composites were constructed for the first time. • Au/CdMoO{sub 4} showed superior activity for selective oxidation of benzylic alcohol. • The visible light photocatalytic activity is ascribed to the SPR effect of Au. - Abstract: Novel visible-light-driven plasmonic Au/CdMoO{sub 4} photocatalysts were synthesized by hydrothermal process following chemical reduction process. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show the catalysts exhibited strong visible light absorption due to the surface plasmon resonance effect of Au nanoparticles. Compared to CdMoO{sub 4}, Au/CdMoO{sub 4} composites displayed superior photocatalytic activities for the selective oxidation of benzylic alcohol to benzaldehyde under visible light. The highest conversion was obtain by the 1.6% Au loaded CdMoO{sub 4}. The mechanism for the selective oxidation of benzylic alcohol in the Au/CdMoO{sub 4} system is proposed.

  9. A comparative study of silver-graphene oxide nanocomposites as a recyclable catalyst for the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol: Support effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Characteristics of three different graphene oxide (GO) are studied as a support for Ag nanoparticles. • The required conditions for a best support are determined. • For the first time the silver nanoparticles decorated GO as catalyst for aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol and the effects of the degree of reduction of GO on AgNPs on GO are reported. - Abstract: Three different nanocomposites of silver and graphene oxide, namely silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) immobilized on reduced graphene oxide (AgNPs/rGO), partially reduced graphene oxide (AgNPs/GO) and thiolated partially reduced graphene oxide (AgNPs/GOSH), were synthesized in order to compare their properties. Characterizations were carried out by infrared and UV–Vis and Raman spectroscopy, ICP, X-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM, confirming both the targeted chemical modification and the composite formation. The nanocomposites were successfully employed in the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol at atmospheric pressure. AgNPs/GOSH is stable and recyclable catalyst which showed the highest activity in the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol in the presence of N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI) to give benzaldehyde with 58% selectivity in 24 h at 61% conversion. The favorite properties of AgNPs/GOSH are reasonably attributed to the stable and well distributed AgNPs over GOSH due to strong adhesion between AgNPs and GOSH

  10. Studies on protective effect of benzyl alcohol addition against radiolytic degradation of 35% TBP-n-dodecane uranyl nitrate versus 35% TBP-n-dodecane thorium nitrate- retention of U and Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present study compares the effect of benzyl alcohol addition on the performance of 35% TBP-n-dodecane system subjected to radiolytic degradation in presence of nitrates of thorium and uranium. 35 %-n-dodecane solvent systems loaded with UO2(NO3)2 as well as Th(NO3)2 in the presence and absence of benzyl alcohol were subjected to steady state gamma radiolysis for absorbed dose of 6, 12 and 18 Mrad. The radiolysed samples after scrubbing with 0.01M HNO3 have been analysed for the amount of uranium and thorium separately. The amount of thorium retained by the solvent is found to be 4-5 times higher than that of uranium under identical conditions, while benzyl alcohol addition causes lowering in the retention of both the metal ions. (author)

  11. Mg-AI Mixed Oxides Supported Bimetallic Au-Pd Nanoparticles with Superior Catalytic Properties in Aerobic Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol and Glycerol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮; 张伟; 曾尚景; 苏党生; 孟祥举; 肖丰收

    2012-01-01

    Nano-sized Au and Pd catalysts are favorable for oxidations with molecular oxygen, and the preparation of this kind of nanoparticles with high catalytic activities is strongly desirable. We report a successful synthesis of bimetal- lic Au-Pd nanoparticles with rich edge and comer sites on unique support of Mg-AI mixed oxides (Au-Pd/MAO), which are favorable for producing metal nanoparticles with high degree of coordinative unsaturation of metal atoms The systematic microscopic characterizations confirm the bimetallic Au-Pd nanoparticles are present as Au-Pd alloy The irregular shape of the bimetallic nanoparticles are directly observed in HRTEM images. As we expected, Au-Pd/MAO gives very excellent catalytic performances in the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol and glycerol. For example, Au-Pd/MAO shows very high TOF of 91000 h i at 433 K with molecular oxygen at air pressure in solvent-free oxidation of benzyl alcohol; this catalyst also shows relatively high selectivity for tartronic acid (TA- RAC, 36.6%) at high conversion (98.5%) in aerobic oxidation of glycerol. The superior catalytic properties of Au-Pd/MAO would be potentially important tbr production of fine chemicals.

  12. Weak intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonding of benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethylamine in the adsorption on graphitized thermal carbon black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varfolomeeva, V V; Terentev, A V

    2015-10-01

    The paper discusses the role of weak intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the adsorption of benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethylamine on graphitized thermal carbon black (GTCB). Using the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ, B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ methods and the molecular-statistical theory of adsorption we found the structural and energetic parameters of the conformers to be stable in the gas phase and in the adsorbed state. The contribution of weak OHπ, NHπ, CHO hydrogen bonds to the stabilization of the conformers was defined by the method of non-covalent interactions (NCI). Based on the difference in the experimental and calculated values of the Henry constant Δ ln K1 calculation of the thermodynamic characteristics of adsorption (TCA) has been shown. To obtain a high predictive power of molecular-statistical calculation it was necessary to take due account of the structural features of flexible molecules in the adsorbed state. A significant impact of the weak OHπGTCB intermolecular hydrogen bond of benzyl alcohol on the TCA values has been established. PMID:26327209

  13. One-pot deposition of gold on hybrid TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and catalytic application in the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehri, Afef [University Tunis El-Manar, Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux et Catalyse, Tunis (Tunisia); Kochkar, Hafedh, E-mail: h_kochkar@yahoo.fr [University Tunis El-Manar, Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux et Catalyse, Tunis (Tunisia); Laboratoire de Valorisation des Matériaux Utiles, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, Technopôle de Borj-Cedria, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Berhault, Gilles [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et de l' Environnement de Lyon, CNRS-Université Lyon I, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Cómbita Merchán, Diego Fernando; Blasco, Teresa [Instituto de Tecnología Química (UPV-CSIC), Universidad Politécnica de Valencia-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Avda. de los Naranjos, s/n, Valencia (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    One-pot deposition of Au onto TiO{sub 2} has been achieved through directly contacting gold (III) salt with nanosized functionalized TiO{sub 2} support initially obtained by sol–gel process using titanium isopropoxide and citric acid. Citrate groups act as functional moieties able to directly reduce the Au salt avoiding any further reducing treatment. Various gold salts (NaAuCl{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O or HAuCl{sub 4}·3H{sub 2}O) and titanium to citrate (Ti/Cit) molar ratios (20, 50 and 100) were used in order to study the effect of the nature of the precursor and of the citrate content on the final Au particle size and catalytic properties of the as-obtained Au/TiO{sub 2} materials. Au/(TiO{sub 2}){sub x}(Cit){sub 1} catalysts characterization was performed using N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, ICP-AES, X-ray diffraction and TEM. The effect of the Ti/Cit molar ratio and of the gold precursor was evaluated. The selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol (BzOH) to benzaldehyde (BzH) was studied as a model reaction. Kinetic analysis showed that the catalytic reaction rate was pseudo first-order and the values of activation energy have been reported. Results showed that the functionalization of TiO{sub 2} by citrate allows tuning the size of the Au nanoparticles deposited onto TiO{sub 2} as well as their morphology. Citrate also strongly enhances the benzyl alcohol oxidation through the control of the size and morphology of gold nanoparticles. - Highlights: • One-pot deposition of Au onto TiO{sub 2} has been achieved. • Citrates act as active sites for selective deposition and reduction of gold. • The presence of citrates influences the size and the morphology of gold NPs. • Au NPs with well-defined morphologies were obtained for Cit/Ti molar ratio of 100. • The selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol was studied as a model reaction.

  14. Gold and gold-palladium alloy nanoparticles on heterostructured TiO2 nanobelts as plasmonic photocatalysts for benzyl alcohol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tongtong; Jia, Chuancheng; Zhang, Lanchun; He, Shuren; Sang, Yuanhua; Li, Haidong; Li, Yanqing; Xu, Xiaohong; Liu, Hong

    2014-11-01

    Plasmonic photocatalysts composed of Au and bimetallic Au-Pd alloy nanoparticles (NPs) on one-dimensional TiO2 nanobelts (TiO2-NBs) were used for the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol under visible light irradiation. Remarkable light-promoted activity was observed for the as-synthesized M/TiO2-NB (M = Au, Au-Pd) nanostructures based on the TiO2(B)/anatase heterostructured nanobelt. The difference in band structure and the well matched interface between the TiO2(B) and anatase phases, coupled with the one-dimensional nanostructure, enable an enhanced charge transfer within the heterostructured nanobelt. This inter-phase charge transfer greatly facilitates the flow of hot electrons from the metal NPs to TiO2 and promotes benzyl alcohol oxidation. This efficient electron transfer was identified by the much higher photocurrent response measured for the Au/TiO2-NB nanostructure with the TiO2(B)/anatase heterojunction than those with either of the single phases under visible light irradiation. Alloying Au with Pd in Au-Pd/TiO2-NB results in a significant improvement in the visible light-promoted activity compared to the monometallic Au/TiO2-NB sample. It is supposed that the plasmon-mediated charge distribution within the alloy NPs is mainly responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the bimetallic nanostructures.Plasmonic photocatalysts composed of Au and bimetallic Au-Pd alloy nanoparticles (NPs) on one-dimensional TiO2 nanobelts (TiO2-NBs) were used for the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol under visible light irradiation. Remarkable light-promoted activity was observed for the as-synthesized M/TiO2-NB (M = Au, Au-Pd) nanostructures based on the TiO2(B)/anatase heterostructured nanobelt. The difference in band structure and the well matched interface between the TiO2(B) and anatase phases, coupled with the one-dimensional nanostructure, enable an enhanced charge transfer within the heterostructured nanobelt. This inter-phase charge transfer greatly

  15. Synthesis, characterization and study of catalytic activity of Silver doped ZnO nanocomposite as an efficient catalyst for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Fallah Shojaei; K Tabatabaeian; M A Zanjanchi; H Fallah Moafi; N Modirpanah

    2015-03-01

    Powder samples of Ag/ZnO nanocomposite containing different amounts of Ag were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The synthesized samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX and TEM techniques. The XRD results revealed that all the samples show wurtzite hexagonal phase of ZnO. The TEM micrographs of the samples showed that size of Ag-ZnO nanoparticles was in the range of 30–50 nm. Catalytic activity was tested using liquid-phase selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols to aldehydes. The influence of some parameters such as optimum weight of Ag, catalyst dosage, oxidant and various solvents were studied. The superior catalytic performance of the Ag/ZnO nanocomposite was observed in microwave condition compared to that performed in reflux condition. The catalysts were recycled three times in the oxidation of alcohols and little change in the conversion efficiency was observed. The highly dispersed Ag metal particles on ZnO surface was considered to be responsible for the catalytic activity.

  16. Hindered rotor tunneling splittings: an application of the two-dimensional non-separable method to benzyl alcohol and two of its fluorine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tiago Vinicius; Simón-Carballido, Luis; Ornellas, Fernando Rei; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    In this work we present a novel application of the two-dimensional non-separable (2D-NS) method to the calculation of torsional tunneling splittings in systems with two hindered internal rotors. This method could be considered an extension of one-dimensional methods for the case of compounds with two tops. The 2D-NS method includes coupling between torsions in the kinetic and potential energy. Specifically, it has been applied to benzyl alcohol (BA) and two of its fluorine derivatives: 3-fluorobenzyl alcohol (3FBA) and 4-fluorobenzyl alcohol (4FBA). These molecules present two torsions, i.e., about the -CH2OH (ϕ1) and -OH (ϕ2) groups. The electronic structure calculations to build the two-dimensional torsional potential energy surface were performed at the DF-LMP2-F12//DF-LMP2/cc-pVQZ level of theory. For BA and 4FBA the calculated ground-state vibrational level splittings are 429 and 453 MHz, respectively, in good agreement with the experimental values of 337.10 and 492.82 MHz, respectively. In these two cases there are four equivalent wells and the tunneling splitting is the result of transitions between the two closer minima along ϕ1. The analysis of the wavefunctions, as well as the previous experimental work on the system, supports this conclusion. For 3FBA the observed ground-state splitting is 0.82 MHz, whereas in this case the calculated value amounts only to 0.02 MHz. The 2D-NS method, through the analysis of the wavefunctions, shows that this tiny tunneling splitting occurs between the two most stable minima of the potential energy surface. Additionally, we predict that the first vibrationally excited tunneling splitting will also be small and exclusively due to the interconversion between the second lowest minima. PMID:26960818

  17. Studies on protective effect of benzyl alcohol addition against radiolytic degradation of 35% TBP-n-dodecane-uranyl nitrate versus 35% TBP-n-dodecane thorium nitrate-Pu retention test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to gain detailed understanding of effect of solvent radiolysis phenomenon in PUREX process it is necessary to examine the system under metal loaded condition rather than nitric acid equilibration. Present investigation compares the gamma radiolytic effects on 35% TBP-n-dodecane-nitric acid with 35% TBP-n-dodecane loaded with UO2(NO3)2 and Th(NO3)4 in presence and absence of antioxidants like benzyl alcohol. System under investigation subjected to incremental absorbed dose have been tested for respective changes in retention behaviour of Th/U/Pu and fission products after metal stripping. Addition of benzyl alcohol suppresses the retention of Pu in case of U bearing degraded solvent unlike to that in Th bearing solvent. (author)

  18. Full spectrum and selected spectrum based multivariate calibration methods for simultaneous determination of betamethasone dipropionate, clotrimazole and benzyl alcohol: Development, validation and application on commercial dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Hany W; Elzanfaly, Eman S; Saad, Ahmed S; Abdelaleem, Abdelaziz El-Bayoumi

    2016-12-01

    Five different chemometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of betamethasone dipropionate (BMD), clotrimazole (CT) and benzyl alcohol (BA) in their combined dosage form (Lotriderm® cream). The applied methods included three full spectrum based chemometric techniques; namely principal component regression (PCR), Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), while the other two methods were PLS and ANN preceded by genetic algorithm procedure (GA-PLS and GA-ANN) as a wavelength selection procedure. A multilevel multifactor experimental design was adopted for proper construction of the models. A validation set composed of 12 mixtures containing different ratios of the three analytes was used to evaluate the predictive power of the suggested models. All the proposed methods except ANN, were successfully applied for the analysis of their pharmaceutical formulation (Lotriderm® cream). Results demonstrated the efficiency of the four methods as quantitative tool for analysis of the three analytes without prior separation procedures and without any interference from the co-formulated excipient. Additionally, the work highlighted the effect of GA on increasing the predictive power of PLS and ANN models. PMID:27327260

  19. Metal-free g-C3N4 photocatalyst by sulfuric acid activation for selective aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel visible-light-driven acid-modified g-C3N4 was prepared. • The texture, electronic and surface property were tuned by acid modification. • Acid-modified g-C3N4 shows much higher activity for photocatalytic activity. • Acid sites on the surface of g-C3N4 favor efficient charge separation. - Abstract: In this work, modification of graphitic carbon nitride photocatalyst with acid was accomplished with a facile method through reflux in different acidic substances. The g-C3N4-based material was found to be a metal-free photocatalyst useful for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol with dioxygen as the oxidant under visible light irradiation. Acid modification had a significant influence on the photocatalytic performance of g-C3N4. Among all acid tested, sulfuric acid-modified g-C3N4 showed the highest catalytic activity and gave benzaldehyde in 23% yield for 4 h under visible light irradiation, which was about 2.5 times higher than that of g-C3N4. The acid modification effectively improved surface area, reduced structural size, enlarged band gap, enhanced surface chemical state, and facilitated photoinduced charge separation, contributing to the enhanced photocatalytic activity. It is hoped that our work can open promising prospects for the utilization of metal free g-C3N4-based semiconductor as visible-light photocatalyst for selective organic transformation

  20. Densities, Ultrasonic Speeds, Viscosities and Refractive Indices of Binary Mixtures of Benzene with Benzyl Alcohol,Benzonitrile, Benzoyl Chloride and Chlorobenzene at 303.15 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI,A.; PANDEY,J.D.; SONI,N.K.; NAIN,A.K.; LAL,B.; CHAND,D.

    2005-01-01

    Densities, p, ultrasonic speeds, u, viscosities, η, and refractive indices, n, of pure benzene, benzyl alcohol (BA),benzonitrile (BN), benzoyl chloride (BC), chlorobenzene (CB) and their thirty six binary mixtures, with benzene as common component, were measured at 303.15 K over the entire mole fraction range. From these experimental data the values of deviations in ultrasonic speed, Au, isentropic compressibility, Δks, excess acoustic impedance, ZE, deviation in viscosity, Δη, and excess Gibbs free energy of activation of viscous flow, G*E, and partial molar isentropic compressibility, Kφ,2 of BA, BN, BC and CB in benzene were computed. The variation of these derived functions with composition of the mixtures suggested the increased cohesion (molecular order) in the solution and that interaction (A-B)>(A-A) or (B-B). Moreover, theoretical prediction of ultrasonic speed, viscosity and refractive index of all the four binary mixtures was made on the basis of empirical and semi-empirical relations by using the experimental values of the pure components. Comparison of theoretical results with the experimental values was made in order to assess the suitability of these relations in reproducing the experimental values of u, η and n. Also, molecular radii of pure liquids and the average molecular radii of binary mixtures were evaluated using the corresponding refractive indices of pure liquids and binary mixtures. The average molecular radii of binary mixtures were found to be additive with respect to mole fraction of the pure component.

  1. Study of the radiolysis of tetracycline hydrochloride in powder form, in aqueous solutions and in benzyl alcohol, at 77K, by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiolysis of tetracycline hydrochloride in powder form, dissolved in benzyl alcohol and in acid, neutral and alkaline aerated aqueous solutions at 77K is studied by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Mechanisms of reactions that occur in the radiolysis of these systems are proposed and some aspects of the reactions that occurs with electrons and with hydrogen atoms at 77K are investigated, since tetracycline hydrochloride captures both paramagnetic species. Also discussed is the influence of some factors in the migration of these species at 77K, such as: the position of solutes, the crystalline structure of the solvent, the kinetic energy of the species and the angle of incidence in the channeling. The rate constants for the reaction between the electron and physical and chemical traps which are present in the alkaline aerated aqueous solutions, at 77k, are calculated. The values found are, respectively: k=9.6 x 1015 1 mol-1 s-1 and k= 1.8 x 1010 1 mol -1 s-1. (Author)

  2. Benzyl alcohol-ammonia (1:1) cluster structure investigated by combined IR-UV double resonance spectroscopy in jet and ab initio calculation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nikhil Guchhait

    2001-06-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence excitation and IR-UV double resonance spectroscopy have been used to determine the hydrogen-bonded structure of benzyl alcohol-ammonia (1:1) cluster in a jet-cooled molecular beam. In addition, ab initio quantum chemical calculations have been performed at HF/6-31G and HF/6-31G(d, p) levels for different ground state equilibrium structures of the cluster to correlate the calculated OH and NH frequencies and their intensities with experimental results. The broad red-shifted OH-stretching mode in the IR-UV double resonance spectrum suggests strong hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl hydrogen and the lone pair of the ammonia nitrogen. The position and intensity distribution of the calculated NH and OH modes for the minimum-energy gauche form at HF/6-31 level have better correlation with the experimental results compared to other calculated ground state equilibrium conformers. These results lead to the conclusion that the minimum energy gauche form of the cluster is populated in the jet-cooled condition.

  3. Antimicrobial, free radical scavenging activities and catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol by nano-silver synthesized from the leaf extract of Aristolochia indica L.: a promenade towards sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, C.; Sivasubramanian, G.; Parthasarathi, Bera; Baskaran, K.; Balachander, R.; Parameswaran, V. R.

    2015-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized from aqueous silver nitrate through a simple route using the leaf extract of Aristolochia indica L. (LAIL) which acted as a reducing as well as capping agent. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the synthesized silver particles have a face centred cubic structure. EDS predicted the presence of elemental silver. The SEM images showed the synthesis of spherically mono-dispersed particles, with nano dimensions accounted by the TEM images. Infra-red spectrum adopted to the different organic functionalities present at the surface of the particles. TGA indicated an overall 11 % weight loss up to 1000 °C, suggesting desorption of biomolecules from the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed the presence of metallic silver nanoparticles. The prepared material was utilized as catalyst in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol with molecular oxygen as the oxidant in methanol, under ambient conditions of temperature and pressure. Also Ag-NPs showed good to moderate anti-microbial activity employing the Agar disc diffusion method against various strains using Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole as standard. Free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were observed by modified 1,1-diphynyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS in vitro assays. The work presented here demonstrates the adaptability of the synthesized Ag-NPs in participating as a disinfectant agent, free radical scavenger and an effective oxidation catalyst. The basic premise of attaining sustainability through the green synthesis of smart multifaceted materials has been consciously addressed.

  4. Antimicrobial, free radical scavenging activities and catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol by nano-silver synthesized from the leaf extract of Aristolochia indica L.: a promenade towards sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, C.; Sivasubramanian, G.; Parthasarathi, Bera; Baskaran, K.; Balachander, R.; Parameswaran, V. R.

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized from aqueous silver nitrate through a simple route using the leaf extract of Aristolochia indica L. (LAIL) which acted as a reducing as well as capping agent. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the synthesized silver particles have a face centred cubic structure. EDS predicted the presence of elemental silver. The SEM images showed the synthesis of spherically mono-dispersed particles, with nano dimensions accounted by the TEM images. Infra-red spectrum adopted to the different organic functionalities present at the surface of the particles. TGA indicated an overall 11 % weight loss up to 1000 °C, suggesting desorption of biomolecules from the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed the presence of metallic silver nanoparticles. The prepared material was utilized as catalyst in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol with molecular oxygen as the oxidant in methanol, under ambient conditions of temperature and pressure. Also Ag-NPs showed good to moderate anti-microbial activity employing the Agar disc diffusion method against various strains using Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole as standard. Free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were observed by modified 1,1-diphynyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS in vitro assays. The work presented here demonstrates the adaptability of the synthesized Ag-NPs in participating as a disinfectant agent, free radical scavenger and an effective oxidation catalyst. The basic premise of attaining sustainability through the green synthesis of smart multifaceted materials has been consciously addressed.

  5. Photocatalytic benzylic C–H bond oxidation with a flavin scandium complex

    OpenAIRE

    Mühldorf, Bernd; Wolf, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The enhanced reduction potential of riboflavin tetraacetate coordinating to scandium triflate enables the challenging photocatalytic C–H oxidation of electron-deficient alkylbenzenes and benzyl alcohols.

  6. Preparation, characterization and catalytic activity of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles as a magnetically recoverable catalyst for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde and reduction of organic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba; Karimi, Hirbod

    2016-03-01

    The CoFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) performance was studied in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol (BzOH) to benzaldehyde (BzH) with hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant under solvent-free conditions. The influences of reaction conditions like the amount of catalyst, the molar ratio of H2O2:BzOH, reaction temperature and times on the oxidation of BzOH by using CoFe2O4 NPs were investigated in details. Under optimum conditions, excellent result, >99% conversation of BzOH to BzH as the only product, was obtained. The nanocatalyst was also used for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), Congo red (CR), Methylene blue (MB) in water at room temperature. The magnetic properties of the catalyst provided a convenient and easy route for the separation of the catalyst from the reaction mixture by an external bar magnet. No obvious loss of activity was observed when the spent catalyst reused in three consecutive runs. PMID:26674244

  7. Photocatalytic benzylic C-H bond oxidation with a flavin scandium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühldorf, Bernd; Wolf, Robert

    2015-05-18

    The enhanced reduction potential of riboflavin tetraacetate coordinating to scandium triflate enables the challenging photocatalytic C-H oxidation of electron-deficient alkylbenzenes and benzyl alcohols. PMID:25647055

  8. A new approach to synthesis of benzyl cinnamate: Optimization by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Hao; Zhang, Jiang-Yan; Che, Wen-Cai; Wang, Yun

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the new approach to synthesis of benzyl cinnamate by enzymatic esterification of cinnamic acid with benzyl alcohol is optimized by response surface methodology. The effects of various reaction conditions, including temperature, enzyme loading, substrate molar ratio of benzyl alcohol to cinnamic acid, and reaction time, are investigated. A 5-level-4-factor central composite design is employed to search for the optimal yield of benzyl cinnamate. A quadratic polynomial regression model is used to analyze the experimental data at a 95% confidence level (Ptrials are performed for validating the optimum points. Under the optimum conditions (40°C, 31mg/mL enzyme loading, 2.6:1 molar ratio, 27h), the yield reaches 97.7%, which provides an efficient processes for industrial production of benzyl cinnamate. PMID:27041296

  9. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  10. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...

  11. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Date reviewed: January 2014 previous 1 • 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Word! Alcoholism What You Need to Know About Drugs What You Need to Know About Drugs: Depressants What Kids Say About: Drinking Alcohol Dealing With Peer Pressure Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  12. Benzylation of Aromatic Compounds with Benzyl Chloride Catalyzed by Nafion/SiO2 Nanocomposite Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Guo YANG; Rui Mao HUA; Hai WANG; Bo Qing XU1

    2005-01-01

    In the presence of Nafion/SiO2 nanocomposite catalyst, the benzylation of aromatic compounds with benzyl chloride proceeded to afford diphenylmethane derivatives in high yields.The catalyst showed high catalytic activity not only for electron-rich aromatic compounds, but also for electron-poor aromatic compounds. Under identical conditions, the self-benzylation of benzyl chloride, and dibenzylation and/or multi-benzylation of aromatic compounds were negligible.

  13. Selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol catalyzed by (TEAH)nH3-nPW12O40 and its reaction mechanism%(TEAH)nH3-nPW12O40催化苯甲醇选择氧化及其反应机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏浩; 杨春

    2014-01-01

    Several triethylamine (TEA) salts of phosphotungstic acid were synthesized by an acid-base reac-tion using a Keggin-type phosphotungstic acid and TEA, and used to catalyze the oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde in water with 30% aqueous hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. (TEAH)nH3-nPW12O40 (n = 1, 2, 3) were excellent catalysts for the reaction and could be isolated and recycled. With (TEAH)H2PW12O40, the conversion of benzyl alcohol and selectivity to benzaldehyde were as high as 99.6% and 100%, respectively, under optimized reaction conditions. The catalysts and their transformation and distribution during the reaction were investigated by IR, 31P NMR and analysis of the reaction system, and the reaction mechanism was deduced. In this water-oil biphasic reaction, (PW12O40)3- was first oxidized and degraded into small (PO4(WO(O2)2)4)3- and free tung-sten species that were soluble in the aqueous phase upon reaction with H2O2. Then (PO4(WO(O2)2)4)3-, as the actual oxidant, oxidized benzyl alcohol soluble in the aqueous phase to benzaldehyde, and was converted into a SAR (species after reaction) after losing its active oxygen. The catalytic cycle was completed by the polymerization of the SAR with the free tungsten species back to larger catalyst precursor (PW12O40)3-, which was soluble in the oil phase.%以Keggin结构的磷钨酸和三乙胺(TEA)为原料,通过简单的酸碱反应合成了磷钨酸的TEA盐.并以它们为催化剂,考察了以H2O2为氧化剂、以水为溶剂的体系中苯甲醇选择氧化制备苯甲醛的反应性能.结果表明,(TEAH)nH3-nPW12O40(n =1,2,3)系列催化剂对苯甲醇的选择氧化反应有很高的活性和选择性,且可被分离和循环使用.在适宜的反应条件下,最佳催化剂(TEAH)H2PW12O40上,苯甲醇的转化率可达99.6%,苯甲醛的选择性为100%.还采用IR,31P NMR谱和元素分析技术,对催化剂和反应过程中催化剂物种的转化和分布进行了考察,进而导出了反应机理.

  14. The First Example of Cation Radical Induced Ether Cleavage of Benzyl Phenyl Ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermally stable benzyl phenyl ether has been shown to cleavage under mild conditions. The new reaction described herein further expands the chemistry of the ether cleavage by cation radicals. Over the last several years, our lab has discovered cation radical-induced oxidative C-O bond cleavages such as carbonates (eq 1), carbamates (eq 2), peroxides (eq 3), and alcohols (eq 4), where R is either tert-butyl or benzyl. It was recognized from those reactions that carbocationic chemistry with C-O bond cleavages was predominant, with a 2:1 stoichiometry of Th+·:oxidized molecules

  15. Resonance Raman study of benzyl radical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, F.W.; Bajdor, K.; Wilbrandt, R.

    1992-01-01

    Time-resolved resonance Raman spectra are obtained of benzyl radicals created by laser flash photolysis of benzylchloride and diphenylacetone in solution. The spectra are obtained in resonance with the intense 2 2A2-1 B-2(2) transition of benzyl. The strong Raman bands are assigned to totally...... symmetric a1 modes. The remaining observed bands are tentatively assigned to fundamental modes of b1, a2, and b2 symmetry, and to overtones and combinations. The resonance Raman spectra are found to be quite different from previous fluorescence spectra of benzyl, and the origins of these differences are...

  16. Synthesis and structures of scandium and lutetium benzyl complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, N.; Roesky, Peter W.; Bambirra, Sergio; Meetsma, Auke; Hessen, Bart; Saliu, Kuburat; Takats, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Scandium and lutetium benzyl complexes were prepared. Reaction of [ScCl3(THF)(3)] with potassium benzyl afforded [Sc(CH2Ph)(3)(THF)(3)] (1). In the solid state the coordination polyhedron is a distorted octahedron, in which the benzyl groups are located in a facial arrangement on one side of the mol

  17. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  18. Synthesis of 4, 5-dihydroxy-9, 10-dioxoanthracene-2- benzyl carboxylate ester from rhein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Laddha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhein and several analogues thereof, are particularly important from commercial point of view and are known for their use in the treatment of degenerative diseases of the joints, for example osteoarthritis, osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Rhein occurs in nature in plant families such as Cassia, Rheum and Rhamnus, but in a very less concentration. Aloin, a natural substance isolated from various species of aloe, consist almost exclusively of barbaloin (10-β-glucopyranosyl-1, 8-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-anthracen-9-one. Barbaloin, the C-glycoside of aloe-emodin anthrone, localizes in the outer rind of the aloe vera leaf, has been reported to constitute upto 30% of aloe plants dried leaf exudate and proposed as a part of defense mechanism against herbivores. In this paper, an attempt has been made to prepare rhein from barbaloin via formation of aloe-emodin and its chemical modification using benzyl alcohol to prepare its benzyl carboxylate ester.

  19. Selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol in dense CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Matthias Josef; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis;

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic reactions in pressurized CO2 are often strongly affected by the phase behavior. Knowledge on phase behavior is therefore desirable for optimizing the reaction conditions but often requires considerable experimental effort. Here, a previously established thermodynamic model for complex s...

  20. A practical one-pot synthesis of azides directly from alcohols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lalthazuala Rokhum; Ghanashyam Bez

    2012-05-01

    Alkyl/benzyl azides can be readily synthesized in excellent yields from their corresponding alcohols by stirring a solution of sodium azide in DMSO with a thoroughly ground equimolecular mixture of triphenylphosphine, iodine and imidazole.

  1. Oxo-rhenium catalyzed reductive coupling and deoxygenation of alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasner, Gabrielle R; Boucher-Jacobs, Camille; Michael McClain, J; Nicholas, Kenneth M

    2016-06-01

    Representative benzylic, allylic and α-keto alcohols are deoxygenated to alkanes and/or reductively coupled to alkane dimers by reaction with PPh3 catalyzed by (PPh3)2ReIO2 (1). The newly discovered catalytic reductive coupling reaction is a rare C-C bond-forming transformation of alcohols. PMID:27174412

  2. Acceptorless Photocatalytic Dehydrogenation for Alcohol Decarbonylation and Imine Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Hung-An; Manna, Kuntal; Sadow, Aaron D.

    2012-07-29

    It has come to light: Renewed interest in conversions of highly oxygenated materials has motivated studies of the organometallic-catalyzed photocatalytic dehydrogenative decarbonylation of primary alcohols into alkanes, CO, and H2 (see scheme). Methanol, ethanol, benzyl alcohol, and cyclohexanemethanol are readily decarbonylated. The photocatalysts are also active for amine dehydrogenation to give N-alkyl aldimines and H2.

  3. Conformational Studies on γ - Benzyl- L- Glutamate and L- Valine Containing Block Copolypeptides

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Conformational studies on γ - benzyl-L- glutamate and L- valine containing block copolypeptides are reported using IR and CD spectra. The block copolypeptides contain valine block in the center and on both sides of the valine are γ - benzyl- L- glutamate blocks. The changes in conformation with increase in chain length of γ - benzyl- L- glutamate blocks are observed. When the chain length of γ - benzyl-L- glutamate block is 13, the block copolypeptide crystallized into beta conformation. With...

  4. Direct aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols to methyl esters catalyzed by a heterogeneous gold catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Inger Staunstrup; Taarning, Esben; Egeblad, Kresten;

    2007-01-01

    Methyl esters can be produced in high yield by oxidising methanolic solutions of primary alcohols with dioxygen over a heterogeneous gold catalyst. The versatility of this new methodology is demonstrated by the fact that alkylic, benzylic and allylic alcohols, as well as alcohols containing an...

  5. Studies and characterization of in natura and benzylated sisal by using CPMAS 13C NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delignificated and benzylated sisal fibers were characterized by CPMAS 13 C NMR. In this study were analyzed the structure of the fiber before and after chemical treatments via delignification and benzylation processes. We observed that after delignification of sisal fiber, cellulose chains become more disordered and exposed which increases benzylation reaction efficiency. However, for not delignificated fibers their constituents decreases benzylation reaction efficiency. (author)

  6. Degradation kinetics of benzyl nicotinate in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbah C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of benzyl nicotinate in aqueous solution over a pH range of 2.0-10.0 at 50±0.2 o was studied. The degradation was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The degradation was observed to follow apparent first-order rate kinetics and the rate constant for the decomposition at 25 o was estimated by extrapolation. The reaction was shown to be hydroxide ion catalyzed and the Arrhenius plots showed the temperature dependence of benzyl nicotinate degradation. A significant increase in the stability of benzyl nicotinate was observed when glycerol or polyethylene glycol 400 was incorporated into the aqueous solution.

  7. Synthesis and structures of scandium and lutetium benzyl complexes

    OpenAIRE

    De Meyer, N.; Roesky, Peter W.; Bambirra, Sergio; Meetsma, Auke; Hessen, Bart; Saliu, Kuburat; Takats, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Scandium and lutetium benzyl complexes were prepared. Reaction of [ScCl3(THF)(3)] with potassium benzyl afforded [Sc(CH2Ph)(3)(THF)(3)] (1). In the solid state the coordination polyhedron is a distorted octahedron, in which the benzyl groups are located in a facial arrangement on one side of the molecule. One of the coordinated THF molecules could be removed by trituration with toluene and recrystallization of I from toluene to give [Sc(CH2Ph)(3)(THF)(2)] (2). A significantly different compou...

  8. Benzyl (E)-3-(4-meth­oxy­benzyl­idene)dithio­carbazate

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Fan; Yan-Lan Huang; Zhao Wang; Han-Qi Guo; Shang Shan

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C16H16N2OS2, was obtained from a condensation reaction of benzyl dithiocarbazate and 4-methoxybenzaldehyde. In the molecule, the methoxyphenyl ring and dithiocarbazate fragment are located on opposite sides of the C=N double bond, showing an E configuration. The dithiocarbazate fragment is approximately planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0052 Å); its mean plane is oriented at dihedral angles of 8.19 (15) and 85.70 (13)°, respective...

  9. Benzyl 3-[(E)-2-nitro­benzyl­idene]dithio­carbazate

    OpenAIRE

    Shang Shan; Yan-Lan Huang; Han-Qi Guo; Deng-Feng Li; Jian Sun

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C15H13N3O2S2, was obtained from a condensation reaction of benzyl dithiocarbazate and 2-nitrobenzaldehyde. In the molecule, the nearly planar dithiocarbazate fragment [r.m.s deviation = 0.0264 Å] is oriented at dihedral angles of 7.25 (17) and 74.09 (9)°with respect to the two benzene rings. The nitro group is twisted by a dihedral angle of 22.4 (7)° to the attached benzene ring. The nitrobenzene ring and d...

  10. Benzyl (E)-3-(2-methyl­benzyl­idene)dithio­carbazate

    OpenAIRE

    Shang Shan; Zhao Wang; Yan-Lan Huang; Han-Qi Guo; Deng-Feng Li

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C16H16N2S2, was obtained from the condensation reaction of benzyl dithiocarbazate and 2-methylbenzaldehyde. The asymmetric unit contains two independent molecules. In both molecules, the methylphenyl ring and the dithiocarbazate fragment are located on opposite sides of the C=N bond, showing an E conformation. In each molecule, the dithiocarbazate fragment is approximately planar, the r.m.s deviations being 0.018 and 0.025 Å. The mean plane of dithiocarb...

  11. Alcohol-induced histone acetylation reveals a gene network involved in alcohol tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ghezzi

    Full Text Available Sustained or repeated exposure to sedating drugs, such as alcohol, triggers homeostatic adaptations in the brain that lead to the development of drug tolerance and dependence. These adaptations involve long-term changes in the transcription of drug-responsive genes as well as an epigenetic restructuring of chromosomal regions that is thought to signal and maintain the altered transcriptional state. Alcohol-induced epigenetic changes have been shown to be important in the long-term adaptation that leads to alcohol tolerance and dependence endophenotypes. A major constraint impeding progress is that alcohol produces a surfeit of changes in gene expression, most of which may not make any meaningful contribution to the ethanol response under study. Here we used a novel genomic epigenetic approach to find genes relevant for functional alcohol tolerance by exploiting the commonalities of two chemically distinct alcohols. In Drosophila melanogaster, ethanol and benzyl alcohol induce mutual cross-tolerance, indicating that they share a common mechanism for producing tolerance. We surveyed the genome-wide changes in histone acetylation that occur in response to these drugs. Each drug induces modifications in a large number of genes. The genes that respond similarly to either treatment, however, represent a subgroup enriched for genes important for the common tolerance response. Genes were functionally tested for behavioral tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol and benzyl alcohol using mutant and inducible RNAi stocks. We identified a network of genes that are essential for the development of tolerance to sedation by alcohol.

  12. Metal-Mediated Couplings of Primary Alcohols with Amines and Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggi, Agnese; Madsen, Robert

    the imine, obtained from the coupling between benzyl alcohol and (R)-1-phenylethylamine, was performed. To address specifics of the reaction mechanism, different experiments with deuterium-labeled benzyl alcohol were carried out indicating that that the catalytically active species is a ruthenium...... dihydride. The reaction is proposed to proceed by initial dehydrogenation of the alcohol to the aldehyde, which stays coordinated to the ruthenium centre. Then, nucleophilic attack of the amine affords the hemiaminal, which is released from ruthenium and converted into the imine. Project 2: Tin...

  13. Acridin-9-ylmethoxycarbonyl (Amoc): A New Photochemically Removable Protecting Group for Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-Bo; TANG Wen-Jian; YU Jing-Yu; SONG Qin-Hua

    2006-01-01

    Synthesis and photochemistry of acridin-9-ylmethoxycarbonyl (Amoc) as a new photochemically removable protecting group for alcohols were described. Three carbonates of alcohols 1-3 were synthesized through condensation of 9-hydroxymethylacridine and chloroformates of alcohols, including benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol and one galactose derivative. The photolysis of protected alcohols can efficiently release the corresponding alcohol in the efficiencies (Qu1ε) of 100-200 (quantum yield Qu1=0.011-0.023, and molar absorptivity ε=9.1 × 103-9.8 × 103 mol-1·L·cm-1) under 360 nm light.

  14. Mechanistic investigation of the gold-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Johansen, Louise Bahn; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism for the gold-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of alcohols was studied using a series of para-substituted benzyl alcohols (Hammett methodology). The competition experiments clearly show that the rate-determining step of the reaction involves the generation of a partial positive charge in ...

  15. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking once you've started Physical dependence - withdrawal symptoms Tolerance - the need to drink more alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  16. Growth and characterization of organic single crystal benzyl carbamate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala Solanki, S. Siva; Perumal, Rajesh Narayana; Suthan, T.; Bhagavannarayana, G.

    2015-10-01

    Benzyl carbamate single crystal is grown by a solution and vertical Bridgman technique for the first time. The cell parameters and morphologies are assessed from single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. High resolution X-ray diffraction analysis indicates the crystalline perfection of the grown benzyl carbamate crystal. Fourier Transforms Infrared spectroscopy study has been applied to arrive at the different functional groups. Thermo gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry are used to study its thermal behavior. The microhardness test is carried out and the load dependent hardness is measured.

  17. Alcohol fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This issue is devoted almost entirely to alcohol fuels, the following topics being presented: A History of Alcohol Fuels; In the Midwest - Focus on Alcohol Fuels; Gasohol - A DOE Priority; Alcohol Fuels Potential; Gasohol - The Nutritious Fuel; Energy from Agriculture; Alcohol and the Price of Food; A New Look at Economics and Energy Balance in Alcohol Production; Economics of small-scale alcohol producers; Get the Lead Out with Alcohol; Biomass and the Carbon Dioxide Buildup; Federal Agency Activity in Alcohol Fuels; Congressional Activity in Alchol Fuels; Licensing a Small Still; Funding Sources for Alcohol Facilities; Safety in Alcohol Production; Alcohol Fuels Information; State-by-State Guide to Alcohol Activity; Alcohol Fuels Glossary; Alcohol Fuels and Your Car; Alcohol Fuels Training Grants Progam; Citizen Action Plan for Gasohol; and Alcohol Fuels - a Path to Reconciliation.

  18. 3-Benzyl-6-benzyl­amino-1-methyl-5-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetra­hydro­pyrimidine

    OpenAIRE

    Surya Prakash Rao, H.; Sathishkumar, R.; Sarathbabu, M.; Manivel, P.; Kannan, M; Krishna, R.

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, C19H22N4O2, the tetra­hydro­pyrimidine ring adopts an envelope conformation (with the N atom connected to the benzyl group representing the flap). This benzyl group occupies a quasi-axial position. The two benzyl groups lie over the tetra­hydro­pyridimidine ring. The amino group is a hydrogen-bond donor to the nitro group.

  19. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  20. Holograms preparation using commercial fluorescent benzyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorantes-GarcIa, V; Olivares-Perez, A; Ordonez-Padilla, M J; Mejias-Brizuela, N Y, E-mail: valdoga@Hotmail.com, E-mail: olivares@inaoep.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Coordinacion de Optica, Calle Luis Enrique Erro N0 1, Santa Maria Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    We have been able to make holograms with substances such as fluorescence thought of light blue laser to make transmissions holograms, using ammonium dichromate as photo-sensitizer and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as matrix. Ammonium dichromate inhibit the fluorescence properties of inks, both mixed in a (PVA) matrix, but we avoid this chemical reaction and we show the results to use the method of painting hologram with fluorescents ink and we describe how the diffraction efficiency parameter changes as a function of the ink absorbed by the emulsion recorded with the gratings, we got good results, making holographic gratings with a blue light from laser diode 470 nm. And we later were painting with fluorescent ink, integrating fluorescence characteristics to the hologram.

  1. Holograms preparation using commercial fluorescent benzyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have been able to make holograms with substances such as fluorescence thought of light blue laser to make transmissions holograms, using ammonium dichromate as photo-sensitizer and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as matrix. Ammonium dichromate inhibit the fluorescence properties of inks, both mixed in a (PVA) matrix, but we avoid this chemical reaction and we show the results to use the method of painting hologram with fluorescents ink and we describe how the diffraction efficiency parameter changes as a function of the ink absorbed by the emulsion recorded with the gratings, we got good results, making holographic gratings with a blue light from laser diode 470 nm. And we later were painting with fluorescent ink, integrating fluorescence characteristics to the hologram.

  2. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 3 (FGE.20Rev3): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters from chemical groups 23 and 30

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Lund, Pia; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2011-01-01

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider in this revision 3 of Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, the SCF Opinion on benzoic acid. Furthermore information on stereoisomeric composition for two substances [FL-no: 06.104 and 09.570] and new information to support the re-allocation of the structural class for the candidate substance piperonyl alcohol [FL-no: 02.205] has been submitted. The 41 flavou...

  3. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  4. European Union Summary Risk Assessment Report - Benzyl Butyl Phthalate (BBP)

    OpenAIRE

    PAKALIN Sazan; ASCHBERGER Karin; COSGROVE Orna; PAYA PEREZ Ana; VEGRO Stefania

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a summary, with conclusions, of the risk assessment report of the substance benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) that has been prepared by Norway in the context of Council Regulation (EEC) No. 793/93 on the evaluation and control of existing substances. For detailed information on the risk assessment principles and procedures followed, the underlying data and the literature references the reader is referred to the comprehensive Final Risk Assessment Report (Final RAR) that ca...

  5. Green Synthesis of Benzylated Aromatics Using Iron Loaded Mesoporous Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Preethi, Muthuraj Esther Leena; Revathi, Shanmugam; Sivakumar, Thiripuranthagan

    2008-01-01

    Syntheses of benzylated aromatics like diphenylmethane and its derivatives by the condensation of benzene or toluene or o-xylene with benzylchloride or 4-methylbenzylchloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of various iron loaded mesoporous solid acid catalysts such as Fe/Al-MCM-41 (Si/Al=25), Fe/Al-MCM-41 (Si/Al=50) and Fe/Al-MCM-41 (Si/Al=100) are reported.

  6. Synthesis and Properties of Polyurethane Resins from Liquefied Benzylated Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ping WEI; Fa CHENG; Hou Ping LI; Jiu Gao YU

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, polyurethane resins were synthesized from liquefied benzylated wood and TDI (toluene diisocyanate)-TMP (trihydromethylene propane) prepolymer. And the relation between microphase structure and properties of PU samples were also studied. The results indicated that coatings obtained had good mechanical and thermal properties. The amount of the curing agent has great effect on the degree of phase segregation. In addition, with increased the curing agent amount, the thermal stabilities were also improved.

  7. Multichromic polymers of benzotriazole derivatives: Effect of benzyl substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigitsoy, Basak [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Abdul Karim, S.M. [Department of Arts and Sciences, Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Dhaka 1208 (Bangladesh); Balan, Abidin; Baran, Derya [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Toppare, Levent, E-mail: toppare@metu.edu.t [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Biotechnology, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Polymer Science and Technology, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-02-01

    Two electroactive monomers 1-benzyl-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl))-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (BBTA) and 2-benzyl-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl))-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (BBTS) were synthesized with satisfactory yields. The effect of substitution site on electrochemical and optical properties was investigated with cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemical studies. Results showed that position of pendant group alters the electronic structure of the resulting polymer causing different optical and electrochemical behaviors. Symmetrically positioned benzyl unit on benzotriazole moiety resulted in a neutral state red polymer, PBBTS, having multi-colored property in its different oxidized and reduced states. Its analogue PBBTA exhibited maximum absorption at 390 nm in its neutral state and also revealed multicolored electrochromic property upon stepwise oxidation. Very different optical band gap values were calculated: 1.55 eV and 2.25 eV for PBBTS and PBBTA, respectively.

  8. Multichromic polymers of benzotriazole derivatives: Effect of benzyl substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two electroactive monomers 1-benzyl-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl))-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (BBTA) and 2-benzyl-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl))-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (BBTS) were synthesized with satisfactory yields. The effect of substitution site on electrochemical and optical properties was investigated with cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemical studies. Results showed that position of pendant group alters the electronic structure of the resulting polymer causing different optical and electrochemical behaviors. Symmetrically positioned benzyl unit on benzotriazole moiety resulted in a neutral state red polymer, PBBTS, having multi-colored property in its different oxidized and reduced states. Its analogue PBBTA exhibited maximum absorption at 390 nm in its neutral state and also revealed multicolored electrochromic property upon stepwise oxidation. Very different optical band gap values were calculated: 1.55 eV and 2.25 eV for PBBTS and PBBTA, respectively.

  9. Synthesis of Pharmaceutical Intermediates by Toluene Benzylation over Heteropoly Acids on Different Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. V. Bokade; G.D. Yadav

    2007-01-01

    Selective formation of pharmaceutical intermediates like diphenylmethane, dimethyldiphenylmethane, benzyl toluene and benzoic acid by liquid phase, toluene benzylation with benzyl chloride as a benzylating agent, was systematically studied over plane clay (K-10, montmorillonite),plane H-Beta, plane MFI structured titanosilicate (TS-1) and heteropoly acids [HPA, namely dodecasupported on clay, H-beta and TS-1. The 20%TPA/Clay, 30%TPA/H-Beta and 30%TPA/TS-1, were observed to be the best catalyst samples over plane clay, plane H-Beta and plane TS-1. The catalyst samples are compared with respect to benzyl chloride conversion and selectivities for diphenylmethane,dimethyl-diphenylmethane, benzyl toluene and benzoic acid. The reaction follows the pseudo-first order rate power law model. The apparent rate constants are calculated and compared with the reported ones.

  10. Alcoholic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  11. Anaphylaxis Triggered by Benzyl Benzoate in a Preparation of Depot Testosterone Undecanoate

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Gregory S. Y.; Somerville, Colin P.; Jones, Timothy W; Walsh, John P.

    2012-01-01

    We report the first case of an anaphylactic reaction to Reandron 1000 (depot testosterone undecanoate with a castor oil and benzyl benzoate vehicle). While considered to have a favourable safety profile, serious complications such as oil embolism and anaphylaxis can occur. In our patient, skin testing identified benzyl benzoate to be the trigger, with no reaction to castor oil or testosterone undecanoate components. As benzyl benzoate exists in multiple pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics, ...

  12. 3-Benzyl-6-benzylamino-1-methyl-5-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Surya Prakash Rao

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C19H22N4O2, the tetrahydropyrimidine ring adopts an envelope conformation (with the N atom connected to the benzyl group representing the flap. This benzyl group occupies a quasi-axial position. The two benzyl groups lie over the tetrahydropyridimidine ring. The amino group is a hydrogen-bond donor to the nitro group.

  13. Experimental and Theoretical Mechanistic Investigation of the Iridium-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Decarbonylation of Primary Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Esben Paul Krogh; Singh, Thishana; Harris, Pernille;

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism for the iridium-BINAP catalyzed dehydrogenative decarbonylation of primary alcohols with the liberation of molecular hydrogen and carbon monoxide was studied experimentally and computationally. The reaction takes place by tandem catalysis through two catalytic cycles involving...... dehydrogenation of the alcohol and decarbonylation of the resulting aldehyde. The square planar complex IrCl(CO)(rac-BINAP) was isolated from the reaction between [Ir(cod)Cl](2), rac-BINAP, and benzyl alcohol. The complex was catalytically active and applied in the study of the individual steps in the catalytic...... cycles. One carbon monoxide ligand was shown to remain coordinated to iridium throughout the reaction, and release of carbon monoxide was suggested to occur from a dicarbonyl complex. IrH2Cl(CO)(rac-BINAP) was also synthesized and detected in the dehydrogenation of benzyl alcohol. In the same experiment...

  14. Experimental density, viscosity, interfacial tension and water solubility of ethyl benzene-α-methyl benzyl alcohol–water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Properties were measured for MBA (methyl benzyl alcohol)-EB (ethyl benzene)-water. • MBA concentration was found to influence all the properties strongly. • The water solubility, density, and viscosity increased at high MBA concentration. • The interfacial tension decreased sharply at high MBA concentration. • MBA dictates the phase separation and mass transfer of the ternary system. -- Abstract: Density, viscosity, interfacial tension, and water solubility were measured for the (α-methyl benzyl alcohol (MBA) + Ethyl benzene (EB)) system at different concentrations of MBA in contact with water and sodium hydroxide solution (0.01 mol · kg−1) as aqueous phases. The properties were measured to identify the component which plays a governing role in changing the physical properties relevant to mass transfer and phase separation of the ternary system. The concentration of MBA was found to be the major factor influencing all the properties. The water solubility, the density, and the viscosity increased notably at higher concentrations of MBA; while, the interfacial tension decreased strongly. The use of 0.01 mol · kg−1 NaOH as an aqueous phase resulted in a decrease of the interfacial tension and a minor decrease in the water solubility. The density data were correlated using a quadratic mixing rule to describe the influence of concentration at any temperature. The viscosity data are correlated using the Nissan and Grunberg and Katti-Chaudhri equations. The Szyzkowski’s equation was used to correlate the interfacial tension data. The water solubility data were described using an exponential relationship. All the correlations described the experimental physical property data adequately

  15. A new multifunctional, shine-enhancing emollient: PPG-3 benzyl ether myristate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Timothy; Pereira, Abel; Obukowho, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    A new emollient ester--Crodamol STS (INCI name: PPG-3 Benzyl Ether Myristate) has been developed and characterized. This special non-volatile emollient is safe to use and provides silicone-like feel and multiple cosmetic functionality. It is a liquid with a viscosity about 100 cps at room temperature. It has a high refractive index--1.4696, which enhances hair shine, contributes to high gloss in lip products, and reduces whitening effect of fatty alcohols and silica in anti-perspirants/deodorants applications. This emollient has high solubility of UV filters, low skin-spreading factor, and good pigment wetting behavior, which are preferable in sunscreen and make-up formulas to enhance the pigment localization and improve SPF value. In this paper, the chemical structure, physical properties, and various cosmetic applications of the emollient will be discussed. Especially, an objective hair shine (luster) test method (color image analysis) has been established and applied to study the enhancement in hair shine by Crodamol STS in hair spray and hair gel formulations. The objective measurements in hair shine showed good agreement with the results obtained from subjective evaluations. The substantivity of Crodamol STS on hair surface, which was delivered from a rinse-off cream, was also determined by a solvent extraction method. PMID:15645090

  16. Copper oxide as efficient catalyst for oxidative dehydrogenation of alcohols with air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poreddy, Raju; Engelbrekt, Christian; Riisager, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative dehydrogenation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds was studied using CuO nanoparticle catalysts prepared by solution synthesis in buffered media. CuO nanoparticles synthesized in N-cyclohexyl- 3-aminopropanesulfonic acid buffer showed high catalytic activity for the oxidation of...... dehydrogenation of benzyl alcohols to be proposed. The use of CuO as an inexpensive and efficient heterogeneous catalyst under aerobic conditions provides a new noble metal-free and green reaction protocol for carbonyl compound synthesis....

  17. Benzyl 3-[(E)-1-(pyrazin-2-yl)ethylidene]dithiocarbazate

    OpenAIRE

    Shang Shan; Yan-Lan Huang; Han-Qi Guo; Deng-Feng Li; Jian Sun

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C14H14N4S2, was obtained from a condensation reaction of benzyl dithiocarbazate and acetylpyrazine. The asymmetric unit contains two independent molecules, in each of which the pyrazine ring and dithiocarbazate unit are approximately co-planar, the r.m.s. deviations being 0.0304 and 0.0418 Å. The mean plane is oriented with respect to the benzene ring at 49.22 (4)° in one molecule and at 69.76 (7)° in the other. In t...

  18. Oxidation of aromatic alcohols on zeolite-encapsulated copper amino acid complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, S.; Teixeira Florencio, J.M. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry, Chemical Technology

    1998-12-31

    Copper complexes of the amino acids histidine, arginine and lysine have been introduced into the supercages of zeolite Y and, for the first time, into the large intracrystalline cavities of zeolites EMT and MCM-22. The resulting host/guest compounds are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, UV/VIS-spectroscopy in the diffuse reflectance mode and by catalytic tests in the liquid-phase oxidation of aromatic alcohols (viz. benzyl alcohol, 2- and 3-methylbenzyl alcohol and 2,5-dimethylbenzyl alcohol) with tertiary-butylhydroperoxide as oxidant. It was observed that intracrystalline copper-amino acid complexes possess remarkable catalytic activity, yielding the corresponding aromatic aldehydes and acids. (orig.)

  19. Reactive Extraction of Alcohols from Apolar Hydrocarbons with Aqueous Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The aqueous solutions are evaluated as sustainable reactive extraction solvents for the recovery of monohydroxyl alcohols (benzyl alcohol, 1-hexanol, cyclohexanol) present in few-percent concentrations in apolar hydrocarbons (toluene, n-hexane, and cyclohexane) by considering two approaches. An aqueous solution containing a reactive extractant, like borate salts, borate complexes, a monosalt of dicarboxylic acid,hydroxypropyl-cyclodextrins, and silver nitrate, shows limited potential to be used. Another approach, in which the alcohol is chemically modified prior to the extraction into an easy-extractable form, in this case a monoesterlcarboxylic acid, shows much more potential. An environmentally benign aqueous solution of sodium hydrogen carbonate can provide a distribution ratio of benzyl alcohol up to 200, leaving the solubility of the organic solvent in the aqueous solution unchanged relative to pure water and therefore increasing the selectivity with two orders of magnitude. The modification of aromatic, cyclo-aliphatic, and linear aliphatic alcohols can be performed efficiently in the apolar organic solvent without need for a catalyst. The recovery of the modified alcohol can be performed by back-extraction in combination with a spontaneous hydrolysis.

  20. Benzylation of arenes and heteroarenes catalyzed by HfCl4/HfO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Yi Zhang; Xin Qin Gao; Jiang Hua Zhang; Xiao Jun Peng

    2009-01-01

    A highly efficient benzylation of arenes and heteroarenes catalyzed by HfC14/HfO2 has been developed. Broad scope of benzylation reagents have been used in this process with high yields under mild condition. Additionally, the HfO2 can be re-used after the reaction.

  1. Benzyl (E)-3-(2-bromo-5-meth­oxy­benzyl­idene)dithio­carbazate

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Fan; Yan-Lan Huang; Zhao Wang; Han-Qi Guo; Shang Shan

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C16H15BrN2OS2, was obtained from the condensation reaction of benzyl dithiocarbazate and 2-bromo-5-methoxylbenzaldehyde. In the molecule, the bromomethoxyphenyl ring and dithiocarbazate fragment are located on the opposite sides of the C=N double bond, showing the E conformation. The dithiocarbazate fragment is approximately planar (r.m.s deviation 0.0187 Å); its mean plane is oriented with respect to the bromomethoxyphenyl and phenyl rings at 7.60&#...

  2. Thermal Decomposition of Benzyl Radical via Multiple Active Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Grant; Robichaud, David; Ormond, Thomas; Nimlos, Mark R.; Daily, John W.; Ellison, Barney

    2014-06-01

    The thermal decomposition of benzyl radical (C6H5CH2) has been investigated using a combination infrared absorption spectroscopy in a neon matrix and 118.2 (10.487 eV) photoionization mass spectrometry. Both techniques are coupled with a heated tubular reactor to allow temperature control over the decomposition to indicate relative barrier heights of fragmentation pathways. Three possible chemical mechanisms have been considered. 1) Ring expansion to cycloheptatrienyl radical (C7H7) with subsequent breakdown to HCCH and C5H5, 2) isomerization to the substituted five-membered ring fulvenallene (C5H4=C=CH2), which is of interest to kinetic theorists and finally 3) hydrogen shift to form methyl-substituted phenyl radical, which can then form ortho-benzyne, diacetylene and other fragments. Benzyl radical is generated from two precursors, C6H5CH2CH3 and C6H5CH2Br, and both lead to the appearance of HCCH and C5H5. At slightly hotter temperatures peaks are observed at m/z 90, presumed to be C5H4=C=CH2, and 89, potentially the substituted propargyl C5H4=C=CH. Additionally, decomposition of isotopically substituted parent molecules C6H5CD2CD3 and C6D5CH2CH3 indicates C7H7 as an intermediate due to H/D ratios in fragment molecules.

  3. Palladium-catalyzed thiocarbonylation of aryl, vinyl, and benzyl bromides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhardt, Mia N; Ahlburg, Andreas; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2014-12-19

    A catalytic protocol for synthesis of thioesters from aryl, vinyl, and benzyl bromides as well as benzyl chlorides was developed using only stoichiometric amounts of carbon monoxide, produced from a solid CO precursor inside a two-chamber system. As a catalytic system, the combination of bis(benzonitrile) palladium(II) chloride and Xantphos furnished the highest yields of the desired compounds, along with the weak base, NaOAc, in anisole at 120 °C. The choice of catalytic system as well as solvent turned out to be important in order to ensure a high chemoselectivity in the reaction. Both electron-rich and electron-deficient aryl bromides worked well in this reaction. Addition of 1 equiv of sodium iodide to the reaction improved the chemoselectivity with the electron-deficient aryl bromides. The thiol scope included both aryl and alkyl thiols, including 2-mercaptobenzophenones, whereby a thiocarbonylation followed by a subsequent McMurry coupling yielded differently substituted benzothiophenes. It was demonstrated that the methodology could be applied for (13)C introduction into the thiophene ring. PMID:24919457

  4. Synthesis and Anti-HIV-1 Activity of New MKC-442 Analogues with an Alkynyl-Substituted 6-Benzyl Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aly, Youssef L.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerreg.; La Colla, Paolo;

    2007-01-01

    Synthesis and antiviral activities are reported of a series of 6-(3-alkynyl benzyl)-substituted analogues of MKC-442 (6-benzyl-1-(ethoxymethyl)-5-isopropyluracil), a highly potent agent against HIV. The 3-alkynyl group is assumed to give a better stacking of the substituted benzyl group to revers...

  5. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and molecular docking properties of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, C.; Kumar, P. Saravana; Arun, Y.; Duraipandiyan, V.; Sundaram, R. Lakshmi; Vijayakumar, A.; Balakrishna, K.; Ignacimuthu, S.; Al-Dhabi, N. A.; Perumal, P. T.

    2015-02-01

    N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was obtained by acylation of benzylamine with trifluoroacetic anhydride using Friedel-Crafts acylation method. The synthesised compound was confirmed by spectroscopic and crystallographic techniques. N-Benzyl-2,2,2 -trifluoroacetamide was assessed for its antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and molecular docking properties. It showed good antifungal activity against tested fungi and moderate antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of N-benzyl-2,2,2 -trifluoroacetamide against fungi were 15.62 μg/mL against A. flavus, 31.25 μg/mL against B. Cinerea and 62.5 μg/mL against T. mentagrophytes, Scopulariopsis sp., C. albicans and M. pachydermatis. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed 78.97 ± 2.24 of antioxidant activity at 1,000 μg/mL. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was dependent on the concentration. Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed (1.352 ± 0.04 mM Fe(II)/g) twofold higher value compared to the standard. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed 75.3 % cytotoxic activity at the dose of 200 μg/mL with IC50 (54.7 %) value of 100 μg/mL. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide was subjected to molecular docking studies for the inhibition AmpC beta-lactamase, Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthase and lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase (CYP51) enzymes which are targets for antibacterial and antifungal drugs. Docking studies of N-benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide showed low docking energy. N-Benzyl-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide can be evaluated further for drug development.

  6. Alcohol Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin— ... of malt liquor 12 ounces of beer Being drunk can make a person feel very silly, angry, ...

  7. Alcoholics Anonymous

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Banners Site Help What's New Welcome to Alcoholics Anonymous ® NEED HELP WITH A DRINKING PROBLEM? If you ... drinking problem, wish to learn more about Alcoholics Anonymous or want to find A.A. near you, ...

  8. Conversion of Alcohols to Bromides by Trimethylsilane and lithium Bromide in Acetone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Feng; Zhang Xiao-xia; Zhang Qing; Wang Ji-yu; Chen Dai-mo

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of alcohols to alkyl bromides is one of the most frequently used functional group transformation reactions. Phosphorus tribromide is one of the most popular classical reagents.Triphenylphosphine has been used in combination with bromine,carbon tetrabromide,N-halo imides and other bromide compounds as a mild reagents for the preparation of alkyl bromides.More reacently, halotrimethylsilanes were found to be useful for halogenation of alcohols. George A.Olah successfully converted alcohols to bromides with chlorotrimethylsilane/lithium bromide in acetonitrile. But in our research, we found that we got no bromides but methylation products when we planed to convered our substances to bromides according to Gerge's method. We did some experiments, and we found that when the substituent group in the 2-N was donor group,we got the methylation products,but when it was acceptor group,the bromide could be got.(Scheme 1).Then we did some experiments with several other solvents, we found excitedly that when the solvent was acetone ,the bromides could be got even the substituent group was donor.(Scheme 2).When we changed the substances to normal alcohols ,such as ethyl alcohol,benzyl alcohol,isopropyl alcohol and 3,4-dimethoxy benzyl alcohol,we also got the bromides.In conclusion, we found a simple method to convert alcohols to bromides with trimethylsilane/li thium bromide in acetone,which was better than Geroge's method.

  9. Alcoholic hallucinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pookala S; Ryali, Vssr; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here. PMID:24250051

  10. Alcohol misuse

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, W

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity internationally, and is ranked by the WHO as one of the top five risk factors for disease burden. Without treatment, approximately 16% of hazardous or harmful alcohol users will progress to more dependent patterns of alcohol consumption.

  11. Alcohol Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The recent alcohol tax increase poses a challenge to China’s white spirits makers Alcohol, rather than wine, is an in-dispensable component to Chinese table culture. The financial crisis has failed to affect white spirits sales, but an alcohol tax increase might.

  12. Solvent effects in the reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ranga Reddy; P Manikyamba

    2007-11-01

    The reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide was studied conductometrically and the second order rate constants were computed. These rate constants determined in 12 different protic and aprotic solvents indicate that the rate of the reaction is influenced by electrophilicity (), hydrogen bond donor ability () and dipolarity/polarizability (*) of the solvent. The LSER derived from the statistical analysis indicates that the transition state is more solvated than the reactants due to hydrogen bond donation and polarizability of the solvent while the reactant is more solvated than the transition state due to electrophilicity of the solvent. Study of the reaction in methanol, dimethyl formamide mixtures suggests that the rate is maximum when dipolar interactions between the two solvents are maximum.

  13. Selective liquid-phase oxidation of alcohols catalyzed by a silver-based catalyst promoted by the presence of ceria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Matthias Josef; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2009-01-01

    A number of silver catalysts supported on SiO2, Al2O3, Celite, CeO2, kaolin, MgO, and activated carbon were screened for their catalytic activity in the selective liquid-phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol using a special screening approach. For this purpose 5–6 catalyst samples were mixed and tested...

  14. Cobalt(II) supported on ethylenediamine-functionalized nanocellulose as an efficient catalyst for room temperature aerobic oxidation of alcohols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmad Shaabani; Sajjad Keshipour; Mona Hamidzad; Mozhdeh Seyyedhamzeh

    2014-01-01

    Ethylenediamine-functionalized nanocellulose complexed with cobalt(II) was found to be a highly efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the room temperature aerobic oxidation of various types of primary and secondary benzylic alcohols into their corresponding aldehydes and ketones, respectively. The catalyst showed no significant loss of efficiency after five reaction cycles.

  15. Synthesis of plasticizer butyl benzyl phthalate by phase transfer catalysis%相转移催化法合成增塑剂邻苯二甲酸丁苄酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱瑞芬; 童兴龙

    2000-01-01

      以邻苯二甲酸酐、丁醇和氯化苄为原料,采用不同类型的相转移催化剂,如季铵盐、叔胺及三相催化剂等合成增塑剂邻苯二甲酸丁苄酯,研究了最佳反应条件。%  Using phthalic anhydride, butyl alcohol and benzyl chloride as raw materials, plasticizer butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) is synthesized by different type phase transfer such as quaternary ammonium salt, tert-amine, triphase catalyst and so on, the optimum reaction conditions are studied.

  16. Anaphylaxis Triggered by Benzyl Benzoate in a Preparation of Depot Testosterone Undecanoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S. Y. Ong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of an anaphylactic reaction to Reandron 1000 (depot testosterone undecanoate with a castor oil and benzyl benzoate vehicle. While considered to have a favourable safety profile, serious complications such as oil embolism and anaphylaxis can occur. In our patient, skin testing identified benzyl benzoate to be the trigger, with no reaction to castor oil or testosterone undecanoate components. As benzyl benzoate exists in multiple pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics, individual components of pharmaceuticals should be tested when investigating drug allergies. Doctors should be alert to the potential for serious reactions to any of the components of Reandron 1000.

  17. The retro Grignard addition reaction revisited: the reversible addition of benzyl reagents to ketones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stig Holden; Holm, Torkil; Madsen, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Grignard addition reaction is known to be a reversible process with allylic reagents, but so far the reversibility has not been demonstrated with other alkylmagnesium halides. By using crossover experiments it has been established that the benzyl addition reaction is also a reversible...... transformation. The retro benzyl reaction was shown by the addition of benzylmagnesium chloride to di-tert-butyl ketone followed by exchange of both the benzyl and the ketone moiety with another substrate. Similar experiments were performed with phenylmagnesium bromide and tert-butylmagnesium chloride, but in...... these two cases the Grignard addition reaction did not show any sign of a reverse transformation....

  18. Selective methylation of kaempferol via benzylation and deacetylation of kaempferol acetates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qinggang; Wang, Chun; Yuan, Weicheng; Zhang, Guolin

    2015-01-01

    A strategy for selective mono-, di- and tri-O-methylation of kaempferol, predominantly on the basis of selective benzylation and controllable deacetylation of kaempferol acetates, was developed. From the selective deacetylation and benzylation of kaempferol tetraacetate (1), 3,4',5,-tri-O-acetylkaempferol (2) and 7-O-benzyl-3,4'5,-tri-O-acetylkaempferol (8) were obtained, respectively. By controllable deacetylation and followed selective or direct methylation of these two intermediates, eight O-methylated kaempferols were prepared with 51-77% total yields from kaempferol. PMID:25815082

  19. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  20. Reaction of selected carbohydrate aldehydes with benzylmagnesium halides: benzyl versus o-tolyl rearrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroš Bella

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Grignard reaction of 2,3-O-isopropylidene-α-D-lyxo-pentodialdo-1,4-furanoside and benzylmagnesium chloride (or bromide afforded a non-separable mixture of diastereomeric benzyl carbinols and diastereomeric o-tolyl carbinols. The latter resulted from an unexpected benzyl to o-tolyl rearrangement. The proportion of benzyl versus o-tolyl derivatives depended on the reaction conditions. Benzylmagnesium chloride afforded predominantly o-tolyl carbinols while the application of benzylmagnesium bromide led preferably to the o-tolyl carbinols only when used in excess or at higher temperatures. The structures of the benzyl and o-tolyl derivatives were confirmed unambiguously by NMR spectral data and X-ray crystallographic analysis of their 5-ketone analogues obtained by oxidation of the corresponding mixture of diastereomeric carbinols. A possible mechanism for the Grignard reaction leading to the benzyl→o-tolyl rearrangement is also proposed.

  1. Palladium-catalyzed Cascade Cyclization-Coupling Reaction of Benzyl Halides with N,N-Diallylbenzoylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Min HU; Yu ZHANG; Jian Lin HAN; Cheng Jian ZHU; Yi PAN

    2003-01-01

    A novel type of palladium-catalyzed cascade cyclization-coupling reaction has been found. Reaction of N, N-diallylbenzoylamide 1 with benzyl halides 2 afforded the corresponding dihydropyrroles 3 in moderate to excellent yields.

  2. Polystyrene-supported Benzyl Selenide: An Efficient Reagent for Highly Stereocontrolled Synthesis of Substituted Olefins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Polystyrene-supported benzyl selenide has been prepared. This novel reagent was treated with LDA to produce a selenium stabilized carbanion, which reacted with alkyl halide, followed by selenoxide syn-elimination, to give substituted olefins stereospecificly.

  3. Vibronic Emission Spectroscopy of Benzyl-Type Radicals Generated by Corona Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Eun Hye; Yoon, Young; Lee, Sang

    2014-06-01

    Benzyl radical is a prototypical aromatic free radical and has been the subject of numerous spectroscopic studies. On the other hand, ring-substituted benzyl radicals, benzyl-type radicals, have received less attention due to the difficulties associated with production in corona discharge and analysis of spectra. We report vibronic emission spectra of hetero halogen multi-substituted benzyl radicals generated by corona discharge of corresponding toluene derivatives using a pinhole-type glass nozzle, from which visible vibronic emission spectra were recorded using a long-path monochromator. The spectra show nice features of strongest origin band and a series of vibronic bands in the lower energies originating from the vibrationless D_1 state. From the analysis of the spectra observed, we determined the energies of the D_1 → D_0 electronic transition and vibrational mode frequencies in the ground electronic state. On the other hand, all substituted benzyl radicals show the origin bands shifted to red region with respect to the parental benzyl radical at 22002 cm-1. The shifts of multi-substituted benzyl radicals can be well estimated using the method developed from mono-substituted benzyl radicals as well as the positions of nodal point and mutual orientation of substituents, which could be useful for scientists to set a proper scanning range of their spectrometers for the spectroscopic observation of transient molecules. In this presentation, we will discuss the substituent effect on electronic transition energy and the experimental technique developed in this laboratory. Y. W. Yoon and S. K. Lee, J. Phys. Chem. A, 117, 2485 (2013). Y. W. Yoon, S. Y. Chae, and S. K. Lee, Chem. Phys. Lett., 584, 37 (2013). Y. W. Yoon and S. K. Lee, Chem. Phys. Lett., 570, 29 (2013).

  4. Alcoholic hallucinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pookala S Bhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916 termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here.

  5. Dietary Exposure to Benzyl Butyl Phthalate in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; JIANG Ding Guo; SUI Hai Xia; WU Ping Gu; LIU Ai Dong; YANG Da Jin; LIU Zhao Ping; SONG Yan; LI Ning

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveBenzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) is a plasticizer used in food contact materials. Dietary exposure to BBP might lead to reproduction and developmental damages to human. The present paper was aimed to assess the health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population. MethodsThe BBP contents were detected in 7409 food samples from 25 foodcategories by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry operated in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The dietary exposures of BBP in different age and sex groups were estimated by combining the content data with food consumption data derived from 2002 China National Nutrient and Health Survey, and evaluated according to the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of BBP established by European Food safety Agency. ResultsIt was found that BBP was undetectable in most samples and the highest level was 1.69 mg/kg detected in a vegetable oil sample. The average dietary exposure of BBP in people aged≥2 years was 1.03 μg/kgbw perday and the highest average exposure was found in 2-6 years old children (1.98 μg/kg bw perday). The BBP exposure in 7-12 months old children excessed 10% of tolerable daily intake (TDI) in worst scenario. ConclusionThe health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population is low and, considering BBP alone, there is no safety concern.

  6. 3 Benzyl-6-chloropyrone: a suicide inhibitor of cholesterol esterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholesterol, absorbed from the intestine, appears in lymph as the ester. Cholesterol esterase is essential for this process, since depletion of the enzyme blocks and repletion restores, absorption. Selective inhibitors of cholesterol esterase may thus prove useful in reducing cholesterol uptake. A series of potential suicide substrates were synthesized which, following cleavage by the enzyme, would attack the putative nucleophile in the active site. One of these, 3-benzyl-6-chloropyrone (3BCP), inhibited both synthesis and hydrolysis of 14C-cholesteryl oleate with an I50 of approximately 150 μM. The inactivation was time-dependent and characteristic of a suicide mechanism. The α pyrone structure (lactone analog) is cleaved by a serine-hydroxyl in the active site. This generates an enoyl chloride which inactivates the imidazole believed to play a part in the catalytic function of the enzyme. Inhibition by 3BCP is selective for cholesterol esterase. The activity of pancreatic lipase as not affected by concentrations up to 1 mM

  7. Selective cytotoxicity of benzyl isothiocyanate in the proliferating fibroblastoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Noriyuki; Uchida, Koji; Osawa, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Yoshimasa

    2007-02-01

    In the present study, experiments using presynchronization culture cells demonstrated that benzyl ITC (BITC), previously isolated from a tropical papaya fruit extract, induced the cytotoxic effect preferentially in the proliferating human colon CCD-18Co cells to the quiescent ones. Quiescent CCD-18Co cells were virtually unaffected by BITC and marginal cytotoxicity was observed at 15 microM. We observed that BITC dramatically induced the p53 phosphorylation and stabilization only in the quiescent (G(0)/G(1) phase-arrested) cells, but not significantly in the proliferating human colon CCD-18Co cells when compared with quiescent ones. We also observed ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) phosphorylation in the quiescent cells. The BITC-induced p53 phosphorylation was counteracted by caffeine treatment, implying the involvement of an ATM/ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related kinase signaling pathway. Moreover, downregulation of p53 by a siRNA resulted in the enhancement of susceptibility to undergo apoptosis by BITC. We also showed here that depletion of p53 abrogated G(0)/G(1) arrest accompanied by the declined expression of p21(waf1/cip1) and p27(kip1) in CCD-18Co cells. In conclusion, we identified p53 as a potential negative regulator of the apoptosis induction by BITC in the normal colon CCD-18Co cells through the inhibition of cell-cycle progression at the G(0)/G(1) phase. PMID:17096346

  8. Benzyl acetates as attractants for the male oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis, and the male melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalf, Robert L.; Metcalf, Esther R.; Mitchell, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Fifty compounds related to benzyl acetate were evaluated quantitatively as attractants to the male oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis) and the male melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae). Thienylmethyl acetate was nearly as attractive as benzyl acetate to both species, but cyclohexylmethyl acetate was completely unattractive, emphasizing the role of the planar aromatic ring in receptor interaction. Although benzyl acetate was equally attractive to both species, para substituents invariably reduced attr...

  9. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  10. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  11. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 14466 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  12. Bimetallic Au/Pd catalyzed aerobic oxidation of alcohols in the poly(ethylene glycol)/CO2 system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Bimetallic Au/Pd nanoparticles were prepared and used to catalyze oxidation of alcohols in the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)/CO2 biphasic system using O2 as the oxidant without adding any base.The catalytic activity of Au/Pd bimetal with different mole ratios was studied using benzyl alcohol as the substrate.It was found that bimetallic Au/Pd nanoparticles with Au:Pd=1:3.5 had higher catalytic activity than monometallic Au,Pd and the bimetallic Au/Pd nanoparticles with other molar ratios.The effect of CO2 pressure on the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and 1-phenylethanol in PEG/CO2 was investigated.It was demonstrated that CO2 pressure could be used to tune the conversion and selectivity of the reactions effectively.α,β-Unsaturated alcohols were also studied and found to be more reactive than benzyl alcohol and 1-phenylethanol.Recycling experiments showed that the Au/Pd/PEG/CO2 catalytic system could be recycled at least four times without reducing the activity.In addition,the catalytic system is clean and the products can be separated easily.

  13. Ionic liquid mediated esterification of alcohol with acetic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beilei ZHOU; Yanxiong FANG; Hao GU; Saidan ZHANG; Baohua HUANG; Kun ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Highly efficient esterification of alcohols with acetic acid by using a Bransted acidic ionic liquid, i.e., 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidonium hydrogen sulfate ([Hnmp]HSo4), as catalyst has been realized. The turnover numbers (TON) were able to reach up to 11000 and turnover frequency (TOF) was 846. The catalytic system is suitable for the esterification of long chain aliphatic alcohols, benzyl alcohol and cyclohexanol with good yields of esters. The procedure of separating the product and catalyst is simple, and the catalyst could be reused. [Hnmp]HSO4 had much weaker corrosiveness than H2SO4. The corrosive rate of H2SO4 was 400 times more than that of [Hnmp]HSO4 to stainless steel.

  14. Oxidation of Alcohols Catalyzed by Ruthenium Complexes with Iodosylbenzene as Oxidant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi Qiang LEI; Qiao Xiang KANG; Xiang Zhen BAI; Zhi Wang YANG; Qing Hua ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Five ruthenium complexes such as Phen-Ru-Phen, Phen-Ru-Bipy, Phen-Ru-Quin,Quin-Ru-Quin and Bipy-Ru-Quin (where Phen=1, 10-phenanthroline, Quin=8-hydroxyquinoline,Bipy=2, 2′-bipyridine) were synthesized and used as catalysts for the oxidation of benzylic and primary aliphatic alcohols with iodosylbenzene as oxidant. The oxidations were carried out at room temperature, affording the corresponding aldehydes and ketones with high selectivity.

  15. Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols over Gold Catalysts: Role of Acid and Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Søren Kegnæs; DeLa Riva, Andrew T.; Helveg, Stig; Werchmeister, Rebecka Maria Larsen; Christensen, Claus H.

    Gold nanoparticles are deposited on potassium titanate nanowires and used as heterogeneous catalysts in the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol in methanol to methyl benzoate at ambient conditions. The presence of a catalytic amount of base promotes the reaction and the formation of free benzoic...... acid during the reaction poisons the catalyst. The activity however, of the catalyst can be restored again by addition of base....

  16. Alcoholism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  17. Alcohol withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parts A severe form of alcohol withdrawal called delirium tremens can cause: Agitation Fever Seeing or feeling things ... watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may include: Monitoring of blood pressure, body ...

  18. Crystal structures of pinoresinol-lariciresinol and phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases and their relationship to isoflavone reductases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Tongpil; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Bedgar, Diana L.; Youn, Buhyun; Lawrence, Paulraj K.; Gang, David R.; Halls, Steven C.; Park, HaJeung; Hilsenbeck, Jacqueline L.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.; Kang, ChulHee

    2003-01-01

    Despite the importance of plant lignans and isoflavonoids in human health protection (e.g. for both treatment and prevention of onset of various cancers) as well as in plant biology (e.g. in defense functions and in heartwood development), systematic studies on the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis have only recently begun. In this investigation, three NADPH-dependent aromatic alcohol reductases were comprehensively studied, namely pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR), phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and isoflavone reductase (IFR), which are involved in central steps to the various important bioactive lignans and isoflavonoids. Of particular interest was in determining how differing regio- and enantiospecificities are achieved with the different enzymes, despite each apparently going through similar enone intermediates. Initially, the three-dimensional x-ray crystal structures of both PLR_Tp1 and PCBER_Pt1 were solved and refined to 2.5 and 2.2 A resolutions, respectively. Not only do they share high gene sequence similarity, but their structures are similar, having a continuous alpha/beta NADPH-binding domain and a smaller substrate-binding domain. IFR (whose crystal structure is not yet obtained) was also compared (modeled) with PLR and PCBER and was deduced to have the same overall basic structure. The basis for the distinct enantio-specific and regio-specific reactions of PCBER, PLR, and IFR, as well as the reaction mechanism and participating residues involved (as identified by site-directed mutagenesis), are discussed.

  19. Synthesis, Anticancer and Antibacterial Activity of Salinomycin N-Benzyl Amides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Antoszczak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of 12 novel monosubstituted N-benzyl amides of salinomycin (SAL was synthesized for the first time and characterized by NMR and FT-IR spectroscopic methods. Molecular structures of three salinomycin derivatives in the solid state were determined using single crystal X-ray method. All compounds obtained were screened for their antiproliferative activity against various human cancer cell lines as well as against the most problematic bacteria strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Novel salinomycin derivatives exhibited potent anticancer activity against drug-resistant cell lines. Additionally, two N-benzyl amides of salinomycin revealed interesting antibacterial activity. The most active were N-benzyl amides of SAL substituted at -ortho position and the least anticancer active derivatives were those substituted at the -para position.

  20. Heteropolymolybdate as a New Reaction-controlled Phase-transfer Catalyst for Efficient Alcohol Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Huan WENG; Jin Yan WANG; Xi Gao JIAN

    2006-01-01

    A new catalytic process for the synthesis of aldehyde from alcohol by oxidation with H2O2 with high selectivity was studied. In this system, heteropolymolybdate [C7H7N(CH3)3]3{PO4[MoO(O2)2]4} was utilized as the reaction-controlled phase-transfer catalyst to catalyze oxidation of benzyl and aliphatic alcohols. The molar ratio of H2O2 and alcohol was 0.75, no other by-products were detected by gas chromatography, the results of oxidation reaction indicated that the catalyst has high activity and stability.

  1. “On water” sp3–sp2 cross-couplings between benzylic and alkenyl halides†

    OpenAIRE

    Krasovskaya, Valeria; Krasovskiy, Arkady; Bhattacharjya, Anish; Lipshutz, Bruce H.

    2011-01-01

    Organic-solvent-free cross-couplings between benzylic and alkenyl halides have been developed. Various alkenyl halides can be effciently benzylated by combining the precursor halides in the presence of Zn dust and a Pd catalyst at room temperature, in water as the only medium.

  2. Intra- and Intermolecular Nickel-Catalyzed Reductive Cross-Electrophile Coupling Reactions of Benzylic Esters with Aryl Halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konev, Mikhail O; Hanna, Luke E; Jarvo, Elizabeth R

    2016-06-01

    Nickel-catalyzed cross-electrophile coupling reactions of benzylic esters and aryl halides have been developed. Both inter- and intramolecular variants proceed under mild reaction conditions. A range of heterocycles and functional groups are tolerated under the reaction conditions. Additionally, the first example of a stereospecific cross-electrophile coupling of a secondary benzylic ester is described. PMID:27099968

  3. 1,3 Dipolar Cycloaddition Reactions of Substituted Benzyl Azides eith Tans-Dibenzoylethlene : Thermally Stable Trizoles Versus Unstable Triazolines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzyl and Several Substituted benzyl azides Ιa-q reacted with trans -dibenzoylethylene 2 to give the thermaly unstable trizolinrs 3 which lose nitrogen molecule to yield either enamines 4 or enolimines 5. (Author's) 13 refs., 2 tabs., 4 strus., 1 sche., 2 figs

  4. Base metal-catalyzed benzylic oxidation of (aryl)(heteroaryl)methanes with molecular oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterckx, Hans; De Houwer, Johan; Mensch, Carl; Herrebout, Wouter; Tehrani, Kourosch Abbaspour

    2016-01-01

    Summary The methylene group of various substituted 2- and 4-benzylpyridines, benzyldiazines and benzyl(iso)quinolines was successfully oxidized to the corresponding benzylic ketones using a copper or iron catalyst and molecular oxygen as the stoichiometric oxidant. Application of the protocol in API synthesis is exemplified by the alternative synthesis of a precursor to the antimalarial drug Mefloquine. The oxidation method can also be used to prepare metabolites of APIs which is illustrated for the natural product papaverine. ICP–MS analysis of the purified reaction products revealed that the base metal impurity was well below the regulatory limit. PMID:26877817

  5. Selective aerobic alcohol oxidation method for conversion of lignin into simple aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Shannon S; Rahimi, Alireza

    2015-03-03

    Described is a method to oxidize lignin or lignin sub-units. The method includes oxidation of secondary benzylic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit to a corresponding ketone in the presence of unprotected primarily aliphatic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit. The optimal catalyst system consists of HNO.sub.3 in combination with another Bronsted acid, in the absence of a metal-containing catalyst, thereby yielding a selectively oxidized lignin or lignin sub-unit. The method may be carried out in the presence or absence of additional reagents including TEMPO and TEMPO derivatives.

  6. Alcohol and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  7. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol dependence; Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction ... No one knows what causes problems with alcohol. Health experts think that ... Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ...

  8. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  9. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in a baby born to a mother whose pregnancy was complicated by alcohol consumption. A broader term ...

  10. A biomimetic pathway for vanadium-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of alcohols: evidence for a base-assisted dehydrogenation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigington, Bethany N; Drummond, Michael L; Cundari, Thomas R; Thorn, David L; Hanson, Susan K; Scott, Susannah L

    2012-11-19

    The first step in the catalytic oxidation of alcohols by molecular O(2), mediated by homogeneous vanadium(V) complexes [LV(V)(O)(OR)], is ligand exchange. The unusual mechanism of the subsequent intramolecular oxidation of benzyl alcoholate ligands in the 8-hydroxyquinolinato (HQ) complexes [(HQ)(2)V(V)(O)(OCH(2)C(6)H(4)-p-X)] involves intermolecular deprotonation. In the presence of triethylamine, complex 3 (X = H) reacts within an hour at room temperature to generate, quantitatively, [(HQ)(2)V(IV)(O)], benzaldehyde (0.5 equivalents), and benzyl alcohol (0.5 equivalents). The base plays a key role in the reaction: in its absence, less than 12% conversion was observed after 72 hours. The reaction is first order in both 3 and NEt(3), with activation parameters ΔH(≠)=(28±4) kJ mol(-1) and ΔS(≠)=(-169±4) J K(-1)  mol(-1). A large kinetic isotope effect, 10.2±0.6, was observed when the benzylic hydrogen atoms were replaced by deuterium atoms. The effect of the para substituent of the benzyl alcoholate ligand on the reaction rate was investigated using a Hammett plot, which was constructed using σ(p). From the slope of the Hammett plot, ρ=+(1.34±0.18), a significant buildup of negative charge on the benzylic carbon atom in the transition state is inferred. These experimental findings, in combination with computational studies, support an unusual bimolecular pathway for the intramolecular redox reaction, in which the rate-limiting step is deprotonation at the benzylic position. This mechanism, that is, base-assisted dehydrogenation (BAD), represents a biomimetic pathway for transition-metal-mediated alcohol oxidations, differing from the previously identified hydride-transfer and radical pathways. It suggests a new way to enhance the activity and selectivity of vanadium catalysts in a wide range of redox reactions, through control of the outer coordination sphere. PMID:23080554

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation from benzyl radicals: a reaction kinetics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sourab; Raj, Abhijeet

    2016-03-01

    The role of resonantly stabilized radicals such as propargyl, cyclopentadienyl and benzyl in the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and naphthalene in the high temperature environments has been long known. In this work, the possibility of benzyl recombination to form three-ring aromatics, phenanthrene and anthracene, is explored. A reaction mechanism for it is developed, where reaction energetics are calculated using density functional theory (B3LYP functional with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set) and CBS-QB3, while temperature-dependent reaction kinetics are evaluated using transition state theory. The mechanism begins with barrierless formation of bibenzyl from two benzyl radicals with the release of 283.2 kJ mol(-1) of reaction energy. The further reactions involve H-abstraction by a H atom, H-desorption, H-migration, and ring closure to gain aromaticity. Through mechanism and rate of production analyses, the important reactions leading to phenanthrene and anthracene formation are determined. Phenanthrene is found to be the major product at high temperatures. Premixed laminar flame simulations are carried out by including the proposed reactions for phenanthrene formation from benzyl radicals and compared to experimentally observed species profiles to understand their effects on species concentrations. PMID:26923612

  12. Allylic and benzylic sp3 C-H oxidation in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Wei Jie; Lam, Yulin

    2015-01-28

    A copper-catalyzed method for the oxidation of allylic and benzylic sp(3) C-H by aqueous tert-butyl hydroperoxide (T-Hydro) in water using a recyclable fluorous ligand has been developed. The reaction procedure is tolerant to additional functional groups and the fluorous ligand could be reused with little loss of catalytic activity. PMID:25412371

  13. A Case of Abnormal Bishler-Napieralski Cyclization Reaction, Leading to Form Benzyl Oxazole Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A benzyl oxazole compound 3 was obtained with an excellent yield of 90% when N-acetyl-(2?methoxy-4?5?methylenedioxy)-phenylalanine methyl ester 1 was refluxed in POCl3 /benzene. However, the anticipated product 3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester 2 could not be found. The mechanism was discussed in this article.

  14. "Decarbonization" of an imino N-heterocyclic carbene via triple benzyl migration from hafnium

    Science.gov (United States)

    An imino N-heterocyclic carbene underwent three sequential benzyl migrations upon reaction with tetrabenzylhafnium, resulting in complete removal of the carbene carbon from the ligand. The resulting eneamido-amidinato hafnium complex showed alkene polymerization activity comparable to that of a prec...

  15. Design, synthesis and biological activity of novel peptidyl benzyl ketone FVIIa inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Morten; Henriksen, Signe Teuber; Zaragoza, Florencio;

    2011-01-01

    Herein is described the synthesis of a novel class of peptidyl FVIIa inhibitors having a C-terminal benzyl ketone group. This class is designed to be potentially suitable as stabilization agents of liquid formulations of rFVIIa, which is a serine protease used for the treatment of hemophilia A an...

  16. 1 H and 13 C NMR studies on the enoling of 5-benzyl barbituric acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work shows that the derivatives of the 5-benzyl barbituric acids hydroxylated at the ortho position of the aromatic ring only exist in the enol form. and that the alkylation of this hydroxyl gives products which exist mainly in the ketone form of the DMSO

  17. Homocoupling of benzyl halides catalyzed by POCOP-nickel pincer complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tao

    2012-08-01

    Two types of POCOP-nickel(II) pincer complexes were prepared by mixing POCOP pincer ligands and NiX 2 in toluene at reflux. The resulting nickel complexes efficiently catalyze the homocoupling reactions of benzyl halides in the presence of zinc. The coupled products were obtained in excellent to quantitative yields. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Non-heme iron catalysts for the benzylic oxidation : a parallel ligand screening approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopstra, M; Hage, R; Kellogg, R.M.; Feringa, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    Ethylbenzene and 4-ethylanisole were used as model substrates for benzylic oxidation with H2O2 or O-2 using a range of non-heme iron catalysts following a parallel ligand screening approach. Effective oxidation was found for Fe complexes based on tetra- and pentadentate nitrogen ligands affording th

  19. Investigation of comparative efficacy of eugenol and benzyl benzoate in therapy of sheep mange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jezdimirović Milanka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The acaricide efficacy, tolerance and safety of eugenol (10 and 20 % in the treatment of sarcoptic mange in sheep have been investigated. The results were compared with those corresponding for benzyl benzoate (25 %, which was applied to sheep in the same way. The treatment was applied on sheep three times in one-week intervals. Skin scrapings were sampled seven days after each treatment, as well as twenty-eight days following the third one. The changes on the skin were quantified and the mean recovery response (MRR was calculated. The clinical efficacy was assessed according to the MRR and the number of mites in the samples. Following the first treatment 10%eugenol was not significantly less efficacious in comparison with the higher concentration. Having been applied twice 20% eugenol was significantly more efficacious when compared to the lower concentration, which remained the same seven and twenty-eight days after the third application. The efficacy of 10% eugenol in the therapy of mange was significantly higher in comparison with benzyl benzoate following one, two or three administrations. The efficacy of benzyl benzoate four weeks after the third treatment was still significantly lower in comparison with 10% eugenol. The efficacy of 20% eugenol was significantly higher in comparison with its lower concentration as well as that of benzyl benzoate, following the second, and seven and twenty-eight days after the third one. No signs of local or systemic intolerance were observed in sheep treated with either 10 or 20% eugenol, or 25 % benzyl benzoate. .

  20. Cationic palladium(ii)-catalyzed dehydrative nucleophilic substitutions of benzhydryl alcohols with electron-deficient benzenethiols in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikawa, Hidemasa; Machino, Yumo; Toyomoto, Mariko; Kikkawa, Shoko; Azumaya, Isao

    2016-08-01

    An efficient direct nucleophilic substitution of benzhydryl alcohols with electron-deficient benzenethiols using cationic Pd(ii) catalysts as Lewis acids in water is reported. Atom economical and environmentally benign protocols afford S-benzylated products in moderate to excellent yields. Commercially available Pd(MeCN)4(OTf)2, PdCl2(MeCN)2, and Na2PdCl4 are highly efficient catalysts. Notably, this simple protocol can be achieved without any other additives such as acids, bases, or external ligands. A Hammett study on the rate constants of S-benzylation by using various substituted benzhydryl alcohols yielded negative ρ values, suggesting that there is a build-up of positive charge in the transition state. PMID:27363665

  1. Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Advertising Bans

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship between alcohol advertising bans and alcohol consumption. Most prior studies have found no effect of advertising on total alcohol consumption. A simple economic model is provided which explains these prior results. The data set used in this study is a pooled time series of data from 20 countries over 26 years. The empirical model is a simultaneous equations system which treats both alcohol consumption and alcohol advertising...

  2. Highly active and reusable catalyst from Fe-Mg-hydrotalcite anionic clay for Friedel-Crafts type benzylation reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vasant R Choudhary; Rani Jha; Pankaj A Choudhari

    2005-11-01

    Fe-Mg-hydrotalcite (Mg/Fe = 3) anionic clay with or without calcination (at 200-800°C) has been used for the benzylation of toluene and other aromatic compounds by benzyl chloride. Hydrotalcite before and after its calcination was characterized for surface area, crystalline phases and basicity. Both the hydrotalcite, particularly after its use in the benzylation reaction, and the catalyst derived from it by its calcination at 200-800°C show high catalytic activity for the benzylation of toluene and other aromatic compounds. The catalytically active species present in the catalyst in its most active form are the chlorides and oxides of iron on the catalyst surface.

  3. Crystal structures of HIV-1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: N-benzyl-4-methyl-benzimidazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Natasza E.; Michejda, Christopher J.; Bujacz, Grzegorz D.

    2009-07-01

    HIV-1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are potentially specific and effective drugs in AIDS therapy. The presence of two aromatic systems with an angled orientation in the molecule of the inhibitor is crucial for interactions with HIV-1 RT. The inhibitor drives like a wedge into the cluster of aromatic residues of RT HIV-1 and restrains the enzyme in a conformation that blocks the chemical step of nucleotide incorporation. Structural studies provide useful information for designing new, more active inhibitors. The crystal structures of four NNRTIs are presented here. The investigated compounds are derivatives of N-benzyl-4-methyl-benzimidazole with various aliphatic and aromatic substituents at carbon 2 positions and a 2,6-dihalogeno-substituted N-benzyl moiety. Structural data reported here show that the conformation of the investigated compounds is relatively rigid. Such feature is important for the nonnucleoside inhibitor binding to HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

  4. Flotation of kaolinite and diaspore with hexadecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yue-hua; OUYANG Kui; CAO Xue-feng; ZHANG Li-min

    2008-01-01

    Tertiary amine was synthesized from fatty amine and formaldehyde. And then the synthesized tertiary amine was used toreact with benzyl chloride to synthesize hexadecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (1627) at ambient pressure. Using thesynthesized 1627 as collector, the flotation properties of diaspore and kaolinite were investigated by single mineral and mixedmineral test. The flotation mechanism of diaspore, kaolinite and 1627 was discussed based on FTIR spectra. The results show that themass ratio of aluminum to silicate achieves 15.02 and the recovery of alumina in concentrate is 43.07% using 1627 as a collector. The 1627 is found to be a more effective and a promising collector for reverse flotation to remove aluminum-silicate minerals frombauxite.

  5. Influence of gamma irradiation and benzyl adenine on keeping quality of custard apple fruits during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The custard apple (Annona squamosa) fruits were procured from local market, irradiated with radiation doses 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75 kGy and then treated with benzyl adenine (50 and 100 part per million) and stored at ambient temperature (25±5 °C, Relative Humidity 90±2%) for 12 days. The treated fruits were evaluated for sensory (viz; flavour, texture, internal and external colour) and chemical constituents (viz; Total Soluble Solids, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, free soluble sugar, reducing sugar, non reducing sugar, carbohydrate) during storage. The study concluded that radiation dose of 1.5 kilo Gray along with 50 ppm benzyl adenine enhanced in shelf-life of custard apple fruits by 6 days at ambient temperature with good pulp texture, flavour, colour and nutritional quality as compared to control. (author)

  6. Spectroscopic identification of benzyl-type radicals generated by corona discharge of 2-chloro-4-fluorotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Chang Soon; Yoon, Young Wook; Lee, Sang Kuk

    2012-05-01

    By means of a technique of corona excited supersonic expansion coupled with a pinhole-type glass nozzle, we generated vibronically excited but jet-cooled benzyl-type radicals from precursor 2-chloro-4-fluorotoluene seeded in a large amount of inert carrier gas He. From an analysis of the visible vibronic emission spectrum, we found evidence of the formation of the 2-chloro-4-fluorobenzyl and 4-fluorobenzyl radicals. A possible pathway for the formation of these benzyl-type radicals is herein proposed. Also, the electronic energy in the D(1) → D(0) transition and the vibrational mode frequencies of the 2-chloro-4-fluorobenzyl radical in the ground electronic state were accurately determined, for the first time, by comparison with ab initio calculations and the known vibrational data of the precursor. PMID:22583229

  7. 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reactions of Substituted Benzyl Azides with Acetylenic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan T. Abu-Orabi

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available We review in this article some of our work which has been published over the last fifteen years in the area of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of substituted benzyl azides with acetylenic compounds to form the corresponding 1,2-3-triazoles. Several triazole derivatives were transformed into triazolopyridazine and triazolo-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives upon their reactions with hydrazine.

  8. Inhibition of Human Breast Cancer Xenograft Growth by Cruciferous Vegetable Constituent Benzyl Isothiocyanate

    OpenAIRE

    Warin, Renaud; Xiao, Dong; Arlotti, Julie A.; Bommareddy, Ajay; Singh, Shivendra V

    2010-01-01

    Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), a constituent of cruciferous vegetables such as gardencress, inhibits growth of human breast cancer cell lines in culture. The present study was undertaken to determine in vivo efficacy of BITC against MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts. The BITC administration retarded growth of MDA-MB-231 cells subcutaneously implanted in female nude mice without causing weight loss or any other side effects. The BITC-mediated suppression of MDA-MB-231 xenograft growth c...

  9. Ultrasonic Investigations of Molecular Interaction in Binary Mixtures of Benzyl Benzoate with Acetonitrile and Benzonitrile

    OpenAIRE

    N. Jaya Madhuri; Naidu, P S; Glory, J.; K. Ravindra Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity have been measured in the binary mixtures of benzyl benzoate with acetonitrile, benzonitrile at three temperatures 30, 40 and 50 °C. From the experimental data, thermodynamic parameters like adiabatic compressibility, internal pressure, enthalpy, activation energy etc., were computed and the molecular interactions were predicted based on the variation of excess parameters in the mixture. Also theoretical evaluation of velocities was made employing th...

  10. Linear free energy relationship in reactions between diphenyl amine and benzyl bromides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ranga Reddy; P Manikyamba

    2006-05-01

    Rate of reaction between benzyl bromide and diphenyl amine is retarded by electron-donating groups and enhanced by electron-withdrawing groups present on the benzene ring of the substrate. Hammett's reaction constant of the reaction decreases with increase in temperature according to the equation, \\rho = -11.92 + 3.54/ T. Minimal structural effects observed are attributed to the fact that the isokinetic temperature of the reaction is close to the reaction temperature.

  11. Use of cyclodextrins as a cosmetic delivery system for fragrance materials: Linalool and benzyl acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Numanoğlu, Ulya; Şen, Tangül; Tarimci, Nilüfer; Murat KARTAL; Koo, Otilia M. Y.; Önyüksel, Hayat

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the stability and water solubility of fragrance materials, to provide controlled release of these compounds, and to convert these substances from liquid to powder form by preparing their inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins (CDs). For this purpose, linalool and benzyl acetate were chosen as the fragrance materials. The use of β-cyclodextrin (βCD) and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2-HPβCD) for increasing the solubility of these 2 fragrance materials wa...

  12. Carbamate-directed benzylic lithiation for the diastereo- and enantioselective synthesis of diaryl ether atropisomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Page

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Diaryl ethers carrying carbamoyloxymethyl groups may be desymmetrised enantio- and diastereoselectively by the use of the sec-BuLi–(−-sparteine complex in diethyl ether. Enantioselective deprotonation of one of the two benzylic positions leads to atropisomeric products with ca. 80:20 e.r.; an electrophilic quench typically provides functionalised atropisomeric diastereoisomers in up to 97:3 d.r.

  13. Nickel-catalyzed asymmetric reductive cross-coupling between vinyl and benzyl electrophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Alan H; Reisman, Sarah E

    2014-10-15

    A Ni-catalyzed asymmetric reductive cross-coupling between vinyl bromides and benzyl chlorides has been developed. This method provides direct access to enantioenriched products bearing aryl-substituted tertiary allylic stereogenic centers from simple, stable starting materials. A broad substrate scope is achieved under mild reaction conditions that preclude the pregeneration of organometallic reagents and the regioselectivity issues commonly associated with asymmetric allylic arylation. PMID:25245492

  14. Nickel-Catalyzed Asymmetric Reductive Cross-Coupling Between Vinyl and Benzyl Electrophiles

    OpenAIRE

    Cherney, Alan H.; Reisman, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    A Ni-catalyzed asymmetric reductive cross-coupling between vinyl bromides and benzyl chlorides has been developed. This method provides direct access to enantioenriched products bearing aryl-substituted tertiary allylic stereogenic centers from simple, stable starting materials. A broad substrate scope is achieved under mild reaction conditions that preclude the pregeneration of organometallic reagents and the regioselectivity issues commonly associated with asymmetric allylic arylation.

  15. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this Section Genetics of Alcohol Use Disorder Alcohol Use Disorder Problem drinking that becomes severe is given the medical diagnosis of “alcohol use disorder” or AUD. Approximately 7.2 percent or ...

  16. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  17. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  18. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle tone and ... Heart defects such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) or atrial ...

  19. GC-MS Characterization of Acetylated β-D-glucopyranosides: Transglucosylation of Volatile Alcohols Using Almond β-glucosidase

    OpenAIRE

    Jerković, Igor; Mastelić, Josip

    2004-01-01

    β-D-Glucopyranosides of pentan-1-ol, (±)-pentan-2-ol, hexan-1-ol, octan-1-ol, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, (±)-2-phenyl-propan-1-ol, 3-phenyl-propan-1-ol, geraniol and nerol were synthesized by transglucosylation of the respective alcohols with cellobiose using almond β-glucosidase. The reaction was carried out in acetonitrile with acetate buffer (vol. ratio 9:1), with the yields 14.4–45.0 %. Transglucosylation was not enantioselective. The products were characteri...

  20. Genetics and alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed, but excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to many diseases. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence, alcohol use disorders) is a maladaptive pattern of excessive drinking leading to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcoholism is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting risk. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes of alcohol me...

  1. ALCOHOL AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the questions of the relationship between the amount of the consumed alcohol, the type of alcoholic beverage, pattern of alcohol consumption and the blood pressure level. The article presents data on the positive effect of alcohol intake restrictions and recommendations for permissible limits of alcohol consumption. New possibilities of drug therapy aimed at limiting alcohol consumption are being reported.

  2. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may...... be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking...... and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men...

  3. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begins January 23 Event registration opens today; new teacher resources... New & Noteworthy August 22, 2016 Fact Sheet: ... Events Sep 15 National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Nov 11 Frontiers in Addiction Research ...

  4. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  5. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  6. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  7. Initial evaluation of 227Th-p-benzyl-DOTA-rituximab for low-dose rate α-particle radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunotherapy has proven clinically effective in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Radioimmunotherapy trials have so far been performed with β-emitting isotopes. In contrast to β-emitters, the shorter range and high linear energy transfer (LET) of α particles allow for more efficient and selective killing of individually targeted tumor cells. However, there are several obstacles to the use of α-particle immunotherapy, including problems with chelation chemistry and nontarget tissue toxicity. The α-emitting radioimmunoconjugate 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab is a new potential anti-lymphoma agent that might overcome some of these difficulties. The present study explores the immunoreactivity, in vivo stability and biodistribution, as well as the effect on in vitro cell growth, of this novel radioimmunoconjugate. To evaluate in vivo stability, uptake in balb/c mice of the α-particle-emitting nuclide 227Th alone, the chelated form, 227Th-p-nitrobenzyl-DOTA and the radioimmunoconjugate 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab was compared in a range of organs at increasing time points after injection. The immunoreactive fraction of 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab was 56-65%. During the 28 days after injection of radioimmunoconjugate only, very modest amounts of the 227Th had detached from DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab, indicating a relevant stability in vivo. The half-life of 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab in blood was 7.4 days. Incubation of lymphoma cells with 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab resulted in a significant antigen-dependent inhibition of cell growth. The data presented here warrant further studies of 227Th-DOTA-p-benzyl-rituximab

  8. Selective oxidation of alcohols over nickel zirconium phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdol R. Hajipour; Hirbod Karimi; Afshin Koohi

    2015-01-01

    Nickel zirconium phosphate nanoparticles were found to function as efficient catalysts for the selec-tive oxidation of a wide range of alcohols to their corresponding ketones and aldehydes using H2O2 as an oxidizing agent and without any organic solvents, phase transfer catalysts, or additives. The steric and electronic properties of various substrates had significant influence on the reaction con-ditions required to achieve acetylation. The results showed that this method can be applied for the chemoselective oxidation of benzyl alcohols in the presence of aliphatic alcohols. The catalyst used in the current study was characterized by ICP-OES, XRD, NH3-TPD, Py-FTIR, N2 adsorp-tion-desorption, SEM and TEM. These analyses revealed that the interlayer distance in the catalyst increased from 0.75 to 0.98 nm when Ni2+ was intercalated between the layers, whereas the crystal-linity of the material was reduced. The nanocatalyst could also be recovered and reused at least seven times without any discernible decrease in its catalytic activity. This new method for the oxi-dation of alcohols has several key advantages, including mild and environmentally friendly reaction conditions, short reaction time, excellent yields and a facile work-up.

  9. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Transformations of Alcohols: Mechanistic Investigations and Methodology Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarov, Ilya; Madsen, Robert; Fristrup, Peter

    The mechanism of the ruthenium-catalyzed dehydrogenative synthesis of amides from alcohols and amines was studied in detail by employing the combination of experimental and theoretical techniques. The Hammett study revealed that a small positive charge is formed at the benzylic position in the......-substituted ruthenium complex afforded the amide in 38% yield. It indicated that in silico ligand screening might be used for catalyst optimization if it is combined with a more comprehensive experimental study. An improved protocol was developed for the ruthenium-catalyzed dehydrogenative self-coupling of primary...... unknown ruthenium-catalyzed dehydrogenative Guerbet reaction with secondary alcohols to give ketones was discovered. The reaction conditions were optimized and the scope and the limitations were studied. It was found that only acyclic 2-methyl carbinols and simple cyclic alcohols underwent this...

  10. The Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Kinetic Resolution of Secondary Alcohols: Reaction Development, Scope, and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ebner, Davidâ C.

    2009-12-07

    The first palladium-catalyzed enantioselective oxidation of secondary alcohols has been developed, utilizing the readily available diamine (-)-sparteine as a chiral ligand and molecular oxygen as the stoichiometric oxidant. Mechanistic insights regarding the role of the base and hydrogen-bond donors have resulted in several improvements to the original system. Namely, addition of cesium carbonate and tert-butyl alcohol greatly enhances reaction rates, promoting rapid resolutions. The use of chloroform as solvent allows the use of ambient air as the terminal oxidant at 23 degrees C, resulting in enhanced catalyst selectivity. These improved reaction conditions have permitted the successful kinetic resolution of benzylic, allylic, and cyclopropyl secondary alcohols to high enantiomeric excess with good-to-excellent selectivity factors. This catalyst system has also been applied to the desymmetrization of meso-diols, providing high yields of enantioenriched hydroxyketones.

  11. Influence of periodic nitrogen functionality on the selective oxidation of alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan-Thaw, Carine E. [Universita di Milano, Italy; Villa, Alberto [Universita di Milano, Italy; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Kaiasam, Kamalakannan [Berlin Institute of Technology (Technische Universitat Berlin); Adamczyk, Leslie A [ORNL; Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Prati, Laura [Universita di Milano, Italy; Thomas, Arne [Berlin Institute of Technology (Technische Universitat Berlin)

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, we attribute the enhancement in catalytic alcohol oxidation activity to the presence of nitrogen heteroatoms on the external surface of a support material surface. The same Pd particles (3.1 3.2 nm) were supported on polymeric carbon-nitrogen supports and used as catalysts to selectively oxidize benzyl alcohol. The polymeric carbon-nitrogen materials include covalent triazine frameworks (CTF) and carbon nitride (CN) materials with nitrogen content varying from 9 to 58 atomic percent N. Withcomparable metal exposure, via XPS, the activity of these catalysts correlates with the concentration of nitrogen species on the surface which enhanced the Lewis basicity of these moieties thus promoting alcoholate formation and subsequent hydride abstraction.

  12. 2-Acetamido-N-benzyl-1,4-imino-1,2,4-tride­oxy-l-xylitol (N-benzyl-l-XYLNAc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Sarah. F.; Crabtree, Elizabeth. V.; Glawar, Andreas. F. G.; Butters, Terry D.; Fleet, George. W. J.; Watkin, David. J.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray crystallography defines the relative configuration at the three-stereogenic centres in the title compound N-benzyl-l-XYLNAc, C14H20N2O3. The five-membered pyrrolidine ring adopts an envelope conformation with the N atom lying out of the plane of the other four atoms. In the crystal structure, inter­molecular O—H⋯O, N—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into chains along [100]. The carbonyl group O atom acts as an acceptor for a bifurcated hydrogen bond. The absolute configuration is determined by the use of l-glucuronolactone as the starting material for the synthesis. PMID:21579195

  13. 2-Acetamido-N-benzyl-1,4-imino-1,2,4-trideoxy-l-xylitol (N-benzyl-l-XYLNAc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah. F. Jenkinson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available X-ray crystallography defines the relative configuration at the three-stereogenic centres in the title compound N-benzyl-l-XYLNAc, C14H20N2O3. The five-membered pyrrolidine ring adopts an envelope conformation with the N atom lying out of the plane of the other four atoms. In the crystal structure, intermolecular O—H...O, N—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds link the molecules into chains along [100]. The carbonyl group O atom acts as an acceptor for a bifurcated hydrogen bond. The absolute configuration is determined by the use of l-glucuronolactone as the starting material for the synthesis.

  14. Turning to alcohol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is examining whether turning to alcohol could solve its problems. The fuel alcohol producers are lobbying hard for the government to increase the use of alcohol to fuel the country's cars. Not only does using alcohol reduce CO2, runs the argument, but the Kyoto agreement might just attract international financing for the project. (author)

  15. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  16. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  17. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  18. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of 1-(3-benzyl-4-oxo-3H-quinazolin-2-yl-4-(substitutedthiosemicarbazide derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagarsamy Veerachamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1-(3-benzyl-4-oxo-3H-quinazolin-2-yl-4-(substituted thiosemicarbazides (AS1-AS10 were obtained by the reaction of 2-hydrazino- 3-benzyl quinazolin-4(3H-one (6 with different dithiocarbamic acid methyl ester derivatives. The key intermediate 3-benzyl-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydro-1Hquinazolin-4-one (4 was obtained by reacting benzyl amine (1 with carbon disulphide and sodium hydroxide in dimethyl sulphoxide to give sodium dithiocarbamate, which was methylated with dimethyl sulfate to yield the dithiocarbamic acid methyl ester (2 and condensed with methyl anthranilate (3 in ethanol yielded the desired compound (4 via the thiourea intermediate. The SH group of compound (4 was methylated for the favorable nucleophilic displacement reaction with hydrazine hydrate, which afford 2-hydrazino-3- benzyl-3H-quinazolin-4-one (6. The IR, 1H, and 13C NMR spectrum of these compounds showed the presence of peaks due to thiosemicarbazides, carbonyl (C=O, NH and aryl groups. The quinazolin-4-one moiety molecular ion peaks (m/z 144 were observed all the mass spectrum of compounds (AS1-AS10. Elemental (C, H, N analysis satisfactorily confirmed purity of the synthesized compounds and elemental composition. All synthesized compounds were also screened for their antimicrobial activity against selective gram positive and gram negative by agar dilution method. In the present study compounds AS8 and AS9 were emerged as the most active compounds of the series.

  19. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findi...

  20. Alcohol and pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maria Paoletti; Ileana Atzeni; Marisa Orrù; Monica Pilloni; Alessandro Loddo; Martina Zirone; Maria Francesca Marotto; Pierina Zedda; Maria Francesca Fais; Emanuela Stochino Loi; Graziella Boi; Gian Benedetto Melis

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS)-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages ...

  1. Molecular characterization and expression of a novel alcohol oxidase from Aspergillus terreus MTCC6324.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitun Chakraborty

    Full Text Available The alcohol oxidase (AOx cDNA from Aspergillus terreus MTCC6324 with an open reading frame (ORF of 2001 bp was constructed from n-hexadecane induced cells and expressed in Escherichia coli with a yield of ∼4.2 mg protein g-1 wet cell. The deduced amino acid sequences of recombinant rAOx showed maximum structural homology with the chain B of aryl AOx from Pleurotus eryngii. A functionally active AOx was achieved by incubating the apo-AOx with flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD for ∼80 h at 16°C and pH 9.0. The isoelectric point and mass of the apo-AOx were found to be 6.5±0.1 and ∼74 kDa, respectively. Circular dichroism data of the rAOx confirmed its ordered structure. Docking studies with an ab-initio protein model demonstrated the presence of a conserved FAD binding domain with an active substrate binding site. The rAOx was specific for aryl alcohols and the order of its substrate preference was 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol >3-methoxybenzyl alcohol>3, 4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol > benzyl alcohol. A significantly high aggregation to ∼1000 nm (diameter and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km of 7829.5 min-1 mM-1 for 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol was also demonstrated for rAOx. The results infer the novelty of the AOx and its potential biocatalytic application.

  2. [99mTcN]-N-benzyl piperidine dithiocarbamate: A potential sigma receptor imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: High expression of sigma receptors in central nervous system suggest their possible role in drug design for diseases such as psychiatric and movement disorders, amnesia, depression and cancer. Herein we report an attempt to target sigma receptors localized in the brain using an analogue of piperidine, a molecule known to exhibit affinity for the brain. 4-amino-N-benzyl piperidine was derivatized to its dithiocarbamate (DTC), known to be a suitable chelating system for complexation with the [99mTcN]2+ precursor. The radiolabeled complex, [99mTcN]- 4-dithiocarbamato-N-benzyl piperidine, was obtained by addition of 50μg(2x10-4M) of the dithiocarbamate to the preformed 99mTcN precursor and characterized by HPLC. Since the sigma receptors are also over-expressed in a large variety of human tumours such as glioma, neuroblastoma, melanoma, breast cancer etc., the radiolabeled piperidine analogue was tested for its affinity towards cancer cells. In vitro studies in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and fibrosarcoma cells were carried out by incubating ∼105 cells with ∼20 ng of [99mTcN]-4-dithiocarbamato-N-benzyl piperidine. Specificity of [99mTcN]-4-dithiocarbamato- N-benzyl piperidine was ascertained by inhibition studies with 15 μg pentazocine, a sigma-receptor specific ligand. Pharmacokinetics of the product was studied in normal Swiss mice. 99mTcN complex of piperidine could be radiolabeled in >98% yield. HPLC pattern revealed single species with retention time of 15 min. In vitro binding with MCF-7 was ∼1% and there was ∼75% inhibition after pre-incubation of cells with pentazocine whereas with fibrosarcoma the values were 2% and 55%, respectively. In biodistribution studies in normal mice, brain uptake of ∼0.6 ID/gm at 5min.p.i. was observed which reduced to 0.3%ID/g at 2h.p.i. Significant uptake in other vital tissues such as heart, lungs, liver and kidneys expressing sigma receptors was also observed. Administration of Pentazocine one hour

  3. Investigation of comparative efficacy of eugenol and benzyl benzoate in therapy of sheep mange

    OpenAIRE

    Jezdimirović Milanka; Aleksić Nevenka; Radojičić Biljana

    2010-01-01

    The acaricide efficacy, tolerance and safety of eugenol (10 and 20 %) in the treatment of sarcoptic mange in sheep have been investigated. The results were compared with those corresponding for benzyl benzoate (25 %), which was applied to sheep in the same way. The treatment was applied on sheep three times in one-week intervals. Skin scrapings were sampled seven days after each treatment, as well as twenty-eight days following the third one. The changes on the skin were quantified and the me...

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of colchicine B-ring analogues tethered with halogenated benzyl moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Laura; Redondo-Horcajo, Mariano; Zhao, Ying; Santos, Ana Rita; Chowdury, Kaniz F; Vinader, Victoria; Abdallah, Qasem M A; Abdel-Rahman, Hamdy; Fournier-Dit-Chabert, Jérémie; Shnyder, Steven D; Loadman, Paul M; Fang, Wei-shuo; Díaz, José Fernando; Barasoain, Isabel; Burns, Philip A; Pors, Klaus

    2012-12-27

    Deacetylcolchicine was reacted with substituted benzyl halides to provide a library of compounds for biological analysis. Compound 7 (3,4-difluorobenzyl-N-aminocolchicine) was shown to possess cytotoxicity in cancer cell lines in the low nanomolar range. Significantly, it showed no loss of activity in the resistant A2780AD ovarian carcinoma cell line known to overexpress the ABCB1 drug transporter and was also unaffected by overexpression of class III β-tubulin in HeLa transfected cells. PMID:23176628

  5. A Sustainable and Efficient Synthesis of Benzyl Phosphonates Using PEG/KI Catalytic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disale, Shamrao; Kale, Sandip; Abraham, George; Kahandal, Sandeep; Sawarkar, Ashish N; Gawande, Manoj B

    2016-01-01

    An efficient and expedient protocol for the synthesis of benzyl phosphonates using KI/K2CO3 as a catalytic system and PEG-400 as benign solvent has been developed. The reaction proceeds smoothly at room temperature achieving excellent selectivity and yield of the corresponding products. The combination of PEG-400, KI, and K2CO3 in this reaction avoids the need of volatile/toxic organic solvents and reactive alkali metals or metal nanoparticles/hydrides. We believe that this benign combination (PEG-400 and KI) could be used for other related organic transformations. PMID:27579301

  6. (E)-N′-(2-Benzyl­oxybenzyl­idene)isonicotinohydrazide methanol solvate monohydrate

    OpenAIRE

    H. S. Naveenkumar; Sadikun, Amirin; Ibrahim, Pazilah; Hemamalini, Madhukar; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C20H17N3O2·CH4O·H2O, was synthesized by the condensation reaction of 2-benzyl­oxybenzaldehyde with isoniazid (isonicotinic acid hydrazide). The tricyclic compound displays a trans configuration with respect to the C=N double bond. The central benzene ring makes dihedral angles of 8.83 (7) and 70.39 (8)° with the pyridine ring and the terminal benzene ring, respectively. The dihedral angle between the pyridine ring and the terminal benzene ring is 73.11 (8)°. In the crystal...

  7. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  8. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF GOAT FAT AND SHEA BUTTER BASED LIPOSPHERES OF BENZYL PENICILLIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Nwakile et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipospheres of benzyl penicillin were formulated using the conventional thin film hydration technique. Five different combinations of shea butter, surfactant (Span 80 and goat fat were the key variables employed in the formulations. The resultant lipospheres were evaluated with respect to surface morphology, particle size distribution, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, in vivo bioavailability and in vitro antimicrobial activity. Particle size was found to increase with increased drug loading, the average particle radius of the batches being 12.5 nm. The encapsulation efficiency was found to be high at all levels with encouraging values of 80.21 and 83.44 % for batch A and E respectively, with batch A containing shea butter and span 80 in the ratio of 1:1 and batch E containing shea butter, span 80 and goat fat in the ratio of 1:2:1. Batch A appear to exhibit sustained release in vitro with cumulative drug release being 60 % while batch E has a cumulative drug release of 98 % respectively. The presence of goat fat however seems to impact negatively on the in vivo stability of batch E liposphere. The test micro-organisms showed sensitivity to the two batches in marked contrast to the uncapsulated benzyl penicillin especially against the multiple-antibiotic resistant strains of S. typhi, P. vulgaris and P. aereuginosa used in the study.

  9. Fetal alcohol effects in alcoholic veteran patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishler, P V; Henschel, C E; Ngo, T A; Walters, E E; Worobec, T G

    1998-11-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is often associated with severe physical and neuropsychiatric maldevelopment. On the other hand, some offspring of women who drank during pregnancy appear to be affected in minimal ways and function relatively well within society. We questioned whether this effect of prenatal alcohol in the adult is generally minimal. To bear on this, we determined whether we could distinguish alcohol-exposed from nonexposed individuals in a population of male veterans, selected because of both their accepted level of function within society (e.g., honorable discharge from the military) and their admission to an alcohol treatment unit (thus, a greater likelihood of parental alcoholism, because of its familial aggregation). Consecutively admitted alcoholics (cases; n = 77) with likely maternal alcohol ingestion during their pregnancy or the first 10 years of life were matched with alcoholics with no maternal alcohol exposure during these periods (controls; n = 161). Each subject completed questionnaires regarding personal birthweight, alcohol, drug, educational and work histories, and family (including parental) alcohol and drug histories. We measured height, weight, and head circumference; checked for facial and hand anomalies; and took a frontal facial photograph, from which measurements of features were made. Data were analyzed by univariate statistics and stepwise logistic regression. No case had bona fide fetal alcohol syndrome. With univariate statistical analyses, the cases differed from the controls in 10 variables, including duration of drinking, width of alae nasae, being hyperactive or having a short attention span, and being small at birth. By stepwise logistic regression, the variables marital status, small size at birth, duration of drinking, and the presence of a smooth philtrum were marginally (the first two) or definitely (the last two) significant predictors of case status. Analysis of only the 37 cases in whom maternal prenatal drinking was

  10. Antichagasic and trichomonacidal activity of 1-substituted 2-benzyl-5-nitroindazolin-3-ones and 3-alkoxy-2-benzyl-5-nitro-2H-indazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Berzal, Cristina; Ibáñez-Escribano, Alexandra; Reviriego, Felipe; Cumella, José; Morales, Paula; Jagerovic, Nadine; Nogal-Ruiz, Juan José; Escario, José Antonio; da Silva, Patricia Bernardino; Soeiro, Maria de Nazaré C; Gómez-Barrio, Alicia; Arán, Vicente J

    2016-06-10

    Two series of new 5-nitroindazole derivatives, 1-substituted 2-benzylindazolin-3-ones (6-29, series A) and 3-alkoxy-2-benzyl-2H-indazoles (30-37, series B), containing differently functionalized chains at position 1 and 3, respectively, have been synthesized starting from 2-benzyl-5-nitroindazolin-3-one 5, and evaluated against the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichomonas vaginalis, etiological agents of Chagas disease and trichomonosis, respectively. Many indazolinones of series A were efficient against different morphological forms of T. cruzi CL Brener strain (compounds 6, 7, 9, 10 and 19-21: IC50 = 1.58-4.19 μM for epimastigotes; compounds 6, 19-21 and 24: IC50 = 0.22-0.54 μM for amastigotes) being as potent as the reference drug benznidazole. SAR analysis suggests that electron-donating groups at position 1 of indazolinone ring are associated with an improved antichagasic activity. Moreover, compounds of series A displayed low unspecific toxicities against an in vitro model of mammalian cells (fibroblasts), which were reflected in high values of the selectivity indexes (SI). Compound 20 was also very efficient against amastigotes from Tulahuen and Y strains of T. cruzi (IC50 = 0.81 and 0.60 μM, respectively), showing low toxicity towards cardiac cells (LC50 > 100 μM). In what concerns compounds of series B, some of them displayed moderate activity against trophozoites of a metronidazole-sensitive isolate of T. vaginalis (35 and 36: IC50 = 9.82 and 7.25 μM, respectively), with low unspecific toxicity towards Vero cells. Compound 36 was also active against a metronidazole-resistant isolate (IC50 = 9.11 μM) and can thus be considered a good prototype for the development of drugs directed to T. vaginalis resistant to 5-nitroimidazoles. PMID:27017556

  11. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  12. Alcohol: A Women's Health Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... itself can cause serious long-term health consequences. Alcohol in Women’s Lives: Safe Drinking Over a Lifetime ... much, and how often to drink. What Are Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism? Alcohol abuse is a pattern ...

  13. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  14. Alcohol in moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study examines the market potential for low and very low alcohol wine products under two different tax regimes. The penetration and market share of low alcohol wine are estimated under both tax conditions. Consumers’ alcoholic beverage purchase portfolios are analysed and those...... products identified, which are jointly purchased with low alcohol wines. The effect of a tax increase on substitution patterns between alcoholic beverages is examined. Methodology: In a discrete choice experiment, based on their last purchase, consumers select one or several different alcoholic beverages...... volume is estimated under the current tax regime. Between six to eight percent of consumers are expected to adopt low alcohol wine alternatives as part of their alcoholic beverage portfolio. Consumers of cask wine and light beer are more likely and consumers of medium-full strength beer and spirits...

  15. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  16. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  17. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  18. Alcohol and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  19. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ... risk of giving birth to a child with fetal alcohol syndrome . The more you drink, the more you raise ...

  20. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  1. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have problems with alcohol if you: Are a young adult under peer pressure Have depression, bipolar disorder , anxiety disorders , or schizophrenia Can easily obtain alcohol Have low self-esteem Have problems with relationships Live a stressful lifestyle ...

  2. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your e-mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this ... saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Alcohol and pregnancy 3:07 Drinking alcohol while ...

  3. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  4. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a woman drinks while pregnant. Alcohol can disrupt fetal development at any stage during a pregnancy—including at ... Clinical Diagnoses IOM Diagnoses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ... pregnancy can disrupt normal development of the face and the brain. In fact, ...

  5. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you drink, you increase your blood alcohol concentration (BAC) level, which is the amount of alcohol present in your bloodstream. The higher your BAC, the more impaired you become by alcohol’s effects. ...

  6. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hodgkinson, C.A.; Yuan, Q.; et al. The influence of GABrA2, childhood trauma, and their interaction on alcohol, heroin, and ... Articles examine different sources of stress, such as childhood abuse and ... stress influences the development of alcohol abuse and dependence, and ...

  7. Surface Tension of Alcohols. Data Selection and Recommended Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero, A.; Cachadiña, I.; Sanjuán, E. L.

    2015-09-01

    In previous papers, we have proposed specific correlations to reproduce the surface tension values for several sets of fluids and for wide ranges of temperatures. In this paper, we focus our attention on alcohols and consider the available data for 152 fluids grouped into five families. We use the most recent versions of the DIPPR and DETHERM databases and also Wohlfarth and Wohlfarth's (1997) book as our main sources of data. In some cases we have also considered new data. All the data have been carefully filtered in order to discard those that are in clear disagreement with most of the available data for the same fluid. In some cases, two or more different data sets versus temperature trends were observed, and where possible we considered only one of these trends. To fit the finally selected data, we used the model currently implemented in National Institute of Standards and Technology's refprop program, calculating two, four, or six adjustable coefficients for each fluid. As a result, we proposed recommended correlations for 147 alcohols, providing mean average percentage deviations below 1.7% for each fluid, with only two exceptions: 1,2-butanediol (2.77%) and benzyl alcohol (3.20%).

  8. Alcohol and Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yinglan; Song Jingyu; Jin Junshuo; Zhong Xiuhong; Ren Xiangshan; Liu Shuangping

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To study the relationship between alcohol and atherosclerosis (AS).Methods The paper reviewed the mechanism of the alcohol leading to AS from four aspects such as the introduction of alcohol and AS, imbalance of oxidationantioxidation system, oxygen free radical (OFR) and endothelium cell (EC) apoptosis, apoptosis and AS.Results Excessive alcohol could lead to imbalance of oxidation-antioxidation system, and increase OFR, in the meanwhile, OFR could lead to EC apoptosis,which could lead to AS.

  9. Alcohol Saliva Strip Test

    OpenAIRE

    Thokala, Madhusudhana Rao; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keertrthi; Velidandla, Surekha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a factor in many categories of injury. Alcohol intoxication is frequently associated with injuries from falls, fires, drowning, overdoses, physical and sexual abusements, occupational accidents, traffic accidents and domestic violence. In many instances, for forensic purpose, it may be necessary to establish whether the patients have consumed alcohol that would have been the reason for the injury/accidents. Combining rapidity and reliability, alcohol saliva strip test (AST) has bee...

  10. Alcohol and liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia Osna

    2009-01-01

    @@ Liver is a primary site of ethanol metabolism, which makes this organ susceptible to alcohol-induced damage.Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has many manifestations and complicated pathogenesis. In this Topic Highlight, we included the key reviews that characterize new findings about the mechanisms of ALD development and might be of strong interest for clinicians and researchers involved in liver alcohol studies.

  11. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  12. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Alcohol and pregnancy 3:07 Drinking alcohol while you are pregnant ... birth defects. Learn about the dangers of drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Stanford Prematurity Research Center Launch 3:25 Newborn ...

  13. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance of D(-)-{alpha}-amino-benzyl penicillin; Ressonancia magnetica nuclear da D(-)-{alpha}-amino-benzil penicilina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Monica R.M.P.; Gemal, Andre L.; San Gil, Rosane A.S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Menezes, Sonia M.C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    1995-12-31

    The development of new drugs from penicillins has induced the study of this substances by nuclear magnetic resonance. Several samples of D(-)-{alpha}-amino-benzyl penicillin were analysed using {sup 13} C NMR techniques in aqueous solution and solid state. Spectral data of this compounds were shown and the results were presented and analysed 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Aerobic oxidation of benzylic aldehydes to acids catalyzed by iron (Ⅲ) meso-tetraphenylporphyrin chloride under ambient conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Highly efficient aerobic oxidation of benzylic aldehydes to the corresponding acids catalyzed by iron (Ⅲ) meso-tetraphenylporphyrin chloride (Fe(TPP)Cl) under ambient conditions was developed. The catalyst has been proved to be an excellent catalyst for the system in the presence of molecular oxygen and isobutryaldehyde at room temperature.

  16. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of N-benzyl phenethylamines as 5-HT2A/2C agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Phonekeo, Karina; Paine, James S; Leth-Petersen, Sebastian; Begtrup, Mikael; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard

    2014-01-01

    N-benzyl substitution of 5-HT2A receptor agonists of the phenethylamine structural class of psychedelics (such as 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine, often referred to as 2C-B) confer a significant increase in binding affinity as well as functional activity of the receptor. We have prepared a...

  17. Synthesis of some novel fluoro isoxazolidine and isoxazoline derivatives using -benzyl fluoro nitrone via cycloaddition reaction in ionic liquid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhaskar Chakraborty; Govinda Prasad Luitel

    2013-09-01

    1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids are found to accelerate significantly the intermolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of -benzyl-fluoro nitrone derived in situ from 2,6-difluoro benzaldehyde and -benzylhydroxylamine, with activated alkenes and electron deficient alkynes to afford enhanced rates and improved yields of novel isoxazolidines and isoxazolines.

  18. Disposition kinetics and bioavailability of the glucosidase inhibitor N-benzyl-1-deoxynojirimycin after various routes of administration in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, ED; Delbressine, LPC; vandeVorstenbosch, CG; vandenBroek, LAGM; Meijer, DKF; Stok, B.P.

    1997-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and excretion of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor and antiviral compound N-benzyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (BndNM) were studied in mice, after intravenous, subcutaneous, and oral administration of a single radiolabeled dose, No metabolites were detected in plasma, urine,

  19. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  20. On molybdenum (6) alcoholates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis techniques for molybdenum (6) alcoholates of MoO(OR)4 (1) and MoO2(OR)2 (2) series by means of exchange interaction of corresponding oxychloride with MOR (M=Li, Na) are obtained. These techniques have allowed to prepare 1(R=Me, Et, i-Pr) and 2(R=Me, Et) with 70-98 % yield. Methylates are also prepared at ether interchange of ethylates by methyl alcohol. Metal anode oxidation in corresponding alcohol may be used for 1 synthesis. Physicochemical properties of both series alcoholates, solubility in alcohols in particular, depend on their formation conditions coordination polymerism. Alcoholates of 1 are rather unstable and tend to decomposition up to 2 and ether. It is suggested to introduce NaOR microquantities to stabilize those alcoholates

  1. 3-Benzyl-3-hydroxy-2-phenyl-3H-indole 1-oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Rizzoli

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C21H17NO2, contains two crystallographically independent molecules of similar geometry. The indole ring systems form dihedral angles of 8.30 (5 and 9.58 (5° with the attached phenyl rings, and 56.96 (5 and 57.68 (5° with the aromatic rings of the respective benzyl groups. The molecular conformations are stabilized by intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds. In the crystal structure, centrosymmetrically related pairs of molecules are linked into dimers through pairs of intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating 12-membered rings with R22(12 motifs. The dimers are further linked into a three-dimensional network by C—H...O interactions.

  2. (5E-1-Benzyl-5-(3,3,3-trichloro-2-oxopropylidenepyrrolidin-2-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Fabiani Claro Flores

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C14H12Cl3NO2, no classical hydrogen-bonding interactions are observed. The methylene fragments of the benzyl groups participate in non-classic hydrogen-bond interactions with the carbonyl O atoms of neighboring molecules, generating co-operative centrosymmetric dimers with R55(10 ring motifs. The overall molecular arrangement in the unit cell seems to be highly influenced by secondary non-covalent weak C—Cl...π [Cl...Cg(phenyl ring = 3.732 (2 Å] and C—O...π [O...Cg(pyrrolidine ring = 2.985 (2 Å] contacts.

  3. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SIDE CHAIN LIQUID CRYSTALLINE POLYSILOXANES CONTAINING BENZYL ETHER LINKING UNITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Side chain liquid crystalline polysiloxanes containing benzyl ether linking units were synthesized by the hydrosilylation of poly(methylhydrosiloxane) with a series of 4-(4-alkoxybenzyloxy)-4'-allyloxybiphenyl monomers [4-(4-methoxybenzyloxy)-4'-allyloxybiphenyl (M1), 4-(4-ethoxybenzyloxy)-4'-allyloxybiphenyl (M2), 4-(4-propoxybenzyloxy)-4'-allyloxybiphenyl (M3), 4-(4-butoxybenzyloxy)-4'-allyloxybiphenyl (M4), 4-(4-pentoxybenzyloxy)-4'-allyloxybiphenyl (Ms), 4-benzyloxy-4'-allyloxybiphenyl (M6)]. The phase behavior of monomeric and polymeric liquid crystals was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and optical polarization microscopy where the groups are ranged from methoxy to pentoxy. Both the monomeric and polymeric liquid crystals exhibit liquid crystal behaviors.

  4. Development of Cholinesterase Inhibitors Using (a)-Lipoic Acid-benzyl Piperazine Hybrid Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Beomcheol; Lee, Seunghwan; Jang, Mi; Shon, Min Young; Park, Jeong Ho [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    A series of hybrid molecules between (α)-lipoic acid (ALA) and benzyl piperazines were synthesized and their in vitro cholinesterase [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE)] inhibitory activities were evaluated. Even though the parent compounds did not show any inhibitory activity against cholinesterase (ChE), all hybrid molecules showed BuChE inhibitory activity. Some hybrid compounds also displayed AChE inhibitory activity. Specifically, ALA-1-(3-methylbenzyl)piperazine (15) was shown to be an effective inhibitor of both BuChE (IC{sub 50} = 2.3 ± 0.7 μM) and AChE (IC{sub 50} = 30.31 ± 0.64 μM). An inhibition kinetic study using compound 15 indicated a mixed inhibition type. Its binding affinity (K{sub i}) value to BuChE is 2.91 ± 0.15 μM.

  5. Crystal structure of 1-benzyl-4-formyl-1H-pyrrole-3-carb-oxamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qi-Di; Hu, Sheng-Quan; Yan, Hong

    2016-02-01

    In the title compound, C13H12N2O2 (I), the mean planes of the pyrrole and benzyl rings are approximately perpendicular, forming a dihedral angle of 87.07 (4) °. There is an intra-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bond forming an S(7) ring motif. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via a pair of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds forming inversion dimers. C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the dimers into chains along direction [10-1]. The chains are further linked by weak C-H⋯π inter-actions forming layers parallel to the ac plane. PMID:26958371

  6. Electrocarboxylation of benzyl chlorides at silver cathode at the preparative scale level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scialdone, Onofrio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)], E-mail: scialdone@dicpm.unipa.it; Galia, Alessandro; Errante, Giuseppina [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Isse, Abdirisak Ahmed; Gennaro, Armando [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Filardo, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali, Universita di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2008-01-01

    The electrocarboxylation of benzyl chlorides to the corresponding carboxylic acids performed at silver cathodes was investigated both theoretically and experimentally in order to find the influence of the operative parameters on the selectivity and on the Faradic efficiency of the process. Theoretical considerations were confirmed by the electrocarboxylation of 1-phenyl-1-chloroethane performed in undivided cells equipped with sacrificial anodes both in a bench-scale electrochemical batch reactor and in a continuous batch recirculation reaction system equipped with a parallel plate electrochemical cell. Selectivity and Faradic yields higher than 80% and 70%, respectively, were obtained by working under anhydrous conditions both under amperostatic and potentiostatic alimentation at appropriate values of either current density or applied potential.

  7. Development of Highly Effective Nanoparticle Spinel Catalysts for Aerobic Oxidation of Benzylic Alcoho1s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪红兵; 王乐夫

    2002-01-01

    Spinel catalyst MnFe1.8Cu0.15Ru0.05O4 with partcle size of about 42nm is an effective heterogeneous catalyst for the oxidation of benzylic alcobols.The substitution of Fe for Cu improves its catalytic activity.Based on the characterization of BET,XPS and EXAFS,two factors influencing the structure and texture of the catalyst cauesd by the substitution of Cu for Fe may be assumed:physical factor responsible for the increasing of surface area;chemical factor responsible for the transformation of Ru-O bonds to Ru=O boods.β-Elimination is considered to be an important step in the reaction.

  8. Synthesis, antioxidant, enzyme inhibition and DNA binding studies of novel N-benzylated derivatives of sulfonamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Aadil; Murtaza, Shahzad; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Shamim, Saima; Sirajuddin, Muhammad; Rana, Usman Ali; Naseem, Khadija; Rafique, Hummera

    2016-08-01

    A series of novel N-benzylated derivatives of sulfonamide were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, NMR and XRD analysis. The synthesized compounds were assayed for their biological potential. The biological studies involved antioxidant, enzyme inhibition, and DNA interaction studies. Antioxidant potential was investigated by Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assay (FRAP) and DPPH free radical scavenging method, the capacity of synthesized compounds to inhibit the enzyme's activity was assayed by using the well-known Elman method whereas DNA interaction studies were carried out with the help UV-Vis absorption titration method. Moreover, a direct correlation between enzyme inhibition activity and concentration of the compounds was observed both in experimental and molecular docking studies. DNA interaction studies of the synthesized compounds showed weak interaction.

  9. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 3-Phenyl-10b-benzyl-1,10b-dihydroimdazo[5,1-a]isoquinoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU,Xiang-Nan; JIN,Hong-Wei; YU,Yu; YAN,Shen-He

    2004-01-01

    @@ Praziquantel, 2-cyclohexylcarbonyl-1,2,3,6,7,11b-hexahydro-4H-pyrazino[2,1-a]isoquinolin-4-one, is a novel antiparasitic drug possessing one chiral center.[1] In the study of structure-activity relationship of praziquantel we were interested in its structural modification. 1-Benzyl Reissert compound of isoquinoline is required as starting materials for the synthesis of praziquantel analogues with modified chiral centers. On the other hand, we want to know what could be obtained when 1-benzyl Reissert compounds were exposed to high pressure catalytic hydrogenation. In this paper we report the results in the hydrogenation of 1-benzyl Reissert compound.

  10. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day 12 hours ago Areas of Interest Scientists & Researchers Certificates of Confidentiality Data and Safety Monitoring Guidelines NIAAA-Funded Research Centers Clinicians Helping Patients Who Drink Too Much Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention for Youth Clinical Trials ...

  11. Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption by Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Dhaval Dave

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of brand capital is used to explain the effects of advertising on consumption. The industry response function and the evidence from prior studies indicate that the empirical strategy should maximize the variance in the advertising data. The approach in this paper to maximizing the variance in advertising data is to employ cross sectional data. The Monitoring th...

  12. Preparation of porous paper composites with ruthenium hydroxide and catalytic alcohol oxidation in a multiphase gas–liquid–solid reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Taichi [Department of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, and Biotron Application Center, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Processing Development Research Laboratory, Kao Corporation, 2606 Akabane, Ichikai-machi, Haga-gun, Tochigi 321-3497 (Japan); Kitaoka, Takuya, E-mail: tkitaoka@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, and Biotron Application Center, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Flexible and porous paper-structured Ru(OH){sub x} catalysts were prepared successfully. • Ru(OH){sub x} catalysts were dispersed on the ceramic fiber networks of paper composites. • Catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol proceeded efficiently in three-phase reactions. • Paper catalysts exhibited much higher performance than conventional solid catalysts. - Abstract: In situ synthesis of ruthenium hydroxide catalysts on a microporous fiber-network structure of ceramic paper composites was achieved. The efficient catalytic oxidation of alcohol was investigated in a heterogeneous, multiphase gas–liquid–solid reaction. A simple papermaking technique and subsequent immersion in a ruthenium chloride solution allowed us to fabricate novel-concept microstructured catalysts. The paper-structured catalysts possess micropores ca. 30 μm in diameter with high porosity of ca. 90%. They exhibited much higher catalytic efficiency in the O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation in toluene of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde in a fixed bed external loop reactor, as compared with conventional pellet- and bead-type solid catalysts. This excellent catalytic effect is possibly attributed to the porous paper composite microstructure like microreactors.

  13. Preparation of porous paper composites with ruthenium hydroxide and catalytic alcohol oxidation in a multiphase gas–liquid–solid reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Flexible and porous paper-structured Ru(OH)x catalysts were prepared successfully. • Ru(OH)x catalysts were dispersed on the ceramic fiber networks of paper composites. • Catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol proceeded efficiently in three-phase reactions. • Paper catalysts exhibited much higher performance than conventional solid catalysts. - Abstract: In situ synthesis of ruthenium hydroxide catalysts on a microporous fiber-network structure of ceramic paper composites was achieved. The efficient catalytic oxidation of alcohol was investigated in a heterogeneous, multiphase gas–liquid–solid reaction. A simple papermaking technique and subsequent immersion in a ruthenium chloride solution allowed us to fabricate novel-concept microstructured catalysts. The paper-structured catalysts possess micropores ca. 30 μm in diameter with high porosity of ca. 90%. They exhibited much higher catalytic efficiency in the O2-mediated oxidation in toluene of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde in a fixed bed external loop reactor, as compared with conventional pellet- and bead-type solid catalysts. This excellent catalytic effect is possibly attributed to the porous paper composite microstructure like microreactors

  14. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  15. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects. PMID:21438261

  16. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Kenneth R.; Hewitt, Brenda G.; Thomas, Jennifer D.

    2010-01-01

    The adverse effects of prenatal alcohol consumption have long been known; however, a formal description and clinical diagnosis of these effects was not introduced until 1973. Since then, the distinction of the wide range of effects that can be induced by prenatal alcohol exposure, and, consequently, the terminology to describe these effects has continued to evolve. Although much progress has been made in understanding the consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure, challenges still remain in p...

  17. Alcohol Consumption in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Drinking behaviour among university students is a serious public health concern. Reasons for drinking are complex and many factors contribute to this behaviour. Previous research has established links between personality factors and alcohol consumption and also between metacognitions and alcohol consumption. Few studies have looked into how personality traits and metacognitions interact. This study investigated the relationships between personality, metacognitions and alcohol consumption in a...

  18. ADOLESCENTS AND ALCOHOL

    OpenAIRE

    SPEAR, LINDA PATIA

    2013-01-01

    The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit i...

  19. Children of alcoholics

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-01-01

    The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and ...

  20. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  2. [Doctors' alcohol problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkowski, Antoni; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Gałecki, Piotr; Szubert, Sławomir; Klus, Marek; Zboralski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    An overusing and an addiction to alcoholic drinks are important problems in a medical society. The studies made in the United States had documented that about 8-12% doctors were addicted to alcohol. In many cases the doctors are able to keep their problem as a secret and their activity is satisfied up to the moment when a decrease is noticed. Some factors--such as a high level of stress--predispose doctors to alcoholic problems especially surgeons. Alcohol problems should be identified as early as possible, and therapy ought to be given as well. There is no reason to hide the problem. PMID:19025048

  3. Treatment of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, B

    1994-01-01

    Special problems in the treatment of alcoholism are discussed. Risk groups, for instance children of alcoholics, should be identified as early as possible so that special attention can be paid to them. Treatment motivation plays a very central role, and motivating a patient for long-term treatment often is the most difficult part of the work. For alcohol dependent alcoholics, total abstinence should be the goal of treatment. To achieve this, psychotherapy consisting of supportive, behavioral and dynamic elements is recommended. To achieve effective therapy it should be carried out for a considerable length of time. PMID:8032164

  4. Alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Shaheen, Khaldoon; Alraies, M Chadi

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol abuse has been associated with an increased mortality and morbidity due to increased aspiration, delirium tremens, and seizures. The association of pneumococcal lung infections and leukopenia in the setting of alcohol abuse are rarely reported; however, when present, severe lung infections can happen with severe lung injury and poor response to conventional therapy and ultimately, death. We are reporting a case of 55-year-old-man presented with shortness of breath, cough and altered mental status and eventually found with severe pneumococcal lung infection in the setting of leukopenia and long-term alcohol abuse representing alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis syndrome. PMID:23930244

  5. The Stabilized Cation Pool Method: Metal- and Oxidant-Free Benzylic C-H/Aromatic C-H Cross-Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ryutaro; Shimizu, Akihiro; Yoshida, Jun-Ichi

    2016-07-13

    Electrochemical oxidation of toluene derivatives in the presence of a sulfilimine gave benzylaminosulfonium ions as stabilized benzyl cation pools, which reacted with subsequently added aromatic nucleophiles to give the corresponding cross-coupling products. The transformation serves as a powerful metal- and chemical-oxidant-free method for benzylic C-H/aromatic C-H cross-coupling. The method has been successfully applied to synthesis of TP27, an inhibitor of PTPase. PMID:27341676

  6. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological profile of the 5-benzyl analogue of 14-methoxymetopon, a novel μ opioid analgesic with reduced propensity to alter motor function

    OpenAIRE

    Spetea, Mariana; Bohotin, Catalina R.; Asim, Muhammad F; Stübegger, Kurt; Schmidhammer, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    Opioids are the most effective analgesics for pain management, and efficient pain control is a therapeutic priority. Herein, we describe the synthesis and pharmacological activities of the 5-benzyl analogue of the μ opioid analgesic 14-methoxymetopon (14-MM). The result of the replacement of the 5-methyl in 14-MM with a benzyl group on in vitro opioid receptor binding and functional profiles, and in vivo behavioural properties, i.e. nociception and motor activity, was investigated. In rodent ...

  7. PPA-SiO2 Catalyzed Multi-component Synthesis of N-[α-(β-Hydroxy-α-naphthyl)(benzyl)]O-Alkyl Carbamate Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHATERIAN,Hamid Reza; HOSSEINIAN,Asghar; GHASHANG,Majid

    2009-01-01

    Silica-supported polyphosphoric acid (PPA-SiO2) was found to be an efficient catalyst for the multi-component condensation reaction of benzaldehydes,2-naphthol,and methyl/benzyl carbamate to afford the corresponding N-[α-(β-hydroxy-α-naphthyl)(benzyl)]O-alkyl carbamate derivatives in good to excellent yields.This new approach consistently has the advantage of short reaction time,high conversions,clean reaction profiles,and simple experimental and work-up procedures.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of a novel amphiphilic biodegradable β-cyclodextrin/poly(γ-benzyl L-glutamate) copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Hua Wu; Fang Liang; Tian Zhu Wei; Xi Ming Song; Shu Yao Wu; Guo Lin Zhang

    2009-01-01

    β-Cyclodextrin/poly(γ-benzyl L-glutamate) (β-CD-PBLG) copolymers were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxy-γ-benzyl L-glutamate anhydride (BLG-NCA) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) initiated by mono-amino-β-cyclodex-trin(H2N-β-CD). The structures of the copolymers were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR and GPC. The fluorescence technique was used to determine the critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of copolymer miceU solution, the diameter and the distribution of micelles were characterized by DLS. The results showed that BLG-NCA could be initiated by H2N-β-CD to produce copolymer. The nano-micells were formed by these copolymers in water.

  9. A green four-component synthesis of zwitterionic alkyl/benzyl pyrazolyl barbiturates and their photophysical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihani, Manisha; Bora, Pranjal P; Bez, Ghanashyam; Askari, Hassan

    2014-11-01

    A novel series of unsymmetrically substituted alkyl/benzyl pyrazolyl barbiturates incorporating highly biologically active pyrazolone and barbiturate moieties was synthesized by four-component reactions of a mixture of ethyl acetoacetate, hydrazine hydrate, aldehydes and barbituric acid/thiobarbituric acid in ethanol without using a catalyst. The photophysical properties of the newly designed alkyl/benzyl pyrazolyl barbiturates were studied, and good quantum yield of some products indicated a definitive scope in the field of biochemical applications. Single-crystal X-ray crystallographic studies revealed that the newly synthesized compounds exist in zwitterionic form. The zwitterionic nature of the new chimera makes them interesting candidates for drug delivery as zwitterionic drugs are known to have highly water soluble properties, specific protein absorption, slow recognition by immune system, slow blood clearance from body and can constantly diffuse and deposit throughout the physiological pH. PMID:25005075

  10. (1S,3S,4S-tert-Butyl N-[1-benzyl-3-hydroxy-5-phenyl-4-(picolinamidopentyl]carbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Feng Zheng

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C29H35N3O4, was obtained by the reaction of (2S,4S,5S-tert-butyl N-(4-amino-1-benzyl-3-hydroxy-5-phenylpentylcarbamate and picolinic acid using oxalyl chloride as a chlorinating reagent to activate the carboxyl group. In the crystal structure there are two molecules in the asymmetric unit, which are aligned edge-to-face. In one molecule, the pyridyl ring forms a dihedral angle of 22.0 (1° with the phenyl ring of the terminal benzyl group and 14.3 (1° with the other phenyl ring; in the other molecule, the corresponding angles are 12.1 (1 and 10.6 (1°, respectively. The packing is stabilized by intermolecular hydrogen bonds and C—H...π interactions.

  11. Hydroxycarbonylation of olefins and alcohols in ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.L.; Eliseev, O.L.; Bondarenko, T.N.; Stepin, N.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry

    2006-07-01

    Palladium-catalysed hydroxycarbonylation of olefins and alcohols proceeds in ionic liquid media. Terminal and internal olefins, cyclohexene, styrene, methanol, ethanol, n-butanol, cyclohexanol, benzyl alcohol and 1-phenylethanol were tested as substrates for the reaction. A number of molten salts were applied as a reaction medium and tetrabutylammonium bromide (m.p. 103 C) seemed to be the best. Carbon monoxide pressure of 2 MPa and reaction temperature of 110 C are suitable conditions to furnish the reaction in 2 hours in the presence of palladium acetate as a precursor. Triphenylphosphine added as a ligand reduces reaction rate. The critical role of counter anion in molten salt was also recognised. Yield of acids decreased in the order: Br{sup -} > Cl{sup -} > BF{sub 4} {approx}PF{sub 6}{sup -}. A two-route reaction scheme is proposed to explain the regularities of styrene and 1-phenylethanol hydroxycarbonylation. The catalytic system can be used repeatedly by simple extraction of products with diethyl ether. Nine cycles were carried out without loss of activity. (orig.)

  12. FastStats: Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Alcohol Use Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... alcoholic liver disease deaths: 18,146 Number of alcohol-induced deaths, excluding accidents and homicides: 29,001 ...

  13. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  14. The thermal decomposition of the benzyl radical in a heated micro-reactor. II. Pyrolysis of the tropyl radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, Grant T. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215, USA; National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden Colorado 80401, USA; Porterfield, Jessica P. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215, USA; Kostko, Oleg [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Troy, Tyler P. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Ahmed, Musahid [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Robichaud, David J. [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden Colorado 80401, USA; Nimlos, Mark R. [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden Colorado 80401, USA; Daily, John W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Combustion and Environmental Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0427, USA; Ellison, G. Barney [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215, USA

    2016-07-05

    Cycloheptatrienyl (tropyl) radical, C7H7, was cleanly produced in the gas-phase, entrained in He or Ne carrier gas, and subjected to a set of flash-pyrolysis micro-reactors. The pyrolysis products resulting from C7H7 were detected and identified by vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry. Complementary product identification was provided by infrared absorption spectroscopy. Pyrolysis pressures in the micro-reactor were roughly 200 Torr and residence times were approximately 100 us. Thermal cracking of tropyl radical begins at 1100 K and the products from pyrolysis of C7H7 are only acetylene and cyclopentadienyl radicals. Tropyl radicals do not isomerize to benzyl radicals at reactor temperatures up to 1600 K. Heating samples of either cycloheptatriene or norbornadiene never produced tropyl (C7H7) radicals but rather only benzyl (C6H5CH2). The thermal decomposition of benzyl radicals has been reconsidered without participation of tropyl radicals. There are at least three distinct pathways for pyrolysis of benzyl radical: the Benson fragmentation, the methyl-phenyl radical, and the bridgehead norbornadienyl radical. These three pathways account for the majority of the products detected following pyrolysis of all of the isotopomers: C6H5CH2, C6H5CD2, C6D5CH2, and C6H5 13CH2. Analysis of the temperature dependence for the pyrolysis of the isotopic species (C6H5CD2, C6D5CH2, and C6H5 13CH2) suggests the Benson fragmentation and the norbornadienyl pathways open at reactor temperatures of 1300 K while the methyl-phenyl radical channel becomes active at slightly higher temperatures (1500 K).

  15. Skin oxygenation after topical application of liposome-entrapped benzyl nicotinate as measured by EPR oximetry in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Abramović, Zrinka; Šentjurc, Marjeta; Kristl, Julijana

    2015-01-01

    New and improved drug delivery systems are the important subject of much scientific research. The development of formulations that increase skin oxygenation and of methods for measuring oxygen levels in skin are important for dealing with healing processes affected by the level of oxygen. We have used EPR oximetry in vivo to compare the influence of liposomal formulations of different size and composition with that of hydrogel with respect to the action of the entrapped benzyl nicotinate (BN)...

  16. The thermal decomposition of the benzyl radical in a heated micro-reactor. II. Pyrolysis of the tropyl radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Grant T.; Porterfield, Jessica P.; Kostko, Oleg; Troy, Tyler P.; Ahmed, Musahid; Robichaud, David J.; Nimlos, Mark R.; Daily, John W.; Ellison, G. Barney

    2016-07-01

    Cycloheptatrienyl (tropyl) radical, C7H7, was cleanly produced in the gas-phase, entrained in He or Ne carrier gas, and subjected to a set of flash-pyrolysis micro-reactors. The pyrolysis products resulting from C7H7 were detected and identified by vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry. Complementary product identification was provided by infrared absorption spectroscopy. Pyrolysis pressures in the micro-reactor were roughly 200 Torr and residence times were approximately 100 μs. Thermal cracking of tropyl radical begins at 1100 K and the products from pyrolysis of C7H7 are only acetylene and cyclopentadienyl radicals. Tropyl radicals do not isomerize to benzyl radicals at reactor temperatures up to 1600 K. Heating samples of either cycloheptatriene or norbornadiene never produced tropyl (C7H7) radicals but rather only benzyl (C6H5CH2). The thermal decomposition of benzyl radicals has been reconsidered without participation of tropyl radicals. There are at least three distinct pathways for pyrolysis of benzyl radical: the Benson fragmentation, the methyl-phenyl radical, and the bridgehead norbornadienyl radical. These three pathways account for the majority of the products detected following pyrolysis of all of the isotopomers: C6H5CH2, C6H5CD2, C6D5CH2, and C6H513CH2. Analysis of the temperature dependence for the pyrolysis of the isotopic species (C6H5CD2, C6D5CH2, and C6H513CH2) suggests the Benson fragmentation and the norbornadienyl pathways open at reactor temperatures of 1300 K while the methyl-phenyl radical channel becomes active at slightly higher temperatures (1500 K).

  17. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  18. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  19. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  20. Alcohol and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    daLuz, P L; Coimbra, S R

    2001-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD), ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day), especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications. PMID:11246269

  1. Alcohol on wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, F T

    1986-01-01

    Alcohol misuse remains the single most important contributing factor to road accident deaths and injuries in Australia. The results of compulsory blood alcohol tests on road casualties have shown that probationary licensed drivers have a threefold increased risk of road accident injury compared to fully licensed drivers and are additionally over-represented in alcohol-related crashes. These findings led the Victorian Road Trauma Committee to campaign for a zero blood alcohol limit for learner and probationary drivers and motorcyclists. In May 1984, zero blood alcohol legislation was enacted in Victoria. The present legislation applies to learner and first year probationary licence holders. For the first time we have evidence of a moderate reduction in alcohol-related road trauma in Victoria. Between 1977 and 1983 there has been a significant reduction in the proportion of driver casualties admitted to hospital with illegal blood alcohol concentrations and in the number of driver fatalities with blood alcohol concentrations in excess of 0.15 g%. An evaluation of the following recommended drink driver countermeasures is presented: improved driver education, increased penalties, re-education--rehabilitation programmes for convicted drink drivers, interlock devices and an increase in the legal drinking age. PMID:3461765

  2. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of 3-butenyl, 4-pentenyl, 2-phenylethyl, and benzyl isothiocyanate in Brassica vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Miran; Hong, Eunyoung; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated antibacterial activities of 4 isothiocyanates (3-butenyl, 4-phentenyl, 2-phenylethyl, and benzyl isothiocyanate) against 4 Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus) and 7 Gram-negative bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleaesuis, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens, Shigella sonnei, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) by an agar disc diffusion assay. Benzyl isothiocyanate (> 90.00 mm inhibition zone diameter at 0.1 μL/mL) and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (58.33 mm at 0.2 μL/mL) showed large inhibition zones especially against B. cereus. Also, 3-butenyl isothiocyanate (21.67 mm at 1.0 μL/mL) and 4-pentenyl isothiocyanate (19.67 mm at 1.0 μL/mL) displayed potent antibacterial activity against A. hydrophila. Benzyl and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate indicated higher activity against most of the pathogenic bacteria than 3-butenyl and 4-pentenyl isothiocyanate, and were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:21535549

  3. Synthesis, stereochemistry and antimicrobial evaluation of t(3)-benzyl-r(2),c(6)-diarylpiperidin-4-one and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabharathi, J; Manimekalai, A; Consalata Vani, T; Padmavathy, M

    2007-05-01

    In a wide research program toward new and efficient antimicrobial agents, a series of t(3)-benzyl-r(2),c(6)-diarylpiperidin-4-ones (1-7) were synthesised and tested for their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities. Also, the structures and their stereochemistry of these synthesised compounds 1-7 were characterized by IR, high resolution (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and (1)H-(13)C COSY spectra. The analysis of coupling constants of compounds 1-5 reveals that they exist in normal chair conformation with equatorial orientations of all the substituents. The spectra of 6 and 7 reveal the presence of two isomers labeled as E (carbonyl carbon is anti to benzyl group at C-3) and Z (carbonyl carbon is syn to benzyl group at C-3) in solution and the coupling constants ruled out the possibility of normal chair conformation. From the theoretical studies and coupling constant values the favoured conformation for the Z- and E-isomers of 6 and 7 was found to be the boat conformations. Their antibacterial activity against Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae and antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida 6, Candida 51, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus were also evaluated. PMID:17241703

  4. Fe3+-Exchanged Titanate Nanotubes: A New Kind of Highly Active Heterogeneous Catalyst for Friedel-Crafts Type Benzylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchen Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous catalysis for Friedel-Crafts type benzylation has received much attention in recent years due to its characteristic of environmental benefits. In this paper, titanate nanotubes (TNTs were employed as heterogeneous catalyst support, and a new kind of Fe3+-exchanged titanate nanotubes (Fe-TNTs catalyst with highly dispersed ferric sites was constructed by an ion exchange technique. The obtained catalyst was systematically characterized by XRD, TEM, N2 adsorption, XPS, and UV-vis spectra. As expected, Fe-TNTs showed excellent catalytic activities in the benzylation of benzene and benzene derivatives. The recycling tests for Fe-TNTs were also carried out, where the reason for the gradually decreased activity was carefully investigated. Superior to some reported catalysts, the catalytic ability of used Fe-TNTs could be easily recovered by ion exchange again, indicating that Fe-TNTs herein were a highly active and durable heterogeneous catalyst for Friedel-Crafts type benzylation. These results might be helpful for the design and preparation of novel heterogeneous catalysts by combining the structural advantages of titanate nanotubes and active metal ions.

  5. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  6. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  7. Alcohol consumption in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Plevová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the level of alcohol consumption in a selected group of adolescents. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: The data were obtained using a part of the standardized ESPAD questionnaire for assessing consumption of alcoholic beverages. The sample comprised 422 students from seven secondary schools of different types in the city of Ostrava. For statistical analysis, the chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test (for n ≤ 5 were used. The data were processed using Stata v. 10. Results: More than half of respondents first tried alcohol before the age of 15. The most frequent alcohol-related problems were unprotected sex, decreased school performance and problems with parents or friends. Incomplete families were found to be an important factor in adolescents preferring and more frequently drinking beer. Conclusion: The study confirmed results reported by the Europe-wide survey ESPAD, namely that adolescents start to drink alcohol as early as before they turn fifteen.

  8. Monitoring prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, R Louise; Sidhu, Jasjeet S

    2004-05-15

    Alcohol use during pregnancy is a leading, preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States, with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) being one of the most severe outcomes. Current survey statistics find that approximately one in eight pregnant women (500,000 per year) report alcohol use, with approximately 80,000 reporting binge drinking. While annual rates have fluctuated, trends analysis finds that there has been no significant change in rates of prenatal alcohol exposure over the past 10-year period. Development of effective programs to prevent FAS and to monitor the success of prevention efforts requires epidemiological data systems to inform these activities. This article describes alcohol use patterns among childbearing-age women and data sources that can be used in monitoring this behavior. PMID:15095466

  9. Alcohol Expectancies, Alcohol Use, and Hostility as Longitudinal Predictors of Alcohol-Related Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Kachadourian, Lorig K.; Homish, Gregory G.; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    The direct and interactive effects of alcohol expectancies for aggression, dispositional hostility, and heavy alcohol consumption on alcohol-related physical aggression were examined across the first four years of marriage in a sample of 634 newlywed couples. For husbands, alcohol aggression expectancies predicted increases in alcohol-related aggression; across husbands and wives however, aggression expectancies were not found to interact with hostility or alcohol consumption to predict physi...

  10. Pertumbuhan Plantlet Anggrek Cattleya sp. dengan Perlakuan Benzyl Amino Purine pada Media Dasar Pupuk Daun Modifikasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HESTIN YUSWANTI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth of Plantlets of Cattleya Orchid on The Fooliar Fertilizer-Based Medium added with Benzyl Amino Purine. The aim of the current research was to investigate the appropriate concentrationof plant growth regulator BAP on the growth of Cattleya plantlet. The experiment was utilized a Randomized Completely Design with five treatments and six replications. The basal medium used was modification of foliar fertilizer of Growmore (trade mark with addition of fish emulsion, Vitamin B1 and active charcoal. BAP concentration used as treatment were 0 ppm, 0.5 ppm, 1.0 ppm, 1.5 ppm and 2.0 ppm. Variables observed were height, leaf number, root number, root length, fresh weight and dry weight of plantlets. The result showed that concentration of 1 ppm BAP resulted in the highest value for plantlet height (5.67 cm, leaf number (4.67, root length (2.07 cm, fresh weight (0.36 g and dry weight (0.043 g.

  11. Benzyl butyl phthalate induces epigenetic stress to enhance adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkar, Ravi; Powell, Catherine A; Choudhury, Mahua

    2016-08-15

    Endocrine disruptors, phthalates, may have contributed to recent global obesity health crisis. Our study investigated the potential of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) to regulate the mesenchymal stem cell epigenome to drive adipogenesis. BBP exposure enhanced lipid accumulation and adipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner compared to control (P < 0.001). Adipogenesis markers, PPARγ (P < 0.001), C/EBPα (P < 0.01), and aP2 (P < 0.001) were significantly upregulated by increasing concentrations of BBP when compared to DMSO. BBP enhanced H3K9 acetylation while decreasing H3K9 dimethylation. Fifty μM BBP increased histone acetyltransferases, p300 (P < 0.05) and GCN5 (P < 0.01) gene expression. Furthermore, histone deacetylases (HDACs), HDAC3 (P < 0.01) and HDAC10 (P < 0.01, 10 μM BBP; P < 0.001, 50 μM BBP) and histone methyltransferases, SETDB1 (P < 0.01) and G9a (P < 0.01), were significantly downregulated by BBP exposure. BBP acts, in part, through PPARγ, as PPARγ knockdown led to decreased H3K9ac and rescued H3K9me2 during BBP exposure. In conclusion, BBP regulated MSCs towards adipogenesis by tipping the epigenomic balance. PMID:27164441

  12. Glucuronoyl Esterase Screening and Characterization Assays Utilizing Commercially Available Benzyl Glucuronic Acid Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hampus Sunner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on glucuronoyl esterases (GEs has been hampered by the lack of enzyme assays based on easily obtainable substrates. While benzyl d-glucuronic acid ester (BnGlcA is a commercially available substrate that can be used for GE assays, several considerations regarding substrate instability, limited solubility and low apparent affinities should be made. In this work we discuss the factors that are important when using BnGlcA for assaying GE activity and show how these can be applied when designing BnGlcA-based GE assays for different applications: a thin-layer chromatography assay for qualitative activity detection, a coupled-enzyme spectrophotometric assay that can be used for high-throughput screening or general activity determinations and a HPLC-based detection method allowing kinetic determinations. The three-level experimental procedure not merely facilitates routine, fast and simple biochemical characterizations but it can also give rise to the discovery of different GEs through an extensive screening of heterologous Genomic and Metagenomic expression libraries.

  13. Isolation and identification of 4-α-rhamnosyloxy benzyl glucosinolate in Noccaea caerulescens showing intraspecific variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Rob M; Krosse, Sebastian; Swolfs, Ad E M; te Brinke, Esra; Prill, Nadine; Leimu, Roosa; van Galen, Peter M; Wang, Yanli; Aarts, Mark G M; van Dam, Nicole M

    2015-02-01

    Glucosinolates are secondary plant compounds typically found in members of the Brassicaceae and a few other plant families. Usually each plant species contains a specific subset of the ∼ 130 different glucosinolates identified to date. However, intraspecific variation in glucosinolate profiles is commonly found. Sinalbin (4-hydroxybenzyl glucosinolate) so far has been identified as the main glucosinolate of the heavy metal accumulating plant species Noccaea caerulescens (Brassicaceae). However, a screening of 13 N. caerulescens populations revealed that in 10 populations a structurally related glucosinolate was found as the major component. Based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry analyses of the intact glucosinolate as well as of the products formed after enzymatic conversion by sulfatase or myrosinase, this compound was identified as 4-α-rhamnosyloxy benzyl glucosinolate (glucomoringin). So far, glucomoringin had only been reported as the main glucosinolate of Moringa spp. (Moringaceae) which are tropical tree species. There was no apparent relation between the level of soil pollution at the location of origin, and the presence of glucomoringin. The isothiocyanate that is formed after conversion of glucomoringin is a potent antimicrobial and antitumor agent. It has yet to be established whether glucomoringin or its breakdown product have an added benefit to the plant in its natural habitat. PMID:25482220

  14. Effect of benzyl butyl phthalate on physiology and proteome characterization of water celery (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Huang, Han-Ching; Wang, Yei-Shung; Yen, Jui-Hung

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the effect of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), a phthalate ester (PAE) and an endocrine disruptor, on water celery, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., one of the most popular leaf vegetables in Taiwan. After 28 days of cultivation, treatment with 100 mgL⁻¹ BBP retarded plant growth and decreased biomass and number of mature leaves and caused the accumulation of proline in leaves of water celery, but the concentrations of chlorophyll a and b in the leaves remained constant. 2-D gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of the proteome of leaf tissue revealed five protein spots with up- and down-regulated expression. The predicted protein XP_001417439 was down-regulated, which explained inhibition of plant growth, and the proteina XP_001417040, calreticulin, GAI-like protein 1, and (-)-linalool synthase were up-regulated, which indicates interference with the cell cycle and protein synthesis, as well as dwarfism of water celery. BBP is a stressor on the growth of water celery, and proteome analysis revealed the up- and down-regulation of genes involved in plant growth with BBP treatment. PMID:21496923

  15. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  16. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  17. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  18. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  19. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  20. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  1. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Extramural Activities, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  2. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  3. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  4. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  5. Does Alcohol Education Prevent Alcohol Problems?: Need for Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A. Mitch; Sobell, Mark B.

    1979-01-01

    Examined evidence for the alleged failure of alcohol education to prevent alcohol problems among children and adolescents. Concluded that there is need for investigations of the effectiveness of alcohol education. Recommendations regarding methodological characteristics of an adequate test of effectiveness of alcohol education were presented and…

  6. Cooperative electrocatalytic alcohol oxidation with electron-proton-transfer mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalyan, Artavazd; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2016-07-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of alcohols is a major focus of energy and chemical conversion efforts, with potential applications ranging from fuel cells to biomass utilization and fine-chemical synthesis. Small-molecule electrocatalysts for processes of this type are promising targets for further development, as demonstrated by recent advances in nickel catalysts for electrochemical production and oxidation of hydrogen. Complexes with tethered amines that resemble the active site of hydrogenases have been shown both to catalyse hydrogen production (from protons and electrons) with rates far exceeding those of such enzymes and to mediate reversible electrocatalytic hydrogen production and oxidation with enzyme-like performance. Progress in electrocatalytic alcohol oxidation has been more modest. Nickel complexes similar to those used for hydrogen oxidation have been shown to mediate efficient electrochemical oxidation of benzyl alcohol, with a turnover frequency of 2.1 per second. These compounds exhibit poor reactivity with ethanol and methanol, however. Organic nitroxyls, such as TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidine N-oxyl), are the most widely studied electrocatalysts for alcohol oxidation. These catalysts exhibit good activity (1–2 turnovers per second) with a wide range of alcohols and have great promise for electro-organic synthesis. Their use in energy-conversion applications, however, is limited by the high electrode potentials required to generate the reactive oxoammonium species. Here we report (2,2‧-bipyridine)Cu/nitroxyl co-catalyst systems for electrochemical alcohol oxidation that proceed with much faster rates, while operating at an electrode potential a half-volt lower than that used for the TEMPO-only process. The (2,2‧-bipyridine)Cu(II) and TEMPO redox partners exhibit cooperative reactivity and exploit the low-potential, proton-coupled TEMPO/TEMPOH redox process rather than the high-potential TEMPO/TEMPO+ process. The results show how

  7. Cooperative electrocatalytic alcohol oxidation with electron-proton-transfer mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalyan, Artavazd; Stahl, Shannon S

    2016-07-21

    The electrochemical oxidation of alcohols is a major focus of energy and chemical conversion efforts, with potential applications ranging from fuel cells to biomass utilization and fine-chemical synthesis. Small-molecule electrocatalysts for processes of this type are promising targets for further development, as demonstrated by recent advances in nickel catalysts for electrochemical production and oxidation of hydrogen. Complexes with tethered amines that resemble the active site of hydrogenases have been shown both to catalyse hydrogen production (from protons and electrons) with rates far exceeding those of such enzymes and to mediate reversible electrocatalytic hydrogen production and oxidation with enzyme-like performance. Progress in electrocatalytic alcohol oxidation has been more modest. Nickel complexes similar to those used for hydrogen oxidation have been shown to mediate efficient electrochemical oxidation of benzyl alcohol, with a turnover frequency of 2.1 per second. These compounds exhibit poor reactivity with ethanol and methanol, however. Organic nitroxyls, such as TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidine N-oxyl), are the most widely studied electrocatalysts for alcohol oxidation. These catalysts exhibit good activity (1–2 turnovers per second) with a wide range of alcohols and have great promise for electro-organic synthesis. Their use in energy-conversion applications, however, is limited by the high electrode potentials required to generate the reactive oxoammonium species. Here we report (2,2′-bipyridine)Cu/nitroxyl co-catalyst systems for electrochemical alcohol oxidation that proceed with much faster rates, while operating at an electrode potential a half-volt lower than that used for the TEMPO-only process. The (2,2′-bipyridine)Cu(II) and TEMPO redox partners exhibit cooperative reactivity and exploit the low-potential, proton-coupled TEMPO/TEMPOH redox process rather than the high-potential TEMPO/TEMPO+ process. The results show how

  8. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  9. Clinical pathology of alcohol.

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, V.

    1983-01-01

    There is good though not conclusive evidence that a small to modest average daily intake of alcohol--that is, 20-30 g/day is associated with increased longevity due mainly to a reduction in death from cardiovascular disease. Larger average daily alcohol intakes--especially those in excess of 60 g/day for men and 40 g/day for women--are associated with gradually increasing morbidity and mortality rates from a variety of diseases. Alcohol may be unrecognised as the cause of somatic disease, whi...

  10. [Alcohol and working life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarne, Tiina; Aalto, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol-related harm constitutes a significant factor decreasing work productivity. Of heavy alcohol users, most participate in working life. According to labour contract law, a person attending the workplace inebriated can be fired. If the employer applies a deferral to treatment practice, the drug- or alcohol-addicted person can be provided with the choice of therapy and rehabilitation instead of terminating the employment. According to the recent recommendation by the trade unions, organizations should have a program for preventing substance abuse. The employer should take care of the worker's intoxicant education and train the foremen to intervene in the situations on time. PMID:19492706

  11. 18O isotope effect in 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Part 9. Hydrolysis of benzyl phosphate by phosphatase enzymes and in acidic aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 18O isotope-induced shifts in 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to establish the position of bond cleavage in the phosphatase-catalyzed and acid-catalyzed hydrolysis reactions of benzyl phosphate. The application of the 18O-isotope effect in NMR spectroscopy affords a continuous, nondestructive assay method for following the kinetics and position of bond cleavage in the hydrolytic process. The technique provides advantages over most discontinuous methods in which the reaction components must be isolated and converted to volatile derivatives prior to analysis. In the present study, [α-13C,ester-18O]benzyl phosphate and [ester-18O]benzyl phosphate were synthesized for use in enzymatic and nonenzymatic studies. Hydrolysis reactions catalyzed by the alkaline phosphatase from E. coli and by the acid phosphatases isolated from human prostate and human liver were all accompanied by cleavage of the substrate phosphorus-oxygen bond consistent with previously postulated mechanisms involving covalent phosphoenzyme intermediates. An extensive study of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of benzyl phosphate at 750C revealed that the site of bond cleavage is dependent on pH. At pH less than or equal to 1.3, the hydrolysis proceeds with C-O bond cleavage; at 1.3 2H]Benzyl phosphate was also synthesized. Hydrolysis of this chiral benzyl derivative demonstrated that the acid-catalyzed C-O bond scission of benzyl phosphate proceeds by an A-1 (S/sub N/1) mechanism with 70% racemization and 30% inversion at carbon. 37 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  12. Functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)-stabilized water-soluble palladium nanoparticles: property/activity relationship for the aerobic alcohol oxidation in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bo; Hou, Zhenshan; Yang, Hanmin; Wang, Xiangrui; Hu, Yu; Li, Huan; Qiao, Yunxiang; Zhao, Xiuge; Huang, Qingfa

    2010-02-16

    The preparation, characterization, and catalytic properties of water-soluble palladium nanoparticles stabilized by the functionalized-poly(ethylene glycol) as a protective ligand were demonstrated for aerobic oxidation of alcohols in aqueous phase. UV/vis spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved that there was an electronic interaction between the bidentate nitrogen ligand and palladium atoms. Transmission electron microscopy and XPS analysis showed that the particle size and surface properties of the generated palladium nanoparticles can be controlled by varying the amount of protective ligand and the kinds of reducing agents. It was found that both the size and surface properties of palladium nanoparticles played very important roles in affecting catalytic performance. The stabilized metallic palladium nanoparticles were proven to be the active centers for benzyl alcohol oxidation in the present system, and the water-soluble Pd nanocatalysts can also be extended to the selective oxidation of various alcohols. PMID:20039597

  13. Discovering Genes Involved in Alcohol Dependence and Other Alcohol Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Kari J.; Milner, Lauren C.; Denmark, Deaunne L.; Grant, Seth G.N.; Kozell, Laura B.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic determinants of alcoholism still are largely unknown, hindering effective treatment and prevention. Systematic approaches to gene discovery are critical if novel genes and mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence are to be identified. Although no animal model can duplicate all aspects of alcoholism in humans, robust animal models for specific alcohol-related traits, including physiological alcohol dependence and associated withdrawal, have been invaluable resources. Using a varie...

  14. The Neighborhood Alcohol Environment and Alcohol-Related Morbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Theall, Katherine P.; Scribner, Richard; Cohen, Deborah; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Schonlau, Matthias; Lynch, Sara; Farley, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were (1) to examine the association between neighborhood alcohol outlet density and individual self-reported alcohol-related health outcomes in the last year—sexually transmitted infections (STI), motor vehicle accidents, injury, liver problems, hypertension and experienced violence; (2) to determine whether the relationship between morbidity and alcohol outlet density is mediated by individual alcohol consumption; and (3) to explore the role of alcohol outlet den...

  15. Moral judgment of alcohol addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population. The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3 and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05 between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.

  16. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  17. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other persons of the same age. 26 Consequences—Researchers estimate that each year: 1,825 college students between the ages of 18 and 24 die from alcohol-related unintentional injuries, including motor-vehicle crashes. 27 ...

  18. Alcohol and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tension-type headache. Cluster headache patients have higher alcohol sensitivity (about 50-80%). In a forward-looking study (PAMINA) published in 2007 Austrian researchers examined a large number of factors related to ...

  19. Alcohol and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In addition, the combined use of alcohol and tobacco greatly increases the risk of oral, laryngeal, pharyngeal, and esophageal cancers. Written January 2016 ©2007, American Cancer Society, Inc. ...

  20. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2009-01-01

      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc....... that influence a given situation are described as actants and are entered into the analysis. The aim of this paper is to propose a way of including materiality in sociological analyses of alcohol and to explore ways of using focus group interview material in ANT-inspired analysis. By analyzing a girl...

  1. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths (31 percent of overall driving fatalities). 11 Economic Burden: In 2010, alcohol misuse problems cost the ... 18–24: Changes from 1998 to 2001. Annual Review of Public Health 26: 259–279, 2005. PMID: ...

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such as trouble with Learning and remembering Understanding and following directions Controlling emotions Communicating and socializing Daily life skills, such as ...

  3. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube. PMID:12068260

  4. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Alcohol and ... Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness ...

  5. Alcohol and Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... other things. For example, excessive amounts of alcoholic consumption could be harmful by increasing the risk of ...

  6. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and premature birth Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... a healthy weight and avoiding alcohol and street drugs . Featured articles March of Dimes Premature Birth Report ...

  7. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome? PMID:25559647

  8. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... development. There also may be problems with the face and bones. Tests include: Blood alcohol level in pregnant women who show signs of being drunk (intoxicated) Brain imaging studies (CT or MRI) after the child is born Pregnancy ultrasound

  9. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lead and pregnancy Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... a healthy weight and avoiding alcohol and street drugs . Featured articles March of Dimes Premature Birth Report ...

  10. Weight loss and alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are trying to lose weight, you can boost your efforts by cutting back on alcoholic drinks. ... goes in your drink. Many mixed drinks include juices, simple syrup, or liqueur, which all add extra ...

  11. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... articles How long should you wait before getting pregnant again? Preterm labor and premature birth Lead and ... pregnancy 3:07 Drinking alcohol while you are pregnant can cause your baby to be born with ...

  12. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  13. Advances in Alcoholism Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Huebner, Robert B.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are working on numerous and varied approaches to improving the accessibility, quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This overview article summarizes the approaches reviewed in this issue, including potential future developments for alcoholism treatment, such as medications development, behavioral therapy, advances in technology that are being used to improve treatment, integrated care of patients with AUDs and co-occurring di...

  14. Alcohol and Sexual Assault

    OpenAIRE

    Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam

    2001-01-01

    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and moto...

  15. Alcohol and liver, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia; A; Osna

    2010-01-01

    Liver is known as an organ that is primarily affected by alcohol. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the cause of an increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Progression of ALD is driven by "second hits". These second hits include the complex of nutritional, pharmacological, genetic and viral factors, which aggravate liver pathology. However, in addition to liver failure, ethanol causes damage to other organs and systems. These extrahepatic manifestations are regulated via the similar hepatitis mechanisms...

  16. Short-form RON overexpression augments benzyl isothiocyanate-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehrawat, Anuradha; Singh, Shivendra V

    2016-05-01

    Chemoprevention of breast cancer is feasible with the use of non-toxic phytochemicals from edible and medicinal plants. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is one such plant compound that prevents mammary cancer development in a transgenic mouse model in association with tumor cell apoptosis. Prior studies from our laboratory have demonstrated a role for reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent Bax activation through the intermediary of c-Jun N-terminal kinases in BITC-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. The present study demonstrates that truncated Recepteur d'Origine Nantais (sfRON) is a novel regulator of BITC-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Overexpression of sfRON in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-361 cells resulted in augmentation of BITC-induced apoptosis when the apoptotic fraction was normalized against vehicle control for each cell type (untransfected and sfRON overexpressing cells). ROS generation and G2 /M phase cell cycle arrest resulting from BITC treatment were significantly attenuated in sfRON overexpressing cells after normalization with vehicle control for each cell type. Increased BITC-induced apoptosis by sfRON overexpression was independent of c-Jun N-terminal kinase or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase hyperphosphorylation. On the other hand, activation of Bax and Bak following BITC exposure was markedly more pronounced in sfRON overexpressing cells than in controls. sfRON overexpression also augmented apoptosis induction by structurally diverse cancer chemopreventive phytochemicals including withaferin A, phenethyl isothiocyanate, and D,L-sulforaphane. In conclusion, the present study provides novel mechanistic insights into the role of sfRON in apoptosis regulation by BITC and other electrophilic phytochemicals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25857724

  17. Benzyl isothiocyanate inhibits inflammasome activation in E. coli LPS-stimulated BV2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Min; Lee, Dae-Sung; Jung, Won-Kyo; Yoo, Jong Su; Yim, Mi-Jin; Choi, Yung Hyun; Park, Saegwang; Seo, Su-Kil; Choi, Jung Sik; Lee, Young-Min; Park, Won Sun; Choi, Il-Whan

    2016-09-01

    Inflammasomes are multi-protein complexes that play a crucial role in innate immune responses. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is a naturally occurring compound found in cruciferous vegetables, and BITC exhibits potential as a chemopreventive agent. However, whether BITC exerts inflammasome-mediated regulatory effects on neuroinflammation is unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of BITC on inflammasome-mediated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production in E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. IL-1β production is tightly regulated at the post-translational level through the inflammasoume. We measured the levels of IL-1β produced from the LPS-exposed BV2 microglial cells using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The BITC regulatory mechanisms in inflammasome-mediated cellular signaling pathways were examined by RT-PCR, western blot analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. BITC inhibited the secretion of IL-1β induced by LPS in the BV2 microglial cells. BITC inhibited inflammasome activation and NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3)-mediated caspase-1 activation, and decreased the levels of inflammasome activation pro-inflammatory mediators, including mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion in the LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation induced by LPS was inhibited by BITC, which may contribute to the attenuated secretion of IL-1β. These BITC-mediated inhibitory effects on IL-1β expression may thus regulate neuroinflammation through the inflammasome-mediated signaling pathway. PMID:27430883

  18. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify alcohol-attributable and -preventable mortality, totally and stratified on alcohol consumption in Denmark 2010, and to estimate alcohol-related mortality assuming different scenarios of changes in alcohol distribution in the population. We estimated alcohol......-attributable and -preventable fractions based on relative risks of conditions causally associated with alcohol from meta-analyses and information on alcohol consumption in Denmark obtained from 14,458 participants in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 and corrected for adult per capita consumption. Cause......-specific mortality data were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. In total, 1,373 deaths among women (5.0 % of all deaths) and 2,522 deaths among men (9.5 % of all deaths) were attributable to alcohol, while an estimated number of 765 (2.8 %) and 583 (2.2 %) deaths were prevented by alcohol. Of the...

  19. Distribution and metabolism of cis- and trans-resmethrin (5-benzyl-3-furyl-methyl-2,2-dimethyl 3-(2-methyl-propenyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate) in laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cis and trans isomers of the synthetic pyrethroid, resmethrin (5-benzyl-3-furylmethyl-(IRS)-chrysanthemate), labeled with radiocarbon in either the alcohol or acid moiety, were individually administered orally to White Leghorn laying hens at a dosage of 10 mg/kg. With each isomer and label position, greater than 90% of the radiocarbon was eliminated in the excreta within 24 hours posttreatment. Radiocarbon residues in the egg white and yolk fractions were low, with peak levels observed at 1-2 and 4-5 days post-treatment in white and yolk, respectively. Residues were considerably lower in egg whites than in yolks. In birds killed 12 hours post-treatment, radiocarbon residues in tissues were low with peak levels in liver and kidney. Unmetabolized cis- or trans-resmethrin was detected in all tissues analyzed from birds killed at 12 hours post-treatment and represented the major metabolite in fat. The majority of the tissues from hens 14 days post-treatment contained no detectable levels of radiocarbon and would appear not to be indicative of appreciable residue retention. Numerous metabolites were isolated and were present in both the free and conjugated form. The metabolic routes for both resmethrin isomers arise from ester hydrolysis and oxidation of the hydrolytic products. Certain of these metabolites are further conjugated with glucuronic acid, sulfate or other unidentified compounds before excretion

  20. Preparation of different amides via Ritter reaction from alcohols and nitriles in the presence of silica-bonded N- propyl sulphamic acid (SBNPSA) under solvent-free conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maryam-Sadat Shakeri; Hassan Tajik; Khodabakhsh Niknam

    2012-09-01

    A number of methods have been proposed for the modification of the Ritter reaction. However, many of these methods involve the use of strongly acidic conditions, stoichiometric amounts of reagents, harsh reaction conditions and extended reaction times. Therefore, the development of mild, efficient, convenient and benign reagents for the Ritter reaction is desirable. In this research, we have developed a clean and environmentally friendly protocol for the synthesis of amides by using different benzylic or tertiary alcohols and different nitriles in the presence of silica-bonded N- propyl sulphamic acid (SBNPSA) as catalyst under solvent-free conditions in high yields.

  1. Acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Ten Have, Thomas R; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2011-01-01

    A case-control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  2. The influence of alcohol-specific communication on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimuller, Alison; Hussong, Andrea; Ennett, Susan T

    2011-12-01

    Alcohol-specific communication, a direct conversation between an adult and an adolescent regarding alcohol use, contains messages about alcohol relayed from the adult to the child. The current study examined the construct of alcohol-specific communication and the effect of messages on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Parent-adolescent dyads were assessed biannually for 3 years (grades 9-11 at wave 6) to examine these relations in a large longitudinal study of adolescents initially in grades 6 through 8. An exploratory factor analysis identified two factors among alcohol-specific communication items, permissive messages and negative alcohol messages. Results showed previous level of adolescent alcohol use moderated the relation between permissive messages and alcohol use outcomes. Plotting of these interactions showed greater alcohol use and consequences with increasing permissive messages in adolescents with higher versus lower levels of previous alcohol use. Results suggest that parental messages regarding alcohol use may impact adolescent alcohol use beyond the effect of general parenting style and parental alcohol use. PMID:21667141

  3. Benzyl-1,2,4-triazoles as CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor Ligands: Preparation and In Vitro Pharmacological Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Folgado, Laura; Decara, Juan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Goya, Pilar; Jagerovic, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we have identified 3-alkyl-1,5-diaryl-1H-1,2,4-triazoles to be a novel class of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) antagonists. In order to expand the number of cannabinoid ligands with a central 1,2,4-triazole scaffold, we have synthesized a novel series of 1-benzyl-1H-1,2,4-triazoles, and some of them were evaluated by CB1R radioligand binding assays. Compound 12a showed the most interesting pharmacological properties, possessing a CB1R affinity in the nanomolar range. PMID:27127651

  4. Modification of Carboxymethyl Chitosan Film by Blending with Poly(benzyl L-glutamate)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) Copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of water-soluble carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS)/poly(benzyl L-glutamate)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PBLG-b-PEG) blend films with various CMCS/PBLG-b-PEG mol ratios were prepared by pervaporation method. Morphologies of CMCS/PBLG-b-PEG blend films were researched by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of CMCS/PBLG-b-PEG blend films were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile tests, and contact angle tests. It was revealed that the introduction of PBLG-b-PEG segments could greatly affect the morphology and the properties of CMCS films. (author)

  5. CONTROLLED RADICAL COPOLYMERIZATION OF STYRENE AND MALEIC ANHYDRIDE UNDER GAMMA RADIATION IN THE PRESENCE OF BENZYL DITHIOBENZOATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-cheng Wu; Ying-fang Zou; Cai-yuan Pan

    2002-01-01

    The copolymerization of styrene (St) with maleic anhydride (MAh) under gamma radiation at room temperature inthe presence of benzyl dithiobenzoate (BDTB) was found to display "living" nature evidenced by constant concentration ofchain radicals during the copolymerization, linear evolution of molecular weights with conversion and narrow molecularweight distribution (Mw/Mn = 1.23-1.35). The compositional analysis and the sequence structural information of thecopolymers obtained from DEPT (Distortionless Enhancement by Polarization Transfer) experiments demonstrate that thecopolymers obtained also possess strictly alternating structure.

  6. Coenzyme B12 model studies: Equilibrium constants for the H-dependent axial ligation of benzyl(aquo)cobaloxime by various N- and S-donor ligands

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Sudarshan Reddy; N Ravi Kumar Reddy; V Sridhar; S Satyanarayana

    2002-02-01

    Equilibria of the axial ligation of benzyl(aquo)cobaloximes by imidazole, 1-methyl imidazole, histidine, histamine, glycine, ethyl glycine ester, thiourea and urea have been spectrophotometrically measured in aqueous solutions of ionic strength 1.0 M (KCl) at 25°C as a function of H. The equilibrium constants are in the order CN- > 1-methyl imidazole > imidazole > histidine > histamine > glycine > ethyl glycine ester > thiourea > urea. The order of stability of benzyl(ligand)cobaloxime is explained based on the basicity of the ligand, Co(III) → - back bonding and soft-soft and soft-hard interaction. Imidazole, substituted imidazoles, histidine and histamine form more stable complexes than glycine, ethyl glycine ester in contrast to the basicity of the ligands. Benzyl(ligand)cobaloximes were isolated and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and 1H NMR spectra.

  7. 1-O-Acetyl-3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-2-C-bromomethyl-2-deoxy-α-d-glucopyranose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henok H. Kinfe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C30H33BrO6, the pyranose ring adopts a chair conformation. Two of the O-benzyl phenyl rings lie almost perpendicular to C/C/C/O plane formed by the ring atoms not attached to these O-benzyl phenyl rings, and form dihedral angles of 85.1 (2 and 64.6 (2°, while the third O-benzyl phenyl ring is twisted so that it makes a dihedral angle 34.9 (2° to this C/C/C/O plane. This twist is ascribed to the formation of an S(8 loop stabilized by a weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond.

  8. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  9. 1, 3-Dipolar cycloaddition reactions: Synthesis of 5-benzyl-1-(2',4'-dibromophenyl)-3-(4"-substituted phenyl)-3a,4,6,6a-tetrahydro-1, 5-pyrrolo[3,4-]pyrazole-4,6-dione derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manpreet Kaur; Baldev Singh; Baljit Singh

    2013-11-01

    1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of nitrilimines 3 with -benzyl maleimide 4 has provided 5-benzyl-1-(2',4'-dibromophenyl)-3-(4"-substituted phenyl)-3a,4,6,6a-tetrahydro-1,5-pyrrolo[3,4-]pyrazole-4,6-dione derivatives 5 in excellent yield as the only isomer through a concerted pathway.

  10. Novel Synthesis and Anti-HIV-1 Activity of 2-Arylthio-6-benzyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrimidin-4-ones (Aryl S-DABOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aly, Youssef L.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerreg.; La Colla, Paolo;

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis and the anti-HIV-1 activity of a series of 2-arylthio-6-benzyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrimidin-4-ones (aryl S-DABOs) are reported. These compounds were synthesized via a coupling reaction of the corresponding 6-benzyl-2-thiouracils with aryl iodides in the presence of neocuproine hydrate, ...

  11. The economics of alcohol abuse and alcohol-control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Philip J; Moore, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Economic research has contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical analysis of the effects of alcohol-control measures on alcohol consumption and its consequences. It has also provided an accounting framework for defining and comparing costs and benefits of alcohol consumption and related policy interventions, including excise taxes. The most important finding from the economics literature is that consumers tend to drink less ethanol, and have fewer alcohol-related problems, when alcoholic beverage prices are increased or alcohol availability is restricted. That set of findings is relevant for policy purposes because alcohol abuse imposes large "external" costs on others. Important challenges remain, including developing a better understanding of the effects of drinking on labor-market productivity. PMID:11900152

  12. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R.; et al. Gender differences in moderate drinking effects. Alcohol Research & Health 23:55–64, 1999. (5) Loft, S. ; ... A.; and Sullivan, E. Sex differences in the effects of alcohol on brain structure. American Journal of Psychiatry 158: ...

  13. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/alcoholismandalcoholabuse.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  14. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855. Contact Person:...

  15. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  16. Benzyl and Methyl Fatty Hydroxamic Acids Based on Palm Kernel Oil as Chelating Agent for Liquid-Liquid Iron(III) Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Jamileh Amin; Roshanak Rafiee-Moghaddam; Behnam Mahdavi; Mazyar Peyda; Anuar Kassim; Nor Azah Yusof; Md Jelas Haron; Hossein Jahangirian; Yadollah Abdollahi; Sidik Silong

    2012-01-01

    Liquid-liquid iron(III) extraction was investigated using benzyl fatty hydroxamic acids (BFHAs) and methyl fatty hydroxamic acids (MFHAs) as chelating agents through the formation of iron(III) methyl fatty hydroxamate (Fe-MFHs) or iron(III) benzyl fatty hydroxamate (Fe-BFHs) in the organic phase. The results obtained under optimized conditions, showed that the chelating agents in hexane extract iron(III) at pH 1.9 were realized effectively with a high percentage of extraction (97.2% and 98.1%...

  17. (1S,3S,4S)-tert-Butyl N-[1-benzyl-3-hydr­oxy-5-phenyl-4-(picolinamido)pent­yl]carbamate

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Feng Zheng; Su-Yu Huang; Jian-Nan Guo; Yu Zhang; Li-Ren Jin

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C29H35N3O4, was obtained by the reaction of (2S,4S,5S)-tert-butyl N-(4-amino-1-benzyl-3-hydroxy-5-phenylpentyl)carbamate and picolinic acid using oxalyl chloride as a chlorinating reagent to activate the carboxyl group. In the crystal structure there are two molecules in the asymmetric unit, which are aligned edge-to-face. In one molecule, the pyridyl ring forms a dihedral angle of 22.0 (1)° with the phenyl ring of the terminal benzyl group and 14.3 (1)...

  18. Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychological Addiction to Alcohol (Alcohol Abuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanal...

  19. Alcoholic Lung Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kershaw, Corey D.; Guidot, David M.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to its well-known association with lung infection (i.e., pneumonia), alcohol abuse now is recognized as an independent factor that increases by three- to four-fold the incidence of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, a severe form of acute lung injury with a mortality rate of 40 to 50 percent. This translates to tens of thousands of excess deaths in the United States each year from alcohol-mediated lung injury, which is comparable to scarring of the liver (i.e., cirrhosis) in...

  20. Alcohol, cannabis y accidentalidad

    OpenAIRE

    Olave Porrua, Leticia; Matos Larrinaga, Jesús; Salguero Noguera, Martín; Ramos Cejudo, Juan; Mae Wood, Cristina; Iruarrizaga Díez, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    Se ha desarrollado este trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de concentrar los últimos avances en investigación del consumo de alcohol y cannabis y su infl uencia en la conducción. Se realizaron tres búsquedas sistemáticas en la base de datos Psycinfo, introduciendo las palabras clave 'alcohol' AND 'traffi c'y 'cannabis' AND 'traffi c', restringida a los últimos cinco años (de enero de 2006 a diciembre de 2010). El presente trabajo incluye los datos más relevantes sobre prevalen...

  1. Content determination of benzyl glucosinolate and anti-cancer activity of its hydrolysis product inCarica papaya L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-You Li; Yong Wang; Wen-Tao Shen; Peng Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine the content of benzyl glucosinolate(BG)in the pulp and the seed and investigate the anti-cancer activity of its hydrolysis product inCarica papaya L.Methods:Determination ofBG was performed on an HypersilBDS C18 column at the wavelength of214 nm with0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)aqueous solution (A) and 0.1%TFA acetonitrile (B)as the mobile phase. In vitro activity test was adopted with cultured human lung cancerH69 cellin vitro to investigate the inhibition rate of cell proliferation of benzyl isothiocyanate(BITC)againstH69 cell.Results: The pulp has more BG before the maturation of papaya and it nearly disappeared after papaya matured, while the seed containsBG at every stage. Activity test demonstrated that the a higher concentration ofBITC would have better inhibition rate of cell proliferation onH69 cell, and the IC50 was6.5 μmol/L.Conclusions:BG also can be produced in the pulp of papaya and it will be stored in the seed after the fruit has been matured. The hydrolysis product ofBG has certain cancer-prevention anti-cancer activities for human.

  2. Progress in synthesis of benzyl acetate%乙酸苄酯的合成研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马松艳; 于冬梅; 赵东江; 乔秀丽; 白晓波; 董艳萍

    2009-01-01

    Benzyl acetate is a colorless transparent liquid, which has sweet-smelling of jasmine aroma and fruit,and is widely used as food and cosmetics essence. The catalytic synthesis of benzyl acetate with inorganic salt,solid superacid,heteropoly acid,sulfonic acid,phase-transfer, strongly acidic cation exchange resin,room temperature ionic liquids,microemulsion catalysts was reviewed. Advantages and shortcomings as catalytic properties of each catalyst were evaluated.%乙酸苄酯是无色透明油状的液体,具有茉莉花香气和水果香味,多用作食品和化妆品的香精.介绍了无机盐、固体超强酸、杂多酸、磺酸类、相转移、强酸性阳离子交换树脂、室温离子液体、微乳等催化剂催化合成乙酸苄酯的方法,并对各种催化剂的性能、优缺点进行了评价.

  3. A Pronounced Halogen Effect on the Organogelation Properties of Peripherally Halogen Functionalized Poly(benzyl ether) Dendrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu; Chen, Hui; Liu, Zhi-Xiong; He, Yan-Mei; Fan, Qing-Hua

    2016-03-24

    An interesting halogen-substituent effect on the organogelation properties of poly(benzyl ether) dendrons is reported. A new class of poly(benzyl ether) dendrons with halo substituents decorating their periphery was synthesized and fully characterized. A systematic study on the gelation abilities, thermotropic behaviors, aggregated microstructures, and mechanical properties of self-assembled organogels was performed to elucidate the halogen-substituent effects on their organogelation propensity. It was found that the exact halogen substitutions on the periphery of dendrons exert a profound effect on the organogelation propensity, and dendrons Gn -Cl (n=2, 3) and G2 -I proved to be highly efficient organogelators. The cooperation of multiple π-π, dispersive halogen, CH-π, and weak C-H⋅⋅⋅X hydrogen-bonding interactions were found to be the key contributor to forming the self-assembled gels. Dendritic organogels formed from Gn -Cl (n=2, 3) in 1,2-dichloroethane exhibited thixotropic-responsive properties, and such thixotropic organogels are promising materials for future research and applications. PMID:26916094

  4. Chicano Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in the Barrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso, Ricardo

    Conducted in January 1977, the community survey examined alcohol abuse and alcoholism among Chicanos in the barrios. Data were obtained from 160 respondents (119 females and 41 males) from 3 geographic areas in San Antonio: the Special Impact Area of Casa Del Sol (an alcoholism program) and the cities of San Antonio and Alamo Heights. Information…

  5. Information on Blood Alcohol Concentration: Evaluation of Two Alcohol Nomograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.

    1988-01-01

    Compared utility of two common alcohol nomograms on impacting decisions regarding drinking, driving after drinking, knowledge of relationship between personal alcohol consumption and the legal level of intoxication, and consumer evaluation measures, to utility of alcohol information warning card. Nomograms were no more effective than cards warning…

  6. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects in Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancratz, Diane R.

    This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…

  7. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  8. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Principles for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…

  9. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette Skalshøi;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64 years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993...

  10. Men's Health: Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Alcohol and drug abuse More information on alcohol and drug abuse Alcohol ... Return to top More information on Alcohol and drug abuse Explore other publications and websites Consequences of the ...

  11. Alcohol and Public Health: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it okay to drink when pregnant? What is alcohol? Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is an intoxicating ingredient ... sugars, and starches. Top of Page How does alcohol affect a person? Alcohol affects every organ in ...

  12. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fede, Giuseppe; Germani, Giacomo; Gluud, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  13. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... considered "problem drinkers." This means that they: Get drunk Have accidents related to alcohol use Get into ... to legally define whether or not you are drunk. The legal limit for blood alcohol usually falls ...

  14. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  15. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  16. [Alcoholism from the systemic viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, V; Besson, J

    1999-10-14

    In this paper we attempt to view the phenomenon alcohol abuse and dependence within the family or partnership and to describe the important impact of alcoholism on social relation. Understating the role of alcohol in the familial structure may help to draw conclusions for competence and effectiveness of individual or familial psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:10574037

  17. Alcohol, marihuana and youth

    OpenAIRE

    KREJČOVÁ, Iveta

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this work is misusing alcohol and illicit addicting substances (primarily marijuana) by students at high schools. The research was done at specifically chosen high school by questionnaires, that helped to uncover student?s experiences with illicit addicting substances.

  18. Saying No to Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Nancy; Wagman, Ellen

    This teacher guide is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The guide provides teachers with a…

  19. Children of Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at home: Failure in school; truancy Lack of friends; withdrawal from classmates Delinquent behavior, such as stealing or violence Frequent physical complaints, such as headaches or stomachaches Abuse of drugs or alcohol; or Aggression towards other children Risk taking behaviors Depression or ...

  20. Alcohol content variation in the assessment of alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C S; Nirenberg, T D

    1991-01-01

    Most investigators have not adequately accounted for the alcohol content of different beverages when assessing alcohol consumption. Considerable research has assessed consumption in terms of the number of standard drinks. A problem with standard drink measures is that different distilled spirits, wines, and malt beverages vary considerably in alcohol content. State-to-state and brand-to-brand variations in the strength of different malt beverage brands are provided, as malt beverage alcohol contents are not contained on labels due to federal and state regulations. Ignoring alcohol content variation when estimating consumption can produce a large amount of error. Alcohol consumption should be assessed in terms of the number, size, and alcohol content of beverages. PMID:1801580

  1. Alcohol use following an alcohol challenge and a brief intervention among alcohol-dependent individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Bacio, GA; Lunny, KF; Webb, JN; Ray, LA

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives The study examined the effects of an alcohol challenge on naturalistic drinking among alcohol-dependent individuals and explored brief motivational interviewing (MI) as a potential intervention for these participants. Method Alcohol-dependent individuals (n = 32, eight females) completed the intake assessment, alcohol challenge, one MI session, and 1-month follow-up (87.5% retention) where they completed measures of drinking and motivation for change. Results As expe...

  2. Body composition in detoxified alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, J L; Pendergast, D E

    1990-04-01

    Body composition was evaluated in healthy detoxified alcoholics (aged 20-39) and lifestyle controls, with the expectation that prolonged, excessive consumption of alcohol may bring about nutritional or toxicologic alterations in the relationship between body fat and lean body mass. Body fat was assessed by measurements of skin-fold thickness and by means of bioelectric impedance methodology. No noteworthy differences were observed between alcoholics and controls with regard to the relationship between lean body mass and body fat or in the relationship between extracellular and intracellular water. It would appear that 15-20 years of heavy alcohol consumption does not necessarily alter body composition in healthy, young alcoholics. PMID:2190482

  3. Catalytic Z-Selective Cross-Metathesis with Secondary Silyl- and Benzyl-Protected Allylic Ethers: Mechanistic Aspects and Applications to Natural Product Synthesis**

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Tyler J.; Speed, Alexander W. H.; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient catalytic cross-metathesis reactions that afford Z-disubstituted allylic silyl or benzyl ethers are reported (see scheme, MAP=monoalkoxide pyrrolide). The approach, in combination with catalytic cross-coupling, provides a general entry to otherwise difficult-to-access alkyne-containing Z olefins.

  4. A simple and convenient one-pot synthesis of substituted isoindolin-1-ones via lithiation, substitution and cyclization of N'-benzyl-N,N-dimethylureas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Smith

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lithiation of N'-benzyl-N,N-dimethylurea and its substituted derivatives with t-BuLi (3.3 equiv in anhydrous THF at 0 °C followed by reaction with various electrophiles afforded a range of 3-substituted isoindolin-1-ones in high yields.

  5. Azido-Iodo-N-Benzyl Derivatives of threo-Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta): Rational Design, Synthesis, Pharmacological Evaluation, and Dopamine Transporter Photoaffinity Labeling

    OpenAIRE

    Lapinsky, David J.; Velagaleti, Ranganadh; Yarravarapu, Nageswari; Liu, Yi; Huang, Yurong; Surratt, Christopher K.; Lever, John R.; Foster, James D.; Acharya, Rejwi; Vaughan, Roxanne A.; Deutsch, Howard M.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to tropane-based compounds such as benztropine and cocaine, non-tropane-based photoaffinity ligands for the dopamine transporter (DAT) are relatively unexplored. Towards addressing this knowledge gap, ligands were synthesized in which the piperidine nitrogen of 3- and 4-iodomethylphenidate was substituted with a benzyl group bearing a photoreactive azide. Analog (...

  6. SiO2-Cu2O:An efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for N-benzylation of primary and secondary amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manjulla Gupta; Satya Paul; Rajive Gupta

    2014-01-01

    A mild, effective, and selective procedure is reported for the mono N-benzylation and N,N- diben-zylation of primary amines as well as mono N-benzylation of secondary amines using sili-ca-supported copper(I) oxide in water. The silica-supported Cu2O was generated in situ by the reac-tion of Fehling solution and glucose at 100 °C onto activated silica. The catalyst was filtered, washed with water, and oven-dried, and was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The prepared Cu2O-SiO2 was found to be thermally stable up to 325 °C. The copper was uniformly distributed onto the surface of the silica, and the mean particle diameter was 7 nm. The catalyst served as a selective heterogenous catalyst for the N-benzylation of primary and secondary amines. The catalyst is recyclable and was used effectively upto fifth run without a significant loss of catalytic activity. Various reaction solvents including water, acetonitrile, and toluene were screened for N-benzylation of amines, and the success of the aqueous system highlights the low environmental impact of the procedure.

  7. Substituted thiobenzoic acid S-benzyl esters as potential inhibitors of a snake venom phospholipase A2: Synthesis, spectroscopic and computational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao Castañeda, I. C.; Pereañez, J. A.; Jios, J. L.

    2012-11-01

    4-Chlorothiobenzoic acid S-benzyl ester (I), 3-nitrothiobenzoic acid S-benzyl ester (II), 4-nitrothiobenzoic acid S-benzyl ester (III) and 4-methylthiobenzoic acid S-benzyl ester (IV) were prepared and characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, Mass spectrometry and IR spectroscopy. Quantum chemical calculations were performed with Gaussian 09 to calculate the geometric parameters and vibrational spectra. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) was purified from Crotalus durissus cumanensis venom by molecular exclusion chromatography, followed by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography. Two studies of the inhibition of phospholipase A2 activity were performed using phosphatidilcholine and 4-nitro-3-octanoyloxybenzoic acid as substrates, in both cases compound II showed the best inhibitory ability, with 74.89% and 69.91% of inhibition, respectively. Average percentage of inhibition was 52.49%. Molecular docking was carried out with Autodock Vina using as ligands the minimized structures of compounds (I-IV) and as protein PLA2 (PDB code 2QOG). The results suggest that compounds I-IV could interact with His48 at the active site of PLA2. In addition, all compounds showed Van der Waals interactions with residues from hydrophobic channel of the enzyme. This interaction would impede normal catalysis cycle of the PLA2.

  8. Effect of polyester blends in hydroentangled raw and bleached cotton nonwoven fabrics on the adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC), a cationic surfactant commonly employed as an antimicrobial agent, on hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics (applicable for wipes) including raw cotton, bleached cotton, and their blends with polyester (PES) were stu...

  9. Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride towards Technetium-99 Extraction - 13016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    investigate the suitability of new macro-compounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, quaternary ammonium salts, and resorcin-arenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO4- by benzyl tributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand's matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e. diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using an external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed. (authors)

  10. Oxidation and β-Alkylation of Alcohols Catalysed by Iridium(I) Complexes with Functionalised N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, M Victoria; Fernández-Tornos, Javier; Modrego, F Javier; Pérez-Torrente, Jesús J; Oro, Luis A

    2015-12-01

    The borrowing hydrogen methodology allows for the use of alcohols as alkylating agents for CC bond forming processes offering significant environmental benefits over traditional approaches. Iridium(I)-cyclooctadiene complexes having a NHC ligand with a O- or N-functionalised wingtip efficiently catalysed the oxidation and β-alkylation of secondary alcohols with primary alcohols in the presence of a base. The cationic complex [Ir(NCCH3 )(cod)(MeIm(2- methoxybenzyl))][BF4 ] (cod=1,5-cyclooctadiene, MeIm=1-methylimidazolyl) having a rigid O-functionalised wingtip, shows the best catalyst performance in the dehydrogenation of benzyl alcohol in acetone, with an initial turnover frequency (TOF0 ) of 1283 h(-1) , and also in the β-alkylation of 2-propanol with butan-1-ol, which gives a conversion of 94 % in 10 h with a selectivity of 99 % for heptan-2-ol. We have investigated the full reaction mechanism including the dehydrogenation, the cross-aldol condensation and the hydrogenation step by DFT calculations. Interestingly, these studies revealed the participation of the iridium catalyst in the key step leading to the formation of the new CC bond that involves the reaction of an O-bound enolate generated in the basic medium with the electrophilic aldehyde. PMID:26493780

  11. Crystal structure of 3-O-benzyl-4(R-C-(1-benzyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-α-d-erythrofuranose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Semjonovs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C23H25N3O4, {systematic name: 1-benzyl-4-[(3aR,5R,6R,6aR-6-benzyloxy-2,2-dimethyltetrahydrofuro[2,3-d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl]-1H-1,2,3-triazole}, consists of a substituted 2,2-dimethyltetrahydrofuro[2,3-d][1,3]dioxole. The furanose ring adopts an envelope conformation close to C3-exo, where the C atom substituted by the benzyloxy group is the flap. The fused dioxolane ring also adopts an envelope conformation, with the methylene C atom as the flap. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag chains along [010].

  12. Genetic studies in alcohol research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, R.W. [National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1994-12-15

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) supports research to elucidate the specific genetic factors, now largely unknown, which underlie susceptibility to alcoholism and its medical complications (including fetal alcohol syndrome). Because of the genetic complexity and heterogeneity of alcoholism, identification of the multiple underlying factors will require the development of new study designs and methods of analysis of data from human families. While techniques of genetic analysis of animal behavioral traits (e.g., targeted gene disruption, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping) are more powerful that those applicable to humans (e.g., linkage and allelic association studies), the validation of animal behaviors as models of aspects of human alcoholism has been problematic. Newly developed methods for mapping QTL influencing animal behavioral traits can not only permit analyses of human family data to be directly informed by the results of animal studies, but can also serve as a novel means of validating animal models of aspects of alcoholism. 55 refs.

  13. Preoperative alcoholism and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative risk assessment has become part of daily clinical practice, but preoperative alcohol abuse has not received much attention. METHODS: A Medline search was carried out to identify original papers published from 1967 to 1998. Relevant articles on postoperative morbidity in...... alcohol abusers were used to evaluate the evidence. RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective studies demonstrate a twofold to threefold increase in postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, the most frequent complications being infections, bleeding and cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Wound complications...... postoperative morbidity. CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption should be included in the preoperative assessment of likely postoperative outcome. Reduction of postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers may include preoperative alcohol abstinence to improve organ function, or perioperative alcohol administration to...

  14. [Alcohol and women: clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Romeo, Marina; Fiorentino, Daniela

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol-related pathologies lead to most serious expressions, both at clinical and social level. The diffused social acceptance of consumption and abuse behavior and the lack of alcohol education for professionals (physicians, psychologists, social workers etc.) make difficult to put in the right frame this issue. Just a multidimensional approach can make the problem understandable. The history of alcohol consumption during the time gives us an exhaustive picture of the negative consequences of alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a problem still underestimated and represents a serious risk for the health of the newborns: children alcohol-exposed in uterus are at risk to develop many pathologies and even the fetal-alcohol syndrome (FAS) that leads to facial anomalies, growth deficiencies and neurological damages. Therefore interventions coping with this kind of issues are needed in order to enhance people's health. PMID:15269446

  15. Reactivity towards nitriles, cyanamides, and carbodiimides of palladium complexes derived from benzyl alcohol. Synthesis of a mixed Pd2Ag complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, María-José; Martínez-Viviente, Eloísa; Vicente, José; Jones, Peter G

    2016-01-14

    The chelate complex [Pd(κ(2)-C,O-C6H4CH2O-2)(bpy)] () reacts with acetonitrile, cyanamides, or carbodiimides, in the presence of AgOTf (1 : 5 : 1 molar ratio) and residual water, to form complexes [Pd{κ(2)-C,N-C6H4{CH2OC([double bond, length as m-dash]NX)Y}-2}(bpy)](OTf), where X = H, Y = Me (), NMe2 (), NEt2 (), X = R, Y = NHR (R = (i)Pr (), Tol ()), as a result of the insertion of the unsaturated reagent into the O-Pd bond of and the protonation of one of the N atoms. In the absence of AgOTf the reaction of with TolN[double bond, length as m-dash]C[double bond, length as m-dash]NTol (Tol = p-Tolyl) results in the formation of the neutral complex [Pd{κ(2)-C,N-C6H4{CH2OC([double bond, length as m-dash]NTol)NTol}-2}(bpy)] (). Complexes and can be interconverted by deprotonation ( + KO(t)Bu) or protonation ( + KOTf + HOTf) reactions. When the reaction of with TolN[double bond, length as m-dash]C[double bond, length as m-dash]NTol in the presence of AgOTf is carried out in a 1 : 1 : 1 stoichiometric ratio, or for a short period of time, a mixture of and a mixed heterometallic Ag2Pd complex is obtained ( = [Ag(N-)2](OTf)). Complex is the major product when the AgOTf is added before the carbodiimide, and the reaction is stopped immediately. can also be obtained by reaction of with 0.5 equiv. of AgOTf. When complex [PdI(C6H4CH2OH-2)(bpy)] () reacts with (i)PrN[double bond, length as m-dash]C[double bond, length as m-dash]N(i)Pr in the presence of TlOTf, instead of AgOTf, a ca. 1 : 1 mixture of and [Pd{κ(2)-O,N-OCH2{C6H4{C([double bond, length as m-dash]NH(i)Pr)N(i)Pr}-2}}(bpy)](OTf) () forms. Complex is the result of the insertion of the carbodiimide into the C-Pd bond. Complexes have been extensively characterized by NMR spectroscopy, and the crystal structures of , , and ·2.5CHCl3·0.5Et2O have been determined by X-ray diffraction studies. PMID:26646443

  16. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  17. Method for recovering alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlstrom, R.A.; Rubin, J.N.

    1980-04-17

    In this method for extraction of alcohol from fermented material, insoluble organic matter is first removed before the ferment enters the distillation column and tried spent grains then recovered by drying under pressure. Excess steam from the drying stage is used to heat the distillation column. In addition, excess water vapour produced as a result of further heating by head vapour from the first distillation column, is drawn off from the evaporation step, condensed and fed into the distillation columns and evaporation step.

  18. Alcoholism in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Saul

    1988-01-01

    This article concentrates on the identification confrontation, and treatment of the elderly with late-onset alcohol-abuse problems. The author reviews signs and symptoms that are common both to the aging process and to late-onset problem drinking. He also provides a list of laboratory “markers” that may be helpful for the diagnosis and follow-up of this not infrequent problem.

  19. Structure of HIV-1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors derivatives of N-benzyl-benzimidazole with different substituents in position 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Natasza E.; Michejda, Christopher J.; Bujacz, Grzegorz D.

    2010-01-01

    The constant development of new drugs against HIV-1 is necessary due to global expansion of AIDS and HIV-1 drug resistance. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors of HIV-1 (NNRTIs) are potentially effective and nontoxic drugs in AIDS therapy. The crystal structures of six nonnucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) derivatives of N-benzyl-benzimidazole are reported here. The investigated compounds belong to the group of so called "butterfly like" inhibitors with characteristic two π-electron moieties with an angled orientation. The structural data show the influence of the substituents of the benzimidazole ring on the geometry of the molecule and correlation between the structure of the inhibitor and its biological activity.

  20. 1-Benzyl-1H-benzotriazole 3-oxide–1-hydroxy-1H-benzotriazole (1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Selvarathy Grace

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C6H5N3O·C13H11N3O, the benzotriazole ring system in the 1-benzyl-1H-benzotriazole 3-oxide (A molecule is close to being planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.011 Å; its mean plane forms a dihedral angle of 67.56 (7° with that of the attached phenyl ring. The benzotriazole ring system in the 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (B molecule is also close to being planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.010 Å. In the crystal, weak C—H...O and C—H...π interactions are present. The A and B molecules are linked by an O—H...N hydrogen bond.

  1. 1-Benzyl-2-Phenylbenzimidazole (BPB, a Benzimidazole Derivative, Induces Cell Apoptosis in Human Chondrosarcoma through Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Fang Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of a new benzimidazole derivative, 1-benzyl-2-phenyl -benzimidazole (BPB, in human chondrosarcoma cells. BPB-mediated apoptosis was assessed by the MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis. The in vivo efficacy was examined in a JJ012 xenograft model. Here we found that BPB induced apoptosis in human chondrosarcoma cell lines (JJ012 and SW1353 but not in primary chondrocytes. BPB induced upregulation of Bax, Bad and Bak, downregulation of Bcl-2, Bid and Bcl-XL and dysfunction of mitochondria in chondrosarcoma. In addition, BPB also promoted cytosolic releases AIF and Endo G. Furthermore, it triggered extrinsic death receptor-dependent pathway, which was characterized by activating Fas, FADD and caspase-8. Most importantly, animal studies revealed a dramatic 40% reduction in tumor volume after 21 days of treatment. Thus, BPB may be a novel anticancer agent for the treatment of chondrosarcoma.

  2. Crystal structure of hydrazine 5-amino-1-benzyl-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylate hexafluorosilicate trihydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrazine 5-amino-1-benzyl-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxylate hexafluorosilicate trihydrate (I) is synthesized. The crystal structure of the compound synthesized is determined. Crystals I are monoclinic, a 13.353(1) A, b = 21.094(2) A, c = 20.233(2) A, β = 94.05(3) deg., space group P21/c, and R = 0.0584 for 16 601 reflections with I > 2σ(I). In the asymmetric part of the unit cell, four organic cations protonated at the terminal hydrazine nitrogen atoms, two hexafluorosilicate anions, and six water molecules are linked into a three-dimensional framework through hydrogen bonds of the N-H···F, N-H···O, and O-H···F types

  3. Polymer-clay nanocomposites obtained by solution polymerization of vinyl benzyl triammonium chloride in the presence of advanced functionalized clay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raluca Ianchis; Dan Donescu; Ludmila Otilia Cinteza; Violeta Purcar; Cristina Lavinia Nistor; Critian Petcu; Cristian Andi Nicolae; Raluca Gabor; Silviu Preda

    2014-05-01

    Polymer-clay nanocomposites were synthesized by solution polymerization method using advanced functionalized clay and vinyl benzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride as monomer. First stage consisted in the silylation of a commercial organo-modified clay-Cl 20A using alkoxysilanes with different chain lengths. In the second step, the synthesis and characterization of polymer-nanocomposites were followed. To evaluate the clay functionalization process as well as the final polymer-clay products, thermogravimetric,X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and three test liquid contact angles analyses were used. The loss of ammonium ions from commercial clay, the grafting degree, the lengths and the nature of alkyl chain influence the dispersion of the advanced modified clay into the polymer solution and, furthermore, the properties of the final polymer-clay nanocomposite film.

  4. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of N-Benzyl-N'-(2-pyridyl)urea and Its Mononuclear Cu(II) Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Lei; LUO Xiao-Lan; ZHANG Wen-Qin

    2008-01-01

    A new ligand of N-benzyl-N'-(2-pyridyl)urea L and its self-assembly product with CuCl2, [Cu(II)LCl2]∞ 1, have been synthesized and structurally characterized by IR, 1H NMR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In the structure of L, the urea groups adopt Z,E conformation to form dimers through intermolecular hydrogen bonds; while in complex 1, it assumes Z,Z conformation to fit for the coordination sphere of the Cu(II) ions. The coordinated units are connected through intermolecular N-H…Cl hydrogen bonds to form an extended 2D framework. Finally, a 3D structure is obtained via π-π stacking interactions between pyridyl rings.

  5. [DGRW update: alcohol addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelgesang, M

    2011-10-01

    First, epidemiological data and socioeconomic consequences of alcohol addiction are summarized. Research findings, in particular in intervention and evaluation, from 2009-2011 in the field of alcohol addiction treatment are then discussed concerning their relevance for rehabilitation practice. The search was based on PubMed and PSYNDEX. The interventions most frequently evaluated and found most effective in alcohol addiction treatment are cognitive-behavioural interventions. Further topics dealt with are: pharmacological relapse prevention; technologically based therapies (e. g. e-therapy); systemic interventions; 12-steps; effectiveness of addiction treatment as confirmed in large-scale catamnestic studies; treatment of addiction and comorbidity; various subgroups (like elderly people and women); as well as other new and interesting developments such as rehab case management, dovetailing of medical and vocational interventions, stepped-care interventions, rehab management category groups as well as a new focus on individual treatment experiences and the pre-eminence of the therapeutic relationship. Finally, priority areas of future research are described. PMID:21976262

  6. Adolescent alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Pernille; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Huckle, Taisia;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To analyse how adolescent drunkenness and frequency of drinking were associated with adult drinking patterns and alcohol control policies. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional survey data on 13- and 15-year-olds in 37 countries who participated in the Health Behaviour in School......-Aged Children (HBSC) Study in 2010 (n = 144 788) were linked to national-level indicators on alcohol control policies and adult drinking patterns. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome measures were self-reported weekly drinking and life-time drunkenness (drunk once or more). Data were analysed using multi-level logistic...... regression models. FINDINGS: In the mutually adjusted models, adolescent drunkenness was associated significantly with high adult alcohol consumption [odds ratio (OR) = 3.15 among boys, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.13-4.64, OR girls = 2.44, CI = 1.57-3.80] and risky drinking patterns in the adult...

  7. 5,6-Dimethoxybenzofuran-3-one Derivatives: a Novel Series of Dual Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors Bearing Benzyl Pyridinium Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdollahi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been focused on design and synthesis of multi-target anti Alzheimer compounds. Utilizing of the dual Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors has gained more interest to treat the Alzheimer’s disease. As a part of a research program to find a novel drug for treating Alzheimer disease, we have previously reported 6-alkoxybenzofuranone derivatives as potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. In continuation of our work, we would like to report the synthesis of 5,6-dimethoxy benzofuranone derivatives bearing a benzyl pyridinium moiety as dual Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors.MethodsThe synthesis of target compounds was carried out using a conventional method. Bayer-Villiger oxidation of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde furnished 3,4-dimethoxyphenol. The reaction of 3,4-dimethoxyphenol with chloroacetonitrile followed by treatment with HCl solution and then ring closure yielded the 5,6-dimethoxy benzofuranone. Condensation of the later compound with pyridine-4-carboxaldehyde and subsequent reaction with different benzyl halides afforded target compounds. The biological activity was measured using standard Ellman’s method. Docking studies were performed to get better insight into interaction of compounds with receptor.ResultsThe in vitro anti acetylcholinesterase/butyrylcholinesterase activity of compounds revealed that, all of the target compounds have good inhibitory activity against both Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase enzymes in which compound 5b (IC50 = 52 ± 6.38nM was the most active compound against acetylcholinesterase. The same binding mode and interactions were observed for the reference drug donepezil and compound 5b in docking study.ConclusionsIn this study, we presented a new series of benzofuranone-based derivatives having pyridinium moiety as potent dual acting Acetylcholinesterase/Butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors.

  8. Physician's information about alcohol problems at hospitalisation of alcohol misusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1992-01-01

    Information was gathered on recognition and treatment of alcohol problems in the primary and secondary health sectors, the latter represented by a department of hepatology. The general practitioner finds in most cases (18/26, 69%) that it is relevant to advise about a patient's alcohol misuse...... on admission forms when the patient previously has been discharged from another department with this diagnosis. However, if the patient has not previously been hospitalised due to alcohol misuse, information on the diagnosis is only rarely (30/114, 26%) available. This difference is highly significant (P = 0.......0001). The case-recording hospital physician at admission recognises 73% of alcohol misusers who are admitted with a non-alcohol-related diagnosis. When the patient had been evaluated by both the admitting physician and the case-recording hospital physician, information on the alcohol problem occurred...

  9. Alcohol and the work place

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has observed an increase in the number of personnel suffering from alcohol-related problems in recent years, in spite of the implementation of stricter regulations concerning the consumption of alcohol on the site. The causes of alcohol-related problems are often complex and many-faceted. A family history of alcohol abuse can be a cofactor in excessive drinking. The effects on a person's work are not negligible and should not be ignored. "Alcohol and the work place" is the third part of a campaign designed to raise awareness of the risks of alcohol consumption, which has already dealt with "alcohol and health" and "alcohol and road safety".Many employers have taken steps to confront the problem, and CERN launched a campaign to help its employees suffering from alcohol-related problems over ten years ago. A standing SCC sub-group on the prevention of alcoholism has been set up and Operational Circular No. 8, which defines the role and responsibilities of all parties concerned in the m...

  10. [Current peculiarities of alcoholic psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksin, D S; Egorov, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    The follow-up study of alcoholic psychoses in male patients admitted to a clinical department of a psychiatric hospital in 2005-2007 was carried out. Patients with alcoholic psychoses made up from 15 to 30% of all patients. The number of psychosis had seasonal variations with the elevations in spring and autumn, peaks in January, lune and October. Alcoholic delirium morbidity made up from 69 to 82% of the total number of alcoholic psychoses, alcoholic hallucinosis varied from 14 to 27%. Other forms were presented by single cases. In alcoholic delirium hallucinations had brighter, sated character. The most specific were visual hallucinations in the form of zoohallucinations, hallucinations of an oral cavity ("sensation of threads, hair etc"). The most often observable characters were "extraneous people, animal, demons". In alcoholic hallucinosis, verbal contrast hallucinations, making comment hallucinations, visual illusions were most frequent. The family history of mental disorders and alcoholism was noted in 30% of patients with alcoholic psychosis. The probability of occurrence of alcoholic psychoses depended on the quality of consumed drinks. The presence of a cranial-brain injury in the anamnesis considerably aggravated the disease forecast and increased the risk of seizure syndrome. PMID:22611692

  11. Circulating Cytokines as Biomarkers of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeshwara N. Achur; Freeman, Willard M.; Vrana, Kent E.

    2009-01-01

    There are currently no consistent objective biochemical markers of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Development of reliable diagnostic biomarkers that permit accurate assessment of alcohol intake and patterns of drinking is of prime importance to treatment and research fields. Diagnostic biomarker development in other diseases has demonstrated the utility of both open, systems biology, screening for biomarkers and more rational focused efforts on specific biomolecules or families of biomolecules...

  12. Diagnostic challenges in alcohol use disorder and alcoholic liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vonghia, Luisa; Michielsen, Peter; Dom, Geert; Francque, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders represent a heterogeneous spectrum of clinical manifestations that have been defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5. Excessive alcohol intake can lead to damage of various organs, including the liver. Alcoholic liver disease includes different injuries ranging from steatosis to cirrhosis and implicates a diagnostic assessment of the liver disease and of its possible complications. There is growing interest in the possible different tools f...

  13. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2011-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurr...

  14. Alcohol-specific parenting, adolescent alcohol use and the mediating effect of adolescent alcohol-related cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : Previous research indicated that alcohol-specific parenting is an important precursor of adolescent alcohol use, but failed to define the underlying mechanism. Based on social cognitive theory, alcohol-related cognitions such as alcohol refusal self-efficacy and alcohol-related expectan

  15. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  16. Alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma shows a rising incidence worldwide, and the largest burden of disease in Western countries derives from patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and cirrhosis, the latter being the premier premalignant factor for HCC. The present chapter addresses key issues including the epidemiology of alcohol-associated HCC, and its link to other coexisting non-alcoholic liver diseases, and additional host and environmental risk factors including the underlying genetics. Also discussed are molecular mechanisms of alcohol-associated liver cancer evolution involving the mediators of alcohol toxicity and carcinogenicity, acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species, as well as the recently described mutagenic adducts which these mediators form with DNA. Specifically, interference of alcohol with retinoids and cofactors of transmethylation processes are outlined. Information presented in this chapter illustrates that the development of HCC in the context of ALD is multifaceted and suggests several molecular targets for prevention and markers for the screening of risk groups. PMID:25427904

  17. Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenglass, Bert

    1980-08-01

    Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

  18. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Alcohol use and the risk for alcohol-related problems ...

  19. Alcohol harm reduction in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Herring, Rachel; Thom, Betsy; Beccaria, Franca; Kolind, Torsten; Moskalewicz, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of harm reduction approaches to alcohol in Europe. First, definitions ascribed to alcohol harm reduction are outlined. Then, evaluated alcohol harm reduction interventions in European countries are described and the evidence for their effectiveness examined. These include multi-component programmes, improvements to the drinking environment, and initiatives to reduce the harms associated with drink-driving. Third, harm reduction activities that have been re...

  20. Alcohol, Athletic Performance and Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    David Cameron-Smith; Vella, Luke D.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well u...

  1. Decerebrate posturing in alcoholic coma.

    OpenAIRE

    Ireland, A J; Grant, P T

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of alcoholic coma are presented where extensor responses to noxious stimuli are demonstrated. Decerebrate posturing normally indicates severe structural or functional depression of midbrain function but can be caused by depressant drugs. Blood alcohol measurements are a vital test in the comatose patient as the clinical picture may be caused, or temporarily significantly worsened, by severe alcohol intoxication. The preservation of pupillary light reflexes in the presence of deep co...

  2. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Pompili; Gianluca Serafini; Marco Innamorati; Giovanni Dominici; Stefano Ferracuti; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Giulia Serra; Paolo Girardi; Luigi Janiri; Roberto Tatarelli; Leo Sher; David Lester

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically...

  3. Alcohol and the Asian Glow

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Facial flushing is a common hypersensitivity reaction that may be observed in many Asians following low to moderate alcohol consumption. Flushing can be accompanied by other symptoms such as tachycardia, nausea, and dizziness. Recent studies have shown that this flushing reaction is due to the presence of ALDH2*2, an inactive allele for the alcohol dehydrogenase gene found in approximately 50% of Asians. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is an important enzyme in alcohol metabolism, and deficienc...

  4. Alcohol Dependence, Withdrawal, and Relapse

    OpenAIRE

    Howard C Becker

    2008-01-01

    Continued excessive alcohol consumption can lead to the development of dependence that is associated with a withdrawal syndrome when alcohol consumption is ceased or substantially reduced. This syndrome comprises physical signs as well as psychological symptoms that contribute to distress and psychological discomfort. For some people the fear of withdrawal symptoms may help perpetuate alcohol abuse; moreover, the presence of withdrawal symptoms may contribute to relapse after periods of absti...

  5. Alcohol Dependency in Indian Dentists

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has widely increased through out the world. This all is due to a stressful life style and emotional load on a person. Dentistry is not excluded from the stress phenomenon. Dentists experience stressful situations every day, and have to deal with these in a very professional manner. The dentists participated were told about the hazard and ill-effect of alcohol consumption. There need to be a reduction in consumption of alcohol in dentistry for the upliftment of general mass...

  6. Human alcohol-related neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Monte, Suzanne M; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-related diseases of the nervous system are caused by excessive exposures to alcohol, with or without co-existing nutritional or vitamin deficiencies. Toxic and metabolic effects of alcohol (ethanol) vary with brain region, age/developmental stage, dose, and duration of exposures. In the mature brain, heavy chronic or binge alcohol exposures can cause severe debilitating diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems, and skeletal muscle. Most commonly, long-standing heavy alcohol abuse leads to disproportionate loss of cerebral white matter and impairments in executive function. The cerebellum (especially the vermis), cortical-limbic circuits, skeletal muscle, and peripheral nerves are also important targets of chronic alcohol-related metabolic injury and degeneration. Although all cell types within the nervous system are vulnerable to the toxic, metabolic, and degenerative effects of alcohol, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and synaptic terminals are major targets, accounting for the white matter atrophy, neural inflammation and toxicity, and impairments in synaptogenesis. Besides chronic degenerative neuropathology, alcoholics are predisposed to develop severe potentially life-threatening acute or subacute symmetrical hemorrhagic injury in the diencephalon and brainstem due to thiamine deficiency, which exerts toxic/metabolic effects on glia, myelin, and the microvasculature. Alcohol also has devastating neurotoxic and teratogenic effects on the developing brain in association with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder/fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol impairs function of neurons and glia, disrupting a broad array of functions including neuronal survival, cell migration, and glial cell (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) differentiation. Further progress is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of this exposure-related constellation of nervous system diseases and better correlate the underlying pathology with in vivo imaging and biochemical lesions

  7. A prospective toxicology analysis in alcoholics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørgen Lange; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Felby, Søren;

    1997-01-01

    A prospective and comprehensive investigation was done on 73 medico–legal autopsies in alcoholics. The results of the toxicology analyses are described. Alcohol intoxication was the cause of death in 8%, combined alcohol/drug intoxication in 15% and drugs alone in 19%. Alcoholic ketoacidosis was...... than the exception in deaths in alcoholics....

  8. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  9. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  10. 27 CFR 19.398 - Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.398 Section 19.398 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.398 Alcohol. (a) Containers. Subject to...

  11. Self-assembled dicopper(II) diethanolaminate cores for mild aerobic and peroxidative oxidation of alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figiel, Paweł J; Kirillov, Alexander M; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C; Lasri, Jamal; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2010-11-01

    The new dicopper(ii) complexes [Cu(2)(μ-Hmdea)(2)(NCS)(2)] (1) and [Cu(2)(μ-Hedea)(2)(N(3))(2)]·(H(2)O)(0.25) (2) with the {Cu(2)(μ-O)(2)} diethanolaminate cores have been easily generated by aqueous medium self-assembly reactions of copper(ii) nitrate with N-methyl- or N-ethyldiethanolamine (H(2)mdea or H(2)edea, respectively), in the presence of sodium thiocyanate (for 1) or sodium azide (for 2) as ancillary ligands sources. They have been isolated as air-stable crystalline solids and fully characterized by IR and UV-vis spectroscopies, ESI-MS(+), elemental and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The latter complex also features a fourfold linkage of neighbouring dimeric units via strong intermolecular O-HO hydrogen bonds, giving rise to the formation of tetracopper aggregates. The catalytic activity of compounds 1 and 2 has been studied for the mild (50-80 °C) and selective oxidations of alcohols, namely for (i) the aerobic aqueous medium oxidation of benzyl alcohols to benzaldehydes, mediated by TEMPO radical, and for (ii) the solvent-free oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones by t-BuOOH under microwave (MW) irradiation. Complex 2 shows the highest efficiency in both oxidation systems, resulting in up to 99% molar yields (based on the alcohol substrate) of products. In addition, remarkably high values of TON (1020) and TOF (4080 h(-1)) have been achieved in the MW-assisted peroxidative oxidation of 1-phenylethanol to acetophenone (model reaction). Attractive green features of these catalytic systems include the operation in aqueous or solvent-free reaction medium, under mild conditions and with high yields and selectivities, using Cu catalyst precursors that are readily available by self-assembly in water of simple chemicals. PMID:20844801

  12. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcoholism - deciding to quit References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association, 2013. ...

  13. Alcohol Use and Firearm Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975-2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study. PMID:26811427

  14. Alcohol, Athletic Performance and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cameron-Smith

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors.

  15. Alcohol fuels for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of alcohol as an alternative fuel has been slowly established. In countries such as Brazil, they are already used in transport and other sectors of economy. Other developing countries are also trying out experiments with alcohol fuels. Chances of improving the economy of many developing nations depends to a large extent on the application of this fuel. The potential for alcohol fuels in developing countries should be considered as part of a general biomass-use strategy. The final strategies for the development of alcohol fuel will necessarily reflect the needs, values, and conditions of the individual nations, regions, and societies that develop them. (author). 5 refs

  16. Alcohol myopia and goal commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.TimurSevincer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available According to alcohol-myopia theory, acute alcohol consumption leads people to disproportionally focus on the salient rather than the peripheral aspects of a situation. We summarize various studies exploring how myopic processes resulting from acute alcohol intake affect goal commitment. After consuming alcohol student participants felt strongly committed to an important personal goal even though they had low expectations of successfully attaining the goal. However, once intoxicated participants were sober again (i.e., not myopic anymore they failed to act on their goal commitment. In line with alcohol-myopia theory, strong goal commitment as a result of alcohol intake was mediated by intoxicated (vs. sober participants disproportionally focusing on the desirability rather than the feasibility of their goal. Further supporting alcohol-myopia theory, when the low feasibility of attaining a particular goal was experimentally made salient (either explicitly or implicitly by subliminal priming, intoxicated participants felt less committed than those who consumed a placebo. We discuss these effects of acute alcohol intake in the context of research on the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on goal commitment.

  17. Selectively tritiated primary alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure is suggested for the preparation of aliphatic primary alcohols selectively tritiated in the alpha position. The tritium donor is HTO; out of the catalysts tested, dichlorotris(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium(VI) gave the best results. The isotopic exchange can be performed over the temperature region of 130-200 degC. The amount of side products formed is negligible. The specific activity of the product is determined by the specific activity of HTO used and by the reactant ratio. The method is analogous to the reaction with D2O described by S.L. Regen in 1974. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 17 refs

  18. The alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKeon, A

    2008-08-01

    The alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a common management problem in hospital practice for neurologists, psychiatrists and general physicians alike. Although some patients have mild symptoms and may even be managed in the outpatient setting, others have more severe symptoms or a history of adverse outcomes that requires close inpatient supervision and benzodiazepine therapy. Many patients with AWS have multiple management issues (withdrawal symptoms, delirium tremens, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, seizures, depression, polysubstance abuse, electrolyte disturbances and liver disease), which requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach. Although AWS may be complex, careful evaluation and available treatments should ensure safe detoxification for most patients.

  19. Microstructure of neat alcohols

    CERN Document Server

    Perera, A; Zoranic, L; Perera, Aurelien; Sokolic, Franjo; Zoranic, Larisa

    2007-01-01

    Formation of microstructure in homogeneous associated liquids is analysed through the density-density pair correlation functions, both in direct and reciprocal space, as well as an effective local one-body density function. This is illustrated through a molecular dynamics study of two neat alcohols, namely methanol and \\emph{tert}-butanol, which have a rich microstructure: chain-like molecular association for the former and micelle-like for the latter. The relation to hydrogen bonding interaction is demonstrated. The apparent failure to find microstructure in water -a stronger hydrogen bonding liquid- with the same tools, is discussed.

  20. Do premorbid predictors of alcohol dependence also predict the failure to recover from alcoholism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penick, Elizabeth C; Knop, Joachim; Nickel, Elizabeth J; Jensen, Per; Manzardo, Ann M; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Gabrielli, William F

    2010-01-01

    In a search for viable endophenotypes of alcoholism, this longitudinal study attempted to identify premorbid predictors of alcohol dependence that also predicted the course of alcoholism.......In a search for viable endophenotypes of alcoholism, this longitudinal study attempted to identify premorbid predictors of alcohol dependence that also predicted the course of alcoholism....

  1. 75 FR 20852 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The...: Abraham P. Bautista, PhD, Executive Secretary, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  2. 75 FR 46949 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, including consideration of personnel... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-6076....

  3. 76 FR 2128 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Srinivas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  4. 78 FR 71628 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The..., Ph.D., Executive Secretary, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  5. 76 FR 44600 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  6. 76 FR 39406 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  7. 76 FR 50743 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  8. 78 FR 75929 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  9. 77 FR 33477 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2017,...

  10. 77 FR 64117 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  11. 75 FR 13293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-443-2861....

  12. 77 FR 43603 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2081, Rockville,...

  13. 76 FR 22715 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  14. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm...

  15. 77 FR 2304 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Special Emphasis..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  16. 76 FR 34718 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  17. 76 FR 49494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON ALCOHOL ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM... Neuroimaging. Place: National Institutes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Terrance...

  18. 76 FR 26311 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  19. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The.... Bautista, PhD, Executive Secretary, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National Institutes...

  20. 76 FR 44597 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892,...

  1. 76 FR 78015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2085, Rockville, MD...

  2. 75 FR 47819 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: September 22-23, 2010. Closed: September 22, 2010, 5:30 p.m... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville,...

  3. 78 FR 41940 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda,...

  4. 75 FR 80511 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: February 16-17, 2011. Closed: February 16, 2011, 5:30 p.m. to... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville,...

  5. 77 FR 43098 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  6. 75 FR 69090 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  7. 75 FR 53320 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  8. 76 FR 34719 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  9. 76 FR 17140 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  10. 77 FR 52337 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  11. 76 FR 69746 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes Of Health, National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  12. 75 FR 10489 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  13. 75 FR 42450 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  14. 78 FR 66015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis.... Scientific Review Officer, National Inst on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  15. 78 FR 21616 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  16. 78 FR 45541 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2085, Rockville, MD...

  17. 77 FR 43604 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville,...

  18. 77 FR 22795 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  19. 75 FR 9421 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville, MD...

  20. 78 FR 75927 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...