Sample records for benzopyrenes

  1. The leachability of carbon-14-labelled 3,4-benzopyrene from coal ash into aqueous systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besemer, A.C.; Kanij, J.


    The leachability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal ash into aqueous systems was studied. Carbon-14-labeled 3,4-Benzopyrene (BaP) was deposited on coal fly ash by adsorption from the liquid phase in quantities of about 10 ??g/g ash. After a thermal treatment in air at 120??C for 2 hours t

  2. [Determination of 3, 4-benzopyrene in spiruline algae produced and treated by various procedures]. (United States)

    Bories, G; Tulliez, J


    Spirulina algae grow in highly salted natural lakes. Artificial cultivation in tanks with addition of carbon dioxide (natural gas, burned gases) has been studied in order to improve the biosynthesis. A possible 3, 4-benzopyrene (BaP) contamination must be then considered. Several BaP determinations have been performed in batches of algae from bath origins, prepared following different processes (filtration, spray, cylinder drying). BaP contents are very low (2 to 3 ppb) and comparable between batches.

  3. Prevention of chinese green tea on 3,4-benzopyrene-induced lung cancer and its mechanism in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihua GU


    Full Text Available Background and objective Chinese green tea is one of the daily consumption beverages in the world and is considered a promising cancer chemopreventive agent. In the present study, we investigate the role of lung cancer prevention by green tea and its mechanism. Methods Three groups of female SD rats were kept with the same feed. Rats in group A were administrated with 1% green tea drinking, while in group B and group C with water only. Animals in group A and group B were given 3,4-benzopyrene-corn oil mixture pulmonary injection fortnightly for 4 times, while in group C corn oil only. Rats were sacrificed 1 year after the first injection under narcotism. Lung tumors and lung tissues were performed H&E staining for cancer identification. Each case of lung cancer was examined for expression of p53 and Bcl-2 with in situ hybridization analysis and immunohistochemistry staining. Results No cancer was found in rats in group C. However, in group B, 15 out of 20 rats were found generating lung cancer, and in group A, 6 out of 20 rats inducing lung cancer were recorded. The rate of lung carcinogenesis in rats was decreased from 75% to 30% by 1% chinese green tea oral administration (χ2=8.12, P0.05. However, significantly lower level of Bcl-2 expression was found in lung cancer tissues of group A than that of group B (P<0.05. Conclusion The results indicate that chinese green tea inhibits lung carcinogenesis. Chinese green tea can slightly upregulate expression of p53, but significantly downregulate expression of Bcl-2 in lung cancer, and this may be related to the mechanism of lung cancer prevention.

  4. Removal of 3,4-Benzopyrene in Coal Tar Pitch and Mechanism Research%脱除煤沥青中3,4-苯并芘及其机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋健伟; 李其祥; 王红亮; 王智勇; 伍林


    Using polyethylene glycol and s-trioxane (proportion 4∶6)as complex modifier,carcinogenic pol-ycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 3,4-benzopyrene in coal tar pitch was removed by polymer modified method with removal rate of 7 6.0%.The elemental analysis results showed that in modified coal tar pitch,C,S element con-tents decreased,H element content increased,C/H value and aromaticity (fa)decreased,indicated that the sof-tening point of modified coal tar pitch and the stability of the system decreased.IR Spectra analysis indicated that reaction between polyethylene glycol and 3,4-benzopyrene belonged to O-alkylation reaction,reaction be-tween s-trioxane and 3,4-benzopyrene belonged to C-alkylation reaction.%以聚乙二醇和三聚甲醛为复合改性剂,采用聚合物改性法脱除煤沥青中致癌多环芳烃3,4-苯并芘,在复合改性剂比例(聚乙二醇与三聚甲醛的比)为4∶6时脱除率可达76.0%。元素分析结果表明,改性煤沥青的 C、S元素含量降低,H元素含量升高,C/H值和芳香度(fa )降低,说明改性煤沥青的软化点降低、体系的稳定性下降。红外光谱分析结果表明,聚乙二醇与3,4-苯并芘的反应属于 O-烷基化反应,三聚甲醛与3,4-苯并芘的反应属于C-烷基化反应。

  5. 苯并芘对鱼类免疫毒性作用的研究进展%Advances in the Study of Toxicological Effects of Benzopyrene on Fish Immune System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾旭淑; 宋超; 陈家长


    As a representative of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Benzopyrene was widespread in the natural environment. It could be metabolized by cytochrome P450 monooxygenase such as CYP1A1. The ultimate metabolite BaP-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide thought to be critical for its immunotoxic activity. Fish immune system was in the special stage of evolution. This paper overviewed the toxicity mechanisms and channels of Benzopyrene on fish immune system from mainly immune factors. And the main immunostimulants used in aquaculture to deal with the immune toxicity caused by organic pollutants and other environmental factors were also briefly discussed.%苯并芘作为多环芳烃类化合物的代表,在自然环境中广泛存在.其主要毒性作用机制是经细胞色素P450单加氧酶代谢活化的产物7,8-二羟基-9,10-环氧苯并芘,这也是产生免疫毒性的关键物质.鱼类的免疫系统处于进化的特殊阶段,本研究以主要免疫因子为切入点,综述了苯并芘对鱼类免疫毒性的作用机制及途径.指出:环境中存在的其他有机污染物对鱼类免疫毒性的作用机理,并就鱼类养殖过程中为应对有机污染物及其他环境因子引起的免疫毒性所使用的免疫增强剂做了简单的介绍.

  6. Removing benzopyrene from oil -tea camellia seed oil by different decoloring agents in bleaching process%脱色工艺中不同脱色剂对油茶籽油中苯并芘脱除效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗凡; 费学谦; 方学智; 陈焱; 王亚萍


    研究了在优化的脱色条件下,脱色剂对油茶籽油中苯并芘的脱除作用.结果表明:活性炭对油茶籽油中苯并芘脱除效果显著,加入油质量3%的活性炭可以完全脱除样品中的苯并芘(苯并芘含量为7.12μg/kg);活性白土基本不具备脱除苯并芘的能力,但在活性炭中加入活性白土后,活性白土优先脱除油茶籽油中色素等杂质,为活性炭对苯并芘的脱除保留了吸附能力,使得活性炭对苯并芘的脱除效率提高,在3%活性白土的存在下,加入油质量0.3%的活性炭即可达到单独使用3%活性炭对苯并芘的脱除量,相当于将脱除苯并芘的能力提高10倍左右.%The removal of benzopyrene in oil -tea camellia seed oil by different decoloring agents during bleaching process was investigated. The results demonstrated that the effect of active carbon on the removal of benzopyrene in oil -tea camellia seed oil was significant. The benzopyrene (7.12 μg/kg) in the sample oil could be removed thoroughly with active carbon dosage of 3% (based on the mass of the oil). The active clay did not have the ability of removing benzopyrene, but when mixing with active carbon , the active clay could increase the adsorptive capacity of active carbon, because the active clay was prior to remove the impurities in oil - tea camellia seed oil such as pigment. In the presence of 3% active clay in the oil, the active carbon could remove benzopyrene completely with active carbon dosage of 0. 3% (based on the mass of the oil),and the removal efficiency of active carbon could improve nearly 10 times.

  7. Macrophages promote benzopyrene-induced tumor transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells by activation of NF-κB and STAT3 signaling in a bionic airway chip culture and in animal models. (United States)

    Li, Encheng; Xu, Zhiyun; Zhao, Hui; Sun, Zhao; Wang, Lei; Guo, Zhe; Zhao, Yang; Gao, Zhancheng; Wang, Qi


    We investigated the role of macrophages in promoting benzopyrene (BaP)-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells using a BaP-induced tumor transformation model with a bionic airway chip in vitro and in animal models. The bionic airway chip culture data showed that macrophages promoted BaP-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells, which was mediated by nuclear factor (NF)-κB and STAT3 pathways to induce cell proliferation, colony formation in chip culture, and tumorigenicity in nude mice. Blockage of interleukin (IL)-6 or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α signaling or inhibition of NF-κB, STAT3, or cyclinD1 expression abrogated the effect of macrophages on malignant transformation in the bionic airway chip culture. In vivo, macrophages promoted lung tumorigenesis in a carcinogen-induced animal model. Similarly, blockage of NF-κB, STAT3, or cyclinD1 using siRNA transfection decreased the carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis in rats. We demonstrated that macrophages are critical in promoting lung tumorigenesis and that the macrophage-initiated TNF-α/NF-κB/cyclinD1 and IL-6/STAT3/cyclinD1 pathways are primarily responsible for promoting lung tumorigenesis.

  8. Experimental Study on Lung Cancer Model Induced by Bronchial Perfusion of 3, 4-benzopyrene in Pigs%3,4-苯并芘支气管灌注构建猪肺癌模型的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锦润; 杨立民; 张震; 王维; 赵珍


    目的:探讨3,4-苯并芘经气管导管支气管灌注构建猪肺癌模型的可行性.方法购置24头实验猪,随机分为模型组、对照组,每组12头.实验猪麻醉满意后行气管插管,经气管导管向模型组支气管内注入3,4-苯并芘-玉米油混合液,对照组注入等量玉米油.每周灌注1次,连续16周.于第16周、32周、48周对全部实验猪行肺部CT扫描,观察肺部有无病灶.第48周解剖实验猪肺、食管、胃肠道、肝及脑等脏器,观察有无肿瘤形成,并对肿块及实验猪的肺组织切片进行苏木素伊红( hematoxylin and eosin, HE)染色分析.结果对照组肺部CT及解剖均未发现肺部肿瘤.模型组中,8头肺部CT显示有不同部位、大小不等的占位性病变,病理学均证实为恶性肿瘤,其中3头中分化腺癌,2头高分化鳞癌,1头肺泡细胞癌,2头腺鳞癌.4头肺部CT无异常,其中一头食管距声门2 cm处有一2 cm×1.5 cm×1.0 cm肿块,标本送病理检查证实为食管磷癌.另外3头及对照组肺部CT及解剖均未发现肿瘤.模型组实验猪1 a内成功诱发恶性肿瘤,总成瘤率75%,肺部成瘤率为66.66%.结论经气管导管支气管内灌注3,4-苯并芘是一种简便、安全可靠的肺癌动物模型的构建方法.%Objective To investigate the feasibility of pig lung cancer model induced by bronchial perfusion of 3,4-benzopyrene. Methods 24 experimental pig were randomly divided into model group and control group, each containing 12 cases. Experimental pigs were under the anaesthetic state, pigs in the model group were given endobronchial infusion of 3,4 - benzopyrene - corn oil mixture, pigs in control group were injected with equal capacity of corn oil.Perfusion 1 times a week for 16 weeks.In week 16,32 and 48,all experimental pig were given lung CT scans, then the lung lesions were observed.After 48 weeks, the pig lung, esophagus, and gastrointestinal tract

  9. Inhibition of benzopyrene-diol-epoxide (BPDE)-induced bax and caspase-9 by cadmium: Role of mitogen activated protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Jagat J.; Gupta, Suresh K. [State University of New York College at Buffalo, Environ. Toxicol. and Chem., Great Lakes Center, 1300 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14222 (United States); Kumar, Subodh [State University of New York College at Buffalo, Environ. Toxicol. and Chem., Great Lakes Center, 1300 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14222 (United States)], E-mail:


    Cadmium, a major metal constituent of tobacco smoke, elicits synergistic enhancement of cell transformation when combined with benzo[a]pyrene (BP) or other polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The mechanism underlying this synergism is not clearly understood. Present study demonstrates that (+/-)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), an ultimate carcinogen of BP, induces apoptosis in human leukemic HL-60 cells and others, and cadmium at non-cytotoxic concentration inhibits BPDE-induced apoptosis. We observed that BPDE treatment also activates all three MAP kinases e.g. ERK1/2, p38 and JNK in HL-60 cells, and inhibition of BPDE-induced apoptosis by cadmium is associated with down-regulation of pro-apoptotic bax induction/caspase-9 activation and up-regulation of ERK phosphorylation, whereas p38 MAP kinase and c-Jun phosphorylation (indicative of JNK activation) remain unaffected. Inhibition of ERKs by prior treatment of cells with 10 {mu}M U0126 relieves cadmium-mediated inhibition of apoptosis/bax induction/caspase-9 activation. Our results suggest that cadmium inhibits BPDE-induced apoptosis by modulating apoptotic signaling through up-regulation of ERK, which is known to promote cell survival.

  10. Effects of chemical carcinogens of hemopoiesis, immunopoiesis and viral oncogenesis. Technical progress report, December 1, 1977--September 30, 1978. [Mechanisms of potentiation of viral leukemogenesis by MMS, benzopyrene, and DMBA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OKunewick, J.P.; Raikow, R.B.; Meredith, R.F.


    During the past year we have concentrated on defining the circumstances under which methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), benzo(a) pyrene (BP), and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) interact with Friend virus (FLV) to produce leukemia. The optimum scheduling for each and also the effective dose levels of the chemicals have been partially determined. There are at least three critical factors which govern whether or not a leukemogenic interaction can be shown between the chemical agents and the virus. These are chemical dose, virus dose, and their relative time of administration. The most critical of these is virus dose. The optimum virus dose is that which results in between 25 and 40% incidence of leukemia within 40 days after virus infection when virus is given alone. The chemical carcinogens have a lower dose threshold, below which no significant potentiating effect can be observed. The only upper limit would appear to be acute drug toxicity. The third element, timing, is equally critical and varies according to the chemical. This variation may reflect different mechanisms of action by the chemical agents and/or different pharmacology. Data on the effects of MMS, BP, and DMBA on the immune system have indicated that the viral enhancement is probably not dependent on this function. Further enhancement of the potentiation of viral leukemogenesis was observed using benzo(a)pyrene and caffeine, indicating that the inhibition by caffeine of DNA repair may be an important factor in virus potentiation. (ERB)

  11. 苯并[a]芘和镉暴露对食蚊鱼求偶行为的影响%Effects on the courtship behavior of mosquitofish(Gambusia affinis) exposed to 3,4-benzopyrene (BaP) and cadmium (Cd2+)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏方; 谢勇平; 方展强


    研究苯并[a]芘(BaP)和镉(Cd2+)暴露对雄性食蚊鱼(Gambusia affinis)求偶行为的影响.设对照组和实验组,BaP暴露浓度为0、0.1、100 μg/L;Cd2+暴露浓度为0、5、500 nmol/L;分别暴露6和8周.暴露实验结束后,观察雄鱼与雌鱼配对(1∶1)的求偶行为,并作录像记录分析.结果显示,雄鱼在0.1和100 μg/L的BaP分别暴露6周后其对雌鱼的求偶行为开始明显降低,并随着暴露浓度的升高和时间的延长而呈现下降趋势;BaP高浓度组(100 μg/L)暴露8周后对雄鱼有严重的致死效应.暴露在5和500 nmol/L的Cd2+至8周后雄鱼求偶行为明显降低;雌鱼暴露在低浓度BaP和Cd2+中其对雄鱼的求偶行为无明显影响(P>0.05);但分别在高浓度100 μg/L BaP和500 nmol/L Cd2+中暴露后,雄鱼对雌鱼的求偶行为显著减少.结果表明,BaP和Cd2+暴露均可降低雄性食蚊鱼的求偶行为.

  12. Tea polyphenols prevent lung from preneoplastic lesions and effect p53 and bcl-2 gene expression in rat lung tissues. (United States)

    Gu, Qihua; Hu, Chengping; Chen, Qiong; Xia, Ying


    Lung cancer is one of the cancers that have the highest incidence and the highest mortality rate, and it is of great interest to identify ways to prevent its occurrence. We had established an animal model by using 3,4-benzopyrene intra-pulmonary injection in our previous study, and had observed that the rats lung carcinoma incidence and multiplicity were significantly reduced by green tea administration. This study further investigated the effect of tea polyphenols on rat lung preneoplastic lesions using the lung carcinoma model established by 3,4-benzopyrene intra-pulmonary injection. Sprague-Dawley rats of the same age were randomly divided into 10 groups and treated with 3,4-benzopyrene by intra-pulmonary injection. Five groups were given 0.3% solution of tea polyphenols (equivalent to 1.2% of green tea) in drinking water, while the other 5 groups were given pure drinking water. The rats were sacrificed at 0, 1, 4, 8 and 16 weeks after carcinogen treatment. In the control groups of rats, local bronchial inflammation were observed at 1 week after 3,4-benzopyrene treatment. From 4 weeks to 16 weeks after carcinogen treatment, hyperplasia, cell hyperproliferation, heterogeneity were observed in the bronchial epithelium. Meanwhile, the expression of p53 mRNA and protein, as well as the level of bcl-2, increased in the bronchial epithelial lesion. Tea polyphenols treatment significantly alleviated the bronchial epithelial lesions. At the same time, tea polyphenols treatment enhanced p53 expression, but reduced bcl-2 expression. These results indicated that tea polyphenols may have preventive effect against lung preneoplasm lesions, possibly through regulating the expression of some critical genes such as p53 and bcl-2.

  13. Phytoplankton growth, dissipation, and succession in estuarine environments. Renewal proposal and annual summary report, August 1, 1977--July 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seliger, H H


    The directions of the research program in understanding the dynamics of the natural phytoplankton populations of the Chesapeake Bay, the methodology, the statistical analysis, and the description of the system are parallel to the requirements for environmental impact studies. Results are reported for the following studies: development of instrumentation and the synoptic isopleth methodology for relating the dynamic distributions of natural phytoplankton populations to water circulation patterns; phytoplankton cage experiments for assessment of nutrient dynamics; sub-lethal concentrations and effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; and studies on concentration and time kinetics of induction of liver aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase system in Fundulus heteroclitus by benzopyrene and 3-methyl cholanthrene. (HLW)

  14. Sanitary impact of cleaning operations following the pollution bred by the Erika wreck: evaluation and prevention. Synthesis of available data and recommendations; Impact sanitaire des operations de nettoyage consecutives a la pollution engendree par le naufrage de l'Erika: evaluation et prevention. Synthese des donnees disponibles et recommandations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The I.N.E.R.I.S. (Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques) report relative to the consequences of cleaning operations following the pollution bred by the Erika wreck gives the following conclusions: whatever the pollutants are, the carcinogen risks by pulmonary way are negligible for people assigned to the beaches cleaning; the general carcinogen effects, linked to benzopyrene in organism after skin crossing, have been evaluated as negligible; there is a non negligible risk for the embryo-fetal development linked to the benzopyrene skin crossing; It is not possible to tell if the skin cancer risk is or not negligible, because of the uncertainty of the dose effectively absorbed by the skin and the lack of acceptable toxicological references; the risks linked to the volatile organic compounds are negligible; an uncertainty exists on the risks linked to the thiophene family that have not been determined, because of the deficiency of base data. For the second study, whatever the studied scenario, the R.I.V.M. (Riijksinstituut Voor Volksgezondheid en mileuhygiene) Dutch organism report concludes to a risk qualified as acceptable for the voluntary workers and professionals, included the birds cleaners. The risk of skin cancer consecutive to the skin exposure has been characterized with a dose response relationship model coming from previous works of the R.I.V.M. (N.C.)

  15. Cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons levels in the amniotic fluid and fetal cord at birth and in the urine from pregnant smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia de Barros Machado

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking during pregnancy has several impacts on fetal development, including teratogenic effects. The objective of this study was to assess whether the toxic substances (cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in pregnant smokers are transmitted to their fetuses. The outcomes were analyzed measuring cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and maternal urine, benzopyrene and cotinine in the umbilical cord blood. Through a controlled cross-sectional design, 125 pregnant women were selected and classified according to their smoking status: 37 current smokers, 25 passive smokers and 63 non-smokers (controls. We performed high-performance liquid chromatography to measure substances' concentrations. A post-hoc Tukey's test was used to analyze the differences between the groups. All variables were significantly different between controls and smokers. The mean ratios between the concentration of cotinine in smokers compared to controls were as follows: 5.9 [2.5-13.5], p<0.001 in the urine; 25 [11.9-52.9], p<0.001 in the amniotic fluid; and 2.6 [1.0-6.8], p = 0.044 in the umbilical cord blood. The mean ratios of 1-hydroxypyrene concentration between smokers and controls were 7.3 [1.6-29.6], p = 0.003 in the urine and 1.3 [1.0-1.7], p = 0.012 in the amniotic fluid, and of benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood was 2.9 [1.7-4.7], p<0.001. There were no significant differences between controls and passive smokers. When comparing the three groups together, there were statistical differences between all variables. Thus, the fetuses of pregnant smokers are exposed to toxic and carcinogens substances. To our knowledge, this is the first study to measure 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood by high-performance liquid chromatography when considering pregnant women in relation to smoking exposure only.

  16. Immortalization protocols used in cell culture models of human breast morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudjonsson, T; Villadsen, R; Rønnov-Jessen, L;


    breast cells in culture and optimizing a relevant microenvironment, which may help to define the niche that regulates breast differentiation and morphogenesis. In contrast to the general property of cancer, normal human cells have a finite lifespan. After a defined number of population doublings, normal...... cells enter an irreversible proliferation-arrested state referred to as replicative senescence. To overcome this obstacle for continuous long-term studies, replicative senescence can be bypassed by treatment of cells with chemical agents such as benzopyrene, by radiation or by transfection with viral...... oncogenes or the gene for human telomerase (human telomerase reverse transcriptase, hTERT). A drawback of some of these protocols is a concurrent introduction of chromosomal changes, which sometimes leads to a transformed phenotype and selection of a subpopulation, which may not be representative...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗云敬; GAO Da-yuan; WEI Hua-chen


    @@ Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),which constitute a major class of environmental pollu tants are posing a threat to human health. Benzopyrene,an index of PAH levels omnipresent in the everyday environment ,becomes toxic only when being metabolically and/or photo-activated,i. e. ,in the pres ence of UV light. Free radicals such as superoxide anions ('O2),hydrogen peroxide (H2O2),hydroxyl radicals ('OH) and singlet oxygen (1O2) are involved in carcinogenesis. Wei CE etc[1] studied the effects of different scavengers of active oxygen species (superoxide dismutase,catalase,mannitol and dimethyfu ran) on promoting B[a]P mutagenicity. Bryla P ete[2] investigated the roles of several ROS scavengers in the oxidation and binding of B[a]P to calf thymus DNA using the 32p-postlabeling assay.

  18. 湖南湘西腊肉品质调查与分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗青雯; 周辉; 刘成国; 娄爱华; 钟茹


    为了调查腌腊肉制品的卫生状况,对湘西地区农家、小作坊和工厂生产的腊肉进行感官评价,以及水分含量、盐分含量、亚硝酸盐残留、苯并芘残留及挥发性风味物质的检验。结果表明,所检测的42份样品中,亚硝酸盐残留量检出范围为0.68~12.21 mg/kg,均未超出国家限量标准(亚硝酸盐残留量≤30 mg/kg);苯并芘残留量检出范围为0.84~8.89μg/kg,苯并芘含量合格率为92.86%,感官评价结果优良。%To investigate the quality and hygiene of smoke-cured bacons,the bacon samples are collected from peasant household,small workshops,and bacon factory. The samples are analyzed the sensory scores,water content,salt content, nitrite residue and benzopyrene residue. The results indicate that in all 42 tested samples,nitrite residue is in the range of 0.68~12.21 mg/kg,which doesn't exceed the GB(nitrite residue≤30 mg/kg),the benzopyrene residue is in the range of 0.84~8.89μg/kg,the qualified rate is 92.86%,the senior grade of freshness is highly acceptable.

  19. Potential of goat probiotic to bind mutagens. (United States)

    Apás, Ana Lidia; González, Silvia Nelina; Arena, Mario Eduardo


    The mutagen binding ability of the goat probiotics (Lactobacillus reuteri DDL 19, Lactobacillus alimentarius DDL 48, Enterococcus faecium DDE 39, and Bifidobacterium bifidum DDBA) was evaluated. The oral administration of these probiotics reduced fecal mutagens and intestinal cancer markers in goats. Secondly, the effects of probiotics against the mutagenesis induced by sodium azide (SA), and Benzopyrene (B[α]P) by performing the modified Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 was investigated. The capacity to bind benzopyrene and the stability of the bacterial-mutagen complex was analyzed by HPLC. The dismutagenic potential against both mutagens was proportional to probiotic concentration. Results showed that probiotic antimutagenic capacity against SA was ranging from 13 to 78%. The mixture of four goat probiotics (MGP) displayed higher antimutagenic activity against SA than any individual strains at the same cell concentration. This study shows that the highest diminution of mutagenicity in presence of B[α]P (74%) was observed in presence of MGP. The antimutagenic activity of nearly all the individual probiotic and the MGP were in concordance with the B[α]P binding determined by HPLC. According to our results, the B[α]P binding to probiotic was irreversible still after being washed with DMSO solution. The stability of the toxic compounds-bacterial cell binding is a key consideration when probiotic antimutagenic property is evaluated. MGP exhibits the ability to bind and detoxify potent mutagens, and this property can be useful in supplemented foods for goats since it can lead to the removal of potent mutagens and protect and enhance ruminal health and hence food safety of consumers.

  20. Study on Lung Cancer Model Induced by Chlamydia Pneumoniae%肺炎衣原体诱发肺癌模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储德节; 潘春峰; 郭水根; 王静; 余竹元


    Objective: To build a rat model of lung cancer induced by Chlamydia pneumoniae(Cpn) infection. Methods: Cpn (TW-183) was injected into the lungs of the rats with or without the combination of Benzopyrene(Bp). Cpn-antibodies(Cpn-IgA,-IgG and -IgM) in rat serum were detected by the method of microimmunofluorescence(MIF). The Cpn-DNA and Cpn-Ag in lung cancer tissues were detected by polymerase chain reaction(PCR)and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA),respectively. Results: The incidences of Cpn infection were 72. 9%(35/48) in rats injected with Cpn and 76. 7%(33/43) in rats injected with Cpn and Bp; and the incidences of lung cancer in them were 14. 6% (7/48) and 44. 2% (19/43),respectively,all of which were significantly higher than the controls(P = 0. 012,P<0. 001,respectively). Conclusions: A rat model of lung cancer induced by Chlamydia pneumoniae infection has been successfully built.%目的:建立肺炎衣原体(Chlamydia pneumoniae,Cpn)诱发大鼠肺癌模型.方法:采用Cpn菌株TW-183感染的方法以及TW 183感染联合苯并芘(Benzopyrene,Bp)的方法建立肺癌Wistar大鼠模型.采用微量免疫荧光法检测大鼠血清中Cpn 特异性抗体,采用聚合酶链式反应的方法检测大鼠肺癌组织中的Cpn DNA,采用酶联免疫吸附法检测大鼠肺癌组织中的Cpn 特异性抗原.结果:单独Cpn感染大鼠的Cpn感染率为72.9%(35/48),Cpn感染联合Bp大鼠的Cpn感染率为76.7%(33/43);两组的肺癌发生率分别为14.6%(7/48)和44.2%(19/43),均显著高于对照小鼠的肺癌发生率(P=0.012,P<0.001).结论:本研究成功建立Cpn感染诱发大鼠肺癌模型.

  1. Preliminary study on lung cancer rat model produced by Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn)%肺炎衣原体(Cpn)诱发肺癌大鼠模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储德节; 郭水根; 潘春峰; 王静; 都勇; 余竹元


    Objective Preliminary study on rat model of lung cancer produced by Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn). Methods The lung cancer animal model was developed by intratracheal repeated injecting Cpn (TW-183) into lung of rat. The Cpn-antibodies (Cpn-IgA, -IgG and -IgM) of rat serum were measured by microimmunofluorescence (MIF) method. The Cpn-DNA or Cpn-Ag of rat lung cancer were detected by PCR method or ELISA. Results The prevalence of Cpn infection was 72. 9% (35/48) in Cpn group, and 76. 7% (33/43) in Cpn plus benzopyrene (Bp) group. The incidences of lung carcinomas of the two groups were 25. 0% (12/48) and 44. 2% (19/43). Compared with normal controls,P value were 0. 001 and 0. 000, respectively. Conclusions A rat model of lung carcinoma produced by Cpn was successfully prepared for further study in experiment on treatment, prevention and mechanism.%目的 初步探索肺炎衣原体(Chlamydia pneumoniae,Cpn)诱发大鼠肺癌模型的建立.方法 应用多次气管内注入Cpn菌液(TW-183)的方法试制肺癌大鼠模型,微量免疫荧光(microimmunofluorescence,MIF)法检测大鼠血清中Cpn特异性抗体,PCR检测肺癌组织中Cpn-DNA,酶联免疫法检测肺癌组织中Cpn特异性抗原.结果 单独Cpn感染组Wistar鼠的Cpn感染率为72.9%(35/48),Cpn感染联合苯并芘(benzopyrene,Bp)组的Cpn感染率为76.7%(33/43),两组的肺癌发生率分别为25.0%(12/48)和44.2%(19/43),与正常对照组相比,P值分别为0.001和0.000.结论 Cpn感染诱发大鼠肺癌模型的建立是成功的,有助于肺癌的防治及其发病机制研究.

  2. Absence of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) in three marine bivalves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandermeulen, J.H. (Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia); Penrose, W.R.


    Bivalves exposed to short-term (4 d) and long-term (6 yr) oil pollution were assayed for aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and N-demethylase activity. Short-term induction studies were carried out on Mya arenaria, Mytilus edulis, and Ostrea edulis incubated in aqueous extracts of Kuwait crude oil or Bunker C (fuel) oil. For the chronic-induction studies Mya arenaria and Mytilus edulis were collected from oiled clam beds (Arrow Bunker C) in Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia. None of the bivalves showed any basal or petroleum-hydrocarbon-induced aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase or N-demethylase activity, as shown by their inability to metabolize benzopyrene or imipramine. In contrast, oil-free control trout and trout taken from a polluted lake readily metabolized both these compounds. The inability of these bivalves to degrade petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons and the tendency of these compounds to accumulate in their tissues present an opportunity for transfer of unaltered hydrocarbons into the food chain.

  3. Development of a Thermoplastic Magnesia Carbon Brick——"A Cold Process Flexible System"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Mishra; S.Mukhopadhyay


    Conventional resin bonded MgO-C bricks, which are manufactured via cold mixing process, harden and attain brittleness during carbonization of resin due to the formation of isotropic glassy carbon. They do not exhibit thermo-plasticity, which can facilitate the release of huge amount of stresses generated during preheating or in operation. On the contrary, pitch bonded MgO-C bricks, show better pyro-plasticity due to formation of an anisotropic and graphitized coke structure during carbonization of pitch. Hence, pitch bonded bricks show a superior structural spalling resistance in comparison to resin-bonded bricks. One of the drawbacks of pitch-bonded bricks is that the manufacturing requires a hot mixing process and hot pressing facility. This paper describes how a combination of above two processes was optimized to make a MgO-C brick via cold process. These bricks exhibit a low Modulus of Elasticity and thereby facilitate release of stresses during operation. Normal coal tar pitch is considered as an environmental hazard due to the presence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons like benzopyrene B [ a ] P. So, a special binder with a low B [ a ] P was selected, which is eco-friendly in nature. Such bricks were made in our plant in China and supplied to an integrated steel plant in Europe for their ladle. The bricks supplied have given encouraging life.

  4. Applications of Fiberoptics-Based Nanosensors to Drug Discovery (United States)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Scaffidi, Jonathan; Gregas, Molly; Zhang, Yan; Seewaldt, Victoria


    Background Fiber-optic nanosensors are fabricated by heating and pulling optical fibers to yield sub-micron diameter tips, and have been used for in vitro analysis of individual living mammalian cells. Immobilization of bioreceptors (e.g., antibodies, peptides, DNA, etc) selective to target analyte molecules of interest provides molecular specificity. Excitation light can be launched into the fiber, and the resulting evanescent field at the tip of the nanofiber can be used to excite target molecules bound to the bioreceptor molecules. The fluorescence or surface-enhanced Raman scattering produced by the analyte molecules is detected using an ultra-sensitive photodetector. Objective This article provides an overview of the development and application of fiber-optic nanosensors for drug discovery. Conclusions The nanosensors provide minimally invasive tools to probe sub-cellular compartments inside single living cells for health effect studies (e.g., detection of benzopyrene adducts) and medical applications (e.g., monitoring of apoptosis in cells treated with anti-cancer drugs). PMID:23496274

  5. Effect of Water Washing on Hydrocarbon Compositions of Petropleum Sandstone Reservoir Rocks in Tarim Basin,NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 张俊


    Gross compositions and distribution of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in Carboniferous sandstone reservoire rocks in oil and water zones for Tzhong-10 well of the Zhongyang Uplift in the Tarim Basin were studied in dteail by means of Rock-Eval Pyrolysis,thin-chromatograph-flame ionization detection(TLC-FID),gas chromatography,gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.The results suggest that the gross composition of reservoir hydrocarbons between the oil zone and the water zone show significant differences,Water wahing has a dramatic effect on saturated hydrocarbon blomarkers,especially drimane series compounds,Drimane series compounds in the water zone have been depleted completely.However,the contents of tricyclic iterpanes and pentacyclic triterpanes tend to decrease slightly,but the water-zone reservoir hydrocarbons contian a large amount of gammacerane.This suggests that gammacerane be more resistant to water washing than diterpanes and homohopanes.The contents of pregnane,homopregrane,diasteranes relastively decrease as a result of water washing.Water washing has a noticeable effect on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds,especially aromatic sulfur compounds,and the contents of dibenzothiophene series compounds and benzonaplyiothipophene decrease significantly as a result of water washing.However,the conterts of bicyclic and tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbons decrase slightly and those of tetracyclic and pentacyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,especially benzofluoranthene and benzopyrenes,increase markedly owing to adecrease in light aromatie hydrocarbons as a result of water washing.

  6. Influence of xenobiotic contaminants on landfill soil microbial activity and diversity. (United States)

    Pérez-Leblic, M I; Turmero, A; Hernández, M; Hernández, A J; Pastor, J; Ball, A S; Rodríguez, J; Arias, M E


    Landfills are often the final recipient of a range of environmentally important contaminants such as hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study the influence of these contaminants on microbial activity and diversity was assessed in a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill placed in Torrejón de Ardoz (Madrid, Spain). Soil samples were collected from four selected areas (T2, T2B, T8 and T9) in which the amount of total hydrocarbons, PAHs and PCBs were measured. Soil biomass, substrate induced respiration (SIR) and physiological profiles of soil samples were also determined and used as indicators of total microbial activity. Highest concentration of total hydrocarbons was detected in T2 and T9 samples, with both PCBs and benzopyrene being detected in T9 sample. Results corresponding to microbial estimation (viable bacteria and fungi, and SIR) and microbiological enzyme activities showed that highest values corresponded to areas with the lowest concentration of hydrocarbons (T2B and T8). It is noticeable that in such areas was detected the lowest concentration of the pollutants PAHs and PCBs. A negative significant correlation between soil hydrocarbons concentration and SIR, total bacteria and fungi counts and most of the enzyme activities determined was established. DGGE analysis was also carried out to determine the microbial communities' structure in the soil samples, establishing different profiles of Bacteria and Archaea communities in each analysed area. Through the statistical analysis a significant negative correlation was only found for Bacteria domain when Shannon index and hydrocarbon concentration were correlated. In addition, a bacterial 16S rRNA gene based clone library was prepared from each soil. From the clones analysed in the samples, the majority corresponded to Proteobacteria, followed by Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria. It is important to remark that the most polluted sample (T9) showed

  7. Nicotine overrides DNA damage-induced G1/S restriction in lung cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Nishioka

    Full Text Available As an addictive substance, nicotine has been suggested to facilitate pro-survival activities (such as anchorage-independent growth or angiogenesis and the establishment of drug resistance to anticancer therapy. Tobacco smoking consists of a variety of carcinogens [such as benzopyrene (BP and nitrosamine derivatives] that are able to cause DNA double strand breaks. However, the effect of nicotine on DNA damage-induced checkpoint response induced by genotoxins remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the events occurred during G(1 arrest induced by γ-radiation or BP in nicotine-treated murine or human lung epithelial cells. DNA synthesis was rapidly inhibited after exposure to γ-radiation or BP treatment, accompanied with the activation of DNA damage checkpoint. When these cells were co-treated with nicotine, the growth restriction was compromised, manifested by upregulation of cyclin D and A, and attenuation of Chk2 phosphorylation. Knockdown of cyclin D or Chk2 by the siRNAs blocked nicotine-mediated effect on DNA damage checkpoint activation. However, nicotine treatment appeared to play no role in nocodazole-induced mitotic checkpoint activation. Overall, our study presented a novel observation, in which nicotine is able to override DNA damage checkpoint activated by tobacco-related carcinogen BP or γ-irradiation. The results not only indicates the potentially important role of nicotine in facilitating the establishment of genetic instability to promote lung tumorigenesis, but also warrants a dismal prognosis for cancer patients who are smokers, heavily exposed second-hand smokers or nicotine users.

  8. Contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Hamburg`s upper soil; Gehalte an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) in Hamburger Oberboeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gras, B.; Jaeger, C.; Sievers, S.


    In 1993/95, a programme of investigations covering the area of Hamburg was carried out to determine the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the upper soil. This programme of measurements was intended to give an overview of the general loading situation in an inhabited area and to show main points of loading. One also intended to consider how great the effect of the type of use of an area is on the PAH contents and whether information on the sources can be derived from the PAH patterns. Soil mixture samples were taken from depths of 0-10 cm and in worked areas from depths of 0-30 cm at 108 sites distributed over the city area of Hamburg, and these were examined for 19 individual PAH materials (PAH (EPA) plus 1 and 2 methyl naphthalene and Benzopyrene). Differently exposed and used sites were included in this programme. Industrial, traffic, residential areas, small gardens, agriculture, flood meadows, woods/parks, nature protection and other green areas (fallow land, meadows). (orig.) [Deutsch] 1993/95 wurde in Hamburg ein flaechendeckendes Untersuchungsprogramm zur Ermittlung der Gehalte an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) in Oberboeden durchgefuehrt. Dieses Messprogramm sollte einen Ueberblick ueber die generelle Belastungssituation in einem Ballungsraum geben und ggfs. Belastungsschwerpunkte aufzeigen. Es sollte ausserdem betrachtet werden, wie gross der Einfluss der jeweiligen Nutzungsart einer Flaeche auf die PAK-Gehalte ist und ob sich aus den PAK-Mustern in Oberboeden Hinweise auf Quellen ableiten lassen. An 108 Standorten verteilt ueber das Hamburger Stadtgebiet wurden aus 0-10 cm und bei bearbeiteten Flaechen aus 0-30 cm Tiefe Bodenmischproben entnommen und auf 19 PAK-Einzelstoffe untersucht (PAK(EPA) zzgl. 1- und 2-Methylnaphthalin sowie Benzo(e)pyren). In das Programm wurden unterschiedlich exponierte und genutzte Standorte einbezogen: Industrie, Verkehr, Wohngebiete, Kleingaerten, Landwirtschaft

  9. [Edwards syndrome--most frequent indications for genetic amniocentesis. Analysis of the last 5 years]. (United States)

    Chuchracki, Marek; Janiak, Justyna; Ziółkowska, Katarzyna; Sedziak, Anna; Opala, Tomasz


    Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18) occurs in 1: 8000 live births and is closely related to the mother's age. Most of the embryos and fetuses with trisomy of 18 chromosome pair undergo natural abortion. Change in number and structure of chromosomes usually takes place spontaneously. However, the incidence of chromosome mutations increases with the presence of mutagenic factors. One of the chemical mutagenic factors is benzopyrene - present in cigarette smoke. Prenatal cytogenetic diagnostic is used for detecting diseases and clinical syndromes conditioned by chromosome aberrations. To this date the "golden standard" of this diagnostic is the assessment of the fetus karyotype by means of analysis of chromosome banding pattern from amniotic fluid-derived cells. The aim of the study was the analysis of indications for genetic amniocenteses carried out in the last 5 years and in case of which trisomy of chromosome 18 (Edwards syndrome) was diagnosed. The analysis covered 1593 results of fetus karyotypes obtained from Cytogenetic Laboratory of the Central Gynecological-Obstetric Clinical Hospital in Poznań over the last 5 years. The study procedure consisted in producing cell culture from amniotic fluid, appliance of appropriate color techniques and thorough microscopic analysis of chromosome banding pattern. As a result of the analysis it was discovered that in 1538 cases the karyotype was normal, and in 55 cases trisomy 18 was diagnosed, which constituted 3% of all cytogenetic tests. The highest number of trisomy 18 cases was noted in 2009 - 19 cases, which constitutes 5% of all tests. In 2010 and 2011 the results included respectively 2% and 3% of diagnosed trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome). In the last 5 years normal results for karyotypes constituted 87%, in 10% cases other aberrations were diagnosed through cystogenetic tests, whereas 3% of the results have shown trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome The most frequent indications for performing genetic amniocentesis, as a result of

  10. Toxicological biomarkers in the analysis of Orbetello lagoon (Italy); Biomarkers nella valutazione della qualita' di un sistema lagunare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossi, M. C.; Mori, G.; Baroni, D.; Bianchi, N. [Siena Univ., Siena (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali


    Toxicological risk assessment in the Orbetello lagoon (Grosseto, Italy) was carried by two approaches: biomonitoring based on estimates of residue levels in indicator species and biomarkers studies by which their responses to chemical and environmental stress were evaluated. In specimens of Carcinus aestuarii sampled in three differently impacted areas of the lagoon, levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDTs, PCBs and HCBs), heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Hg) and 3 specific biomarkers (mixed function oxidase (MFO) induction, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition and porphyrin accumulation) were measured. Overall results indicate that the lagoon is highly polluted. Of the three study sites, the highest concentrations of HCBs, DDTs and PCBs were observed in specimens from the mouth of the river Albegna, in which butyrylcholinesterase induction usually attributed to organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates (CBs), was considerable, as well. Specimens from S. Liberata, once known to be the most pristine site, showed clear signs of environmental degradation with high levels of Pb, Cd and organochlorine compounds, including PCBs. Benzopyrene monooxygenase (BPMO) values also seem to confirm such chemical stress. High levels of Hg and largely accumulated protoporphyrins and total porphyrins in C. aestuarii of the Sitoco site are only partially ascribed to the occurrence of Hg, as the presence of some unknown xenobiotics is likely. [Italian] In questo studio e' stato valutato il potenziale pericolo di composti inquinanti su una comunita' naturale della Laguna di Orbetello (Grosseto) utilizzando sia indagini di biomonitoraggio basate sulla stima dei livelli di residui in organismi bioindicatori, si una metodologia innovativa come lo studio di biomarkers (intendendo con cio' la valutazione delle risposte che un organismo genera nei confronti di uno strss chimico-ambientale). Su esemplari di Carcinus aestuarii, scelti come organismi bioindicatori e campionati in tre aree

  11. Analysis of construction quality and emission reduction of warm mix asphalt%温拌沥青混合料施工质量与减排效果测试分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李君强; 王立志; 徐强


    为研究温拌沥青混合料的施工质量与烟气减排效果,依托实际养护工程,采用APTL温拌技术铺筑沥青路面,通过现场压实度、渗水系数等参数测定评价施工质量;在拌和站进行烟气排放定量分析,评价烟气减排效果。结果表明:采用APTL温拌技术并降低30℃施工,完工路面压实度等质量控制参数完全符合热拌沥青混合料施工技术要求,可有效保证施工质量;拌和过程中沥青烟实测浓度和排放速率分别下降了81.9%和82.3%;烟气中CO含量减少90%,SO2、NOx及苯并芘等降幅均在60%以上,有效地改善沥青混合料生产对环境的污染和人体的伤害。%In order to research the construction quality and emission reduction,warm mix asphalt added APTL warm mix additive is designed and paved in maintenance project,the construction quality is evaluated with compactness and permeability coefficient in the construction site,and quantitative analysis is made in the mixing plant to evaluate the emission reduction of asphalt fume.The results show that WMA can be mixed and compacted as good as HMA at a 30℃lower temperature by means of comparation on compactness or other quality parameters,effectively ensuring the construction quality;compared with HMA,concentration and emission rate of asphalt fume in mixing process reduced 81.9 % and 82.3 %;the content of CO reduced by 90 %,SO2,NOx and benzopyrene reduced by more than 60 %,and it greatly improved the environment of asphalt mixing,reduced atmosphere pollution and harm to health.

  12. 玉米存储过程中真菌毒素污染控制与监测的研究进展%Research progress of mycotoxin pollution control and monitoring of maize in storage process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翠芬; 董伟峰; 李莉; 刁文婷; 靳胜; 王法众; 田苗; 曹际娟


    玉米的安全卫生主要受四大因素影响。一是重金属的污染、二是药剂残留、三是苯并芘污染、四是真菌毒素的侵染。在粮库中长期存储的玉米在贮藏期间质量变化可分为内因的陈化与外因的霉变。其中霉变引起的真菌毒素感染是对玉米品质危害最大的因素。本文主要介绍了玉米霉变后能够产生的四种主要真菌毒素的特点及产生条件。通过减少玉米籽粒的破损、控制水分、分类储存等手段来预防玉米霉菌的生长。通过对霉菌活性、霉菌数量和类群、粮温、粮堆气体成分变化、玉米品质指标的理化及微生物的检测等手段来监控和判定玉米品质的变化情形。%Safety and health in maize is mainly affected by four factors. The first is the pollution of heavy metal, the Second is the pesticide residue, the third is the benzopyrene pollution and the last one is mycotoxin infection. The quality changes of corn in the long-term storage in grain depot can be divided into internal (aging) and external (deterioration). The mildew infection caused by mycotoxins is the biggest factor in harm to the corn quality. This paper mainly introduced the characteristics and growth conditions of four kinds of main mycotoxins caused by corn mildew. The change situation of corn quality were monitored and determined by the Detection of fungal activity, detection of the quantity and the species of fungi, detectionof grain temperature, detection of gas composition in the grain bulk, and detection of physicochemical and microbial of the grain.

  13. 我国大气环境毒理学研究新进展%Current Progress in Atmospheric Environmental Toxicology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李君灵; 孟紫强


    Toxicotogical effects and mechanisms of important pollutants in the atmospheric environment are reviewed.Firstly,the studies on toxicobgical effects and mechanisms of fine particles (PM2.5) and nanometer particles on respiratory and cardiovascular systems are summarized- Secondly,the investigations on effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on gene expressions and physiological roles of endogenous SO2 are commented.It is proposed that SO2 is a systemic toxin and a new type-gas transmitter.Thirdly,the molecular carcinogenesis mechanisms of carcinogens in the atmospheric environment,especially benzopyrene,are discussed.Fourthly,toxic effects of atmospheric ozone and photochemical smog on health are summerized.Finally,the up to date studies on toxic effects and mechanisms of indoor air pollutants,especially formaldehyde,are commented.%对大气环境中重要污染物的毒理学作用及其机制方面的文献进行综述.首先,总结了细颗粒物(PM2.5)和纳米颗粒物对呼吸系统和心血管系统毒理学作用及其机理方面的研究;然后,评述了二氧化硫(SO2)对基因表达的影响及内源性SO2生理作用方面的研究,提出SO2既是一种全身性毒物,又是一种新型信号分子的新观点;对大气环境致癌物,特别是有关苯并芘致癌作用分子机制的研究进行讨论;对大气中臭氧和光化学烟雾对健康影响的研究作了评述;最后,对室内空气污染物尤其是甲醛的毒性作用及其机理方面的最新研究进行了评论.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱继升; LawrenceP.Norcio


    Two high-volatile subbituminous coals, DECS-6 of US and Yanzhou coal of China, were liquefied or co-liquefied with HDPE or PVC at 400?℃, 30?min under 7?MPa hydrogen. The results show that Yanzhou coal is easier to be liquefied or co-liquefied than DECS-6 coal under the experimental conditions used and the hexane-soluble oil from Yanzhou coal has more low boiling point fractions than that from DECS-6 coal. The aromatics in hexane soluble oils mainly consist of alkylbeneze, alkylnaphthalene, phenanthrene-,pyrene-, chrysene-, and benzopyrene- compounds, the polars mainly compose of compounds containing O, S and N etc.%在400 ℃、30 min、7 MPa冷氢压条件下两种煤液化结果表明,兖州煤比DECS-6(美国煤)煤更容易液化或共液化,这可能与兖州煤硫含量比较高有关,但DECS-6煤的油收率要高于兖州煤,表明EDCS-6煤容易裂解生成小分子化合物。同种煤液化油的沸点分布特征基本一致。UV(紫外光谱)特征表明,液化油中单环芳烃主要为烷基取代苯类化合物,二环芳烃组分主要是烷基取代萘类化合物,三环芳烃主要为渺位缩合的菲类化合物,四环芳烃主要为芘、屈艹类化合物,五环芳烃以苯并芘类化合物为主,而极性化合物可归属为含O、S、N的极性芳香化合物。

  15. Genistein, isoflavonoids in soybeans, prevents the formation of excess radiation-induced centrosomes via p21 up-regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Mikio; Kato, Akihiro [Department of Genome Repair Dynamics, Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Yoshida-konoe, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Habu, Toshiyuki [Department of Radiation System Biology, Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Komatsu, Kenshi, E-mail: [Department of Genome Repair Dynamics, Radiation Biology Center, Kyoto University, Yoshida-konoe, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)


    The centrosome is a cytoplasmic organelle which duplicates once during each cell cycle, and the presence of excess centrosomes promote chromosome instability through chromosome missegregation following cytokinesis. Ionizing radiation (IR) can induce extra centrosomes by permitting the continuation of CDK2/Cyclin-A/E-mediated centrosome duplication when cells are arrested in the cell cycle after irradiation. The work described here shows that, in addition to IR, extra centrosomes were induced in human U2OS and mouse NIH3T3 cells after treatment with agents which include DNA adduct-forming chemicals: benzopyrene (BP), 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO), a DNA cross linker: cis-diamminedichloro-platinum (cisplatin), topoisomerase inhibitors: camptothecin, etoposide, genistein, and ultra-violet light (UV). These agents were divided into two categories with respect to the regulation of p21, which is an inhibitor of CDK2/Cyclin-A/E: specifically, p21 was up-regulated by an IR exposure and treatment with topoisomerase inhibitors. However, UV, BP, 4NQO and cisplatin down-regulated p21 below basal levels. When cells were irradiated with IR in combination with all of these agents, except genistein, enhanced induction of extra centrosomes was observed, regardless of the nature of p21 expression. Genistein significantly suppressed the frequency of IR-induced extra centrosomes in a dose-dependent manner, and 20 {mu}g/ml of genistein reduced this frequency to 66%. Consistent with this, genistein substantially up-regulated p21 expression over the induction caused by IR alone, while other agents down-regulated or marginally affected this. This suggests the inhibitory effect of genistein on the induction of extra centrosomes occurs through the inactivation of CDK2/Cyclin-A/E via p21 up-regulation. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that p21 knockdown with siRNA reduced the activity of CDK2/Cyclin-A/E and restored the enhanced effect of a combined treatment with genistein

  16. 煤的基本化工过程与污染特征分析%Basic coal chemical processes and their pollution characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦朝海; 廖建波; 胡芸


    main pollutants produced by coal chemical process were introduced from the coal properties,the process requirements,and the technology features. The source and composition of the “three wastes” were selectively analyzed from the processes of coal-to-coke and coal-to-gas. Among them,the waste gas came from the incompletely carbonized pulverized coal in the chemical conversion process,the precipitated matters including volatile matter,tar fog and fly ash,the leaked raw gas,as well as CO,CO2 and NO2 generated by burning coke on contact with air. The wastewater included dedusting wastewater,surplus aqueous ammonia,phenol and cyanogens wastewater,desulfurization liquid and the water sealing gas. The waste residue included dust,coal dust,acid tar,tar slag and sludge. The gas phase pollutants from coal chemical process mainly included oxycarbide,oxysulphide,ammonia gas,volatile phenol,benzene,benzopyrene,CO,CH4 and small molecule hydrocarbons. The liquid phase pollutants contained not only ammonia,cyanide,sulphide, benzene,phenol and oil,but also a lot of benzopyrene,naphthalene and other PAHs,and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including pyridine,carbazole,biphenyl,terphenyl,etc. The pollution characteristics showed wide distribution,complex components,high concentration,coexistence of multiphase mediums with high environment risk. The typical characteristics of the coal chemical wastewater were high concentration/salinity,high pollution (multicomponent),toxic and refractory. The clarification of the relationship between the coal chemical process and pollution characteristics needed researchers to deepen the comprehensive understanding for the basic coal properties,the principles of conversion,purification and application. Therefore,the control technology and strategy should be based on the deep understanding for the chain of resource- product-economy-environment- society and the effective integration system,and the strategic design and logic innovation should be

  17. Relationship between Appearance Quanlity and Deliveres of Main Harmful Compounds in Mainstream Smoke from Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves%初烤烟叶外观质量与其主流烟气有害成分释放量关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付秋娟; 刘加红; 张怀宝; 张忠锋; 侯小东; 郑成鹏; 杜咏梅; 赵友根


    218 samples of flue-cured tobacco leaves of representative area in China were collected to investigate relationship between major appearance characteristic and deliveries of harmful compounds in mainstream smoke of flue-cured tobacco leaves.Variance analysis was used to study the difference of deliveries of tar,nicotine and seven harmful ingredients (carbon monoxide,benzopyrene,phenol,hydrogen cyanide,NNK,ammonia,crotonaldehyde) in mainstream smoke between different characteristic of maturity,color,body,oil,leaf structure,color intensity of flue-cured tobacco leaves.Results showed that color,body,leaf structure of tobacco leaves had significant influence on deliveries of harmful compounds in mainstream smoke,but that of the maturity,oil and color intensity had a little influence .The deliveries of tar,nicotine,phenol,ammonia,hydrogen cyanide in mainstream smoke of orange tobacco leaves were greater than that of lemon tobacco leaves.In general,the deliveries of nicotine,phenol in mainstream smoke of fleshy tobacco leaves were larger than that of less thin tobacco leaves.With the tobacco leaves structure tending to be loose,The deliveries of tar,nicotine and phenol in mainstream smoke were significant decrease,and the deliveries of crotonaldehyde were significant increase.%为明确初烤烟叶主要外观质量与其主流烟气有害成分释放量的关系,收集我国代表产地初烤烟叶样品218份,应用方差分析,研究了不同成熟度、颜色、身份、油分、叶片结构、色度特征的初烤烟叶主流烟气烟碱、焦油及7项有害成分(一氧化碳、苯并芘、苯酚、氰化氢、NNK、氨、巴豆醛)释放量的差异.结果表明,烟叶颜色、身份、叶片结构对主流烟气有害成分释放量的影响较大,成熟度、油分、色度对主流烟气有害成分释放量的影响较小;橘黄烟叶主流烟气焦油、烟碱、苯酚、氨、氰化氢释放量显著或极显著大于柠檬黄烟叶;身份较厚的烟叶

  18. Anticancer effects on leiomyosarcoma-bearing Wistar rats after electromagnetic radiation of resonant radiofrequencies. (United States)

    Avdikos, Antonios; Karkabounas, Spyridon; Metsios, Apostolos; Kostoula, Olga; Havelas, Konstantinos; Binolis, Jayne; Verginadis, Ioannis; Hatziaivazis, George; Simos, Ioannis; Evangelou, Angelos


    In the present study, the effects of a resonant low intensity static electromagnetic field (EMF), causing no thermal effects, on Wistar rats have been investigated. Sarcoma cell lines were isolated from leiomyosarcoma tumors induced in Wistar rats by the subcutaneous (s.c) injection of 3,4-benzopyrene. Furthermore, smooth muscle cells (SMC) were isolated from the aorta of Wistar rats and cultivated. Either leiomyosarcoma cells (LSC) or SMC were used to record a number of characteristic resonant radiofrequencies, in order to determine the specific electromagnetic fingerprint spectrum for each cell line. These spectra were used to compose an appropriate algorithm, which transforms the recorded radiofrequencies to emitted ones. The isolated LSC were cultured and then exposed to a resonant low intensity radiofrequency EMF (RF-EMF), at frequencies between 10 kHz to 120 kHz of the radiowave spectrum. The exposure lasted 45 consecutive minutes daily, for two consecutive days. Three months old female Wistar rats were inoculated with exposed and non-exposed to EMF LSC (4 x 10(6) LCS for animal). Inoculated with non-exposed to EMF cells animals were then randomly separated into three Groups. The first Group was sham exposed to the resonant EMF (control Group-CG), the second Group after the inoculation of LSC and appearance of a palpable tumor mass, was exposed to a non-resonant EMF radiation pattern, for 5 h per day till death of all animals (experimental control Group-ECG). The third Group of animals after inoculation of LSC and the appearance of a palpable tumor mass, was exposed to the resonant EMF radiation for 5 h per day, for a maximum of 60 days (experimental Group-I, EG-I). A fourth Group of animals was inoculated with LSC exposed to EMF irradiation and were not further exposed to irradiation (experimental Group-II, EG-II). Tumor induction was 100% in all Groups studied and all tumors were histologically identified as leiomyosarcomas. In the case of the EG-I, a

  19. Molecular biology of the stress response in the early embryo and its stem cells. (United States)

    Puscheck, Elizabeth E; Awonuga, Awoniyi O; Yang, Yu; Jiang, Zhongliang; Rappolee, Daniel A


    Stress is normal during early embryogenesis and transient, elevated stress is commonplace. Stress in the milieu of the peri-implantation embryo is a summation of maternal hormones, and other elements of the maternal milieu, that signal preparedness for development and implantation. Examples discussed here are leptin, adrenaline, cortisol, and progesterone. These hormones signal maternal nutritional status and provide energy, but also signal stress that diverts maternal and embryonic energy from an optimal embryonic developmental trajectory. These hormones communicate endocrine maternal effects and local embryonic effects although signaling mechanisms are not well understood. Other in vivo stresses affect the embryo such as local infection and inflammation, hypoxia, environmental toxins such as benzopyrene, dioxin, or metals, heat shock, and hyperosmotic stress due to dehydration or diabetes. In vitro, stresses include shear during handling, improper culture media and oxygen levels, cryopreservation, and manipulations of the embryo to introduce sperm or mitochondria. We define stress as any stimulus that slows stem cell accumulation or diminishes the ability of cells to produce normal and sufficient parenchymal products upon differentiation. Thus stress deflects downwards the normal trajectories of development, growth and differentiation. Typically stress is inversely proportional to embryonic developmental and proliferative rates, but can be proportional to induction of differentiation of stem cells in the peri-implantation embryo. When modeling stress it is most interesting to produce a 'runting model' where stress exposures slow accumulation but do not create excessive apoptosis or morbidity. Windows of stress sensitivity may occur when major new embryonic developmental programs require large amounts of energy and are exacerbated if nutritional flow decreases and removes energy from the normal developmental programs and stress responses. These windows correspond

  20. On the issue of higher human sensitivity to carcinogenic substances in early childhood; Zur Frage einer hoeheren Empfindlichkeit von Kindern gegenueber krebserzeugenden Stoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K. [comp.


    Age-dependent carcinogenesis in humans has been proven with high probability for a number of substances investigated within one or several model systems. Sometimes, very high tumor incidence after short exposure time was observed. Extreme differences were found in some models. (A) Vinyl chloride, Maltoni et al.,1981: 6000 ppm, hepatic angiosarcoma incidence: - Exposure for 4 weeks, from day 1: 40.5 %, - exposure for 4 weeks, from week 13: 0%, - exposure for 52 weeks, from week 13: 22%. Hepatoma incidence: - Exposure for 4 weeks, from day 1: 47.6%, exposure for 4 weeks, from week 13: 0%, exposure for 52 weeks, from week 13: 1.7%. (B) Diethyl nitrosamine, Dyroff et al., 1986: (DEN + phenobarbital), hepatic carcinoma after exposure of rats for 6 weeks: - as from 4 weeks of age: 100% incidence, - as from 8 weeks of age: 0% incidence. (C) Benzopyrene, Vesselinovitch et al., 1975: Hepatic tumor incidence after single, parenteral administration to rats: - at day 1: males: 81%, females: 18%, - at day 42: males: 9%, females: 0%. As is shown by the study on vinyl chloride by Maltoni et al., the same exposure concentration may lead to higher tumor incidence in young animals after short exposure times than it does in long-term experiments with adult animals. Genetic toxicity was detected for all substances, except for saccharin. So it can be assumed that the mechanism of carcinogenesis has an essential influence on the age-dependence. This conclusion agrees well with mechanistic approaches. (orig./CB) [German] Fuer eine Reihe von Schadstoffen ist eine Altersabhaengigkeit der Kanzerogenese mit hoher Wahrscheinlichkeit in einem oder mehreren Modellsystemen gezeigt worden. Dabei wurden zum Teil bereits nach kurzer Expositionszeit sehr hohe Tumorausbeuten erzielt. Extreme Unterschiede wurden in folgenden Modellen beobachtet. (A) Vinylchlorid, Maltoni et al., 1981: 6000 ppm, Inzidenz Leberangiosarkome: - Exposition ueber 4 Wochen ab Tag 1: 40,5%, - Exposition ueber 4 Wochen ab 13


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘鲁青; 刘娜; 王静


    研究采用染毒→清除→二次染毒实验,研究了B[a]P对栉孔扇贝组织解毒代谢酶活力和DNA损伤的影响,筛选了栉孔扇贝在B[a]P胁迫下的生物标志物.结果表明:B[a]P对栉孔扇贝鳃丝、消化盲囊芳烃羟化酶(AHH)、谷胱甘肽硫转移酶(GST)活力和还原型谷胱甘肽含量(GSH)及DNA损伤影响显著(P<0.05),而对照组无明显变化.在一次染毒(0-15d)期间,除0.05 μg/L B[a]P处理组鳃丝AHH活力与对照组无明显差异外,其他处理组组织AHH活力均被显著诱导,于15d时达到最大值,GST活力和GSH含量则呈逐渐下降趋势,5d时达到最小值,之后趋于稳定;而组织DNA链断裂(F值)基本呈下降趋势,DNA-蛋白质交联(DPC值)呈逐渐升高,至15d时分别达到最小值和最大值.在清除(15-45d)阶段,各处理组组织AHH活力逐渐下降,GST活力和GSH含量则逐渐升高,在25-40d时均恢复至对照组水平;各处理组组织F值和低浓度处理组(0.05、0.5 μg/L)DPC值分别呈逐渐升高和下降趋势,于35-40d时恢复至对照组水平,而高浓度处理组(5、10 μg/L)DPC值仍显著高于对照组水平.在二次染毒(45-60d)期间,除鳃丝AHH活力在50d时达到最大值外,其他指标变化趋势与一次染毒基本一致.由此可见,栉孔扇贝在B[a]P胁迫下组织解毒代谢酶活力和DNA损伤表现出明显的时间剂量效应性和稳定性,依据相关性分析,提出以鳃丝AHH活力和消化盲囊GST活力为防御型生物标志物,鳃丝、消化盲囊DPC值为损伤型生物标志物,并将AHH、GST活力和DPC值整合作为B[a]P毒性评定的组合型生物标志物,全面评价PAHs的污染毒性.%Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants derived from incomplete combustion of carbon. As a pollutant, they are of concern because some compounds have been identified as carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic. Benzopyrene (B[α]P) is a five-ring polycyclic aromatic