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Sample records for benzopyrenes

  1. P-glycoprotein in adriamycin-resistant cells functions as an efflux pump for benzopyrene, a chemical carcinogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao Yeh, G.; Poore, C.M.; Lopaczynska, J.; Phang, J.M. (NCI-FCRDC, Frederick, MD (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The physiological function of multidrug resistant gene (MDR 1) coded P-glycoprotein 170 (P-gp) in normal tissues remains unknown. The authors propose that P-gp functions as an efflux pump in normal tissues for benzopyrene and other xenobiotic substances. To examine their hypothesis the authors used a series of MDR human breast cancer MCF-7 cells with increasing degrees of drug resistance, expression of MDR and levels of P-gp. First, they found the IC{sub 50} for benzopyrene is linearly correlated with the levels of P-gp at different stages of adriamycin resistant MCF-7 cells. Using P-gp ({sup 3}H)azidopine labeling as a measurement of P-gp they found benzopyrene competes for labeling of P-gp. Finally, they directly measured cellular efflux of benzopyrene with adherent cell laser cytometry and found that resistant cells expressing high levels of P-gp showed rapid efflux of benzopyrene. By contrast, drug sensitive wild type cells with undetectable P-gp showed negligible efflux. They conclude that P-gp can function as an efflux pump for benzopyrene and suggest that P-gp may be a cellular mechanism for resistance to carcinogens.

  2. The Curative Activity of Isolated Fraction from Spathodea campanulata Beauv Stem Bark on Rat’s Exposed to Benzopyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masruri Masruri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a screening results of the secondary metabolites composed in Spathodea campanulata Beauv stem bark, evaluate inhibiting activity of malondialdehyde (MDA on rat’s cancer model exposed with benzopyrene, and the histology of its lung. The secondary metabolite of the stem bark fraction consisted of alkaloids, flavonoids-phenolic, terpenoid and steroid compounds. The isolated fraction contained of these metabolites significantly indicate bioactivity by reducting of malondialdehyde (MDA level, and also histology appearance of the lung tissue prepared from the benzopyrene-exposed rat indicated a curative activity.

  3. Role of bacteria in the removal of benzopyrene from waste water in the coke by-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurovskaya, E.M.

    1985-12-01

    Role of specific microflora is studied (the phenol destroying pseudomonad Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a rare strain of thionic bacteria Thiobacillus thiocyanoxidans which breaks down thiocyanates), in biochemical purification installations for removing benzopyrene from coal-tar effluent. Tests are described made in synthetic media with phenol and thiocyanate concentrations of 200 mg/l and 50 mg/l respectively, in waste water from coking plants and in ordinary industrial effluent, in order to study their resistance to benzopyrene and the capacity for intracellular accumulation and biochemical transformation as well as distribution in the biocenosis of purifying installations. The tests were also carried out in elective synthetic media with benzopyrene concentrations varying from 10-200 ..mu..g/l to discover a possible role of phenol destroying pseudomonad and thionic bacteria in decarcinogenization of waste water. The data obtained make it possible to assume that the widely used microbiological method for removing dangerous ingredients (phenols, thiocyanates, cyanide) from waste water will also help to reduce the amount of benzopyrene carcinogenic compound by approximately 49.4-56.04%. 11 references.

  4. Prevention of chinese green tea on 3,4-benzopyrene-induced lung cancer and its mechanism in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihua GU

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Chinese green tea is one of the daily consumption beverages in the world and is considered a promising cancer chemopreventive agent. In the present study, we investigate the role of lung cancer prevention by green tea and its mechanism. Methods Three groups of female SD rats were kept with the same feed. Rats in group A were administrated with 1% green tea drinking, while in group B and group C with water only. Animals in group A and group B were given 3,4-benzopyrene-corn oil mixture pulmonary injection fortnightly for 4 times, while in group C corn oil only. Rats were sacrificed 1 year after the first injection under narcotism. Lung tumors and lung tissues were performed H&E staining for cancer identification. Each case of lung cancer was examined for expression of p53 and Bcl-2 with in situ hybridization analysis and immunohistochemistry staining. Results No cancer was found in rats in group C. However, in group B, 15 out of 20 rats were found generating lung cancer, and in group A, 6 out of 20 rats inducing lung cancer were recorded. The rate of lung carcinogenesis in rats was decreased from 75% to 30% by 1% chinese green tea oral administration (χ2=8.12, P0.05. However, significantly lower level of Bcl-2 expression was found in lung cancer tissues of group A than that of group B (P<0.05. Conclusion The results indicate that chinese green tea inhibits lung carcinogenesis. Chinese green tea can slightly upregulate expression of p53, but significantly downregulate expression of Bcl-2 in lung cancer, and this may be related to the mechanism of lung cancer prevention.

  5. Macrophages promote benzopyrene-induced tumor transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells by activation of NF-κB and STAT3 signaling in a bionic airway chip culture and in animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Encheng; Xu, Zhiyun; Zhao, Hui; Sun, Zhao; Wang, Lei; Guo, Zhe; Zhao, Yang; GAO, ZHANCHENG; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of macrophages in promoting benzopyrene (BaP)-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells using a BaP-induced tumor transformation model with a bionic airway chip in vitro and in animal models. The bionic airway chip culture data showed that macrophages promoted BaP-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells, which was mediated by nuclear factor (NF)-κB and STAT3 pathways to induce cell proliferation, colony formation...

  6. 苯并芘对鱼类免疫毒性作用的研究进展%Advances in Studies of Toxicological Effects of Benzopyrene on Fish Immune System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾旭淑; 宋超; 陈家长

    2013-01-01

    [目的]综述了苯并芘对鱼类免疫毒性作用的研究进展.[方法]以主要免疫因子为切入点,综述了苯并芘对鱼类免疫毒性的作用机制及途径,以及环境中其他有机污染物对鱼类免疫毒性的作用机理.[结果]鱼类的免疫系统处于进化的特殊阶段,研究苯并芘对鱼类免疫功能的影响具有重要意义.[结论胲研究为应对在鱼类养殖过程中有机污染物及其他环境因子引起的免疫损伤,加强鱼类自身的免疫力提供了基础.%[Objective] The paper was to summarize the advances in studies of toxicological effects of benzopyrene on fish immune system.[Method] With the main immune factors as the breakthrough points,the paper summarized the toxicity mechanism and pathway of benzopyrene on fish immune system,as well as the toxicity mechanism of other environmental organic pollutants on fish immune toxicity.[Result] Fish immune system was in the special stage of evolution,the study on effect of benzopyrene on fish immune system has great significance.[Conclusion] The paper provided basis for dealing with the immune toxicity caused by organic pollutants and other environmental factors in aquaculture so as to strengthen fish immunity.

  7. 苯并芘对鱼类免疫毒性作用的研究进展%Advances in the Study of Toxicological Effects of Benzopyrene on Fish Immune System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾旭淑; 宋超; 陈家长

    2012-01-01

    As a representative of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Benzopyrene was widespread in the natural environment. It could be metabolized by cytochrome P450 monooxygenase such as CYP1A1. The ultimate metabolite BaP-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide thought to be critical for its immunotoxic activity. Fish immune system was in the special stage of evolution. This paper overviewed the toxicity mechanisms and channels of Benzopyrene on fish immune system from mainly immune factors. And the main immunostimulants used in aquaculture to deal with the immune toxicity caused by organic pollutants and other environmental factors were also briefly discussed.%苯并芘作为多环芳烃类化合物的代表,在自然环境中广泛存在.其主要毒性作用机制是经细胞色素P450单加氧酶代谢活化的产物7,8-二羟基-9,10-环氧苯并芘,这也是产生免疫毒性的关键物质.鱼类的免疫系统处于进化的特殊阶段,本研究以主要免疫因子为切入点,综述了苯并芘对鱼类免疫毒性的作用机制及途径.指出:环境中存在的其他有机污染物对鱼类免疫毒性的作用机理,并就鱼类养殖过程中为应对有机污染物及其他环境因子引起的免疫毒性所使用的免疫增强剂做了简单的介绍.

  8. 高效液相色谱法快速测定植物油中苯并(а)芘残留量%Determination of Benzopyrene in Vegetable Oil by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佩玲

    2015-01-01

    A method for determination of benzopyrene in vegetable oil by High Performance Liquid Chromatography was established. Using C18 reversed-phase column, with acetonitrile and H2O (88∶12,v/v) as mobile phase,flow rate was 1.0 ml/min, and excitation wavelength was 384nm and emission wavelength was 406 nm, and column temperature was 35℃, and injection volume was 10μl. Results: The detection limit was 0.5μg/kg, and the recovery rate arange from 95% to 103%, and RSD was≤ 2.7%.%采用C18反相色谱柱,在流动相为乙腈∶水(88∶12,v/v),流速为1.0 ml/min,激发波长384 nm,发射波长406 nm,柱温35℃,进样量10μl 的条件下,建立高效液相色谱法快速测定植物油中苯并芘残留量的方法。结果:本法检出限为0.5μg/kg,加标回收率95%~103%,RSD≤2.7%。

  9. Macrophages promote benzopyrene-induced tumor transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells by activation of NF-κB and STAT3 signaling in a bionic airway chip culture and in animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhao; Wang, Lei; Guo, Zhe; Zhao, Yang; Gao, Zhancheng; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of macrophages in promoting benzopyrene (BaP)-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells using a BaP-induced tumor transformation model with a bionic airway chip in vitro and in animal models. The bionic airway chip culture data showed that macrophages promoted BaP-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells, which was mediated by nuclear factor (NF)-κB and STAT3 pathways to induce cell proliferation, colony formation in chip culture, and tumorigenicity in nude mice. Blockage of interleukin (IL)-6 or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α signaling or inhibition of NF-κB, STAT3, or cyclinD1 expression abrogated the effect of macrophages on malignant transformation in the bionic airway chip culture. In vivo, macrophages promoted lung tumorigenesis in a carcinogen-induced animal model. Similarly, blockage of NF-κB, STAT3, or cyclinD1 using siRNA transfection decreased the carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis in rats. We demonstrated that macrophages are critical in promoting lung tumorigenesis and that the macrophage-initiated TNF-α/NF-κB/cyclinD1 and IL-6/STAT3/cyclinD1 pathways are primarily responsible for promoting lung tumorigenesis. PMID:25823926

  10. 固相萃取-超高效液相色谱荧光法测定植物油中苯并(a)芘%Determination of Benzopyrene in Cooking Oil by Solid-Phase Extraction Coupled with Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatograph-Fluorescence Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红青; 韩里明; 屠海云; 林伟杰

    2012-01-01

    采用中性氧化铝小柱净化样品,建立固相萃取一超高效液相色谱荧光法测定植物油中苯并(a)芘的方法。样品以正己烷为提取剂,净化、蒸发浓缩后正己烷溶解,荧光检测器检测。流动相为乙腈.水(75:25,wy),流速0.5mL/min,外标法定量。苯并(a)芘在0.10~50.0μg/L质量浓度范围内线性关系良好,相关系数Rz为0.9998;在空白样品中添加3个水平的标准品,回收率在91.7%~97.5%之间,相对标准偏差均小于2%(n=3);最低检出限为0.01ug/kg,定量限为0.03ug/kg。方法操作简便、分析时间短、稳定性好、选择性好、灵敏度高,为植物油中苯并(a)芘的测定提供参考。%A method was developed for the determination of benzopyrene by solid-phase extraction on a neutral A1203 cartridge coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Benzopyrene in samples were extracted into n-hexane, cleaned up, and concentrated by rotary evaporation and dissolved in n-hexane again before chromatographic separation and fluorescence detection. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-water (75:25, V/V) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Benzopyrene was quantified by external standard method. A good linear relationship between peak area and benzopyrene concentration was achieved in the range of 0.10--50.0 μg/L (R2- 0.9998). The mean spike recovery rates of benzopyrene at three concentration levels were in the range of 91.7% -- 97.5%, with relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 2%. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.01 g/kg and 0.03 vtg/kg, respectively. The developed method is characteristics of simple operation, good reproducibility, high sensitivity, and rapid, reliable and suitable determination for benzopyrene in cooking oil.

  11. Benzopyrene exposure disrupts DNA methylation and growth dynamics in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposures to environmental carcinogens and unhealthy lifestyle choices increase the incidence of breast cancer. One such compound, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), leads to covalent DNA modifications and the deregulation of gene expression. To date, these mechanisms of BaP-induced carcinogenesis are poorly understood, particularly in the case of breast cancer. We tested the effects of BaP exposure on cellular growth dynamics and DNA methylation in four breast cancer cell lines since disruptions in DNA methylation lead to deregulated gene expression and the loss of genomic integrity. We observed robust time- and concentration-dependent loss of proliferation, S phase and G2M accumulation and apoptosis in p53 positive MCF-7 and T47-D cells. We observed minimal responses in p53 negative HCC-1086 and MDA MB 231 cells. Furthermore, BaP increased p53 levels in both p53 positive cell lines, as well as p21 levels in MCF-7 cells, an effect that was prevented by the p53-specific inhibitor pifithrin-α. No changes in global levels of DNA methylation levels induced by BaP were detected by the methyl acceptor assay (MAA) in any cell line, however, methylation profiling by AIMS (amplification of intermethylated sites) analysis showed dynamic, sequence-specific hypo- and hypermethylation events in all cell lines. We also identified BaP-induced hypomethylation events at a number of genomic repeats. Our data confirm the p53-specific disruption of the cell cycle as well as the disruption of DNA methylation as a consequence of BaP treatment, thus reinforcing the link between environmental exposures, DNA methylation and breast cancer

  12. DNA methylation analysis using CpG microarrays is impaired in benzopyrene exposed cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epigenetic alterations have emerged as a key mechanism involved in tumorigenesis. These disruptions are partly due to environmental factors that change normal DNA methylation patterns necessary for transcriptional regulation and chromatin compaction. Microarray technologies are allowing environmentally susceptible epigenetic patterns to be mapped and the precise targets of environmentally induced alterations to be identified. Previously, we observed BaP-induced epigenetic events and cell cycle disruptions in breast cancer cell lines that included time- and concentration-dependent loss of proliferation as well as sequence-specific hypo- and hypermethylation events. In this present report, we further characterized epigenetic changes in BaP-exposed MCF-7 cells. We analyzed DNA methylation on a CpG island microarray platform with over 5400 unique genomic regions. Depleted and enriched microarray targets, representative of putative DNA methylation changes, were identified across the genome; however, subsequent sodium bisulfite analyses revealed no changes in DNA methylation at a number of these loci. Instead, we found that the identification of DNA methylation changes using this restriction enzyme-based microarray approach corresponded with the regions of DNA bound by the BaP derived DNA adducts. This DNA adduct formation occurs at both methylated and unmethylated CpG dinucleotides and affects PCR amplification during sample preparation. Our data suggest that caution should be exercised when interpreting data from comparative microarray experiments that rely on enzymatic reactions. These results are relevant to genome screening approaches involving environmental exposures in which DNA adduct formation at specific nucleotide sites may bias target acquisition and compromise the correct identification of epigenetically responsive genes

  13. Studies on air and water pollution. I. Polychlorinated biphenyls and benzopyrene status report July 1977 - June 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical methodology developed for trace amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in water was described. The water sample was extracted with hexane and the extract passes through a florisil column. The cleaned extract was concentrated and then analyzed by gas chromatography using an electron capture detector. The methodology has an efficiency of 85% recovery for PCB spiked at a concentration level of 1 ppm. Minimum detection limit obtained was 0.5 ppm PCB in water. A total of 27 water samples were collected and analyzed during the period January - June 1978. No PCB's were detected in the samples. (author)

  14. Inhibition of benzopyrene-diol-epoxide (BPDE)-induced bax and caspase-9 by cadmium: Role of mitogen activated protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium, a major metal constituent of tobacco smoke, elicits synergistic enhancement of cell transformation when combined with benzo[a]pyrene (BP) or other polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The mechanism underlying this synergism is not clearly understood. Present study demonstrates that (+/-)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), an ultimate carcinogen of BP, induces apoptosis in human leukemic HL-60 cells and others, and cadmium at non-cytotoxic concentration inhibits BPDE-induced apoptosis. We observed that BPDE treatment also activates all three MAP kinases e.g. ERK1/2, p38 and JNK in HL-60 cells, and inhibition of BPDE-induced apoptosis by cadmium is associated with down-regulation of pro-apoptotic bax induction/caspase-9 activation and up-regulation of ERK phosphorylation, whereas p38 MAP kinase and c-Jun phosphorylation (indicative of JNK activation) remain unaffected. Inhibition of ERKs by prior treatment of cells with 10 μM U0126 relieves cadmium-mediated inhibition of apoptosis/bax induction/caspase-9 activation. Our results suggest that cadmium inhibits BPDE-induced apoptosis by modulating apoptotic signaling through up-regulation of ERK, which is known to promote cell survival

  15. Effects of chemical carcinogens of hemopoiesis, immunopoiesis and viral oncogenesis. Technical progress report, December 1, 1977--September 30, 1978. [Mechanisms of potentiation of viral leukemogenesis by MMS, benzopyrene, and DMBA

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    OKunewick, J.P.; Raikow, R.B.; Meredith, R.F.

    1978-10-01

    During the past year we have concentrated on defining the circumstances under which methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), benzo(a) pyrene (BP), and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) interact with Friend virus (FLV) to produce leukemia. The optimum scheduling for each and also the effective dose levels of the chemicals have been partially determined. There are at least three critical factors which govern whether or not a leukemogenic interaction can be shown between the chemical agents and the virus. These are chemical dose, virus dose, and their relative time of administration. The most critical of these is virus dose. The optimum virus dose is that which results in between 25 and 40% incidence of leukemia within 40 days after virus infection when virus is given alone. The chemical carcinogens have a lower dose threshold, below which no significant potentiating effect can be observed. The only upper limit would appear to be acute drug toxicity. The third element, timing, is equally critical and varies according to the chemical. This variation may reflect different mechanisms of action by the chemical agents and/or different pharmacology. Data on the effects of MMS, BP, and DMBA on the immune system have indicated that the viral enhancement is probably not dependent on this function. Further enhancement of the potentiation of viral leukemogenesis was observed using benzo(a)pyrene and caffeine, indicating that the inhibition by caffeine of DNA repair may be an important factor in virus potentiation. (ERB)

  16. Phytoplankton growth, dissipation, and succession in estuarine environments. Renewal proposal and annual summary report, August 1, 1977--July 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seliger, H H

    1978-01-01

    The directions of the research program in understanding the dynamics of the natural phytoplankton populations of the Chesapeake Bay, the methodology, the statistical analysis, and the description of the system are parallel to the requirements for environmental impact studies. Results are reported for the following studies: development of instrumentation and the synoptic isopleth methodology for relating the dynamic distributions of natural phytoplankton populations to water circulation patterns; phytoplankton cage experiments for assessment of nutrient dynamics; sub-lethal concentrations and effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; and studies on concentration and time kinetics of induction of liver aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase system in Fundulus heteroclitus by benzopyrene and 3-methyl cholanthrene. (HLW)

  17. Profiling of Biomarkers for the Exposure of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Lamin-A/C Isoform 3, Poly[ADP-ribose] Polymerase 1, and Mitochondria Copy Number Are Identified as Universal Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwan-Young Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the profiling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH- induced genotoxicity in cell lines and zebrafish. Each type of cells displayed different proportionality of apoptosis. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number was dramatically elevated after 5-day treatment of fluoranthene and pyrene. The notable deregulated proteins for PAHs exposure were displayed as follows: lamin-A/C isoform 3 and annexin A1 for benzopyrene; lamin-A/C isoform 3 and DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha for pentacene; poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1 for fluoranthene; and talin-1 and DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha for pyrene. Among them, lamin-A/C isoform 3 and PARP-1 were further confirmed using mRNA and protein expression study. Obvious morphological abnormalities including curved backbone and cardiomegaly in zebrafish were observed in the 54 hpf with more than 400 nM of benzopyrene. In conclusion, the change of mitochondrial genome (increased mtDNA copy number was closely associated with PAH exposure in cell lines and mesenchymal stem cells. Lamin-A/C isoform 3, talin-1, and annexin A1 were identified as universal biomarkers for PAHs exposure. Zebrafish, specifically at embryo stage, showed suitable in vivo model for monitoring PAHs exposure to hematopoietic tissue and other organs.

  18. Efficient laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using excitation energy transfer from anthracene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Femtomolar detection of PAHs such as perylene and benzopyrene was achieved. ► Photoexcited anthracene molecules transferred their energy to PAHs. ► Electronically excited PAHs were then excited to be ions. ► Two-photon ionization process was necessary to complete the ionization process. ► The number of defect sites could be reduced by the annealing procedure. - Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as perylene and benzopyrene, doped at amounts on the order of femtomol (∼10−15 mol) in anthracene crystals could be detected by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Sensitivity was roughly 103 times higher than that of LDI method in our experimental conditions. It was revealed from the excitation power dependence of the peak intensity of PAHs on the mass spectra that two-photon excitation in one UV pulse was necessary to complete the ionization process. It was also clarified that the number of defect sites that trap excitons generated in anthracene crystals could be reduced by the annealing procedure, by which an efficient energy transfer between anthracene and PAHs became possible

  19. Efficient laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using excitation energy transfer from anthracene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, Kensuke [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Fujino, Tatsuya, E-mail: fujino@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: ► Femtomolar detection of PAHs such as perylene and benzopyrene was achieved. ► Photoexcited anthracene molecules transferred their energy to PAHs. ► Electronically excited PAHs were then excited to be ions. ► Two-photon ionization process was necessary to complete the ionization process. ► The number of defect sites could be reduced by the annealing procedure. - Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as perylene and benzopyrene, doped at amounts on the order of femtomol (∼10{sup −15} mol) in anthracene crystals could be detected by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Sensitivity was roughly 10{sup 3} times higher than that of LDI method in our experimental conditions. It was revealed from the excitation power dependence of the peak intensity of PAHs on the mass spectra that two-photon excitation in one UV pulse was necessary to complete the ionization process. It was also clarified that the number of defect sites that trap excitons generated in anthracene crystals could be reduced by the annealing procedure, by which an efficient energy transfer between anthracene and PAHs became possible.

  20. Sanitary impact of cleaning operations following the pollution bred by the Erika wreck: evaluation and prevention. Synthesis of available data and recommendations; Impact sanitaire des operations de nettoyage consecutives a la pollution engendree par le naufrage de l'Erika: evaluation et prevention. Synthese des donnees disponibles et recommandations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    The I.N.E.R.I.S. (Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques) report relative to the consequences of cleaning operations following the pollution bred by the Erika wreck gives the following conclusions: whatever the pollutants are, the carcinogen risks by pulmonary way are negligible for people assigned to the beaches cleaning; the general carcinogen effects, linked to benzopyrene in organism after skin crossing, have been evaluated as negligible; there is a non negligible risk for the embryo-fetal development linked to the benzopyrene skin crossing; It is not possible to tell if the skin cancer risk is or not negligible, because of the uncertainty of the dose effectively absorbed by the skin and the lack of acceptable toxicological references; the risks linked to the volatile organic compounds are negligible; an uncertainty exists on the risks linked to the thiophene family that have not been determined, because of the deficiency of base data. For the second study, whatever the studied scenario, the R.I.V.M. (Riijksinstituut Voor Volksgezondheid en mileuhygiene) Dutch organism report concludes to a risk qualified as acceptable for the voluntary workers and professionals, included the birds cleaners. The risk of skin cancer consecutive to the skin exposure has been characterized with a dose response relationship model coming from previous works of the R.I.V.M. (N.C.)

  1. Two types of cells in the normal, atypical and carcinomatous squamous epithelium of the cervix. I. Light microscopic and autoradiographic study in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of two morphologically distinct cell types in the cervical epithelium of mice is reported. One of the two cell types had a large nucleus with a limited amount of cytoplasm. Cells with these characteristics were called cells with ''lucid nuclei.'' Such cells were found in film-coated autoradiographic specimens that had been fixed in Carnoy's solution; they were readily observed by altering the quality of the light illuminating the preparations. Micrometric determinations confirmed that cells with ''lucid nuclei'' were larger than cells with ''nonlucid nuclei.'' Both cell types were demonstrated to synthesize DNA and RNA precursors. The proportion of cells with ''lucid nuclei'' was increased in 3.4-benzopyrene-induced atypias; the highest values were reached in squamous invasive carcinoma. The causes of the significant increase in cells with ''lucid nuclei'' during cervical carcinogenesis in the mouse are unclear

  2. The price of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no market price for environmental pollution, simply because of the fact that there is not a market for the environment. However, it is possible to calculate so-called shadow prices for environmental pollution. The calculation method can be summarized as follows: determine the price that exist when there would be a market for the environment. In many cases the calculation must be based on environmental targets as determined by the government. Based on that method and on available data and information, shadow prices are estimated for 18 different pollutants: CO2, CO, CH4, SO2, NH3, NOx, volatile organic materials, final wastes, phosphates, nitrates, COD, fine dust, toluene, benzene, benzopyrene (to air and water), zinc (to water), and copper (to water). 7 figs., 5 tabs., 43 refs

  3. BENZO[a]PYRENE METABOLITES EXAGGERATE DNA OXIDATIVE DAMAGE UPON THE INVOLVEMENT OF FREE RADICALS%苯并[a]比代谢产物在自由基参与下加速DNA的氧化损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗云敬; GAO Da-yuan; WEI Hua-chen

    2003-01-01

    @@ Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),which constitute a major class of environmental pollu tants are posing a threat to human health. Benzopyrene,an index of PAH levels omnipresent in the everyday environment ,becomes toxic only when being metabolically and/or photo-activated,i. e. ,in the pres ence of UV light. Free radicals such as superoxide anions ('O2),hydrogen peroxide (H2O2),hydroxyl radicals ('OH) and singlet oxygen (1O2) are involved in carcinogenesis. Wei CE etc[1] studied the effects of different scavengers of active oxygen species (superoxide dismutase,catalase,mannitol and dimethyfu ran) on promoting B[a]P mutagenicity. Bryla P ete[2] investigated the roles of several ROS scavengers in the oxidation and binding of B[a]P to calf thymus DNA using the 32p-postlabeling assay.

  4. Ambient air quality trends in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provided an overview of ambient air pollutant trends in Alberta. The report discussed the following pollutants having effect on human and environmental health: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), benzene, and benzopyrene. Each of these pollutants was described. The report provided data on annual average concentration trends and annual 99th percentile concentration as an indicator of peak concentrations. A map illustrating air quality monitoring stations in 2006 was also provided. The findings revealed that mean annual CO levels were the lowest they have been since 1990; hydrogen sulphide concentrations have fluctuated in time since 1990; most Edmonton and Calgary area stations showed significant decreasing trends in annual average NO2 levels since 1990; and higher SO2 concentrations have been found in the industrial areas of Alberta, such as the Redwater and Scotford oil sands locations. tabs., figs

  5. The combined carcinogenic effects of ionising radiation and chemical molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the combined effects of ionizing radiation and chemicals on the incidence of cancer are briefly reviewed. Results (mainly animal data) are presented for the combined effects of; 1) X-radiation and urethane on the incidence of leukaemia and lymphomas; 2) X-radiation and N-N'-2,7 fluorenylenebisacetamide, X-radiation and carbon tetrachloride, neutron radiation and carbon tetrachloride and cerium-144 and DAB on the incidence of cancer of the liver; 3) 131I and methylthiouracil on the incidence of thyroid cancer; and 4) inhaled radon and cigarette smoking, inhaled plutonium and beryllium oxide, inhaled plutonium oxide and benzopyrene, inhaled plutonium and dimethylnitrosamine, and inhaled radon and 5-6 benzoflavone on the incidence of lung cancer. Many of the studies showed that the combined effects of radiation and chemicals had a potentiating effect on tumour formation; there was often a shortening of the latency period before tumour induction and an increase in the size and the malignancy of the tumours. The mechanism of action of these combined effects on tumour incidence are considered. (UK)

  6. Study of the combined action of inhaled plutonium oxide and two chemical carcinogens present in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modifications of risk attributable to two carcinogens present in the environment - benzopyrene (BP) and dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA) - following inhalation of plutonium oxide have been studied in rats. BP (2x5 mg) was given intratracheally in association with Fe2O3, 2 and 3 weeks after inhalation of PuO2. DMNA (2 or 20 ppm) was added to the animals' drinking water. The results show, for BP, a strong synergistic effect which manifests itself in a substantial reduction of lifetime in animals that have inhaled a small quantity of PuO2 (17 nCi), and in a greater incidence of tumours and enhanced tumour invasiveness whatever the dose of PuO2 inhaled. Inhalation of PuO2 associated with regular ingestion of DMNA multiplies the metastases of liver cancers in the lung. Addition of BP or DMNA modifies the histological profile of radiation-induced tumours. The synergistic effects are no longer observed when the pollutant concentrations used produce subacute intoxication. (author)

  7. Effect of Water Washing on Hydrocarbon Compositions of Petropleum Sandstone Reservoir Rocks in Tarim Basin,NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 张俊

    2000-01-01

    Gross compositions and distribution of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in Carboniferous sandstone reservoire rocks in oil and water zones for Tzhong-10 well of the Zhongyang Uplift in the Tarim Basin were studied in dteail by means of Rock-Eval Pyrolysis,thin-chromatograph-flame ionization detection(TLC-FID),gas chromatography,gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.The results suggest that the gross composition of reservoir hydrocarbons between the oil zone and the water zone show significant differences,Water wahing has a dramatic effect on saturated hydrocarbon blomarkers,especially drimane series compounds,Drimane series compounds in the water zone have been depleted completely.However,the contents of tricyclic iterpanes and pentacyclic triterpanes tend to decrease slightly,but the water-zone reservoir hydrocarbons contian a large amount of gammacerane.This suggests that gammacerane be more resistant to water washing than diterpanes and homohopanes.The contents of pregnane,homopregrane,diasteranes relastively decrease as a result of water washing.Water washing has a noticeable effect on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds,especially aromatic sulfur compounds,and the contents of dibenzothiophene series compounds and benzonaplyiothipophene decrease significantly as a result of water washing.However,the conterts of bicyclic and tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbons decrase slightly and those of tetracyclic and pentacyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,especially benzofluoranthene and benzopyrenes,increase markedly owing to adecrease in light aromatie hydrocarbons as a result of water washing.

  8. Chemically induced DNA hypomethylation in breast carcinoma cells detected by the amplification of intermethylated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compromised patterns of gene expression result in genomic instability, altered patterns of gene expression and tumour formation. Specifically, aberrant DNA hypermethylation in gene promoter regions leads to gene silencing, whereas global hypomethylation events can result in chromosomal instability and oncogene activation. Potential links exist between environmental agents and DNA methylation, but the destabilizing effects of environmental exposures on the DNA methylation machinery are not understood within the context of breast cancer aetiology. We assessed genome-wide changes in methylation patterns using a unique methylation profiling technique called amplification of intermethylated sites (AIMS). This method generates easily readable fingerprints that represent the investigated cell line's methylation profile, based on the differential cleavage of DNA with methylation-specific isoschisomeric restriction endonucleases. We validated this approach by demonstrating both unique and reoccurring sites of genomic hypomethylation in four breast carcinoma cell lines treated with the cytosine analogue 5-azacytidine. Comparison of treated with control samples revealed individual bands that exhibited methylation changes, and these bands were excized and cloned, and the precise genomic location individually identified. In most cases, these regions of hypomethylation coincided with susceptible target regions previously associated with chromosome breakage, rearrangement and gene amplification. Similarly, we observed that acute benzopyrene exposure is associated with altered methylation patterns in these cell lines. These results reinforce the link between environmental exposures, DNA methylation and breast cancer, and support a role for AIMS as a rapid, affordable screening method to identify environmentally induced DNA methylation changes that occur in tumourigenesis

  9. Pollution release nad transfer register as an effective tool for monitoring of ecological safety of soil in Areas of oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : The oil production process is accompanied by an increased level of radiation. The main sources of radiation hazard to oil and gas fields are the sludge of produced waters, radioactive salts sediments on equipment, previously buried sludge and salt. Radioactive salts and sludge are deposited in the oil and gas equipment. Experiments were carried out in the areas of oil production on the 3 main types of pollutants, which are : petroleum derivatives, particularly benzopyrene, which has high carcinogenic activity; radiation due to the increased levels of radionuclides in the sludge of produced water; heavy metals, as the oil production process is accompanied by input of large amounts of heavy metals. The scientific researche play the main role in analyzing the PRTR data. Finally it would be worth to mentionthe national legislation regulated the radiation safety in Azerbaijan. This law includes requirements for ensuring radiation safety in industrial entities and environmental norms protecting the safety of employees and populations in areas potentially affected by the use of radioactive sources

  10. Molecular fossils and sources of Cambrian heavy oil of Well Tadong-2 in theTarim Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Youjun; ZAN Ling

    2009-01-01

    Research on the molecular fossil characteristics of heavy oil from Well Tadong-2 is of great importance to constrain the source of marine crude oils in the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China. The authors synthetically applied the isotope mass spectrograph, chromatography and chromatography-mass spectrography to the studies of molecular fossil characteristics of heavy oil from Well Tadong-2 in the Tarim Basin, and the results obtained revealed that heavy oil from Well Tadong-2 is characterized by high gammacerane, high C28 sterane, low rearranged sterane and high C27-triaromatic steroid, these characteristics are similar to those of Cambrian-Lower Ordovician source rocks, demonstrating that Cambrian crude oils came from Cambrian-Lower Ordovician source rocks; condensed compounds (fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, bow, benzo fluoranthene, benzopyrene) of high abundance were detected in heavy oil from Well Tadong-2, and the carbon isotopic values of whole oil are evidently heavy, all the above characteristics revealed that hydrocarbons in the crude oils became densified in response to thermal alteration.

  11. Inherited susceptibility to cancer and other factors influencing occurrence of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The types of defects and polymorphisms leading to hereditary susceptibility to cancer include proneness to increased DNA damage, recessive syndromes of faulty DNA repair and differentiation, as well as dominant mutations of cell cycle and control proliferation. The cancer susceptibility syndromes inherited in a dominant fashion are caused by mutations in tumor suppressor genes. These genes are recessive in relation to wild type alleles. In two syndromes of hereditary mutations in tumor suppressor genes (Rb and WT2), their expression 'in vivo' may be influenced by the sex of the transmitting parent, what points to modulation by imprinting. Genetic heterogeneity of the population in susceptibility to genotoxic agents is related to the individual variation in acceptable levels of exposure to agents and factors, such as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), UV ('xeroderma pigmentosum') and ionizing radiation ('ataxia telangiectasia'). DNA damage and adducts are considered to be indicative of genotoxic exposure and its effect as well as modulation of carcinogenic damage by genetic polymorphisms. Gene and protein polymorphisms are considered as markers of increased individual risk. Since environmental factors are considered to be able to control, the individual susceptibility to enhanced DNA damage and environmentally induced cancers could be counteracted by decreasing the levels of contamination or exposure. This explains the wide interest in markers of this individual sensitivity. Most of the postulated markers of sensitivity to PIV do not, however, prove to be generally applicable in that sense. Their prognostic value is limited either by low amplitude of the effect, or by their character specific either to the population or to the cancer type. The polymorphisms most relevant to cancers induced by PIC exposures may be those of inductibility of benzopyrene hydroxylase, and some other DNA polymorphisms concerning the CYP1A1 gene. (author). 24 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  12. Ecological situation at the coke plant of the Nizhnii Tagil Integrated Iron and Steel Works (according to data from an expert commission of Gosstroi USSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A main source of pollution is the Nizhnii Tagil Integrated Iron and Steel Works (NTMK), whose share in the total emissions of harmful substances is very significant. Thus, in 1987 the mean annual dust content in the atmosphere of the city surpassed the maximum admissible concentrations 1.3 times, phenol 2 times, ammonia 2.5 times, benzopyrene 6 times. In 1988 an even higher content of harmful substances was noted. Reconstruction of the coke plant now underway has been called upon to ensure a significant improvement in the ecological conditions together with an overall increase in its technical level. Restoration of the existing capacity of the coke batteries at domestic coke plants is being accomplished according to two variants: first - relining of the batteries with retention of the existing dimensions or with a slight very limited increase, with modernization of the designs of the ovens and chemical departments, and also machines and equipment (technical refitting); second - withdrawal from operation of the existing batteries and construction of new higher capacity coke batteries in the plant area (reconstruction). From the standpoint of ecology and economy of capital investment it would be more expedient to restore capacity at NTMK according to the first variant. However, restoration here is being carried out according to the second variant with construction of coke batteries 9 and 10 in a new area with dry coke quenching. There are plans to decommission batteries 1-4. An analysis is given of the sources of pollution from the coke plant and measures are defined to reduce pollutants

  13. [Impact of energy related pollutants on chromosome structure]: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the structure of nucleosome cores using chymotrypsin as a probe of hydrophobic residues showed that only leu-20 of H3 was readily accessible. Primary sites of cleavage of H2a, H2b, and H4 were identified. Chymotrypsin removal of specific histone termini showed that removal of the amino-terminal plus the carboxy-terminal 13 residues of H2a caused little unfolding. Using carbon-13 NMR spectroscopic, about 10% of histone amino acid residues were found to be in termini that are highly mobile. The major mobile segments were amino terminal regions of H3 and H2a, plus a carboxy-terminal region of H2a. The histone variants and developmental changes during embryogenesis of sea urchin were characterized. The early histone gene organization in L. variegatus was characterized, a genomic library was cloned in lambda phage, and several histone gene clones were selected. The nucleosome core length DNA forms crystalline phases at physiological concentrations. Microscopic and NMR spectroscopic methods were used to identify crystalline phases and to establish phase diagrams for transitions between phases as functions of DNA concentration and temperature. The sequence specificities of binding of several polycyclic aromatic chemicals to early H3 and H2a genes were examined. Chemicals studied were the bis-(o-phenanthroline) Cu(I) complex, AAAF, benzopyrene dihydrodiol epoxide, methylene blue, and acridine orange A preliminary map of binding sites of CuOP, AAAF and BPDE in and near the H3 gene showed that several sequence regions were bound preferentially by two or more of these chemicals. CuOP appeared to exhibit the most specificity. 80 refs., 4 figs

  14. 煤的基本化工过程与污染特征分析%Basic coal chemical processes and their pollution characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦朝海; 廖建波; 胡芸

    2016-01-01

    main pollutants produced by coal chemical process were introduced from the coal properties,the process requirements,and the technology features. The source and composition of the “three wastes” were selectively analyzed from the processes of coal-to-coke and coal-to-gas. Among them,the waste gas came from the incompletely carbonized pulverized coal in the chemical conversion process,the precipitated matters including volatile matter,tar fog and fly ash,the leaked raw gas,as well as CO,CO2 and NO2 generated by burning coke on contact with air. The wastewater included dedusting wastewater,surplus aqueous ammonia,phenol and cyanogens wastewater,desulfurization liquid and the water sealing gas. The waste residue included dust,coal dust,acid tar,tar slag and sludge. The gas phase pollutants from coal chemical process mainly included oxycarbide,oxysulphide,ammonia gas,volatile phenol,benzene,benzopyrene,CO,CH4 and small molecule hydrocarbons. The liquid phase pollutants contained not only ammonia,cyanide,sulphide, benzene,phenol and oil,but also a lot of benzopyrene,naphthalene and other PAHs,and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including pyridine,carbazole,biphenyl,terphenyl,etc. The pollution characteristics showed wide distribution,complex components,high concentration,coexistence of multiphase mediums with high environment risk. The typical characteristics of the coal chemical wastewater were high concentration/salinity,high pollution (multicomponent),toxic and refractory. The clarification of the relationship between the coal chemical process and pollution characteristics needed researchers to deepen the comprehensive understanding for the basic coal properties,the principles of conversion,purification and application. Therefore,the control technology and strategy should be based on the deep understanding for the chain of resource- product-economy-environment- society and the effective integration system,and the strategic design and logic innovation should be

  15. Molecular biology of the stress response in the early embryo and its stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puscheck, Elizabeth E; Awonuga, Awoniyi O; Yang, Yu; Jiang, Zhongliang; Rappolee, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Stress is normal during early embryogenesis and transient, elevated stress is commonplace. Stress in the milieu of the peri-implantation embryo is a summation of maternal hormones, and other elements of the maternal milieu, that signal preparedness for development and implantation. Examples discussed here are leptin, adrenaline, cortisol, and progesterone. These hormones signal maternal nutritional status and provide energy, but also signal stress that diverts maternal and embryonic energy from an optimal embryonic developmental trajectory. These hormones communicate endocrine maternal effects and local embryonic effects although signaling mechanisms are not well understood. Other in vivo stresses affect the embryo such as local infection and inflammation, hypoxia, environmental toxins such as benzopyrene, dioxin, or metals, heat shock, and hyperosmotic stress due to dehydration or diabetes. In vitro, stresses include shear during handling, improper culture media and oxygen levels, cryopreservation, and manipulations of the embryo to introduce sperm or mitochondria. We define stress as any stimulus that slows stem cell accumulation or diminishes the ability of cells to produce normal and sufficient parenchymal products upon differentiation. Thus stress deflects downwards the normal trajectories of development, growth and differentiation. Typically stress is inversely proportional to embryonic developmental and proliferative rates, but can be proportional to induction of differentiation of stem cells in the peri-implantation embryo. When modeling stress it is most interesting to produce a 'runting model' where stress exposures slow accumulation but do not create excessive apoptosis or morbidity. Windows of stress sensitivity may occur when major new embryonic developmental programs require large amounts of energy and are exacerbated if nutritional flow decreases and removes energy from the normal developmental programs and stress responses. These windows correspond

  16. On the issue of higher human sensitivity to carcinogenic substances in early childhood; Zur Frage einer hoeheren Empfindlichkeit von Kindern gegenueber krebserzeugenden Stoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K. [comp.

    1998-09-01

    Age-dependent carcinogenesis in humans has been proven with high probability for a number of substances investigated within one or several model systems. Sometimes, very high tumor incidence after short exposure time was observed. Extreme differences were found in some models. (A) Vinyl chloride, Maltoni et al.,1981: 6000 ppm, hepatic angiosarcoma incidence: - Exposure for 4 weeks, from day 1: 40.5 %, - exposure for 4 weeks, from week 13: 0%, - exposure for 52 weeks, from week 13: 22%. Hepatoma incidence: - Exposure for 4 weeks, from day 1: 47.6%, exposure for 4 weeks, from week 13: 0%, exposure for 52 weeks, from week 13: 1.7%. (B) Diethyl nitrosamine, Dyroff et al., 1986: (DEN + phenobarbital), hepatic carcinoma after exposure of rats for 6 weeks: - as from 4 weeks of age: 100% incidence, - as from 8 weeks of age: 0% incidence. (C) Benzopyrene, Vesselinovitch et al., 1975: Hepatic tumor incidence after single, parenteral administration to rats: - at day 1: males: 81%, females: 18%, - at day 42: males: 9%, females: 0%. As is shown by the study on vinyl chloride by Maltoni et al., the same exposure concentration may lead to higher tumor incidence in young animals after short exposure times than it does in long-term experiments with adult animals. Genetic toxicity was detected for all substances, except for saccharin. So it can be assumed that the mechanism of carcinogenesis has an essential influence on the age-dependence. This conclusion agrees well with mechanistic approaches. (orig./CB) [German] Fuer eine Reihe von Schadstoffen ist eine Altersabhaengigkeit der Kanzerogenese mit hoher Wahrscheinlichkeit in einem oder mehreren Modellsystemen gezeigt worden. Dabei wurden zum Teil bereits nach kurzer Expositionszeit sehr hohe Tumorausbeuten erzielt. Extreme Unterschiede wurden in folgenden Modellen beobachtet. (A) Vinylchlorid, Maltoni et al., 1981: 6000 ppm, Inzidenz Leberangiosarkome: - Exposition ueber 4 Wochen ab Tag 1: 40,5%, - Exposition ueber 4 Wochen ab 13

  17. Uncertainties under emergency conditions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and Bikini accident in 1954

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In exploding an atomic bomb, in addition to ionizing radiation, strong non-ionizing radiation, such as infrared, ultraviolet light, visible light, electromagnetic pulse radiation, as well as heat and shock waves are produced. The survivors and those who visited Hiroshima immediately after the atomic bombing could have been subjected to a number of other possible noxious effects in addition to atomic radiation. Hospitals, laboratories, drugstores, pharmaceutical works, storehouses of chemicals, factories, etc. that were situated close to the hypocenter were all completely destroyed and various mutagenic, carcinogenic or teratogenic substances must have been released, many doctors, nurses and chemists were killed. There was no medical care and no food in the region of high dose exposure and the drinking water was contaminated. There would have been various possibilities of infection. Mental stress would also have been much higher in the survivors closer to the hypocenter. It is confusing which factor played a dominant role. In addition, there would be problems in accurately identifying the position of the exposed persons at the time of the atomic bombing and also in estimating the shielding factors. There may be considerable uncertainty in human memory under such conditions. It is also possible that there could have been a large storage of gasoline to be used for transportation of the army corps in Hiroshima. Therefore there is a possibility that various toxic substances, mutagenic or carcinogenic agents such as benzopyrene and other radiomimetic substances, chemical weapons (Yperit, Lewisite, etc.) could have been released from various facilities which were destroyed at the time of the atomic bombing. After the German surrender, in May 1945, it was reported in June, in Japan, that the USA might attempt landing on Japan mainland, and that they might be planning massive use of chemical weapons all over Japan on that occasion. Preparing for such case chemical officers

  18. Uncertainties under emergency conditions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and Bikini accident in 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiwaki, Y. [Universitaet Wien, Institut fuer Medizinische Physik, Vienna (Austria); Kawai, H. [Atomic Energy Research Institute of Kinki Univ., Osaka (Japan); Shono, N. [Hiroshima Jogakuin Univ., Hiroshima (Japan); Fujita, S. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Department of Statistics, Hiroshima (Japan); Matsuoka, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Earth Simulator Research and Development Center, Tokyo (Japan); Fujiwara, S. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Hosoda, T. [Chiyoda Technol Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    In exploding an atomic bomb, in addition to ionizing radiation, strong non-ionizing radiation, such as infrared, ultraviolet light, visible light, electromagnetic pulse radiation, as well as heat and shock waves are produced. The survivors and those who visited Hiroshima immediately after the atomic bombing could have been subjected to a number of other possible noxious effects in addition to atomic radiation. Hospitals, laboratories, drugstores, pharmaceutical works, storehouses of chemicals, factories, etc. that were situated close to the hypocenter were all completely destroyed and various mutagenic, carcinogenic or teratogenic substances must have been released, many doctors, nurses and chemists were killed. There was no medical care and no food in the region of high dose exposure and the drinking water was contaminated. There would have been various possibilities of infection. Mental stress would also have been much higher in the survivors closer to the hypocenter. It is confusing which factor played a dominant role. In addition, there would be problems in accurately identifying the position of the exposed persons at the time of the atomic bombing and also in estimating the shielding factors. There may be considerable uncertainty in human memory under such conditions. It is also possible that there could have been a large storage of gasoline to be used for transportation of the army corps in Hiroshima. Therefore there is a possibility that various toxic substances, mutagenic or carcinogenic agents such as benzopyrene and other radiomimetic substances, chemical weapons (Yperit, Lewisite, etc.) could have been released from various facilities which were destroyed at the time of the atomic bombing. After the German surrender, in May 1945, it was reported in June, in Japan, that the USA might attempt landing on Japan mainland, and that they might be planning massive use of chemical weapons all over Japan on that occasion. Preparing for such case chemical officers

  19. 沈阳市城郊土壤有机污染特征%Characteristics of soil organic pollution in Shenyang suburbs of Liaoning Province, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔健; 都基众; 杨泽; 马宏伟; 李霄

    2011-01-01

    对沈阳市城郊土壤中35种有机污染物进行了检测,分析了土壤有机污染检出特征和空间分布特征.沈阳市城郊土壤共检出了15种有机污染物;苯并(a)芘、六氯苯、滴滴涕和六六六的变异系数均大于l,其污染物浓度局部富集程度高,含量起伏变化大,土壤有机污染呈现“一多三少”的现象,即全区检出有机污染物的采样点多,检出的有机污染物种类较少,有机污染物含量少,且无超标点.受土壤包气带岩性影响,城郊土壤垂向上有机污染规律明显.土壤区域有机污染分布特征与城市土地利用功能一致性较高.分析了各类有机污染物含量和分布特征的主要影响因素,对防治城市土壤污染,进而保障居民的食品安全和饮水安全具有重要意义.%Based on the survey of 35 organic pollutants in the soils of Shenyang suburbs, this paper studied the detection characteristics of the pollutants and their spatial distribution characteristics. Fifteen of the 35 organic pollutants were detected, among which, benzopyrene, hexachloro-benzene, DDT, and BHC had the coefficients of variation > 1, and their local enrichment degree was high, with greater fluctuation in concentration. The soil organic pollution in the suburbs presented a pattern of "one more and three less" , I. E. , more sampling points with detected organic pollutants, less kinds of detected organic pollutants, less concentration of the organic pollutants , and no sampling points exceeded the standards. Due to the effects of the lithology of soil vadose zone, the suburb soils showed an obvious vertical stratification pattern of organic pollution. It was considered that the regional distribution of suburb soil organic pollution had higher consistency with land use function, and thus, to analyze the main factors affecting the concentrations and distribution characteristics of organic pollutants in suburb soils would be of significance in preventing and

  20. Distribution and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface soils in Shanghai%上海市表层土壤中多环芳烃的分布特征与源解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜芳芳; 杨毅; 刘敏; 陆敏; 于英鹏; 郑鑫; 刘营

    2014-01-01

    应用气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)对上海市80个表层土壤样品中16种优控多环芳烃的浓度进行了测定,分析了上海市土壤中PAHs的含量分布特征,并利用同分异构体比值、主成分分析方法对表层土壤中的PAHs进行了源解析.结果表明,80个样点PAHs的含量在0.12~24.5μg/g之间,呈现出郊区>市区>农村的梯度变化,市区内不同功能区采样点呈现出交通区>文教区>公园绿地>商业区>住宅区的梯度变化. PAHs组成以4环和5环为主,平均含量分别占∑PAHs的49.2%和27.0%,其次为3环和6环,分别占∑PAHs的14.8%和6.6%,最低为2环PAHs,仅占2.4%,单体PAHs化合物以荧蒽、芘、苯并芘为主.源解析表明,表层土壤中PAHs的主要来源是燃烧源,主要是石油燃烧.%The concentrations of sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 80 topsoil samples in Shanghai were determined by GC-MS. The distribution pattern was discussed, and source apportionment of PAHs in surface soil was conducted by the isomer ratio and principal component analysis. Results showed that the concentrations of PAHs ranged between 0.12μg/gand 24.5μg/g, presenting gradient changes of suburb>urban> rural and traffic area>cultural and educational area>park greenbelt>business district>residential in different functional areas in the city. Dominant compounds were 4rings and 5rings PAHs, which accounted for 49.2% and 27.0%, followed by 3and 6rings, which accounted for 14.8% and 6.6% of the total PAH concentrations, respectively. The lowest was the 2rings PAHs, which only accounted for 2.4% of the total PAH concentrations. In addition, fluoranthene, pyrene and benzopyrene were dominant PAH compounds. Source apportionment indicated that the PAHs originated mainly from burning, mainly oil burning.

  1. Fifty years after Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    be used for transportation of the army corps in Hiroshima. Therefore there is a possibility that various toxic substances, mutagenic or carcinogenic agents such as benzopyrene and other radiomimetic substances could have been released from various facilities which were destroyed at the time of the atomic bombing. The enormous difference in dose rates between the atomic bombings and the radiation sources used for calibration experiments may also have some effect on some dosimetric systems or on some biological systems. Although it may be difficult to quantify some of these uncertainties, it is extremely important to keep all these uncertain factors in mind when analysing the atomic bomb effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In Japan, medical X-ray examination is compulsory in schools, factories and companies. With certain diseases such as tuberculosis and some diseases of the lung and digestive systems extensive X-ray examinations may be conducted and periodically repeated. Survivors with a relatively low dose of high dose rate atomic bomb radiation must also have received some relatively low dose of low dose rate medical X-ray radiation. In other words, they must have received both high dose rate radiation and low dose rate radiation. There is a possibility of non-probabilistic uncertainties involved in estimation of the relative proportion of the two types of radiation and even greater uncertainties would be involved in the estimation of the organ doses. In these uncertainties both randomness and fuzziness may be involved.Under such situation it may be important to consider application of fuzzy theory for the analysis of cause-effect relationships. In exploding an atomic bomb, in addition to ionizing radiation, strong non-ionizing radiations, such as infrared, ultraviolet light, visible light, electromagnetic pulse radiation, as well as heat and shock waves are produced. Therefore, the possibility of the combined effects of all these direct factors and the indirect

  2. STUDY OF BIOMARKERS SELECTION OF THE SCALLOP CHLAMYS FARRERI EXPOSED TO B[A]P%栉孔扇贝在B[a]P胁迫下生物标志物筛选的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘鲁青; 刘娜; 王静

    2012-01-01

    研究采用染毒→清除→二次染毒实验,研究了B[a]P对栉孔扇贝组织解毒代谢酶活力和DNA损伤的影响,筛选了栉孔扇贝在B[a]P胁迫下的生物标志物.结果表明:B[a]P对栉孔扇贝鳃丝、消化盲囊芳烃羟化酶(AHH)、谷胱甘肽硫转移酶(GST)活力和还原型谷胱甘肽含量(GSH)及DNA损伤影响显著(P<0.05),而对照组无明显变化.在一次染毒(0-15d)期间,除0.05 μg/L B[a]P处理组鳃丝AHH活力与对照组无明显差异外,其他处理组组织AHH活力均被显著诱导,于15d时达到最大值,GST活力和GSH含量则呈逐渐下降趋势,5d时达到最小值,之后趋于稳定;而组织DNA链断裂(F值)基本呈下降趋势,DNA-蛋白质交联(DPC值)呈逐渐升高,至15d时分别达到最小值和最大值.在清除(15-45d)阶段,各处理组组织AHH活力逐渐下降,GST活力和GSH含量则逐渐升高,在25-40d时均恢复至对照组水平;各处理组组织F值和低浓度处理组(0.05、0.5 μg/L)DPC值分别呈逐渐升高和下降趋势,于35-40d时恢复至对照组水平,而高浓度处理组(5、10 μg/L)DPC值仍显著高于对照组水平.在二次染毒(45-60d)期间,除鳃丝AHH活力在50d时达到最大值外,其他指标变化趋势与一次染毒基本一致.由此可见,栉孔扇贝在B[a]P胁迫下组织解毒代谢酶活力和DNA损伤表现出明显的时间剂量效应性和稳定性,依据相关性分析,提出以鳃丝AHH活力和消化盲囊GST活力为防御型生物标志物,鳃丝、消化盲囊DPC值为损伤型生物标志物,并将AHH、GST活力和DPC值整合作为B[a]P毒性评定的组合型生物标志物,全面评价PAHs的污染毒性.%Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants derived from incomplete combustion of carbon. As a pollutant, they are of concern because some compounds have been identified as carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic. Benzopyrene (B[α]P) is a five-ring polycyclic aromatic