WorldWideScience

Sample records for benzoin

  1. New insights in the chemical composition of benzoin balsams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Pauline; Casale, Alexandre; Kerdudo, Audrey; Michel, Thomas; Laville, Rémi; Chagnaud, Francis; Fernandez, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    Benzoin balsam is an anthropic exudate obtained from the bark of several species of Styrax trees that is mainly used as a perfume fixative as well as a flavouring agent. Benzoe tonkinensis Laos (also commercialized under the denomination Siam benzoin balsam) displaying characteristic vanilla notes and already being largely used to flavour all kinds of edible goods, was intended to be proposed by Agroforex Company to the Codex Committee on Food Additives for evaluation as a food additive. For this purpose, the present paper reports the phytochemical characterisation of both the volatile and non-volatile fractions of benzoin balsams and the quantitation of some of the major components by gas and liquid chromatography techniques. Four coniferyl and two morinol derivatives were characterised for the first time in Benzoe tonkinensis Laos. Finally, two liquid chromatographic methods used to easily discriminate Siam from Sumatra balsam (also known as Benzoe sumatranus Indonesia) were developed. PMID:27211689

  2. Spectroscopic and electrochemical characterization of some Schiff base metal complexes containing benzoin moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahawi, M. S.; Al-Jahdali, M. S.; Bashammakh, A. S.; Al-Sibaai, A. A.; Nassef, H. M.

    2013-09-01

    The ligation behavior of bis-benzoin ethylenediamine (B2ED) and benzoin thiosemicarbazone (BTS) Schiff bases towards Ru3+, Rh3+, Pd2+, Ni2+ and Cu2+ were determined. The bond length of M-N and spectrochemical parameters (10Dq, β, B and LFSE) of the complexes were evaluated. The redox characteristics of selected complexes were explored by cyclic voltammetry (CV) at Pt working electrode in non aqueous solvents. Au mesh (100 w/in.) optically transparent thin layer electrode (OTTLE) was also used for recording thin layer CV for selected Ru complex. Oxidation of some complexes occurs in a consecutive chemical reaction of an EC type mechanism. The characteristics of electron transfer process of the couples M2+/M3+ and M3+/M4+ (M = Ru3+, Rh3+) and the stability of the complexes towards oxidation and/or reduction were assigned. The nature of the electroactive species and reduction mechanism of selected electrode couples were assigned.

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of metformin in pharmaceutical preparations, serum and urine using benzoin as derivatizing reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and selective spectrophotometric procedure is described for the determination of Metformin based on derivatization with benzoin. The Beers law was obeyed with 2.50-12.50 meu mol L-1 at 290 nm with coefficient of determination (r2) 0.997. The experimental conditions in term of pH, reaction time and temperature, and addition of derivatizing reagent were examined. The pure metformin-benzoin derivative was prepared and characterized by FT-IR and mass spectroscopic techniques. The method was applied for the determination of metformin from pharmaceutical preparations and serum and urine of volunteers after spiking with metformin. The results were checked by standard addition method. A number of pharmaceutical additives and serum or urine matrix did not affect the determination of metformin. (author)

  4. Contribution of insectivorous avifauna to top down control of Lindera benzoin herbivores at forest edge and interior habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczylas, Daniel R.; Muth, Norris Z.; Niesenbaum, Richard A.

    2007-11-01

    Predation of herbivorous Lepidoptera larvae by insectivorous avifauna was estimated on Lindera benzoin in edge and interior habitats at two sites in eastern Pennsylvania (USA). Clay baits modeled after Epimecis hortaria (Geometridae) larvae, the primary herbivore of L. benzoin at our study sites, were used to estimate predation by birds. In both habitat types, models were placed on uninjured L. benzoin leaves as well as on leaves that had prior insect herbivore damage. Rates of model attack were greater, and model longevity reduced, in forest edge plots compared to interiors. Naturally occurring herbivore damage on L. benzoin was greater in forest interiors. However, model attack was not significantly greater on leaves with prior herbivory damage, suggesting that birds do not effectively use this type of leaf damage as a cue in their foraging. Our findings are consistent with a contribution of bird predation towards top-down control of herbivory in this system. We further discuss these results in a broader context considering the possible effects of habitat type on leaf quality, leaf defense, and herbivore performance.

  5. Ceratocystis larium sp. nov., a new species from Styrax benzoin wounds associated with incense harvesting in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyk, van M.; Wingfield, B.D.; Clegg, P.A.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Styrax benzoin trees, native to the island Sumatra, Indonesia are wounded to produce resin that is collected and burned as incense. These wounds on trees commonly develop into expanding cankers that lead to tree death. The aim of this study was to consider whether Ophiostomatoid fungi, typically ass

  6. Synthesis and spectral studies of platinum metal complexes of benzoin thiosemicarbazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiong, Offiong E.

    1994-11-01

    The platinum metal chelates of benzoin thiosemicarbazone obtained with Ru(III), Rh(III), Ir(III), Pd(II) and Pt(II) were prepared from their corresponding halide salts. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, conductance measurement, IR, Raman, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and UV-visible spectra studies. Various ligand field parameters and nephelauxetic parameters were also calculated. The mode of bonding and the geometry of the ligand environment around the metal ion have been discussed in the light of the available data obtained. Complexes of Ru(III), Rh(III) and Ir(III) are six-coordinate octahedral, while Pd(II) and Pt(II) halide complexes are four-coordinated with halides bridging.

  7. (±)Methanodibenzodiazocine tethered [C-H]+ functional site: Study towards benzoin condensation and Baylis-Hillman reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arruri Sathyanarayana; Ganesan Prabusankar

    2015-05-01

    New heterocyclic ring systems consisting of (±) methanodibenzodiazocine and imidazolium/benzimidazolium salts were synthesized in very good yield. Subsequently, these halide salts were subjected to the anion exchange reaction with KPF6 to yield the corresponding azolium salts in excellent yield. The possible applications of these newly prepared salts were investigated in homogeneous catalysis. Remarkable changes in the catalytic activity were observed by varying the bulkiness of N-substituent at imidazole. Catalytic activity of these newly prepared salts was tested for the benzoin condensation reaction. Exclusive formation of benzoin products were observed in good yield. Similarly, the dimerization of cyclohexen-1-one to Baylis-Hillman type product, 2-(3-oxocyclohexyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-one was studied.

  8. Ceratocystis larium sp. nov., a new species from Styrax benzoin wounds associated with incense harvesting in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, M; Wingfield, B D; Clegg, P A; Wingfield, M J

    2009-06-01

    Styrax benzoin trees, native to the island Sumatra, Indonesia are wounded to produce resin that is collected and burned as incense. These wounds on trees commonly develop into expanding cankers that lead to tree death. The aim of this study was to consider whether Ophiostomatoid fungi, typically associated with wounds on trees might be associated with resin harvesting on S. benzoin. Samples were collected from the edges of artificially induced wounds, and particularly where cankers and staining of the vascular tissue was evident. Tissue samples were incubated in moist chambers and carrot baiting was also used to detect the presence of Ceratocystis spp. Fruiting structures with morphology typical of species in the C. fimbriata s.l. species complex and species in the anamorph genus Thielaviopsis were found, on both the incubated wood and the carrot baits. DNA sequences were generated for the Internal Transcribed Spacer regions 1 and 2 including the 5.8S rRNA gene, part of the beta-tubulin and the Transcription Elongation Factor 1-alpha gene regions. These data were compared with those of other species in the C. fimbriata s.l. species complex and Thielaviopsis using phylogenetic analysis. Morphology of the isolates in culture as well as phylogenetic inference showed that the Thielaviopsis sp. present on the wounds was T. basicola. The Ceratocystis sp. from S. benzoin represents a new taxon in the C. fimbriata s.l. complex described here as C. larium sp. nov.

  9. 高锰酸钾氧化安息香的实验研究%Study on the oxidation reaction of benzoin by potassium permanganate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玲; 陶清; 王冬明; 施少敏

    2013-01-01

    研究了不同条件下,高锰酸钾对安息香的氧化规律.当反应条件控制为2.1 g(0.01 mol)安息香,1.5g(0.01 mol)高锰酸钾,15 mL冰醋酸,反应温度85~95℃回流1.5h,高锰酸钾能将安息香氧化裂解为苯甲酸.当反应条件为4.32 g(0.02 mol)安息香,1.5 g(0.01 mol)高锰酸钾,6 g(0.11 mol)碱A,12 mL水,反应温度在80~90℃,高锰酸钾将安息香氧化生成二苯乙二酮;碱量增加至12 g时,二苯乙二酮重排为二苯乙醇酸,产率高达98%.%Studied under different conditions,potassium permanganate oxidation of benzoin law.The oxidation reaction of benzoin by potassium permanganate is described.When the reaction conditions is controlled to be 2.1 g (0.01 mol) benzoin,1.5 g (0.01 mol) of potassium permanganate,15 mL of glacial acetic acid at reflux for 1.5 h at 85 ~ 95 ℃,benzoin can be directly oxidized and cleavaged to benzoic acid.When the reaction condition is controlled to 4.32 g (0.02 mol) of benzoin,1.5 g (0.01 mol) of potassium permanganate,6 g (0.11 mol) base A,12 mL water at 80 ~ 90 ℃,benzoin can be oxidized to benzil.When the amount of base increases to 12 g,benzilic acid is obtained in 98% yield from the rearrangement reaction of benzil.

  10. Phenoseasonal variability of subcanopy PAR and the effects of photointensity and photoperiod on the physiological ecology of Lindera benzoin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J. E.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Hudson, S.; Bais, H.; Legates, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    This work represents a novel approach to measuring photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), and spatiotemporal light dynamics, by utilizing an instrument capable of providing a 15-second spatially-integrated one meter linear average of the PPFD, obtaining measurements at multiple locations and elevations in the subcanopy over a full year for all cloud conditions. Nearly 4,600 individual observations of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) were made over the seven phenoseasons of a deciduous forest in the Piedmont Region, Maryland. Additionally, to quantify of the effect of various photointensities on the physiological ecology of Lindera benzoin L. Blume (northern spicebush) grown in the lab, health was determined by monitoring physical growth and biomass, and by UV-vis spectrophotometry analysis of leaf extract. Results show understory PAR is typically less than 40% of open PAR. Leafless subcanopy PAR values were almost 10 times higher than leafed season PAR, and sunflecks often three orders of magnitude higher than mean subcanopy PAR during the leafed season. Phenoseason is responsible for nearly three-quarters of the variation between plant canopy levels. Spicebush growth occurred at study locations receiving higher incidence of PAR (> 64th percentile). UV-vis spectrophotometry analysis showed significant differences in root to shoot ratios, biomass, initial stomatal conductance, chlorophyll a and b, and carotenoids. Spicebush under lab conditions significantly alter their biomass and individual pigments and pigment ratios in response to high intensity light conditions. Results suggest temporal light sequences in the field may be a very important factor in the functional ecology of northern spicebush.

  11. PREPARATION OF BENZIL BY OXIDIZING BENZOIN WITH CUPRIC NITRATE%硝酸铜氧化安息香制备苯偶酰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文瑞明; 丁亮中; 罗新湘; 俞善信

    2003-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Benzil is an important photosensitive initiator of organic synthesis intermediates, medicinal intermediates and ultraviolet solidified resin(UV resin), and is usually prepared by oxidizing benzoin. The oxidizers and methods reported are mainly: (PhCH2Et3N)+Br-/(PhCO)2O2/MeCN[1], DMSO/(COCl)2/CH2Cl2[2], CrO3*CH3NH2*HCl/Al2O3[3], the metallorganic compound[4], microwave radiation[5],etc.

  12. Chiral magnetic microspheres purified by centrifugal field flow fractionation and microspheres magnetic chiral chromatography for benzoin racemate separation

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Ailin; Qi, Jing; Liu, Yating; Wang, Fengkang; Ito, Yoichiro; Wei, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Separation of enantiomers still remains a challenge due to their identical physical and chemical properties in a chiral environment, and the research on specific chiral selector along with separation techniques continues to be conducted to resolve individual enantiomers. In our laboratory the promising magnetic chiral microspheres Fe3O4@SiO2@cellulose-2, 3-bis (3, 5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) have been developed to facilitate the resolution using both its magnetic property and chiral recognitio...

  13. Drug: D03091 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rapeutic category: 7150 7319 Styracaceae (storax family) Styrax benzoin resin Maj...ion D03091 Benzoin; Benzoin tincture; Anxixang Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Styracaceae (storax family) D03091 Benzoin PubChem: 17397246 ...

  14. Pruritus-Ani

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are open wounds. Your physician can dry the dye with a hair dryer and it can be sealed in place with Benzoin tincture and then again dried in place. This dye can stay in place for several days and ...

  15. Ceric ammonium nitrate catalysed three component one-pot efficient synthesis of 2,4,5-triaryl-1H-imidazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaiprakash N Sangshetti; Nagnnath D Kokare; Sandeep A Kotharkara; Devanand B Shinde

    2008-09-01

    Ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) is used as an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of 2,4,5-triaryl-1H-imidazoles via condensation of benzoin/benzil, ammonium acetate, and aromatic aldehydes. The easy work-up, higher yields and shorter reaction time are the advantages of the method presented here.

  16. Aqueous Media Oxidation of Alcohols with Ammonium Persulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IMANZADEH, Gholam Hassan; ZAMANLOO, Mohammad R.; MANSOORI, Yaghoob; KHODAYARI, Ali

    2007-01-01

    Oxidation of series of various primary and secondary alcohols to corresponding carbonyl compounds with ammonium persulfate in aqueous media was described. No over oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids and secondary alcohols to esters was observed. Under such conditions benzoin was converted to benzoic acid.

  17. Tannic acid Catalyzed an Efficient Synthesis of 2,4,5-Triaryl-1H-Imidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shitole Nana Vikram

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tannic acid (C76H52O46 has been found to be an efficient catalyst for one-pot synthesis of 2,4,5-triaryl substituted imidazoles by the reaction of an arylaldehyde, benzyl/benzoin and an ammonium acetate. The short reaction time and excellent yields making this protocol practical and economically attractive.

  18. Solar thermochemical reactions Ⅲ: A convenient one-pot synthesis of 1,2,4,5-tetrasubstituted imidazoles catalyzed by high surface area SiO2 and induced by solar thermal energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramadan A. Mekheimer; Afaf M. Abdel Hameed; Seham A.A. Mansour; Kamal Usef Sadek

    2009-01-01

    A simple, convenient and efficient method for the synthesis of 1,2,4,5-tetrasubstituted imidazole derivatives using benzoin, an aromatic aldehyde, an aromatic amine in the presence of ammonium acetate catalyzed by high surface area SiO2 and induced by free solar thermal energy was reported.

  19. N,N-Dimethylbenzimidazolium iodide as a green catalyst for cross-coupling of aromatic aldehydeswith unactivated imines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viwat Hahnvajana wong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-coupling of aromatic aldehydes with unactivated iminescatalyzed by N,N-dimethylbenzimidazolium iodide in ethanolic sodium hydroxide solution gave α-amino ketonesin satisfactory yields. Benzoin condensation and further oxidation of the resulted aroins also occurred as side reactions.

  20. Efficient Multi-component Synthesis of Highly Substituted Imidazoles Utilizing P2O5/SiO2 as a Reusable Catalyst%Efficient Multi-component Synthesis of Highly Substituted Imidazoles Utilizing P2O5/SiO2 as a Reusable Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaterian, Hamid Reza; Ranjbar, Mohammad; Azizi, Kobra

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus pentoxide supported on silica gel (P2O5/SiO2) has been used as an efficient and reusable catalyst for the one-pot pseudo four-component synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles from benzil or benzoin, aldehydes, and ammonium acetate. It was also used for four-component preparation of 1,2,4,5-tetrasubstituted imidazoles from benzil or benzoin, aldehydes, primary amine, and ammonium acetate under thermal solvent-free conditions. The remarkable features of this new procedure are high conversions, cleaner reaction, simple experimental and work-up procedures and also the catalyst can be easily separated from the reaction mixture and reused several times without any loss of its activity.

  1. 光架橋性樹脂による酵素の固定(第2報) : パパインの固定化における諸要因

    OpenAIRE

    "河邊, 誠一郎"; "カワベ, セイイチロウ"; Seiichiro", "Kawabe

    1980-01-01

    "In the previous paper, photocrosslinkable oligomers were found to be useful materials for immobilization of papain. The photocrosslinking reaction could be occured very easily and under very mild conditions. In this paper, the effect of the immobilized matelials on the papain reactions was investigated. It became apparent that an initiator (benzoin ethyl ether) had little influence on the papain activity, on the other hand, photocrosslinking oligomers (polyethylene glycol dimthacrirate, and ...

  2. A novel polymeric catalyst for the one-pot synthesis of 2,4,5-triaryl-1H-imidazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Mohammadi; Hossein Keshvari; Reza Sandaroos; Hamed Rouhi; Zeinalabedin Sepehr

    2012-05-01

    An efficient synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles is achieved by three component cyclocondensation of benzil or benzoin, aldehyde and ammonium acetate by using novel polymeric catalyst [poly(AMPS-co-AA)] under solvent-free conditions. The key advantages of this process are high yields, shorter reaction times, easy work-up, purification of products by non-chromatographic method and the reusability of the catalyst.

  3. Organic chemistry experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Seok Sik

    2005-02-15

    This book deals with organic chemistry experiments, it is divided five chapters, which have introduction, the way to write the experiment report and safety in the laboratory, basic experiment technic like recrystallization and extraction, a lot of organic chemistry experiments such as fischer esterification, ester hydrolysis, electrophilic aromatic substitution, aldol reaction, benzoin condensation, wittig reaction grignard reaction, epoxidation reaction and selective reduction. The last chapter introduces chemistry site on the internet and way to find out reference on chemistry.

  4. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate catalyzed one-pot synthesis of 2,4,5-triaryl-1H-imidazoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ratnadeep; S.Joshi; Priyanka; G.Mandhane; Mohammad; U.Shaikh; Rajesh; P.Kale; Charansingh; H.Gill

    2010-01-01

    A simple and efficient method has been developed;benzil/benzoin undergoes smooth condensation with various substituted aldehyde and ammonium acetate in the presence of potassium dihydrogen phosphate(KH_2PO_4) under mild reaction conditions to afford the corresponding trisubstituted imidazole in excellent yields.The method for synthesis of product,the reaction mixture was reflux in ethanol for 40-90 min.The present method is simple,efficient,and cost-effective.

  5. Mechanism of benzaldehyde lyase studied via thiamin diphosphate-bound intermediates and kinetic isotope effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sumit; Nemeria, Natalia; Yep, Alejandra; McLeish, Michael J; Kenyon, George L; Jordan, Frank

    2008-03-25

    Direct spectroscopic observation of thiamin diphosphate-bound intermediates was achieved on the enzyme benzaldehyde lyase, which carries out reversible and highly enantiospecific conversion of ( R)-benzoin to benzaldehyde. The key enamine intermediate could be observed at lambda max 393 nm in the benzoin breakdown direction and in the decarboxylase reaction starting with benzoylformate. With benzaldehyde as substrate, no intermediates could be detected, only formation of benzoin at 314 nm. To probe the rate-limiting step in the direction of ( R)-benzoin synthesis, the (1)H/ (2)H kinetic isotope effect was determined for benzaldehyde labeled at the aldehyde position and found to be small (1.14 +/- 0.03), indicating that ionization of the C2alphaH from C2alpha-hydroxybenzylthiamin diphosphate is not rate limiting. Use of the alternate substrates benzoylformic and phenylpyruvic acids (motivated by the observation that while a carboligase, benzaldehyde lyase could also catalyze the slow decarboxylation of 2-oxo acids) enabled the observation of the substrate-thiamin covalent intermediate via the 1',4'-iminopyrimidine tautomer, characteristic of all intermediates with a tetrahedral C2 substituent on ThDP. The reaction of benzaldehyde lyase with the chromophoric substrate analogue ( E)-2-oxo-4(pyridin-3-yl)-3-butenoic acid and its decarboxylated product ( E)-3-(pyridine-3-yl)acrylaldehyde enabled the detection of covalent adducts with both. Neither adduct underwent further reaction. An important finding of the studies is that all thiamin-related intermediates are in a chiral environment on benzaldehyde lyase as reflected by their circular dichroism signatures.

  6. Spectrophotometric determination of some metal ions using hydrazones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research many starting materials were prepared, like methyl salicylate and salicylic acid hydrazide from which different derivatives of hydrazones were synthesized by coupling with carbonyl compounds like benzil monoxime and benzil mono hydrazone which are prepared and others like salicylaldehyde and benzoin. The hydrazones that were synthesized are salicylaldehyde salicylic acid hydrazone, benzoin salicylic acid hydrazone, benzil mono hydrazone salicylic acid hydrazone and benzil monoxime salicylic acid hydrazone. These reagents were determined by different methods, IR spectrophotometric determination, the nitrogen content method and melting point determination. These hydrazones act as ligands for determination of some metal ions by making different coloured complexes that were prepared for eight hydrazones with eight metal ions U (VI), Fe (II), Fe (III), Co (II), V (II), Mo (VI), Ni (II) and Cu (II). These complexes were determined by ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer (UV/VIS) to detect their absorbance and wavelengths (λ max). The two hydrazones salicylaldehyde salicylic acid-hydrazone and benzoin salicylic acid hydrazone, were selected for determination of five metal ions (Fe (II), Fe (III), U (VI), Ni (II) and Cu (II)), using two micelles sodium n-dodecyl sulphate and pyridinium hexa decyl bromide mono hydrate. Their absorbance and wavelengths were detected using UV/VIS spectrophotometer. (Author)

  7. ZrOC12·8H2O catalyzed one-pot synthesis of 2,4,5-triaryl-1H-imidazoles and substituted 1,4-di(4,5-diphenylimidazolyl)benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaiprakash N.Sangshetti; Nagnnath D.Kokare; Sandeep A.Kotharkar; Devanand B.Shinde

    2008-01-01

    A simple one-pot synthetic method for the preparation of 2,4,5-triaryl-lH-imidazoles from benzoin or benzil,ammonium acetate,aromatic aldehydes,and ZrOCl 2·8H 2O catalyst is described.The ZrOCl2-8H2O catalyst was found to be equally effective for aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes and also for the preparation of substituted 1,4-di(4,5-diphenylimidazol-yl) benzene.

  8. Redox Switching of Orthoquinone-Containing Aromatic Compounds with Hydrogen and Oxygen Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Kazuki; Sumimoto, Michinori; Arisawa, Mitsuhiro; Matsuda, Masaki; Ishikawa, Hayato

    2016-06-20

    Unique redox switching of orthoquinone-containing pentacyclic aromatic compounds with molecular hydrogen and oxygen in the presence of a palladium nanoparticle catalyst (SAPd) is disclosed. These molecules were predicted by in silico screening before synthesis. Efficient protocols for the synthesis of orthoquinone-containing aromatic compounds by palladium-mediated homocoupling and the benzoin condensation reaction were developed. Clear switching between orthoquinone and aromatic hydroquinone compounds was observed on the basis of their photoluminescence properties. Furthermore, the twist strain of the orthoquinone moiety could induce dramatic changes in color and emission.

  9. Rapid Preparation of Monolithic Columns for Capillary Electrochromatography Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Jun GONG; Yi Jun ZHANG; Yu Ping ZHANG; Seong Ho CHOI

    2006-01-01

    Fritless packed silica gel columns were prepared using sol-gel technology. The part of a75 μm i.d. capillary was filled with a mixture of methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, toluene and hydrochloric acid. Four different photoinitiators such as benzoin methyl ether, Irgacure 819,Irgacure 1700 and irgacure 1800 were added in the presence or absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate during the polymerization process. The above eight solutions were irradiated at 365 nm about5-10 min to prepare the porous monolithic sol-gel columns by a one-step process.

  10. Studies on separation and purification of fission 99Mo from neutron activated uranium aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method has been developed for separation and purification of fission 99Mo from neutron activated uranium–aluminum alloy. Alkali dissolution of the irradiated target (100 mg) results in aluminum along with 99Mo and a few fission products passing into solution, while most of the fission products, activation products and uranium remain undissolved. Subsequent purification steps involve precipitation of aluminum as Al(OH)3, iodine as AgI/AgIO3 and molybdenum as Mo-α-benzoin oxime. Ruthenium is separated by volatilization as RuO4 and final purification of 99Mo was carried out using anion exchange method. The radiochemical yield of fission 99Mo was found to be >80% and the purity of the product was in conformity with the international pharmacopoeia standards. - Highlights: • 99Mo separation, purification method developed from neutron activation of 100 g U–Al alloy. • Uranium, fission, activation product decontamination by alkali dissolution of activated target. • Purification by Al(OH)3, AgI/AgIO3, Mo-α-benzoin oxime precipitation and anion exchange. • Very high decontamination factors for alpha activity obtained. • Final 99Mo product (recovery >80%) complied with international pharmacopoeia standards

  11. Heterofunctional Magnetic Metal-Chelate-Epoxy Supports for the Purification and Covalent Immobilization of Benzoylformate Decarboxylase From Pseudomonas Putida and Its Carboligation Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural, Servet; Tural, Bilsen; Demir, Ayhan S

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the combined use of the selectivity of metal chelate affinity chromatography with the capacity of epoxy supports to immobilize poly-His-tagged recombinant benzoylformate decarboxylase from Pseudomonas putida (BFD, E.C. 4.1.1.7) via covalent attachment is shown. This was achieved by designing tailor-made magnetic chelate-epoxy supports. In order to selectively adsorb and then covalently immobilize the poly-His-tagged BFD, the epoxy groups (300 µmol epoxy groups/g support) and a very small density of Co(2+)-chelate groups (38 µmol Co(2+)/g support) was introduced onto magnetic supports. That is, it was possible to accomplish, in a simple manner, the purification and covalent immobilization of a histidine-tagged recombinant BFD. The magnetically responsive biocatalyst was tested to catalyze the carboligation reactions. The benzoin condensation reactions were performed with this simple and convenient heterogeneous biocatalyst and were comparable to that of a free-enzyme-catalyzed reaction. The enantiomeric excess (ee) of (R)-benzoin was obtained at 99 ± 2% for the free enzyme and 96 ± 3% for the immobilized enzyme. To test the stability of the covalently immobilized enzyme, the immobilized enzyme was reused in five reaction cycles for the formation of chiral 2-hydroxypropiophenone (2-HPP) from benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde, and it retained 96% of its original activity after five reaction cycles.

  12. Major discrepancies between results obtained with two different methods for evaluating DNA damage: alkaline elution and alkaline unwinding. Possible explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taningher, M; Bordone, R; Russo, P; Grilli, S; Santi, L; Parodi, S

    1987-01-01

    The fluorometric assay of DNA alkaline unwinding, developed by Birnboim and Jevcak (Cancer Res 41: 1889-1892, 1981) was applied to rat liver DNA, after treatment in vivo. N-nitrosodimethylamine, for which DNA damage in rat liver has been extensively investigated, was tested as a standard compound. The results were in complete agreement (both in terms of damage and repair) with data from the literature and with our own results obtained with other methods of detecting DNA alkaline fragmentation. Sensitivity was also of the same order of that of usual methods, with the effect of 0.3 mg/Kg of N-nitrosodimethylamine being detectable. Other DNA damaging carcinogens such as 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, 2-naphthylamine and dacarbazine were also correctly detected. Compounds like nitrofurantoin, benzoin and caprolactam, which appeared clearly positive with the alkaline elution technique, but for which genotoxicity and carcinogenicity are doubtful (nitrofurantoin) or most likely negative (benzoin and caprolactam), gave negative results with this method. This is also in agreement with previous results, observed using a different approach to measuring DNA unwinding. On the basis of these and other observations, we suggest that, under certain conditions, the alkaline elution technique is perhaps not only sensitive to DNA breaks but also to changes in chromatin conformation. Unwinding methods could be more specific in the detection of DNA fragmentations. PMID:3674758

  13. Enantiomer separation by CEC——Enantiomer separation by packed-capillary electrochromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱军; 邹汉法; 施维; 芮建中; 倪坚毅; 张玉奎

    1999-01-01

    Three chiral compounds were successfully separated in a short time with two enantiomer separation models on packed-capillary electrochromatography (CEC). (i) 75 μm I.D. capillaries were packed with 5 μm β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) chiral stationary phase (CSP). Effects of voltage, pH and concentration of organic modifier on electroosmotic flow (EOF) and chiral separations were investigated systematically. Enantiomers of a neutral compound (benzoin) and a neutral drug (mephenytoin) were separated within a short time with high efficiency. Efficiency of 32 000 theoretical plates per meter and resolution (R_s) of 1.42 were achieved for enantiomers of benzoin using a βCD packed column with 6.2 cm packed length. Efficiency of 45 000 theoretical plates per meter and R_s of 3.40 were obtained for enantiomers of mephenytoin. Especially, the enantiomer separation of mephenytion was performed in just 3.4 min with R_s of 2.60. (ⅱ) 75 μm I.D. capillary was packed with octadecylsilica particles (ODS). Chiral separat

  14. Self-Supported N-Heterocyclic Carbenes and Their Use as Organocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuang; Toy, Patrick H

    2016-01-01

    The study of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) as organocatalysts has proliferated in recent years, and they have been found to be useful in a variety of reactions. In an attempt to further expand their utility and to study their recyclability, we designed and synthesized a series of self-supported NHCs in which the catalytic carbene groups form part of a densely functionalized polymer backbone, and studied them as organocatalysts. Of the self-Supported NHCs examined, a benzimidazole derived polymer with flexible linkers connecting the catalytic groups was found to be the most efficient organocatalyst in a model benzoin condensation reaction, and thus it was used in a variety of such reactions, including some involving catalyst recycling. Furthermore, it was also used to catalyze a set of redox esterification reactions involving conjugated unsaturated aldehydes. In all of these reactions the catalyst afforded good yield of the desired product and its polymeric nature facilitated product purification. PMID:27556435

  15. X-ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-VIS and SEM studies on chromium (III) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five Chromium (III) complexes have been prepared using Schiff base ligands which derived from benzoin and five different amino acids (H2N-R). Samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV-VIS and SEM method. X-Ray diffraction pattern analyzed that all chromium (III) complexes have hexagonal structure and crystalline, in nature, using Bruker D8 Advance instrument. Using VERTAX 70, FTIR spectroscopy reveals that Samples have (C=N), (C-O), (M-N) and (M-O) bonds in the range of 4000-400cm−1. UV-VIS spectroscopy give information that samples absorb the visible light which is in the range of 380-780nm. For this, Lambda 960 spectrometer used. SEM is designed for studying of the solid objects, using JEOL JSM 5600 instrument

  16. Fast preparation of photopolymerized monolithic columns for capillary electrochromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Wen-jun; XU Guang-ri; ZHANG Yi-jun; ZHANG Yu-ping; CHOI Seong-ho; LEE Kwang-pill

    2008-01-01

    Photopolymerized sol-gel(PSG) columns were prepared using methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane as the monomer,toluene as the porogen and hydrochloric acid as the catalyst. Four different photoinitiators such as benzoin methyl ether, Irgacure 819,lrgacure 1700 and Irgacure 1800 were comparatively used in the reaction solution in the presence and absence of sodium dodecylsulfate. The above eight solutions were respectively irradiated at 365 um for 5-10 min in each capillary (75 μm inside diameter) toprepare the porous monolithic sol-gel column by a one-step, in situ, process. The chromatographic behavior of the eight PSGcolumns were comparatively studied, all of which exhibit reversed-phase character. Using these columns, several neutral compounds,namely thiourea, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, biphenyl and naphthalene can be separated from mixtures with a largest columnefficiency of 74 470 plate/column for thiourea. Addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate in the polymerization process has a significantinfluence on the morphology and migration time.

  17. The synthesis and characterization of novel brush-type chiral stationary phase based on terpenoid selector for resolution of chiral drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Dao-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the chiral resolution mechanism and structures of brush-type CSP, a new chiral selector 4′-carboxyl-1′-ursolic methyl ester-3β-yl-benzoate has been prepared. Then the terpenoid chiral selector was covalently linked to 3-aminopropyl silica gel. Its structure identification data are provided by 1H NMR, MS and elementary analysis. The enantiodiscriminating capability of the brush-type CSP was evaluated by static adsorption experiment with methyl mandelate, aniline derivative of mandelic acid, benzoin and ibuprofen. Experimental results demonstrated that the chiral selector has selectivity, and the enantiomers of methyl mandelate and ibuprofen could be separated on the CSP, which indicated that the novel brush-type CSP possess a bright prospects for chiral separation potentially.

  18. X-ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-VIS and SEM studies on chromium (III) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Ashutosh; Dwivedi, Jagrati, E-mail: hemu.dwi@gmail.com; Shukla, Kritika [School of Physics, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road, Indore-452001 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Five Chromium (III) complexes have been prepared using Schiff base ligands which derived from benzoin and five different amino acids (H{sub 2}N-R). Samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV-VIS and SEM method. X-Ray diffraction pattern analyzed that all chromium (III) complexes have hexagonal structure and crystalline, in nature, using Bruker D8 Advance instrument. Using VERTAX 70, FTIR spectroscopy reveals that Samples have (C=N), (C-O), (M-N) and (M-O) bonds in the range of 4000-400cm{sup −1}. UV-VIS spectroscopy give information that samples absorb the visible light which is in the range of 380-780nm. For this, Lambda 960 spectrometer used. SEM is designed for studying of the solid objects, using JEOL JSM 5600 instrument.

  19. Efficient white light generation from 2,3-diphenyl-1,2-dihydro-quinoxaline complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Y.; Kant, S.; Rai, R. N.; Rai, S. B.

    2010-11-01

    In this article, we report two organic materials dispersed in transparent poly (methyl methacrylate) matrix for efficient white light simulation under different optical excitations. A newly synthesized complex of benzoin and o-phenyldiamine is observed to be white on illumination with a blue LED. A new concept of white light emitting tube is also demonstrated. A mixture of 2,2″-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyldi-2,1-ethenediyl)-bis-benzenesulfonic acid disodium salt and complex is optimized to emit white light extended in the violet region on 355 nm laser excitation. The optical quality of the emitted white light is adjudged by the CIE coordinate, correlated color temperature and color rendition index in both the cases.

  20. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL PROFILES ON CICHORIUM INTYBUS LINN., LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guguloth Sarvankumar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available India has one the oldest, richest and most diverse cultural traditions associated with the use of medicinal plants. The remarkable fact is that is it still living tradition. The members of resistant of microbial pathogens are growing since penicillin resistant and multi resistant microbes cause a major problem. Now compounds inhibiting microorganism, such as benzoin and emotion have been isolated from plants may inhibit bacteria by a different mechanism than the presently used antibiotics and may have clinical value in treatment of resistant microbial strain. The present study shows the Antibacterial & antifungal activity ethanolic extract of leaf of C. intybus Linn was carried out by pour plate technique antibacterial activity of the extract was measured in terms of zone of inhibition. From antimicrobial study, the leaf has very good sensitivity against both gram+ve and gram-ve organisms and fungi. The highest % of zone of inhibition indicates that the leaf can be very well useful in candidiaisi.

  1. Curing of Epoxy Resin Induced by Femtosecond Laser Pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yubin; ZHANG Zuoguang

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of curing of epoxy resin induced by femtosecond laser beam was explored through choosing different initiators . Absorption spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy (IR), stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to analyze the structure of epoxy resin systems after irradiation with a femtosecond laser beam. The experimental results show that the epoxy resin systems containing diaryliodonium salts can be cured by irradiation of Jemtosecond laser pulse, while the systems containing benzoin can not be cured. It is found that diaryliodonium salts decompose under the irradiation of femtosecond laser pulse through multi ( two ) -photon absorption, initiating the ring-opening polymerization of epoxy resin. And the appearance of cured area has a sheet structure consisting of many tiny lamellar structures.

  2. Separation and purification of fission 99Mo from neutron irradiated UAl3 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed for the separation of fission product 99Mo from irradiated uranium aluminum alloy. The method consists of dissolution of the irradiated target in 6 M NaOH, whereby only aluminium along with 99Mo, 131I and 103Ru get into the solution with traces of 95Zr, 95Nb and 132Te, while all other fission products, activation products (239Np) and uranium remain as solid residue. Al(OH)3 precipitation at lower pH (8-9) removed some of the impurities, e.g. 95Zr, 95Nb, 132Te while AgI/AgIO3 precipitation removed almost all the 131I. 103Ru was removed by addition of NaBiO3 and evaporation to dryness. Subsequently 99Mo was purified by precipitation as Mo-α-benzoin oxime which was dissolved in dilute NaOH. This was subjected to organic impurity and trace iodine separation by passing through silver coated activated charcoal. Final purification was carried out by anion exchange separation. 99Mo was obtained with an overall recovery of 80%. Purity of the 99Mo product was found to be in agreement with the US and European pharmacopoeia. (author)

  3. Evaluation of Antioxidant Ability In Vitro and Bioavailability of trans-Cinnamic Acid Nanoparticle by Liquid Antisolvent Precipitate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wengang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TCD is a kind of organic acid that is isolated from cinnamon bark or benzoin. TCD has significant antioxidant activity and is widely used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food additives. But TCD has shortcomings of low bioavailability due to poor water solubility. Therefore, we use ethanol as a solvent, deionized water as antisolvent, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC as the surfactant to prepare TCD nanoparticle powder. The optimum preparation conditions were determined as follows: TCD-ethanol solution concentration was 170 mg/mL, the volume ratio of antisolvent was 4 times that of solvent, and the amount of the surfactant was 0.3% stirred for 10 min by 2500 rpm; TCD nanoparticle with a mean particle size (MPS of 130±12.5 nm is obtained under the optimum conditions. SEM, FT-IR, LC-MS/MS, XRD, and DSC were used to characterize the TCD nanoparticle. The results showed that the chemical structure of TCD nanoparticle was not changed, but the crystallization was significantly reduced. Solubility, dissolution rate, antioxidant activity, the in vitro transdermal penetration, and bioavailability of TCD nanoparticles were all much better than these of the raw TCD. These results suggested that TCD nanoparticle might have potential value to become a new oral or transdermal TCD formulation with high bioavailability.

  4. Part I: RNA hydrolysis catalyzed by imidazole compounds. Part II. Hydrophobic acceleration of reactions and mimics of thiamin-dependent enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalysts modeled after the active site groups of the enzyme Ribonuclease A were synthesized and tested for catalysis of the hydrolysis of poly(rU), using a quantitative assay. The most effective of all the catalysts is N,N'-bis-imidazolylmethane, which gave a four-fold rate enhancement as compared to N-methyl-imidazole. The structure/activity relationships are discussed in light of the ribonuclease mechanism. Also examined were reactions catalyzed by the coenzyme thiamine. In an investigation of the effects of restricting conformational freedom, a thiazolium salt was attached in two positions to β-cyclodextrin. Since the catalyst gave about the same rate for tritium exchange from benzaldehyde as singly-attached catalysts, we surmise that any rate enhancement due to the restriction of bond rotations has been lost by forcing the structure into less productive conformations. The benzoin condensation catalyzed by cyanide was also investigated. The reaction was shown to be faster in water than in most organic solvents. Kinetic salt effects and the effects of added β- and γ-cyclodextrin were measured in water; salting-out ions and γ-cyclodextrin increase the rate, while salting-in ions and β-cyclodextrin decrease it. Negative salt effects were observed in formamide, ethylene glycol, and DMSO. All these media effects are discussed in relation to the compact, hydrophobic transition state for the reaction

  5. A fluorous porous polymer monolith photo-patterned chromatographic column for the separation of a flourous/fluorescently labeled peptide within a microchip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenpo; Oleschuk, Richard D

    2014-02-01

    A fluorous porous polymer stationary phase is photo-patterned within a glass microfluidic chip to conduct CEC. During free radical-initiated polymerization, extraneous polymer forms and contributes to excessive microfluidic channel clogging. Nitrobenzene is explored as free radical quencher to limit clogging by minimizing extraneous polymer formation and a number of initiator to quencher ratios are explored with a 0.5:1 quencher (nitrobenzene): initiator (benzoin methyl ether) molar ratio shown to be optimal. The microchip patterned with a fluorous monolith was used to carry out the electrochromatographic analysis of a mixture containing fluorescent and fluorous labeling products. The fluorous monolithic column shows fluorous selectivity for compounds labeled with perfluoromethylene tags and a custom peptide is synthesized that possesses functional groups that can be both fluorescently and fluorously labeled. MALDI MS was used to identify the labeled fragments and microchip based electrochromatography was used to analyze the resulting labeling mixture. This is the first report to our knowledge that uses fluorous porous polymer monolith within a microchip to separate analytes using fluorous-fluorous interactions. PMID:24170603

  6. Metal chloride hydrates as Lewis acid catalysts in multicomponent synthesis of 2,4,5-triarylimidazoles or 2,4,5-triaryloxazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Marcelo V. [Departamento de Engenharia de Processos, Fundacao de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Cachoeirinha, RS (Brazil); Russowsky, Dennis, E-mail: dennis@iq.ufrgs.br [Laboratorio de Sinteses Organicas, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre-RS (Brazil); Ruthner, Marcelo M.; Fontoura, Luiz A.M. [Curso de Quimica, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Canoas, RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    A series of nine metal chloride hydrates (ZnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O, SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O, CdCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O, MnCl{sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O, CoCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O, SrCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O, NiCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O, CrCl{sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O and CeCl{sub 3}.7H{sub 2}O) was investigated as mild and inexpensive Lewis acid catalysts to promote the multicomponent synthesis of triarylimidazoles. Reactions starting from benzil showed the best results when SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O was used, while for benzoin as the starting material, CeCl{sub 3}.7H{sub 2}O was more efficient. All reactions were performed in EtOH as solvent. These catalysts were also successfully employed in the synthesis of triaryloxazoles. (author)

  7. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  8. Safeguards on nuclear materials and chemical analyses for fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectrofluorimetry with benzoin and spectrophotometry with methylene blue have been tried to develop a routine analytical method of determining trace amount of boron in nuclear and cladding materials. Both methods may be utilized for the boron micro-analysis although many technical difficulties are still expected. A satisfactory procedure by a pyrohydrolysis technique is established and applicable to the determination of fluoride in nuclear materials with ion selective electrode after separation from the uranium matrix. Beryllium in the Be-coating laboratory has been monthly monitored and its contamination stays well below the maximum permissible concentration. A preliminary survey on the possible recovery of NH4NO3 from the liquid waste of the uranium conversion process reveals that it is more practical to recover NH3 and NO3 independently rather than to treat the liquid waste directly to obtain in the form of NH4NO3. Several methods should be combined to solve the problem more efficiently. Finally, safeguards activities are summarized

  9. Probing the active center of benzaldehyde lyase with substitutions and the pseudosubstrate analogue benzoylphosphonic acid methyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Gabriel S; Nemeria, Natalia; Chakraborty, Sumit; McLeish, Michael J; Yep, Alejandra; Kenyon, George L; Petsko, Gregory A; Jordan, Frank; Ringe, Dagmar

    2008-07-22

    Benzaldehyde lyase (BAL) catalyzes the reversible cleavage of ( R)-benzoin to benzaldehyde utilizing thiamin diphosphate and Mg (2+) as cofactors. The enzyme is important for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of a wide range of compounds via its carboligation reaction mechanism. In addition to its principal functions, BAL can slowly decarboxylate aromatic amino acids such as benzoylformic acid. It is also intriguing mechanistically due to the paucity of acid-base residues at the active center that can participate in proton transfer steps thought to be necessary for these types of reactions. Here methyl benzoylphosphonate, an excellent electrostatic analogue of benzoylformic acid, is used to probe the mechanism of benzaldehyde lyase. The structure of benzaldehyde lyase in its covalent complex with methyl benzoylphosphonate was determined to 2.49 A (Protein Data Bank entry 3D7K ) and represents the first structure of this enzyme with a compound bound in the active site. No large structural reorganization was detected compared to the complex of the enzyme with thiamin diphosphate. The configuration of the predecarboxylation thiamin-bound intermediate was clarified by the structure. Both spectroscopic and X-ray structural studies are consistent with inhibition resulting from the binding of MBP to the thiamin diphosphate in the active centers. We also delineated the role of His29 (the sole potential acid-base catalyst in the active site other than the highly conserved Glu50) and Trp163 in cofactor activation and catalysis by benzaldehyde lyase.

  10. 呋喃取代的多芳基咪唑的合成与表征%Synthesis and characterization of furanyl substituted multi-aryl imidazoles derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冰; 贾俊光; 范孟娇; 叶梦

    2014-01-01

    以呋喃甲醛为原料,在维生素B1的促进下合成出呋喃偶姻,再以呋喃偶姻为原料,通过吡啶氧化,在硫酸铜溶液中合成出呋喃偶酰。以呋喃偶酰、芳香醛、醋酸铵和杂环胺为原料,分别采用一锅3组分和一锅4组分合成法制备了含1个呋喃基团、2个呋喃基团和3个呋喃基团的多芳基1H-咪唑化合物。其中,采用苯偶酰、醋酸铵和糠醛合成了2-(呋喃基-2)-4,5-二苯基-1H-咪唑衍生物;以呋喃偶酰、醋酸铵和苯甲醛合成了4,5-二呋喃基-2-苯基-1H-咪唑衍生物;以呋喃偶酰、2-甲基呋喃、醋酸铵和糠醛合成了4,5-二(呋喃基2)-1-(2-呋喃甲基)-2-苯基-1H-咪唑衍生物。并采用IR,1 H NMR对所合成的呋喃基取代的多芳基1H-咪唑衍生物的结构进行了表征和确认。%In this paper, furanyl benzoin was synthesized with furancarboxaldehyde and vitamin B1,then the furanyl benzoin as a raw material, furanyl benzil was synthesized in a copper sulfate solution by the oxidation of pyridine, furanyl benzil, substituted benzaldehyde, ammonium acetate and various amino compounds as raw materials, to synthesis one furyl group、 two furyl group or three furyl group polyaryl 1H-imidazol-compounds by one pot multicomponents reaction. Benzil, ammonium acetate and furfuralsynthesis the 2-(furan-2-yl)-4,5-substituted phenyl-1H-imidazole derivatives. Furanyl benzil, ammonium acetate and benzaldehyde synthesis the 4,5-(furan-2-yl)-2-substituted phenyl-1H-imidazole derivatives. Furanyl benzil, ammonium acetate、furfural and 2-methylfuran synthesis the 4,5-bis(2 furyl)-1-(2-furylmethyl)-2-phenyl-1H-imidazole derivatives. Their structures were characterized and confirmed by IR and 1 H NMR spectrum.

  11. CRP on “Developing Techniques for Small Scale Indigenous Molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) Production Using Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Fission or Neutron Activation”. Final Report [Country report: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the increasing needs for nuclear medicine in Brazil and the world shortage of 99Mo observed since 2008, IPEN-CNEN/SP-Brazil decided to develop its skills for producing 99Mo through the route of 235U fission. This decision was based on: (i) the well-established laboratory for producing 99mTc generators already in operation in IPEN and responsible for the Brazilian market supply; (ii) the availability of LEU by the Brazilian Enrichment Laboratory; (iii) the established capacity to prepare targets of U-Al alloys; (iv) the availability of some human resources in uranium chemistry; (v) the possibility of operating the IEA-R1 for at least ten years more; and (vi) the recent ongoing project of the CNEN to construct a new research reactor. IAEA agreed to the participation of Brazil in the CRP dealing with the indigenous production of 99Mo in 2010. This paper will present an update of the project at IPEN, showing the efforts of the different groups towards the goal of producing 99Mo through the fission of LEU 235U targets employing the modified Cintichem process. It will present the results of the preliminary experiments dealing with the acid dissolution of metallic U targets; the separation of 99Mo from some fission-produced impurities, comprising the precipitation with α-benzoin oxime and purification in HZO and activated charcoal columns and the separation of 131I for use as primary radioisotope. It will also present the configuration of the new reactor project in Brazil and the calculations concerning the amount of the fission products generated in the 235U targets in the real conditions projected for this reactor. During this period Brazil participated in the meeting held by IAEA in Chile in 2010 with 5 researchers and one researcher went to a visit to ANL and Y-12 installations in the USA under the support of IAEA. (author)

  12. 有机硅改性丙烯酸酯的UV固化%UV Curing of Organosilicon Modified Acrylic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵维; 李玉红

    2016-01-01

    在80℃下以OP-10和DBS作为混合乳化剂,以有机硅预聚体和丙烯酸酯单体采用自由基共聚制得了有机硅改性丙烯酸酯乳液,降温后再加入3%光聚合单体( HDDA和EO-TMPT)和光引发剂安息香甲醚,得到可紫外固化硅丙树脂乳液。其成膜经过紫外光照后,固化效率大大提高。经性能测试的结果为:断裂伸长率达到367%,抗张强度达到19.3 MPa,吸水率为32.2%,玻璃化温度( Tg)为-45.7℃。%Under the condition of 80 ℃ and OP-10, DBS were used as the emulsor, organo-silicone prepolymer and arylic ester ( mass ratio was 8%) were polymerized, the arcylic resin emulsion modified by organosilicone was obtained. The temperature of the emulsion was then reduced, 3% photopolymerisable monomer ( based on mass of acrylic resin) and 3% photo initiator Benzoin methyl ether ( based on mass of photopolymerisable monomer) were added, the UV-urable organosilicon acrylic resine emulsion was yielded. The film of the resin irradiated by UV-light had break elongation of 367%, tensile strength of 19. 3 MPa, water absorption rate of 32. 2% and Tg of 45. 7 ℃.

  13. Cintichem modified process - {sup 99}Mo precipitation step: application of statistical analysis tools over the reaction parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodoro, Rodrigo; Dias, Carla R.B.R.; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail: jaosso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fernandez Nunez, Eutimio Gustavo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2011-07-01

    Precipitation of {sup 99}Mo by {alpha}-benzoin oxime ({alpha}-Bz) is a standard precipitation method for molybdenum due the high selectivity of this agent. Nowadays, statistical analysis tools have been employed in analytical systems to prove its efficiency and feasibility. IPEN has a project aiming the production of {sup 99}Mo by the fission of {sup 235}U route. The processing uses as the first step the precipitation of {sup 99}Mo with {alpha}-Bz. This precipitation step involves many key reaction parameters. The aim of this work is based on the development of the already known acidic route to produce {sup 99}Mo as well as the optimization of the reactional parameters applying statistical tools. In order to simulate {sup 99}Mo precipitation, the study was conducted in acidic media using HNO{sub 3}, {alpha}Bz as precipitant agent and NaOH /1%H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as dissolver solution. Then, a Mo carrier, KMnO{sub 4} solutions and {sup 99}Mo tracer were added to the reaction flask. The reactional parameters ({alpha}-Bz/Mo ratio, Mo carrier, reaction time and temperature, and cooling reaction time before filtration) were evaluated under a fractional factorial design of resolution V. The best values of each reactional parameter were determined by a response surface statistical planning. The precipitation and recovery yields of {sup 99}Mo were measured using HPGe detector. Statistical analysis from experimental data suggested that the reactional parameters {alpha}-Bz/Mo ratio, reaction time and temperature have a significant impact on {sup 99}Mo precipitation. Optimization statistical planning showed that higher {alpha}Bz/Mo ratios, room temperature, and lower reaction time lead to higher {sup 99}Mo yields. (author)

  14. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Kendra

    Full Text Available The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia and swampbay (P. palustris trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race, redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis, California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica, sassafras (Sassafras albidum, northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin, camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora, and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea. In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and

  15. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Pruett, Grechen E; Mayfield, Albert E; MacKenzie, Martin; Deyrup, Mark A; Bauchan, Gary R; Ploetz, Randy C; Epsky, Nancy D

    2014-01-01

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race), redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis), California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea). In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG) was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and calamenene were

  16. Effect of alcohol aggregation on the retention factors of chiral solutes with an amylose-based sorbent: modeling and implications for the adsorption mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Hung-Wei; Franses, Elias I; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda

    2014-02-01

    Various displacement models in the literature have been widely used for understanding the adsorption mechanisms of solutes in various chromatography systems. The models were used for describing the often-observed linear plots of the logarithms of the retention factor versus the logarithms of the polar modifier concentration CI(0). The slopes of such a plot was inferred to be equal to the number of the displaced modifier molecules upon adsorption of one solute molecule, and were generally found to be greater than 1. In this study, the retention factors of four structurally related chiral solutes, ethyl lactate (EL), methyl mandelate (MM), benzoin (B), and pantolactone (PL), were measured for the amylose tris[(S)-α-methylbenzylcarbamate] sorbent, or AS, as a function of the concentration of isopropanol (IPA) in n-hexane. With increasing IPA concentration CI(0), the slopes increase from less than 1, at a concentration range from 0.13 to 1.3M, to slightly more than 1 at higher concentrations. Such slopes cannot be explained by the conventional retention models. It was found previously for monovalent solutes that such slopes can only be explained when the aggregation of the mobile phase modifier, isopropyl alcohol, was accounted for. A new retention model is presented here, accounting for alcohol aggregation, multivalent solute adsorption, multivalent solute-alcohol complexation, alcohol adsorption, and solute intra hydrogen-bonding, which occur in these four solutes. The slope is found to be controlled by three key dimensionless groups, the fraction of the sorbent binding sites covered by IPA, the fraction of the solute molecules in complex form, and the fraction of the IPA molecules in aggregate form. The limiting slope at a very high IPA concentration is equal to the value of (x+y)/n, where x is the number of the solute-sorbent binding sites and y is the number of the alcohol molecules in the solute-alcohol complex, and n is the alcohol aggregation number. The model

  17. Effects of Material Combination on Benzo[a]pyrene Delivery in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke%不同材料组合对卷烟主流烟气中苯并[a]芘释放量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭兰兰; 汪长国; 冯广林; 杨文敏; 周学政; 周志刚; 陈昆燕; 邱光明; 戴亚

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of material parameters, including air permeability of cigarette paper (APCP), air permeability of tipping paper (APTP), air permeability of plug wrapper (APPW), tow specifications (tow index I) of combined filter at mouth end (ITME) and tobacco end (ITTE), addition rates of filter additive A (benzoin resin, ARAA) and filter additive B (bergamot oil, ARAB), on the benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) delivery in mainstream cigarette smoke, the test cigarettes with various material combinations were prepared. The B[a]P delivery in mainstream cigarette smoke was analyzed against the said factors, and the optimized material combinations were verified. The results showed that: 1) APPW did not influence B[a]P delivery significantly, the other factors in the order of their effects on B[a]P delivery were ARAB >ITTE> ITME = APCP>APTP >ARAA, and interacted each other. 2) The optimized material combination for low B[a]P delivery were: APCP 50 CU, APTP 400 CU, ITTE 3.5 Y/34000, ITME 3.0 Y/35000, ARAA 2.436 mg/cig, and ARAB 2.100 mg/cig. 3) Comparing with monoacetate filter, the B[a]P delivery in mainstream smoke of cigarettes prepared with the optimized material combination decreased by 48.87%.%为研究不同卷烟材料参数(卷烟纸、接装纸和成型纸透气度,复合滤嘴丝端和嘴端丝束规格(丝束指数I),添加剂A(安息香树脂)和B(香柠檬油)用量对卷烟主流烟气中苯并[a]芘(B[a]P)释放量的影响,采用均匀设计实验方案制备了不同材料组合的试验卷烟样品,通过因子影响效应分析方法对主流烟气中B[a]P释放量数据进行了分析,并对优化的卷烟材料组合进行了验证。结果表明:①成型纸透气度对主流烟气中B[a]P释放量的影响不显著,其余6种因子对B[a]P释放量贡献的大小顺序为:添加剂B用量>滤嘴丝端丝束指数I>滤嘴嘴端丝束指数I=卷烟纸透气度>接装纸透气度>添加剂A用量,且存

  18. Group 4 Metalloporphyrin diolato Complexes and Catalytic Application of Metalloporphyrins and Related Transition Metal Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guodong Du

    2004-12-19

    In this work, the first examples of group 4 metalloporphyrin 1,2-diolato complexes were synthesized through a number of strategies. In general, treatment of imido metalloporphyrin complexes, (TTP)M=NR, (M = Ti, Zr, Hf), with vicinal diols led to the formation of a series of diolato complexes. Alternatively, the chelating pinacolate complexes could be prepared by metathesis of (TTP)MCl{sub 2} (M = Ti, Hf) with disodium pinacolate. These complexes were found to undergo C-C cleavage reactions to produce organic carbonyl compounds. For titanium porphyrins, treatment of a titanium(II) alkyne adduct, (TTP)Ti({eta}{sup 2}-PhC{triple_bond}CPh), with aromatic aldehydes or aryl ketones resulted in reductive coupling of the carbonyl groups to produce the corresponding diolato complexes. Aliphatic aldehydes or ketones were not reactive towards (TTP)Ti({eta}{sup 2}-PhC{triple_bond}CPh). However, these carbonyl compounds could be incorporated into a diolato complex on reaction with a reactive precursor, (TTP)Ti[O(Ph){sub 2}C(Ph){sub 2}O] to provide unsymmetrical diolato complexes via cross coupling reactions. In addition, an enediolato complex (TTP)Ti(OCPhCPhO) was obtained from the reaction of (TTP)Ti({eta}{sup 2}-PhC{triple_bond}CPh) with benzoin. Titanium porphyrin diolato complexes were found to be intermediates in the (TTP)Ti=O-catalyzed cleavage reactions of vicinal diols, in which atmospheric oxygen was the oxidant. Furthermore, (TTP)Ti=O was capable of catalyzing the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and {alpha}-hydroxy ketones to benzaldehyde and {alpha}-diketones, respectively. Other high valent metalloporphyrin complexes also can catalyze the oxidative diol cleavage and the benzyl alcohol oxidation reactions with dioxygen. A comparison of Ti(IV) and Sn(IV) porphyrin chemistry was undertaken. While chelated diolato complexes were invariably obtained for titanium porphyrins on treatment with 1,2-diols, the reaction of vicinal diols with tin porphyrins gave a number of

  19. Group 4 Metalloporphyrin diolato Complexes and Catalytic Application of Metalloporphyrins and Related Transition Metal Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Guodong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the first examples of group 4 metalloporphyrin 1,2-diolato complexes were synthesized through a number of strategies. In general, treatment of imido metalloporphyrin complexes, (TTP)M=NR, (M = Ti, Zr, Hf), with vicinal diols led to the formation of a series of diolato complexes. Alternatively, the chelating pinacolate complexes could be prepared by metathesis of (TTP)MCl2 (M = Ti, Hf) with disodium pinacolate. These complexes were found to undergo C-C cleavage reactions to produce organic carbonyl compounds. For titanium porphyrins, treatment of a titanium(II) alkyne adduct, (TTP)Ti(η2-PhC≡CPh), with aromatic aldehydes or aryl ketones resulted in reductive coupling of the carbonyl groups to produce the corresponding diolato complexes. Aliphatic aldehydes or ketones were not reactive towards (TTP)Ti(η2-PhC≡CPh). However, these carbonyl compounds could be incorporated into a diolato complex on reaction with a reactive precursor, (TTP)Ti[O(Ph)2C(Ph)2O] to provide unsymmetrical diolato complexes via cross coupling reactions. In addition, an enediolato complex (TTP)Ti(OCPhCPhO) was obtained from the reaction of (TTP)Ti(η2-PhC≡CPh) with benzoin. Titanium porphyrin diolato complexes were found to be intermediates in the (TTP)Ti=O-catalyzed cleavage reactions of vicinal diols, in which atmospheric oxygen was the oxidant. Furthermore, (TTP)Ti=O was capable of catalyzing the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and α-hydroxy ketones to benzaldehyde and α-diketones, respectively. Other high valent metalloporphyrin complexes also can catalyze the oxidative diol cleavage and the benzyl alcohol oxidation reactions with dioxygen. A comparison of Ti(IV) and Sn(IV) porphyrin chemistry was undertaken. While chelated diolato complexes were invariably obtained for titanium porphyrins on treatment with 1,2-diols, the reaction of vicinal diols with tin porphyrins gave a number of products, including mono

  20. Effect of alcohol aggregation on the retention factors of chiral solutes with an amylose-based sorbent: modeling and implications for the adsorption mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Hung-Wei; Franses, Elias I; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda

    2014-02-01

    Various displacement models in the literature have been widely used for understanding the adsorption mechanisms of solutes in various chromatography systems. The models were used for describing the often-observed linear plots of the logarithms of the retention factor versus the logarithms of the polar modifier concentration CI(0). The slopes of such a plot was inferred to be equal to the number of the displaced modifier molecules upon adsorption of one solute molecule, and were generally found to be greater than 1. In this study, the retention factors of four structurally related chiral solutes, ethyl lactate (EL), methyl mandelate (MM), benzoin (B), and pantolactone (PL), were measured for the amylose tris[(S)-α-methylbenzylcarbamate] sorbent, or AS, as a function of the concentration of isopropanol (IPA) in n-hexane. With increasing IPA concentration CI(0), the slopes increase from less than 1, at a concentration range from 0.13 to 1.3M, to slightly more than 1 at higher concentrations. Such slopes cannot be explained by the conventional retention models. It was found previously for monovalent solutes that such slopes can only be explained when the aggregation of the mobile phase modifier, isopropyl alcohol, was accounted for. A new retention model is presented here, accounting for alcohol aggregation, multivalent solute adsorption, multivalent solute-alcohol complexation, alcohol adsorption, and solute intra hydrogen-bonding, which occur in these four solutes. The slope is found to be controlled by three key dimensionless groups, the fraction of the sorbent binding sites covered by IPA, the fraction of the solute molecules in complex form, and the fraction of the IPA molecules in aggregate form. The limiting slope at a very high IPA concentration is equal to the value of (x+y)/n, where x is the number of the solute-sorbent binding sites and y is the number of the alcohol molecules in the solute-alcohol complex, and n is the alcohol aggregation number. The model