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Sample records for benzoin

  1. Lanthanum Tricyanide-Catalyzed Acyl Silane-Ketone Benzoin Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, James C.; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Lanthanum tricyanide efficiently catalyzes a benzoin-type coupling between acyl silanes and ketones. Yields range from moderate to excellent over a broad substrate scope encompassing aryl, alkyl, electron-rich, and sterically hindered ketones. PMID:19655731

  2. Abnormal sperm assay tests on benzoin and caprolactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, M F

    1989-11-01

    Benzoin and caprolactam, two noncarcinogenic chemicals found in association with consumer products, were tested in the mammalian in vivo abnormal spermhead assay. Each chemical was dissolved in a pharmaceutical grade corn oil and administered by gavage. Toxic effects were observed only with caprolactam-treated mice. Neither benzoin nor caprolactam induced a significant increase in the frequency of abnormal sperm as compared to that for animals treated only with the corn oil.

  3. Propagation of Valuable North Sumatera Benzoin Trees (Styrax Sp) Using Macrocutting Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, A.; Hartini, K. S.; Rachmat, H. H.; Alvaroby, M.

    2017-03-01

    Kemenyan known as Sumatran benzoin is North Sumatera local species that produce high valuable rosin and prospective export comodities. However, sustainability of Sumatran benzoin production has many constraints such as instability of resin production, lack information of propagation technique and traditional management system. Until now, comprehensive information for Sumatran benzoin propagation system still not determined yet. The objectives of this research were (1) to get information about propagation technique of Sumatran benzoin and its suitable growing medium and 2) to get information on adventitious root formation in Sumatran benzoin cuttings. Cutting materials (Toba benzoin and Durame benzoin) were originated from 1 year old seedling propagated by seed. Media used were combination of sand : rice husk (1:0 v/v; 1/1 v/v). Results showed that interaction between media and benzoin species significantly affected primer and secondary root lenght. While planting medium significantly improved secondary root length and number. Benzoin species significantly affected primary and secondary root lenght, and secondary root number.

  4. Chiral micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CMEKC)-atmospheric pressure photoionization of benzoin derivatives using mixed molecular micelles

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jun; Shamsi, Shahab A.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we report, for the first time, the successful on-line coupling of chiral micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CMEKC) to atmospheric pressure photo-ionization mass spectrometry (APPI-MS). Four structurally similar neutral test solutes (e.g., benzoin derivatives) were successfully ionized by APPI-MS. The mass spectra in the positive ion mode showed that the protonated molecular ions of benzoins are not the most abundant fragment ions. Simultaneous enantioseparation by CME...

  5. Chemo- and Diastereoselective N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Cross-Benzoin Reactions Using N-Boc-α-amino Aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghshenas, Pouyan; Gravel, Michel

    2016-09-16

    N-Boc-α-amino aldehydes are shown to be excellent partners in cross-benzoin reactions with aliphatic or heteroaromatic aldehydes. The chemoselectivity of the reaction and the facial selectivity on the amino aldehyde allow cross-benzoin products to be obtained in good yields and good diastereomeric ratios. The developed method is utilized as the key step in a concise total synthesis of d-arabino-phytosphingosine.

  6. Contribution of insectivorous avifauna to top down control of Lindera benzoin herbivores at forest edge and interior habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczylas, Daniel R.; Muth, Norris Z.; Niesenbaum, Richard A.

    2007-11-01

    Predation of herbivorous Lepidoptera larvae by insectivorous avifauna was estimated on Lindera benzoin in edge and interior habitats at two sites in eastern Pennsylvania (USA). Clay baits modeled after Epimecis hortaria (Geometridae) larvae, the primary herbivore of L. benzoin at our study sites, were used to estimate predation by birds. In both habitat types, models were placed on uninjured L. benzoin leaves as well as on leaves that had prior insect herbivore damage. Rates of model attack were greater, and model longevity reduced, in forest edge plots compared to interiors. Naturally occurring herbivore damage on L. benzoin was greater in forest interiors. However, model attack was not significantly greater on leaves with prior herbivory damage, suggesting that birds do not effectively use this type of leaf damage as a cue in their foraging. Our findings are consistent with a contribution of bird predation towards top-down control of herbivory in this system. We further discuss these results in a broader context considering the possible effects of habitat type on leaf quality, leaf defense, and herbivore performance.

  7. Substrate-Controlled Diastereoselectivity Reversal in NHC-Catalyzed Cross-Benzoin Reactions Using N-Boc-N-Bn-Protected α-Amino Aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghshenas, Pouyan; Quail, J Wilson; Gravel, Michel

    2016-12-16

    The effectiveness of utilizing N-Bn-N-Boc-α-amino aldehydes in cross-benzoin reactions with heteroaromatic aldehydes is demonstrated. The reaction is both chemoselective and syn-selective, making it complementary to the anti-selective cross-benzoin reaction of NHBoc-α-amino aldehydes. Good diastereoselectivity is obtained for a variety of amino aldehydes, including nonhindered ones. A Felkin-Anh model can be used to rationalize the observed diastereoselectivity.

  8. Lanthanum Tricyanide-Catalyzed Acyl Silane-Ketone Benzoin Additions and Kinetic Resolution of Resultant α-Silyloxyketones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, James C.

    2010-01-01

    We report the full account of our efforts on the lanthanum tricyanide-catalyzed acyl silane-ketone benzoin reaction. The reaction exhibits a wide scope in both acyl silane (aryl, alkyl) and ketone (aryl-alkyl, alkyl-alkyl, aryl-aryl, alkenyl-alkyl, alkynyl-alkyl) coupling partners. The diastereoselectivity of the reaction has been examined in both cyclic and acyclic systems. Cyclohexanones give products arising from equatorial attack by the acyl silane. The diastereoselectivity of acyl silane addition to acyclic α-hydroxy ketones can be controlled by varying the protecting group to obtain either Felkin-Ahn or chelation control. The resultant α-silyloxyketone products can be resolved with selectivity factors from 10 to 15 by subjecting racemic ketone benzoin products to CBS reduction. PMID:20392127

  9. Benzoin Condensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ART

    or released in the body on hydrolysis of cyanogenic glycosides eaten as food, causes poisoning. Orl-hmn LDL0. = 2857μgkg–1 for NaCN or KCN. Orl-rat LD50 = 5 mgkg–1 for KCN, and 6.44 mg kg–1 for NaCN. This is How it Poisons: Cyanide ion binds very strongly to Fe3+ of methemoglobin in mytochondria and forms.

  10. Benzoin condensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ART

    thiazolium moiety of the co-enzyme thiamine pyrophosphate. (TPP). This article shows the common links and inclusive chemistry aspects among cyanohydrin formation, naturally occurring cyanohydrins, conversion of cyanohydrins to ben- zoins/acyloins, the role of vitamin B1 (thiamine) and the use of thiazolium compounds ...

  11. Expedient synthesis of C-aryl carbohydrates by consecutive biocatalytic benzoin and aldol reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Karel; Parella, Teodor; Joglar, Jesús; Bujons, Jordi; Pohl, Martina; Clapés, Pere

    2015-02-16

    The introduction of aromatic residues connected by a C-C bond into the non-reducing end of carbohydrates is highly significant for the development of innovative structures with improved binding affinity and selectivity (e.g., C-aril-sLex). In this work, an expedient asymmetric "de novo" synthetic route to new aryl carbohydrate derivatives based on two sequential stereoselectively biocatalytic carboligation reactions is presented. First, the benzoin reaction of aromatic aldehydes to dimethoxyacetaldehyde is conducted, catalyzed by benzaldehyde lyase from Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar I. Then, the α-hydroxyketones formed are reduced by using NaBH4 yielding the anti diol. After acetal hydrolysis, the aldol addition of dihydroxyacetone, hydroxyacetone, or glycolaldehyde catalyzed by the stereocomplementary D-fructose-6-phosphate aldolase and L-rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase is performed. Both aldolases accept unphosphorylated donor substrates, avoiding the need of handling the phosphate group that the dihydroxyacetone phosphate-dependent aldolases require. In this way, 6-C-aryl-L-sorbose, 6-C-aryl-L-fructose, 6-C-aryl-L-tagatose, and 5-C-aryl-L-xylose derivatives are prepared by using this methodology. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Photochemical reductions of benzil and benzoin in the presence of triethylamine and TiO2 photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joon Woo; Kim, Eun Kyung; Koh Park, Kwang Hee

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the photochemical reduction of benzil 1 to benzoin 2 and the reduction of 2 to hydrobenzoin 4 in deoxygenated solvents in the presence of triethylamine (TEA) and/or TiO 2 . Without TEA or TiO 2 , the photolysis of 1 resulted in very low yield of 2. The presence of TEA or TiO 2 increased the rate of disappearance of 1 and the yield of 2, which were further increased considerably by the presence of water. The photoreduction of 1 to 2 proceeds through an electron transfer to 1 from TEA or hole-scavenged excited TiO 2 followed by protonation. In the reaction medium of 88:7:2:3 CH 3 CN/CH 3 OH/H 2 O/TEA with 2.5 mg/mL of TiO 2 , the yield of 2 was as high as 85% at 50% conversion of 1. The photolysis of 2 in homogeneous media resulted in photo-cleavage to benzoyl and hydroxybenzyl radicals, which are mostly converted to benzaldehyde. The reduction product 4 is formed in low yield through the dimerization of hydroxybenzyl radicals. The addition of TEA increased the conversion rate of 2 and the yield of 4 significantly. This was attributed to the scavenging effect of TEA for benzoyl radical to produce N,N-diethylbenzamide and the photoreduction of benzaldehyde in the presence of TEA. The ratio of (±) and meso isomers of 4 obtained from the photochemical reaction is about 1.1. This ratio is the same as that from the photochemical reduction of benzaldehyde in the presence of TEA. In the TiO 2 -sensitized photochemical reduction of 2, meso-4 was obtained in moderate yield. The reduction of 2 to 4 proceeds through two consecutive electron/proton transfer processes on the surface of the photocatalyst without involvement of α-cleavage. The radical 11 initially formed from 2 by one electron/proton process can also combine with hydroxy methyl radical, which is generated after hole trapping of excited TiO 2 by methanol, to product 1,2-diphenylpropenone after dehydration reaction

  13. Study towards benzoin condensation and Baylis-Hillman reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. New heterocyclic ring systems consisting of (±) methanodibenzodiazocine and imidazolium/ benzimidazolium salts were synthesized in very good yield. Subsequently, these halide salts were subjected to the anion exchange reaction with KPF6 to yield the corresponding azolium salts in excellent yield.

  14. functional site: Study towards benzoin condensation and Baylis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NH or NO2 groups towards the reactive carbene site. Moreover, N-Boc protected indole-3-carboxaldehyde. Scheme 4. Top: the proposed Breslow intermediate through hydrogen bonding at enol form with TB nitrogen;. Bottom: unfavourable Breslow intermediate. Scheme 5. Baylis-Hillman reaction mediated by catalysts.

  15. Benzoin Condensation: Monitoring a Chemical Reaction by High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Apurba; Purohit, Vikram C.; Bellar, Nicholas R.

    2004-01-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the preferred method of separating a variety of materials in complex mixtures such as pharmaceuticals, polymers, soils, food products and biological fluids and is also considered to be a powerful analytical tool in both academia and industry. The use of HPLC analysis as a means of monitoring and…

  16. First report of laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola , on spicebush ( Lindera benzoin ) in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. W. Fraedrich; T. C. Harrington; B. A. McDaniel; G. S. Best

    2016-01-01

    Most members of the laurel family (Lauraceae) indigenous to the United States appear to be highly susceptible to laurel wilt, a disease caused by Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Aghayeva & Fraedrich, a fungal symbiont of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff) (Fraedrich et al. 2008; Harrington et al. 2008). The beetle and fungus were...

  17. [Effect of oxygen, water and hydrophobic medium in model reactions of thiamine pyrophosphate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babicheva, O F; Vovk, A I; Iasnikov, O O

    1977-01-01

    Oxygen and water are inhibitors of acyloin and benzoin condensations. An intermediate paramagnetic compund is formed in the benzoin condensation catalyzed with 3-benzyl-4-methyl thiazolium chloride, 3,4-dimethyl thiazolium iodide, 3-benzyl-4,5-dimethyl thiazolium chloride, 3-methyl-4-phenyl thiazolium perchlorate and 3-methyl-4,5-diphenyl thiazolium perchlorate. The formation of benzoin in dimethyl sulphoxide, when the air oxygen is absent, is an irreversible reaction. The presence of hydrophobic solvent in the reaction medium provides more favourable conditions for benzoin condensation proceeding. The reaction mechanism is suggested.

  18. Diaper Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... camphor, phenol, methyl salicylate, or compound of benzoin tincture. These chemicals can be harmful. If the rash ... heat and moisture in the diaper area. This makes it easier for diaper rash to start and ...

  19. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and copper (II) complexes of N, N' – bis(benzoin)ethylenediiminato have been prepared and characterized by infrared, elemental analysis, conductivity measurements and solubility. The potentiometric, and elemental analyses studies of the complexes revealed 1:1 ...

  20. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An efficient synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles is achieved by three component cyclocondensation of benzil or benzoin, aldehyde and ammonium acetate by using novel polymeric catalyst [poly(AMPS-co-AA)] under solvent-free conditions. The key advantages of this process are high yields, shorter reaction times, ...

  1. A novel polymeric catalyst for the one-pot synthesis of 2,4,5-triaryl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. An efficient synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles is achieved by three component cyclo- condensation of benzil or benzoin, aldehyde and ammonium acetate by using novel polymeric catalyst. [poly(AMPS-co-AA)] under solvent-free conditions. The key advantages of this process are high yields, shorter.

  2. Treatment of Wam- A Study of One Hundred and Six Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ameen Sait

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and six cases comprising different of warts were included the study. The types of treatment tried were topical systemic and physical. Podophylin 25% in tincture benzoin co was very effective for genital warts, while electrocautery was successful in 87% cases of common warts. Systemic medication such as levamisole and thuja-200 did not give satisfactory results.

  3. Arruri Sathyanarayana Ganesan Prabusankar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The possible applications of these newly prepared salts were investigated in homogeneous catalysis. Remarkable changes in the catalytic activity were observed by varying the bulkiness of N-substituent at imidazole. Catalytic activity of these newly prepared salts was tested for the benzoin condensation reaction. Exclusive ...

  4. Inhibitory Effects of Thai Essential Oils on Potentially Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantapan, Kittika; Poapolathep, Amnart; Imsilp, Kanjana; Poapolathep, Saranya; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Kumagai, Susumu; Jermnak, Usuma

    2017-01-01

     The antiaflatoxigenic and antifungal activities of essential oils (EOs) of finger root (Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf.), pine (Pinus pinaster), rosewood (Aniba rosaedora), Siam benzoin (Styrax tonkinensis), Thai moringa (Moringa oleifera), and ylang ylang (Cananga odorata) were tested for Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus in potato dextrose broth. Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) was extracted from culture using a QuEChERS-based extraction procedure and analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a fluorescence detector. EO of pine showed the greatest inhibition of growth and AFB 1 production of A. parasiticus, followed by EOs of rosewood, finger root, Siam benzoin, and ylang ylang. EO of finger root gave the best inhibitory effects on A. flavus, followed by EOs of rosewood, pine, ylang ylang, and Siam benzoin. EO of Thai moringa did not show any significant inhibition of aflatoxigenic fungi. The antiaflatoxigenic activities of EOs correlated with their antifungal activities in the dosedependent manner. Comparison of the application of the five selected EOs in peanut pods by direct and vapor exposure indicated that the AFB 1 production inhibitory effects of the five EOs by direct exposure were faster and more effective than by vapor exposure. EO of finger root showed the best inhibition of AFB 1 production of A. flavus in peanut pods by direct exposure, followed by EOs of pine, rosewood, ylang ylang, and Siam benzoin.

  5. Ceric ammonium nitrate catalysed three component one-pot efficient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. Ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) is used as an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of 2,4,5- triaryl-1H-imidazoles via condensation of benzoin/benzil, ammonium acetate, and aromatic aldehydes. The easy work-up, higher yields and shorter reaction time are the advantages of the method presented here. Keywords.

  6. Ceric ammonium nitrate catalysed three component one-pot efficient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) is used as an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of 2,4,5-triaryl-1H-imidazoles via condensation of benzoin/benzil, ammonium acetate, and aromatic aldehydes. The easy work-up, higher yields and shorter reaction time are the advantages of the method presented here.

  7. Plant species evaluated for new crop potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Ninety-two plant species from various regions of the USA were screened for their energy-producing potential. Samples were analysed for oil, polyphenol, hydrocarbon and protein. Oil fractions of some species were analysed for classes of lipid constituents and yields of unsaponifiable matter and fatty acids were determined. Hydrocarbon fractions of some species were analysed for rubber, gutta and waxes. Average MW and MW distribution of rubber and gutta were determined. Complete analytical data for 16 species is presented. Large quantities of oil were obtained from Philadelphus coronarius, Cacalia muhlenbergii, Lindera benzoin and Koelreuteria paniculata. High yields of polyphenols came from Acer ginnala, Cornus obliqua and Salix caprea and maximum yields of hydrocarbon and protein were from Elymus virginicus and Lindera benzoin, respectively.

  8. Processing of LEU targets for 99Mo production--testing and modification of the Cintichem process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, D.; Landsberger, S.; Buchholz, B.

    1995-09-01

    Recent experimental results on testing and modification of the Cintichem process to allow substitution of low enriched uranium (LEU) for high enriched uranium (HEU) targets are presented in this report. The main focus is on 99 Mo recovery and purification by its precipitation with α-benzoin oxime. Parameters that were studied include concentrations of nitric and sulfuric acids, partial neutralization of the acids, molybdenum and uranium concentrations, and the ratio of α-benzoin oxime to molybdenum. Decontamination factors for uranium, neptunium, and various fission products were measured. Experiments with tracer levels of irradiated LEU were conducted for testing the 99 Mo recovery and purification during each step of the Cintichem process. Improving the process with additional processing steps was also attempted. The results indicate that the conversion of molybdenum chemical processing from HEU to LEU targets is possible

  9. Synthesis of thiazolium salts and their screening for catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seul Ki; Kim, Do Joong; Park, Jin Kyoon [Dept. of Chemistry and Institute of Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A facile synthetic method to prepare thiazolium-based ionic liquids in high yield was developed. The direct alkylation of thiazole was performed using a trialkyl orthoester as both the alkyl donor and the solvent. The synthesized thiazolium salts were subsequently screened for their ability to catalyze the benzoin condensation reaction. Of the salts that were tested, 3-butyl,4,5-dimethyl thiazolium salt, was found to be the best catalyst.

  10. Organic chemistry experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Seok Sik

    2005-02-01

    This book deals with organic chemistry experiments, it is divided five chapters, which have introduction, the way to write the experiment report and safety in the laboratory, basic experiment technic like recrystallization and extraction, a lot of organic chemistry experiments such as fischer esterification, ester hydrolysis, electrophilic aromatic substitution, aldol reaction, benzoin condensation, wittig reaction grignard reaction, epoxidation reaction and selective reduction. The last chapter introduces chemistry site on the internet and way to find out reference on chemistry.

  11. Spectrophotometric determination of some metal ions using hydrazones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M. S.

    2000-05-01

    In this research many starting materials were prepared, like methyl salicylate and salicylic acid hydrazide from which different derivatives of hydrazones were synthesized by coupling with carbonyl compounds like benzil monoxime and benzil mono hydrazone which are prepared and others like salicylaldehyde and benzoin. The hydrazones that were synthesized are salicylaldehyde salicylic acid hydrazone, benzoin salicylic acid hydrazone, benzil mono hydrazone salicylic acid hydrazone and benzil monoxime salicylic acid hydrazone. These reagents were determined by different methods, IR spectrophotometric determination, the nitrogen content method and melting point determination. These hydrazones act as ligands for determination of some metal ions by making different coloured complexes that were prepared for eight hydrazones with eight metal ions U (VI), Fe (II), Fe (III), Co (II), V (II), Mo (VI), Ni (II) and Cu (II). These complexes were determined by ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer (UV/VIS) to detect their absorbance and wavelengths (λ max). The two hydrazones salicylaldehyde salicylic acid-hydrazone and benzoin salicylic acid hydrazone, were selected for determination of five metal ions (Fe (II), Fe (III), U (VI), Ni (II) and Cu (II)), using two micelles sodium n-dodecyl sulphate and pyridinium hexa decyl bromide mono hydrate. Their absorbance and wavelengths were detected using UV/VIS spectrophotometer. (Author)

  12. Brønsted acidic ionic liquid catalyzed an efficient and eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted-1H-imidazoles under solvent-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janardhan Banothu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple, highly efficient and eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted-1H-imidazoles via one-pot three component condensation of benzil/benzoin, aldehydes and ammonium acetate under solvent-free conditions has been achieved utilizing Brønsted acidic ionic liquid, (4-sulfobutyltris(4-sulfophenyl phosphonium hydrogen sulfate as catalyst. The remarkable features of this methodology are excellent yields in shorter reaction times, cleaner reaction profile, and environmentally benign nature, use of non-toxic, readily synthesizable, inexpensive and recyclable catalyst.

  13. Sensitive spectrophotometric determination of Co(II) using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction method in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanpour, Foroozan; Hadadzadeh, Hassan; Taei, Masoumeh; Nekouei, Mohsen; Mozafari, Elmira

    2016-05-01

    Analytical performance of conventional spectrophotometer was developed by coupling of effective dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction method with spectrophotometric determination for ultra-trace determination of cobalt. The method was based on the formation of Co(II)-alpha-benzoin oxime complex and its extraction using a dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction technique. During the present work, several important variables such as pH, ligand concentration, amount and type of dispersive, and extracting solvent were optimized. It was found that the crucial factor for the Co(II)-alpha benzoin oxime complex formation is the pH of the alkaline alcoholic medium. Under the optimized condition, the calibration graph was linear in the ranges of 1.0-110 μg L(-1) with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.5 μg L(-1). The preconcentration operation of 25 mL of sample gave enhancement factor of 75. The proposed method was applied for determination of Co(II) in soil samples.

  14. Complexes of zinc, cadmium and mercury with some schiff bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallomi, I. J.; Al-Shaheen, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    Two type of complexes with different stoichiometries were isolated for zinc (II), cadmium(II) and mercury (II). These complexes having the general formulate [M (H 2 L)] X 2 and [M(L)] (where H 2 L and L represent the neutral and dibasic from of the ligand derived from the condensation of benzoin with o-phenylene diamine and X 2 CI - or NO 3 - ) were prepared by the reaction of the mentioned metal salts with the ligand in both neutral and alkaline solutions. Characterization of the complexes was carried out by analytical, spectral and physical studies. In type I complexes, the ligand coordinates through both azomethine nitrogen and alcohlic oxygen atoms acting as neutral tetradentate. For type II complexes, the coordination occurs through both azomethine nitrogen and deprotonated alcoholic oxygen atoms, for which the ligand acts as dibasic tetradentate. In all complexes, the metal ions are tetracoordinated with the most probable tetrahedral geometry (author). 17 refs.; 1 fig., 3 tabs

  15. Zirconium oxocluster/polymer hybrid nanoparticles prepared by photoactivated miniemulsion copolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Cesare; Flouda, Paraskevi; Antonello, Alice; Rosenauer, Christine; Pérez-Pla, Francisco F.; Landfester, Katharina; Gross, Silvia; Muñoz-Espí, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    The photoactivated free radical miniemulsion copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and the zirconium oxocluster Zr4O2(methacrylate)12 is used as an effective and fast preparation method for polymer/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles. The oxoclusters, covalently anchored to the polymer network, act as metal-organic cross-linkers, thus improving the thermomechanical properties of the resulting hybrid nanoparticles. Benzoin carbonyl organic compounds were used as photoinitiators. The obtained materials are compared in terms of cross-linking, effectiveness of cluster incorporation, and size distribution with the analogous nanoparticles produced by using conventional thermally induced free radical miniemulsion copolymerization. The kinetics of the polymerization process in the absence and in the presence of the oxocluster is also investigated.

  16. Radiation polymerisable compositions containing 3-sorboyloxy-2-hydroxypropyl groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.E.

    1976-01-01

    Compounds having at least three 3-sorboyloxy-2-hydroxypropyl groups directly attached to ether oxygen atoms are polymerised by exposure to actinic radiation, preferably in the presence of a sensitizer such as Michler's ketone or benzoin. The compounds may be obtained by the reaction either of sorbic acid with a substance having at least three glycidyl ether groups or of glycidyl sorbate with a substance having at least three phenolic or alcoholic hydroxyl groups: if desired, not all of the glycidyl groups may be consumed, so that, after actinically induced polymerisation, the epoxide-containing polymer may be cross-linked by reaction with a curing agent for epoxide resins. The compounds are useful in making printed circuits or printing plates for offset printing

  17. NHC–metal complexes based on benzimidazolium moiety for chemical transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Narayan Muskawar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC are now commonly encountered in organometallic and inorganic coordination chemistry because of its environmental friendly nature as solvent and catalyst, high activity, selectivity and easily recovered materials that were used to replace the traditional volatile organic solvents which generally suffered from environmental problems. Benzimidazole based ionic liquids (BILs offering a new possibility for developing environmentally-friendly basic catalyst with transition metal and non-transition metal (Ag, Au, Ru, Rh, Fe, Co, Cu, Cd and Pd. They are flexible, nonvolatile, noncorrosive and immiscible with many organic solvents. In this review, we wish to present an overview of the preparation and applications in various reactions like alkylation, arylation, etherification, benzoin reaction, aldol condensation and metal mediated catalyst in Suzuki, Suzuki–Miyaura, Heck cross coupling and reduction, also in electrochemical application (electrocatalyst, anion sensor, solar cell, proton conduction, malaria parasite, antimicrobial activity, etc.

  18. Synthetic investigation of glycine catalyzed triarylimidazole based organophosphorous heterocyclic functionalized vinyl polymer - A green approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elumalai, S; Somasundaran, D; Guhanathan, S

    2015-11-01

    In the present investigation, an efficient and environmentally adopted synthesis of triaryl substituted imidazole in one-pot was reported. The multicomponent reaction between various aldehydes, benzil, benzoin, ammonium acetate and glycine under solvent free condition has been explained. Instead of using toxic reagents for the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, Glycine has been selected as a green catalyst due to simple work-up procedure, shorter reaction time and high yield. The synthesized imidazole derivatives on further treatment with phosphorous oxychloride resulted in an organophosphorous containing N-heterocyclic compound (N-P) thus by altering acidic hydrogen of imidazole. Further, N-P was reacted with polyvinyl alcohol resulted into organophosphorous N-heterocyclic vinyl polymers. The synthesized vinyl polymers were characterized using, FTIR, NMR and Mass spectral studies. Results of the spectral studies were well supported the formation of the compounds. Thermal stability have also been studied using TGA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. X-ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-VIS and SEM studies on chromium (III) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Ashutosh; Dwivedi, Jagrati; Shukla, Kritika

    2015-01-01

    Five Chromium (III) complexes have been prepared using Schiff base ligands which derived from benzoin and five different amino acids (H 2 N-R). Samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV-VIS and SEM method. X-Ray diffraction pattern analyzed that all chromium (III) complexes have hexagonal structure and crystalline, in nature, using Bruker D8 Advance instrument. Using VERTAX 70, FTIR spectroscopy reveals that Samples have (C=N), (C-O), (M-N) and (M-O) bonds in the range of 4000-400cm −1 . UV-VIS spectroscopy give information that samples absorb the visible light which is in the range of 380-780nm. For this, Lambda 960 spectrometer used. SEM is designed for studying of the solid objects, using JEOL JSM 5600 instrument

  20. The Polymerization of MMA and ST to Prepare Material with Gradient Refractive Index in Electric Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Light scattering material with gradient refractive index was prepared under the electrical field by taking methyl methacrylate (MMA monomer as the matrix with the addition of a little preheated styrene (ST and peroxidation benzoin formyl (BPO. The material obtained under electrical field presented different transmittance and molecular weight at different parts of the cylindrical sample along the axis of the direction of electric field which led to the layering phenomenon and gradient refractive index. The disparity of molecular weight between different layers can be as much as 230 thousand. There were several peaks in the figure of GPC test of the sample under electric field. This proved that there were polymers with different molecular weights in the sample. Therefore, it can be concluded that electrical field has a significant effect on polymerization.

  1. A new method to make poly acrylate foam shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yongheng; Luo Xuan; Fang Yu; Ren Hongbo; Zhang Lin; Cui Yi

    2009-01-01

    A triple-orifice droplet generator was designed and developed for the size-controllable continuous fabrication of hollow foam micro-shells. Solutions of an internal water phase, an oil phase (trimethylpropane triacrylate monomer, dibutyl phthalate solvent, and benzoin ethyl ether initiator), and an external water phase were used to prepare micro-shells whose diameters are between 1.5 mm and 4.0 mm successfully. Characterization of the foam shells was carried out using a scanning electron microscope and X-ray radiography. The results show that cell diameters of the shells are not above 1 um. The refractive index of the polymer framework is around 1.50. Furthermore, the shells fabricated through the triple-orifice droplet generator have a high survival probability of 93% and exhibit narrow size distribution. (authors)

  2. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  3. Preparation of a crosslinked bioimprinted lipase for enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish processing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinyong; Li, Lifan; Tang, Qianli; Jiang, Manzhou; Jiang, Shenzhou

    2010-10-01

    Geotrichum sp. lipase modified with a combined method composed of crosslinking and bioimprinting was employed to selectively hydrolyze waste fish oil for enrichment of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in glycerides. Crosslinked polymerization by monomer (polyethylene glycol 400 dimethyl acrylate), crosslinker (trimethylolpropane trimethylacrylate), and photoinitiator (benzoin methyl ether) coupled to bioimprinting using palmitic acid as imprint molecule, resulted in much more effective enzyme preparation used in aqueous hydrolysis reaction. Since the crosslinked polymerization modification maintained bioimprinted property and gave good dispersion of enzyme in reaction mixture, the crosslinked bioimprinted enzyme exhibited higher hydrolysis temperature, enhanced specific activity, shorter hydrolysis time, and better operational stability compared to free lipase. Crude fish oil was treated at 45 degrees C with this crosslinked bioimprinted lipase for 8 h, and 46% hydrolysis degree resulted in the production of glycerides containing 41% of EPA and DHA (EPA+DHA), achieving 85.7% recovery of initial EPA and DHA. The results suggested that bioimprinted enzymes did not lose their induced property in aqueous environment when prepared according to the described crosslinking-bioimprinting method. It could also be seen that the crosslinked bioimprinted lipase was effective in producing glycerides that contained a higher concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acid with better yield.

  4. Scalability of the LEU-Modified Cintichem Process: 3-MeV Van de Graaff and 35-MeV Electron Linear Accelerator Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotsch, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Brossard, Tom [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Roussin, Ethan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Quigley, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Jonah, Charles [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Hafenrichter, Lohman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Krebs, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-10-31

    Molybdenum-99, the mother of Tc-99m, can be produced from fission of U-235 in nuclear reactors and purified from fission products by the Cintichem process, later modified for low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets. The key step in this process is the precipitation of Mo with α-benzoin oxime (ABO). The stability of this complex to radiation has been examined. Molybdenum-ABO was irradiated with 3 MeV electrons produced by a Van de Graaff generator and 35 MeV electrons produced by a 50 MeV/25 kW electron linear accelerator. Dose equivalents of 1.7–31.2 kCi of Mo-99 were administered to freshly prepared Mo-ABO. Irradiated samples of Mo-ABO were processed according to the LEU Modified-Cintichem process. The Van de Graaff data indicated good radiation stability of the Mo-ABO complex up to ~15 kCi dose equivalents of Mo-99 and nearly complete destruction at doses >24 kCi Mo-99. The linear accelerator data indicate that even at 6.2 kCi of Mo-99 equivalence of dose, the sample lost ~20% of Mo-99. The 20% loss of Mo-99 at this low dose may be attributed to thermal decomposition of the product from the heat deposited in the sample during irradiation.

  5. Studies on coordination chemistry and bioactivity of some nitrogen-sulfur donor ligands with some heavy metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarafder, M.T.H.; Zakaria, C.M.; Wan bin Abdullah; Grouse, Karen A.; Ali, A.M.; Yamin, B.M.; Fun, H.-K.

    2003-08-01

    A bidentate NS ligand, hydraziniumdithiocarbazate (HzDTC), was prepared. The reaction of HzDTC with benzoin (HzDTCl) yielded a new Schiff base. Some complexes of cadmium(II), tin(II) and antimony(III) containing HzDTC and S-picolyldithiocarbazate (SPDTC) were prepared and characterized by a variety of physico-chemical techniques. The structure of the Schiff base, bis(methylphenyl)methylene (N-phenylmethylene-N'-phenylmethine)hydrazine, was solved by X-ray crystallography. The HzDTC and SPDTC behaved as uninegatively charged bidentate ligands. The antibacterial and anti-fungal properties of ligands and their metal complexes were evaluated against four pathogenic bacteria and fungi. HzDTC was very effective against all the microbes while the complexes of HzDTC were antibacterial. The complexes of SPDTC were effective against fungi. [Cd(HzDTC)Br. H 2 O], in particular, was moderately active against CEM-SS (human cell T-lymphoblastic leukemia) cells. (author)

  6. Characterisation of varnishes used in violins by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavari, Giuseppe; Montalbani, Simona; Otero, Vanessa

    2008-12-01

    The correct characterisation and a detailed knowledge of the materials originally used in violin varnishes, like natural resins, is crucial for the conservation in museums and for a suitable restoration technique. The study presented here reports on the potential of pyrolysis (Py) coupled with gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) for the identification of chemical markers of each resin; this technique is very sensitive and selective, it needs a small quantity of sample and does not require chemical treatments. To improve the chromatographic behaviour of polar compounds the derivatising agent tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) in combination with pyrolysis has been used, in the so-called TMAH thermochemolysis or thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM), or more simply pyrolysis-methylation. The natural resins studied were colophony, sandarac, manila copal, elemi, amber and benzoin, mainly composed of terpenic compounds, with the exception of the latter, composed of aromatic compounds. Many compounds were identified; in particular, methyl esters of resinous acids that, individually or in a group, can be used as chemical markers. However, through this technique it was not possible to distinguish between the sandarac and manila copal resins because their chromatographic behaviour is very similar. Finally, the procedure applied has been employed in the characterisation of original varnish samples.

  7. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  8. The Ruthenostannylene Complex [Cp*(IXy)H2 Ru-Sn-Trip]: Providing Access to Unusual Ru-Sn Bonded Stanna-imine, Stannene, and Ketenylstannyl Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsueh-Ju; Ziegler, Micah S; Tilley, T Don

    2015-05-26

    Reactivity studies of the thermally stable ruthenostannylene complex [Cp*(IXy)(H)2 Ru-Sn-Trip] (1; IXy=1,3-bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene; Cp*=η(5) -C5 Me5 ; Trip=2,4,6-iPr3 C6 H2 ) with a variety of organic substrates are described. Complex 1 reacts with benzoin and an α,β-unsaturated ketone to undergo [1+4] cycloaddition reactions and afford [Cp*(IXy)(H)2 RuSn(κ(2) -O,O-OCPhCPhO)Trip] (2) and [Cp*(IXy)(H)2 RuSn(κ(2) -O,C-OCPhCHCHPh)Trip] (3), respectively. The reaction of 1 with ethyl diazoacetate resulted in a tin-substituted ketene complex [Cp*(IXy)(H)2 RuSn(OC2 H5 )(CHCO)Trip] (4), which is most likely a decomposition product from the putative ruthenium-substituted stannene complex. The isolation of a ruthenium-substituted stannene [Cp*(IXy)(H)2 RuSn(=Flu)Trip] (5) and stanna-imine [Cp*(IXy)(H)2 RuSn(κ(2) -N,O-NSO2 C6 H4 Me)Trip] (6) complexes was achieved by treatment of 1 with 9-diazofluorene and tosyl azide, respectively. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Comparison of podophyllin and trichloroacetic acid for the treatment of genital warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Nath

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred patients with genital warts of different morphological types were randomly allocated to a therapeutic trial with 25o/, podophyllin in the tincture of benzoin or 50 trichloroacetic acid (TCA. Ninety five patients were followed up for three months. The warts cleared in 78% and 81% patients after treatment with podophyllin and TCA respectively within 3 months. There was no significant difference in the number of applications needed with each type of treatment. Patients with hyperplastic lesions required lesser number of applications (average 3.5 compared to those with flat or verruca vulgaris type of lesions (average 4.5. Young condylomata (less than 6 months duration responded better than older lesions. Moist lesions on the glans penis and labia responded better than the dry and keratotic lesions. Local soreness was experienced in 8.5y. cases as a side effect of therapy. Recurrence after initial clearance was seen more commonly with podophyllin application (30% than with trichloroacetic acid (13%.

  10. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Pruett, Grechen E; Mayfield, Albert E; MacKenzie, Martin; Deyrup, Mark A; Bauchan, Gary R; Ploetz, Randy C; Epsky, Nancy D

    2014-01-01

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race), redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis), California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea). In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG) was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and calamenene were

  11. EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE PROPHYLAXIS AND TREATMENT OF SYPHILIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, H J; Walker, J E

    1923-03-31

    1. By inoculating the scarified surface of both sides of the scrotum of rabbits with suspensions of Treponema pallidum, 100 per cent of infections were obtained on one side or the other. Infection through the unbroken skin could not be produced. 2. By gland transfers from animals with positive local inoculations, 87.5 per cent of takes were produced. 3. These two methods were used to test the prophylactic value of 30 per cent calomel ointment, (a) Calomel ointment proved efficacious up to 8 hours after inoculation with syphilis, (b) No marked difference appeared between the action of calomel in a base of lanolin and vaseline and in a base of benzoinated lard and wax. (c) Death from mercurial poisoning was produced in rabbits by a single application of a large amount of calomel ointment. 4. The method of gland transfers was used to test the sterilizing effect of arsphenamine and neoarsphenamine on old infections in the rabbit. The infection was completely abolished in every instance, whether by one, two, or four intravenous doses. 5. Natural spirochetosis of rabbits need not be a serious complicating factor in work on syphilis in rabbits, for the following reasons. (a) In natural spirochetosis, the lesions occur on the penis and not on the scrotum. Gland transfers are negative, (b) A scrotal lesion can be produced by inoculation, but it can be distinguished from that of Treponema pallidum infection by its course, (c) In studies of generalized syphilis supposed to involve the genitalia, and in sexual transmission experiments, Treponema cuniculi may be a serious complicating factor.

  12. Cintichem modified process - {sup 99}Mo precipitation step: application of statistical analysis tools over the reaction parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodoro, Rodrigo; Dias, Carla R.B.R.; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail: jaosso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fernandez Nunez, Eutimio Gustavo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2011-07-01

    Precipitation of {sup 99}Mo by {alpha}-benzoin oxime ({alpha}-Bz) is a standard precipitation method for molybdenum due the high selectivity of this agent. Nowadays, statistical analysis tools have been employed in analytical systems to prove its efficiency and feasibility. IPEN has a project aiming the production of {sup 99}Mo by the fission of {sup 235}U route. The processing uses as the first step the precipitation of {sup 99}Mo with {alpha}-Bz. This precipitation step involves many key reaction parameters. The aim of this work is based on the development of the already known acidic route to produce {sup 99}Mo as well as the optimization of the reactional parameters applying statistical tools. In order to simulate {sup 99}Mo precipitation, the study was conducted in acidic media using HNO{sub 3}, {alpha}Bz as precipitant agent and NaOH /1%H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as dissolver solution. Then, a Mo carrier, KMnO{sub 4} solutions and {sup 99}Mo tracer were added to the reaction flask. The reactional parameters ({alpha}-Bz/Mo ratio, Mo carrier, reaction time and temperature, and cooling reaction time before filtration) were evaluated under a fractional factorial design of resolution V. The best values of each reactional parameter were determined by a response surface statistical planning. The precipitation and recovery yields of {sup 99}Mo were measured using HPGe detector. Statistical analysis from experimental data suggested that the reactional parameters {alpha}-Bz/Mo ratio, reaction time and temperature have a significant impact on {sup 99}Mo precipitation. Optimization statistical planning showed that higher {alpha}Bz/Mo ratios, room temperature, and lower reaction time lead to higher {sup 99}Mo yields. (author)

  13. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Kendra

    Full Text Available The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia and swampbay (P. palustris trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race, redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis, California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica, sassafras (Sassafras albidum, northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin, camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora, and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea. In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and

  14. Novel coating compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    An acrylic coating composition rapidly hardenable by irradiating with ionizing radiations or light beams is given using hydroxyl group-containing vinyl monomers, polycarboxylic acid anhydrides, epoxy group-containing vinyl monomers and an organic solvent having a boiling point of at least 120 0 C. The process comprises the steps of first and second reactions. The first reaction takes place between one mol of a hydroxyl group of a basic polymer and at least 0.1 mol of polycarboxylic acid anhydride, wherein the basic polymer has a molecular weight ranging from 5,000 to 100,000 and consists of 1-40% by weight of vinyl monomer containing hydroxyl group, at least 30% of (meth)acrylic monomer and other vinyl monomers if required. The second reaction takes place between one mol of hydroxyl plus a carboxyl group of the thus obtained basic polymer and at least 0.1 mol of an epoxy group-containing vinyl monomer to produce a prepolymer. The prepolymer is mixed with a solvent such as ethyl benzene to produce the coating material. The electron beam accelerator energy level may be 0.1-2.0 MeV. In light beam polymerization, benzoin is particularly utilized as an intensifying substance. In one example, a basic polymer is produced by reacting 39 parts of styrene, 37 parts of ethyl acrylate, 24 parts of 2-hydroxyl ethyl acrylate, 4 parts of dimethyl amino ethyl methacrylate and others. A prepolymer is produced by reacting this basic polymer with 30 parts of glycidyl acrylate and others. (Iwakiri, K.)

  15. Liquid Adhesive Contact Dermatitis After Bunionectomy: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Christopher R; Cornell, Rhonda S; Greenfield, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to the skin adherents used in postoperative dressings are an uncommon but unfavorable complication that can result in poor wound healing, increased scarring, and surgical wound infections. This unexpected and unforeseen complication is not well documented in the current published data. We present the case of a 39-year-old female who had undergone a bunionectomy procedure and developed allergic contact dermatitis postoperatively. We discuss the clinical findings and treatments administered after application of a commonly used liquid skin adhesive applied intraoperatively. Through the use of topical and oral steroids and foot soaks in astringent solutions, over the course of several months, the patient's skin returned to the expected postoperative appearance. With the increased consciousness to minimize surgical scarring to improve cosmesis, one of these causes of the reaction might have been the liquid adhesive used in the surgical closure and dressing application. Therefore, we additionally reviewed the adhesive compound's chemical makeup and any potential cross-reactivity to help surgeons make an informed decision of whether to use a liquid adhesive. The various ingredients in liquid adhesives contain known allergen compounds that can cause a reaction, such as balsam of Peru and colophony or rosin, both of which are reviewed in our report. We also present a treatment algorithm developed from the compiled data in the case of a patient developing an allergic reaction. From our literature review and considering the percentage of incidence, if a surgeon desires to use a liquid adhesive product, Mastisol(®) should be chosen because of its lower reactivity and greater adhesive properties compared with the compound tincture of benzoin. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Group 4 Metalloporphyrin diolato Complexes and Catalytic Application of Metalloporphyrins and Related Transition Metal Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Guodong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the first examples of group 4 metalloporphyrin 1,2-diolato complexes were synthesized through a number of strategies. In general, treatment of imido metalloporphyrin complexes, (TTP)M=NR, (M = Ti, Zr, Hf), with vicinal diols led to the formation of a series of diolato complexes. Alternatively, the chelating pinacolate complexes could be prepared by metathesis of (TTP)MCl2 (M = Ti, Hf) with disodium pinacolate. These complexes were found to undergo C-C cleavage reactions to produce organic carbonyl compounds. For titanium porphyrins, treatment of a titanium(II) alkyne adduct, (TTP)Ti(η2-PhC≡CPh), with aromatic aldehydes or aryl ketones resulted in reductive coupling of the carbonyl groups to produce the corresponding diolato complexes. Aliphatic aldehydes or ketones were not reactive towards (TTP)Ti(η2-PhC≡CPh). However, these carbonyl compounds could be incorporated into a diolato complex on reaction with a reactive precursor, (TTP)Ti[O(Ph)2C(Ph)2O] to provide unsymmetrical diolato complexes via cross coupling reactions. In addition, an enediolato complex (TTP)Ti(OCPhCPhO) was obtained from the reaction of (TTP)Ti(η2-PhC≡CPh) with benzoin. Titanium porphyrin diolato complexes were found to be intermediates in the (TTP)Ti=O-catalyzed cleavage reactions of vicinal diols, in which atmospheric oxygen was the oxidant. Furthermore, (TTP)Ti=O was capable of catalyzing the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and α-hydroxy ketones to benzaldehyde and α-diketones, respectively. Other high valent metalloporphyrin complexes also can catalyze the oxidative diol cleavage and the benzyl alcohol oxidation reactions with dioxygen. A comparison of Ti(IV) and Sn(IV) porphyrin chemistry was undertaken. While chelated diolato complexes were invariably obtained for titanium porphyrins on treatment with 1,2-diols, the reaction of vicinal diols with tin porphyrins gave a number of products, including mono