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Sample records for benzoic aldehyde

  1. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid occurs...

  2. 21 CFR 582.3021 - Benzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 582.3021 Section 582.3021 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Benzoic acid. (a) Product. Benzoic acid. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as safe for...

  3. Gaseous phase heat capacity of benzoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, L.M.N.B.F.; Alves da Rocha, M.A.; Gomes, L.R.; Schröder, B.; Coutinho, J.A.P.

    2010-01-01

    The gaseous phase heat capacity of benzoic acid (BA) was proven using the experimental technique called the "in vacuum sublimation/vaporization Calvet microcalorimetry drop method". To overcome known experimental shortfalls, the gaseous phase heat capacity of BA monomer was estimated by ab initio

  4. First general methods toward aldehyde enolphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthes, Nicolas; Grison, Claude

    2012-02-01

    We herein report two innovative methods toward aldehyde enolphosphates and the first saccharidic aldehyde enolphosphates. Aldehyde enolphosphate function is worthwhile to be considered as a good phosphoenolpyruvate analogue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Alcohol, Aldehydes, Adducts and Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Sapkota

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes results in the formation of reactive aldehydes in the lung, which are capable of forming adducts with several proteins and DNA. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use disorder who smoke cigarettes. In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected in the lung due to exposure to toxic gases, vapors and chemicals. These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable adducts. This adduction may disturb cellular functions as well as damage proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Among several adducts formed in the lung, malondialdehyde DNA (MDA-DNA adduct and hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA protein adducts have been shown to initiate several pathological conditions in the lung. MDA-DNA adducts are pre-mutagenic in mammalian cells and induce frame shift and base-pair substitution mutations, whereas MAA protein adducts have been shown to induce inflammation and inhibit wound healing. This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease.

  6. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject to... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali...

  7. Cyclodextrin Aldehydes are Oxidase Mimics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Thomas Hauch; Bjerre, Jeannette; Bols, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Cyclodextrins containing 6-aldehyde groups were found to catalyse oxidation of aminophenols in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The catalysis followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and is related to the catalysis previously observed with cyclodextrin ketones. A range of different cyclodextrin aldeh...

  8. Estimated intake of benzoic and sorbic acids in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Christensen, Tue; Larsen, I. K.

    2010-01-01

    limits, illegal use or declaration faults were found in about 3% of samples. From repeated investigations on fat-based foods (salads and dressings), marmalade and stewed fruit, it is concluded that the amounts used in industry have been relatively stable throughout the whole period, although limited data...... for marmalade show some variation. Most foods in the categories soft drinks, dressings, fat-based salads, pickled herrings, and marmalade contain benzoic and sorbic acid, and sliced bread also contains in some cases sorbic acid. The median daily intake and intake distribution of benzoic and sorbic acids were......-old age group. Based on the average of all samples, the 95th percentile is over the acceptable daily intake for men up to 34 years and for women up to 24 years, and the 90th percentile for men up to 18 years and for women up to 10 years. Soft drinks, salads and dressings are the main contributors...

  9. Thermal phase diagram of acetamide-benzoic acid and benzoic acid-phthalimide binary systems for solar thermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rohitash, E-mail: dootrohit1976@gmail.com [Defence Laboratory Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India 342011, +91-2912567520 (India); Department of Physics & Center for Solar Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India 342011, +91-291-2449045 (India); Kumar, Ravindra [Defence Laboratory Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India 342011, +91-2912567520 (India); Dixit, Ambesh, E-mail: ambesh@iitj.ac.in [Department of Physics & Center for Solar Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India 342011, +91-291-2449045 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Thermal properties of Acetamide (AM) – Benzoic acid (BA) and Benzoic acid (BA) – Phthalimide (PM) binary eutectic systems are theoretically calculated using thermodynamic principles. We found that the binary systems of AM-BA at 67.6 : 32.4 molar ratio, BA-PM at 89.7 : 10.3 molar ratio form eutectic mixtures with melting temperatures ~ 54.5 °C and 114.3 °C respectively. Calculated latent heat of fusion for these eutectic mixtures are 191 kJ/kg and 146.5 kJ/kg respectively. These melting temperatures and heat of fusions of these eutectic mixtures make them suitable for thermal energy storage applications in solar water heating and solar cooking systems.

  10. Process for producing furan from furfural aldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebold, James P.; Evans, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    A process of producing furan and derivatives thereof is disclosed. The process includes generating furfural aldehyde vapors and then passing those vapors over a zeolite catalyst at a temperature and for a residence time effective to decarbonylate the furfural aldehydes to form furans and derivatives thereof. The resultant furan vapors and derivatives are then separated. In a preferred form, the furfural aldehyde vapors are generated during the process of converting biomass materials to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  11. Process for producing furan from furfural aldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebold, J.P.; Evans, R.J.

    1987-04-06

    A process of producing furan and derivatives thereof as disclosed. The process includes generating furfural aldehyde vapors and then passing those vapors over a zeolite catalyst at a temperature and for a residence time effective to decarbonylate the furfural aldehydes to form furans and derivatives thereof. The resultant furan vapors and derivatives are then separated. In a preferred form, the furfural aldehyde vapors are generated during the process of converting biomass materials to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  12. An Optical Test Strip for the Detection of Benzoic Acid in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Abu Bakar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of a test strip for detection of benzoic acid was successfully implemented by immobilizing tyrosinase, phenol and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH onto filter paper using polystyrene as polymeric support. The sensing scheme was based on the decreasing intensity of the maroon colour of the test strip when introduced into benzoic acid solution. The test strip was characterized using optical fiber reflectance and has maximum reflectance at 375 nm. It has shown a highly reproducible measurement of benzoic acid with a calculated RSD of 0.47% (n = 10. The detection was optimized at pH 7. A linear response of the biosensor was obtained in 100 to 700 ppm of benzoic acid with a detection limit (LOD of 73.6 ppm. At 1:1 ratio of benzoic acid to interfering substances, the main interfering substance is boric acid. The kinetic analyses show that, the inhibition of benzoic is competitive inhibitor and the inhibition constant (Ki is 52.9 ppm. The activity of immobilized tyrosinase, phenol, and MBTH in the test strip was fairly sustained during 20 days when stored at 3 °C. The developed test strip was used for detection of benzoic acid in food samples and was observed to have comparable results to the HPLC method, hence the developed test strip can be used as an alternative to HPLC in detecting benzoic acid in food products.

  13. Effects of benzoic acid and cadmium toxicity on wheat seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Yadav

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzoic acid (BA and Cd exhibit cumulative effects on plants due to their accumulation in the soil. The present study reports the effects of BA an allelochemical, Cd and their combinations on seed germination, seedling growth, biochemical parameters, and response of antioxidant enzymes in Triticum aestivum L. The experiment was conducted in sand supplemented with Hoagland nutrient solution. Benzoic acid was applied at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM with or without Cd (7 mg L-1 to observe effects of allelochemical and Cd alone and in combination on wheat. Both stresses exhibited inhibitory effect on growth and metabolism of wheat seedlings. The allelochemical in single and combined treatments with Cd decreased seedling growth as compared to Cd stress. The two stresses significantly enhanced malondialdehyde content of wheat seedlings. The activity of other antioxidant enzymes, viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and guaiacol peroxidase (POX were also recorded. SOD increased in seedlings under the two stresses. CAT more prominently ameliorates the toxic effects of H2O2 as compared with APX and POX and protected wheat seedlings from oxidative stress. Allelochemical buttressed the toxic effect of Cd on wheat seedlings.

  14. Luminescence enhancement of uranyl ion by benzoic acid in acetonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satendra Kumar; Maji, S.; Joseph, M.; Sankaran, K.

    2014-01-01

    Uranyl ion is known for its characteristic green luminescence and therefore luminescence spectroscopy is a suitable technique for characterizing different uranyl species. In aqueous medium, luminescence of uranyl ion is generally weak due to its quenching by water molecules and therefore in order to enhance the luminescence of uranyl ion in aqueous medium, luminescence enhancing reagents such as H 3 PO 4 , H 2 SO 4 , HCIO 4 have been widely used. The other method to enhance the uranyl luminescence is by ligand sensitized luminescence, a method well established for lanthanides. In this work, luminescence of uranyl ion is found to be enhanced by benzoic acid in acetonitrile medium. In aqueous medium benzoic acid does not enhance the uranyl luminescence although it forms 1:1 and 1:2 complexes with uranyl ion. Luminescence spectra of uranyl benzoate revealed that enhancement is due to sensitization of uranyl luminescence by benzoate ions. UV-Vis spectroscopy has been utilized to characterize the specie formed in the in acetonitrile medium. UV-Vis spectroscopy along with luminescence spectra revealed that the specie to be tribenzoate complex of uranyl (UO 2 (C 6 H 5 COO) 3 ) - having D 3 h symmetry. (author)

  15. Effects of solvation on partition and dimerization of benzoic acid in mixed solvent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H; Yajima, K; Wada, H; Nakagawa, G

    1995-06-01

    The partition of benzoic acid between 0.1M perchloric acid solution and two kinds of mixed solvents has been carried out at 25 degrees C. The partition and dimerization constants of benzoic acid have been determined in the 1-octanol-benzene and 2-octanone-benzene systems. In both the mixed solvent systems, with increasing content of 1-octanol and 2-octanone in each mixed solvent, the partition constant of benzoic acid has been found to increase, and the dimerization constant of benzoic acid in each organic phase to decrease. These phenomena are attributable to solvation of monomeric benzoic acid by 1-octanol and 2-octanone molecules in each mixed solvent.

  16. Molecularly Imprinted Sol-Gel-Based QCM Sensor Arrays for the Detection and Recognition of Volatile Aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanjun Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The detection and recognition of metabolically derived aldehydes, which have been identified as important products of oxidative stress and biomarkers of cancers; are considered as an effective approach for early cancer detection as well as health status monitoring. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor arrays based on molecularly imprinted sol-gel (MISG materials were developed in this work for highly sensitive detection and highly selective recognition of typical aldehyde vapors including hexanal (HAL; nonanal (NAL and bezaldehyde (BAL. The MISGs were prepared by a sol-gel procedure using two matrix precursors: tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS and tetrabutoxytitanium (TBOT. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APT; diethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (EAP and trimethoxy-phenylsilane (TMP were added as functional monomers to adjust the imprinting effect of the matrix. Hexanoic acid (HA; nonanoic acid (NA and benzoic acid (BA were used as psuedotemplates in view of their analogous structure to the target molecules as well as the strong hydrogen-bonding interaction with the matrix. Totally 13 types of MISGs with different components were prepared and coated on QCM electrodes by spin coating. Their sensing characters towards the three aldehyde vapors with different concentrations were investigated qualitatively. The results demonstrated that the response of individual sensors to each target strongly depended on the matrix precursors; functional monomers and template molecules. An optimization of the 13 MISG materials was carried out based on statistical analysis such as principle component analysis (PCA; multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA. The optimized sensor array consisting of five channels showed a high discrimination ability on the aldehyde vapors; which was confirmed by quantitative comparison with a randomly selected array. It was suggested that both the molecularly imprinting (MIP effect and the matrix

  17. Pd(II)-catalysed meta-C–H functionalizations of benzoic acid derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shangda; Cai, Lei; Ji, Huafang; Yang, Long; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Benzoic acids are highly important structural motifs in drug molecules and natural products. Selective C–H bond functionalization of benzoic acids will provide synthetically useful tools for step-economical organic synthesis. Although direct ortho-C–H functionalizations of benzoic acids or their derivatives have been intensely studied, the ability to activate meta-C–H bond of benzoic acids or their derivatives in a general manner via transition-metal catalysis has been largely unsuccessful. Although chelation-assisted meta-C–H functionalization of electron-rich arenes was reported, chelation-assisted meta-C–H activation of electron-poor arenes such as benzoic acid derivatives remains a formidable challenge. Herein, we report a general protocol for meta-C–H olefination of benzoic acid derivatives using a nitrile-based sulfonamide template. A broad range of benzoic acid derivatives are meta-selectively olefinated using molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant. The meta-C–H acetoxylation, product of which is further transformed at the meta-position, is also reported. PMID:26813919

  18. Myoglobin-Catalyzed Olefination of Aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Vikas; Fasan, Rudi

    2016-02-12

    The olefination of aldehydes constitutes a most valuable and widely adopted strategy for constructing carbon-carbon double bonds in organic chemistry. While various synthetic methods have been made available for this purpose, no biocatalysts are known to mediate this transformation. Reported herein is that engineered myoglobin variants can catalyze the olefination of aldehydes in the presence of α-diazoesters with high catalytic efficiency (up to 4,900 turnovers) and excellent E diastereoselectivity (92-99.9 % de). This transformation could be applied to the olefination of a variety of substituted benzaldehydes and heteroaromatic aldehydes, also in combination with different alkyl α-diazoacetate reagents. This work provides a first example of biocatalytic aldehyde olefination and extends the spectrum of synthetically valuable chemical transformations accessible using metalloprotein-based catalysts. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Efficient and Highly Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Teo, Peili; Wickens, Zachary K.; Dong, Guangbin; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    A method for efficient and aldehyde-selective Wacker oxidation of aryl-substituted olefins using PdCl 2(MeCN) 2, 1,4-benzoquinone, and t-BuOH in air is described. Up to a 96% yield of aldehyde can be obtained, and up to 99% selectivity can be achieved with styrene-related substrates. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. Efficient and Highly Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Teo, Peili

    2012-07-06

    A method for efficient and aldehyde-selective Wacker oxidation of aryl-substituted olefins using PdCl 2(MeCN) 2, 1,4-benzoquinone, and t-BuOH in air is described. Up to a 96% yield of aldehyde can be obtained, and up to 99% selectivity can be achieved with styrene-related substrates. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. 2-[(1-Benzamido-2-methoxy-2-oxoethylamino]benzoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alami Anouar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The carboxylic α,α-diaminoester 2-[(1-benzamido-2-methoxy-2-oxoethyl amino]benzoic acid is obtained by N-alkylation of methyl α-azido glycinate N-benzoylated with 2-aminobenzoic acid.

  2. Colorimetric Recognition of Aldehydes and Ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Fang, Ming; LaGasse, Maria K; Askim, Jon R; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2017-08-07

    A colorimetric sensor array has been designed for the identification of and discrimination among aldehydes and ketones in vapor phase. Due to rapid chemical reactions between the solid-state sensor elements and gaseous analytes, distinct color difference patterns were produced and digitally imaged for chemometric analysis. The sensor array was developed from classical spot tests using aniline and phenylhydrazine dyes that enable molecular recognition of a wide variety of aliphatic or aromatic aldehydes and ketones, as demonstrated by hierarchical cluster, principal component, and support vector machine analyses. The aldehyde/ketone-specific sensors were further employed for differentiation among and identification of ten liquor samples (whiskies, brandy, vodka) and ethanol controls, showing its potential applications in the beverage industry. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Solubilities of benzoic acid in binary (benzyl alcohol + benzaldehyde) solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Qinbo; Xiong, Zhenhua; Chen, Chuxiong; Shen, Binwei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubilities of benzoic acid in (benzyl alcohol + benzaldehyde) mixtures were measured at 1 atm. • The experimental temperature ranges at (298.35 to 355.65) K. • Effects of benzyl alcohol mass concentration at (0.00 to 1.00) on the solubilities of benzoic acid were studied. • The experimental data were correlated with NRTL model. • Thermodynamic functions of dissolution of benzoic acid in (benzyl alcohol + benzaldehyde) mixtures were discussed. - Abstract: The solubility of benzoic acid in binary (benzyl alcohol + benzaldehyde) solvent mixtures was measured at temperature from (298.35 to 355.65) K and atmospheric pressure. The measured solubility increases with the increasing temperature at constant solvent composition. The effects of mass fraction benzaldehyde in the solvent mixtures at (0.0 to 1.00) on the solubility were studied. The measured solubility decreases with the increasing mass fraction of benzaldehyde. The experimental results were correlated with the non-random two-liquid (NRTL) equations, and good agreement between the correlated and the experimental values was obtained. Thermodynamic functions for the solution of benzoic acid in binary (benzyl alcohol + benzaldehyde) solvent mixtures were calculated with the van’t Hoff plot. The apparent dissolution Gibbs free energy change was also calculated

  4. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  5. Comparison of some aqueous chemical dosimeters for absorbed doses of less than 1000 rads. [Benzoic--salicylic acid, terephtalic--2-hydroxyterephtabe acid, ferrous sulfate--benzoic acid--xylenol orange, and standard Fricke dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, R W [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights; Barker, N T; Sangster, D F

    1978-01-01

    This report gives the results of an investigation into the relative merits of the systems: benzoic-salicylic acid, terephthalic-2-hydroxyterephthalic acid, the more recent ferrous sulphate-benzoic acid-xylenol orange (FBX), and the standard Fricke dosimeter, for the measurement of absorbed doses under identical irradiation conditions, in the range 10 to 1000 rads.

  6. Preliminary Study on Benzoic Acid Adsorption from Crude Active Coals and Bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbes Boucheta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied the adsorption of pollutant benzoic acid by the modified bentonite of Maghnia (west of Algeria, and coal (Coal from the mines, southwest of Algeria, Bechar area under three forms, crude and activated. Kinetic data show that the balance of bentonite (as amended adsorbs organic acids better than activated and raw coal. Indeed, the intercalation of bentonite with benzoic acid causes an improvement in the texture of porous material, which allows its use in the adsorption of organic compounds. The adsorption isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich indicate that the adsorption of benzoic acid by the coal and bentonite yielded results favorably. The results obtained showed the practical value of using the activated coal and bentonite (as amended in the field of remediation of water contaminated with organic pollutants

  7. Hydrogen-bonded co-crystal structure of benzoic acid and zwitterionic l-proline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M. Chesna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: benzoic acid–pyrrolidin-1-ium-2-carboxylate (1/1], C7H6O2·C5H9NO2, is an example of the application of non-centrosymmetric co-crystallization for the growth of a crystal containing a typically centrosymmetric component in a chiral space group. It co-crystallizes in the space group P212121 and contains benzoic acid and l-proline in equal proportions. The crystal structure exhibits chains of l-proline zwitterions capped by benzoic acid molecules which form a C(5[R33(11] hydrogen-bonded network along [100]. The crystal structure is examined and compared to that of a similar co-crystal containing l-proline zwitterions and 4-aminobenzoic acid.

  8. Comparison of the effect of benzoic acid addition on the fermentation process quality with untreated silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Doležal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of benzoic acid and formic acid (positive control of ensilaged maize and pressed sugar beet pulp on quality fermentation processes was studied in a laboratory experiment. The effect of additive on the quality of fermentation process during maize ensiling was studied in a first model experiment. Preservatives such as formic acid and benzoic acid were added to ensiled maize at the concentration of 1L/t and 1 kg/t, respectively. When benzoic acid was used as a preservative, the pH and the N-NH3/ N total ratio decreased statistically (PSugar beet pulp silages with benzoic acid or formic acid after 32 days of storage had a better sensuous evaluation than the control silage. The most intensive decrease of pH value was observed after formic acid addition as compared with control silage. The statistically significantly (P<0.05 highest lactic acid content (49.64 ± 0.28 as well as the highest ratio of LA/VFA were found in the sugar beet pulp silage with benzoic acid. Lactic acid constituted the highest percentage (P<0.05 of all fermentation acids in the silage with benzoic acid additive (65.12 ± 0.80. Undesirable butyric acid (BA was not found in any variant of silages. The positive correlation between the titration acidity and acids sum in dry matter of silage conserved with formic acid was found. The additive of organic acids reduced significantly TA and fermentation acids content. Between the pH value and lactic acid content, no correlation was found.

  9. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  10. Placental passage of benzoic acid, caffeine, and glyphosate in an ex vivo human perfusion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Kjaerstad, Mia Birkhoej; Mathiesen, Line

    2008-01-01

    group of compounds. Benzoic acid, caffeine, and glyphosate were chosen as model compounds because they are small molecules with large differences in physiochemical properties. Caffeine crossed the placenta by passive diffusion. The initial transfer rate of benzoic acid was more limited in the first part...... of the perfusion compared to caffeine, but reached the same steady-state level by the end of perfusion. The transfer of glyphosate was restricted throughout perfusion, with a lower permeation rate, and only around 15% glyphosate in maternal circulation crossed to the fetal circulation during the study period....

  11. Identification of aldehyde oxidase 1 and aldehyde oxidase homologue 1 as dioxin-inducible genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Steven P.; Choi, Hyun Ho; Chapman, Brett; Whitekus, Michael J.; Terao, Mineko; Garattini, Enrico; Hankinson, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidases are a family of highly related molybdo-flavoenzymes acting upon a variety of compounds of industrial and medical importance. We have identified aldehyde oxidase 1 (AOX1) as a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin) inducible gene in the mouse hepatoma cell line Hepa-1. AOX1 mRNA levels were not increased by dioxin in mutant derivatives of the Hepa-1 cell line lacking either functional aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) or aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) proteins, thus demonstrating that transcriptional induction of AOX1 in response to dioxin occurs through the AHR pathway. Dioxin induction of AOX1 mRNA was also observed in mouse liver. In addition, levels of AOX1 protein as well as those of aldehyde oxidase homologue 1 (AOH1), a recently identified homolog of AOX1, were elevated in mouse liver in response to dioxin. Employing an aldehyde oxidase specific substrate, AOX1/AOH1 activity was shown to be induced by dioxin in mouse liver. This activity was inhibited by a known inhibitor of aldehyde oxidases, and eliminated by including tungstate in the mouse diet, which is known to lead to inactivation of molybdoflavoenzymes, thus confirming that the enzymatic activity was attributable to AOX1/AOH1. Our observations thus identify two additional xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes induced by dioxin

  12. Energetic and metabolic transient response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to benzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M T A P; van Winden, W A; van Gulik, W M; Heijnen, J J

    2008-11-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known to be able to adapt to the presence of the commonly used food preservative benzoic acid with a large energy expenditure. Some mechanisms for the adaptation process have been suggested, but its quantitative energetic and metabolic aspects have rarely been discussed. This study discusses use of the stimulus response approach to quantitatively study the energetic and metabolic aspects of the transient adaptation of S. cerevisiae to a shift in benzoic acid concentration, from 0 to 0.8 mM. The information obtained also serves as the basis for further utilization of benzoic acid as a tool for targeted perturbation of the energy system, which is important in studying the kinetics and regulation of central carbon metabolism in S. cerevisiae. Using this experimental set-up, we found significant fast-transient (< 3000 s) increases in O(2) consumption and CO(2) production rates, of approximately 50%, which reflect a high energy requirement for the adaptation process. We also found that with a longer exposure time to benzoic acid, S. cerevisiae decreases the cell membrane permeability for this weak acid by a factor of 10 and decreases the cell size to approximately 80% of the initial value. The intracellular metabolite profile in the new steady-state indicates increases in the glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle fluxes, which are in agreement with the observed increases in specific glucose and O(2) uptake rates.

  13. Caldensinic acid, a benzoic acid derivative and others compounds from Piper carniconnectivum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Harley da Silva; Souza, Maria de Fatima Vanderlei de; Chaves, Maria Celia de Oliveira, E-mail: cchaves@ltf.ufpb.b [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica

    2010-07-01

    A benzoic acid derivative - caldensinic acid, E-phythyl hexadecanoate, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol mixture and phaeophytin a were isolated from the aerial parts of Piper carniconnectivum. The structures of these compounds were established unambiguously by IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR analysis. (author)

  14. 4-[(2-Hydroxy-4-pentadecyl-benzylidene-amino]-benzoic Acid Methyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadada Naganagowda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new Schiff base, 4-[(2-hydroxy-4-pentadecyl-benzylidene-amino]-benzoic acid methyl ester was synthesized and its UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and ESI-MS spectroscopic data are presented.

  15. Deoxygenation of benzoic acid on metal oxides. I. The selective pathway to benzaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, M.W.; van Ommen, J.G.; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of the selective deoxygenation of benzoic acid to benzaldehyde was studied on ZnO and ZrO2. The results show conclusively that the reaction proceeds as a reverse type of Mars and van Krevelen mechanism consisting of two steps: hydrogen activates the oxide by reduction resulting in the

  16. Deoxygenation of benzoic acid on metal oxides. 2. Formation of byproducts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, M.W.; van Ommen, J.G.; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2002-01-01

    Benzene, benzophenone, toluene and benzylalcohol are byproducts in the selective deoxygenation of benzoic acid to benzaldehyde on ZnO and ZrO2. In this paper, the pathways to the byproducts are discussed and a complete overview of the reaction network is presented. Benzene and benzophenone are

  17. Pharmacological Studies of p, N-(3, 4-Methylenedioxy phenyl Benzoic Acid (RRL-1364 - Part-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahanukar Sharadini

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed pharmacological investigations of p-N-(3, 4-methylene dioxy phenyl benzoic acid revealed marked hypotensive action which was dose dependent and most marked in cats; it was absent in rats. Atropine could block this hypotensive action, thus suggest-ing cholinomimetic mechanism. Further studies indicated that the hypotension produced was central and possibly medullary in origin.

  18. Analysis of the ortho effect: acidity of 2-substituted benzoic acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böhm, S.; Fiedler, Pavel; Exner, Otto

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 28, - (2004), s. 67-74 ISSN 1144-0546 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : 2-substituted benzoic acids * steric effects Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.735, year: 2004

  19. Inhibition of denitrification and N2O emission by urine-derived benzoic and hippuric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenigen, van J.W.; Palermo, V.; Kool, D.M.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Hippuric acid (HA) in cattle urine acts as a natural inhibitor of soil N2O emissions. As HA concentration varies with diet, we determined critical HA levels. We also tested the hypothesis that the inhibition occurs because the HA breakdown product benzoic acid (BA) inhibits denitrification rates.

  20. Tunneling dynamics of double proton transfer in formic acid and benzoic acid dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedarchina, Zorka; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio; Siebrand, Willem

    2005-04-01

    Direct dynamics calculations based on instanton techniques are reported of tunneling splittings due to double proton transfer in formic and benzoic acid dimers. The results are used to assign the observed splittings to levels for which the authors of the high-resolution spectra could not provide a definitive assignment. In both cases the splitting is shown to be due mainly to the zero-point level rather than to the vibrationally or electronically excited level whose spectrum was investigated. This leads to zero-point splittings of 375MHz for (DCOOH)2 and 1107MHz for the benzoic acid dimer. Thus, contrary to earlier calculations, it is found that the splitting is considerably larger in the benzoic than in the formic acid dimer. The calculations are extended to solid benzoic acid where the asymmetry of the proton-transfer potential induced by the crystal can be overcome by suitable doping. This has allowed direct measurement of the interactions responsible for double proton transfer, which were found to be much larger than those in the isolated dimer. To account for this observation both static and dynamic effects of the crystal forces on the intradimer hydrogen bonds are included in the calculations. The same methodology, extended to higher temperatures, is used to calculate rate constants for HH, HD, and DD transfers in neat benzoic acid crystals. The results are in good agreement with reported experimental rate constants measured by NMR relaxometry and, if allowance is made for small structural changes induced by doping, with the transfer matrix elements observed in doped crystals. Hence the method used allows a unified description of tunneling splittings in the gas phase and in doped crystals as well as of transfer rates in neat crystals.

  1. EXTRACTION AND SORPTION BENZOIC ACID FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF POLYMERS BASED ON N-VINYLAMIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Savvina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of aromatic acids (benzoic acid, salicylic as preservatives necessitates their qualitative and quantitative determination in food. Effective and common way to separation and concentration of aromatic acids liquid extraction. Biphasic system of water-soluble polymers based on (poly-N-vinyl pyrrolidone, and poly-N-vinylcaprolactam satisfy the requirements of the extraction system. When sorption concentration improved definition of the metrological characteristics, comply with the requirements for sensitivity and selectivity definition appears possible, use of inexpensive and readily available analytical equipment. When studying the adsorption of benzoic acid used as a sorbent crosslinked polymer based on N-vinyl pyrrolidone, obtained by radical polymerisation of a functional monomer and crosslinker. In the extraction of benzoic acid to maximize the allocation of water and the organic phase of the polymer used salt solutions with concentrations close to saturation. Regardless of the nature of the anion salt is used as salting-out agent, aromatic acids sorption increases with the size of the cations. In the experiment the maximum recovery rate (80% benzoic acid obtained in the PVP (0.2 weight%. Ammonium sulphate. The dependence stepepni benzoic acid extraction from time sorption sorbent mass and the pH of the aqueous phase. To establish equilibrium in the system, for 20 minutes. The dependence of the degree of extraction of the acid pH indicates that the acid is extracted into the molecular form. The maximum adsorption is reached at pH 3,5, with its efficiency decreases symbatically reduce the amount of undissociated acid molecules in solution.

  2. Deodorants: An experimental provocation study with cinnamic aldehyde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, M.; Johansen, J. D.; Andersen, K. E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Axillary dermatitis is common and overrepresented in individuals with contact allergy to fragrances. Many individuals suspect their deodorants to be the incriminating products. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the significance of cinnamic aldehyde in deodorants for the development...... of axillary dermatitis when used by individuals with and without contact allergy to cinnamic aldehyde. METHODS: Patch tests with deodorants and ethanol solutions with cinnamic aldehyde, and repeated open application tests with roll-on deodorants without and with cinnamic aldehyde at different concentrations......, were performed in 37 patients with dermatitis, 20 without and 17 with contact allergy to cinnamic aldehyde. RESULTS: A repeated open application test with positive findings was noted only in patients hypersensitive to cinnamic aldehyde (P deodorants containing...

  3. Cellular fatty acids and aldehydes of oral Eubacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, U; Sato, M; Tsuchiya, H; Namikawa, I

    1995-02-01

    The cellular fatty acids and aldehydes of oral Eubacterium species were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. E. brachy and E. lentum contained mainly branched-chain fatty acids, whereas the others contained straight-chain acids. E. brachy, E. lentum, E. yurii ssp. yurii, E. yurii spp. margaretiae, E. limosum, E. plauti and E. aerofaciens also contained aldehydes with even carbon numbers. In addition to species-specific components, the compositional ratios of fatty acids and aldehydes characterized each individual species. The 10 species tested were divided into 5 groups by the principal component analysis. Cellular fatty acids and aldehydes would be chemical markers for interspecies differentiation of oral Eubacterium.

  4. Peptide aldehyde inhibitors of bacterial peptide deformylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, D J; Gordon Green, B; O'Connell, J F; Grant, S K

    1999-07-15

    Bacterial peptide deformylases (PDF, EC 3.5.1.27) are metalloenzymes that cleave the N-formyl groups from N-blocked methionine polypeptides. Peptide aldehydes containing a methional or norleucinal inhibited recombinant peptide deformylase from gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Bacillus subtilis. The most potent inhibitor was calpeptin, N-CBZ-Leu-norleucinal, which was a competitive inhibitor of the zinc-containing metalloenzymes, E. coli and B. subtilis PDF with Ki values of 26.0 and 55.6 microM, respectively. Cobalt-substituted E. coli and B. subtilis deformylases were also inhibited by these aldehydes with Ki values for calpeptin of 9.5 and 12.4 microM, respectively. Distinct spectral changes were observed upon binding of calpeptin to the Co(II)-deformylases, consistent with the noncovalent binding of the inhibitor rather than the formation of a covalent complex. In contrast, the chelator 1,10-phenanthroline caused the time-dependent inhibition of B. subtilis Co(II)-PDF activity with the loss of the active site metal. The fact that calpeptin was nearly equipotent against deformylases from both gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial sources lends further support to the idea that a single deformylase inhibitor might have broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  5. Studies on 2-(toluene-4-sulfonylamino)-benzoic acid: structure spectroscopic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarcan, E.; Atalay, Y.; Guenay, N.

    2010-01-01

    The molecular geometry, vibrational (IR) spectrum, vibrational frequencies and 1 H and 1 3C NMR chemical shifts were carried out of 2-(toluene-4-sulfonylamino)-benzoic acid with ab initio and density functional computations. On the basis of the comparison between calculated and experimental results assignments of fundamental vibrational modes are examined. The X-ray geometry, experimental frequencies and chemical shifts are compared with the results of our theoretical calculations

  6. Ferrous Iron Oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Inhibition with Benzoic Acid, Sorbic Acid, and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Onysko, Steven J.; Kleinmann, Robert L. P.; Erickson, Patricia M.

    1984-01-01

    Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds.

  7. Ferrous Iron Oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Inhibition with Benzoic Acid, Sorbic Acid, and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onysko, Steven J.; Kleinmann, Robert L. P.; Erickson, Patricia M.

    1984-01-01

    Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds. PMID:16346592

  8. Interactions of benzoic acid and phosphates with iron oxide colloids using chemical force titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jana; Horton, J Hugh

    2005-11-08

    Colloidal iron oxides are an important component in soil systems and in water treatment processes. Humic-based organic compounds, containing both phenol and benzoate functional groups, are often present in these systems and compete strongly with phosphate species for binding sites on the iron oxide surfaces. Here, we examine the interaction of benzoate and phenolic groups with various iron oxide colloids using atomic force microscopy (AFM) chemical force titration measurements. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 4-(12-mercaptododecyloxy)benzoic acid and 4-(12-mercaptododecyloxy)phenol were used to prepare chemically modified Au-coated AFM tips, and these were used to probe the surface chemistry of a series of iron oxide colloids. The SAMs formed were also characterized using scanning tunneling microscopy, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface pK(a) of 4-(12- mercaptododecyloxy)benzoic acid has been determined to be 4.0 +/- 0.5, and the interaction between the tip and the sample coated with a SAM of this species is dominated by hydrogen bonding. The chemical force titraton profile for an AFM probe coated with 4-(12- mercaptododecyloxy)benzoic acid and a bare iron oxide colloid demonstrates that the benzoic acid function group interacts with all three types of iron oxide sites present on the colloid surface over a wide pH range. Similar experiments were carried out on colloids precipitated in the presence of phosphoric, gallic, and tannic acids. The results are discussed in the context of the competitive binding interactions of solution species present in soils or in water treatment processes.

  9. Benzoic Acid Production with Respect to Starter Culture and Incubation Temperature during Yogurt Fermentation using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Jeon, Hye-Lin; Eom, Su Jin; Yoo, Mi-Young; Lim, Sang-Dong; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Benzoic acid is occasionally used as a raw material supplement in food products and is sometimes generated during the fermentation process. In this study, the production of naturally occurring yogurt preservatives was investigated for various starter cultures and incubation temperatures, and considered food regulations. Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve were used as yogurt starter cultures in commercial starters. Among these strains, L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei showed the highest production of benzoic acid. Therefore, the use of L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, S. thermophilus, and different incubation temperatures were examined to optimize benzoic acid production. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design was performed for various incubation temperatures (35-44℃) and starter culture inoculum ratios (0-0.04%) in a commercial range of dairy fermentation processes. The optimum conditions were 0.04% L. rhamnosus, 0.01% L. paracasei, 0.02% S. thermophilus, and 38.12℃, and the predicted and estimated concentrations of benzoic acid were 13.31 and 13.94 mg/kg, respectively. These conditions maximized naturally occurring benzoic acid production during the yogurt fermentation process, and the observed production levels satisfied regulatory guidelines for benzoic acid in dairy products.

  10. Accurate prediction of the toxicity of benzoic acid compounds in mice via oral without using any computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein; Gharagheizi, Farhad; Shokrolahi, Arash; Zakinejad, Sajjad

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel method is introduced for desk calculation of toxicity of benzoic acid derivatives. ► There is no need to use QSAR and QSTR methods, which are based on computer codes. ► The predicted results of 58 compounds are more reliable than those predicted by QSTR method. ► The present method gives good predictions for further 324 benzoic acid compounds. - Abstract: Most of benzoic acid derivatives are toxic, which may cause serious public health and environmental problems. Two novel simple and reliable models are introduced for desk calculations of the toxicity of benzoic acid compounds in mice via oral LD 50 with more reliance on their answers as one could attach to the more complex outputs. They require only elemental composition and molecular fragments without using any computer codes. The first model is based on only the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms, which can be improved by several molecular fragments in the second model. For 57 benzoic compounds, where the computed results of quantitative structure–toxicity relationship (QSTR) were recently reported, the predicted results of two simple models of present method are more reliable than QSTR computations. The present simple method is also tested with further 324 benzoic acid compounds including complex molecular structures, which confirm good forecasting ability of the second model.

  11. The oxidation of the aldehyde groups in dialdehyde starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaksman, I.K.; Besemer, A.C.; Jetten, J.M.; Timmermans, J.W.; Slaghek, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the difference in relative reactivity of the aldehyde groups present in dialdehyde starch towards different oxidising agents. The oxidation of dialdehyde starch with peracetic acid and sodium bromide leads to only partial oxidation to give mono-aldehyde-carboxy starch, while

  12. Threshold responses in cinnamic-aldehyde-sensitive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, K E; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra

    1996-01-01

    Cinnamic aldehyde is an important fragrance material and contact allergen. The present study was performed to provide quantitative data on the eliciting capacity of cinnamic aldehyde, to be considered in assessment of clinical relevance and health hazard. The skin response to serial dilution patch...

  13. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of distillates... distillates containing aldehydes. Distillates containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were...

  14. Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones by Sodium Dithionite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Johannes G. de; Kellogg, Richard M.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions have been developed for the effective reduction of aldehydes and ketones by sodium dithionite, Na2S2O4. Complete reduction of simple aldehydes and ketones can be achieved with excess Na2S2O4 in H2O/dioxane mixtures at reflux temperature. Some aliphatic ketones, for example, pentanone and

  15. Immobilization of Tyrosinase from Avocado Crude Extract in Polypyrrole Films for Inhibitive Detection of Benzoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Brisolari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition-based biosensors were developed by immobilizing tyrosinase (Tyr, polyphenol oxidase from the crude extract of avocado fruit on electrochemically prepared polypyrrole (PPy films. The biosensors were prepared during the electropolymerization of pyrrole in a solution containing a fixed volume of the crude extract of avocado. The dependence of the biosensor responses on the volume used from the crude extract, values of pH and temperature was studied, and a substrate, catechol, at different concentrations, was amperometrically detected by these biosensors. Benzoic acid, a competitive inhibitor of Try, was added to the catechol solutions at specific concentrations aimed at obtaining the inhibition constant, K’m, which ranged from 1.7 to 4.6 mmol∙L−1 for 0.0 and 60 µmol∙L−1 of benzoic acid, respectively. Studies on the inhibition caused by benzoic acid by using PPy/Try films, and catechol as a substrate, allowed us propose how to develop, under optimized conditions, simple and low-cost biosensors based on the use of avocado fruit.

  16. Detection of Benzoic Acid by an Amperometric Inhibitor Biosensor Based on Mushroom Tissue Homogenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kemal Sezgintürk

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric benzoic acid-sensing inhibitor biosensor was prepared by immobilizing mushroom (Agaricus bisporus tissue homogenate on a Clark-type oxygen electrode. The effects of the quantity of mushroom tissue homogenate, the quantity of gelatin and the effect of the crosslinking agent glutaraldehyde percent on the biosensor were studied. The optimum concentration of phenol used as substrate was 200 μM. The bioanalytical properties of the proposed biosensor, such as dependence of the biosensor response on the pH value and the temperature, were investigated. The biosensor responded linearly to benzoic acid in a concentration range of 25–100 μM. Standard deviation (s.d. was ±0.49 μM for 7 successive determinations at a concentration of 75 μM. The inhibitor biosensor based on mushroom tissue homogenate was applied for the determination of benzoic acid in fizzy lemonade, some fruits and groundwater samples. Results were compared to those obtained using AOAC method, showing a good agreement.

  17. Docking of oxalyl aryl amino benzoic acid derivatives into PTP1B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neelam; Mittal, Minakshi; Verma, Raman kumar

    2008-01-01

    Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPs) that function as negative regulators of the insulin signaling cascade have been identified as novel targets for the therapeutic enhancement of insulin action in insulin resistant disease states. Reducing Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase1B (PTP1B) abundance not only enhances insulin sensitivity and improves glucose metabolism but also protects against obesity induced by high fat feeding. PTP1B inhibitors such as Formylchromone derivatives, 1, 2-Naphthoquinone derivatives and Oxalyl aryl amino benzoic derivatives may eventually find an important clinical role as insulin sensitizers in the management of Type-II Diabetes and metabolic syndrome. We have carried out docking of modified oxalyl aryl amino benzoic acid derivatives into three dimensional structure of PTP1B using BioMed CAChe 6.1. These compounds exhibit good selectivity for PTP1B over most of phosphatases in selectivity panel such as SHP-2, LAR, CD45 and TCPTP found in literature. This series of compounds identified the amino acid residues such as Gly220 and Arg221 are important for achieving specificity via H-bonding interactions. Lipophilic side chain of methionine in modified oxalyl aryl amino benzoic acid derivative [1b (a2, b2, c1, d)] lies in closer vicinity of hydrophobic region of protein consisted of Meth258 and Phe52 in comparison to active ligand. Docking Score in [1b (a2, b2, c1, d)] is -131.740Kcal/mol much better than active ligand score -98.584Kcal/mol. This information can be exploited to design PTP1B specific inhibitors. PMID:19238234

  18. Exposure assessment of food preservatives (sulphites, benzoic and sorbic acid) in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischek, Daniela; Krapfenbauer-Cermak, Christine

    2012-01-01

    An exposure assessment was performed to estimate the potential intake of preservatives in the Austrian population. Food consumption data of different population groups, such as preschool children aged 3-6 years, female and male adults aged 19-65 years were used for calculation. Levels of the preservatives in food were derived from analyses conducted from January 2007 to August 2010. Dietary intakes of the preservatives were estimated and compared to the respective acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). In the average-intake scenario, assuming that consumers randomly consume food products that do or do not contain food additives, estimated dietary intakes of all studied preservatives are well below the ADI for all population groups. Sulphite exposure accounted for 34%, 84% and 89% of the ADI in preschool children, females and males, respectively. The mean estimated daily intake of benzoic acid was 32% (preschool children), 31% (males) and 36% (females) of the ADI. Sorbic acid intakes correspond to 7% of the ADI in preschool children and 6% of the ADI in adults. In the high-intake scenario assuming that consumers always consume food products that contain additives and considering a kind of brand loyalty of consumers, the ADI is exceeded for sulphites among adults (119 and 124%, respectively). Major contributors to the total intake of sulphites were wine and dried fruits for adults. Mean estimated dietary intakes of benzoic acid exceeded the ADI in all population groups, 135% in preschool children, 124% in females and 118% of the ADI in males, respectively. Dietary intakes of sorbic acid are well below the ADI, accounting for a maximum of 30% of the ADI in preschool children. The highest contributors to benzoic and sorbic acid exposure were fish and fish products mainly caused by high consumption data of this large food group, including also mayonnaise-containing fish salads. Other important sources of sorbic acid were bread, buns and toast bread and fruit and vegetable

  19. A new method for the chemoselective reduction of aldehydes and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Chemistry, Akdeniz University, 07058, Antalya, Turkey e-mail: ... Kinetics of reduction of aldehydes and ketones to corresponding alcohols were also examined and .... hol and unreducted ketone remain in organic phase. The.

  20. The Reduction of Nitriles to Aldehydes: Applications of Raney Nickel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    The selective reduction of a nitrile to an aldehyde, especially when the substrate ..... prelude to reductive amination chemistry was thwarted by a rapid aldol ... and allowed the direct incorporation of the α-methylbenzylamine chiral auxiliary.

  1. Silver-catalyzed synthesis of amides from amines and aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madix, Robert J; Zhou, Ling; Xu, Bingjun; Friend, Cynthia M; Freyschlag, Cassandra G

    2014-11-18

    The invention provides a method for producing amides via the reaction of aldehydes and amines with oxygen adsorbed on a metallic silver or silver alloy catalyst. An exemplary reaction is shown in Scheme 1: (I), (II), (III). ##STR00001##

  2. Alkaline earth layered benzoates as reusable heterogeneous catalysts for the methyl esterification of benzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swamy Arêa Maruyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of layered barium, calcium and strontium benzoates and evaluates the potential of these materials as catalysts in the synthesis of methyl benzoate. The methyl esterification of benzoic acid was investigated, where the effects of temperature, alcohol:acid molar ratio and amount of catalyst were evaluated. Ester conversions of 65 to 70% were achieved for all the catalysts under the best reaction conditions. The possibility of recycling these metallic benzoates was also demonstrated, evidenced by unaltered catalytic activity for three consecutive reaction cycles.

  3. Human liver aldehyde dehydrogenase: coenzyme binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosley, L.L.; Pietruszko, R.

    1987-01-01

    The binding of [U- 14 C] NAD to mitochondrial (E2) and cytoplasmin(E1) aldehyde dehydrogenase was measured by gel filtration and sedimentation techniques. The binding data for NAD and (E1) yielded linear Scatchard plots giving a dissociation constant of 25 (+/- 8) uM and the stoichiometry of 2 mol of NAD bound per mol of E1. The binding data for NAD and (E2) gave nonlinear Scatchard plots. The binding of NADH to E2 was measured via fluorescence enhancement; this could not be done with E1 because there was no signal. The dissociation constant for E2 by this technique was 0.7 (+/- 0.4) uM and stoichiometry of 1.0 was obtained. The binding of [U- 14 C] NADH to (E1) and (E2) was also measured by the sedimentation technique. The binding data for (E1) and NADH gave linear Scatchard plots giving a dissociation constant of 13 (+/- 6) uM and the stoichiometry of 2.0. The binding data for NADH to (E2) gave nonlinear Scatchard plots. With (E1), the dissociation constants for both NAD and NADH are similar to those determined kinetically, but the stoichiometry is only half of that found by stopped flow technique. With (E2) the dissociation constant by fluorometric procedure was 2 orders of magnitude less than that from catalytic reaction

  4. Direct quantitation of the preservatives benzoic and sorbic acid in processed foods using derivative spectrophotometry combined with micro dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, Tomoharu; Ikami, Takahito; Kikukawa, Koji; Kobayashi, Masato; Takai, Rina; Kozaki, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2018-02-01

    The preservatives benzoic acid and sorbic acid are generally quantified with separation techniques, such as HPLC or GC. Here we describe a new method for determining these compounds in processed food samples based on a narrowness of the UV-visible spectral band width with derivative processing. It permits more selective identification and determination of target analytes in matrices. After a sample is purified by micro dialysis, UV spectra of sample solutions were measured and fourth order derivatives of the spectrum were calculated. The amplitude between the maximum and minimum values in a high-order derivative spectrum was used for the determination of benzoic acid and sorbic acid. Benzoic acid and sorbic acid levels in several commercially available processed foods were measured by HPLC and the proposed spectrometry method. The levels obtained by the two methods were highly correlated (r 2 >0.97) for both preservatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High Performance Liquid Chromatography Determination of Urinary Hippuric Acid and Benzoic Acid as Indices for Glue Sniffer Urine

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rahim Yacob; Mohamad Raizul Zinalibdin

    2010-01-01

    A simple method for the simultaneous determination of hippuric acid and benzoic acid in urine using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography was described. Chromatography was performed on a Nova-Pak C18 (3.9 x 150 mm) column with a mobile phase of mixed solution methanol: water: acetic acid (20:80:0.2) and UV detection at 254 nm. The calibration curve was linear within concentration range at 0.125 to 6.0 mg/ml of hippuric acid and benzoic acid. The recovery, ...

  6. Benzoic acid derivatives: Evaluation of thermochemical properties with complementary experimental and computational methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verevkin, Sergey P.; Zaitsau, Dzmitry H.; Emeĺyanenko, Vladimir N.; Stepurko, Elena N.; Zherikova, Kseniya V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Vapor pressures of benzoic acid derivatives were measured. • Sublimation enthalpies were derived and compared with the literature. • Thermochemical data tested for consistency using additivity rules and computations. • Contradiction between available enthalpies of sublimation was resolved. • Pairwise interactions of substituents on the benzene ring were derived. - Abstract: Molar sublimation enthalpies of the methyl- and methoxybenzoic acids were derived from the transpiration method, static method, and TGA. Thermochemical data available in the literature were collected, evaluated, and combined with own experimental results. This collection together with the new experimental results reported here has helped to resolve contradictions in the available enthalpy data and to recommend sets of sublimation and formation enthalpies for the benzoic acid derivatives. Gas-phase enthalpies of formation calculated with the G4 quantum-chemical method were in agreement with the experiment. Pairwise interactions of the methyl, methoxy, and carboxyl substituents on the benzene ring were derived and used for the development of simple group-additivity procedures for estimation of the vaporization enthalpies, gas-phase, and liquid-phase enthalpies of formation of substituted benzenes.

  7. Synthesis, structural characterization and quantum chemical studies of silicon-containing benzoic acid derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltariov, Mirela-Fernanda; Cojocaru, Corneliu; Shova, Sergiu; Sacarescu, Liviu; Cazacu, Maria

    2016-09-01

    The present paper is concerned with the synthesis and molecular structure investigation of two new benzoic acid derivatives having trimethylsilyl tails, 4-((trimethylsilyl)methoxy) and 4-(3-(trimethylsilyl)propoxy)benzoic acids. The structures of the novel compounds have been confirmed by X-ray crystallography, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR). The theoretical studies of molecules were conducted by using the quantum chemical methods, such as Density Functional Theory (DFT B3LYP/6-31 + G**), Hartree-Fock (HF/6-31 + G**) and semiempirical computations (PM3, PM6 and PM7). The optimized molecular geometries have been found to be in good agreement with experimental structures resulted from the X-ray diffraction. The maximum electronic absorption bands observed at 272-287 nm (UV-vis spectra) have been assigned to π → π* transitions, which were in reasonable agreement with the time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations. The computed vibrational frequencies by DFT method were assigned and compared with the experimental FTIR spectra. The mapped electrostatic potentials revealed the reactive sites, which corroborated the observation of the dimer supramolecular structures formed in the crystals by hydrogen-bonding. The energies of frontier molecular orbitals (HOMO and LUMO), energy gap, dipole moment and molecular descriptors for the new compounds were calculated and discussed.

  8. Benzoic acid derivatives: Evaluation of thermochemical properties with complementary experimental and computational methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verevkin, Sergey P., E-mail: sergey.verevkin@uni-rostock.de [Department of Physical Chemistry and Department “Science and Technology of Life, Light and Matter”, University of Rostock, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Department of Physical Chemistry, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Zaitsau, Dzmitry H. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Emeĺyanenko, Vladimir N. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Department “Science and Technology of Life, Light and Matter”, University of Rostock, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Stepurko, Elena N. [Chemistry Faculty and Research Institute for Physical Chemical Problems, Belarusian State University, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Zherikova, Kseniya V. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-20

    Highlights: • Vapor pressures of benzoic acid derivatives were measured. • Sublimation enthalpies were derived and compared with the literature. • Thermochemical data tested for consistency using additivity rules and computations. • Contradiction between available enthalpies of sublimation was resolved. • Pairwise interactions of substituents on the benzene ring were derived. - Abstract: Molar sublimation enthalpies of the methyl- and methoxybenzoic acids were derived from the transpiration method, static method, and TGA. Thermochemical data available in the literature were collected, evaluated, and combined with own experimental results. This collection together with the new experimental results reported here has helped to resolve contradictions in the available enthalpy data and to recommend sets of sublimation and formation enthalpies for the benzoic acid derivatives. Gas-phase enthalpies of formation calculated with the G4 quantum-chemical method were in agreement with the experiment. Pairwise interactions of the methyl, methoxy, and carboxyl substituents on the benzene ring were derived and used for the development of simple group-additivity procedures for estimation of the vaporization enthalpies, gas-phase, and liquid-phase enthalpies of formation of substituted benzenes.

  9. Five Fatty Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Enzymes from Marinobacter and Acinetobacter spp. and Structural Insights into the Aldehyde Binding Pocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, Jonathan H.; Mulliner, Kalene M.; Shi, Ke; Plunkett, Mary H.; Nixon, Peter; Serratore, Nicholas A.; Douglas, Christopher J.; Aihara, Hideki; Barney, Brett M.; Parales, Rebecca E.

    2017-04-07

    ABSTRACT

    Enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis and metabolism play an important role in energy conversion and storage and in the function of structural components such as cell membranes. The fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FAldDH) plays a central function in the metabolism of lipid intermediates, oxidizing fatty aldehydes to the corresponding fatty acid and competing with pathways that would further reduce the fatty aldehydes to fatty alcohols or require the fatty aldehydes to produce alkanes. In this report, the genes for four putative FAldDH enzymes fromMarinobacter aquaeoleiVT8 and an additional enzyme fromAcinetobacter baylyiwere heterologously expressed inEscherichia coliand shown to display FAldDH activity. Five enzymes (Maqu_0438, Maqu_3316, Maqu_3410, Maqu_3572, and the enzyme reported under RefSeq accession no.WP_004927398) were found to act on aldehydes ranging from acetaldehyde to hexadecanal and also acted on the unsaturated long-chain palmitoleyl and oleyl aldehydes. A comparison of the specificities of these enzymes with various aldehydes is presented. Crystallization trials yielded diffraction-quality crystals of one particular FAldDH (Maqu_3316) fromM. aquaeoleiVT8. Crystals were independently treated with both the NAD+cofactor and the aldehyde substrate decanal, revealing specific details of the likely substrate binding pocket for this class of enzymes. A likely model for how catalysis by the enzyme is accomplished is also provided.

    IMPORTANCEThis study provides a comparison of multiple enzymes with the ability

  10. Contribution of ozone to airborne aldehyde formation in Paris homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancière, Fanny; Dassonville, Claire; Roda, Célina; Laurent, Anne-Marie; Le Moullec, Yvon; Momas, Isabelle

    2011-09-15

    Indoor aldehydes may result from ozone-initiated chemistry, mainly documented by experimental studies. As part of an environmental investigation included in the PARIS birth cohort, the aim of this study was to examine ozone contribution to airborne aldehyde formation in Paris homes. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels, as well as styrene, nitrogen dioxide and nicotine concentrations, comfort parameters and carbon dioxide levels, were measured twice during the first year of life of the babies. Ambient ozone concentrations were collected from the closest background station of the regional air monitoring network. Traffic-related nitrogen oxide concentrations in front of the dwellings were estimated by an air pollution dispersion model. Home characteristics and families' way of life were described by questionnaires. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to link aldehyde levels with ambient ozone concentrations and a few aldehyde precursors involved in oxidation reactions, adjusting for other indoor aldehyde sources, comfort parameters and traffic-related nitrogen oxides. A 4 and 11% increase in formaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels was pointed out when 8-hour ozone concentrations increased by 20 μg/m(3). The influence of potential precursors such as indoor styrene level and frequent use of air fresheners, containing unsaturated volatile organic compounds as terpenes, was also found. Thus, our results suggest that ambient ozone can significantly impact indoor air quality, especially with regard to formaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Liquid-liquid extraction systems of benzoic acid in water, heptane, methylbenzene or trichloroethylene as co-solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, F.; Gaakeer, W.A.; Granados Mendoza, P.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Schaaf, van der J.; Schouten, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Equilibrium data at (293 ± 2) K are presented for benzoic acid in water and three different organic phases (heptane, methylbenzene, and trichloroethylene). The monomeric partition constant, KPMON, and the dimerization constant, KD, for the organic phase were determined at 293 K. For the

  12. Influence of bleaching on flavor of 34% whey protein concentrate and residual benzoic acid concentration in dried whey products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  13. Natural oils affect the human skin integrity and the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid dose-dependently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2006-01-01

    three natural oils (eucalyptus oil, tea tree oil, peppermint oil) would affect the skin integrity and the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid when applied topically in relevant concentrations. An experimental in vitro model using static diffusion cells mounted with human breast or abdominal skin...

  14. Influence of Bleaching on Flavor of 34% Whey Protein Concentrate and Residual Benzoic Acid Concentration in Dried Whey Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  15. The mechanism and kinetics of the electrochemical cleavage of azo bond of 2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenyl-azo-benzoic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandic, Zoran; Nigovic, Biljana; Simunic, Branimir

    2004-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of 2-hydroxy-5-[(4-sulfophenyl)azo]benzoic acid, 2-hydroxy-5-[(3-sulfophenyl)azo]benzoic acid, 2-hydroxy-5-[(2-sulfophenyl)azo]benzoic acid and 2-hydroxy-5-azo-benzoic acid has been carried out in aqueous solutions at glassy carbon electrode using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The position of sulfo substituent relative to azo bridge as well as pH of the solution have significant impact on the electrochemical behavior of these compounds. It has been proposed that these compounds are reduced predominantly as hydrazone tautomers resulting in corresponding hydrazo compounds. The overall electrochemical reduction follows DISP2 mechanism, ultimately leading to the 5-amino salicylic acid and sulfanilic acid. The rate determining step is the homogenous redox reaction between intermediate hydrazo compound and 5-amino salicylic acid quinoneimine. The mechanism is proposed in which activated complex of 5-amino salicylic acid quinoneimine and intermediate hydrazo compound is formed with the simultaneous loss of one proton

  16. Benzoic Acid Derivatives with Trypanocidal Activity: Enzymatic Analysis and Molecular Docking Studies toward Trans-Sialidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chagas, or American trypanosomiasis, remains an important public health problem in developing countries. In the last decade, trans-sialidase has become a pharmacological target for new anti-Chagas drugs. In this work, the aims were to design and find a new series of benzoic acid derivatives as trans-sialidase (TS inhibitors and anti-trypanosomal agents. Three compounds (14, 18, and 19 sharing a para-aminobenzoic acid moiety showed more potent trypanocidal activity than the commercially available drugs nifurtimox and benznidazole in both strains: the lysis concentration of 50% of the population (LC50 was <0.15 µM on the NINOA strain, and LC50 < 0.22 µM on the INC-5 strain. Additionally, compound 18 showed a moderate inhibition (47% on the trans-sialidase enzyme and a binding model similar to DANA (pattern A.

  17. Probe depth matters in dermal microdialysis sampling of benzoic acid after topical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, R; Benfeldt, E; Bangsgaard, N

    2012-01-01

    -2 mm) and deep (>2 mm) positioning of the linear MD probe in the dermis of human abdominal skin, followed by topical application of 4 mg/ml of benzoic acid (BA) in skin chambers overlying the probes. Dialysate was sampled every hour for 12 h and analysed for BA content by high-performance liquid...... chromatography. Probe depth was measured by 20-MHz ultrasound scanning. The area under the time-versus-concentration curve (AUC) describes the drug exposure in the tissue during the experiment and is a relevant parameter to compare for the 3 dermal probe depths investigated. The AUC(0-12) were: superficial...... significantly different from each other (p value paper demonstrates that there is an inverse relationship between the depth of the probe in the dermis and the amount of drug sampled following topical penetration ex vivo. The result is of relevance to the in vivo situation, and it can...

  18. Calibration of brachytherapy sources using ferrous sulphate-benzoic acid-xylenol orange dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhvanath, U.; Kini, U.R.; Gupta, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    A solution containing 0.20 mM of ferrous ammonium sulphate, 5.0 mM benzoic acid and 0.20 mM xylenol orange in 0.05 N sulphuric acid was used for the calibration of 252 Cf, 137 Cs, 226 Ra and 60 Co needle sources. A known volume of this solution contained in a pyrex glass tube was irradiated with the source kept in a glass capillary at the centre of the solution. A few hours of irradiation were required for each needle and the absorbance of the solution was measured at 540 nm against the unirradiated solution. The accuracy of this method was found to be within a few percent and is particularly useful for 252 Cf sources as the neutron component of the source contributes significantly to the absorbance produced. (author)

  19. Sorbic and benzoic acid in non-preservative-added food products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Ruziye; Cagri-Mehmetoglu, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    Sorbic acid (SA) and benzoic acid (BA) were determined in yoghurt, tomato and pepper paste, fruit juices, chocolates, soups and chips in Turkey by using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Levels were compared with Turkish Food Codex limits. SA was detected only in 2 of 21 yoghurt samples, contrary to BA, which was found in all yoghurt samples but one, ranging from 10.5 to 159.9 mg/kg. Both SA and BA were detected also in 3 and 6 of 23 paste samples in a range of 18.1-526.4 and 21.7-1933.5 mg/kg, respectively. Only 1 of 23 fruit juices contained BA. SA was not detected in any chips, fruit juice, soup, or chocolate sample. Although 16.51% of the samples was not compliant with the Turkish Food Codex limits, estimated daily intake of BA or SA was below the acceptable daily intake.

  20. Kavalactones and benzoic acid derivatives from leaves of Piper fuligineum Kunth (Piperaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzeu, Bruna F.; Felippe, Lidiane G.; Furlan, Maysa, E-mail: maysaf@iq.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Cotinguiba, Fernando [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IPPN/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Química

    2018-05-01

    The known kavalactones (E)-4-methoxy-6-styryl-2H-pyran-2-one, 4-methoxy6-(3-phenyloxiran-2-yl)-2H-pyran-2-one, 6-(1,2-dihydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-4-methoxy-2H-pyran2-one, the three benzoic acid derivatives methyl-4-methoxy-3-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)benzoate and methyl 2,2-dimethyl-4-oxochroman-6-carboxylate, and a new methyl 4-methoxy-3-(3-methylbut2-enoyl)benzoate were isolated from the ethanolic extract of Piper fuligineum. The structures of these compounds were determined by using a combination of spectroscopic methods, including 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. This is the first report of the chemical study of P. fuligineum, and the methyl 4-methoxy-3-(3-methylbut2-enoyl)benzoate is described as a new natural product. (author)

  1. Associations of Pseudomonas species and forage grasses enhance degradation of chlorinated benzoic acids in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, S. D.

    1998-12-01

    Using chlorinated benzoic acid (CBA) as a model compound, this study attempted to show that microorganisms and plants can be used as bioremediation agents to clean up contaminated soil sites in a cost effective and environmentally friendly manner. CBA was used because it is present in soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), or chlorinated pesticides. Sixteen forage grasses were screened in combination with 12 bacterial inoculants for their ability to promote the degradation of CBA in soil. Five associations of plants and bacteria were found to degrade CBA to a greater extent than plants without bacterial inoculants. Bacterial inoculants were shown to stimulate CBA degradation by altering the microbial community present on the root surface and thereby increasing the ability of this community to degrade CBA.

  2. Silver-Catalyzed Aldehyde Olefination Using Siloxy Alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianwei; Keller, Valerie A; Meyer, S Todd; Kozmin, Sergey A

    2010-03-20

    We describe the development of a silver-catalyzed carbonyl olefination employing electron rich siloxy alkynes. This process constitutes an efficient synthesis of trisubstituted unsaturated esters, and represents an alternative to the widely utilized Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction. Excellent diastereoselectivities are observed for a range of aldehydes using either 1-siloxy-1-propyne or 1-siloxy-1-hexyne. This mild catalytic process also enables chemoselective olefination of aldehydes in the presence of either ester or ketone functionality. Furthermore, since no by-products are generated, this catalytic process is perfectly suited for development of sequential reactions that can be carried out in a single flask.

  3. Dietary Supplementation of Benzoic Acid and Essential Oil Compounds Affects Buffering Capacity of the Feeds, Performance of Turkey Poults and Their Antioxidant Status, pH in the Digestive Tract, Intestinal Microbiota and Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Giannenas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a basal diet with benzoic acid or thymol or a mixture of essential oil blends (MEO or a combination of benzoic acid with MEO (BMEO on growth performance of turkey poults. Control groups were fed a basal diet. In trial 1, benzoic acid was supplied at levels of 300 and 1,000 mg/kg. In trial 2, thymol or the MEO were supplied at levels of 30 mg/kg. In trial 3, the combination of benzoic acid with MEO was evaluated. Benzoic acid, MEO and BMEO improved performance, increased lactic acid bacteria populations and decreased coliform bacteria in the caeca. Thymol, MEO and BMEO improved antioxidant status of turkeys. Benzoic acid and BMEO reduced the buffering capacity compared to control feed and the pH values of the caecal content. Benzoic acid and EOs may be suggested as an effective alternative to AGP in turkeys.

  4. Applicability of the theory of thermodynamic similarity to predict the enthalpies of vaporization of aliphatic aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esina, Z. N.; Korchuganova, M. R.

    2015-06-01

    The theory of thermodynamic similarity is used to predict the enthalpies of vaporization of aliphatic aldehydes. The predicted data allow us to calculate the phase diagrams of liquid-vapor equilibrium in a binary water-aliphatic aldehyde system.

  5. INTERACTION OF ALDEHYDES DERIVED FROM LIPID PEROXIDATION AND MEMBRANE PROTEINS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania ePizzimenti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A great variety of compounds are formed during lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids of membrane phospholipids. Among them, bioactive aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxyalkenals, malondialdehyde (MDA and acrolein, have received particular attention since they have been considered as toxic messengers that can propagate and amplify oxidative injury. In the 4-hydroxyalkenal class, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE is the most intensively studied aldehyde, in relation not only to its toxic function, but also to its physiological role. Indeed, HNE can be found at low concentrations in human tissues and plasma and participates in the control of biological processes, such as signal transduction, cell proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, at low doses, HNE exerts an anti-cancer effect, by inhibiting cell proliferation, angiogenesis, cell adhesion and by inducing differentiation and/or apoptosis in various tumor cell lines. It is very likely that a substantial fraction of the effects observed in cellular responses, induced by HNE and related aldehydes, be mediated by their interaction with proteins, resulting in the formation of covalent adducts or in the modulation of their expression and/or activity. In this review we focus on membrane proteins affected by lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes, under physiological and pathological conditions.

  6. Changes in nonpolar aldehydes in bean cotyledons during ageing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilhelmová, Naděžda; Domingues, P.; Srbová, M.; Fuksová, H.; Wilhelm, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2006), s. 559-564 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/03/0312 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Ageing * aldehydes * lipid peroxidation * lipofuscin-like pigments (LFP) Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.198, year: 2006

  7. Direct, enantioselective α-alkylation of aldehydes using simple olefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacci, Andrew G; Malinowski, Justin T; McAlpine, Neil J; Kuhne, Jerome; MacMillan, David W C

    2017-11-01

    Although the α-alkylation of ketones has already been established, the analogous reaction using aldehyde substrates has proven surprisingly elusive. Despite the structural similarities between the two classes of compounds, the sensitivity and unique reactivity of the aldehyde functionality has typically required activated substrates or specialized additives. Here, we show that the synergistic merger of three catalytic processes-photoredox, enamine and hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT) catalysis-enables an enantioselective α-aldehyde alkylation reaction that employs simple olefins as coupling partners. Chiral imidazolidinones or prolinols, in combination with a thiophenol, iridium photoredox catalyst and visible light, have been successfully used in a triple catalytic process that is temporally sequenced to deliver a new hydrogen and electron-borrowing mechanism. This multicatalytic process enables both intra- and intermolecular aldehyde α-methylene coupling with olefins to construct both cyclic and acyclic products, respectively. With respect to atom and step-economy ideals, this stereoselective process allows the production of high-value molecules from feedstock chemicals in one step while consuming only photons.

  8. Copepod reproduction is unaffected by diatom aldehydes or lipid composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Koski, Marja; Jonasdottir, Sigrun

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether reduced reproductive success of copepods fed with diatoms was related to nutritional imbalances with regard to essential lipids or to the production of inhibitory aldehydes. In 10-d laboratory experiments, feeding, egg production, egg hatching success, and fecal pellet...

  9. Aldehydic acids in frying oils: formation, toxicological significance and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal-Eldin, Afaf

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Aldehydic acids are generated in oxidized lipids as a result of decomposition of hydroperoxides by (β-scission reactions. Aldehydes are known to interact with proteins and DNA and to impair enzymatic functions. Aldehydic esters from oxidized lipids were reabsorbed to a significant extent in rats. This paper reviews the mechanism of formation of esterified aldehydic acids in frying oils and their physiological/toxicological effects. The paper also gives an overview of relevant basic analytical techniques that needs to be improved to establish reliable quantitative method (s.

    Ácidos aldehídicos son producidos en lípidos oxidados como resultado de la descomposición de hidroperóxidos por reacciones de (β-escición. Es conocido que los aldehídos interaccionan con las proteínas y el ADN y debilitan las funciones enzimáticas. Los esteres aldehídicos de lípidos oxidados fueron reabsorbidos en una cantidad significativa en ratas. Este artículo revisa los mecanismos de formación de ácidos aldehídicos esterificados en aceites de fritura y sus efectos fisiológicos/toxicológicos. El artículo también ofrece una visión de conjunto de las técnicas analíticas básicas que necesitan ser mejoradas para establecer métodos cuantitativos fiables.

  10. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 and Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 and Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein Expression Defines the Proliferative Nature of Cervical Cancer Stem Cells. ... of cervical cancer stem cells and also to validate them in initial and advanced stages of cervical cancer. Keywords: Cervical cancer, ALDH1, BALB/c-nu/nu, HeLa cells, RKIP, Sox2 ...

  11. OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrn, Marianne; Calvin, Melvin

    1965-12-01

    Using infra-red spectroscopy, the equilibrium exchange times have been determined for a series of ketones, aromatic aldehydes, and {beta}-ketoesters reacting with oxygen 18 enriched water. These exchange times have been evaluated in terms of steric and electronic considerations, and applied to a discussion of the exchange times of chlorophylls a and b and chlorophyll derivatives.

  12. Monitoring of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase by formation of pyrenedecanoic acid from pyrenedecanal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Markus A.; Watschinger, Katrin; Golderer, Georg; Maglione, Manuel; Sarg, Bettina; Lindner, Herbert H.; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele; Terrinoni, Alessandro; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Werner, Ernst R.

    2010-01-01

    Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.48) converts long-chain fatty aldehydes to the corresponding acids. Deficiency in this enzyme causes the Sjogren Larsson Syndrome, a rare inherited disorder characterized by ichthyosis, spasticity, and mental retardation. Using a fluorescent aldehyde,

  13. Unsaturated aldehydes as alkene equivalents in the Diels-Alder reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarning, Esben; Madsen, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A one-pot procedure is described for using alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes as olefin equivalents in the Diels-Alder reaction. The method combines the normal electron demand cycloaddition with aldehyde dienophiles and the rhodium-catalyzed decarbonylation of aldehydes to afford cyclohexenes...

  14. Determination of the limit of quantification of the calorimeter using a mixture of benzoic acid and silicon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Vesna R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years quality control has received a great attention in laboratory work. Implementation of the international standard ISO/IEC 17025 is necessary for any laboratory that wishes to establish quality control in its work. One of the important factors for meeting the requirements of this standard is the usage of the certified reference materials (CRM in laboratory work. In order to determine the performance of the calorimeter, benzoic acid as CRM, from AlliedSignal Riedelda Haen, Ref.: 33045 and SiO2, Pro analyze, in various mass ratios was used. The results showed that benzoic acid can be successfully utilized for the control of the entire technical and instrumental measuring range and resolve the problem of determination of the limit of detection and quantification of the calorimeter.

  15. Rh(III) -Catalyzed C-H Olefination of Benzoic Acids under Mild Conditions using Oxygen as the Sole Oxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quandi; Zhu, Changlei; Zhao, Huaiqing; Su, Weiping

    2016-02-04

    Phthalide skeletons have been synthesized for the first time through a Rh(III) -catalyzed C-H olefination of benzoic acids under mild conditions using oxygen as the sole oxidant. Aromatic acids bearing a variety of functional groups could react with diverse alkenes to afford the desired cyclized lactones or uncyclized alkenylarenes in moderate-to-excellent yields. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Oxidation of benzoic acid by heat-activated persulfate: Effect of temperature on transformation pathway and product distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrinyi, Nick; Pham, Anh Le-Tuan

    2017-09-01

    Heat activates persulfate (S 2 O 8 2- ) into sulfate radical (SO 4 - ), a powerful oxidant capable of transforming a wide variety of contaminants. Previous studies have shown that an increase in temperature accelerates the rates of persulfate activation and contaminant transformation. However, few studies have considered the effect of temperature on contaminant transformation pathway. The objective of this study was to determine how temperature (T = 22-70 °C) influences the activation of persulfate, the transformation of benzoic acid (i.e., a model compound), and the distribution of benzoic acid oxidation products. The time-concentration profiles of the products suggest that benzoic acid was transformed via decarboxylation and hydroxylation mechanisms, with the former becoming increasingly important at elevated temperatures. The pathway through which the products were further oxidized was also influenced by the temperature of persulfate activation. Our findings suggest that the role of temperature in the persulfate-based treatment systems is not limited only to controlling the rates of sulfate and hydroxyl radical generation. The ability of sulfate radical to initiate decarboxylation reactions and, more broadly, fragmentation reactions, as well as the effect of temperature on these transformation pathways could be important to the transformation of a number of organic contaminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of inhibition effects of some benzoic acid derivatives on sheep heart carbonic anhydrase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Deryanur; Yildiz, Melike; Şentürk, Murat; Erdoǧan, Orhan; Küfrevioǧlu, Ömer Irfan

    2016-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a family of metalloenzymes that requires Zn as a cofactor and catalyze the quick conversion of CO2 to HCO3- and H+. Inhibitors of the carbonic anhydrases (CAs) have medical usage of significant diseases such as glaucoma, epilepsy, gastroduodenal ulcers, acid-base disequilibria and neurological disorders. In the present study, inhibition of CA with some benzoic derivatives (1-6) were investigated. Sheep heart CA (shCA) enzyme was isolated by means of designed affinity chromatography gel (cellulose-benzyl-sulfanylamide) 42.45-fold in a yield of 44 % with 564.65 EU/mg. Purified shCA enzyme was used in vitro studies. In the studies, IC50 values were calculated for 3-aminobenzoic acid (1), 4-aminobenzoic acid (2), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), 2-benzoylbenzoic acid (4), 2,3-dimethoxybenzoic acid (5), and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid (6), showing the inhibition effects on the purified enzyme. Such molecules can be used as pioneer for discovery of novel effective CA inhibitors for medicinal chemistry applications.

  18. Spontaneous adsorption of 3,5-bis(3,5-dinitrobenzoylamino) benzoic acid onto carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, Julieta I.; Strumia, Miriam C. [Departamento de Quimica Organica (IMBIV-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (5000) (Argentina); Passeggi, Mario C.G. [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces (INTEC-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (3000) (Argentina); Ferron, Julio [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces (INTEC-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (3000) (Argentina); Departamento de Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (3000) (Argentina); Baruzzi, Ana M. [Departamento de Fisicoquimica (INFIQC-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (5000) (Argentina); Brunetti, Veronica [Departamento de Fisicoquimica (INFIQC-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (5000) (Argentina)], E-mail: brunetti@fcq.unc.edu.ar

    2009-07-01

    Dendritic molecules contain multifunctional groups that can be used to efficiently control the properties of an electrode surface. We are developing strategies to generate a highly functionalized surface using multifunctional and rigid dendrons immobilized onto different substrates. In the present work, we explore the immobilization of a dendritic molecule: 3,5-bis(3,5-dinitrobenzoylamino) benzoic acid (D-NO{sub 2}) onto carbon surfaces showing a simple and rapid way to produce conductive surfaces with electroactive chemical functions. The immobilized D-NO{sub 2} layer has been characterized using atomic force microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. D-NO{sub 2} adsorbs onto carbon surfaces spontaneously by dipping the electrode in dendron solutions. Reduction of this layer generates the hydroxylamine product. The resulting redox-active layer exhibits a well-behaved redox response for the adsorbed nitroso/hydroxylamine couple. The film permeability of the derivatized surface has been analyzed employing the electrochemical response of redox probes: Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 3+}/Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 2+} and Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-}/Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 4-}. Electrocatalytic oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide onto a modified carbon surface was also observed.

  19. Spontaneous adsorption of 3,5-bis(3,5-dinitrobenzoylamino) benzoic acid onto carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez, Julieta I.; Strumia, Miriam C.; Passeggi, Mario C.G.; Ferron, Julio; Baruzzi, Ana M.; Brunetti, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic molecules contain multifunctional groups that can be used to efficiently control the properties of an electrode surface. We are developing strategies to generate a highly functionalized surface using multifunctional and rigid dendrons immobilized onto different substrates. In the present work, we explore the immobilization of a dendritic molecule: 3,5-bis(3,5-dinitrobenzoylamino) benzoic acid (D-NO 2 ) onto carbon surfaces showing a simple and rapid way to produce conductive surfaces with electroactive chemical functions. The immobilized D-NO 2 layer has been characterized using atomic force microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. D-NO 2 adsorbs onto carbon surfaces spontaneously by dipping the electrode in dendron solutions. Reduction of this layer generates the hydroxylamine product. The resulting redox-active layer exhibits a well-behaved redox response for the adsorbed nitroso/hydroxylamine couple. The film permeability of the derivatized surface has been analyzed employing the electrochemical response of redox probes: Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ /Ru(NH 3 ) 6 2+ and Fe(CN) 6 3- /Fe(CN) 6 4- . Electrocatalytic oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide onto a modified carbon surface was also observed.

  20. Kinetic study of adsorption and degradation of aniline, benzoic acid, phenol, and diuron in soil suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, T.H.; Lavy, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the effects of low temperature and accelerated soil-solution contact on soil adsorption of labile organic chemicals. The authors measured the kinetics of adsorption and degradation of 14 C-aniline, 14 C-benzoic acid, 14 C-phenol, and 14 C-diuron in the solution phase at 3 and 22 0 C. In the initial stages of reactions, the adsorption of all four chemicals was instantaneous at both temperatures under accelerated soil and solution mixing. A steady state was observed after the onset of equilibrium for the adsorption reaction for all compounds within 10 to 30 min. Its length varied according to the expected order of susceptibility to microbial degradation, i.e., diuron > aniline > phenol ≥ benzoate. It was apparent that the steady-state period without or in combination with low temperature could be advantageously used to obtain adsorption measurements in microbially active systems. A mechanistic sorption-catalyzed degradation model was evaluated to uncouple mathematically these processes. The model described satisfactorily the disappearance of labile chemicals in soil suspensions. Numerical analysis allowed the concurrent determination of adsorption, desorption, and biodegradation rate coefficients

  1. Proton magnetic resonance studies in solutions of o- and p-hydroxy benzoic acids in dioxan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arulmozhi, V.; Srinivasa Rao, A.; Balasubramanian, V.

    1990-01-01

    High resolution proton(NMR) studies were carried out in solutions of o- and p-hydroxy benzoic acids(OHBA and PHBA) in dioxan (D) for several solute concentrations in the range of 0.01 to 0.10 mole fraction (mf). The spectra corresponding to OH and COOH protons could be distinguished in solutions of OHBA in D whereas solution of PHBA in D show only peak in the range of chemical shifts attributable to OH and COOH protons. In the solution of OHBA in dioxan the chemical shift of the proton of the hydroxyl group increases with increase of solute concentration and attains a maximum at a solute concentration of 0.04 mf and then decreases with further increase of solute concentration. For the carboxyl group, the chemical shift increase with increase of solute concentration and attians a maximum at 0.08 mf solute concentration. In solutions of PHBA in D the chemical shift of the single line observed increases with increase of solute concentration and attains a maximum at a solute concentration of 0.05 mf. The data are interpreted as due to formation of hydrogen bonds between the molecule of OHBA and PHBA and dioxan. The proton magnetic relaxation studies in the above solutions also confirm the above findings. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs

  2. Metabolic engineering of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for the production of para-hydroxy benzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqin Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available para-hydroxy benzoic acid (PHBA is the key component for preparing parabens, a common preservatives in food, drugs and personal care products, as well as high performance bioplastics such as liquid crystal polymers (LCP. Pseudomonas putida KT2440 was engineered to produce PHBA from glucose via the shikimate pathway intermediate chorismate. To obtain the PHBA production strain, chorismate lyase UbiC from Escherichia coli and a feedback resistant 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase encoded by gene aroGD146N were overexpressed individually and simultaneously. In addition, genes related to product degradation (pobA or competing for the precursor chorismate (pheA and trpE were deleted from the genome. To further improve PHBA production, the glucose metabolism repressor hexR was knocked out in order to increase erythrose-4- phosphate and NAPH supply. The best strain achieved a maximum titre of 1.73 g L-1 and a carbon yield of 18.1 % (C-mol C-mol-1 in a non-optimized fed-batch fermentation. This is to date the highest PHBA concentration produced by P. putida using a chorismate lyase.

  3. Modeling molecular acidity with electronic properties and Hammett constants for substituted benzoic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Liu, Lianghong; Liu, Wanhui; Liu, Shaogang; Liu, Shubin

    2011-12-29

    Molecular acidity is an important physiochemical property essential in many fields of molecular studies, but an efficient and reliable computational approach to make accurate predictions is still missing. In this work, based on our previous studies to use gas phase electronic properties such as molecular electrostatic potential and valence natural atomic orbitals of the acidic atom and leaving proton, we demonstrate here that different approaches can be employed to tackle this problem. To that end, we employ 196 singly, doubly, and triply substituted benzoic acids for the study. We show that two different approaches are possible, one focusing on the carboxyl group through its localized electronic properties and the other on the substituting groups via Hammett constants and their additivity rule. Our present results clearly exhibit that with the linear models built from the singly substituted species, one can accurately predict the pK(a) values for the doubly and triply substituted species with both of these two approaches. The predictions from these approaches are consistent with each other and agree well with the experimental data. These intrinsically different approaches are the two manifestations of the same molecular acidity property, both valid and complementary to each other. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Methyltrioxorhenium as catalyst of a novel aldehyde olefination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, W.A. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Anorganisch-Chemisches Inst.); Wang Mei (Academia Sinica, Dalian Inst. of Chemical Physics (China))

    1991-12-01

    From aldehydes or cyclic ketones, diazoalkanes, and teritiary phosphanes, olefins may be prepared with MTO as catalyst. In particular, diazoacetates and -malonates (R{sup 2}, R{sup 3} = H, CO{sub 2}Et, or 2 x CO{sub 2}Me) can be transformed into olefins with aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes (R{sup 1} = iPr, trans-PhCH=CH, Ph, 4-NO{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}, etc.). Readily accessible starting materials, easy handling, mild reaction conditions, and good yields characterize the new synthesis method. (R' = Ph, 3-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}SO{sub 3}Na, nBu.) (orig.).

  5. Maternal Aldehyde Elimination during Pregnancy Preserves the Fetal Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeck, Nina; Langevin, Frédéric; King, Gareth; de Wind, Niels; Crossan, Gerry P.; Patel, Ketan J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Maternal metabolism provides essential nutrients to enable embryonic development. However, both mother and embryo produce reactive metabolites that can damage DNA. Here we discover how the embryo is protected from these genotoxins. Pregnant mice lacking Aldh2, a key enzyme that detoxifies reactive aldehydes, cannot support the development of embryos lacking the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway gene Fanca. Remarkably, transferring Aldh2−/−Fanca−/− embryos into wild-type mothers suppresses developmental defects and rescues embryonic lethality. These rescued neonates have severely depleted hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, indicating that despite intact maternal aldehyde catabolism, fetal Aldh2 is essential for hematopoiesis. Hence, maternal and fetal aldehyde detoxification protects the developing embryo from DNA damage. Failure of this genome preservation mechanism might explain why birth defects and bone marrow failure occur in Fanconi anemia, and may have implications for fetal well-being in the many women in Southeast Asia that are genetically deficient in ALDH2. PMID:25155611

  6. Maternal aldehyde elimination during pregnancy preserves the fetal genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeck, Nina; Langevin, Frédéric; King, Gareth; de Wind, Niels; Crossan, Gerry P; Patel, Ketan J

    2014-09-18

    Maternal metabolism provides essential nutrients to enable embryonic development. However, both mother and embryo produce reactive metabolites that can damage DNA. Here we discover how the embryo is protected from these genotoxins. Pregnant mice lacking Aldh2, a key enzyme that detoxifies reactive aldehydes, cannot support the development of embryos lacking the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway gene Fanca. Remarkably, transferring Aldh2(-/-)Fanca(-/-) embryos into wild-type mothers suppresses developmental defects and rescues embryonic lethality. These rescued neonates have severely depleted hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, indicating that despite intact maternal aldehyde catabolism, fetal Aldh2 is essential for hematopoiesis. Hence, maternal and fetal aldehyde detoxification protects the developing embryo from DNA damage. Failure of this genome preservation mechanism might explain why birth defects and bone marrow failure occur in Fanconi anemia, and may have implications for fetal well-being in the many women in Southeast Asia that are genetically deficient in ALDH2. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro assessment of human airway toxicity from major aldehydes in automotive emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafstroem, R.C. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1997-09-01

    Automotive exhausts can significantly contribute to the levels of reactive aldehydes, including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein, in urban air. The use of alcohols as an alternative fuel for gasoline or diesel may further increase these emissions. Since it is unclear if aldehyde inhalation may induce pathological states, including cancer, in human airways, the toxic properties of the above-mentioned aldehydes were studied in cultured target cell types. Each aldehyde modified vital cellular functions in a dose-dependent manner, and invariably inhibited growth and induced abnormal terminal differentiation. Decreases of cellular thiols and increases of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} were observed, and moreover, variable types and amounts of short-lived or persistent genetic damage were induced. The concentrations required for specified levels of a particular type of injury varied up to 10000-fold among the aldehydes. Overall, distinctive patterns of cytopathological activity were observed, which differed both qualitatively and quantitatively among the aldehydes. Finally, aldehydes inhibited DNA repair processes and increased cytotoxicity and mutagenesis in synergy with other known toxicants, indicating that aldehydes may also enhance damage by other constituents in automotive exhausts. In summary, the aldehydes, notably {sup m}u{sup M}-mM formaldehyde, caused pathological effects and induced mechanisms that relate to acute toxicity and cancer development in airway epithelial cells. Since `no-effect` levels may not exist for carcinogenic agents, the overall results support a need for elimination of aldehydes in automotive exhausts. 41 refs

  8. Structural and Kinetic Properties of the Aldehyde Dehydrogenase NahF, a Broad Substrate Specificity Enzyme for Aldehyde Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coitinho, Juliana B; Pereira, Mozart S; Costa, Débora M A; Guimarães, Samuel L; Araújo, Simara S; Hengge, Alvan C; Brandão, Tiago A S; Nagem, Ronaldo A P

    2016-09-27

    The salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase (NahF) catalyzes the oxidation of salicylaldehyde to salicylate using NAD(+) as a cofactor, the last reaction of the upper degradation pathway of naphthalene in Pseudomonas putida G7. The naphthalene is an abundant and toxic compound in oil and has been used as a model for bioremediation studies. The steady-state kinetic parameters for oxidation of aliphatic or aromatic aldehydes catalyzed by 6xHis-NahF are presented. The 6xHis-NahF catalyzes the oxidation of aromatic aldehydes with large kcat/Km values close to 10(6) M(-1) s(-1). The active site of NahF is highly hydrophobic, and the enzyme shows higher specificity for less polar substrates than for polar substrates, e.g., acetaldehyde. The enzyme shows α/β folding with three well-defined domains: the oligomerization domain, which is responsible for the interlacement between the two monomers; the Rossmann-like fold domain, essential for nucleotide binding; and the catalytic domain. A salicylaldehyde molecule was observed in a deep pocket in the crystal structure of NahF where the catalytic C284 and E250 are present. Moreover, the residues G150, R157, W96, F99, F274, F279, and Y446 were thought to be important for catalysis and specificity for aromatic aldehydes. Understanding the molecular features responsible for NahF activity allows for comparisons with other aldehyde dehydrogenases and, together with structural information, provides the information needed for future mutational studies aimed to enhance its stability and specificity and further its use in biotechnological processes.

  9. Short communication: Change of naturally occurring benzoic acid during skim milk fermentation by commercial cheese starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Noori; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Sun-Young; Yoo, Mi-Young; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to investigate the change of naturally occurring benzoic acid (BA) during skim milk fermentation by 4 kinds of commercial cheese starters used in domestic cheese. The culture was incubated at 3-h intervals for 24h at 30, 35, and 40°C. The BA content during fermentation by Streptococcus thermophilus STB-01 was detected after 12h at all temperatures, sharply increasing at 30°C. In Lactobacillus paracasei LC431, BA was detected after 9h at all temperatures, sharply increasing until 18h and decreasing after 18h at 30 and 35°C. In the case of R707 (consisting of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris), BA increased from 6h to 15h and decreased after 15h at 40°C. The BA during STB-01 and CHN-11 (1:1; mixture of S. thermophilus, Lc. lactis ssp. lactis, Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris, Lc. lactis ssp. diacetylactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris) fermentation was detected after 3h at 35 and 40°C, sharply increasing up to 12h and decreasing after 15h at 35°C, and after 6h, increasing up to 9h at 30°C. After 3h, it steadily decreased at 40°C. The highest amount of BA was found during the fermentation by R707 at 30°C; 15h with 12.46mg/kg. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nucleated Poly(L-lactic acid) with N, N‧-oxalyl bis(benzoic acid) dihydrazide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Liang-Liang; Cai, Yan-Hua

    2018-04-01

    One of the major challenges in the field of Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is the enhancement of crystallization. In the present work, the evaluation of the influence of N, N‧-oxalyl bis(benzoic acid) dihydrazide (TBOD), as a novel organic nucleating agent, on the non-isothermal crystallization, melting behavior, and thermal stability of PLLA was performed using differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis. Non-isothermal crystallization measurement revealed that TBOD had an excellent accelerating effect for the crystallization of PLLA in cooling, and upon the addition of 3 wt% TBOD, PLLA exhibited the highest onset crystallization temperature and the crystallization peak temperature, as well as the largest non-isothermal crystallization enthalpy. In particular, when the TBOD concentration was 1 wt% ∼ 3 wt%, the onset crystallization temperatures were higher than the theoretical ceiling temperature of crystallization, thoroughly demonstrating the powerful crystallization promoting ability of TBOD. Additionally, the non-isothermal crystallization behavior of PLLA/TBOD depended on the TBOD concentration, cooling rate as well as the final melting temperature. The melting behavior of PLLA/TBOD after non-isothermal crystallization further confirmed the effect of TBOD on the crystallization process and crystal structure of PLLA, and the appearance of the double melting peaks during melting stages was attribute to the melting-recrystallization. For melting behavior after isothermal crystallization, the crystallization temperature and crystallization time significantly affected the melting behavior of PLLA/TBOD. The addition of TBOD could not change the thermal decomposition profile of the PLLA, but the thermal stability did not regularly decrease with increasing of TBOD concentration, indicating that there might exist intermolecular interaction between PLLA and TBOD.

  11. Detoxification of aldehydes by histidine-containing dipeptides: from chemistry to clinical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Zhengzhi; Baba, Shahid P.; Sweeney, Brooke R.; Barski, Oleg A.

    2013-01-01

    Aldehydes are generated by oxidized lipids and carbohydrates at increased levels under conditions of metabolic imbalance and oxidative stress during atherosclerosis, myocardial and cerebral ischemia, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases and trauma. In most tissues, aldehydes are detoxified by oxidoreductases that catalyze the oxidation or the reduction of aldehydes or enzymatic and nonenzymatic conjugation with low molecular weight thiols and amines, such as glutathione and histidine dipeptid...

  12. Application of heterocyclic aldehydes as components in Ugi–Smiles couplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelynn M. Mason

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficient one-pot Ugi–Smiles couplings are reported for the use of furyl-substituted aldehyde components. In the presence of these heterocyclic aldehydes, reactions tolerated variations in amine components and led to either isolated N-arylamide Ugi–Smiles adducts or N-arylepoxyisoindolines, products of tandem Ugi–Smiles Diels–Alder cyclizations, in moderate yields. A thienyl-substituted aldehyde was also a competent component for Ugi–Smiles adduct formation.

  13. Research advances in the catalysts for the selective oxidation of ethane to aldehydes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhe; ZHAO Zhen; XU Chunming

    2005-01-01

    Selective oxidation of ethane to aldehydes is one of the most difficult processes in the catalysis researches of low alkanes. The development of selective oxidation of ethane to aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein) is discussed. The latest progress of the catalysts, including bulk or supported metal oxide catalysts, highly dispersed and isolated active sites catalysts, and the photo-catalytic ethane oxidation catalysts, partial oxidation of ethane in the gas phase, and the proposed reaction pathways from ethane to aldehydes are involved.

  14. Ni-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Cross-Coupling: Direct Transformation of Aldehydes to Esters and Amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Aaron M.; Dong, Vy M.

    2015-01-01

    By exploring a new mode of Ni-catalyzed cross-coupling, we have developed a protocol to transform both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes into either esters or amides directly. The success of this oxidative coupling depends on the appropriate choice of catalyst and organic oxidant, including the use of either α,α,α-trifluoroacetophenone or excess aldehyde. We present mechanistic data that supports a catalytic cycle involving oxidative addition into the aldehyde C–H bond. PMID:25424967

  15. On the nature of the olefination reaction involving ditungsten hexaalkoxides and aldehydes or ketones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, M.H.; Huffman, J.C.; Lucas, E.A.; Sousa, A.; Streib, W.E. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    1992-03-25

    Reductive coupling of aldehydes and ketones to olefins under the action of ditungsten hexaalkoxides was investigated. In these reactions, reductive cleavage of the aldehyde or ketone carbonyl is followed by formation of the olefinic C-C bond and breaking of the carbonyl C-O bond of the second aldehyde or ketone. Observations concerning the initial C-O bond cleavage and subsequent C-C bond formation are presented. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Syntheses and structures of three heterometallic coordination polymers derived from 4-pyridin-3-yl-benzoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Wei-Hui; Yang, Guo-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Three lanthanide–transition-metal coordination polymers, namely, [Er 2 L 6 (H 2 O)][Cu 2 I 2 ] (1), [ErL 3 ][CuI] (2), and [Dy 2 L 6 (BPDC) 0.5 (H 2 O) 4 ][Cu 3 I 2 ] (3) (HL=4-pyridin-3-yl-benzoic acid, H 2 BPDC=4,4′-biphenyldicarboxylic acid) have been made by reacting Ln 2 O 3 and CuI with HL at different temperatures under hydrothermal conditions. All the complexes are characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, respectively. 1–3 all construct from dimeric (Ln 2 ) and (Cu 2 ) units and exhibit two types of the structural features: 1 is a two-dimensional layer, 2–3 are three-dimensional frameworks. Interestingly, the in situ formation of the BPDC ligand is found in the structure of 3. The distinct architectures of these complexes indicated that the reaction temperature plays an important role in the formation of higher dimensional coordination polymers. - Graphical abstract: By hydrothermal reaction of lanthanide oxide, copper halide, and 4-pyridin-3-yl-benzoic ligand at different temperatures, a series of 1-D to 3-D 3d–4f coordination polymers, namely [ErL 3 (H 2 O) 2 ][CuI], [Er 2 L 6 (H 2 O)][Cu 2 I 2 ], [ErL 3 ][CuI], and [Dy 2 L 6 (BPDC) 0.5 (H 2 O) 4 ][Cu 3 I 2 ], have been made, respectively. - Highlights: • Three novel heterometallic coordination polymers derived from 4-pyridin-3-yl-benzoic acid have been hydrothermally synthesized. • Mixed dinuclear motifs of (Ln 2 ) and (Cu 2 ) serve as secondary building units to generate 2-D layer and 3-D frameworks. • It is proved that higher temperature is apt to permit construction of high dimensional architectures

  17. Radiometric titration of officinal radiopharmaceuticals using radioactive kryptonates as end-point indicators. I. Salicylic, acetylosalicylic, benzoic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toelgyessy, J; Dillinger, P [Slovenska Vysoka Skola Technicka, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Chemickotechnologicka Fakulta; Harangozo, M; Jombik, J [Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Farmaceuticka Fakulta

    1980-01-01

    A method for the determination of salicylic, acetylsalicylic and benzoic acids in officinal pharmaceutical based on radiometric titration with 0.1 mol.l/sup -1/ NaOH was developed. The end-point was detected with the aid of radioactive glass kryptonate. After the end-point, the excess titrant attacks the glass surface layers and this results in releasing /sup 85/Kr, and consequently, in decreasing the radioactivity of the kryptonate employed. The radioactive kryptonate used as an indicator was prepared by the bombardment of glass with accelerated /sup 85/Kr ions. The developed method is simple, accurate and correct.

  18. Synthesis of selectively 13C-labelled benzoic acid for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic measurement of glycine conjugation activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akira, Kazuki; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Baba, Shigeo

    1995-01-01

    The synthesis of [4- 13 C]benzoic acid (BA) labelled in a single protonated carbon, for use as a probe to measure glycine conjugation activity by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, has been reported. The labelled compound was prepared by a seven-step synthetic scheme on a relatively small scale using [2- 13 C] acetone as the source of label in overall yield of 16%. The usefulness of [4- 13 C]BA was demonstrated by the NMR spectroscopic monitoring of urinary excretion of [4- 13 C]hippuric acid in the rat administered with the labelled BA. (Author)

  19. [Pollution Characteristics of Aldehydes and Ketones Compounds in the Exhaust of Beijing Typical Restaurants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-chen; Cui, Tong; He, Wan-qing; Nie, Lei; Wang, Jun-ling; Pan, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Aldehydes and ketones compounds, as one of the components in the exhaust of restaurants, are a class of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with strong chemical reactivity. However, there is no systematic study on aldehydes and ketones compounds in the exhaust of restaurants. To further clarify the food source emission levels of aldehydes and ketones compounds and controlling measures, to access city group catering VOCs emissions control decision-making basis, this study selected 8 Beijing restaurants with different types. The aldehydes and ketones compounds were sampled using DNPH-silica tube, and then ultra performance liquid chromatography was used for quantitative measurement. The aldehydes and ketones concentrations of reference volume condition from 8 restaurants in descending order were Roasted Duck restaurant, Chinese Style Barbecue, Home Dishes, Western Fast-food, School Canteen, Chinese Style Fast-food, Sichuan Cuisine, Huaiyang Cuisine. The results showed that the range of aldehydes and ketones compounds (C1-C9) concentrations of reference volume condition in the exhaust of restaurants was 115.47-1035.99 microg x m(-3). The composition of aldehydes and ketones compounds in the exhaust of sampled restaurants was obviously different. The percentages of C1-C3 were above 40% in the exhaust from Chinese style restaurants. Fast food might emit more C4-C9 aldehydes and ketones compounds. From the current situation of existing aldehydes and ketones compounds control, the removal efficiency of high voltage electrostatic purifiers widely used in Beijing is limited.

  20. Monolayer structures of alkyl aldehydes: Odd-membered homologues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.K.; Clarke, S.M.; Bhinde, T.; Castro, M.A.; Millan, C.; Medina, S.

    2011-01-01

    Crystalline monolayers of three aldehydes with an odd number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain (C 7 , C 9 and C 11 ) at low coverages are observed by a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction. Analysis of the diffraction data is discussed and possible monolayer crystal structures are proposed; although unique structures could not be ascertained for all molecules. We conclude that the structures are flat on the surface, with the molecules lying in the plane of the layer. The C 11 homologue is determined to have a plane group of either p2, pgb or pgg, and for the C 7 homologue the p2 plane group is preferred.

  1. Untersuchungen zum atmosphärenchemischen Abbau langkettiger Aldehyde

    OpenAIRE

    Plagens, Heike

    2001-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wurden die bimolekularen Geschwindigkeitskonstanten für die Reaktionen von Hexanal, Heptanal, Oktanal und Nonanal mit OH and Cl Radikalen bei (298 ± 2) K und (1000 ± 20) mbar experimentell bestimmt. Ebenso wurde die Chlorgeschwindigkeitskonstante für Butanal gemessen. Die Werte sind (in Einheiten von cm3 Molekül-1 s-1) in Tabelle 1 zusammengefaßt. Tabelle 1: Aldehyde kOH kCl Butanal - (2,21 ± 0,16) · 10-10 Hexan...

  2. Inhibitors of HIV-1 maturation: Development of structure-activity relationship for C-28 amides based on C-3 benzoic acid-modified triterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidorski, Jacob J; Liu, Zheng; Sit, Sing-Yuen; Chen, Jie; Chen, Yan; Sin, Ny; Venables, Brian L; Parker, Dawn D; Nowicka-Sans, Beata; Terry, Brian J; Protack, Tricia; Rahematpura, Sandhya; Hanumegowda, Umesh; Jenkins, Susan; Krystal, Mark; Dicker, Ira B; Meanwell, Nicholas A; Regueiro-Ren, Alicia

    2016-04-15

    We have recently reported on the discovery of a C-3 benzoic acid (1) as a suitable replacement for the dimethyl succinate side chain of bevirimat (2), an HIV-1 maturation inhibitor that reached Phase II clinical trials before being discontinued. Recent SAR studies aimed at improving the antiviral properties of 2 have shown that the benzoic acid moiety conferred topographical constraint to the pharmacophore and was associated with a lower shift in potency in the presence of human serum albumin. In this manuscript, we describe efforts to improve the polymorphic coverage of the C-3 benzoic acid chemotype through modifications at the C-28 position of the triterpenoid core. The dimethylaminoethyl amides 17 and 23 delivered improved potency toward bevirimat-resistant viruses while increasing C24 in rat oral PK studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in non-reticular oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, Arash; Shanbehzadeh, Najmeh; Kia, Seyed Javad; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a potentially malignant disorder. One of the malignant transformation markers is cancer stem cells. One of the proposed marker for the detection of cancer stem cells's in head and neck cancer is aldehyde dehydrogenase. Recently it is shown that aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression in tissue samples is associated with oral lichen planus malignant transformation. This study evaluates salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in oral lichen planus. Thirty patients and 30 age and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. Oral lichen planus was diagnosed based on the modified World Health Organization criteria. Subjects in the case group were divided into reticular and non-reticular forms. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected at 10-12 AM. Saliva concentrations of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 were measured by ELISA. The differences between aldehyde dehydrogenase levels in the oral lichen planus group compared with the control group were not significant but aldehyde dehydrogenase in non-reticular oral lichen planus was significantly higher than that of the reticular form. This is a cross-sectional study, thus longitudinal studies in oral lichen planus may present similar or different results. The mechanism of malignant transformation in oral lichen planus is not defined. Previous analyses revealed that the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression is significantly correlated with increased risk of transformation. This finding is consistent with our results because in the erosive and ulcerative forms of oral lichen planus, which have an increased risk of transformation, salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 was overexpressed. A higher salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase level in non-reticular oral lichen planus can be a defensive mechanism against higher oxidative stress in these groups. Aldehyde dehydrogenase may be one of the malignant transformation markers in oral lichen planus. Further studies are needed for introducing aldehyde dehydrogenase as a prognostic

  4. Increased salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in non-reticular oral lichen planus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, Arash; Shanbehzadeh, Najmeh; Kia, Seyed Javad; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Background Oral lichen planus is a potentially malignant disorder. One of the malignant transformation markers is cancer stem cells. One of the proposed marker for the detection of cancer stem cells's in head and neck cancer is aldehyde dehydrogenase. Recently it is shown that aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression in tissue samples is associated with oral lichen planus malignant transformation. Objective This study evaluates salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in oral lichen planus. Method Thirty patients and 30 age and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. Oral lichen planus was diagnosed based on the modified World Health Organization criteria. Subjects in the case group were divided into reticular and non-reticular forms. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected at 10-12 AM. Saliva concentrations of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 were measured by ELISA. Results The differences between aldehyde dehydrogenase levels in the oral lichen planus group compared with the control group were not significant but aldehyde dehydrogenase in non-reticular oral lichen planus was significantly higher than that of the reticular form. Limitations of the study This is a cross-sectional study, thus longitudinal studies in oral lichen planus may present similar or different results. Conclusions The mechanism of malignant transformation in oral lichen planus is not defined. Previous analyses revealed that the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression is significantly correlated with increased risk of transformation. This finding is consistent with our results because in the erosive and ulcerative forms of oral lichen planus, which have an increased risk of transformation, salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 was overexpressed. A higher salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase level in non-reticular oral lichen planus can be a defensive mechanism against higher oxidative stress in these groups. Aldehyde dehydrogenase may be one of the malignant transformation markers in oral lichen planus. Further

  5. Toxic Diatom Aldehydes Affect Defence Gene Networks in Sea Urchins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Varrella

    Full Text Available Marine organisms possess a series of cellular strategies to counteract the negative effects of toxic compounds, including the massive reorganization of gene expression networks. Here we report the modulated dose-dependent response of activated genes by diatom polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. PUAs are secondary metabolites deriving from the oxidation of fatty acids, inducing deleterious effects on the reproduction and development of planktonic and benthic organisms that feed on these unicellular algae and with anti-cancer activity. Our previous results showed that PUAs target several genes, implicated in different functional processes in this sea urchin. Using interactomic Ingenuity Pathway Analysis we now show that the genes targeted by PUAs are correlated with four HUB genes, NF-κB, p53, δ-2-catenin and HIF1A, which have not been previously reported for P. lividus. We propose a working model describing hypothetical pathways potentially involved in toxic aldehyde stress response in sea urchins. This represents the first report on gene networks affected by PUAs, opening new perspectives in understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying the response of benthic organisms to diatom exposure.

  6. Radon and aldehyde concentrations in the indoor environment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moschandreas, D.J.; Rector, H.E.

    1981-04-01

    Findings regarding indoor air contaminants in the energy-efficient residence (EER) in Mt. Airy, Maryland are reported. The objectives of the study were to collect and analyze relevant air quality samples (specifically radon and aldehydes), characterize the indoor air quality with respect to radon and aldehydes, and develop relationships between air infiltration rates and contaminant levels. One-fifth of the measured formaldehyde concentrations were in the range that may cause health concerns. Although indoor temperature and relative humidity affect indoor HCHO concentration, the elevated formaldehyde concentrations were measured under very low air infiltration rates. The data show that ventilation of the indoor air space is somewhat effective in reducing high HCHO concentrations. The operation of the heat exchanger led to an increase of the air infiltration rate which in turn resulted in substantial reduction of formaldehyde concentrations. A considerable number of the collected samples of indoor air displayed radon concentrations at levels higher than 1.0 to 4.0 nCim -3 (assuming an equilibrium factor of 0.5, these radon levels would correspond to working levels above the health guidelines suggested by the US EPA for homes in Florida built on land reclaimed from phosphate mining). As in the case of indoor formaldehyde concentrations, elevated indoor concentrations are substantially reduced when the infiltration rate is increased. The data base shows that the use of the air to air heat exchanger leads to reduction of indoor radon concentration by increasing the residential ventilation rate

  7. Volatile aldehydes are promising broad-spectrum postharvest insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, D G; Rangel, S; Kubo, I

    2000-09-01

    A variety of naturally occurring aldehydes common in plants have been evaluated for their insecticidal activity and for phytotoxicity to postharvest fruits, vegetables, and grains. Twenty-nine compounds were initially screened for their activity against aphids on fava bean leaf disks. Application under reduced pressure (partial vacuum) for the first quarter of fumigation increased insecticidal activity severalfold. The 11 best aldehydes were assayed against aphids placed under the third leaf of whole heads of iceberg lettuce using the same two-tier reduced-pressure regime, which caused no additional detriment to the commodity over fumigation at atmospheric pressure. Phytotoxicity to naked and wrapped iceburg lettuce, green and red table grapes, lemon, grapefruit, orange, broccoli, avocado, cabbage, pinto bean, and rice at doses that killed 100% of aphids was recorded for three promising fumigants: propanal, (E)-2-pentenal, and 2-methyl-(E)-2-butenal. These three compounds have excellent potential as affordable postharvest insect control agents, killing 100% of the aphids with little or no detectable harm to a majority of the commodities tested. Preliminary assays indicate that similar doses are also effective against mealybugs, thrips, and whitefly.

  8. Threshold responses in cinnamic-aldehyde-sensitive subjects: results and methodological aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Rastogi, S C

    1996-01-01

    Cinnamic aldehyde is an important fragrance material and contact allergen. The present study was performed to provide quantitative data on the eliciting capacity of cinnamic aldehyde, to be considered in assessment of clinical relevance and health hazard. The skin response to serial dilution patch...

  9. Studying fatty aldehyde metabolism in living cells with pyrene-labeled compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Markus A.; Watschinger, Katrin; Lange, Karsten; Golderer, Georg; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele; Hermetter, Albin; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Werner, Ernst R.

    2012-01-01

    The lack of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase function in Sjogren Larsson Syndrome (SLS) patient cells not only impairs the conversion of fatty aldehydes into their corresponding fatty acid but also has an effect on connected pathways. Alteration of the lipid profile in these cells is thought to be

  10. Effect of whey protein on the In Vivo Release of Aldehydes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, K.G.C.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burger, J.J.; Claassen, N.E.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Retention of aldehydes by whey proteins in solutions buffered at a range of pH values was studied under static and dynamic headspace conditions and in vivo in exhaled air. Static headspace measurements showed a clear increase in retention in the presence of whey proteins for aldehydes with longer

  11. Role and structural characterization of plant aldehyde dehydrogenases from family 2 and family 7

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Končitíková, R.; Vigouroux, A.; Kopečná, M.; Andree, T.; Bartoš, Jan; Šebela, M.; Moréra, S.; Kopečný, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 468, Part: 1 (2015), s. 109-123 ISSN 0264-6021 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-22322S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) * aldehyde dehydrogenase 7 (ALDH7) * benzaldehyde Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.562, year: 2015

  12. Direct chemoselective synthesis of glyconanoparticles from unprotected reducing glycans and glycopeptide aldehydes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Mikkel Boas; Sørensen, Kasper Kildegaard; Cló, Emiliano

    2009-01-01

    Chemoselective oxime coupling was used for facile conjugation of unprotected, reducing glycans and glycopeptide aldehydes with core-shell gold nanoparticles carrying reactive aminooxy groups on the organic shell.......Chemoselective oxime coupling was used for facile conjugation of unprotected, reducing glycans and glycopeptide aldehydes with core-shell gold nanoparticles carrying reactive aminooxy groups on the organic shell....

  13. Effects of cooking method, cooking oil, and food type on aldehyde emissions in cooking oil fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Lin, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Yi-Chun

    2017-02-15

    Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain a mixture of chemicals. Of all chemicals, aldehydes draw a great attention since several of them are considered carcinogenic and formation of long-chain aldehydes is related to fatty acids in cooking oils. The objectives of this research were to compare aldehyde compositions and concentrations in COFs produced by different cooking oils, cooking methods, and food types and to suggest better cooking practices. This study compared aldehydes in COFs produced using four cooking oils (palm oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil), three cooking methods (stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying), and two foods (potato and pork loin) in a typical kitchen. Results showed the highest total aldehyde emissions in cooking methods were produced by deep frying, followed by pan frying then by stir frying. Sunflower oil had the highest emissions of total aldehydes, regardless of cooking method and food type whereas rapeseed oil and palm oil had relatively lower emissions. This study suggests that using gentle cooking methods (e.g., stir frying) and using oils low in unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., palm oil or rapeseed oil) can reduce the production of aldehydes in COFs, especially long-chain aldehydes such as hexanal and t,t-2,4-DDE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Electron impact ionization of cycloalkanes, aldehydes, and ketones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, JH 826 004 (India)

    2014-08-07

    The theoretical calculations of electron impact total ionization cross section for cycloalkane, aldehyde, and ketone group molecules are undertaken from ionization threshold to 2 keV. The present calculations are based on the spherical complex optical potential formalism and complex scattering potential ionization contribution method. The results of most of the targets studied compare fairly well with the recent measurements, wherever available and the cross sections for many targets are predicted for the first time. The correlation between the peak of ionization cross sections with number of target electrons and target parameters is also reported. It was found that the cross sections at their maximum depend linearly with the number of target electrons and with other target parameters, confirming the consistency of the values reported here.

  15. The Arabidopsis aldehyde oxidase 3 (AA03) gene product catalyzes the final step in abscisic acid biosynthesis in leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seo, M.; Peeters, A.J.M.; Koiwai, H.; Oritani, T.; Marion-Poll, A.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.; Koornneef, M.; Kamiya, Y.; Koshiba, T.

    2000-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone involved in seed development and germination and in responses to various environmental stresses. The last step of ABA biosynthesis involves oxidation of abscisic aldehyde, and aldehyde oxidase (EC 1.2.3.1) is thought to catalyze this reaction. An aldehyde

  16. A limited LCA of bio-adipic acid: Manufacturing the nylon-6,6 precursor adipic acid using the benzoic acid degradation pathway from different feedstocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duuren, van J.B.J.H.; Brehmer, B.; Mars, A.E.; Eggink, G.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    A limited life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed on a combined biological and chemical process for the production of adipic acid, which was compared to the traditional petrochemical process. The LCA comprises the biological conversion of the aromatic feedstocks benzoic acid, impure aromatics,

  17. Greener Friedel-Crafts Acylation using Microwave-enhanced reactivity of Bismuth Triflate in the Friedel-Crafts Benzoylation of Aromatic Compounds with Benzoic Anhydride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phuong Hoang; Nguyen, Hai Truong; Hansen, Poul Erik

    2017-01-01

    An efficient and facile bismuth trifluoromethanesulfonate-catalyzed benzoylation of aromatic compounds using benzoic anhydride under solvent-free microwave irradiation has been developed. The microwave-assisted Friedel-Crafts benzoylation results in good yields within short reaction times. Bismuth...

  18. Validated HPLC method for identification and quantification of p-hydroxy benzoic acid and agnuside in Vitex negundo and Vitex trifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Shah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection method was developed for the identification and quantification of p-hydroxy benzoic acid and agnuside in the extracts of Vitex negundo and Vitex trifolia. The separation was achieved using acetonitrile and O-phosphoric acid–water (0.5%, v/v as the mobile phase in an isocratic elution mode. Mean retention times of standard p-hydroxy benzoic acid and agnuside were 6.14 and 11.90 min respectively. The developed method was validated as per the ICH guidelines for limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity, accuracy and precision. Good linearity (r2≥0.999 was observed for both the compounds in wide concentration range. Relative standard deviation values for intra-day and inter-day precision studies were less than 2%. The analytical recoveries of p-hydroxy benzoic acid and agnuside by the developed HPLC method were 93.07% and 106.11% respectively. Two compounds were identified and quantified in leaves and bar extracts of V. negundo and V. trifolia using the developed HPLC method. Keywords: Vitex negundo, Vitex trifolia, HPLC-PDA, p-Hydroxy benzoic acid, Agnuside

  19. Ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection of aliphatic carboxylic acids on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin by elution with benzoic acid-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Mori, Masanobu; Xu, Qun; Helaleh, Murad I H; Ikedo, Mikaru; Taoda, Hiroshi; Hu, Wenzhi; Hasebe, Kiyoshi; Fritz, James S; Haddad, Paul R

    2003-05-16

    In this study, an aqueous solution consisting of benzoic acid with low background conductivity and beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) of hydrophilic nature and the inclusion effect to benzoic acid were used as eluent for the ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids with different pKa values and hydrophobicity on a polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin in the H+ form. With increasing concentration of beta-cyclodextrin in the eluent, the retention times of the carboxylic acids decreased due to the increased hydrophilicity of the polymethacrylate-based cation-exchange resin surface from the adsorption of OH groups of beta-cyclodextrin. Moreover, the eluent background conductivity decreased with increasing concentration of beta-cyclodextrin in 1 mM benzoic acid, which could result in higher sensitivity for conductimetric detection. The ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of carboxylic acids with high resolution and sensitivity was accomplished successfully by elution with a 1 mM benzoic acid-10 mM cyclodextrin solution without chemical suppression.

  20. Amino propynyl benzoic acid building block in rigid spacers of divalent ligands binding to the Syk SH2 domains with equally high affinity as the natural ligand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Frank J; de Mol, Nico J; Fischer, Marcel J E; Liskamp, Rob M J; Dekker, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The construction of rigid spacers composed of amino propynyl benzoic acid building blocks is described. These spacers were used to link two phosphopeptide ligand sites towards obtaining divalent ligands with a high affinity for Syk tandem SH2 domains, which are important in signal transduction. The

  1. ON THE FORMATION OF BENZOIC ACID AND HIGHER-ORDER BENZENE CARBOXYLIC ACIDS IN INTERSTELLAR MODEL ICE GRAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurtry, Brandon M.; Saito, Sean E. J.; Turner, Andrew M.; Chakravarty, Harish K.; Kaiser, Ralf I. [W. M. Keck Research Laboratory in Astrochemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    With a binary ice mixture of benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at 10 K under contamination-free ultrahigh vacuum conditions, the formation of benzene carboxylic acids in interstellar ice grains was studied. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to probe for the formation of new species during the chemical processing of the ice mixture and during the following temperature-programmed desorption. Newly formed benzene carboxylic acid species, i.e., benzoic acid, as well as meta - and para -benzene dicarboxylic acid, were assigned using newly emerging bands in the infrared spectrum; a reaction mechanism, along with rate constants, was proposed utilizing the kinetic fitting of the coupled differential equations.

  2. Photoinduced Birefringent Pattern and Photoinactivation of Liquid-Crystalline Copolymer Films with Benzoic Acid and Phenylaldehyde Side Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro; Inada, Shogo; Fujii, Ryosuke; Kondo, Mizuho

    2018-02-06

    In situ formation of N-benzylideneaniline (NBA) side groups achieved photoinduced cooperative reorientation of photoinactive copolymers with phenylaldehyde (PA) and benzoic acid (BA) side groups doped with 4-methoxyaniline (AN) molecules. Thermally stimulated molecular reorientation of the side groups was generated due to the axis-selective photoreaction of the NBA moieties. Selective coating with AN on the copolymer film formed NBA moieties in the desired region, resulting in a photoinduced birefringent pattern. Additionally, postannealing at an elevated temperature for a long time attained photoinactivation of the reoriented film, and recoating with AN to form NBA achieved the multiple birefringent patterns and repatterning of the reoriented structures. The slow thermal hydrolysis of NBA, which was 50 times slower than the thermally stimulated self-organization of the side groups due to the presence of BA side groups, contributed to the photodurability of the reoriented film and multiple birefringent patterns.

  3. Functionalization of Chitosan with 3,4,5-Trihydroxy Benzoic Acid Moiety for The Uptake of Chromium Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Sabarudin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan-based chelating resin, the cross-linked chitosan functionalized with 3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoic acid moiety (CCTS-THBA resin, was newly synthesized and its adsorption behavior toward appropriate elements was investigated. At pH 5-9, the CCTS-THBA resin showed quantitative adsorption (87-91% for Cr (VI, while only < 15% for Cr (III. The addition of cyclohexanediamine tetraacetic acid (CyDTA to the samples resulted in a considerably increase of the adsorption of both chromium species. In this condition, Cr (III is chelated with CyDTA to form anionic complexes at pH 3-5, which was then completely adsorbed on the resin by ion exchange mechanism. Similarly, the adsorption of Cr (VI reached almost 100% in pH range of 3-6. The adsorption capacity of CCTS-THBA resin for Cr (VI was 109 mg g-1.

  4. Protective effect of ketotifen and disodium cromoglycate against bronchoconstriction induced by aspirin, benzoic acid or tartrazine in intolerant asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, B

    1979-01-01

    Oral challenge tests with acetylsalicylic acid, tartrazine or benzoic acid were performed in 7 intolerant asthmatic patients after a 3-day treatment with either orally taken ketotifen (1 mg twice daily) or inhaled disodium cromoglycate (20 mg four times daily) at random. Protection was noted with ketotifen in 5, with DSCG in 3 patients. On the evaluation of the mean percentage of the maximum decline in the forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) only ketotifen afforded significant protection statistically (p less than 0.05). All the intolerant asthmatics studies showed, as an immunological abnormity, a slight, but significant decrease of the C1-inhibitor levels. Moreover, in three out of these the alpha 1-antitrypsin serum values were under the lower normal range.

  5. In situ N{sub 2}O emissions are not mitigated by hippuric and benzoic acids under denitrifying conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krol, D.J., E-mail: dominika.krol@teagasc.ie; Forrestal, P.J.; Lanigan, G.J.; Richards, K.G.

    2015-04-01

    Ruminant urine patches deposited onto pasture are a significant source of greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) from livestock agriculture. Increasing food demand is predicted to lead to a rise in ruminant numbers globally, which, in turn will result in elevated levels of urine-derived N{sub 2}O. Therefore mitigation strategies are urgently needed. Urine contains hippuric acid and together with one of its breakdown products, benzoic acid, has previously been linked to mitigating N{sub 2}O emissions from urine patches in laboratory studies. However, the sole field study to date found no effect of hippuric and benzoic acid concentration on N{sub 2}O emissions. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the in situ effect of these urine constituents on N{sub 2}O emissions under conditions conducive to denitrification losses. Unadulterated bovine urine (0 mM of hippuric acid, U) was applied, as well as urine amended with either benzoic acid (96 mM, U + BA) or varying rates of hippuric acid (8 and 82 mM, U + HA1, U + HA2). Soil inorganic nitrogen (N) and N{sub 2}O fluxes were monitored over a 66 day period. Urine application resulted in elevated N{sub 2}O flux for 44 days. The largest N{sub 2}O fluxes accounting for between 13% (U) and 26% (U + HA1) of total loss were observed on the day of urine application. Between 0.9 and 1.3% of urine-N was lost as N{sub 2}O. Cumulative N{sub 2}O loss from the control was 0.3 kg N{sub 2}O–N ha{sup −1} compared with 11, 9, 12, and 10 kg N{sub 2}O–N ha{sup −1} for the U, U + HA1, U + HA2, and U + BA treatments, respectively. Incremental increases in urine HA or increase in BA concentrations had no effect on N{sub 2}O emissions. Although simulation of dietary manipulation to reduce N{sub 2}O emissions through altering individual urine constituents appears to have no effect, there may be other manipulations such as reducing N content or inclusion of synthetic inhibitory products that warrant further investigation

  6. Different specificities of two aldehyde dehydrogenases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Suprama; Annapure, Uday S; Timson, David J

    2017-04-30

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases play crucial roles in the detoxification of exogenous and endogenous aldehydes by catalysing their oxidation to carboxylic acid counterparts. The present study reports characterization of two such isoenzymes from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii (NCYC 3264), one mitochondrial (Ald4p) and one cytosolic (Ald6p). Both Ald4p and Ald6p were oligomeric in solution and demonstrated positive kinetic cooperativity towards aldehyde substrates. Wild-type Ald6p showed activity only with aliphatic aldehydes. Ald4p, on the contrary, showed activity with benzaldehyde along with a limited range of aliphatic aldehydes. Inspection of modelled structure of Ald6p revealed that a bulky amino acid residue (Met 177 , compared with the equivalent residue Leu 196 in Ald4p) might cause steric hindrance of cyclic substrates. Therefore, we hypothesized that specificities of the two isoenzymes towards aldehyde substrates were partly driven by steric hindrance in the active site. A variant of wild-type Ald6p with the Met 177 residue replaced by a valine was also characterized to address to the hypothesis. It showed an increased specificity range and a gain of activity towards cyclohexanecarboxaldehyde. It also demonstrated an increased thermal stability when compared with both the wild-types. These data suggest that steric bulk in the active site of yeast aldehyde dehydrogenases is partially responsible for controlling specificity. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Benzoic acid fermentation from starch and cellulose via a plant-like β-oxidation pathway in Streptomyces maritimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noda Shuhei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzoic acid is one of the most useful aromatic compounds. Despite its versatility and simple structure, benzoic acid production using microbes has not been reported previously. Streptomyces are aerobic, Gram-positive, mycelia-forming soil bacteria, and are known to produce various kinds of antibiotics composed of many aromatic residues. S. maritimus possess a complex amino acid modification pathway and can serve as a new platform microbe to produce aromatic building-block compounds. In this study, we carried out benzoate fermentation using S. maritimus. In order to enhance benzoate productivity using cellulose as the carbon source, we constructed endo-glucanase secreting S. maritimus. Results After 4 days of cultivation using glucose, cellobiose, or starch as a carbon source, the maximal level of benzoate reached 257, 337, and 460 mg/l, respectively. S. maritimus expressed β-glucosidase and high amylase-retaining activity compared to those of S. lividans and S. coelicolor. In addition, for effective benzoate production from cellulosic materials, we constructed endo-glucanase-secreting S. maritimus. This transformant efficiently degraded the phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC and then produced 125 mg/l benzoate. Conclusions Wild-type S. maritimus produce benzoate via a plant-like β-oxidation pathway and can assimilate various carbon sources for benzoate production. In order to encourage cellulose degradation and improve benzoate productivity from cellulose, we constructed endo-glucanase-secreting S. maritimus. Using this transformant, we also demonstrated the direct fermentation of benzoate from cellulose. To achieve further benzoate productivity, the L-phenylalanine availability needs to be improved in future.

  8. Preparation of 3,5-disubstituted pyrazoles and isoxazoles from terminal alkynes, aldehydes, hydrazines, and hydroxylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harigae, Ryo; Moriyama, Katsuhiko; Togo, Hideo

    2014-03-07

    The reaction of terminal alkynes with n-BuLi, and then with aldehydes, followed by the treatment with molecular iodine, and subsequently hydrazines or hydroxylamine provided the corresponding 3,5-disubstituted pyrazoles or isoxazoles in good yields with high regioselectivity, through the formations of propargyl secondary alkoxides and α-alkynyl ketones. The present reactions are one-pot preparation of 3,5-disubstituted pyrazoles from terminal alkynes, aldehydes, molecular iodine, and hydrazines, and 3,5-disubstituted isoxazoles from terminal alkynes, aldehydes, molecular iodine, and hydroxylamine.

  9. Mechanism of catalytic action of oxide systems in reactions of aldehyde oxidation to carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrushkevich, T.V.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanism of selective action of oxide catalysts (on the base of V 2 O 4 , MoO 3 ) of aldehyde oxidation to acids is considered, reaction acrolein oxidation to acrylic acid is taken as an example. Multistage mechanism of the process is established; it involves consequent transformation of coordination-bonded aldehyde into carbonyl-bonded aldehyde and symmetric carboxylate. Principles of active surface construction are formulated, they take into account the activity of stabilization center of concrete intermediate compound and bond energy of oxygen with surface. (author)

  10. An Efficient Synthesis of 2-Substituted Benzimidazoles via Photocatalytic Condensation of o-Phenylenediamines and Aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovvuri, Jeshma; Nagaraju, Burri; Kamal, Ahmed; Srivastava, Ajay K

    2016-10-10

    A photocatalytic method has been developed for the efficient synthesis of functionalized benzimidazoles. This protocol involves photocatalytic condensation of o-phenylenediamines with various aldehydes using the Rose Bengal as photocatalyst. The method was found to be general and was successfully employed for accessing pharmaceutically important benzimidazoles by the condensation of aromatic, heteroaromatic and aliphatic aldehydes with o-phenylenediamines, in good-to-excellent yields. Notably, the method was found to be effective for the condensation of less reactive heterocyclic aldehydes with o-phenylenediamines.

  11. Aldehyde-sequestering drugs: tools for studying protein damage by lipid peroxidation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Philip C; Kaminskas, Lisa M; Fontaine, Frank R; Petersen, Dennis R; Pyke, Simon M

    2002-12-27

    Elevated levels of reactive alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes (e.g. malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal and acrolein) in the affected tissues of various degenerative conditions suggest these substances are active propagators of the disease process. One experimental approach to attenuating damage by these intermediates employs 'aldehyde-sequestering drugs' as sacrificial nucleophiles, thereby sparing cell macromolecules and perhaps slowing disease progression. Drugs with demonstrated trapping activity toward lipid-derived aldehydes include various amine compounds such as aminoguanidine, carnosine and pyridoxamine. We have focused on identifying scavengers of acrolein, perhaps the most toxic aldehyde formed during lipid peroxidation cascades. Various phthalazine compounds (hydralazine and dihydralazine) were found to trap acrolein readily, forming hydrazone derivatives in a rapid Schiff-type reaction. These compounds strongly protect against acrolein-mediated toxicity in isolated hepatocytes.

  12. Oxidative Esterification of Aldehydes with Urea Hydrogen Peroxide Catalyzed by Aluminum Chloride Hexahydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sin-Ae; Kim, Yoon Mi; Lee, Jong Chan [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    We have developed a new, environmentally benign and highly efficient oxidative preparation of methyl esters by the reaction of various aldehydes with UHP in methanol catalyzed by readily accessible aluminum(III) chloride hexahydrate. This new greener and cost effective direct esterification method can serve as a useful alternative to existing protocols. Esters are some of the most important functional groups in organic chemistry and have been found in the sub-structure of a variety of natural products, industrial chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. Numerous methods have been reported for the preparation of various esters. In particular, this method gives low yields for both aldehydes containing electron donating substituents in aromatic rings and heterocyclic aldehydes. Therefore, development of a more general, efficient, and greener protocol for the esterification of aldehydes with readily available catalyst is still desirable.

  13. Microwave Assisted Solvent Free Synthesis of Azomethines from Aryl Aldehydes on Melamin Formaldehyde as Solid Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Rezaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various aryl aldehydes underwent prompt one pot conversion into the corresponding azomethines in high yields by reacting with hydroxylamine hydrochloride supported on melamine formaldehyde under microwave irradiation.

  14. Role of Lipid Peroxidation-Derived α, β-Unsaturated Aldehydes in Vascular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular diseases are the most prominent cause of death, and inflammation and vascular dysfunction are key initiators of the pathophysiology of vascular disease. Lipid peroxidation products, such as acrolein and other α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, have been implicated as mediators of inflammation and vascular dysfunction. α, β-Unsaturated aldehydes are toxic because of their high reactivity with nucleophiles and their ability to form protein and DNA adducts without prior metabolic activation. This strong reactivity leads to electrophilic stress that disrupts normal cellular function. Furthermore, α, β-unsaturated aldehydes are reported to cause endothelial dysfunction by induction of oxidative stress, redox-sensitive mechanisms, and inflammatory changes such as induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and cytokines. This review provides an overview of the effects of lipid peroxidation products, α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, on inflammation and vascular dysfunction.

  15. ARA-aldehyde and ABA-trans-diol in apple fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, C.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1989-01-01

    We have isolated ABA-aldehyde and ABA-t-diol from postharvest apple fruits, cv. Granny Smith and confirmed their structure by GC-MS. These putative ABA biosynthetic precursors incorporate 18 O to a similar degree as ABA during 48 hours under 18 O 2 atmospheres. The presence of significant amounts of ABA-aldehyde can explain the unique 18 O labeling pattern of ABA in this tissue, where a majority of ABA molecules containing 18 O is labeled in the 1'-hydroxyl group and not in the side chain carboxyl group, the primary site of incorporation for stressed leaves. Exchange of the carbonyl oxygen of ABA-aldehyde with water would decrease 18 O enrichment in the side chain. Results of 18 O 2 experiments and feeding studies using hexadeutero-ABA-aldehyde will be presented and the biosynthetic relationship of these compounds discussed

  16. A HIGHLY STEREOSELECTIVE, NOVEL COUPLING REACTION BETWEEN ALKYNES WITH ALDEHYDES. (R828129)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the presence of indium triflate or gallium chloride, a novel coupling between internal alkynes and aldehydes occurred to give unsaturated ketones and [4+1] annulation products. Graphical Abstrac...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY PROTOCOL VERIFICATION REPORT, EMISSIONS OF VOCS AND ALDEHYDES FROM COMMERCIAL FURNITURE (WITH APPENDICES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Technology Verification program, the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) developed a test protocol for measuring volatile organic compounds and aldehydes in a large chamber. RTI convened stakeholders for the commercial...

  18. Kinetics, mechanism and thermodynamics of bisulfite-aldehyde adduct formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, T.M.; Boyce, S.D.; Hoffmann, M.R.

    1986-04-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of bisulfite addition to benzaldehyde were studied at low pH in order to assess the importance of this reaction in stabilizing S(IV) in fog-, cloud-, and rainwater. Previously, the authors established that appreciable concentrations of the formaldehyde-bisulfite adduct (HMSA) are often present in fogwater. Measured HMSA concentrations in fogwater often do not fully account for observed excess S(IV) concentrations, however, so that other S(IV)-aldehyde adducts may be present. Reaction rates were determined by monitoring the disappearance of benzaldehyde by U.V. spectrophotometry under pseudo-first order conditions, (S(IV))/sub T/ >>(phi-CHO)/sub T/, in the pH range 0 - 4.4 at 25/sup 0/C. The equilibrium constant was determined by dissolving the sodium salt of the addition compound in a solution adjusted to pH 3.9, and measuring the absorbance of the equilibrated solution at 250 nm. A literature value of the extinction coefficient for benzaldehyde was used to calculate the concentration of free benzaldehyde. All solutions were prepared under an N/sub 2/ atmosphere using deoxygenated, deionized water and ionic strength was maintained at 1.0 M with sodium chloride.

  19. Characterization of Aldehyde Crosslinked Kenaf Regenerated Cellulose Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatika Kaco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Regenerated cellulose film with better mechanical properties was successfully produced by introducing aldehyde crosslinker during the regeneration process. The cellulose source material was derived from kenaf core powder and dissolved in LiOH/urea solvent at −13 °C to form a cellulose solution. The cellulose solution was cast and coagulated in a crosslinker bath at different percentages of glutaraldehyde (GA and glyoxal (GX to form a regenerated cellulose film. According to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR spectra, the hydroxyl group of the cellulose was reduced, reducing the percentage of swelling as the percentage of crosslinker was increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns showed that the crystallinity index of the crosslinked film was decreased. The pore size of the films decreased as the percentage of crosslinker was increased, resulting in decreased film transparency. The pore volume and percentage of swelling in water of the films also increased with decreases in the pore size as the percentage of crosslinker was increased. The tensile strengths of the GA- and GX-crosslinked films increased by 20 and 15% with the addition of 20% of each crosslinker, respectively.

  20. Oxidation of Group 8 transition-Metal Hydrides and Ionic Hydrogenation of Ketones and Aldehydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kjell-Tore

    1996-08-01

    Transition-metal hydrides have received considerable attention during the last decades because of their unusual reactivity and their potential as homogeneous catalysts for hydrogenation and other reactions of organic substrates. An important class of catalytic processes where transition-metal hydrides are involved is the homogeneous hydrogenation of alkenes, alkynes, ketones, aldehydes, arenes and nitro compounds. This thesis studies the oxidation of Group 8 transition-metal hydrides and the ionic hydrogenation of ketones and aldehydes.

  1. Detoxification of aldehydes by histidine-containing dipeptides: from chemistry to clinical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhengzhi; Baba, Shahid P.; Sweeney, Brooke R.; Barski, Oleg A.

    2015-01-01

    Aldehydes are generated by oxidized lipids and carbohydrates at increased levels under conditions of metabolic imbalance and oxidative stress during atherosclerosis, myocardial and cerebral ischemia, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases and trauma. In most tissues, aldehydes are detoxified by oxidoreductases that catalyze the oxidation or the reduction of aldehydes or enzymatic and nonenzymatic conjugation with low molecular weight thiols and amines, such as glutathione and histidine dipeptides. Histidine dipeptides are present in micromolar to millimolar range in the tissues of vertebrates, where they are involved in a variety of physiological functions such as pH buffering, metal chelation, oxidant and aldehyde scavenging. Histidine dipeptides such as carnosine form Michael adducts with lipid-derived unsaturated aldehydes, and react with carbohydrate-derived oxo- and hydroxy- aldehydes forming products of unknown structure. Although these peptides react with electrophilic molecules at lower rate than glutathione, they can protect glutathione from modification by oxidant and they may be important for aldehyde quenching in glutathione-depleted cells or extracellular space where glutathione is scarce. Consistent with in vitro findings, treatment with carnosine has been shown to diminish ischemic injury, improve glucose control, ameliorate the development of complications in animal models of diabetes and obesity, promote wound healing and decrease atherosclerosis. The protective effects of carnosine have been linked to its anti-oxidant properties, it ability to promote glycolysis, detoxify reactive aldehydes and enhance histamine levels. Thus, treatment with carnosine and related histidine dipeptides may be a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with high carbonyl load. PMID:23313711

  2. Copper(II)/amine synergistically catalyzed enantioselective alkylation of cyclic N-acyl hemiaminals with aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shutao; Mao, Ying; Lou, Hongxiang; Liu, Lei

    2015-07-07

    The first catalytic asymmetric alkylation of N-acyl quinoliniums with aldehydes has been described. A copper/amine synergistic catalytic system has been developed, allowing the addition of functionalized aldehydes to a wide range of electronically varied N-acyl quinoliniums in good yields with excellent enantiocontrol. The synergistic catalytic system was also effective for N-acyl dihydroisoquinoliniums and β-caboliniums, demonstrating the general applicability of the protocol in the enantioselective alkylation of diverse cyclic N-acyl hemiaminals.

  3. Effect of phenolic aldehydes and flavonoids on growth and inactivation of Oenococcus oeni and Lactobacillus hilgardii

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Ana Rita; Campos, Francisco; Freitas, Víctor de; Hogg, Tim; Couto, José António

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of wine phenolic aldehydes, flavonoids and tannins on growth and viability of strains of Oenococcus oeni and Lactobacillus hilgardii. Cultures were grown in ethanol-containing MRS/TJ medium supplemented with different concentrations of phenolic aldehydes or flavonoids and monitored spectrophotometrically. The effect of tannins was evaluated by monitoring the progressive inactivation of cells in ethanol-containing phosphate buffer supplemented...

  4. An Improved Protocol for the Aldehyde Olefination Reaction Using (bmim ( as Reaction Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available [Ru(CODCl2]/CuCl2·2H2O/LiCl catalytic system works efficiently in ionic liquid media for aldehyde olefination reaction. It offers good yield and selectivity with the added advantage of 5 times recyclability for [Ru(CODCl2] /CuCl2·2H2O/LiCl catalytic system. We also successfully reduced the reaction time from 12 hours to 9 hours for the aldehyde olefination reaction.

  5. The use of tomato aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 for the detection of aldehydes in fruit distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frömmel, Jan; Tarkowski, Petr; Kopečný, David; Šebela, Marek

    2016-09-25

    Plant NAD(+)-dependent aminoaldehyde dehydrogenases (AMADHs, EC 1.2.1.19) belong to the family 10 of aldehyde dehydrogenases. They participate in the metabolism of polyamines or osmoprotectants. The enzymes are characterized by their broad substrate specificity covering ω-aminoaldehydes, aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes as well as nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aldehydes. The isoenzyme 1 from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; SlAMADH1) oxidizes aliphatic aldehydes very efficiently and converts also furfural, its derivatives or benzaldehyde, which are present at low concentrations in alcoholic distillates such as fruit brandy. In this work, SlAMADH1 was examined as a bioanalytical tool for their detection. These aldehydes arise from fermentation processes or thermal degradation of sugars and their presence is related to health complications after consumption including nausea, emesis, sweating, decrease in blood pressure, hangover headache, among others. Sixteen samples of slivovitz (plum brandy) from local producers in Moravia, Czech Republic, were analyzed for their aldehyde content using a spectrophotometric activity assay with SlAMADH1. In all cases, there were oxidative responses observed when monitoring NADH production in the enzymatic reaction. Aldehydes in the distillate samples were also subjected to a standard determination using reversed-phase HPLC with spectrophotometric and tandem mass spectrometric detection after a derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Results obtained by both methods were found to correlate well for a majority of the analyzed samples. The possible applicability of SlAMADH1 for the evaluation of aldehyde content in food and beverages has now been demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Intramolecular Diels–Alder Reaction of Tryptamine-Derived Zincke Aldehydes Is a Stepwise Process

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Hung V.; Martin, David B. C.; Vanderwal, Christopher D.; Houk, K. N.

    2012-01-01

    Computational studies show that the base-mediated intramolecular Diels–Alder of tryptamine-derived Zincke aldehydes, used as a key step in the synthesis of the Strychnos alkaloids norfluorocurarine and strychnine, proceeds via a stepwise pathway. The experimentally determined importance of a potassium counterion in the base is explained by its ability to preorganize the Zincke aldehyde diene in an s-cis conformation suitable to bicyclization. Computation also supports the thermodynamic import...

  7. Reactions of the radical cations of aliphatic aldehydes in freon matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belevskij, V.N.; Belopushkin, S.I.; Feldman, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    ESR spectra of γ-irradiated solutions of acetic and propionic aldehydes in freon-11 and freon-113 affected by aldehyde concentration, temperature, and the action of light were studied. It is shown that the radical cations are converted into neutral radicals, and the cations CHsub(3)CHsub(2)CHOsup(+). are converted to RCO and CHsub(3)CHCHO due to ion-molecular reactions of proton transfer of hydrogen atom transfer. (author)

  8. Effect of selected aldehydes on the growth and fermentation of ethanologenic Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaldivar, J.; Ingram, L.O. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Cell Science; Martinez, A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Cell Science]|[Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Inst. de Biotecnologia

    1999-10-05

    Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic raw-materials requires the hydrolysis of carbohydrate polymers into a fermentable syrup. During the hydrolysis of hemicellulose with dilute acid, a variety of toxic compounds are produced such as soluble aromatic aldehydes from lignin and furfural from pentose destruction. In this study, the authors have investigated the toxicity of representative aldehydes (furfural, 5-hydroxymethlyfurfural, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, syringaldehyde, and vanillin) as inhibitors of growth and ethanol production by ethanologenic derivatives of Escherichia coli B (strains K011 and LY01). Aromatic aldyhydes were at least twice as toxic as furfural of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural on a weight basis. The toxicities of all aldehydes (and ethanol) except furfural were additive when tested in binary combinations. In all cases, combinations with furfural were unexpectedly toxic. Although the potency of these aldehydes was directly related to hydrophobicity indicating a hydrophobic site of action, none caused sufficient membrane damage to allow the leakage of intracellular magnesium even when present at sixfold the concentrations required for growth inhibition. Of the aldehydes tested, only furfural strongly inhibited ethanol production in vitro. A comparison with published results for other microorganisms indicates that LY01 is equivalent or more resistant than other biocatalysts to the aldehydes examined in this study.

  9. Indoor aldehydes: measurement of contamination levels and identification of their determinants in Paris dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarisse, B.; Laurent, A.M.; Seta, N.; Le Moullec, Y.; El Hasnaoui, A.; Momas, I.

    2003-01-01

    The recent increased prevalence of childhood asthma and atopy has brought into question the impact of outdoor pollutants and indoor air quality. The contributory role of aldehydes to this problem and the fact that they are mainly derived from the domestic environment make them of particular interest. This study therefore measures six different aldehyde levels in Paris dwellings from potentially different sources and identifies their indoor determinants. The study was carried out in the three principal rooms of 61 flats with no previous history of complaint for olfactory nuisance or specific symptoms, two-thirds of the flats having been recently refurbished. Aldehydes were sampled in these rooms using passive samplers, and a questionnaire on potential aldehyde sources was filled out at the same time. A multiple linear regression model was used to investigate indoor aldehyde determinants. Our study revealed that propionaldehyde and benzaldehyde were of minor importance compared to formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, pentanal, and hexanal. We found that levels of these last four compounds depended on the age of wall or floor coverings (renovations less than 1 year old), smoking, and ambient parameters (carbon dioxide levels, temperature). These results could help in the assessment of indoor aldehyde emissions

  10. Crystal structures of three co-crystals of 1,2-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)ethane with 4-alk-oxy-benzoic acids: 4-eth-oxy-benzoic acid-1,2-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)ethane (2/1), 4-n-propoxybenzoic acid-1,2-bis(pyridin-4-yl)ethane (2/1) and 4-n-but-oxy-benzoic acid-1,2-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)ethane (2/1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Yohei; Gotoh, Kazuma; Ishida, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-01

    The crystal structures of three hydrogen-bonded co-crystals of 4-alk-oxy-benzoic acid-1,2-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)ethane (2/1), namely, 2C9H10O3·C12H12N2, (I), 2C10H12O3·C12H12N2, (II), and 2C11H14O3·C12H12N2, (III), have been determined at 93, 290 and 93 K, respectively. In (I), the asymmetric unit consists of one 4-eth-oxy-benzoic acid mol-ecule and one half-mol-ecule of 1,2-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)ethane, which lies on an inversion centre. In (II) and (III), the asymmetric units each comprise two crystallographically independent 4-alk-oxy-benzoic acid mol-ecules and one 1,2-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)ethane mol-ecule. In each crystal, the two components are linked by O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a linear hydrogen-bonded 2:1unit of the acid and the base. Similar to the structure of 2:1 unit of (I), the units of (II) and (III) adopt nearly pseudo-inversion symmetry. The 2:1 units of (I), (II) and (III) are linked via C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming tape structures.

  11. Quantification of centimeter-scale spatial variation in PAH, glucose and benzoic acid mineralization and soil organic matter in road-side soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hybholt, Trine K.; Aamand, Jens [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Johnsen, Anders R., E-mail: arj@geus.dk [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2011-05-15

    The aim of the study was to determine centimeter-scale spatial variation in mineralization potential in diffusely polluted soil. To this end we employed a 96-well microplate method to measure the mineralization of {sup 14}C-labeled organic compounds in deep-well microplates and thereby compile mineralization curves for 348 soil samples of 0.2-cm{sup 3}. Centimeter-scale spatial variation in organic matter and the mineralization of glucose, benzoic acid, and PAHs (phenanthrene and pyrene) was determined for urban road-side soil sampled as arrays (7 x 11 cm) of 96 subsamples. The spatial variation in mineralization was visualized by means of 2-D contour maps and quantified by means of semivariograms. The geostatistical analysis showed that the easily degradable compounds (glucose and benzoic acid) exhibited little spatial variation in mineralization potential, whereas the mineralization was highly heterogeneous for the PAH compounds that require specialized degraders. The spatial heterogeneity should be taken into account when estimating natural attenuation rates. - Highlights: > Geostatistics were applied at the centimeter scale. > Glucose and benzoic acid mineralization showed little spatial variation. > PAH mineralization was highly variable at the sub-centimeter scale. > High spatial heterogeneity may be caused by low functional redundancy. - This study supports the hypothesis that specialized xenobiotic degraders may show high spatial heterogeneity in soil due to low functional redundancy.

  12. Microenvironmental characteristics important for personal exposures to aldehydes in Sacramento, CA, and Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, J. H.; Akland, G.; Johnson, T. R.; Long, T.; Michael, L.; Cauble, L.; McCombs, M.

    Oxygenated additives in gasoline are designed to decrease the ozone-forming hydrocarbons and total air toxics, yet they can increase the emissions of aldehydes and thus increase human exposure to these toxic compounds. This paper describes a study conducted to characterize targeted aldehydes in microenvironments in Sacramento, CA, and Milwaukee, WI, and to improve our understanding of the impact of the urban environment on human exposure to air toxics. Data were obtained from microenvironmental concentration measurements, integrated, 24-h personal measurements, indoor and outdoor pollutant monitors at the participants' residences, from ambient pollutant monitors at fixed-site locations in each city, and from real-time diaries and questionnaires completed by the technicians and participants. As part of this study, a model to predict personal exposures based on individual time/activity data was developed for comparison to measured concentrations. Predicted concentrations were generally within 25% of the measured concentrations. The microenvironments that people encounter daily provide for widely varying exposures to aldehydes. The activities that occur in those microenvironments can modulate the aldehyde concentrations dramatically, especially for environments such as "indoor at home." By considering personal activity, location (microenvironment), duration in the microenvironment, and a knowledge of the general concentrations of aldehydes in the various microenvironments, a simple model can do a reasonably good job of predicting the time-averaged personal exposures to aldehydes, even in the absence of monitoring data. Although concentrations of aldehydes measured indoors at the participants' homes tracked well with personal exposure, there were instances where personal exposures and indoor concentrations differed significantly. Key to the ability to predict exposure based on time/activity data is the quality and completeness of the microenvironmental

  13. Influences of cinnamic aldehydes on H⁺ extrusion activity and ultrastructure of Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreaz, Sheikh; Bhatia, Rimple; Khan, Neelofar; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Manzoor, Nikhat; Khan, Luqman Ahmad

    2013-02-01

    The antifungal effects of cinnamaldehyde, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde (coniferyl aldehyde) and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (sinapaldehyde) were investigated against 65 strains of Candida (six standard, 39 fluconazole-sensitive and 20 fluconazole-resistant). MICs of cinnamaldehyde, coniferyl aldehyde and sinapaldehyde ranged from 100 to 500 µg ml(-1), 100 to 300 µg ml(-1) and 100 to 200 µg ml(-1), respectively. All tested isolates showed a marked sensitivity towards these aldehydes in spot and time-kill assays. Sinapaldehyde was found to be the most effective, followed by coniferyl aldehyde and cinnamaldehyde. At their respective MIC(90) values, the three compounds caused mean inhibition levels of glucose-stimulated H(+)-efflux of 36, 34 and 41 % (cinnamaldehyde), 41, 42 and 47 % (coniferyl aldehyde) and 43, 45 and 51 % (sinapaldehyde) for standard-sensitive, clinical-sensitive and clinical-resistant isolates, respectively. Inhibition levels of H(+)-efflux caused by plasma membrane ATPase inhibitors N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (100 µM) and diethylstilbestrol (10 µM) were 34, 45 and 44 %, and 57, 39 and 35 %, for standard-sensitive, clinical-sensitive and clinical-resistant isolates, respectively. Intracellular pH (pHi) was found to decrease by 0.34, 0.42 and 0.50 units following incubation with three tested aldehydes from the control pHi of 6.70. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis was performed on a representative strain, C. albicans 10261, showing alterations in morphology, cell wall, plasma membrane damage and lysis. Haemolytic activity of the three compounds varied from 10 to 15 % at their highest MIC compared to an activity level of 20 % shown by fluconazole at 30 µg ml(-1). In conclusion, this study shows significant activity of cinnamic aldehydes against Candida, including azole-resistant strains, suggesting that these molecules can be developed as antifungals.

  14. Quantitative analysis of aldehydes in canned vegetables using static headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, María; Gallego, Mercedes; Silva, Manuel

    2017-11-17

    Volatile aldehydes appear in canned vegetables as constituents and some of them can also be present as disinfection by-products (DBPs) because of the contact between vegetables and treated water. This paper describes two static headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SHS-GC-MS) methods to determine 15 aldehydes in both the solid and the liquid phases of canned vegetables. The treatment for both phases of samples was carried out simultaneously into an SHS unit, including the leaching of the aldehydes (from the vegetable), their derivatization and volatilization of the oximes formed. Detection limits were obtained within the range of 15-400μg/kg and 3-40μg/L for aldehydes in the solid and the liquid phases of the food, respectively. The relative standard deviation was lower than 7% -for the whole array of the target analytes-, the trueness evaluated by recovery experiments provided %recoveries between 89 and 99% and short- and long-term stability studies indicated there was no significant variation in relative peak areas of all aldehydes in both phases of canned vegetables after their storing at 4°C for two weeks. The study of the origin of the 15 aldehydes detected between both phases of canned vegetables showed that: i) the presence of 13 aldehydes -at average concentrations of 2.2-39μg/kg and 0.25-71μg/L for the solid and the liquid phases, respectively- is because they are natural constituents of vegetables; and ii) the presence of glyoxal and methylglyoxal -which are mainly found in the liquid phase (average values, 1.4-4.1μg/L)- is ascribed to the use of treated water, thereby being DBPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification and characterization of an antennae-specific aldehyde oxidase from the navel orangeworm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Moo Choo

    Full Text Available Antennae-specific odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs are postulated to inactivate odorant molecules after they convey their signal. Different classes of insect ODEs are specific to esters, alcohols, and aldehydes--the major functional groups of female-produced, hydrophobic sex pheromones from moth species. Esterases that rapidly inactive acetate and other esters have been well-studied, but less is known about aldehyde oxidases (AOXs. Here we report cloning of an aldehyde oxidase, AtraAOX2, from the antennae of the navel orangeworm (NOW, Amyelois transitella, and the first activity characterization of a recombinant insect AOX. AtraAOX2 gene spans 3,813 bp and encodes a protein with 1,270 amino acid residues. AtraAOX2 cDNA was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect Sf21 cells as a ≈280 kDa homodimer with 140 kDa subunits. Recombinant AtraAOX2 degraded Z11Z13-16Ald and plant volatile aldehydes as substrates. However, as expected for aldehyde oxidases, recombinant AtraAOX2 did not show specificity for Z11Z13-16Ald, the main constituent of the sex pheromone, but showed high activity for plant volatile aldehydes. Our data suggest AtraAOX2 might be involved in degradation of a diversity of aldehydes including sex pheromones, plant-derived semiochemicals, and chemical cues for oviposition sites. Additionally, AtraAOX2 could protect the insect's olfactory system from xenobiotics, including pesticides that might reach the sensillar lymph surrounding the olfactory receptor neurons.

  16. Assessment and predictor determination of indoor aldehyde levels in Paris newborn babies' homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassonville, C; Demattei, C; Laurent, A-M; Le Moullec, Y; Seta, N; Momas, I

    2009-08-01

    Exposure to indoor chemical air pollutants expected to be potentially involved in allergic respiratory diseases in infants is poorly documented. A specific environmental investigation included in a birth cohort study was carried out to first assess indoor airborne aldehyde levels, using passive devices and their variability within 1 year (1, 6, 9 and 12 months) in the bedroom of 196 Paris infants, and second, to identify predictors for aldehyde concentrations using interviewer administered questionnaires about housing factors. Comfort parameters and carbon dioxide levels were measured simultaneously. Aldehydes were detected in almost all dwellings and geometric mean levels (geometric standard deviation) at the first visit were respectively for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, hexanal, and pentanal 19.4 (1.7) microg/m(3), 8.9 (1.8) microg/m(3), 25.3 (3.1) microg/m(3), 3.7 (2.3) microg/m(3), consistent with earlier published results. Generalized Estimating Equation multivariate analyses showed that, apart from comfort parameters, aeration and season, the main indoor aldehyde sources were either continuous (building materials and coverings especially when they were new) or discontinuous (smoking, use of air fresheners and cleaning products, DIY etc...). Finally, the data collected by questionnaires should be sufficient to enable us to classify each infant in our cohort study according to his/her degree of exposure to the main aldehydes. This analysis contributed to document indoor aldehyde levels in Parisian homes and to identify factors determining these levels. In the major part of newborn babies' homes, indoor formaldehyde levels were above the guideline value of 10 microg/m(3) proposed by the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety for long-term exposure. Given this result, it is essential to study the health impact of exposure to aldehydes especially formaldehyde on the incidence of respiratory and allergic symptoms, particularly during the

  17. Hydroxyl group induced adsorption of four-nitro benzoic acid on Si(100) 2x1 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihm, K.; Kang, T.-H.; Hwang, C.C.; Kim, K.-J.; Hwang, H.-N.; Kim, H.-D.; Han, J.H.; Moon, S.; Kim, B.; POSTECH

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A number of studies have been conducted on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) in order to study the adhesion of polymer films on various substrates. Recently, the studies on SAMs on the semiconductor substrate are more motivated because of their possible application to nanoscale devices. For the electronic and chemical properties suitable for various applications, the aromatic ring has been used as a building block of various molecules forming SAMs. Here, we used four-nitro benzoic acid (4-NBA) as a model planar aromatic compound, in which the phenyl ring, the carboxylic functional group, and NO2 are on the same plane. The adsorption mechanism of 4-NBA on the in-situ prepared OH/Si(100) 2x1 surface was investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and near-edge x-ray absorption e structure. The results revealed that the 4-NBA molecule reacts with the hydroxyl group on the Si(100) 2x1 surface through deprotonation of the carboxyl group. The saturation coverage of 4-NBA estimated by the O 1s ratio is 1/2 ML. Additionally, we could observe the desorption of the oxygen atom from the NO2 moiety of the 4-NBA upon irradiating the surface by photons of 500 eV

  18. (Benzoato-κObis(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2N,N′copper(II chloride benzoic acid disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Xiang Huang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Cu(C7H5O2(C12H8N22]Cl·2C6H5COOH, the CuII ion is coordinated by one carboxylate O atom from a benzoate anion and four N atoms from two phenantroline ligands in a distorted five-coordinate trigonal-bipyramidal CuON4 chromophore. The Cu2+ and the Cl− ion are imposed by a twofold rotation axiss which also bisects the equally disordered benzoate anion. In the crystal, the molecules are assembled into chains along [010] by C—H...Cl, O—H...Cl and C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions. The resulting chains are further connected into two-dimensional supramolecular layers parallel to [100] by interchain π...π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.823 (5 Å] between the phenanthroline ligands and the benzoic acid molecules, and by C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions. Strong π...π stacking interactions between adjacent phenantroline ligands [3.548 (4 Å] assemble the layers into a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture.

  19. Spectroscopic and first principles investigation on 4-[(4-pyridinylmethylene)amino]-benzoic acid bearing pyridyl and carboxyl anchoring groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Qiaoyi

    2018-03-01

    We report a combined experimental and computational investigation on the structure and photophysics of 4-[(4-pyridinylmethylene)amino]-benzoic acid, a functional molecule bearing two anchoring groups for attachment onto a TiO2 surface and perovskite surface, for potential solar cell application. This molecule possesses interesting adsorption properties in perovskite solar cell because the pyridyl group serves as the Lewis base and targets Lewis acidic sites in the perovskite surface, while the carboxyl group targets TiO2 surface, improving the coupling between the perovskite surface and the TiO2 surface. The electronic structures of the molecule and its photochemistry are revealed by the UV-vis absorption spectra and the fluorescence spectra under visible light irradiation, which are combined with density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) analysis. Considering the bi-anchoring groups and the conjugated π system embedded in the molecule, we anticipate it can molecular engineer the TiO2/perovskite interface in perovskite solar cell.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and biocidal activity of new organotin complexes of 2-(3-oxocyclohex-1-enyl)benzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Flaviana T; de Lima, Geraldo M; Maia, José R da S; Speziali, Nivaldo L; Ardisson, José D; Rodrigues, Leonardo; Correa, Ary; Romero, Oscar B

    2010-03-01

    The reaction of 1,3-cyclohexadione with 2-aminobenzoic acid has produced the 2-(3-oxocyclohex-1-enyl)benzoic acid (HOBz). Subsequent reactions of the ligand with organotin chlorides led to [Me(2)Sn(OBz)O](2) (1), [Bu(2)Sn(OBz)O](2) (2), [Ph(2)Sn(OBz)O](2) (3), [Me(3)Sn(OBz)] (4), [Bu(3)Sn(OBz)] (5) and [Ph(3)Sn(OBz)] (6). All complexes have been fully characterized. In addition the structure of complexes (2) and (4) have been authenticated by X-ray crystallography. The biological activity of all derivatives has been screened against Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. In addition we have performed toxicological testes employing human kidney cell. The complexes (3), (5) and (6) displayed the best values of inhibition of the fungus growing, superior to ketoconazole. Compound (5) presented promising results in view of the antifungal and cytotoxicity assays. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Flavoring Compounds Dominate Toxic Aldehyde Production during E-Cigarette Vaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlystov, Andrey; Samburova, Vera

    2016-12-06

    The growing popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) raises concerns about the possibility of adverse health effects to primary users and people exposed to e-cigarette vapors. E-Cigarettes offer a very wide variety of flavors, which is one of the main factors that attract new, especially young, users. How flavoring compounds in e-cigarette liquids affect the chemical composition and toxicity of e-cigarette vapors is practically unknown. Although e-cigarettes are marketed as safer alternatives to traditional cigarettes, several studies have demonstrated formation of toxic aldehydes in e-cigarette vapors during vaping. So far, aldehyde formation has been attributed to thermal decomposition of the main components of e-cigarette e-liquids (propylene glycol and glycerol), while the role of flavoring compounds has been ignored. In this study, we have measured several toxic aldehydes produced by three popular brands of e-cigarettes with flavored and unflavored e-liquids. We show that, within the tested e-cigarette brands, thermal decomposition of flavoring compounds dominates formation of aldehydes during vaping, producing levels that exceed occupational safety standards. Production of aldehydes was found to be exponentially dependent on concentration of flavoring compounds. These findings stress the need for a further, thorough investigation of the effect of flavoring compounds on the toxicity of e-cigarettes.

  2. Nitrite promotes protein carbonylation and Strecker aldehyde formation in experimental fermented sausages: are both events connected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, A; Ventanas, J; Estévez, M

    2014-12-01

    The role played by curing agents (nitrite, ascorbate) on protein oxidation and Strecker aldehyde formation is studied. To fulfill this objective, increasing concentrations of nitrite (0, 75 and 150ppm) and ascorbate (0, 250 and 500ppm) were added to sausages subjected to a 54day drying process. The concurrence of intense proteolysis, protein carbonylation and formation of Strecker aldehydes during processing of sausages suggests that α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AAS) and γ-glutamic semialdehyde (GGS) may be implicated in the formation of Strecker aldehydes. The fact that nitrite (150ppm, ingoing amount) significantly promoted the formation of protein carbonyls at early stages of processing and the subsequent formation of Strecker aldehydes provides strength to this hypothesis. Ascorbate (125 and 250ppm) controlled the overall extent of protein carbonylation in sausages without declining the formation of Strecker aldehydes. These results may contribute to understanding the chemistry fundamentals of the positive influence of nitrite on the flavor and overall acceptability of cured muscle foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Toxicity of polyunsaturated aldehydes of diatoms to Indo-Pacific bioindicator organism Echinometra mathaei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Davide; Gaion, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Although it is well known suitability of early developmental stages of sea urchin as recommended model for pollutant toxicity testing, little is known about the sensitivity of Indo-Pacific species Echinometra mathaei to polyunsaturated aldehydes. In this study, the effect of three short chain aldehydes, 2,4-decadienal (DD), 2,4-octadienal (OD) and 2,4-heptadienal (HD), normally found in many diatoms, such as Skeletonema costatum, Skeletonema marinoi and Thalassiosira rotula, was evaluated on larval development of E. mathaei embryos. Aldehydes affected larval development in a dose-dependent manner, in particular HD>OD>DD; the results of this study highlighted the higher sensitivity of this species toward aldehydes compared with data registered for other sea urchin species. In comparison with studies reported in the literature, contrasting results were observed during our tests; therefore, an increasing toxic effect was registered with decreasing the chain length of aldehydes. This work could provide new insights in the development of new toxicological assays toward most sensitive species.

  4. Aldehyde Dehydrogenases in Arabidopsis thaliana: Biochemical Requirements, Metabolic Pathways, and Functional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiti, Naim; Missihoun, Tagnon D; Kotchoni, Simeon O; Kirch, Hans-Hubert; Bartels, Dorothea

    2011-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are a family of enzymes which catalyze the oxidation of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Here we summarize molecular genetic and biochemical analyses of selected ArabidopsisALDH genes. Aldehyde molecules are very reactive and are involved in many metabolic processes but when they accumulate in excess they become toxic. Thus activity of aldehyde dehydrogenases is important in regulating the homeostasis of aldehydes. Overexpression of some ALDH genes demonstrated an improved abiotic stress tolerance. Despite the fact that several reports are available describing a role for specific ALDHs, their precise physiological roles are often still unclear. Therefore a number of genetic and biochemical tools have been generated to address the function with an emphasis on stress-related ALDHs. ALDHs exert their functions in different cellular compartments and often in a developmental and tissue specific manner. To investigate substrate specificity, catalytic efficiencies have been determined using a range of substrates varying in carbon chain length and degree of carbon oxidation. Mutational approaches identified amino acid residues critical for coenzyme usage and enzyme activities.

  5. Thermal, Catalytic Conversion of Alkanes to Linear Aldehydes and Linear Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xinxin; Jia, Xiangqing; Huang, Zheng

    2018-03-21

    Alkanes, the main constituents of petroleum, are attractive feedstocks for producing value-added chemicals. Linear aldehydes and amines are two of the most important building blocks in the chemical industry. To date, there have been no effective methods for directly converting n-alkanes to linear aldehydes and linear amines. Here, we report a molecular dual-catalyst system for production of linear aldehydes via regioselective carbonylation of n-alkanes. The system is comprised of a pincer iridium catalyst for transfer-dehydrogenation of the alkane using t-butylethylene or ethylene as a hydrogen acceptor working sequentially with a rhodium catalyst for olefin isomerization-hydroformylation with syngas. The system exhibits high regioselectivity for linear aldehydes and gives high catalytic turnover numbers when using ethylene as the acceptor. In addition, the direct conversion of light alkanes, n-pentane and n-hexane, to siloxy-terminated alkyl aldehydes through a sequence of Ir/Fe-catalyzed alkane silylation and Ir/Rh-catalyzed alkane carbonylation, is described. Finally, the Ir/Rh dual-catalyst strategy has been successfully applied to regioselective alkane aminomethylation to form linear alkyl amines.

  6. Effects of light and copper ions on volatile aldehydes of milk and milk fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeno, W.; Bassette, R.; Crang, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    Raw, laboratory-pasteurized and plant-pasteurized homogenized milks were exposed to copper ions (5 ppm), to sunlight or fluorescent light and the effects determined on the composition of volatile aldehydes. The greatest change due to copper treatment was an increase in n-hexanal; acetaldehyde showed the least response in each of the sources of milk. The responses were similar from all three sources of milk with laboratory-pasteurized milk samples showing the greatest responses for each aldehyde analyzed. Similar milk samples exposed to sunlight also showed an increase in volatile aldehydes from all milk sources but with the greatest response being acetaldehyde and n-pentanal components. The milk fraction most susceptible to changes in the presence of light was neutralized whey, whereas resuspended cream was most susceptible to copper exposure. Overall, dialyzed whey appeared to be influenced more than other milk fractions by both light and copper ions.

  7. Oxidative desulfurization of diesel with TBHP/isobutyl aldehyde/air oxidation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Wei; Wang, Chengyong; Lin, Peng; Lu, Xiaoping [Institute of Sonochemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu (China)

    2011-01-15

    Oxidative desulfurization of hydrogenation diesel (40 mL) was studied using air as oxidant, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as radical initiator at ambient pressure and moderate temperature in the presence of isobutyl aldehyde. TBHP could accelerate the production of carbonyl radical and its peroxidation. When the molar fraction of TBHP was 5 mmol, the conversion of DBT could reach 96.1% in the present of 20 mmol isobutyl aldehyde and air, which was more than that of 85.5% without initiator. The air was an effective oxidant and acetonitrile was an optimal solvent in this process. The sulfur content of the hydrogenation diesel could be reduced from 403 to 13 ppm (96.8% removed) under the synergistic effect of air, TBHP and isobutyl aldehyde. (author)

  8. Organic acids and aldehydes in rainwater in a northwest region of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, R.M.; Garcia, S.; Herrero, C. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo (Spain). Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia

    2002-11-01

    During a 1 year period, measurements of carboxylic acids and aldehydes were carried out in rainwater samples collected at nine different sites in NW Spain surrounding a thermal power plant in order to determine concentration levels and sources. In addition, certain major ions (Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Na{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}) were also determined. Aldehyde and carboxylic acid concentration patterns and their effects on rainwater composition concerning temporal, seasonal and spatial variations were evaluated. Among carboxylic acids, formic and acetic were predominant (VWA 7.0 and 8.3 {mu}M), while formaldehyde and acroleine were the dominant aldehydes (VWA 0.42 and 1.25 {mu}M). Carboxylic acids were estimated to account for 27.5% of the total free acidity (TFA), whereas sulphuric and nitric acid accounted for 46.2% and 26.2%, respectively. Oxalic acid was demonstrated to be an important contributing compound to the acidification in rainwater representing 7.1% of the TFA. The concentration of aldehydes and carboxylic acids, which originated mainly from biogenic emissions in the area studied, was strongly dependent on the season of the year (growing and non-growing). The ratios of formic to acetic acids are considerably different in the two seasons suggesting that there exist distinct sources in both growing and non-growing seasons. Principal component analysis was applied in order to elucidate the sources of aldehydes and organic acids in rainwater. The prevalence of natural vegetative origins for both of these compounds versus anthropogenic emissions was demonstrated and the importance of the oxidation of aldehydes as a relevant source of organic acids was also established. (author)

  9. Formation and Accumulation of Acetaldehyde and Strecker Aldehydes during Red Wine Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Bueno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present work is to study the accumulation of acetaldehyde and Strecker aldehydes (isobutyraldehyde, 2-methylbutanal, isovaleraldehyde, methional, phenylacetaldehyde during the oxidation of red wines, and to relate the patterns of accumulation to the wine chemical composition. For that, eight different wines, extensively chemically characterized, were subjected at 25°C to three different controlled O2 exposure conditions: low (10 mg L−1 and medium or high (the stoichiometrically required amount to oxidize all wine total SO2 plus 18 or 32 mg L−1, respectively. Levels of volatile aldehydes and carbonyls were then determined and processed by different statistical techniques. Results showed that young wines (<2 years-old bottled wines hardly accumulate any acetaldehyde regardless of the O2 consumed. In contrast, aged wines (>3 years-old bottled wines accumulated acetaldehyde while their content in SO2 was not null, and the aged wine containing lowest polyphenols accumulated it throughout the whole process. Models suggest that the ability of a wine to accumulate acetaldehyde is positively related to its content in combined SO2, in epigallocatechin and to the mean degree of polymerization, and negatively to its content in Aldehyde Reactive Polyphenols (ARPs which, attending to our models, are anthocyanins and small tannins. The accumulation of Strecker aldehydes is directly proportional to the wine content in the amino acid precursor, being the proportionality factor much higher for aged wines, except for phenylacetaldehyde, for which the opposite pattern was observed. Models suggest that non-aromatic Strecker aldehydes share with acetaldehyde a strong affinity toward ARPs and that the specific pattern of phenylacetaldehyde is likely due to a much reduced reactivity toward ARPs, to the possibility that diacetyl induces Strecker degradation of phenyl alanine and to the potential higher reactivity of this amino acid to some

  10. Formation and accumulation of acetaldehyde and Strecker aldehydes during red wine oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Mónica; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Carrascón, Vanesa; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación; Escudero, Ana; Ferreira, Vicente

    2018-02-01

    The main aim of the present work is to study the accumulation of acetaldehyde and Strecker aldehydes (isobutyraldehyde, 2-methylbutanal, isovaleraldehyde, methional, phenylacetaldehyde) during the oxidation of red wines, and to relate the patterns of accumulation to the wine chemical composition. For that, eight different wines, extensively chemically characterized, were subjected at 25°C to three different controlled O2 exposure conditions: low (10 mg L-1) and medium or high (the stoichiometrically required amount to oxidize all wine total SO2 plus 18 or 32 mg L-1, respectively). Levels of volatile aldehydes and carbonyls were then determined and processed by different statistical techniques. Results showed that young wines (wines) hardly accumulate any acetaldehyde regardless of the O2 consumed. In contrast, aged wines (>3 years-old bottled wines) accumulated acetaldehyde while their content in SO2 was not null, and the aged wine containing lowest polyphenols accumulated it throughout the whole process. Models suggest that the ability of a wine to accumulate acetaldehyde is positively related to its content in combined SO2, in epigallocatechin and to the mean degree of polymerization, and negatively to its content in Aldehyde Reactive Polyphenols (ARPs) which, attending to our models, are anthocyanins and small tannins. The accumulation of Strecker aldehydes is directly proportional to the wine content in the amino acid precursor, being the proportionality factor much higher for aged wines, except for phenylacetaldehyde, for which the opposite pattern was observed. Models suggest that non-aromatic Strecker aldehydes share with acetaldehyde a strong affinity towards ARPs and that the specific pattern of phenylacetaldehyde is likely due to a much reduced reactivity towards ARPs, to the possibility that diacetyl induces Strecker degradation of phenyl alanine and to the potential higher reactivity of this amino acid to some quinones derived from catechin. All this

  11. Ubiquitin-aldehyde: a general inhibitor of ubiquitin-recycling processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershko, A.; Rose, I.A.

    1987-01-01

    The generation and characterization of ubiquitin (Ub)-aldehyde, a potent inhibitor of Ub-C-terminal hydrolase, has previously been reported. The authors examine the action of this compound on the Ub-mediated proteolytic pathway using the system derived from rabbit reticulocytes. Addition of Ub-aldehyde was found to strongly inhibit breakdown of added 125 I-labeled lysozyme, but inhibition was overcome by increasing concentrations of Ub. The following evidence shows the effect of Ub-aldehyde on protein breakdown to be indirectly caused by its interference with the recycling of Ub, leading to exhaustion of the supply of free Ub: (i) Ub-aldehyde markedly increased the accumulation of Ub-protein conjugates coincident with a much decreased rate of conjugate breakdown; (ii) release of Ub from isolated Ub-protein conjugates in the absence of ATP (and therefore not coupled to protein degradation) is markedly inhibited by Ub-aldehyde. On the other hand, the ATP-dependent degradation of the protein moiety of Ub conjugates, which is an integral part of the proteolytic process, is not inhibited by this agent; (iii) direct measurement of levels of free Ub showed a rapid disappearance caused by the inhibitor. The Ub is found to be distributed in derivatives of a wide range of molecular weight classes. It thus seems that Ub-aldehyde, previously demonstrated to inhibit the hydrolysis of Ub conjugates of small molecules, also inhibits the activity of a series of enzymes that regenerate free Ub from adducts with proteins and intermediates in protein breakdown

  12. Nephelauxetic and hypersensitive nature of neodymium(III) complexes with α-pyridyl-thiosemicarbazide and its furfural-2-aldehyde and thiophene-2-aldehyde derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, C.L.; Mundley, P.N.; Khandelwal, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    A new series of octahedral Nd(III) complexes with recently synthesised α-pyridylthiosemicarbazide (C 6 H 8 N 4 S or 'PT'), N-(α-pyridyl)furfural-2-aldehyde-thiosemicarbazone (C 11 H 10 N 4 SO or 'PFT') and N-(α-pyridyl)thiophene-2-aldehyde-thiosemicarbazone (C 11 H 10 N 4 S 2 or 'PTT'), have been isolated and characterised on the basis of their elemental analysis, magnetic and reflectance and ir spectral data revealing 'PT' as bidentate (pyridinic-N and thioketo-S) and 'PFT' and 'PTT' as tetradentate with pyridinic-N, thioketo-S, imine-N and furfuryl-O/thiophenyl-S as donor sites. Isolation and characterisation of Nd(III) complexes with 'PT', 'PFT' and 'PTT' and their nephelauxetic and hypersensitive nature are studied in order to evaluate the stereochemistry of the ligands around Nd(III) ion. (author). 12 refs., 2 tables

  13. Silica-Supported Catalyst for Enantioselective Arylation of Aldehydes under Batch and Continuous-Flow Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Nakaya, Naoyuki; Akai, Junichiro; Kanaori, Kenji; Harada, Toshiro

    2018-05-04

    A silica-supported 3-aryl H 8 -BINOL-derived titanium catalyst exhibited high performance in the enantioselective arylation of aromatic aldehydes using Grignard and organolithium reagents not only under batch conditions but also under continuous-flow conditions. Even with a simple pipet reactor packed with the heterogeneous catalyst, the enantioselective production of chiral diarylmethanols could be achieved through a continuous introduction of aldehydes and mixed titanium reagents generated from the organometallic precursors. The pipet reactor could be used repeatedly in different reactions without appreciable deterioration of the activity.

  14. Effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde emissions from diesel engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chien, Shu-Mei

    Interest in use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as alternative fuels for petroleum-based diesels has increased due to biodiesels having similar properties of those of diesels, and characteristics of renewability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. Generally, exhaust emissions of regulated pollutants are widely studied and the results favor biodiesels on CO, HC and particulate emissions; however, limited and inconsistent data are showed for unregulated pollutants, such as carbonyl compounds, which are also important indicators for evaluating available vehicle fuels. For better understanding biodiesel, this study examines the effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde chemical emissions from diesel engine exhausts in comparison with those from the diesel fuel. Test engines (Mitsubishi 4M40-2AT1) with four cylinders, a total displacement of 2.84 L, maximum horsepower of 80.9 kW at 3700 rpm, and maximum torque of 217.6 N m at 2000 rpm, were mounted and operated on a Schenck DyNAS 335 dynamometer. Exhaust emission tests were performed several times for each fuel under the US transient cycle protocol from mileages of 0-80,000 km with an interval of 20,000 km, and two additional measurements were carried out at 40,000 and 80,000 km after maintenance, respectively. Aldehyde samples were collected from diluted exhaust by using a constant volume sampling system. Samples were extracted and analyzed by the HPLC/UV system. Dominant aldehydes of both fuels' exhausts are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. These compounds together account for over 75% of total aldehyde emissions. Total aldehyde emissions for B20 (20% waste cooking oil biodiesel and 80% diesel) and diesel fuels are in the ranges of 15.4-26.9 mg bhp-h -1 and 21.3-28.6 mg bhp-h -1, respectively. The effects of increasing mileages and maintenance practice on aldehyde emissions are insignificant for both fuels. B20 generates slightly less emission than

  15. Heat-stable, FE-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase for aldehyde detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, James G.; Clarkson, Sonya

    2018-04-24

    The present invention relates to microorganisms and polypeptides for detoxifying aldehydes associated with industrial fermentations. In particular, a heat-stable, NADPH- and iron-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase was cloned from Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus 39E and displayed activity against a number of aldehydes including inhibitory compounds that are produced during the dilute-acid pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass before fermentation to biofuels. Methods to use the microorganisms and polypeptides of the invention for improved conversion of bio mass to biofuel are provided as well as use of the enzyme in metabolic engineering strategies for producing longer-chain alcohols from sugars using thermophilic, fermentative microorganisms.

  16. Identification of glutathione adducts of α-chlorofatty aldehydes produced in activated neutrophils

    OpenAIRE

    Duerr, Mark A.; Aurora, Rajeev; Ford, David A.

    2015-01-01

    α-Chlorofatty aldehydes (α-ClFALDs) are produced by hypochlorous acid targeting plasmalogens during neutrophil activation. This study investigated the reaction of the α-chlorinated carbon of α-ClFALD with the nucleophile, GSH. Utilizing ESI/MS/MS, the reaction product of GSH and the 16-carbon α-ClFALD, 2-chlorohexadecanal (2-ClHDA), was characterized. The resulting conjugate of 2-ClHDA and GSH (HDA-GSH) has an intact free aldehyde, and the chlorine at the α-carbon is ejected. Stable isotope-l...

  17. Semi-catalytic reduction of secondary amides to imines and aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Hwa; Nikonov, Georgii I

    2014-06-21

    Secondary amides can be reduced by silane HSiMe2Ph into imines and aldehydes by a two-stage process involving prior conversion of amides into iminoyl chlorides followed by catalytic reduction mediated by the ruthenium complex [Cp(i-Pr3P)Ru(NCCH3)2]PF6 (1). Alkyl and aryl amides bearing halogen, ketone, and ester groups were converted with moderate to good yields under mild reaction conditions to the corresponding imines and aldehydes. This procedure does not work for substrates bearing the nitro-group and fails for heteroaromatic amides. In the case of cyano substituted amides, the cyano group is reduced to imine.

  18. СOMPLEXES OF Sn(IV WITH ISONICOTINOYLHYDRAZONES OF AROMATIC ALDEHYDES. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, EFFECT ON THE GROWTH OF Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Shmatkova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Сomplexes[SnCl4(R-Ib∙Н], where R=H (1, 4-Br (2, 4-NO2(3, 2-OCH3(4, 4-OCH3(5, -ОC7H15(6,were synthesized by interaction of SnCl4 with isonicotinoylhydrazones of R-benzoic aldehydes (R-HIb in acetonitrile and complex [SnCl3(2-OH-Inf∙Н](9 – by interaction of SnCl4with 2-OH- naphthaldehydeisonicotinoylhydrazone (2-OH-H2Inf. In (1-6 bidentateO(C-O–N(N=CH-coordination of the enol form of the ligand is realized and the coordination node {SnCl4ON}– is formed, and in (9 the enol form remains, but the composition of the node changes – {SnCl3O2N}– due to O(C-O–N(N=CH–О(Ph-O- tridentate coordination.The compounds were characterized by the methods of elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, conductometry, thermogravimetry. Their structure was established by comparing the mass- and IR spectra (1-6 and (9 with previously obtained and X-ray structurally characterized complexes [SnCl4(R-Ib∙Н]∙CH3CN (R=4-N(CH32(7 and [SnCl3(R-Ib∙Н]∙2CH3CN (R=2-OH(8with bi- (7 and tridentate coordination (8 of isonicotinoylhydrazones, respectively. It is shown that (1-6 and (9 are complex compounds of the zwitterionic type: the negative charge on the coordination nodes of tin(IVis delocalized by the oxyazine fragment N=C–O, and the positive charge – by the protonation of the vacant pyridine nitrogen atomof hydrazide fragment. The influence of the composition of the coordination node of complexes (1-9, as well as the nature and position of the substituents (R in their molecules on the activity against Mycobacteriumtuberculosis was determined. It was found that the effect of complexes with tridentate hydrazones (8 and (9 on the growth of pathogen is lower (MIC = 12.5 and 25 μM/ml, respectively compared with bidentatehydrazones (MIC (1-7 = 0,8 – 6,25 μM/ml, among which [SnCl4(2-OCH3-Ib∙Н] (4  stand out (MIC = 0.8 μM/ml.

  19. The effect of peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst MnTBAP on aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 nitration by organic nitrates: role in nitrate tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollace, Vincenzo; Muscoli, Carolina; Dagostino, Concetta; Giancotti, Luigino Antonio; Gliozzi, Micaela; Sacco, Iolanda; Visalli, Valeria; Gratteri, Santo; Palma, Ernesto; Malara, Natalia; Musolino, Vincenzo; Carresi, Cristina; Muscoli, Saverio; Vitale, Cristiana; Salvemini, Daniela; Romeo, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    Bioconversion of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) into nitric oxide (NO) by aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH-2) is a crucial mechanism which drives vasodilatory and antiplatelet effect of organic nitrates in vitro and in vivo. Oxidative stress generated by overproduction of free radical species, mostly superoxide anions and NO-derived peroxynitrite, has been suggested to play a pivotal role in the development of nitrate tolerance, though the mechanism still remains unclear. Here we studied the free radical-dependent impairment of ALDH-2 in platelets as well as vascular tissues undergoing organic nitrate ester tolerance and potential benefit when using the selective peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst Mn(III) tetrakis (4-Benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP). Washed human platelets were made tolerant to nitrates via incubation with GTN for 4h. This was expressed by attenuation of platelet aggregation induced by thrombin (40U/mL), an effect accompanied by GTN-related induction of cGMP levels in platelets undergoing thrombin-induced aggregation. Both effects were associated to attenuated GTN-induced nitrite formation in platelets supernatants and to prominent nitration of ALDH-2, the GTN to NO metabolizing enzyme, suggesting that GTN tolerance was associated to reduced NO formation via impairment of ALDH-2. These effects were all antagonized by co-incubation of platelets with MnTBAP, which restored GTN-induced responses in tolerant platelets. Comparable effect was found under in in vivo settings. Indeed, MnTBAP (10mg/kg, i.p.) significantly restored the hypotensive effect of bolus injection of GTN in rats made tolerants to organic nitrates via chronic administration of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN), thus confirming the role of peroxynitrite overproduction in the development of tolerance to vascular responses induced by organic nitrates. In conclusion, oxidative stress subsequent to prolonged use of organic nitrates, which occurs via nitration of ALDH-2, represents a key event

  20. Aldehyde-Selective Wacker-Type Oxidation of Unbiased Alkenes Enabled by a Nitrite Co-Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Wickens, Zachary K.; Morandi, Bill; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Breaking the rules: Reversal of the high Markovnikov selectivity of Wacker-type oxidations was accomplished using a nitrite co-catalyst. Unbiased aliphatic alkenes can be oxidized with high yield and aldehyde selectivity, and several functional groups are tolerated. 18O-labeling experiments indicate that the aldehydic O atom is derived from the nitrite salt.

  1. Aldehyde-Selective Wacker-Type Oxidation of Unbiased Alkenes Enabled by a Nitrite Co-Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Wickens, Zachary K.

    2013-09-13

    Breaking the rules: Reversal of the high Markovnikov selectivity of Wacker-type oxidations was accomplished using a nitrite co-catalyst. Unbiased aliphatic alkenes can be oxidized with high yield and aldehyde selectivity, and several functional groups are tolerated. 18O-labeling experiments indicate that the aldehydic O atom is derived from the nitrite salt.

  2. Kinetic mechanism of an aldehyde reductase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that relieves toxicity of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural

    Science.gov (United States)

    An effective means of relieving the toxicity of furan aldehydes, furfural (FFA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), on fermenting organisms is essential for achieving efficient fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol and other products. Ari1p, an aldehyde reductase from Saccharomyces cerev...

  3. Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidations of Phthalimide Protected Allylic Amines : A New Catalytic Route to beta(3)-Amino Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiner, Barbara; Baeza Garcia, Alejandro; Jerphagnon, Thomas; Feringa, Ben L.

    2009-01-01

    A new method for the synthesis of B-3-amino acids is presented. Phthalimide protected allylic amines are oxidized under Wacker conditions selectively to aldehydes using PdCl2 and CuCl or Pd(MeCN)(2)Cl(NO2) and CuCl2 as complementary catalyst systems. The aldehydes are produced in excellent yields

  4. Elucidating the contributions of multiple aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases to butanol and ethanol production in Clostridium acetobutylicum

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Zongjie; Dong, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol and butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum share common aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases. However, little is known about the relative contributions of these multiple dehydrogenases to ethanol and butanol production respectively. The contributions of six aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases of C. acetobutylicum on butanol and ethanol production were evaluated through inactivation of the corresponding genes respectively. For butanol production, the relative contributions from thes...

  5. Urban and rural ambient air aldehyde levels in Schenectady, New York and on Whiteface Mountain, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulam, P; Newbold, R; Hull, L A

    1985-01-01

    The air in the city of Schenectady, NY was sampled daily and analyzed for the presence of low molecular weight aldehydes during the months of June-August 1983. The diurnal variation of the aldehyde concentrations was also determined over a two day period during August. The dominant aldehyde was formaldehyde and its concentration varied from about 1-31 ppb. There was also observed a significant daily variation that appeared to correlate with traffic conditions. The technique was also used to monitor the aldehyde levels on the summit of Whiteface Mountain in Wilmington, NY at the SUNYA Atmospheric Sciences Research Center. The monitoring was done on a daily basis during the week of 14-20 August and, during that week, every 3 h for a 3-day period. The two dominant aldehydes were formaldehyde and acetaldehyde and they varied in concentration from about 0.8-2.6 and 0.2-0.8 ppb, respectively.

  6. Modelling of the partial oxidation of {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated aldehydes on Mo-V-oxides based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, H.; Petzoldt, J.C.; Stein, B.; Weimer, C.; Gaube, J.W. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemische Technologie

    1998-12-31

    A kinetic model based on the Mars-van Krevelen mechanism that allows to describe the microkinetics of the heterogeneously catalysed partial oxidation of {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated aldehydes is presented. This conversion is represented by a network, composed of the oxidation of the {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated aldehyde towards the {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acid and the consecutive oxidation of the acid as well as the parallel reaction of the aldehyde to products of deeper oxidation. The reaction steps of aldehyde respectively acid oxidation and catalyst reoxidation have been investigated separately in transient experiments. The combination of steady state and transient experiments has led to an improved understanding of the interaction of the catalyst with the aldehyde and the carboxylic acids as well as to a support of the kinetic model assumptions. (orig.)

  7. Quantitative DFT modeling of product concentration in organometallic reactions: Cu-mediated pentafluoroethylation of benzoic acid chlorides as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jover, Jesús

    2017-11-08

    DFT calculations are widely used for computing properties, reaction mechanisms and energy profiles in organometallic reactions. A qualitative agreement between the experimental and the calculated results seems to usually be enough to validate a computational methodology but recent advances in computation indicate that a nearly quantitative agreement should be possible if an appropriate DFT study is carried out. Final percent product concentrations, often reported as yields, are by far the most commonly reported properties in experimental metal-mediated synthesis studies but reported DFT studies have not focused on predicting absolute product amounts. The recently reported stoichiometric pentafluoroethylation of benzoic acid chlorides (R-C 6 H 4 COCl) with [(phen)Cu(PPh 3 )C 2 F 5 ] (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, PPh 3 = triphenylphosphine) has been used as a case study to check whether the experimental product concentrations can be reproduced by any of the most popular DFT approaches with high enough accuracy. To this end, the Gibbs energy profile for the pentafluoroethylation of benzoic acid chloride has been computed using 14 different DFT methods. These computed Gibbs energy profiles have been employed to build kinetic models predicting the final product concentration in solution. The best results are obtained with the D3-dispersion corrected B3LYP functional, which has been successfully used afterwards to model the reaction outcomes of other simple (R = o-Me, p-Me, p-Cl, p-F, etc.) benzoic acid chlorides. The product concentrations of more complex reaction networks in which more than one position of the substrate may be activated by the copper catalyst (R = o-Br and p-I) are also predicted appropriately.

  8. Synthesis, spectroscopic studies and antimicrobial activity of chelates 2-(acetyloxy)-benzoic acid with transition metals (CR+3, MN+2, NI+2 AND CU+2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, B.; Mateen, B.; Ahmed, F.; Ahmed, F.

    2007-01-01

    2-(acetyloxy)-Benzoic acid chelates with Cr+3, Mn+2, Ni+2 and Cu+2 were synthesized and characterized by the melting point, solubility, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) method and evaluated by antimicrobial activity. The functional group present in the chelates was determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, by X-Ray Diffraction analysis crystal data of chelates, their inter-atomic and inter-planer spacing was also determined. The amount of metal in the chelates was estimated by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and their Antimicrobial Activity was studied against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherisha coli and Staphylococcus aureus. (author)

  9. Evidence of quantum correlations in the H/D-transfer dynamics in the hydrogen bonds in partially deuterated benzoic acid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Sadamu; Tsuzumitani, Akihiko; Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, C. A.

    1992-10-01

    A precise investigation of spin—lattice relaxation rates for protons and deuterons of partially deuterated benzoic acid crystals showed a remarkable quenching of the transfer rate of an HD pair in hydrogen-bonded dimeric units of carboxyl groups with increasing concentration of D in the surrounding hydrogen bonds. A similar effect was also observed for partially deuterated crystals of acetylenedicarboxylic acid. This finding supports recent theoretical predictions of thermally activated protonic quantum correlation in condensed matter and proposes a new mechanism for the proton transfer in hydrogen bonds in condensed matter.

  10. The fragment ion C13H9O2 m/z 197 in the mass spectra of 2-(2'-R-phenyl)benzoic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gills, R.G.; Porter, Q.N.

    1990-01-01

    In the electron impact mass spectrum of 2-( ' -R-phenyl)benzoic acids where R = H, NO 2 , OCH 3 , COOH, or Br, and abundant fragment ion m/z 197 is formed by an ipso substitution in which R is expelled as a radical. The structure of the ion m/z 197 has been shown by collision-activated dissociation to be identical with that of the protonated molecule formed by methane chemical ionization of 6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one. 11 refs., 1 fig., ills

  11. Catalytic Oxidation of Lignins into the Aromatic Aldehydes: General Process Trends and Development Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery E. Tarabanko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses principal patterns that govern the processes of lignins’ catalytic oxidation into vanillin (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and syringaldehyde (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. It examines the influence of lignin and oxidant nature, temperature, mass transfer, and of other factors on the yield of the aldehydes and the process selectivity. The review reveals that properly organized processes of catalytic oxidation of various lignins are only insignificantly (10–15% inferior to oxidation by nitrobenzene in terms of yield and selectivity in vanillin and syringaldehyde. Very high consumption of oxygen (and consequentially, of alkali in the process—over 10 mol per mol of obtained vanillin—is highlighted as an unresolved and unexplored problem: scientific literature reveals almost no studies devoted to the possibilities of decreasing the consumption of oxygen and alkali. Different hypotheses about the mechanism of lignin oxidation into the aromatic aldehydes are discussed, and the mechanism comprising the steps of single-electron oxidation of phenolate anions, and ending with retroaldol reaction of a substituted coniferyl aldehyde was pointed out as the most convincing one. The possibility and development prospects of single-stage oxidative processing of wood into the aromatic aldehydes and cellulose are analyzed.

  12. Critical role of aldehydes in cigarette smoke-induced acute airway inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, Marco; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; de Bruin, Harold G.; Gras, Renee; Rezayat, Delaram; Jorge, Lucie; Sandra, Koen; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking (CS) is the most important risk factor for COPD, which is associated with neutrophilic airway inflammation. We hypothesize, that highly reactive aldehydes are critical for CS-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation. Methods: BALB/c mice were exposed to CS, water

  13. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J. C.; Zhu, T.; Hu, M.; Zhang, L. W.; Cheng, H.; Zhang, L.; Tong, J.; Zhang, J.

    2010-08-01

    Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's air quality during the Olympics had any impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.34 ± 15.12 μg/m3, 27.09 ± 15.74 μg/m3 and 2.32 ± 0.95 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being the highest among the levels measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Among the three measured aldehydes, only acetaldehyde had a substantially reduced mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Formaldehyde and acrolein followed the changing pattern of temperature and were each significantly correlated with ozone (a secondary product of photochemical reactions). In contrast, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted mainly from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). These findings suggest that local direct emissions had a larger impact on acetaldehyde than formaldehyde and acrolein.

  14. Aldehyde-functionalized porous nanocellulose for effective removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Yao; F. Wang; Z. Cai; X. Wang

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale sorption is a promising strategy for catalyst and purification system design. In this paper, cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) were densely attached with aldehyde functional groups on the surface via a mild periodate oxidation process, and then applied as mesoporous sorbents to remove Cu(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions. In the studied concentration range (0....

  15. Analysis of aldehydes in human exhaled breath condensates by in-tube SPME-HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ShuLing; Hu, Sheng; Xu, Hui

    2015-11-05

    In this paper, polypyrrole/graphene (PPy/G) composite coating was prepared by a facile electrochemical polymerization strategy on the inner surface of a stainless steel (SS) tube. Based on the coating tube, a novel online in-tube solid-phase microextraction -high performance liquid chromatography (IT-SPME-HPLC) was developed and applied for the extraction of aldehydes in the human exhaled breath condensates (EBC). The hybrid PPy/G nanocomposite exhibits remarkable chemical and mechanical stability, high selectivity, and satisfactory extraction performance toward aldehyde compounds. Moreover, the proposed online IT-SPME-HPLC method possesses numerous superiorities, such as time and cost saving, process simplicity, high precision and sensitivity. Some parameters related to extraction efficiency were optimized systematically. Under the optimal conditions, the recoveries of the aldehyde compounds at three spiked concentration levels varied in the range of 85%-117%. Good linearity was obtained with excellent correlation coefficients (R(2)) being larger than 0.994. The relative standard deviations (n = 5) of the method ranged from 1.8% to 11.3% and the limits of detection were between 2.3 and 3.3 nmol L(-1). The successful application of the proposed method in human EBC indicated that it is a promising approach for the determination of trace aldehyde metabolites in complex EBC samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Highly Efficient Solvent-Free Acetalization of Aldehydes to 1,1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,1-Diacetates are prepared in excellent yields from aldehydes and acetic anhydride under solvent-free conditions at room temperature in short reaction times using catalytic amount of sulfonic acid functionalized silica (SiO2-Pr-SO3H) which could be easily handled and removed from the mixture of reaction. Keywords: 1 ...

  17. Efficient Method for Aromatic-Aldehyde Oxidation by Cleavage of Their Hydrazones Catalysed by Trimethylsilanolate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bürglová, K.; Okorochenkov, S.; Buděšínský, Miloš; Hlaváč, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 2 (2017), s. 389-396 ISSN 1434-193X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : aldehydes * oxidation * hydrazones * solid-phase synthesis * reaction mechanisms Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 2.834, year: 2016

  18. Vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of a series of the linear aliphatic aldehydes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verevkin, S. P.; Krasnykh, E. L.; Vasiltsova, T. V.; Koutek, Bohumír; Doubský, Jan; Heintz, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 206, - (2003), s. 331-339 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : aldehydes * vapor pressure * enthalpy of vaporization Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2003

  19. Substituent effect of phenolic aldehyde inhibition on alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui Xie; Maobing Tu; Thomas Elder

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds significantly inhibit microbial fermentation of biomass hydrolysates. To understand thequantitative structure-inhibition relationship of phenolic aldehydes on alcoholic fermentation, the effect of 11 differentsubstituted benzaldehydes on the final ethanol yield was examined. The results showed that the degree of phenolic...

  20. Characterisation of recombinant human fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase: implications for Sjögren-Larsson syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lloyd, Matthew D.; Boardman, Kieren D. E.; Smith, Andrew; van den Brink, Daan M.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Threadgill, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) is an NAD+-dependent oxidoreductase involved in the metabolism of fatty alcohols. Enzyme activity has been implicated in the pathology of diabetes and cancer. Mutations in the human gene inactivate the enzyme and cause accumulation of fatty alcohols in

  1. Partial Reduction of Esters to Aldehydes Using a Novel Modified Red-Al Reducing Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Won Kyu; Kang, Daehoon; An, Duk Keun [Kangwon National Univ., Chunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    We have developed a convenient alternative method for the synthesis of aldehydes from both aromatic and aliphatic esters in very good to excellent yields in the absence of any additives using a modified Red-Al that was easily prepared by reacting commercially available Red-Al with cis-2,6-dimethyl morpholine. The advantages of the present methodology are as follows: simple preparation procedure of the reducing agent, improved product yields, convenient reaction temperature, and short reaction times. Therefore, the new reagent has great potential to be a useful alternative partial reducing agent for the synthesis of aldehydes from esters in organic synthesis. Aldehydes are valuable building blocks and reactive intermediates in organic synthesis. The general and classical syntheses of aldehydes from esters involve reduction-oxidation and partial reduction using efficient partial reducing agents. Obviously, one-step partial reduction methods are more useful than two-step reduction-oxidation methods owing to their simplicity, and generality in organic synthesis.

  2. Study on physico-chemical properties of dialdehyde yam starch with different aldehyde group contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liming; Liu, Peng; Wang, Yugao; Gao, Wenyuan

    2011-01-01

    Dialdehyde yam starches (DASs) are prepared and characterized. Compared with native starch, viscosity average molecular weight of DASs decreases, and the extent of degradation depends on content of the aldehyde groups. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirm that the characteristic peak for C=O group at 1732 cm -1 is enhanced with the increasing of content of the aldehyde groups. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs show that the surface of starch granules becomes wrinkled. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns clearly indicate that their crystallinity decreases with the increasing content of the aldehyde groups before they become amorphous at higher oxidation states. The experimental results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) show that DASs have poor stability as compared to native starch. With the increase in content of the aldehyde groups, the thermal stability of DAS declines gradually. According to the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), gelatinization temperature (T o and T p ) of DASs are increased, whereas the gelatinization enthalpy decreased.

  3. Determination of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH Isozymes in Human Cancer Samples - Comparison of Kinetic and Immunochemical Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Borecka

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A fluorimetric assay of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes, based on naphthaldehyde oxidation, is compared with Western Blotting analysis on several clinical samples obtained from surgery. The comparison reveals qualitatively good correlation of ALDH1A1 isozyme detection with two methods and somewhat worse on ALDH3A1 assay.

  4. Effect of phenolic aldehydes and flavonoids on growth and inactivation of Oenococcus oeni and Lactobacillus hilgardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Ana Rita; Campos, Francisco; de Freitas, Víctor; Hogg, Tim; Couto, José António

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of wine phenolic aldehydes, flavonoids and tannins on growth and viability of strains of Oenococcus oeni and Lactobacillus hilgardii. Cultures were grown in ethanol-containing MRS/TJ medium supplemented with different concentrations of phenolic aldehydes or flavonoids and monitored spectrophotometrically. The effect of tannins was evaluated by monitoring the progressive inactivation of cells in ethanol-containing phosphate buffer supplemented with grape seed extracts with different molecular weight tannins. Of the phenolic aldehydes tested, sinapaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzaldehyde significantly inhibited the growth of O. oeni VF, while vanillin and syringaldehyde had no effect at the concentrations tested. Lact. hilgardii 5 was only inhibited by sinapaldehyde and coniferaldehyde. Among the flavonoids, quercetin and kaempferol exerted an inhibitory effect especially on O. oeni VF. Myricetin and the flavan-3-ols studied (catechin and epicatechin) did not affect considerably the growth of both strains. Condensed tannins (particularly tetramers and pentamers) were found to strongly affect cell viability, especially in the case of O. oeni VF. In general, this strain was found to be more sensitive than Lact. hilgardii 5 to the phenolic compounds studied. This work contributes to the knowledge of the effect of different phenolic compounds on the activity of wine lactic acid bacteria, which, especially in the case of aldehydes and of different molecular weight fractions of tannins, is very scarce.

  5. The molecular cloning of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase and its implication in artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, A.M.; Ruyter-Spira, C.P.; Quax, W.J.; Hiroyuki, O.; Toshiya, M.; Kayser, O.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    A key point in the biosynthesis of the antimalarial drug artemisinin is the formation of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde which represents the key difference between chemotype specific pathways. This key intermediate is the substrate for several competing enzymes, some of which increase the metabolic

  6. Chronic oral exposure to the aldehyde pollutant acrolein induces dilated cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismahil, Mohamed Ameen; Hamid, Tariq; Haberzettl, Petra; Gu, Yan; Chandrasekar, Bysani; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2011-01-01

    Environmental triggers of dilated cardiomyopathy are poorly understood. Acute exposure to acrolein, a ubiquitous aldehyde pollutant, impairs cardiac function and cardioprotective responses in mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that chronic oral exposure to acrolein induces inflammation and cardiomyopathy. C57BL/6 mice were gavage-fed acrolein (1 mg/kg) or water (vehicle) daily for 48 days. The dose was chosen based on estimates of human daily unsaturated aldehyde consumption. Compared with vehicle-fed mice, acrolein-fed mice exhibited significant (P acrolein adduct formation indicative of physical translocation of ingested acrolein to the heart. Acrolein also induced myocyte hypertrophy (∼2.2-fold increased myocyte area, P acrolein-exposed hearts, along with upregulated gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. Long-term oral exposure to acrolein, at an amount within the range of human unsaturated aldehyde intake, induces a phenotype of dilated cardiomyopathy in the mouse. Human exposure to acrolein may have analogous effects and raise consideration of an environmental, aldehyde-mediated basis for heart failure. PMID:21908791

  7. Supported Rh-phosphine complex catalysts for continuous gas-phase decarbonylation of aldehydes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malcho, Phillip; Garcia-Suarez, Eduardo J.; Mentzel, Uffe Vie

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous silica supported rhodium-phosphine complex catalysts are employed for the first time in the catalytic decarbonylation of aldehydes in continuous gas-phase. The reaction protocol is exemplified for the decarbonylation of p-tolualdehyde to toluene and further extended to other aromatic...

  8. A General and Convenient Method for the Rhodium-Catalyzed Decarbonylation of Aldehydes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreis, Michael; Palmelund, Anders; Bunch, Lennart

    2006-01-01

    A practical protocol for the decarbonylation of a wide range of aldehydes has been developed by using commercially available RhCl3x3H2O and dppp in a diglyme solution. This method gives rise to decarbonylated products in good to high yield and is particularly useful because of its experimental si...

  9. Palladium-Catalyzed Anti-Markovnikov Oxidation of Allylic Amides to Protected beta-Amino Aldehydes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Jiajia; Harvey, Emma C.; Fananas-Mastral, Martin; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    A general method for the preparation of N-protected beta-amino aldehydes from allylic amines or linear allylic alcohols is described. Here the Pd(II)-catalyzed oxidation of N-protected allylic amines with benzoquinone is achieved in tBuOH under ambient conditions with excellent selectivity toward

  10. Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones to Corresponding Alcohols Using Diammonium Hydrogen Phosphite and Commercial Zinc Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A mild and an efficient system has been developed for the reduction of aromatic aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols in good yield using inexpensive commercial zinc dust as catalyst and diammonium hydrogen phosphite as a hydrogen donor.

  11. Catalytic Oxidation of Lignins into the Aromatic Aldehydes: General Process Trends and Development Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabanko, Valery E.; Tarabanko, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses principal patterns that govern the processes of lignins’ catalytic oxidation into vanillin (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) and syringaldehyde (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde). It examines the influence of lignin and oxidant nature, temperature, mass transfer, and of other factors on the yield of the aldehydes and the process selectivity. The review reveals that properly organized processes of catalytic oxidation of various lignins are only insignificantly (10–15%) inferior to oxidation by nitrobenzene in terms of yield and selectivity in vanillin and syringaldehyde. Very high consumption of oxygen (and consequentially, of alkali) in the process—over 10 mol per mol of obtained vanillin—is highlighted as an unresolved and unexplored problem: scientific literature reveals almost no studies devoted to the possibilities of decreasing the consumption of oxygen and alkali. Different hypotheses about the mechanism of lignin oxidation into the aromatic aldehydes are discussed, and the mechanism comprising the steps of single-electron oxidation of phenolate anions, and ending with retroaldol reaction of a substituted coniferyl aldehyde was pointed out as the most convincing one. The possibility and development prospects of single-stage oxidative processing of wood into the aromatic aldehydes and cellulose are analyzed. PMID:29140301

  12. Occupational exposure of aldehydes resulting from the storage of wood pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Arifur; Rossner, Alan; Hopke, Philip K

    2017-06-01

    An exposure assessment was conducted to investigate the potential for harmful concentrations of airborne short chain aldehydes emitted from recently stored wood pellets. Wood pellets can emit a number of airborne aldehydes include acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, valeraldehyde, and hexanal. Exposure limits have been set for these compounds since they can result in significant irritation of the upper respiratory system at elevated concentrations. Formaldehyde is a recognized human carcinogen and acetaldehyde is an animal carcinogen. Thus, air sampling was performed in a wood pellet warehouse at a pellet mill, two residential homes with bulk wood pellet storage bins, and in controlled laboratory experiments to evaluate the risk to occupants. Using NIOSH method 2539, sampling was conducted in five locations in the warehouse from April-June 2016 when it contained varying quantities of bagged pellets as well as two homes with ten ton bulk storage bins. The aldehyde concentrations were found to increase with the amount of stored pellets. Airborne concentrations of formaldehyde were as high as 0.45 ppm in the warehouse exceeding the NIOSH REL-C, and ACGIH TLV-C occupational exposure limits (OELs). The concentrations of aldehydes measured in the residential bins were also elevated indicating emissions may raise indoor air quality concerns for occupants. While individual exposures are of concern the combined irritant effect of all the aldehydes is a further raise the concerns for building occupants. To minimize exposure and the risk of adverse health effects to a building's occupants in storage areas with large quantities of pellets, adequate ventilation must be designed into storage areas.

  13. Role of aldehyde chemistry and NOx concentrations in secondary organic aerosol formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Wennberg

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aldehydes are an important class of products from atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons. Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, the most abundantly emitted atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon, produces a significant amount of secondary organic aerosol (SOA via methacrolein (a C4-unsaturated aldehyde under urban high-NOx conditions. Previously, we have identified peroxy methacryloyl nitrate (MPAN as the important intermediate to isoprene and methacrolein SOA in this NOx regime. Here we show that as a result of this chemistry, NO2 enhances SOA formation from methacrolein and two other α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, specifically acrolein and crotonaldehyde, a NOx effect on SOA formation previously unrecognized. Oligoesters of dihydroxycarboxylic acids and hydroxynitrooxycarboxylic acids are observed to increase with increasing NO2/NO ratio, and previous characterizations are confirmed by both online and offline high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques. Molecular structure also determines the amount of SOA formation, as the SOA mass yields are the highest for aldehydes that are α, β-unsaturated and contain an additional methyl group on the α-carbon. Aerosol formation from 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO232 is insignificant, even under high-NO2 conditions, as PAN (peroxy acyl nitrate, RC(OOONO2 formation is structurally unfavorable. At atmospherically relevant NO2/NO ratios (3–8, the SOA yields from isoprene high-NOx photooxidation are 3 times greater than previously measured at lower NO2/NO ratios. At sufficiently high NO2 concentrations, in systems of α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, SOA formation from subsequent oxidation of products from acyl peroxyl radicals+NO2 can exceed that from RO2+HO2 reactions under the same inorganic seed conditions, making RO2+NO2 an important channel for SOA formation.

  14. Role of aldehyde chemistry and NOx concentrations in secondary organic aerosol formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, A. W. H.; Chan, M. N.; Surratt, J. D.; Chhabra, P. S.; Loza, C. L.; Crounse, J. D.; Yee, L. D.; Flagan, R. C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2010-08-01

    Aldehydes are an important class of products from atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons. Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene), the most abundantly emitted atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon, produces a significant amount of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via methacrolein (a C4-unsaturated aldehyde) under urban high-NOx conditions. Previously, we have identified peroxy methacryloyl nitrate (MPAN) as the important intermediate to isoprene and methacrolein SOA in this NOx regime. Here we show that as a result of this chemistry, NO2 enhances SOA formation from methacrolein and two other α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, specifically acrolein and crotonaldehyde, a NOx effect on SOA formation previously unrecognized. Oligoesters of dihydroxycarboxylic acids and hydroxynitrooxycarboxylic acids are observed to increase with increasing NO2/NO ratio, and previous characterizations are confirmed by both online and offline high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques. Molecular structure also determines the amount of SOA formation, as the SOA mass yields are the highest for aldehydes that are α, β-unsaturated and contain an additional methyl group on the α-carbon. Aerosol formation from 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO232) is insignificant, even under high-NO2 conditions, as PAN (peroxy acyl nitrate, RC(O)OONO2) formation is structurally unfavorable. At atmospherically relevant NO2/NO ratios (3-8), the SOA yields from isoprene high-NOx photooxidation are 3 times greater than previously measured at lower NO2/NO ratios. At sufficiently high NO2 concentrations, in systems of α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, SOA formation from subsequent oxidation of products from acyl peroxyl radicals+NO2 can exceed that from RO2+HO2 reactions under the same inorganic seed conditions, making RO2+NO2 an important channel for SOA formation.

  15. Role and structural characterization of plant aldehyde dehydrogenases from family 2 and family 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Končitíková, Radka; Vigouroux, Armelle; Kopečná, Martina; Andree, Tomáš; Bartoš, Jan; Šebela, Marek; Moréra, Solange; Kopečný, David

    2015-05-15

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are responsible for oxidation of biogenic aldehyde intermediates as well as for cell detoxification of aldehydes generated during lipid peroxidation. So far, 13 ALDH families have been described in plants. In the present study, we provide a detailed biochemical characterization of plant ALDH2 and ALDH7 families by analysing maize and pea ALDH7 (ZmALDH7 and PsALDH7) and four maize cytosolic ALDH(cALDH)2 isoforms RF2C, RF2D, RF2E and RF2F [the first maize ALDH2 was discovered as a fertility restorer (RF2A)]. We report the crystal structures of ZmALDH7, RF2C and RF2F at high resolution. The ZmALDH7 structure shows that the three conserved residues Glu(120), Arg(300) and Thr(302) in the ALDH7 family are located in the substrate-binding site and are specific to this family. Our kinetic analysis demonstrates that α-aminoadipic semialdehyde, a lysine catabolism intermediate, is the preferred substrate for plant ALDH7. In contrast, aromatic aldehydes including benzaldehyde, anisaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde are the best substrates for cALDH2. In line with these results, the crystal structures of RF2C and RF2F reveal that their substrate-binding sites are similar and are formed by an aromatic cluster mainly composed of phenylalanine residues and several nonpolar residues. Gene expression studies indicate that the RF2C gene, which is strongly expressed in all organs, appears essential, suggesting that the crucial role of the enzyme would certainly be linked to the cell wall formation using aldehydes from phenylpropanoid pathway as substrates. Finally, plant ALDH7 may significantly contribute to osmoprotection because it oxidizes several aminoaldehydes leading to products known as osmolytes.

  16. Do flavouring compounds contribute to aldehyde emissions in e-cigarettes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E; Voudris, Vassilis

    2018-05-01

    A recent study identified up to 10,000-fold higher aldehyde emissions from flavoured compared to unflavoured e-cigarette liquids. We set to replicate this study and also test similar flavourings with a new-generation e-cigarette device. Three liquids with the highest levels of aldehyde emissions in the previous study were tested (in standard and sweetened versions) using the same e-cigarette device and puffing patterns. Additionally, similar flavourings from a different manufacturer were tested using a new-generation e-cigarette device. Unflavoured samples were also tested. Low levels of formaldehyde (8.3-62 μg/g), acetaldehyde (12.1-26.0 μg/g) and acrolein (5.4-19.4 μg/g) were detected, lower by up to 589-fold compared to the previous report. Unflavoured liquid emitted 16.1 μg/g formaldehyde, 5.6 μg/g acetaldehyde and 2.4 μg/g acrolein, significantly lower compared to 2 liquids for formaldehyde and 1 for acrolein. Emissions from the new-generation device were even lower. Aldehyde emissions from all flavoured liquids were 79-99.8% lower than smoking and lower than commonly measured indoor levels and occupational and indoor safety limits. The e-cigarettes tested herein emit very low levels of aldehydes. Some flavourings may contribute to aldehyde emissions, but the absolute levels were minimal. Validated methods should be used when analysing e-cigarette emissions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cytochrome P450BM-3 reduces aldehydes to alcohols through a direct hydride transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspera, Ruediger; Sahele, Tariku; Lakatos, Kyle [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 357610, Seattle, WA 98195-7610 (United States); Totah, Rheem A., E-mail: rtotah@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 357610, Seattle, WA 98195-7610 (United States)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytochrome P450BM-3 reduced aldehydes to alcohols efficiently (k{sub cat} {approx} 25 min{sup -1}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction is a direct hydride transfer from R-NADP{sup 2}H to the carbonyl moiety. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P450 domain variants enhance reduction through potential allosteric/redox interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel reaction will have implications for metabolism of xenobiotics. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450BM-3 catalyzed the reduction of lipophilic aldehydes to alcohols efficiently. A k{sub cat} of {approx}25 min{sup -1} was obtained for the reduction of methoxy benzaldehyde with wild type P450BM-3 protein which was higher than in the isolated reductase domain (BMR) alone and increased in specific P450-domain variants. The reduction was caused by a direct hydride transfer from preferentially R-NADP{sup 2}H to the carbonyl moiety of the substrate. Weak substrate-P450-binding of the aldehyde, turnover with the reductase domain alone, a deuterium incorporation in the product from NADP{sup 2}H but not D{sub 2}O, and no inhibition by imidazole suggests the reductase domain of P450BM-3 as the potential catalytic site. However, increased aldehyde reduction by P450 domain variants (P450BM-3 F87A T268A) may involve allosteric or redox mechanistic interactions between heme and reductase domains. This is a novel reduction of aldehydes by P450BM-3 involving a direct hydride transfer and could have implications for the metabolism of endogenous substrates or xenobiotics.

  18. Cytochrome P450BM-3 reduces aldehydes to alcohols through a direct hydride transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaspera, Rüdiger; Sahele, Tariku; Lakatos, Kyle; Totah, Rheem A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cytochrome P450BM-3 reduced aldehydes to alcohols efficiently (k cat ∼ 25 min −1 ). ► Reduction is a direct hydride transfer from R-NADP 2 H to the carbonyl moiety. ► P450 domain variants enhance reduction through potential allosteric/redox interactions. ► Novel reaction will have implications for metabolism of xenobiotics. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450BM-3 catalyzed the reduction of lipophilic aldehydes to alcohols efficiently. A k cat of ∼25 min −1 was obtained for the reduction of methoxy benzaldehyde with wild type P450BM-3 protein which was higher than in the isolated reductase domain (BMR) alone and increased in specific P450-domain variants. The reduction was caused by a direct hydride transfer from preferentially R-NADP 2 H to the carbonyl moiety of the substrate. Weak substrate-P450-binding of the aldehyde, turnover with the reductase domain alone, a deuterium incorporation in the product from NADP 2 H but not D 2 O, and no inhibition by imidazole suggests the reductase domain of P450BM-3 as the potential catalytic site. However, increased aldehyde reduction by P450 domain variants (P450BM-3 F87A T268A) may involve allosteric or redox mechanistic interactions between heme and reductase domains. This is a novel reduction of aldehydes by P450BM-3 involving a direct hydride transfer and could have implications for the metabolism of endogenous substrates or xenobiotics.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and biological studies of 2-(4-nitro phenylaminocarbonyl)benzoic acid and its complexes with Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqeel Ashraf, M.; Jamil Maah, M.; Yusuf, I.

    2012-01-01

    Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) salts of 2-(4-nitro phenylaminocarbonyl)benzoic acid were characterized by physical, analytical and spectroscopic studies and checked for their in-vitro antimicrobial activity against three bacterial strains, Mycobacterium smegmatis (Gram +ve), Escherichia coli (Gram -ve), Pseudomonas aeuroginosa (Gram -ve) and three fungal strains, Nigrospora oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activities of the metal complexes - were found to be greater than those of 2-(4-nitro phenylaminocarbonyl)benzoic acid alone.

  20. D77, one benzoic acid derivative, functions as a novel anti-HIV-1 inhibitor targeting the interaction between integrase and cellular LEDGF/p75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Li; Zhao Yaxue; Chen, Jing; Yang Liumeng; Zheng Yongtang; Tang Yun; Shen Xu; Jiang Hualiang

    2008-01-01

    Integration of viral-DNA into host chromosome mediated by the viral protein HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an essential step in the HIV-1 life cycle. In this process, Lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is discovered to function as a cellular co-factor for integration. Since LEDGF/p75 plays an important role in HIV integration, disruption of the LEDGF/p75 interaction with IN has provided a special interest for anti-HIV agent discovery. In this work, we reported that a benzoic acid derivative, 4-[(5-bromo-4-{[2,4-dioxo-3-(2-oxo-2-phenylethyl) -1,3-thiazolidin-5-ylidene]methyl}-2-ethoxyphenoxy)methyl]benzoic acid (D77) could potently inhibit the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction and affect the HIV-1 IN nuclear distribution thus exhibiting antiretroviral activity. Molecular docking with site-directed mutagenesis analysis and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding assays has clarified possible binding mode of D77 against HIV-1 integrase. As the firstly discovered small molecular compound targeting HIV-1 integrase interaction with LEDGF/p75, D77 might supply useful structural information for further anti-HIV agent discovery

  1. Identification of ortho-Substituted Benzoic Acid/Ester Derivatives via the Gas-Phase Neighboring Group Participation Effect in (+)-ESI High Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blincoe, William D; Rodriguez-Granillo, Agustina; Saurí, Josep; Pierson, Nicholas A; Joyce, Leo A; Mangion, Ian; Sheng, Huaming

    2018-04-01

    Benzoic acid/ester/amide derivatives are common moieties in pharmaceutical compounds and present a challenge in positional isomer identification by traditional tandem mass spectrometric analysis. A method is presented for exploiting the gas-phase neighboring group participation (NGP) effect to differentiate ortho-substituted benzoic acid/ester derivatives with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS 1 ). Significant water/alcohol loss (>30% abundance in MS 1 spectra) was observed for ortho-substituted nucleophilic groups; these fragment peaks are not observable for the corresponding para and meta-substituted analogs. Experiments were also extended to the analysis of two intermediates in the synthesis of suvorexant (Belsomra) with additional analysis conducted with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), density functional theory (DFT), and ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) studies. Significant water/alcohol loss was also observed for 1-substituted 1, 2, 3-triazoles but not for the isomeric 2-substituted 1, 2, 3-triazole analogs. IMS-MS, NMR, and DFT studies were conducted to show that the preferred orientation of the 2-substituted triazole rotamer was away from the electrophilic center of the reaction, whereas the 1-subtituted triazole was oriented in close proximity to the center. Abundance of NGP product was determined to be a product of three factors: (1) proton affinity of the nucleophilic group; (2) steric impact of the nucleophile; and (3) proximity of the nucleophile to carboxylic acid/ester functional groups. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  2. Copper(II) complexes with 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid: Syntheses, crystal structures and antifungal activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Pingping; Li, Jie; Bu, Huaiyu; Wei, Qing; Zhang, Ruolin; Chen, Sanping

    2014-01-01

    Reaction of Cu(II) with an asymmetric semi-rigid organic ligand 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid (HL), yielded five compounds, [Cu 0.5 L] n (1), [Cu(HL) 2 Cl 2 ] n (2), [Cu(HL) 2 Cl 2 (H 2 O)] (3), [Cu(L) 2 (H 2 O)] n (4) and [Cu(L)(phen)(HCO 2 )] n (5), which have been fully characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. As for compounds 1, 2 and 5, Cu(II) is bridged through HL, Cl - , and formic acid, respectively, featuring 1D chain-structure. In compound 3, Cu(II) with hexahedral coordination sphere is assembled through hydrogen-bonding into 3D supramolecular framework. In compound 4, 1D chain units –Cu–O–Cu–O– are ligand-bridged into a 3D network. All compounds were tested on fungi (Fusarium graminearum, Altemaria solani, Macrophoma kawatsukai, Alternaria alternata and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). Compound 1 exhibits a better antifungal effect compared to other compounds. An effect of structure on the antifungal activity has also been correlated. - Graphical abstract: Copper(II) compounds with 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid, were prepared, structurally characterized and investigated for antifungal activity. - Highlights: • The title compounds formed by thermodynamics and thermokinetics. • The five compounds show higher inhibition percentage than reactants. • The structure effect on the antifungal activity

  3. Allelopathic activity of Leonurus siribicus L. on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat and identification of 4- hydroxy benzoic acid as an allelochemical by chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, M. A.; Imam, R.; Siddiqui, M.N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the allelopathic effects of L. siribicus extract on seed germination and seedlings growth of wheat as well as to identify potential allelochemical. The different concentration (5, 10 and 15%) of aqueous extract were applied during the time of sowing and at 5 days after sowing of wheat seed. L. siribicus extract showed concentration and time - depending activity. Different concentration of aqueous extract inhibited seed germination, seedlings growth, when extracts were applied during the time of seed sowing. The stimulatory effect of seedlings growth were found for 5 % aqueous extract, in contrast 10 and 15% extract inhibited seedlings growth, when extracts were applied at 5 days after sowing. Apart from, 4-hydroxy benzoic acids affected seedlings growth irrespective of application time. The weight of dry matter of wheat seedlings were increased for 5% than 10 and 15% extracts. Thin layer chromatography suggested that the presence of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid including other allelopathic and growth regulatory compounds inhibited germination and seedlings growth. Mineral composition was determined and its might have some stimulatory effect on seedlings growth. It was interesting that 5% extract inhibited germination and seedlings growth, when it was applied during the time of seed sowing, but stimulated seedling growth, when it was applied at 5 days after sowing. The extract of this plants can be used either for bioherbicide as well as growth stimulatory agents for the organic farming system. To find out molecular mechanism behind it, further research is to be done. (author)

  4. APMP.QM-S8: determination of mass fraction of benzoic acid, methyl paraben and n-butyl paraben in soy sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tang Lin; Gui, Ee Mei; Lu, Ting; Sze Cheow, Pui; Giannikopoulou, Panagiota; Kakoulides, Elias; Lampi, Evgenia; Choi, Sik-man; Yip, Yiu-chung; Chan, Pui-kwan; Hui, Sin-kam; Wollinger, Wagner; Carvalho, Lucas J.; Garrido, Bruno C.; Rego, Eliane C. P.; Ahn, Seonghee; Kim, Byungjoo; Li, Xiuqin; Guo, Zhen; Styarini, Dyah; Aristiawan, Yosi; Putri Ramadhaningtyas, Dillani; Aryana, Nurhani; Ebarvia, Benilda S.; Dacuaya, Aaron; Tongson, Alleni; Aganda, Kim Christopher; Junvee Fortune, Thippaya; Tangtrirat, Pradthana; Mungmeechai, Thanarak; Ceyhan Gören, Ahmet; Gündüz, Simay; Yilmaz, Hasibe

    2017-01-01

    The supplementary comparison APMP.QM-S8: determination of mass fraction of benzoic acid, methyl paraben and n-butyl paraben in soy sauce was coordinated by the Health Sciences Authority, Singapore under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM). Ten national metrology institutes (NMIs) or designated institutes (DIs) participated in the comparison. All the institutes participated in the comparison for benzoic acid, while six NMIs/DIs participated in the comparison for methyl paraben and n-butyl paraben. The comparison was designed to enable participating institutes to demonstrate their measurement capabilities in the determination of common preservatives in soy sauce, using procedure(s) that required simple sample preparation and selective detection in the mass fraction range of 50 to 1000 mg/kg. The demonstrated capabilities can be extended to include other polar food preservatives (e.g. sorbic acid, propionic acid and other alkyl benzoates) in water, aqueous-based beverages (e.g. fruit juices, tea extracts, sodas, sports drinks, etc) and aqueous-based condiments (e.g. vinegar, fish sauce, etc). Liquid--liquid extraction and/or dilution were applied, followed by instrumental analyses using LC-MS/MS, LC-MS, GC-MS (with or without derivatisation) or HPLC-DAD. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry was used for quantification, except in the case of a participating institute, where external calibration method was used for quantification of all three measurands. The assigned Supplementary Comparison Reference Values (SCRVs) were the medians of ten results for benzoic acid, six results for methyl paraben and six results for n-butyl paraben. Benzoic acid was assigned a SCRV of 154.55 mg/kg with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.94 mg/kg, methyl paraben was assigned a SCRV of 100.95 mg/kg with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.40 mg/kg, and n-butyl paraben was assigned a SCRV of 99.05 mg

  5. Copper(I)/TEMPO Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of Primary Alcohols to Aldehydes with Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Jessica M.; Steves, Janelle E.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2012-01-01

    This protocol describes a practical laboratory-scale method for aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes, using a chemoselective CuI/TEMPO catalyst system. The catalyst is prepared in situ from commercially available reagents, and the reactions are performed in a common organic solvent (acetonitrile) with ambient air as the oxidant. Three different reaction conditions and three procedures for the isolation and purification of the aldehyde product are presented. The oxidations of eight different alcohols, described here, include representative examples of each reaction condition and purification method. Reaction times vary from 20 min to 24 h, depending on the alcohol, while the purification methods each take about 2 h. The total time necessary for the complete protocol ranges from 3 – 26 h. PMID:22635108

  6. Aerobic oxidation of aldehydes under ambient conditions using supported gold nanoparticle catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsden, Charlotte Clare; Taarning, Esben; Hansen, David

    2008-01-01

    A new, green protocol for producing simple esters by selectively oxidizing an aldehyde dissolved in a primary alcohol has been established, utilising air as the oxidant and supported gold nanoparticles as catalyst. The oxidative esterifications proceed with excellent selectivities at ambient cond...... conditions; the reactions can be performed in an open flask and at room temperature. Benzaldehyde is even oxidised at a reasonable rate below -70 degrees C. Acrolein is oxidised to methyl acrylate in high yield using the same protocol.......A new, green protocol for producing simple esters by selectively oxidizing an aldehyde dissolved in a primary alcohol has been established, utilising air as the oxidant and supported gold nanoparticles as catalyst. The oxidative esterifications proceed with excellent selectivities at ambient...

  7. Size-Selective Oxidation of Aldehydes with Zeolite Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Karen Thrane; Laursen, Anders Bo; Kegnæs, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report a synthesis and catalytic study of hybrid materials comprised of 1–3 nm sinter-stable Au nanoparticles in MFI-type zeolites. An optional post-treatment in aqua regia effectively remove Au from the external surfaces. The size-selective aerobic aldehyde oxidation verifies that the a......Here, we report a synthesis and catalytic study of hybrid materials comprised of 1–3 nm sinter-stable Au nanoparticles in MFI-type zeolites. An optional post-treatment in aqua regia effectively remove Au from the external surfaces. The size-selective aerobic aldehyde oxidation verifies...... that the active Au is accessible only through the zeolite micropores....

  8. An Efficient Amide-Aldehyde-Alkene Condensation: Synthesis for the N-Allyl Amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Zheng-Jun; Wang, Xi-Cun

    2016-02-01

    The allylamine skeleton represents a significant class of biologically active nitrogen compounds that are found in various natural products and drugs with well-recognized pharmacological properties. In this personal account, we will briefly discuss the synthesis of allylamine skeletons. We will focus on showing a general protocol for Lewis acid-catalyzed N-allylation of electron-poor N-heterocyclic amides and sulfonamide via an amide-aldehyde-alkene condensation reaction. The substrate scope with respect to N-heterocyclic amides, aldehydes, and alkenes will be discussed. This method is also capable of preparing the Naftifine motif from N-methyl-1-naphthamide or methyl (naphthalene-1-ylmethyl)carbamate, with paraformaldehyde and styrene in a one-pot manner. © 2016 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Melamine Trisulfonic Acid as a New, Efficient and Reusable Catalyst for the Chemoselective Oxathioacetalyzation of Aldehydes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirini, F.; Albadi, J.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an efficient and high yielding method for the chemoselective oxathioacetalyzation of aldehydes. Relatively short reaction times, high efficiency, heterogeneous reaction conditions, availability and recyclability of the reagent and easy work-up are among the other advantages of this method, which make this procedure a useful and attractive addition to the available methods. We are exploring further applications of MTSA for the other types of functional group transformations in our laboratory. 1,3-Oxathiolanes are synthetically important protecting groups for aldehydes due to their considerable stability under a variety of reaction conditions, ease of formation and removal, equality to acyl carbanions in C-C bond forming reactions, and use in enantioselective synthesis of tertiary α-hydroxy acids and glycols

  10. Green Tea Polyphenols Decrease Strecker Aldehydes and Bind to Proteins in Lactose-Hydrolyzed UHT Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Therese; Rauh, Valentin; Danielsen, Bente P; Poojary, Mahesha M; Waehrens, Sandra S; Bredie, Wender L P; Sørensen, John; Petersen, Mikael A; Ray, Colin A; Lund, Marianne N

    2017-12-06

    The effect of epigallocatechin gallate enriched green tea extract (GTE) on flavor, Maillard reactions and protein modifications in lactose-hydrolyzed (LH) ultrahigh temperature (UHT) processed milk was examined during storage at 40 °C for up to 42 days. Addition of GTE inhibited the formation of Strecker aldehydes by up to 95% compared to control milk, and the effect was similar when GTE was added either before or after UHT treatment. Release of free amino acids, caused by proteolysis, during storage was also decreased in GTE-added milk either before or after UHT treatment compared to control milk. Binding of polyphenols to milk proteins was observed in both fresh and stored milk samples. The inhibition of Strecker aldehyde formation by GTE may be explained by two different mechanisms; inhibition of proteolysis during storage by GTE or binding of amino acids and proteins to the GTE polyphenols.

  11. Titanocene(III)-Catalyzed Three-Component Reaction of Secondary Amides, Aldehydes, and Electrophilic Alkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao; He, Jiang; Li, Heng-Hui; Wang, Ao; Dai, Xi-Jie; Wang, Ai-E; Huang, Pei-Qiang

    2015-11-09

    An umpolung Mannich-type reaction of secondary amides, aliphatic aldehydes, and electrophilic alkenes has been disclosed. This reaction features the one-pot formation of C-N and C-C bonds by a titanocene-catalyzed radical coupling of the condensation products, from secondary amides and aldehydes, with electrophilic alkenes. N-substituted γ-amido-acid derivatives and γ-amido ketones can be efficiently prepared by the current method. Extension to the reaction between ketoamides and electrophilic alkenes allows rapid assembly of piperidine skeletons with α-amino quaternary carbon centers. Its synthetic utility has been demonstrated by a facile construction of the tricyclic core of marine alkaloids such as cylindricine C and polycitorol A. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A Green Approach for Allylations of Aldehydes and Ketones: Combining Allylborate, Mechanochemistry and Lanthanide Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane P. de Souza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Secondary and tertiary alcohols synthesized via allylation of aldehydes and ketones are important compounds in bioactive natural products and industry, including pharmaceuticals. Development of a mechanochemical method using potassium allyltrifluoroborate salt and water, to successfully perform the allylation of aromatic and aliphatic carbonyl compounds is reported for the first time. By controlling the grinding parameters, the methodology can be selective, namely, very efficient for aldehydes and ineffective for ketones, but by employing lanthanide catalysts, the reactions with ketones can become practically quantitative. The catalyzed reactions can also be performed under mild aqueous stirring conditions. Considering the allylation agent and its by-products, aqueous media, energy efficiency and use of catalyst, the methodology meets most of the green chemistry principles.

  13. Selective Production of Aromatic Aldehydes from Heavy Fraction of Bio-oil via Catalytic Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan; Chang, Jie; Ouyang, Yong; Zheng, Xianwei

    2014-01-01

    High value-added aromatic aldehydes (e. g. vanillin and syringaldehyde) were produced from heavy fraction of bio-oil (HFBO) via catalytic oxidation. The concept is based on the use of metalloporphyin as catalyst and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as oxidant under alkaline condition. The biomimetic catalyst cobalt(II)-sulfonated tetraphenylporphyrin (Co(TPPS 4 )) was prepared and characterized. It exhibited relative high activity in the catalytic oxidation of HFBO. 4.57 wt % vanillin and 1.58 wt % syringaldehyde were obtained from catalytic oxidation of HFBO, compared to 2.6 wt % vanillin and 0.86 wt % syringaldehyde without Co(TPPS 4 ). Moreover, a possible mechanism of HFBO oxidation using Co(TPPS 4 )/H 2 O 2 was proposed by the research of model compounds. The results showed that this is a promising and environmentally friendly method for production of aromatic aldehydes from HFBO under Co(TPPS 4 )/H 2 O 2 system

  14. Flavour release of aldehydes and diacetyl in oil/water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Bredie, W. L. P.; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2000-01-01

    from the pure oil. The release over time for diacetyl and (E,E)-2,4-hexadienal showed a linear relationship in all systems. The other compounds followed an exponential relationship between the time and the fraction released in the aqueous systems. It was demonstrated that the release of the volatile...... compounds was dependent on the chain length, the degree of unsaturation as well as the characteristics of the model system. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......The concentration- and time-dependent release of three C-6-aldehydes, six C-9-aldehydes and diacetyl was studied in model systems. The systems were water, rapeseed oil and oil-in-water emulsions. Dynamic headspace sampling was used to collect the volatile compounds. In the concentration...

  15. Olfactory sensitivity for sperm-attractant aromatic aldehydes: a comparative study in human subjects and spider monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldmand, Luna; Salazar, Laura Teresa Hernandez; Laska, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Using a three-alternative forced-choice ascending staircase procedure, we determined olfactory detection thresholds in 20 human subjects for seven aromatic aldehydes and compared them to those of four spider monkeys tested in parallel using an operant conditioning paradigm. With all seven odorants, both species detected concentrations lyral, and 3-phenylpropanal. No significant correlation between presence/absence of an oxygen-containing moiety attached to the benzene ring or presence/absence of an additional alkyl group next to the functional aldehyde group, and olfactory sensitivity was found in any of the species. However, the presence of a tertiary butyl group in para position (relative to the functional aldehyde group) combined with a lack of an additional alkyl group next to the functional aldehyde group may be responsible for the finding that both species were most sensitive to bourgeonal.

  16. Continuous-flow enantioselective α-aminoxylation of aldehydes catalyzed by a polystyrene-immobilized hydroxyproline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xacobe C. Cambeiro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of polystyrene-immobilized proline-based catalysts in packed-bed reactors for the continuous-flow, direct, enantioselective α-aminoxylation of aldehydes is described. The system allows the easy preparation of a series of β-aminoxy alcohols (after a reductive workup with excellent optical purity and with an effective catalyst loading of ca. 2.5% (four-fold reduction compared to the batch process working at residence times of ca. 5 min.

  17. Interaction of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes with dienes in the presence of boron trifluoride etherate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramenitskaya, V.N.; Golovkina, L.S.; Orach, V.S.

    1975-01-01

    The products of the acrolein reaction with divinyl, isoprene and chloroprene catalized by BF 3 xEt 2 O are corresponding 3-cyclohexenaldehydes trimerized under the catalyst influence. Mixtures of substituted 3-cyclohexealdehydes and Δ 3 -dihydropirines were produced as results of the reaction of croton aldehyde with 1,1,3-trimethilbutadiene at high temperature as well as at 20 deg C in presence of catalyst

  18. Genotoxic consequences of endogenous aldehydes on mouse haematopoietic stem cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaycoechea, Juan I; Crossan, Gerry P; Langevin, Frederic; Daly, Maria; Arends, Mark J; Patel, Ketan J

    2012-09-27

    Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) regenerate blood cells throughout the lifespan of an organism. With age, the functional quality of HSCs declines, partly owing to the accumulation of damaged DNA. However, the factors that damage DNA and the protective mechanisms that operate in these cells are poorly understood. We have recently shown that the Fanconi anaemia DNA-repair pathway counteracts the genotoxic effects of reactive aldehydes. Mice with combined inactivation of aldehyde catabolism (through Aldh2 knockout) and the Fanconi anaemia DNA-repair pathway (Fancd2 knockout) display developmental defects, a predisposition to leukaemia, and are susceptible to the toxic effects of ethanol-an exogenous source of acetaldehyde. Here we report that aged Aldh2(-/-) Fancd2(-/-) mutant mice that do not develop leukaemia spontaneously develop aplastic anaemia, with the concomitant accumulation of damaged DNA within the haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) pool. Unexpectedly, we find that only HSPCs, and not more mature blood precursors, require Aldh2 for protection against acetaldehyde toxicity. Additionally, the aldehyde-oxidizing activity of HSPCs, as measured by Aldefluor stain, is due to Aldh2 and correlates with this protection. Finally, there is more than a 600-fold reduction in the HSC pool of mice deficient in both Fanconi anaemia pathway-mediated DNA repair and acetaldehyde detoxification. Therefore, the emergence of bone marrow failure in Fanconi anaemia is probably due to aldehyde-mediated genotoxicity restricted to the HSPC pool. These findings identify a new link between endogenous reactive metabolites and DNA damage in HSCs, and define the protective mechanisms that counteract this threat.

  19. Organocatalytic asymmetric michael addition of aldehydes to beta-nitroacroleine dimethyl acetal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Efraim; Vicario, Jose L; Badía, Dolores; Carrillo, Luisa

    2006-12-21

    [Structure: see text] The organocatalytic asymmetric Michael addition of aldehydes to beta-nitroacroleine dimethyl acetal has been studied in detail. The reaction took place with excellent yields and high stereoselectivities when a chiral beta-amino alcohol such as L-prolinol was employed as the catalyst, leaving a formation of highly functionalized enantioenriched compounds containing two differentiated formyl groups together with a nitro moiety.

  20. Phenolic Acids, Phenolic Aldehydes and Furanic Derivatives in Oak Chips: American vs. French Oaks

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrita, M.J.; Barrocas Dias, C.; Costa Freitas, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Phenolic acids (gallic, vanillic, syringic and ellagic acids), phenolic aldehydes (vanillin, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde) and furanic derivatives (furfural, 5-methylfurfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) were quantified in commercial American and French oak chips. Chips with different sizes and toast degrees were used. Compounds were extracted directly from the wood samples in order to determine possible differences among woods as well as toast degree. Likewise, the compo...

  1. A Catalase-related Hemoprotein in Coral Is Specialized for Synthesis of Short-chain Aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teder, Tarvi; Lõhelaid, Helike; Boeglin, William E.; Calcutt, Wade M.; Brash, Alan R.; Samel, Nigulas

    2015-01-01

    In corals a catalase-lipoxygenase fusion protein transforms arachidonic acid to the allene oxide 8R,9-epoxy-5,9,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid from which arise cyclopentenones such as the prostanoid-related clavulones. Recently we cloned two catalase-lipoxygenase fusion protein genes (a and b) from the coral Capnella imbricata, form a being an allene oxide synthase and form b giving uncharacterized polar products (Lõhelaid, H., Teder, T., Tõldsepp, K., Ekins, M., and Samel, N. (2014) PloS ONE 9, e89215). Here, using HPLC-UV, LC-MS, and NMR methods, we identify a novel activity of fusion protein b, establishing its role in cleaving the lipoxygenase product 8R-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid into the short-chain aldehydes (5Z)-8-oxo-octenoic acid and (3Z,6Z)-dodecadienal; these primary products readily isomerize in an aqueous medium to the corresponding 6E- and 2E,6Z derivatives. This type of enzymatic cleavage, splitting the carbon chain within the conjugated diene of the hydroperoxide substrate, is known only in plant cytochrome P450 hydroperoxide lyases. In mechanistic studies using 18O-labeled substrate and incubations in H218O, we established synthesis of the C8-oxo acid and C12 aldehyde with the retention of the hydroperoxy oxygens, consistent with synthesis of a short-lived hemiacetal intermediate that breaks down spontaneously into the two aldehydes. Taken together with our initial studies indicating differing gene regulation of the allene oxide synthase and the newly identified catalase-related hydroperoxide lyase and given the role of aldehydes in plant defense, this work uncovers a potential pathway in coral stress signaling and a novel enzymatic activity in the animal kingdom. PMID:26100625

  2. Enantioselective Addition of Allyltin Reagents to Amino Aldehydes Catalyzed with Bis(oxazolinylphenylrhodium(III Aqua Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Nishiyama

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bis(oxazolinylphenylrhodium(III aqua complexes, (PheboxRhX2(H2O [X = Cl, Br], were found to be efficient Lewis acid catalysts for the enantioselective addition of allyl- and methallyltributyltin reagents to amino aldehydes. The reactions proceed smoothly in the presence of 5–10 mol % of (PheboxRhX2(H2O complex at ambient temperature to give the corresponding amino alcohols with modest to good enantioselectivity (up to 94% ee.

  3. Mild and Efficient One Pot Synthesis of Imidazolinesand Benzimidazoles from Aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of some imidazolines and benzimidazoles were synthesizedfrom various aldehydes and 1,2-diamines in the presence of ceric(IVammonium nitrate (CAN. The title compounds were prepared via one stepsynthesis method. The simplicity of the reaction conditions with shorterreaction time and with out use of column chromatography to get the pureproducts in high yields makes this method more attractive for organic chemists.

  4. Aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism in North American, South American, and Mexican Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedde, H W; Agarwal, D P; Harada, S; Rothhammer, F; Whittaker, J O; Lisker, R

    1986-01-01

    While about 40% of the South American Indian populations (Atacameños, Mapuche, Shuara) were found to be deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme I (ALDH2 or E2), preliminary investigations showed very low incidence of isozyme deficiency among North American natives (Sioux, Navajo) and Mexican Indians (mestizo). Possible implications of such trait differences on cross-cultural behavioral response to alcohol drinking are discussed. PMID:3953578

  5. NMR study of the epoxidation of liquid hydrolyzed poly-butadiene and meta-chloro-per-benzoic acid; Estudo atraves de RMN da reacao de epoxidacao de polibutadieno liquido hidroxilado (PBLH) e acido m-cloro perbenzoico (AMCPB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Marcelo [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Akcelrud, L [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Menezes, Sonia Cabral de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    1994-12-31

    This work presents a study concerning the selectivity of the different configurations of the double bond present in liquid hydrolyzed poly-butadiene towards the epoxidation reaction with meta-chloro-per-benzoic acid through hydrogen-1, carbon-13 NMR aiming the production of new materials, varying the epoxidation level 12 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. A unified approach for the synthesis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical dibenzyl ethers from aryl aldehydes through reductive etherification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sembian Ruso

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a simple and convenient conversion of aryl aldehydes to symmetrical dibenzyl ethers through reductive etherification. Similarly, unsymmetrical dibenzyl ether was obtained from aryl aldehyde and TES-protected benzyl alcohol. Triethyl silane with catalytic amount of InCl3 was found to be an efficient condition for the reductive etherification. Moreover, it exhibits remarkable functional group compatibility with yield ranging from good to excellent.

  7. Direct Aldehyde C-H Arylation and Alkylation via the Combination of Nickel, Hydrogen Atom Transfer, and Photoredox Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaheng; MacMillan, David W C

    2017-08-23

    A mechanism that enables direct aldehyde C-H functionalization has been achieved via the synergistic merger of photoredox, nickel, and hydrogen atom transfer catalysis. This mild, operationally simple protocol transforms a wide variety of commercially available aldehydes, along with aryl or alkyl bromides, into the corresponding ketones in excellent yield. This C-H abstraction coupling technology has been successfully applied to the expedient synthesis of the medicinal agent haloperidol.

  8. Enantioselective Direct α-Amination of Aldehydes via a Photoredox Mechanism: A Strategy for Asymmetric Amine Fragment Coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Cecere, Giuseppe; Koenig, Christian M.; Alleva, Jennifer L.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2013-01-01

    The direct, asymmetric α-amination of aldehydes has been accomplished via a combination of photoredox and organocatalysis. Photon-generated, nitrogen-centered radicals undergo enantioselective α-addition to catalytically formed chiral enamines to directly produce stable α-amino aldehyde adducts bearing synthetically useful amine substitution patterns. Incorporation of a photolabile group on the amine precursor obviates the need to employ a photoredox catalyst in this transformation. Important...

  9. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 in aplastic anemia, Fanconi anemia and hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenhove, Lauren D; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Weinberg, Kenneth I

    2016-09-01

    Maintenance of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment depends on the ability to metabolize exogenously and endogenously generated toxins, and to repair cellular damage caused by such toxins. Reactive aldehydes have been demonstrated to cause specific genotoxic injury, namely DNA interstrand cross-links. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a member of a 19 isoenzyme ALDH family with different substrate specificities, subcellular localization, and patterns of expression. ALDH2 is localized in mitochondria and is essential for the metabolism of acetaldehyde, thereby placing it directly downstream of ethanol metabolism. Deficiency in ALDH2 expression and function are caused by a single nucleotide substitution and resulting amino acid change, called ALDH2*2. This genetic polymorphism affects 35-45% of East Asians (about ~560 million people), and causes the well-known Asian flushing syndrome, which results in disulfiram-like reactions after ethanol consumption. Recently, the ALDH2*2 genotype has been found to be associated with marrow failure, with both an increased risk of sporadic aplastic anemia and more rapid progression of Fanconi anemia. This review discusses the unexpected interrelationship between aldehydes, ALDH2 and hematopoietic stem cell biology, and in particular its relationship to Fanconi anemia. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of sh-reagents on rat hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konoplitskaya, K.L.; Kuz' mina, G.I.; Grigor' yeva, M.V.; Poznyakova, T.N.

    The liver serves as the primary organ for the oxidation of ingested ethanol via a pathway involving alcohol- and aldehyde dehydrogenase. In view of the problem of alcoholism, three enzymes are of particular interest in understanding the biochemical mechanism that may be involved in alcohol addiction and in the formulation of therapeutic approaches. While alcohol dehydrogenase has been studied in considerable detail, current attention is centered on aldehyde dehydrogenase. A comparative analysis of the effects of a series of SH-active reagents - tetraethylthiuram disulfide (TETD), 5,5-dithiobisnitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), p-chloromercurybenzoate (PCMB), and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) - were tested for their effects on the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase of the hepatic mitochondrial (isozymes I and II) and microsomal (isozyme II) fractions of outbred albino rats. DTNB was found to be inhibited by 100 and 50% mitochondrial isozymes I and II, respectively, and by 20%, the microsomal enzyme under the conditions employed. DTNB and NEM inhibited by 30 and 50% isozymes I and II of the mitochondria, but had no effect on the microsomal isozyme. 24 references, 3 figures.

  11. Nitric oxide mediates the stress response induced by diatom aldehydes in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Romano

    Full Text Available Diatoms are ubiquitous and abundant primary producers that have been traditionally considered as a beneficial food source for grazers and for the transfer of carbon through marine food webs. However, many diatom species produce polyunsaturated aldehydes that disrupt development in the offspring of grazers that feed on these unicellular algae. Here we provide evidence that production of the physiological messenger nitric oxide increases after treatment with the polyunsaturated aldehyde decadienal in embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. At high decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide mediates initial apoptotic events leading to loss of mitochondrial functionality through the generation of peroxynitrite. At low decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide contributes to the activation of hsp70 gene expression thereby protecting embryos against the toxic effects of this aldehyde. When nitric oxide levels were lowered by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase activity, the expression of hsp70 in swimming blastula decreased and the proportion of abnormal plutei increased. However, in later pluteus stages nitric oxide was no longer able to exert this protective function: hsp70 and nitric oxide synthase expression decreased with a consequent increase in the expression of caspase-8. Our findings that nitric oxide production increases rapidly in response to a toxic exogenous stimulus opens new perspectives on the possible role of this gas as an important messenger to environmental stress in sea urchins and for understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying toxicity during diatom blooms.

  12. Identification and characterization of aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) in the cotton bollworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Liao, Yalin

    2017-12-01

    Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) are a family of metabolic enzymes that oxidize aldehydes into carboxylic acids; therefore, they play critical roles in detoxification and degradation of chemicals. By using transcriptomic and genomic approaches, we successfully identified six putative AOX genes (HarmAOX1-6) from cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In silico expression profile, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses showed that HarmAOX1 is highly expressed in adult antennae, tarsi, and larval mouthparts, so they may play an important role in degrading plant-derived compounds. HarmAOX2 is highly and specifically expressed in adult antennae, suggesting a candidate pheromone-degrading enzyme (PDE) to inactivate the sex pheromone components (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (Z)-9-hexadecenal. RNA sequencing data further demonstrated that a number of host plants they feed on could significantly upregulate the expression levels of HarmAOX1 in larvae. This study improves our understanding of insect aldehyde oxidases and insect-plant interactions.

  13. Origin of low-molecular mass aldehydes as disinfection by-products in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, María; Gallego, Mercedes; Silva, Manuel

    2017-09-01

    A novel, simple and automatic method based on static headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been developed to determine 10 low-molecular mass aldehydes that can be found in beverages, coming from the treated water used in their production. These aldehydes are the most frequently found in treated water as water disinfection by-products, so they can be used as indicators of the addition of treated water to beverages. The study covered a large number of fruit juices and soft drinks. The presence of the whole array of analytes is related to the contact with treated water during beverage production, mainly by the addition of treated water as ingredient. In particular, propionaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzaldehyde can be used as indicators of the addition of treated water in these kinds of beverages. Among the ten aldehydes, only formaldehyde and acetaldehyde are naturally present in all kinds of fruit, and their concentrations are related to stage of the ripening of the fruit.

  14. A catalytic reactor for the organocatalyzed enantioselective continuous flow alkylation of aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Riccardo; Benaglia, Maurizio; Puglisi, Alessandra; Mandoli, Alessandro; Gualandi, Andrea; Cozzi, Pier Giorgio

    2014-12-01

    The use of immobilized metal-free catalysts offers the unique possibility to develop sustainable processes in flow mode. The challenging intermolecular organocatalyzed enantioselective alkylation of aldehydes was performed for the first time under continuous flow conditions. By using a packed-bed reactor filled with readily available supported enantiopure imidazolidinone, different aldehydes were treated with three distinct cationic electrophiles. In the organocatalyzed α-alkylation of aldehydes with 1,3-benzodithiolylium tetrafluoroborate, excellent enantioselectivities, in some cases even better than those obtained in the flask process (up to 95% ee at 25 °C), and high productivity (more than 3800 h(-1) ) were obtained, which thus shows that a catalytic reactor may continuously produce enantiomerically enriched compounds. Treatment of the alkylated products with Raney-nickel furnished enantiomerically enriched α-methyl derivatives, key intermediates for active pharmaceutical ingredients and natural products. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Plant volatile aldehydes as natural insecticides against stored-product beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Santino, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    Infestation by stored-product pests causes serious losses in food and feed commodities. Among possible strategies against these pests, which aim to reduce the use of synthetic insecticides, including fumigants, natural insecticides produced by plants represent one of the most promising approaches for their ecochemical control. Three six-carbon and nine-carbon aldehydes, natural plant volatiles produced by the plant lipoxygenase pathway, were tested for their insecticidal activity against five species of stored-product beetles in feeding, fumigation and combined bioassays. The compounds (2E,6Z)-nonadienal, (2E)-nonenal and (2E)-hexenal were incorporated into feeding discs in feeding bioassays or evaporated from filter paper in closed glass chambers in fumigation tests. Beetle sensitivity to aldehydes differed according to the different treatments. The highest activity was obtained by (2E)-hexenal in fumigation tests, with the LC(50) ranging from 4 to 26 mg L(-1), while (2E, 6Z)-nonadienal was the most effective in feeding tests, giving LD(50)s ranging from 0.44 to 2.76 mg g(-1) when applied to feeding discs. Fumigation tests in the presence of wheat grains confirmed that (2E)-hexenal was the most effective compound, with a calculated LC(99) ranging from 33 to 166 mg L(-1). The results of both feeding and fumigation tests indicated that natural plant aldehydes are potential candidates to control stored-product beetles.

  16. Cardiac-specific overexpression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 exacerbates cardiac remodeling in response to pressure overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujith Dassanayaka

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Pathological cardiac remodeling during heart failure is associated with higher levels of lipid peroxidation products and lower abundance of several aldehyde detoxification enzymes, including aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2. An emerging idea that could explain these findings concerns the role of electrophilic species in redox signaling, which may be important for adaptive responses to stress or injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether genetically increasing ALDH2 activity affects pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction. Mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC for 12 weeks developed myocardial hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction, which were associated with diminished ALDH2 expression and activity. Cardiac-specific expression of the human ALDH2 gene in mice augmented myocardial ALDH2 activity but did not improve cardiac function in response to pressure overload. After 12 weeks of TAC, ALDH2 transgenic mice had larger hearts than their wild-type littermates and lower capillary density. These findings show that overexpression of ALDH2 augments the hypertrophic response to pressure overload and imply that downregulation of ALDH2 may be an adaptive response to certain forms of cardiac pathology. Keywords: Heart failure, Hypertrophy, Oxidative stress, Aldehydes, Cardiac remodeling, Hormesis

  17. Reductive detoxification of acrolein as a potential role for aldehyde reductase (AKR1A) in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Kwon, Myoungsu; Homma, Takujiro; Saito, Yuka; Lee, Jaeyong; Takahashi, Motoko; Yamada, Ken-Ichi; Miyata, Satoshi; Fujii, Junichi

    2014-09-12

    Aldehyde reductase (AKR1A), a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily, suppresses diabetic complications via a reduction in metabolic intermediates; it also plays a role in ascorbic acid biosynthesis in mice. Because primates cannot synthesize ascorbic acid, a principle role of AKR1A appears to be the reductive detoxification of aldehydes. In this study, we isolated and immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from wild-type (WT) and human Akr1a-transgenic (Tg) mice and used them to investigate the potential roles of AKR1A under culture conditions. Tg MEFs showed higher methylglyoxal- and acrolein-reducing activities than WT MEFs and also were more resistant to cytotoxicity. Enzymatic analyses of purified rat AKR1A showed that the efficiency of the acrolein reduction was about 20% that of glyceraldehyde. Ascorbic acid levels were quite low in the MEFs, and while the administration of ascorbic acid to the cells increased the intracellular levels of ascorbic acid, it had no affect on the resistance to acrolein. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and protein carbonylation induced by acrolein treatment were less evident in Tg MEFs than in WT MEFs. These data collectively indicate that one of the principle roles of AKR1A in primates is the reductive detoxification of aldehydes, notably acrolein, and protection from its detrimental effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficient and Highly Selective Solvent-Free Oxidation of Primary Alcohols to Aldehydes Using Bucky Nanodiamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yangming; Wu, Kuang-Hsu Tim; Yu, Linhui; Heumann, Saskia; Su, Dang Sheng

    2017-09-11

    Selective oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes is widely applicable to the synthesis of various green chemicals. The poor chemoselectivity for complicated primary aldehydes over state-of-the-art metal-free or metal-based catalysts represents a major obstacle for industrial application. Bucky nanodiamond is a potential green catalyst that exhibits excellent chemoselectivity and cycling stability for the selective oxidation of primary alcohols in diverse structures (22 examples, including aromatic, substituted aromatic, unsaturated, heterocyclic, and linear chain alcohols) to their corresponding aldehydes. The results are comparable to reported transition-metal catalysts including conventional Pt/C and Ru/C catalysts for certain substrates under solvent-free conditions. The possible activation process of the oxidant and substrates by the surface oxygen groups and defect species are revealed with model catalysts, ex situ electrochemical measurements, and ex situ attenuated total reflectance. The zigzag edges of sp 2 carbon planes are shown to play a key role in these reactions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Contribution to the study of carbohydrate radiolysis: study of the formation of malonic aldehyde during gamma irradiation of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enrico, Gerard.

    1974-01-01

    It was shown that malonic aldehyde can be formed directly by radiation of dry glucose or through the radicals of water when the latter is present. The direct effect leads to a malonic aldehyde production proportional to the dose and independent of dose rate, temperature over a wide range, presence of oxygen and crystalline state of the glucose, but strongly dependent on the water content and anomeric form of the glucose. Isotopic labelling showed that both ends of the glucose molecule participate in the malonic aldehyde formation. Extrapolation to linear polymers (maltose, maltotriose) reveals the independence of the radiolysis yield with regard to the α 1-4 bond and suggests that it tends towards that of glucose in amylose. The indirect effect is linked with the action of the OH radicals of water and appears when glucose is irradiated in a sufficiently hydrated state or in solution. In the latter case the malonic aldehyde concentration is largely independent of the glucose concentration and is not proportional to the dose. Oxygen has little effect but a strong activation is observed at high pH. The use of 14 C showed that the aldehyde end of glucose is responsible for most of the malonic aldehyde. Polymerisation of the glucose by α 1-4 binding reduces the radiolytic yield. The indirect effect would thus be negligible in amylose [fr

  20. Exposure to mutagenic aldehydes and particulate matter during panfrying of beefsteak with margarine, rapeseed oil, olive oil or soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjaastad, Ann Kristin; Svendsen, Kristin

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to see if a cook could be exposed to mutagenic aldehydes in fumes from frying of beefsteak using margarine, rapeseed oil, soybean oil or virgin olive oil as frying fat. In addition, levels of particle exposure were measured to make the results comparable to other studies. The levels of higher aldehydes and total particles were measured in the breathing zone of the cook during the panfrying of beefsteak with the four different frying fats. In addition, the number of particles in the size intervals 0.3-0.5, 0.5-0.7 and 0.7-1.0 microm in the kitchen was registered. Measured levels of mutagenic aldehydes were between non-detectable and 25.33 microg m(-3) air. The exposure level of total aerosol was between 1.0 and 11.6 mg m(-3). Higher aldehydes were detected in all samples from this study, and mutagenic aldehydes were detected in most of the samples. Frying with margarine gave statistically significantly higher levels of mutagenic aldehydes and particles in all three size fractions than frying with the three different kinds of oil.

  1. Radiation-Induced Polymerization of Aldehydes and Ketones; Polymerisation radiochimique des aldehydes et des cetones; Radiatsionnaya polimerizatsiya al'degidov i ketonov; Polimerizacion radioinducida de aldehidos y cetonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, K.; Yamaoka, H.; Fujiwara, K.; Sakamoto, M.; Mori, S.; Natori, T.; Yoshida, H.; Okamura, S. [Japanese Association for Radiation Research on Polymers, Neyagawa Osaka (Japan); Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1963-11-15

    Several kinds of aldehydes and ketones are polymerized by irradiation. Formaldehyde can be polymerized into high molecular weight polyoxymethylene by radiation-induced polymerization in the liquid phase at low temperatures. The polymerization mechanism is considered to be a cationic chain reaction both in the case of bulk and of solution in methylenechloride and toluene, but to be anionic in ethylether. Acetaldehyde and propionaldehyde are recognized as being hardly polymerized in the pure liquid phase, but easily polymerized in the presence of {gamma}-alumina. In the solid state polymerization, crystalline polymers are obtained as the stable- for- heat-treatment form under suitableconditions. Glyoxal can be polymerized into a three-dimensional network polymer. With formaldehyde it can be copolymerized into some cross-linked polyoxymethylene. Acetones such as chloroor bromoacetone and methylethylketone or diacetyl can be polymerized in the solid state into polymers which are unstable. Ketene can be polymerized into a polyester-type polymer with liquid phase polymerization; polyketone is obtained additionally when polymerization is carried out in the solid state. The copolymer with formaldehyde is slightly more stable. Dimethylketene can be easily polymerized both in the liquid and solid states into polyacetal. All these polymerizations are special examples of radiation-induced reactions and the reaction kinetics are interesting. Some details of this are discussed here. (author) [French] Plusieurs sortes d'aldehydes et de cetones se polymerisent sous l'effet des rayons gamma. L'aldehyde formique peut se transformer en polyoxymethylene de poids moleculaire eleve par polymerisation radiochimique en phase liquide a basses temperatures. On pense que la polymerisation est une reaction cationique en chaine lorsqu'il s'agit de masses ou de solutions dans du chlorure de methylene et du toluene, mais une reaction anionique en chaule dans une solution d'ether ethylique. L'aldehyde

  2. Improving the thermal stability and electrical parameters of a liquid crystalline material 4-n-(nonyloxy) benzoic acid by using Li ion beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satendra; Verma, Rohit; Dwivedi, Aanchal; Dhar, R.; Tripathi, Ambuj

    2018-05-01

    Li ion beam irradiation studies on a liquid crystalline material 4-n-(nonyloxy) benzoic acid (NOBA) have been carried out. The material has phase sequence of I-N-SmC-Cr. Thermodynamic studies demonstrate that an irradiation fluence of 1×1013 ions-cm-2 results in the increased thermal stability of the smectic C (SmC) phase of the material. Dielectric measurements illustrate that the transverse component of the dielectric permittivity and hence the dielectric anisotropy of the material in the nematic (N) and SmC phases are increased as compared to those of the pure material due to irradiation. UV-Visible spectrum of the irradiated material shows an additional peak along with the peak of the pure material. The observed change in the thermodynamic and electrical parameters is attributed to the conversion of some of the dimers of NOBA to monomers of NOBA due to irradiation.

  3. A linear solvation energy relationship study for the reactivity of 2-substituted cyclohex-1-enecarboxylic and 2-substituted benzoic acids with diazodiphenylmethane in aprotic and protic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JASMINA B. NIKOLIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The rate constants for the reaction of 2-substituted cyclohex-1-enylcarboxylic acids and the corresponding 2-substituted benzoic acids with diazodiphenyl methane were determined in various aprotic solvents at 30 ºC. In order to explain the kinetic results through solvent effects, the second order rate constants of the reaction of the examined acids were correlated using the Kamlet–Taft solvatechromic equation. The correlations of the kinetic data were carried out by means of multiple linear regression analysis and the solvent effects on the reaction rates were analyzed in terms of the contributions of the initial and transition state. The signs of the equation coefficients support the proposed reaction mechanism. The quantitative relationship between the molecular structure and the chemical reactivity is discussed, as well as the effect of geometry on the reactivity of the examined molecules.

  4. Distinct roles of jasmonates and aldehydes in plant-defense responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Wassim Chehab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many inducible plant-defense responses are activated by jasmonates (JAs, C(6-aldehydes, and their corresponding derivatives, produced by the two main competing branches of the oxylipin pathway, the allene oxide synthase (AOS and hydroperoxide lyase (HPL branches, respectively. In addition to competition for substrates, these branch-pathway-derived metabolites have substantial overlap in regulation of gene expression. Past experiments to define the role of C(6-aldehydes in plant defense responses were biased towards the exogenous application of the synthetic metabolites or the use of genetic manipulation of HPL expression levels in plant genotypes with intact ability to produce the competing AOS-derived metabolites. To uncouple the roles of the C(6-aldehydes and jasmonates in mediating direct and indirect plant-defense responses, we generated Arabidopsis genotypes lacking either one or both of these metabolites. These genotypes were subsequently challenged with a phloem-feeding insect (aphids: Myzus persicae, an insect herbivore (leafminers: Liriomyza trifolii, and two different necrotrophic fungal pathogens (Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola. We also characterized the volatiles emitted by these plants upon aphid infestation or mechanical wounding and identified hexenyl acetate as the predominant compound in these volatile blends. Subsequently, we examined the signaling role of this compound in attracting the parasitoid wasp (Aphidius colemani, a natural enemy of aphids. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study conclusively establishes that jasmonates and C(6-aldehydes play distinct roles in plant defense responses. The jasmonates are indispensable metabolites in mediating the activation of direct plant-defense responses, whereas the C(6-aldehyes are not. On the other hand, hexenyl acetate, an acetylated C(6-aldehyde, is the predominant wound-inducible volatile signal that mediates indirect defense responses by directing tritrophic

  5. Simultaneous determination of salicylic, 3-methyl salicylic, 4-methyl salicylic, acetylsalicylic and benzoic acids in fruit, vegetables and derived beverages by SPME-LC-UV/DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresta, Antonella; Zambonin, Carlo

    2016-03-20

    Salicylic and benzoic acid are phenolic acids occurring in plant cells, thus they can be present in fruit and vegetables at various levels. They possess anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, however they may induce symptoms and health problems in a small percentage of the population. Therefore, a low phenolic acid diet may be of clinical benefit to such individuals. In order to achieve this goal, the concentration of these substances in different food and beverages should be assessed. The present work describes for the first time a new method, based on solid phase microextraction (polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber) coupled to liquid chromatography with UV diode array detection, for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, 3-methyl salicylic acid, 4-methyl salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid and benzoic acid in selected fruit, vegetables and beverages. All the aspects influencing fiber adsorption (time, temperature, pH, salt addition) and desorption (desorption and injection time, desorption solvent mixture composition) of the analytes have been investigated. An isocratic separation was performed using an acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (pH 2.8; 2 mM) mixture (70:30, v/v) as the mobile phase. The estimated LOD and LOQ values (μg/mL) were in the range 0.002-0.028 and 0.007-0.095. The within-day and day-to-day precision values (RSD%) were between 4.7-6.1 and 6.6-9.4, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of fava beans, blueberries, kiwi, tangerines, lemons, oranges and fruit juice (lemon and blueberry) samples. The major advantage of the method is that it only requires simple homogenization and/or centrifugation and dilution steps prior to SPME and injection in the LC system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Copper(II) complexes with 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid: Syntheses, crystal structures and antifungal activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Pingping [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Li, Jie [Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology, Xi' an 710069 (China); Bu, Huaiyu, E-mail: 7213792@qq.com [Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology, Xi' an 710069 (China); Wei, Qing [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Zhang, Ruolin [Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology, Xi' an 710069 (China); Chen, Sanping, E-mail: sanpingchen@126.com [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Reaction of Cu(II) with an asymmetric semi-rigid organic ligand 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid (HL), yielded five compounds, [Cu{sub 0.5}L]{sub n} (1), [Cu(HL){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}]{sub n} (2), [Cu(HL){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)] (3), [Cu(L){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (4) and [Cu(L)(phen)(HCO{sub 2})]{sub n} (5), which have been fully characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. As for compounds 1, 2 and 5, Cu(II) is bridged through HL, Cl{sup -}, and formic acid, respectively, featuring 1D chain-structure. In compound 3, Cu(II) with hexahedral coordination sphere is assembled through hydrogen-bonding into 3D supramolecular framework. In compound 4, 1D chain units –Cu–O–Cu–O– are ligand-bridged into a 3D network. All compounds were tested on fungi (Fusarium graminearum, Altemaria solani, Macrophoma kawatsukai, Alternaria alternata and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). Compound 1 exhibits a better antifungal effect compared to other compounds. An effect of structure on the antifungal activity has also been correlated. - Graphical abstract: Copper(II) compounds with 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid, were prepared, structurally characterized and investigated for antifungal activity. - Highlights: • The title compounds formed by thermodynamics and thermokinetics. • The five compounds show higher inhibition percentage than reactants. • The structure effect on the antifungal activity.

  7. Crystal structures of a manganese(I and a rhenium(I complex of a bipyridine ligand with a non-coordinating benzoic acid moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri Lense

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The structures of two facially coordinated Group VII metal complexes are reported, namely: fac-bromido[2-(2,2′-bipyridin-6-ylbenzoic acid-κ2N,N′]tricarbonylmanganese(I tetrahydrofuran monosolvate, [MnBr(C17H12N2O2(CO3]·C4H8O, I, and fac-[2-(2,2′-bipyridin-6-ylbenzoic acid-κ2N,N′]tricarbonylchloridorhenium(I tetrahydrofuran monosolvate, [ReCl(C17H12N2O2(CO3]·C4H8O, II. In both complexes, the metal ion is coordinated by three carbonyl ligands, a halide ion, and a 2-(2,2′-bipyridin-6-ylbenzoic acid ligand, in a distorted octahedral geometry. In manganese complex I, the tetrahydrofuran (THF solvent molecule could not be refined due to disorder. The benzoic acid fragment is also disordered over two positions, such that the carboxylic acid group is either positioned near to the bromide ligand or to the axial carbonyl ligand. In the crystal of I, the complex molecules are linked by a pair of C—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers that stack up the a-axis direction. In the rhenium complex II, there is hydrogen bonding between the benzoic acid moiety and a disordered co-crystallized THF molecule. In the crystal, the molecules are linked by C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (100 separated by layers of THF solvent molecules.

  8. Characterization of inhibitory effects of the potential therapeutic inhibitors, benzoic acid and pyridine derivatives, on the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheibi, Nematollah; Taherkhani, Negar; Ahmadi, Abolfazl; Haghbeen, Kamahldin; Ilghari, Dariush

    2015-02-01

    Involvement of tyrosinase in the synthesis of melanin and cell signaling pathway has made it an attractive target in the search for therapeutic inhibitors for treatment of different skin hyperpigmentation disorders and melanoma cancers. In the present study, we conducted a comprehensive kinetic analysis to understand the mechanisms of inhibition imposed by 2-amino benzoic acid, 4-amino benzoic acid, nicotinic acid, and picolinic acid on the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of the mushroom tyrosinase, and then MTT assay was exploited to evaluate their toxicity on the melanoma cells. Kinetic analysis revealed that nicotinic acid and picolinic acid competitively restricted the monophenolase activity with inhibition constants (Ki) of 1.21 mM and 1.97 mM and the diphenolase activity with Kis of 2.4 mM and 2.93 mM, respectively. 2-aminobenzoic acid and 4-aminobenzoic acid inhibited the monophenolase activity in a non-competitive fashion with Kis of 5.15 µM and 3.8 µM and the diphenolase activity with Kis of 4.72 µM and 20 µM, respectively. Our cell-based data revealed that only the pyridine derivatives imposed cytotoxicity in melanoma cells. Importantly, the concentrations of the inhibitors leading to 50% decrease in the cell density (IC50) were comparable to those causing 50% drop in the enzyme activity, implying that the observed cytotoxicity is highly likely due to the tyrosinase inhibition. Moreover, our cell-based data exhibited that the pyridine derivatives acted as anti-proliferative agents, perhaps inducing cytotoxicity in the melanoma cells through inhibition of the tyrosinase activities.

  9. Characterization of inhibitory effects of the potential therapeutic inhibitors, benzoic acid and pyridine derivatives, on the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of tyrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematollah Gheibi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Involvement of tyrosinase in the synthesis of melanin and cell signaling pathway has made it an attractive target in the search for therapeutic inhibitors for treatment of different skin hyperpigmentation disorders and melanoma cancers. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we conducted a comprehensive kinetic analysis to understand the mechanisms of inhibition imposed by 2-amino benzoic acid, 4-amino benzoic acid, nicotinic acid, and picolinic acid on the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of the mushroom tyrosinase, and then MTT assay was exploited to evaluate their toxicity on the melanoma cells. Results: Kinetic analysis revealed that nicotinic acid and picolinic acid competitively restricted the monophenolase activity with inhibition constants (Ki of 1.21 mM and 1.97 mM and the diphenolase activity with Kis of 2.4 mM and 2.93 mM, respectively. 2-aminobenzoic acid and 4-aminobenzoic acid inhibited the monophenolase activity in a non-competitive fashion with Kis of 5.15 µM and 3.8 µM and the diphenolase activity with Kis of 4.72 µM and 20 µM, respectively. Conclusion: Our cell-based data revealed that only the pyridine derivatives imposed cytotoxicity in melanoma cells. Importantly, the concentrations of the inhibitors leading to 50% decrease in the cell density (IC50 werecomparable to those causing 50% drop in the enzyme activity, implying that the observed cytotoxicity is highly likely due to the tyrosinase inhibition. Moreover, our cell-based data exhibited that the pyridine derivatives acted as anti-proliferative agents, perhaps inducing cytotoxicity in the melanoma cells through inhibition of the tyrosinase activities.

  10. Toxicity of algal-derived aldehydes to two invertebrate species: Do heavy metal pollutants have a synergistic effect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Rebecca L.; Caldwell, Gary S.; Bentley, Matthew G.

    2005-01-01

    The recent discovery of the production of anti-proliferative aldehydes in a variety of microalgal species has lead to considerable investigation into the effects of these toxins on aquatic invertebrates. Studies have, however, rarely considered the impact pollutants may have on grazer responses to algal toxins. In this study, the acute toxicities of five aldehydes to the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina are examined using immersion assays. In addition, the effect of a representative of these aldehydes in the presence of sub-lethal levels of heavy metals was examined. B. plicatilis generally showed greater sensitivity to the aldehydes than A. salina. The polyunsaturated 2-trans,4-trans-decadienal was the most toxic to both species having 24 h LD 50 values of 7 and 20 μM for B. plicatilis and A. salina, respectively. The remaining aldehydes had different orders of toxicity for the two species with a stronger relationship observed between mortality and aldehyde carbon-chain length for A. salina whereas B. plicatilis mortality showed a stronger dependence on the presence of carbon-carbon double bonds in the aldehydes. The presence of 1 μM of copper sulphate in solutions of decadienal resulted in the reduction of the 24 h LD 50 of decadienal by approximately a third for both species. 1 μM of copper chloride in solutions of decadienal reduced the 24 h LD 50 of decadienal to A. salina nauplii by approximately 11% and 1 μM zinc sulphate caused a reduction of only 3%. Pre-exposure of the organisms to 1 μM copper sulphate had no significant impact on their subsequent mortality in decadienal. The ecological implications and the possible mechanisms for the action of copper sulphate on the response of organisms to decadienal are discussed

  11. Toxicity of algal-derived aldehydes to two invertebrate species: Do heavy metal pollutants have a synergistic effect?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Rebecca L. [School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Ridley Building, Claremont Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: r.l.taylor@ncl.ac.uk; Caldwell, Gary S. [School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Ridley Building, Claremont Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Bentley, Matthew G. [School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Ridley Building, Claremont Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-15

    The recent discovery of the production of anti-proliferative aldehydes in a variety of microalgal species has lead to considerable investigation into the effects of these toxins on aquatic invertebrates. Studies have, however, rarely considered the impact pollutants may have on grazer responses to algal toxins. In this study, the acute toxicities of five aldehydes to the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina are examined using immersion assays. In addition, the effect of a representative of these aldehydes in the presence of sub-lethal levels of heavy metals was examined. B. plicatilis generally showed greater sensitivity to the aldehydes than A. salina. The polyunsaturated 2-trans,4-trans-decadienal was the most toxic to both species having 24 h LD{sub 50} values of 7 and 20 {mu}M for B. plicatilis and A. salina, respectively. The remaining aldehydes had different orders of toxicity for the two species with a stronger relationship observed between mortality and aldehyde carbon-chain length for A. salina whereas B. plicatilis mortality showed a stronger dependence on the presence of carbon-carbon double bonds in the aldehydes. The presence of 1 {mu}M of copper sulphate in solutions of decadienal resulted in the reduction of the 24 h LD{sub 50} of decadienal by approximately a third for both species. 1 {mu}M of copper chloride in solutions of decadienal reduced the 24 h LD{sub 50} of decadienal to A. salina nauplii by approximately 11% and 1 {mu}M zinc sulphate caused a reduction of only 3%. Pre-exposure of the organisms to 1 {mu}M copper sulphate had no significant impact on their subsequent mortality in decadienal. The ecological implications and the possible mechanisms for the action of copper sulphate on the response of organisms to decadienal are discussed.

  12. Direct enzyme assay evidence confirms aldehyde reductase function of Ydr541cp and Ygl039wp from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jaewoong; Liu, Z Lewis

    2015-04-01

    The aldehyde reductase gene ARI1 is a recently characterized member of an intermediate subfamily within the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily that clarified mechanisms of in situ detoxification of 2-furaldehyde and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Uncharacterized open reading frames (ORFs) are common among tolerant candidate genes identified for lignocellulose-to-advanced biofuels conversion. This study presents partially purified proteins of two ORFs, YDR541C and YGL039W, and direct enzyme assay evidence against aldehyde-inhibitory compounds commonly encountered during lignocellulosic biomass fermentation processes. Each of the partially purified proteins encoded by these ORFs showed a molecular mass of approximately 38 kDa, similar to Ari1p, a protein encoded by aldehyde reductase gene. Both proteins demonstrated strong aldehyde reduction activities toward 14 aldehyde substrates, with high levels of reduction activity for Ydr541cp toward both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes. While Ydr541cp was observed to have a significantly higher specific enzyme activity at 20 U/mg using co-factor NADPH, Ygl039wp displayed a NADH preference at 25 U/mg in reduction of butylaldehyde. Amino acid sequence analysis identified a characteristic catalytic triad, Ser, Tyr and Lys; a conserved catalytic motif of Tyr-X-X-X-Lys; and a cofactor-binding sequence motif, Gly-X-X-Gly-X-X-Ala, near the N-terminus that are shared by Ydr541cp, Ygl039wp, Yol151wp/GRE2 and Ari1p. Findings of aldehyde reductase genes contribute to the yeast gene annotation and aids development of the next-generation biocatalyst for advanced biofuels production. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Radical cations in radiation chemistry of aldehydes. ESR study and quantum chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belevskii, V.N.; Tyurin, D.A.; Chuvilkin, N.D.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum-chemical (MNDO-UHF) calculations of electronic, spin and energy characteristics of radical cations (RC) of ethanal, propanal, butanal, and pentanal and their distonic isomers were performed. The calculations both with 'frozen' (vertical ionization) and completely optimize geometry (adiabatic approximation) were made. It was been shown that the most positive charge and spin population are localized at O atoms and adjacent C atom as well as at aldehyde protons. The C-H bonds corresponding to those protons as well as neighboring C-O and C-C bonds are considerable weaker (longer) in radical cations as compared to their neutral precursors. That is why such reaction centers are apt to deprotonation with the formation of acyl radical as well as to α- and β-splitting (scission) which are well-known from aldehydes mass-spectra. Our calculations shown that distonic RC (products of intramolecular H-atom transfer) are more stable as compare to their classical isomers: e.g. the difference in energy ΔE = -0.95 eV, -1.2 eV, and -1.5 eV for tree distonic isomers of butanal RC as compare to classical isomer, ΔE -1.2 eV for distonic RC of ethanal. The results of calculations are effectively correlated with ESR data obtained in freonic solutions, X- and gamma-irradiated at 77 K and in liquid aldehydes, X-irradiated by using 2,4,6-tri-tert-burylnitrosobenzene (BNB) and t-BuNO (NtB) as a spin traps. (author)

  14. Heterologous Expression of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase in Lactococcus lactis for Acetaldehyde Detoxification at Low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yunbin; LaPointe, Gisèle; Zhong, Lei; Lu, Jing; Zhang, Chong; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2018-02-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.2.1.x) can catalyze detoxification of acetaldehydes. A novel acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (istALDH) from the non-Saccharomyces yeast Issatchenkia terricola strain XJ-2 has been previously characterized. In this work, Lactococcus lactis with the NIsin Controlled Expression (NICE) System was applied to express the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (istALDH) in order to catalyze oxidation of acetaldehyde at low pH. A recombinant L. lactis NZ3900 was obtained and applied for the detoxification of acetaldehyde as whole-cell biocatalysts. The activity of IstALDH in L. lactis NZ3900 (pNZ8148-istALDH) reached 36.4 U mL -1 when the recombinant cells were induced with 50 ng mL -1 nisin at 20 °C for 2 h. The IstALDH activity of recombinant L. lactis cells showed higher stability at 37 °C and pH 4.0 compared with the crude enzyme. L. lactis NZ3900 (pNZ8148-istALDH) could convert acetaldehyde at pH 2.0 while the crude enzyme could not. Moreover, the resting cells of L. lactis NZ3900 (pNZ8148-istALDH) showed a 2.5-fold higher activity and better stability in catalyzing oxidation of acetaldehyde at pH 2.0 compared with that of Escherichia coli expressing the IstALDH. Taken together, the L. lactis cells expressing recombinant IstALDH are potential whole-cell biocatalysts that can be applied in the detoxification of aldehydes.

  15. Revisiting the Reaction Between Diaminomaleonitrile and Aromatic Aldehydes: a Green Chemistry Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco León

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The reaction between diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN and aldehydes and the resulting monoimines are well known. Since the standard reaction conditions involve the use of toxic solvents (typically methanol, we have sought to apply green chemistry principles to this reaction by either using water as the solvent without any catalysts or employing “solvent-free” conditions. The monoimines derived from DAMN are of interest as precursors for obtaining different heterocyclic systems and linear polymers. The methodologies used have significant advantages with regards to cost and environmental considerations.

  16. Structure of products of the condensation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes with dimedone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurchenko, O.I.; Pushkareva, K.S.; Zheldubovskaya, G.A.; Komarov, N.V.; Berkova, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    α,β-Acetylenic aldehydes and cinnamaldehyde in reaction with dimedone give the corresponding unsaturated bis(dimedonyl)methanes. In the case of acrolein and crotonaldehyde intramolecular cyclization occurs with the participation of hydroxyl of the dimedone fragment and the double bond with the formation of pyran systems. The PMR spectra were determined on Tesla BS-487C (80 MHz) and Tesla BS-467C (60 MHz) spectrometers in chloroform-d, pyridine-d 5 , and trifluoroacetic acid solutions. Internal standards HMDS and methylene chloride

  17. Rationalization of an unusual solvent-induced inversion of enantiomeric excess in organocatalytic selenylation of aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burés, Jordi; Dingwall, Paul; Armstrong, Alan; Blackmond, Donna G

    2014-08-11

    An unusual solvent-induced inversion of the sense of enantioselectivity observed in the α-selenylation of aldehydes catalyzed by a diphenylprolinol silyl ether catalyst is correlated to the presence of intermediates formed subsequent to the highly selective C-Se bond-forming step in the catalytic cycle. This work provides support for a mechanistic concept for enamine catalysis and includes a general role for "downstream intermediates" in selectivity outcomes in organocatalysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids formed radiolytically in aqueous solutions of cyanides and simple nitriles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Draganic, Z.D.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Graganic, I.G.

    1983-01-01

    A systematic search for aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids was carried out in aqueous solutions of HCN, NH 4 CN, CH 3 CN, and C 2 H 4 CN, that had received multikilogray doses of 60 Co γ radiation. About 30 radiolytic products were identified, among them a large variety of dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids. Some of them might be of significant interest in molecular evolution studies of prebiotic processes. They originate in the free-radical-initiated chemical reactions where the additional oligomerization processes are particularly important. Most of the radiolytic products appear in both cyanides and nitriles and point to the importance of reactions involving the carbon-nitrogen triple bond

  19. Functional screening of aldehyde decarbonylases for long-chain alkane production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Min-Kyoung; Zhou, Yongjin J.; Buijs, Nicolaas A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Low catalytic activities of pathway enzymes are often a limitation when using microbial based chemical production. Recent studies indicated that the enzyme activity of aldehyde decarbonylase (AD) is a critical bottleneck for alkane biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We therefore...... detected in other AD expressed yeast strains. Dynamic expression of SeADO and CwADO under GAL promoters increased alkane production to 0.20 mg/L/OD600 and no fatty alcohols, with even number chain lengths from C8 to C14, were detected in the cells. Conclusions: We demonstrated in vivo enzyme activities...

  20. Reactions of CH-acids with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes in ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryshtal, G. V.; Zhdankina, G. M.; Astakhova, Irina Kira

    2004-01-01

    Metal carbonate-catalyzed reactions of CH-acids (diethyl malonate, ethyl acetoacetate, ethyl cyanoacetate, and ethyl 2-acetyl- and 2-ethoxycarbonyl-5,9- dimethyldeca-4,8-dienoates) with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (acrolein, crotonaldehyde, citral) were studied in an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3......- methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [bmim][PF 6], and in a 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim][Br]) - benzene system. The reactions with acrolein and crotonaldehyde afforded Michael addition products, those with citral resulted in Knoevenagel addition products. Sonication increased the yields...

  1. "Juice Monsters": Sub-Ohm Vaping and Toxic Volatile Aldehyde Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talih, Soha; Salman, Rola; Karaoghlanian, Nareg; El-Hellani, Ahmad; Saliba, Najat; Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

    2017-10-16

    An emerging category of electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) is sub-Ohm devices (SODs) that operate at ten or more times the power of conventional ECIGs. Because carcinogenic volatile aldehyde (VA) emissions increase sharply with power, SODs may expose users to greater VAs. In this study, we compared VA emissions from several SODs and found that across device, VAs and power were uncorrelated unless power was normalized by coil surface area. VA emissions and liquid consumed were correlated highly. Analyzed in light of EU regulations limiting ECIG liquid nicotine concentration, these findings suggest potential regulatory levers and pitfalls for protecting public health.

  2. Accessing 2-substituted piperidine iminosugars by organometallic addition/intramolecular reductive amination: aldehyde vs. nitrone route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabella, S; Fibbi, G; Matassini, C; Faggi, C; Goti, A; Cardona, F

    2017-11-07

    A dual synthetic strategy to afford 2-substituted trihydroxypiperidines is disclosed. The procedure involved Grignard addition either to a carbohydrate-derived aldehyde or to a nitrone derived thereof, and took advantage of an efficient ring-closure reductive amination strategy in the final cyclization step. An opposite diastereofacial preference was demonstrated in the nucleophilic attack to the two electrophiles, which would finally produce the same piperidine diastereoisomer as the major product. However, use of a suitable Lewis acid in the Grignard addition to the nitrone allowed reversing the selectivity, giving access to 2-substituted piperidines with the opposite configuration at C-2.

  3. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.E.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1980-10-21

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 4-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes. No Drawings

  4. HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR DETERMINATION OF AROMATIC ALDEHYDES IN WINE DISTILLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nezalzova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality control of alcoholic beverages, coming into the market, is a defining element in preventing the production and supplying of defective products. One of the main criteria for quality control of wine distillates is to estimate their age, and more precisely the period of maturation as the dominant factor in determining the quality of cognacs and, consequently, their market price. On the opinion of majority scientists, one of the main factors, which determines the age of wine distillates, is the content of aromatic aldehydes, mostly vanillin, and their ratio.

  5. S-Nitrosomycothiol Reductase and Mycothiol Are Required for Survival Under Aldehyde Stress and Biofilm Formation in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Derek; Hageman, Samantha; Gulati, Megha; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Rawat, Mamta

    2017-01-01

    We show that Mycobacterium smegmatis mutants disrupted in mscR, coding for a dual function S-nitrosomycothiol reductase and formaldehyde dehydrogenase, and mshC, coding for a mycothiol ligase and lacking mycothiol (MSH), are more susceptible to S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and aldehydes than wild type. MSH is a cofactor for MscR, and both mshC and mscR are induced by GSNO and aldehydes. We also show that a mutant disrupted in egtA, coding for a γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase and lacking in ergothioneine, is sensitive to nitrosative stress but not to aldehydes. In addition, we find that MSH and S-nitrosomycothiol reductase are required for normal biofilm formation in M. smegmatis, suggesting potential new therapeutic pathways to target to inhibit or disrupt biofilm formation. PMID:27321674

  6. Catalytic wet-air oxidation of lignin in a three-phase reactor with aromatic aldehyde production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sales F.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a process of catalytic wet air oxidation of lignin obtained from sugar-cane bagasse is developed with the objective of producing vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde in a continuous regime. Palladium supported on g-alumina was used as the catalyst. The reactions in the lignin degradation and aldehyde production were described by a kinetic model as a system of complex parallel and series reactions, in which pseudo-first-order steps are found. For the purpose of producing aromatic aldehydes in continuous regime, a three-phase fluidized reactor was built, and it was operated using atmospheric air as the oxidizer. The best yield in aromatic aldehydes was of 12%. The experimental results were compatible with those values obtained by the pseudo-heterogeneous axial dispersion model (PHADM applied to the liquid phase.

  7. Enhanced detection of aldehydes in Extra-Virgin Olive Oil by means of band selective NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugo, Giacomo; Rotondo, Archimede; Mallamace, Domenico; Cicero, Nicola; Salvo, Andrea; Rotondo, Enrico; Corsaro, Carmelo

    2015-02-01

    High resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a very powerful tool for comprehensive food analyses and especially for Extra-Virgin Olive Oils (EVOOs). We use the NMR technique to study the spectral region of aldehydes (8-10 ppm) for EVOOs coming from the south part of Italy. We perform novel experiments by using mono and bidimensional band selective spin-echo pulse sequences and identify four structural classes of aldehydes in EVOOs. For the first time such species are identified in EVOOs without any chemical treatment; only dilution with CDCl3 is employed. This would allow the discrimination of different EVOOs for the aldehydes content increasing the potentiality of the NMR technique in the screening of metabolites for geographical characterization of EVOOs.

  8. Defensome against toxic diatom aldehydes in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Marrone

    Full Text Available Many diatom species produce polyunsaturated aldehydes, such as decadienal, which compromise embryonic and larval development in benthic organisms. Here newly fertilized Paracentrotus lividus sea urchins were exposed to low concentration of decadienal and the expression levels of sixteen genes, implicated in a broad range of functional responses, were followed by Real Time qPCR in order to identify potential decadienal targets. We show that at low decadienal concentrations the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus places in motion different classes of genes to defend itself against this toxic aldehyde, activating hsp60 and two proteases, hat and BP10, at the blastula stage and hsp56 and several other genes (14-3-3ε, p38 MAPK, MTase, and GS at the prism stage. At this latter stage all genes involved in skeletogenesis (Nec, uni, SM50 and SM30 were also down-expressed, following developmental abnormalities that mainly affected skeleton morphogenesis. Moreover, sea urchin embryos treated with increasing concentrations of decadienal revealed a dose-dependent response of activated target genes. Finally, we suggest that this orchestrated defense system against decadienal represents part of the chemical defensome of P. lividus affording protection from environmental toxicants.

  9. Selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo{sub 2}C) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Ke [Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Yu, Weiting [Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Chen, Jingguang G., E-mail: jgchen@columbia.edu [Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2014-12-30

    Highlights: • Mo{sub 2}C surface can deoxygenate propanal and 1-propanol to produce propene through a similar intermediate (propoxide or η{sup 2}(C,O)-propanal). • Mo{sub 2}C surface can deoxygenate furfural and furfuryl alcohol to make 2-methylfuran through a 2-methylfuran-like intermediate. • The presence of furan ring modifies the selectivity between deoxygenation and hydrogenation/dehydrogenation pathways. - Abstract: The selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols without cleaving the C-C bond is crucial for upgrading bio-oil and other biomass-derived molecules to useful fuels and chemicals. In this work, propanal, 1-propanol, furfural and furfuryl alcohol were selected as probe molecules to study the deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo{sub 2}C) prepared over a Mo(1 1 0) surface. The reaction pathways were investigated using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). The deoxygenation of propanal and 1-propanol went through a similar intermediate (propoxide or η{sup 2}(C,O)-propanal) to produce propene. The deoxygenation of furfural and furfuryl alcohol produced a surface intermediate similar to adsorbed 2-methylfuran. The comparison of these results revealed the promising deoxygenation performance of Mo{sub 2}C, as well as the effect of the furan ring on the selective deoxygenation of the C=O and C-OH bonds.

  10. Curcumin loaded gum arabic aldehyde-gelatin nanogels for breast cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarika, P.R., E-mail: sarikapaithal@gmail.com; Nirmala, Rachel James, E-mail: nirmala@iist.ac.in

    2016-08-01

    Curcumin, a widely studied hydrophobic polyphenol with anticancer potential is loaded in gum arabic aldehyde-gelatin (GA Ald-Gel) nanogels to improve its bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy towards cancer cells. Physicochemical properties of the curcumin loaded GA Ald-Gel nanogels are investigated by different techniques including dynamic light scattering (DLS), NMR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These nanogels exhibit hydrodynamic diameter of 452 ± 8 nm with a zeta potential of − 27 mV. The nanogels possess an encapsulation efficiency of 65 ± 3%. Potential of the nanogels for controlled release of curcumin is illustrated by in vitro drug release studies. Hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of the drug loaded nanogels are evaluated. In vitro cytotoxicity of the bare and curcumin loaded nanogels are analyzed by MTT assay towards MCF-7 cells. The results manifest that curcumin loaded nanogels induce toxicity in MCF-7 cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies indicate in vitro cellular uptake of the nanogels in MCF-7 cells. All these results prove the suitability of the curcumin loaded GA Ald-Gel nanogels for cancer therapy. - Highlights: • Curcumin loaded gum arabic aldehyde-gelatin nanogels were prepared. • Nanogels maintained negative zeta potential after curcumin loading. • Curcumin release is higher at acidic pH compared to neutral pH. • Curcumin loaded GA Ald-Gel nanogels shows toxicity towards MCF-7 cells. • Green fluorescence in MCF-7 cells confirmed the intracellular uptake.

  11. Curcumin loaded gum arabic aldehyde-gelatin nanogels for breast cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarika, P.R.; Nirmala, Rachel James

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a widely studied hydrophobic polyphenol with anticancer potential is loaded in gum arabic aldehyde-gelatin (GA Ald-Gel) nanogels to improve its bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy towards cancer cells. Physicochemical properties of the curcumin loaded GA Ald-Gel nanogels are investigated by different techniques including dynamic light scattering (DLS), NMR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These nanogels exhibit hydrodynamic diameter of 452 ± 8 nm with a zeta potential of − 27 mV. The nanogels possess an encapsulation efficiency of 65 ± 3%. Potential of the nanogels for controlled release of curcumin is illustrated by in vitro drug release studies. Hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of the drug loaded nanogels are evaluated. In vitro cytotoxicity of the bare and curcumin loaded nanogels are analyzed by MTT assay towards MCF-7 cells. The results manifest that curcumin loaded nanogels induce toxicity in MCF-7 cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies indicate in vitro cellular uptake of the nanogels in MCF-7 cells. All these results prove the suitability of the curcumin loaded GA Ald-Gel nanogels for cancer therapy. - Highlights: • Curcumin loaded gum arabic aldehyde-gelatin nanogels were prepared. • Nanogels maintained negative zeta potential after curcumin loading. • Curcumin release is higher at acidic pH compared to neutral pH. • Curcumin loaded GA Ald-Gel nanogels shows toxicity towards MCF-7 cells. • Green fluorescence in MCF-7 cells confirmed the intracellular uptake.

  12. Quantification of Dissolved and Particulate Polyunsaturated Aldehydes in the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Casotti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUA are supposed to play critical roles in chemically-mediated plankton interactions. Laboratory studies suggest that they act as mediators of chemical defense and chemical communication. PUA are oxylipins containing an α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated aldehyde structure element and are mainly found in diatoms. We present here a detailed surface mapping of PUA during a spring bloom of the diatom Skeletonema marinoi in the Adriatic Sea. We monitored dissolved PUA, as well as particulate PUA, which are produced by phytoplankton after cell disintegration. Our survey revealed a patchy distribution of PUA and shows that at most stations S. marinoi is the major contributor to the overall PUA. Our data also suggest that lysis of a diatom bloom can contribute significantly to the dissolved PUA concentrations and that other producers, which are smaller in cell size compared to diatoms, have to be taken into account as well if the total PUA content of marine samples is considered. The analyses of samples collected in deeper water suggests that diatom contribution to PUA decreases with depth, while smaller-sized unidentified organisms take place as dominant contributors to the PUA concentrations.

  13. Corneal aldehyde dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase activity after excimer laser keratectomy in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Bilgihan, A; Hasanreisoğlu, B; Turkozkan, N

    1998-03-01

    The free radical balance of the eye may be changed by excimer laser keratectomy. Previous studies have demonstrated that excimer laser keratectomy increases the corneal temperature, decreases the superoxide dismutase activity of the aqueous, and induces lipid peroxidation in the superficial corneal stroma. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) are known to play an important role in corneal metabolism, particularly in detoxification of aldehydes, which are generated from free radical reactions. In three groups of guinea pigs mechanical corneal de-epithelialisation was performed in group I, superficial corneal photoablation in group II, and deep corneal photoablation in group III, and the corneal ALDH and GST activities measured after 48 hours. The mean ALDH and GST activities of group I and II showed no differences compared with the controls (p > 0.05). The corneal ALDH activities were found to be significantly decreased (p < 0.05) and GST activities increased (p < 0.05) in group III. These results suggest that excimer laser treatment of high myopia may change the ALDH and GST activities, metabolism, and free radical balance of the cornea.

  14. Selective Production of Aromatic Aldehydes from Heavy Fraction of Bio-oil via Catalytic Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan; Chang, Jie; Ouyang, Yong; Zheng, Xianwei [South China Univ. of Technology, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-06-15

    High value-added aromatic aldehydes (e. g. vanillin and syringaldehyde) were produced from heavy fraction of bio-oil (HFBO) via catalytic oxidation. The concept is based on the use of metalloporphyin as catalyst and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) as oxidant under alkaline condition. The biomimetic catalyst cobalt(II)-sulfonated tetraphenylporphyrin (Co(TPPS{sub 4})) was prepared and characterized. It exhibited relative high activity in the catalytic oxidation of HFBO. 4.57 wt % vanillin and 1.58 wt % syringaldehyde were obtained from catalytic oxidation of HFBO, compared to 2.6 wt % vanillin and 0.86 wt % syringaldehyde without Co(TPPS{sub 4}). Moreover, a possible mechanism of HFBO oxidation using Co(TPPS{sub 4})/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was proposed by the research of model compounds. The results showed that this is a promising and environmentally friendly method for production of aromatic aldehydes from HFBO under Co(TPPS{sub 4})/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system.

  15. NMR analysis of aldehydes in Sicilian extra-virgin olive oils by DPFGSE techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Rotondo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The DPFGSE NMR sequences open new perspectives in the volatile compounds analysis of food matrices. Many fresh extra-virgin Sicilian olive oils, analyzed by this technique, show two main resonances in the aldehydic spectral region (9–10 ppm, at 9.18 and 9.58 ppm. The former was never reported so far, the latter was sometime highlighted as a minor aldehydic component signal of spectra showing stronger resonances at 9.45 and 9.70 ppm. Thermal treatment at 220°C of extra virgin olive oil samples lead to the complete transformation of the resonances at 9.18 and 9.58 ppm into those at 9.45 and 9.70 ppm in 50 minutes. Analogous transformation takes place place in CDCl3 at rt in several weeks. These results suggest the transformation of relatively unstable compounds into thermodynamically more stable products whose resonances are commonly reported in the literature. Even though these chemical changes involve minimal amount of product, they are of crucial importance to define: i organoleptic extra virgin olive oil properties; ii fraudulent chemical or thermal treatment detection; iii extra virgin oil ageing.

  16. Aldehyde-functionalized chitosan-montmorillonite films as dynamically-assembled, switchable-chemical release bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabbi, Jamal; Jennah, Oumayma; Katir, Nadia; Lahcini, Mohamed; Bousmina, Mosto; El Kadib, Abdelkrim

    2018-03-01

    Temporal release of synergistic and/or complementary chemicals (e.g.: drugs) is recognized as extremely challenging because of their frequently intertwined kinetic delivery and presently, straightforward concepts enabling to circumvent this bottleneck are missing in the open literature. In this framework, we report herein on aldehyde-functionalized, transparent and flexible chitosan-montmorillonite hybrid films that act as a new generation of eco-friendly, controlled-chemical release bioplastics. These dynamically-assembled nanomaterials are designed by a ternary assembly from biowaste derived chitin biopolymer, aromatic aldehydes and layered clay nanoparticles. On the basis of their geometrical and conformational properties, the oxygenated groups on the grafted aromatics interact preferentially with either the base Schiff belonging to the carbohydrate (via intramolecular CNHO-Ar known as "imine clip") or with the hydroxyl groups belonging to the clay surface (via intermolecular Si-OHO-Ar). The exfoliated clay nanoparticles within the carbohydrate polymer enables either accelerating or slowing down of the imine (CN) hydrolysis depending on the interaction of the conjugated aromatics. This provides the driving force for fine tuning host-guest interactions at the molecular level and constitutes an entry toward subtle discrimination of different chemicals (e.g. complementary fertilizers, synergistic drugs) during their sequential release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Ke; Yu, Weiting; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mo 2 C surface can deoxygenate propanal and 1-propanol to produce propene through a similar intermediate (propoxide or η 2 (C,O)-propanal). • Mo 2 C surface can deoxygenate furfural and furfuryl alcohol to make 2-methylfuran through a 2-methylfuran-like intermediate. • The presence of furan ring modifies the selectivity between deoxygenation and hydrogenation/dehydrogenation pathways. - Abstract: The selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols without cleaving the C-C bond is crucial for upgrading bio-oil and other biomass-derived molecules to useful fuels and chemicals. In this work, propanal, 1-propanol, furfural and furfuryl alcohol were selected as probe molecules to study the deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo 2 C) prepared over a Mo(1 1 0) surface. The reaction pathways were investigated using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). The deoxygenation of propanal and 1-propanol went through a similar intermediate (propoxide or η 2 (C,O)-propanal) to produce propene. The deoxygenation of furfural and furfuryl alcohol produced a surface intermediate similar to adsorbed 2-methylfuran. The comparison of these results revealed the promising deoxygenation performance of Mo 2 C, as well as the effect of the furan ring on the selective deoxygenation of the C=O and C-OH bonds

  18. The use of aldehyde indicators to determine glutaraldehyde and alkaline glutaraldehyde contamination in chemical protective gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Evanly; Zhuang, Zhenzhen

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of aldehyde indicator pads for detection of glutaraldehyde and alkaline glutaraldehyde permeation through chemical protective gloves under simulated in-use conditions. The quantitative analysis of glutaraldehyde permeation through a glove material was determined for Metricide, Wavicide, and 50% glutaraldehyde following a solvent-desorption process and gas chromatographic analysis. All glutaraldehyde solutions exhibited >99% adsorption (including both the glutaraldehyde oligomers of the reaction product and the excess glutaraldehyde) on the pads over the spiking range 0.05-5.0 microL. Breakthrough times for protective gloves were determined using the Thermo-Hand test method, and found to range from 76 to 150, from 170 to 230, and from 232 to 300 min for Metricide, Wavicide, and 50% glutaraldehyde, respectively. Glutaraldehyde recovery was calculated and ranged from 61 to 80% for all glutaraldehyde solutions. The mass of glutaraldehyde in these solutions at the time of breakthrough detection ranged from 17 to 18, from 18 to 19, and from 19 to 20 microg/cm(2) for Wavicide, 50% glutaraldehyde solution, and Metricide, respectively. Aldehyde indicator pads and the Thermo-Hand test method together should find utility in detecting, collecting, and quantitatively analyzing glutaraldehyde permeation samples through chemical protective gloves under simulated in-use conditions.

  19. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mutagenic aldehydes and particulate matter during pan frying of beefsteak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjaastad, Ann Kristin; Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming; Svendsen, Kristin

    2010-04-01

    Cooking with gas or electric stoves produces fumes, especially during frying, that contain a range of harmful and potentially mutagenic compounds as well as high levels of fine and ultrafine particles. The aim of this study was to see if polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and higher mutagenic aldehydes which were collected in the breathing zone of the cook, could be detected in fumes from the frying of beefsteak. The frying was performed in a model kitchen in conditions similar to those in a Western European restaurant kitchen. The levels of PAHs (16 EPA standard) and higher aldehydes (trans,trans-2,4-decadienal, 2,4-decadienal, trans-trans-2,4-nonadienal, trans-2-decenal, cis-2-decenal, trans-2-undecenal, 2-undecenal) were measured during frying on an electric or gas stove with margarine or soya bean oil as the frying fat. The number concentration of particles electric stove causes increased occupational exposure to some of the components in cooking fumes which may cause adverse health effects.

  20. Self-Standing Nanocellulose Janus-Type Films with Aldehyde and Carboxyl Functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nypelö, Tiina; Amer, Hassan; Konnerth, Johannes; Potthast, Antje; Rosenau, Thomas

    2018-03-12

    Nanocellulose-based self-standing films are becoming a substrate for flexible electronics, diagnostics, and sensors. Strength and surface chemistry are vital variables for these film-based endeavors, the former is one of the assets of nanocellulose. To contribute to the latter, nanocellulose films are tuned with a side-specific functionalization, having an aldehyde and a carboxyl side. The functionalities were obtained combining premodification of the film components by periodate oxidation with ozone post-treatment. Periodate oxidation of cellulose nanocrystals results in film components that interact through intra- and intermolecular hemiacetals and lead to films with an elastic modulus of 11 GPa. The ozone treatment of one film side induces conversion of the aldehyde into carboxyl functionalities. The ozone treatment on individual crystals was largely destructive. Remarkably, such degradation is not observed for the self-standing film, and the film strength at break is preserved. Preserving a physically intact film despite ozone treatment is a credit to using the dry film structure held together by interparticle covalent linkages. Additionally, gas-phase post-treatment avoids disintegration that could result from immersion into solvents. The crystalline cellulose "Janus" film is suggested as an interfacial component in biomaterial engineering, separation technology, or in layered composite materials for tunable affinity between the layers.

  1. NADP-Dependent Aldehyde Dehydrogenase from Archaeon Pyrobaculum sp.1860: Structural and Functional Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Yu. Bezsudnova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the functional and structural characterization of the first archaeal thermostable NADP-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase AlDHPyr1147. In vitro, AlDHPyr1147 catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of short aliphatic aldehydes at 60–85°С, and the affinity of AlDHPyr1147 to the NADP+ at 60°С is comparable to that for mesophilic analogues at 25°С. We determined the structures of the apo form of AlDHPyr1147 (3.04 Å resolution, three binary complexes with the coenzyme (1.90, 2.06, and 2.19 Å, and the ternary complex with the coenzyme and isobutyraldehyde as a substrate (2.66 Å. The nicotinamide moiety of the coenzyme is disordered in two binary complexes, while it is ordered in the ternary complex, as well as in the binary complex obtained after additional soaking with the substrate. AlDHPyr1147 structures demonstrate the strengthening of the dimeric contact (as compared with the analogues and the concerted conformational flexibility of catalytic Cys287 and Glu253, as well as Leu254 and the nicotinamide moiety of the coenzyme. A comparison of the active sites of AlDHPyr1147 and dehydrogenases characterized earlier suggests that proton relay systems, which were previously proposed for dehydrogenases of this family, are blocked in AlDHPyr1147, and the proton release in the latter can occur through the substrate channel.

  2. Kinetics of the reactions of bromine atoms with a series of aliphatic aldehydes at 298 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, I.; Imrik, K.; Dobe, S.; Berces, T. [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Budapest (Hungary). Koezponti Kemiai Kutato Intezete

    1998-01-01

    The kinetics of the reactions of Br({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) with selected aldehydes, i.e. ethanal (1), propanal (2), 2-methyl-propanal (3), 2.2-dimethyl-propanal (4) and trichloroacetaldehyde (5) were studied at 298{+-}2 K. Rate constants for overall reactions were measured using the fast flow technique with resonance fluorescence detection of Br. Complementary determinations were carried out by the laser flash photolysis method. The following rate constants were obtained in the kinetic measurements ({+-}2{sigma}): k{sub 1}=(2.1{+-}0.2) x 10{sup 12}, k{sub 2}=(4.3{+-}0.4) x 10{sup 12}, k{sub 3}=(6.3{+-}1.4) x 10{sup 12}, k{sub 4}=(8.5{+-}0.8) x 10{sup 12}, k{sub 5}{<=}1 x 10{sup 9}, all in cm{sup 3}mol{sup -1}s{sup -1} units. The probable mechanism for the reactions of bromine atoms with aliphatic aldehydes has been discussed. (orig.)

  3. Antisickling activity evaluation of 4 aromatic aldehydes using proton magnetic relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcon Dieguez, J.E.; Grisel del Toro Garcia; Yamirka Alonso Geli; Lores Guevara, M.A.

    2006-12-01

    The formation of a Shiff base aduct hemoglobin-aromatic aldehyde, has been reported as inhibitor of the hemoglobin S polymerization. Using the Proton Magnetic Resonance methodology, the polymerization kinetics can be studied and the delay time can be determined. Our studies in vitro show the inhibitor effect of the isovanillin, o-vanillin, m-hydroxybenzaldehyde and the p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, using molar ratio (hemoglobin S/compound) 1:1, 1:4 and 1:8. The td increment (expressed in percents) obtained for each one of the molar ratio was the following: isovanillin: 34±6% (1:1), 68±16% (1:4), ovanillin: 26±10% (1:1), 63±20% (1:4), m-hydroxybelzaldehyde: 16±4% (1:1), 44±12% (1:4) and the phydroxybenzaldehyde: 10±3% (1:1), 32±8% (1:4). In the case of 1:8, the characteristic kinetics curve was not obtained. At the used concentrations, hemolytic activity was not found on the red blood cell. These results confirm the antisickling activity of these aromatic aldehydes, for a technique different to that reported in literature that also allows the quantification of concentration effect. The same ones will facilitate the study of the therapeutic usefulness of these compounds in the sickle cell anemia treatment. (author)

  4. Identification and characterisation of Aedes aegypti aldehyde dehydrogenases involved in pyrethroid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongkran Lumjuan

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid insecticides, especially permethrin and deltamethrin, have been used extensively worldwide for mosquito control. However, insecticide resistance can spread through a population very rapidly under strong selection pressure from insecticide use. The upregulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH has been reported upon pyrethroid treatment. In Aedes aegypti, the increase in ALDH activity against the hydrolytic product of pyrethroid has been observed in DDT/permethrin-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to identify the role of individual ALDHs involved in pyrethroid metabolism.Three ALDHs were identified; two of these, ALDH9948 and ALDH14080, were upregulated in terms of both mRNA and protein levels in a DDT/pyrethroid-resistant strain of Ae. aegypti. Recombinant ALDH9948 and ALDH14080 exhibited oxidase activities to catalyse the oxidation of a permethrin intermediate, phenoxybenzyl aldehyde (PBald, to phenoxybenzoic acid (PBacid.ALDHs have been identified in association with permethrin resistance in Ae. aegypti. Characterisation of recombinant ALDHs confirmed the role of this protein in pyrethroid metabolism. Understanding the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance provides information for improving vector control strategies.

  5. Corrigendum to ;Dipole moment and solvatochromism of benzoic acid liquid crystals: Tuning the dipole moment and molecular orbital energies by substituted Au under external electric field; [J. Mol. Struct. 1137 (2017) 440-452

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sıdır, Yadigar Gülseven; Sıdır, İsa; Demiray, Ferhat

    2017-08-01

    The authors regret to inform that three references in the article titled ;Dipole moment and solvatochromism of benzoic acid liquid crystals: Tuning the dipole moment and molecular orbital energies by substituted Au under external electric field; are not given in the manuscript. This is purely an oversight mistake. The references are as shown in this correction. The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused.

  6. Mechanistic investigation of the gold-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of aldehydes: added insight from Hammett studies and isotopic labelling experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Johansen, Louise Bahn; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    2008-01-01

    The gold-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of aldehydes proceeds through development of a partial negative charge and has a significant kinetic isotope effect (k(H)/k(D) = 2.8-2.9), which illustrates that activation of the C-H bond takes place in the rate-determining step.......The gold-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of aldehydes proceeds through development of a partial negative charge and has a significant kinetic isotope effect (k(H)/k(D) = 2.8-2.9), which illustrates that activation of the C-H bond takes place in the rate-determining step....

  7. Visible-light-promoted and one-pot synthesis of phenanthridines and quinolines from aldehydes and O-acyl hydroxylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiao-De; Yu, Shouyun

    2015-06-05

    A one-pot synthesis of phenanthridines and quinolines from commercially available or easily prepared aldehydes has been reported. O-(4-Cyanobenzoyl)hydroxylamine was utilized as the nitrogen source to generate O-acyl oximes in situ with aldehydes catalyzed by Brønsted acid. O-Acyl oximes were then subjected to visible light photoredox catalyzed cyclization via iminyl radicals to furnish aza-arenes. A variety of phenanthridines and quinolines have been prepared assisted by Brønsted acid and photocatalyst under visible light at room temperature with satisfactory yields.

  8. Dual Enantioselective Control using D-phenylglycine-L-proline-derived Catalysts for the Enantioselective Addition of Diethylzinc to Aldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seock Yong; Park, Yong Sun

    2016-01-01

    Dipeptide-derived catalysts are of great interest in various asymmetric transformations because of their short and simple preparation and easy modification of their modular structure by using different α-amino acids. We recently reported the first example of dipeptide-catalyzed enantioselective addition of dialkylzinc to aldehydes. We have developed a novel D-Phg-L-Pro dipeptide-derived catalyst for the addition of diethylzinc to aromatic aldehydes. We also disclosed an effective chiral switching by simply modifying nonchiral part of D-Phg-L-Pro dipeptide.

  9. Threshold photoelectron spectroscopy and photoionization total ion yield spectroscopy of simple organic acids, aldehydes, ketones and amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yencha, Andrew J; Malins, Andrew E R; Siggel-King, Michele R F; Eypper, Marie; King, George C

    2009-01-01

    We have initiated a research program to investigate the ionization behavior of some simple organic molecules containing the carboxyl group (R 2 C=O), where R could be H, OH, NH 2 , or CH 3 or other aliphatic or aromatic carbon groups, using threshold photoelectron spectroscopy and photoionization total ion yield spectroscopy. We report here on the simplest organic acid, formic acid, and two simple aldehydes: acetaldehyde and the simplest unsaturated aldehyde, 2-propenal (acrolein). The objective of this study was to characterize the valence cationic states of these molecules with vibrational structural resolution.

  10. Physiologically based in silico modelling to examine DNA adduct formation by different food-borne a,ß-unsaturated aldehydes at realistic low dietary exposure levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiwamoto, R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract (R.Kiwamoto ISBN 978-94-6257-284-3)

    Various α,β-unsaturated aldehydes are present in fruits, vegetables, spices, or processed products containing these items as natural constituents or as added food flavouring agents. Because of the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety the β carbon in

  11. Chemoselective Preparation of 1,1-Diacetates from Aldehydes, Mediated by a Keggin Heteropolyacid Under Solvent Free Conditions at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Romanelli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, general and efficient method has been developed for the conversion of aldehydes to 1,1-diacetates using acetic anhydride, a catalytic amount of non commercial Keggin heteropolyacid (H6 PalMo11O40 (1% mol in solvent free conditions at room temperature. Aromatic and aliphatic, simple and conjugated aldehydes were protected with excellent yields.

  12. Induced Smectic X Phase Through Intermolecular Hydrogen-Bonded Liquid Crystals Formed Between Citric Acid and p- n-(Octyloxy)Benzoic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, S.; Subhasri, P.; Rajasekaran, T. R.; Jayaprakasam, R.; Senthil, T. S.; Vijayakumar, V. N.

    2017-08-01

    Hydrogen-bonded liquid crystal (HBLC) is synthesized from citric acid (CA) and 4-(octyloxy)benzoic acid (8OBA) with different mole ratios. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirms the presence of hydrogen bond between CA and 8OBA. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic studies validate the intermolecular complementary, cyclic type of hydrogen bond, and molecular environment in the designed HBLC complex. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the monoclinic nature of liquid crystal complex in solid phase. Liquid crystal parameters such as phase transition temperature and enthalpy values for the corresponding mesogenic phases are investigated using a polarizing optical microscope (POM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It is observed that the change in chain length and steric hindrance while increasing the mole ratio in HBLC complex induces a new smectic X (Sm X) along with higher-order smectic G (Sm G) phases by quenching of smectic C (Sm C). From the experimental observations, induced Sm X phase has been identified as a finger print texture. Also, Sm G is a multi-colored mosaic texture in 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 mol ratios. The optical tilt angle, thermal stability factor, and enhanced thermal span width of CA + 8OBA complex are discussed.

  13. EFFECT OF SUBSTITUTION POSITION OF HYDROXY GROUP AT BENZOIC ACID ON THE LUMINESCENT AND DEGRADATION PROPERTIES OF POLY[DI(CARBOXYPHENYL) SUCCINATE-co-SEBACIC ANHYDRIDE]S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Fan; Hong-liang Jiang; Kang-jie Zhu

    2007-01-01

    In this work, two new diacids, di(m-carboxyphenyl) succinate (m-dCPS) and di(o-carboxyphenyl) succinate (o-dCPS), were synthesized by reaction of m-, o-hydroxy benzoic acid with succinic chloride, respectively. Their corresponding copolymers with sebacic acid (SA), P(m-dCPS:SA) and P(o-dCPS:SA), were prepared by melt copolycondensation and characterized by NMR, UV and DSC methods. Compared with inherently fluorescent poly[di(p-carboxyphenyl) succinateco-sebacic anhydride] (P(p-dCPS:SA)), P(m-dCPS:SA) and P(o-dCPS:SA) displayed different luminescent properties. P(m-dCPS:SA) could emit fluorescence under the excitation of both visible and UV light, while P(o-dCPS:SA) could only emit fluorescence when excited with UV light. Degradation rate of the two new copolyanhydrides increased with the increase of SA fraction in the copolymers. In addition, P(o-dCPS:SA) degraded more rapidly than P(m-dCPS:SA) with the same composition. Typical surface-degradation characteristics of these copolyanhydrides were observed.

  14. FTIR spectroscopic study on the Hofmann -Td- type clathrates: Ni(benzoic acid)2M(CN)4.aniline (M=Zn, Cd, Hg)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesan, G.; Kartal, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The Hofmann-Td-type clathrates formulated as Ni(L) 2 M(CN) 4 .nG where L is a bidentate or a pair of unidentate ligand molecule, M is Zn, Cd or Hg, G is a guest molecule and n is the number of guest molecule. The host lattice of the Hofmann-Td-type clathrates is formed from endless chains of -Ni-L-L-Ni-L-L-Ni- and M(CN) 4 ions arranged between the consecutive crossing -Ni-L-L-Ni-L-L-Ni- chains with the O-ends bound to the Ni metal atoms. These polymeric layers are held in parallel by Van der Walls interaction between ligand molecules. This structure provides α-type cavity. In this study, Ni(Benzoic Acid ) 2M(CN) 4 .Aniline (M = Zn, Cd, Hg) is obtained for the first time by means of chemical methods in powder form and their infrared spectra are reported in range of (4000-400) cm - 1. The spectral data suggest that the new clathrates are similar in structure to the Hofmann-type clathrates.

  15. Systemic exposure to benzoic acid and hippuric acid following topical application of clindamycin 1%/benzoyl peroxide 3% fixed-dose combination gel in Japanese patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Hiroko; Takahashi, Naoki; Saenz, Alessandra Alio; Wakamatsu, Akira; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nakahara, Norie; Hasegawa, Setsuo

    2015-01-01

    Clindamycin 1%/benzoyl peroxide 3% fixed-dose combination gel (CLDM/BPO3%) is a topical product for the treatment of acne vulgaris. In this study, plasma and urine concentrations of benzoic acid (BA) and hippuric acid (HA) were analyzed to estimate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of BPO after application of CLDM/BPO3% twice-daily for 7 days in Japanese patients with acne vulgaris. Seven-day repeated application of CLDM/BPO3% appears to be safe in this patient population. Concentrations of plasma and urine BA were below the limit of quantification before and after repeated application in most of the 12 adult male patients. Mean difference in Cmax and AUC0-last for plasma HA indicated increased exposures after repeated application, but with wide 90% confidence intervals. Mean Ae0-12 for urine HA was similar before and after repeated application. Repeated application of CLDM/BPO3% is thus unlikely to result in accumulation of BA and HA. The study suggests negligible systemic exposure to BPO metabolites from CLDM/BPO3% after 7-day repeated application in male patients with acne vulgaris. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  16. Molecular structure, vibrational, UV, NMR, HOMO-LUMO, MEP, NLO, NBO analysis of 3,5 di tert butyl 4 hydroxy benzoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathammal, R.; Sangeetha, K.; Sangeetha, M.; Mekala, R.; Gadheeja, S.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we report a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 3,5 di tert butyl 4 hydroxy benzoic acid. The properties of title compound have been evaluated by quantum chemical calculation (DFT) using B3LYP functional and 6-31 + G (d, p) as basis set. IR Spectra has been recorded using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) in the region 4000-400 cm-1. The vibrational assignment of the calculated normal modes has been made on the basis set. The isotropic chemical shifts computed by 13C and 1H NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) analyses also show good agreement with experimental observations. The theoretical UV-Vis spectrum of the compound are used to study the visible absorption maxima (λ max). The structure activity relationship have been interpreted by mapping electrostatic potential surface (MEP), which is valuable information for the quality control of medicines and drug receptor interactions. The Mullikan charges, HOMO (Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital) - LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital) energy are analyzed. HOMO-LUMO energy gap and other related molecular properties are also calculated. The Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis is carried out to investigate the various intra and inter molecular interactions of molecular system. The Non-linear optical properties such as dipole moment (μ), polarizability (αtot) and molecular first order hyperpolarizability (β) of the title compound are computed with B3LYP/6-31 + G (d,p) level of theory.

  17. Internalisation of hybrid titanium dioxide/para-amino benzoic acid nanoparticles in human dendritic cells did not induce toxicity and changes in their functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdal, Camille; Rahal, Raed; Rubod, Alain; Callejon, Sylvie; Colomb, Evelyne; Atrux-Tallau, Nicolas; Haftek, Marek; Vincent, Claude; Serres, Mireille; Daniele, Stéphane

    2010-11-10

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been reported to penetrate into human skin through lesional skin or follicular structures. Therefore, their ability to interact with dendritic cell (DC) was investigated using DCs generated from monocytes (mono-DCs). Hybrid titanium dioxide/para-amino benzoic acid (TiO(2)/PABA) NPs did not induce any cell toxicity. NPs were internalised into DCs through macropinocytosis and not by a receptor-mediated mechanism. Confocal microscopy showed that NPs were not detected in the nucleus. These data are confirmed by electronic microscopy which demonstrated that hybrid NPs were rapidly in contact with cellular membrane and localised into cytoplasmic vesicles without colocalisation with clathrin-coated vesicles. Hybrid NPs did not induce CD86 or HLA-DR overexpression or cytokine secretion (IL-8 and TNF-α) indicating no DC activation. Internalisation of hybrid NPs did not modify DC response towards sensitisers such as nickel and thimerosal or LPS used as positive controls. Moreover, hybrid NPs did not induce any oxidative stress implicated in DC activation process. After mono-DC irradiation by ultraviolet A (UVA), hybrid NP-treated cells did not produce UVA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exhibited a better cell viability compared with UVA-irradiated control cells, suggesting a protecting effect of hybrid TiO(2)/PABA NPs against UVA-induced ROS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of salicylic acid, benzoic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid for their ability to induce flowering in Lemna Gibba G3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, F.C.; Kang, B.G.; Khurana, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The long-day plant Lemna gibba G3 fails to flower under continuous light on NH 4 + -free 0.5 H medium. This inhibition is completely reversed by 10 μM salicyclic acid (SA) or 32 μM benzoic acid (BA). By contrast, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-OH-BA) has virtually no effect on flowering at levels as high as 320 μM. Uptake rates for the three compounds are comparable. Competition studies using 14 C-SA indicate that, compared to SA, BA is about 10-fold less effective and p-OH-BA is nearly 100-fold less effective in competing against 14 C-SA uptake. Both the effectiveness of SA for inducing flowering and the uptake of 14 C-SA are substantially increased as the pH of the medium is lowered from 8 to 4.5. Under a nitrogen atmosphere the uptake of 14 C-SA is partially inhibited above pH 5. Phosphate metabolism may be important for flowering since increasing the phosphate level in the medium 10-15 fold results in substantial flowering, and suboptimal levels of Sa and phosphate interact synergistically to stimulate flowering. The interaction of phosphate with BA and p-OH-BA will be presented

  19. YqhD. A broad-substrate range aldehyde reductase with various applications in production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarboe, Laura R. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2011-01-15

    The Escherichia coli NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase YqhD has contributed to a variety of metabolic engineering projects for production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals. As a scavenger of toxic aldehydes produced by lipid peroxidation, YqhD has reductase activity for a broad range of short-chain aldehydes, including butyraldehyde, glyceraldehyde, malondialdehyde, isobutyraldehyde, methylglyoxal, propanealdehyde, acrolein, furfural, glyoxal, 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetol. This reductase activity has proven useful for the production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals, such as isobutanol and 1,3- and 1,2-propanediol; additional capability exists for production of 1-butanol, 1-propanol, and allyl alcohol. A drawback of this reductase activity is the diversion of valuable NADPH away from biosynthesis. This YqhD-mediated NADPH depletion provides sufficient burden to contribute to growth inhibition by furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, inhibitory contaminants of biomass hydrolysate. The structure of YqhD has been characterized, with identification of a Zn atom in the active site. Directed engineering efforts have improved utilization of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde and NADPH. Most recently, two independent projects have demonstrated regulation of yqhD by YqhC, where YqhC appears to function as an aldehyde sensor. (orig.)

  20. Cloning and heterologous expression of two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Tomofumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Fukuoka Institute of Health and Environmental Sciences, 39 Mukaizano, Dazaifu-shi, Fukuoka 818-0135 (Japan); Ichinose, Hirofumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Wariishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hirowari@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Bio-Architecture Center, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2010-04-09

    We identified two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenase proteins (PcALDH1 and PcALDH2) from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Both PcALDHs were translationally up-regulated in response to exogenous addition of vanillin, one of the key aromatic compounds in the pathway of lignin degradation by basidiomycetes. To clarify the catalytic functions of PcALDHs, we isolated full-length cDNAs encoding these proteins and heterologously expressed the recombinant enzymes using a pET/Escherichia coli system. The open reading frames of both PcALDH1 and PcALDH2 consisted of 1503 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high homologies with aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from other organisms and contained ten conserved domains of ALDHs. Moreover, a novel glycine-rich motif 'GxGxxxG' was located at the NAD{sup +}-binding site. The recombinant PcALDHs catalyzed dehydrogenation reactions of several aryl-aldehyde compounds, including vanillin, to their corresponding aromatic acids. These results strongly suggested that PcALDHs metabolize aryl-aldehyde compounds generated during fungal degradation of lignin and various aromatic xenobiotics.

  1. Ru/Me-BIPAM-Catalyzed Asymmetric Addition of Arylboronic Acids to Aliphatic Aldehydes and α-Ketoesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoko Watanabe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A ruthenium-catalyzed asymmetric arylation of aliphatic aldehydes and α-ketoesters with arylboronic acids has been developed, giving chiral alkyl(arylmethanols and α-hydroxy esters in good yields. The use of a chiral bidentate phosphoramidite ligand (Me-BIPAM achieved excellent enantioselectivities.

  2. Comparison of aldehyde emissions simulation with FTIR measurements in the exhaust of a spark ignition engine fueled by ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarante, Paola Helena Barros; Sodré, José Ricardo

    2018-02-01

    This work presents a numerical simulation model for aldehyde formation and exhaust emissions from ethanol-fueled spark ignition engines. The aldehyde simulation model was developed using FORTRAN software, with the input data obtained from the dedicated engine cycle simulation software AVL BOOST. The model calculates formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations from post-flame partial oxidation of methane, ethane and unburned ethanol. The calculated values were compared with experimental data obtained from a mid-size sedan powered by a 1.4-l spark ignition engine, tested on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust aldehyde concentrations were determined using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy analyzer. In general, the results demonstrate that the concentrations of aldehydes and the source elements increased with engine speed and exhaust gas temperature. The measured acetaldehyde concentrations showed values from 3 to 6 times higher than formaldehyde in the range studied. The model could predict reasonably well the qualitative experimental trends, with the quantitative results showing a maximum discrepancy of 39% for acetaldehyde concentration and 21 ppm for exhaust formaldehyde.

  3. Species Specificity of Aldehyde and Fatty Acid Profiles of Four Family Group Representatives within the Insect Infraorder Pentatomomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomčala, Aleš; Jirošová, Anna; Žáček, Petr; Kaušková, Markéta; Hovorka, Oldřich; Koutek, Bohumír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2017), č. článku e1600420. ISSN 1612-1872 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : defensive compounds * fat body * Pentatomomorpha * triacylglycerol * unsaturated aldehydes Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.440, year: 2016

  4. Species Specificity of Aldehyde and Fatty Acid Profiles of Four Family Group Representatives within the Insect Infraorder Pentatomomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomčala, Aleš; Jirošová, A.; Žáček, P.; Kaušková, M.; Hovorka, O.; Koutek, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2017), č. článku e1600420. ISSN 1612-1872 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : defensive compounds * fat body * Pentatomomorpha * triacylglycerol * unsaturated aldehydes Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 1.440, year: 2016

  5. Direct enzyme assay evidence confirms aldehyde reductase function of Ydr541cp and Ygl039wp from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldehyde reductase gene ARI1 is a recently characterized member of intermediate subfamily under SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase) superfamily that revealed mechanisms of in situ detoxification of furfural and HMF for tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Uncharacterized open reading frames ...

  6. A note on the Noyori model for chiral amplification in the aminoalcohol-catalyzed reaction of aldehydes with dialkylzinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVAN GUTMAN

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The Noyori model of chiral amplification in the alkylation of aldehydes by means of dialkylzinc, catalyzed by chiral aminoalcohols, is further elaborated. A direct, but approximate, relation is obtained between the enantiomeric excess of the catalyst added and the enantiomeric excess of the product.

  7. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED CU (I) CATALYZED SOLVENT-FREE THREE COMPONENT COUPLING OF ALDEHYDE, ALKYNE AND AMINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct Grignard type addition of terminal alkynes to in situ generated imines, from aldehydes and amines, occurs under microwave irradiation using CuBr alone in a one-pot operation. This solventless approach provides ready access to propargylamines and is applicable both...

  8. QSTR with extended topochemical atom (ETA) indices. 14. QSAR modeling of toxicity of aromatic aldehydes to Tetrahymena pyriformis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Kunal, E-mail: kunalroy_in@yahoo.com [Drug Theoretics and Cheminformatics Laboratory, Division of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Das, Rudra Narayan [Drug Theoretics and Cheminformatics Laboratory, Division of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2010-11-15

    Aldehydes are a toxic class of chemicals causing severe health hazards. In this background, quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) models have been developed in the present study using Extended Topochemical Atom (ETA) indices for a large group of 77 aromatic aldehydes for their acute toxicity against the protozoan ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. The ETA models have been compared with those developed using various non-ETA topological indices. Attempt was also made to include the n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log K{sub o/w}) as an additional descriptor considering the importance of hydrophobicity in toxicity prediction. Thirty different models were developed using different chemometric tools. All the models have been validated using internal validation and external validation techniques. The statistical quality of the ETA models was found to be comparable to that of the non-ETA models. The ETA models have shown the important effects of steric bulk, lipophilicity, presence of electronegative atom containing substituents and functionality of the aldehydic oxygen to the toxicity of the aldehydes. The best ETA model (without using log K{sub o/w}) shows encouraging statistical quality (Q{sub int}{sup 2}=0.709,Q{sub ext}{sup 2}=0.744). It is interesting to note that some of the topological models reported here are better in statistical quality than previously reported models using quantum chemical descriptors.

  9. Oxidation of N-alkyl and N-aryl azaheterocycles by free and immobilized rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelino, S.A.G.F.

    1984-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidase isolated from rabbit liver is studied in this thesis with regard to its application in organic synthesis. The enzyme has a broad substrate specificity towards azaheterocycles and therefore offers great potential for profitable use.

    The oxidation of

  10. Synthesis of Aldehyde-Linked Nucleotides and DNA and Their Bioconjugations with Lysine and Peptides through Reductive Amination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raindlová, Veronika; Pohl, Radek; Hocek, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 13 (2012), s. 4080-4087 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0317 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : nucleotides * aldehydes * DNA * reductive amination * bioconjugations Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.831, year: 2012

  11. A soft tissue adhesive based on aldehyde-sodium alginate and amino-carboxymethyl chitosan preparation through the Schiff reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Yuan, Liu; Sheng, Nai-an; Gu, Zi-qi; Feng, Wen-hao; Yin, Hai-yue; Morsi, Yosry; Mo, Xiu-mei

    2017-09-01

    Sodium alginate and carboxymethyl chitosan have been extensively applied in tissue engineering and other relative fields due to their low price and excellent biocompatibility. In this paper, we oxidized sodium alginate with sodium periodate to convert 1,2-hydroxyl groups into aldehyde groups to get aldehyde-sodium alginate (ASA). Carboxymethyl chitosan was modified with ethylenediamine (ED) in the presence of water-soluble N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) to introduce additional amino groups to get amino-carboxymethyl chitosan (A-CS). Upon mixing the A-SA and A-CS aqueous solutions together, a gel rapidly formed based on the Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups in A-SA and amino groups in A-CS. FTIR analysis confirmed the characteristic peak of Schiff's base group in the hydrogel. It was confirmed that the gelation time be dependent on the aldehyde group content in A-SA and amino group content in A-CS. The fasted hydrogel formation takes place within 10 min. The data of bonding strength and cytotoxicity measurement also showed that the hydrogel had good adhesion and biocompatibility. All these results support that this gel has the potential as soft tissue adhesive.

  12. Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography for the analysis of aldehydes in edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunhua; Ji, Jiaojiao; Tan, Connieal; Chen, Dongmei; Luo, Feng; Wang, Yiru; Chen, Xi

    2014-03-01

    Oxidation has important effects on the quality of edible oils. In particular, the generation of aldehydes produced by the oxidation of oils is one of the deteriorative factors to their quality. The aim of this study was to develop a method to determine the aldehydes as lipid oxidation markers in edible oils. Seven aldehydes generated from lipid oxidation were studied using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The extraction efficiency of five commercial fibers was investigated and the influence of extraction temperature, extraction time, desorption temperature, and desorption time were optimized. The best result was obtained with 85 μm carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane, extraction at 50 °C for 15 min and desorption in the gas chromatography injector at 250 °C for 2 min. Under the optimized conditions, the content of hexanal was the highest of the seven aldehydes in all edible oils. The limits of detection for hexanal in the three oils were found to range from 4.6 to 10.2 ng L(-1). The reproducibility of the method was evaluated and the relative standard deviations were less than 8.9%. This developed approach was successfully applied to analyze hexanal in peanut oil, soy oil, and olive oil samples, and these results were compared with those obtained using the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) method. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis of non-natural carbohydrates from glycerol and aldehydes in a one-pot four-enzyme cascade reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babich, L.; Hartog, L.; Falcicchio, P.; Oost, van der J.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure has been developed for the synthesis of enantio- and diastereomerically pure carbohydrate analogues from glycerol and a variety of aldehydes in one pot using a four-enzyme cascade reaction. As a proof of concept of the usefulness of this enzymatic catalytic cascade the naturally

  14. Ionic liquids as recyclable and separable reaction media in Rh-catalyzed decarbonylation of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malcho, Phillip; Garcia-Suarez, Eduardo J.; Riisager, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been applied as recyclable reaction media in the decarbonylation of aldehydes in the presence of a rhodium-phosphine complex catalyst. The performance of several new catalytic systems based on imidazolium-based ILs and [Rh(dppp)2]Cl (dppp: 1,3-diphenylphosphinopropane) were...

  15. Interference of aldehyde metabolizing enzyme with diamine oxidase/histaminase/activity as determined by /sup 14/C putrescine method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogel, W A [Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland). Inst. of Pharmacology; Bieganski, T; Wozniak, J; Maslinski, C

    1978-01-01

    The ..delta../sup 1/ pyrroline formation, as an indicator of diamine oxidase activity according to Okuyama and Kobayashi /sup 14/C putrescine test (1961, Archs Biochem. Biophys., vol.95, 242), has been investigated in several tissue homogenates. When guinea pig liver homogenate was used as a source of enzyme in the presence of aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors chlorate hydrate and acetaldehyde the level of formation ..delta../sup 1/ pyrroline was strongly increased in a dose-dependent manner. Also inhibition of aldehyde reductase by phenobarbital enhanced ..delta../sup 1/ pyrroline formation, but to a lesser degree. In other tissues, with very high initial diamine oxidase activity (rat intestine, dog kidney) or with very low diamine oxidase activity (guinea pig skin, dog liver) the influence of these inhibitors was only slight. Pyrazole, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase exerted only a small effect on ..delta../sup 1/ pyrroline formation. All aldehyde-metabolizing enzymes inhibitors, except pyrazole, were without effect on purified pea seddling and hog kidney diamine oxidases. The use of aldehyde-metabolizing enzymes inhibitors may help to reveal the real values of diamine oxidase activity, when tissues homogenates are used as a source of enzyme.

  16. Interference of aldehyde metabolizing enzyme with diamine oxidase/histaminase/activity as determined by 14C putrescine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogel, W.A.; Bieganski, T.; Wozniak, J.; Maslinski, C.

    1978-01-01

    The Δ 1 pyrroline formation, as an indicator of diamine oxidase activity according to Okuyama and Kobayashi 14 C putrescine test (1961, Archs Biochem. Biophys., vol.95, 242), has been investigated in several tissue homogenates. When guinea pig liver homogenate was used as a source of enzyme in the presence of aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors chlorate hydrate and acetaldehyde the level of formation Δ 1 pyrroline was strongly increased in a dose-dependent manner. Also inhibition of aldehyde reductase by phenobarbital enhanced Δ 1 pyrroline formation, but to a lesser degree. In other tissues, with very high initial diamine oxidase activity (rat intestine, dog kidney) or with very low diamine oxidase activity (guinea pig skin, dog liver) the influence of these inhibitors was only slight. Pyrazole, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase exerted only a small effect on Δ 1 pyrroline formation. All aldehyde-metabolizing enzymes inhibitors, except pyrazole, were without effect on purified pea seddling and hog kidney diamine oxidases. The use of aldehyde-metabolizing enzymes inhibitors may help to reveal the real values of diamine oxidase activity, when tissues homogenates are used as a source of enzyme. (author)

  17. Cloning and heterologous expression of two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tomofumi; Ichinose, Hirofumi; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    We identified two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenase proteins (PcALDH1 and PcALDH2) from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Both PcALDHs were translationally up-regulated in response to exogenous addition of vanillin, one of the key aromatic compounds in the pathway of lignin degradation by basidiomycetes. To clarify the catalytic functions of PcALDHs, we isolated full-length cDNAs encoding these proteins and heterologously expressed the recombinant enzymes using a pET/Escherichia coli system. The open reading frames of both PcALDH1 and PcALDH2 consisted of 1503 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high homologies with aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from other organisms and contained ten conserved domains of ALDHs. Moreover, a novel glycine-rich motif 'GxGxxxG' was located at the NAD + -binding site. The recombinant PcALDHs catalyzed dehydrogenation reactions of several aryl-aldehyde compounds, including vanillin, to their corresponding aromatic acids. These results strongly suggested that PcALDHs metabolize aryl-aldehyde compounds generated during fungal degradation of lignin and various aromatic xenobiotics.

  18. Cloning and molecular evolution of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene (Aldh2) in bats (Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Shen, Bin; Zhang, Junpeng; Jones, Gareth; He, Guimei

    2013-02-01

    Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae) ingest significant quantities of ethanol while foraging. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2, encoded by the Aldh2 gene) plays an important role in ethanol metabolism. To test whether the Aldh2 gene has undergone adaptive evolution in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats in relation to ethanol elimination, we sequenced part of the coding region of the gene (1,143 bp, ~73 % coverage) in 14 bat species, including three Old World fruit bats and two New World fruit bats. Our results showed that the Aldh2 coding sequences are highly conserved across all bat species we examined, and no evidence of positive selection was detected in the ancestral branches leading to Old World fruit bats and New World fruit bats. Further research is needed to determine whether other genes involved in ethanol metabolism have been the targets of positive selection in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats.

  19. Comparative study of automotive, aircraft and biogenic emissions of aldehydes and aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, C S; Custodio, D; de Oliveira, R C S; Varandas, L S; Arbilla, G

    2010-02-01

    Air samples were collected in three well characterized locations in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: downtown, the idle and taxi way areas of the national airport and an urban forest, where the main emissions are from vehicular, aircraft and biogenic sources, respectively. Aldehydes and BTEX concentrations show a characteristic profile which may be attributed to the emission sources. Formaldehyde/acetaldehyde ratios, in the early morning, were 1.39, 0.62 and 2.22 in downtown, airport and forest, respectively. Toluene/benzene ratios, for downtown, airport and forest areas, were 1.11, 1.82 and 1.06, respectively. The results show that the impact of the urban emissions on the forest is negligible as well as the impact of aircraft emissions over the urban area.

  20. Spin-Center Shift-Enabled Direct Enantioselective α-Benzylation of Aldehydes with Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacsa, Eric D; MacMillan, David W C

    2018-03-07

    Nature routinely engages alcohols as leaving groups, as DNA biosynthesis relies on the removal of water from ribonucleoside diphosphates by a radical-mediated "spin-center shift" (SCS) mechanism. Alcohols, however, remain underused as alkylating agents in synthetic chemistry due to their low reactivity in two-electron pathways. We report herein an enantioselective α-benzylation of aldehydes using alcohols as alkylating agents based on the mechanistic principle of spin-center shift. This strategy harnesses the dual activation modes of photoredox and organocatalysis, engaging the alcohol by SCS and capturing the resulting benzylic radical with a catalytically generated enamine. Mechanistic studies provide evidence for SCS as a key elementary step, identify the origins of competing reactions, and enable improvements in chemoselectivity by rational photocatalyst design.

  1. [Experimental research on alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins emissions from alcohols fuelled vehicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Jian-Hai; Wang, Xiao-Cheng; Wang, Jian-Xin

    2013-07-01

    Using two vehicles fuelled with pure gasoline, M15, M30 and pure gasoline, E10, E20 separately, 25 degrees C normal temperature type I emission test, -7 degrees C low temperature type VI emission test and type IV evaporation emission test were carried out. FTIR, HPLC and GC-MS methods were utilized to measure alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins emissions. The test results indicate that at the low as well as normal ambient temperature, as the alcohols proportion increasing in the fuel, unburned methanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde increase proportionally, benzene, toluene, ethylene, propylene, 1,3-butadiene and isobutene decrease slightly. The unregulated emissions at the low ambient temperature are significantly higher than those at the normal ambient temperature. The difference of HC emissions in the entire process of evaporative emission tests of E10, gasoline and M15 fuels is slight. There is a small difference of unregulated emissions in the diurnal test of three fuels.

  2. Production of Primary Amines by Reductive Amination of Biomass-Derived Aldehydes/Ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guanfeng; Wang, Aiqin; Li, Lin; Xu, Gang; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Tao

    2017-03-06

    Transformation of biomass into valuable nitrogen-containing compounds is highly desired, yet limited success has been achieved. Here we report an efficient catalyst system, partially reduced Ru/ZrO 2 , which could catalyze the reductive amination of a variety of biomass-derived aldehydes/ketones in aqueous ammonia. With this approach, a spectrum of renewable primary amines was produced in good to excellent yields. Moreover, we have demonstrated a two-step approach for production of ethanolamine, a large-market nitrogen-containing chemical, from lignocellulose in an overall yield of 10 %. Extensive characterizations showed that Ru/ZrO 2 -containing multivalence Ru association species worked as a bifunctional catalyst, with RuO 2 as acidic promoter to facilitate the activation of carbonyl groups and Ru as active sites for the subsequent imine hydrogenation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Atmospheric measurements of hydroperoxides and aldehydes during field campaigns : new results due to improvement of measurements techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, S.; Sowka, I.; Poulain, L.; Monod, A.; Wortham, H.

    2003-04-01

    Hydroperoxides and aldehydes are considered as atmospheric reservoirs of OH, HO_2 and RO_2 radicals and can reflect the oxidizing levels of the atmosphere. They are considered as important gas phase photo-oxidants present in the atmosphere. However, the atmospheric role of these compounds can vary from one species to another, therefore it is essential to investigate their measurement and speciation in the atmosphere. Atmospheric measurements were realized during two different field campaigns in the Marseilles area (France). Hydroperoxides were trapped in aqueous phase, with a glass coil and analyzed by HPLC/fluorescence detector with post column derivatization. Aldehydes were trapped in a liquid phase containing 2-4 DNPH, with a mist chamber and analyzed by HPLC/UV. The analytical techniques provided individual separation and quantification of seven hydroperoxides (hydrogen peroxide, hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide, bis(hydroxymethyl) peroxide, 1-hydroxyethyl hydroperoxide, methyl hydroperoxide, ethyl hydroperoxide and peroxyacetic acid) and eleven volatile aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, butyraldehyde, benzaldehyde, glyoxal, valeraldehyde and methylglyoxal). The first field campaign was part of the ESCOMPTE project (June 4th to July 16th 2001). During this campaign five different sampling sites, at low altitudes (<= 285 m), were investigated (maritime, urban, sub-industrial, biogenic and rural sites) and atmospheric measurements were realized during photochemical air pollution events. The second field campaign was part of the BOND project (July 2nd to July 14th 2002). Atmospheric measurements of hydroperoxides were carried out on one biogenic site, at altitude 690 m. The measurement system was improved allowing online sampling and analysis. During these field campaigns collection efficiencies were better than 96% for hydroperoxides, and from 78% to 96% for aldehydes. Detection limits were between 7,3× 10-3

  4. Aldehyded Dextran and ε-Poly(L-lysine Hydrogel as Nonviral Gene Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Togo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The expression term of the gene transfected in cells needs to belong enough inorder to make a gene therapy clinically effective. The controlled release of the transfected gene can be utilized. The new biodegradable hydrogel material created by 20 w/w% aldehyded dextran and 10 w/w% ε-poly(L-lysine (ald-dex/PLL was developed. We examined whether it could be as a nonviral carrier of the gene transfer. Methods. A plasmid (Lac-Z was mixed with ald-dex/PLL. An in vitro study was performed to assess the expression of Lac-Z with X-gal stain after gene transfer into the cultured 293 cells and bone marrow cells. As a control group, PLL was used as a cationic polymer. Results. We confirmed that the transfection efficiency of the ald-dex/PLL had a higher transfection efficiency than PLL in 293 cells (plasmid of 2 μg: ald-dex/PLL 1.1%, PLL 0.23%, plasmid of 16 μg: ald-dex/PLL 1.23%, PLL 0.48%. In bone marrow cells, we confirmed the expression of Lac-Z by changing the quantity of aldehyded dextran. In the groups using ald-dextran of the quantity of 1/4 and 1/12 of PLL, their transfection efficiency was 0.43% and 0.41%, respectively. Conclusions. This study suggested a potential of using ald-dex/PLL as a non-carrier for gene transfer.

  5. AAV Gene Therapy for Alcoholism: Inhibition of Mitochondrial Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Enzyme Expression in Hepatoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Anamaria C; Li, Chengwen; Andrews, Barbara; Asenjo, Juan A; Samulski, R Jude

    2017-09-01

    Most ethanol is broken down in the liver in two steps by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) enzymes, which metabolize down ethanol into acetaldehyde and then acetate. Some individuals from the Asian population who carry a mutation in the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDH2*2) cannot metabolize acetaldehyde as efficiently, producing strong effects, including facial flushing, dizziness, hypotension, and palpitations. This results in an aversion to alcohol intake and protection against alcoholism. The large prevalence of this mutation in the human population strongly suggests that modulation of ALDH2 expression by genetic technologies could result in a similar phenotype. scAAV2 vectors encoding ALDH2 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) were utilized to validate this hypothesis by silencing ALDH2 gene expression in human cell lines. Human cell lines HEK-293 and HepG2 were transduced with scAAV2/shRNA, showing a reduction in ALDH2 RNA and protein expression with the two viral concentration assayed (1 × 10 4 and 1 × 10 5 vg/cell) at two different time points. In both cell lines, ALDH2 RNA levels were reduced by 90% and protein expression was inhibited by 90% and 52%, respectively, 5 days post infection. Transduced HepG2 VL17A cells (ADH+) exposed to ethanol resulted in a 50% increase in acetaldehyde levels. These results suggest that gene therapy could be a useful tool for the treatment of alcoholism by knocking down ALDH2 expression using shRNA technology delivered by AAV vectors.

  6. Identification of crucial amino acids in mouse aldehyde oxidase 3 that determine substrate specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mahro

    Full Text Available In order to elucidate factors that determine substrate specificity and activity of mammalian molybdo-flavoproteins we performed site directed mutagenesis of mouse aldehyde oxidase 3 (mAOX3. The sequence alignment of different aldehyde oxidase (AOX isoforms identified variations in the active site of mAOX3 in comparison to other AOX proteins and xanthine oxidoreductases (XOR. Based on the structural alignment of mAOX3 and bovine XOR, differences in amino acid residues involved in substrate binding in XORs in comparison to AOXs were identified. We exchanged several residues in the active site to the ones found in other AOX homologues in mouse or to residues present in bovine XOR in order to examine their influence on substrate selectivity and catalytic activity. Additionally we analyzed the influence of the [2Fe-2S] domains of mAOX3 on its kinetic properties and cofactor saturation. We applied UV-VIS and EPR monitored redox-titrations to determine the redox potentials of wild type mAOX3 and mAOX3 variants containing the iron-sulfur centers of mAOX1. In addition, a combination of molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations (MD was used to investigate factors that modulate the substrate specificity and activity of wild type and AOX variants. The successful conversion of an AOX enzyme to an XOR enzyme was achieved exchanging eight residues in the active site of mAOX3. It was observed that the absence of the K889H exchange substantially decreased the activity of the enzyme towards all substrates analyzed, revealing that this residue has an important role in catalysis.

  7. Synergistic Effect of Endogenous and Exogenous Aldehydes on Doxorubicin Toxicity in Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana S. Miles

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthracyclines are frequently used to treat many cancers including triple negative breast cancer, which is commonly observed in African-American women (AA, and tend to be more aggressive, carry worse prognoses, and are harder to manage because they lack molecular targets. Although effective, anthracyclines use can be limited by serious side effects and eventually the development of drug resistance. In S. cerevisiae, mutants of HOM6 display hypersensitivity to doxorubicin. HOM6 is required for synthesis of threonine and interruption of the pathway leads to accumulation of the threonine intermediate L-aspartate-semialdehyde. This intermediate may synergize with doxorubicin to kill the cell. In fact, deleting HOM3 in the first step, preventing the pathway to reach the HOM6 step, rescues the sensitivity of the hom6 strain to doxorubicin. Using several S. cerevisiae strains (wild type, hom6, hom3, hom3hom6, ydj1, siz1, and msh2, we determined their sensitivity to aldehydes and to their combination with doxorubicin, cisplatin, and etoposide. Combination of formaldehyde and doxorubicin was most effective at reducing cell survival by 31-fold–39-fold (in wild type cells relative to doxorubicin and formaldehyde alone. This effect was dose dependent on doxorubicin. Cotreatment with formaldehyde and doxorubicin also showed increased toxicity in anthracycline-resistant strains siz1 and msh2. The hom6 mutant also showed sensitivity to menadione with a 2.5-fold reduction in cell survival. The potential use of a combination of aldehydes and cytotoxic drugs could potentially lead to applications intended to enhance anthracycline-based therapy.

  8. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Superfamily in Populus: Organization and Expression Divergence between Paralogous Gene Pairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Xia Tian

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs constitute a superfamily of NAD(P+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding nontoxic carboxylic acids. ALDHs have been studied in many organisms from bacteria to mammals; however, no systematic analyses incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression profiles, and cis-acting elements have been conducted in the model tree species Populus trichocarpa thus far. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily was performed. A total of 26 Populus ALDH genes were found to be distributed across 12 chromosomes. Genomic organization analysis indicated that purifying selection may have played a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of PtALDH gene families. The exon-intron organizations of PtALDHs were highly conserved within the same family, suggesting that the members of the same family also may have conserved functionalities. Microarray data and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that most PtALDHs had distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. The specificity of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of the PtALDHs and the divergence of expression patterns between nine paralogous PtALDH gene pairs suggested that gene duplications may have freed the duplicate genes from the functional constraints. The expression levels of some ALDHs were up- or down-regulated by various abiotic stresses, implying that the products of these genes may be involved in the adaptation of Populus to abiotic stresses. Overall, the data obtained from our investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily and provide insights into the function and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants.

  9. Interaction of tertiary phosphines with lignin-type, alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, Dmitry V; Patrick, Brian O; James, Brian R; Hu, Thomas Q

    2007-10-29

    To learn more about the bleaching action of pulps by (hydroxymethyl)phosphines, lignin chromophores, such as the alpha,beta-unsaturated aromatic aldehydes, sinapaldehyde, coniferylaldehyde, and coumaraldehyde, were reacted with the tertiary phosphines R2R'P [R = R' = Me, Et, (CH2)3OH, iPr, cyclo-C6H11, (CH2)2CN; R = Me or Et, R' = Ph; R = Ph, R' = Me, m-NaSO3-C6H4] in water at room temperature under argon. In all cases, initial nucleophilic attack of the phosphine occurs at the activated C=C bond to form a zwitterionic monophosphonium species. With the phosphines PR3 [R = Me, Et, (CH2)3OH] and with R2R'P (R = Me or Et, R' = Ph), the zwitterion undergoes self-condensation to give a bisphosphonium zwitterion that can react with aqueous HCl to form the corresponding dichloride salts (as a mixture of R,R- and S,S-enantiomers); X-ray structures are presented for the bisphosphonium chlorides synthesized from the Et3P and Me3P reactions with sinapaldehyde. With the more bulky phosphines, iPr3P, MePPh2, (cyclo-C6H11)3P, and Na[Ph2P(m-SO3-C6H4)], only an equilibrium of the monophosphonium zwitterion with the reactant aldehyde is observed. The weakly nucleophilic [NC(CH2)2]3P does not react with sinapaldehyde. An analysis of some exceptional 1H NMR data within the prochiral phosphorus centers of the bisphosphonium chlorides is also presented.

  10. Protocatechuic aldehyde inhibits migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and intravascular thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Chang Yoon [The Hotchkiss School, Lakeville, CT (United States); Endocrinology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Institute of Endocrine Research, and Severance Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral and Cardiovascular Disease, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Cheol Ryong [Endocrinology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Institute of Endocrine Research, and Severance Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral and Cardiovascular Disease, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yoon Hee, E-mail: wooriminji@gmail.com [Endocrinology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Institute of Endocrine Research, and Severance Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral and Cardiovascular Disease, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Jig, E-mail: ejlee423@yuhs.ac [Endocrinology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Institute of Endocrine Research, and Severance Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral and Cardiovascular Disease, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Endocrinology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA) inhibits ROS production in VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA inhibits proliferation and migration in PDGF-induced VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA has anti-platelet effects in ex vivo rat whole blood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the potential therapeutic role of PCA in atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: The migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and formation of intravascular thrombosis play crucial roles in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. This study examined the effects of protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA), a compound isolated from the aqueous extract of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a variety of vascular diseases, on the migration and proliferation of VSMCs and platelets due to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). DNA 5-bromo-2 Prime -deoxy-uridine (BrdU) incorporation and wound-healing assays indicated that PCA significantly attenuated PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs at a pharmacologically relevant concentration (100 {mu}M). On a molecular level, we observed down-regulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, both of which regulate key enzymes associated with migration and proliferation. We also found that PCA induced S-phase arrest of the VSMC cell cycle and suppressed cyclin D2 expression. In addition, PCA inhibited PDGF-BB-stimulated reactive oxygen species production in VSMCs, indicating that PCA's antioxidant properties may contribute to its suppression of PDGF-induced migration and proliferation in VSMCs. Finally, PCA exhibited an anti-thrombotic effect related to its inhibition of platelet aggregation, confirmed with an aggregometer. Together, these findings suggest a potential therapeutic role of PCA in the treatment of atherosclerosis and angioplasty-induced vascular restenosis.

  11. Identification of glutathione adducts of α-chlorofatty aldehydes produced in activated neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Mark A.; Aurora, Rajeev; Ford, David A.

    2015-01-01

    α-Chlorofatty aldehydes (α-ClFALDs) are produced by hypochlorous acid targeting plasmalogens during neutrophil activation. This study investigated the reaction of the α-chlorinated carbon of α-ClFALD with the nucleophile, GSH. Utilizing ESI/MS/MS, the reaction product of GSH and the 16-carbon α-ClFALD, 2-chlorohexadecanal (2-ClHDA), was characterized. The resulting conjugate of 2-ClHDA and GSH (HDA-GSH) has an intact free aldehyde, and the chlorine at the α-carbon is ejected. Stable isotope-labeled [d4]HDA-GSH was synthesized, which further confirmed the structure, and was used to quantify natural α-ClFALD conjugates of GSH (FALD-GSH) using reverse-phase LC with detection by ESI/MS/MS using selected reaction monitoring. HDA-GSH is elevated in RAW 264.7 cells treated with physiologically relevant concentrations of exogenous 2-ClHDA. Furthermore, PMA-treated primary human neutrophils have elevated levels of HDA-GSH and the conjugate of 2-chlorooctadecanal (2-ClODA) and GSH (ODA-GSH), as well as elevated levels of 2-ClHDA and 2-ClODA. Production of both conjugates in PMA-stimulated neutrophils was reduced by 3-aminotriazole pretreatment, which also blocks endogenous α-ClFALD production. Additionally, plasma FALD-GSH levels were elevated in the K/BxN mouse arthritis model. Taken together, these studies demonstrate novel peptidoaldehydes derived from GSH and α-ClFALD in activated human neutrophils and in vivo in K/BxN mice. PMID:25814023

  12. Identification of glutathione adducts of α-chlorofatty aldehydes produced in activated neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Mark A; Aurora, Rajeev; Ford, David A

    2015-05-01

    α-Chlorofatty aldehydes (α-ClFALDs) are produced by hypochlorous acid targeting plasmalogens during neutrophil activation. This study investigated the reaction of the α-chlorinated carbon of α-ClFALD with the nucleophile, GSH. Utilizing ESI/MS/MS, the reaction product of GSH and the 16-carbon α-ClFALD, 2-chlorohexadecanal (2-ClHDA), was characterized. The resulting conjugate of 2-ClHDA and GSH (HDA-GSH) has an intact free aldehyde, and the chlorine at the α-carbon is ejected. Stable isotope-labeled [d4]HDA-GSH was synthesized, which further confirmed the structure, and was used to quantify natural α-ClFALD conjugates of GSH (FALD-GSH) using reverse-phase LC with detection by ESI/MS/MS using selected reaction monitoring. HDA-GSH is elevated in RAW 264.7 cells treated with physiologically relevant concentrations of exogenous 2-ClHDA. Furthermore, PMA-treated primary human neutrophils have elevated levels of HDA-GSH and the conjugate of 2-chlorooctadecanal (2-ClODA) and GSH (ODA-GSH), as well as elevated levels of 2-ClHDA and 2-ClODA. Production of both conjugates in PMA-stimulated neutrophils was reduced by 3-aminotriazole pretreatment, which also blocks endogenous α-ClFALD production. Additionally, plasma FALD-GSH levels were elevated in the K/BxN mouse arthritis model. Taken together, these studies demonstrate novel peptidoaldehydes derived from GSH and α-ClFALD in activated human neutrophils and in vivo in K/BxN mice. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Superfamily in Populus: Organization and Expression Divergence between Paralogous Gene Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng-Xia; Zang, Jian-Lei; Wang, Tan; Xie, Yu-Li; Zhang, Jin; Hu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) constitute a superfamily of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding nontoxic carboxylic acids. ALDHs have been studied in many organisms from bacteria to mammals; however, no systematic analyses incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression profiles, and cis-acting elements have been conducted in the model tree species Populus trichocarpa thus far. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily was performed. A total of 26 Populus ALDH genes were found to be distributed across 12 chromosomes. Genomic organization analysis indicated that purifying selection may have played a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of PtALDH gene families. The exon-intron organizations of PtALDHs were highly conserved within the same family, suggesting that the members of the same family also may have conserved functionalities. Microarray data and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that most PtALDHs had distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. The specificity of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of the PtALDHs and the divergence of expression patterns between nine paralogous PtALDH gene pairs suggested that gene duplications may have freed the duplicate genes from the functional constraints. The expression levels of some ALDHs were up- or down-regulated by various abiotic stresses, implying that the products of these genes may be involved in the adaptation of Populus to abiotic stresses. Overall, the data obtained from our investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily and provide insights into the function and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants.

  14. Ozone-surface reactions in five homes: surface reaction probabilities, aldehyde yields, and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Morrison, G

    2010-06-01

    Field experiments were conducted in five homes during three seasons (summer 2005, summer 2006 and winter 2007) to quantify ozone-initiated secondary aldehyde yields, surface reaction probabilities, and trends any temporal over a 1.5-year interval. Surfaces examined include living room carpets, bedroom carpets, kitchen floors, kitchen counters, and living room walls. Reaction probabilities for all surfaces for all seasons ranged from 9.4 x 10(-8) to 1.0 x 10(-4). There were no significant temporal trends in reaction probabilities for any surfaces from summer 2005 to summer 2006, nor over the entire 1.5-year period, indicating that it may take significantly longer than this period for surfaces to exhibit any 'ozone aging' or lowering of ozone-surface reactivity. However, all surfaces in three houses exhibited a significant decrease in reaction probabilities from summer 2006 to winter 2007. The total yield of aldehydes for the summer of 2005 were nearly identical to that for summer of 2006, but were significantly higher than for winter 2007. We also observed that older carpets were consistently less reactive than in newer carpets, but that countertops remained consistently reactive, probably because of occupant activities such as cooking and cleaning. Ozone reactions taking place at indoor surfaces significantly influence personal exposure to ozone and volatile reaction products. These field studies show that indoor surfaces only slowly lose their ability to react with ozone over several year time frames, and that this is probably because of a combination of large reservoirs of reactive coatings and periodic additions of reactive coatings in the form of cooking, cleaning, and skin-oil residues. When considering exposure to ozone and its reaction products and in the absence of dramatic changes in occupancy, activities or furnishings, indoor surface reactivity is expected to change very slowly.

  15. Insight into Coenzyme A cofactor binding and the mechanism of acyl-transfer in an acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase from Clostridium phytofermentans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Laura R; Altenbach, Kirsten; Ang, Thiau Fu; Crawshaw, Adam D; Campopiano, Dominic J; Clarke, David J; Marles-Wright, Jon

    2016-02-22

    The breakdown of fucose and rhamnose released from plant cell walls by the cellulolytic soil bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans produces toxic aldehyde intermediates. To enable growth on these carbon sources, the pathway for the breakdown of fucose and rhamnose is encapsulated within a bacterial microcompartment (BMC). These proteinaceous organelles sequester the toxic aldehyde intermediates and allow the efficient action of acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes to produce an acyl-CoA that is ultimately used in substrate-level phosphorylation to produce ATP. Here we analyse the kinetics of the aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme from the fucose/rhamnose utilisation BMC with different short-chain fatty aldehydes and show that it has activity against substrates with up to six carbon atoms, with optimal activity against propionaldehyde. We have also determined the X-ray crystal structure of this enzyme in complex with CoA and show that the adenine nucleotide of this cofactor is bound in a distinct pocket to the same group in NAD(+). This work is the first report of the structure of CoA bound to an aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme and our crystallographic model provides important insight into the differences within the active site that distinguish the acylating from non-acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes.

  16. A limited LCA of bio-adipic acid: manufacturing the nylon-6,6 precursor adipic acid using the benzoic acid degradation pathway from different feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duuren, J B J H; Brehmer, B; Mars, A E; Eggink, G; Dos Santos, V A P Martins; Sanders, J P M

    2011-06-01

    A limited life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed on a combined biological and chemical process for the production of adipic acid, which was compared to the traditional petrochemical process. The LCA comprises the biological conversion of the aromatic feedstocks benzoic acid, impure aromatics, toluene, or phenol from lignin to cis, cis-muconic acid, which is subsequently converted to adipic acid through hydrogenation. Apart from the impact of usage of petrochemical and biomass-based feedstocks, the environmental impact of the final concentration of cis, cis-muconic acid in the fermentation broth was studied using 1.85% and 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid. The LCA focused on the cumulative energy demand (CED), cumulative exergy demand (CExD), and the CO(2) equivalent (CO(2) eq) emission, with CO(2) and N(2) O measured separately. The highest calculated reduction potential of CED and CExD were achieved using phenol, which reduced the CED by 29% and 57% with 1.85% and 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid, respectively. A decrease in the CO(2) eq emission was especially achieved when the N(2) O emission in the combined biological and chemical process was restricted. At 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid, the different carbon backbone feedstocks contributed to an optimized reduction of CO(2) eq emissions ranging from 14.0 to 17.4 ton CO(2) eq/ton adipic acid. The bulk of the bioprocessing energy intensity is attributed to the hydrogenation reactor, which has a high environmental impact and a direct relationship with the product concentration in the broth. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. p-Hydroxy benzoic acid-conjugated dendrimer nanotherapeutics as potential carriers for targeted drug delivery to brain: an in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swami, Rajan; Singh, Indu [National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (NIPER), Department of Pharmaceutics (India); Kulhari, Hitesh [CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Medicinal Chemistry & Pharmacology Division (India); Jeengar, Manish Kumar [National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (NIPER), Departmentof Pharmacology (India); Khan, Wahid, E-mail: wahid@niperhyd.ac.in; Sistla, Ramakrishna, E-mail: sistla@iict.res.in, E-mail: rksistla@yahoo.com [National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (NIPER), Department of Pharmaceutics (India)

    2015-06-15

    Dendrimers which are discrete nanostructures/nanoparticles are emerging as promising candidates for many nanomedicine applications. Ligand-conjugated dendrimer facilitate the delivery of therapeutics in a targeted manner. Small molecules such as p-hydroxyl benzoic acid (pHBA) were found to have high affinity for sigma receptors which are prominent in most parts of central nervous system and tumors. The aim of this study was to synthesize pHBA-dendrimer conjugates as colloidal carrier for site-specific delivery of practically water insoluble drug, docetaxel (DTX) to brain tumors and to determine its targeting efficiency. pHBA, a small molecule ligand was coupled to the surface amine groups of generation 4-PAMAM dendrimer via a carbodiimide reaction and loaded with DTX. The conjugation was confirmed by {sup 1}HNMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. In vitro release of drug from DTX-loaded pHBA-conjugated dendrimer was found to be less as compared to unconjugated dendrimers. The prepared drug delivery system exhibited good physico-chemical stability and decrease in hemolytic toxicity. Cell viability and cell uptake studies were performed against U87MG human glioblastoma cells and formulations exerted considerable anticancer effect than plain drug. Conjugation of dendrimer with pHBA significantly enhanced the brain uptake of DTX which was shown by the recovery of a higher percentage of the dose from the brain following administration of pHBA-conjugated dendrimers compared with unconjugated dendrimer or formulation in clinical use (Taxotere{sup ®}). Therefore, pHBA conjugated dendrimers could be an efficient delivery vehicle for the targeting of anticancer drugs to brain tumors.

  18. Photophysical properties and excited state intramolecular proton transfer in 2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-(4-methoxyphenyl)diazenyl]benzoic acid in homogeneous solvents and micro-heterogeneous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gashnga, Pynsakhiat Miki [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Chemistry, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022, Meghalaya (India); Singh, T. Sanjoy [Department of Chemistry, Assam University, Silchar 788011, Assam (India); Baul, Tushar S. Basu [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Chemistry, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022, Meghalaya (India); Mitra, Sivaprasad, E-mail: smitra@nehu.ac.in [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Chemistry, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022, Meghalaya (India)

    2014-04-15

    A systematic study on the photophysical properties and excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) behavior of 2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-(4-methoxyphenyl)diazenyl]benzoic acid, is reported using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in homogeneous solvents as well as in different micro-heterogeneous environments. Depending on the nature of intramolecular hydrogen bond (IHB), the salicylic acid derivative may exist in two different ground state conformers (I and II). Structure I having IHB between the carbonyl oxygen and phenolic hydrogen can undergo ESIPT upon excitation as evidenced by largely Stokes-shifted fluorescence at ∼455 nm; whereas, normal fluorescence in the blue side of the spectrum (∼410 nm) is due to the spontaneous emission from conformer II. The results in homogeneous solvents were compared with those in bio-mimicking environments of β-cyclodextrin (CD) and surfactants. The intensity of the ESIPT fluorescence increases substantially upon encapsulation of the probe into the cyclodextrin as well as micellar nano-cavities. Detailed analysis of the spectroscopic data indicates that the probe forms 1:1 complex with CD in aqueous medium. Binding constant of the probe with the micelles as well as critical micelle concentration was obtained from the variation of fluorescence intensity on increasing concentration of different surfactants in aqueous medium. -- Highlights: • Steady state and time resolved fluorescence study on ESIPT in HMBA. • Dual fluorescence corresponding to the pro- and non-ESIPT structures. • Modulation of ESIPT fluorescence in micro-heterogeneous environments. • 1:1 stoichiometry for interaction with cyclodextrin. • Calculation of binding constant and other physico-chemical properties from fluorescence titration data in surfactants.

  19. Nonlinear optical studies on 4-(ferrocenylmethylimino)-2-hydroxy-benzoic acid thin films deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matei, Andreea [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Marinescu, Maria, E-mail: maria.marinescu@chimie.unibuc.ro [UB - University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, 90-92 Şoseaua Panduri, Sector 5, RO-010184, Bucharest (Romania); Constantinescu, Catalin, E-mail: catalin.constantinescu@inflpr.ro [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Ion, Valentin; Mitu, Bogdana [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Ionita, Iulian [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); UB - University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 405 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Dinescu, Maria [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Emandi, Ana [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); UB - University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, 90-92 Şoseaua Panduri, Sector 5, RO-010184, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A newly synthesized ferrocene-derivative exhibits SHG potential. • Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation is employed for thin film fabrication. • The optical properties of the films are investigated, presented and discussed. • At maximum laser output power, the SHG signal is strongly influenced by thin film thickness. - Abstract: We present results on a new, laboratory synthesized ferrocene-derivative, i.e. 4-(ferrocenylmethylimino)-2-hydroxy-benzoic acid. Thin films with controlled thickness are deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), on quartz and silicon substrates, with the aim of evaluating the nonlinear optical properties for potential optoelectronic applications. Dimethyl sulfoxide was used as matrix, with 1% wt. concentration of the guest compound. The frozen target is irradiated by using a Nd:YAG laser (4ω/266 nm, 7 ns pulse duration, 10 Hz repetition rate), at low fluences ranging from 0.1 to 1 J/cm{sup 2}. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to probe the surface morphology of the films. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy reveal similar structure of the thin film material when compared to the starting material. The optical properties of the thin films are investigated by spectroscopic-ellipsometry (SE), and the refractive index dependence with respect to temperature is studied. The second harmonic generation (SHG) potential is assessed by using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800 nm, 60–100 fs pulse duration, 80 MHz repetition rate), at 200 mW maximum output power, revealing that the SHG signal intensity is strongly influenced by the films’ thickness.

  20. p-Hydroxy benzoic acid-conjugated dendrimer nanotherapeutics as potential carriers for targeted drug delivery to brain: an in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swami, Rajan; Singh, Indu; Kulhari, Hitesh; Jeengar, Manish Kumar; Khan, Wahid; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Dendrimers which are discrete nanostructures/nanoparticles are emerging as promising candidates for many nanomedicine applications. Ligand-conjugated dendrimer facilitate the delivery of therapeutics in a targeted manner. Small molecules such as p-hydroxyl benzoic acid (pHBA) were found to have high affinity for sigma receptors which are prominent in most parts of central nervous system and tumors. The aim of this study was to synthesize pHBA-dendrimer conjugates as colloidal carrier for site-specific delivery of practically water insoluble drug, docetaxel (DTX) to brain tumors and to determine its targeting efficiency. pHBA, a small molecule ligand was coupled to the surface amine groups of generation 4-PAMAM dendrimer via a carbodiimide reaction and loaded with DTX. The conjugation was confirmed by 1 HNMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. In vitro release of drug from DTX-loaded pHBA-conjugated dendrimer was found to be less as compared to unconjugated dendrimers. The prepared drug delivery system exhibited good physico-chemical stability and decrease in hemolytic toxicity. Cell viability and cell uptake studies were performed against U87MG human glioblastoma cells and formulations exerted considerable anticancer effect than plain drug. Conjugation of dendrimer with pHBA significantly enhanced the brain uptake of DTX which was shown by the recovery of a higher percentage of the dose from the brain following administration of pHBA-conjugated dendrimers compared with unconjugated dendrimer or formulation in clinical use (Taxotere ® ). Therefore, pHBA conjugated dendrimers could be an efficient delivery vehicle for the targeting of anticancer drugs to brain tumors

  1. Photophysical properties and excited state intramolecular proton transfer in 2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-(4-methoxyphenyl)diazenyl]benzoic acid in homogeneous solvents and micro-heterogeneous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gashnga, Pynsakhiat Miki; Singh, T. Sanjoy; Baul, Tushar S. Basu; Mitra, Sivaprasad

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study on the photophysical properties and excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) behavior of 2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-(4-methoxyphenyl)diazenyl]benzoic acid, is reported using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in homogeneous solvents as well as in different micro-heterogeneous environments. Depending on the nature of intramolecular hydrogen bond (IHB), the salicylic acid derivative may exist in two different ground state conformers (I and II). Structure I having IHB between the carbonyl oxygen and phenolic hydrogen can undergo ESIPT upon excitation as evidenced by largely Stokes-shifted fluorescence at ∼455 nm; whereas, normal fluorescence in the blue side of the spectrum (∼410 nm) is due to the spontaneous emission from conformer II. The results in homogeneous solvents were compared with those in bio-mimicking environments of β-cyclodextrin (CD) and surfactants. The intensity of the ESIPT fluorescence increases substantially upon encapsulation of the probe into the cyclodextrin as well as micellar nano-cavities. Detailed analysis of the spectroscopic data indicates that the probe forms 1:1 complex with CD in aqueous medium. Binding constant of the probe with the micelles as well as critical micelle concentration was obtained from the variation of fluorescence intensity on increasing concentration of different surfactants in aqueous medium. -- Highlights: • Steady state and time resolved fluorescence study on ESIPT in HMBA. • Dual fluorescence corresponding to the pro- and non-ESIPT structures. • Modulation of ESIPT fluorescence in micro-heterogeneous environments. • 1:1 stoichiometry for interaction with cyclodextrin. • Calculation of binding constant and other physico-chemical properties from fluorescence titration data in surfactants

  2. p-Hydroxy benzoic acid-conjugated dendrimer nanotherapeutics as potential carriers for targeted drug delivery to brain: an in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Rajan; Singh, Indu; Kulhari, Hitesh; Jeengar, Manish Kumar; Khan, Wahid; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2015-06-01

    Dendrimers which are discrete nanostructures/nanoparticles are emerging as promising candidates for many nanomedicine applications. Ligand-conjugated dendrimer facilitate the delivery of therapeutics in a targeted manner. Small molecules such as p-hydroxyl benzoic acid (pHBA) were found to have high affinity for sigma receptors which are prominent in most parts of central nervous system and tumors. The aim of this study was to synthesize pHBA-dendrimer conjugates as colloidal carrier for site-specific delivery of practically water insoluble drug, docetaxel (DTX) to brain tumors and to determine its targeting efficiency. pHBA, a small molecule ligand was coupled to the surface amine groups of generation 4-PAMAM dendrimer via a carbodiimide reaction and loaded with DTX. The conjugation was confirmed by 1HNMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. In vitro release of drug from DTX-loaded pHBA-conjugated dendrimer was found to be less as compared to unconjugated dendrimers. The prepared drug delivery system exhibited good physico-chemical stability and decrease in hemolytic toxicity. Cell viability and cell uptake studies were performed against U87MG human glioblastoma cells and formulations exerted considerable anticancer effect than plain drug. Conjugation of dendrimer with pHBA significantly enhanced the brain uptake of DTX which was shown by the recovery of a higher percentage of the dose from the brain following administration of pHBA-conjugated dendrimers compared with unconjugated dendrimer or formulation in clinical use (Taxotere®). Therefore, pHBA conjugated dendrimers could be an efficient delivery vehicle for the targeting of anticancer drugs to brain tumors.

  3. Reactions of OH-radicals with hydroxylated and methoxylated benzoic acids and cinnamic acids. Radiation-induced chemical changes in mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaisberger, B.

    2001-05-01

    In the first part of this work the radiation induced chemical changes of methoxylated and hydroxylated benzoic acids and cinnamic acids were investigated. Methoxylated compounds were also used as model components for acid derivatives with no free-OH groups. The latter are essentials parts of vegetable foodstuff. A comparison of the radiolytic behaviour of single substituted methoxy- and hydroxybenzoic acids was given at first, data of literature was included. The priority of the investigation was the hydroxylation process induced by OH-radicals. The OH-adduct distribution is generally the same for the hydroxy- as well as for the methoxybenzoic acid isomers. This could be proved by oxidation of these OH-adducts with K 3 Fe(CN) 6 . In the presence of air 68-77 % of the hydroxybenzoic acids are converted into hydroxylation products, whereas with the methoxylated acids this reaction leads only to about 10%. An explanation gives the different decay pathways of the intermediate peroxylradical. The multiple methoxy- and hydroxybenzoic acids show three different reaction possibilities: hydroxylation, replacement of -OCH 3 by -OH and -in case of the cinnamic acids-oxidative decomposition of the rest of the propenic acid under formation of the corresponding benzaldehydes. All these reactions can be expected when irradiating foodstuff, containing these acid compounds. The characteristic formation of these components and their linear dose/concentration relationship make these substrates very promising for the use as markers for irradiation treatment of foodstuff. The second part of this work deals with the gamma-radiation induced chemical changes in mushrooms. The irradiated and non-irradiated samples were freeze-dried and purified from matrix components chromatographically on polyamid columns. In case of the phenolic compounds for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and three unknown components linear dose/concentration relationships could be obtained. Two of these unknown compounds seem

  4. Airborne aldehydes in cabin-air of commercial aircraft: Measurement by HPLC with UV absorbance detection of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Wolfgang; Beckmann, Bibiana; Wrbitzky, Renate

    2016-04-15

    This paper presents the strategy and results of in-flight measurements of airborne aldehydes during normal operation and reported "smell events" on commercial aircraft. The aldehyde-measurement is a part of a large-scale study on cabin-air quality. The aims of this study were to describe cabin-air quality in general and to detect chemical abnormalities during the so-called "smell-events". Adsorption and derivatization of airborne aldehydes on 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine coated silica gel (DNPH-cartridge) was applied using tailor-made sampling kits. Samples were collected with battery supplied personal air sampling pumps during different flight phases. Furthermore, the influence of ozone was investigated by simultaneous sampling with and without ozone absorption unit (ozone converter) assembled to the DNPH-cartridges and found to be negligible. The method was validated for 14 aldehydes and found to be precise (RSD, 5.5-10.6%) and accurate (recovery, 98-103 %), with LOD levels being 0.3-0.6 μg/m(3). According to occupational exposure limits (OEL) or indoor air guidelines no unusual or noticeable aldehyde pollution was observed. In total, 353 aldehyde samples were taken from two types of aircraft. Formaldehyde (overall average 5.7 μg/m(3), overall median 4.9 μg/m(3), range 0.4-44 μg/m(3)), acetaldehyde (overall average 6.5 μg/m(3), overall median 4.6, range 0.3-90 μg/m(3)) and mostly very low concentrations of other aldehydes were measured on 108 flights. Simultaneous adsorption and derivatization of airborne aldehydes on DNPH-cartridges to the Schiff bases and their HPLC analysis with UV absorbance detection is a useful method to measure aldehydes in cabin-air of commercial aircraft. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Simultaneous analysis of aromatic aldehydes and coumarins with high pressure liquid chromatography. Application to wines and brandies stored in oak barrels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salagoity-Auguste, M H; Tricard, C; Sudraud, P

    1987-04-17

    Aromatic aldehydes (vanillin, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde) and coumarins (esculetin, umbelliferone, scopoletin and methylumbelliferone) are natural wood compounds. Storage of wines and brandies in oak barrels increases notably aldehydes and coumarins (particularly scopoletin) concentrations. These compounds were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography, on hydrocarbon bonded reversed-phase packings, with a water-acetonitrile elution gradient. They were first extracted from wines and brandies by diethyl ether and then injected on chromatographic column. A double detection was used to determine simultaneously aromatic aldehydes and coumarins by UV absorption and fluorescence respectively.

  6. ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS ? FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Olivia; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-05-04

    Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THU VOC and aldehyde emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 378 mu g m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 mu g m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 mu g m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 mu g m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography -- mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and material specific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds

  7. Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Anna C.; Russell, Marion; Lee, Wen-Yee; Apte, Michael; Maddalena, Randy

    2010-01-01

    The developers of the Paharpur Business Center (PBC) and Software Technology Incubator Park in New Delhi, India offer an environmentally sustainable building with a strong emphasis on energy conservation, waste minimization and superior indoor air quality (IAQ). To achieve the IAQ goal, the building utilizes a series of air cleaning technologies for treating the air entering the building. These technologies include an initial water wash followed by ultraviolet light treatment and biofiltration using a greenhouse located on the roof and numerous plants distributed throughout the building. Even with the extensive treatment of makeup air and room air in the PBC, a recent study found that the concentrations of common volatile organic compounds and aldehydes appear to rise incrementally as the air passes through the building from the supply to the exhaust. This finding highlights the need to consider the minimization of chemical sources in buildings in combination with the use of advanced air cleaning technologies when seeking to achieve superior IAQ. The goal of this project was to identify potential source materials for indoor chemicals in the PBC. Samples of building materials, including wood paneling (polished and unpolished), drywall, and plastic from a hydroponic drum that was part of the air cleaning system, were collected from the building for testing. All materials were collected from the PBC building and shipped to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for testing. The materials were pre-conditioned for two different time periods before measuring material and chemical specific emission factors for a range of VOCs and Aldehydes. Of the six materials tested, we found that the highest emitter of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polish and paint contribute to some VOC emissions, the main influence of the polish was in altering the capacity of the surface to accumulate formaldehyde. Neither the new nor aged polish contributed significantly

  8. Characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in ovarian cancer tissues and sphere cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saw Yu-Ting

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aldehyde dehydrogenases belong to a superfamily of detoxifying enzymes that protect cells from carcinogenic aldehydes. Of the superfamily, ALDH1A1 has gained most attention because current studies have shown that its expression is associated with human cancer stem cells. However, ALDH1A1 is only one of the 19 human ALDH subfamilies currently known. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the expression and activities of other major ALDH isozymes are associated with human ovarian cancer and ovarian cancer sphere cultures. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to delineate ALDH isozyme localization in clinical ovarian tissues. Western Blot analyses were performed on lysates prepared from cancer cell lines and ovarian cancer spheres to confirm the immunohistochemistry findings. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions were used to measure the mRNA expression levels. The Aldefluor® assay was used to measure ALDH activity in cancer cells from the four tumor subtypes. Results Immunohistochemical staining showed significant overexpression of ALDH1A3, ALDH3A2, and ALDH7A1 isozymes in ovarian tumors relative to normal ovarian tissues. The expression and activity of ALDH1A1 is tumor type-dependent, as seen from immunohistochemisty, Western blot analysis, and the Aldefluor® assay. The expression was elevated in the mucinous and endometrioid ovarian epithelial tumors than in serous and clear cell tumors. In some serous and most clear cell tumors, ALDH1A1 expression was found in the stromal fibroblasts. RNA expression of all studied ALDH isozymes also showed higher expression in endometrioid and mucinous tumors than in the serous and clear cell subtypes. The expression of ALDH enzymes showed tumor type-dependent induction in ovarian cancer cells growing as sphere suspensions in serum-free medium. Conclusions The results of our study indicate that ALDH enzyme expression and activity may be associated

  9. Characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in ovarian cancer tissues and sphere cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, Yu-Ting; Thompson, David; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Berkowitz, Ross S; Ng, Shu-Wing; Yang, Junzheng; Ng, Shu-Kay; Liu, Shubai; Singh, Surendra; Singh, Margit; Welch, William R; Tsuda, Hiroshi; Fong, Wing-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases belong to a superfamily of detoxifying enzymes that protect cells from carcinogenic aldehydes. Of the superfamily, ALDH1A1 has gained most attention because current studies have shown that its expression is associated with human cancer stem cells. However, ALDH1A1 is only one of the 19 human ALDH subfamilies currently known. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the expression and activities of other major ALDH isozymes are associated with human ovarian cancer and ovarian cancer sphere cultures. Immunohistochemistry was used to delineate ALDH isozyme localization in clinical ovarian tissues. Western Blot analyses were performed on lysates prepared from cancer cell lines and ovarian cancer spheres to confirm the immunohistochemistry findings. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions were used to measure the mRNA expression levels. The Aldefluor® assay was used to measure ALDH activity in cancer cells from the four tumor subtypes. Immunohistochemical staining showed significant overexpression of ALDH1A3, ALDH3A2, and ALDH7A1 isozymes in ovarian tumors relative to normal ovarian tissues. The expression and activity of ALDH1A1 is tumor type-dependent, as seen from immunohistochemisty, Western blot analysis, and the Aldefluor® assay. The expression was elevated in the mucinous and endometrioid ovarian epithelial tumors than in serous and clear cell tumors. In some serous and most clear cell tumors, ALDH1A1 expression was found in the stromal fibroblasts. RNA expression of all studied ALDH isozymes also showed higher expression in endometrioid and mucinous tumors than in the serous and clear cell subtypes. The expression of ALDH enzymes showed tumor type-dependent induction in ovarian cancer cells growing as sphere suspensions in serum-free medium. The results of our study indicate that ALDH enzyme expression and activity may be associated with specific cell types in ovarian tumor tissues and vary according to

  10. Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Anna C.; Russell, Marion; Lee, Wen-Yee; Apte, Michael; Maddalena, Randy

    2010-09-20

    The developers of the Paharpur Business Center (PBC) and Software Technology Incubator Park in New Delhi, India offer an environmentally sustainable building with a strong emphasis on energy conservation, waste minimization and superior indoor air quality (IAQ). To achieve the IAQ goal, the building utilizes a series of air cleaning technologies for treating the air entering the building. These technologies include an initial water wash followed by ultraviolet light treatment and biolfiltration using a greenhouse located on the roof and numerous plants distributed throughout the building. Even with the extensive treatment of makeup air and room air in the PBC, a recent study found that the concentrations of common volatile organic compounds and aldehydes appear to rise incrementally as the air passes through the building from the supply to the exhaust. This finding highlights the need to consider the minimization of chemical sources in buildings in combination with the use of advanced air cleaning technologies when seeking to achieve superior IAQ. The goal of this project was to identify potential source materials for indoor chemicals in the PBC. Samples of building materials, including wood paneling (polished and unpolished), drywall, and plastic from a hydroponic drum that was part of the air cleaning system, were collected from the building for testing. All materials were collected from the PBC building and shipped to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for testing. The materials were pre-conditioned for two different time periods before measuring material and chemical specific emission factors for a range of VOCs and Aldehydes. Of the six materials tested, we found that the highest emitter of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polish and paint contribute to some VOC emissions, the main influence of the polish was in altering the capacity of the surface to accumulate formaldehyde. Neither the new nor aged polish contributed

  11. Determination of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine in water and soil by derivatization with aromatic aldehydes using GC/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atamaniouk, V [Ukrainian Academy of Science (Ukraine); Ananieva, L [Ukrainian Ministry of Defence (Ukraine); Ladanowski, C [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Engineering Div.; Cathum, S; Whittaker, H

    1996-09-01

    An analytical technique for the detection of hydrazine in environmental samples was described. Unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH) is used in rocket fuel as a high-energy propellant. It is highly toxic and has been banned in Canada and the United States since 1989. However, in 1995 traces of UDMH were found in apples and the dangerous carcinogenic NDMA (a major byproduct of UDMH oxidation) was detected in drinking water in Ontario. The analysis of UDMH by derivation of seven aldehydes was investigated. A gas chromatography and a mass spectroscopy method of determining the presence of UDMH in water by reacting it with various aldehydes in dichromethane, was developed. 43 refs., 8 tabs., 15 figs.

  12. Product ion distributions for the reactions of NO+ with some physiologically significant aldehydes obtained using a SRI-TOF-MS instrument

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mochalski, P.; Unterkofler, K.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.; Amann, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 363, APR 2014 (2014), s. 23-31 ISSN 1387-3806 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : aldehydes * SRI-TOF-MS * NO+ reactions Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.972, year: 2014

  13. Enantioselective allylations of selected alpha, beta, gamma, delta-unsaturated aldehydes by axially chiral N,N'-dioxides. Synthesis of the left-hand part of papulacandin D

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlašaná, K.; Betík, R.; Valterová, Irena; Nečas, D.; Kotora, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2016), s. 301-305 ISSN 2213-3372 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : allylation * aldehyde * Lewis base * asymmetric synthesis * organocatalysis * homoallylic alcohol s Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  14. Preparation of riboflavin specifically labeled in the 5'-hydroxymethyl terminus using a vitamin B2-aldehyde-forming enzyme from Schizophyllum commune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kekelidze, T.N.; Edmondson, D.E.; McCormick, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for synthesis of riboflavin selectively labeled in the hydrogens at the 5'-hydroxymethyl position. In this method, a vitamin B 2 -aldehyde-forming enzyme from Schizophyllum commune is used to specifically and completely oxidize the 5'-hydroxymethyl of riboflavin to the 5'-aldehyde. This reaction is monitored spectrophotometrically by the reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol at 600 nm. Appearance of aldehyde product was directly quantitated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Product is extracted from the incubation mixture by phenol after saturation with (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and then further purified by benzyl alcohol extraction. The 5'-aldehyde is reduced with appropriately labeled sodium borohydride to yield the vitamin specifically labeled in the 5'-hydroxymethyl group. (author)

  15. Aldehydes react with scribed silicon to form alkyl monolayers Characterization by ToF-SIMS suggests an even-odd effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lua, Y.-Y.; Fillmore, W. Jonathan J.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2004-01-01

    Alkyl monolayers are formed when silicon is chemomechanically scribed in the presence of aldehydes (from butanal to nonanal). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), wetting, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) suggest increasingly thick and hydrophobic monolayers with increasing aldehyde chain length. Superimposed on the general trend of stronger ToF-SIMS signals for hydrocarbon fragments from longer aldehyde precursors is an even-odd effect. This effect is most pronounced for smaller (one- and two-carbon) hydrocarbon fragments and for monolayers prepared with shorter aldehyde precursors. This is the first time than an even-odd effect has been demonstrated for monolayers on scribed silicon

  16. Aldehydes react with scribed silicon to form alkyl monolayers Characterization by ToF-SIMS suggests an even-odd effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lua, Y.-Y.; Fillmore, W. Jonathan J.; Linford, Matthew R

    2004-06-15

    Alkyl monolayers are formed when silicon is chemomechanically scribed in the presence of aldehydes (from butanal to nonanal). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), wetting, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) suggest increasingly thick and hydrophobic monolayers with increasing aldehyde chain length. Superimposed on the general trend of stronger ToF-SIMS signals for hydrocarbon fragments from longer aldehyde precursors is an even-odd effect. This effect is most pronounced for smaller (one- and two-carbon) hydrocarbon fragments and for monolayers prepared with shorter aldehyde precursors. This is the first time than an even-odd effect has been demonstrated for monolayers on scribed silicon.

  17. Direct Vinylation of Alcohols or Aldehydes Employing Alkynes as Vinyl Donors: A Ruthenium Catalyzed C-C Bond Forming Transfer Hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patman, Ryan L.; Chaulagain, Mani Raj; Williams, Vanessa M.; Krische, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Under the conditions of ruthenium catalyzed transfer hydrogenation, 2-butyne couples to benzylic and aliphatic alcohols 1a–1i to furnish allylic alcohols 2a–2i, constituting a direct C-H vinylation of alcohols employing alkynes as vinyl donors. Under related transfer hydrogenation conditions employing formic acid as terminal reductant, 2-butyne couples to aldehydes 4a, 4b, and 4e to furnish identical products of carbonyl vinylation 2a, 2b, and 2e. Thus, carbonyl vinylation is achieved from the alcohol or the aldehyde oxidation level in the absence of any stoichiometric metallic reagents. Nonsymmetric alkynes 6a–6c couple efficiently to aldehyde 4b to provide allylic alcohols 2m–2o as single regioisomers. Acetylenic aldehyde 7a engages in efficient intramolecular coupling to deliver cyclic allylic alcohol 8a. PMID:19173651

  18. Characterization of polar organosulfates in secondary organic aerosol from the unsaturated aldehydes 2-E-pentenal, 2-E-hexenal, and 3-Z-hexenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — We show in the present study that the unsaturated aldehydes, 2-E-pentenal, 2-E-hexenal and 3-Z-hexenal, are biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) precursors for...

  19. Formylbenzene diazonium hexafluorophosphate reagent for tyrosine-selective modification of proteins and the introduction of a bioorthogonal aldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilyuk, Julia; Ban, Hitoshi; Nagano, Masanobu; Hakamata, Wataru; Barbas, Carlos F

    2012-12-19

    4-Formylbenzene diazonium hexafluorophosphate (FBDP) is a novel bench-stable crystalline diazonium salt that reacts selectively with tyrosine to install a bioorthogonal aldehyde functionality. Model studies with N-acyl-tyrosine methylamide allowed us to identify conditions optimal for tyrosine ligation reactions with small peptides and proteins. FBDP-based conjugation was used for the facile introduction of small molecule tags, poly(ethylene glycol) chains (PEGylation), and functional small molecules onto model proteins and to label the surface of living cells.

  20. Formylbenzene diazonium hexafluorophosphate reagent for tyrosine-selective modification of proteins and the introduction of a bioorthogonal aldehyde

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilyuk, Julia; Ban, Hitoshi; Nagano, Masanobu; Hakamata, Wataru; Barbas, Carlos F.

    2012-01-01

    4-Formylbenzene diazonium hexafluorophosphate (FBDP) is a novel bench-stable crystalline diazonium salt that reacts selectively with tyrosine to install a bioorthogonal aldehyde functionality. Model studies with N-acyl-tyrosine methylamide allowed us to identify conditions optimal for tyrosine ligation reactions with small peptides and proteins. FBDP-based conjugation was used for the facile introduction of small molecule tags, poly(ethylene) glycol chains (PEGylation), and functional small m...

  1. Evaluation of peroxidative stress of cancer cells in vitro by real-time quantification of volatile aldehydes in culture headspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestivska, Violetta; Rutter, Abigail V; Sulé-Suso, Josep; Smith, David; Španěl, Patrik

    2017-08-30

    Peroxidation of lipids in cellular membranes results in the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including saturated aldehydes. The real-time quantification of trace VOCs produced by cancer cells during peroxidative stress presents a new challenge to non-invasive clinical diagnostics, which as described here, we have met with some success. A combination of selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), a technique that allows rapid, reliable quantification of VOCs in humid air and liquid headspace, and electrochemistry to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro has been used. Thus, VOCs present in the headspace of CALU-1 cancer cell line cultures exposed to ROS have been monitored and quantified in real time using SIFT-MS. The CALU-1 lung cancer cells were cultured in 3D collagen to mimic in vivo tissue. Real-time SIFT-MS analyses focused on the volatile aldehydes: propanal, butanal, pentanal, hexanal, heptanal and malondialdehyde (propanedial), that are expected to be products of cellular membrane peroxidation. All six aldehydes were identified in the culture headspace, each reaching peak concentrations during the time of exposure to ROS and eventually reducing as the reactants were depleted in the culture. Pentanal and hexanal were the most abundant, reaching concentrations of a few hundred parts-per-billion by volume, ppbv, in the culture headspace. The results of these experiments demonstrate that peroxidation of cancer cells in vitro can be monitored and evaluated by direct real-time analysis of the volatile aldehydes produced. The combination of adopted methodology potentially has value for the study of other types of VOCs that may be produced by cellular damage. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Protein conjugated with aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation as an independent parameter of the carbonyl stress in the kidney damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina-Navarro Rafael

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the well-defined and characterized protein modifications usually produced by oxidation is carbonylation, an irreversible non-enzymatic modification of proteins. However, carbonyl groups can be introduced into proteins by non-oxidative mechanisms. Reactive carbonyl compounds have been observed to have increased in patients with renal failure. In the present work we have described a procedure designed as aldehyde capture to calculate the protein carbonyl stress derived solely from lipid peroxidation. Methods Acrolein-albumin adduct was prepared as standard at alkaline pH. Rat liver microsomal membranes and serum samples from patients with diabetic nephropathy were subjected to the aldehyde capture procedure and aldol-protein formation. Before alkalinization and incubation, samples were precipitated and redisolved in 6M guanidine. The absorbances of the samples were read with a spectrophotometer at 266 nm against a blank of guanidine. Results Evidence showed abundance of unsaturated aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomal membranes and in the serum of diabetic patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. Carbonyl protein and aldol-proteins resulted higher in the diabetic nephropathy patients (p Conclusion The aldehyde-protein adduct represents a non oxidative component of carbonyl stress, independent of the direct amino acid oxidation and could constitute a practical and novelty strategy to measure the carbonyl stress derived solely from lipid peroxidation and particularly in diabetic nephropathy patients. In addition, we are in a position to propose an alternative explanation of why alkalinization of urine attenuates rhabdomyolysis-induced renal dysfunction.

  3. In situ generation of the Ohira-Bestmann reagent from stable sulfonyl azide: scalable synthesis of alkynes from aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Tue Heesgaard; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard

    2014-10-03

    We report an improved method for in situ generation of the Ohira-Bestmann reagent. Using the recently reported bench-stable imidazole-1-sulfonyl azide as diazotransfer reagent, this new method represents a scalable and convenient approach for the transformation of aldehydes into terminal alkynes. The method features an easier workup compared to the existing in situ protocol due to increased aqueous solubility of waste products.

  4. The expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) in ovarian carcinomas and its clinicopathological associations: a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ruixia; Li, Xiaoran; Holm, Ruth; Trope, Claes G; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2015-01-01

    Background Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) is widely used as a specific cancer stem cell marker in a variety of cancers, and may become a promising target for cancer therapy. However, the role of its expression in tumor cells and the microenvironment in different cancers is still controversial. Methods To clarify the clinicopathological effect of ALDH1 expression in ovarian carcinoma, a series of 248...

  5. A Simple Primary Amine Catalyst for Enantioselective α-Hydroxylations and α-Fluorinations of Branched Aldehydes

    OpenAIRE

    Witten, Michael R.; Jacobsen, Eric N.

    2015-01-01

    A new primary amine catalyst for the asymmetric α-hydroxylation and α-fluorination of α-branched aldehydes is described. The products of the title transformations are generated in excellent yields and with high enantioselectivities. Both processes can be performed within short reaction times and on gram scale. The similarity in the results obtained in both reactions, combined with computational evidence, implies a common basis for stereoinduction and the possibility of a general catalytic mec...

  6. Reductive amination of aldehyde 2,4-dinitorophenylhydrazones using 2-picoline borane and high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Inaba, Yohei; Matsumoto, Mariko; Suzuki, Gen

    2009-01-01

    A new method for the determination of carbonyls in air using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) has been developed. The traditional method for the measurement of carbonyl compounds, using DNPH to form the corresponding 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone (DNPhydrazone) derivatives, is subject to analytical errors because DNPhydrazones form both E- and Z-geometrical isomers as a result of the C=N double bond. To overcome this issue, a method for transforming the C=N double bond into a C-N single bond, using reductive amination of DNPhydrazone derivatives, has been developed. Reductive amination of aldehyde DNPhydrazones was carried out by adding 2-picoline borane acetonitrile solution in eluate through the DNPH-cartridge. The amination reactions of C(1)-C(10) aldehyde DNPhydrazones were completely converted into the reduced forms within 40 min in the presence of 1 mmol/L 2-picoline borane and 20 mmol/L of phosphoric acid. These reduced forms were very stable and did not change when stored for 2 weeks at room temperature. The absorption maximum wavelengths of the reduced forms from C(1)-C(10) aldehyde DNPhydrazones were 351-352 nm and shifted 6-7 nm toward shorter wavelengths when compared to the corresponding DNPhydrazones, and the molar absorption coefficients were 1.5 x 10(4) (C(1)) to 2.2 x 10(4) L/mol/cm (C(10)). Complete separation between C(1)-C(10) aldehyde DNPhydrazones and the corresponding reduced forms can be achieved by operating the HPLC in gradient mode using an Ascentis RP-Amide column (150 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.). The RSDs of DNPhydrazone (Z + E) peak areas ranged from 0.40-0.66 and those of the corresponding reduced forms ranged from 0.26-0.41. It was shown that the reductive amination method gave improved HPLC analytical precision because of the absence of isomers.

  7. YKL071W from Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a novel aldehyde reductase for detoxification of glycolaldehyde and furfural derived from lignocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanyu; Ouyang, Yidan; Zhou, Chang; Xiao, Difan; Guo, Yaping; Wu, Lan; Li, Xi; Gu, Yunfu; Xiang, Quanju; Zhao, Ke; Yu, Xiumei; Zou, Likou; Ma, Menggen

    2017-12-01

    Aldehydes generated as by-products during the pretreatment of lignocellulose are the key inhibitors to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is considered as the most promising microorganism for industrial production of biofuel, xylitol as well as other special chemicals from lignocellulose. S. cerevisiae has the inherent ability to in situ detoxify aldehydes to corresponding alcohols by multiple aldehyde reductases. Herein, we report that an uncharacterized open reading frame YKL071W from S. cerevisiae encodes a novel "classical" short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein with NADH-dependent enzymatic activities for reduction of furfural (FF), glycolaldehyde (GA), formaldehyde (FA), and benzaldehyde (BZA). This enzyme showed much better specific activities for reduction of GA and FF than FA and BZA, and displayed much higher Km and Kcat/Km but lower Vmax and Kcat for reduction of GA than FF. For this enzyme, the optimum pH was 5.5 and 6.0 for reduction of GA and FF, and the optimum temperature was 30 °C for reduction of GA and FF. Both pH and temperature affected stability of this enzyme in a similar trend for reduction of GA and FF. Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , Ni 2+ , and Fe 3+ had severe inhibition effects on enzyme activities of Ykl071wp for reduction of GA and FF. Transcription of YKL071W in S. cerevisiae was significantly upregulated under GA and FF stress conditions, and its transcription is most probably regulated by transcription factor genes of YAP1, CAD1, PDR3, and STB5. This research provides guidelines to identify more uncharacterized genes with reductase activities for detoxification of aldehydes derived from lignocellulose in S. cerevisiae.

  8. Substrate specificity and subcellular localization of the aldehyde-alcohol redox-coupling reaction in carp cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shinya; Fukagawa, Takashi; Tachibanaki, Shuji; Yamano, Yumiko; Wada, Akimori; Kawamura, Satoru

    2013-12-20

    Our previous study suggested the presence of a novel cone-specific redox reaction that generates 11-cis-retinal from 11-cis-retinol in the carp retina. This reaction is unique in that 1) both 11-cis-retinol and all-trans-retinal were required to produce 11-cis-retinal; 2) together with 11-cis-retinal, all-trans-retinol was produced at a 1:1 ratio; and 3) the addition of enzyme cofactors such as NADP(H) was not necessary. This reaction is probably part of the reactions in a cone-specific retinoid cycle required for cone visual pigment regeneration with the use of 11-cis-retinol supplied from Müller cells. In this study, using purified carp cone membrane preparations, we first confirmed that the reaction is a redox-coupling reaction between retinals and retinols. We further examined the substrate specificity, reaction mechanism, and subcellular localization of this reaction. Oxidation was specific for 11-cis-retinol and 9-cis-retinol. In contrast, reduction showed low specificity: many aldehydes, including all-trans-, 9-cis-, 11-cis-, and 13-cis-retinals and even benzaldehyde, supported the reaction. On the basis of kinetic studies of this reaction (aldehyde-alcohol redox-coupling reaction), we found that formation of a ternary complex of a retinol, an aldehyde, and a postulated enzyme seemed to be necessary, which suggested the presence of both the retinol- and aldehyde-binding sites in this enzyme. A subcellular fractionation study showed that the activity is present almost exclusively in the cone inner segment. These results suggest the presence of an effective production mechanism of 11-cis-retinal in the cone inner segment to regenerate visual pigment.

  9. Rhodium(III)-catalyzed three-component reaction of imines, alkynes, and aldehydes through C-H activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ji-Rong; Song, Qiang; Zhu, Yu-Qin; Qin, Liu; Qian, Zhi-Yong; Dong, Lin

    2014-12-15

    An efficient rhodium(III)-catalyzed tandem three-component reaction of imines, alkynes and aldehydes through CH activation has been developed. High stereo- and regioselectivity, as well as good yields were obtained in most cases. The simple and atom-economical approach offers a broad scope of substrates, providing polycyclic skeletons with potential biological properties. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Synthesis of New Chiral Benzimidazolylidene–Rh Complexes and Their Application in Asymmetric Addition Reactions of Organoboronic Acids to Aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel chiral N-heterocyclic carbene rhodium complexes (NHC–Rh based on benzimidazole have been prepared, and all of the NHC–Rh complexes were fully characterized by NMR and mass spectrometry. These complexes could be used as catalysts for the asymmetric 1,2-addition of organoboronic acids to aldehydes, affording chiral diarylmethanols with high yields and moderate enantioselectivities.

  11. Expressional studies of the aldehyde oxidase (AOX1) gene during myogenic differentiation in C2C12 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamli, Majid Rasool; Kim, Jihoe; Pokharel, Smritee; Jan, Arif Tasleem [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Ju [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bovine Genome Resources Bank, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Inho, E-mail: inhochoi@ynu.ac.kr [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bovine Genome Resources Bank, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • AOX1 contributes to the formation of myotube. • Silencing of AOX1 reduces myotube formation. • AOX1 regulates MyoG gene expression. • AOX1 contributes to myogenesis via H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Abstract: Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs), which catalyze the hydroxylation of heterocycles and oxidation of a wide variety of aldehydic compounds, have been present throughout evolution from bacteria to humans. While humans have only a single functional aldehyde oxidase (AOX1) gene, rodents are endowed with four AOXs; AOX1 and three aldehyde oxidase homologs (AOH1, AOH2 and AOH3). In continuation of our previous study conducted to identify genes differentially expressed during myogenesis using a microarray approach, we investigated AOX1 with respect to its role in myogenesis to conceptualize how it is regulated in C2C12 cells. The results obtained were validated by silencing of the AOX1 gene. Analysis of their fusion index revealed that formation of myotubes showed a marked reduction of up to 40% in AOX1{sub kd} cells. Expression of myogenin (MYOG), one of the marker genes used to study myogenesis, was also found to be reduced in AOX1{sub kd} cells. AOX1 is an enzyme of pharmacological and toxicological importance that metabolizes numerous xenobiotics to their respective carboxylic acids. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) produced as a by-product in this reaction is considered to be involved as a part of the signaling mechanism during differentiation. An observed reduction in the level of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} among AOX1{sub kd} cells confirmed production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the reaction catalyzed by AOX1. Taken together, these findings suggest that AOX1 acts as a contributor to the process of myogenesis by influencing the level of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  12. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Olefination of Aldehydes with Vinyliodonium Salts To Generate α,β-Unsaturated Ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkiewicz, Adam A; Kalek, Marcin

    2018-04-06

    An organocatalyzed metal-free, direct olefination of aldehydes with vinyliodonium salts has been achieved by an N-heterocyclic carbene-promoted C-H bond activation. The reaction proceeds under very mild conditions, delivering a range of (hetero)aryl-vinyl ketones in good yields. The retention of the double bond configuration is uniformly observed, and the application of 2-methoxyphenyl auxiliary group in iodonium salts secures a complete selectivity of the vinyl transfer.

  13. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) Ameliorates Chronic Alcohol Ingestion-Induced Myocardial Insulin Resistance and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shi-Yan; Gilbert, Sara A.B.; Li, Qun; Ren, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Chronic alcohol intake leads to insulin resistance and alcoholic cardiomyopathy, which appears to be a result of the complex interaction between genes and environment. This study was designed to examine the impact of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) transgenic overexpression on alcohol-induced insulin resistance and myocardial injury. ALDH2 transgenic mice were produced using chicken β-actin promoter. Wild-type FVB and ALDH2 mice were fed a 4% alcohol or control diet for 12 wks. Cell shorteni...

  14. Aldehyde dehydrogenase expression in Metaphire posthuma as a bioindicator to monitor heavy metal pollution in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Raju; Bhatt, Padam Shekhar; Bhattarai, Tribikram; Shakya, Kumudini; Sreerama, Lakshmaiah

    2016-11-21

    Soil contamination and associated pollution plays a detrimental role in soil flora and fauna. Soil is processed and remodeled by subterranean earthworms, accordingly are referred to as soil chemical engineers. These worms, besides processing carbon and nitrogen, serve as minors for processing metals. In heavy metal contaminated soils, they accumulate heavy metals, which in turn cause altered gene expression, including aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes. This study explores the possibility of ALDH expression in earthworms as a novel biomarker for the heavy metal contamination of soil. Earthworms cultured in contaminated soils accumulated significantly higher levels of Pb and Cd. Similarly, significantly higher levels of ALDH enzyme activities were observed in earthworms cultured in soils contaminated with Pb and Cd. The ALDH activity was found to be highest in worms cultured in 5 ppm heavy metal contaminated soils. Although, ALDH activities decreased as the heavy metal concentration in soil increased, they were significantly higher when compared to control worms cultured in uncontaminated soils. The accumulation of heavy metal in earthworms measured after 28 days decreased as the heavy metal concentration in soil increased. Levels of ALDH expression correlated with total Pb and Cd concentration in the earthworm tissue. This study showed that the ALDH activity in earthworms could potentially be used as a biomarker to show heavy metal pollution in soil.

  15. Covalent Immobilization of Bacillus licheniformis γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase on Aldehyde-Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chun Chi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the synthesis and use of surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles for the covalent immobilization of Bacillus licheniformis γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (BlGGT. Magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by an alkaline solution of divalent and trivalent iron ions, and they were subsequently treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES to obtain the aminosilane-coated nanoparticles. The functional group on the particle surface and the amino group of BlGGT was then cross-linked using glutaraldehyde as the coupling reagent. The loading capacity of the prepared nanoparticles for BlGGT was 34.2 mg/g support, corresponding to 52.4% recovery of the initial activity. Monographs of transmission electron microscopy revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles had a mean diameter of 15.1 ± 3.7 nm, and the covalent cross-linking of the enzyme did not significantly change their particle size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the immobilization of BlGGT on the magnetic nanoparticles. The chemical and kinetic behaviors of immobilized BlGGT are mostly consistent with those of the free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme could be recycled ten times with 36.2% retention of the initial activity and had a comparable stability respective to free enzyme during the storage period of 30 days. Collectively, the straightforward synthesis of aldehyde-functionalized nanoparticles and the efficiency of enzyme immobilization offer wide perspectives for the practical use of surface-bound BlGGT.

  16. Tuberculosis: finding a new potential antimycobacterium derivative in a aldehyde-arylhydrazone-oxoquinoline series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da C Santos, Fernanda; Castro, Helena C; Lourenço, Maria Cristina S; Abreu, Paula A; Batalha, Pedro N; Cunha, Anna C; Carvalho, Guilherme S L; Rodrigues, Carlos R; Medeiros, Cid A; Souza, Simone D; Ferreira, Vitor F; de Souza, Maria C B V

    2012-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which remains a serious public health problem. The emergence of resistant bacterial strains has continuously increased and new treatment options are currently in need. In this work, we identified a new potential aldehyde-arylhydrazone-oxoquinoline derivative (4e) with interesting chemical structural features that may be important for designing new anti-TB agents. This 1-ethyl-N'-[(1E)-(5-nitro-2-furyl)methylene]-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carbohydrazide (4e) presented an in vitro active profile against M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC = 6.25 μg/mL) better than other acylhydrazones described in the literature (MIC = 12.5 μg/mL) and close to other antitubercular agents currently on the market. The theoretical analysis showed the importance of several structural features that together with the 5-nitro-2-furyl group generated this active compound (4e). This new compound and the analysis of its molecular properties may be useful for designing new and more efficient antibacterial drugs.

  17. Research on odor interaction between aldehyde compounds via a partial differential equation (PDE) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Luchun; Liu, Jiemin; Qu, Chen; Gu, Xingye; Zhao, Xia

    2015-01-28

    In order to explore the odor interaction of binary odor mixtures, a series of odor intensity evaluation tests were performed using both individual components and binary mixtures of aldehydes. Based on the linear relation between the logarithm of odor activity value and odor intensity of individual substances, the relationship between concentrations of individual constituents and their joint odor intensity was investigated by employing a partial differential equation (PDE) model. The obtained results showed that the binary odor interaction was mainly influenced by the mixing ratio of two constituents, but not the concentration level of an odor sample. Besides, an extended PDE model was also proposed on the basis of the above experiments. Through a series of odor intensity matching tests for several different binary odor mixtures, the extended PDE model was proved effective at odor intensity prediction. Furthermore, odorants of the same chemical group and similar odor type exhibited similar characteristics in the binary odor interaction. The overall results suggested that the PDE model is a more interpretable way of demonstrating the odor interactions of binary odor mixtures.

  18. Combinatorial application of two aldehyde oxidoreductases on isobutanol production in the presence of furfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyung-Min; Jeon, Jong-Min; Lee, Ju Hee; Song, Hun-Suk; Joo, Han-Byul; Park, Sung-Hee; Choi, Kwon-Young; Kim, Yong Hyun; Park, Kyungmoon; Ahn, Jungoh; Lee, Hongweon; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Furfural is a toxic by-product formulated from pretreatment processes of lignocellulosic biomass. In order to utilize the lignocellulosic biomass on isobutanol production, inhibitory effect of the furfural on isobutanol production was investigated and combinatorial application of two oxidoreductases, FucO and YqhD, was suggested as an alternative strategy. Furfural decreased cell growth and isobutanol production when only YqhD or FucO was employed as an isobutyraldehyde oxidoreductase. However, combinatorial overexpression of FucO and YqhD could overcome the inhibitory effect of furfural giving higher isobutanol production by 110% compared with overexpression of YqhD. The combinatorial oxidoreductases increased furfural detoxification rate 2.1-fold and also accelerated glucose consumption 1.4-fold. When it compares to another known system increasing furfural tolerance, membrane-bound transhydrogenase (pntAB), the combinatorial aldehyde oxidoreductases were better on cell growth and production. Thus, to control oxidoreductases is important to produce isobutanol using furfural-containing biomass and the combinatorial overexpression of FucO and YqhD can be an alternative strategy.

  19. An overview of aldehyde oxidase: an enzyme of emerging importance in novel drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza; Soltani, Somaieh

    2017-03-01

    Given the rising trend in medicinal chemistry strategy to reduce cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism, aldehyde oxidase (AOX) has recently gained increased attention in drug discovery programs and the number of drug candidates that are metabolized by AOX is steadily growing. Areas covered: Despite the emerging importance of AOX in drug discovery, there are certain major recognized problems associated with AOX-mediated metabolism of drugs. Intra- and inter-species variations in AOX activity, the lack of reliable and predictive animal models using the common experimental animals, and failure in the predictions of in vivo metabolic activity of AOX using traditional in vitro methods are among these issues that are covered in this article. A comprehensive review of computational human AOX (hAOX) related studies are also provided. Expert opinion: Following the recent progress in the stem cell field, the authors recommend the application of organoids technology as an effective tool to solve the fundamental problems associated with the evaluation of AOX in drug discovery. The recent success in resolving the hAOX crystal structure can too be another valuable data source for the study of AOX-catalyzed metabolism of new drug candidates, using computer-aided drug discovery methods.

  20. Health-risk assessment based on an additive to paints made from isobutyric aldehyde condensation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Tic, Wilhelm

    2017-10-01

    Solvents are primarily used for making protective coatings. Considering their chemical nature, there are a great variety of coatings, including those based on liquid hydrocarbons and organic chloroderivatives. These products are a serious load to the environment because of their physicochemical properties, therefore, they have for some time been replaced with more-environmentally friendly, new generation products. One of them is the hydroxyester HE-1: made from isobutyric aldehyde condensation products, it is an alternative to those coalescents for paints and varnishes which are intended to be replaced or their use restricted. The results of selected toxicological tests relating to the human health risk effect of the hydroxyester HE-1 - environmentally-friendly additive to paints and varnishes are presented. The test results indicate that HE-1 causes skin irritation in rabbit only when used at its maximum concentrations. No lesions in the cornea or iris were observed in any of the test rabbits after the application of the hydroxyester HE-1. In the mutagenic effect test of HE-1 on the bacteria Salmonella typhimurium, the result was negative. Based on the test results, it was found that the hydroxyester HE-1 may only have a human health risk effect when used at its maximum concentrations.

  1. Ultraviolet Radiation: Cellular Antioxidant Response and the Role of Ocular Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchitti, Satori A.; Chen, Ying; Thompson, David C.; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2011-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposes the human eye to near constant oxidative stress. Evidence suggests that UVR is the most important environmental insult leading to the development of a variety of ophthalmoheliosis disorders. UVR-induced reactive oxygen species are highly reactive with DNA, proteins and cellular membranes, resulting in cellular and tissue damage. Antioxidant defense systems present in ocular tissues function to combat reactive oxygen species and protect the eye from oxidative damage. Important enzymatic antioxidants are the superoxide dismutases, catalase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione reductase and members of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily. Glutathione, ascorbic and uric acids, α-tocopherol, NADPH and ferritin serve as small molecule, nonenzymatic antioxidants. Ocular tissues have high levels of these antioxidants which are essential for the maintenance of redox homeostasis in the eye and protection against oxidative damage. ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1, present abundantly in the cornea and lens, have been shown to have unique roles in the defense against UVR and the downstream effects of oxidative stress. This review presents the properties and functions of ocular antioxidants that play critical roles in the cellular response to UVR exposure, including a focused discussion of the unique roles that the ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1 enzymes have as multi-functional ocular antioxidants. PMID:21670692

  2. Analysis of aromatic aldehydes in brandy and wine by high-performance capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panossian, A; Mamikonyan, G; Torosyan, M; Gabrielyan, E; Mkhitaryan, S

    2001-09-01

    A new method of analysis of vanillin, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, and sinapaldehyde in brandy and wine by high-performance capillary electrophoresis is described. Electrophoretic mobility of these compounds is achieved by a borate buffer at pH 9.3. At this pH, the sensitivity of UV detection of these phenolic aldehydes also increases. UV absorptions at 348, 362, 404, and 422 nm were selected for monitoring vanillin, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, and sinapaldehyde, respectively. This procedure was performed simultaneously during one run using a diode array detector. Samples of brandy or wine were analyzed directly without concentration, extraction, or any other preliminary treatment of the test sample. The limits of detection were found to be 0.275, 0.1425, 0.1475, and 0.1975 ppm for syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, sinapaldehyde, and vanillin, respectively, which is acceptable for analysis of both brandy and wine aged in oak barrels. The method has been shown to be linear in a range from 0.3 to 57 mg/L. Recoveries ranged between 99.9% and 107.7% for all of the compounds tested. Repeatability and reproducibility of the method were high. The relative standard deviation was consequently approximately 3% and also between 4.47% and 6.89% for all tested compounds. The method is useful for the identification of counterfeit brandy, which is easy to recognize by the absence of sinapaldehyde, syringaldehyde, and coniferaldehyde, which are not detectable in false brandy.

  3. Biosynthesis of steroidal alkaloids in Solanaceae plants: involvement of an aldehyde intermediate during C-26 amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Okawa, Akiko; Moriuchi, Yuka; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2013-05-01

    The C-26 amino group of steroidal alkaloids, such as tomatine, is introduced during an early step of their biosynthesis from cholesterol. In the present study, the mechanism of C-26 amination was reinvestigated by administering stable isotope labeled compounds, such as (26,26,26,27,27,27-(2)H6)cholesterol during biosynthesis of tomatine, solanine and solasonine. The chemical compositions of tomatine and solanine so obtained were analyzed by LC-MS after administering the d6-cholesterol to a tomato seedling and a potato shoot, respectively. The resulting spectra indicated that two deuterium atoms were eliminated from C-26 of cholesterol during biosynthesis. Furthermore, administration of (6-(13)C(2)H3)mevalonate in combination with lovastatin to an eggplant seedling, followed by GC-MS analysis of solasodine after TMS derivatization established that two deuterium atoms were eliminated from C-26 of cholesterol during solasonine biosynthesis. These findings are in contrast to an earlier observation that one hydrogen atom was lost from C-26 during tomatidine biosynthesis, and suggest that C-26 nitrogen atom addition involves an aldehyde intermediate. Thus, it is proposed that the C-26 amination reaction that occurs during steroidal alkaloid biosynthesis proceeds by way of a transamination mechanism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aldehyde suppression of copepod recruitment in blooms of a ubiquitous planktonic diatom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianora, Adrianna; Miralto, Antonio; Poulet, Serge A.; Carotenuto, Ylenia; Buttino, Isabella; Romano, Giovanna; Casotti, Raffaella; Pohnert, Georg; Wichard, Thomas; Colucci-D'Amato, Luca; Terrazzano, Giuseppe; Smetacek, Victor

    2004-05-01

    The growth cycle in nutrient-rich, aquatic environments starts with a diatom bloom that ends in mass sinking of ungrazed cells and phytodetritus. The low grazing pressure on these blooms has been attributed to the inability of overwintering copepod populations to track them temporally. We tested an alternative explanation: that dominant diatom species impair the reproductive success of their grazers. We compared larval development of a common overwintering copepod fed on a ubiquitous, early-blooming diatom species with its development when fed on a typical post-bloom dinoflagellate. Development was arrested in all larvae in which both mothers and their larvae were fed the diatom diet. Mortality remained high even if larvae were switched to the dinoflagellate diet. Aldehydes, cleaved from a fatty acid precursor by enzymes activated within seconds after crushing of the cell, elicit the teratogenic effect. This insidious mechanism, which does not deter the herbivore from feeding but impairs its recruitment, will restrain the cohort size of the next generation of early-rising overwinterers. Such a transgenerational plant-herbivore interaction could explain the recurringly inefficient use of a predictable, potentially valuable food resource-the spring diatom bloom-by marine zooplankton.

  5. Inhibition effects of furfural on alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modig, Tobias; Lidén, Gunnar; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2002-01-01

    The kinetics of furfural inhibition of the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1), aldehyde dehydrogenase (AlDH; EC 1.2.1.5) and the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex were studied in vitro. At a concentration of less than 2 mM furfural was found to decrease the activity of both PDH and AlDH by more than 90%, whereas the ADH activity decreased by less than 20% at the same concentration. Furfural inhibition of ADH and AlDH activities could be described well by a competitive inhibition model, whereas the inhibition of PDH was best described as non-competitive. The estimated K(m) value of AlDH for furfural was found to be about 5 microM, which was lower than that for acetaldehyde (10 microM). For ADH, however, the estimated K(m) value for furfural (1.2 mM) was higher than that for acetaldehyde (0.4 mM). The inhibition of the three enzymes by 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was also measured. The inhibition caused by HMF of ADH was very similar to that caused by furfural. However, HMF did not inhibit either AlDH or PDH as severely as furfural. The inhibition effects on the three enzymes could well explain previously reported in vivo effects caused by furfural and HMF on the overall metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting a critical role of these enzymes in the observed inhibition. PMID:11964178

  6. Coniferyl aldehyde attenuates radiation enteropathy by inhibiting cell death and promoting endothelial cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ye-Ji; Jung, Myung Gu; Son, Yeonghoon; Jang, Jun-Ho; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kim, Sung-Ho; Ko, Young-Gyo; Lee, Yun-Sil; Lee, Hae-June

    2015-01-01

    Radiation enteropathy is a common complication in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether radiation-induced intestinal injury could be alleviated by coniferyl aldehyde (CA), an HSF1-inducing agent that increases cellular HSP70 expression. We systemically administered CA to mice with radiation enteropathy following abdominal irradiation (IR) to demonstrate the protective effects of CA against radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury. CA clearly alleviated acute radiation-induced intestinal damage, as reflected by the histopathological data and it also attenuated sub-acute enteritis. CA prevented intestinal crypt cell death and protected the microvasculature in the lamina propria during the acute and sub-acute phases of damage. CA induced HSF1 and HSP70 expression in both intestinal epithelial cells and endothelial cells in vitro. Additionally, CA protected against not only the apoptotic cell death of both endothelial and epithelial cells but also the loss of endothelial cell function following IR, indicating that CA has beneficial effects on the intestine. Our results provide novel insight into the effects of CA and suggest its role as a therapeutic candidate for radiation-induced enteropathy due to its ability to promote rapid re-proliferation of the intestinal epithelium by the synergic effects of the inhibition of cell death and the promotion of endothelial cell function.

  7. Interaction of Aldehyde dehydrogenase with acetaminophen as examined by spectroscopies and molecular docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele O. Kolawole

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of acetaminophen, a non-substrate anionic ligand, with Aldehyde Dehydrogenase was studied by fluorescence, UV–Vis absorption, and circular dichroism spectroscopies under simulated physiological conditions. The fluorescence spectra and data generated showed that acetaminophen binding to ALDH is purely dynamic quenching mechanism. The acetaminophen-ALDH is kinetically rapid reversible interaction with a binding constant, Ka, of 4.91×103 L mol−1. There was an existence of second binding site of ALDH for acetaminophen at saturating acetaminophen concentration. The binding sites were non-cooperative. The thermodynamic parameters obtained suggest that Van der Waal force and hydrogen bonding played a major role in the binding of acetaminophen to ALDH. The interaction caused perturbation of the ALDH structures with an obvious reduction in the α-helix. The binding distance of 4.43 nm was obtained between Acetaminophen and ALDH. Using Ficoll 400 as macro-viscosogen and glycerol as micro-viscosogen, Stoke-Einstein empirical plot demonstrated that acetaminophen-ALDH binding was diffusion controlled. Molecular docking showed the participation of some amino acids in the complex formation with −5.3 kcal binding energy. With these, ALDH might not an excipient detoxifier of acetaminophen but could be involved in its pegylation/encapsulation.

  8. Abscisic (ABA)-aldehyde is a precursor to, and 1',4'-trans-ABA-diol a catabolite of, ABA in apple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, C.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1990-01-01

    Previous 18 O labeling studies of abscisic acid (ABA) have shown that apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Granny Smith) fruits synthesize a majority of [ 18 O]ABA with the label incorporated in the 1'-hydroxyl position and unlabeled in the carboxyl group (JAD Zeevaart, TG Heath, DA Gage [1989] Plant Physiol 91: 1594-1601). It was proposed that exchange of 18 O in the side chain with the medium occurred at an aldehyde intermediate stage of ABA biosynthesis. We have isolated ABA-aldehyde and 1'-4'-trans-ABA-diol (ABA-trans-diol) from 18 O-labeled apple fruit tissue and measured the extent and position of 18 O incorporation by tandem mass spectrometry. 18 O-Labeling patterns of ABA-aldehyde, ABA-trans-diol, and ABA indicate that ABA-aldehyde is a precursor to, and ABA-trans-diol a catabolite of, ABA. Exchange of 18 O in the carbonyl of ABA-aldehyde can be the cause of loss of 18 O from the side chain of [ 18 O]ABA. Results of feeding experiments with deuterated substrates provide further support for the precursor-product relationship of ABA-aldehyde → ABA → ABA-trans-diol. The ABA-aldehyde and ABA-trans-diol contents of fruits and leaves were low, approximately 1 and 0.02 nanograms per gram fresh weight for ABA-aldehyde and ABA-trans-diol, respectively, while ABA levels in fruits ranged from 10 to 200 nanograms per gram fresh weight. ABA biosynthesis was about 10-fold lower in fruits than in leaves. In fruits, the majority of ABA was conjugated to β-D-glucopyranosyl abscisate, whereas in leaves ABA was mainly hydroxylated to phaseic acid. Parallel pathways for ABA and trans-ABA biosynthesis and conjugation in fruits and leaves are proposed

  9. An integrated QSAR-PBK/D modelling approach for predicting detoxification and DNA adduct formation of 18 acyclic food-borne α,β-unsaturated aldehydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiwamoto, R., E-mail: reiko.kiwamoto@wur.nl; Spenkelink, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Punt, A.

    2015-01-01

    Acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes present in food raise a concern because the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety is considered a structural alert for genotoxicity. However, controversy remains on whether in vivo at realistic dietary exposure DNA adduct formation is significant. The aim of the present study was to develop physiologically based kinetic/dynamic (PBK/D) models to examine dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation of a group of 18 food-borne acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes without 2- or 3-alkylation, and with no more than one conjugated double bond. Parameters for the PBK/D models were obtained using quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) defined with a training set of six selected aldehydes. Using the QSARs, PBK/D models for the other 12 aldehydes were defined. Results revealed that DNA adduct formation in the liver increases with decreasing bulkiness of the molecule especially due to less efficient detoxification. 2-Propenal (acrolein) was identified to induce the highest DNA adduct levels. At realistic dietary intake, the predicted DNA adduct levels for all aldehydes were two orders of magnitude lower than endogenous background levels observed in disease free human liver, suggesting that for all 18 aldehydes DNA adduct formation is negligible at the relevant levels of dietary intake. The present study provides a proof of principle for the use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling to facilitate group evaluations and read-across in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Physiologically based in silico models were made for 18 α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. • Kinetic parameters were determined by in vitro incubations and a QSAR approach. • DNA adduct formation was negligible at levels relevant for dietary intake. • The use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling facilitates group evaluations and read-across.

  10. Formation of high-molecular-weight compounds via the heterogeneous reactions of gaseous C8-C10 n-aldehydes in the presence of atmospheric aerosol components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuemei; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Qingcai; Mochida, Michihiro

    2016-02-01

    A laboratory study on the heterogeneous reactions of straight-chain aldehydes was performed by exposing n-octanal, nonanal, and decanal vapors to ambient aerosol particles. The aerosol and blank filters were extracted using methanol. The extracts were nebulized and the resulting compositions were examined using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. The mass spectral analysis showed that the exposures of the aldehydes to aerosol samples increased the peak intensities in the high mass range. The peaks in the mass spectra of the aerosol samples after exposure to different aldehydes were characterized by a homologous series of peak shifts due to the addition of multiple CH2 units. This result is explained by the formation of high-molecular-weight (HMW) compounds that contain single or multiple aldehyde moieties. The HMW fragment peaks for the blank filters exposed to n-aldehydes were relatively weak, indicating an important contribution from the ambient aerosol components to the formation of the HMW compounds. Among the factors affecting the overall interaction of aldehydes with atmospheric aerosol components, gas phase diffusion possibly limited the reactions under the studied conditions; therefore, their occurrence to a similar degree in the atmosphere is not ruled out, at least for the reactions involving n-nonanal and decanal. The major formation pathways for the observed HMW products may be the self-reactions of n-aldehydes mediated by atmospheric aerosol components and the reactions of n-aldehydes with organic aerosol components. The observed formation of HMW compounds encourages further investigations into their effects on the aerosol properties as well as the organic aerosol mass in the atmosphere.

  11. Cyclic α-Alkoxyphosphonium Salts from (2-(Diphenylphosphino)phenyl)methanol and Aldehydes and Their Application in Synthesis of Vinyl Ethers and Ketones via Wittig Olefination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenhua; Rong, Hong-Ying; Xu, Jie

    2015-07-02

    Cyclic α-alkoxyphosphonium salts have been synthesized from (2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl)methanol and aldehydes in 36-89% yields. These phosphonium salts are bench-stable solids and undergo Wittig olefination with aldehydes under basic conditions (K2CO3 or t-BuOK) to form benzylic vinyl ethers, which are readily hydrolyzed to 1,2-disubstituted ethanones under acidic conditions. The formation mechanism of these phosphonium salts via hemiacetal is also proposed.

  12. One-pot synthesis of amides by aerobic oxidative coupling of alcohols or aldehydes with amines using supported gold and base as catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kegnæs, Søren; Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Mentzel, Uffe Vie

    2012-01-01

    Synthesis of amides by aerobic oxidative coupling of alcohols or aldehydes with amines via intermediate formation of methyl esters is highly efficient and selective when using a catalytic system comprised of supported gold nanoparticles and added base in methanol.......Synthesis of amides by aerobic oxidative coupling of alcohols or aldehydes with amines via intermediate formation of methyl esters is highly efficient and selective when using a catalytic system comprised of supported gold nanoparticles and added base in methanol....

  13. Site directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues at the active site of mouse aldehyde oxidase AOX1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Schumann

    Full Text Available Mouse aldehyde oxidase (mAOX1 forms a homodimer and belongs to the xanthine oxidase family of molybdoenzymes which are characterized by an essential equatorial sulfur ligand coordinated to the molybdenum atom. In general, mammalian AOs are characterized by broad substrate specificity and an yet obscure physiological function. To define the physiological substrates and the enzymatic characteristics of mAOX1, we established a system for the heterologous expression of the enzyme in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein showed spectral features and a range of substrate specificity similar to the native protein purified from mouse liver. The EPR data of recombinant mAOX1 were similar to those of AO from rabbit liver, but differed from the homologous xanthine oxidoreductase enzymes. Site-directed mutagenesis of amino acids Val806, Met884 and Glu1265 at the active site resulted in a drastic decrease in the oxidation of aldehydes with no increase in the oxidation of purine substrates. The double mutant V806E/M884R and the single mutant E1265Q were catalytically inactive enzymes regardless of the aldehyde or purine substrates tested. Our results show that only Glu1265 is essential for the catalytic activity by initiating the base-catalyzed mechanism of substrate oxidation. In addition, it is concluded that the substrate specificity of molybdo-flavoenzymes is more complex and not only defined by the three characterized amino acids in the active site.

  14. Accumulation of polyunsaturated aldehydes in the gonads of the copepod Acartia tonsa revealed by tailored fluorescent probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Stefanie; Nejstgaard, Jens C; Pohnert, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) are released by several diatom species during predation. Besides other attributed activities, these oxylipins can interfere with the reproduction of copepods, important predators of diatoms. While intensive research has been carried out to document the effects of PUAs on copepod reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanistic aspects of PUA action. Especially PUA uptake and accumulation in copepods has not been addressed to date. To investigate how PUAs are taken up and interfere with the reproduction in copepods we developed a fluorescent probe containing the α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated aldehyde structure element that is essential for the activity of PUAs as well as a set of control probes. We developed incubation and monitoring procedures for adult females of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa and show that the PUA derived fluorescent molecular probe selectively accumulates in the gonads of this copepod. In contrast, a saturated aldehyde derived probe of an inactive parent molecule was enriched in the lipid sac. This leads to a model for PUAs' teratogenic mode of action involving accumulation and covalent interaction with nucleophilic moieties in the copepod reproductive tissue. The teratogenic effect of PUAs can therefore be explained by a selective targeting of the molecules into the reproductive tissue of the herbivores, while more lipophilic but otherwise strongly related structures end up in lipid bodies.

  15. Accumulation of polyunsaturated aldehydes in the gonads of the copepod Acartia tonsa revealed by tailored fluorescent probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Wolfram

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs are released by several diatom species during predation. Besides other attributed activities, these oxylipins can interfere with the reproduction of copepods, important predators of diatoms. While intensive research has been carried out to document the effects of PUAs on copepod reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanistic aspects of PUA action. Especially PUA uptake and accumulation in copepods has not been addressed to date. To investigate how PUAs are taken up and interfere with the reproduction in copepods we developed a fluorescent probe containing the α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated aldehyde structure element that is essential for the activity of PUAs as well as a set of control probes. We developed incubation and monitoring procedures for adult females of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa and show that the PUA derived fluorescent molecular probe selectively accumulates in the gonads of this copepod. In contrast, a saturated aldehyde derived probe of an inactive parent molecule was enriched in the lipid sac. This leads to a model for PUAs' teratogenic mode of action involving accumulation and covalent interaction with nucleophilic moieties in the copepod reproductive tissue. The teratogenic effect of PUAs can therefore be explained by a selective targeting of the molecules into the reproductive tissue of the herbivores, while more lipophilic but otherwise strongly related structures end up in lipid bodies.

  16. Association of air pollution sources and aldehydes with biomarkers of blood coagulation, pulmonary inflammation, and systemic oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent; Robson, Mark G; Kipen, Howard M; Ohman Strickland, Pamela; Meng, Qingyu; Gong, Jicheng; Huang, Wei; Wang, Guangfa; Rich, David Q; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Junfeng

    2017-05-01

    Using data collected before, during, and after the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing, this study examines associations between biomarkers of blood coagulation (vWF, sCD62P and sCD40L), pulmonary inflammation (EBC pH, EBC nitrite, and eNO), and systemic oxidative stress (urinary 8-OHdG) with sources of air pollution identified utilizing principal component analysis and with concentrations of three aldehydes of health concern. Associations between the biomarkers and the air pollution source types and aldehydes were examined using a linear mixed effects model, regressing through seven lag days and controlling for ambient temperature, relative humidity, gender, and day of week for the biomarker measurements. The biomarkers for pulmonary inflammation, particularly EBC pH and eNO, were most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion, oil combustion, and vegetative burning. The biomarkers for blood coagulation, particularly vWF and sCD62p, were most consistently associated with oil combustion. Systemic oxidative stress biomarker (8-OHdG) was most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion. The associations of the biomarkers were generally not significant or consistent with secondary formation of pollutants and with the aldehydes. The findings support policies to control anthropogenic pollution sources rather than natural soil or road dust from a cardio-respiratory health standpoint.

  17. The Arabidopsis thaliana REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE1 gene encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase involved in ferulic acid and sinapic acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramesh B; Bastress, Kristen L; Ruegger, Max O; Denault, Jeff W; Chapple, Clint

    2004-02-01

    Recent research has significantly advanced our understanding of the phenylpropanoid pathway but has left in doubt the pathway by which sinapic acid is synthesized in plants. The reduced epidermal fluorescence1 (ref1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana accumulates only 10 to 30% of the sinapate esters found in wild-type plants. Positional cloning of the REF1 gene revealed that it encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase, a member of a large class of NADP(+)-dependent enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Consistent with this finding, extracts of ref1 leaves exhibit low sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. These data indicate that REF1 encodes a sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase required for sinapic acid and sinapate ester biosynthesis. When expressed in Escherichia coli, REF1 was found to exhibit both sinapaldehyde and coniferaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, and further phenotypic analysis of ref1 mutant plants showed that they contain less cell wall-esterified ferulic acid. These findings suggest that both ferulic acid and sinapic acid are derived, at least in part, through oxidation of coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. This route is directly opposite to the traditional representation of phenylpropanoid metabolism in which hydroxycinnamic acids are instead precursors of their corresponding aldehydes.

  18. Pasture, multi-enzymes, benzoic acid and essential oils positively influence performance, intestinal organ weight and egg quality in free-range laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Z; Roberts, J; Perez-Maldonado, R A; Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Swick, R A; Ruhnke, I

    2018-04-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of range type, multi-enzyme applications, and a combination of benzoic acid (BA) and essential oils (EO) on the productive performance, organ weight and egg quality of free-range laying hens. 2. Three hundred laying hens were evaluated for the short-term (6 weeks) and long-term (12 weeks) effects of range type (G = no pasture, P = pasture) and feed additives (T1 = control; T2 = betaglucanase/pectinase/protease; T3 = BA/EO). Body weight, feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg production (EP), digestive organ weight, and egg quality (EQ) were evaluated. Data were analysed using SPSS 2.2 in a 2×2×3 factorial arrangement. 3. Hens that ranged on pasture were significantly heavier (2043 g vs. 1996 g; p ranged on gravel. Hens fed T2 were significantly heavier (2050 g) compared to hens fed T1 (2005 g) or T3 (2008 g). Organ weights (gizzard, liver and pancreas) were significantly heavier in hens ranged on pasture (16.8 g/kg BW, 22.3 g/kg BW and 1.89 g/kg BW, respectively) compared to hens ranged on gravel (14.2 g/kg BW, 21.7 g/kg BW and 1.83 g/kg BW, respectively). Over time, body weight (1970-2070 g; p < 0.001) and egg weight (59.5-62.8 g; p < 0.001) increased, FI (123-120 g; p = 0.024) was reduced and FCR (2.36-2.10; p = 0.002) improved 4. In conclusion, hens housed on pasture and fed multi-enzyme supplemented diets had significantly heavier body weight and produced heavier eggs with darker yolk colour. Pasture intake and enzyme supplementation increased digestive organ weight significantly.

  19. Homogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of bio-oil and related model aldehydes with RuCl{sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F.; Li, W.; Lu, Q.; Zhu, X. [Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Biomass Clean Energy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China)

    2010-12-15

    A homogeneous RuCl{sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 3} catalyst was prepared for the hydrogenation of bio-oil to improve its stability and fuel quality. Experiments were first performed on three model aldehydes of acetaldehyde, furfural and vanillin selected to represent the linear aldehydes, oxygen heterocyclic aldehydes and aromatic aldehydes in bio-oil. The results demonstrated the high hydrogenation capability of this homogeneous catalyst under mild conditions (55-90 C, 1.3-3.3 MPa). The highest conversion of the three model aldehydes was over 90 %. Furfural and acetaldehyde were singly converted to furfuryl alcohol and ethanol after hydrogenation, while vanillin was mainly converted to vanillin alcohol, together with a small amount of 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol and 2-methoxyphenol. Further experiments were conducted on a bio-oil fraction extracted by ethyl acetate and on the whole bio-oil at 70 C and 3.3 MPa. Most of the aldehydes were transformed to the corresponding alcohols, and some ketones and compounds with C-C double bond were converted to more stable compounds. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Application of two analytic techniques of sampling for the determination of aldehydes in air and in rain water in three areas of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega Montero, D. I

    2001-01-01

    The aldehydes are of supreme interest in the quality of the air of Costa Rica; reason why it is very important to determine them qualitative and quantitatively. This study has as objectives the identification and quantification of aldehydes in samples of air and of rain water in three areas of Costa Rica, to compare two methods of taking of samples of air and to correlate the concentration of the aldehydes in the different points of taking of samples. The sampling one carries out in three located stations, in the Hill of the Piroclasticos (3 km. To the Northeast of the active crater of the Volcano Irazu), Escazu (it plants potabilizadora of water) and in Turrucares (facilities of the Rural Watch). The used sampling devices, denuders and cartridges, they were recovered with a breakup of 2,4-dinitrofenilhidrazina o'clock like absorbent reagent, which I form the corresponding hidrazonas in presence of the aldehydes. The identification and quantification of the aldehydes, one carries out by means of chromatography it liquidates of high resolution. The comparison among the concentrations of the aldehydes in air gathered by the two used sampling methods indicates that a significant difference exists among them, at a level of trust of 95% [es

  1. Absorption mechanism study of benzoic acid on calcite. Influence on the wettability; Etude du mecanisme d`absorption de l`acide benzoique sur la calcite. Incidence sur la mouillabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legens, Ch

    1997-12-03

    A pure carbonate rock is strongly water-wet whereas oil accumulations study shows that most of carbonate reservoirs are oil-wet or of mixed-wettability. This is one of the main difficulties to extract crude oil. This change of behavior is due to the adsorption of some crude oil compounds on the mineral surface. We have mainly studied the interactions between acid molecules by adsorption on a calcite powder in an organic phase (benzoic acid and lauric acid) and in an aqueous phase (benzoic acid and lauric sodium salt). The technics which enabled us to define and characterize adsorption are thermogravimetry infrared diffuse reflection and thermal analysis with controlled kinetic linked to a mass spectrometer. Molecular modelling calculations have completed these analysis. It has been showed that when crude oil fills the biggest pores of the reservoir rock, the aqueous film is unstable and acids adsorb via ionic bonds on mineral calcium ions. Wettability is evaluated thanks to contact angle measurements of a water droplet deposited on a compacted powder pellet. Calcite wettability changes were all the greater as hydro-carbonated chains were longer, as it confers molecule hydrophobia. It has been also investigated acid molecules diffusion from the organic to the aqueous phase which saturates the smallest pores. Molecules which are able to diffuse from the first to the second medium do not adsorb on the surface. As a consequence, carbonate rock wettability changes require a direct contact between crude oil and mineral that involves aqueous film instability. (author) 128 refs.

  2. Protocatechuic aldehyde ameliorates experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating HMGB1/RAGE pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liang; Ji, Yunxia; Kang, Zechun; Lv, Changjun; Jiang, Wanglin

    2015-01-01

    An abnormal high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) activation and a decrease in receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) play a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Protocatechuic aldehyde (PA) is a naturally occurring compound, which is extracted from the degradation of phenolic acids. However, whether PA has anti-fibrotic functions is unknown. In this study, the effects of PA on the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-mediated epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells, on the apoptosis of human type I alveolar epithelial cells (AT I), on the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1) in vitro, and on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo were investigated. PA treatment resulted in a reduction of EMT in A549 cells with a decrease in vimentin and HMGB, an increase of E-cadherin and RAGE, a reduction of HLF-1 proliferation with a decrease of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Apoptosis of AT I was attenuated with an increase of RAGE. PA ameliorated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats with a reduction of histopathological scores and collagen deposition, and a lower FGF-2, PDGF, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and HMGB1 expression, whereas higher RAGE was found in BLM-instilled lungs. Through the decrease of HGMB1 and the regulation of RAGE, PA reversed the EMT, inhibited HLF-1 proliferation as well as reduced apoptosis in AT I, and prevented pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PA prevents experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating HMGB1/RAGE pathway. - Highlights: • PA prevents EMT, reduces the apoptosis of AT1 in vitro. • PA decreases proliferation of HLF-1, reduces PDGF and FGF expression in vitro. • PA prevents experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating the HMGB1/RAGE pathway

  3. Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity selects for the holoclone phenotype in prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, R.E.; Haywood-Small, S.L.; Sisley, K.; Cross, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Isolated ALDH Hi PC3 cells preferentially form primitive holoclone-type colonies. ► Primitive holoclone colonies are predominantly ALDH Lo but contain rare ALDH Hi cells. ► Holoclone-forming cells are not restricted to the ALDH Hi population. ► ALDH phenotypic plasticity occurs in PC3 cells (ALDH Lo to ALDH Hi and vice versa). ► ALDH Hi cells are observed but very rare in PC3 spheroids grown in stem cell medium. -- Abstract: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH) activity is considered to be a marker of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in many tumour models, since these cells are more proliferative and tumourigenic than ALDH Lo cells in experimental models. However it is unclear whether all CSC-like cells are within the ALDH Hi population, or whether all ALDH Hi cells are highly proliferative and tumourigenic. The ability to establish a stem cell hierarchy in vitro, whereby sub-populations of cells have differing proliferative and differentiation capacities, is an alternate indication of the presence of stem cell-like populations within cell lines. In this study, we have examined the interaction between ALDH status and the ability to establish a stem cell hierarchy in PC3 prostate cancer cells. We demonstrate that PC3 cells contain a stem cell hierarchy, and isolation of ALDH Hi cells enriches for the most primitive holoclone population, however holoclone formation is not restricted to ALDH Hi cells. In addition, we show that ALDH activity undergoes phenotypic plasticity, since the ALDH Lo population can develop ALDH Hi populations comparable to parental cells within 2 weeks in culture. Furthermore, we show that the majority of ALDH Hi cells are found within the least primitive paraclone population, which is circumvented by culturing PC3 cells as spheroids in defined medium favouring stem cell characteristics. Although ALDH Hi status enriches for holoclone formation, this activity may be mediated by a minority of ALDH Hi cells.

  4. Protocatechuic aldehyde ameliorates experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating HMGB1/RAGE pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liang, E-mail: countryspring@sina.com; Ji, Yunxia, E-mail: 413499057@qq.com; Kang, Zechun, E-mail: davidjiangwl@163.com; Lv, Changjun, E-mail: Lucky_lcj@sina.com; Jiang, Wanglin, E-mail: jwl518@163.com

    2015-02-15

    An abnormal high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) activation and a decrease in receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) play a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Protocatechuic aldehyde (PA) is a naturally occurring compound, which is extracted from the degradation of phenolic acids. However, whether PA has anti-fibrotic functions is unknown. In this study, the effects of PA on the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-mediated epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells, on the apoptosis of human type I alveolar epithelial cells (AT I), on the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1) in vitro, and on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo were investigated. PA treatment resulted in a reduction of EMT in A549 cells with a decrease in vimentin and HMGB, an increase of E-cadherin and RAGE, a reduction of HLF-1 proliferation with a decrease of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Apoptosis of AT I was attenuated with an increase of RAGE. PA ameliorated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats with a reduction of histopathological scores and collagen deposition, and a lower FGF-2, PDGF, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and HMGB1 expression, whereas higher RAGE was found in BLM-instilled lungs. Through the decrease of HGMB1 and the regulation of RAGE, PA reversed the EMT, inhibited HLF-1 proliferation as well as reduced apoptosis in AT I, and prevented pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PA prevents experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating HMGB1/RAGE pathway. - Highlights: • PA prevents EMT, reduces the apoptosis of AT1 in vitro. • PA decreases proliferation of HLF-1, reduces PDGF and FGF expression in vitro. • PA prevents experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating the HMGB1/RAGE pathway.

  5. Atmospheric alcohols and aldehydes concentrations measured in Osaka, Japan and in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ha Thi-Hoang; Takenaka, Norimichi; Bandow, Hiroshi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Oliva, S.T. de; Botelho, M.M.; Tavares, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of alcohol fuel has received much attention since the 1980s. In Brazil, ethanol-fuelled vehicles have been currently used on a large scale. This paper reports the atmospheric methanol and isoproponal concentrations which were measured from May to December 1997, in Osaka, Japan, where alcohol fuel was not used and from 3 to 9 February 1998 in Sao Paulo, Brazil, where ethanol was used. The alcohols were determined by the alkyl nitrite formation reaction using gas chromatography (GC-ECD) analysis. The concentration of atmospheric alcohols, especially ethanol, measured in Sao Paulo were significantly higher than those in Osaka. In Osaka, the average concentrations of atmospheric methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol were 5.8 ± 3.8, 8.2 ± 4.6, and 7.2 ± 5.9ppbv, respectively. The average ambient levels of methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol measured in Sao Paulo were 34.1± 9.2, 176.3 ± 38.1, and 44.2 ± 13.7ppbv, respectively. The ambient levels of aldehydes, which were expected to be high due to the use of alcohol fuel, were also measured at these sampling sites. The atmospheric formaldehyde average measured in Osaka was 1.9± 0.9ppbv, and the average acetaldehyde concentration was 1.5 ± 0.8ppbv. The atmospheric formaldehyde and acetaldehyde average concentrations measured in Sao Paulo were 5.0 ± 2.8 and 5.4 ± 2.8ppbv, respectively. The C 2 H 5 OH/CH 3 OH and CH 3 CHO/HCHO were compared between the two measurement sites and elsewhere in the world, which have already been reported in the literature. Due to the use of ethanol-fuelled vehicles, these ratios, especially C-2H 5 OH/CH 3 OH, are much higher in Brazil than those measured elsewhere in the world. (Author)

  6. Car indoor air pollution by volatile organic compounds and aldehydes in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouichi Tatsu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-five organic substances including volatile organic compounds (VOCs and aldehydes present in indoor air were measured from 24 car cabins in Japan. A screening-level risk assessment was also performed. Acetaldehyde (3.81–36.0 μg/m3, formaldehyde (3.26–26.7 μg/m3, n-tetradecane (below the method quantification limit (

  7. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity does not select for cells with enhanced aggressive properties in malignant melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Prasmickaite

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma is an exceptionally aggressive, drug-resistant and heterogeneous cancer. Recently it has been shown that melanoma cells with high clonogenic and tumourigenic abilities are common, but markers distinguishing such cells from cells lacking these abilities have not been identified. There is therefore no definite evidence that an exclusive cell subpopulation, i.e. cancer stem cells (CSC, exists in malignant melanoma. Rather, it is suggested that multiple cell populations are implicated in initiation and progression of the disease, making it of importance to identify subpopulations with elevated aggressive properties. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In several other cancer forms, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH, which plays a role in stem cell biology and resistance, is a valuable functional marker for identification of cells that show enhanced aggressiveness and drug-resistance. Furthermore, the presence of ALDH(+ cells is linked to poor clinical prognosis in these cancers. By analyzing cell cultures, xenografts and patient biopsies, we showed that aggressive melanoma harboured a large, distinguishable ALDH(+ subpopulation. In vivo, ALDH(+ cells gave rise to ALDH(- cells, while the opposite conversion was rare, indicating a higher abilities of ALDH(+ cells to reestablish tumour heterogeneity with respect to the ALDH phenotype. However, both ALDH(+ and ALDH(- cells demonstrated similarly high abilities for clone formation in vitro and tumour initiation in vivo. Furthermore, both subpopulations showed similar sensitivity to the anti-melanoma drugs, dacarbazine and lexatumumab. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that ALDH does not distinguish tumour-initiating and/or therapy-resistant cells, implying that the ALDH phenotype is not associated with more-aggressive subpopulations in malignant melanoma, and arguing against ALDH as a "universal" marker. Besides, it was shown that the ability to reestablish tumour heterogeneity is not

  8. Characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 high ovarian cancer cells: Towards targeted stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrow, Allison C; Perkins, Brandy; Collector, Michael I; Yu, Wayne; Simons, Brian W; Jones, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) paradigm hypothesizes that successful clinical eradication of CSCs may lead to durable remission for patients with ovarian cancer. Despite mounting evidence in support of ovarian CSCs, their phenotype and clinical relevance remain unclear. We and others have found high aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH(high)) expression in a variety of normal and malignant stem cells, and sought to better characterize ALDH(high) cells in ovarian cancer. We compared ALDH(high) to ALDH(low) cells in two ovarian cancer models representing distinct subtypes: FNAR-C1 cells, derived from a spontaneous rat endometrioid carcinoma, and the human SKOV3 cell line (described as both serous and clear cell subtypes). We assessed these populations for stem cell features then analyzed expression by microarray and qPCR. ALDH(high) cells displayed CSC properties, including: smaller size, quiescence, regenerating the phenotypic diversity of the cell lines in vitro, lack of contact inhibition, nonadherent growth, multi-drug resistance, and in vivo tumorigenicity. Microarray and qPCR analysis of the expression of markers reported by others to enrich for ovarian CSCs revealed that ALDH(high) cells of both models showed downregulation of CD24, but inconsistent expression of CD44, KIT and CD133. However, the following druggable targets were consistently expressed in the ALDH(high) cells from both models: mTOR signaling, her-2/neu, CD47 and FGF18/FGFR3. Based on functional characterization, ALDH(high) ovarian cancer cells represent an ovarian CSC population. Differential gene expression identified druggable targets that have the potential for therapeutic efficacy against ovarian CSCs from multiple subtypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 circumscribes high invasive glioma cells and predicts poor prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sen-Lin; Liu, Sha; Cui, Wei; Shi, Yu; Liu, Qin; Duan, Jiang-Jie; Yu, Shi-Cang; Zhang, Xia; Cui, You-Hong; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Bian, Xiu-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Glioma is the most aggressive brain tumor with high invasiveness and poor prognosis. More reliable, sensitive and practical biomarkers to reveal glioma high invasiveness remain to be explored for the guidance of therapy. We herein evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic value of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) in the glioma specimens from 237 patients, and found that ADLH1A1 was frequently overexpressed in the high-grade glioma (WHO grade III-IV) as compared to the low-grade glioma (WHO grade I-II) patients. The tumor cells with ALDH1A1 expression were more abundant in the region between tumor and the borderline of adjacent tissue as compared to the central part of the tumor. ALDH1A1 overexpression was associated with poor differentiation and dismal prognosis. Notably, the overall and disease-free survivals of the patients who had ALDH1A1+ tumor cells sparsely located in the adjacent tissue were much worse. Furthermore, ALDH1A1 expression was correlated with the “classical-like” (CL) subtype as we examined GBM specimens from 72 patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that ALDH1A1 was an independent marker for glioma patients’ outcome. Mechanistically, both in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that ALDH1A1+ cells isolated from either a glioblastoma cell line U251 or primary glioblastoma cells displayed significant invasiveness, clonogenicity, and proliferation as compared to ALDH1A1- cells, due to increased levels of mRNA and protein for matrix metalloproteinase 2, 7 and 9 (MMP2, MMP7 and MMP9). These results indicate that ALDH1A1+ cells contribute to the progression of glioma including invasion, proliferation and poor prognosis, and suggest that targeting ALDH1A1 may have important implications for the treatment of highly invasive glioma. PMID:26101711

  10. Functional analysis of aldehyde oxidase using expressed chimeric enzyme between monkey and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kunio; Asakawa, Tasuku; Hoshino, Kouichi; Adachi, Mayuko; Fukiya, Kensuke; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Yorihisa

    2009-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of approximately 150 kDa. Each subunit consists of about 20 kDa 2Fe-2S cluster domain storing reducing equivalents, about 40 kDa flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) domain and about 85 kDa molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) domain containing a substrate binding site. In order to clarify the properties of each domain, especially substrate binding domain, chimeric cDNAs were constructed by mutual exchange of 2Fe-2S/FAD and MoCo domains between monkey and rat. Chimeric monkey/rat AO was referred to one with monkey type 2Fe-2S/FAD domains and a rat type MoCo domain. Rat/monkey AO was vice versa. AO-catalyzed 2-oxidation activities of (S)-RS-8359 were measured using the expressed enzyme in Escherichia coli. Substrate inhibition was seen in rat AO and chimeric monkey/rat AO, but not in monkey AO and chimeric rat/monkey AO, suggesting that the phenomenon might be dependent on the natures of MoCo domain of rat. A biphasic Eadie-Hofstee profile was observed in monkey AO and chimeric rat/monkey AO, but not rat AO and chimeric monkey/rat AO, indicating that the biphasic profile might be related to the properties of MoCo domain of monkey. Two-fold greater V(max) values were observed in monkey AO than in chimeric rat/monkey AO, and in chimeric monkey/rat AO than in rat AO, suggesting that monkey has the more effective electron transfer system than rat. Thus, the use of chimeric enzymes revealed that 2Fe-2S/FAD and MoCo domains affect the velocity and the quantitative profiles of AO-catalyzed (S)-RS-8359 2-oxidation, respectively.

  11. Ovarian cancer stem cells are enriched in side population and aldehyde dehydrogenase bright overlapping population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyo Yasuda

    Full Text Available Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs/cancer-initiaiting cells (CICs are defined as a small population of cancer cells that have self-renewal capacity, differentiation potential and high tumor-initiating ability. CSCs/CICs of ovarian cancer have been isolated by side population (SP analysis, ALDEFLUOR assay and using cell surface markers. However, these approaches are not definitive markers for CSCs/CICs, and it is necessary to refine recent methods for identifying more highly purified CSCs/CICs. In this study, we analyzed SP cells and aldehyde dehydrogenese bright (ALDH(Br cells from ovarian cancer cells. Both SP cells and ALDH(Br cells exhibited higher tumor-initiating ability and higher expression level of a stem cell marker, sex determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2, than those of main population (MP cells and ALDH(Low cells, respectively. We analyzed an SP and ALDH(Br overlapping population (SP/ALDH(Br, and the SP/ALDH(Br population exhibited higher tumor-initiating ability than that of SP cells or ALDH(Br cells, enabling initiation of tumor with as few as 10(2 cells. Furthermore, SP/ADLH(Br population showed higher sphere-forming ability, cisplatin resistance, adipocyte differentiation ability and expression of SOX2 than those of SP/ALDH(Low, MP/ALDH(Br and MP/ALDH(Low cells. Gene knockdown of SOX2 suppressed the tumor-initiation of ovarian cancer cells. An SP/ALDH(Br population was detected in several gynecological cancer cells with ratios of 0.1% for HEC-1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma cells to 1% for MCAS ovary mucinous adenocarcinoma cells. Taken together, use of the SP and ALDH(Br overlapping population is a promising approach to isolate highly purified CSCs/CICs and SOX2 might be a novel functional marker for ovarian CSCs/CICs.

  12. Toxicity and detoxification of lipid-derived aldehydes in cultured retinal pigmented epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, S.; Xiao, T.; Srivastava, S.; Zhang, W.; Chan, L.L.; Vergara, L.A.; Van Kuijk, F.J.G.M.; Ansari, N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world and yet its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Retina has high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and functions under conditions of oxidative stress. To investigate whether peroxidative products of PUFAs induce apoptosis in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells and possibly contribute to ARMD, human retinal pigmented epithelial cells (ARPE-19) were exposed to micromolar concentrations of H 2 O 2 , 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and 4-hydroxyhexenal (HHE). A concentration- and time-dependent increase in H 2 O 2 -, HNE-, and HHE-induced apoptosis was observed when monitored by quantifying DNA fragmentation as determined by ELISA, flow cytometry, and Hoechst staining. The broad-spectrum inhibitor of apoptosis Z-VAD inhibited apoptosis. Treatment of RPE cells with a thionein peptide prior to exposure to H 2 O 2 or HNE reduced the formation of protein-HNE adducts as well as alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis. Using 3 H-HNE, various metabolic pathways to detoxify HNE by ARPE-19 cells were studied. The metabolites were separated by HPLC and characterized by ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) and gas chromatography-MS. Three main metabolic routes of HNE detoxification were detected: (1) conjugation with glutathione (GSH) to form GS-HNE, catalyzed by glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (2) reduction of GS-HNE catalyzed by aldose reductase, and (3) oxidation of HNE catalyzed by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Preventing HNE formation by a combined strategy of antioxidants, scavenging HNE by thionein peptide, and inhibiting apoptosis by caspase inhibitors may offer a potential therapy to limit retinal degeneration in ARMD

  13. Significance of Lipid-Derived Reactive Aldehyde-Specific Immune Complexes in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangduo Wang

    Full Text Available Even though systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates among young and middle-aged women, the molecular mechanisms of disease pathogenesis are not fully understood. Previous studies from our laboratory suggested an association between oxidative stress and SLE disease activity (SLEDAI. To further assess the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in SLE, we examined the contribution of lipid-derived reactive aldehydes (LDRAs-specific immune complexes in SLE. Sera from 60 SLE patients with varying SLEDAI and 32 age- and gender- matched healthy controls were analyzed for oxidative stress and related markers. Patients were divided into two groups based on their SLEDAI scores (<6 and ≥ 6. Both SLEDAI groups showed higher serum 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE-/malondialdehyde (MDA-protein adducts and their specific immune complexes (HNE-/MDA-specific ICs together with IL-17 than the controls, but the levels were significantly greater in the high SLEDAI (≥ 6 group. Moreover, the serum levels of anti-oxidant enzymes Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT were significantly reduced in both patient groups compared to controls. Remarkably, for the first time, our data show that increased HNE-/MDA-specific ICs are positively associated with SLEDAI and elevated circulating immune complexes (CICs, suggesting a possible causal relationship among oxidative stress, LDRA-specific ICs and the development of SLE. Our findings, apart from providing firm support to an association between oxidative stress and SLE, also suggest that these oxidative stress markers, especially the HNE-/MDA-specific ICs, may be useful in evaluating the prognosis of SLE as well as in elucidating the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis.

  14. The ORF slr0091 of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 encodes a high-light induced aldehyde dehydrogenase converting apocarotenals and alkanals

    KAUST Repository

    Trautmann, Danika

    2013-07-05

    Oxidative cleavage of carotenoids and peroxidation of lipids lead to apocarotenals and aliphatic aldehydes called alkanals, which react with vitally important compounds, promoting cytotoxicity. Although many enzymes have been reported to deactivate alkanals by converting them into fatty acids, little is known about the mechanisms used to detoxify apocarotenals or the enzymes acting on them. Cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic organisms must cope with both classes of aldehydes. Here we report that the Synechocystis enzyme SynAlh1, encoded by the ORF slr0091, is an aldehyde dehydrogenase that mediates oxidation of both apocarotenals and alkanals into the corresponding acids. Using a crude lysate of SynAlh1-expressing Escherichia coli cells, we show that SynAlh1 converts a wide range of apocarotenals and alkanals, with a preference for apocarotenals with defined chain lengths. As suggested by in vitro incubations and using engineered retinal-forming E. coli cells, we found that retinal is not a substrate for SynAlh1, making involvement in Synechocystis retinoid metabolism unlikely. The transcript level of SynAlh1 is induced by high light and cold treatment, indicating a role in the stress response, and the corresponding gene is a constituent of a stress-related operon. The assumptions regarding the function of SynAlh are further supported by the surprisingly high homology to human and plant aldehyde dehydrogenase that have been assigned to aldehyde detoxification. SynAlh1 is the first aldehyde dehydrogenase that has been shown to form both apocarotenoic and fatty acids. This dual function suggests that its eukaryotic homologs may also be involved in apocarotenal metabolism, a function that has not been considered so far. Aldehyde dehydrogenases play an important role in detoxification of reactive aldehydes. Here, we report on a cyanbacterial enzyme capable in converting two classes of lipid-derived aldehydes, apocaotenals and alkanals. The corresponding gene is a

  15. Alteration of the phospho- or neutral lipid content and fatty acid composition in Listeria monocytogenes due to acid adaptation mechanisms for hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids at pH 5.5 or benzoic acid at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronicolis, Sofia K; Berberi, Anita; Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Petrova, Evanthia; Kiaki, Irene; Baltzi, Triantafillia; Xenikakis, Polydoros

    2010-10-01

    This study provides a first approach to observe the effects on Listeria monocytogenes of cellular exposure to acid stress at low or neutral pH, notably how phospho- or neutral lipids are involved in this mechanism, besides the fatty acid profile alteration. A thorough investigation of the composition of polar and neutral lipids from L. monocytogenes grown at pH 5.5 in presence of hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids, or at neutral pH 7.3 in presence of benzoic acid, is described relative to cells grown in acid-free medium. The results showed that only low pH values enhance the antimicrobial activity of an acid. We suggest that, irrespective of pH, the acid adaptation response will lead to a similar alteration in fatty acid composition [decreasing the ratio of branched chain/saturated straight fatty acids of total lipids], mainly originating from the neutral lipid class of adapted cultures. Acid adaptation in L. monocytogenes was correlated with a decrease in total lipid phosphorus and, with the exception of cells adapted to benzoic acid, this change in the amount of phosphorus reflected a higher content of the neutral lipid class. Upon acetic or benzoic acid stress the lipid phosphorus proportion was analysed in the main phospholipids present: cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid and phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly only benzoic acid had a dramatic effect on the relative quantities of these four phospholipids.

  16. Breaking the Dogma of Aldolase Specificity: Simple Aliphatic Ketones and Aldehydes are Nucleophiles for Fructose-6-phosphate Aldolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Raquel; Sanchez-Moreno, Israel; Scheidt, Thomas; Hélaine, Virgil; Lemaire, Marielle; Parella, Teodor; Clapés, Pere; Fessner, Wolf-Dieter; Guérard-Hélaine, Christine

    2017-04-11

    d-Fructose-6-phosphate aldolase (FSA) was probed for extended nucleophile promiscuity by using a series of fluorogenic substrates to reveal retro-aldol activity. Four nucleophiles ethanal, propanone, butanone, and cyclopentanone were subsequently confirmed to be non-natural substrates in the synthesis direction using the wild-type enzyme and its D6H variant. This exceptional widening of the nucleophile substrate scope offers a rapid entry, in good yields and high stereoselectivity, to less oxygenated alkyl ketones and aldehydes, which was hitherto impossible. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effect of uridine protecting groups on the diastereoselectivity of uridine-derived aldehyde 5’-alkynylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Ben Othman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The 5’-alkynylation of uridine-derived aldehydes is described. The addition of alkynyl Grignard reagents on the carbonyl group is significantly influenced by the 2’,3’-di-O-protecting groups (R1: O-alkyl groups led to modest diastereoselectivities (65:35 in favor of the 5’R-isomer, whereas O-silyl groups promoted higher diastereoselectivities (up to 99:1 in favor of the 5’S-isomer. A study related to this protecting group effect on the diastereoselectivity is reported.

  18. NEW COPPER(II CHELATES WITH SHIFF BASES — CONDENSATION PRODUCTS OF SALICYLIC ALDEHYDE AND AMINONAPHTHALEN DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Skorokhod

    2015-03-01

    salicylic aldehyde with 1-aminonaphthalen (HL1, 1,8-diaminonaphthalen (H3L2, 1-amino-8-naphthalensulfonic acid (H2L3: [Cu(HL12(H2O2] (I, [Cu(H2L22] (II, [Cu(HL32](III — were synthesized. I—III were investigated by elementary analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetry, magnetic susceptibility and electric conductivity measurements, IR and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The way of coordination and the geometry of synthesized complexes were determinated.

  19. Chemoselective Synthesis of Dithioacetals from Bio-aldehydes with Zeolites under Ambient and Solvent-free Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hu; Yang, Tingting; Riisager, Anders

    2017-01-01

    of commercial and modified zeolites are excellent catalysts for thioacetalization of different thiols with carbonyl compounds, including biomass-derived aldehydes, at room temperature under solvent-free conditions. A near quantitative yield of dithioacetal was obtained over H-beta(19) at room temperature......Dithioacetals are an important class of versatile compounds extensively applied in pharmaceuticals, separations, electrochemistry, and organic synthesis, but few heterogeneous catalytic systems are reported to be generally applicable for their synthesis from a wide range of substrates. A series...

  20. Lewis base activation of Lewis acids: catalytic, enantioselective addition of glycolate-derived silyl ketene acetals to aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Scott E; Chung, Won-Jin

    2008-06-20

    A catalytic system involving silicon tetrachloride and a chiral, Lewis basic bisphosphoramide catalyst is effective for the addition of glycolate-derived silyl ketene acetals to aldehydes. It was found that the sense of diastereoselectivity could be modulated by changing the size of the substituents on the silyl ketene acetals. In general, the trimethylsilyl ketene acetals derived from methyl glycolates with a large protecting group on the alpha-oxygen provide enantiomerically enriched alpha,beta-dihydroxy esters with high syn-diastereoselectivity, whereas the tert-butyldimethylsilyl ketene acetals derived from bulky esters of alpha-methoxyacetic acid provide enantiomerically enriched alpha,beta-dihydroxy esters with high anti-diastereoselecitvity.

  1. HPLC analysis of aldehydes in automobile exhaust gas: Comparison of exhaust odor and irritation in different types of gasoline and diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Murari Mohon

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to identify and measure aldehydes from automobile exhaust gas. Four aldehydes: formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH 3 CHO), acrolein (H 2 C=CHCHO) and propionaldehyde (CH 3 CH 2 CHO) and one ketone, acetone (CH 3 ) 2 CO are separated. The other higher aldehydes in exhaust gas are very small and cannot be separated. A new method of gas sampling, hereafter called bag sampling in HPLC is introduced instead of the trapping gas sampling method. The superiority of the bag sampling method is its transient gas checking capability. In the second part of this study, HPLC results are applied to compare exhaust odor and irritation of exhaust gases in different types of gasoline and diesel engines. Exhaust odor, irritation and aldehydes are found worst in direct injection (DI) diesel engines and best in some good multi-point injection (MPI) gasoline and direct injection gasoline (DIG) engines. Indirect injection (IDI) diesel engines showed odor, irritation and aldehydes in between the levels of MPI gasoline, DIG and DI diesel engines

  2. Histochemical detection of the in vivo produced cellular aldehydes by means of direct Schiff's reaction in CCl/sub 4/ intoxicated rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taper, H.S.; Somer, M.P.; Lans, M.; Gerlache, J. de; Roberfroid, M.

    1988-04-01

    A histochemical technique for detection of the in vivo induced cellular aldehydes based on the direct Schiff's reaction is reported in this paper. CCl/sub 4/-intoxicated rat liver was used as an experimental model. Fresh and non-pretreated rat liver cryostat sections fixed in 10% formol calcium solution and washed in distilled water were exposed to Schiff's reagent. The sections were then immersed in two baths of sodium bisulphite solution, then in water, dehydrated in ethanol, cleared in xylene and mounted in a synthetic anhydrous mounting medium. As Schiff positive areas presented well circumscribed foci which increased with time following intoxication, semiquantitative planimetric measurements were feasible. The direct Schiff's reaction detects cellular aldehydes in a sensitive, rapid histologically and topographically estimable way. The appearance of these aldehydes precedes distinctly morphological alterations detectable by other histochemical of histological techniques. No positive results were obtained in control, non-intocicated rat livers. Inhibitons of this direct Schiff's was obtained in positive control rat liver sections preincubated in solutions of aldehyde blockers. Histochemical detection of aldehydes may give useful information on different aspects of tissue and organ intoxication such as their topography, appearance, evolution, extension, consequences and effects of treatment. The direct Schiff's reaction can be considered as a valuable tool in fundamental and applied reasearch dealing with various toxicological, environmental, pathological, cancer-related and therapeutic problems.

  3. Impedimetric immunosensor for human serum albumin detection on a direct aldehyde-functionalized silicon nitride surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, David, E-mail: caballero@unistra.fr [Nanobioengineering group-IBEC, Barcelona Science Park, C/ Baldiri Reixach 10-12, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); University of Barcelona, Department of Electronics, C/ Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Martinez, Elena [Nanobioengineering group-IBEC, Barcelona Science Park, C/ Baldiri Reixach 10-12, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Bausells, Joan [Centre Nacional de Microelectronica (CNM-IMB), CSIC, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Errachid, Abdelhamid, E-mail: abdelhamid.errachid-el-salhi@univ-lyon1.fr [Nanobioengineering group-IBEC, Barcelona Science Park, C/ Baldiri Reixach 10-12, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Universite Claude Bernard - Lyon 1, LSA - UMR 5180, 43 Bd du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Samitier, Josep [Nanobioengineering group-IBEC, Barcelona Science Park, C/ Baldiri Reixach 10-12, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); University of Barcelona, Department of Electronics, C/ Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An impedimetric label-free immunosensor was developed for the specific detection of human serum albumin proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-HSA antibodies were covalently immobilized on silicon nitride surfaces using a direct functionalization methodology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silicon nitride offers multiple advantages compared to other common materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed sensor has high sensitivity and good selectivity for the detection of HSA proteins. - Abstract: In this work we report the fabrication and characterization of a label-free impedimetric immunosensor based on a silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) surface for the specific detection of human serum albumin (HSA) proteins. Silicon nitride provides several advantages compared with other materials commonly used, such as gold, and in particular in solid-state physics for electronic-based biosensors. However, few Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based biosensors have been developed; the lack of an efficient and direct protocol for the integration of biological elements with silicon-based substrates is still one of its the main drawbacks. Here, we use a direct functionalization method for the direct covalent binding of monoclonal anti-HSA antibodies on an aldehyde-functionalized Si-p/SiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} structure. This methodology, in contrast with most of the protocols reported in literature, requires less chemical reagents, it is less time-consuming and it does not need any chemical activation. The detection capability of the immunosensor was tested by performing non-faradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements for the specific detection of HSA proteins. Protein concentrations within the linear range of 10{sup -13}-10{sup -7} M were detected, showing a sensitivity of 0.128 {Omega} {mu}M{sup -1} and a limit of detection of 10{sup -14} M. The specificity of the sensor was also addressed by studying the

  4. High Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity Identifies a Subset of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells with Vascular Regenerative Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Stephen E; Kuljanin, Miljan; Cooper, Tyler T; Putman, David M; Lajoie, Gilles A; Hess, David A

    2017-06-01

    During culture expansion, multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) differentially express aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), an intracellular detoxification enzyme that protects long-lived cells against oxidative stress. Thus, MSC selection based on ALDH-activity may be used to reduce heterogeneity and distinguish MSC subsets with improved regenerative potency. After expansion of human bone marrow-derived MSCs, cell progeny was purified based on low versus high ALDH-activity (ALDH hi ) by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and each subset was compared for multipotent stromal and provascular regenerative functions. Both ALDH l ° and ALDH hi MSC subsets demonstrated similar expression of stromal cell (>95% CD73 + , CD90 + , CD105 + ) and pericyte (>95% CD146 + ) surface markers and showed multipotent differentiation into bone, cartilage, and adipose cells in vitro. Conditioned media (CDM) generated by ALDH hi MSCs demonstrated a potent proliferative and prosurvival effect on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) under serum-free conditions and augmented HMVEC tube-forming capacity in growth factor-reduced matrices. After subcutaneous transplantation within directed in vivo angiogenesis assay implants into immunodeficient mice, ALDH hi MSC or CDM produced by ALDH hi MSC significantly augmented murine vascular cell recruitment and perfused vessel infiltration compared with ALDH l ° MSC. Although both subsets demonstrated strikingly similar mRNA expression patterns, quantitative proteomic analyses performed on subset-specific CDM revealed the ALDH hi MSC subset uniquely secreted multiple proangiogenic cytokines (vascular endothelial growth factor beta, platelet derived growth factor alpha, and angiogenin) and actively produced multiple factors with chemoattractant (transforming growth factor-β, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1, 2, and 3 (GRO), C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (RANTES), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8) and matrix

  5. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms influence susceptibility to esophageal cancer in Japanese alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, A; Muramatsu, T; Omori, T; Matsushita, S; Yoshimizu, H; Higuchi, S; Yokoyama, T; Maruyama, K; Ishii, H

    1999-11-01

    Studies have consistently demonstrated that inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), encoded by ALDH2*1/2*2, is closely associated with alcohol-related carcinogenesis. Recently, the contributions of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2) polymorphism to alcoholism, esophageal cancer, and the flushing response have also been described. To determine the effects of ALDH2 and ADH2 genotypes in genetically based cancer susceptibility, lymphocyte DNA samples from 668 Japanese alcoholic men more than 40 years of age (91 with and 577 without esophageal cancer) were genotyped and the results were expressed as odds ratios (ORs). This study also tested 82 of the alcoholics with esophageal cancer to determine whether cancer susceptibility is associated with patients' responses to simple questions about current or former flushing after drinking a glass of beer. The frequencies of ADH2*1/2*1 and ALDH2*1/2*2 were significantly higher in alcoholics with, than in those without, esophageal cancer (0.473 vs. 0.289 and 0.560 vs. 0.099, respectively). After adjustment for drinking and smoking, the analysis showed significantly increased cancer risk for alcoholics with either ADH2*1/2*I (OR = 2.03) or ALDH2*1/2*2 (OR = 12.76). For those having ADH2*1/2*1 combined with ALDH2*1/2*2, the esophageal cancer risk was enhanced in a multiplicative fashion (OR = 27.66). Responses to flushing questions showed that only 47.8% of the ALDH2*1/2*2 heterozygotes with ADH2*1/ 2*1, compared with 92.3% of those with ALDH2*1/2*2 and the ADH2*2 allele, reported current or former flushing. Genotyping showed that for alcoholics who reported ever flushing, the questionnaire was 71.4% correct in identifying ALDH2*1/2*2 and 87.9% correct in identifying ALDH2*1/2*1. Japanese alcoholics can be divided into cancer susceptibility groups on the basis of their combined ADH2 and ALDH2 genotypes. The flushing questionnaire can predict high risk ALDH2*1/2*2 fairly accurately in persons with ADH2*2 allele, but a reliable

  6. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms and oropharyngolaryngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers in Japanese alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, A; Muramatsu, T; Omori, T; Yokoyama, T; Matsushita, S; Higuchi, S; Maruyama, K; Ishii, H

    2001-03-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) gene polymorphisms play roles in ethanol metabolism, drinking behavior and esophageal carcinogenesis in Japanese; however, the combined influence of ADH2 and ALDH2 genotypes on other aerodigestive tract cancers have not been investigated. ADH2/ALDH2 genotyping was performed on lymphocyte DNA samples from Japanese alcoholic men (526 cancer-free; 159 with solitary or multiple aerodigestive tract cancers, including 33 oropharyngolaryngeal, 112 esophageal, 38 stomach and 22 multiple primary cancers in two or three organs). After adjustment for age, drinking and smoking habits, and ADH2/ALDH2 genotypes, the presence of either ADH2*1/2*1 or ALDH2*1/2*2 significantly increased the risk for oropharyngolaryngeal cancer [odds ratios (ORs), 6.68 with ADH2*1/2*1 and 18.52 with ALDH2*1/2*2] and esophageal cancer (ORs, 2.64 and 13.50, respectively). For patients with both ADH2*1/2*1 and ALDH2*1/2*2, the risks for oropharyngolaryngeal and esophageal cancers were enhanced in a multiplicative fashion (OR = 121.77 and 40.40, respectively). A positive association with ALDH2*1/2*2 alone was observed for stomach cancer patients who also had oropharyngolaryngeal and/or esophageal cancer (OR = 110.58), but it was not observed for those with stomach cancer alone. Furthermore, in the presence of ALDH2*1/2*2, the risks for multiple intra-esophageal cancers (OR = 3.43) and for esophageal cancer with oropharyngolaryngeal and/or stomach cancer (OR = 3.95) were higher than the risks for solitary intra-esophageal cancer and for esophageal cancer alone, but these tendencies were not observed for ADH2*1/2*1 genotype. Alcoholics' population attributable risks due to ADH2/ALDH2 polymorphisms were estimated to be 82.0% for oropharyngolaryngeal cancer and 63.9% for esophageal cancer.

  7. Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity selects for the holoclone phenotype in prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, R.E.; Haywood-Small, S.L. [Biomedical Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Sisley, K. [Department of Oncology, Academic Unit of Ophthalmology and Orthopties, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom); Cross, N.A., E-mail: n.cross@shu.ac.uk [Biomedical Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolated ALDH{sup Hi} PC3 cells preferentially form primitive holoclone-type colonies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Primitive holoclone colonies are predominantly ALDH{sup Lo} but contain rare ALDH{sup Hi} cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Holoclone-forming cells are not restricted to the ALDH{sup Hi} population. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ALDH phenotypic plasticity occurs in PC3 cells (ALDH{sup Lo} to ALDH{sup Hi} and vice versa). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ALDH{sup Hi} cells are observed but very rare in PC3 spheroids grown in stem cell medium. -- Abstract: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH) activity is considered to be a marker of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in many tumour models, since these cells are more proliferative and tumourigenic than ALDH{sup Lo} cells in experimental models. However it is unclear whether all CSC-like cells are within the ALDH{sup Hi} population, or whether all ALDH{sup Hi} cells are highly proliferative and tumourigenic. The ability to establish a stem cell hierarchy in vitro, whereby sub-populations of cells have differing proliferative and differentiation capacities, is an alternate indication of the presence of stem cell-like populations within cell lines. In this study, we have examined the interaction between ALDH status and the ability to establish a stem cell hierarchy in PC3 prostate cancer cells. We demonstrate that PC3 cells contain a stem cell hierarchy, and isolation of ALDH{sup Hi} cells enriches for the most primitive holoclone population, however holoclone formation is not restricted to ALDH{sup Hi} cells. In addition, we show that ALDH activity undergoes phenotypic plasticity, since the ALDH{sup Lo} population can develop ALDH{sup Hi} populations comparable to parental cells within 2 weeks in culture. Furthermore, we show that the majority of ALDH{sup Hi} cells are found within the least primitive paraclone population, which is circumvented by culturing PC3 cells as spheroids in

  8. Impedimetric immunosensor for human serum albumin detection on a direct aldehyde-functionalized silicon nitride surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, David; Martinez, Elena; Bausells, Joan; Errachid, Abdelhamid; Samitier, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An impedimetric label-free immunosensor was developed for the specific detection of human serum albumin proteins. ► Anti-HSA antibodies were covalently immobilized on silicon nitride surfaces using a direct functionalization methodology. ► Silicon nitride offers multiple advantages compared to other common materials. ► The proposed sensor has high sensitivity and good selectivity for the detection of HSA proteins. - Abstract: In this work we report the fabrication and characterization of a label-free impedimetric immunosensor based on a silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) surface for the specific detection of human serum albumin (HSA) proteins. Silicon nitride provides several advantages compared with other materials commonly used, such as gold, and in particular in solid-state physics for electronic-based biosensors. However, few Si 3 N 4 -based biosensors have been developed; the lack of an efficient and direct protocol for the integration of biological elements with silicon-based substrates is still one of its the main drawbacks. Here, we use a direct functionalization method for the direct covalent binding of monoclonal anti-HSA antibodies on an aldehyde-functionalized Si-p/SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 structure. This methodology, in contrast with most of the protocols reported in literature, requires less chemical reagents, it is less time-consuming and it does not need any chemical activation. The detection capability of the immunosensor was tested by performing non-faradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements for the specific detection of HSA proteins. Protein concentrations within the linear range of 10 −13 –10 −7 M were detected, showing a sensitivity of 0.128 Ω μM −1 and a limit of detection of 10 −14 M. The specificity of the sensor was also addressed by studying the interferences with a similar protein, bovine serum albumin. The results obtained show that the antibodies were efficiently immobilized and the proteins

  9. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of straight-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing saturated alcohols and acetals containing saturated aldehydes (chemical group 1) when used as flavourings for all animal species

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2013-01-01

    Chemical group 1 (CG 1) consists of straight-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing saturated alcohols and acetals containing saturated aldehydes of which 86 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The FEEDAP Panel was unable to perform an assessment of ethyl oleate because of its insufficient purity. The following compounds are considered to be safe for all animal species at the use level proposed for feed flavourings: formic...

  10. Adjuvant effects and antiserum action potentiation by a (herbal) compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid isolated from the root extract of the Indian medicinal plant 'sarsaparilla' (Hemidesmus indicus R. Br.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M I; Gomes, A

    1998-10-01

    The adjuvant effect and antiserum potentiation of a compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid were explored in the present investigation. This compound, isolated and purified from the Indian medicinal plant Hemidesmus indicus R. Br, possessed antisnake venom activity. Rabbits immunized with Vipera russellii venom in the presence and absence of the compound along with Freund's complete adjuvant, produced a precipitating band in immunogel diffusion and immunogel electrophoresis. The venom neutralizing capacity of this antiserum showed positive adjuvant effects as evident by the higher neutralization capacity (lethal and hemorrhage) when compared with the antiserum raised with venom alone. The pure compound potentiated the lethal action neutralization of venom by commercial equine polyvalent snake venom antiserum in experimental models. These observations raised the possibility of the use of chemical antagonists (from herbs) against snake bite, which may provide a better protection in presence of antiserum, especially in the rural parts of India.

  11. Presença dos ácidos benzóico e sórbico em vinhos e sidras produzidos no Brasil Presence of benzoic and sorbic acids in Brazilian wines and ciders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Margarete Donato Machado

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi a determinação dos níveis de ácido benzóico e ácido sórbico em uma variedade de vinhos e sidras brasileiros, de modo a comparar os valores com os máximos permitidos pela legislação. Um total de 49 amostras (sendo 35 vinhos tintos, 11 vinhos brancos e 3 sidras, disponíveis comercialmente, foram analisadas por CLAE com detector de arranjo de diodos. Apesar do uso de ácido benzóico em vinhos e sidras não ser permitido, esse conservador foi detectado em 3 amostras: 1 vinho e 2 sidras em níveis de 295,6, 424,7 e 608,4 mg.L-1, respectivamente. O ácido sórbico foi detectado em 49% das amostras analisadas com níveis variando de 91,0 a 309,5 mg.L-1. Considerando apenas as amostras nas quais o ácido sórbico foi detectado, o valor médio encontrado foi de 171,2 mg.L-1. Em seis amostras de vinho tinto os níveis de ácido sórbico estavam acima do permitido pela legislação brasileira. Os resultados encontrados no presente trabalho mostram que em algumas amostras, os níveis dos ácidos benzóico e sórbico nos vinhos e sidras analisados, assim como a rotulagem desses produtos não estão de acordo com a legislação vigente no Brasil.This study determined benzoic and sorbic acid contents in Brazilian wines and ciders in order to verify whether these preservatives are used in accordance with Brazilian regulations. Forty-nine samples of commercially available wines (35 red wines, 11 white wines and 3 ciders were analyzed by HPLC coupled to a photodiode array detector. Although the use of benzoic acid in wines and ciders is not permitted, this preservative was detected in three samples, one wine and two ciders, which contained benzoic acid levels of 295.6, 424.7 and 608.4 mg.L-1, respectively. Sorbic acid was detected in 49% of the analyzed samples, with levels ranging from 91.0 to 309.5 mg.L-1. Considering only the samples containing sorbic acid, the mean content detected was 171.2 mg.L-1. Six red wine

  12. Synthesis, characterization and biological studies of 2-(4-nitrophenylamino-carbonyl)benzoic acid and its complexes with Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, M; Nazir, S.; Latif, S.; Mahmood, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of 2-(4-Nitrophenyl aminocarbonyl)benzoic acid were synthesized and characterized on the basis of physical, analytical and spectroscopic data. The ligands, as well as its metal complexes were checked for their in-vitro antimicrobial activity against three bacterial strains, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, and three fungal strains, Nigrospora oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Disc diffusion method and Tube diffusion test were used for antibacterial and antifungal activities, respectively. The synthesized complexes only show significant antifungal activity but inactive for antibacterial, however, in general, the metal complexes were found to be more active against antimicrobial activities as compared to their un complexed ligand. (author)

  13. Camphor-10-sulfonic acid catalyzed condensation of 2-naphthol with aromatic/aliphatic aldehydes to 14-aryl/alkyl-14H-dibenzo[a,j]xanthenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundu Kshama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available (±-Camphor-10-sulfonic acid (CSA catalyzed condensation of 2-naphthol with both aliphatic/aromatic aldehydes at 80°C yielded 14-alkyl/aryl-dibenzoxanthenes as the sole product in high yields. However, the same condensation with benzaldehyde at 25°C afforded a mixture of intermediate 1,1-bis-(2-hydroxynaphthylphenylmethane and 14-phenyl-dibenzoxanthene while the condensation with aliphatic aldehydes at 25°C furnished the corresponding 14-alkyl-dibenzoxanthenes as the sole product. Moreover, condensation of 2-naphthol with aromatic/aliphatic aldehydes with low catalyst loading (2 mol% was greatly accelerated under microwave irradiation to afford the corresponding 14-aryl/alkyl-dibenzoxanthenes as the sole product in high yields.

  14. Glu504Lys Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Gene and the Risk of Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH 2 is a mitochondrial enzyme that is known for its important role in oxidation and detoxification of ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde. ALDH2 also metabolizes other reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and acrolein. The Glu504Lys single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of ALDH2 gene, which is found in approximately 40% of the East Asian populations, causes defect in the enzyme activity of ALDH2, leading to alterations in acetaldehyde metabolism and alcohol-induced “flushing” syndrome. Evidence suggests that ALDH2 Glu504Lys SNP is a potential candidate genetic risk factor for a variety of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, the association between ALDH2 Glu504Lys SNP and the development of these chronic diseases appears to be affected by the interaction between the SNP and lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption as well as by the presence of other genetic variations.

  15. Evaluation of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes as bi-enzymatic anodes in a membraneless ethanol microfluidic fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-de-la-Rosa, J.; Arjona, N.; Arriaga, L. G.; Ledesma-García, J.; Guerra-Balcázar, M.

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (AldH) enzymes were immobilized by covalent binding and used as the anode in a bi-enzymatic membraneless ethanol hybrid microfluidic fuel cell. The purpose of using both enzymes was to optimize the ethanol electro-oxidation reaction (EOR) by using ADH toward its direct oxidation and AldH for the oxidation of aldehydes as by-products of the EOR. For this reason, three enzymatic bioanode configurations were evaluated according with the location of enzymes: combined, vertical and horizontally separated. In the combined configuration, a current density of 16.3 mA cm-2, a voltage of 1.14 V and a power density of 7.02 mW cm-2 were obtained. When enzymes were separately placed in a horizontal and vertical position the ocp drops to 0.94 V and to 0.68 V, respectively. The current density also falls to values of 13.63 and 5.05 mA cm-2. The decrease of cell performance of bioanodes with separated enzymes compared with the combined bioanode was of 31.7% and 86.87% for the horizontal and the vertical array.

  16. aldB, an RpoS-dependent gene in Escherichia coli encoding an aldehyde dehydrogenase that is repressed by Fis and activated by Crp.

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, J; Johnson, R C

    1995-01-01

    Escherichia coli aldB was identified as a gene that is negatively regulated by Fis but positively regulated by RpoS. The complete DNA sequence determined in this study indicates that aldB encodes a 56.3-kDa protein which shares a high degree of homology with an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase encoded by acoD of Alcaligenes eutrophus and an aldehyde dehydrogenase encoded by aldA of Vibrio cholerae and significant homology with a group of other aldehyde dehydrogenases from prokaryotes and eukaryotes...

  17. Regio- and Stereoselective Conjugate Addition of Aldehydes to β-Tosyl Enones under the Catalysis of a Binaphthyl-Modified Chiral Amine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Taichi; Sugimoto, Hisashi; Maruyama, Hiroki; Maruoka, Keiji

    2015-07-13

    A simple axially chiral amine catalyst promoted the regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective conjugate addition of aldehydes to β-tosyl enones, which serve as ynone surrogates. The adducts were readily converted by treatment with L-selectride into less accessible enones with a γ stereogenic center. Such compounds cannot be prepared through the amine-catalyzed conjugate addition of aldehydes to ynones. The obtained enones underwent further conjugate addition of diorganozinc compounds in the presence of a copper catalyst. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Secondary amine-initiated three-component synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones and thiones involving alkynes, aldehydes and thiourea/urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Ping Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-component reactions of aldehydes, electron deficient alkynes and ureas/thioureas have been smoothly performed to yield a class of unprecedented 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones and thiones (DHPMs. The reactions are initiated by the key transformation of an enamine-type activation involving the addition of a secondary amine to an alkyne, which enables the subsequent incorporation of aldehydes and ureas/thioureas. This protocol tolerates a broad range of aryl- or alkylaldehydes, N-substituted and unsubstituted ureas/thioureas and alkynes to yield the corresponding DHPMs with specific regioselectivity.

  19. Kinetic study of the degradation of C5 and C6 unsaturated aldehydes and alcohols by ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalalian, Carmen; Roth, Estelle; Chakir, Abdelkhaleq

    2017-04-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are higher than those from anthropogenic sources. They are therefore likely to have a great influence on atmospheric chemistry both locally and regionally, through their impact on the HOx balance (HOx = HO + HO2), ozone production and ability to form secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Among the volatile organic compounds of biogenic origin are the family of C5 and C6 unsaturated aldehydes and alcohols. Few information exist regarding the fate of these compounds in the atmosphere especially there reaction with ozone. In this work, we studied the kinetics of the reaction of three unsaturated aldehydes (trans-2-pentenal, trans-2-hexenal and 2-methyl-2-pentenal) and three unsaturated alcohols (1-penten-3-ol, cis-2-penten-1-ol and trans-3-hexen-1-ol) with ozone O3 in a rigid atmospheric simulation chamber coupled to an FTIR spectrometer at four different temperatures (273, 298, 333 and 353 K) and at atmospheric pressure. The rate constants of the ozonolysis reaction of the unsaturated aldehydes and the unsaturated alcohols studied were determined and the following Arrhenius expression was obtained (cm3 molecule -1 s -1): k (Trans -2-pentenal)= (3.83 ± 3.71) x 10-16 exp (- (1706 ± 295) / T) k (Trans-2-hexenal)= (1.43 ± 0.67) x 10-16 exp (- (1369 ± 141) / T) k(2-Methyl-2-pentenal)= (3.62± 0.22) x 10-18 exp (- (121 ± 20) / T) k(1-penten-3-ol) = (1.42 ± 1.24) x 10-16 exp (- (642 ± 250) / T) k(Cis-2-penten-1-ol)= (3.14 ± 0.45) x 10-15 exp (- (1045 ± 40) / T) k(Trans-3-hexen-1-ol)= (6.38 ± 1.75) x 10-16 exp (- (686 ± 89) / T) The obtained data will be discussed in terms of structure-reactivity relationship and compared with the reported reactivity with OH radicals. The atmospheric implications derived from this study are discussed as well.

  20. Pyridine group assisted addition of diazo-compounds to imines in the 3-CC reaction of 2-aminopyridines, aldehydes, and diazo-compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulevich, Anton V; Helan, Victoria; Wink, Donald J; Gevorgyan, Vladimir

    2013-02-15

    A novel three-component coupling (3-CC) reaction of 2-aminoazines, aromatic aldehydes, and diazo-compounds producing polyfunctional β-amino-α-diazo-compounds has been developed. The reaction features an unprecedented heterocycle-assisted addition of a diazo-compound to an imine. The obtained diazoesters were efficiently converted into valuable heterocycles as well as β-amino acid derivatives.

  1. Facile Condensation of Aromatic Aldehydes with Chroman-4-ones and 1-Thiochroman-4-ones Catalysed by Amberlyst-15 under Microwave Irradiation Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas K. Mandal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Different aromatic aldehydes and cinnamaldehyde undergo cross-aldol condensation with chroman-4-ones and1-thiochroman-4-ones in the presence of amberlyst-15 under microwave irradiation in solvent free condition to afford rapidly the corresponding E-3-arylidene and E-3-cinnamylidene derivatives, respectively, in high yield. This process is simple, efficient and environmentally benign.

  2. Development of a biocatalytic process for the production of c6-aldehydes from vegetable oils by soybean lipoxygenase and recombinant hydroperoxide lyase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, M.A.; Goot, van der W.; Kooij, van A.J.; Veldsink, J.W.; Veldink, G.A.; Vliegenthart, J.F.G.

    2002-01-01

    Volatile C6- and C9-aldehydes and alcohols are widely used as food flavors to reconstitute the "fresh green" odor of fruits and vegetables lost during processing. To meet the high demand for natural flavors, an efficient, cheap, and versatile biocatalytic process was developed to produce

  3. HEPATOCYTE EXPRESION OF TUMOR ASSOCIATED ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE (ALDH-3) AND P21 RAS FOLLOWING DIETHYLNITROSAMINE (DEN) INITIATION AND CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE (DHEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate esters such as di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)either promote or inhibit rat liver tumorigenesis depending on the carcinogenesis protocol. In this study, we examined the expression of two histochemical markers, the tumor associated isozyme of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD...

  4. Development of a novel selective ESI-MS derivatization reagent - ssynthesis and optimization for the analysis of aldehydes in biological mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, M.; Wijtmans, M.; de Esch, I.J.P.; Lingeman, H.; Niessen, W.M.A.; Irth, H.

    2008-01-01

    In LC-MS, derivatization is primarily used to improve ionization characteristics, especially for analytes that are not (efficiently) ionized by ESI or APCI such as aldehydes, sugars, and steroids. Derivatization strategies are then directed at the incorporation of a group with a permanent charge. A

  5. Asymmetric Baylis-Hillman Reaction between Chiral Activated Alkenes and Aromatic Aldehydes in Me3N/H2O/Solvent Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke HE; Zheng Hong ZHOU; Hong Ying TANG; Guo Feng ZHAO; Chu Chi TANG

    2005-01-01

    Chiral activated alkene, L-menthyl acrylate and (+)-N-α-phenylethyl acrylamide,induced asymmetric Baylis-Hillman reaction of aromatic aldehydes was realized at 25℃ for 7 days in Me3N/H2O/solvent homogeneous medium. The corresponding Baylis-Hillman adducts were obtained in good chemical yield with moderate to excellent diastereoselectivity (up to 99% de).

  6. YNL134C from Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a novel protein with aldehyde reductase activity for detoxification of furfural derived from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xianxian; Tang, Juan; Wang, Xu; Yang, Ruoheng; Zhang, Xiaoping; Gu, Yunfu; Li, Xi; Ma, Menggen

    2015-05-01

    Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are the two main aldehyde compounds derived from pentoses and hexoses, respectively, during lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment. These two compounds inhibit microbial growth and interfere with subsequent alcohol fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has the in situ ability to detoxify furfural and HMF to the less toxic 2-furanmethanol (FM) and furan-2,5-dimethanol (FDM), respectively. Herein, we report that an uncharacterized gene, YNL134C, was highly up-regulated under furfural or HMF stress and Yap1p and Msn2/4p transcription factors likely controlled its up-regulated expression. Enzyme activity assays showed that YNL134C is an NADH-dependent aldehyde reductase, which plays a role in detoxification of furfural to FM. However, no NADH- or NADPH-dependent enzyme activity was observed for detoxification of HMF to FDM. This enzyme did not catalyse the reverse reaction of FM to furfural or FDM to HMF. Further studies showed that YNL134C is a broad-substrate aldehyde reductase, which can reduce multiple aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Although YNL134C is grouped into the quinone oxidoreductase family, no quinone reductase activity was observed using 1,2-naphthoquinone or 9,10-phenanthrenequinone as a substrate, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is genetically distant to quinone reductases. Proteins similar to YNL134C in sequence from S. cerevisiae and other microorganisms were phylogenetically analysed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Cu-catalyzed C(sp³)-H bond activation reaction for direct preparation of cycloallyl esters from cycloalkanes and aromatic aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jincan; Fang, Hong; Han, Jianlin; Pan, Yi

    2014-05-02

    Cu-catalyzed dehydrogenation-olefination and esterification of C(sp(3))-H bonds of cycloalkanes with TBHP as an oxidant has been developed. The reaction involves four C-H bond activations and gives cycloallyl ester products directly from cycloalkanes and aromatic aldehydes.

  8. Continuous-flow hydration–condensation reaction: Synthesis of α,β-unsaturated ketones from alkynes and aldehydes by using a heterogeneous solid acid catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Rueping

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple, practical and efficient continuous-flow hydration–condensation protocol was developed for the synthesis of α,β-unsaturated ketones starting from alkynes and aldehydes by employing a heterogeneous catalyst in a flow microwave. The procedure presents a straightforward and convenient access to valuable differently substituted chalcones and can be applied on multigram scale.

  9. Porous organic polymers with anchored aldehydes: A new platform for post-synthetic amine functionalization en route for enhanced CO2 adsorption properties

    KAUST Repository

    Guillerm, Vincent; Weselinski, Lukasz Jan; Al Kordi, Mohamed; Haja Mohideen, Mohamed Infas; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Cairns, Amy; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    A novel porous organic polymer has been synthesized using the molecular building block approach to deliberately encompass aldehyde functionalities amenable to post functionalization. The resultant porous framework allows a facile, one-step quantitative and post-synthetic functionalization by amines, permitting enhanced CO2 sorption properties. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms, alcohol intake and the risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, P.; McKay, J. D.; Jenab, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Heavy alcohol drinking is a risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC), but little is known on the effect of polymorphisms in the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) on the alcohol-related risk of CRC in Caucasian populati...

  11. General synthesis of C-glycosyl amino acids via proline-catalyzed direct electrophilic alpha-amination of C-glycosylalkyl aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzi, Andrea; Massi, Alessandro; Dondoni, Alessandro

    2008-10-16

    Non-natural axially and equatorially linked C-glycosyl alpha-amino acids (glycines, alanines, and CH2-serine isosteres) with either S or R alpha-configuration were prepared by D- and L-proline-catalyzed (de >95%) alpha-amination of C-glycosylalkyl aldehydes using dibenzyl azodicarboxylate as the electrophilic reagent.

  12. The retinoid X receptor response element in the human aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 promoter is antagonized by the chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter family of orphan receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinaire, J; Hasanadka, R; Fang, M; Chou, WY; Stewart, MJ; Kruijer, W; Crabb, D

    2000-01-01

    Two tandem sites in the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 promoter (designated FP330-5' and FP330-3') that bind members of the nuclear receptor superfamily mere recently identified. Antibodies against apolipoprotein regulatory protein (ARP-1) altered DNA-protein interactions in electrophoretic mobility shift

  13. A Comparative study on VOCs and aldehyde-ketone emissions from a spark Ignition vehicle fuelled on compressed natural gas and gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, an experimental study was conducted on a spark ignition (SI) vehicle fuelled on compressed natural gas (CNG), and gasoline to compare the unregulated emissions such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehyde-ketones or carbonyls. In the meantime, ozone forming potential (OFP) of pollutants was also calculated on the basis of their specific reactivity (SR). The vehicle was run on a chassis dynamometer following the Chinese National Standards test scheduled for light duty vehicle (LDV) emissions. According to the results, total aldehyde-ketones were increased by 39.4% due to the substantial increase in formaldehyde and acrolein + acetone emissions, while VOCs and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene) reduced by 85.2 and 86% respectively, in case of CNG fuelled vehicle as compared to gasoline vehicle. Although total aldehyde-ketones were higher with CNG relative to gasoline, their SR was lower due decrease in acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, and methacrolein species having higher maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) values. The SR of VOCs and aldehyde-ketones emitted from CNG fuelled vehicle was decreased by above 10% and 32% respectively, owing to better physicochemical properties and more complete burning of CNG as compared to gasoline. (author)

  14. Diastereoselective and one-pot synthesis of trans-isoquinolonic acids via three-component condensation of homophthalic anhydride, aldehydes, and ammonium acetate catalyzed by aspartic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ghorbani-Choghamarani, A.; Hajjami, M.; Norouzi, M.; Abbasityula, Y.; Eigner, Václav; Dušek, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 32 (2013), s. 6541-6544 ISSN 0040-4020 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : isoquinolonic acid * diastereoselective * aldehyde * homophthalic anhydride * ammonium acetate Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.817, year: 2013

  15. Acetic acid-promoted condensation of o-phenylenediamine with aldehydes into 2-aryl-1-(arylmethyl-1H-benzimidazoles under microwave irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVOOD AZARIF

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and simple procedure was developed for the green synthesis of various 2-aryl-1-(arylmethyl-1H-benzimidazoles in high yields by acetic acid-promoted condensation of o-phenylenediamine with aldehydes in air under microwave irradiation and transition metal catalyst-free conditions.

  16. Background Atmospheric Levels of Aldehydes, BTEX and PM10 Pollutants in a Medium-Sized City of Southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iovino, P.; Salvestrini, S.; Capasso, S.

    2007-01-01

    Background atmospheric levels of aldehydes, BTEX and PM10 pollutants were measured in the suburb of Caserta (Italy), 75 thousands inhabitants, 41 0 04' N, on rainless weekdays and weekends during 2005. On weekdays the average daily concentrations (μg m -3 ) were 41.6 PM10, 8.6 benzene, 25.2 toluene, 6.3 ethylbenzene, 14.0 (m+p)-xylene, 11.7 o-xylene, 6.5 formaldehyde, 3.3 acetaldehyde. All the pollutant concentrations were strictly correlated (mean correlation coefficients = 0.90). At weekends the concentrations were lower by about 1.6 times. Both on weekdays and at weekends the PM10 and benzene levels exceeded the limits set by the EU Directive 30/1999 and 69/2000, respectively

  17. Tropospheric chemistry of natural hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and peroxy radicals: Their connections to sulfuric acid production and climate effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffney, J.S.; Marley, N.A.

    1993-05-01

    Recent work has shown that natural hydrocarbon emissions can significantly affect the levels of urban and regional tropospheric ozone. We report on the reactivities of these biogenic trace gases, particularly isoprene, focusing on their importance in the production of aldehydes and peroxy radicals, leading to increased levels of hydrogen over regional forests. Hydrogen peroxide can lead to the wet oxidation of sulfur dioxide to acidic sulfate in aerosols, fogs, and clouds. In turn, acidic sulfate can act to as a light scattering aerosol and a source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), potentially leading to global cooling. Aerosol sulfate and other dissolved organic and inorganic compounds can also play important roles as a greenhouse species in the lower troposphere

  18. Two-dimensional character of internal rotation of furfural and other five-member heterocyclic aromatic aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataev, Vadim A.; Pupyshev, Vladimir I.; Godunov, Igor A.

    2016-05-01

    The features of nuclear motion corresponding to the rotation of the formyl group (CHO) are studied for the molecules of furfural and some other five-member heterocyclic aromatic aldehydes by the use of MP2/6-311G** quantum chemical approximation. It is demonstrated that the traditional one-dimensional models of internal rotation for the molecules studied have only limited applicability. The reason is the strong kinematic interaction of the rotation of the CHO group and out-of-plane CHO deformation that is realized for the molecules under consideration. The computational procedure based on the two-dimensional approximation is considered for low lying vibrational states as more adequate to the problem.

  19. Synthesis and reactions of imines of α,β-ethylenic silicon-containing aldehydes with complex metal hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surnin, V.A.; Stadnichuk, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Imines of 3-trimethylsilyl-2-propenal or its hydrocarbon analog are reduced chemoselectively at the C=N double bond by sodium borohydride. The direction of lithium aluminum hydride reduction of these imines is not influenced by the nature of the element attached to the C=C bond silicon versus carbon, but rather is determined by the nature of the radical group attached to the nitrogen atom; N-arylimines undergo addition with lithium aluminum hydride at the C=N bond exclusively, whereas for N-alkylimines the addition reactions occur either partially or in full in the 1,4-position, depending on the reaction conditions, to give imines of saturated aldehydes after demetallation

  20. Synthesis of aldehyde-linked nucleotides and DNA and their bioconjugations with lysine and peptides through reductive amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raindlová, Veronika; Pohl, Radek; Hocek, Michal

    2012-03-26

    5-(5-Formylthienyl)-, 5-(4-formylphenyl)- and 5-(2-fluoro-5-formylphenyl)cytosine 2'-deoxyribonucleoside mono- (dC(R)MP) and triphosphates (dC(R)TP) were prepared by aqueous Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of 5-iodocytosine nucleotides with the corresponding formylarylboronic acids. The dC(R)TPs were excellent substrates for DNA polymerases and were incorporated into DNA by primer extension or PCR. Reductive aminations of the model dC(R)MPs with lysine or lysine-containing tripeptide were studied and optimized. In aqueous phosphate buffer (pH 6.7) the yields of the reductive aminations with tripeptide III were up to 25 %. Bioconjugation of an aldehyde-containing DNA with a lysine-containing tripeptide was achieved through reductive amination in yields of up to 90 % in aqueous phosphate buffer. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.