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Sample records for benzoic acid intake

  1. Estimated intake of benzoic and sorbic acids in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Christensen, Tue; Larsen, I. K.

    2010-01-01

    limits, illegal use or declaration faults were found in about 3% of samples. From repeated investigations on fat-based foods (salads and dressings), marmalade and stewed fruit, it is concluded that the amounts used in industry have been relatively stable throughout the whole period, although limited data...... for marmalade show some variation. Most foods in the categories soft drinks, dressings, fat-based salads, pickled herrings, and marmalade contain benzoic and sorbic acid, and sliced bread also contains in some cases sorbic acid. The median daily intake and intake distribution of benzoic and sorbic acids were......-old age group. Based on the average of all samples, the 95th percentile is over the acceptable daily intake for men up to 34 years and for women up to 24 years, and the 90th percentile for men up to 18 years and for women up to 10 years. Soft drinks, salads and dressings are the main contributors...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid occurs...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3021 - Benzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benzoic acid. 582.3021 Section 582.3021 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Benzoic acid. (a) Product. Benzoic acid. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as safe for...

  4. Gaseous phase heat capacity of benzoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, L.M.N.B.F.; Alves da Rocha, M.A.; Gomes, L.R.; Schröder, B.; Coutinho, J.A.P.

    2010-01-01

    The gaseous phase heat capacity of benzoic acid (BA) was proven using the experimental technique called the "in vacuum sublimation/vaporization Calvet microcalorimetry drop method". To overcome known experimental shortfalls, the gaseous phase heat capacity of BA monomer was estimated by ab initio

  5. Exposure assessment of food preservatives (sulphites, benzoic and sorbic acid) in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischek, Daniela; Krapfenbauer-Cermak, Christine

    2012-01-01

    An exposure assessment was performed to estimate the potential intake of preservatives in the Austrian population. Food consumption data of different population groups, such as preschool children aged 3-6 years, female and male adults aged 19-65 years were used for calculation. Levels of the preservatives in food were derived from analyses conducted from January 2007 to August 2010. Dietary intakes of the preservatives were estimated and compared to the respective acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). In the average-intake scenario, assuming that consumers randomly consume food products that do or do not contain food additives, estimated dietary intakes of all studied preservatives are well below the ADI for all population groups. Sulphite exposure accounted for 34%, 84% and 89% of the ADI in preschool children, females and males, respectively. The mean estimated daily intake of benzoic acid was 32% (preschool children), 31% (males) and 36% (females) of the ADI. Sorbic acid intakes correspond to 7% of the ADI in preschool children and 6% of the ADI in adults. In the high-intake scenario assuming that consumers always consume food products that contain additives and considering a kind of brand loyalty of consumers, the ADI is exceeded for sulphites among adults (119 and 124%, respectively). Major contributors to the total intake of sulphites were wine and dried fruits for adults. Mean estimated dietary intakes of benzoic acid exceeded the ADI in all population groups, 135% in preschool children, 124% in females and 118% of the ADI in males, respectively. Dietary intakes of sorbic acid are well below the ADI, accounting for a maximum of 30% of the ADI in preschool children. The highest contributors to benzoic and sorbic acid exposure were fish and fish products mainly caused by high consumption data of this large food group, including also mayonnaise-containing fish salads. Other important sources of sorbic acid were bread, buns and toast bread and fruit and vegetable

  6. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject to... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali...

  7. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  8. Thermal phase diagram of acetamide-benzoic acid and benzoic acid-phthalimide binary systems for solar thermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rohitash, E-mail: dootrohit1976@gmail.com [Defence Laboratory Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India 342011, +91-2912567520 (India); Department of Physics & Center for Solar Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India 342011, +91-291-2449045 (India); Kumar, Ravindra [Defence Laboratory Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India 342011, +91-2912567520 (India); Dixit, Ambesh, E-mail: ambesh@iitj.ac.in [Department of Physics & Center for Solar Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India 342011, +91-291-2449045 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Thermal properties of Acetamide (AM) – Benzoic acid (BA) and Benzoic acid (BA) – Phthalimide (PM) binary eutectic systems are theoretically calculated using thermodynamic principles. We found that the binary systems of AM-BA at 67.6 : 32.4 molar ratio, BA-PM at 89.7 : 10.3 molar ratio form eutectic mixtures with melting temperatures ~ 54.5 °C and 114.3 °C respectively. Calculated latent heat of fusion for these eutectic mixtures are 191 kJ/kg and 146.5 kJ/kg respectively. These melting temperatures and heat of fusions of these eutectic mixtures make them suitable for thermal energy storage applications in solar water heating and solar cooking systems.

  9. Effects of benzoic acid and cadmium toxicity on wheat seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Yadav

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzoic acid (BA and Cd exhibit cumulative effects on plants due to their accumulation in the soil. The present study reports the effects of BA an allelochemical, Cd and their combinations on seed germination, seedling growth, biochemical parameters, and response of antioxidant enzymes in Triticum aestivum L. The experiment was conducted in sand supplemented with Hoagland nutrient solution. Benzoic acid was applied at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM with or without Cd (7 mg L-1 to observe effects of allelochemical and Cd alone and in combination on wheat. Both stresses exhibited inhibitory effect on growth and metabolism of wheat seedlings. The allelochemical in single and combined treatments with Cd decreased seedling growth as compared to Cd stress. The two stresses significantly enhanced malondialdehyde content of wheat seedlings. The activity of other antioxidant enzymes, viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and guaiacol peroxidase (POX were also recorded. SOD increased in seedlings under the two stresses. CAT more prominently ameliorates the toxic effects of H2O2 as compared with APX and POX and protected wheat seedlings from oxidative stress. Allelochemical buttressed the toxic effect of Cd on wheat seedlings.

  10. Luminescence enhancement of uranyl ion by benzoic acid in acetonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satendra Kumar; Maji, S.; Joseph, M.; Sankaran, K.

    2014-01-01

    Uranyl ion is known for its characteristic green luminescence and therefore luminescence spectroscopy is a suitable technique for characterizing different uranyl species. In aqueous medium, luminescence of uranyl ion is generally weak due to its quenching by water molecules and therefore in order to enhance the luminescence of uranyl ion in aqueous medium, luminescence enhancing reagents such as H 3 PO 4 , H 2 SO 4 , HCIO 4 have been widely used. The other method to enhance the uranyl luminescence is by ligand sensitized luminescence, a method well established for lanthanides. In this work, luminescence of uranyl ion is found to be enhanced by benzoic acid in acetonitrile medium. In aqueous medium benzoic acid does not enhance the uranyl luminescence although it forms 1:1 and 1:2 complexes with uranyl ion. Luminescence spectra of uranyl benzoate revealed that enhancement is due to sensitization of uranyl luminescence by benzoate ions. UV-Vis spectroscopy has been utilized to characterize the specie formed in the in acetonitrile medium. UV-Vis spectroscopy along with luminescence spectra revealed that the specie to be tribenzoate complex of uranyl (UO 2 (C 6 H 5 COO) 3 ) - having D 3 h symmetry. (author)

  11. Effects of solvation on partition and dimerization of benzoic acid in mixed solvent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H; Yajima, K; Wada, H; Nakagawa, G

    1995-06-01

    The partition of benzoic acid between 0.1M perchloric acid solution and two kinds of mixed solvents has been carried out at 25 degrees C. The partition and dimerization constants of benzoic acid have been determined in the 1-octanol-benzene and 2-octanone-benzene systems. In both the mixed solvent systems, with increasing content of 1-octanol and 2-octanone in each mixed solvent, the partition constant of benzoic acid has been found to increase, and the dimerization constant of benzoic acid in each organic phase to decrease. These phenomena are attributable to solvation of monomeric benzoic acid by 1-octanol and 2-octanone molecules in each mixed solvent.

  12. Sorbic and benzoic acid in non-preservative-added food products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Ruziye; Cagri-Mehmetoglu, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    Sorbic acid (SA) and benzoic acid (BA) were determined in yoghurt, tomato and pepper paste, fruit juices, chocolates, soups and chips in Turkey by using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Levels were compared with Turkish Food Codex limits. SA was detected only in 2 of 21 yoghurt samples, contrary to BA, which was found in all yoghurt samples but one, ranging from 10.5 to 159.9 mg/kg. Both SA and BA were detected also in 3 and 6 of 23 paste samples in a range of 18.1-526.4 and 21.7-1933.5 mg/kg, respectively. Only 1 of 23 fruit juices contained BA. SA was not detected in any chips, fruit juice, soup, or chocolate sample. Although 16.51% of the samples was not compliant with the Turkish Food Codex limits, estimated daily intake of BA or SA was below the acceptable daily intake.

  13. An Optical Test Strip for the Detection of Benzoic Acid in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Abu Bakar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of a test strip for detection of benzoic acid was successfully implemented by immobilizing tyrosinase, phenol and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH onto filter paper using polystyrene as polymeric support. The sensing scheme was based on the decreasing intensity of the maroon colour of the test strip when introduced into benzoic acid solution. The test strip was characterized using optical fiber reflectance and has maximum reflectance at 375 nm. It has shown a highly reproducible measurement of benzoic acid with a calculated RSD of 0.47% (n = 10. The detection was optimized at pH 7. A linear response of the biosensor was obtained in 100 to 700 ppm of benzoic acid with a detection limit (LOD of 73.6 ppm. At 1:1 ratio of benzoic acid to interfering substances, the main interfering substance is boric acid. The kinetic analyses show that, the inhibition of benzoic is competitive inhibitor and the inhibition constant (Ki is 52.9 ppm. The activity of immobilized tyrosinase, phenol, and MBTH in the test strip was fairly sustained during 20 days when stored at 3 °C. The developed test strip was used for detection of benzoic acid in food samples and was observed to have comparable results to the HPLC method, hence the developed test strip can be used as an alternative to HPLC in detecting benzoic acid in food products.

  14. 2-[(1-Benzamido-2-methoxy-2-oxoethylamino]benzoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alami Anouar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The carboxylic α,α-diaminoester 2-[(1-benzamido-2-methoxy-2-oxoethyl amino]benzoic acid is obtained by N-alkylation of methyl α-azido glycinate N-benzoylated with 2-aminobenzoic acid.

  15. Pd(II)-catalysed meta-C–H functionalizations of benzoic acid derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shangda; Cai, Lei; Ji, Huafang; Yang, Long; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Benzoic acids are highly important structural motifs in drug molecules and natural products. Selective C–H bond functionalization of benzoic acids will provide synthetically useful tools for step-economical organic synthesis. Although direct ortho-C–H functionalizations of benzoic acids or their derivatives have been intensely studied, the ability to activate meta-C–H bond of benzoic acids or their derivatives in a general manner via transition-metal catalysis has been largely unsuccessful. Although chelation-assisted meta-C–H functionalization of electron-rich arenes was reported, chelation-assisted meta-C–H activation of electron-poor arenes such as benzoic acid derivatives remains a formidable challenge. Herein, we report a general protocol for meta-C–H olefination of benzoic acid derivatives using a nitrile-based sulfonamide template. A broad range of benzoic acid derivatives are meta-selectively olefinated using molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant. The meta-C–H acetoxylation, product of which is further transformed at the meta-position, is also reported. PMID:26813919

  16. Caldensinic acid, a benzoic acid derivative and others compounds from Piper carniconnectivum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Harley da Silva; Souza, Maria de Fatima Vanderlei de; Chaves, Maria Celia de Oliveira, E-mail: cchaves@ltf.ufpb.b [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica

    2010-07-01

    A benzoic acid derivative - caldensinic acid, E-phythyl hexadecanoate, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol mixture and phaeophytin a were isolated from the aerial parts of Piper carniconnectivum. The structures of these compounds were established unambiguously by IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR analysis. (author)

  17. Analysis of the ortho effect: acidity of 2-substituted benzoic acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böhm, S.; Fiedler, Pavel; Exner, Otto

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 28, - (2004), s. 67-74 ISSN 1144-0546 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : 2-substituted benzoic acids * steric effects Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.735, year: 2004

  18. Comparison of some aqueous chemical dosimeters for absorbed doses of less than 1000 rads. [Benzoic--salicylic acid, terephtalic--2-hydroxyterephtabe acid, ferrous sulfate--benzoic acid--xylenol orange, and standard Fricke dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, R W [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights; Barker, N T; Sangster, D F

    1978-01-01

    This report gives the results of an investigation into the relative merits of the systems: benzoic-salicylic acid, terephthalic-2-hydroxyterephthalic acid, the more recent ferrous sulphate-benzoic acid-xylenol orange (FBX), and the standard Fricke dosimeter, for the measurement of absorbed doses under identical irradiation conditions, in the range 10 to 1000 rads.

  19. Tunneling dynamics of double proton transfer in formic acid and benzoic acid dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedarchina, Zorka; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio; Siebrand, Willem

    2005-04-01

    Direct dynamics calculations based on instanton techniques are reported of tunneling splittings due to double proton transfer in formic and benzoic acid dimers. The results are used to assign the observed splittings to levels for which the authors of the high-resolution spectra could not provide a definitive assignment. In both cases the splitting is shown to be due mainly to the zero-point level rather than to the vibrationally or electronically excited level whose spectrum was investigated. This leads to zero-point splittings of 375MHz for (DCOOH)2 and 1107MHz for the benzoic acid dimer. Thus, contrary to earlier calculations, it is found that the splitting is considerably larger in the benzoic than in the formic acid dimer. The calculations are extended to solid benzoic acid where the asymmetry of the proton-transfer potential induced by the crystal can be overcome by suitable doping. This has allowed direct measurement of the interactions responsible for double proton transfer, which were found to be much larger than those in the isolated dimer. To account for this observation both static and dynamic effects of the crystal forces on the intradimer hydrogen bonds are included in the calculations. The same methodology, extended to higher temperatures, is used to calculate rate constants for HH, HD, and DD transfers in neat benzoic acid crystals. The results are in good agreement with reported experimental rate constants measured by NMR relaxometry and, if allowance is made for small structural changes induced by doping, with the transfer matrix elements observed in doped crystals. Hence the method used allows a unified description of tunneling splittings in the gas phase and in doped crystals as well as of transfer rates in neat crystals.

  20. Comparison of the effect of benzoic acid addition on the fermentation process quality with untreated silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Doležal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of benzoic acid and formic acid (positive control of ensilaged maize and pressed sugar beet pulp on quality fermentation processes was studied in a laboratory experiment. The effect of additive on the quality of fermentation process during maize ensiling was studied in a first model experiment. Preservatives such as formic acid and benzoic acid were added to ensiled maize at the concentration of 1L/t and 1 kg/t, respectively. When benzoic acid was used as a preservative, the pH and the N-NH3/ N total ratio decreased statistically (PSugar beet pulp silages with benzoic acid or formic acid after 32 days of storage had a better sensuous evaluation than the control silage. The most intensive decrease of pH value was observed after formic acid addition as compared with control silage. The statistically significantly (P<0.05 highest lactic acid content (49.64 ± 0.28 as well as the highest ratio of LA/VFA were found in the sugar beet pulp silage with benzoic acid. Lactic acid constituted the highest percentage (P<0.05 of all fermentation acids in the silage with benzoic acid additive (65.12 ± 0.80. Undesirable butyric acid (BA was not found in any variant of silages. The positive correlation between the titration acidity and acids sum in dry matter of silage conserved with formic acid was found. The additive of organic acids reduced significantly TA and fermentation acids content. Between the pH value and lactic acid content, no correlation was found.

  1. Ferrous Iron Oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Inhibition with Benzoic Acid, Sorbic Acid, and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Onysko, Steven J.; Kleinmann, Robert L. P.; Erickson, Patricia M.

    1984-01-01

    Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds.

  2. Ferrous Iron Oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Inhibition with Benzoic Acid, Sorbic Acid, and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onysko, Steven J.; Kleinmann, Robert L. P.; Erickson, Patricia M.

    1984-01-01

    Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds. PMID:16346592

  3. Solubilities of benzoic acid in binary (benzyl alcohol + benzaldehyde) solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Qinbo; Xiong, Zhenhua; Chen, Chuxiong; Shen, Binwei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubilities of benzoic acid in (benzyl alcohol + benzaldehyde) mixtures were measured at 1 atm. • The experimental temperature ranges at (298.35 to 355.65) K. • Effects of benzyl alcohol mass concentration at (0.00 to 1.00) on the solubilities of benzoic acid were studied. • The experimental data were correlated with NRTL model. • Thermodynamic functions of dissolution of benzoic acid in (benzyl alcohol + benzaldehyde) mixtures were discussed. - Abstract: The solubility of benzoic acid in binary (benzyl alcohol + benzaldehyde) solvent mixtures was measured at temperature from (298.35 to 355.65) K and atmospheric pressure. The measured solubility increases with the increasing temperature at constant solvent composition. The effects of mass fraction benzaldehyde in the solvent mixtures at (0.0 to 1.00) on the solubility were studied. The measured solubility decreases with the increasing mass fraction of benzaldehyde. The experimental results were correlated with the non-random two-liquid (NRTL) equations, and good agreement between the correlated and the experimental values was obtained. Thermodynamic functions for the solution of benzoic acid in binary (benzyl alcohol + benzaldehyde) solvent mixtures were calculated with the van’t Hoff plot. The apparent dissolution Gibbs free energy change was also calculated

  4. Preliminary Study on Benzoic Acid Adsorption from Crude Active Coals and Bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbes Boucheta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied the adsorption of pollutant benzoic acid by the modified bentonite of Maghnia (west of Algeria, and coal (Coal from the mines, southwest of Algeria, Bechar area under three forms, crude and activated. Kinetic data show that the balance of bentonite (as amended adsorbs organic acids better than activated and raw coal. Indeed, the intercalation of bentonite with benzoic acid causes an improvement in the texture of porous material, which allows its use in the adsorption of organic compounds. The adsorption isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich indicate that the adsorption of benzoic acid by the coal and bentonite yielded results favorably. The results obtained showed the practical value of using the activated coal and bentonite (as amended in the field of remediation of water contaminated with organic pollutants

  5. Hydrogen-bonded co-crystal structure of benzoic acid and zwitterionic l-proline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M. Chesna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: benzoic acid–pyrrolidin-1-ium-2-carboxylate (1/1], C7H6O2·C5H9NO2, is an example of the application of non-centrosymmetric co-crystallization for the growth of a crystal containing a typically centrosymmetric component in a chiral space group. It co-crystallizes in the space group P212121 and contains benzoic acid and l-proline in equal proportions. The crystal structure exhibits chains of l-proline zwitterions capped by benzoic acid molecules which form a C(5[R33(11] hydrogen-bonded network along [100]. The crystal structure is examined and compared to that of a similar co-crystal containing l-proline zwitterions and 4-aminobenzoic acid.

  6. Inhibition of denitrification and N2O emission by urine-derived benzoic and hippuric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenigen, van J.W.; Palermo, V.; Kool, D.M.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Hippuric acid (HA) in cattle urine acts as a natural inhibitor of soil N2O emissions. As HA concentration varies with diet, we determined critical HA levels. We also tested the hypothesis that the inhibition occurs because the HA breakdown product benzoic acid (BA) inhibits denitrification rates.

  7. Placental passage of benzoic acid, caffeine, and glyphosate in an ex vivo human perfusion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Kjaerstad, Mia Birkhoej; Mathiesen, Line

    2008-01-01

    group of compounds. Benzoic acid, caffeine, and glyphosate were chosen as model compounds because they are small molecules with large differences in physiochemical properties. Caffeine crossed the placenta by passive diffusion. The initial transfer rate of benzoic acid was more limited in the first part...... of the perfusion compared to caffeine, but reached the same steady-state level by the end of perfusion. The transfer of glyphosate was restricted throughout perfusion, with a lower permeation rate, and only around 15% glyphosate in maternal circulation crossed to the fetal circulation during the study period....

  8. EXTRACTION AND SORPTION BENZOIC ACID FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF POLYMERS BASED ON N-VINYLAMIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Savvina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of aromatic acids (benzoic acid, salicylic as preservatives necessitates their qualitative and quantitative determination in food. Effective and common way to separation and concentration of aromatic acids liquid extraction. Biphasic system of water-soluble polymers based on (poly-N-vinyl pyrrolidone, and poly-N-vinylcaprolactam satisfy the requirements of the extraction system. When sorption concentration improved definition of the metrological characteristics, comply with the requirements for sensitivity and selectivity definition appears possible, use of inexpensive and readily available analytical equipment. When studying the adsorption of benzoic acid used as a sorbent crosslinked polymer based on N-vinyl pyrrolidone, obtained by radical polymerisation of a functional monomer and crosslinker. In the extraction of benzoic acid to maximize the allocation of water and the organic phase of the polymer used salt solutions with concentrations close to saturation. Regardless of the nature of the anion salt is used as salting-out agent, aromatic acids sorption increases with the size of the cations. In the experiment the maximum recovery rate (80% benzoic acid obtained in the PVP (0.2 weight%. Ammonium sulphate. The dependence stepepni benzoic acid extraction from time sorption sorbent mass and the pH of the aqueous phase. To establish equilibrium in the system, for 20 minutes. The dependence of the degree of extraction of the acid pH indicates that the acid is extracted into the molecular form. The maximum adsorption is reached at pH 3,5, with its efficiency decreases symbatically reduce the amount of undissociated acid molecules in solution.

  9. Energetic and metabolic transient response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to benzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M T A P; van Winden, W A; van Gulik, W M; Heijnen, J J

    2008-11-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known to be able to adapt to the presence of the commonly used food preservative benzoic acid with a large energy expenditure. Some mechanisms for the adaptation process have been suggested, but its quantitative energetic and metabolic aspects have rarely been discussed. This study discusses use of the stimulus response approach to quantitatively study the energetic and metabolic aspects of the transient adaptation of S. cerevisiae to a shift in benzoic acid concentration, from 0 to 0.8 mM. The information obtained also serves as the basis for further utilization of benzoic acid as a tool for targeted perturbation of the energy system, which is important in studying the kinetics and regulation of central carbon metabolism in S. cerevisiae. Using this experimental set-up, we found significant fast-transient (< 3000 s) increases in O(2) consumption and CO(2) production rates, of approximately 50%, which reflect a high energy requirement for the adaptation process. We also found that with a longer exposure time to benzoic acid, S. cerevisiae decreases the cell membrane permeability for this weak acid by a factor of 10 and decreases the cell size to approximately 80% of the initial value. The intracellular metabolite profile in the new steady-state indicates increases in the glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle fluxes, which are in agreement with the observed increases in specific glucose and O(2) uptake rates.

  10. High Performance Liquid Chromatography Determination of Urinary Hippuric Acid and Benzoic Acid as Indices for Glue Sniffer Urine

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rahim Yacob; Mohamad Raizul Zinalibdin

    2010-01-01

    A simple method for the simultaneous determination of hippuric acid and benzoic acid in urine using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography was described. Chromatography was performed on a Nova-Pak C18 (3.9 x 150 mm) column with a mobile phase of mixed solution methanol: water: acetic acid (20:80:0.2) and UV detection at 254 nm. The calibration curve was linear within concentration range at 0.125 to 6.0 mg/ml of hippuric acid and benzoic acid. The recovery, ...

  11. 4-[(2-Hydroxy-4-pentadecyl-benzylidene-amino]-benzoic Acid Methyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadada Naganagowda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new Schiff base, 4-[(2-hydroxy-4-pentadecyl-benzylidene-amino]-benzoic acid methyl ester was synthesized and its UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and ESI-MS spectroscopic data are presented.

  12. Deoxygenation of benzoic acid on metal oxides. I. The selective pathway to benzaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, M.W.; van Ommen, J.G.; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of the selective deoxygenation of benzoic acid to benzaldehyde was studied on ZnO and ZrO2. The results show conclusively that the reaction proceeds as a reverse type of Mars and van Krevelen mechanism consisting of two steps: hydrogen activates the oxide by reduction resulting in the

  13. Deoxygenation of benzoic acid on metal oxides. 2. Formation of byproducts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, M.W.; van Ommen, J.G.; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2002-01-01

    Benzene, benzophenone, toluene and benzylalcohol are byproducts in the selective deoxygenation of benzoic acid to benzaldehyde on ZnO and ZrO2. In this paper, the pathways to the byproducts are discussed and a complete overview of the reaction network is presented. Benzene and benzophenone are

  14. Pharmacological Studies of p, N-(3, 4-Methylenedioxy phenyl Benzoic Acid (RRL-1364 - Part-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahanukar Sharadini

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed pharmacological investigations of p-N-(3, 4-methylene dioxy phenyl benzoic acid revealed marked hypotensive action which was dose dependent and most marked in cats; it was absent in rats. Atropine could block this hypotensive action, thus suggest-ing cholinomimetic mechanism. Further studies indicated that the hypotension produced was central and possibly medullary in origin.

  15. Interactions of benzoic acid and phosphates with iron oxide colloids using chemical force titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jana; Horton, J Hugh

    2005-11-08

    Colloidal iron oxides are an important component in soil systems and in water treatment processes. Humic-based organic compounds, containing both phenol and benzoate functional groups, are often present in these systems and compete strongly with phosphate species for binding sites on the iron oxide surfaces. Here, we examine the interaction of benzoate and phenolic groups with various iron oxide colloids using atomic force microscopy (AFM) chemical force titration measurements. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 4-(12-mercaptododecyloxy)benzoic acid and 4-(12-mercaptododecyloxy)phenol were used to prepare chemically modified Au-coated AFM tips, and these were used to probe the surface chemistry of a series of iron oxide colloids. The SAMs formed were also characterized using scanning tunneling microscopy, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface pK(a) of 4-(12- mercaptododecyloxy)benzoic acid has been determined to be 4.0 +/- 0.5, and the interaction between the tip and the sample coated with a SAM of this species is dominated by hydrogen bonding. The chemical force titraton profile for an AFM probe coated with 4-(12- mercaptododecyloxy)benzoic acid and a bare iron oxide colloid demonstrates that the benzoic acid function group interacts with all three types of iron oxide sites present on the colloid surface over a wide pH range. Similar experiments were carried out on colloids precipitated in the presence of phosphoric, gallic, and tannic acids. The results are discussed in the context of the competitive binding interactions of solution species present in soils or in water treatment processes.

  16. Studies on 2-(toluene-4-sulfonylamino)-benzoic acid: structure spectroscopic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarcan, E.; Atalay, Y.; Guenay, N.

    2010-01-01

    The molecular geometry, vibrational (IR) spectrum, vibrational frequencies and 1 H and 1 3C NMR chemical shifts were carried out of 2-(toluene-4-sulfonylamino)-benzoic acid with ab initio and density functional computations. On the basis of the comparison between calculated and experimental results assignments of fundamental vibrational modes are examined. The X-ray geometry, experimental frequencies and chemical shifts are compared with the results of our theoretical calculations

  17. Immobilization of Tyrosinase from Avocado Crude Extract in Polypyrrole Films for Inhibitive Detection of Benzoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Brisolari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition-based biosensors were developed by immobilizing tyrosinase (Tyr, polyphenol oxidase from the crude extract of avocado fruit on electrochemically prepared polypyrrole (PPy films. The biosensors were prepared during the electropolymerization of pyrrole in a solution containing a fixed volume of the crude extract of avocado. The dependence of the biosensor responses on the volume used from the crude extract, values of pH and temperature was studied, and a substrate, catechol, at different concentrations, was amperometrically detected by these biosensors. Benzoic acid, a competitive inhibitor of Try, was added to the catechol solutions at specific concentrations aimed at obtaining the inhibition constant, K’m, which ranged from 1.7 to 4.6 mmol∙L−1 for 0.0 and 60 µmol∙L−1 of benzoic acid, respectively. Studies on the inhibition caused by benzoic acid by using PPy/Try films, and catechol as a substrate, allowed us propose how to develop, under optimized conditions, simple and low-cost biosensors based on the use of avocado fruit.

  18. Detection of Benzoic Acid by an Amperometric Inhibitor Biosensor Based on Mushroom Tissue Homogenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kemal Sezgintürk

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric benzoic acid-sensing inhibitor biosensor was prepared by immobilizing mushroom (Agaricus bisporus tissue homogenate on a Clark-type oxygen electrode. The effects of the quantity of mushroom tissue homogenate, the quantity of gelatin and the effect of the crosslinking agent glutaraldehyde percent on the biosensor were studied. The optimum concentration of phenol used as substrate was 200 μM. The bioanalytical properties of the proposed biosensor, such as dependence of the biosensor response on the pH value and the temperature, were investigated. The biosensor responded linearly to benzoic acid in a concentration range of 25–100 μM. Standard deviation (s.d. was ±0.49 μM for 7 successive determinations at a concentration of 75 μM. The inhibitor biosensor based on mushroom tissue homogenate was applied for the determination of benzoic acid in fizzy lemonade, some fruits and groundwater samples. Results were compared to those obtained using AOAC method, showing a good agreement.

  19. Benzoic Acid Production with Respect to Starter Culture and Incubation Temperature during Yogurt Fermentation using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Jeon, Hye-Lin; Eom, Su Jin; Yoo, Mi-Young; Lim, Sang-Dong; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Benzoic acid is occasionally used as a raw material supplement in food products and is sometimes generated during the fermentation process. In this study, the production of naturally occurring yogurt preservatives was investigated for various starter cultures and incubation temperatures, and considered food regulations. Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve were used as yogurt starter cultures in commercial starters. Among these strains, L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei showed the highest production of benzoic acid. Therefore, the use of L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, S. thermophilus, and different incubation temperatures were examined to optimize benzoic acid production. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design was performed for various incubation temperatures (35-44℃) and starter culture inoculum ratios (0-0.04%) in a commercial range of dairy fermentation processes. The optimum conditions were 0.04% L. rhamnosus, 0.01% L. paracasei, 0.02% S. thermophilus, and 38.12℃, and the predicted and estimated concentrations of benzoic acid were 13.31 and 13.94 mg/kg, respectively. These conditions maximized naturally occurring benzoic acid production during the yogurt fermentation process, and the observed production levels satisfied regulatory guidelines for benzoic acid in dairy products.

  20. Accurate prediction of the toxicity of benzoic acid compounds in mice via oral without using any computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein; Gharagheizi, Farhad; Shokrolahi, Arash; Zakinejad, Sajjad

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel method is introduced for desk calculation of toxicity of benzoic acid derivatives. ► There is no need to use QSAR and QSTR methods, which are based on computer codes. ► The predicted results of 58 compounds are more reliable than those predicted by QSTR method. ► The present method gives good predictions for further 324 benzoic acid compounds. - Abstract: Most of benzoic acid derivatives are toxic, which may cause serious public health and environmental problems. Two novel simple and reliable models are introduced for desk calculations of the toxicity of benzoic acid compounds in mice via oral LD 50 with more reliance on their answers as one could attach to the more complex outputs. They require only elemental composition and molecular fragments without using any computer codes. The first model is based on only the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms, which can be improved by several molecular fragments in the second model. For 57 benzoic compounds, where the computed results of quantitative structure–toxicity relationship (QSTR) were recently reported, the predicted results of two simple models of present method are more reliable than QSTR computations. The present simple method is also tested with further 324 benzoic acid compounds including complex molecular structures, which confirm good forecasting ability of the second model.

  1. Modeling molecular acidity with electronic properties and Hammett constants for substituted benzoic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Liu, Lianghong; Liu, Wanhui; Liu, Shaogang; Liu, Shubin

    2011-12-29

    Molecular acidity is an important physiochemical property essential in many fields of molecular studies, but an efficient and reliable computational approach to make accurate predictions is still missing. In this work, based on our previous studies to use gas phase electronic properties such as molecular electrostatic potential and valence natural atomic orbitals of the acidic atom and leaving proton, we demonstrate here that different approaches can be employed to tackle this problem. To that end, we employ 196 singly, doubly, and triply substituted benzoic acids for the study. We show that two different approaches are possible, one focusing on the carboxyl group through its localized electronic properties and the other on the substituting groups via Hammett constants and their additivity rule. Our present results clearly exhibit that with the linear models built from the singly substituted species, one can accurately predict the pK(a) values for the doubly and triply substituted species with both of these two approaches. The predictions from these approaches are consistent with each other and agree well with the experimental data. These intrinsically different approaches are the two manifestations of the same molecular acidity property, both valid and complementary to each other. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. benzoic acid Schiff base and evaluation as corrosion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    acid Schiff base and evaluation as corrosion inhibitor of steel in 2.0 M H2SO4. *. 1. ECHEM .... adopted for this experiment was in accordance with .... Table 4: Kinetic data for mild steel corrosion in 2M H2SO4 containing SBDAB from weight loss measurement. inhibitor .... and anti-bacterial activity of Schiff base derived.

  3. A chromene and prenylated benzoic acid from Piper aduncum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoqui, D C; Kato, M J; Cavalheiro, A J; Bolzani, V da S; Young, M C; Furlan, M

    1999-08-01

    In addition to nerolidol, 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone, methyl 2,2-dimethyl-8-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate, methyl 2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate and methyl 8-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate, two new natural products were isolated from the leaves of Piper aduncum, 2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylic acid and 3-(3',7'-dimethyl-2',6'-octadienyl)-4-methoxybenzoic acid. The structures of the isolates were established based on analysis of spectroscopic data, including ES-MS. The DNA-damaging activity of the isolated compounds was also investigated against mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  4. 3-[(E-(2,4-Dichloropbenzylideneamino]benzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ashraf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal of the title compound, C14H9Cl2NO2, inversion-related dimers with R22(8 ring motifs are formed by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonding. The 3-aminobenzoic acid group and the 2,4-dichlobenzaldehyde moiety subtend a dihedral angle of 55.10 (2°. The H atom of the carboxyl group is disordered over two sites with equal occupancies.

  5. Alkaline earth layered benzoates as reusable heterogeneous catalysts for the methyl esterification of benzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swamy Arêa Maruyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of layered barium, calcium and strontium benzoates and evaluates the potential of these materials as catalysts in the synthesis of methyl benzoate. The methyl esterification of benzoic acid was investigated, where the effects of temperature, alcohol:acid molar ratio and amount of catalyst were evaluated. Ester conversions of 65 to 70% were achieved for all the catalysts under the best reaction conditions. The possibility of recycling these metallic benzoates was also demonstrated, evidenced by unaltered catalytic activity for three consecutive reaction cycles.

  6. Direct quantitation of the preservatives benzoic and sorbic acid in processed foods using derivative spectrophotometry combined with micro dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, Tomoharu; Ikami, Takahito; Kikukawa, Koji; Kobayashi, Masato; Takai, Rina; Kozaki, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2018-02-01

    The preservatives benzoic acid and sorbic acid are generally quantified with separation techniques, such as HPLC or GC. Here we describe a new method for determining these compounds in processed food samples based on a narrowness of the UV-visible spectral band width with derivative processing. It permits more selective identification and determination of target analytes in matrices. After a sample is purified by micro dialysis, UV spectra of sample solutions were measured and fourth order derivatives of the spectrum were calculated. The amplitude between the maximum and minimum values in a high-order derivative spectrum was used for the determination of benzoic acid and sorbic acid. Benzoic acid and sorbic acid levels in several commercially available processed foods were measured by HPLC and the proposed spectrometry method. The levels obtained by the two methods were highly correlated (r 2 >0.97) for both preservatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Docking of oxalyl aryl amino benzoic acid derivatives into PTP1B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neelam; Mittal, Minakshi; Verma, Raman kumar

    2008-01-01

    Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPs) that function as negative regulators of the insulin signaling cascade have been identified as novel targets for the therapeutic enhancement of insulin action in insulin resistant disease states. Reducing Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase1B (PTP1B) abundance not only enhances insulin sensitivity and improves glucose metabolism but also protects against obesity induced by high fat feeding. PTP1B inhibitors such as Formylchromone derivatives, 1, 2-Naphthoquinone derivatives and Oxalyl aryl amino benzoic derivatives may eventually find an important clinical role as insulin sensitizers in the management of Type-II Diabetes and metabolic syndrome. We have carried out docking of modified oxalyl aryl amino benzoic acid derivatives into three dimensional structure of PTP1B using BioMed CAChe 6.1. These compounds exhibit good selectivity for PTP1B over most of phosphatases in selectivity panel such as SHP-2, LAR, CD45 and TCPTP found in literature. This series of compounds identified the amino acid residues such as Gly220 and Arg221 are important for achieving specificity via H-bonding interactions. Lipophilic side chain of methionine in modified oxalyl aryl amino benzoic acid derivative [1b (a2, b2, c1, d)] lies in closer vicinity of hydrophobic region of protein consisted of Meth258 and Phe52 in comparison to active ligand. Docking Score in [1b (a2, b2, c1, d)] is -131.740Kcal/mol much better than active ligand score -98.584Kcal/mol. This information can be exploited to design PTP1B specific inhibitors. PMID:19238234

  8. Benzoic acid derivatives: Evaluation of thermochemical properties with complementary experimental and computational methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verevkin, Sergey P.; Zaitsau, Dzmitry H.; Emeĺyanenko, Vladimir N.; Stepurko, Elena N.; Zherikova, Kseniya V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Vapor pressures of benzoic acid derivatives were measured. • Sublimation enthalpies were derived and compared with the literature. • Thermochemical data tested for consistency using additivity rules and computations. • Contradiction between available enthalpies of sublimation was resolved. • Pairwise interactions of substituents on the benzene ring were derived. - Abstract: Molar sublimation enthalpies of the methyl- and methoxybenzoic acids were derived from the transpiration method, static method, and TGA. Thermochemical data available in the literature were collected, evaluated, and combined with own experimental results. This collection together with the new experimental results reported here has helped to resolve contradictions in the available enthalpy data and to recommend sets of sublimation and formation enthalpies for the benzoic acid derivatives. Gas-phase enthalpies of formation calculated with the G4 quantum-chemical method were in agreement with the experiment. Pairwise interactions of the methyl, methoxy, and carboxyl substituents on the benzene ring were derived and used for the development of simple group-additivity procedures for estimation of the vaporization enthalpies, gas-phase, and liquid-phase enthalpies of formation of substituted benzenes.

  9. Benzoic acid derivatives: Evaluation of thermochemical properties with complementary experimental and computational methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verevkin, Sergey P., E-mail: sergey.verevkin@uni-rostock.de [Department of Physical Chemistry and Department “Science and Technology of Life, Light and Matter”, University of Rostock, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Department of Physical Chemistry, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Zaitsau, Dzmitry H. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Emeĺyanenko, Vladimir N. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Department “Science and Technology of Life, Light and Matter”, University of Rostock, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Stepurko, Elena N. [Chemistry Faculty and Research Institute for Physical Chemical Problems, Belarusian State University, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Zherikova, Kseniya V. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-20

    Highlights: • Vapor pressures of benzoic acid derivatives were measured. • Sublimation enthalpies were derived and compared with the literature. • Thermochemical data tested for consistency using additivity rules and computations. • Contradiction between available enthalpies of sublimation was resolved. • Pairwise interactions of substituents on the benzene ring were derived. - Abstract: Molar sublimation enthalpies of the methyl- and methoxybenzoic acids were derived from the transpiration method, static method, and TGA. Thermochemical data available in the literature were collected, evaluated, and combined with own experimental results. This collection together with the new experimental results reported here has helped to resolve contradictions in the available enthalpy data and to recommend sets of sublimation and formation enthalpies for the benzoic acid derivatives. Gas-phase enthalpies of formation calculated with the G4 quantum-chemical method were in agreement with the experiment. Pairwise interactions of the methyl, methoxy, and carboxyl substituents on the benzene ring were derived and used for the development of simple group-additivity procedures for estimation of the vaporization enthalpies, gas-phase, and liquid-phase enthalpies of formation of substituted benzenes.

  10. Nucleated Poly(L-lactic acid) with N, N‧-oxalyl bis(benzoic acid) dihydrazide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Liang-Liang; Cai, Yan-Hua

    2018-04-01

    One of the major challenges in the field of Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is the enhancement of crystallization. In the present work, the evaluation of the influence of N, N‧-oxalyl bis(benzoic acid) dihydrazide (TBOD), as a novel organic nucleating agent, on the non-isothermal crystallization, melting behavior, and thermal stability of PLLA was performed using differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis. Non-isothermal crystallization measurement revealed that TBOD had an excellent accelerating effect for the crystallization of PLLA in cooling, and upon the addition of 3 wt% TBOD, PLLA exhibited the highest onset crystallization temperature and the crystallization peak temperature, as well as the largest non-isothermal crystallization enthalpy. In particular, when the TBOD concentration was 1 wt% ∼ 3 wt%, the onset crystallization temperatures were higher than the theoretical ceiling temperature of crystallization, thoroughly demonstrating the powerful crystallization promoting ability of TBOD. Additionally, the non-isothermal crystallization behavior of PLLA/TBOD depended on the TBOD concentration, cooling rate as well as the final melting temperature. The melting behavior of PLLA/TBOD after non-isothermal crystallization further confirmed the effect of TBOD on the crystallization process and crystal structure of PLLA, and the appearance of the double melting peaks during melting stages was attribute to the melting-recrystallization. For melting behavior after isothermal crystallization, the crystallization temperature and crystallization time significantly affected the melting behavior of PLLA/TBOD. The addition of TBOD could not change the thermal decomposition profile of the PLLA, but the thermal stability did not regularly decrease with increasing of TBOD concentration, indicating that there might exist intermolecular interaction between PLLA and TBOD.

  11. Synthesis, structural characterization and quantum chemical studies of silicon-containing benzoic acid derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltariov, Mirela-Fernanda; Cojocaru, Corneliu; Shova, Sergiu; Sacarescu, Liviu; Cazacu, Maria

    2016-09-01

    The present paper is concerned with the synthesis and molecular structure investigation of two new benzoic acid derivatives having trimethylsilyl tails, 4-((trimethylsilyl)methoxy) and 4-(3-(trimethylsilyl)propoxy)benzoic acids. The structures of the novel compounds have been confirmed by X-ray crystallography, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR). The theoretical studies of molecules were conducted by using the quantum chemical methods, such as Density Functional Theory (DFT B3LYP/6-31 + G**), Hartree-Fock (HF/6-31 + G**) and semiempirical computations (PM3, PM6 and PM7). The optimized molecular geometries have been found to be in good agreement with experimental structures resulted from the X-ray diffraction. The maximum electronic absorption bands observed at 272-287 nm (UV-vis spectra) have been assigned to π → π* transitions, which were in reasonable agreement with the time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations. The computed vibrational frequencies by DFT method were assigned and compared with the experimental FTIR spectra. The mapped electrostatic potentials revealed the reactive sites, which corroborated the observation of the dimer supramolecular structures formed in the crystals by hydrogen-bonding. The energies of frontier molecular orbitals (HOMO and LUMO), energy gap, dipole moment and molecular descriptors for the new compounds were calculated and discussed.

  12. The mechanism and kinetics of the electrochemical cleavage of azo bond of 2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenyl-azo-benzoic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandic, Zoran; Nigovic, Biljana; Simunic, Branimir

    2004-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of 2-hydroxy-5-[(4-sulfophenyl)azo]benzoic acid, 2-hydroxy-5-[(3-sulfophenyl)azo]benzoic acid, 2-hydroxy-5-[(2-sulfophenyl)azo]benzoic acid and 2-hydroxy-5-azo-benzoic acid has been carried out in aqueous solutions at glassy carbon electrode using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The position of sulfo substituent relative to azo bridge as well as pH of the solution have significant impact on the electrochemical behavior of these compounds. It has been proposed that these compounds are reduced predominantly as hydrazone tautomers resulting in corresponding hydrazo compounds. The overall electrochemical reduction follows DISP2 mechanism, ultimately leading to the 5-amino salicylic acid and sulfanilic acid. The rate determining step is the homogenous redox reaction between intermediate hydrazo compound and 5-amino salicylic acid quinoneimine. The mechanism is proposed in which activated complex of 5-amino salicylic acid quinoneimine and intermediate hydrazo compound is formed with the simultaneous loss of one proton

  13. Benzoic Acid Derivatives with Trypanocidal Activity: Enzymatic Analysis and Molecular Docking Studies toward Trans-Sialidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chagas, or American trypanosomiasis, remains an important public health problem in developing countries. In the last decade, trans-sialidase has become a pharmacological target for new anti-Chagas drugs. In this work, the aims were to design and find a new series of benzoic acid derivatives as trans-sialidase (TS inhibitors and anti-trypanosomal agents. Three compounds (14, 18, and 19 sharing a para-aminobenzoic acid moiety showed more potent trypanocidal activity than the commercially available drugs nifurtimox and benznidazole in both strains: the lysis concentration of 50% of the population (LC50 was <0.15 µM on the NINOA strain, and LC50 < 0.22 µM on the INC-5 strain. Additionally, compound 18 showed a moderate inhibition (47% on the trans-sialidase enzyme and a binding model similar to DANA (pattern A.

  14. Calibration of brachytherapy sources using ferrous sulphate-benzoic acid-xylenol orange dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhvanath, U.; Kini, U.R.; Gupta, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    A solution containing 0.20 mM of ferrous ammonium sulphate, 5.0 mM benzoic acid and 0.20 mM xylenol orange in 0.05 N sulphuric acid was used for the calibration of 252 Cf, 137 Cs, 226 Ra and 60 Co needle sources. A known volume of this solution contained in a pyrex glass tube was irradiated with the source kept in a glass capillary at the centre of the solution. A few hours of irradiation were required for each needle and the absorbance of the solution was measured at 540 nm against the unirradiated solution. The accuracy of this method was found to be within a few percent and is particularly useful for 252 Cf sources as the neutron component of the source contributes significantly to the absorbance produced. (author)

  15. A limited LCA of bio-adipic acid: Manufacturing the nylon-6,6 precursor adipic acid using the benzoic acid degradation pathway from different feedstocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duuren, van J.B.J.H.; Brehmer, B.; Mars, A.E.; Eggink, G.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    A limited life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed on a combined biological and chemical process for the production of adipic acid, which was compared to the traditional petrochemical process. The LCA comprises the biological conversion of the aromatic feedstocks benzoic acid, impure aromatics,

  16. Ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection of aliphatic carboxylic acids on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin by elution with benzoic acid-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Mori, Masanobu; Xu, Qun; Helaleh, Murad I H; Ikedo, Mikaru; Taoda, Hiroshi; Hu, Wenzhi; Hasebe, Kiyoshi; Fritz, James S; Haddad, Paul R

    2003-05-16

    In this study, an aqueous solution consisting of benzoic acid with low background conductivity and beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) of hydrophilic nature and the inclusion effect to benzoic acid were used as eluent for the ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids with different pKa values and hydrophobicity on a polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin in the H+ form. With increasing concentration of beta-cyclodextrin in the eluent, the retention times of the carboxylic acids decreased due to the increased hydrophilicity of the polymethacrylate-based cation-exchange resin surface from the adsorption of OH groups of beta-cyclodextrin. Moreover, the eluent background conductivity decreased with increasing concentration of beta-cyclodextrin in 1 mM benzoic acid, which could result in higher sensitivity for conductimetric detection. The ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of carboxylic acids with high resolution and sensitivity was accomplished successfully by elution with a 1 mM benzoic acid-10 mM cyclodextrin solution without chemical suppression.

  17. Comparison of inhibition effects of some benzoic acid derivatives on sheep heart carbonic anhydrase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Deryanur; Yildiz, Melike; Şentürk, Murat; Erdoǧan, Orhan; Küfrevioǧlu, Ömer Irfan

    2016-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a family of metalloenzymes that requires Zn as a cofactor and catalyze the quick conversion of CO2 to HCO3- and H+. Inhibitors of the carbonic anhydrases (CAs) have medical usage of significant diseases such as glaucoma, epilepsy, gastroduodenal ulcers, acid-base disequilibria and neurological disorders. In the present study, inhibition of CA with some benzoic derivatives (1-6) were investigated. Sheep heart CA (shCA) enzyme was isolated by means of designed affinity chromatography gel (cellulose-benzyl-sulfanylamide) 42.45-fold in a yield of 44 % with 564.65 EU/mg. Purified shCA enzyme was used in vitro studies. In the studies, IC50 values were calculated for 3-aminobenzoic acid (1), 4-aminobenzoic acid (2), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), 2-benzoylbenzoic acid (4), 2,3-dimethoxybenzoic acid (5), and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid (6), showing the inhibition effects on the purified enzyme. Such molecules can be used as pioneer for discovery of novel effective CA inhibitors for medicinal chemistry applications.

  18. Liquid-liquid extraction systems of benzoic acid in water, heptane, methylbenzene or trichloroethylene as co-solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, F.; Gaakeer, W.A.; Granados Mendoza, P.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Schaaf, van der J.; Schouten, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Equilibrium data at (293 ± 2) K are presented for benzoic acid in water and three different organic phases (heptane, methylbenzene, and trichloroethylene). The monomeric partition constant, KPMON, and the dimerization constant, KD, for the organic phase were determined at 293 K. For the

  19. Influence of bleaching on flavor of 34% whey protein concentrate and residual benzoic acid concentration in dried whey products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  20. Natural oils affect the human skin integrity and the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid dose-dependently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2006-01-01

    three natural oils (eucalyptus oil, tea tree oil, peppermint oil) would affect the skin integrity and the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid when applied topically in relevant concentrations. An experimental in vitro model using static diffusion cells mounted with human breast or abdominal skin...

  1. Influence of Bleaching on Flavor of 34% Whey Protein Concentrate and Residual Benzoic Acid Concentration in Dried Whey Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  2. Probe depth matters in dermal microdialysis sampling of benzoic acid after topical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, R; Benfeldt, E; Bangsgaard, N

    2012-01-01

    -2 mm) and deep (>2 mm) positioning of the linear MD probe in the dermis of human abdominal skin, followed by topical application of 4 mg/ml of benzoic acid (BA) in skin chambers overlying the probes. Dialysate was sampled every hour for 12 h and analysed for BA content by high-performance liquid...... chromatography. Probe depth was measured by 20-MHz ultrasound scanning. The area under the time-versus-concentration curve (AUC) describes the drug exposure in the tissue during the experiment and is a relevant parameter to compare for the 3 dermal probe depths investigated. The AUC(0-12) were: superficial...... significantly different from each other (p value paper demonstrates that there is an inverse relationship between the depth of the probe in the dermis and the amount of drug sampled following topical penetration ex vivo. The result is of relevance to the in vivo situation, and it can...

  3. Kavalactones and benzoic acid derivatives from leaves of Piper fuligineum Kunth (Piperaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzeu, Bruna F.; Felippe, Lidiane G.; Furlan, Maysa, E-mail: maysaf@iq.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Cotinguiba, Fernando [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IPPN/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Química

    2018-05-01

    The known kavalactones (E)-4-methoxy-6-styryl-2H-pyran-2-one, 4-methoxy6-(3-phenyloxiran-2-yl)-2H-pyran-2-one, 6-(1,2-dihydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-4-methoxy-2H-pyran2-one, the three benzoic acid derivatives methyl-4-methoxy-3-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)benzoate and methyl 2,2-dimethyl-4-oxochroman-6-carboxylate, and a new methyl 4-methoxy-3-(3-methylbut2-enoyl)benzoate were isolated from the ethanolic extract of Piper fuligineum. The structures of these compounds were determined by using a combination of spectroscopic methods, including 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. This is the first report of the chemical study of P. fuligineum, and the methyl 4-methoxy-3-(3-methylbut2-enoyl)benzoate is described as a new natural product. (author)

  4. Associations of Pseudomonas species and forage grasses enhance degradation of chlorinated benzoic acids in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, S. D.

    1998-12-01

    Using chlorinated benzoic acid (CBA) as a model compound, this study attempted to show that microorganisms and plants can be used as bioremediation agents to clean up contaminated soil sites in a cost effective and environmentally friendly manner. CBA was used because it is present in soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), or chlorinated pesticides. Sixteen forage grasses were screened in combination with 12 bacterial inoculants for their ability to promote the degradation of CBA in soil. Five associations of plants and bacteria were found to degrade CBA to a greater extent than plants without bacterial inoculants. Bacterial inoculants were shown to stimulate CBA degradation by altering the microbial community present on the root surface and thereby increasing the ability of this community to degrade CBA.

  5. ON THE FORMATION OF BENZOIC ACID AND HIGHER-ORDER BENZENE CARBOXYLIC ACIDS IN INTERSTELLAR MODEL ICE GRAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurtry, Brandon M.; Saito, Sean E. J.; Turner, Andrew M.; Chakravarty, Harish K.; Kaiser, Ralf I. [W. M. Keck Research Laboratory in Astrochemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    With a binary ice mixture of benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at 10 K under contamination-free ultrahigh vacuum conditions, the formation of benzene carboxylic acids in interstellar ice grains was studied. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to probe for the formation of new species during the chemical processing of the ice mixture and during the following temperature-programmed desorption. Newly formed benzene carboxylic acid species, i.e., benzoic acid, as well as meta - and para -benzene dicarboxylic acid, were assigned using newly emerging bands in the infrared spectrum; a reaction mechanism, along with rate constants, was proposed utilizing the kinetic fitting of the coupled differential equations.

  6. Rh(III) -Catalyzed C-H Olefination of Benzoic Acids under Mild Conditions using Oxygen as the Sole Oxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quandi; Zhu, Changlei; Zhao, Huaiqing; Su, Weiping

    2016-02-04

    Phthalide skeletons have been synthesized for the first time through a Rh(III) -catalyzed C-H olefination of benzoic acids under mild conditions using oxygen as the sole oxidant. Aromatic acids bearing a variety of functional groups could react with diverse alkenes to afford the desired cyclized lactones or uncyclized alkenylarenes in moderate-to-excellent yields. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Dietary Supplementation of Benzoic Acid and Essential Oil Compounds Affects Buffering Capacity of the Feeds, Performance of Turkey Poults and Their Antioxidant Status, pH in the Digestive Tract, Intestinal Microbiota and Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Giannenas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a basal diet with benzoic acid or thymol or a mixture of essential oil blends (MEO or a combination of benzoic acid with MEO (BMEO on growth performance of turkey poults. Control groups were fed a basal diet. In trial 1, benzoic acid was supplied at levels of 300 and 1,000 mg/kg. In trial 2, thymol or the MEO were supplied at levels of 30 mg/kg. In trial 3, the combination of benzoic acid with MEO was evaluated. Benzoic acid, MEO and BMEO improved performance, increased lactic acid bacteria populations and decreased coliform bacteria in the caeca. Thymol, MEO and BMEO improved antioxidant status of turkeys. Benzoic acid and BMEO reduced the buffering capacity compared to control feed and the pH values of the caecal content. Benzoic acid and EOs may be suggested as an effective alternative to AGP in turkeys.

  8. Determination of the limit of quantification of the calorimeter using a mixture of benzoic acid and silicon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Vesna R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years quality control has received a great attention in laboratory work. Implementation of the international standard ISO/IEC 17025 is necessary for any laboratory that wishes to establish quality control in its work. One of the important factors for meeting the requirements of this standard is the usage of the certified reference materials (CRM in laboratory work. In order to determine the performance of the calorimeter, benzoic acid as CRM, from AlliedSignal Riedelda Haen, Ref.: 33045 and SiO2, Pro analyze, in various mass ratios was used. The results showed that benzoic acid can be successfully utilized for the control of the entire technical and instrumental measuring range and resolve the problem of determination of the limit of detection and quantification of the calorimeter.

  9. Spontaneous adsorption of 3,5-bis(3,5-dinitrobenzoylamino) benzoic acid onto carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, Julieta I.; Strumia, Miriam C. [Departamento de Quimica Organica (IMBIV-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (5000) (Argentina); Passeggi, Mario C.G. [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces (INTEC-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (3000) (Argentina); Ferron, Julio [Laboratorio de Superficies e Interfaces (INTEC-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (3000) (Argentina); Departamento de Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (3000) (Argentina); Baruzzi, Ana M. [Departamento de Fisicoquimica (INFIQC-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (5000) (Argentina); Brunetti, Veronica [Departamento de Fisicoquimica (INFIQC-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (5000) (Argentina)], E-mail: brunetti@fcq.unc.edu.ar

    2009-07-01

    Dendritic molecules contain multifunctional groups that can be used to efficiently control the properties of an electrode surface. We are developing strategies to generate a highly functionalized surface using multifunctional and rigid dendrons immobilized onto different substrates. In the present work, we explore the immobilization of a dendritic molecule: 3,5-bis(3,5-dinitrobenzoylamino) benzoic acid (D-NO{sub 2}) onto carbon surfaces showing a simple and rapid way to produce conductive surfaces with electroactive chemical functions. The immobilized D-NO{sub 2} layer has been characterized using atomic force microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. D-NO{sub 2} adsorbs onto carbon surfaces spontaneously by dipping the electrode in dendron solutions. Reduction of this layer generates the hydroxylamine product. The resulting redox-active layer exhibits a well-behaved redox response for the adsorbed nitroso/hydroxylamine couple. The film permeability of the derivatized surface has been analyzed employing the electrochemical response of redox probes: Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 3+}/Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 2+} and Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-}/Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 4-}. Electrocatalytic oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide onto a modified carbon surface was also observed.

  10. Spontaneous adsorption of 3,5-bis(3,5-dinitrobenzoylamino) benzoic acid onto carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez, Julieta I.; Strumia, Miriam C.; Passeggi, Mario C.G.; Ferron, Julio; Baruzzi, Ana M.; Brunetti, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic molecules contain multifunctional groups that can be used to efficiently control the properties of an electrode surface. We are developing strategies to generate a highly functionalized surface using multifunctional and rigid dendrons immobilized onto different substrates. In the present work, we explore the immobilization of a dendritic molecule: 3,5-bis(3,5-dinitrobenzoylamino) benzoic acid (D-NO 2 ) onto carbon surfaces showing a simple and rapid way to produce conductive surfaces with electroactive chemical functions. The immobilized D-NO 2 layer has been characterized using atomic force microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. D-NO 2 adsorbs onto carbon surfaces spontaneously by dipping the electrode in dendron solutions. Reduction of this layer generates the hydroxylamine product. The resulting redox-active layer exhibits a well-behaved redox response for the adsorbed nitroso/hydroxylamine couple. The film permeability of the derivatized surface has been analyzed employing the electrochemical response of redox probes: Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ /Ru(NH 3 ) 6 2+ and Fe(CN) 6 3- /Fe(CN) 6 4- . Electrocatalytic oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide onto a modified carbon surface was also observed.

  11. Kinetic study of adsorption and degradation of aniline, benzoic acid, phenol, and diuron in soil suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, T.H.; Lavy, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the effects of low temperature and accelerated soil-solution contact on soil adsorption of labile organic chemicals. The authors measured the kinetics of adsorption and degradation of 14 C-aniline, 14 C-benzoic acid, 14 C-phenol, and 14 C-diuron in the solution phase at 3 and 22 0 C. In the initial stages of reactions, the adsorption of all four chemicals was instantaneous at both temperatures under accelerated soil and solution mixing. A steady state was observed after the onset of equilibrium for the adsorption reaction for all compounds within 10 to 30 min. Its length varied according to the expected order of susceptibility to microbial degradation, i.e., diuron > aniline > phenol ≥ benzoate. It was apparent that the steady-state period without or in combination with low temperature could be advantageously used to obtain adsorption measurements in microbially active systems. A mechanistic sorption-catalyzed degradation model was evaluated to uncouple mathematically these processes. The model described satisfactorily the disappearance of labile chemicals in soil suspensions. Numerical analysis allowed the concurrent determination of adsorption, desorption, and biodegradation rate coefficients

  12. Proton magnetic resonance studies in solutions of o- and p-hydroxy benzoic acids in dioxan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arulmozhi, V.; Srinivasa Rao, A.; Balasubramanian, V.

    1990-01-01

    High resolution proton(NMR) studies were carried out in solutions of o- and p-hydroxy benzoic acids(OHBA and PHBA) in dioxan (D) for several solute concentrations in the range of 0.01 to 0.10 mole fraction (mf). The spectra corresponding to OH and COOH protons could be distinguished in solutions of OHBA in D whereas solution of PHBA in D show only peak in the range of chemical shifts attributable to OH and COOH protons. In the solution of OHBA in dioxan the chemical shift of the proton of the hydroxyl group increases with increase of solute concentration and attains a maximum at a solute concentration of 0.04 mf and then decreases with further increase of solute concentration. For the carboxyl group, the chemical shift increase with increase of solute concentration and attians a maximum at 0.08 mf solute concentration. In solutions of PHBA in D the chemical shift of the single line observed increases with increase of solute concentration and attains a maximum at a solute concentration of 0.05 mf. The data are interpreted as due to formation of hydrogen bonds between the molecule of OHBA and PHBA and dioxan. The proton magnetic relaxation studies in the above solutions also confirm the above findings. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs

  13. Metabolic engineering of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for the production of para-hydroxy benzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqin Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available para-hydroxy benzoic acid (PHBA is the key component for preparing parabens, a common preservatives in food, drugs and personal care products, as well as high performance bioplastics such as liquid crystal polymers (LCP. Pseudomonas putida KT2440 was engineered to produce PHBA from glucose via the shikimate pathway intermediate chorismate. To obtain the PHBA production strain, chorismate lyase UbiC from Escherichia coli and a feedback resistant 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase encoded by gene aroGD146N were overexpressed individually and simultaneously. In addition, genes related to product degradation (pobA or competing for the precursor chorismate (pheA and trpE were deleted from the genome. To further improve PHBA production, the glucose metabolism repressor hexR was knocked out in order to increase erythrose-4- phosphate and NAPH supply. The best strain achieved a maximum titre of 1.73 g L-1 and a carbon yield of 18.1 % (C-mol C-mol-1 in a non-optimized fed-batch fermentation. This is to date the highest PHBA concentration produced by P. putida using a chorismate lyase.

  14. Oxidation of benzoic acid by heat-activated persulfate: Effect of temperature on transformation pathway and product distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrinyi, Nick; Pham, Anh Le-Tuan

    2017-09-01

    Heat activates persulfate (S 2 O 8 2- ) into sulfate radical (SO 4 - ), a powerful oxidant capable of transforming a wide variety of contaminants. Previous studies have shown that an increase in temperature accelerates the rates of persulfate activation and contaminant transformation. However, few studies have considered the effect of temperature on contaminant transformation pathway. The objective of this study was to determine how temperature (T = 22-70 °C) influences the activation of persulfate, the transformation of benzoic acid (i.e., a model compound), and the distribution of benzoic acid oxidation products. The time-concentration profiles of the products suggest that benzoic acid was transformed via decarboxylation and hydroxylation mechanisms, with the former becoming increasingly important at elevated temperatures. The pathway through which the products were further oxidized was also influenced by the temperature of persulfate activation. Our findings suggest that the role of temperature in the persulfate-based treatment systems is not limited only to controlling the rates of sulfate and hydroxyl radical generation. The ability of sulfate radical to initiate decarboxylation reactions and, more broadly, fragmentation reactions, as well as the effect of temperature on these transformation pathways could be important to the transformation of a number of organic contaminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Short communication: Change of naturally occurring benzoic acid during skim milk fermentation by commercial cheese starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Noori; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Sun-Young; Yoo, Mi-Young; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to investigate the change of naturally occurring benzoic acid (BA) during skim milk fermentation by 4 kinds of commercial cheese starters used in domestic cheese. The culture was incubated at 3-h intervals for 24h at 30, 35, and 40°C. The BA content during fermentation by Streptococcus thermophilus STB-01 was detected after 12h at all temperatures, sharply increasing at 30°C. In Lactobacillus paracasei LC431, BA was detected after 9h at all temperatures, sharply increasing until 18h and decreasing after 18h at 30 and 35°C. In the case of R707 (consisting of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris), BA increased from 6h to 15h and decreased after 15h at 40°C. The BA during STB-01 and CHN-11 (1:1; mixture of S. thermophilus, Lc. lactis ssp. lactis, Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris, Lc. lactis ssp. diacetylactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris) fermentation was detected after 3h at 35 and 40°C, sharply increasing up to 12h and decreasing after 15h at 35°C, and after 6h, increasing up to 9h at 30°C. After 3h, it steadily decreased at 40°C. The highest amount of BA was found during the fermentation by R707 at 30°C; 15h with 12.46mg/kg. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis of selectively 13C-labelled benzoic acid for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic measurement of glycine conjugation activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akira, Kazuki; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Baba, Shigeo

    1995-01-01

    The synthesis of [4- 13 C]benzoic acid (BA) labelled in a single protonated carbon, for use as a probe to measure glycine conjugation activity by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, has been reported. The labelled compound was prepared by a seven-step synthetic scheme on a relatively small scale using [2- 13 C] acetone as the source of label in overall yield of 16%. The usefulness of [4- 13 C]BA was demonstrated by the NMR spectroscopic monitoring of urinary excretion of [4- 13 C]hippuric acid in the rat administered with the labelled BA. (Author)

  17. Syntheses and structures of three heterometallic coordination polymers derived from 4-pyridin-3-yl-benzoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Wei-Hui; Yang, Guo-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Three lanthanide–transition-metal coordination polymers, namely, [Er 2 L 6 (H 2 O)][Cu 2 I 2 ] (1), [ErL 3 ][CuI] (2), and [Dy 2 L 6 (BPDC) 0.5 (H 2 O) 4 ][Cu 3 I 2 ] (3) (HL=4-pyridin-3-yl-benzoic acid, H 2 BPDC=4,4′-biphenyldicarboxylic acid) have been made by reacting Ln 2 O 3 and CuI with HL at different temperatures under hydrothermal conditions. All the complexes are characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, respectively. 1–3 all construct from dimeric (Ln 2 ) and (Cu 2 ) units and exhibit two types of the structural features: 1 is a two-dimensional layer, 2–3 are three-dimensional frameworks. Interestingly, the in situ formation of the BPDC ligand is found in the structure of 3. The distinct architectures of these complexes indicated that the reaction temperature plays an important role in the formation of higher dimensional coordination polymers. - Graphical abstract: By hydrothermal reaction of lanthanide oxide, copper halide, and 4-pyridin-3-yl-benzoic ligand at different temperatures, a series of 1-D to 3-D 3d–4f coordination polymers, namely [ErL 3 (H 2 O) 2 ][CuI], [Er 2 L 6 (H 2 O)][Cu 2 I 2 ], [ErL 3 ][CuI], and [Dy 2 L 6 (BPDC) 0.5 (H 2 O) 4 ][Cu 3 I 2 ], have been made, respectively. - Highlights: • Three novel heterometallic coordination polymers derived from 4-pyridin-3-yl-benzoic acid have been hydrothermally synthesized. • Mixed dinuclear motifs of (Ln 2 ) and (Cu 2 ) serve as secondary building units to generate 2-D layer and 3-D frameworks. • It is proved that higher temperature is apt to permit construction of high dimensional architectures

  18. Radiometric titration of officinal radiopharmaceuticals using radioactive kryptonates as end-point indicators. I. Salicylic, acetylosalicylic, benzoic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toelgyessy, J; Dillinger, P [Slovenska Vysoka Skola Technicka, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Chemickotechnologicka Fakulta; Harangozo, M; Jombik, J [Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Farmaceuticka Fakulta

    1980-01-01

    A method for the determination of salicylic, acetylsalicylic and benzoic acids in officinal pharmaceutical based on radiometric titration with 0.1 mol.l/sup -1/ NaOH was developed. The end-point was detected with the aid of radioactive glass kryptonate. After the end-point, the excess titrant attacks the glass surface layers and this results in releasing /sup 85/Kr, and consequently, in decreasing the radioactivity of the kryptonate employed. The radioactive kryptonate used as an indicator was prepared by the bombardment of glass with accelerated /sup 85/Kr ions. The developed method is simple, accurate and correct.

  19. Inhibitors of HIV-1 maturation: Development of structure-activity relationship for C-28 amides based on C-3 benzoic acid-modified triterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidorski, Jacob J; Liu, Zheng; Sit, Sing-Yuen; Chen, Jie; Chen, Yan; Sin, Ny; Venables, Brian L; Parker, Dawn D; Nowicka-Sans, Beata; Terry, Brian J; Protack, Tricia; Rahematpura, Sandhya; Hanumegowda, Umesh; Jenkins, Susan; Krystal, Mark; Dicker, Ira B; Meanwell, Nicholas A; Regueiro-Ren, Alicia

    2016-04-15

    We have recently reported on the discovery of a C-3 benzoic acid (1) as a suitable replacement for the dimethyl succinate side chain of bevirimat (2), an HIV-1 maturation inhibitor that reached Phase II clinical trials before being discontinued. Recent SAR studies aimed at improving the antiviral properties of 2 have shown that the benzoic acid moiety conferred topographical constraint to the pharmacophore and was associated with a lower shift in potency in the presence of human serum albumin. In this manuscript, we describe efforts to improve the polymorphic coverage of the C-3 benzoic acid chemotype through modifications at the C-28 position of the triterpenoid core. The dimethylaminoethyl amides 17 and 23 delivered improved potency toward bevirimat-resistant viruses while increasing C24 in rat oral PK studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Functionalization of Chitosan with 3,4,5-Trihydroxy Benzoic Acid Moiety for The Uptake of Chromium Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Sabarudin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan-based chelating resin, the cross-linked chitosan functionalized with 3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoic acid moiety (CCTS-THBA resin, was newly synthesized and its adsorption behavior toward appropriate elements was investigated. At pH 5-9, the CCTS-THBA resin showed quantitative adsorption (87-91% for Cr (VI, while only < 15% for Cr (III. The addition of cyclohexanediamine tetraacetic acid (CyDTA to the samples resulted in a considerably increase of the adsorption of both chromium species. In this condition, Cr (III is chelated with CyDTA to form anionic complexes at pH 3-5, which was then completely adsorbed on the resin by ion exchange mechanism. Similarly, the adsorption of Cr (VI reached almost 100% in pH range of 3-6. The adsorption capacity of CCTS-THBA resin for Cr (VI was 109 mg g-1.

  1. Protective effect of ketotifen and disodium cromoglycate against bronchoconstriction induced by aspirin, benzoic acid or tartrazine in intolerant asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, B

    1979-01-01

    Oral challenge tests with acetylsalicylic acid, tartrazine or benzoic acid were performed in 7 intolerant asthmatic patients after a 3-day treatment with either orally taken ketotifen (1 mg twice daily) or inhaled disodium cromoglycate (20 mg four times daily) at random. Protection was noted with ketotifen in 5, with DSCG in 3 patients. On the evaluation of the mean percentage of the maximum decline in the forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) only ketotifen afforded significant protection statistically (p less than 0.05). All the intolerant asthmatics studies showed, as an immunological abnormity, a slight, but significant decrease of the C1-inhibitor levels. Moreover, in three out of these the alpha 1-antitrypsin serum values were under the lower normal range.

  2. Benzoic acid fermentation from starch and cellulose via a plant-like β-oxidation pathway in Streptomyces maritimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noda Shuhei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzoic acid is one of the most useful aromatic compounds. Despite its versatility and simple structure, benzoic acid production using microbes has not been reported previously. Streptomyces are aerobic, Gram-positive, mycelia-forming soil bacteria, and are known to produce various kinds of antibiotics composed of many aromatic residues. S. maritimus possess a complex amino acid modification pathway and can serve as a new platform microbe to produce aromatic building-block compounds. In this study, we carried out benzoate fermentation using S. maritimus. In order to enhance benzoate productivity using cellulose as the carbon source, we constructed endo-glucanase secreting S. maritimus. Results After 4 days of cultivation using glucose, cellobiose, or starch as a carbon source, the maximal level of benzoate reached 257, 337, and 460 mg/l, respectively. S. maritimus expressed β-glucosidase and high amylase-retaining activity compared to those of S. lividans and S. coelicolor. In addition, for effective benzoate production from cellulosic materials, we constructed endo-glucanase-secreting S. maritimus. This transformant efficiently degraded the phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC and then produced 125 mg/l benzoate. Conclusions Wild-type S. maritimus produce benzoate via a plant-like β-oxidation pathway and can assimilate various carbon sources for benzoate production. In order to encourage cellulose degradation and improve benzoate productivity from cellulose, we constructed endo-glucanase-secreting S. maritimus. Using this transformant, we also demonstrated the direct fermentation of benzoate from cellulose. To achieve further benzoate productivity, the L-phenylalanine availability needs to be improved in future.

  3. In situ N{sub 2}O emissions are not mitigated by hippuric and benzoic acids under denitrifying conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krol, D.J., E-mail: dominika.krol@teagasc.ie; Forrestal, P.J.; Lanigan, G.J.; Richards, K.G.

    2015-04-01

    Ruminant urine patches deposited onto pasture are a significant source of greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) from livestock agriculture. Increasing food demand is predicted to lead to a rise in ruminant numbers globally, which, in turn will result in elevated levels of urine-derived N{sub 2}O. Therefore mitigation strategies are urgently needed. Urine contains hippuric acid and together with one of its breakdown products, benzoic acid, has previously been linked to mitigating N{sub 2}O emissions from urine patches in laboratory studies. However, the sole field study to date found no effect of hippuric and benzoic acid concentration on N{sub 2}O emissions. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the in situ effect of these urine constituents on N{sub 2}O emissions under conditions conducive to denitrification losses. Unadulterated bovine urine (0 mM of hippuric acid, U) was applied, as well as urine amended with either benzoic acid (96 mM, U + BA) or varying rates of hippuric acid (8 and 82 mM, U + HA1, U + HA2). Soil inorganic nitrogen (N) and N{sub 2}O fluxes were monitored over a 66 day period. Urine application resulted in elevated N{sub 2}O flux for 44 days. The largest N{sub 2}O fluxes accounting for between 13% (U) and 26% (U + HA1) of total loss were observed on the day of urine application. Between 0.9 and 1.3% of urine-N was lost as N{sub 2}O. Cumulative N{sub 2}O loss from the control was 0.3 kg N{sub 2}O–N ha{sup −1} compared with 11, 9, 12, and 10 kg N{sub 2}O–N ha{sup −1} for the U, U + HA1, U + HA2, and U + BA treatments, respectively. Incremental increases in urine HA or increase in BA concentrations had no effect on N{sub 2}O emissions. Although simulation of dietary manipulation to reduce N{sub 2}O emissions through altering individual urine constituents appears to have no effect, there may be other manipulations such as reducing N content or inclusion of synthetic inhibitory products that warrant further investigation

  4. Validated HPLC method for identification and quantification of p-hydroxy benzoic acid and agnuside in Vitex negundo and Vitex trifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Shah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection method was developed for the identification and quantification of p-hydroxy benzoic acid and agnuside in the extracts of Vitex negundo and Vitex trifolia. The separation was achieved using acetonitrile and O-phosphoric acid–water (0.5%, v/v as the mobile phase in an isocratic elution mode. Mean retention times of standard p-hydroxy benzoic acid and agnuside were 6.14 and 11.90 min respectively. The developed method was validated as per the ICH guidelines for limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity, accuracy and precision. Good linearity (r2≥0.999 was observed for both the compounds in wide concentration range. Relative standard deviation values for intra-day and inter-day precision studies were less than 2%. The analytical recoveries of p-hydroxy benzoic acid and agnuside by the developed HPLC method were 93.07% and 106.11% respectively. Two compounds were identified and quantified in leaves and bar extracts of V. negundo and V. trifolia using the developed HPLC method. Keywords: Vitex negundo, Vitex trifolia, HPLC-PDA, p-Hydroxy benzoic acid, Agnuside

  5. Amino propynyl benzoic acid building block in rigid spacers of divalent ligands binding to the Syk SH2 domains with equally high affinity as the natural ligand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Frank J; de Mol, Nico J; Fischer, Marcel J E; Liskamp, Rob M J; Dekker, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The construction of rigid spacers composed of amino propynyl benzoic acid building blocks is described. These spacers were used to link two phosphopeptide ligand sites towards obtaining divalent ligands with a high affinity for Syk tandem SH2 domains, which are important in signal transduction. The

  6. Photoinduced Birefringent Pattern and Photoinactivation of Liquid-Crystalline Copolymer Films with Benzoic Acid and Phenylaldehyde Side Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro; Inada, Shogo; Fujii, Ryosuke; Kondo, Mizuho

    2018-02-06

    In situ formation of N-benzylideneaniline (NBA) side groups achieved photoinduced cooperative reorientation of photoinactive copolymers with phenylaldehyde (PA) and benzoic acid (BA) side groups doped with 4-methoxyaniline (AN) molecules. Thermally stimulated molecular reorientation of the side groups was generated due to the axis-selective photoreaction of the NBA moieties. Selective coating with AN on the copolymer film formed NBA moieties in the desired region, resulting in a photoinduced birefringent pattern. Additionally, postannealing at an elevated temperature for a long time attained photoinactivation of the reoriented film, and recoating with AN to form NBA achieved the multiple birefringent patterns and repatterning of the reoriented structures. The slow thermal hydrolysis of NBA, which was 50 times slower than the thermally stimulated self-organization of the side groups due to the presence of BA side groups, contributed to the photodurability of the reoriented film and multiple birefringent patterns.

  7. Crystal structures of three co-crystals of 1,2-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)ethane with 4-alk-oxy-benzoic acids: 4-eth-oxy-benzoic acid-1,2-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)ethane (2/1), 4-n-propoxybenzoic acid-1,2-bis(pyridin-4-yl)ethane (2/1) and 4-n-but-oxy-benzoic acid-1,2-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)ethane (2/1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Yohei; Gotoh, Kazuma; Ishida, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-01

    The crystal structures of three hydrogen-bonded co-crystals of 4-alk-oxy-benzoic acid-1,2-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)ethane (2/1), namely, 2C9H10O3·C12H12N2, (I), 2C10H12O3·C12H12N2, (II), and 2C11H14O3·C12H12N2, (III), have been determined at 93, 290 and 93 K, respectively. In (I), the asymmetric unit consists of one 4-eth-oxy-benzoic acid mol-ecule and one half-mol-ecule of 1,2-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)ethane, which lies on an inversion centre. In (II) and (III), the asymmetric units each comprise two crystallographically independent 4-alk-oxy-benzoic acid mol-ecules and one 1,2-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)ethane mol-ecule. In each crystal, the two components are linked by O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a linear hydrogen-bonded 2:1unit of the acid and the base. Similar to the structure of 2:1 unit of (I), the units of (II) and (III) adopt nearly pseudo-inversion symmetry. The 2:1 units of (I), (II) and (III) are linked via C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming tape structures.

  8. A limited LCA of bio-adipic acid: manufacturing the nylon-6,6 precursor adipic acid using the benzoic acid degradation pathway from different feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duuren, J B J H; Brehmer, B; Mars, A E; Eggink, G; Dos Santos, V A P Martins; Sanders, J P M

    2011-06-01

    A limited life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed on a combined biological and chemical process for the production of adipic acid, which was compared to the traditional petrochemical process. The LCA comprises the biological conversion of the aromatic feedstocks benzoic acid, impure aromatics, toluene, or phenol from lignin to cis, cis-muconic acid, which is subsequently converted to adipic acid through hydrogenation. Apart from the impact of usage of petrochemical and biomass-based feedstocks, the environmental impact of the final concentration of cis, cis-muconic acid in the fermentation broth was studied using 1.85% and 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid. The LCA focused on the cumulative energy demand (CED), cumulative exergy demand (CExD), and the CO(2) equivalent (CO(2) eq) emission, with CO(2) and N(2) O measured separately. The highest calculated reduction potential of CED and CExD were achieved using phenol, which reduced the CED by 29% and 57% with 1.85% and 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid, respectively. A decrease in the CO(2) eq emission was especially achieved when the N(2) O emission in the combined biological and chemical process was restricted. At 4.26% cis, cis-muconic acid, the different carbon backbone feedstocks contributed to an optimized reduction of CO(2) eq emissions ranging from 14.0 to 17.4 ton CO(2) eq/ton adipic acid. The bulk of the bioprocessing energy intensity is attributed to the hydrogenation reactor, which has a high environmental impact and a direct relationship with the product concentration in the broth. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Spectroscopic and first principles investigation on 4-[(4-pyridinylmethylene)amino]-benzoic acid bearing pyridyl and carboxyl anchoring groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Qiaoyi

    2018-03-01

    We report a combined experimental and computational investigation on the structure and photophysics of 4-[(4-pyridinylmethylene)amino]-benzoic acid, a functional molecule bearing two anchoring groups for attachment onto a TiO2 surface and perovskite surface, for potential solar cell application. This molecule possesses interesting adsorption properties in perovskite solar cell because the pyridyl group serves as the Lewis base and targets Lewis acidic sites in the perovskite surface, while the carboxyl group targets TiO2 surface, improving the coupling between the perovskite surface and the TiO2 surface. The electronic structures of the molecule and its photochemistry are revealed by the UV-vis absorption spectra and the fluorescence spectra under visible light irradiation, which are combined with density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) analysis. Considering the bi-anchoring groups and the conjugated π system embedded in the molecule, we anticipate it can molecular engineer the TiO2/perovskite interface in perovskite solar cell.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and biocidal activity of new organotin complexes of 2-(3-oxocyclohex-1-enyl)benzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Flaviana T; de Lima, Geraldo M; Maia, José R da S; Speziali, Nivaldo L; Ardisson, José D; Rodrigues, Leonardo; Correa, Ary; Romero, Oscar B

    2010-03-01

    The reaction of 1,3-cyclohexadione with 2-aminobenzoic acid has produced the 2-(3-oxocyclohex-1-enyl)benzoic acid (HOBz). Subsequent reactions of the ligand with organotin chlorides led to [Me(2)Sn(OBz)O](2) (1), [Bu(2)Sn(OBz)O](2) (2), [Ph(2)Sn(OBz)O](2) (3), [Me(3)Sn(OBz)] (4), [Bu(3)Sn(OBz)] (5) and [Ph(3)Sn(OBz)] (6). All complexes have been fully characterized. In addition the structure of complexes (2) and (4) have been authenticated by X-ray crystallography. The biological activity of all derivatives has been screened against Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. In addition we have performed toxicological testes employing human kidney cell. The complexes (3), (5) and (6) displayed the best values of inhibition of the fungus growing, superior to ketoconazole. Compound (5) presented promising results in view of the antifungal and cytotoxicity assays. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of salicylic acid, benzoic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid for their ability to induce flowering in Lemna Gibba G3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, F.C.; Kang, B.G.; Khurana, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The long-day plant Lemna gibba G3 fails to flower under continuous light on NH 4 + -free 0.5 H medium. This inhibition is completely reversed by 10 μM salicyclic acid (SA) or 32 μM benzoic acid (BA). By contrast, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-OH-BA) has virtually no effect on flowering at levels as high as 320 μM. Uptake rates for the three compounds are comparable. Competition studies using 14 C-SA indicate that, compared to SA, BA is about 10-fold less effective and p-OH-BA is nearly 100-fold less effective in competing against 14 C-SA uptake. Both the effectiveness of SA for inducing flowering and the uptake of 14 C-SA are substantially increased as the pH of the medium is lowered from 8 to 4.5. Under a nitrogen atmosphere the uptake of 14 C-SA is partially inhibited above pH 5. Phosphate metabolism may be important for flowering since increasing the phosphate level in the medium 10-15 fold results in substantial flowering, and suboptimal levels of Sa and phosphate interact synergistically to stimulate flowering. The interaction of phosphate with BA and p-OH-BA will be presented

  12. Hydroxyl group induced adsorption of four-nitro benzoic acid on Si(100) 2x1 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihm, K.; Kang, T.-H.; Hwang, C.C.; Kim, K.-J.; Hwang, H.-N.; Kim, H.-D.; Han, J.H.; Moon, S.; Kim, B.; POSTECH

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A number of studies have been conducted on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) in order to study the adhesion of polymer films on various substrates. Recently, the studies on SAMs on the semiconductor substrate are more motivated because of their possible application to nanoscale devices. For the electronic and chemical properties suitable for various applications, the aromatic ring has been used as a building block of various molecules forming SAMs. Here, we used four-nitro benzoic acid (4-NBA) as a model planar aromatic compound, in which the phenyl ring, the carboxylic functional group, and NO2 are on the same plane. The adsorption mechanism of 4-NBA on the in-situ prepared OH/Si(100) 2x1 surface was investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and near-edge x-ray absorption e structure. The results revealed that the 4-NBA molecule reacts with the hydroxyl group on the Si(100) 2x1 surface through deprotonation of the carboxyl group. The saturation coverage of 4-NBA estimated by the O 1s ratio is 1/2 ML. Additionally, we could observe the desorption of the oxygen atom from the NO2 moiety of the 4-NBA upon irradiating the surface by photons of 500 eV

  13. (Benzoato-κObis(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2N,N′copper(II chloride benzoic acid disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Xiang Huang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Cu(C7H5O2(C12H8N22]Cl·2C6H5COOH, the CuII ion is coordinated by one carboxylate O atom from a benzoate anion and four N atoms from two phenantroline ligands in a distorted five-coordinate trigonal-bipyramidal CuON4 chromophore. The Cu2+ and the Cl− ion are imposed by a twofold rotation axiss which also bisects the equally disordered benzoate anion. In the crystal, the molecules are assembled into chains along [010] by C—H...Cl, O—H...Cl and C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions. The resulting chains are further connected into two-dimensional supramolecular layers parallel to [100] by interchain π...π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.823 (5 Å] between the phenanthroline ligands and the benzoic acid molecules, and by C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions. Strong π...π stacking interactions between adjacent phenantroline ligands [3.548 (4 Å] assemble the layers into a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture.

  14. Quantification of centimeter-scale spatial variation in PAH, glucose and benzoic acid mineralization and soil organic matter in road-side soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hybholt, Trine K.; Aamand, Jens [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Johnsen, Anders R., E-mail: arj@geus.dk [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2011-05-15

    The aim of the study was to determine centimeter-scale spatial variation in mineralization potential in diffusely polluted soil. To this end we employed a 96-well microplate method to measure the mineralization of {sup 14}C-labeled organic compounds in deep-well microplates and thereby compile mineralization curves for 348 soil samples of 0.2-cm{sup 3}. Centimeter-scale spatial variation in organic matter and the mineralization of glucose, benzoic acid, and PAHs (phenanthrene and pyrene) was determined for urban road-side soil sampled as arrays (7 x 11 cm) of 96 subsamples. The spatial variation in mineralization was visualized by means of 2-D contour maps and quantified by means of semivariograms. The geostatistical analysis showed that the easily degradable compounds (glucose and benzoic acid) exhibited little spatial variation in mineralization potential, whereas the mineralization was highly heterogeneous for the PAH compounds that require specialized degraders. The spatial heterogeneity should be taken into account when estimating natural attenuation rates. - Highlights: > Geostatistics were applied at the centimeter scale. > Glucose and benzoic acid mineralization showed little spatial variation. > PAH mineralization was highly variable at the sub-centimeter scale. > High spatial heterogeneity may be caused by low functional redundancy. - This study supports the hypothesis that specialized xenobiotic degraders may show high spatial heterogeneity in soil due to low functional redundancy.

  15. Age-dependent changes from allylphenol to prenylated benzoic acid production in Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaia, Anderson M; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Jeffrey, Christopher S; Kato, Massuo J

    2014-10-01

    HPLC-DAD and principal component analysis (PCA) of the (1)H NMR spectrum of crude plant extracts showed high chemical variability among seedlings and adult organs of Piper gaudichaudianum. While gaudichaudianic acid was the major compound in the adult leaves, apiole and dillapiole were the major compounds in their seedling leaves. By the 15th month of seedling growth, the levels of apiole and dillapiole decreased and gaudichaudianic acid appeared along with two compounds, biosynthetically related to gaudichaudianic acid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Crystal structure of (E-4-{2-[4-(allyloxyphenyl]diazenyl}benzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Lutfor Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H14N2O3, has an E conformation about the azobenzene [—N=N– = 1.2481 (16 Å] linkage. The benzene rings are almost coplanar [dihedral angle = 1.36 (7°]. The O atoms of the carboxylic acid group are disordered over two sets of sites and were refined with an occupancy ratio of 0.5:0.5. The two disordered components of the carboxylic acid group make dihedral angles of 1.5 (14 and 3.8 (12° with the benzene ring to which they are attached. In the crystal, molecules are linked via pairs of O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers. The dimers are connected via C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming ribbons lying parallel to [120]. These ribbons are linked via C—H...π interactions, forming slabs parallel to (001.

  17. Pasture, multi-enzymes, benzoic acid and essential oils positively influence performance, intestinal organ weight and egg quality in free-range laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Z; Roberts, J; Perez-Maldonado, R A; Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Swick, R A; Ruhnke, I

    2018-04-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of range type, multi-enzyme applications, and a combination of benzoic acid (BA) and essential oils (EO) on the productive performance, organ weight and egg quality of free-range laying hens. 2. Three hundred laying hens were evaluated for the short-term (6 weeks) and long-term (12 weeks) effects of range type (G = no pasture, P = pasture) and feed additives (T1 = control; T2 = betaglucanase/pectinase/protease; T3 = BA/EO). Body weight, feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg production (EP), digestive organ weight, and egg quality (EQ) were evaluated. Data were analysed using SPSS 2.2 in a 2×2×3 factorial arrangement. 3. Hens that ranged on pasture were significantly heavier (2043 g vs. 1996 g; p ranged on gravel. Hens fed T2 were significantly heavier (2050 g) compared to hens fed T1 (2005 g) or T3 (2008 g). Organ weights (gizzard, liver and pancreas) were significantly heavier in hens ranged on pasture (16.8 g/kg BW, 22.3 g/kg BW and 1.89 g/kg BW, respectively) compared to hens ranged on gravel (14.2 g/kg BW, 21.7 g/kg BW and 1.83 g/kg BW, respectively). Over time, body weight (1970-2070 g; p < 0.001) and egg weight (59.5-62.8 g; p < 0.001) increased, FI (123-120 g; p = 0.024) was reduced and FCR (2.36-2.10; p = 0.002) improved 4. In conclusion, hens housed on pasture and fed multi-enzyme supplemented diets had significantly heavier body weight and produced heavier eggs with darker yolk colour. Pasture intake and enzyme supplementation increased digestive organ weight significantly.

  18. Reactions of OH-radicals with hydroxylated and methoxylated benzoic acids and cinnamic acids. Radiation-induced chemical changes in mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaisberger, B.

    2001-05-01

    In the first part of this work the radiation induced chemical changes of methoxylated and hydroxylated benzoic acids and cinnamic acids were investigated. Methoxylated compounds were also used as model components for acid derivatives with no free-OH groups. The latter are essentials parts of vegetable foodstuff. A comparison of the radiolytic behaviour of single substituted methoxy- and hydroxybenzoic acids was given at first, data of literature was included. The priority of the investigation was the hydroxylation process induced by OH-radicals. The OH-adduct distribution is generally the same for the hydroxy- as well as for the methoxybenzoic acid isomers. This could be proved by oxidation of these OH-adducts with K 3 Fe(CN) 6 . In the presence of air 68-77 % of the hydroxybenzoic acids are converted into hydroxylation products, whereas with the methoxylated acids this reaction leads only to about 10%. An explanation gives the different decay pathways of the intermediate peroxylradical. The multiple methoxy- and hydroxybenzoic acids show three different reaction possibilities: hydroxylation, replacement of -OCH 3 by -OH and -in case of the cinnamic acids-oxidative decomposition of the rest of the propenic acid under formation of the corresponding benzaldehydes. All these reactions can be expected when irradiating foodstuff, containing these acid compounds. The characteristic formation of these components and their linear dose/concentration relationship make these substrates very promising for the use as markers for irradiation treatment of foodstuff. The second part of this work deals with the gamma-radiation induced chemical changes in mushrooms. The irradiated and non-irradiated samples were freeze-dried and purified from matrix components chromatographically on polyamid columns. In case of the phenolic compounds for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and three unknown components linear dose/concentration relationships could be obtained. Two of these unknown compounds seem

  19. Evidence of quantum correlations in the H/D-transfer dynamics in the hydrogen bonds in partially deuterated benzoic acid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Sadamu; Tsuzumitani, Akihiko; Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, C. A.

    1992-10-01

    A precise investigation of spin—lattice relaxation rates for protons and deuterons of partially deuterated benzoic acid crystals showed a remarkable quenching of the transfer rate of an HD pair in hydrogen-bonded dimeric units of carboxyl groups with increasing concentration of D in the surrounding hydrogen bonds. A similar effect was also observed for partially deuterated crystals of acetylenedicarboxylic acid. This finding supports recent theoretical predictions of thermally activated protonic quantum correlation in condensed matter and proposes a new mechanism for the proton transfer in hydrogen bonds in condensed matter.

  20. 4-[(E-(5-tert-Butyl-2-hydroxyphenyldiazenyl]benzoic acid benzene hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward R. T. Tiekink

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The title benzene hemisolvate, C17H18N2O3·0.5C6H6, features an essentially planar (the r.m.s. deviation of the non-H atoms, excluding methyl-C, is 0.071 Å diazo molecule with an E conformation about the N=N bond, and a half-molecule of benzene disposed about a centre of inversion. The dihedral angle formed between the benzene rings of the diazo molecule is 7.69 (12°. In the crystal, centrosymmetrically related dimers associate via the eight-membered carboxylic acid dimer synthon, {...HOC(=O}2, and these are connected into a supramolecular chain along the b axis via C—H...O contacts.

  1. Quantitative DFT modeling of product concentration in organometallic reactions: Cu-mediated pentafluoroethylation of benzoic acid chlorides as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jover, Jesús

    2017-11-08

    DFT calculations are widely used for computing properties, reaction mechanisms and energy profiles in organometallic reactions. A qualitative agreement between the experimental and the calculated results seems to usually be enough to validate a computational methodology but recent advances in computation indicate that a nearly quantitative agreement should be possible if an appropriate DFT study is carried out. Final percent product concentrations, often reported as yields, are by far the most commonly reported properties in experimental metal-mediated synthesis studies but reported DFT studies have not focused on predicting absolute product amounts. The recently reported stoichiometric pentafluoroethylation of benzoic acid chlorides (R-C 6 H 4 COCl) with [(phen)Cu(PPh 3 )C 2 F 5 ] (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, PPh 3 = triphenylphosphine) has been used as a case study to check whether the experimental product concentrations can be reproduced by any of the most popular DFT approaches with high enough accuracy. To this end, the Gibbs energy profile for the pentafluoroethylation of benzoic acid chloride has been computed using 14 different DFT methods. These computed Gibbs energy profiles have been employed to build kinetic models predicting the final product concentration in solution. The best results are obtained with the D3-dispersion corrected B3LYP functional, which has been successfully used afterwards to model the reaction outcomes of other simple (R = o-Me, p-Me, p-Cl, p-F, etc.) benzoic acid chlorides. The product concentrations of more complex reaction networks in which more than one position of the substrate may be activated by the copper catalyst (R = o-Br and p-I) are also predicted appropriately.

  2. Synthesis, spectroscopic studies and antimicrobial activity of chelates 2-(acetyloxy)-benzoic acid with transition metals (CR+3, MN+2, NI+2 AND CU+2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, B.; Mateen, B.; Ahmed, F.; Ahmed, F.

    2007-01-01

    2-(acetyloxy)-Benzoic acid chelates with Cr+3, Mn+2, Ni+2 and Cu+2 were synthesized and characterized by the melting point, solubility, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) method and evaluated by antimicrobial activity. The functional group present in the chelates was determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, by X-Ray Diffraction analysis crystal data of chelates, their inter-atomic and inter-planer spacing was also determined. The amount of metal in the chelates was estimated by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and their Antimicrobial Activity was studied against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherisha coli and Staphylococcus aureus. (author)

  3. The fragment ion C13H9O2 m/z 197 in the mass spectra of 2-(2'-R-phenyl)benzoic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gills, R.G.; Porter, Q.N.

    1990-01-01

    In the electron impact mass spectrum of 2-( ' -R-phenyl)benzoic acids where R = H, NO 2 , OCH 3 , COOH, or Br, and abundant fragment ion m/z 197 is formed by an ipso substitution in which R is expelled as a radical. The structure of the ion m/z 197 has been shown by collision-activated dissociation to be identical with that of the protonated molecule formed by methane chemical ionization of 6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one. 11 refs., 1 fig., ills

  4. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 3 (FGE.20Rev3): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters from chemical groups 23 and 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider in this revision 3 of Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, the SCF Opinion on benzoic acid. Furthermore information on stereoisomeric composition for two...... Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. None of the substances were considered to have genotoxic potential. The substances were evaluated through a stepwise approach (the Procedure) that integrates information on structure-activity relationships, intake from current uses, toxicological threshold of concern...

  5. Identification of ortho-Substituted Benzoic Acid/Ester Derivatives via the Gas-Phase Neighboring Group Participation Effect in (+)-ESI High Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blincoe, William D; Rodriguez-Granillo, Agustina; Saurí, Josep; Pierson, Nicholas A; Joyce, Leo A; Mangion, Ian; Sheng, Huaming

    2018-04-01

    Benzoic acid/ester/amide derivatives are common moieties in pharmaceutical compounds and present a challenge in positional isomer identification by traditional tandem mass spectrometric analysis. A method is presented for exploiting the gas-phase neighboring group participation (NGP) effect to differentiate ortho-substituted benzoic acid/ester derivatives with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS 1 ). Significant water/alcohol loss (>30% abundance in MS 1 spectra) was observed for ortho-substituted nucleophilic groups; these fragment peaks are not observable for the corresponding para and meta-substituted analogs. Experiments were also extended to the analysis of two intermediates in the synthesis of suvorexant (Belsomra) with additional analysis conducted with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), density functional theory (DFT), and ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) studies. Significant water/alcohol loss was also observed for 1-substituted 1, 2, 3-triazoles but not for the isomeric 2-substituted 1, 2, 3-triazole analogs. IMS-MS, NMR, and DFT studies were conducted to show that the preferred orientation of the 2-substituted triazole rotamer was away from the electrophilic center of the reaction, whereas the 1-subtituted triazole was oriented in close proximity to the center. Abundance of NGP product was determined to be a product of three factors: (1) proton affinity of the nucleophilic group; (2) steric impact of the nucleophile; and (3) proximity of the nucleophile to carboxylic acid/ester functional groups. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  6. Copper(II) complexes with 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid: Syntheses, crystal structures and antifungal activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Pingping; Li, Jie; Bu, Huaiyu; Wei, Qing; Zhang, Ruolin; Chen, Sanping

    2014-01-01

    Reaction of Cu(II) with an asymmetric semi-rigid organic ligand 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid (HL), yielded five compounds, [Cu 0.5 L] n (1), [Cu(HL) 2 Cl 2 ] n (2), [Cu(HL) 2 Cl 2 (H 2 O)] (3), [Cu(L) 2 (H 2 O)] n (4) and [Cu(L)(phen)(HCO 2 )] n (5), which have been fully characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. As for compounds 1, 2 and 5, Cu(II) is bridged through HL, Cl - , and formic acid, respectively, featuring 1D chain-structure. In compound 3, Cu(II) with hexahedral coordination sphere is assembled through hydrogen-bonding into 3D supramolecular framework. In compound 4, 1D chain units –Cu–O–Cu–O– are ligand-bridged into a 3D network. All compounds were tested on fungi (Fusarium graminearum, Altemaria solani, Macrophoma kawatsukai, Alternaria alternata and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). Compound 1 exhibits a better antifungal effect compared to other compounds. An effect of structure on the antifungal activity has also been correlated. - Graphical abstract: Copper(II) compounds with 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid, were prepared, structurally characterized and investigated for antifungal activity. - Highlights: • The title compounds formed by thermodynamics and thermokinetics. • The five compounds show higher inhibition percentage than reactants. • The structure effect on the antifungal activity

  7. Simultaneous determination of salicylic, 3-methyl salicylic, 4-methyl salicylic, acetylsalicylic and benzoic acids in fruit, vegetables and derived beverages by SPME-LC-UV/DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresta, Antonella; Zambonin, Carlo

    2016-03-20

    Salicylic and benzoic acid are phenolic acids occurring in plant cells, thus they can be present in fruit and vegetables at various levels. They possess anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, however they may induce symptoms and health problems in a small percentage of the population. Therefore, a low phenolic acid diet may be of clinical benefit to such individuals. In order to achieve this goal, the concentration of these substances in different food and beverages should be assessed. The present work describes for the first time a new method, based on solid phase microextraction (polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber) coupled to liquid chromatography with UV diode array detection, for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, 3-methyl salicylic acid, 4-methyl salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid and benzoic acid in selected fruit, vegetables and beverages. All the aspects influencing fiber adsorption (time, temperature, pH, salt addition) and desorption (desorption and injection time, desorption solvent mixture composition) of the analytes have been investigated. An isocratic separation was performed using an acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (pH 2.8; 2 mM) mixture (70:30, v/v) as the mobile phase. The estimated LOD and LOQ values (μg/mL) were in the range 0.002-0.028 and 0.007-0.095. The within-day and day-to-day precision values (RSD%) were between 4.7-6.1 and 6.6-9.4, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of fava beans, blueberries, kiwi, tangerines, lemons, oranges and fruit juice (lemon and blueberry) samples. The major advantage of the method is that it only requires simple homogenization and/or centrifugation and dilution steps prior to SPME and injection in the LC system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of inhibitory effects of the potential therapeutic inhibitors, benzoic acid and pyridine derivatives, on the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheibi, Nematollah; Taherkhani, Negar; Ahmadi, Abolfazl; Haghbeen, Kamahldin; Ilghari, Dariush

    2015-02-01

    Involvement of tyrosinase in the synthesis of melanin and cell signaling pathway has made it an attractive target in the search for therapeutic inhibitors for treatment of different skin hyperpigmentation disorders and melanoma cancers. In the present study, we conducted a comprehensive kinetic analysis to understand the mechanisms of inhibition imposed by 2-amino benzoic acid, 4-amino benzoic acid, nicotinic acid, and picolinic acid on the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of the mushroom tyrosinase, and then MTT assay was exploited to evaluate their toxicity on the melanoma cells. Kinetic analysis revealed that nicotinic acid and picolinic acid competitively restricted the monophenolase activity with inhibition constants (Ki) of 1.21 mM and 1.97 mM and the diphenolase activity with Kis of 2.4 mM and 2.93 mM, respectively. 2-aminobenzoic acid and 4-aminobenzoic acid inhibited the monophenolase activity in a non-competitive fashion with Kis of 5.15 µM and 3.8 µM and the diphenolase activity with Kis of 4.72 µM and 20 µM, respectively. Our cell-based data revealed that only the pyridine derivatives imposed cytotoxicity in melanoma cells. Importantly, the concentrations of the inhibitors leading to 50% decrease in the cell density (IC50) were comparable to those causing 50% drop in the enzyme activity, implying that the observed cytotoxicity is highly likely due to the tyrosinase inhibition. Moreover, our cell-based data exhibited that the pyridine derivatives acted as anti-proliferative agents, perhaps inducing cytotoxicity in the melanoma cells through inhibition of the tyrosinase activities.

  9. Characterization of inhibitory effects of the potential therapeutic inhibitors, benzoic acid and pyridine derivatives, on the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of tyrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematollah Gheibi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Involvement of tyrosinase in the synthesis of melanin and cell signaling pathway has made it an attractive target in the search for therapeutic inhibitors for treatment of different skin hyperpigmentation disorders and melanoma cancers. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we conducted a comprehensive kinetic analysis to understand the mechanisms of inhibition imposed by 2-amino benzoic acid, 4-amino benzoic acid, nicotinic acid, and picolinic acid on the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of the mushroom tyrosinase, and then MTT assay was exploited to evaluate their toxicity on the melanoma cells. Results: Kinetic analysis revealed that nicotinic acid and picolinic acid competitively restricted the monophenolase activity with inhibition constants (Ki of 1.21 mM and 1.97 mM and the diphenolase activity with Kis of 2.4 mM and 2.93 mM, respectively. 2-aminobenzoic acid and 4-aminobenzoic acid inhibited the monophenolase activity in a non-competitive fashion with Kis of 5.15 µM and 3.8 µM and the diphenolase activity with Kis of 4.72 µM and 20 µM, respectively. Conclusion: Our cell-based data revealed that only the pyridine derivatives imposed cytotoxicity in melanoma cells. Importantly, the concentrations of the inhibitors leading to 50% decrease in the cell density (IC50 werecomparable to those causing 50% drop in the enzyme activity, implying that the observed cytotoxicity is highly likely due to the tyrosinase inhibition. Moreover, our cell-based data exhibited that the pyridine derivatives acted as anti-proliferative agents, perhaps inducing cytotoxicity in the melanoma cells through inhibition of the tyrosinase activities.

  10. Induced Smectic X Phase Through Intermolecular Hydrogen-Bonded Liquid Crystals Formed Between Citric Acid and p- n-(Octyloxy)Benzoic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, S.; Subhasri, P.; Rajasekaran, T. R.; Jayaprakasam, R.; Senthil, T. S.; Vijayakumar, V. N.

    2017-08-01

    Hydrogen-bonded liquid crystal (HBLC) is synthesized from citric acid (CA) and 4-(octyloxy)benzoic acid (8OBA) with different mole ratios. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirms the presence of hydrogen bond between CA and 8OBA. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic studies validate the intermolecular complementary, cyclic type of hydrogen bond, and molecular environment in the designed HBLC complex. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the monoclinic nature of liquid crystal complex in solid phase. Liquid crystal parameters such as phase transition temperature and enthalpy values for the corresponding mesogenic phases are investigated using a polarizing optical microscope (POM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It is observed that the change in chain length and steric hindrance while increasing the mole ratio in HBLC complex induces a new smectic X (Sm X) along with higher-order smectic G (Sm G) phases by quenching of smectic C (Sm C). From the experimental observations, induced Sm X phase has been identified as a finger print texture. Also, Sm G is a multi-colored mosaic texture in 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 mol ratios. The optical tilt angle, thermal stability factor, and enhanced thermal span width of CA + 8OBA complex are discussed.

  11. Systemic exposure to benzoic acid and hippuric acid following topical application of clindamycin 1%/benzoyl peroxide 3% fixed-dose combination gel in Japanese patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Hiroko; Takahashi, Naoki; Saenz, Alessandra Alio; Wakamatsu, Akira; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nakahara, Norie; Hasegawa, Setsuo

    2015-01-01

    Clindamycin 1%/benzoyl peroxide 3% fixed-dose combination gel (CLDM/BPO3%) is a topical product for the treatment of acne vulgaris. In this study, plasma and urine concentrations of benzoic acid (BA) and hippuric acid (HA) were analyzed to estimate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of BPO after application of CLDM/BPO3% twice-daily for 7 days in Japanese patients with acne vulgaris. Seven-day repeated application of CLDM/BPO3% appears to be safe in this patient population. Concentrations of plasma and urine BA were below the limit of quantification before and after repeated application in most of the 12 adult male patients. Mean difference in Cmax and AUC0-last for plasma HA indicated increased exposures after repeated application, but with wide 90% confidence intervals. Mean Ae0-12 for urine HA was similar before and after repeated application. Repeated application of CLDM/BPO3% is thus unlikely to result in accumulation of BA and HA. The study suggests negligible systemic exposure to BPO metabolites from CLDM/BPO3% after 7-day repeated application in male patients with acne vulgaris. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  12. APMP.QM-S8: determination of mass fraction of benzoic acid, methyl paraben and n-butyl paraben in soy sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tang Lin; Gui, Ee Mei; Lu, Ting; Sze Cheow, Pui; Giannikopoulou, Panagiota; Kakoulides, Elias; Lampi, Evgenia; Choi, Sik-man; Yip, Yiu-chung; Chan, Pui-kwan; Hui, Sin-kam; Wollinger, Wagner; Carvalho, Lucas J.; Garrido, Bruno C.; Rego, Eliane C. P.; Ahn, Seonghee; Kim, Byungjoo; Li, Xiuqin; Guo, Zhen; Styarini, Dyah; Aristiawan, Yosi; Putri Ramadhaningtyas, Dillani; Aryana, Nurhani; Ebarvia, Benilda S.; Dacuaya, Aaron; Tongson, Alleni; Aganda, Kim Christopher; Junvee Fortune, Thippaya; Tangtrirat, Pradthana; Mungmeechai, Thanarak; Ceyhan Gören, Ahmet; Gündüz, Simay; Yilmaz, Hasibe

    2017-01-01

    The supplementary comparison APMP.QM-S8: determination of mass fraction of benzoic acid, methyl paraben and n-butyl paraben in soy sauce was coordinated by the Health Sciences Authority, Singapore under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM). Ten national metrology institutes (NMIs) or designated institutes (DIs) participated in the comparison. All the institutes participated in the comparison for benzoic acid, while six NMIs/DIs participated in the comparison for methyl paraben and n-butyl paraben. The comparison was designed to enable participating institutes to demonstrate their measurement capabilities in the determination of common preservatives in soy sauce, using procedure(s) that required simple sample preparation and selective detection in the mass fraction range of 50 to 1000 mg/kg. The demonstrated capabilities can be extended to include other polar food preservatives (e.g. sorbic acid, propionic acid and other alkyl benzoates) in water, aqueous-based beverages (e.g. fruit juices, tea extracts, sodas, sports drinks, etc) and aqueous-based condiments (e.g. vinegar, fish sauce, etc). Liquid--liquid extraction and/or dilution were applied, followed by instrumental analyses using LC-MS/MS, LC-MS, GC-MS (with or without derivatisation) or HPLC-DAD. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry was used for quantification, except in the case of a participating institute, where external calibration method was used for quantification of all three measurands. The assigned Supplementary Comparison Reference Values (SCRVs) were the medians of ten results for benzoic acid, six results for methyl paraben and six results for n-butyl paraben. Benzoic acid was assigned a SCRV of 154.55 mg/kg with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.94 mg/kg, methyl paraben was assigned a SCRV of 100.95 mg/kg with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.40 mg/kg, and n-butyl paraben was assigned a SCRV of 99.05 mg

  13. Synthesis and Antiradical/Antioxidant Activities of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester and Its Related Propionic, Acetic, and Benzoic Acid Analoguesc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Touaibia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE is a bioactive component isolated from propolis. A series of CAPE analogues was synthesized and their antiradical/antioxidant effects analyzed. The effect of the presence of the double bond and of the conjugated system on the antioxidant effect is evaluated with the analogues obtained from 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl propanoic acid. Those obtained from 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid allow the evaluation of the effect of the presence of two carbons between the carbonyl and aromatic system.

  14. D77, one benzoic acid derivative, functions as a novel anti-HIV-1 inhibitor targeting the interaction between integrase and cellular LEDGF/p75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Li; Zhao Yaxue; Chen, Jing; Yang Liumeng; Zheng Yongtang; Tang Yun; Shen Xu; Jiang Hualiang

    2008-01-01

    Integration of viral-DNA into host chromosome mediated by the viral protein HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an essential step in the HIV-1 life cycle. In this process, Lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is discovered to function as a cellular co-factor for integration. Since LEDGF/p75 plays an important role in HIV integration, disruption of the LEDGF/p75 interaction with IN has provided a special interest for anti-HIV agent discovery. In this work, we reported that a benzoic acid derivative, 4-[(5-bromo-4-{[2,4-dioxo-3-(2-oxo-2-phenylethyl) -1,3-thiazolidin-5-ylidene]methyl}-2-ethoxyphenoxy)methyl]benzoic acid (D77) could potently inhibit the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction and affect the HIV-1 IN nuclear distribution thus exhibiting antiretroviral activity. Molecular docking with site-directed mutagenesis analysis and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding assays has clarified possible binding mode of D77 against HIV-1 integrase. As the firstly discovered small molecular compound targeting HIV-1 integrase interaction with LEDGF/p75, D77 might supply useful structural information for further anti-HIV agent discovery

  15. Allelopathic activity of Leonurus siribicus L. on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat and identification of 4- hydroxy benzoic acid as an allelochemical by chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, M. A.; Imam, R.; Siddiqui, M.N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the allelopathic effects of L. siribicus extract on seed germination and seedlings growth of wheat as well as to identify potential allelochemical. The different concentration (5, 10 and 15%) of aqueous extract were applied during the time of sowing and at 5 days after sowing of wheat seed. L. siribicus extract showed concentration and time - depending activity. Different concentration of aqueous extract inhibited seed germination, seedlings growth, when extracts were applied during the time of seed sowing. The stimulatory effect of seedlings growth were found for 5 % aqueous extract, in contrast 10 and 15% extract inhibited seedlings growth, when extracts were applied at 5 days after sowing. Apart from, 4-hydroxy benzoic acids affected seedlings growth irrespective of application time. The weight of dry matter of wheat seedlings were increased for 5% than 10 and 15% extracts. Thin layer chromatography suggested that the presence of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid including other allelopathic and growth regulatory compounds inhibited germination and seedlings growth. Mineral composition was determined and its might have some stimulatory effect on seedlings growth. It was interesting that 5% extract inhibited germination and seedlings growth, when it was applied during the time of seed sowing, but stimulated seedling growth, when it was applied at 5 days after sowing. The extract of this plants can be used either for bioherbicide as well as growth stimulatory agents for the organic farming system. To find out molecular mechanism behind it, further research is to be done. (author)

  16. A linear solvation energy relationship study for the reactivity of 2-substituted cyclohex-1-enecarboxylic and 2-substituted benzoic acids with diazodiphenylmethane in aprotic and protic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JASMINA B. NIKOLIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The rate constants for the reaction of 2-substituted cyclohex-1-enylcarboxylic acids and the corresponding 2-substituted benzoic acids with diazodiphenyl methane were determined in various aprotic solvents at 30 ºC. In order to explain the kinetic results through solvent effects, the second order rate constants of the reaction of the examined acids were correlated using the Kamlet–Taft solvatechromic equation. The correlations of the kinetic data were carried out by means of multiple linear regression analysis and the solvent effects on the reaction rates were analyzed in terms of the contributions of the initial and transition state. The signs of the equation coefficients support the proposed reaction mechanism. The quantitative relationship between the molecular structure and the chemical reactivity is discussed, as well as the effect of geometry on the reactivity of the examined molecules.

  17. Alteration of the phospho- or neutral lipid content and fatty acid composition in Listeria monocytogenes due to acid adaptation mechanisms for hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids at pH 5.5 or benzoic acid at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronicolis, Sofia K; Berberi, Anita; Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Petrova, Evanthia; Kiaki, Irene; Baltzi, Triantafillia; Xenikakis, Polydoros

    2010-10-01

    This study provides a first approach to observe the effects on Listeria monocytogenes of cellular exposure to acid stress at low or neutral pH, notably how phospho- or neutral lipids are involved in this mechanism, besides the fatty acid profile alteration. A thorough investigation of the composition of polar and neutral lipids from L. monocytogenes grown at pH 5.5 in presence of hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids, or at neutral pH 7.3 in presence of benzoic acid, is described relative to cells grown in acid-free medium. The results showed that only low pH values enhance the antimicrobial activity of an acid. We suggest that, irrespective of pH, the acid adaptation response will lead to a similar alteration in fatty acid composition [decreasing the ratio of branched chain/saturated straight fatty acids of total lipids], mainly originating from the neutral lipid class of adapted cultures. Acid adaptation in L. monocytogenes was correlated with a decrease in total lipid phosphorus and, with the exception of cells adapted to benzoic acid, this change in the amount of phosphorus reflected a higher content of the neutral lipid class. Upon acetic or benzoic acid stress the lipid phosphorus proportion was analysed in the main phospholipids present: cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid and phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly only benzoic acid had a dramatic effect on the relative quantities of these four phospholipids.

  18. Crystal structures of a manganese(I and a rhenium(I complex of a bipyridine ligand with a non-coordinating benzoic acid moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri Lense

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The structures of two facially coordinated Group VII metal complexes are reported, namely: fac-bromido[2-(2,2′-bipyridin-6-ylbenzoic acid-κ2N,N′]tricarbonylmanganese(I tetrahydrofuran monosolvate, [MnBr(C17H12N2O2(CO3]·C4H8O, I, and fac-[2-(2,2′-bipyridin-6-ylbenzoic acid-κ2N,N′]tricarbonylchloridorhenium(I tetrahydrofuran monosolvate, [ReCl(C17H12N2O2(CO3]·C4H8O, II. In both complexes, the metal ion is coordinated by three carbonyl ligands, a halide ion, and a 2-(2,2′-bipyridin-6-ylbenzoic acid ligand, in a distorted octahedral geometry. In manganese complex I, the tetrahydrofuran (THF solvent molecule could not be refined due to disorder. The benzoic acid fragment is also disordered over two positions, such that the carboxylic acid group is either positioned near to the bromide ligand or to the axial carbonyl ligand. In the crystal of I, the complex molecules are linked by a pair of C—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers that stack up the a-axis direction. In the rhenium complex II, there is hydrogen bonding between the benzoic acid moiety and a disordered co-crystallized THF molecule. In the crystal, the molecules are linked by C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (100 separated by layers of THF solvent molecules.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and biological studies of 2-(4-nitro phenylaminocarbonyl)benzoic acid and its complexes with Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqeel Ashraf, M.; Jamil Maah, M.; Yusuf, I.

    2012-01-01

    Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) salts of 2-(4-nitro phenylaminocarbonyl)benzoic acid were characterized by physical, analytical and spectroscopic studies and checked for their in-vitro antimicrobial activity against three bacterial strains, Mycobacterium smegmatis (Gram +ve), Escherichia coli (Gram -ve), Pseudomonas aeuroginosa (Gram -ve) and three fungal strains, Nigrospora oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activities of the metal complexes - were found to be greater than those of 2-(4-nitro phenylaminocarbonyl)benzoic acid alone.

  20. Copper(II) complexes with 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid: Syntheses, crystal structures and antifungal activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Pingping [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Li, Jie [Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology, Xi' an 710069 (China); Bu, Huaiyu, E-mail: 7213792@qq.com [Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology, Xi' an 710069 (China); Wei, Qing [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Zhang, Ruolin [Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology, Xi' an 710069 (China); Chen, Sanping, E-mail: sanpingchen@126.com [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Reaction of Cu(II) with an asymmetric semi-rigid organic ligand 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid (HL), yielded five compounds, [Cu{sub 0.5}L]{sub n} (1), [Cu(HL){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}]{sub n} (2), [Cu(HL){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)] (3), [Cu(L){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (4) and [Cu(L)(phen)(HCO{sub 2})]{sub n} (5), which have been fully characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. As for compounds 1, 2 and 5, Cu(II) is bridged through HL, Cl{sup -}, and formic acid, respectively, featuring 1D chain-structure. In compound 3, Cu(II) with hexahedral coordination sphere is assembled through hydrogen-bonding into 3D supramolecular framework. In compound 4, 1D chain units –Cu–O–Cu–O– are ligand-bridged into a 3D network. All compounds were tested on fungi (Fusarium graminearum, Altemaria solani, Macrophoma kawatsukai, Alternaria alternata and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). Compound 1 exhibits a better antifungal effect compared to other compounds. An effect of structure on the antifungal activity has also been correlated. - Graphical abstract: Copper(II) compounds with 4-(1H-1, 2, 4-trizol-1-ylmethyl) benzoic acid, were prepared, structurally characterized and investigated for antifungal activity. - Highlights: • The title compounds formed by thermodynamics and thermokinetics. • The five compounds show higher inhibition percentage than reactants. • The structure effect on the antifungal activity.

  1. NMR study of the epoxidation of liquid hydrolyzed poly-butadiene and meta-chloro-per-benzoic acid; Estudo atraves de RMN da reacao de epoxidacao de polibutadieno liquido hidroxilado (PBLH) e acido m-cloro perbenzoico (AMCPB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Marcelo [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Akcelrud, L [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Menezes, Sonia Cabral de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    1994-12-31

    This work presents a study concerning the selectivity of the different configurations of the double bond present in liquid hydrolyzed poly-butadiene towards the epoxidation reaction with meta-chloro-per-benzoic acid through hydrogen-1, carbon-13 NMR aiming the production of new materials, varying the epoxidation level 12 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Improving the thermal stability and electrical parameters of a liquid crystalline material 4-n-(nonyloxy) benzoic acid by using Li ion beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satendra; Verma, Rohit; Dwivedi, Aanchal; Dhar, R.; Tripathi, Ambuj

    2018-05-01

    Li ion beam irradiation studies on a liquid crystalline material 4-n-(nonyloxy) benzoic acid (NOBA) have been carried out. The material has phase sequence of I-N-SmC-Cr. Thermodynamic studies demonstrate that an irradiation fluence of 1×1013 ions-cm-2 results in the increased thermal stability of the smectic C (SmC) phase of the material. Dielectric measurements illustrate that the transverse component of the dielectric permittivity and hence the dielectric anisotropy of the material in the nematic (N) and SmC phases are increased as compared to those of the pure material due to irradiation. UV-Visible spectrum of the irradiated material shows an additional peak along with the peak of the pure material. The observed change in the thermodynamic and electrical parameters is attributed to the conversion of some of the dimers of NOBA to monomers of NOBA due to irradiation.

  3. Absorption mechanism study of benzoic acid on calcite. Influence on the wettability; Etude du mecanisme d`absorption de l`acide benzoique sur la calcite. Incidence sur la mouillabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legens, Ch

    1997-12-03

    A pure carbonate rock is strongly water-wet whereas oil accumulations study shows that most of carbonate reservoirs are oil-wet or of mixed-wettability. This is one of the main difficulties to extract crude oil. This change of behavior is due to the adsorption of some crude oil compounds on the mineral surface. We have mainly studied the interactions between acid molecules by adsorption on a calcite powder in an organic phase (benzoic acid and lauric acid) and in an aqueous phase (benzoic acid and lauric sodium salt). The technics which enabled us to define and characterize adsorption are thermogravimetry infrared diffuse reflection and thermal analysis with controlled kinetic linked to a mass spectrometer. Molecular modelling calculations have completed these analysis. It has been showed that when crude oil fills the biggest pores of the reservoir rock, the aqueous film is unstable and acids adsorb via ionic bonds on mineral calcium ions. Wettability is evaluated thanks to contact angle measurements of a water droplet deposited on a compacted powder pellet. Calcite wettability changes were all the greater as hydro-carbonated chains were longer, as it confers molecule hydrophobia. It has been also investigated acid molecules diffusion from the organic to the aqueous phase which saturates the smallest pores. Molecules which are able to diffuse from the first to the second medium do not adsorb on the surface. As a consequence, carbonate rock wettability changes require a direct contact between crude oil and mineral that involves aqueous film instability. (author) 128 refs.

  4. EFFECT OF SUBSTITUTION POSITION OF HYDROXY GROUP AT BENZOIC ACID ON THE LUMINESCENT AND DEGRADATION PROPERTIES OF POLY[DI(CARBOXYPHENYL) SUCCINATE-co-SEBACIC ANHYDRIDE]S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Fan; Hong-liang Jiang; Kang-jie Zhu

    2007-01-01

    In this work, two new diacids, di(m-carboxyphenyl) succinate (m-dCPS) and di(o-carboxyphenyl) succinate (o-dCPS), were synthesized by reaction of m-, o-hydroxy benzoic acid with succinic chloride, respectively. Their corresponding copolymers with sebacic acid (SA), P(m-dCPS:SA) and P(o-dCPS:SA), were prepared by melt copolycondensation and characterized by NMR, UV and DSC methods. Compared with inherently fluorescent poly[di(p-carboxyphenyl) succinateco-sebacic anhydride] (P(p-dCPS:SA)), P(m-dCPS:SA) and P(o-dCPS:SA) displayed different luminescent properties. P(m-dCPS:SA) could emit fluorescence under the excitation of both visible and UV light, while P(o-dCPS:SA) could only emit fluorescence when excited with UV light. Degradation rate of the two new copolyanhydrides increased with the increase of SA fraction in the copolymers. In addition, P(o-dCPS:SA) degraded more rapidly than P(m-dCPS:SA) with the same composition. Typical surface-degradation characteristics of these copolyanhydrides were observed.

  5. Corrigendum to ;Dipole moment and solvatochromism of benzoic acid liquid crystals: Tuning the dipole moment and molecular orbital energies by substituted Au under external electric field; [J. Mol. Struct. 1137 (2017) 440-452

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sıdır, Yadigar Gülseven; Sıdır, İsa; Demiray, Ferhat

    2017-08-01

    The authors regret to inform that three references in the article titled ;Dipole moment and solvatochromism of benzoic acid liquid crystals: Tuning the dipole moment and molecular orbital energies by substituted Au under external electric field; are not given in the manuscript. This is purely an oversight mistake. The references are as shown in this correction. The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused.

  6. FTIR spectroscopic study on the Hofmann -Td- type clathrates: Ni(benzoic acid)2M(CN)4.aniline (M=Zn, Cd, Hg)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesan, G.; Kartal, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The Hofmann-Td-type clathrates formulated as Ni(L) 2 M(CN) 4 .nG where L is a bidentate or a pair of unidentate ligand molecule, M is Zn, Cd or Hg, G is a guest molecule and n is the number of guest molecule. The host lattice of the Hofmann-Td-type clathrates is formed from endless chains of -Ni-L-L-Ni-L-L-Ni- and M(CN) 4 ions arranged between the consecutive crossing -Ni-L-L-Ni-L-L-Ni- chains with the O-ends bound to the Ni metal atoms. These polymeric layers are held in parallel by Van der Walls interaction between ligand molecules. This structure provides α-type cavity. In this study, Ni(Benzoic Acid ) 2M(CN) 4 .Aniline (M = Zn, Cd, Hg) is obtained for the first time by means of chemical methods in powder form and their infrared spectra are reported in range of (4000-400) cm - 1. The spectral data suggest that the new clathrates are similar in structure to the Hofmann-type clathrates.

  7. Molecular structure, vibrational, UV, NMR, HOMO-LUMO, MEP, NLO, NBO analysis of 3,5 di tert butyl 4 hydroxy benzoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathammal, R.; Sangeetha, K.; Sangeetha, M.; Mekala, R.; Gadheeja, S.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we report a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 3,5 di tert butyl 4 hydroxy benzoic acid. The properties of title compound have been evaluated by quantum chemical calculation (DFT) using B3LYP functional and 6-31 + G (d, p) as basis set. IR Spectra has been recorded using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) in the region 4000-400 cm-1. The vibrational assignment of the calculated normal modes has been made on the basis set. The isotropic chemical shifts computed by 13C and 1H NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) analyses also show good agreement with experimental observations. The theoretical UV-Vis spectrum of the compound are used to study the visible absorption maxima (λ max). The structure activity relationship have been interpreted by mapping electrostatic potential surface (MEP), which is valuable information for the quality control of medicines and drug receptor interactions. The Mullikan charges, HOMO (Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital) - LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital) energy are analyzed. HOMO-LUMO energy gap and other related molecular properties are also calculated. The Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis is carried out to investigate the various intra and inter molecular interactions of molecular system. The Non-linear optical properties such as dipole moment (μ), polarizability (αtot) and molecular first order hyperpolarizability (β) of the title compound are computed with B3LYP/6-31 + G (d,p) level of theory.

  8. Internalisation of hybrid titanium dioxide/para-amino benzoic acid nanoparticles in human dendritic cells did not induce toxicity and changes in their functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdal, Camille; Rahal, Raed; Rubod, Alain; Callejon, Sylvie; Colomb, Evelyne; Atrux-Tallau, Nicolas; Haftek, Marek; Vincent, Claude; Serres, Mireille; Daniele, Stéphane

    2010-11-10

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been reported to penetrate into human skin through lesional skin or follicular structures. Therefore, their ability to interact with dendritic cell (DC) was investigated using DCs generated from monocytes (mono-DCs). Hybrid titanium dioxide/para-amino benzoic acid (TiO(2)/PABA) NPs did not induce any cell toxicity. NPs were internalised into DCs through macropinocytosis and not by a receptor-mediated mechanism. Confocal microscopy showed that NPs were not detected in the nucleus. These data are confirmed by electronic microscopy which demonstrated that hybrid NPs were rapidly in contact with cellular membrane and localised into cytoplasmic vesicles without colocalisation with clathrin-coated vesicles. Hybrid NPs did not induce CD86 or HLA-DR overexpression or cytokine secretion (IL-8 and TNF-α) indicating no DC activation. Internalisation of hybrid NPs did not modify DC response towards sensitisers such as nickel and thimerosal or LPS used as positive controls. Moreover, hybrid NPs did not induce any oxidative stress implicated in DC activation process. After mono-DC irradiation by ultraviolet A (UVA), hybrid NP-treated cells did not produce UVA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exhibited a better cell viability compared with UVA-irradiated control cells, suggesting a protecting effect of hybrid TiO(2)/PABA NPs against UVA-induced ROS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Photophysical properties and excited state intramolecular proton transfer in 2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-(4-methoxyphenyl)diazenyl]benzoic acid in homogeneous solvents and micro-heterogeneous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gashnga, Pynsakhiat Miki [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Chemistry, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022, Meghalaya (India); Singh, T. Sanjoy [Department of Chemistry, Assam University, Silchar 788011, Assam (India); Baul, Tushar S. Basu [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Chemistry, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022, Meghalaya (India); Mitra, Sivaprasad, E-mail: smitra@nehu.ac.in [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Chemistry, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022, Meghalaya (India)

    2014-04-15

    A systematic study on the photophysical properties and excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) behavior of 2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-(4-methoxyphenyl)diazenyl]benzoic acid, is reported using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in homogeneous solvents as well as in different micro-heterogeneous environments. Depending on the nature of intramolecular hydrogen bond (IHB), the salicylic acid derivative may exist in two different ground state conformers (I and II). Structure I having IHB between the carbonyl oxygen and phenolic hydrogen can undergo ESIPT upon excitation as evidenced by largely Stokes-shifted fluorescence at ∼455 nm; whereas, normal fluorescence in the blue side of the spectrum (∼410 nm) is due to the spontaneous emission from conformer II. The results in homogeneous solvents were compared with those in bio-mimicking environments of β-cyclodextrin (CD) and surfactants. The intensity of the ESIPT fluorescence increases substantially upon encapsulation of the probe into the cyclodextrin as well as micellar nano-cavities. Detailed analysis of the spectroscopic data indicates that the probe forms 1:1 complex with CD in aqueous medium. Binding constant of the probe with the micelles as well as critical micelle concentration was obtained from the variation of fluorescence intensity on increasing concentration of different surfactants in aqueous medium. -- Highlights: • Steady state and time resolved fluorescence study on ESIPT in HMBA. • Dual fluorescence corresponding to the pro- and non-ESIPT structures. • Modulation of ESIPT fluorescence in micro-heterogeneous environments. • 1:1 stoichiometry for interaction with cyclodextrin. • Calculation of binding constant and other physico-chemical properties from fluorescence titration data in surfactants.

  10. Photophysical properties and excited state intramolecular proton transfer in 2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-(4-methoxyphenyl)diazenyl]benzoic acid in homogeneous solvents and micro-heterogeneous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gashnga, Pynsakhiat Miki; Singh, T. Sanjoy; Baul, Tushar S. Basu; Mitra, Sivaprasad

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study on the photophysical properties and excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) behavior of 2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-(4-methoxyphenyl)diazenyl]benzoic acid, is reported using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in homogeneous solvents as well as in different micro-heterogeneous environments. Depending on the nature of intramolecular hydrogen bond (IHB), the salicylic acid derivative may exist in two different ground state conformers (I and II). Structure I having IHB between the carbonyl oxygen and phenolic hydrogen can undergo ESIPT upon excitation as evidenced by largely Stokes-shifted fluorescence at ∼455 nm; whereas, normal fluorescence in the blue side of the spectrum (∼410 nm) is due to the spontaneous emission from conformer II. The results in homogeneous solvents were compared with those in bio-mimicking environments of β-cyclodextrin (CD) and surfactants. The intensity of the ESIPT fluorescence increases substantially upon encapsulation of the probe into the cyclodextrin as well as micellar nano-cavities. Detailed analysis of the spectroscopic data indicates that the probe forms 1:1 complex with CD in aqueous medium. Binding constant of the probe with the micelles as well as critical micelle concentration was obtained from the variation of fluorescence intensity on increasing concentration of different surfactants in aqueous medium. -- Highlights: • Steady state and time resolved fluorescence study on ESIPT in HMBA. • Dual fluorescence corresponding to the pro- and non-ESIPT structures. • Modulation of ESIPT fluorescence in micro-heterogeneous environments. • 1:1 stoichiometry for interaction with cyclodextrin. • Calculation of binding constant and other physico-chemical properties from fluorescence titration data in surfactants

  11. p-Hydroxy benzoic acid-conjugated dendrimer nanotherapeutics as potential carriers for targeted drug delivery to brain: an in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swami, Rajan; Singh, Indu [National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (NIPER), Department of Pharmaceutics (India); Kulhari, Hitesh [CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Medicinal Chemistry & Pharmacology Division (India); Jeengar, Manish Kumar [National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (NIPER), Departmentof Pharmacology (India); Khan, Wahid, E-mail: wahid@niperhyd.ac.in; Sistla, Ramakrishna, E-mail: sistla@iict.res.in, E-mail: rksistla@yahoo.com [National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (NIPER), Department of Pharmaceutics (India)

    2015-06-15

    Dendrimers which are discrete nanostructures/nanoparticles are emerging as promising candidates for many nanomedicine applications. Ligand-conjugated dendrimer facilitate the delivery of therapeutics in a targeted manner. Small molecules such as p-hydroxyl benzoic acid (pHBA) were found to have high affinity for sigma receptors which are prominent in most parts of central nervous system and tumors. The aim of this study was to synthesize pHBA-dendrimer conjugates as colloidal carrier for site-specific delivery of practically water insoluble drug, docetaxel (DTX) to brain tumors and to determine its targeting efficiency. pHBA, a small molecule ligand was coupled to the surface amine groups of generation 4-PAMAM dendrimer via a carbodiimide reaction and loaded with DTX. The conjugation was confirmed by {sup 1}HNMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. In vitro release of drug from DTX-loaded pHBA-conjugated dendrimer was found to be less as compared to unconjugated dendrimers. The prepared drug delivery system exhibited good physico-chemical stability and decrease in hemolytic toxicity. Cell viability and cell uptake studies were performed against U87MG human glioblastoma cells and formulations exerted considerable anticancer effect than plain drug. Conjugation of dendrimer with pHBA significantly enhanced the brain uptake of DTX which was shown by the recovery of a higher percentage of the dose from the brain following administration of pHBA-conjugated dendrimers compared with unconjugated dendrimer or formulation in clinical use (Taxotere{sup ®}). Therefore, pHBA conjugated dendrimers could be an efficient delivery vehicle for the targeting of anticancer drugs to brain tumors.

  12. Nonlinear optical studies on 4-(ferrocenylmethylimino)-2-hydroxy-benzoic acid thin films deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matei, Andreea [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Marinescu, Maria, E-mail: maria.marinescu@chimie.unibuc.ro [UB - University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, 90-92 Şoseaua Panduri, Sector 5, RO-010184, Bucharest (Romania); Constantinescu, Catalin, E-mail: catalin.constantinescu@inflpr.ro [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Ion, Valentin; Mitu, Bogdana [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Ionita, Iulian [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); UB - University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 405 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Dinescu, Maria [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Emandi, Ana [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); UB - University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, 90-92 Şoseaua Panduri, Sector 5, RO-010184, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A newly synthesized ferrocene-derivative exhibits SHG potential. • Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation is employed for thin film fabrication. • The optical properties of the films are investigated, presented and discussed. • At maximum laser output power, the SHG signal is strongly influenced by thin film thickness. - Abstract: We present results on a new, laboratory synthesized ferrocene-derivative, i.e. 4-(ferrocenylmethylimino)-2-hydroxy-benzoic acid. Thin films with controlled thickness are deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), on quartz and silicon substrates, with the aim of evaluating the nonlinear optical properties for potential optoelectronic applications. Dimethyl sulfoxide was used as matrix, with 1% wt. concentration of the guest compound. The frozen target is irradiated by using a Nd:YAG laser (4ω/266 nm, 7 ns pulse duration, 10 Hz repetition rate), at low fluences ranging from 0.1 to 1 J/cm{sup 2}. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to probe the surface morphology of the films. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy reveal similar structure of the thin film material when compared to the starting material. The optical properties of the thin films are investigated by spectroscopic-ellipsometry (SE), and the refractive index dependence with respect to temperature is studied. The second harmonic generation (SHG) potential is assessed by using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800 nm, 60–100 fs pulse duration, 80 MHz repetition rate), at 200 mW maximum output power, revealing that the SHG signal intensity is strongly influenced by the films’ thickness.

  13. p-Hydroxy benzoic acid-conjugated dendrimer nanotherapeutics as potential carriers for targeted drug delivery to brain: an in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swami, Rajan; Singh, Indu; Kulhari, Hitesh; Jeengar, Manish Kumar; Khan, Wahid; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Dendrimers which are discrete nanostructures/nanoparticles are emerging as promising candidates for many nanomedicine applications. Ligand-conjugated dendrimer facilitate the delivery of therapeutics in a targeted manner. Small molecules such as p-hydroxyl benzoic acid (pHBA) were found to have high affinity for sigma receptors which are prominent in most parts of central nervous system and tumors. The aim of this study was to synthesize pHBA-dendrimer conjugates as colloidal carrier for site-specific delivery of practically water insoluble drug, docetaxel (DTX) to brain tumors and to determine its targeting efficiency. pHBA, a small molecule ligand was coupled to the surface amine groups of generation 4-PAMAM dendrimer via a carbodiimide reaction and loaded with DTX. The conjugation was confirmed by 1 HNMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. In vitro release of drug from DTX-loaded pHBA-conjugated dendrimer was found to be less as compared to unconjugated dendrimers. The prepared drug delivery system exhibited good physico-chemical stability and decrease in hemolytic toxicity. Cell viability and cell uptake studies were performed against U87MG human glioblastoma cells and formulations exerted considerable anticancer effect than plain drug. Conjugation of dendrimer with pHBA significantly enhanced the brain uptake of DTX which was shown by the recovery of a higher percentage of the dose from the brain following administration of pHBA-conjugated dendrimers compared with unconjugated dendrimer or formulation in clinical use (Taxotere ® ). Therefore, pHBA conjugated dendrimers could be an efficient delivery vehicle for the targeting of anticancer drugs to brain tumors

  14. p-Hydroxy benzoic acid-conjugated dendrimer nanotherapeutics as potential carriers for targeted drug delivery to brain: an in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Rajan; Singh, Indu; Kulhari, Hitesh; Jeengar, Manish Kumar; Khan, Wahid; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2015-06-01

    Dendrimers which are discrete nanostructures/nanoparticles are emerging as promising candidates for many nanomedicine applications. Ligand-conjugated dendrimer facilitate the delivery of therapeutics in a targeted manner. Small molecules such as p-hydroxyl benzoic acid (pHBA) were found to have high affinity for sigma receptors which are prominent in most parts of central nervous system and tumors. The aim of this study was to synthesize pHBA-dendrimer conjugates as colloidal carrier for site-specific delivery of practically water insoluble drug, docetaxel (DTX) to brain tumors and to determine its targeting efficiency. pHBA, a small molecule ligand was coupled to the surface amine groups of generation 4-PAMAM dendrimer via a carbodiimide reaction and loaded with DTX. The conjugation was confirmed by 1HNMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. In vitro release of drug from DTX-loaded pHBA-conjugated dendrimer was found to be less as compared to unconjugated dendrimers. The prepared drug delivery system exhibited good physico-chemical stability and decrease in hemolytic toxicity. Cell viability and cell uptake studies were performed against U87MG human glioblastoma cells and formulations exerted considerable anticancer effect than plain drug. Conjugation of dendrimer with pHBA significantly enhanced the brain uptake of DTX which was shown by the recovery of a higher percentage of the dose from the brain following administration of pHBA-conjugated dendrimers compared with unconjugated dendrimer or formulation in clinical use (Taxotere®). Therefore, pHBA conjugated dendrimers could be an efficient delivery vehicle for the targeting of anticancer drugs to brain tumors.

  15. Luminescence and Electronic Spectral Studies of Some Synthesized Lanthanide Complexes Using Benzoic Acid Derivative and o-Phenanthroline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankar, Sneha; Limaye, S N

    2015-07-01

    Lanthanide complexes of p-nitrobenzoic acid(p-NBA) and o-phenanthroline(o-phen) namely [Ln2(Phen)2(p-NBA)3(NO3)2].2H2O where, Ln = Sm(III),Tb(III),Dy(III) and [Eu2(Phen)2(p-NBA)3].4H2O were synthesized and further characterized by Elemental analysis, UV spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, (1)HNMR spectroscopy. Luminescence measurements were performed on all compounds in ethanolic solution. These complexes have showed narrow emission indicating that the organic ligands are better energy absorber and capable of transferring energy to the Ln (III) ion. Furthermore, we reported electronic spectral studies on [Eu2 (Phen)2 (p-NBA)3].4H2O in order to calculate following parameters, viz: Oscillator strength (f), Judd-Ofelt parameters Ωλ (λ = 2,4,6) and Radiative parameters. [Eu2 (o-Phen)2 (p-NBA)3].4H2O showed the strongest emission at 613 nm corresponds to (5)D0→(7)F2 hypersensitive transition, this emission is very sensitive to the environment. However, the larger value of Ω2 supports the presence of the hypersensitive transition (5)D0→(7)F2 which strictly depends on the nature of ligand. All electronic spectral parameters were calculated systemically.

  16. Xenobiotic/medium chain fatty acid: CoA ligase - a critical review on its role in fatty acid metabolism and the detoxification of benzoic acid and aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, Rencia; Erasmus, Elardus

    2016-10-01

    Activation of fatty acids by the acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs) is the vital first step in fatty acid metabolism. The enzymatic and physiological characterization of the human xenobiotic/medium chain fatty acid: CoA ligases (ACSMs) has been severely neglected even though xenobiotics, such as benzoate and salicylate, are detoxified through this pathway. This review will focus on the nomenclature and substrate specificity of the human ACSM ligases; the biochemical and enzymatic characterization of ACSM1 and ACSM2B; the high sequence homology of the ACSM2 genes (ACSM2A and ACSM2B) as well as what is currently known regarding disease association studies. Several discrepancies exist in the current literature that should be taken note of. For example, the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported to be associated with aspirin metabolism and multiple risk factors of metabolic syndrome are incorrect. Kinetic data on the substrate specificity of the human ACSM ligases are non-existent and currently no data exist on the influence of SNPs on the enzyme activity of these ligases. One of the biggest obstacles currently in the field is that glycine conjugation is continuously studied as a one-step process, which means that key regulatory factors of the two individual steps remain unknown.

  17. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M; Erp van - Baart, M.A.; Anttolainen, M.; Becker, W.; Church, S.M.; Couet, C.; Hermann-Kunz, E.; Kesteloot, H.; Leth, T.; Martins, I.; Moreiras, O.; Moschandreas, J.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Rimestad, A.H.; Thorgeirsdottir, H.; Amelsvoort, J.M.M. van; Aro, A.; Kafatos, A.G.; Lanzmann-Petithory, D.; Poppel, G. van

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of

  18. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshof, K. F. A. M.; Erp-Baart, M. A. van; Anttolainen, M.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of...

  19. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intake and risk of skin photoaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Latreille

    Full Text Available Intake of monounsaturated fatty acids has been reported to reduce oxidative stress, insulin resistance and related inflammatory processes and may thus protect from skin photoaging. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the risk of photoaging, monounsaturated fatty acids intake and the sources of monounsaturated fatty acids.A cross sectional study was conducted within the framework of the SUVIMAX cohort. The survey included 1264 women and 1655 men aged between 45 and 60 years old. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intakes were estimated by dietary source through at least ten 24-h diet records completed during the first 2.5 years of the follow-up period. Severity of facial skin photoaging was graded by trained investigators at baseline during a clinical examination using a 6-grade scale illustrated by photographs. A lower risk of severe photoaging was associated with higher intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids from olive oil in both sexes. Strikingly, no association was found with intake of monounsaturated fatty acids from animal sources whether from dairy products, meat or processed meat.These findings support the beneficial effect of dietary olive oil or healthy diet habits associated with olive oil consumption on the severity of facial photoaging.

  20. The Relationship between Folic Acid Intake and Infant Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Esmailzadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Folic acid is a B vitamin which 5mg daily intake before gestation and until the tenth week of pregnancy is recommended. Since no study has been conducted in some regions of East Azerbaijan including Bostanabad, Khosroshahr and Sarab and no prevalence was spotted in country specific studies, therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between folic acid intake and infant birth weight. Material and Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort. In this study, 1939 of pregnant women who were referred to health care centers before pregnancy were selected randomly. They were divided into two groups: first group of pregnant women who regularly took folic acid before pregnancy and second group included the women who did not take folic acid supplements. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using T-Test and ANOVA. Results: This study was conducted on 1939 mothers who had an average age of 25.98 years and average infants birth weight was 3.209 kg. Totally, 92.9% of the mothers had regular consumption of folic acid during pregnancy. Analysis of the results showed that with increasing maternal BMI, birth weight also increased. It showed a significant relationship between regular folic acid intake and increase in infant birth weight. Conclusion : Our results showed that both high maternal pre-pregnancy weight and folic acid intake lead to higher birth weight infants.

  1. Amino acids intake and physical fitness among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Manios, Yannis; Marcos, Ascensión; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Polito, Angela; Vanhelst, Jeremy; Hagströmer, Maria; Sjöström, Michael; Kafatos, Anthony; de Henauw, Stefaan; Gutierrez, Ángel; Castillo, Manuel J; Moreno, Luis A

    2017-06-01

    The aim was to investigate whether there was an association between amino acid (AA) intake and physical fitness and if so, to assess whether this association was independent of carbohydrates intake. European adolescents (n = 1481, 12.5-17.5 years) were measured. Intake was assessed via two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Lower and upper limbs muscular fitness was assessed by standing long jump and handgrip strength tests, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test. Physical activity was objectively measured. Socioeconomic status was obtained via questionnaires. Lower limbs muscular fitness seems to be positively associated with tryptophan, histidine and methionine intake in boys, regardless of centre, age, socioeconomic status, physical activity and total energy intake (model 1). However, these associations disappeared once carbohydrates intake was controlled for (model 2). In girls, only proline intake seems to be positively associated with lower limbs muscular fitness (model 2) while cardiorespiratory fitness seems to be positively associated with leucine (model 1) and proline intake (models 1 and 2). None of the observed significant associations remained significant once multiple testing was controlled for. In conclusion, we failed to detect any associations between any of the evaluated AAs and physical fitness after taking into account the effect of multiple testing.

  2. Linoleic acid intake and vitamin E requirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, F.C.

    1973-01-01

    In experiments with rats and Peking ducklings it has been investigated to what extent the linoleic acid content of the diet is of influence on the requirement of vitamin E. This requirement was determined by adding D-α-tocopheryl acetate in increasing doses to vitamin E-free diets and to determine

  3. Positional plagiocephaly and excessive folic acid intake during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Michels (Alice); M.E.P. van den Elzen (Marijke); J.S.H. Vles (Johannes); R. van der Hulst (Rene)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To assess the relationship between high intake of folic acid and positional plagiocephaly. Design: Retrospective case-control study with questionnaires administered in the clinic to biological mothers of children with positional plagiocephaly (PP group) and mothers of children

  4. Presença dos ácidos benzóico e sórbico em vinhos e sidras produzidos no Brasil Presence of benzoic and sorbic acids in Brazilian wines and ciders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Margarete Donato Machado

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi a determinação dos níveis de ácido benzóico e ácido sórbico em uma variedade de vinhos e sidras brasileiros, de modo a comparar os valores com os máximos permitidos pela legislação. Um total de 49 amostras (sendo 35 vinhos tintos, 11 vinhos brancos e 3 sidras, disponíveis comercialmente, foram analisadas por CLAE com detector de arranjo de diodos. Apesar do uso de ácido benzóico em vinhos e sidras não ser permitido, esse conservador foi detectado em 3 amostras: 1 vinho e 2 sidras em níveis de 295,6, 424,7 e 608,4 mg.L-1, respectivamente. O ácido sórbico foi detectado em 49% das amostras analisadas com níveis variando de 91,0 a 309,5 mg.L-1. Considerando apenas as amostras nas quais o ácido sórbico foi detectado, o valor médio encontrado foi de 171,2 mg.L-1. Em seis amostras de vinho tinto os níveis de ácido sórbico estavam acima do permitido pela legislação brasileira. Os resultados encontrados no presente trabalho mostram que em algumas amostras, os níveis dos ácidos benzóico e sórbico nos vinhos e sidras analisados, assim como a rotulagem desses produtos não estão de acordo com a legislação vigente no Brasil.This study determined benzoic and sorbic acid contents in Brazilian wines and ciders in order to verify whether these preservatives are used in accordance with Brazilian regulations. Forty-nine samples of commercially available wines (35 red wines, 11 white wines and 3 ciders were analyzed by HPLC coupled to a photodiode array detector. Although the use of benzoic acid in wines and ciders is not permitted, this preservative was detected in three samples, one wine and two ciders, which contained benzoic acid levels of 295.6, 424.7 and 608.4 mg.L-1, respectively. Sorbic acid was detected in 49% of the analyzed samples, with levels ranging from 91.0 to 309.5 mg.L-1. Considering only the samples containing sorbic acid, the mean content detected was 171.2 mg.L-1. Six red wine

  5. Dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids, benzoic acid, α-dicarbonyls, WSOC, OC, and ions in spring aerosols from Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim: size distributions and formation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Dhananjay K.; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Lazaar, Manuel; Kunwar, Bhagawati; Boreddy, Suresh K. R.

    2016-04-01

    Size-segregated aerosols (nine stages from 11.3 µm in diameter) were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, in spring 2008 and analyzed for water-soluble diacids (C2-C12), ω-oxoacids (ωC2-ωC9), pyruvic acid, benzoic acid, and α-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) as well as water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic carbon (OC), and major ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, and MSA-). In all the size-segregated aerosols, oxalic acid (C2) was found to be the most abundant species, followed by malonic and succinic acids, whereas glyoxylic acid (ωC2) was the dominant oxoacid and glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal. Diacids (C2-C5), ωC2, and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at fine mode (0.65-1.1 µm) whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9) acids peaked at coarse mode (3.3-4.7 µm). Sulfate and ammonium were enriched in fine mode, whereas sodium and chloride were in coarse mode. Strong correlations of C2-C5 diacids, ωC2 and Gly with sulfate were observed in fine mode (r = 0.86-0.99), indicating a commonality in their secondary formation. Their significant correlations with liquid water content in fine mode (r = 0.82-0.95) further suggest an importance of the aqueous-phase production in Okinawa aerosols. They may also have been directly emitted from biomass burning in fine mode as supported by strong correlations with potassium (r = 0.85-0.96), which is a tracer of biomass burning. Bimodal size distributions of longer-chain diacid (C9) and oxoacid (ωC9) with a major peak in the coarse mode suggest that they were emitted from the sea surface microlayers and/or produced by heterogeneous oxidation of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids on sea salt particles.

  6. Dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids, benzoic acid, α-dicarbonyls, WSOC, OC, and ions in spring aerosols from Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim: size distributions and formation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Deshmukh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Size-segregated aerosols (nine stages from < 0.43 to > 11.3 µm in diameter were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, in spring 2008 and analyzed for water-soluble diacids (C2–C12, ω-oxoacids (ωC2–ωC9, pyruvic acid, benzoic acid, and α-dicarbonyls (C2–C3 as well as water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, organic carbon (OC, and major ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, and MSA−. In all the size-segregated aerosols, oxalic acid (C2 was found to be the most abundant species, followed by malonic and succinic acids, whereas glyoxylic acid (ωC2 was the dominant oxoacid and glyoxal (Gly was more abundant than methylglyoxal. Diacids (C2–C5, ωC2, and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at fine mode (0.65–1.1 µm whereas azelaic (C9 and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9 acids peaked at coarse mode (3.3–4.7 µm. Sulfate and ammonium were enriched in fine mode, whereas sodium and chloride were in coarse mode. Strong correlations of C2–C5 diacids, ωC2 and Gly with sulfate were observed in fine mode (r =  0.86–0.99, indicating a commonality in their secondary formation. Their significant correlations with liquid water content in fine mode (r =  0.82–0.95 further suggest an importance of the aqueous-phase production in Okinawa aerosols. They may also have been directly emitted from biomass burning in fine mode as supported by strong correlations with potassium (r =  0.85–0.96, which is a tracer of biomass burning. Bimodal size distributions of longer-chain diacid (C9 and oxoacid (ωC9 with a major peak in the coarse mode suggest that they were emitted from the sea surface microlayers and/or produced by heterogeneous oxidation of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids on sea salt particles.

  7. Maternal folic acid supplement intake and semen quality in Danish sons: a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kristoffer; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether maternal folic acid supplement intake during pregnancy is related to better semen quality in male offspring.......To examine whether maternal folic acid supplement intake during pregnancy is related to better semen quality in male offspring....

  8. Properties of cyclodextrins. V. Inclusion isotherm and kinetics of inclusion of benzoic acid and m-chlorobenzoic acid on b-E 25 cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiedenhof, N.; Trieling, R.G.

    1971-01-01

    The previous paper showed that b-E 25 resins have an affinity for aromatic compds., e.g. BZOH and m-ClC6H4CO2H; mainly the undissocd. acids are involved. The isothermal inclusion of undissocd. BZOH is described by a Langmuir isotherm, but that of m-ClC6H4CO2H follows a Freundlich isotherm. The

  9. Adjuvant effects and antiserum action potentiation by a (herbal) compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid isolated from the root extract of the Indian medicinal plant 'sarsaparilla' (Hemidesmus indicus R. Br.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M I; Gomes, A

    1998-10-01

    The adjuvant effect and antiserum potentiation of a compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid were explored in the present investigation. This compound, isolated and purified from the Indian medicinal plant Hemidesmus indicus R. Br, possessed antisnake venom activity. Rabbits immunized with Vipera russellii venom in the presence and absence of the compound along with Freund's complete adjuvant, produced a precipitating band in immunogel diffusion and immunogel electrophoresis. The venom neutralizing capacity of this antiserum showed positive adjuvant effects as evident by the higher neutralization capacity (lethal and hemorrhage) when compared with the antiserum raised with venom alone. The pure compound potentiated the lethal action neutralization of venom by commercial equine polyvalent snake venom antiserum in experimental models. These observations raised the possibility of the use of chemical antagonists (from herbs) against snake bite, which may provide a better protection in presence of antiserum, especially in the rural parts of India.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and biological studies of 2-(4-nitrophenylamino-carbonyl)benzoic acid and its complexes with Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, M; Nazir, S.; Latif, S.; Mahmood, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of 2-(4-Nitrophenyl aminocarbonyl)benzoic acid were synthesized and characterized on the basis of physical, analytical and spectroscopic data. The ligands, as well as its metal complexes were checked for their in-vitro antimicrobial activity against three bacterial strains, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, and three fungal strains, Nigrospora oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Disc diffusion method and Tube diffusion test were used for antibacterial and antifungal activities, respectively. The synthesized complexes only show significant antifungal activity but inactive for antibacterial, however, in general, the metal complexes were found to be more active against antimicrobial activities as compared to their un complexed ligand. (author)

  11. Prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status : the importance of a balanced intake of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses the effect of prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) status on neuro-developmental outcome. It focuses on the major LPCUFA doxosahexaenoic acid (DNA; 22:6 omega 3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 omega 6). Due to enzymatic competition high DHA intake results in

  12. 用清洁生产理念优化苯甲醇和苯甲酸的合成实验%Experiment of Synthesis Optimization for Benzyl Alcohol and Benzoic Acid by Stratagem of Clean Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿桂芳; 赵喜芝; 王珩

    2009-01-01

    Preparing benzyl alcohol and benzoic acid by benzyalde is an important experiment in organic chemistry experiment teaching in colleges. But in conventional experiment some problem appears including great consumption of alkali and acid as well as pollution of benzene and hydrogen chloride on the laboratory. In the highlight of clean production such as source controlling, pollution reduction and efficiency enhancement, the parameters of traditional experiment were optimized for the purpose of reducing the pollution of laboratory. The stratagem of clean production may direct a new way for students' life.%以苯甲醛为原料制备苯甲醇与苯甲酸是高校有机化学实验教学中的一个重要实验,但在传统实验中,存在原料用量大,苯、氯化氢污染实验室环境等问题.文章利用清洁生产从源头控制、减污增效的思想,对本实验的传统参数进行了优化,从而减轻对实验室的污染.并在该思想的引领下,使学生了解清洁生产可从身边的事做起.

  13. Performance of pregnant women on folic acid intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rezaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The cause of neural tube defects (NTDs is multifactorial and in this case folic acid has an important role. Since the neural tube is closed during 21-28 days of pregnancy, most of women are not informed about their pregnancy at this time, and as a result the golden time of folic acid consumption is missed. The aim of this study was evaluating the performance of pregnant women attending to Tehran Women's Hospital in regard to folic acid intake during pre-conceptional period between 2011 and 2012. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 370 pregnant women attending the prenatal clinic of a hospital affiliate to Tehran University of Medical Sciences between 2011 and 2012. Data were collected through interview using a questionnaire. Although 70% of the pregnancies were planned, but 70.5% of pregnant women had not taken folic acid before conception or in necessary time. There was found a significant relationship between level of education, history of abnormalities in children and the number of abortions and taking folic acid before pregnancy (P=0.005, P=0.000 and P=0.000, respectively.

  14. Five new Zn(II) and Cd(II) coordination polymers constructed by 3,5-bis-oxyacetate-benzoic acid: Syntheses, crystal structures, network topologies and luminescent properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xianrong; Yuan Hongyan; Feng Yunlong

    2012-01-01

    Five Zn(II) and Cd(II) coordination polymers, [Zn 2 (BOABA)(bpp)(OH)]·0.5H 2 O (1), [Cd 3 (BOABA) 2 (bpp) 2 (H 2 O) 6 ]·2H 2 O (2), [Cd 3 (BOABA) 2 (2,2′-bipy) 3 (H 2 O) 4 ]·5.5H 2 O (3), [CdNa(BOABA)(H 2 O)] 2 ·H 2 O (4) and [Cd 2 (BOABA)(bimb)Cl(H 2 O) 2 ]·H 2 O (5) (H 3 BOABA=3,5-bis-oxyacetate-benzoic acid, bpp=1,3-bi(4-pyridyl)propane, 2,2′-bipy=2,2′-bipyridine, bimb=1,4-bis(imidazol-1′-yl)butane), have been solvothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, IR spectra and TG analyses. 1 is an uninodal 4-connected 2D square grid network based on binuclear zinc clusters. 2 is 2D wavelike layer structure and further linked by hydrogen bonds into the final 3D (5,6,6)-connected topology network. 3 is 3-connected 2D topology network and the 2,2′-bipy ligands decorate in two different types. 4 is a (4,8)-connected 2D topology network with heterocaryotic {Cd 2 Na 2 } clusters and BOABA 3– ligands. 5 can be rationalized as a (3,10)-connected 3D topology network with tetranuclear {Cd 4 Cl 2 } clusters and BOABA 3– ligands. Meanwhile, photoluminescence studies revealed that these five coordination polymers display strong fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Five new d 10 metal(II) coordination polymers based on H 3 BOABA ligand were obtained and characterized. They display different topological structures and luminescent properties. Highlights: ► Five d 10 metal(II) polymers based on 3,5-bis-oxyacetate-benzoic acid were obtained. ► The polymers were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. ► Polymers 1–5 display different topological structures. ► They show strong fluorescent emission bands in the solid state.

  15. Serum uric acid, protein intake and mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Christina; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Streja, Elani; Rhee, Connie M; Catabay, Christina J; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-10-01

    The association between serum uric acid (SUA) and mortality has been conflicting among studies using hemodialysis (HD) patients. Given the close link between purine and protein in foods, we hypothesized that normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), a dietary protein intake surrogate, modifies the SUA-mortality association in the HD population. We identified 4298 patients who initiated HD and had one or more SUA measurement in a contemporary cohort of HD patients over 5 years (1 January 2007-31 December 2011), and examined survival probability according to the first uric acid measurement, adjusting for dialysis vintage, case-mix and malnutrition-inflammation complex-related variables. Mean SUA concentration was 6.6 ± 1.8 mg/dL. There was a consistent association of higher SUA with better nutritional status and lower all-cause mortality irrespective of adjusted models (Ptrend 6.0-7.0 mg/dL) showed no significant mortality risk [hazard ratio (HR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72-1.13], while the lowest category (HD patients. Contrary to the general population, low but not high SUA is associated with higher all-cause mortality in HD patients, especially in those with low protein intake. Nutritional features of SUA warrant additional studies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  16. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mínguez-alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorgee; Mendiola, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    , and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone......, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free...... testosterone concentrations (P trend = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). The intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest...

  17. Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in children - a workshop report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koletzko, B.; Uauy, R.; Palou, A.; Kok, F.J.; Hornstra, G.; Eilander, A.; Moretti, D.; Osendarp, S.J.M.; Zock, P.L.; Innis, S.

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy whether children should have a dietary supply of preformed long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. The aims of the workshop were to review evidence for a possible benefit of a preformed EPA and/or DHA supply, of data required to set desirable intakes for children

  18. A neutron diffraction study of the crystal of benzoic acid from 6 to 293 K and a macroscopic-scale quantum theory of the lattice of hydrogen-bonded dimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillaux, François, E-mail: francois.fillaux@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 8233, MONARIS, F-7505 Paris (France); Cousson, Alain, E-mail: alain-f.cousson@cea.fr [Laboratoire Léon Brillouin (CEA-CNRS), C.E. Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2016-11-10

    Highlights: • Proton transfer and tautomerism are revisited from quantum viewpoint. • Neutron-diffraction gives evidence for long-range correlations for protons. • We introduce a decoherence-free macroscopic-scale crystal-state. • All observations accord with the principle of complementarity. • Computational-chemistry models are inappropriate. - Abstract: Measurements via different techniques of the crystal of benzoic acid have led to conflicting conceptions of tautomerism: statistical disorder for diffraction; semiclassical jumps for relaxometry; quantum states for vibrational spectroscopy. We argue that these conflicts follow from the prejudice that nuclear positions and eigenstates are pre-existing to measurements, what is at variance with the principle of complementarity. We propose a self-contained quantum theory. First of all, new single-crystal neutron-diffraction data accord with long-range correlation for proton-site occupancies. Then we introduce a macroscopic-scale quantum-state emerging from phonon condensation, for which nuclear positions and eigenstates are indefinite. As to quantum-measurements, an incoming wave (neutron or photon) entangled with the condensate realizes a transitory state, either in the space of static nuclear-coordinates (diffraction), or in that of the symmetry coordinates (spectroscopy and relaxometry). We derive temperature-laws for proton-site occupancies and for the relaxation rate, which compare favorably with measurements.

  19. Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group-Determination of Dissolved Isoxaflutole and Its Sequential Degradation Products, Diketonitrile and Benzoic Acid, in Water Using Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael T.; Lee, Edward A.; Scribner, Elisabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of isoxaflutole and its sequential degradation products, diketonitrile and a benzoic acid analogue, in filtered water with varying matrices was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group in Lawrence, Kansas. Four different water-sample matrices fortified at 0.02 and 0.10 ug/L (micrograms per liter) are extracted by vacuum manifold solid-phase extraction and analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization in negative-ion mode with multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM). Analytical conditions for mass spectrometry detection are optimized, and quantitation is carried out using the following MRM molecular-hydrogen (precursor) ion and product (p) ion transition pairs: 357.9 (precursor), 78.9 (p), and 277.6 (p) for isoxaflutole and diketonitrile, and 267.0 (precursor), 159.0 (p), and 223.1 (p) for benzoic acid. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-d3 is used as the internal standard, and alachlor ethanesulfonic acid-d5 is used as the surrogate standard. Compound detection limits and reporting levels are calculated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency procedures. The mean solid-phase extraction recovery values ranged from 104 to 108 percent with relative standard deviation percentages ranging from 4.0 to 10.6 percent. The combined mean percentage concentration normalized to the theoretical spiked concentration of four water matrices analyzed eight times at 0.02 and 0.10 ug/L (seven times for the reagent-water matrix at 0.02 ug/L) ranged from approximately 75 to 101 percent with relative standard deviation percentages ranging from approximately 3 to 26 percent for isoxaflutole, diketonitrile, and benzoic acid. The method detection limit (MDL) for isoxaflutole and diketonitrile is 0.003 ug/L and 0.004 ug/L for benzoic acid. Method reporting levels (MRLs) are 0.011, 0.010, and 0.012 ug/L for isoxaflutole, diketonitrile, and benzoic acid, respectively. On the basis

  20. 4-Aza-1-azoniabicyclo?[2.2.2]octa?ne?2-amino?benzoate?2-amino?benzoic acid (1/1/1)

    OpenAIRE

    Arman, Hadi D.; Kaulgud, Trupta; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2011-01-01

    A 4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane cation, a 2-aminobenzoate anion and a neutral 2-aminobenzoic acid molecule comprise the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C6H13N2+·C7H6NO2−·C7H7NO2. An intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond occurs in the anion and in the neutral 2-aminobenzoic acid molecule. The cation provides a charge-assisted N—H...O hydrogen bond to the anion, and the 2-aminobenzoic acid molecule forms an O—H...N hydrogen bo...

  1. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón; Jorge E Chavarro; Jaime Mendiola; Manuela Roca; Cigdem Tanrikut; Jesús Vioque; Niels Jørgensen; Alberto M Torres-Cantero

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may inlfuence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this ifeld has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross‑sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega‑6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (Ptrend=0.01 and 0.02, respectively). The intake of omega‑3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega‑6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may inlfuence testicular function.

  2. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may influence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this field has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross-sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (P trend = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively. The intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may influence testicular function.

  3. DFT calculations, spectroscopic, thermal analysis and biological activity of Sm(III) and Tb(III) complexes with 2-aminobenzoic and 2-amino-5-chloro-benzoic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essawy, Amr A.; Afifi, Manal A.; Moustafa, H.; El-Medani, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    The complexes of Sm(III) and Tb(III) with 2-aminobenzoic acid (anthranilic acid, AA) and 2-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid (5-chloroanthranilic acid, AACl) were synthesized and characterized based on elemental analysis, IR and mass spectroscopy. The data are in accordance with 1:3 [Metal]:[Ligand] ratio. On the basis of the IR analysis, it was found that the metals were coordinated to bidentate anthranilic acid via the ionised oxygen of the carboxylate group and to the nitrogen of amino group. While in 5-chloroanthranilic acid, the metals were coordinated oxidatively to the bidentate carboxylate group without bonding to amino group; accordingly, a chlorine-affected coordination and reactivity-diversity was emphasized. Thermal analyses (TGA) and biological activity of the complexes were also investigated. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p)_ level of theory have been carried out to investigate the equilibrium geometry of the ligand. The optimized geometry parameters of the complexes were evaluated using SDDALL basis set. Moreover, total energy, energy of HOMO and LUMO and Mullikan atomic charges were calculated. In addition, dipole moment and orientation have been performed and discussed.

  4. Effect of substitution of low linolenic acid soybean oil for hydrogenated soybean oil on fatty acid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiRienzo, Maureen A; Astwood, James D; Petersen, Barbara J; Smith, Kim M

    2006-02-01

    Low linolenic acid soybean oil (LLSO) has been developed as a substitute for hydrogenated soybean oil to reduce intake of trans FA while improving stability and functionality in processed foods. We assessed the dietary impact of substitution of LLSO for hydrogenated soybean oil (HSBO) used in several food categories. All substitutions were done using an assumption of 100% market penetration. The impact of this substitution on the intake of five FA and trans FA was assessed. Substitution of LLSO for current versions of HSBO resulted in a 45% decrease in intake of trans FA. Impacts on other FA intakes were within the realm of typical dietary intakes. No decrease in intake of alpha-linolenic acid was associated with the use of LLSO in place of HSBO because LLSO substitutes for HSBO that are already low in alpha-linolenic acid.

  5. Relationship of the Reported Intakes of Fat and Fatty Acids to Body Weight in US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Conrad, Zach; Johnson, LuAnn K; Picklo, Matthew J; Jahns, Lisa

    2017-04-28

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categories (1) for the US adult population and, (2) by sociodemographic groups. Reported dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and What We Eat in America (WWEIA) surveys in the years 2005-2012 were analyzed. Overall, we found that the reported intake of carbohydrate, protein, total fat, total saturated fat (as well as long-chain saturated fatty acids 14:0-18:0), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were positively associated with BMI; while lauric acid (a medium-chain saturated fatty acid, 12:0) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (as well as all individual PUFAs) were not associated with BMI. Non-Hispanic black individuals demonstrated a negative association between BMI and energy intake and a positive association between total PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and BMI. Individuals with less than a high school education showed a negative association between BMI and DHA. Mexican-Americans reported intakes with no association between BMI and energy, any macronutrient, or individual fatty acids. These findings support those of experimental studies demonstrating fatty acid-dependent associations between dietary fatty acid composition and body weight. Notably, we observed divergent results for some sociodemographic groups which warrant further investigation.

  6. Five new Zn(II) and Cd(II) coordination polymers constructed by 3,5-bis-oxyacetate-benzoic acid: Syntheses, crystal structures, network topologies and luminescent properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Xianrong; Yuan Hongyan [Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Reactive Chemistry on Solid Surfaces, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang 321004 (China); Feng Yunlong, E-mail: sky37@zjnu.edu.cn [Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Reactive Chemistry on Solid Surfaces, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang 321004 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Five Zn(II) and Cd(II) coordination polymers, [Zn{sub 2}(BOABA)(bpp)(OH)]{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O (1), [Cd{sub 3}(BOABA){sub 2}(bpp){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O (2), [Cd{sub 3}(BOABA){sub 2}(2,2 Prime -bipy){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{center_dot}5.5H{sub 2}O (3), [CdNa(BOABA)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 2}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (4) and [Cd{sub 2}(BOABA)(bimb)Cl(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (5) (H{sub 3}BOABA=3,5-bis-oxyacetate-benzoic acid, bpp=1,3-bi(4-pyridyl)propane, 2,2 Prime -bipy=2,2 Prime -bipyridine, bimb=1,4-bis(imidazol-1 Prime -yl)butane), have been solvothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, IR spectra and TG analyses. 1 is an uninodal 4-connected 2D square grid network based on binuclear zinc clusters. 2 is 2D wavelike layer structure and further linked by hydrogen bonds into the final 3D (5,6,6)-connected topology network. 3 is 3-connected 2D topology network and the 2,2 Prime -bipy ligands decorate in two different types. 4 is a (4,8)-connected 2D topology network with heterocaryotic {l_brace}Cd{sub 2}Na{sub 2}{r_brace} clusters and BOABA{sup 3-} ligands. 5 can be rationalized as a (3,10)-connected 3D topology network with tetranuclear {l_brace}Cd{sub 4}Cl{sub 2}{r_brace} clusters and BOABA{sup 3-} ligands. Meanwhile, photoluminescence studies revealed that these five coordination polymers display strong fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Five new d{sup 10} metal(II) coordination polymers based on H{sub 3}BOABA ligand were obtained and characterized. They display different topological structures and luminescent properties. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five d{sup 10} metal(II) polymers based on 3,5-bis-oxyacetate-benzoic acid were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polymers were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymers 1-5 display different

  7. Effects of Butter and Phytanic acid intake on metabolic parameters and T-cell polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Tue

    The still growing obesity epidemic is a major risk for our society, as it is associated with the development of the so called metabolic syndrome, which is a clinical diagnosis correlated to development of metabolic disorders. Lack of physical activity, excess energy intake, and nutritional factors...... addition of phytanic acid. Third, we investigated butter and phytanic acid effects on human T-cell polarization, both by in vitro incubation with phytanic acid, and by a 12 weeks intervention with intake of butter. Finally, we performed two human interventions, first one with intake of butter and cheese...... fatty acids are raised in dairy fat along with the amount of green plant material intake of the cattle. Phytanic acid is one of these minor fatty acids, due to agonist activities for nuclear receptors with central roles in among others the lipid and glucose metabolism. To determine the effects of both...

  8. Estimates of Total Dietary Folic Acid Intake in the Australian Population Following Mandatory Folic Acid Fortification of Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Dugbaza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory folic acid fortification of wheat flour for making bread was implemented in Australia in September 2009, to improve the dietary folate status of women of child-bearing age, and help reduce the incidence of neural tube defects in the population. This paper presents estimates of folic acid intake in the target population and other subgroups of the Australian population following implementation of the mandatory folic acid fortification standard. In June/July 2010 one hundred samples from seven bread categories were purchased from around the country and individually analysed for the amount of folic acid they contained. A modification to the triple enzyme microbiological method was used to measure folic acid in the individual bread samples. The folic acid analytical values together with national food consumption data were used to generate estimates of the population’s folic acid intake from fortified foods. Food Standards Australia New Zealand’s (FSANZ custom-built dietary modelling program (DIAMOND was used for the estimates. The mean amount of folic acid found in white bread was 200 μg/100 g which demonstrated that folic-acid-fortified wheat flour was used to bake the bread. The intake estimates indicated an increase in mean folic acid intake of 159 μg per day for the target group. Other sub-groups of the population also showed increases in estimated mean daily intake of folic acid.

  9. Saturated fatty acid intake can influence increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masquio, D C L; de Piano, A; Campos, R M S; Sanches, P L; Corgosinho, F C; Carnier, J; Oyama, L M; do Nascimento, C M P O; de Mello, M T; Tufik, S; Dâmaso, A R

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if saturated fatty acid intake adjusted by tertiles can influence metabolic, inflammation, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in obese adolescents. Body mass, height, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and body composition of 108 obese adolescents were obtained. Fasting glucose, insulin, PAI-1, and CRP were determined. Insulin resistance was assessed by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity by Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI). Dietetic intake was estimated by a 3-day dietary record, and volunteers were divided according to consumption of saturated fatty acids: tertile 1 [Low Saturated Fatty Acid Intake (Low-SFA): ≤12.14 g], tertile 2 [Moderate Saturated Fatty Intake (Moderate SFA intake): 12.15-20.48 g], and tertile 3 [High Saturated Fatty Acid Intake (High-SFA Intake); >20.48 g]. Statistical analysis was performed using STATISTICA 7.0 software and the significance level was set at pstudy is that Moderate and High-SFA intakes presented significantly higher values of PAI-1 than Low-SFA Intake. PAI-1 was positively associated with saturated fatty intake, waist circumference, mean blood pressure, and HOMA-IR. SFA intake was predictor of PAI-1 independent of body fat, HOMA-IR and total-cholesterol. In addition, PAI-1 was an independent predictor of blood pressure. HOMA-IR and QUICKI presented significantly higher and lower, respectively, in High-SFA compared to Moderate-SFA intake. High-SFA influenced cardiovascular disease risks, since it increased PAI-1 and insulin resistance, and decreased insulin sensibility, leading to vicious cycle among food ingestion, pro-thrombotic state, and cardiovascular risks in obese adolescents. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Erythrocyte levels compared with reported dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, H.S.; Sandstrom, B.

    1995-01-01

    It is well established that marine n-3 fatty acids measured in erythrocyte phospholipids of non-pregnant subjects reflect the subjects' intake of these fatty acids. In 135 pregnant women in the 30th week of gestation we compared intake of marine n-3 fatty acids and energy, estimated by a combined...... dietary self- administered questionnaire and interview, with fatty acids measured in erythrocyte phospholipids. Daily intake (g/d) and nutrient density of marine n-3 fatty acids (mg/MJ) correlated with the n-3 fatty acid: arachidonic acid ratio (FA-ratio) with correlation coefficients of 0.48 and 0.......54 respectively. In a linear regression model with three frequency questions about marine sandwiches, marine cooked meals and fish oil as explanatory variables, and the FA-ratio as dependent variable, the multiple correlation coefficient was 0.46. Conclusions from the study were (1) levels of erythrocyte fatty...

  11. Erythrocyte levels compared with reported dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Sandstrom, B.

    1995-01-01

    It is web established that marine n-3 fatty acids measured in erythrocyte phospholipids of non-pregnant subjects reflect the subjects' intake of these fatty acids. In 135 pregnant women in the 30th week of gestation we compared intake of marine n-3 fatty acids and energy, estimated by a combined...... dietary self-administered questionnaire and interview, with fatty acids measured in erythrocyte phospholipids. Daily intake (g/d) and nutrient density of marine n-3 fatty acids (mg/MJ) correlated with the n-3 fatty acid: arachidonic acid ratio (FA-ratio) with correlation coefficients of 0.48 and 0.......54 respectively. In a linear regression model with three frequency questions about marine sandwiches, marine cooked meals and fish oil as explanatory variables, and the FA-ratio as dependent variable, the multiple correlation coefficient was 0.46. Conclusions from the study were (1) levels of erythrocyte fatty...

  12. Biosynthesis, natural sources, dietary intake, pharmacokinetic properties, and biological activities of hydroxycinnamic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Seedi, Hesham R; El-Said, Asmaa M A; Khalifa, Shaden A M; Göransson, Ulf; Bohlin, Lars; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Verpoorte, Rob

    2012-11-07

    Hydroxycinnamic acids are the most widely distributed phenolic acids in plants. Broadly speaking, they can be defined as compounds derived from cinnamic acid. They are present at high concentrations in many food products, including fruits, vegetables, tea, cocoa, and wine. A diet rich in hydroxycinnamic acids is thought to be associated with beneficial health effects such as a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. The impact of hydroxycinnamic acids on health depends on their intake and pharmacokinetic properties. This review discusses their chemistry, biosynthesis, natural sources, dietary intake, and pharmacokinetic properties.

  13. Assessment of flavonoid and fatty acid intake by chemical analysis of biomarkers and the duplicate diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Dietary intake is important to investigate the relationship between diet and the occurrence of disease. However, it is difficult to assess the intake of nutrients such as flavonoids, minor fatty acids and plant sterols because the data on these nutrients in food composition tables are insufficient

  14. Dietary intake and food sources of fatty acids in Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Ambrosini, Gina; Beilin, Lawrie J; Mori, Trevor A; Oddy, Wendy H

    2011-02-01

    Dietary fat consumed during childhood and adolescence may be related to the development of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases in adulthood; however, there is a lack of information on specific fatty acid intakes and food sources in these populations. Our study aimed to assess fatty acid intakes in Australian adolescents, compare intakes with national guidelines, and identify major food sources of fatty acids. Dietary intake was assessed using measured 3-d records in 822 adolescents aged 13-15 y participating in The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, Australia. Mean daily total fat intakes were 90 ± 25 g for boys and 73 ± 20 g for girls, with saturated fat contributing 14% of total energy intake. Mean contribution to daily energy intake for linoleic, alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids were 3.0%, 0.40%, 0.02%, 0.01%, and 0.04%, respectively, for boys, and 3.3%, 0.42%, 0.02%, 0.01%, and 0.05% for girls. To meet guidelines for chronic disease prevention, consumption of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in this population may need to increase up to three-fold and the proportion of saturated fat decrease by one-third. Girls were more likely to achieve the guidelines. Major food sources were dairy products for total fat, saturated fat and alpha-linolenic acid, margarines for linoleic acid, and fish for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Results suggest that for this population, a higher dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, particularly for boys, and lower proportion of saturated fat is required to meet recommendations for prevention of chronic disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Trends in linoleic acid intake in the United States adult population: NHANES 1999-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linoleic acid (LA), the primary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the US diet, is an essential fatty acid. LA is available from a wide variety of foods, although it is primarily sourced from plant seed oils. Individual-level data on demography and food and nutrient intake were acquired from the N...

  16. Impact of fatty acid food reformulations on intake of Dutch young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Millenaar, Inger L; Van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Westenbrink, Susanne

    2011-12-01

    The Dutch'Task Force for the Improvement of the Fatty Acid Composition' initiated fatty acid reformulations in branches using vegetable oils and fats to reduce the trans (TFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) content of foods. This study estimates the impact of recent reformulations in the task force food groups by estimating changes in median intake of TFA and SFA in Dutch young adults. This is a modelling study with food consumption data of young adults. Intakes were estimated before reformulation using food composition data of 2001 as a reference and while including most recent fatty acid composition of foods for task force food groups. Food composition of other foods and food consumption was assumed unchanged. Average TFA intake significantly decreased from 1.0 E% in the reference to 0.8 E% in the reformulation scenario. Pastry, cakes and biscuits, and snacks contributed most to the decrease of TFA. Estimated SFA intake did not change. When solid baking and spreading fats were additionally replaced with fluid ones, SFA intake decreases from 12.9 E% to 12.1 E%. Fatty acid reformulation in the task force food groups contributed to reductions in TFA intake. For further reductions in SFA intake a different food choice is primordial.

  17. 4-[(E-(4-Fluorobenzylideneamino]benzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca M. Muñoz-Flores

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C14H10FNO2, the benzene rings make a dihedral angle of 57.50 (13°, and the molecule has an E configuration about the C=N bond. In the crystal, molecules are linked via pairs of O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers.

  18. Fatty acid intakes of children and adolescents are not in line with the dietary intake recommendations for future cardiovascular health: a systematic review of dietary intake data from thirty countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harika, Rajwinder K; Cosgrove, Maeve C; Osendarp, Saskia J M; Verhoef, Petra; Zock, Peter L

    2011-08-01

    Fatty acid composition of the diet may influence cardiovascular risk from early childhood onwards. The objective of the present study was to perform a systematic review of dietary fat and fatty acid intakes in children and adolescents from different countries around the world and compare these with the population nutrient intake goals for prevention of chronic diseases as defined by the WHO (2003). Data on fat and fatty acid intake were mainly collected from national dietary surveys and from population studies all published during or after 1995. These were identified by searching PubMed, and through nutritionists at local Unilever offices in different countries. Fatty acid intake data from thirty countries mainly from developed countries were included. In twenty-eight of the thirty countries, mean SFA intakes were higher than the recommended maximum of 10 % energy, whereas in twenty-one out of thirty countries mean PUFA intakes were below recommended (6-10 % energy). More and better intake data are needed, in particular for developing regions of the world, and future research should determine the extent to which improvement of dietary fatty acid intake in childhood translates into lower CHD risk in later life. Despite these limitations, the available data clearly indicate that in the majority of the countries providing data on fatty acid intake, less than half of the children and adolescents meet the SFA and PUFA intake goals that are recommended for the prevention of chronic diseases.

  19. Insufficient intake of alpha-linolenic fatty acid (18:3n-3 during pregnancy and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Garcia VASCONCELOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze alpha-linolenic fatty acid intake in two cohorts of pregnant women, and to identify factors associated with alpha-linolenic acid intake. Methods: This is a cohort study involving pregnant women with low obstetric risk (N=353 in public health system from a municipality of São Paulo state, Brazil. In each trimester, two 24-hour food recalls were collected. Descriptive analyses of dietary lipid profiles were performed, followed by a multiple comparison test. According to the trimester of pregnancy, differences were assessed using the mean difference test. To evaluate the adequacy of linoleic fatty acid and alpha-linolenic acid intake, the adequate intake test was used. The association between alpha-linolenic acid intake adequacy and maternal characteristics was investigated using a binary logistic regression model. Results: Total lipids intake and the percentage contribution to dietary energy met recommended levels. One-third of the diets demonstrated a lower than daily recommended intake of alpha-linolenic acid. Overweight pregnant women were twice as likely to have inadequate alpha-linolenic acid intake. Pregnant women from a more disadvantaged socioeconomic situation had greater risks of inadequate intake. Conclusion: Over-intake of lipids is not problematic, but quality is an issue, with one third of the pregnant women and their fetuses exposed to adverse effects due to low intake of omega-3 fatty acids, indicating important nutritional vulnerability in this population.

  20. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Orsavova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs of fourteen vegetable oils—safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil—were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC. Saturated (SFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%–20.0%, oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%–71.1% and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%–79%, respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%–695.7% ERDI, PUFAs (10.6%–786.8% ERDI, n-3 FAs (4.4%–117.1% ERDI and n-6 FAs (1.8%–959.2% ERDI, expressed in % ERDI of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (ERDI for total fat (ERDI—37.7 kJ/g. The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% ERDI for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD and cardiovascular diseases (CVD in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman’s correlations.

  1. Dietary intakes of glutamic acid and glycine are associated with stroke mortality in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Chisato; Wada, Keiko; Tamura, Takashi; Kawachi, Toshiaki; Konishi, Kie; Tsuji, Michiko; Nakamura, Kozue

    2015-04-01

    Dietary intakes of glutamic acid and glycine have been reported to be associated with blood pressure. However, the link between intakes of these amino acids and stroke has not been studied. We aimed to examine the association between glutamic acid and glycine intakes and the risk of mortality from stroke in a population-based cohort study in Japan. The analyses included 29,079 residents (13,355 men and 15,724 women) of Takayama City, Japan, who were aged 35-101 y and enrolled in 1992. Their body mass index ranged from 9.9 to 57.4 kg/m(2). Their diets were assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Deaths from stroke were ascertained over 16 y. During follow-up, 677 deaths from stroke (328 men and 349 women) were identified. A high intake of glutamic acid in terms of a percentage of total protein was significantly associated with a decreased risk of mortality from total stroke in women after controlling for covariates; the HR (95% CI) for the highest vs. lowest quartile was 0.72 (0.53, 0.98; P-trend: 0.03). Glycine intake was significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality from total and ischemic stroke in men without history of hypertension at baseline; the HRs (95% CIs) for the highest vs. lowest tertile were 1.60 (0.97, 2.51; P-trend: 0.03) and 1.88 (1.01, 3.52; P-trend: 0.02), respectively. There was no association between animal or vegetable protein intake and mortality from total and any subtype of stroke. The data suggest that glutamic acid and glycine intakes may be associated with risk of stroke mortality. Given that this is an initial observation, our results need to be confirmed. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Patterns of food and nutrient intakes of Dutch adults according to intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, dietary fibre, and of fruit and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwik, M.R.H.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Dietary intake characteristics were studied among 3833 adults of the second Dutch National Food Consumption Survey held in 1992. The subjects were classified into three groups based on their intake of total fat (% energy), saturated fatty acids (% energy), dietary fibre (g/MJ), and fruit and

  3. Intake of total omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and risk of coronary heart disease in the Spanish EPIC cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiano, P; Machón, M; Dorronsoro, M; Chirlaque, M Dolores; Barricarte, A; Sánchez, M-J; Navarro, C; Huerta, J M; Molina-Montes, E; Sánchez-Cantalejo, E; Urtizberea, M; Arriola, L; Larrañaga, N; Ardanaz, E; Quirós, J R; Moreno-Iribas, C; González, C A

    2014-03-01

    The evidence about the benefits of omega-3 fatty acid intake on coronary heart disease (CHD) is not consistent. We thus aimed to assess the relation between dietary intake of total omega-3 fatty acids (from plant and marine foods) and marine polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on the risk of CHD in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The analysis included 41,091 men and women aged 20-69 years, recruited from 1992 to 1996 and followed-up until December 2004. Omega-3 fatty acid intake was estimated from a validated dietary questionnaire. Only participants with definite incident CHD event were considered as cases. Cox regression models were used to assess the association between the intake of total omega-3 fatty acids, EPA or DHA and CHD. A total of 609 participants (79% men) had a definite CHD event. Mean intakes of total omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA were very similar in the cases and in the cohort, both in men and women. In the multivariate adjusted model, omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA were not related to incident CHD in either men or women. The hazard ratios (HR) for omega-3 were 1.23 in men (95% CI 0.94-15.9, p = 0.20); and 0.77 in women (95% CI 0.46-1.30, p = 0.76). In the Spanish EPIC cohort, with a relatively high intake of fish, no association was found between EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of CHD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the association between dietary fat intake and plasma fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, D; Väisänen, S B; Bouchard, C; Halle, M; Lakka, T A; Baumstark, M W; Alen, M; Berg, A; Rauramaa, R

    2003-07-01

    To investigate the relation between (1) cardiorespiratory fitness and plasma saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and (2) the interactions between cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary fat intake and plasma fatty acid composition. Cross-sectional analysis. The subjects were randomly selected, 127 middle-aged Finnish men participating in the DNASCO exercise intervention study. Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined spiroergometrically, dietary intake of macro- and micronutrients by 4-day food records and plasma fatty acids by gas chromatography. The subjects were divided into tertiles of aerobic fitness. Differences between fitness tertiles were not observed for dietary intake of total fat, and saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids (percent of total energy). In contrast, plasma saturated fatty acids were significantly lower (P cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with different levels in plasma saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and lead to modifications in the association between dietary and plasma fatty acids. These findings can perhaps be explained by a reduced hepatic fatty acid and lipoprotein synthesis as well as by an enhanced muscular lipid utilization, which are commonly seen in those who are physically active and who exhibit a higher level of fitness.

  5. Chronic sucrose intake decreases concentrations of n6 fatty acids, but not docosahexaenoic acid in the rat brain phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašek, Tomislav; Starčević, Kristina

    2017-07-13

    We investigated the influence of high sucrose intake, administered in drinking water, on the lipid profile of the brain and on the expression of SREBP1c and Δ-desaturase genes. Adult male rats received 30% sucrose solution for 20 weeks (Sucrose group), or plain water (Control group). After the 20th week of sucrose treatment, the Sucrose group showed permanent hyperglycemia. Sucrose treatment also increased the amount of total lipids and fatty acids in the brain. The brain fatty acid profile of total lipids as well as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and cardiolipin of the Sucrose group was extensively changed. The most interesting change was a significant decrease in n6 fatty acids, including the important arachidonic acid, whereas the content of oleic and docosahexaenoic acid remained unchanged. RT-qPCR revealed an increase in Δ-5-desaturase and SREBP1c gene expression. In conclusion, high sucrose intake via drinking water extensively changes rat brain fatty acid profile by decreasing n6 fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. In contrast, the content of docosahexaenoic acid remains constant in the brain total lipids as well as in phospholipids. Changes in the brain fatty acid profile reflect changes in the lipid metabolism of the rat lipogenic tissues and concentrations in the circulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Higher versus lower amino acid intake in parenteral nutrition for newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, David A; Schindler, Tim; Jones, Lisa J; Sinn, John Kh; Bolisetty, Srinivas

    2018-03-05

    Sick newborn and preterm infants frequently are not able to be fed enterally, necessitating parenteral fluid and nutrition. Potential benefits of higher parenteral amino acid (AA) intake for improved nitrogen balance, growth, and infant health may be outweighed by the infant's ability to utilise high intake of parenteral AA, especially in the days after birth. The primary objective is to determine whether higher versus lower intake of parenteral AA is associated with improved growth and disability-free survival in newborn infants receiving parenteral nutrition.Secondary objectives include determining whether:• higher versus lower starting or initial intake of amino acids is associated with improved growth and disability-free survival without side effects;• higher versus lower intake of amino acids at maximal intake is associated with improved growth and disability-free survival without side effects; and• increased amino acid intake should replace non-protein energy intake (glucose and lipid), should be added to non-protein energy intake, or should be provided simultaneously with non-protein energy intake.We conducted subgroup analyses to look for any differences in the effects of higher versus lower intake of amino acids according to gestational age, birth weight, age at commencement, and condition of the infant, or concomitant increases in fluid intake. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2 June 2017), MEDLINE (1966 to 2 June 2017), Embase (1980 to 2 June 2017), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to 2 June 2017). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and citations of articles. Randomised controlled trials of higher versus lower intake of AAs as parenteral nutrition in newborn infants. Comparisons of higher intake at commencement, at maximal intake, and at both commencement and maximal

  7. Protein and amino acid intakes in a rural area of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Julia E; Nieves, Jeri W; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W; Howe, Geoffrey R; Ahsan, Habibul

    2010-06-01

    Few studies have described protein and amino acid intakes in rural Bangladesh, a country with considerable undernutrition. The purpose of this population-based study was to assess and describe protein and amino acid intakes in Araihazar, Bangladesh. The study participants were 11,170 adult men and women who participated in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS), which had a 98% participation rate. Dietary exposures were assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire that had been designed and validated for the HEALS study population. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 19.7 among all participants, and 34.9% of women and 44.4% of men had a BMI below 18.5. The average caloric intake was 2142 and 2394 kcal/day among women and men, respectively, and the mean protein intake was 67.5 and 78.2 g/day. The largest sources of protein were from rice and fish. Greater protein intake was related to younger age and several socioeconomic measures, including more years of education, land and television ownership, and employment in business, farming, or as a laborer (for men) or as a homemaker (for women). This study found a high prevalence of underweight among study participants. Nonetheless, most participants had adequate protein intake according to Food and Agriculture Organization standards for body weight.

  8. Dietary fat intake, circulating and membrane fatty acid composition of healthy Norwegian men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Y; Blois, A; Geppert, J; Khalil, F; Ghebremeskel, K; Holmsen, H

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to assess the dietary fat intake and blood fatty acid status of healthy Norwegian men and women living in Bergen whose habitual diet is known to be high in long-chain omega-3 fat. Healthy men (n = 41) and women (n = 40) aged 20-50 years who were regular blood donors completed 7-day food diaries and their nutrient intake was analysed by Norwegian food database software, kbs, version 4.9 (kostberegningssystem; University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway). Blood samples were obtained before blood donation and assessed for the fatty acid composition of plasma triglycerides and cholesterol esters, phosphatidylcholine, and red cell phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. There was no difference in dietary fat intake between men and women. Total and saturated fat intakes exceeded the upper limits of the recommendations of the National Nutrition Council of Norway. Although polyunsaturated fat intake was close to the lower limit of the recommended level, the intake varied greatly among individuals, partly as a result of the use of supplementary fish oil. Moreover, the proportional fatty acid composition of plasma and red cell lipids was similar between men and women. Enrichment of docosahexaenoic acid in red cell phosphatidylethanolamine was found in fish oil users. The results of the present study provide a snapshot of the current nutritional status of healthy Norwegian adults. Moreover, the detailed blood fatty acid composition of men and women whose habitual diet constitutes high long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fat as well as saturated fat could be used as reference value for population studies. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. Fatty Acid Modulation of the Endocannabinoid System and the Effect on Food Intake and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaan S. Naughton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids and their G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR are a current research focus in the area of obesity due to the system’s role in food intake and glucose and lipid metabolism. Importantly, overweight and obese individuals often have higher circulating levels of the arachidonic acid-derived endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG and an altered pattern of receptor expression. Consequently, this leads to an increase in orexigenic stimuli, changes in fatty acid synthesis, insulin sensitivity, and glucose utilisation, with preferential energy storage in adipose tissue. As endocannabinoids are products of dietary fats, modification of dietary intake may modulate their levels, with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid based endocannabinoids being able to displace arachidonic acid from cell membranes, reducing AEA and 2-AG production. Similarly, oleoyl ethanolamide, a product of oleic acid, induces satiety, decreases circulating fatty acid concentrations, increases the capacity for β-oxidation, and is capable of inhibiting the action of AEA and 2-AG in adipose tissue. Thus, understanding how dietary fats alter endocannabinoid system activity is a pertinent area of research due to public health messages promoting a shift towards plant-derived fats, which are rich sources of AEA and 2-AG precursor fatty acids, possibly encouraging excessive energy intake and weight gain.

  10. Preconceptional and prenatal supplementary folic acid and multivitamin intake and autism spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Jasveer; Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether early folic acid supplementation during pregnancy prevents diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in offspring. METHODS: Information on autism spectrum disorder diagnosis was obtained from the National Hospital Register and the Central Psychiatric Register. We...... risk for autism spectrum disorders in offspring of women using folic acid supplements in early pregnancy....... early folate or multivitamin intake for autism spectrum disorder (folic acid-adjusted risk ratio: 1.06, 95% confidence interval: 0.82-1.36; multivitamin-adjusted risk ratio: 1.00, 95% confidence interval: 0.82-1.22), autistic disorder (folic acid-adjusted risk ratio: 1.18, 95% confidence interval: 0...

  11. High Dietary Protein Intake and Protein-Related Acid Load on Bone Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jay J

    2017-12-01

    Consumption of high-protein diets is increasingly popular due to the benefits of protein on preserving lean mass and controlling appetite and satiety. The paper is to review recent clinical research assessing dietary protein on calcium metabolism and bone health. Epidemiological studies show that long-term, high-protein intake is positively associated with bone mineral density and reduced risk of bone fracture incidence. Short-term interventional studies demonstrate that a high-protein diet does not negatively affect calcium homeostasis. Existing evidence supports that the negative effects of the acid load of protein on urinary calcium excretion are offset by the beneficial skeletal effects of high-protein intake. Future research should focus on the role and the degree of contribution of other dietary and physiological factors, such as intake of fruits and vegetables, in reducing the acid load and further enhancing the anabolic effects of protein on the musculoskeletal system.

  12. Baseline dietary glutamic acid intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: The Rotterdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana Veloso, Gilson G; Franco, Oscar H; Ruiter, Rikje; de Keyser, Catherina E; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno C; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2016-03-15

    Animal studies have shown that glutamine supplementation may decrease colon carcinogenesis, but any relation with glutamine or its precursors has not been studied in humans. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether dietary glutamic acid intake was associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in community-dwelling adults. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether the association could be modified by the body mass index (BMI). This study was embedded in the Rotterdam study, which included a prospective cohort from 1990 onward that consisted of 5362 subjects who were 55 years old or older and were free of CRC at the baseline. Glutamic acid was calculated as a percentage of the total protein intake with a validated food frequency questionnaire at the baseline. Incident cases of CRC were pathology-based. During follow-up, 242 subjects developed CRC. Baseline dietary glutamic acid intake was significantly associated with a lower risk of developing CRC (hazard ratio [HR] per percent increase in glutamic acid of protein, 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-0.99). After stratification for BMI, the risk reduction for CRC by dietary glutamic acid was 42% for participants with a BMI ≤ 25 kg/m(2) (HR per percent increase in glutamic acid of protein, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.85), whereas no association was found in participants with a BMI > 25 kg/m(2) (HR per percent increase in glutamic acid of protein, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.73-1.31). Our data suggest that baseline dietary glutamic acid intake is associated with a lower risk of developing CRC, but this association may be mainly present in nonoverweight subjects. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  13. Oxygen Consumption Constrains Food Intake in Fish Fed Diets Varying in Essential Amino Acid Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, S.; Geurden, I.; Figueiredo-Silva, A.C.; Nusantoro, S.; Kaushik, S.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Compromisation of food intake when confronted with diets deficient in essential amino acids is a common response of fish and other animals, but the underlying physiological factors are poorly understood. We hypothesize that oxygen consumption of fish is a possible physiological factor constraining

  14. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids in the Danish population aged 1-80 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Bysted, Anette; Andersen, N. L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the intake of ruminant trans fatty acids (TFA) in the Danish population aged 1 - 80 years. Design: Descriptive study. Subjects: A sex- and age-stratified random sample drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System. A total of 3098 participants (51% female) aged 1 - 80 yea...

  15. Nutrient intake, acid base status and weight gain in water buffalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of different dietary levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on nutrient intake, acid-base status, nitrogen balance and weight gain was examined in growing male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves exposed to hot summer conditions. In a complete randomized block design 60 animals of similar age and weight ...

  16. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease - An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Bysted, Anette; Andersen, Niels Lyhne

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a strong direct (positive) association between the intake of trans fatty acids (TRA) and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), primarily accounted for by industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA). However, comparisons, between ruminant TEA (R-TFA) and IP-TFA and risk...

  17. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and changes in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Palnæs; Berentzen, T L; Halkjær, Jytte

    2012-01-01

    Follow-up studies have suggested that total intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) is a risk factor for gain in body weight and waist circumference (WC). However, in a cross-sectional study individual TFA isomers in adipose tissue had divergent associations with anthropometry. Our objective...

  18. Fatty acid intake and its dietary sources in relation with markers of type 2 diabetes risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, A.J.; Alssema, M.; Koning, de E.J.P.; Cessie, Le S.; Vries, de J.H.; Zock, P.L.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Heijer, den M.; Mutsert, de R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relations between intakes of total, saturated, mono-unsaturated, poly-unsaturated and trans fatty acids (SFA, MUFA, PUFA and TFA), and their dietary sources (dairy, meat and plant) with markers of type 2 diabetes risk. Subjects/Methods: This was

  19. Comparison of amino acid oxidation and urea metabolism in haemodialysis patients during fasting and meal intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeneman, JM; Kingma, HA; Stellaard, F; de Jong, PE; Reijngoud, DJ; Huisman, RM

    Background. The PNA (protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance) is used to calculate protein intake from urea kinetics. One of the essential assumptions in the calculation of PNA is that urea accumulation in haemodialysis (HD) patients is equivalent to amino acid oxidation. However, urea is

  20. Effect of Combined Intake of Garcinia Kola and Ascorbic Acid on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of combined intake of Garcinia kola and Ascorbic acid on Intraocular pressure (IOP) of normotensive Nigerians. A total of one hundred and sixty (n= 160) parcipants, males, and females within the age range of 18-50 years (Mean age = 29.29± 8.74) were used for this study.

  1. The choice of animal feeding system influences fatty acid intakes of the average French diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Bernard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids intake of French adult population does not comply with the French Population Reference Intakes (PRI. The aim the study is to quantify the impact of a modification of animal feeding system on the fatty acids intake of French population. A 15-day diet representative of average consumption for the French adult male population was developed with animal products derived either from conventional production system (STD either from a specific production system (Bleu-Blanc-Cœur® [BBC] that acts on the fatty acids profile of animal products. The impact of a such change in feeding system on fatty acids content has been quantified. BBC diet contributes to reducing the gap between the fatty acid content of a STD diet and the PRI with highest impact on C12:0–14:0–16:0 fatty acids (−4.6 g/d, i.e. 63.3%, C18:3n-3 (+0.8 g/d, i.e. 48.2%, C20:5n-3 (+35 mg/d, i.e. 42.7%, C22:6n-3 (+49 mg/d, i.e. 35% and the C18:2n-6/C18:3n-3 ratio (−4.9 points, i.e. 43.5%. The research also shows that animal products complement one another. Consuming a variety of animal source foods derived from a specific feeding practices could help reduce the gap between actual consumption and recommended dietary intake of fatty acids.

  2. Regulation of hypothalamic neuronal sensing and food intake by ketone bodies and fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Foll, Christelle; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose A; Miziorko, Henri M; Levin, Barry E

    2014-04-01

    Metabolic sensing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) alter their activity when ambient levels of metabolic substrates, such as glucose and fatty acids (FA), change. To assess the relationship between a high-fat diet (HFD; 60%) intake on feeding and serum and VMH FA levels, rats were trained to eat a low-fat diet (LFD; 13.5%) or an HFD in 3 h/day and were monitored with VMH FA microdialysis. Despite having higher serum levels, HFD rats had lower VMH FA levels but ate less from 3 to 6 h of refeeding than did LFD rats. However, VMH β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) and VMH-to-serum β-OHB ratio levels were higher in HFD rats during the first 1 h of refeeding, suggesting that VMH astrocyte ketone production mediated their reduced intake. In fact, using calcium imaging in dissociated VMH neurons showed that ketone bodies overrode normal FA sensing, primarily by exciting neurons that were activated or inhibited by oleic acid. Importantly, bilateral inhibition of VMH ketone production with a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase inhibitor reversed the 3- to 6-h HFD-induced inhibition of intake but had no effect in LFD-fed rats. These data suggest that a restricted HFD intake regimen inhibits caloric intake as a consequence of FA-induced VMH ketone body production by astrocytes.

  3. Associations of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake with Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Harris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was analyzed from 6 cohorts (Fall 1995–Fall 1997 of postmenopausal women (n=266; 56.6±4.7 years participating in the Bone Estrogen Strength Training (BEST study (a 12-month, block-randomized, clinical trial. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at femur neck and trochanter, lumbar spine (L2–L4, and total body BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs intakes were assessed using 8 days of diet records. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between dietary PUFAs and BMD. Covariates included in the models were total energy intake, body weight at year 1, years after menopause, exercise, use of hormone therapy (HT, total calcium, and total iron intakes. In the total sample, lumbar spine and total body BMD had significant negative associations with dietary PUFA intake at P<0.05. In the non-HT group, no significant associations between dietary PUFA intake and BMD were seen. In the HT group, significant inverse associations with dietary PUFA intake were seen in the spine, total body, and Ward’s triangle BMD, suggesting that HT may influence PUFA associations with BMD. This study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00000399.

  4. Simple intake and pharmacokinetic modeling to characterize exposure of Americans to perfluoroctanoic acid, PFOA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Egeghy, Peter P

    2011-10-01

    Models for assessing intakes of perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA, are described and applied. One model is based on exposure media concentrations and contact rates. This model is applied to general population exposures for adults and 2-year old children. The other model is a simple one-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic (PK) model. Parameters for this model include a rate of elimination of PFOA and a blood volume of distribution. The model was applied to data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, NHANES, to backcalculate intakes. The central tendency intake estimate for adults and children based on exposure media concentrations and contact rates were 70 and 26 ng/day, respectively. The central tendency adult intake derived from NHANES data was 56 and 37 ng/day for males and females, respectively. Variability and uncertainty discussions regarding the intake modeling focus on lack of data on direct exposure to PFOA used in consumer products, precursor compounds, and food. Discussions regarding PK modeling focus on the range of blood measurements in NHANES, the appropriateness of the simple PK model, and the uncertainties associated with model parameters. Using the PK model, the 10th and 95th percentile long-term average adult intakes of PFOA are 15 and 130 ng/day.

  5. Fatty acid-induced astrocyte ketone production and the control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Foll, Christelle; Levin, Barry E

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and Type 2 diabetes are major worldwide public health issues today. A relationship between total fat intake and obesity has been found. In addition, the mechanisms of long-term and excessive high-fat diet (HFD) intake in the development of obesity still need to be elucidated. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is a major site involved in the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis where "metabolic sensing neurons" integrate metabolic signals from the periphery. Among these signals, fatty acids (FA) modulate the activity of VMH neurons using the FA translocator/CD36, which plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis. During low-fat diet (LFD) intake, FA are oxidized by VMH astrocytes to fuel their ongoing metabolic needs. However, HFD intake causes VMH astrocytes to use FA to generate ketone bodies. We postulate that these astrocyte-derived ketone bodies are exported to neurons where they produce excess ATP and reactive oxygen species, which override CD36-mediated FA sensing and act as a signal to decrease short-term food intake. On a HFD, VMH astrocyte-produced ketones reduce elevated caloric intake to LFD levels after 3 days in rats genetically predisposed to resist (DR) diet-induced obesity (DIO), but not leptin-resistant DIO rats. This suggests that, while VMH ketone production on a HFD can contribute to protection from obesity, the inherent leptin resistance overrides this inhibitory action of ketone bodies on food intake. Thus, astrocytes and neurons form a tight metabolic unit that is able to monitor circulating nutrients to alter food intake and energy homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Kinetics of salivary pH after acidic beverage intake by patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Silva, Carolina S; Bridi, Enrico C; Amaral, Flavia Lb; Franca, Fabiana Mg; Basting, Roberta T

    2015-01-01

    The saliva of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances can potentially present a delay in the diluting, clearing, and buffering of dietary acids due to an increased number of retention areas. The aim of this clinical trial was to compare salivary pH kinetics of patients with and without orthodontic treatment, following the intake of an acidic beverage. Twenty participants undergoing orthodontic treatment and 20 control counterparts had their saliva assessed for flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. There was no significant difference between salivary parameters in participants with or without an orthodontic appliance. Salivary pH recovery following acidic beverage intake was slower in the orthodontic subjects compared to controls. Patients with fixed orthodontic appliances, therefore, seem to be at higher risk of dental erosion, suggesting that dietary advice and preventive care need to be implemented during orthodontic treatment.

  7. substantiation of the standards for tritium amino acids intake by human organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhesko, T.V.; Balonov, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    Calculated values of β-irradiation tissue doses of bound tritium and tritium oxide absorbed by animals treated with different amino acids are given. The obtained dose values are compared with tritium water doses. The data obtained in animal studies are extrapolated to man in order to determine the dose equivalent to the incorporated 3 H-amino acids dose. It is assumed that the dose equivalent to 3 H-amino acids radiation is three times as high as the equivalent amount of tritium oxide. 9 mCi/yr is established as the maximum allowable blood intake of 3 H-amino acids. Due to their metabolic characteristics, air permissible concentrations of 3 H-amino acids and tritium oxide have approximately the same values. The value of 30 nCi/cm 2 is recommended as a standard for work clothing contamination with 3 H-amino acids

  8. Dietary intake in population-based adolescents: support for a relationship between eating disorder symptoms, low fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, K L; Mori, T A; Beilin, L; Byrne, S M; Hickling, S; Oddy, W H

    2013-10-01

    Relatively little is known about the dietary intake and nutritional status of community-based individuals with eating disorders. This research aimed to: (i) describe the dietary intake of population-based adolescents with an eating disorder and (ii) examine associations between eating disorder symptoms, fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms in adolescents with and without an eating disorder. Data were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a population-based cohort study that has followed participants from birth to young adulthood. This research utilised self-report data from the 17-year Raine Study assessment. Participants comprised 429 female adolescents who completed comprehensive questionnaire measures on dietary intake, eating disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms. Adolescents with an eating disorder (n = 66) reported a significantly lower intake of total fat, saturated fat, omega-6 fatty acid, starch, vitamin A and vitamin E compared to adolescents without an eating disorder (n = 363). Adolescents with an eating disorder and pronounced depressive symptoms (n = 23) also reported a significantly lower intake of polyunsaturated fat and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid than adolescents with an eating disorder but no marked depression (n = 43). In the eating disorder sample but not the control sample, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid correlated significantly and negatively with eating disorder symptoms and with depressive symptoms. Support is provided for a relationship between low omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms in adolescents with eating disorders. Research is needed to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of fatty acid supplementation in this high-risk group. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. Intake of omega-3 fatty acids contributes to bone mineral density at the hip in a younger Japanese female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, T; Ohta, H; Onoe, Y; Tsugawa, N; Shiraki, M

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the relationships between intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and omega-6 fatty acids and bone mineral density in Japanese women aged 19 to 25 years. Intakes of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) were positively associated with peak bone mass at the hip. Lifestyle factors such as physical activity and nutrition intake are known to optimize the peak bone mass (PBM). Recently, intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been reported to contribute to bone metabolism. In this study, the relationships of intakes of n-3 and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids with PBM were evaluated in Japanese female subjects. A total of 275 healthy female subjects (19-25 years) having PBM were enrolled, and lumbar and total hip bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolic parameters were measured. Dietary intakes of total energy, total n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and total n-6 fatty acids were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Physical activity information was also assessed. The mean ± SD age was 20.6 ± 1.4 years, and BMI was 21.2 ± 2.7 kg/m 2 . BMI and serum bone alkaline phosphatase contributed significantly to lumbar BMD on multiple regression analysis. Intake of n-3 fatty acids and physical activity were also significantly related to total hip BMD. Using EPA or DHA instead of total n-3 fatty acids in the model did not result in a significant result. Adequate total n-3 fatty acid intake may help maximize PBM at the hip.

  10. Espresso coffees, caffeine and chlorogenic acid intake: potential health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Thomas W M; Stalmach, Angelique; Lean, Michael E J; Crozier, Alan

    2012-01-01

    HPLC analysis of 20 commercial espresso coffees revealed 6-fold differences in caffeine levels, a 17-fold range of caffeoylquinic acid contents, and 4-fold differences in the caffeoylquinic acid : caffeine ratio. These variations reflect differences in batch-to-batch bean composition, possible blending of arabica with robusta beans, as well as roasting and grinding procedures, but the predominant factor is likely to be the amount of beans used in the coffee-making/barista processes. The most caffeine in a single espresso was 322 mg and a further three contained >200 mg, exceeding the 200 mg day(-1) upper limit recommended during pregnancy by the UK Food Standards Agency. This snap-shot of high-street expresso coffees suggests the published assumption that a cup of strong coffee contains 50 mg caffeine may be misleading. Consumers at risk of toxicity, including pregnant women, children and those with liver disease, may unknowingly ingest excessive caffeine from a single cup of espresso coffee. As many coffee houses prepare larger volume coffees, such as Latte and Cappuccino, by dilution of a single or double shot of expresso, further study on these products is warranted. New data are needed to provide informative labelling, with attention to bean variety, preparation, and barista methods.

  11. Maternal folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake and congenital heart defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohong Mao

    Full Text Available It has been reported that folic acid supplementation before and/or during pregnancy could reduce the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs. However, the results from limited epidemiologic studies have been inconclusive. We investigated the associations between maternal folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake, and the risk of CHDs.A birth cohort study was conducted in 2010-2012 at the Gansu Provincial Maternity & Child Care Hospital in Lanzhou, China. After exclusion of stillbirths and multiple births, a total of 94 births were identified with congenital heart defects, and 9,993 births without any birth defects. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the associations.Compared to non-users, folic acid supplement users before pregnancy had a reduced risk of overall CHDs (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21-0.86, Ptrend = 0.025 after adjusted for potential confounders. A protective effect was observed for certain subtypes of CHDs (OR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.85 for malformation of great arteries; 0.26, 0.10-0.68 for malformation of cardiac septa; 0.34, 0.13-0.93 for Atrial septal defect. A similar protective effect was also seen for multiple CHDs (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.26-0.93, Ptrend = 0.004. Compared with the middle quartiles of dietary folate intake, lower dietary folate intake (<149.88 μg/day during pregnancy were associated with increased risk of overall CHDs (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.01-2.62 and patent ductus arteriosus (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.03-3.32. Women who were non-user folic acid supplement and lower dietary folate intake have almost 2-fold increased CHDs risk in their offspring.Our study suggested that folic acid supplementation before pregnancy was associated with a reduced risk of CHDs, lower dietary folate intake during pregnancy was associated with increased risk. The observed associations varied by CHD subtypes. A synergistic effect of dietary folate intake and folic acid supplementation was also observed.

  12. Influence of Salt Intake on Association of Blood Uric Acid with Hypertension and Related Cardiovascular Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hou

    Full Text Available A relationship of blood uric acid (UA with hypertension and cardiovascular risk is under debate thus salt intake is hypothesized to contribute to such associations.In this cross-sectional study, stratified cluster random sampling elicited a sample of 1805 Kazakhs with 92.4% compliance. Hypertension and moderate-or-high total cardiovascular risk (mTCR were defined according to guidelines. Sodium intake was assessed by urinary sodium excretion. Prevalence ratios (PRs were used to express associations of UA with hypertension and mTCR.In the highest tertile of sodium intake in women, the adjusted PRs (95% confidence intervals of low to high quartiles compared with the lowest quartile of UA, were 1.22(0.78-1.91, 1.18(0.75-1.85, and 1.65(1.09-2.51 for hypertension and 1.19(0.74-1.90, 1.39(0.91-2.11, and 1.65(1.10-2.47 for mTCR (P for trend <0.05. However, these findings were not shown for other sodium intake levels. There were similar results in men. PRs markedly increased with a concomitant increase in UA and sodium intake and there was a significant interaction (P = 0.010 for mTCR with PRs of 1.69(1.10-2.60 for men and 3.70(2.09-6.52 for women in those with the highest compared with the lowest quartile of UA and tertile of sodium intake. Similar findings were shown for hypertension.This study implied that a high salt intake may enhance the associations of UA with hypertension and cardiovascular risk.

  13. THE COMBINATION OF α-LIPOIC ACID INTAKE WITH ECCENTRIC EXERCISE MODULATES ERYTHROPOIETIN RELEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Morawin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The generation of reactive nitrogen/oxygen species (RN/OS represents an important mechanism in erythropoietin (EPO expression and skeletal muscle adaptation to physical and metabolic stress. RN/OS generation can be modulated by intense exercise and nutrition supplements such as α-lipoic acid, which demonstrates both anti- and pro-oxidative action. The study was designed to show the changes in the haematological response through the combination of α-lipoic acid intake with running eccentric exercise. Sixteen healthy young males participated in the randomised and placebo-controlled study. The exercise trial involved a 90-min run followed by a 15-min eccentric phase at 65% VO2max (-10% gradient. It significantly increased serum concentrations of nitric oxide (NO, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and pro-oxidative products such as 8-isoprostanes (8-iso, lipid peroxides (LPO and protein carbonyls (PC. α-Lipoic acid intake (Thiogamma: 1200 mg daily for 10 days prior to exercise resulted in a 2-fold elevation of serum H2O2 concentration before exercise, but it prevented the generation of NO, 8-iso, LPO and PC at 20 min, 24 h, and 48 h after exercise. α-Lipoic acid also elevated serum EPO level, which highly correlated with NO/H2O2 ratio (r=0.718, P<0.01. Serum total creatine kinase (CK activity, as a marker of muscle damage, reached a peak at 24 h after exercise (placebo 732 ± 207 IU · L-1, α-lipoic acid 481 ± 103 IU · L-1, and correlated with EPO (r = 0.478, P<0.01 in the α-lipoic acid group. In conclusion, the intake of high α-lipoic acid modulates RN/OS generation, enhances EPO release and reduces muscle damage after running eccentric exercise.

  14. Dietary Intake of Trans Fatty Acids in Children Aged 4–5 in Spain: The INMA Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Scholz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Trans fatty acid (TFA intake has been identified as a health hazard in adults, but data on preschool children are scarce. We analyzed the data from the Spanish INMA Project to determine the intake of total, industrial and natural TFA, their main sources and the associated socio-demographic and lifestyle factors in children aged 4–5 (n = 1793. TFA intake was estimated using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire, and multiple linear regression was used to explore associated factors. The mean daily intakes of total, industrial and natural TFA were 1.36, 0.60, and 0.71 g/day, respectively. Ten percent of the children obtained >1% of their energy intake from TFA. The main sources of industrial TFA were fast food, white bread and processed baked goods. Milk, red and processed meat and processed baked goods were the main sources of natural TFA. Having parents from countries other than Spain was significantly associated with higher natural TFA (in mg/day intake (β 45.5 and television viewing was significantly associated with higher industrial TFA intake (β 18.3. Higher fruits and vegetables intake was significantly associated with lower intakes of all TFAs, whereas higher sweetened beverages intake was significantly associated with lower total and natural TFA intake. Thus, total and industrial TFA intake was associated with less healthy food patterns and lifestyles in Spanish preschool children.

  15. Effects of dietary intake of red palm oil on fatty acid composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about the effects of the dietary intake of red palm oil (RPO) on fatty acid composition in the liver of rats. Male Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups were fed with different doses of red palm oil. The control group received no red palm oil; while the experimental groups were fed with 1 ml, 2 ml and 4 ml of ...

  16. Cutting back on the essentials: Can manipulating intake of specific amino acids modulate health and lifespan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Borg, Holly M; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2017-10-01

    With few exceptions, nutritional and dietary interventions generally impact upon both old-age quality of life and longevity. The life prolonging effects, commonly observed with dietary restriction reportedly are linked to alterations in protein intake and specifically limiting the dietary intake of certain essential amino acids. There is however a paucity of data methodically evaluating the various essential amino acids on health- and lifespan and the mechanisms involved. Rodent diets containing either lower methionine content, or tryptophan, than that found in commercially available chow, appear to elicit beneficial effects. It is unclear whether all of these favorable effects associated with restricted intake of methionine and tryptophan are due to their specific unique properties or if restriction of other essential amino acids, or proteins in general, may produce similar results. Considerably more work remains to be done to elucidate the mechanisms by which limiting these vital molecules may delay the onset of age-associated diseases and improve quality of life at older ages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fatty acid intake and metabolic syndrome among overweight and obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Maximino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine relations between fatty acids intake and metabolic syndrome (MetS status among overweight and obese women (n = 223. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The physical and laboratory tests included anthropometry, body composition evaluation and measurements of blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, insulinemia and lipid profiles. A three-day food diary was used to evaluate fatty acids consumption. Statistical analysis included χ2 test and odds ratio measurements. Results: The women had 35.2 (6.9 years old and 15.2% presented MetS. Women with MetS presented higher serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and insulin in addition to higher diastolic blood pressure in comparison to women without MetS. Overweight women with MetS consumed higher amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids - 24.3 g (24.7 - 36.4 versus overweight women without MetS - 23.9 g (23.8 - 26.8, polyunsaturated fatty acids - 16.7 g (14.6 - 21.1 versus overweight women without MetS - 13.6 g (13.8 - 15.8 and linoleic fatty acids - 15.9 g (6.5 versus overweight women without MetS - 13.1 g (5.1. Among obese women with MetS, higher intake of linoleic fatty acids was also noted - 17.6 g (6.1 versus obese women without MetS - 14.3 g (6.6 in addition to higher consumption of trans fatty acids - 4.7 g (4.8 - 6.3 versus obese women without MetS - 3.9 g (2.9 - 4.6. Increased quartiles of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, linoleic and trans fatty acid intake were significantly associated with a greater occurrence of MetS. Conclusion: Lipid intake may be related to MetS, although other factors also need to be considered, such as lifestyle, genetics and metabolism.

  18. Folic acid levels in some food staples in Ireland are on the decline: implications for passive folic acid intakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, F; Gibney, E R; Boilson, A; Staines, A; Sweeney, M R

    2016-06-01

    Neural tube defects are largely preventable by the maternal periconceptual consumption of folic acid. The aim of this study was to examine the levels of synthetic folic acid in foods and the range of food stuffs with added folic acid available to consumers in Ireland at the current time. Three audits of fortified foods available in supermarkets in the Republic of Ireland were conducted. Researchers visited supermarkets and obtained folic acid levels from nutrition labels in 2004, 2008 and 2013/4. Levels were compared using MS Excel. The profile of foods fortified with folic acid in 2013/4 has changed since 2004. The percentage of foods fortified with folic acid has decreased as has the level of added folic acid in some food staples, such as fat/dairy spreads. Bread, milk and spreads no longer contain as much folic acid as previously (2004 and 2008). This may contribute to a decrease in folate intake and therefore may contribute to an increase in NTD rates. Research on current blood concentrations of folate status markers is now warranted. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Protective effects of fish intake and interactive effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes on hip bone mineral density in older adults: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Emily K; Kiel, Douglas P; Roubenoff, Ronenn; Schaefer, Ernst J; Cupples, L Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    Background: Polyunsaturated fatty acids and fish may influence bone health. Objective: We aimed to examine associations between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid and fish intakes and hip bone mineral density (BMD) at baseline (1988–1989; n = 854) and changes 4 y later in adults (n = 623) with a mean age of 75 y in the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Design: BMD measures were regressed on energy-adjusted quartiles of fatty acid intakes [n−3 (omega-3): α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and EPA+ DHA; n−6 (omega-6): linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA); and n−6:n−3 ratio] and on categorized fish intakes, with adjustment for covariates. Effect modification by EPA+DHA intake was tested for n−6 exposures. Results: High intakes (≥3 servings/wk) of fish relative to lower intakes were associated with maintenance of femoral neck BMD (FN-BMD) in men (dark fish + tuna, dark fish, and tuna) and in women (dark fish) (P < 0.05). Significant interactions between AA and EPA+DHA intakes were observed cross-sectionally in women and longitudinally in men. In women with EPA+DHA intakes at or above the median, those with the highest AA intakes had a higher mean baseline FN-BMD than did those with the lowest intakes (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1: P = 0.03, P for trend = 0.02). In men with the lowest EPA+DHA intakes (quartile 1), those with the highest intakes of AA (quartile 4) lost more FN-BMD than did men with the lowest intakes of AA (quartile 1; P = 0.04). LA intake tended to be associated with FN-BMD loss in women (P for trend < 0.06). Conclusions: Fish consumption may protect against bone loss. The protective effects of a high AA intake may be dependent on the amount of EPA+DHA intake. PMID:21367955

  20. Dietary intake of trans fatty acids in children aged 4–5 in Spain: The INMA cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholz, A. (Alexander); Gimenez-Monzo, D. (Daniel); E.M. Navarrete-Muñoz; Garcia-De-la-Hera, M. (Manuela); A. Fernández-Somoano (Ana); A. Tardón (Adonina); L. Santa-Marina (Loreto); Irazabal, A. (Amaia); Romaguera, D. (Dora); M. Guxens Junyent (Mònica); Julvez, J. (Jordi); S. Llop (Sabrina); M.-J. Lopez-Espinosa (Maria-Jose); J. Vioque (Jesus)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTrans fatty acid (TFA) intake has been identified as a health hazard in adults, but data on preschool children are scarce. We analyzed the data from the Spanish INMA Project to determine the intake of total, industrial and natural TFA, their main sources and the associated

  1. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on abdominal and liver fat deposition and blood lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Chabanova, E.; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2011-01-01

    Background:Intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs) is, according to observational studies, associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the causal mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Besides inducing dyslipidemia, TFA intake is suspected to promote...

  2. Central pipecolic acid increases food intake under ad libitum feeding conditions in the neonatal chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Tomo; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Saito, Ei-Suke; Tomonaga, Shouzou; Saito, Shin; Bungo, Takashi; Denbow, D Michael; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2003-08-21

    It has been demonstrated that L-pipecolic acid (L-PA) is a major metabolic intermediate of L-lysine in the mammalian and chicken brain. A previous study showed that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of L-PA suppressed feeding in neonatal chicks, and the actions were associated with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-B receptor activation. It has been reported that endogenous L-PA in the brain fluctuated under different feeding conditions. In the present study, we investigated the effect of i.c.v. injection of L-PA on food intake in the neonatal chick under ad libitum feeding conditions. The food intake was increased by 0.5 or 1.0 mg L-PA under ad libitum feeding conditions contrary to previous studies using fasted birds. A hyperphagic effect of L-PA (0.5 mg) was attenuated by both GABA-A receptor antagonist (picrotoxin, 0.5 microg) and GABA-B receptor antagonist (CGP54626, 21.0 ng). These results indicate that a hyperphagic effect of L-PA is mediated by both GABA-A and GABA-B receptors and L-PA differentially affects food intake under different feeding conditions in the neonatal chick.

  3. Folate/Folic Acid Knowledge, Intake, and Self-Efficacy of College-Aged Women: Impact of Text Messaging and Availability of a Folic Acid-Containing Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, Gail C.; Sokolow, Andrew; Gruspe, Abigail; Colee, James C.; Kauwell, Gail P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of educational text messages (TMs) on folate/folic acid knowledge and consumption among college-aged women, and to evaluate the impact of providing folic acid supplements on folate/folic acid intake among college-aged women. Participants: A total of 162 women (18-24 years) recruited from a university. Methods: The…

  4. Women who take n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements during pregnancy and lactation meet the recommended intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoming; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Wattar, Nour; Wildgrube, Jamie; Sontag, Stephanie; Andrews, Murphy; Subhan, Fatheema Begum; McCargar, Linda; Field, Catherine J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to estimate total intake and dietary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentanoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and compare DHA intakes with the recommended intakes in a cohort of pregnant and lactating women. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls and supplement intake questionnaires were collected from 600 women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort at each trimester of pregnancy and 3 months postpartum. Dietary intake was estimated in 2 ways: by using a commercial software program and by using a database created for APrON. Only 27% of women during pregnancy and 25% at 3 months postpartum met the current European Union (EU) consensus recommendation for DHA. Seafood, fish, and seaweed products contributed to 79% of overall n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids intake from foods, with the majority from salmon. The estimated intake of DHA and EPA was similar between databases, but the estimated DPA intake was 20%-30% higher using the comprehensive database built for this study. Women who took a supplement containing DHA were 10.6 and 11.1 times more likely to meet the current EU consensus recommendation for pregnancy (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.952-16.07; PDHA during pregnancy and lactation, but taking a supplement significantly improved the likelihood that they would meet recommendations.

  5. Synthetic folic acid intakes and status in children living in Ireland exposed to voluntary fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Shashi; White, Martin; Daly, Leslie; Molloy, Anne M; Staines, Anthony; Sweeney, Mary Rose

    2016-02-01

    In the context of mandatory and voluntary folic acid fortification, the exposure of children to folic acid has been a focus of concern, particularly regarding the possibility of whether any potentially adverse effects will emerge in the future. We explored concentrations of fasting unmetabolized folic acid (UFA) in the circulation of children living in Ireland who were exposed to the voluntary folic acid-fortification regimen in place in Ireland. Healthy children who were attending Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin, for routine minor surgery were recruited to provide a fasting 3-mL blood sample that was taken while a general anesthetic was administered. The samples were analyzed for plasma folate, red blood cell folate, and UFA concentrations. A short dietary questionnaire that captured recent and habitual intakes of folic acid, both as supplements and as fortified foods, was completed face to face with parents. We collected fasting samples (n = 68) and completed questionnaires that captured recent and habitual daily folic acid intakes of children grouped as follows: 0-5 y of age: 6 girls and 21 boys (27 children total); 6-10 y of age: 10 girls and 10 boys (20 children total); and 11-16 y of age: 10 girls and 11 boys (21 children total). UFA was detected in 10.3% of the samples tested (range: 0.5-1.3 nmol/L). Mean plasma folate and red blood cell folate concentrations were 35.1 nmol/L (range: 21-47 nmol/L) and 956 nmol/L (range: 305-2319 nmol/L), respectively. Mean daily intake of folic acid from fortified foods and supplements was 109 μg (range: 0-767 μg). We showed that there was UFA in the plasma of just >10% of the children sampled after an overnight fast. These findings should be considered by policy makers who are responsible for folic acid fortification. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN90038765. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Pre-conceptual and prenatal supplementary folic acid and multivitamin intake, behavioral problems, and hyperkinetic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Jasveer; Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether early folic acid or multivitamin supplementation during pregnancy prevents diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorders (HKD), treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and ADHD-like behaviors reported by parents participating in the DNBC for children...... with the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), comparing children whose mothers took folic acid or multivitamin supplements early in pregnancy defined as starting periconceptionally (4 weeks prior to their last menstrual period (LMP)) through 8 weeks after their LMP (4-8 weeks), to children whose mothers...... indicated no supplement use for the same entire period. RESULTS: We identified 384 children (1.1%) with a hospital diagnosis for HKD and 642 children (1.8%) treated with ADHD medication. We found no association between risk of HKD diagnosis or intake of ADHD medication and early maternal folic acid use...

  7. Dietary intakes and food sources of fatty acids in Guatemalan schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bermudez, Odilia I.

    2010-04-23

    Abstract Background Consumption of healthy diets that contribute with adequate amounts of fat and fatty acids is needed for children. Among Guatemalan children, there is little information about fat intakes. Therefore, the present study sought to assess intakes of dietary fats and examine food sources of those fats in Guatemalan children. Methods The study subjects consisted of a convenience sample of 449 third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren (8-10 y), attending public or private schools in Quetzaltenango City, Guatemala. Dietary data was obtained by means of a single pictorial 24-h record. Results The percentages of total energy (%E) from total fat, saturated fat (SFA) and monounsaturated fat (MUFA) reached 29%E for total fat and 10%E for each SFA and MUFA, without gender differences. %E from fats in high vs. low-socio economic status (SES) children were significantly higher for boys, but not for girls, for total fat (p = 0.002) and SFA (p < 0.001). Large proportions of the children had low levels of intakes of some fatty acids (FA), particularly for n-3 FA, with >97% of all groups consuming less than 1%E from this fats. Fried eggs, sweet rolls, whole milk and cheese were main sources of total fat and, SFA. Whole milk and sweet bread were important sources of n-3 FA for high- and low-SES boys and girls, respectively. Fried plantain was the main source of n-3 FA for girls in the high-SES group. Fried fish, seafood soup, and shrimp, consumed only by boys in low amounts, were sources of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, which may explain the low intakes of these nutrients. Conclusions α-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA were the most limiting fatty acids in diets of Guatemalan schoolchildren, which could be partially explained by the low consumption of sources of these nutrients, particularly fish and seafood (for EPA and DHA). This population will benefit from a higher consumption of culturally acceptable foods that are rich in these limiting

  8. Branched-chain amino acid, meat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isanejad, Masoud; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Thomson, Cynthia A; Tinker, Lesley; Larson, Joseph C; Qi, Qibin; Qi, Lihong; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M; Phillips, Lawrence S; Prentice, Ross L; Beasley, Jeannette M

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge regarding association of dietary branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the contribution of BCAA from meat to the risk of T2D are scarce. We evaluated associations between dietary BCAA intake, meat intake, interaction between BCAA and meat intake and risk of T2D. Data analyses were performed for 74 155 participants aged 50-79 years at baseline from the Women's Health Initiative for up to 15 years of follow-up. We excluded from analysis participants with treated T2D, and factors potentially associated with T2D or missing covariate data. The BCAA and total meat intake was estimated from FFQ. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed the relationship between BCAA intake, meat intake, and T2D, adjusting for confounders. A 20 % increment in total BCAA intake (g/d and %energy) was associated with a 7 % higher risk for T2D (hazard ratio (HR) 1·07; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·09). For total meat intake, a 20 % increment was associated with a 4 % higher risk of T2D (HR 1·04; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·05). The associations between BCAA intake and T2D were attenuated but remained significant after adjustment for total meat intake. These relations did not materially differ with or without adjustment for BMI. Our results suggest that dietary BCAA and meat intake are positively associated with T2D among postmenopausal women. The association of BCAA and diabetes risk was attenuated but remained positive after adjustment for meat intake suggesting that BCAA intake in part but not in full is contributing to the association of meat with T2D risk.

  9. THE COMBINATION OF α-LIPOIC ACID INTAKE WITH ECCENTRIC EXERCISE MODULATES ERYTHROPOIETIN RELEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawin, B; Turowski, D; Naczk, M; Siatkowski, I; Zembron-Lacny, A

    2014-08-01

    The generation of reactive nitrogen/oxygen species (RN/OS) represents an important mechanism in erythropoietin (EPO) expression and skeletal muscle adaptation to physical and metabolic stress. RN/OS generation can be modulated by intense exercise and nutrition supplements such as α-lipoic acid, which demonstrates both anti- and pro-oxidative action. The study was designed to show the changes in the haematological response through the combination of α-lipoic acid intake with running eccentric exercise. Sixteen healthy young males participated in the randomised and placebo-controlled study. The exercise trial involved a 90-min run followed by a 15-min eccentric phase at 65% VO2max (-10% gradient). It significantly increased serum concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and pro-oxidative products such as 8-isoprostanes (8-iso), lipid peroxides (LPO) and protein carbonyls (PC). α-Lipoic acid intake (Thiogamma: 1200 mg daily for 10 days prior to exercise) resulted in a 2-fold elevation of serum H2O2 concentration before exercise, but it prevented the generation of NO, 8-iso, LPO and PC at 20 min, 24 h, and 48 h after exercise. α-Lipoic acid also elevated serum EPO level, which highly correlated with NO/H2O2 ratio (r = 0.718, P exercise (placebo 732 ± 207 IU · L(-1), α-lipoic acid 481 ± 103 IU · L(-1)), and correlated with EPO (r = 0.478, P release and reduces muscle damage after running eccentric exercise.

  10. Plasma phospholipid pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA, and the frequency of dairy and fish product intake in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund-Blix, Nicolai A; Rønningen, Kjersti S; Bøås, Håkon; Tapia, German; Andersen, Lene F

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of studies comparing dietary assessment methods with the biomarkers of fatty acids in children. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to rank young children according to their intake of dairy and fish products by comparing food frequency estimates to the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Cross-sectional data for the present study were derived from the prospective cohort 'Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes Study'. Infants were recruited from the Norwegian general population during 2001-2007. One hundred and ten (age 3-10 years) children had sufficient volumes of plasma and FFQ filled in within 2 months from blood sampling and were included in this evaluation study. The quantitative determination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids was done by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. The association between the frequency of dairy and fish product intake and the plasma phospholipid fatty acids was assessed by a Spearman correlation analysis and by investigating whether participants were classified into the same quartiles of distribution. Significant correlations were found between pentadecanoic acid and the intake frequency of total dairy products (r=0.29), total fat dairy products (r=0.39), and cheese products (r=0.36). EPA and DHA were significantly correlated with the intake frequency of oily fish (r=0.26 and 0.37, respectively) and cod liver/fish oil supplements (r=0.47 for EPA and r=0.50 DHA). To a large extent, the FFQ was able to classify individuals into the same quartile as the relevant fatty acid biomarker. The present study suggests that, when using the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA as biomarkers, the FFQ used in young children showed a moderate capability to rank the intake frequency of dairy products with a high-fat content and cod liver/fish oil supplements.

  11. Current protein and amino acid intakes among Japanese people: Analysis of the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate protein and amino acid intakes and distribution among Japanese people in terms of prevention of sarcopenia or frailty. We carried out a cross-sectional study using data from Japan's 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey. From the original dataset, we selected individuals aged ≥30 years, who were not pregnant or lactating, and for whom dietary intake, bodyweight and body height data were available. Protein intake was calculated using exclusive software developed for the survey. Amino acid intake was calculated using the database created by the National Institute for Longevity Sciences. More than 95% of the participants met recommended levels of protein suggested by the Dietary Reference Intake in Japan. However, nearly half of the participants did not meet recommended levels in terms of prevention of sarcopenia. Leucine intake was not sufficient for each sex and age group, probably because of decreased intake of animal protein, especially protein from milk and dairy products. Distribution of protein and leucine in each meal tended toward dinner. The Japanese population might have insufficient quality, quantity and distribution of protein intake required to prevent sarcopenia or frailty. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 723-731. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. Self-reported dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids and association with bone and lower extremity function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, James H; Kleppinger, Alison; Kenny, Anne M

    2009-10-01

    To assess the relationship between self-reported omega-3 fatty acid (O3FA) intake and bone mineral density (BMD) and lower extremity function in older adults. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline information from three separate ongoing studies of older adults, pooled for this analysis. Academic health center. Two hundred forty-seven men (n=118) and women (n=129) residing in the community or an assisted living facility. Self-reported dietary intake (O3FA, omega-6 fatty acids (O6FA), protein, and total calorie); BMD of the hip or heel; and lower extremity function including leg strength, chair rise time, walking speed, Timed Up and Go, and frailty. The mean reported intake of O3FA was 1.27 g/day. Correlation coefficients (r) between O3FA and T-scores from total femur (n=167) were 0.210 and 0.147 for combined femur and heel T scores. Similar correlations were found for leg strength (r=0.205) and chair rise time (r=-0.178), but the significance was lost when corrected for protein intake. Subjects with lower reported O3FA intake (<1.27 g/day) had lower BMD than those with higher reported O3FA intake. In a multiple regression analysis with femoral neck BMD as the dependent variable and reported intake of O3FA, O6FA, protein, and vitamin D as independent variables, reported O3FA intake was the only significant variable, accounting for 6% of the variance in BMD. Older adults had low reported intakes of O3FA. There was an association between greater reported O3FA intake and higher BMD. There was no independent association between reported O3FA intake and lower extremity function. Results from this preliminary report are promising and suggest further investigation.

  13. Microporous metal organic framework [M2(hfipbb)2(ted)] (M=Zn, Co; H2hfipbb=4,4-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)-bis(benzoic acid); ted=triethylenediamine): Synthesis, structure analysis, pore characterization, small gas adsorption and CO2/N2 separation properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, William W.; Pramanik, Sanhita; Zhang, Zhijuan; Emge, Thomas J.; Li, Jing

    2013-04-01

    Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that is a major contributor to global warming. Developing methods that can effectively capture CO2 is the key to reduce its emission to the atmosphere. Recent research shows that microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are emerging as a promising family of adsorbents that may be promising for use in adsorption based capture and separation of CO2 from power plant waste gases. In this work we report the synthesis, crystal structure analysis and pore characterization of two microporous MOF structures, [M2(hfipbb)2(ted)] (M=Zn (1), Co (2); H2hfipbb=4,4-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)-bis(benzoic acid); ted=triethylenediamine). The CO2 and N2 adsorption experiments and IAST calculations are carried out on [Zn2(hfipbb)2(ted)] under conditions that mimic post-combustion flue gas mixtures emitted from power plants. The results show that the framework interacts with CO2 strongly, giving rise to relatively high isosteric heats of adsorption (up to 28 kJ/mol), and high adsorption selectivity for CO2 over N2, making it promising for capturing and separating CO2 from CO2/N2 mixtures.

  14. Keloids in rural black South Africans. Part 2: dietary fatty acid intake and total phospholipid fatty acid profile in the blood of keloid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, L; Dannhauser, A

    2000-11-01

    In the second part of this study, emphasis is placed on nutritional intakes (fatty acids and micronutrients) and fatty acid intake and metabolism in the blood, respectively, according to a combined 24 h recall and standardized food frequency questionnaire analyses of keloid prone patients (n=10), compared with normal black South Africans (n=80), and total phospholipid blood (plasma and red blood cell ) analyses of keloid patients (n=20), compared with normal individuals (n=20). Lipid extraction and fractionation by standard procedures, total phospholipid (TPL) separation with thin layer chromatography, and fatty acid methyl ester analyses with gas liquid chromatography techniques were used. Since nutrition may play a role in several disease disorders, the purpose of this study was to confirm or refute a role for essential fatty acids (EFAs) in the hypothesis of keloid formations stated in part 1 of this study. (1)According to the Canadian recommendation (1991), we observed that in keloid patients linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) dietary intakes, as EFAs of the omega-6-series, are higher than the recommended 7-11 g/d. However, the a-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intakes, as EFAs of the omega-3 series, are lower than the recommendation of 1.1-1.5 g/d. This was also the case in the control group, where a higher dietary intake of the omega-6 fatty acids and a slightly lower dietary intake of the omega-3 fatty acids occurred. Thus, we confirm a high dietary intake of LA (as a product of organ meats, diary products and many vegetable oils) and AA (as a product of meats and egg yolks), as well as lower dietary intakes of ALA (as a product of grains, green leafy vegetables, soy oil, rapeseed oil and linseed), and EPA and DHA (as products of marine oils). Lower micronutrient intakes than the recommended dietary allowances were observed in the keloid group that may influence EFA metabolism and/or collagen

  15. Effect of fat intake on cholesterol turnover and bile acid formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iritani, Nobuko; Fukuda, Eiko; Ibamoto, Kazuko

    1977-01-01

    Three groups of male rats were maintained on diets containing different amounts of fat. After one week on such regimens, they were injected intraperitoneally with cholesterol- 3 H. During the following 28 days, the radioactivity and quantity of fecal cholesterol and its metabolites were determined. The coprostanol excretion was the about same in all groups and the bile acids excretion increased with increasing fat intake; however, compared to the fat-free group, the excretion of the injected cholesterol- 3 H was greater in the 3% fat group and less in the 10% fat group. Consequently, the specific radioactivity of bile acids was lower in the 10% group than in the others. The half-life of labelled cholesterol was 12.6, 16.0 and 22.2 days for the 3%, 10% fat and fat-free groups, respectively. Rather than a fat-free diet, a low-fat diet of 3% or so, would be of more advantage in eliminating cholesterol by increasing the formation of bile acids to emulsify the fat. In the 10% fat group, however, the enlarged pool size of bile acid probably delayed cholesterol metabolism to bile acids. (auth.)

  16. Periconceptional bread intakes indicate New Zealand's proposed mandatory folic acid fortification program may be outdated: results from a postpartum survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In September 2009, a folic acid fortification mandate (135 μg/100 g bread) was to be implemented in New Zealand. However, due to political and manufacturer objection, fortification was deferred until May 2012. Based on estimates of bread consumption derived from a 1997 nationally representative survey, this program was intended to deliver a mean additional intake of 140 μg folic acid/d to women of childbearing age. Little is known about current bread consumption patterns in this target group. The aim of this study was to assess bread consumption among women prior to and during pregnancy with the intent to estimate periconceptional folic acid intakes that would be derived from bread if mandatory fortification were implemented as currently proposed. Methods A retrospective survey of 723 postpartum women in hospitals and birthing centres across New Zealand was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire on bread intake prior to and during pregnancy and maternal socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics. Results Median bread intake before conception (2 slices/d) was below that of previous data upon which the current fortification proposal was modeled (3-4 slices/d). If mandatory fortification is implemented as proposed, only 31% (95% CI = 24%-37%) of childbearing-age women would attain an additional folic acid intake of ≥ 140 μg/d, with a mean of 119 μg/d (95% CI = 107 μg/d-130 μg/d). Based on these data, a fortification level of 160 μg/100 g bread is required to achieve the targeted mean of 140 μg folic acid/d. Nonetheless, under the current proposal additional folic acid intakes would be greatest among the least advantaged segments of the target population: Pacific and indigenous Māori ethnic groups; those with increased parity, lower income and education; younger and single mothers; and women with unplanned pregnancies. Subgroups predicted to derive less than adequate folic acid intakes from the proposed policy were women of Asian

  17. Periconceptional bread intakes indicate New Zealand's proposed mandatory folic acid fortification program may be outdated: results from a postpartum survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, Simonette R; Gray, Andrew R; Houghton, Lisa A

    2012-02-14

    In September 2009, a folic acid fortification mandate (135 μg/100 g bread) was to be implemented in New Zealand. However, due to political and manufacturer objection, fortification was deferred until May 2012. Based on estimates of bread consumption derived from a 1997 nationally representative survey, this program was intended to deliver a mean additional intake of 140 μg folic acid/d to women of childbearing age. Little is known about current bread consumption patterns in this target group. The aim of this study was to assess bread consumption among women prior to and during pregnancy with the intent to estimate periconceptional folic acid intakes that would be derived from bread if mandatory fortification were implemented as currently proposed. A retrospective survey of 723 postpartum women in hospitals and birthing centres across New Zealand was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire on bread intake prior to and during pregnancy and maternal socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics. Median bread intake before conception (2 slices/d) was below that of previous data upon which the current fortification proposal was modeled (3-4 slices/d). If mandatory fortification is implemented as proposed, only 31% (95% CI = 24%-37%) of childbearing-age women would attain an additional folic acid intake of ≥ 140 μg/d, with a mean of 119 μg/d (95% CI = 107 μg/d-130 μg/d). Based on these data, a fortification level of 160 μg/100 g bread is required to achieve the targeted mean of 140 μg folic acid/d. Nonetheless, under the current proposal additional folic acid intakes would be greatest among the least advantaged segments of the target population: Pacific and indigenous Māori ethnic groups; those with increased parity, lower income and education; younger and single mothers; and women with unplanned pregnancies. Subgroups predicted to derive less than adequate folic acid intakes from the proposed policy were women of Asian descent and those with a

  18. Validation of fatty acid intakes estimated by a food frequency questionnaire using erythrocyte fatty acid profiling in the Montreal Heart Institute Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcot, V; Brunet, J; Daneault, C; Tardif, J C; Des Rosiers, C; Lettre, G

    2015-12-01

    To improve the prevention, treatment and risk prediction of cardiovascular diseases, genetic markers and gene-diet interactions are currently being investigated. The Montreal Heart Institute (MHI) Biobank is suitable for such studies because of its large sample size (currently, n = 17 000), the availability of biospecimens, and the collection of data on dietary intakes of saturated (SFAs) and n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated (PUFAs) fatty acids estimated from a 14-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We tested the validity of the FFQ by correlating dietary intakes of these fatty acids with their red blood cell (RBC) content in MHI Biobank participants. Seventy-five men and 75 women were selected from the Biobank. We successfully obtained RBC fatty acids for 142 subjects using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to test whether SFA scores and daily intakes (g day(-1)) of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs correlate with their RBC content. Based on covariate-adjusted analyses, intakes of n-3 PUFAs from vegetable sources were significantly correlated with RBC α-linolenic acid levels (ρ = 0.23, P = 0.007), whereas n-3 PUFA intakes from marine sources correlated significantly with RBC eicosapentaenoic acid (ρ = 0.29, P = 0.0008) and docosahexaenoic acid (ρ = 0.41, P = 9.2 × 10(-7)) levels. Intakes of n-6 PUFAs from vegetable sources correlated with RBC linoleic acid (ρ = 0.18, P = 0.04). SFA scores were not correlated with RBC total SFAs. The MHI Biobank 14-item FFQ can appropriately estimate daily intakes of n-3 PUFAs from vegetable and marine sources, as well as vegetable n-6 PUFAs, which enables the possibility of using these data in future studies. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  19. Ligand solvation effect on Dy3+ complexing with benzoic, p-, o-, m-aminobenzoic, 4-pyridinecarboxylic acids., and with pyridine and 4-aminopyridine in aqua and aqua-organic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elistratova, Yu.G.; Mustafina, A.R.; Devyatov, F.V.; Sarvarova, N.N.

    1996-01-01

    Substituent effect on stability of Dy 3+ complexes with aminobenzoic acids (o , p-, m-isomers), pyridinecarboxylic acids and p-aminopyridine was estimated on the base of pH-metric and magnetooptic data. It was concluded that the more the efficiency of ligand's solvation the less the substituent effects the complex stability. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake during pregnancy and risk for spontaneous preterm delivery: a prospective observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengpiel, Verena; Bacelis, Jonas; Myhre, Ronny; Myking, Solveig; Devold Pay, Aase Serine; Haugen, Margaretha; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Nilsen, Roy Miodini; Magnus, Per; Vollset, Stein Emil; Nilsson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Bo

    2014-11-02

    Health authorities in numerous countries recommend periconceptional folic acid supplementation to prevent neural tube defects. The objective of this study was to examine the association of dietary folate intake and folic acid supplementation during different periods of pregnancy with the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD). The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study is a population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 66,014 women with singleton pregnancies resulting in live births in 2002-2009 were included. Folic acid supplementation was self-reported from 26 weeks before pregnancy until pregnancy week 24. At gestational week 22, the women completed a food frequency questionnaire, which allowed the calculation of their average total folate intake from foods and supplements for the first 4-5 months of pregnancy. Spontaneous PTD was defined as the spontaneous onset of delivery between weeks 22+0 and 36+6 (n = 1,755). The median total folate intake was 313 μg/d (interquartile range IQR 167-558) in the overall population and 530 μg/d (IQR 355-636) in the supplement users. Eighty-five percent reported any folic acid supplementation from effect of dietary folate intake or folic acid supplementation on spontaneous PTD. Preconceptional folic acid supplementation starting more than 8 weeks before conception was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous PTD. These results require further investigation before discussing an expansion of folic acid supplementation guidelines.

  1. Prospective evaluation of trans-fatty acid intake and colorectal cancer risk in the Iowa Women’s Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Limburg, Paul J.; Liu-Mares, Wen; Vierkant, Robert A.; Wang, Alice H.; Harnack, Lisa; Flood, Andrew P.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Cerhan, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Concerns regarding the safety of dietary trans-fatty acids (tFAs) have generated recent public interest, scientific discussion and legislative action. Although most widely recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, associations between tFA intake and incident cancer have also been proposed. With respect to colorectal cancer (CRC), existing observational data remain limited and inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted a prospective evaluation of tFA intake and CRC risk, overall and b...

  2. Medium-chain triglycerides and conjugated linoleic acids in beverage form increase satiety and reduce food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Hannah; Quinn, Paul; Clegg, Miriam E

    2016-06-01

    Both developed and developing countries are seeing increasing trends of obesity in people young and old. It is thought that satiety may play a role in the prevention of obesity by increasing satiety and reducing energy intake. We hypothesized that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) would increase satiety and decrease food intake compared with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and a control oil. Nineteen healthy participants were tested on 3 separate occasions, where they consumed a beverage test breakfast containing (1) vegetable oil (control), (2) CLA, or (3) MCT. Participants self-requested an ad libitum sandwich buffet lunch. Time between meals, satiety from visual analog scales, energy intake at lunch, and intake for the rest of the day using weighed food diaries were measured. The results indicated that the time until a meal request was significantly different between the 3 meals (P=.016); however, there were no differences in intakes at the ad libitum lunch (P>.05). The CLA breakfast generated the greatest delay in meal time request. There was a difference between the control lipid compared with both the CLA and MCT for energy intake over the remainder of the test day and for total energy intake on the test day (P.05). Both CLA and MCT increased satiety and reduced energy intake, indicating a potential role in aiding the maintenance of energy balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Low breast milk levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids in allergic women, despite frequent fish intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, S; Wold, A E; Sandberg, A-S

    2011-04-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have immune regulating and anti-inflammatory effects. However, their role in allergic disease is unclear. Allergic diseases are immunologically heterogeneous, and we hypothesized that n-3 fatty acid composition in serum and breast milk may vary according to clinical manifestations. Further, animal studies have shown reduction of serum-PUFA levels during allergic inflammation. To investigate fatty acid composition in breast milk and serum from women with different atopic disease manifestations. Secondly, to determine whether low PUFA levels reflected insufficient intakes. Fatty acids were analysed in breast milk and serum of women with atopic eczema and respiratory allergy (n=16), only respiratory allergy (n=7), as well as healthy women (n=22). Dietary intake of foods expected to affect long-chain n-3 PUFA levels were estimated by food-frequency questionnaire. The fatty acid pattern was related to diagnostic group and intake of relevant food items using a multivariate pattern recognition method (partial least squares projections to latent structures and discriminant analysis). Results Women with a combination of eczema and respiratory allergy had lower breast milk levels of several PUFAs (arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, and docosapentaenoic acid, DPA), and a lower ratio of long-chain n-3 PUFAs/n-6 PUFAs. Their PUFA levels differed not only from that of healthy women, but also from that of women with only respiratory allergy. The latter had a fatty acid pattern similar to that of healthy women. Despite low EPA, DHA and DPA levels women with eczema and respiratory allergy consumed no less fish than did healthy women. Our data suggest that reduced levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids in serum and breast milk characterize women with extensive allergic disease including eczema, and are not related to low fish intake. Consumption of PUFAs during the allergic process may explain

  4. Effect of dietary fatty acid intake on prospective weight change in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabi; Linseisen, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between fatty acid (alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), EPA, DHA, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids) intake and prospective weight change in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. DESIGN....... RESULTS: Stearic acid intake was linearly associated with weight gain (P acid intake, significantly so in women. In multinomial models, women in the highest tertile of ALA and stearic acid intake showed increased OR (95 % CI......) and categorised into four groups (weight loss, or =2.5 to or =7.5%/5 years). Energy-adjusted dietary fatty acid intake data were estimated from the FFQ completed at baseline. Multivariate linear regression models as well as multinomial logistic regression analyses (carbohydrate replacement models) were conducted...

  5. Fructose Intake, Serum Uric Acid, and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Caliceti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a direct relationship between fructose intake and serum levels of uric acid (UA, which is the final product of purine metabolism. Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that chronic hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. It is probably also an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease, Type 2 diabetes, and cognitive decline. These relationships have been observed for high serum UA levels (>5.5 mg/dL in women and >6 mg/dL in men, but also for normal to high serum UA levels (5–6 mg/dL. In this regard, blood UA levels are much higher in industrialized countries than in the rest of the world. Xanthine-oxidase inhibitors can reduce UA and seem to minimize its negative effects on vascular health. Other dietary and pathophysiological factors are also related to UA production. However, the role of fructose-derived UA in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disorders has not yet been fully clarified. Here, we critically review recent research on the biochemistry of UA production, the relationship between fructose intake and UA production, and how this relationship is linked to cardiometabolic disorders.

  6. Fructose Intake, Serum Uric Acid, and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliceti, Cristiana; Calabria, Donato; Roda, Aldo; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2017-04-18

    There is a direct relationship between fructose intake and serum levels of uric acid (UA), which is the final product of purine metabolism. Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that chronic hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. It is probably also an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease, Type 2 diabetes, and cognitive decline. These relationships have been observed for high serum UA levels (>5.5 mg/dL in women and >6 mg/dL in men), but also for normal to high serum UA levels (5-6 mg/dL). In this regard, blood UA levels are much higher in industrialized countries than in the rest of the world. Xanthine-oxidase inhibitors can reduce UA and seem to minimize its negative effects on vascular health. Other dietary and pathophysiological factors are also related to UA production. However, the role of fructose-derived UA in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disorders has not yet been fully clarified. Here, we critically review recent research on the biochemistry of UA production, the relationship between fructose intake and UA production, and how this relationship is linked to cardiometabolic disorders.

  7. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase by cis-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)cyclohexyl-oxy]benzoic acid exhibits antihypertensive and cardioprotective actions in transgenic rats with angiotensin II-dependent hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neckář, Jan; Kopkan, L.; Husková, Z.; Kolář, František; Papoušek, František; Kramer, H. J.; Hwang, S.H.; Hammock, B.D.; Imig, J. D.; Malý, J.; Netuka, I.; Ošťádal, Bohuslav; Červenka, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 11 (2012), s. 513-525 ISSN 0143-5221 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX01110901; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200520703; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : hypertension * angiotensin II * kidney * epoxyeicosatrienoic acids * soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor * myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 4.859, year: 2012

  8. Solvent effect in implicit/explicit model on FT-IR, 1H, 13C and 19F NMR, UV-vis and fluorescence spectra, linear, second- and third-nonlinear optical parameters of 2-(trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid: Experimental and computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcı, Davut; Altürk, Sümeyye; Tamer, Ömer; Kuşbazoğlu, Mustafa; Atalay, Yusuf

    2017-09-01

    FT-IR, 1H, 13C and 19F NMR, UV-vis and fluorescence spectra for 2-(trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid (2-TFMBA) were recorded. DFT//B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) calculations were used to determine the optimized molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, 1H, 13C and 19F GIAO-NMR chemical shifts of 2-TFMBA. The detailed assignments of vibrational frequencies were carried out on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED) by using VEDA program. TD-DFT/B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) calculations with the PCM (polarizable continuum model) in ethanol and DMSO solvents based on implicit/explicit model and gas phase in the excited state were employed to investigate UV-vis absorption and fluorescence emission wavelengths. The UV-vis and emission spectra were given in ethanol and DMSO solvents, and the major contributions to the electronic transitions were obtained. In addition, the NLO parameters (β, γ and χ(3)) and frontier molecular orbital energies of 2-TFMBA were calculated by using B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) level. The NLO parameters of 2-TFMBA were compared with that of para-Nitroaniline (pNA) and urea which are the typical NLO materials. The refractive index (n) is calculated by using the Lorentz-Lorenz equation to observe polarization behavior of 2-TFMBA in DMSO and ethanol solvents. In order to investigate intramolecular and hydrogen bonding interactions, NBO calculations were also performed by the same level. To sum up, considering the well-known biological role, photochemical properties of 2-TFMBA were discussed.

  9. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids: Effect on Humans During Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Zwart, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. Bone and muscle are two systems that are positively affected by dietary intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids. The mechanism is likely to be related to inhibition by n-3 fatty acids of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-kB activation. We have documented this effect in a 3-dimensional cell culture model, where NF-kB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have also indentified that NF-kB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews. We found that after Shuttle flights of 2 wk, expression of the protein p65 (evidence of NF-kB activation) was increased at landing (P less than 0.001). When evaluating the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake on bone breakdown after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog). We found that after 60 d of bed rest, greater intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). We also evaluated the relationship of fish intake and bone loss in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo missions on the International Space Station. Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = 0.46, P less than 0.05). Together, these findings provide evidence of the cellular mechanism by which n-3 fatty acids can inhibit bone loss, and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with space flight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  10. Plasma phospholipid pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA, and the frequency of dairy and fish product intake in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai A. Lund-Blix

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of studies comparing dietary assessment methods with the biomarkers of fatty acids in children. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the suitability of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ to rank young children according to their intake of dairy and fish products by comparing food frequency estimates to the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Design: Cross-sectional data for the present study were derived from the prospective cohort ‘Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes Study’. Infants were recruited from the Norwegian general population during 2001–2007. One hundred and ten (age 3–10 years children had sufficient volumes of plasma and FFQ filled in within 2 months from blood sampling and were included in this evaluation study. The quantitative determination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids was done by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. The association between the frequency of dairy and fish product intake and the plasma phospholipid fatty acids was assessed by a Spearman correlation analysis and by investigating whether participants were classified into the same quartiles of distribution. Results: Significant correlations were found between pentadecanoic acid and the intake frequency of total dairy products (r=0.29, total fat dairy products (r=0.39, and cheese products (r=0.36. EPA and DHA were significantly correlated with the intake frequency of oily fish (r=0.26 and 0.37, respectively and cod liver/fish oil supplements (r=0.47 for EPA and r=0.50 DHA. To a large extent, the FFQ was able to classify individuals into the same quartile as the relevant fatty acid biomarker. Conclusions: The present study suggests that, when using the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA as biomarkers, the FFQ used in young children showed a moderate capability to rank the intake frequency of dairy products with a

  11. Altered Preconception Fatty Acid Intake Is Associated with Improved Pregnancy Rates in Overweight and Obese Women Undertaking in Vitro Fertilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Moran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal preconception diet is proposed to affect fertility. Prior research assessing the effect of altering the fatty acid profile on female fertility is conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preconception maternal diet, specifically fatty acid profile, on pregnancies and live births following in vitro fertilisation (IVF. Forty-six overweight and obese women undergoing IVF were randomised to a diet and physical activity intervention (intervention or standard care (control. Outcome measures included pregnancy, live birth and pre-study dietary intake from food frequency questionnaire. Twenty pregnancies (n = 12/18 vs. n = 8/20, p = 0.12 and 12 live births (n = 7/18 vs. n = 5/20, p = 0.48 occurred following the intervention with no differences between the treatment groups. On analysis adjusted for BMI and smoking status, women who became pregnant had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake (p = 0.03, specifically omega-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA (p = 0.045 with a trend for an elevated intake of omega-3 PUFA (p = 0.06. There were no dietary differences for women who did or did not have a live birth. Maternal preconception PUFA, and specifically omega-6 and LA intake, are associated with improved pregnancy rates in overweight and obese women undergoing IVF. This has implications for optimising fertility through preconception nutrition.

  12. Intake of marine fat, rich in (n-3)-polyunsaturated fatty acids, may increase birthweight by prolonging gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Sørensen, T.I.

    1986-01-01

    an important part in the timing of parturition in human beings. Dietary (n-3)-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in high amounts influence endogenous prostaglandin metabolism. Owing to the large consumption of marine fat, the average intake of (n-3)-PUFA in the Faroes by far exceeds that in Denmark...

  13. Evaluating Changes in Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake after Receiving Personal FADS1 Genetic Information: A Randomized Nutrigenetic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roke, Kaitlin; Walton, Kathryn; Klingel, Shannon L.; Harnett, Amber; Subedi, Sanjeena; Haines, Jess; Mutch, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Nutrigenetics research is anticipated to lay the foundation for personalized dietary recommendations; however, it remains unclear if providing individuals with their personal genetic information changes dietary behaviors. Our objective was to evaluate if providing information for a common variant in the fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) gene changed omega-3 fatty acid (FA) intake and blood levels in young female adults (18–25 years). Participants were randomized into Genetic (intervention) and Non-Genetic (control) groups, with measurements taken at Baseline and Final (12 weeks). Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was assessed using an omega-3 food frequency questionnaire. Red blood cell (RBC) FA content was quantified by gas chromatography. Implications of participation in a nutrigenetics study and awareness of omega-3 FAs were assessed with online questionnaires. Upon completion of the study, EPA and DHA intake increased significantly (p = 1.0 × 10−4) in all participants. This change was reflected by small increases in RBC %EPA. Participants in the Genetic group showed increased awareness of omega-3 terminology by the end of the study, reported that the dietary recommendations were more useful, and rated cost as a barrier to omega-3 consumption less often than those in the Non-Genetic group. Providing participants FADS1 genetic information did not appear to influence omega-3 intake during the 12 weeks, but did change perceptions and behaviors related to omega-3 FAs in this timeframe. PMID:28272299

  14. Evaluating Changes in Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake after Receiving Personal FADS1 Genetic Information: A Randomized Nutrigenetic Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin Roke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrigenetics research is anticipated to lay the foundation for personalized dietary recommendations; however, it remains unclear if providing individuals with their personal genetic information changes dietary behaviors. Our objective was to evaluate if providing information for a common variant in the fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1 gene changed omega-3 fatty acid (FA intake and blood levels in young female adults (18–25 years. Participants were randomized into Genetic (intervention and Non-Genetic (control groups, with measurements taken at Baseline and Final (12 weeks. Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA was assessed using an omega-3 food frequency questionnaire. Red blood cell (RBC FA content was quantified by gas chromatography. Implications of participation in a nutrigenetics study and awareness of omega-3 FAs were assessed with online questionnaires. Upon completion of the study, EPA and DHA intake increased significantly (p = 1.0 × 10−4 in all participants. This change was reflected by small increases in RBC %EPA. Participants in the Genetic group showed increased awareness of omega-3 terminology by the end of the study, reported that the dietary recommendations were more useful, and rated cost as a barrier to omega-3 consumption less often than those in the Non-Genetic group. Providing participants FADS1 genetic information did not appear to influence omega-3 intake during the 12 weeks, but did change perceptions and behaviors related to omega-3 FAs in this timeframe.

  15. Altered Preconception Fatty Acid Intake Is Associated with Improved Pregnancy Rates in Overweight and Obese Women Undertaking in Vitro Fertilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lisa J; Tsagareli, Victoria; Noakes, Manny; Norman, Robert

    2016-01-04

    Maternal preconception diet is proposed to affect fertility. Prior research assessing the effect of altering the fatty acid profile on female fertility is conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preconception maternal diet, specifically fatty acid profile, on pregnancies and live births following in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Forty-six overweight and obese women undergoing IVF were randomised to a diet and physical activity intervention (intervention) or standard care (control). Outcome measures included pregnancy, live birth and pre-study dietary intake from food frequency questionnaire. Twenty pregnancies (n = 12/18 vs. n = 8/20, p = 0.12) and 12 live births (n = 7/18 vs. n = 5/20, p = 0.48) occurred following the intervention with no differences between the treatment groups. On analysis adjusted for BMI and smoking status, women who became pregnant had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake (p = 0.03), specifically omega-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA) (p = 0.045) with a trend for an elevated intake of omega-3 PUFA (p = 0.06). There were no dietary differences for women who did or did not have a live birth. Maternal preconception PUFA, and specifically omega-6 and LA intake, are associated with improved pregnancy rates in overweight and obese women undergoing IVF. This has implications for optimising fertility through preconception nutrition.

  16. Effect of dietary protein and GABA on food intake, growth and tissue amino acids in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tews, J K; Rogers, Q R; Morris, J G; Harper, A E

    1984-02-01

    GABA at 5%, but not 3%, of a low protein diet depressed food intake and growth of kittens. Adaptation to high protein prevented these effects. When cats adapted to low or high protein were fed a meal containing GABA, plasma GABA concentration after 2 hr was 8-fold higher in the low than in the high protein group; clearance was almost complete within 6 hr. Concentrations of proline, branched-chain, other large neutral and basic (especially ornithine) amino acids increased more when cats were fed a high rather than a low protein meal; glycine decreased. At 6 hr, concentrations had consistently returned to initial levels only in the low protein group. Feeding the high protein diet ad lib increased tissue concentrations of threonine, proline and the branched-chain amino acids. Hepatic or renal GABA-aminotransferase activity was not altered in kittens fed the high protein diet. Kidney activity was 10-fold that of liver, which may contribute to the better tolerance of GABA by cats than by rats.

  17. Omega3 Fatty Acids Intake Versus Diclofenac in Osteoarthritis Induced in Experimental rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. El-Seweidy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Osteoarthritis(OAis a degenerative joint disease, characterized by abnormal remodeling pattern of joints driven by inflammatory mediators within the affected joints. Its symptoms are many like pain, stiffness,and decreased function. Objective:The present study mainly focused on the anti-inflammatory effect of omega 3 fatty acids (F.As versus diclofenac, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in OA induced in rats Design: Intraarticular injection of monosodiumiodoacetate(MIA 24.6 mg/kg in 0.6 ml saline was used to induce OA. Diclofenac and omega-3 F. These were administered orally, daily for 21 days and after 24 hours of OA induction.Results:Osteoarthritis induction resulted in an increase in serum levels of IL-6(479.5%,TNF-α(545.5%, and CRP(754.2% along with IL-10 level decrease(70.3% as compared to normal group. Diclofenac intake demonstrated significant increase of IL-6 (24.9%,CRP (88.6%,and TNF-α(25.2% compared to the OA control group. Omega 3 FAs intake showed significant reduction in inflammatory markers along with IL-10 increase, in comparison toOA group.Both treatment demonstrated a significant increase in TIMP2 along with decreased MMP2 and MPO in comparison with OA control.Positive correlation of IL-6 with MPO(r = 0.7,P=0.002, and negative one with IL-10(r = 0.9,p<0.0001 and TIMP2 (r = -0.5,p<0.008 was observed.Interleukin-10 was negatively correlated with MMP2(r = -0.5, p<0.007 and MPO (r=-0.8,p<0.0001.Conclusion:Data derived from biochemical and histopathological results, indicated that omega3 FAs may be expressed as a natural anti-inflammatory agent of a significant potential in OA with evident remarkable effect.

  18. Combined Prenatal Pesticide Exposure and Folic Acid Intake in Relation to Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rebecca J; Kogan, Vladimir; Shelton, Janie F; Delwiche, Lora; Hansen, Robin L; Ozonoff, Sally; Ma, Claudia C; McCanlies, Erin C; Bennett, Deborah H; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Tancredi, Daniel J; Volk, Heather E

    2017-09-08

    Maternal folic acid (FA) protects against developmental toxicity from certain environmental chemicals. We examined combined exposures to maternal FA and pesticides in relation to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were California children born from 2000-2007 who were enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) case-control study at age 2-5 y, were clinically confirmed to have ASD (n=296) or typical development (n=220), and had information on maternal supplemental FA and pesticide exposures. Maternal supplemental FA and household pesticide product use were retrospectively collected in telephone interviews from 2003-2011. High vs. low daily FA intake was dichotomized at 800μg (median). Mothers' addresses were linked to a statewide database of commercial applications to estimate agricultural pesticide exposure. High FA intake (≥800μg) during the first pregnancy month and no known pesticide exposure was the reference group for all analyses. Compared with this group, ASD was increased in association with pesticide exposure {adjusted odds ratio [OR]=2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 4.7]} compared with low FA [OR=1.2 (95% CI: 0.7, 2.2)] or indoor pesticides [OR=1.7 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.8)] alone. ORs for the combination of low FA and regular pregnancy exposure (≥6 mo) to pet pesticides or to outdoor sprays and foggers were 3.9 (95% CI: 1.4, 11.5) and 4.1 (95% CI: 1.7, 10.1), respectively. ORs for low maternal FA and agricultural pesticide exposure 3 mo before or after conception were 2.2 (95% CI: 0.7, 6.5) for chlorpyrifos, 2.3 (95% CI: 0.98, 5.3) for organophosphates, 2.1 (95% CI: 0.9, 4.8) for pyrethroids, and 1.5 (95% CI: 0.5, 4.8) for carbamates. Except for carbamates, these ORs were approximately two times greater than those for either exposure alone or for the expected ORs for combined exposures under multiplicative or additive models. In this study population, associations between pesticide exposures and ASD

  19. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined.

  20. Reduced ex Vivo Interleukin-6 Production by Dietary Fish Oil Is Not Modified by Linoleic Acid Intake in Healthy Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Lauritzen, L.; Calder, P. C.

    2009-01-01

    production from cultures of whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and monocytes in healthy men. The study was a double-blinded, controlled, 2 X 2 factorial 8-wk intervention. Sixty-four healthy men were randomized to 5 mL/d FO or olive oil (00) provided in capsules and to spreads and oils......Fish oil (FO) is considered antiinflammatory, but evidence regarding its effect on human cytokine production is conflicting. High linoleic acid (LA) intake may impair any effects of FO. The aim of this study was to investigate how FO combined with high or low LA intake affected ex vivo cytokine...

  1. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (N-3) Fatty Acid: Effect on Humans during Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. These are some of the systems on which intakes of fish and n-3 fatty acids have positive effects. These effects are likely to occur through inhibition of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNFalpha) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-KB activation. We documented this effect in a 3D cell culture model, where NF-KB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have extended these studies and report here (a) NF-KB expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews on 2-wk missions, (b) the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog), and (c) the effects of fish intake in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo on the International Space Station. After Shuttle flights of 2 wk, NFKB p65 expression at landing was increased (P less than 0.001). After 60 d of bed rest, higher intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = -0.46, P less than 0.05). Together with our earlier findings, these data provide mechanistic cellular and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with spaceflight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  2. Branched-chain amino acid interactions with reference to amino acid requirements in adult men: Valine metabolism at different leucine intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, V.; Marks, L.; Wagner, D.A.; Hoerr, R.A.; Young, V.R.

    1991-01-01

    The authors explored whether the oxidation of valine and by implication the physiological requirement for this amino acid are affected by changes in leucine intake over a physiological range. Six young adult men received, in random order, four L-amino acid-based diets for 5 d supplying either 20 or 10 mg valine.kg body wt-1.d-1, each in combination with 80 or 40 mg leucine.kg-1.d-1. On day 6 subjects were studied with an 8-h continuous intravenous infusion of [1-13C]valine (and [2H3]leucine) to determine valine oxidation in the fasted state (first 3 h) and fed state (last 5 h). Valine oxidation in the fasted state was similar among all diets but was lower (P less than 0.05) in the fed state for the 10 vs 20 mg valine.kg-1.d-1 intake. Leucine intake did not affect valine oxidation. Mean daily valine balance approximated +1.3 mg.kg-1.d-1 for the 20-mg intake and -1.6 mg.kg-1.d-1 for the 10-mg intake. These findings support our previously suggested mean valine requirement estimate of approximately 20 mg.kg-1.d-1

  3. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motas Guzmàn, Miguel [Área de Toxicología, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Clementini, Chiara [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Mattioli, 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Pérez-Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Jiménez Rejón, Sandra [Department of Legal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Murcia & Instituto Murciano de Investigacion Biomedica (IMIB), (IMIB-VIRGEN DE LA ARRIXACA), Murcia (Spain); Cascone, Aurora; Martellini, Tania [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Guerranti, Cristiana [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Mattioli, 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Bioscience Research Center, Via Aurelia Vecchia 32, 58015 Orbetello, GR (Italy); Cincinelli, Alessandra, E-mail: acincinelli@unifi.it [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Human milk samples were collected from 67 mothers in 2014 at a Primary Care Centre in Murcia (Spain) and analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Concentrations measured for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) ranged from < LOQ (< 10 ng/L) to 397 ng/L with a mean concentration of 66 ± 68 ng/L and a median of 29 ng/L. The presence of these compounds was revealed in 50 samples out of 67 analyzed. Influence of number of pregnancies and food habits on PFCAs concentrations was also investigated. Statistically significant differences in PFCA levels were found when the women were divided into maternal age classes and into the categories primiparae and multiparae. A greater transfer of PFC during breastfeeding by primiparous was evidenced and thus a higher exposure to these contaminants for the first child. Moreover, it was possible to hypothesize that the content of PFCs is in general correlated to the eating habits of donors and, in particular, with the fish consumption. Finally, PFOA daily intakes and risk index (RI) were estimated for the first six months of life and we found that ingestion rates of PFOA did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). - Graphical abstract: Figure SI 1. Concentrations (ng/L) of PFCs recovered in 67 samples of human breast milk. - Highlights: • Perfluorinated carboxylic acids were analyzed in a set of 67 breast milk samples collected from Spanish women. • PFOA appeared as the major contributor to the total perfluorinated carboxylic acids. • PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants. • PFOA daily intake and risk index were estimated for the firsts six month of life.

  4. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motas Guzmàn, Miguel; Clementini, Chiara; Pérez-Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Jiménez Rejón, Sandra; Cascone, Aurora; Martellini, Tania; Guerranti, Cristiana; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Human milk samples were collected from 67 mothers in 2014 at a Primary Care Centre in Murcia (Spain) and analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Concentrations measured for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) ranged from < LOQ (< 10 ng/L) to 397 ng/L with a mean concentration of 66 ± 68 ng/L and a median of 29 ng/L. The presence of these compounds was revealed in 50 samples out of 67 analyzed. Influence of number of pregnancies and food habits on PFCAs concentrations was also investigated. Statistically significant differences in PFCA levels were found when the women were divided into maternal age classes and into the categories primiparae and multiparae. A greater transfer of PFC during breastfeeding by primiparous was evidenced and thus a higher exposure to these contaminants for the first child. Moreover, it was possible to hypothesize that the content of PFCs is in general correlated to the eating habits of donors and, in particular, with the fish consumption. Finally, PFOA daily intakes and risk index (RI) were estimated for the first six months of life and we found that ingestion rates of PFOA did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). - Graphical abstract: Figure SI 1. Concentrations (ng/L) of PFCs recovered in 67 samples of human breast milk. - Highlights: • Perfluorinated carboxylic acids were analyzed in a set of 67 breast milk samples collected from Spanish women. • PFOA appeared as the major contributor to the total perfluorinated carboxylic acids. • PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants. • PFOA daily intake and risk index were estimated for the firsts six month of life.

  5. CHANGES IN THE BILE-ACIDS COMPOSITION OF BILE JUICE AFTER FAT INTAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA DINU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A high fat intake increases the flow of bile or changes the composition of bile acids in refluxed duodenal contents, and then plays an important role in the developmental precancerous lesion of BE and leading to esophageal adenocarcinoma EAC. Wistar rats were divided into three groups based on their diet: a control group (fed with standard diet, containing 4.20% soybean oil, a second group (fed with a low cowfat diet, containing 4.20% cow fat and the third group (fed with a high cow-fat diet, containing 16.8% cow fat. The TCA value detected in the animals fed the high cowfat diet (median concentration, 13.8 ± 2.42 mmol/L was significant increased comparative with those detected of animals fed the standard diet (8.15 ± 1.22 mmol/L. The TDCA value in the high cow-fat group (2.64 ± 0.97 mmol/L was significantly increased comparative with those detected of animals fed the standard diet (1.66 ± 0.50 mmol/L.

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion related to the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of the n-3 LCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA......). Available data are insufficient to establish a UL for n-3 LCPUFA (individually or combined) for any population group. At observed intake levels, consumption of n-3 LCPUFA has not been associated with adverse effects in healthy children or adults. Long-term supplemental intakes of EPA and DHA combined up...... to about 5 g/day do not appear to increase the risk of spontaneous bleeding episodes or bleeding complications, or affect glucose homeostasis immune function or lipid peroxidation, provided the oxidative stability of the n-3 LCPUFAs is guaranteed. Supplemental intakes of EPA and DHA combined at doses of 2...

  7. Habitual dietary intake of fatty acids are associated with leptin gene expression in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of patients without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Hosein; Samadi, Mohammad; Yuzbashian, Emad; Zarkesh, Maryam; Asghari, Golaleh; Hedayati, Mehdi; Daneshafrooz, Afsoon; Mirmiran, Parvin; Khalaj, Alireza

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the association of leptin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues with habitual fatty acid intake and its subtypes in adults. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues were gathered from 97 participants aged ≥ 20, who had undergone elective abdominal surgery. Dietary fatty acid intakes including total fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids were collected using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The leptin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues was measured by Real-Time PCR. After controlling for body mass index (BMI) and insulin, energy-adjusted dietary intake of SFA was positively and MUFA and n-3 fatty acids were negatively associated with subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues leptin gene expression. Besides, a significant negative association of PUFA, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids with leptin mRNA from visceral adipose tissue were observed. In order to better interpretations of the results, the participants were allocated two groups including non-obese (BMI fatty acids had a negative association with visceral leptin gene expression. Habitual intake of SFA, MUFA, and n-3 fatty acids were associated with leptin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, suggesting an important role of quality and quantity of fatty acids intake in adipose tissue to regulate leptin expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    that R-TFA intake is innocuous or even protective against CHD. The aim of this study was to describe the association between R-TFA intake and risk of CHD evaluating both the absolute and the energy-adjusted intake. METHODS: The study was an 18-year follow-up study of 3686 Danes, aged 30-71 years......, at baseline without previous CHD. RESULTS: There were no overall associations between absolute or energy-adjusted R-TFA intakes and risk of CHD. However, among women, indications of inverse associations between R-TFA intake and risk of CHD were found: hazard ratio (HR) per 0.5 g increase in absolute R......-TFA intake = 0.84 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70, 1.01] and HR per 0.5 g increase in energy-adjusted R-TFA intake = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.55, 1.09). No associations between absolute or energy-adjusted R-TFA intakes and CHD were found among men. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that R-TFA intake...

  9. The interaction between ApoA2 -265T>C polymorphism and dietary fatty acids intake on oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Elham; Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh, Haleh; Sotoudeh, Gity; Keramat, Laleh; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Rafiee, Masoumeh; Koohdani, Fariba

    2017-08-01

    Apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2) -265T>C polymorphism has been studied in relation to oxidative stress and various dietary fatty acids. Since the interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and dietary fatty acids on oxidative stress has not yet discussed, we aimed to investigate the interaction on oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The subjects were 180 T2DM patients with known APOA2 genotype, either TT, TC or CC. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was determined by colorimetric method. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and serum level of 8-isoprostane F2α were measured by spectrophotometry and ELISA, respectively. Dietary intake was collected through a food frequency questionnaire. Based on the median intake, fatty acids intake was dichotomized into high or low groups. The interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and dietary fatty acids intake was analyzed by ANCOVA multivariate interaction model. Higher than median intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA) was associated with increased serum level of 8-isoprostane F2α in subjects with TT/TC genotype (p = 0.004), and higher than median intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) was associated with increased serum SOD activity in CC genotype (p fatty acids intake on oxidative stress. More investigations on different populations are required to confirm the interaction.

  10. Dietary fat, fatty acid intakes and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese adults: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao; Fang, Yu-Jing; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Li, Bin; Wang, Lian; Zheng, Mei-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2013-09-01

    The associations between dietary fat intakes and the risk of colorectal cancer have been examined in many epidemiological studies, but the results have remained inconsistent. This study aimed to examine the associations of total fat and fatty acid intakes with the risk of colorectal cancer in Guangzhou, China. A case-control study was carried out between July 2010 and May 2012 in Guangzhou, China. Four hundred and eighty-nine consecutively recruited colorectal cancer cases were frequency matched to 976 controls by age (5-year interval) and sex. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary information by face-to-face interviews. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The total fat intake was not related to the risk of colorectal cancer, with an OR (95% CI) of 0.95 (0.68-1.32) comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles. Intakes of saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, and n-6 polyunsaturated fat were also not associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. However, a significant inverse association was found between total n-3 polyunsaturated fat, α-linolenic acid, and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer. The adjusted ORs of the highest versus the lowest quartile were 0.45 (95% CI=0.32-0.64, Ptrendcolorectal cancer. However, increased consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fat might reduce the risk.

  11. Dietary amino acid intakes associated with a low-phenylalanine diet combined with amino acid medical foods and glycomacropeptide medical foods and neuropsychological outcomes in subjects with phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M. Stroup

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article provides original data on median dietary intake of 18 amino acids from amino acid medical foods, glycomacropeptide medical foods, and natural foods based on 3-day food records obtained from subjects with phenylketonuria who consumed low-phenylalanine diets in combination with amino acid medical foods and glycomacropeptide medical foods for 3 weeks each in a crossover design. The sample size of 30 subjects included 20 subjects with classical phenylketonuria and 10 with a milder or variant form of phenylketonuria. Results are presented for the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery; the tests were administered at the end of each 3-week dietary treatment with amino acid medical foods and glycomacropeptide medical foods. The data are supplemental to our clinical trial, entitled “Glycomacropetide for nutritional management of phenylketonuria: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial, 2016 (1 and “Metabolomic changes demonstrate reduced bioavailability of tyrosine and altered metabolism of tryptophan via the kynurenine pathway with ingestion of medical foods in phenylketonuria, 2017 (2. This data has been made public and has utility to clinicians and researchers due to the following: 1 This provides the first comprehensive report of typical intakes of 18 amino acids from natural foods, as well as amino acid and glycomacropeptide medical foods in adolescents and adults with phenylketonuria; and 2 This is the first evidence of similar standardized neuropsychological testing data in adolescents and adults with early-treated phenylketonuria who consumed amino acid and glycomacropeptide medical foods.

  12. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    -supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (n 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (44 (20-56) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed......Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (FO). This double-blinded controlled 2 £ 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO...

  13. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, L.

    2008-01-01

    -supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (it 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (4-4 (2-0-5-6) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed......Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (170). This double-blinded controlled 2 x 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO...

  14. Effect of α-linolenic acid and DHA intake on lipogenesis and gene expression involved in fatty acid metabolism in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tonnac, A; Labussière, E; Vincent, A; Mourot, J

    2016-07-01

    The regulation of lipogenesis mechanisms related to consumption of n-3 PUFA is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to find out whether α-linolenic acid (ALA) or DHA uptake can have an effect on activities and gene expressions of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism in the liver, subcutaneous adipose tissue and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of growing-finishing pigs. Six groups of ten pigs received one of six experimental diets supplemented with rapeseed oil in the control diet, extruded linseed, microalgae or a mixture of both to implement different levels of ALA and DHA with the same content in total n-3. Results were analysed for linear and quadratic effects of DHA intake. The results showed that activities of malic enzyme (ME) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) decreased linearly in the liver with dietary DHA. Although the expression of the genes of these enzymes and their activities were poorly correlated, ME and FAS expressions also decreased linearly with DHA intake. The intake of DHA down-regulates the expressions of other genes involved in fatty acid (FA) metabolism in some tissues of pigs, such as fatty acid desaturase 2 and sterol-regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 in the liver and 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase 2 in the LD muscle. FA oxidation in the LD muscle and FA synthesis decreased in the liver with increasing amount of dietary DHA, whereas a retroconversion of DHA into EPA seems to be set up in this last tissue.

  15. Acute oral administration of lauric acid reduces energy intake in healthy male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feltrin, K. L.; Brennan, I.M.; Rades, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    12 would result in a dose-related suppression of appetite and subsequent energy intake at breakfast and lunch. Methods 14 healthy men were studied on four separate occasions in double-blind, randomised fashion. Following ingestion of C12 (2 g (77 kJ), 4 g (153 kJ), or 6 g (230 kJ)) or control, energy...... intake at breakfast (30 min after C12 ingestion), perceptions of appetite, nausea and bloating (for 180 min following breakfast), and energy intake at lunch (180 min after breakfast), were measured. Results C12 ingestion did not induce nausea or bloating. While there was no effect of C12 on energy intake...... at breakfast, energy intake at lunch was reduced significantly after ingestion of both C12(2 g) (by 13.7%, P

  16. Oxidation of styrene to benzaldehyde/benzoic acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For the first two catalysts (compounds 1 ... liquid phase reactions.7 H2O2 can oxidize the organic compounds with an efficiency of 47% (active oxidant= .... Solid state (diffuse reflectance) electronic absorption spectra of the parent compound 1 and regenerated 1, shown ... tion of the organic part (extraction with DCM layer).

  17. Mn(II) complexes with bipyridine, phenanthroline and benzoic acid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 20 October 2015; revised 19 January 2016; accepted 28 January 2016 ... Manganese complex; catalase; biological activity; hydrogen peroxide; bipyridine; phenanthroline. 1. .... and control drugs were recorded as MIC values, in.

  18. ANAEROBIC DEGRADATION OF HALOGENATED BENZOIC-ACIDS BY PHOTOHETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERWOUDE, BJ; DEBOER, M; VANDERPUT, NMJ; VANDERGELD, FM; PRINS, RA; GOTTSCHAL, JC

    1994-01-01

    From light-exposed enrichment cultures containing benzoate and a mixture of chlorobenzoates, a pure culture was obtained able to grow with 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA) or 3-bromobenzoate (3-BrBA) as the sole growth substrate anaerobically in the light. The thus isolated organism is a photoheterotroph,

  19. Thermometric titration of acids in pyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, R; Mukherjee, L M

    1974-04-01

    Thermometric titration of HClO(4), HI, HNO(3), HBr, picric acid o-nitrobenzoic acid, 2,4- and 2,5-dinitrophenol, acetic acid and benzoic acid have been attempted in pyridine as solvent, using 1,3-diphenylguanidine as the base. Except in the case of 2,5-dinitrophenol, acetic acid and benzoic acid, the results are, in general, reasonably satisfactory. The approximate molar heats of neutralization have been calculated.

  20. Relationships between the daily intake of unsaturated plant lipids and the contents of major milk fatty acids in dairy goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez Marín, A.L.; Núñez Sánchez, N.; Garzón Sigler, A. I.; Peña Blanco, F.; Fuente, M.A. de la

    2015-07-01

    A meta-regression of the effects of the amount of plant lipids consumed by dairy goats on the contents of some milk fat fatty acids (FA) was carried out. Fourteen peer-reviewed published papers reporting 17 experiments were used in the study. Those experiments compared control diets without added fat with diets that included plant lipids rich in unsaturated FA, summing up to 64 treatments. The results showed that increasing daily intake of plant lipids linearly reduced the contents of all medium chain saturated FA in milk fat. Moreover, it was observed that the longer the chain of the milk saturated FA, the greater the negative effect of the plant lipid intake on their contents. On the other hand, the contents of stearic acid and the sum of oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids in milk fat linearly increased as daily plant lipid intake rose. The results obtained corroborate previous reports on the effects of feeding dairy goats with increasing amounts of unsaturated plant lipids on milk FA profile. (Author)

  1. Crystal structures of three anhydrous salts of the Lewis base 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU with the ring-substituted benzoic acid analogues 4-aminobenzoic acid, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The anhydrous salts of the Lewis base 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU with 4-aminobenzoic acid [1-aza-8-azoniabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene 4-aminobenzoate, C9H17N2+·C7H6NO2− (I], 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid [1-aza-8-azoniabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene 3,5-dinitrobenzoate, C9H17N2+·C7H3N2O6−, (II] and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA [1-aza-8-azoniabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene 2-hydroxy-3,5-dinitrobenzoate, C9H17N2+·C7H3N2O7−, (III] have been determined and their hydrogen-bonded structures are described. In both (II and (III, the DBU cations have a common disorder in three of the C atoms of the six-membered ring moieties [site-occupancy factors (SOF = 0.735 (3/0.265 (3 and 0.686 (4/0.314 (4, respectively], while in (III, there is additional rotational disorder in the DNSA anion, giving two sites (SOF = 0.72/0.28, values fixed for the phenol group. In the crystals of (I and (III, the cation–anion pairs are linked through a primary N—H...Ocarboxyl hydrogen bond [2.665 (2 and 2.869 (3 Å, respectively]. In (II, the ion pairs are linked through an asymmetric three-centre R12(4, N—H...O,O′ chelate association. In (I, structure extension is through amine N—H...Ocarboxyl hydrogen bonds between the PABA anions, giving a three-dimensional structure. The crystal structures of (II and (III are very similar, the cation–anion pairs being associated only through weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds, giving in both overall two-dimensional layered structures lying parallel to (001. No π–π ring associations are present in any of the structures.

  2. Intake of ruminant trans-fatty acids, assessed by diet history interview, and changes in measured body size, shape and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla P; Heitmann, Berit L; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies have suggested that total intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is positively associated with changes in body weight and waist circumference, whereas intake of TFA from ruminant dairy and meat products (R-TFA) has not been associated with weight gain. However, these previous studies...

  3. Intake of dietary saturated fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shengxin; Schouw, van der Yvonne T.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Spijkerman, Annemieke M.W.; Sluijs, Ivonne

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the

  4. Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Intake Levels during Pregnancy and Infant Performance on a Novel Object Search Task at 22 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Alison; Sirois, Sylvain; Wearden, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated maternal prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake and infant cognitive development at 22 months. Estimates for second- and third-trimester maternal DHA intake levels were obtained using a comprehensive Food Frequency Questionnaire. Infants (n = 67) were assessed at 22 months on a novel object search task. Mothers'…

  5. Thirteen-year prospective study between fish consumption, long-chain n-3 fatty acids intakes and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesse-Guyot, E; Péneau, S; Ferry, M; Jeandel, C; Hercberg, S; Galan, P

    2011-02-01

    Because of their structural, anti-inflammatory and antithrombic properties, long-chain n-3 fatty acids may be key factors in the aging process. We sought to elucidate the association between intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and/or fish and cognitive function evaluated 13 years after dietary assessment. Prospective population-based study. 3,294 adults from the SU.VI.MAX study (Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals study). MEASUREMENTS/STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Subjects underwent a standardized clinical examination which included cognitive tests and self-reported cognitive difficulties scale (2007-2009). Poor scores were defined using percentiles as cut-off. Dietary data were assessed through repeated 24-h dietary records. Odd ratio (OR), comparing the fourth (Q4) to the first quartile (Q1), of having a poor score were calculated using adjusted logistic regression. Self-reported cognitive difficulties were less frequent among subjects with higher intakes of total n-3 long chain fatty acids (OR = 0.72, CI 95%=0.56-0.92) and eicosapentaenoic acid (OR Q4 versus Q1 = 0.74, CI 95%=0.58-0.95), even after adjustment for depressive symptoms. A borderline significant association was also found with high fish consumption (OR Q4 versus Q1 = 0.80, CI 95%=0.63-1.01). Cognitive complaints, which may be an early indicator of cognitive decline, are less frequent among the elderly who have a high long-chain n-3 acids intake, as assessed 13 years earlier.

  6. Relationship Between Amino Acid and Energy Intake and Long-Term Growth and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinghui; Chang, Serena Su Ying; Poon, Woei Bing

    2016-08-01

    Inadequate nutrition may contribute to adverse neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of infants born weighing growth at 2 years. Parenteral amino acid intake in week 2 of life correlated with higher language and motor scores on the 2-year Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition (Bayley III). Conversely, higher total amino acid intake during week 1 of life (≥1.5 g/kg/d) was associated with a shorter duration of hospitalization, shorter intensive care stay, fewer days receiving mechanical ventilation, fewer days receiving supplemental oxygen, and a lower incidence of chronic lung disease (CLD). Higher caloric intake in the first 4 weeks correlated strongly with shorter duration of hospitalization, shorter intensive care stay, fewer days on the ventilator, and fewer days receiving supplemental oxygen. In patients with CLD, week 1 and 2 parenteral and total amino acid intake correlated with higher cognitive and motor scores on the Bayley III at 2 years old. Weeks 1-4 amino acid and calorie intake correlated with fewer days on the ventilator, fewer days of supplemental oxygen, and fewer days of hospitalization. Amino acid intake within the first weeks of life correlated positively with neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years, and patients with CLD were found to be particularly at risk. Caloric intake may affect protein accretion. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  7. Effect of Combined Intake of Garcinia Kola and Ascorbic Acid on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate and nutritional composition of kola nut, garcinia kola and alligator pepper. African Journal ... primarily carried bound to albumin in the blood and only a minor amount is ... increased oxida ve stress. With regular intake, the ascorbic ...

  8. Higher body mass, older age and higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake reflect better quantitative ultrasound parameters in Inuit preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy El Hayek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32′–72° 40′N. Materials and methods. Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296. Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Anthropometry was measured using standardized procedures. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD and parathyroid hormone (PTH were measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin. Quantitative ultrasound parameters were measured using Sahara Sonometer, (Hologic Inc.. Results. Children divided by speed of sound (SoS and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA quartiles were not different for age (years, sex (M/F, calcium (mg/d and vitamin D intake (µg/d and plasma 25(OHD concentration (nmol/L. However, children in the highest BUA and SoS quartile had higher body mass index (BMI compared to those in quartile 1. Using multivariate linear regression, higher BMI, older age and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA intake were predictors of BUA while only BMI was a predictor of SoS. Conclusions. Further investigation assessing intakes of traditional foods (TF and nutrients affecting bone parameters along with assessment of vitamin D status of Inuit children across seasons is required.

  9. Is the fenamate group a polymorphophore?: contrasting the crystal energy landscapes of fenamic and tolfenamic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uzoh, O.G.; Cruz-Cabeza, A.J.; Price, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a polymorphophore was investigated by contrasting the crystal energy landscapes of monomorphic fenamic acid (2-(phenylamino)-benzoic acid, FA) and one of its highly polymorphic derivatives, tolfenamic acid (2-[(3-chloro-2-methylphenyl)amino]-benzoic acid, TA). The crystal energy

  10. Fatty acid intake alters growth and immunity in milk-fed calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Vandehaar, M J; Sordillo, L M; Catherman, D R; Bateman, H G; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of supplementing milk replacer (MR) with NeoTec4 (Provimi North America, Brookville, OH), a commercially available blend of butyric acid, coconut oil, and flax oil, on calf growth, efficiency, and indices of immune function. In trial 1a, 48 male Holstein calves were fed either a control MR that contained only animal fat or the same MR with NeoTec4 (treatment) along with free-choice starter. The MR (28.7% crude protein, 15.6% fat) was fed at an average of 1 kg of dry matter (DM)/d. In trial 1b, weaned calves from trial 1a were all fed dry starter for 28 d without NeoTec4 (phase 1), and then half the calves were fed NeoTec4 for 28 d (phase 2). In trial 2, 40 male Holstein calves were fed a control MR with lard, coconut oil, and soy lecithin or the same MR supplemented with NeoTec4 (treatment). The MR (22.8% crude protein, 18.9% fat) was fed at an average of 1 kg of DM/d; no starter was fed. In trial 1a, NeoTec4 improved average daily gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency, reduced the number of days that calves experienced scours, and reduced the medical treatments for clostridium sickness. In trials 1a and 2, NeoTec4 altered the inflammatory response to vaccination with Pasteurella at 5 wk of age and to challenge with Salmonella toxin at less than 2 wk of age (fed NeoTec4 for 6 d), as observed by reduced hyperthermia and hypophagia, and altered the tumor necrosis factor-α response. In addition, NeoTec4 enhanced the response in IL-4 and globular protein estimates postchallenge and enhanced titers for bovine viral diarrhea and respiratory parainfluenza-3. Postchallenge serum concentrations of albumin were lower and urea nitrogen concentrations were greater in control calves than in calves fed NeoTec4. In trial 1b, performance did not differ during the first 28 d when no calves received NeoTec4, but calves receiving NeoTec4 in the second 28 d had greater average daily gain and feed efficiency. We conclude that

  11. No effect on oxidative stress biomarkers by modified intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids or vegetables and fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freese, R; Dragsted, L O; Loft, S

    2007-01-01

    Diet may both increase and decrease oxidative stress in the body. We compared the effects of four strictly controlled isocaloric diets with different intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 11 or 3% of energy) and vegetables and fruit (total amount of vegetables and fruit 516 or 1059 g/10 MJ......) on markers associated with oxidative stress in 77 healthy volunteers (19-52 years). Plasma protein carbonyls (2-aminoadipic semialdehyde residues) and whole-body DNA and nucleotide oxidation (urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion) tended to decrease in all treatment groups with no differences...... between the diets. The diets did not differ in their effects on red blood cell antioxidative enzyme activities, either. The results suggest that in healthy volunteers with adequate nutrient intakes, 6-week diets differing markedly in the amount of PUFA or vegetables and fruit do not differ...

  12. Rye bran bread intake elevates urinary excretion of ferulic acid in humans, but does not affect the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, H.; Tetens, I.; Let, Mette Bruni

    2004-01-01

    Background Rye bread contributes an important part of the whole grain intake in the Scandinavian diet. Ferulic acid is the major phenolic compound in rye bran and is an antioxidant in vitro and may, therefore, contribute to cardioprotective effects of whole grain consumption. Aim of study Firstly...... had no influence on lag time or propagation rate of the LDL oxidation ex vivo. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that ferulic acid from rye bran is bioavailable and that the urinary concentration of ferulic acid reflects the dietary intake of this hydroxycinnamic acid. Within the period...

  13. Increasing intake of essential fatty acids from milk replacer benefits performance, immune responses, and health of preweaned Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M; Shin, J H; Schlaefli, A; Greco, L F; Maunsell, F P; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of feeding increasing amounts of essential fatty acids (FA) in milk replacer (MR) during the first 60 d of life on growth, health, and immunity of Holstein calves. Calves were born from dams fed low concentrations of total and essential FA during the lasT2 mo of pregnancy. Newborn calves were blocked by sex and parity of the dam and assigned randomly to receive 1 of 4 MR treatments (T). Hydrogenated coconut oil and soybean oil were mixed with emulsifier and commercial MR powder to prepare the following 4 MR containing 0.119 and 0.007 (T1), 0.187 and 0.017 (T2), 0.321 and 0.036 (T3), and 0.593 and 0.076 (T4) g of intake per kg of metabolic body weight (BW(0.75)) of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid, respectively. At 30 d of life, concentrations of essential FA (linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid) in liver increased, whereas concentrations of C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, and C20:3n-9 decreased linearly with increasing intake of essential FA. Body weight gain and feed efficiency were optimized when male calves consumed T2, whereas gain by female calves tended to increase linearly with increasing intake of essential FA during the first 30 d of age. However, these responses to treatment were not maintained after initiation of concentrate feeding at 31 d of life. Over the 60-d preweaning period, wither and hip heights were improved in both sexes as intake of essential FA increased up to T3. Some measures of health and immunity were affected by replacing some coconut oil with soybean oil. Severity of diarrhea tended to decrease linearly; plasma concentrations of haptoglobin during diarrhea were lower in T2, T3, and T4; phagocytosis by blood neutrophils tended to peak for calves fed T2; in vitro proliferation of stimulated blood lymphocytes was greater for calves fed T2; in vitro stimulated blood cells produced more IFN-γ (up to T3 for males and T2 for females), concentrations of serum IgG against ovalbumin injections were increased in

  14. Moderate intake of myristic acid in sn-2 position has beneficial lipidic effects and enhances DHA of cholesteryl esters in an interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabadie, Henry; Peuchant, Evelyne; Bernard, Mireille; LeRuyet, Pascale; Mendy, François

    2005-06-01

    Among the saturated fatty acids (SFA), myristic acid is known to be one of the most atherogenic when consumed at high levels. Our purpose was to compare the effects of two moderate intakes of myristic acid on plasma lipids in an interventional study. Twenty-five male monks without dyslipidemia were given two isocaloric diets for 5 weeks each. In diet 1, 30% of the calories came from fat (8% SFA, 0.6% myristic acid) and provided 200 mg cholesterol/day. Calories of diet 2 were 34% fat (11% SFA, 1.2% myristic acid) with the same levels of oleate, linoleate, alpha-linolenate and cholesterol. A baseline diet was provided before each diet. In comparison with baseline, diets 1 and 2 induced a decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides (Pdiet 2 than after diet 1 whereas HDL-cholesterol was higher (Pdiet 2 vs. baseline (Pdiet 1 (Pdiets were associated with an increase in alpha-linolenate of cholesteryl esters (Pdiet 2 was associated with an increase in DHA of cholesteryl esters (Pdiet 2, myristic acid intake was positively correlated with myristic acid of phospholipids, and alpha-linolenic acid intake was correlated with alpha-linolenic acid of cholesteryl esters. Moderate intake (1.2% of total calories) of myristic acid has beneficial lipidic effects and enhances DHA of cholesteryl esters.

  15. Dietary fat intake and red blood cell fatty acid composition of children and women from three different geographical areas in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Rosalyn; Faber, Mieke; Kunneke, Ernesta; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2016-06-01

    Dietary fat intake, particularly the type of fat, is reflected in the red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid (FA) profile and is vital in growth, development and health maintenance. The FA profile (%wt/wt) of RBC membrane phospholipids (as determined by gas chromatography) and dietary intake (as determined by 24h recall) was assessed in 2-6y old South African children and their caregivers randomly selected from three communities, i.e. an urban Northern Cape community (urban-NC; n=104), an urban coastal Western Cape community (urban-WC; n=93) and a rural Limpopo Province community (rural-LP; n=102). Mean RBC FA values across groups were compared using ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test while controlling for age and gender (children); median dietary intake values were compared using a Kruskal-Wallis test. Dietary intakes for total fat, saturated FAs and polyunsaturated FAs were higher in the two urban areas compared to the rural area. Total fat intake in rural-LP, and omega-3 FA dietary intake in all three areas were lower than the South African adopted guidelines. Dietary SFA intake in both urban areas was higher than recommended by South African guidelines; this was reflected in the RBC membrane FA profile. Rural-LP children had the lowest intake of omega-3 and omega-6 FAs yet presented with the highest RBC docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) profile and highest arachidonic acid percentage. Although differences observed in dietary fat intake between the two urban and the rural area were reflected in the RBC membrane total phospholipid FA profile, the lowest total fat and α-linolenic acid (ALA) intake by rural children that presented with the highest RBC DHA profile warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal resveratrol intake during lactation attenuates hepatic triglyceride and fatty acid synthesis in adult male rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Tanaka

    2017-03-01

    regulates the lipogenic pathway by activating genes involved in triglyceride and fatty acid synthesis. The present study showed significant downregulation of hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC levels in the CR group. These results indicated that maternal resveratrol intake during lactation suppressed SREBP-1c cleavage and nuclear translocation and repressed SREBP-1c target gene expression such as FAS and ACC in the livers of adult male offspring. These changes attenuate hepatic triacylglycerol and fatty acid synthesis in adult male offspring.

  17. Intake of dietary saturated fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Netherlands cohort : Associations by types, sources of fatty acids and substitution by macronutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, S.; van der Schouw, Y.T.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Spijkerman, A.M.W.; Sluijs, I.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the

  18. Intake of dietary saturated fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort: associations by types, sources of fatty acids and substitution by macronutrients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shengxin; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Sluijs, Ivonne

    2018-01-01

    The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the

  19. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MInguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may influence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this field has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone leve...

  20. EFFECTS OF HIGH SOYBEAN OIL FOR GOATS IN LATE LACTATION ON INTAKE, MILK COMPOSITION AND FATTY ACID PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brou Kouakou

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal fat and vegetable oils are generally added to livestock diets to increase energy density. Unlike other ruminants, goats can tolerate more than 6% dietary fat. Feeding a diet containing soybean oil (SO, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA to goats can change the milk fat composition, thereby modifying the nutritional quality of the milk. PUFA such as linoleic acids are considered healthier fats since they have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases in humans. Eighteen dairy goats (3 - 4 yr.; BW = 40 kg; 9 Saanen and 9 Alpine in late lactation were used in an experiment to determine the effect of high PUFA (12% soybean oil; 12% SO on feed intake, milk composition and fatty acid profile. Does were group fed once a day (2 pens per treatment a 16% CP and 3.5 Mcal DE/kg diets containing either 6 or 12% SO for 24 d. Feed intake was recorded daily during the trial and milk yield was recorded from d-10 to d-24. Milk samples were collected 3 times a week and analyzed for protein, fat, lactose, and total solids. Milk fat was extracted and prepared for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME. The FAMEs were analyzed using a gas chromatography (GC unit, fitted with a 60 m x 0.25 mm i.d. fused silica SP 2380 (Sigma-Aldrich capillary column. The data were analyzed using MIXED procedures in SAS as a completely randomized design with repeated measures. Dietary treatments did not affect (P > 0.05 pen feed intake, milk yield or milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and total solids. Diet containing 12% SO decreased (P < 0.05 the proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA; C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C16:0 and increased (P < 0.01 the proportions of monounsaturated fat (MUFA; C18:1n9; C18:1t, and the predominant PUFA, linoleic acid (C18:2n6. The results indicate that goats consuming diet with 12% SO (high PUFA in late lactation produced milk with higher proportions of PUFA and MUFA and lower proportions of SFA compared to 6% SO.

  1. Omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid intake of children and older adults in the U.S.: dietary intake in comparison to current dietary recommendations and the Healthy Eating Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Kelly W; Cheatham, Carol L

    2018-03-09

    Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) and their ratio have been shown to affect cognitive function in children and older adults. With these analyses, we aimed to describe omega-6 and omega-3 FA intake among children and older adults in light of FA intake recommendations and with consideration of overall diet. Data were merged from two cross-sectional studies with 219 children 7 to 12 years old and one longitudinal study with 133 adults 65 to 79 years old. Demographic data, anthropometric data, and Healthy Eating Index scores were used to study relations among the omega-6 to omega-3 FA ratio and age, education, body mass index, and diet quality. FA intake, demographic, and anthropometric data were examined using partial correlations, t-tests, and analysis of variance. Most children and adults consumed at least the recommended amount of alpha-linolenic acid (LNA; omega-3) for their age and gender without consuming high amounts of linoleic acid (LA; omega-6), but did not consume sufficient eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; omega-) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; omega-3). The average omega-6 to omega-3 ratios in both groups were lower than previously reported. Eating lower ratios was associated with healthier diets and consuming adequate amounts of several other nutrients. No demographic or anthropometric variables were related to FA intake in children. Adults with a college degree had significantly lower ratios than those without a college degree. American children and older adults are able to consume more balanced omega-6 to omega-3 ratios than has been indicated by commodity data. However, very few American children met even the lowest recommendations for EPA and DHA intake. Research is needed to clarify recommendations for the optimal ratio across development, which may aid in increasing EPA and DHA intake and improving health outcomes in the United States. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02199808 13 July 2014, NCT01823419 (retrospectively registered) 20 March 2013, and NCT

  2. Validity of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Minatsu; Jwa, Seung Chik; Ogawa, Kohei; Morisaki, Naho; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    The relative validity of food frequency questionnaires for estimating long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) intake among pregnant Japanese women is currently unclear. The aim of this study was to verify the external validity of a food frequency questionnaire, originally developed for non-pregnant adults, to assess the dietary intake of LC-PUFA using dietary records and serum phospholipid levels among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy. A validation study involving 188 participants in early pregnancy and 169 participants in late pregnancy was conducted. Intake LC-PUFA was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and evaluated using a 3-day dietary record and serum phospholipid concentrations in both early and late pregnancy. The food frequency questionnaire provided estimates of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake with higher precision than dietary records in both early and late pregnancy. Significant correlations were observed for LC-PUFA intake estimated using dietary records in both early and late pregnancy, particularly for EPA and DHA (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.34 to 0.40, p food frequency questionnaire, which was originally designed for non-pregnant adults and was evaluated in this study against dietary records and biological markers, has good validity for assessing LC-PUFA intake, especially EPA and DHA intake, among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fatty acid dietary intake in the general French population: are the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES) national recommendations met?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tressou, Jessica; Moulin, Philippe; Vergès, Bruno; Le Guillou, Céline; Simon, Noémie; Pasteau, Stéphane

    2016-12-01

    Quantity and quality of fatty acids (FA) in diet influence CVD risk. Consequently, health authorities promote recommended dietary intakes for FA, looking for optimal intakes in a primary prevention of CVD perspective. In parallel, a few data are available detailing intakes in national populations. The objective of the present study was to perform a large analysis combining the data of the French National Survey INCA 2 on food consumption performed in 2006 and 2007, and the nutritional content of food consumed in France updated in 2013 by the French Information Centre on Food Quality, to explore in details the FA intakes in French adults using the most recent available data. To compare the discrepancies in the observed intake levels with the French recommended levels, a weighted fat adherence score was built combining intakes of the different FA. Individual scores were computed in relation to official recommendations, and potential explanatory factors were identified. These data show that SFA intakes are persistently higher than national recommendations, combined with low intakes of MUFA and PUFA, particularly long-chain n-3 FA. Only 14·6 % of the French population met DHA intake recommendation, 7·8 % for EPA and 21·6 % for SFA. This situation remains unfavourable in terms of primary prevention of CVD. Consuming fish and other sources of n-3 FA, living in the south of France, being female, having a higher education level, and low alcohol consumption were associated with a healthier fat adherence score.

  4. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Intake on Endurance Exercise Performance and Anti-fatigue in Student Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Naoko; Okamoto, Ken; Nakada, Kenta; Masuda, Kazumi

    2017-07-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) intake has been reported to reduce body fat mass or increase lean body mass and to improve exercise outcome by modulating testosterone in humans. These reports have studied mostly overweight subjects; few were athletes. Therefore, in this study, the effect of CLA intake on endurance performance and anti-fatigue in student athletes was investigated. A double-blind, crossover study was conducted with 10 male student athletes. Each subject was administered with either CLA (net 0.9 g/day) or a placebo for 14 days. They were subjected to an exercise tolerance test (steady loading) using a cycle ergometer on days 0 and 14. Peak VO 2 was determined for each subject using a graded loading test. The steady loading test was performed with a pedaling exercise load of 50% peak VO 2 for 40 min and then with a load of 70% peak VO 2 until exhaustion. Blood sampling and measurement of critical flicker frequency (CFF) were performed before and after exercise. The rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured serially during exercise. In the results, amount of body weight variation significantly increased and amount of body fat percentage variation tended to decrease by CLA intake, it might have an effect by increase in muscle mass. In addition, amount of exercise time variation significantly increased, amount of variation of CFF before and after exercise tended to increase, that of RPE during exercise tended to decrease, and that of creatine phosphokinase before and after exercise tended to decrease in the CLA group. These results suggested that CLA intake for 14 days might have an effect on endurance performance and anti-fatigue in student athletes.

  5. First identification of dimethoxycinnamic acids in human plasma after coffee intake by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Kornél; Redeuil, Karine; Williamson, Gary; Rezzi, Serge; Dionisi, Fabiola; Longet, Karin; Destaillats, Frédéric; Renouf, Mathieu

    2011-01-21

    There is a substantial amount of published literature on the bioavailability of various coffee components including the most abundant metabolites, caffeic and ferulic acids. Surprisingly, to date, the appearance of dimethoxycinnamic acid derivatives in humans has not been reported despite the fact that methylated form of catechol-type polyphenols could help maintain, modify or even improve their biological activities. This study reports an LC-MS method for the detection of dimethoxycinnamic acid in human plasma after treatment with an esterase. Liquid chromatography, including the combination of methanol and acetonitrile as organic eluent, was optimized to resolve all interferences and enable reliable detection and identification of 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic and 3,4-dimethoxy-dihydrocinnamic acids. In addition to the good mass accuracy achieved (better than 5 ppm), tandem mass spectrometric and co-chromatography experiments further confirmed the identity of the compounds. The optimized method was applied to analyze samples obtained immediately, 1 and 10 h after coffee ingestion. The results show that in particular 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid appears in high abundance (∼380 nM at 60 min) in plasma upon coffee intake, indicating that it is important to consider these derivatives in future bioavailability and bioefficacy studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal and neonatal dietary intake of balanced n-6/n-3 fatty acids modulates experimental colitis in young adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Vijay Kumar; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2016-08-01

    The imbalance of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the maternal diet impairs intestinal barrier development and sensitizes the colon response to inflammatory insults in the young rats. With a view to overcoming this issue, we designed this study to investigate the effect of maternal and neonatal intake of different proportions of n-6/n-3 fatty acids on colon inflammation in the young adult rats. Female Wistar rats were assigned into four groups, and each group fed one of four semisynthetic diets, namely n-6, low n-3, n-6/n-3 and n-3 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to mating, during gestation and lactation periods. At weaning, the pups were separated from the dams and fed diet similar to the mothers. Colitis was induced on postnatal day 35, by administering 2 % dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water for 10 days. Colitis was assessed based on the clinical and inflammatory markers in the colon. Fatty acid analysis was done in liver, RBC, colon and spleen. A balanced n-6/n-3 PUFA diet significantly improved the body weight loss, rectal bleeding and mortality in rats. This was associated with lower myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, TNF-α and IL-6, IL-8, COX-2 and iNOS levels in the colon tissues. Fatty acid analysis has shown that the arachidonic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratio was significantly lower in liver, RBC, colon and spleen in n-6/n-3 and n-3 diet groups. We demonstrate that balanced n-6/n-3 PUFA supplementation in maternal and neonatal diet alters systemic AA/DHA ratio and attenuates colon inflammation in the young adult rats.

  7. Identification of a potential biomarker panel for the intake of the common dietary trans fat elaidic acid (trans∆9-C18:1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroager, Toke Peter; Nielsen, Lone Vendel; Bak, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    system, and the cells were maintained for seven days in serum-free medium containing 100 μM elaidic acid (trans∆9-C18:1), oleic acid (cis∆9-C18:1) or stearic acid (C18:0). The secretomes were analyzed by stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), difference in gel electrophoresis......Trans fatty acid intake has been correlated to an unfavorable plasma lipoprotein profile and an increased cardiovascular disease risk. The present study aimed to identify a plasma protein biomarker panel related to human intake of elaidic acid. The human liver cell line HepG2-SF was used as a model...

  8. Growing gap in folic acid intake with respect to level of education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Walle, H. E. K.; de Jong-van den Berg, L. T. W.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of the awareness of and the behaviour towards folic acid in 2003 and the trend of folic acid use among pregnant Dutch women between 1995 and 2003 with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Method: We conducted 2-yearly cross-sectional studies among pregnant

  9. Validation of the omega-3 fatty acid intake measured by a web-based food frequency questionnaire against omega-3 fatty acids in red blood cells in men with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, J; Moreel, X; Labonté, M-È; Léger, C; Caron, A; Julien, P; Lamarche, B; Fradet, V

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a web-based self-administered food frequency questionnaire (web-FFQ) to assess the omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids (FAs) intake of men affected with prostate cancer (PCa) against a biomarker. The study presented herein is a sub-study from a phase II clinical trial. Enrolled patients afflicted with PCa were included in the sub-study analysis if the FA profiles from the red blood cell (RBC) membranes and FA intakes at baseline were both determined at the time of the data analysis (n=60). Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to estimate the correlations between FA intakes and their proportions in the RBC membranes. Intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were highly correlated with their respective proportions in the RBC membranes (both rs=0.593, Pstudies carried out in men with PCa.

  10. Low dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids, niacin, folate, and vitamin C in Korean patients with schizophrenia and the development of dietary guidelines for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jin; Lim, So Young; Lee, Hee Jae; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seunggi; Kim, Seon-Young; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Yang, Soo Jin; Kim, Sung-Wan

    2017-09-01

    Inappropriate dietary intake and poor nutritional status are reported to be associated with metabolic syndrome and psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that inappropriate dietary habits and insufficient dietary intake of specific nutrients are associated with schizophrenia. To test the hypothesis, we assessed the dietary habits and nutritional intake of patients with schizophrenia and then developed suitable dietary guidelines. In total, 140 subjects (73 controls and 67 patients with schizophrenia from community mental health centers) were included, and dietary intakes were analyzed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. As a result, the proportion of overweight or obese patients was significantly higher in schizophrenia subjects (64.2%) compared with control subjects (39.7%) (P=.004). The male schizophrenia patients had significantly lower dietary intakes of protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin K, niacin, folate, and vitamin C than the male control subjects. In all multiple logistic regression models, subjects with the "low" dietary intake of protein, n-3 PUFAs, niacin, folate, and vitamin C had a significantly higher odds ratios for schizophrenia compared with those with the "high" dietary intake category of each nutrient. Therefore, maintenance of a healthy body weight and sufficient dietary intake of protein, PUFAs, niacin, folate, and vitamin C are recommended for Korean patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. No effect of human serum and erythrocytes enriched in n-3 fatty acids by oral intake on Plasmodium falciparum blood stage parasites in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Zeid, Y A; Hansen, H S; Jakobsen, P H

    1993-01-01

    -s) and pre-intake erythrocyte (pre-e). Also the effect of EPA and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) on the erythrocytic growth of P. falciparum was tested using in vitro assays. The results show that both post-s and post-e had no antimalarial activity on P. falciparum. No differential antimalarial effect...... acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) of 3.5 g/d and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) of 2.5 g/d and 24 mg/d of total tocopherol. Post-intake fish oil serum (post-s) and erythrocytes (post-e) were tested in vitro for inhibitory activity against blood stages of P. falciparum compared with pre-intake serum (pre...

  12. No effect of human serum and erythrocytes enriched in n-3 fatty acids by oral intake on Plasmodium falciparum bloodstage parasites in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Zeid, Y.A.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jakobsen, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    -s) and pre-intake erythrocyte (pre-e). Also the effect of EPA and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) on the erythrocytic growth of P. falciparum was tested using in vitro assays. The results show that both post-s and post-e had no antimalarial activity on P. falciparum. No differential antimalarial effect...... acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) of 3.5g/d and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) of 2.5 g/d and 24 mg/d of total tocopherol. Post-intake fish oil serum (post-s) and erythrocytes (post-e) were tested in vitro for inhibitory activity against blood stages of P. falciparum compared with pre-intake serum (pre...

  13. Dietary trans fatty acids intake and its relation to dyslipidemia in a sample of adults in Depok city, West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartika, Ratu Ayu Dewi

    2011-12-01

    The Basic Health Research of the Ministry of Health Indonesia in 2008 reported that the single most important cause of death was stroke, in both urban and rural populations. The risk factors underlying the cause of death are associated with hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia. The purpose of this study was to determine the mean intake of trans fatty acids and its relation to dyslipidemia in a sample of Indonesian adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 180 adult male and female respondents aged 35-60 years living in rural and urban areas of Depok city, West Java. Dietary intake was assessed by means of 24-hour recall and semi-quantitative FFQ. The mean intake of trans fatty acids was 0.48% of total calories (urban 0.40% and rural 0.55%). The prevalence of dyslipidemia in the rural and urban subjects were 61.1% and 66.7%, respectively. There was a statistically significant relationship between trans fatty acids intake and hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The intake of trans fatty acid among the Indonesian adults studied was half the recommended level. The high prevalence of dyslipidemia found indicates the need for intervention to reduce the rising incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Indonesia.

  14. Polyunsaturated fatty acids intake, omega-6/omega-3 ratio and mortality: Findings from two independent nationwide cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Pan; Wang, Wenqiao; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Jiao, Jingjing

    2018-03-03

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been reported to exert pleiotropic protective effects against various chronic diseases. However, epidemiologic evidence linking specific PUFA intake to mortality has been limited and contradictory. We aim to assess the associations between specific dietary PUFA and mortality among adults in China and America, respectively. Participants from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS, n = 14,117) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES (n = 36,032)] were prospectively followed up through the year 2011. Cox regression models were used to investigate hypothesized associations. A total of 1007 and 4826 deaths accrued over a median of 14 and 9.1 years of follow-up in CHNS and NHANES, respectively. Dietary marine omega-3 PUFA was robustly associated with a reduced all-cause mortality [Hazard ratio (HR) comparing extreme categories: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.61-0.89; P omega-6/omega-3 ratio of 6-10 was associated with a lower risk of death in CHNS. Intakes of different specific PUFA show distinct associations with mortality and these relationships also vary between Chinese and US populations. These findings suggest maintaining an omega-6/omega-3 balance diet for overall health promotion outcomes (NCT03155659). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and evaluation of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire for estimating omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid intakes in Indonesian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Muhammad Ridwan; Agustina, Rina; Khusun, Helda; Prafiantini, Erfi; Cahyaningrum, Fitrianna; Permadhi, Inge

    2016-12-01

    A balance ratio of dietary omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids reduces childhood obesity. However, few studies have focused on validation of semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) for determining the n-3 and n-6 intakes in children. Therefore, a valid SFFQ for assessing n-3 and n-6 intakes among Indonesian children is required. A cross-sectional study was conducted by selecting 89 healthy children through multistage random sampling. Dietary intakes were assessed using the SFFQ and a 3-day non-consecutive 24-h recall. Randomly selected children (n=35) were assessed for plasma phospholipid fatty acid (PFA). In total, 78 food items in the SFFQ, as in the Thai, Vietnamese, and American food composition databases, were validated using dietary recall and PFA. The SFFQ was readministered after 4 weeks to assess its reproducibility. The validity and reproducibility of the SFFQ were determined by Bland-Altman analysis. Favourable agreement was found between the SFFQ and recall for docosahexanoic acid, eicosapentanoic acid, docosapentanoic acid, and arachidonic acid, but not for total n-3, n-6, α-linolenic acid, or linoleic acid. Significant correlations were found between the SFFQ estimations and plasma n-6 and LA (r=0.40, p=0.025; and r=0.42, p=0.018, respectively). A 95% limit of Bland-Altman agreement was observed between the first and repeat SFFQ for all fatty acids. The proposed SFFQ is sufficiently valid and reliable for assessment of essential fatty acids intakes in Indonesian children.

  16. Branched-chain fatty acids in the neonatal gut and estimated dietary intake in infancy and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran-Ressler, Rinat R; Glahn, Raymond P; Bae, SangEun; Brenna, J Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) are primarily saturated fatty acids (FA) with a methyl branch, usually near the terminal methyl group. BCFA are abundant in bacteria, skin, and vernix caseosa but have seldom been studied with respect to human nutrition. They are constituents of the term newborn infant gut lumen, being swallowed as vernix particulate components of amniotic fluid in the last trimester of normal pregnancy. We recently showed that BCFA protect against necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in the rat pup model. Dietary BCFA at levels similar to those found in human vernix reduced NEC incidence by more than 50%, increased the abundance of BCFA-containing bacteria, and increased the expression of ileal anti-inflammatory IL-10. The few published reports of BCFA in human milk enable an estimate that breastfed infants consume 19 mg BCFA per 100 ml milk. Dietary BCFA consumption from milk fat and other ruminant products, the main sources of dietary BCFA, is more than 400 mg BCFA per day in adult Americans. This estimate exceeds by severalfold the average dietary intake of bioactive FA, such as docosahexaenoic acid. BCFA are bioactive, abundant but neglected components of the human food supply. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Dietary intake of ain-93 standard diet induces Fatty liver with altered hepatic fatty acid profile in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias Santos, Juliana; Suruagy Amaral, Monique; Lima Oliveira, Suzana; Porto Barbosa, Júnia; Rego Cabral, Cyro; Sofia Melo, Ingrid; Bezerra Bueno, Nassib; Duarte Freitas, Johnatan; Goulart Sant'ana, Antônio; Rocha Ataíde, Terezinha

    2015-05-01

    There are several standard diets for animals used in scientific research, usually conceived by scientific institutions. The AIN-93 diet is widely used, but there are some reports of fatty liver in Wistar rats fed this diet. We aimed to evaluate the hepatic repercussions of the AIN-93 diet intake in Wistar rats. Forty newly-weaned 21-day-old male Wistar rats were fed either the AIN-93 diet or a commercial diet for either 1 month or 4 months. Weight gain, serum biochemistry, hepatic histology, and hepatic fatty acid profile were analyzed. Hepatic steatosis was observed, especially in the group fed the AIN-93 diet. Serum blood glucose, absolute and relative liver weight and hepatic levels of oleic, palmitoleic, stearic, and palmitic fatty acids were related to the observed steatosis, while lipidogram and serum markers of liver function and injury were not. AIN-93 diet induced acute hepatic steatosis in Wistar rats, which may compromise its use as a standard diet for experimental studies with rodents. The hepatic fatty acid profile was associated with steatosis, with possible implications for disease prognosis. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of oral amino acid intake on ambulatory capacity in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Roldano; Avogaro, Angelo; Negut, Christian; Piccolotto, Roberto; de Kreutzenberg, Saula Vigili; Tiengo, Antonio

    2004-12-01

    The combination of high prevalence of inactivity in the older population, and high risk of ill-health and disability associated with inactivity, suggests that interventions that are successful in increasing levels of activity may have a great impact on population health in later life. With advancing age, the risk of developing serious nutritional deficiencies also increases. This study was designed to assess the effects of dietary amino acid supplementation on effort tolerance in healthy elderly subjects with reduced physical activity. Forty-four subjects (age > 65 years) with sedentary life-style and lower health-related quality of life were studied. Subjects, in an open-label fashion, received an oral amino acid mixture (AAM, 12 g/day) containing essential and non-essential amino acids for a 3-month period. Ambulatory dysfunction resulting in sedentary life-style was assessed by a 6-min walk test. A walking impairment questionnaire (WIQ) was used to evaluate self-perceived ambulatory dysfunction. Maximal isometric muscular strength of the right hand was measured during isometric exercise by a handgrip dynamometer. The 6-min walk distance increased from 214.5 +/- 32 to 262.8 +/- 34.8 m (p oral amino acid supplement, as used in this pilot study, improves ambulatory capacity and maximal isometric muscle strength in elderly subjects without affecting the main metabolic parameters. Amino acid supplementation may thus represent useful non-pharmacological intervention to maintain physical fitness in these subjects.

  19. Purine derivative excretion and recovery of 14C-uric acid in urine of Ongole cattle given different levels of feed intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soejono, M.; Yusiati, L.M.; Budhi, S.P.S.; Widyobroto, B.P.; Bachrudin, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The microbial protein supply to ruminants can be estimated based on the amount of purine derivatives (PD) excreted in the urine. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the purine derivatives method for Ongole cattle. In the first experiment, 4 four-year old male Ongole cattle (Bos indicus) were used to calibrate the PD technique using the most common locally available feed at four levels of intake (95, 80, 60 and 40% of voluntary intake). The diet consisted of king grass and rice bran (70:30 on DM basis). The cattle at the level of 95% intake were injected with [ 14 C]-uric acid in a single dose to define the renal:non-renal partitioning ratio of plasma PD excreted in the urine. The results showed that PD excretion responded positively to the level of feed intake. The relative proportion of urinary allantoin and uric acid to PD excretion was 0.87 and 0.13 respectively. The proportion of urea N to total N ranged from 83 to 93%. The glomerular filtration rate and tubular load of PD increased due to the increasing level of feed intake. Nitrogen balance became negative when the level of feed intake decreased to 60%. The proportion of plasma PD excreted in the urine was 0.67. (author)

  20. Maternal and fetal brain contents of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) at various essential fatty acid (EFA), DHA and AA dietary intakes during pregnancy in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Saskia A; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Iest, Theo Hans; Muskiet, Frits A J

    We investigated essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) in maternal and fetal brain as a function of EFA/LCP availability to the feto-maternal unit in mice. Diets varying in parent EFA, arachidonic acid (AA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were administered from

  1. The Effects of Various Levels of Ascorbic Acid Intake Upon Oral Wound Healing in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Pauling, L.C.: Ascorbic Acid and Glycosaminoglycans. An Orthomolecular Approach to Cancer and Other Diseases. Oncology. 37: 181, 1973. .- . .. 92 2 13...Metabolism or Vitamin C. Medicine . 20s 251, 1941. 37. Abt. A.F., Von Schuching, S., and Roe, J.s. Connective Tissue Studies. I. Relation of Dietary and

  2. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on LC-MS and NMR plasma profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Rago, Daniela; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of high levels of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) has been related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and sudden cardiac death but the causal mechanisms are not well known. In this study, NMR and LC-MS untargeted metabolomics has been used as an approach to explore the impact...

  3. Iron intake by rats using peroral administration of /sup 55/Fe-salts of phosphatidic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, P.; Kas, J. (Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czechoslovakia)); Tykva, R. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Ustav Organicke Chemie a Biochemie)

    1984-03-15

    The utilization of /sup 55/Fe and its incorporation into rat organs was investigated after peroral administration of various salts of phosphatidic acids (PA). Iron of PA salts is utilized up to 58-94% comparing to /sup 55/Fe/sup 2 +/. The degree of iron utilization depends on the type of PA salts administered. 16 refs.

  4. Preconceptional and Prenatal Supplementary Folic Acid and Multivitamin Intake and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Jasveer; Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn; Nohr, Ellen A.; Catov, Janet M.; Ritz, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether early folic acid supplementation during pregnancy prevents diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in offspring. Methods: Information on autism spectrum disorder diagnosis was obtained from the National Hospital Register and the Central Psychiatric Register. We estimated risk ratios for autism spectrum disorders for…

  5. Associations between branched chain amino acid intake and biomarkers of adiposity and cardiometabolic health independent of genetic factors: A twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Amy; MacGregor, Alex; Pallister, Tess; Spector, Tim; Cassidy, Aedín

    2016-11-15

    Conflicting data exist on the impact of dietary and circulating levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) on cardiometabolic health and it is unclear to what extent these relations are mediated by genetics. In a cross-sectional study of 1997 female twins we examined associations between BCAA intake, measured using food frequency-questionnaires, and a range of markers of cardiometabolic health, including DXA-measured body fat, blood pressure, HOMA-IR, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and lipids. We also measured plasma concentrations of BCAA and known metabolites of amino acid metabolism using untargeted mass spectrometry. Using a within-twin design, multivariable analyses were used to compare the associations between BCAA intake and endpoints of cardiometabolic health, independently of genetic confounding. Higher BCAA intake was significantly associated with lower HOMA-IR (-0.1, P-trend 0.02), insulin (-0.5μU/mL, P-trend 0.03), hs-CRP -0.3mg/L, P-trend 0.01), systolic blood pressure (-2.3mmHg, P-trend 0.01) and waist-to-height ratio (-0.01, P-trend 0.04), comparing extreme quintiles of intake. These associations persisted in within-pair analysis for monozygotic twins for insulin resistance (PBCAA intake and plasma concentrations, although two metabolites previously associated with obesity were inversely associated with BCAA intake (alpha-hydroxyisovalerate and trans-4-hydroxyproline). Higher intakes of BCAA were associated, independently of genetics, with lower insulin resistance, inflammation, blood pressure and adiposity-related metabolites. The BCAA intake associated with our findings is easily achievable in the habitual diet. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Validity of food frequency questionnaire-based estimates of long-term long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Alice; Di Giuseppe, Daniela; Burgaz, Ann; Håkansson, Niclas; Cederholm, Tommy; Michaëlsson, Karl; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate how long-term dietary intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFAs), estimated by repeated food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) over 15 years, is correlated with LCn-3 PUFAs in adipose tissue (AT). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained in 2003-2004 (AT-03) from 239 randomly selected women, aged 55-75 years, after completion of a 96-item FFQ (FFQ-03). All participants had previously returned an identical FFQ in 1997 (FFQ-97) and a 67-item version in 1987-1990 (FFQ-87). Pearson product-moment correlations were used to evaluate associations between intake of total and individual LCn-3 PUFAs as estimated by the three FFQ assessments and AT-03 content (% of total fatty acids). FFQ-estimated mean relative intake of LCn-3 PUFAs (% of total fat intake) increased between all three assessments (FFQ-87, 0.55 ± 0.34; FFQ-97, 0.74 ± 0.64; FFQ-03, 0.88 ± 0.56). Validity, in terms of Pearson correlations between FFQ-03 estimates and AT-03 content, was 0.41 (95% CI 0.30-0.51) for total LCn-3 PUFA and ranged from 0.29 to 0.48 for individual fatty acids; lower correlation was observed among participants with higher percentage body fat. With regard to long-term intake estimates, past dietary intake was also correlated with AT-03 content, with correlation coefficients in the range of 0.21-0.33 and 0.21-0.34 for FFQ-97 and FFQ-87, respectively. The correlations were improved by using average estimates from two or more FFQ assessments. Exclusion of fish oil supplement users (14%) did not alter the correlations. These data indicate reasonable validity of FFQ-based estimates of long-term (up to 15 years) LCn-3 PUFA intake, justifying their use in studies of diet-disease associations.

  7. National Diet and Nutrition Survey: fat and fatty acid intakes from the first year of the rolling programme and comparison with previous surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot, Gerda K.; Prynne, Celia J.; Roberts, Caireen; Olson, Ashley; Nicholson, Sonja K.; Whitton, Clare; Teucher, Birgit; Bates, Beverley; Henderson, Helen; Pigott, Sarah; Swan, Gillian; Stephen, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    High saturated fat intake is an established risk factor for several chronic diseases. The objective of the present study is to report dietary intakes and main food sources of fat and fatty acids (FA) from the first year of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme in the UK. Dietary data were collected using 4d estimated food diaries (n896) and compared with dietary reference values (DRV) and previous NDNS results. Total fat provided 34–36% food energy (FE) across all age groups, which was similar to previous surveys for adults. Men (19–64 years) and older girls (11–18 years) had mean intakes just above the DRV, while all other groups had mean total fat intakes of <35% FE. SFA intakes were lower compared with previous surveys, ranging from 13 to 15% FE, but still above the DRV. Mean MUFA intakes were 12.5% FE for adults and children aged 4–18 years and all were below the DRV. Mean n–3 PUFA intake represented 0.7–1.1% FE. Compared with previous survey data, the direction of change for n–3 PUFA was upwards for all age groups, although the differences in absolute terms were very small. Trans-FA intakes were lower than in previous NDNS and were less than 2g/d for all age groups, representing 0.8% FE and lower than the DRV in all age groups. In conclusion, dietary intake of fat and FA is moving towards recommended levels for the UK population. However, there remains room for considerable further improvement. PMID:21767448

  8. Validating fatty acid intake as estimated by an FFQ: how does the 24 h recall perform as reference method compared with the duplicate portion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trijsburg, Laura; de Vries, Jeanne Hm; Hollman, Peter Ch; Hulshof, Paul Jm; van 't Veer, Pieter; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Geelen, Anouk

    2018-05-08

    To compare the performance of the commonly used 24 h recall (24hR) with the more distinct duplicate portion (DP) as reference method for validation of fatty acid intake estimated with an FFQ. Intakes of SFA, MUFA, n-3 fatty acids and linoleic acid (LA) were estimated by chemical analysis of two DP and by on average five 24hR and two FFQ. Plasma n-3 fatty acids and LA were used to objectively compare ranking of individuals based on DP and 24hR. Multivariate measurement error models were used to estimate validity coefficients and attenuation factors for the FFQ with the DP and 24hR as reference methods. Wageningen, the Netherlands. Ninety-two men and 106 women (aged 20-70 years). Validity coefficients for the fatty acid estimates by the FFQ tended to be lower when using the DP as reference method compared with the 24hR. Attenuation factors for the FFQ tended to be slightly higher based on the DP than those based on the 24hR as reference method. Furthermore, when using plasma fatty acids as reference, the DP showed comparable to slightly better ranking of participants according to their intake of n-3 fatty acids (0·33) and n-3:LA (0·34) than the 24hR (0·22 and 0·24, respectively). The 24hR gives only slightly different results compared with the distinctive but less feasible DP, therefore use of the 24hR seems appropriate as the reference method for FFQ validation of fatty acid intake.

  9. The solubilities of benzene polycarboxylic acids in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Manzurola, Emanuel; Abo Balal, Nazmia

    2006-01-01

    The solubilities in water of all benzene polycarboxylic acids are discussed, using data determined in this work (benzoic, terephthalic, trimellitic, trimesic, and pyromellitic acids) and available from the literature (benzoic, phthalic, isophthalic, terephthalic, hemimellitic, trimelitic, trimesic, mellophanic, prehnitic, pyromellitic, benzene-pentacarboxylic and mellitic acids). The apparent molar enthalpies of solution at the saturation point for these benzene polycarboxylic acids were determined from the temperature dependence of the solubilities

  10. Gestational age dependent changes of the fetal brain, liver and adipose tissue fatty acid compositions in a population with high fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Offringa, Pieter J.; Boersma, E. Rudy; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: There are no data on the intrauterine fatty acid (FA) compositions of brain, liver and adipose tissue of infants born to women with high fish intakes. Subjects and methods: We analyzed the brain (n = 18), liver (n = 14) and adipose tissue (n = 11) FA compositions of 20 stillborn

  11. Emanation-thermal characteristics of Ba-salts of some aromatic acids in the temperature range between 298 and 373 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balek, V; Prachar, M [Ustav Jaderneho Vyzkumu, Rez (Czechoslovakia); Kroupa, J [Vyzkumny Ustav Syntetickych Pryskyric a Laku, Pardubice (Czechoslovakia)

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents the emanation-thermal characteristics of Ba salts of some monocarboxylic acids (phtalic, isophtalic and terephtalic) and dicarboxylic acids (benzoic, salicylic, 1,4-aminobenzoic, 1,2-Cl-benzoic and 1,2-I-benzoic). It is shown that the emanation thermal characteristics measured in the temperature range between 298 and 373 K are suitable for estimating diffusion properties of studied organic solids. An apparatus for determining emanation-thermal characteristics is proposed.

  12. FADS2 Genetic Variance in Combination with Fatty Acid Intake Might Alter Composition of the Fatty Acids in Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais S Rizzi

    Full Text Available Multiple lines of evidence suggest that fatty acids (FA play an important role in cognitive function. However, little is known about the functional genetic pathways involved in cognition. The main goals of this study were to replicate previously reported interaction effects between breast feeding (BF and FA desaturase (FADS genetic variation on IQ and to investigate the possible mechanisms by which these variants might moderate BF effect, focusing on brain expression. Using a sample of 534 twins, we observed a trend in the moderation of BF effects on IQ by FADS2 variation. In addition, we made use of publicly available gene expression databases from both humans (193 and mice (93 and showed that FADS2 variants also correlate with FADS1 brain expression (P-value<1.1E-03. Our results provide novel clues for the understanding of the genetic mechanisms regulating FA brain expression and improve the current knowledge of the FADS moderation effect on cognition.

  13. Apolipoprotein A2 -265 T>C polymorphism interacts with dietary fatty acids intake to modulate inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramat, Laleh; Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh, Haleh; Sotoudeh, Gity; Zamani, Elham; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Mansoori, Anahita; Koohdani, Fariba

    2017-05-01

    Several investigations have been conducted regarding the interaction between Apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2) -265 T>C polymorphism and dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on obesity in healthy individuals or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM) patients. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of this interaction on inflammatory markers in T2 DM patients. This is a comparative cross-sectional study on 180 T2 DM patients with known APOA2 genotype. Dietary intake was assessed by food-frequency questionnaire and serum levels of inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-18, pentraxin 3, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) were measured. The subjects were dichotomized into "high" and "low" categories, based on the median dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and SFAs. The data were analyzed by analysis of covariance multivariate interaction model. In CC genotype, higher median intake of ω-3 PUFAs and MUFAs was associated with decreased serum levels of IL-18 and hs-CRP (P = 0.014 and 0.008, respectively). In T-allele carriers, higher median intake of SFAs was associated with increased serum hs-CRP level (P fatty acids, such as ω-3 PUFAs and MUFAs, could reduce the inflammatory effects associated with the CC genotype. In addition, proinflammatory fatty acids, such as SFAs, could overcome the antiinflammatory effect of the T-allele. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Melatonin prevents maternal fructose intake-induced programmed hypertension in the offspring: roles of nitric oxide and arachidonic acid metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Leu, Steve; Wu, Kay L H; Lee, Wei-Chia; Chan, Julie Y H

    2014-08-01

    Fructose intake has increased globally and is linked to hypertension. Melatonin was reported to prevent hypertension development. In this study, we examined whether maternal high fructose (HF) intake causes programmed hypertension and whether melatonin therapy confers protection against the process, with a focus on the link to epigenetic changes in the kidney using next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS) technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received regular chow or chow supplemented with HF (60% diet by weight) alone or with additional 0.01% melatonin in drinking water during the whole period of pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were assigned to four groups: control, HF, control + melatonin (M), and HF + M. Maternal HF caused increases in blood pressure (BP) in the 12-wk-old offspring. Melatonin therapy blunted the HF-induced programmed hypertension and increased nitric oxide (NO) level in the kidney. The identified differential expressed gene (DEGs) that are related to regulation of BP included Ephx2, Col1a2, Gucy1a3, Npr3, Aqp2, Hba-a2, and Ptgs1. Of which, melatonin therapy inhibited expression and activity of soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH, Ephx2 gene encoding protein). In addition, we found genes in arachidonic acid metabolism were potentially involved in the HF-induced programmed hypertension and were affected by melatonin therapy. Together, our data suggest that the beneficial effects of melatonin are attributed to its ability to increase NO level in the kidney, epigenetic regulation of genes related to BP control, and inhibition of SEH expression. The roles of DEGs by the NGS in long-term epigenetic changes in the adult offspring kidney require further clarification. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Renal cortex taurine content regulates renal adaptive response to altered dietary intake of sulfur amino acids.

    OpenAIRE

    Chesney, R W; Gusowski, N; Dabbagh, S

    1985-01-01

    Rats fed a reduced sulfur amino acid diet (LTD) or a high-taurine diet (HTD) demonstrate a renal adaptive response. The LTD results in hypotaurinuria and enhanced brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) accumulation of taurine. The HTD causes hypertaurinuria and reduced BBMV uptake. This adaptation may relate to changes in plasma or renal cortex taurine concentration. Rats were fed a normal-taurine diet (NTD), LTD, or HTD for 14 d or they underwent: (a) 3% beta-alanine for the last 8 d of each d...

  16. Impact of folic acid intake during pregnancy on genomic imprinting of IGF2/H19 and 1-carbon metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserga, Aggeliki; Binder, Alexandra M; Michels, Karin B

    2017-12-01

    Folic acid is an essential component of 1-carbon metabolism, which generates methyl groups for DNA methylation. Disruption of genomic imprinting leads to biallelic expression which may affect disease susceptibility possibly reflected in high levels of S -adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH) and low levels of S -adenosyl-methionine (SAM). We investigated the association between folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and loss of imprinting (LOI) of IGF2 and H19 genes in placentas and cord blood of 90 mother-child dyads in association with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR ) genotype. Pyrosequencing was used to evaluate deviation from monoallelic expression among 47 placentas heterozygous for H19 and 37 placentas and cord blood tissues heterozygous for IGF2 and H19 methylation levels of 48 placentas. We detected relaxation of imprinting (ROI) and LOI of H19 in placentas not associated with differences in methylation levels of the H19ICR. Placentas retained monoallelic allele-specific gene expression of IGF2 , but 32.4% of cord blood samples displayed LOI of IGF2 and 10.8% showed ROI. High SAH levels were significantly associated with low H19 methylation. An interesting positive association between SAM/SAH ratio and high H19 methylation levels was detected among infants with low B 12 levels. Our data suggest profound differences in regulation of imprinting in placenta and cord blood; a lack of correlation of the methylome, transcriptome, and proteome; and a complex regulatory feedback network between free methyl groups and genomic imprinting at birth.-Tserga, A., Binder, A. M., Michels, K. B. Impact of folic acid intake during pregnancy on genomic imprinting of IGF2/H19 and 1-carbon metabolism. © FASEB.

  17. Is High Folic Acid Intake a Risk Factor for Autism?—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell Wiens

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Folate is required for metabolic processes and neural development. Insuring its adequate levels for pregnant women through supplementation of grain-based foods with synthetic folic acid (FA in order to prevent neural tube defects has been an ongoing public health initiative. However, because women are advised to take multivitamins containing FA before and throughout pregnancy, the supplementation together with natural dietary folates has led to a demographic with high and rising serum levels of unmetabolized FA. This raises concerns about the detrimental effects of high serum synthetic FA, including a rise in risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Some recent studies have reported a protective effect of FA fortification against ASD, but others have concluded there is an increased risk for ASD and other negative neurocognitive development outcomes. These issues are accompanied by further health questions concerning high, unmetabolized FA levels in serum. In this review, we outline the reasons excess FA supplementation is a concern and review the history and effects of supplementation. We then examine the effects of FA on neuronal development from tissue culture experiments, review recent advances in understanding of metabolic functional blocks in causing ASD and treatment for these with alternative forms such as folinic acid, and finally summarize the conflicting epidemiological findings regarding ASD. Based on the evidence evaluated, we conclude that caution regarding over supplementing is warranted.

  18. Dietary Intakes of EPA and DHA Omega-3 Fatty Acids among US Childbearing-Age and Pregnant Women: An Analysis of NHANES 2001-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiying; Fulgoni, Victor L; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Mitmesser, Susan Hazels

    2018-03-28

    The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend that the general population should consume about 8 ounces (oz.) per week of a variety of seafood, providing approximately 250 mg per day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that pregnant and lactating women should consume 8–12 oz. per week of seafood. We determined the usual intakes, percentage not meeting recommendations, and trends in EPA and DHA intakes among childbearing-age and pregnant women (15–44 years of age) using the NHANES cycles 2001–2002 through 2013–2014. For the childbearing-age women, the mean usual intake of seafood was 0.44 ± 0.02 oz. equivalent per day and 100% of the population was below the DGA recommendation. Mean usual intakes of EPA, DHA, and combined EPA and DHA from foods and dietary supplements combined were 26.8 ± 1.4, 62.2 ± 1.9, and 88.1 ± 3.0 mg per day, respectively. Over 95% of the sample did not meet the daily intakes of 250 mg EPA and DHA. Similar results were observed for pregnant women. After controlling for covariates, there were slight but significant increases in EPA and DHA intakes from foods and dietary supplements over the 14-year span among childbearing-age ( p = 0.005) and pregnant women ( p = 0.002). It was estimated that a majority of U.S. childbearing-age and pregnant women consumed significantly lower amounts of seafood than what the DGA recommends, which subsequently leads to low intakes of EPA and DHA; in addition, dietary supplement use has not eliminated the nutrient shortfall.

  19. Initial amino acid intake influences phosphorus and calcium homeostasis in preterm infants--it is time to change the composition of the early parenteral nutrition.

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    Francesco Bonsante

    Full Text Available Early aggressive parenteral nutrition (PN, consisting of caloric and nitrogen intake soon after birth, is currently proposed for the premature baby. Some electrolyte disturbances, such as hypophosphatemia and hypercalcemia, considered unusual in early life, were recently described while using this PN approach. We hypothesize that, due to its impact on cell metabolism, the initial amino acid (AA amount may specifically influence the metabolism of phosphorus, and consequently of calcium. We aim to evaluate the influence of AA intake on calcium-phosphorus metabolism, and to create a calculation tool to estimate phosphorus needs.Prospective observational study. Phosphate and calcium plasma concentrations and calcium balance were evaluated daily during the first week of life in very preterm infants, and their relationship with nutrition was studied. For this purpose, infants were divided into three groups: high, medium and low AA intake (HAA, MAA, LAA. A calculation formula to assess phosphorus needs was elaborated, with a theoretical model based on AA and calcium intake, and the cumulative deficit of phosphate intake was estimated.154 infants were included. Hypophosphatemia (12.5% and hypercalcemia (9.8% were more frequent in the HAA than in the MAA (4.6% and 4.8% and in the LAA group (0% and 1.9%; both p<0.001.Calcium-phosphorus homeostasis was influenced by the early AA intake. We propose to consider phosphorus and calcium imbalances as being part of a syndrome, related to incomplete provision of nutrients after the abrupt discontinuation of the placental nutrition at birth (PI-ReFeeding syndrome. We provide a simple tool to calculate the optimal phosphate intake. The early introduction of AA in the PN soon after birth might be completed by an early intake of phosphorus, since AA and phosphorus are (along with potassium the main determinants of cellular growth.

  20. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard-Mercier, Annie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208) participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA). Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187) and ACOX1 (rs17583163) genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation. PMID:24647074

  1. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Bouchard-Mercier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208 participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA. Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187 and ACOX1 (rs17583163 genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation.

  2. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose Intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health.

  3. Effects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Serum Leptin Levels, Appetite Sensations, and Intake of Energy and Macronutrients in Obese People: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payahoo, L; Ostadrahimi, A; Farrin, N; Khaje-Bishak, Y

    2017-10-05

    Obesity is a common health problem. Appetite is one of the main obesity-controlling factors that can be influenced by leptin. Leptin reduces food intake and accelerates energy expenditure. Leptin levels can be affected by dietary factors such as fats, special amino acids, and fructose. This study aimed to determine the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (PUFA n-3) supplementation on serum leptin levels, appetite sensations, and dietary intakes in obese people. This study was performed on 60 obese individuals with body mass index (BMI) 30 (kg/m 2 ) and above in 2012 in Tabriz, Iran. The participants were randomly allocated to the intervention (consumed two capsules containing 1 g/day n-3 fatty acids [180 mg EPA, 120 mg DHA] for 4 weeks) and control groups. Serum leptin levels were assessed by ELISA method, and visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaire was completed for evaluating appetite sensations. The mean caloric [before = 1,575.39 (600), after = 1,236.14 (448.40)] and macronutrient intakes were decreased significantly in the intervention group (p macronutrient intakes, probably through the modulating of satiety. The short period of study caused the nonsignificant changes in BMI and circulatory leptin. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.

  4. Variations in daily intakes of myristic and alpha-linolenic acids in sn-2 position modify lipid profile and red blood cell membrane fluidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabadie, Henry; Motta, Claude; Peuchant, Evelyne; LeRuyet, Pascale; Mendy, François

    2006-08-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of moderate intakes of myristic acid (MA), at 1.2% and 1.8% of total energy (TE), associated with a 0.9% TE intake of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) on lipid and fatty acid profiles and red blood cell membrane fluidity. Twenty-nine monks without dyslipidaemia were enrolled in a 1-year nutritional study in which two experimental diets were tested for 3 months each: diet 1, MA 1.2 % and ALA 0.9%; diet 2, MA 1.8% and ALA 0.9%. A control diet (MA 1.2%, ALA 0.4%) was given 3 months before diets 1 and 2. Thus, two different levels of MA (1.2%, 1.8%) and ALA (0.4%, 0.9%) were tested. Intakes of other fatty acids were at recommended levels. Samples were obtained on completion of all three diets. For fluidity analysis, the red blood cells were labelled with 16-doxylstearate and the probe incorporated the membrane where relaxation-correlation time was calculated. Diet 1 was associated with a decrease in total cholesterol, in LDL-cholesterol, in triacylglycerols and in the ratio of total to HDL-cholesterol; ALA and EPA levels were increased in both phospholipids and cholesterol esters. Diet 2 was associated with a decrease in triacylglycerols and in the ratios of total to HDL-cholesterol and of triacylglycerols to HDL-cholesterol, and with an increase in HDL-cholesterol; EPA levels were decreased in phospholipids and cholesterol esters. Red blood cell membrane fluidity was increased in both diets (Pdiet 1, mainly in the oldest subjects. Intakes of myristic acid (1.2%TE) and ALA (0.9%TE), both mainly in the sn-2 position, were associated with favourable lipid and n-3 long-chain fatty acid profiles. These beneficial effects coexisted with particularly high membrane fluidity, especially among the oldest subjects.

  5. Plasma trans-fatty acid concentrations continue to be associated with metabolic syndrome among US adults after reductions in trans-fatty acid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zefeng; Gillespie, Cathleen; Yang, Quanhe

    2017-07-01

    No study examined and compared the association between intake of trans-fatty acids (TFAs) and risk of metabolic syndrome before and after significant reduction of TFA intakes in the US population. We hypothesized that the relationship might remain significant after substantial reduction of TFA intakes in the population. We used data on 1442 and 2233 adults aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2000 and 2009-2010, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between plasma TFA concentrations and metabolic syndrome, including each of its 5 components. The median plasma TFA concentrations were reduced from 79.8 μmol/L in 1999-2000 to 36.9 μmol/L in 2009-2010. The fully adjusted prevalence ratios comparing the highest vs the lowest quintile of plasma TFA concentrations in 1999-2000 were 3.43 (95% confidence interval, 2.39-4.92) for metabolic syndrome, 1.72 (1.38-2.14) for large waistline, 8.25 (6.34-10.74) for high triglycerides, 1.96 (1.46-2.62) for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 1.14 (0.85-1.55) for high blood pressure, and 1.48 (1.19-1.85) for high fasting glucose, respectively. The corresponding prevalence ratios in 2009-2010 were 2.93 (2.41-3.54), 1.62 (1.39-1.89), 14.93 (9.28-24.02), 3.09 (2.18-4.37), 1.27 (1.11-1.46), and 1.24 (1.06-1.46), respectively. The pattern of association between TFAs and metabolic syndrome and its components did not differ by cycles. The observed associations were consistent across the subgroups examined. Despite a 54% decline in plasma TFA concentrations from 1999-2000 to 2009-2010, it was positively associated with risk of metabolic syndrome and its individual components except for blood pressure in 1999-2000. Our findings support Food and Drug Administration initiatives to remove TFAs from the industrially-produced foods. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Increased Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acid Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0) Associated with Decreasing Ferritin and Alleviated Metabolic Syndrome in Dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K.; Parry, Celeste; Baird, Mark; Stevenson, Sacha; Carlin, Kevin; Daniels, Risa; Smith, Cynthia R.; Jones, Richard; Wells, Randall S.; Ridgway, Sam; Jensen, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Similar to humans, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can develop metabolic syndrome and associated high ferritin. While fish and fish-based fatty acids may protect against metabolic syndrome in humans, findings have been inconsistent. To assess potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome related to fish diets, fatty acids were compared between two dolphin populations with higher (n = 30, Group A) and lower (n = 19, Group B) mean insulin (11 ± 12 and 2 ± 5 μIU/ml, respectively; P dolphins. Capelin, a common dietary fish for Group A, had no detectable C17:0, while pinfish and mullet, common in Group B’s diet, had C17:0 (41 and 67 mg/100g, respectively). When a modified diet adding 25% pinfish and/or mullet was fed to six Group A dolphins over 24 weeks (increasing the average daily dietary C17:0 intake from 400 to 1700 mg), C17:0 serum levels increased, high ferritin decreased, and blood-based metabolic syndrome indices normalized toward reference levels. These effects were not found in four reference dolphins. Further, higher total serum C17:0 was an independent and linear predictor of lower ferritin in dolphins in Group B dolphins. Among off the shelf dairy products tested, butter had the highest C17:0 (423mg/100g); nonfat dairy products had no detectable C17:0. We hypothesize that humans’ movement away from diets with potentially beneficial saturated fatty acid C17:0, including whole fat dairy products, could be a contributor to widespread low C17:0 levels, higher ferritin, and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26200116

  7. The influence of acid rain on the intake of trace elements into rice plant from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanizaki, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Masaru; Maeno, Tomokazu

    1995-01-01

    Rice plant samples were grown in 14 cultivative pots by irrigation using the six conditions of artificial acid rain waters (pH: 6.5, 6.0, 4.5, 3.5, 3.0 and 2.5) and tap water (pH: 7.5). The rice grain yielded were separated into three parts, i.e., polished rice, bran and chaff, and they were reduced to powder one by one. Twenty six element contents in the three parts of grain (each 14 samples) were determined by a neutron activation analysis. The contents of Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu, Rb, Mo in the polished rice increased with decreasing of pH of the irrigation waters. The contents of Se and Br, on the contrary, decreased with decreasing of pH of the irrigation waters. Significant changes of the contents were not observed for the elements Na, Al, Cl, Sc, Mn, Co, V. The enrichment factor of trace elements to soils were calculated for the polished rice, bran and chaff. The high enrichments of Cl, Mo, Zn, Se, Cu and Ni were observed in the polished rice. The elements K, Rb, Mn, Mg and Cr were highly concentrated in the bran. (author)

  8. Predicting fatty acid profiles in blood based on food intake and the FADS1 rs174546 SNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmann, Jacqueline; Kolossa, Silvia; Gedrich, Kurt; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Forster, Hannah; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Macready, Anna L; Fallaize, Rosalind; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Mavrogianni, Christina; Moschonis, George; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Godlewska, Magdalena; Surwiłło, Agnieszka; Mathers, John C; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne C; Lovegrove, Julie A; Saris, Wim H M; Manios, Yannis; Martinez, Jose Alfredo; Traczyk, Iwona; Gibney, Michael J; Daniel, Hannelore

    2015-12-01

    A high intake of n-3 PUFA provides health benefits via changes in the n-6/n-3 ratio in blood. In addition to such dietary PUFAs, variants in the fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) gene are also associated with altered PUFA profiles. We used mathematical modeling to predict levels of PUFA in whole blood, based on multiple hypothesis testing and bootstrapped LASSO selected food items, anthropometric and lifestyle factors, and the rs174546 genotypes in FADS1 from 1607 participants (Food4Me Study). The models were developed using data from the first reported time point (training set) and their predictive power was evaluated using data from the last reported time point (test set). Among other food items, fish, pizza, chicken, and cereals were identified as being associated with the PUFA profiles. Using these food items and the rs174546 genotypes as predictors, models explained 26-43% of the variability in PUFA concentrations in the training set and 22-33% in the test set. Selecting food items using multiple hypothesis testing is a valuable contribution to determine predictors, as our models' predictive power is higher compared to analogue studies. As unique feature, we additionally confirmed our models' power based on a test set. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Effects of ewes grazing sulla or ryegrass pasture for different daily durations on forage intake, milk production and fatty acid composition of cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, A; Di Grigoli, A; Mazza, F; De Pasquale, C; Giosuè, C; Vitale, F; Alabiso, M

    2016-12-01

    Sulla (Sulla coronarium L.) forage is valued for its positive impact on ruminant production, in part due to its moderate content of condensed tannin (CT). The duration of daily grazing is a factor affecting the feed intake and milk production of ewes. In this study, the effects of grazing sulla pasture compared with annual ryegrass, and the extension of grazing from 8 to 22 h/day, were evaluated with regard to ewe forage intake and milk production, as well as the physicochemical properties and fatty acid (FA) composition of cheese. During 42 days in the spring, 28 ewes of the Comisana breed were divided into four groups (S8, S22, R8 and R22) that grazed sulla (S) or ryegrass (R) for 8 (0800 to 1600 h) or 22 h/day, and received no feeding supplement. In six cheese-making sessions, cheeses were manufactured from the 48 h bulk milk of each group. Compared with ewes grazing ryegrass, those grazing sulla had higher dry matter (DM) intake, intake rate and milk yield, and produced milk that was lower in fat and higher in casein. Ewes grazing for 22 h spent more time eating, which reduced the intake rate, increased DM and nutrient intake and milk yield, and reduced milk fat. Due to the ability of CT to inhibit the complete ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the FA composition of sulla cheese was more beneficial for consumer health compared with ryegrass cheese, having lower levels of saturated fatty acids and higher levels of PUFA and n-3 FA. The FA profile of S8 cheese was better than that of S22 cheese, as it was higher in branched-chain FA, monounsaturated FA, PUFA, rumenic acid (c9,t11-C18:2), and had a greater health-promoting index. The effect of short grazing time on sulla was attributed to major inhibition of PUFA biohydrogenating ruminal bacteria, presumably stimulated by the higher accumulation of sulla CT in the rumen, which is related to a higher intake rate over a shorter eating time. Thus, grazing sulla improved the performance of

  10. Dietary patterns, n-3 fatty acids intake from seafood and high levels of anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Vaz

    Full Text Available Little is known about relationships between dietary patterns, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA intake and excessive anxiety during pregnancy.To examine whether dietary patterns and n-3 PUFA intake from seafood are associated with high levels of anxiety during pregnancy.Pregnant women enrolled from 1991-1992 in ALSPAC (n 9,530. Dietary patterns were established from a food frequency questionnaire using principal component analysis. Total intake of n-3 PUFA (grams/week from seafood was also examined. Symptoms of anxiety were measured at 32 weeks of gestation with the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index; scores ≥ 9 corresponding to the 85(th percentile was defined as high anxiety symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95% CI, adjusted by socioeconomic and lifestyle variables.Multivariate results showed that women in the highest tertile of the health-conscious (OR 0.77; 0.65-0.93 and the traditional (OR 0.84; 0.73-0.97 pattern scores were less likely to report high levels of anxiety symptoms. Women in the highest tertile of the vegetarian pattern score (OR 1.25; 1.08-1.44 were more likely to have high levels of anxiety, as well as those with no n-3 PUFA intake from seafood (OR 1.53; 1.25-1.87 when compared with those with intake of >1.5 grams/week.The present study provides evidence of a relationship between dietary patterns, fish intake or n-3 PUFA intake from seafood and symptoms of anxiety in pregnancy, and suggests that dietary interventions could be used to reduce high anxiety symptoms during pregnancy.

  11. Higher de novo synthesized fatty acids and lower omega 3-and omega 6-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in umbilical vessels of women with preeclampsia and high fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskes, Victor J. B.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Velzing-Aarts, Francien V.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; van der Meulen, Jan; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Umbilical veins (UV) and arteries (UA) of preeclamptic women in Curacao harbor lower long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). The present aim was to test these findings in Mwanza (Tanzania), whose inhabitants have high LCP omega 3 and LCP omega 6 intakes from Lake Victoria fish. Women with

  12. Australians are not Meeting the Recommended Intakes for Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Results of an Analysis from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J. Meyer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Health benefits have been attributed to omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA. Therefore it is important to know if Australians are currently meeting the recommended intake for n-3 LCPUFA and if they have increased since the last National Nutrition Survey in 1995 (NNS 1995. Dietary intake data was obtained from the recent 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2011–2012 NNPAS. Linoleic acid (LA intakes have decreased whilst alpha-linolenic acid (LNA and n-3 LCPUFA intakes have increased primarily due to n-3 LCPUFA supplements. The median n-3 LCPUFA intakes are less than 50% of the mean n-3 LCPUFA intakes which highlights the highly-skewed n-3 LCPUFA intakes, which shows that there are some people consuming high amounts of n-3 LCPUFA, but the vast majority of the population are consuming much lower amounts. Only 20% of the population meets the recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes and only 10% of women of childbearing age meet the recommended docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake. Fish and seafood is by far the richest source of n-3 LCPUFA including DHA.

  13. Increased Dietary Intake of Saturated Fatty Acid Heptadecanoic Acid (C17:0 Associated with Decreasing Ferritin and Alleviated Metabolic Syndrome in Dolphins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K Venn-Watson

    Full Text Available Similar to humans, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus can develop metabolic syndrome and associated high ferritin. While fish and fish-based fatty acids may protect against metabolic syndrome in humans, findings have been inconsistent. To assess potential protective factors against metabolic syndrome related to fish diets, fatty acids were compared between two dolphin populations with higher (n = 30, Group A and lower (n = 19, Group B mean insulin (11 ± 12 and 2 ± 5 μIU/ml, respectively; P < 0.0001 and their dietary fish. In addition to higher insulin, triglycerides, and ferritin, Group A had lower percent serum heptadecanoic acid (C17:0 compared to Group B (0.3 ± 0.1 and 1.3 ± 0.4%, respectively; P < 0.0001. Using multivariate stepwise regression, higher percent serum C17:0, a saturated fat found in dairy fat, rye, and some fish, was an independent predictor of lower insulin in dolphins. Capelin, a common dietary fish for Group A, had no detectable C17:0, while pinfish and mullet, common in Group B's diet, had C17:0 (41 and 67 mg/100g, respectively. When a modified diet adding 25% pinfish and/or mullet was fed to six Group A dolphins over 24 weeks (increasing the average daily dietary C17:0 intake from 400 to 1700 mg, C17:0 serum levels increased, high ferritin decreased, and blood-based metabolic syndrome indices normalized toward reference levels. These effects were not found in four reference dolphins. Further, higher total serum C17:0 was an independent and linear predictor of lower ferritin in dolphins in Group B dolphins. Among off the shelf dairy products tested, butter had the highest C17:0 (423mg/100g; nonfat dairy products had no detectable C17:0. We hypothesize that humans' movement away from diets with potentially beneficial saturated fatty acid C17:0, including whole fat dairy products, could be a contributor to widespread low C17:0 levels, higher ferritin, and metabolic syndrome.

  14. Associations between branched chain amino acid intake and biomarkers of adiposity and cardiometabolic health independent of genetic factors: A twin study ?

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, Amy; MacGregor, Alex; Pallister, Tess; Spector, Tim; Cassidy, Aed?n

    2016-01-01

    Background: Conflicting data exist on the impact of dietary and circulating levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) on cardiometabolic health and it is unclear to what extent these relations are mediated by genetics. Methods: In a cross-sectional study of 1997 female twins we examined associations between BCAA intake, measured using food frequency-questionnaires, and a range of markers of cardiometabolic health, including DXA-measured body fat, blood pressure, HOMA-IR, highsensitivity C-r...

  15. Ácidos graxos como marcadores biológicos da ingestão de gorduras Fatty acids as biological markers of fat intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Vaz

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Os ácidos graxos da dieta têm sido associados ao desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas. Os inquéritos alimentares, utilizados em estudos clínicos e epidemiológicos para estimativa da ingestão de nutrientes, apresentam limitações na coleta de informações. Nesse sentido, a utilização da composição de ácidos graxos do plasma e do tecido adiposo como marcadores do tipo de gordura alimentar pode fornecer uma medida mais acurada da ingestão de gorduras. Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo evidenciar aspectos metabólicos de alguns ácidos graxos e o papel como marcadores da ingestão de gorduras, e apresentar as técnicas analíticas empregadas na sua determinação. A biópsia do tecido adiposo, com determinação da composição de ácidos graxos, fornece uma informação a longo prazo da ingestão de gorduras, enquanto que a avaliação da composição das frações lipídicas séricas representa a ingestão a curto e médio prazos. Os ácidos graxos essenciais, os ácidos graxos saturados com número ímpar de carbonos (15:0 e 17:0 e os ácidos graxos trans, por não apresentarem síntese endógena, são utilizados como marcadores biológicos da ingestão de gorduras ou de sua própria ingestão. As principais técnicas utilizadas para a determinação de ácidos graxos são a cromatografia gasosa e a cromatografia líquida de alta precisão. No presente momento, o uso de marcadores biológicos para a ingestão de gorduras, associados aos inquéritos alimentares, representa a forma mais completa de avaliação da ingestão de gorduras.Dietary fatty acids have been associated with the development of chronic diseases. The methods commonly used in dietary assessment for estimating nutrient intake in clinical and epidemiological studies present limitations regarding data collection. The use of plasma and adipose tissue fatty acid composition as markers of the type of fat ingested has been studied and can provide a more accurate measurement

  16. Intake of fish oil, oleic acid, folic acid, and vitamins B-6 and E for 1 year decreases plasma C-reactive protein and reduces coronary heart disease risk factors in male patients in a cardiac rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrero, Juan Jesús; Fonollá, Juristo; Marti, José Luis; Jiménez, Jesús; Boza, Julio J; López-Huertas, Eduardo

    2007-02-01

    Certain nutrients have been shown to be effective in preventing coronary heart disease. We hypothesized that a daily intake of low amounts of a number of these nutrients would exert beneficial effects on risk factors and clinical variables in patients that suffered from myocardial infarction (MI) and were following a cardiac rehabilitation program. Forty male MI patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups. The supplemented group consumed 500 mL/d of a fortified dairy product containing eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, folic acid, and vitamins A, B-6, D, and E. The control group consumed 500 mL/d of semi-skimmed milk with added vitamins A and D. The patients received supervised exercise training, lifestyle and dietary recommendations, and they were instructed to consume the products in addition to their regular diet. Blood extractions and clinical examinations were performed after 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo. Plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, folic acid, vitamin B-6, and vitamin E increased after supplementation (Preactive protein concentrations decreased in the supplemented group (Pprogram comprising regular exercise and the intake of a combination of dietary nutrients, reduced a variety of risk factors in MI patients, which supports the rationale for nutritional programs in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease.

  17. Dietary counseling to improve fat quality during pregnancy alters maternal fat intake and infant essential fatty acid status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinivirta, Katri; Isolauri, Erika; Laakso, Päivi; Linderborg, Kaisa; Laitinen, Kirsi

    2011-07-01

    To explore the effect of maternal dietary intervention on infant essential fatty acid (FA) status, we conducted a prospective, single-blind, randomized nutrition intervention study. At the first trimester of pregnancy, 90 women from families with a history of allergy were randomized either to receive intensive dietary counseling to modify dietary intake according to current recommendations or as controls. Infants' cord and 1-mo isolated serum phospholipid FA were identified and quantified by GC. Detectable levels of eicosatrienoic acid [ETA, 20:3(n-9)] were taken as a biochemical marker for essential FA deficiency, and the DHA sufficiency index [22:6(n-3):22:5(n-6)] and the DHA deficiency index [22:5(n-6):22:4(n-6)] were taken as markers for DHA [22:6(n-3)] status. The concentration of ETA was lower in cord blood in the intervention (I) group [median 0.64 (IQR 0.40-0.78) mg/L; 2.09 (1.31-2.54) μmol/L] than in the control (C) group [0.92 (0.54-1.20) mg/L; 3.00 (1.76-3.92) μmol/L] (P = 0.048). The proportion of ETA in total FA in the I group [0.73% (0.48-0.85%)] was lower than in the C group [0.93% (0.78-1.22%)] (P = 0.003). A higher DHA sufficiency index and lower DHA deficiency index were detected in cord blood in the I group than in the C group, although the groups did not differ in the DHA concentration or proportion of the total FA. There were no differences among groups at 1 mo for any of the variables measured. Our findings suggest a better supply of essential FA, particularly important during the period of rapid development, in infants whose mothers received dietary counseling. The results thus highlight the importance of maternal diet for child health, calling for dietary counseling for pregnant women in primary health care.

  18. Dietary Acid Load and Potassium Intake Associate with Blood Pressure and Hypertension Prevalence in a Representative Sample of the German Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danika Krupp

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, like the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH-diet, are usually characterized by high potassium intake and reduced dietary acid load, and have been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP. However, the relevance of potential renal acid load (PRAL for BP has not been compared with the relevance to BP of urinary biomarker (K-urine- and dietary food frequency questionnaire (K-FFQ-based estimates of potassium intake in a general adult population sample. For 6788 participants (aged 18–79 years of the representative German Health-Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1, associations of PRAL, K-urine, and K-FFQ with BP and hypertension prevalence were cross-sectionally examined in multivariable linear and logistic regression models. PRAL was significantly associated with higher systolic BP (p = 0.0002 and higher hypertension prevalence (Odds ratio [OR] high vs. low PRAL = 1.45, p = 0.0004 in models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI, estimated sodium intake, kidney function, relevant medication, and further important covariates. Higher estimates of K-FFQ and K-urine were related to lower systolic BP (p = 0.04 and p < 0.0001 and lower hypertension prevalence (OR = 0.82, p = 0.04 and OR = 0.77, p = 0.02 as well as a lower diastolic BP (p = 0.03 and p = 0.0003. Our results show, for the first time in a comparative analysis of a large representative population sample, significant relationships of BP and hypertension prevalence with questionnaire- and biomarker-based estimates of potassium intake and with an estimate of dietary acid load.

  19. Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  20. Food sources of alpha-linolenic acid (PFA 18:3), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food sources of alpha-linolenic acid (PFA 18:3), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  1. Food sources of arachidonic acid (PFA 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food sources of arachidonic acid (PFA 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  2. Effects of the dietary ratio of ruminal degraded to undegraded protein and feed intake on intestinal flows of endogenous nitrogen and amino acids in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanshe; Chen, Liang; Tan, Zhiliang; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng; Wang, Min; Kang, Jinhe; Yan, Qiongxian

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the dietary ratio of ruminal degraded protein (RDP) to ruminal undegraded protein (RUP) and the dry matter intake (DMI) on the intestinal flows of endogenous nitrogen (N) and amino acids (AA) in goats. The experiment was designed as a 4×4 Latin square using four ruminally, duodenally and ileally cannulated goats. The treatments were arranged in a 2×2 factorial design; two ratios of RDP to RUP (65:35 and 45:55, RDP1 and RDP2, respectively) and two levels at 95% and 75% of voluntary feed intake (DMI1 and DMI2, respectively) were fed to the goats. There were no significant differences in the N intake, duodenal flow of total N, undegraded feed N, microbial N, endogenous N or ileal flow of endogenous N, but the duodenal and ileal flow of endogenous N numerically decreased by approximately 22% and 9%, respectively, when the feed intake changed from DMI1 (0.63 kg/d) to DMI2 (0.50 kg/d). The dietary ratio of RDP to RUP had significant effects (pRUP ratio and DMI decreased, and the flow of endogenous AA at the ileum also decreased when the DMI decreased but increased with decreasing RDP to RUP ratios.

  3. DietaryFish and Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Rong Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Findings on the association between long-term intake of fish or long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and risk of atrial fibrillation (AF are inconsistent in observational studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies to separately examine the associations between fish consumption and dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs with the risk of AF. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Embase to identify relevant studies. Risk estimates were combined using a random-effect model. Seven prospective cohort studies covering 206,811 participants and 12,913 AF cases were eligible. The summary relative risk of AF for the highest vs. lowest category of fish consumption and dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs was 1.01(95% confidence interval: 0.94–1.09 and 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.97–1.09, respectively. These null associations persisted in subgroup and dose-response analyses. There was little evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis suggests that neither long-term intake of fish, nor of n-3 PUFAs were significantly associated with lower risk of AF.

  4. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid blood biomarkers increase linearly in men and women after tightly controlled intakes of 0.25, 0.5, and 1 g/d of EPA + DHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ashley C; Chalil, Alan; Aristizabal Henao, Juan J; Streit, Isaac T; Stark, Ken D

    2015-12-01

    Blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been related to coronary heart disease risk. Understanding the response of EPA + DHA in blood to dietary intake of EPA + DHA would facilitate the use of blood measures as markers of adherence and enable the development of dietary recommendations. The objective of this study is examine the blood response to intakes of EPA + DHA ≤1 g/d with an intervention designed for dietary adherence. It was hypothesized this relationship would be linear and that intakes of EPA + DHA DHA intake of men and women (n = 20) was determined by food frequency questionnaire and adherence was monitored by weekly fingertip blood sampling for fatty acid determinations. Participants consumed nutraceuticals to achieve intakes of 0.25 g/d and 0.5 g/d EPA + DHA for successive four-week periods. A subgroup (n = 5) had intakes of 1.0 g/d EPA + DHA for an additional 4 weeks. Fatty acid composition of whole blood, erythrocytes, and plasma phospholipids were determined at each time point. Blood levels of EPA and DHA increased linearly in these pools. A comprehensive review of the literature was used to verify the blood-intake relationship. Blood levels of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reached blood levels associated with the highest levels of primary cardiac arrest reduction and sudden cardiac death risk only with intakes of 1.0 g/d of EPA + DHA. The blood biomarker response to intakes of EPA + DHA ≤1 g/d is linear in a small but highly adherent study sample and this information can assist in determining adherence in clinical studies and help identify dietary intake targets from associations between blood and disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High Protein Intake Does Not Prevent Low Plasma Levels of Conditionally Essential Amino Acids in Very Preterm Infants Receiving Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Colin; Burgess, Laura

    2017-03-01

    We have shown that increasing protein intake using a standardized, concentrated, added macronutrients parenteral (SCAMP) nutrition regimen improves head growth in very preterm infants (VPIs) compared with a control parenteral nutrition (PN) regimen. VPIs are at risk of conditionally essential amino acid (CEAA) deficiencies because of current neonatal PN amino acid (AA) formulations. We hypothesized that the SCAMP regimen would prevent low plasma levels of CEAAs. To compare the plasma AA profiles at approximately day 9 of life in VPIs receiving SCAMP vs a control PN regimen. VPIs (parenteral and enteral protein, energy, and individual AA intake and the first plasma AA profile. Plasma profiles of the 20 individual protogenic AA levels were measured using ion exchange chromatography. Plasma AA profiles were obtained at median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 9 (8-10) days in both SCAMP (n = 59) and control (n = 67) groups after randomizing 150 VPIs. Median (IQR) plasma levels of individual essential AAs were higher than the reference population mean (RPM) in both groups, especially for threonine. SCAMP infants had higher plasma levels of essential AAs than did the controls. Median (IQR) plasma levels of glutamine, arginine, and cysteine (CEAAs) were lower than the RPM in both groups. Plasma AA levels in PN-dependent VPIs indicate there is an imbalance in essential and CEAA provision in neonatal PN AA formulations that is not improved by increasing protein intake.

  6. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in Australian children aged 9-13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawaty, S; Charlton, K; Lyons-Wall, P; Meyer, B J

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to develop a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) assessing dietary omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) intake in Australian children and to validate the FFQ against a 7-day food diary. The investigation comprised a cross-sectional and validation study. The study setting was two private primary schools in the in the Illawarra region of New South Wales. Twenty-two Australian children, aged 9-13 years, who were not on a special diet or receiving medical care that limited their food choice in the 3 months prior to recruitment, were recruited into the study. A total of 131 items, classified according to seven food group categories, was included in the n-3 LCPUFA FFQ, as identified from published dietary surveys and a supermarket survey. Good correlations between the FFQ and the 7-day food diary were observed for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) [r = 0.691, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51-0.83, P food diary. However, the mean EPA, DHA and total n-3 LCPUFA intakes estimated from the FFQ were significantly higher than those from the average 7-day food diary estimates (P < 0.001). A novel n-3 LCPUFA FFQ that has been developed to estimate dietary n-3 LCPUFA intakes in Australian children has been shown to have relative validity. The FFQ provides a useful contribution to dietary assessment methodology in this age group; however, reproducibility remains to be demonstrated. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Validity and reliability of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire for the JPHC study: The assessment of amino acid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Chika; Iso, Hiroyasu; Ishihara, Junko; Maruyama, Koutatsu; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-05-01

    The Japanese database of food amino acid composition was revised in 2010 after a 24-year interval. To examine the impact of the 2010 revision compared with that of the 1986 revision, we evaluated the validity and reliability of amino acid intakes assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). A FFQ including 138 food items was compared with 7-day dietary records, completed during each distinct season, to assess validity and administered twice at approximately a 1-year interval, to assess reliability. We calculated amino acid intakes using a database that compensated for missing food items via the substitution method. Subjects were a subsample of two cohorts of the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study. A total of 102 men and 113 women in Cohort I and 174 men and 176 women in Cohort II provided complete dietary records and the FFQ, of whom 101 men and 108 women of Cohort I and 143 men and 146 women of Cohort II completed the FFQ twice. In the comparison of the FFQ with dietary records, the medians (ranges) of energy-adjusted correlation coefficients for validity were 0.35 (0.25-0.43) among men and 0.29 (0.19-0.40) among women in Cohort I, and 0.37 (0.21-0.52) and 0.38 (0.24-0.59), respectively, in Cohort II. Values for reliability were 0.47 (0.42-0.52) among men and 0.43 (0.38-0.50) among women in Cohort I, and 0.59 (0.52-0.70) and 0.54 (0.45-0.61), respectively, in Cohort II. The FFQ used in our prospective cohort study is a suitable tool for estimating amino acid intakes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fish and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes during pregnancy and risk of postpartum depression: a prospective study based on a large national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mothers may be reluctant to receive medical treatment of postpartum depression (PPD), despite the detrimental consequences the disorder can impose on mother and child. Research on alternative methods of prevention and treatment of PPD is warranted. Previous studies have suggested...... that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might have a beneficial effect on depression. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore the association between intake of fish and n-3 PUFAs during pregnancy and PPD in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). DESIGN: Exposure information from the DNBC...... was linked to the Danish patient and prescription registries for data on clinically identified cases of depression up to 1 y postpartum. Intake of fish and n-3 PUFAs was assessed in midpregnancy with a food-frequency questionnaire. Admission to the hospital for PPD (PPD-admission) and prescription...

  9. Estimation of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid content in UK foods and assessment of dietary intake in a cohort of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Sohail; Heather Mangiapane, E; Hunter, Kirsty A

    2010-05-01

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from ruminant-derived foods may be potentially beneficial to health. The quantity of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA in a range of UK foodstuffs (112 foods) was determined using triple-column silver ion HPLC. The cis-9, trans-11 CLA content ranged from 1.9 mg/g lipid (mild Cheddar) to 7.3 mg/g lipid (processed cheese) in cheeses, from 0.9 mg/g lipid (ice cream) to 3.7 mg/g lipid (double cream) in non-cheese dairy products, and from 2.9 mg/g lipid (Swedish meatballs) to 6.0 mg/g lipid (minced lamb) in meat products. cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentrations for chocolate and sweets ranged from 0.1 mg/g lipid (hot chocolate) to 4.8 mg/g lipid (buttermint). The trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer was undetected or negligible in the food samples examined. To provide information about dietary cis-9, trans-11 CLA intakes in the UK, a study was performed to estimate the daily intake of CLA in a cohort of eighteen healthy volunteers (nine female and nine male; aged 21-60 years; mean BMI = 24.0 kg/m2 (sd 2.2)) with a 7-d weighed food record. This information combined with the CLA isomer contents of UK foodstuffs was used to estimate the daily intake of the cohort. The mean daily intake of cis-9, trans-11 CLA was estimated to be 97.5 (sd 73.3) mg/d. Due to its potential health benefits, it is important to determine the CLA content of food and dietary intake as these data will be useful in determining the role of CLA in health and disease.

  10. Ecological-level associations between highly processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations: results from a cross-sectional study within the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chajès, Véronique; Biessy, Carine; Byrnes, Graham; Deharveng, Geneviève; Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; Jenab, Mazda; Peeters, Petra H M; Ocké, Marga; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hallmans, Göran; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Jakszyn, Paula; González, Carlos A; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Martinez, Carmen; Amiano, Pilar; Suárez, Laudina Rodriguez; Ardanaz, Eva; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Berrino, Franco; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Spencer, Elisabeth A; Crowe, Francesca L; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Boeing, Heiner; Nöethlings, Ute; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Zilis, Dimosthenis; Oustoglou, Erifili; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2011-11-01

    Elaidic acid is the main unnatural trans fatty acid isomer occurring during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils used as ingredients for the formulation of processed foods. The main objective is to assess associations between processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. A cross-sectional study was used to determine fatty acid profiles in 3,003 subjects from 16 centers. Single 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) were collected using a standardized computerized interview program. Food intakes were computed according to their degree of processing (moderately/nonprocessed foods, processed staple foods, highly processed foods). Adjusted ecological and individual correlations were calculated between processed food intakes and plasma elaidic acid levels. At the population level, mean intakes of highly processed foods were strongly correlated with mean levels of plasma elaidic acid in men (P = 0.0016) and in women (P = 0.0012). At the individual level, these associations remained but at a much lower level in men (r = 0.08, P = 0.006) and in women (r = 0.09, P = 0.0001). The use of an averaged 24-HDR measure of highly processed food intakes is adequate for predicting mean levels of plasma elaidic acid among European populations.

  11. Intake port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  12. The intake of long chain omega 3 fatty acids through fish versus capsules results in greater increments of their plasma levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visioli Francesco

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Omega 3 fatty acids from fish appear to be more cardioprotective than equivalent amounts provided as capsules. We gave volunteers, for six weeks, either 100 g\\\\day of salmon, providing 383 mg of EPA and 544 mg of DHA or one or three capsules of fish oil\\\\day, providing 150 mg of EPA and 106 mg of DHA or 450 mg of EPA and 318 mg of DHA. We also re-evaluated data from a previous study carried out with the same design. Marked increments in plasma EPA and DHA concentrations (μg\\\\mg total lipid and percentages of total fatty acids were recorded at the end of either treatment. Such increments were linearly and significantly correlated with the dose after capsule administration. Notably, increments in plasma EPA and DHA concentration after salmon intake were significantly higher than after administration of capsules. In fact, the same increments would be obtained with at least two- and nine-fold higher doses of EPA and DHA, respectively, if administered with capsules rather than salmon. In turn, we provide experimental evidence that omega 3 fatty acids from fish are more effectively incorporated into plasma lipids than when administered as capsules and that increments in plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA given as capsules are linearly correlated with their intakes.

  13. Intake of dietary saturated fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort: associations by types, sources of fatty acids and substitution by macronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengxin; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Sluijs, Ivonne

    2018-03-09

    The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the substituting macronutrients. 37,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) cohort were included in this study. Baseline dietary intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. T2D risks were estimated by Cox regression models adjusted for non-dietary and dietary covariates. 893 incident T2D cases were documented during 10.1-year follow-up. We observed no association between total SFA and T2D risk. Marginally inverse associations were found for lauric acid (HR per 1 SD of energy%, 95% CI 0.92, 0.85-0.99), myristic acid (0.89, 0.79-0.99), margaric acid (0.84, 0.73-0.97), odd-chain SFA (pentadecylic plus margaric acids; 0.88, 0.79-0.99), and cheese derived SFA (0.90, 0.83-0.98). Soft and liquid fats derived SFA was found related to higher T2D risk (1.08, 1.01-1.17). When substituting SFA by proteins, carbohydrates and polyunsaturated fatty acids, significantly higher risks of T2D were observed (HRs per 1 energy% ranging from 1.05 to 1.15). In this Dutch population, total SFA does not relate to T2D risk. Rather, the association may depend on the types and food sources of SFA. Cheese-derived SFA and individual SFA that are commonly found in cheese, were significantly related to lower T2D risks. We cannot exclude the higher T2D risks found for soft and liquid fats derived SFA and for substituting SFA with other macronutrients are influenced by residual confounding by trans fatty acids or limited intake variation in polyunsaturated fatty acids and vegetable protein.

  14. Production of volatile fatty acid in the rumen and its relationship with their concentration, intake of dry matter and digestible organic matter in buffalo (Bos bubalis) calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1979-01-01

    The production rates of total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) in the rumen of buffalo (Bos bubalis) calves were estimated using a single injection isotope dilution technique. A series of twelve experiments were done with animals given wheat straw and concentrate mixture. The production rate of TVFA ranged from 19.77 to 24.84 moles/d depending upon the amount of food consumed by the animals. Highly significant correlations were observed between TVFA production and their concentration, dry matter and digestible organic matter intake. (auth.)

  15. Fish intake, erythrocyte n-3 fatty acid status and metabolic health in Danish adolescent girls and boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Harsløf, Laurine B. S.; Hellgren, Lars

    2012-01-01

    the effects of n-3 LCPUFA in adolescence. The present study examines associations between fish intake (assessed by a 7 d pre-coded food diary), erythrocyte (RBC) DHA status (analysed by GC) and metabolic syndrome measures (anthropometry, blood pressure and plasma lipids, insulin and glucose) in 109 17-year......-old children from the Copenhagen Birth Cohort Study. Of the children, 8% were overweight or obese and few showed signs of the metabolic syndrome, but all the metabolic syndrome variables were correlated. Median fish intake was 10·7 (interquartile range 3·6–21·2) g/d. Boys tended to have a higher fish intake (P......¼0·052), but girls had significantly higher RBC levels of DHA (P¼0·001). Sex and fish intake explained 37% of the variance in RBC-DHA (P,0·001). After adjusting for confounders, high DHA status was found to be significantly correlated with higher systolic blood pressure (P¼0·014) and increased...

  16. Influence of air intake on the concentration of free fatty acids and vacuum fluctuations during automatic milking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Dam; Wiking, Lars; Bjerring, Martin

    2006-01-01

    and varied from 0.77 to 0.94 mEq/L of milk for the 5 AMS models on the Danish market. Fault detection in 55 herds pointed out that the most frequent faults in conventional herds were air leakages and intake of too much air in the cluster, whereas AMS herds had problems with the cooling and stirring of milk...

  17. Fish oil in combination with high or low intakes of linoleic acid lowers plasma triacylglycerols but does not affect other cardiovascular risk markers in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Andersen, Anders D.

    2008-01-01

    with a high- or low-LA intake affects overall CVD risk profile. Healthy men (n = 64) were randomized to 5 mL/d fish oil capsules (FO) [mean intake 3.1 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil capsules (control) and to oils and spreads with either a high (S/B) or a low (R/K) LA content, resulting in a 7.3 g/d higher LA......Both (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) and linoleic acid [LA, 18:2(n-6)] improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but a high-LA intake may weaken the effect of (n-3) LCPUFA. In a controlled, double-blind, 2 x 2-factorial 8-wk intervention, we investigated whether fish oil combined......, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, P-selectin, oxidized LDL, cluster of differentiation antigen 40 ligand (CD40L), adiponectin, or fasting or postprandial BP or HR after adjustment for body weight changes. In conclusion, neither fish oil supplementation nor the LA...

  18. No evidence of differential effects of SFA, MUFA or PUFA on post-ingestive satiety and energy intake: a randomised trial of fatty acid saturation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Strik, Caroline M

    2010-05-24

    Abstract Background High fat diets have long been associated with weight gain and obesity, and the weak satiety response elicited in response to dietary lipids is likely to play a role. Suppression of appetite and food intake has consistently been shown to be diminished with high fat relative to either high protein or carbohydrate meals. There is however some evidence that the satiating capacity of lipids may be modulated when physicochemical properties are altered, but studies investigating the effect of lipid saturation on appetite have generated inconsistent findings. This study investigated the effects of changes in fatty acid saturation on post-ingestive satiety and energy intake. Methods High-fat (HF) test breakfasts (2.0 MJ) containing 26 g lipid were given to 18 healthy, lean men in a 3 treatment randomised cross-over design, each treatment separated by a washout of at least 3 days. The breakfasts were high in saturated (SFA, 65% of total fat), polyunsaturated (PUFA, 76%) or monounsaturated (MUFA, 76%) fatty acids, and comprised 2 savoury muffins. Participants rated appetite sensations using visual analogue scales (VAS) to assess palatability immediately following the meals, and hunger and fullness prior to the HF breakfast and throughout the day. Energy intake was measured by covert weighing of a lunch meal which was served 3.5 h after the breakfast, and from which the participants ate ad libitum. Results There was no difference in VAS ratings of pleasantness, visual appearance, smell, taste, aftertaste and overall palatability between the 3 high-fat test breakfasts. However, there was also no differential effect of the 3 treatments on ratings of hunger, fullness, satisfaction or prospective food consumption during the 3.5 h following the breakfast meal and over the full 6 h experiment. Energy and macronutrient intake at lunch also did not differ between treatments (mean, sem; SFA: 5275.9 ± 286.5 kJ; PUFA: 5227.7 ± 403.9 kJ; MUFA: 5215.6 ± 329.5 kJ; P

  19. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in adults on hemodialysis: The DIET-HD multinational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglimbene, Valeria M; Wong, Germaine; Ruospo, Marinella; Palmer, Suetonia C; Campbell, Katrina; Larsen, Vanessa Garcia; Natale, Patrizia; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Carrero, Juan-Jesus; Stenvinkel, Peter; Gargano, Letizia; Murgo, Angelo M; Johnson, David W; Tonelli, Marcello; Gelfman, Rubén; Celia, Eduardo; Ecder, Tevfik; Bernat, Amparo G; Del Castillo, Domingo; Timofte, Delia; Török, Marietta; Bednarek-Skublewska, Anna; Duława, Jan; Stroumza, Paul; Hoischen, Susanne; Hansis, Martin; Fabricius, Elisabeth; Wollheim, Charlotta; Hegbrant, Jörgen; Craig, Jonathan C; Strippoli, Giovanni F M

    2017-12-06

    Patients on hemodialysis suffer from high risk of premature death, which is largely attributed to cardiovascular disease, but interventions targeting traditional cardiovascular risk factors have made little or no difference. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are putative candidates to reduce cardiovascular disease. Diets rich in n-3 PUFA are recommended in the general population, although their role in the hemodialysis setting is uncertain. We evaluated the association between the dietary intake of n-3 PUFA and mortality for hemodialysis patients. The DIET-HD study is a prospective cohort study (January 2014-June 2017) in 9757 adults treated with hemodialysis in Europe and South America. Dietary n-3 PUFA intake was measured at baseline using the GA 2 LEN Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adjusted Cox regression analyses clustered by country were conducted to evaluate the association of dietary n-3 PUFA intake with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. During a median follow up of 2.7 years (18,666 person-years), 2087 deaths were recorded, including 829 attributable to cardiovascular causes. One third of the study participants consumed sufficient (at least 1.75 g/week) n-3 PUFA recommended for primary cardiovascular prevention, and less than 10% recommended for secondary prevention (7-14 g/week). Compared to patients with the lowest tertile of dietary n-3 PUFA intake (<0.37 g/week), the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for cardiovascular mortality for patients in the middle (0.37 to <1.8 g/week) and highest (≥1.8 g/week) tertiles of n-3 PUFA were 0.82 (0.69-0.98) and 1.03 (0.84-1.26), respectively. Corresponding adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.96 (0.86-1.08) and 1.00 (0.88-1.13), respectively. Dietary n-3 PUFA intake was not associated with cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in patients on hemodialysis. As dietary n-3 PUFA intake was low, the possibility that n-3 PUFA supplementation might mitigate

  20. Dynamics of body protein deposition and changes in body composition after sudden changes in amino acid intake: I. Barrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramírez, H R; Jeaurond, E A; de Lange, C F M

    2008-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the extent and dynamics of whole body protein deposition and changes in chemical and physical body composition after a period of AA intake restriction in growing barrows with medium lean tissue growth potentials. Forty Yorkshire barrows (initial BW 14.4 +/- 1.6 kg) were scale-fed at 75% of estimated voluntary daily DE intake up to 35 kg of BW and assigned to 1 of 2 diets: AA adequate (AA+; 20% above requirements; NRC, 1998) and AA deficient (AA-; 40% below requirements; restriction phase). Thereafter (re-alimentation phase), pigs from both dietary AA levels were scale-fed or fed ad libitum diets that were not limiting in AA. Body weight gain and body composition, based on serial slaughter, were monitored during the 34-d re-alimentation phase. During the restriction phase AA intake restriction reduced BW gains (556 vs. 410 g/d; P alimentation phase (P > 0.10). Throughout the re-alimentation phase, there were no interactive effects of time, feeding level, and previous AA intake level on growth performance, body protein, and body lipid content (P > 0.10). During the re-alimentation phase, body protein deposition, derived from the linear regression analysis of body protein content vs. time, was not affected by feeding level and previous AA intake level (P > 0.10; 156 g/d for AA- vs. 157 g/d for AA+). Based on BW and body protein content, it can be concluded that no compensatory body protein deposition occurred in barrows, with medium lean tissue growth potential after AA intake restriction between 15 and 35 kg of BW. It is suggested that the upper limit to body protein deposition was the main factor that limited the extent of compensatory body protein deposition in this population of pigs. The concept of an upper limit to body protein deposition may be used to explain why compensatory growth is observed in some studies and not in others.

  1. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of residual feed intake measures and their component traits with fatty acid composition in subcutaneous adipose of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Ekine-Dzivenu, C; Vinsky, M; Basarab, J A; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R; Li, C

    2017-07-01

    Feed efficiency is of particular interest to the beef industry because feed is the largest variable cost in production and fatty acid composition is emerging as an important trait, both economically and socially, due to the potential implications of dietary fatty acids on human health. Quantifying correlations between feed efficiency and fatty acid composition will contribute to construction of optimal multiple-trait selection indexes to maximize beef production profitability. In the present study, we estimated phenotypic and genetic correlations of feed efficiency measures including residual feed intake (RFI), RFI adjusted for final ultrasound backfat thickness (RFIf); their component traits ADG, DMI, and metabolic BW; and final ultrasound backfat thickness measured at the end of feedlot test with 25 major fatty acids in the subcutaneous adipose tissues of 1,366 finishing steers and heifers using bivariate animal models. The phenotypic correlations of RFI and RFIf with the 25 individual and grouped fatty acid traits were generally low (ratio (0.52 ± 0.29 and 0.45 ± 0.31, respectively), 18:2-6 (0.45 ± 0.18 and 0.40 ± 0.19, respectively), -6 (0.43 ± 0.18 and 0.38 ± 0.19, respectively), PUFA (0.42 ± 0.18 and 0.36 ± 0.20, respectively), and 9-16:1 (-0.43 ± 0.20 and -0.33 ± 0.22, respectively) were observed. Hence, selection for low-RFI or more efficient beef cattle will improve fatty acid profiles by lowering the content of -6 PUFA, thus reducing the ratio of -6 to -3 along with increasing the amount of 9-16:1. Moderate to moderately high genetic correlations were also observed for DMI with 9-14:1 (-0.32 ± 0.17) and the sum of CLA analyzed (SumCLA; -0.45 ± 0.21), suggesting that selection of beef cattle with lower DMI will lead to an increase amount of 9-14:1 and SumCLA in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, unfavorable genetic correlations were detected for ADG with 11-18:1 (-0.38 ± 0.23) and SumCLA (-0.73 ± 0.26), implying that selection of beef

  2. The effect of fatty acid positioning in dietary triacylglycerols and intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone mineral accretion in growing piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Daniel; Ludvig, Stine E; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2013-01-01

    compared with a control (CONT) and if increasing n-3LCPUFA intake giving fish oil (FO) compared with sunflower oil (SO) would affect bone parameters in piglets in two sets of controlled 14d-interventions (n=12/group). We assessed this by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative...

  3. Effect of 12 weeks aerobic exercise for along with folic acid supplementation on the levels of the ghrelin hormone amount of food intake and weight changes of female Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Parvizi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Results of numerous studies have shown that approximately 1 to 78 percent of female athletes suffer from eating disorders. On the other hand, it has been mentioned that folic acid could increase appetite. The ghrelin hormone is known as a strong stimulant for appetite. Therefore, to clarify the role of exercise and food intake of folic acid on plasma acylated ghrelin the study aim was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of aerobic training on ghrelin supplementation of folic acid and quantity of food intake and weight change in female rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, 24 rats were randomly divided into three groups of 8 including: control, training and training along with folic acid supplementation. The training protocol consisted of aerobic exercise running on a treadmill for 12 weeks (5 days a week. Standard meal and water were freely provided for the subjects and in the supplement group 10 mg dissolved folic acid per liter of water were used and then the food intake and body weight was measured every week. 24 hours after the last session of training and 8 hours of overnight fasting, blood and tissue samples were collected and hormones levels were measured using Eliza method. To data analyzing, one way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test was used. Results: The results showed that 12 weeks of  aerobic training with folic acid supplementation had significantly reduced serum acylated ghrelin levels (P0.05. The 12-week aerobic training with folic acid intake in comparison with other groups significantly increased food intake and body weight gain (p < 0.05. Conclusion: According to the acylated ghrelin reduction and lack of change in the stomach acylated ghrelin with increased food intake and body weight in rats, it seems that taking folic acid supplements inactive athletes with another strong mechanism, increasing consumption of food and influence on appetite center.

  4. Comparing the Effect of Diets Treated with Different Organic Acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to compare the growth and economics of adding organic acids to diets of broiler chickens. The organic acids were sorbic benzoic lactic and propionic acids. 150 day old Hubbard chicks were used. There were five treatments. Diet 1 which served as control contained no organic acid. Diets 2, 3 ...

  5. The effect of increasing the nutrient and amino acid concentration of milk diets on dairy heifer individual feed intake, growth, development, and lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerison, J K; Robarts, A D J; Reynolds, G W

    2013-10-01

    Increasing early (dairy calves has been found to increase their milk production potential. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of offering milk diets with or without added carbohydrates and amino acids on calf growth, weaning age, and subsequent growth and milk yield of dairy heifers in their first lactation. Friesian calves born at Massey University (n=57) were selected at random, weighed, and allocated to receive 1 of 3 diets. All calves were fed colostrum from 1 to 3d of age, followed by 4 L of whole milk (WM) per head per day and probiotics between 3 and 18d of age. At 18d of age, calves were weighed to ensure mean body weight (BW); then, at 19 d of age, calves changed diets to 1 of 3 treatments, which reached full treatment rate at 21 d of age. The diets were 4 L/head per day of WM (M); 4 L/head per day of WM plus 200 g of plant carbohydrates (MP); and 4 L/head per day of WM plus 200 g of plant carbohydrates with amino acids (MPA). Calves were weaned upon reaching a BW of 90 kg. During this period, BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured. The heifers were commingled and grazed on ryegrass and white clover pastures until calving at 23 mo of age, when BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured again. Milk yield and composition were measured throughout first lactation. At weaning, calves fed MPA had greater mean BW gain, a lower number of days to target BW, and a greater mean hip width gain compared with calves in the M group, although mean gain in hip height did not differ among treatments. Total calf starter intake during the milk period was lower for MPA-fed calves compared with those offered M, mainly due to a shorter milk feeding period required to attain the 90-kg weaning weight, whereas mean daily starter intake and straw intake did not differ. No difference was observed in the calving rate or calving age of heifers in any of the dietary feeding groups. First lactation fat-corrected milk yield, milk fat

  6. Selective enrichment of n-3 fatty acids in human plasma lipid motifs following intake of marine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are associated with a reduction in risk of cardiovascular disease and other chronic, age-related diseases like Alzheimer’s disease. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that n-3 LCPUFA fatty acids in human plasma are incorporated...

  7. Postprandial Differences in the Amino Acid and Biogenic Amines Profiles of Impaired Fasting Glucose Individuals after Intake of Highland Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the postprandial changes in amino acid and biogenic amine profiles in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG and to investigate the changes of postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles after a meal of highland barley (HB. Firstly, 50 IFG and 50 healthy individuals were recruited for the measurement of 2 h postprandial changes of amino acid and biogenic amine profiles after a glucose load. Secondly, IFG individuals received three different loads: Glucose (GL, white rice (WR and HB. Amino acid and biogenic amine profiles, glucose and insulin were assayed at time zero and 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the test load. The results showed fasting and postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles were different between the IFG group and the controls. The level of most amino acids and their metabolites decreased after an oral glucose tolerance test, while the postprandial level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA increased significantly in IFG individuals. After three different test loads, the area under the curve for glucose, insulin, lysine and GABA after a HB load decreased significantly compared to GL and WR loads. Furthermore, the postprandial changes in the level of GABA between time zero and 120 min during a HB load were associated positively with 2 h glucose and fasting insulin secretion in the IFG individuals. Thus, the HB load produced low postprandial glucose and insulin responses, which induced changes in amino acid and biogenic amine profiles and improved insulin sensitivity.

  8. Maternal intake of fatty acids and their food sources during lactation and the risk of preclinical and clinical type 1 diabetes in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinistö, S; Takkinen, H-M; Uusitalo, L; Rautanen, J; Vainio, N; Ahonen, S; Nevalainen, J; Kenward, M G; Lumia, M; Simell, O; Veijola, R; Ilonen, J; Knip, M; Virtanen, S M

    2015-08-01

    We examined maternal dietary intake of fatty acids and foods which are sources of fatty acids during lactation and whether they are associated with the risk of preclinical and clinical type 1 diabetes in the offspring. The subjects comprised a cohort of 2,939 mother-child pairs from the prospective Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. Composition of maternal diet during the third month of lactation was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Among the children with HLA-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes, 172 developed preclinical and 81 clinical diabetes. Average follow-up for preclinical type 1 diabetes was 7.5 years (range 0.2-14.0 years) and for clinical type 1 diabetes 7.7 years (0.2-14.0 years). Maternal intake of fatty acids during lactation was not associated with the risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring. After adjusting for putative confounders, maternal total consumption of red meat and meat products during lactation was associated both with increased risk for preclinical [hazard ratio (HR) 1.19, 95 % CI 1.02-1.40, p = 0.038] and clinical type 1 diabetes (HR 1.27, 95 % CI 1.06-1.52, p = 0.025). In particular, consumption of processed meat products showed an association with increased risk for type 1 diabetes (HR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.02-1.48, p = 0.045). Maternal use of vegetable oils was associated with increased risk for preclinical type 1 diabetes (HR 1.21, 95 % CI 1.03-1.41, p = 0.023). Maternal consumption of red meat, especially processed meat, during lactation may increase the risk of type 1 diabetes.

  9. Plasma concentrations and intakes of amino acids in male meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans: a cross-sectional analysis in the EPIC-Oxford cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J A; Rinaldi, S; Scalbert, A; Ferrari, P; Achaintre, D; Gunter, M J; Appleby, P N; Key, T J; Travis, R C

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the differences in plasma concentrations and in intakes of amino acids between male meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. This cross-sectional analysis included 392 men, aged 30-49 years. Plasma amino acid concentrations were measured with a targeted metabolomic approach using mass spectrometry, and dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Differences between diet groups in mean plasma concentrations and intakes of amino acids were examined using analysis of variance, controlling for potential confounding factors and multiple testing. In plasma, concentrations of 6 out of 21 amino acids varied significantly by diet group, with differences of -13% to +16% between meat-eaters and vegans. Concentrations of methionine, tryptophan and tyrosine were highest in fish-eaters and vegetarians, followed by meat-eaters, and lowest in vegans. A broadly similar pattern was seen for lysine, whereas alanine concentration was highest in fish-eaters and lowest in meat-eaters. For glycine, vegans had the highest concentration and meat-eaters the lowest. Intakes of all 18 dietary amino acids differed by diet group; for the majority of these, intake was highest in meat-eaters followed by fish-eaters, then vegetarians and lowest in vegans (up to 47% lower than in meat-eaters). Men belonging to different habitual diet groups have significantly different plasma concentrations of lysine, methionine, tryptophan, alanine, glycine and tyrosine. However, the differences in plasma concentrations were less marked than and did not necessarily mirror those seen for amino acid intakes.

  10. Polyinosine-polycytidylic acid promotes excessive iodine intake induced thyroiditis in non-obese diabetic mice via Toll-like receptor 3 mediated inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ya-nan; Liu, Feng-hua; Yu, Xiu-jie; Liu, Ze-bing; Li, Qing-xin; Yuan, Ji-hong; Zang, Xiao-yi; Li, Lan-ying

    2013-02-01

    Excessive iodine intake and viral infection are recognized as both critical factors associated with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been reported to play an important role in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. In this study, we aimed to clarify the possible mechanism of TLR3 involved in polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) promoting excessive iodine intake induced thyroiditis in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Both NOD and BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to four groups: control group (n = 5), high iodine intake (HI) group (n = 7), poly(I:C) group (n = 7) and combination of excessive iodine and poly(I:C) injection (HIP) group (n = 7). After 8 weeks, mice were weighed and blood samples were collected. All the mice were sacrificed before dissection of spleen and thyroid gland. Then, thyroid histology, thyroid secreted hormone, expression of CD3(+) cells and TLR3 as well as inflammatory mRNA level were evaluated. Both NOD and BALB/c mice from HI and HIP group represented goiter and increasing thyroid relative weight. Thyroid histology evidence indicated that only HIP group of NOD mice showed severe thyroiditis with lymphocytes infiltration in majority of thyroid tissue, severe damage of follicles and general fibrosis. Immunofluorescence staining results displayed a large number of CD3(+) cells in HIP NOD mice. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results suggested interferon (IFN)-α increased over 30 folds and IFN-γ expression was doubled compared with control group, but interleukin (IL)-4 remained unchanged in HIP group of NOD mice thyroid. Meanwhile, over one third decrease of blood total thyroxine (TT4) and increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was observed in HIP group of NOD mice. Only HIP group of NOD mice represented significantly elevation of TLR3 expression. Poly(I:C) enhanced excessive dietary iodine induced thyroiditis in NOD mice through increasing TLR3 mediated inflammation.

  11. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of some Schiff bases derived from 4-aminobenzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIGNA PAREKH

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The following Schiff bases have been synthesized: (1 4-[(2-chlorobenzylidene amino]benzoic acid [JP1], (2 4-[(furan-2-ylmethyleneamino]benzoic acid [JP2], (3 4-[(3-phenylallylideneamino]benzoic acid [JP3], (4 4-[(2-hydroxybenzylidene amino]benzoic acid [JP4], (5 4-[(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino]benzoic acid [JP5] and (6 4-[(3-nitrobenzylideneamino]benzoic acid [JP6]. They were screened as potential antibacterial agents against a number of medically important bacterial strains. The antibacterial activity was studied against A. faecalis ATCC 8750, E. aerogenes ATCC 13048, E. coli ATCC 25922, K. pneumoniae NCIM 2719, S. aureus ATCC 25923, P. vulgaris NCIM 8313, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and S. typhimurium ATCC 23564. The antibacterial activity was evaluated using the Agar Ditch method. The solvents used were 1,4-dioxane and dimethyl sulfoxide. Different effects of the compounds were found in the bacterial strains investigated and the solvents used, suggesting, once again, that the antibacterial activity is dependent on the molecular structure of the compound, the solvent used and the bacterial strain under consideration. In the present work, 1,4-dioxane proved to be a good solvent in inhibiting the above stated bacterial strains.

  12. Providing a diet deficient in valine but with excess leucine results in a rapid decrease in feed intake and modifies the postprandial plasma amino acid and α-keto acid concentrations in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloaguen, M; Le Floc'h, N; Corrent, E; Primot, Y; van Milgen, J

    2012-09-01

    Indispensable AA are involved in the control of feed intake. When a diet deficient in Val is offered to pigs, feed intake is typically reduced. This effect is aggravated when dietary Leu is supplied in excess of the requirement. If an unbalanced supply of branched-chain AA (BCAA) is harmful, an anorectic response may serve as a mechanism to prevent this situation. We verified this hypothesis by measuring the voluntary feed intake of a balanced diet offered during the 30-min period 1 h after ingestion of a test meal deficient or not in Val (Val- and Val+) with an excess of Leu. Twelve and four 6-wk-old crossbred female pigs were used in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Prior ingestion of the Val- test meal resulted in a 14% reduction in feed intake compared with that observed after ingestion of the Val+ test meal (P = 0.06) in Exp. 1, indicating that the signal to reduce feed intake occurred within 1 h. It is possible that the plasma concentration of the limiting AA serves as a signal for the dietary AA deficiency. We therefore determined the postprandial plasma concentrations of BCAA and their α-keto acids after ingestion of Val- and Val+ in 4 pigs in Exp. 2. After ingestion of the Val- diet, plasma concentrations of Val and its keto acid were reduced compared with values observed after ingestion of the Val+ diet. The peak concentration occurred earlier after ingestion of the Val- diet compared with that of the Val+ diet. Although the plasma concentration increased after the meal, it declined rapidly in pigs offered Val-, and the Val concentration 4 h after ingestion of the meal was even less than that observed in the fasted state. In conclusion, it appears that the pig is able to detect a deficient supply of Val within 1 h after ingestion. The plasma concentration of Val or its concentration relative to the other BCAA during the postprandial period may act as a signal indicating the AA deficiency.

  13. Intake of branched-chain amino acids influences the levels of MAFbx mRNA and MuRF-1 total protein in resting and exercising human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgenvik, Marcus; Apró, William; Blomstrand, Eva

    2012-03-01

    Resistance exercise and amino acids are two major factors that influence muscle protein turnover. Here, we examined the effects of resistance exercise and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), individually and in combination, on the expression of anabolic and catabolic genes in human skeletal muscle. Seven subjects performed two sessions of unilateral leg press exercise with randomized supplementation with BCAA or flavored water. Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle of both the resting and exercising legs before and repeatedly after exercise to determine levels of mRNA, protein phosphorylation, and amino acid concentrations. Intake of BCAA reduced (P exercising legs, respectively. The level of MuRF-1 mRNA was elevated (P exercising leg two- and threefold under the placebo and BCAA conditions, respectively, whereas MuRF-1 total protein increased by 20% (P exercising muscle. In conclusion, BCAA ingestion reduced MAFbx mRNA and prevented the exercise-induced increase in MuRF-1 total protein in both resting and exercising leg. Further-more, resistance exercise differently influenced MAFbx and MuRF-1 mRNA expression, suggesting both common and divergent regulation of these two ubiquitin ligases.

  14. Phenolic acid intake, delivered via moderate champagne wine consumption, improves spatial working memory via the modulation of hippocampal and cortical protein expression/activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Giulia; Vauzour, David; Hercelin, Justine; Williams, Claire M; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2013-11-10

    While much data exist for the effects of flavonoid-rich foods on spatial memory in rodents, there are no such data for foods/beverages predominantly containing hydroxycinnamates and phenolic acids. To address this, we investigated the effects of moderate Champagne wine intake, which is rich in these components, on spatial memory and related mechanisms relative to the alcohol- and energy-matched controls. In contrast to the isocaloric and alcohol-matched controls, supplementation with Champagne wine (1.78 ml/kg BW, alcohol 12.5% vol.) for 6 weeks led to an improvement in spatial working memory in aged rodents. Targeted protein arrays indicated that these behavioral effects were paralleled by the differential expression of a number of hippocampal and cortical proteins (relative to the isocaloric control group), including those involved in signal transduction, neuroplasticity, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. Western immunoblotting confirmed the differential modulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cAMP response-element-binding protein (CREB), p38, dystrophin, 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and Bcl-xL in response to Champagne supplementation compared to the control drink, and the modulation of mTOR, Bcl-xL, and CREB in response to alcohol supplementation. Our data suggest that smaller phenolics such as gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, tyrosol, caftaric acid, and caffeic acid, in addition to flavonoids, are capable of exerting improvements in spatial memory via the modulation in hippocampal signaling and protein expression. Changes in spatial working memory induced by the Champagne supplementation are linked to the effects of absorbed phenolics on cytoskeletal proteins, neurotrophin expression, and the effects of alcohol on the regulation of apoptotic events in the hippocampus and cortex.

  15. Interaction between dietary marine-derived n-3 fatty acids intake and J-point elevation on the risk of cardiac death: a 24-year follow-up of Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisamatsu, Takashi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Miyagawa, Naoko; Kadota, Aya; Takashima, Naoyuki; Okuda, Nagako; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Yoshita, Katsushi; Kita, Yoshikuni; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Horie, Minoru; Okayama, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2013-07-01

    Higher marine-derived n-3 fatty acids (MDn3FAs) intake reduces the risk of sudden cardiac death via antiarrhythmic effects. The article evaluates whether MDn3FAs intake attenuates the increased risk of cardiac death associated with J-point elevation (JPE), characterised by an elevation of QRS-ST junction (J-point) ≥0.1 mV on electrocardiography. A prospective population-based cohort study. The National Survey on Circulatory Disorders and the National Nutrition Survey of Japan. A total of 4348 community-dwelling men (mean age 49.3 years), without cardiovascular diseases at baseline, from randomly selected areas across Japan. Cardiac death (200 men) during the 24-year follow-up. Dietary MDn3FAs intake was assessed using a dietary method to estimate individual intake of household-based weighed food records for 3 days. Cox models were used to calculate HRs and 95% CIs adjusted for possible confounding factors. JPE was present in 340 participants (7.8%). The median daily intake of MDn3FAs was 0.35%kcal (0.92 g/day). The risk of cardiac death was significantly higher in participants with JPE than in those without JPE in the low intake group (death was statistically significant (p=0.006). The increased risk of cardiac death associated with JPE may be attenuated by higher dietary MDn3FAs intake.

  16. Effect of trans-fatty acid intake on insulin sensitivity and intramuscular lipids - a randomized trial in overweight postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Haugaard, Steen; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2011-01-01

    lipid deposition in abdominally obese women. In a double-blind, parallel dietary intervention study, 52 healthy but overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil (15 g/d TFA) or a control oil (mainly oleic and palmitic acid) for 16 weeks. Three......-nine women completed the study. Insulin sensitivity (assessed by ISI(composite)), β-cell function (the disposition index), and the metabolic clearance rate of insulin were not significantly affected by the dietary intervention. Neither was the ability of insulin to suppress plasma nonesterified fatty acid...

  17. Intake of very long-chain n-3 fatty acids from fish and incidence of atrial fibrillation. The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.A.; Heeringa, J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Zock, P.L.; Witteman, J.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality through an increased risk of thromboembolic stroke. Experimental as well as observational evidence suggests that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may have antiarrhythmic

  18. Postdelivery changes in maternal and infant erythrocyte fatty acids in 3 populations differing in fresh water fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Sango, Wicklif S.; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Long-chain polyunsaturated (LCP) fatty acids (FA) are important during infant development. Mother-to-infant FA-transport occurs at the expense of the maternal status. Maternal and infant FA-status change rapidly after delivery. Methods: Comparison of maternal (mRBC) and infant

  19. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus123

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik, Manas; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Spiegelman, Donna; Manson, JoAnn E; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2009-01-01

    Background: Diet is a key component of a healthy lifestyle in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The role of long-chain omega-3 (n–3) fatty acids (LCFAs) in the development of T2DM remains unresolved.

  20. Intake of specific fatty acids and fat alters growth, health, and titers following vaccination in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselburn, K M; O'Diam, K M; Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L; Daniels, K M

    2013-09-01

    Typical fatty acid profiles of milk and milk replacer (MR) differ. Calf MR in the United States are made from animal fat, which are low in short- and medium-chain fatty acids and linolenic acid. Two 56-d trials compared a control MR containing 27% crude protein and formulated with 3 fat and fatty acid compositions. The 3 MR treatments were (1) only animal fat totaling 17% fat (CON), (2) animal fat supplemented with butyrate, medium-chain fatty acids, and linolenic acid using a commercial product (1.25% NeoTec4 MR; Provimi North America, Brookville, OH) totaling 17% fat (fatty acid-supplemented; FA-S), and (3) milk fat totaling 33% fat (MF). The MR were fed at 660 g of dry matter from d 0 to 42 and weaned. Starter (20% crude protein) and water were fed ad libitum for 56 d. Trial 1 utilized Holstein calves (24 female, 24 male) during summer months and trial 2 utilized Holstein calves (48 male) during fall months. Calves (41±1 kg of initial body weight; 2 to 3d of age) were sourced from a single farm and housed in a naturally ventilated nursery without added heat. Calves were in individual pens with straw bedding. Calf was the experimental unit. Data for each trial were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a 3 (MR treatment) × 2 (sex) factorial arrangement of treatments in trial 1 with repeated measures and as a completely randomized design with 3 MR treatments in trial 2 with repeated measures. Preplanned contrast statements of treatments CON versus FA-S and CON versus MF were used to separate means. We found no interactions of MR treatment by sex. Calf average daily gain, hip width change, and feed efficiency differed (CONFA-S). Titers to bovine respiratory parainfluenza-3 and bovine virus diarrhea type 1 (vaccinations to these pathogens were on d 7 and 28) in serum samples taken on d 49 and 56 differed (CONFA-S; CONFA-S; CON>MF). Calves fed FA-S and MF had improved growth and feed efficiency compared with calves fed CON, whereas calves fed FA-S also

  1. Complement C3 is inversely associated with habitual intake of provitamin A but not with dietary fat, fatty acids, or vitamin E in Middle-aged to older white adults and positively associated with intake of retinol in middle-aged to older white women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greevenbroek, M.M.; Arts, I.C.W.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Ferreira, I.; Jansen, G.H.E.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Complement factor 3 (C3) has been identified as a novel risk factor for obesity-associated cardiometabolic diseases. Data in the literature suggest that C3 concentrations may be influenced by diet. Therefore, we investigated the associations of intake of total fat, specific fatty acids, and

  2. Lipid profiling following intake of the omega 3 fatty acid DHA identifies the peroxidized metabolites F4-neuroprostanes as the best predictors of atherosclerosis prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladine, Cécile; Newman, John W; Durand, Thierry; Pedersen, Theresa L; Galano, Jean-Marie; Demougeot, Céline; Berdeaux, Olivier; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Mazur, Andrzej; Comte, Blandine

    2014-01-01

    The anti-atherogenic effects of omega 3 fatty acids, namely eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) are well recognized but the impact of dietary intake on bioactive lipid mediator profiles remains unclear. Such a profiling effort may offer novel targets for future studies into the mechanism of action of omega 3 fatty acids. The present study aimed to determine the impact of DHA supplementation on the profiles of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) oxygenated metabolites and to investigate their contribution to atherosclerosis prevention. A special emphasis was given to the non-enzymatic metabolites knowing the high susceptibility of DHA to free radical-mediated peroxidation and the increased oxidative stress associated with plaque formation. Atherosclerosis prone mice (LDLR(-/-)) received increasing doses of DHA (0, 0.1, 1 or 2% of energy) during 20 weeks leading to a dose-dependent reduction of atherosclerosis (R(2) = 0.97, p = 0.02), triglyceridemia (R(2) = 0.97, p = 0.01) and cholesterolemia (R(2) = 0.96, pF4-neuroprostanes, a specific class of DHA peroxidized metabolites, was strongly correlated with the hepatic DHA level. Moreover, unbiased statistical analysis including correlation analyses, hierarchical cluster and projection to latent structure discriminate analysis revealed that the hepatic level of F4-neuroprostanes was the variable most negatively correlated with the plaque extent (pF4-neuroprostanes in particular, are potential biomarkers of DHA-associated atherosclerosis prevention. While these may contribute to the anti-atherogenic effects of DHA, further in vitro investigations are needed to confirm such a contention and to decipher the molecular mechanisms of action.

  3. Efficacy of fatty acid chemistry : candidate mold and decay fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Coleman; Vina Yang; Bessie Woodward; Patti Lebow; Carol Clausen

    2010-01-01

    Although organic, lipophilic acids, such as acetic, propionic, sorbic and benzoic, have a long history as preservatives in the food industry, relatively high concentrations are required and their bioactivities generally pertain to retarding microbial growth rather than eliminating pathogens. Moreover, exclusive use of organic acids such as lactic or citric acid, alone...

  4. The effect of Eimeria maxima infection on the expression of amino acid and sugar transporters aminopeptidase, as well as the di- and tri-peptide transporter PepT1, is not solely due to decreased feed intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria in poultry is endemic to poultry operations and results in decreased feed intake, diarrhea, and decreased weight gain. The goal was to determine the effect infection Eimeria maxima on the expression of genes that encode peptide and amino acid transporters (AATs), and al...

  5. Odd Chain Fatty Acids, New Insights of the Relationship Between the Gut Microbiota, Dietary Intake, Biosynthesis and Glucose Intolerance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jenkins, B.J.; Seyssel, K.; Chiu, S.; Pan, P.-H.; Lin, S.-Y.; Stanley, E.; Ament, Z.; West, J.A.; Summerhill, K.; Griffin, J.L.; Vetter, W.; Autio, K.J.; Hiltunen, K.; Hazebrouck, S.; Štěpánková, Renata; Chen, C.-J.; Alligier, M.; Laville, M.; Moore, M.; Kraft, G.; Cherrington, A.; King, S.; Krauss, R.M.; de Schryver, E.; Van Veldhoven, P.P.; Ronis, M.; Koulman, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, MAR 23 (2017), s. 1-8, č. článku 44845. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-09518S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-06326S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : fatty acids * gut * microbiota Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  6. Cardiac Connexin-43 and PKC Signaling in Rats With Altered Thyroid Status Without and With Omega-3 Fatty Acids Intake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szeiffová Bačová, B.; Egan Beňová, T.; Viczenczová, C.; Soukup, Tomáš; Rauchová, Hana; Pavelka, Stanislav; Knezl, V.; Barančík, M.; Tribulová, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, Suppl.1 (2016), S77-S90 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/1228; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : thyroid hormones * cardiac arrhythmias * Connexin-43 * omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  7. Whole-Body Docosahexaenoic Acid Synthesis-Secretion Rates in Rats Are Constant across a Large Range of Dietary α-Linolenic Acid Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Metherel, Adam H; Chen, Chuck T; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Stavro, P Mark; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an ω-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) thought to be important for brain function. Although the main dietary source of DHA is fish, DHA can also be synthesized from α-linolenic acid (ALA), which is derived from plants. Enzymes involved in DHA synthesis are also active toward ω-6 (n-6) PUFAs to synthesize docosapentaenoic acid n-6 (DPAn-6). It is unclear whether DHA synthesis from ALA is sufficient to maintain brain DHA. The objective of this study was to determine how different amounts of dietary ALA would affect whole-body DHA and DPAn-6 synthesis rates. Male Long-Evans rats were fed an ALA-deficient diet (ALA-D), an ALA-adequate (ALA-A) diet, or a high-ALA (ALA-H) diet for 8 wk from weaning. Dietary ALA concentrations were 0.07%, 3%, and 10% of the fatty acids, and ALA was the only dietary PUFA that differed between the diets. After 8 wk, steady-state stable isotope infusion of labeled ALA and linoleic acid (LA) was performed to determine the in vivo synthesis-secretion rates of DHA and DPAn-6. Rats fed the ALA-A diet had an ∼2-fold greater capacity to synthesize DHA than did rats fed the ALA-H and ALA-D diets, and a DHA synthesis rate that was similar to that of rats fed the ALA-H diet. However, rats fed the ALA-D diet had a 750% lower DHA synthesis rate than rats fed the ALA-A and ALA-H diets. Despite enrichment into arachidonic acid, we did not detect any labeled LA appearing as DPAn-6. Increasing dietary ALA from 3% to 10% of fatty acids did not increase DHA synthesis rates, because of a decreased capacity to synthesize DHA in rats fed the ALA-H diet. Tissue concentrations of DPAn-6 may be explained at least in part by longer plasma half-lives. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. High Folic Acid Intake during Pregnancy Lowers Body Weight and Reduces Femoral Area and Strength in Female Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro S. P. Huot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rats fed gestational diets high in multivitamin or folate produce offspring of altered phenotypes. We hypothesized that female rat offspring born to dams fed a gestational diet high in folic acid (HFol have compromised bone health and that feeding the offspring the same HFol diet attenuates these effects. Pregnant rats were fed diets with either recommended folic acid (RFol or 10-fold higher folic acid (HFol amounts. Female offspring were weaned to either the RFol or HFol diet for 17 weeks. HFol maternal diet resulted in lower offspring body weights (6%, P=0.03 and, after adjusting for body weight and femoral length, smaller femoral area (2%, P=0.03, compared to control diet. After adjustments, HFol pup diet resulted in lower mineral content (7%, P=0.01 and density (4%, P=0.002 of lumbar vertebra 4 without differences in strength. An interaction between folate content of the dam and pup diets revealed that a mismatch resulted in lower femoral peak load strength (P=0.01 and stiffness (P=0.002. However, the match in folate content failed to prevent lower weight gain. In conclusion, HFol diets fed to rat dams and their offspring affect area and strength of femurs and mineral quantity but not strength of lumbar vertebrae in the offspring.

  9. Metabolite Profiles of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Grass Silage▿

    OpenAIRE

    Broberg, Anders; Jacobsson, Karin; Ström, Katrin; Schnürer, Johan

    2007-01-01

    The metabolite production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on silage was investigated. The aim was to compare the production of antifungal metabolites in silage with the production in liquid cultures previously studied in our laboratory. The following metabolites were found to be present at elevated concentrations in silos inoculated with LAB strains: 3-hydroxydecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid, benzoic acid, catechol, hydrocinnamic acid, salicylic acid, 3-phenyllactic acid, 4-hydro...

  10. Effects of similar intakes of marine n-3 fatty acids from enriched food products and fish oil on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhus, Bente; Lamglait, Amandine; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Falch, Eva; Haider, Trond; Vik, Hogne; Hoem, Nils; Hagve, Tor-Arne; Basu, Samar; Olsen, Elisabeth; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Nyberg, Lena; Elind, Elisabeth; Ulven, Stine M

    2012-05-01

    There is convincing evidence that consumption of fish and fish oil rich in long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA), EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) reduce the risk of CHD. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether n-3 LCPUFA-enriched food products provide similar beneficial effects as fish oil with regard to incorporation into plasma lipids and effects on cardiovascular risk markers. A parallel 7-week intervention trial was performed where 159 healthy men and women were randomised to consume either 34 g fish pâté (n 44), 500 ml fruit juice (n 38) or three capsules of concentrated fish oil (n 40), all contributing to a daily intake of approximately 1 g EPA and DHA. A fourth group did not receive any supplementation or food product and served as controls (n 37). Plasma fatty acid composition, serum lipids, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured. Compared with the control group, plasma n-3 LCPUFA and EPA:arachidonic acid ratio increased equally in all intervention groups. However, no significant changes in blood lipids and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were observed. In conclusion, enriched fish pâté and fruit juice represent suitable delivery systems for n-3 LCPUFA. However, although the dose given is known to reduce the risk of CVD, no significant changes were observed on cardiovascular risk markers in this healthy population.

  11. The acidic functional groups of humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanxiang, Li; Shuhe, Sun; Zhai Zongxi, Wu Qihu

    1983-09-01

    The acidic functional groups content, pK value, DELTAH and DELTAS of humic acid (HA) and nitro-humic acid (NHA) were determined by potentiometry, conductometry and calorimetric titration. The thermodynamic parameters of carboxylic groups and phenolic hydroxyl groups of humic acid are similar to that of simple hydroxy-benzoic acid. The configuration sites of acidic functional groups in humic acid from different coals are different. The carbonyl groups on aromatic rings are probably ortho to phenolic -OH for HA and NHA extracted from Huangxian's brown coal and Japanese lignite, while those from Lingshi's weathered coal are not. The weak -COOH groups of the latter possess higher chemical activity. The -COOH content in HA increases, phenolic -OH group decreases and the chemical acidity of acidic functional groups increases when HA is oxidized by nitric acid. (14 refs.)

  12. Prevention of fatal arrhythmias in high-risk subjects by fish oil n-3 fatty acid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Alexander; Albert, Christine M; Josephson, Mark; Steinhaus, David; Kluger, Jeffrey; Kang, Jing X; Cox, Benjamin; Zhang, Hui; Schoenfeld, David

    2005-11-01

    The long-chain n-3 fatty acids in fish have been demonstrated to have antiarrhythmic properties in experimental models and to prevent sudden cardiac death in a randomized trial of post-myocardial infarction patients. Therefore, we hypothesized that these n-3 fatty acids might prevent potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias in high-risk patients. Four hundred two patients with implanted cardioverter/defibrillators (ICDs) were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with either a fish oil or an olive oil daily supplement for 12 months. The primary end point, time to first ICD event for ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT or VF) confirmed by stored electrograms or death from any cause, was analyzed by intention to treat. Secondary analyses were performed for "probable" ventricular arrhythmias, "on-treatment" analyses for all subjects who had taken any of their oil supplements, and "on-treatment" analyses only of those subjects who were on treatment for at least 11 months. Compliance with double-blind treatment was similar in the 2 groups; however, the noncompliance rate was high (35% of all enrollees). In the primary analysis, assignment to treatment with the fish oil supplement showed a trend toward a prolonged time to the first ICD event (VT or VF) or of death from any cause (risk reduction of 28%; P=0.057). When therapies for probable episodes of VT or VF were included, the risk reduction became significant at 31%; P=0.033. For those who stayed on protocol for at least 11 months, the antiarrhythmic benefit of fish oil was improved for those with confirmed events (risk reduction of 38%; P=0.034). Although significance was not achieved for the primary end point, this study provides evidence that for individuals at high risk of fatal ventricular arrhythmias, regular daily ingestion of fish oil fatty acids may significantly reduce potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias.

  13. Maternal intake of dietary virgin coconut oil modifies essential fatty acids and causes low body weight and spiky fur in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, Renuka; Shaker, Mohammed Rafid; Mohd-Zin, Siti Waheeda; Abdullah, Aminah; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah Mydin

    2017-01-28

    Coconut oil is commonly used as herbal medicine worldwide. There is limited information regarding its effects on the developing embryo and infant growth. We investigated the effect of virgin coconut oil post-natally and until 6 weeks old in mice (age of maturity). Females were fed with either standard, virgin olive oil or virgin coconut oil diets 1 month prior to copulation, during gestation and continued until weaning of pups. Subsequently, groups of pups borne of the respective diets were continuously fed the same diet as its mother from weaning until 6 weeks old. Profiles of the standard and coconut oil diets were analysed by gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GCFID). Analysis of the mean of the total weight gained/ loss over 6 weeks revealed that in the first 3 weeks, pups whose mothers were fed virgin coconut oil and virgin olive oil have a significantly lower body weight than that of standard diet pups. At 6 weeks of age, only virgin coconut oil fed pups exhibited significantly lower body weight. We report that virgin coconut oil modifies the fatty acid profiles of the standard diet by inducing high levels of medium chain fatty acids with low levels of essential fatty acids. Furthermore, pups borne by females fed with virgin coconut oil developed spiky fur. Our study has demonstrated that virgin coconut oil could affect infant growth and appearance via maternal intake; we suggest the use of virgin coconut oil as herbal medicine to be treated with caution.

  14. Dietary intake of fish, omega-3, omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D and the prevalence of psychotic-like symptoms in a cohort of 33,000 women from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedelin, Maria; Löf, Marie; Olsson, Marita; Lewander, Tommy; Nilsson, Björn; Hultman, Christina M; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2010-05-26

    Low intake of fish, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to play a role in the development of schizophrenia. Our aim was to evaluate the association between the intake of different fish species, PUFA and vitamin D and the prevalence of psychotic-like symptoms in a population-based study among Swedish women. Dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire among 33,623 women aged 30-49 years at enrollment (1991/92). Information on psychotic-like symptoms was derived from a follow-up questionnaire in the years 2002/03. Participants were classified into three predefined levels: low, middle and high frequency of symptoms. The association between diet and psychotic-like symptoms was summarized in terms of relative risks (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals and was evaluated by energy-adjusted multinomial logistic regression. 18,411 women were classified as having a low level of psychotic-like symptoms, 14 395 as middle and 817 as having a high level. The risk of high level symptoms was 53% (95% CI, 30-69%) lower among women who ate fish 3-4 times per week compared to women who never ate fish. The risk was also lower for women with a high intake of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA compared to women with a lower intake of these fatty acids. The effect was most pronounced for omega-6 PUFAs. The RR comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of omega-6 PUFAs intake was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64-0.97). The associations were J-shaped with the strongest reduced risk for an intermediate intake of fish or PUFA. For fatty fish (herring/mackerel, salmon-type fish), the strongest inverse association was found for an intermediate intake (RR: 0.81, 95% CI, 0.66-0.98), whereas a high intake of fatty fish was associated with an increased risk of psychotic-like symptoms (RR: 1.90, 95% CI, 1.34-2.70). Women in the highest compared with the lowest quartile of vitamin D consumption experienced a 37% (95% CI, 22-50%) lower risk of

  15. Dietary intake of fish, omega-3, omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D and the prevalence of psychotic-like symptoms in a cohort of 33 000 women from the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewander Tommy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low intake of fish, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to play a role in the development of schizophrenia. Our aim was to evaluate the association between the intake of different fish species, PUFA and vitamin D and the prevalence of psychotic-like symptoms in a population-based study among Swedish women. Methods Dietary intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire among 33 623 women aged 30-49 years at enrolment (1991/92. Information on psychotic-like symptoms was derived from a follow-up questionnaire in the years 2002/03. Participants were classified into three predefined levels: low, middle and high frequency of symptoms. The association between diet and psychotic-like symptoms was summarized in terms of relative risks (RR and corresponding 95% confidence intervals and was evaluated by energy-adjusted multinomial logistic regression. Results 18 411 women were classified as having a low level of psychotic-like symptoms, 14 395 as middle and 817 as having a high level. The risk of high level symptoms was 53% (95% CI, 30-69% lower among women who ate fish 3-4 times per week compared to women who never ate fish. The risk was also lower for women with a high intake of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA compared to women with a lower intake of these fatty acids. The effect was most pronounced for omega-6 PUFAs. The RR comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of omega-6 PUFAs intake was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64-0.97. The associations were J-shaped with the strongest reduced risk for an intermediate intake of fish or PUFA. For fatty fish (herring/mackerel, salmon-type fish, the strongest inverse association was found for an intermediate intake (RR: 0.81, 95% CI, 0.66-0.98, whereas a high intake of fatty fish was associated with an increased risk of psychotic-like symptoms (RR: 1.90, 95% CI, 1.34-2.70. Women in the highest compared with the lowest quartile of vitamin D consumption

  16. Determination of Aspartame, Caffeine, Saccharin, and Benzoic Acid in Beverages by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Michael F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable new quantitative analysis experiment using liquid chromatography for the determinaiton of caffeine, saccharin, and sodium benzoate in beverages. Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided. (JN)

  17. Thermodynamic properties of the methyl esters of p-hydroxy and p-methoxy benzoic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Ana R.R.P.; Cunha, André F.G.; Matos, M. Agostinha R.; Morais, Victor M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Vapor pressures and energies of combustion of two methyl benzoates were measured. • Standard molar ΔH, ΔS and ΔG of sublimation and vaporization were derived. • Standard molar ΔH, ΔS and ΔG of formation in crystal and gas phases were calculated. • Gas phase ΔH of formation was also estimated by quantum chemical calculations. • ΔH of the intermolecular hydrogen bond O–H⋯O was estimated. - Abstract: The vapor pressures of crystalline and liquid phases of methyl p-hydroxybenzoate and of methyl p-methoxybenzoate were measured over the temperature ranges (338.9 to 423.7) K and (292.0 to 355.7) K respectively, using a static method based on diaphragm capacitance gauges. The vapor pressures of the crystalline phase of the former compound were also measured in the temperature range (323.1 to 345.2) K using a Knudsen mass-loss effusion technique. The results enabled the determination of the standard molar enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs free energies of sublimation and of vaporization, at T = 298.15 K, as well as phase diagram representations of the (p, T) experimental data, including the triple point. The temperatures and molar enthalpies of fusion of both compounds were determined using differential scanning calorimetry and were compared with the results indirectly derived from the vapor pressure measurements. The standard (p° = 10 5 Pa) molar enthalpies of formation, in the crystalline phase, at T = 298.15 K, of the compounds studied were derived from their standard massic energies of combustion measured by static-bomb combustion calorimetry. From the experimental results, the standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the gaseous phase at T = 298.15 K, were calculated and compared with the values estimated by employing quantum chemical computational calculations. A good agreement between experimental and theoretical results is observed. To analyze the thermodynamic stability of the two compounds studied, the standard Gibbs free energies of formation in crystalline and gaseous phases were undertaken. The standard molar enthalpies of formation of the title compounds were also estimated from two different computational approaches using density functional theory-based B3LYP and the multilevel G3 methodologies

  18. Orthorhombic polymorph of 4-[(1H-benzimidazol-1-ylmethyl]benzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Wei Kuai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We reported recently the first polymorph of the title compound [Kuai & Cheng (2011a. Acta Cryst., E67, o2787]. A second polymorph of the title compound, C15H12N2O2, was unexpectedly obtained by the hydrothermal reaction of the title compound with manganese chloride in the presence of potassium hydroxide at 413 K. The benzimidazole ring system is almost planar, with a maximum deviation from the mean plane of 0.015 (2 Å. The benzimidazole and benzene rings are inclined at a dihedral angle of 79.00 (1°. In the crystal, adjacent molecules are connected through O—H...N hydrogen bonds into a one-dimensional chain along the [001] direction.

  19. Food sources and intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in low-income countries with emphasis on infants, young children (6-24 months), and pregnant and lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelsen, Kim F; Dewey, Kathryn G; Perez-Exposito, Ana B; Nurhasan, Mulia; Lauritzen, Lotte; Roos, Nanna

    2011-04-01

    With increasing interest in the potential effects of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in early life, there is a need for data on the dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in low-income countries. This review compiles information on the content in breast milk and in foods that are important in the diets of low-income countries from the few studies available. We also estimate the availability of fat and fatty acids in 13 low-income and middle-income countries based on national food balance sheets from the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization Statistical Database (FOASTAT). Breast milk docosahexaenoic acid content is very low in populations living mainly on a plant-based diet, but higher in fish-eating countries. Per capita supply of fat and n-3 fatty acids increases markedly with increasing gross domestic product (GDP). In most of the 13 countries, 70-80% of the supply of PUFA comes from cereals and vegetable oils, some of which have very low α-linolenic acid (ALA) content. The total n-3 fatty acid supply is below or close to the lower end of the recommended intake range [0.4%E (percentage of energy supply)] for infants and young children, and below the minimum recommended level (0.5%E) for pregnant and lactating women in the nine countries with the lowest GDP. Fish is important as a source of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, but intake is low in many countries. The supply of n-3 fatty acids can be increased by using vegetable oils with higher ALA content (e.g. soybean or rapeseed oil) and by increasing fish production (e.g. through fish farming). © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Phthalate Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compilation of literature-reported intake values of phthalates; specifically dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP)....

  1. Maternal intake of trans-unsaturated or interesterified fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation modifies mitochondrial bioenergetics in the liver of adult offspring in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Velasco, Patricia C; Chicaybam, Gustavo; Ramos-Filho, Dionizio M; Dos Santos, Raísa M A R; Mairink, Caroline; Sardinha, Fátima L C; El-Bacha, Tatiana; Galina, Antonio; Tavares-do-Carmo, Maria das Graças

    2017-07-01

    The quality of dietary lipids in the maternal diet can programme the offspring to diseases in later life. We investigated whether the maternal intake of palm oil or interesterified fat, substitutes for trans-unsaturated fatty acids (FA), induces metabolic changes in the adult offspring. During pregnancy and lactation, C57BL/6 female mice received normolipidic diets containing partially hydrogenated vegetable fat rich in trans-unsaturated fatty acids (TG), palm oil (PG), interesterified fat (IG) or soyabean oil (CG). After weaning, male offspring from all groups received the control diet until day 110. Plasma glucose and TAG and liver FA profiles were ascertained. Liver mitochondrial function was accessed with high-resolution respirometry by measuring VO2, fluorimetry for detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. The results showed that the IG offspring presented a 20 % increase in plasma glucose and both the IG and TG offspring presented a 2- and 1·9-fold increase in TAG, respectively, when compared with CG offspring. Liver MUFA and PUFA contents decreased in the TG and IG offspring when compared with CG offspring. Liver MUFA content also decreased in the PG offspring. These modifications in FA composition possibly affected liver mitochondrial function, as respiration was impaired in the TG offspring and H2O2 production was higher in the IG offspring. In addition, mitochondrial Ca2+ retention capacity was reduced by approximately 40 and 55 % in the TG and IG offspring, respectively. In conclusion, maternal consumption of trans-unsaturated and interesterified fat affected offspring health by compromising mitochondrial bioenergetics and lipid metabolism in the liver.

  2. Genetic predisposition scores for dyslipidaemia influence plasma lipid concentrations at baseline, but not the changes after controlled intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSaleh, Aseel; Maniou, Zoitsa; Lewis, Fiona J; Hall, Wendy L; Sanders, Thomas A B; O'Dell, Sandra D

    2014-07-01

    Inconsistent effects of fish oil supplementation on plasma lipids may be influenced by genetic variation. We investigated 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with dyslipidaemia in genome-wide association studies, in 310 participants randomised to treatment with placebo or 0.45, 0.9 and 1.8 g/day eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) (1.51:1) in a 12-month parallel controlled trial. Effects of risk alleles were assessed as trait-specific genetic predisposition scores (GPS) and singly. GPS were positively associated with baseline concentrations of plasma total cholesterol, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) and negatively with high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. The TG-GPS was associated with 0.210 mmol/L higher TG per risk allele (P GPS was associated with 0.023 mmol/L lower TG per risk allele (P = 0.72). No interactions between GPS and treatment were significant; however, FADS1 SNP rs174546 C/T interaction with treatment was a significant determinant of plasma TG concentration (P = 0.047, n = 267). Concentration differed between genotype groups after the 1.8 g/day dose (P = 0.026), decreasing by 3.5 (95 % CI -15.1 to 8.2) % in non-carriers of the risk T-allele (n = 30) and by 21.6 (95 % CI -32.1 to -11.2) % in carriers (n = 37), who showed a highly significant difference between treatments (P = 0.007). Carriers of the FADS1 rs174546 risk allele could benefit from a high intake of EPA and DHA in normalising plasma TG.

  3. Maternal intake of high n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet during pregnancy causes transgenerational increase in mammary cancer risk in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nguyen M; de Oliveira Andrade, Fabia; Jin, Lu; Zhang, Xiyuan; Macon, Madisa; Cruz, M Idalia; Benitez, Carlos; Wehrenberg, Bryan; Yin, Chao; Wang, Xiao; Xuan, Jianhua; de Assis, Sonia; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2017-07-03

    Maternal and paternal high-fat (HF) diet intake before and/or during pregnancy increases mammary cancer risk in several preclinical models. We studied if maternal consumption of a HF diet that began at a time when the fetal primordial germ cells travel to the genital ridge and start differentiating into germ cells would result in a transgenerational inheritance of increased mammary cancer risk. Pregnant C57BL/6NTac mouse dams were fed either a control AIN93G or isocaloric HF diet composed of corn oil high in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids between gestational days 10 and 20. Offspring in subsequent F1-F3 generations were fed only the control diet. Mammary tumor incidence induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene was significantly higher in F1 (p pregnancy induces a transgenerational increase in offspring mammary cancer risk in mice. The mechanisms of inheritance in the F3 generation may be different from the F1 generation because significantly more changes were seen in the transcriptome.

  4. Daily Intake of Protein from Cod Residual Material Lowers Serum Concentrations of Nonesterified Fatty Acids in Overweight Healthy Adults: A Randomized Double-Blind Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iselin Vildmyren

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved process technologies have allowed fishing vessels to utilize residuals from cod fillet production (head, backbone, skin, cuttings, and entrails and convert this to high-quality protein powders for human consumption. In this double-blind pilot study, 42 healthy overweight or obese adults were randomized to three experimental groups consuming tablets corresponding to 6 g/day of proteins from cod residuals as presscake meal (Cod-PC, presscake and stickwater meal (Cod-PCW, or placebo tablets (control for eight weeks. The primary outcome of this study was changes in metabolites related to glucose regulation in overweight or obese healthy adults after intake of proteins from cod residuals. Cod-PC supplementation decreased postprandial serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA concentration and increased gene expressions of diglyceride acyltransferase 1 and 2 in subcutaneous adipose tissue compared with controls. Fasting insulin increased while fasting NEFA and 120-min postprandial glucose decreased within the Cod-PC group, but these changes did not differ from the other groups. In conclusion, supplementation with Cod-PC beneficially affected postprandial serum NEFA concentration compared with the other groups in overweight or obese adults. Supplementation with Cod-PCW, which contains a higher fraction of water-soluble protein compared to Cod-PC, did not affect serum markers of glucose regulation.

  5. Dietary Intake of Structured Lipids with Different Contents of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids on Obesity Prevention in C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengmin; Wang, Yueqiang; Jiang, Yuanrong; Zhang, Zhongfei; Sun, Xiangjun; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2017-08-01

    Three medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT) with different contents of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) (10% to 30%, w/w) were prepared and evaluated for their anti-obesity potential in C57BL/6J mice. The group fed with a high fat diet of MLCT containing 30% (w/w) MCFA showed significantly decreased body weight and fat mass (P obesity-inducing high fat rapeseed oil diet. In addition, serum parameters including triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 and apolipoprotein B in the treatment group fed with 30% (w/w) MCFA were close to those of mice fed with a low fat rapeseed oil diet, but significantly different (P obesity control group. Moreover, the intake of MLCT with high content of MCFA reduced the size of adipocytes. In addition, the visceral fat and liver weights, as well as the liver triacylglycerol for 3 treatment groups were lower than those of the obesity control group. These results demonstrate the great potential of MLCT with high content of MCFA in weight loss. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Discrepancy between Knowledge and Perceptions of Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake Compared with the Omega-3 Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmyanarayanan V. Thuppal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationship between perceptions of nutrient adequacy and biomarkers of nutrition status. This cross-sectional study of U.S. and German adults (n = 200; 18–80 years compared dietary practices, knowledge, and beliefs of omega-3 fatty acids (O3-FA with the omega-3 index (O3-I, an erythrocyte-based biomarker associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. More than half of adults believed that O3-FAs are beneficial for heart and brain health and could correctly identify the food sources of O3-FA. However, the mean O3-I in the U.S. (4.3% and Germany (5.5% puts the majority of adults sampled (99% in intermediate or high CVD-risk categories. More Americans were considered at high CVD-risk (40% when compared with Germans (10%. In the U.S., but not Germany, women had a significantly higher O3-I than men (4.8% vs. 3.8%, p < 0.001. In the intermediate CVD-risk group, about one-third of adults in both countries (30% in the U.S. and 27% in Germany believed their diet was adequate in O3-FA. Notably, mean O3-I concentrations did not significantly differ with dietary perceptions of adequacy. More adults in Germany (26% than in the U.S. (10% believed that dietary supplements are needed to achieve a balanced diet. In spite of adequate knowledge about food sources and a consistent belief that O3-FA are important for health, very few participants had O3-I concentrations in the range for CVD protection.

  7. Benzoates intakes from non-alcoholic beverages in Brazil, Canada, Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika; Lau, Annette; Darch, Maryse; Roberts, Ashley

    2017-09-01

    Food consumption data from national dietary surveys were combined with brand-specific-use levels reported by beverage manufacturers to calculate the exposure to benzoic acid and its salts (INS Nos 210-213) from non-alcoholic beverages in Brazil, Canada, Mexico and the United States. These four jurisdictions were identified as having some of the most prevalent use of benzoates in beverages globally. Use levels were weighted according to the brand's market volume share in the respective countries. Benzoates were reported to be used primarily in 'water-based flavoured drinks' (Codex General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA) category 14.1.4). As such, the assessments focused only on intakes from these beverage types. Two different models were established to determine exposure: probabilistic (representing non-brand loyal consumers) and distributional (representing brand-loyal consumers). All reported-use levels were incorporated into both models, including those above the Codex interim maximum benzoate use level (250 mg kg -1 ). The exception to this was in the brand-loyal models for consumers of regular carbonated soft drinks (brand loyal category) which used (1) the interim maximum use level for beverages with a pH ≤ 3.5 and (2) all reported use levels for beverages pH > 3.5 (up to 438 mg kg -1 ). The estimated exposure levels using both models were significantly lower than the ADI established for benzoates at the mean level of intake (4-40% ADI) and lower than - or at the ADI only for toddlers/children - at the 95th percentile (23-110% ADI). The results rendered in the models do not indicate a safety concern in these jurisdictions, and as such provide support for maintaining the current Codex interim maximum benzoate level of 250 mg kg -1 in water-based beverages.

  8. Radioiodination via isotope exchange in pivalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichert, J.P.; Van Dort, M.E.; Groziak, M.P.; Counsell, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of benzoic and aryl aliphatic mono and polyiodinated acids and esters (sterol, triglyceride) were radioiodinated in 55-99% radiochemical yield by isotope exchange with Na 125 i in a melt of pivalic acid. In general, the reaction was complete in 1 h at 155 0 C with little or no substrate decomposition. High specific activity studies afforded 125 I-labeled iopanoic acid with a specific activity of over 700 Ci/mmol. (author)

  9. Effects of early maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake on neuropsychological status and visual acuity at five years of age of breast-fed term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Craig L; Voigt, Robert G; Llorente, Antolin M; Peters, Sarika U; Prager, Thomas C; Zou, Yali L; Rozelle, Judith C; Turcich, Marie R; Fraley, J Kennard; Anderson, Robert E; Heird, William C

    2010-12-01

    We previously reported better psychomotor development at 30 months of age in infants whose mothers received a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6n-3) supplement for the first 4 months of lactation. We now assess neuropsychological and visual function of the same children at 5 years of age. Breastfeeding women were assigned to receive identical capsules containing either a high-DHA algal oil (∼200 mg/d of DHA) or a vegetable oil (containing no DHA) from delivery until 4 months postpartum. Primary outcome variables at 5 years of age were measures of gross and fine motor function, perceptual/visual-motor function, attention, executive function, verbal skills, and visual function of the recipient children at 5 years of age. There were no differences in visual function as assessed by the Bailey-Lovie acuity chart, transient visual evoked potential or sweep visual evoked potential testing between children whose mothers received DHA versus placebo. Children whose mothers received DHA versus placebo performed significantly better on the Sustained Attention Subscale of the Leiter International Performance Scale (46.5 ± 8.9 vs 41.9 ± 9.3, P DHA supplementation versus placebo for the first 4 months of breastfeeding performed better on a test of sustained attention. This, along with the previously reported better performance of the children of DHA-supplemented mothers on a test of psychomotor development at 30 months of age, suggests that DHA intake during early infancy confers long-term benefits on specific aspects of neurodevelopment. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Blood cells transcriptomics as source of potential biomarkers of articular health improvement: effects of oral intake of a rooster combs extract rich in hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juana; Bonet, M Luisa; Keijer, Jaap; van Schothorst, Evert M; Mölller, Ingrid; Chetrit, Carles; Martinez-Puig, Daniel; Palou, Andreu

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to explore peripheral blood gene expression as a source of biomarkers of joint health improvement related to glycosaminoglycan (GAG) intake in humans. Healthy individuals with joint discomfort were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study in humans. Subjects ate control yoghurt or yoghurt supplemented with a recently authorized novel food in Europe containing hyaluronic acid (65 %) from rooster comb (Mobilee™ as commercial name) for 90 days. Effects on functional quality-of-life parameters related to joint health were assessed. Whole-genome microarray analysis of peripheral blood samples from a subset of 20 subjects (10 placebo and 10 supplemented) collected pre- and post-intervention was performed. Mobilee™ supplementation reduced articular pain intensity and synovial effusion and improved knee muscular strength indicators as compared to placebo. About 157 coding genes were differentially expressed in blood cells between supplemented and placebo groups post-intervention, but not pre-intervention (p < 0.05; fold change ≥1.2). Among them, a reduced gene expression of glucuronidase-beta (GUSB), matrix metallopeptidase 23B (MMP23B), xylosyltransferase II (XYLT2), and heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase 1 (HS6ST1) was found in the supplemented group. Correlation analysis indicated a direct relationship between blood cell gene expression of MMP23B, involved in the breakdown of the extracellular matrix, and pain intensity, and an inverse relationship between blood cell gene expression of HS6ST1, responsible for 6-O-sulfation of heparan sulfate, and indicators of knee muscular strength. Expression levels of specific genes in blood cells, in particular genes related to GAG metabolism and extracellular matrix dynamics, are potential biomarkers of beneficial effects on articular health.

  11. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric determination of triterpenes in human fluids: Evaluation of markers of dietary intake of olive oil and metabolic disposition of oleanolic acid and maslinic acid in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Oscar J; Pujadas, Mitona; Gleeson, Sarah Biel; Mesa-García, Maria Dolores; Pastor, Antoni; Kotronoulas, Aristotelis; Fitó, Montserrat; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Navarro, José Ramón Fernández; Espejo, Juan Antonio; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Estefania; Marchal, Rosa; Calleja, Miguel Angel; de la Torre, Rafael

    2017-10-16

    Olive oil is rich in several minor components like maslinic (MA) and oleanolic (OA) acids which have cardioprotective, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory properties. In order to assess the health benefits in humans provided by the olive oil triterpenes (MA and OA), suitable analytical methods able to quantify the low concentrations expected in human fluids are required. In this study, the LC-MS/MS quantification of both OA and MA in plasma and urine has been evaluated. The plasmatic method is based on the direct determination of the analytes. The urinary detection requires more sensitivity which was reached by derivatization with 2-picolylamine. Additionally, the urinary species present after MA and OA ingestion were evaluated by the direct detection of several phase II metabolites previously synthesized. Our results showed that OA is metabolized as both sulfate and glucuronide conjugates whereas MA is mainly excreted as glucuronide. Based on this information, the method for the urinary detection of MA and OA involved an enzymatic hydrolysis. Both plasmatic and urinary methods were validated with suitable precision and accuracy at all tested levels. Required sensitivity was achieved in both matrices. Up to our knowledge, this is the first method able to quantify the low concentration levels of triterpenes present in urine. Samples from two healthy volunteers who received virgin olive oils with different triterpenes content were analyzed. Some preliminary clues on the metabolic disposition of OA and MA after olive oil intake are provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Higher Branched-Chain Amino Acid Intake Is Associated with a Lower Prevalence of Being Overweight or Obese in Middle-Aged East Asian and Western Adults12

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Li‐Qiang; Xun, Pengcheng; Bujnowski, Deborah; Daviglus, Martha L.; Van Horn, Linda; Stamler, Jeremiah; He, Ka

    2010-01-01

    Beneficial effects on body weight of supplementation with BCAA, including leucine, isoleucine, and valine, have been observed in animal and human studies. However, population-based studies on dietary BCAA intake and body weight are lacking. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary BCAA intake and risk of overweight status/obesity among multi-ethnic populations. The International Study of Macro-/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure is a cross-sectional epidemiolo...

  13. 2-arylureidobenzoic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsson, Jon; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Peters, Dan

    2003-01-01

    A series of 2-arylureidobenzoic acids (AUBAs) was prepared by a short and effective synthesis, and the pharmacological activity at glutamate receptors was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The compounds showed noncompetitive antagonistic activity at the kainate receptor subtype GluR5. The most potent...... on the benzoic acid moiety (ring A), whereas ring B tolerated a variety of substituents, but with a preference for lipophilic substituents. The most potent compounds had a 4-chloro substituent on ring A and 3-chlorobenzene (6b), 2-naphthalene (8h), or 2-indole (8k) as ring B and had IC(50) values of 1.3, 1...

  14. Synthesis and stability of strongly acidic benzamide derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Frederik; Bjerrum, Niels J.; Begtrup, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    Reactivity studies of strong organic acids based on the replacement of one or both of the oxygens in benzoic acids with the trifluoromethanesulfonamide group are reported. Novel derivatives of these types of acids were synthesized in good yields. The generated N-triflylbenzamides were further...... functionalized through cross-coupling and nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions. All compounds were stable in dilute aqueous solutions. Studies of stability under acidic and basic conditions are also reported....

  15. Urinary total flavonoid excretion but not 4-pyridoxic acid or potassium can be used as a biomarker for the intake of fruits and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Haraldsdottir, J.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2004-01-01

    To gain better insight into the potential health effects of fruits and vegetables, reliable biomarkers of intake are needed. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of flavonoid excretion in both 24-h and morning urine samples to reflect a low intake and moderate changes......-restricted flavonoid-free diet. On d 4, they were provided a strictly controlled diet containing no fruits or vegetables (basic diet). On d 5, they consumed the basic diet supplemented with 300 or 600 g of fruits and vegetables. The total excretion of flavonoids in 24-h urine samples increased linearly with increasing...... fruit and vegetable intakes (r(s) = 0.86, P flavonoids in morning urine also increased, but the association was weaker (r(s) = 0.59, P

  16. Contributions of enriched cereal-grain products, ready-to-eat cereals, and supplements to folic acid and vitamin B-12 usual intake and folate and vitamin B-12 status in US children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Lorraine F; Cogswell, Mary E; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Bailey, Lynn B; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Berry, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    US children consume folic acid from multiple sources. These sources may contribute differently to usual intakes above the age-specific tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid and to folate and vitamin B-12 status. We estimated usual daily folic acid intakes above the UL and adjusted serum and red blood cell folate, serum vitamin B-12, homocysteine, and methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations in US children by age group and by the following 3 major folic acid intake sources: enriched cereal-grain products (ECGP), ready-to-eat cereals (RTE), and supplements containing folic acid (SUP). We analyzed data in 4 groups of children aged 1-3, 4-8, 9-13, and 14-18 y from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2006 (n = 7161). A total of 19-48% of children consumed folic acid from ECGP only. Intakes above the UL varied from 0-0.1% of children who consumed ECGP only to 15-78% of children who consumed ECGP+RTE+SUP. In children aged 1-8 y, 99-100% of those who consumed ≥ 200 μg folic acid/d from supplements exceeded their UL. Although consumption of RTE or SUP with folic acid was associated with higher mean folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations and, in some older children, with lower homocysteine and MMA concentrations. Our data suggest that the majority of US children consume more than one source of folic acid. Postfortification, the consumption of RTE or SUP increases usual daily intakes and blood concentrations of folate and vitamin B-12.

  17. Phenolic Acid Content and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Corn Snacks Enriched with Kale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Kamila; Oniszczuk, Tomasz; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika; Nowak, Renata; Polak, Renata

    2018-01-01

    Prohealth food contains specific components which have positive influence on the health and well-being of the consumer. An important position among bioactive compounds occurs for polyphenols. Many results have indicated that an increased intake of phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was production of extruded corn snacks with addition (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica)—a polyphenol-rich plant. Afterwards, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and antioxidant activity analyses of snack extracts were performed. In the corn snacks enriched with kale, fifteen phenolic acids were indicated. These were protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, trans-caffeic, cis-caffeic, trans-p-coumaric, cis-p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, cis-ferulic, salicylic, gentisic, syringic, 3-OH-cinnamic, trans-sinapic, and cis-sinapic acids. Both the qualitative and quantitative content of polyphenols increased with the addition of B. oleracea. Data from spectrophotometric analyses of the samples showed high DPPH radical scavenging potential of snacks enriched with 4, 6, and 8% of kale. Snacks enriched with kale contain high level of phenolic acids and, therefore, have great potential to make a valuable source of natural antioxidants. High-temperature short-time extrusion-cooking process had no negative impact on polyphenol's activity. PMID:29507816

  18. Phenolic Acid Content and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Corn Snacks Enriched with Kale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Kasprzak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prohealth food contains specific components which have positive influence on the health and well-being of the consumer. An important position among bioactive compounds occurs for polyphenols. Many results have indicated that an increased intake of phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was production of extruded corn snacks with addition (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica—a polyphenol-rich plant. Afterwards, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS and antioxidant activity analyses of snack extracts were performed. In the corn snacks enriched with kale, fifteen phenolic acids were indicated. These were protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, trans-caffeic, cis-caffeic, trans-p-coumaric, cis-p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, cis-ferulic, salicylic, gentisic, syringic, 3-OH-cinnamic, trans-sinapic, and cis-sinapic acids. Both the qualitative and quantitative content of polyphenols increased with the addition of B. oleracea. Data from spectrophotometric analyses of the samples showed high DPPH radical scavenging potential of snacks enriched with 4, 6, and 8% of kale. Snacks enriched with kale contain high level of phenolic acids and, therefore, have great potential to make a valuable source of natural antioxidants. High-temperature short-time extrusion-cooking process had no negative impact on polyphenol’s activity.

  19. Phenolic Acid Content and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Corn Snacks Enriched with Kale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Kamila; Oniszczuk, Tomasz; Wójtowicz, Agnieszka; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika; Olech, Marta; Nowak, Renata; Polak, Renata; Oniszczuk, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Prohealth food contains specific components which have positive influence on the health and well-being of the consumer. An important position among bioactive compounds occurs for polyphenols. Many results have indicated that an increased intake of phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was production of extruded corn snacks with addition (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) of kale ( Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica )-a polyphenol-rich plant. Afterwards, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and antioxidant activity analyses of snack extracts were performed. In the corn snacks enriched with kale, fifteen phenolic acids were indicated. These were protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, trans -caffeic, cis -caffeic, trans -p-coumaric, cis -p-coumaric, trans -ferulic, cis -ferulic, salicylic, gentisic, syringic, 3-OH-cinnamic, trans -sinapic, and cis -sinapic acids. Both the qualitative and quantitative content of polyphenols increased with the addition of B. oleracea . Data from spectrophotometric analyses of the samples showed high DPPH radical scavenging potential of snacks enriched with 4, 6, and 8% of kale. Snacks enriched with kale contain high level of phenolic acids and, therefore, have great potential to make a valuable source of natural antioxidants. High-temperature short-time extrusion-cooking process had no negative impact on polyphenol's activity.

  20. New insights into the acid mediated disproportionation of pentavalent uranyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mougel, Victor; Biswas, Biplab; Pecaut, Jacques; Mazzanti, Marinella [Laboratoire de Reconnaissance Ionique et Chimie de Coordination, SCIB, UMR-E 3 CEA-UJF FRE 3200 CNRS, INAC, CEA-Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)

    2010-07-01

    The reaction of benzoic acid with the uranyl(V) complex [(UO{sub 2}Py{sub 5})(KI{sub 2}Py{sub 2})] in pyridine leads to immediate disproportionation with formation of a hexa-nuclear U(IV) benzoate cluster, a bis-benzoate complex of uranyl(VI) and water. (authors)

  1. Coffee intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Its widespread popularity and availability has fostered public health concerns of the potential health consequences of regular coffee consumption. Epidemiological studies of coffee intake and certain health outcomes have been inconsistent. The precise component of coffee potentially contributing to development of these conditions also remains unclear. One step toward addressing the challenges in studying the impact coffee has on health is a better understanding of the factors contributing to its consumption and physiological effects. This chapter focuses on those factors that are genetically determined and briefly summarizes progress in applying this knowledge to epidemiological studies of coffee and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Blood cells transcriptomics as source of potential biomarkers of articular health improvement: effects of oral intake of a rooster combs extract rich in hyaluronic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez, J.; Bonet, M.L.; Keijer, J.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Moller, I.; Chetrit, C.; Martinez-Puig, D.; Palou, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore peripheral blood gene expression as a source of biomarkers of joint health improvement related to glycosaminoglycan (GAG) intake in humans. Healthy individuals with joint discomfort were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study

  3. Effects of chronic ethanol intake on metabolic conversions of 14C erucic acid by the livers of rat fed with rapeseed or ground nut oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecerf, J.; Bezard, J.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of addition of ethanol to diets containing rapeseed or ground nut oil on the metabolic conversion of 14 14 C erudic and 9-10 3 H oleic acid were studied in the rat liver. Whatever the diet more 14 C than 3 H radioactivity was recovered in liver lipids 2 and 19 hours after injection of labelled fatty acids. Ethanol has little effect on this incorporation. Only small amounts of 3 H oleic acid were converted. In all cases, the metabolic conversion of erucic acid was identical: the main part of 14 C was not recovered as erucic acid but was present in other mono unsaturated fatty acids n-9:oleic acid (18:1), which was the most labelled acid, 16:1, 20:1 and nervonic acid (24:1). The amount of erucic acid converted to shorter chain fatty acids was unchanged by addition of ethanol but the alcohol increased the proportion of 14 C radioactivity recovered as nervonic acid. This latter effect was opposite to the effect of rapeseed oil diet, which consisted in a decrease in the conversion of erucic to nervonic acid. A high amount of 14 C radioactivity was recovered in the F.F.A. fraction of the liver as an unknown compound (13 and 80% of 14 C radioacitivty respectively after 2 and 19h). Its identification is presently under investigation [fr

  4. 3,4,5-Tri-dodecyloxybenzoic acid: optimisation and scale-up of the synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hersmis, M.C.; Spiering, A.J.H.; Waterval, R.J.M.; Meuldijk, J.; Vekemans, J.A.J.M.; Hulshof, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis of tris-O-dodecyl-gallic acid [3,4,5-tris(dodecyloxy)benzoic acid] - a versatile building block for org. liq. cryst. materials - has been selected for fine chem. scale-up. A large-scale procedure of the alkylation of Me gallate with dodecyl bromide was optimized with exptl. design

  5. Isolation of gallic acid-producing microorganisms and their use in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    al., 2005). Tannase is an industrially important enzyme ... The enzymatic product gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxy- benzoic ... also used in leather industry, in manufacturing gallic acid esters ..... the economics of a plant (Misro et al., 1997). At the 9 ...

  6. Dietary Intake of Alpha-Linolenic Acid Is Not Appreciably Associated with the Risk of Ischemic Stroke among Middle-Aged Danish Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Christian S; Venø, Stine K; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    a median of 13.5 y of follow-up. In multivariable analyses using restricted cubic splines adjusting for traditional risk factors for ischemic stroke, we observed no clear associations between dietary intake of ALA and the risk of total ischemic stroke or any of its subtypes including ischemic stroke due...... and women. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03258983....

  7. Bioactive phenolic acids from Scorzonera radiata Fisch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Tsevegsuren

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic separation of the crude extract obtained from the aerial parts of the Mongolian medicinal plant Scorzonera radiata yielded five new dihydrostilbenes [4], two new flavonoids, one new quinic acid derivative, as well as twenty known compounds including eight quinic acid derivatives, four flavonoids, two coumarins, five simple benzoic acids, and one monoterpene glycoside. We present here results on isolation and structural identification some active phenolic compounds from the Scorzonera radiata - eight quinic acid derivatives (quinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoyl-epi-quinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoyl-epi-quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, 5-p-coumaroylquinic acid (trans, 5-p-coumaroylquinic acid (cis. Quinic acid derivatives exhibited antioxidative activity.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v12i0.177 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 78-84

  8. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  9. Elucidating adsorption mechanisms of phthalate esters upon carbon nanotubes/graphene and natural organic acid competitive effects in water by DFT and MD calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhuang; Wang, Se; Chen, Min Dong; Xu, Defu [Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology, Jiangsu KeyLaboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control (AEMPC), School ofEnvironmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing (China); Tang, Lili [Jiangsu Environmental Monitoring Centre, Nanjing (China); Wang, Degao [Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian (China)

    2015-06-15

    Simulations at multiple levels were performed to investigate the aqueous adsorption of phthalate esters (PAEs) on carbon nanoparticles and to find the competitive effect of a low molecular weight natural organic acid (benzoic acid) on the adsorption process. Six PAEs of varying alkyl side chain lengths and three carbon-based nanomaterials including a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT), double-walled carbon nanotube (DWNT), and graphene (G) were studied. Results showed that the adsorption energies calculated using density functional theory increase with increasing length of the PAE alkyl chain. G exhibits higher adsorption capacity for the PAEs than SWNT and DWNT. The absolute adsorption energies of these systems also display a positive linear correlation with the hydrophobicity of the PAE molecules. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the presence of neutral/anionic benzoic acid in water alleviates the PAE adsorption. Furthermore, anionic benzoic acid exerts more impact on the PAE adsorption than the neutral form.

  10. Rapid Access to Ortho-Alkylated Vinylarenes from Aromatic Acids by Dearomatization and Tandem Decarboxylative C-H Olefination/Rearomatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Chang; Huang, Yen-Hsiang; Chou, Chih-Ming

    2018-03-02

    A two-step straightforward method for the preparation of ortho-alkylated vinylarenes from readily available benzoic acids is described. The synthetic route involves the dearomatization of benzoic acids by Birch reduction providing alkylated cyclohexa-2,5-dienyl-1-carboxylic acids. The diene subsequently undergoes a decarboxylative C-H olefination followed by rearomatization to deliver ortho-alkylated vinylarene. Mechanistic studies suggest that a Pd/Ag bimetallic catalytic system is important in the tandem decarboxylative C-H olefination/rearomatization step.

  11. New 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid Schiff base compounds and their complexes: synthesis, characterization and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Khosro; Niad, Mahmood; Jafari, Tahereh

    2014-03-25

    Some new tetradentate Schiff base ligands (H3L) were prepared via condensation of 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid with 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde derivatives, such as 3,4-bis((E)-2,4-dihydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(1)), 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(2)) and 3,4-bis((E)-5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(4)). Additionally, a tetradentate Schiff base ligand 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(3)) and its complexes were synthesized. Their metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) were prepared in good yields from the reaction of the ligands with the corresponding metal acetate. They were characterized based on IR, (1)H NMR, Mass spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Also, the formation constants of the complexes were measured by UV-Vis spectroscopic titration at constant ionic strength 0.1M (NaClO4), at 25 °C in dimethylformamide (DMF) as a solvent. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Activation of UCPs gene expression in skeletal muscle can be independent on both circulating fatty acids and food intake. Involvement of ROS in a model of mouse cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Sílvia; Almendro, Vanessa; Barreiro, Esther; Figueras, Maite; Argilés, Josep M; López-Soriano, Francisco J

    2005-01-31

    Implantation of a fast growing tumour to mice (Lewis lung carcinoma) resulted in a clear cachectic state characterized by a profound muscle wasting. This was accompanied by a significant increase in both UCP2 and UCP3 gene expression in skeletal muscle and heart. Interestingly, this increase in gene expression was not linked to a rise in circulating fatty acids or in a decrease in food intake, as previously reported in other pathophysiological states. These results question the concept that hyperlipaemia is the only factor controlling UCP gene expression in different pathophysiological conditions. In addition, the present work suggests that UCPs might participate in a counter-regulatory mechanism to lower the production of ROS.

  13. Occurrence of selected perfluorinated alkyl acids in lunch meals served at school canteens in Italy and their relevance for children’s intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellatte, E.; Brambilla, G.; De Filippis, S.P.; Di Domenico, A.; Pulkrabova, J.; Eschauzier, C.; Klenow, S.; Heinemeyer, G.; de Voogt, P.

    2013-01-01

    Ready-to-eat servings may be more contaminated with perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) than the corresponding unprocessed foods due to the presence of PFAAs in and transfer from food contact materials (FCM) and cookware. Therefore, the presence of selected PFAAs in meals served weekly at lunch time

  14. Development of low birthweight infants at 19 months of age correlates with early intake and status of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Okken-Beukens, M; Schaafsma, A; Muskiet, FAJ; Okken, A

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the influence of early nutrition with and without long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) on later development of less than or equal to 2500 g newborns receiving preterm formula without LCP (n=75), preterm formula with 18:3 omega 6 and LCP omega 3 (at two doses; n=26) or their

  15. Effect of lactic acid-lactobacillus preservative and moisture concentration at baling on intake and digestibility of crabgrass hay by lambs and in-situ digestibility by heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabgrass is a warm-season annual forage that has greater nutritive value than most other warm-season grasses and is highly palatable, but curing time for crabgrass hay is typically longer than for bermudagrass. Crabgrass hay was either not treated or treated with a lactic acid-lactobacillus preserv...

  16. Fatty acid compositions of preterm and term colostrum, transitional and mature milks in a sub-Saharan population with high fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are no data on the fatty acid (FA) compositions of preterm and term milks for sub-Saharan African populations with advancing lactation. However, it is generally acknowledged that our ancestors evolved in sub-Saharan East-Africa, where they inhabited the land-water ecosystems.

  17. Five new prenylated p-hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives with antimicrobial and molluscicidal activity from Piper aduncum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjala, J; Erdelmeier, C A; Wright, A D; Rali, T; Sticher, O

    1993-12-01

    Five new prenylated benzoic acid derivatives, methyl 3-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-4-methoxybenzoate (1), 1-(1-methylethyl)-4-methyl-3-cyclohexenyl 3,5-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-4-hydroxybenzoate (2), 1-(1-methylethyl)-4-methyl-3-cyclohexenyl 3,5-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-4-methoxybenzoate (3), methyl 3,5-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-4-methoxybenzoate (4), and 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-benzoic acid (5) were isolated from the dried leaves of Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae). Together with the new metabolites, four known prenylated benzoic acid derivatives, 3,5-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-4-methoxybenzoic acid (6), 4-hydroxy-3,5-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-benzoic acid (nervogenic acid, 7), methyl 4-hydroxy-3,5-bis(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-benzoate (8), and methyl 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-benzoate (9) as well as, dillapiol (10), myristicin, and the three sesquiterpenes humulene, caryophyllene epoxide, and humulene epoxide were isolated. Compounds 7, 8, and 9 are reported as natural products for the first time. The structures of the isolates were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D-and 2D-NMR spectroscopy. Isolates 4-7, 9, and 10 were molluscicidal while 2, 5-7, and 9 displayed significant antibacterial activities.

  18. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  19. The Effect of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Gestational Length: Randomized Trial of Supplementation Compared to Nutrition Education for Increasing n-3 Intake from Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A. Harris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. DHA supplementation was compared to nutrition education to increase DHA consumption from fish and DHA fortified foods. Design. This two-part intervention included a randomized double-blind placebo controlled DHA supplementation arm and a nutrition education arm designed to increase intake of DHA from dietary sources by 300 mg per day. Setting. Denver Health Hospitals and Clinics, Denver, Colorado, USA. Population. 871 pregnant women aged 18–40 were recruited between16 and 20 weeks of gestation of whom 564 completed the study and complete delivery data was available in 505 women and infants. Methods. Subjects received either 300 or 600 mg DHA or olive oil placebo or nutrition education. Main Outcome Variable. Gestational length. Results. Gestational length was significantly increased by 4.0–4.5 days in women supplemented with 600 mg DHA per day or provided with nutrition education. Each 1% increase in RBC DHA at delivery was associated with a 1.6-day increase in gestational length. No significant effects on birth weight, birth length, or head circumference were demonstrated. The rate of early preterm birth (1.7% in those supplemented with DHA (combined 300 and 600 mg/day was significantly lower than in controls. Conclusion. Nutrition education or supplementation with DHA can be effective in increasing gestational length.

  20. Greener Friedel-Crafts Acylation using Microwave-enhanced reactivity of Bismuth Triflate in the Friedel-Crafts Benzoylation of Aromatic Compounds with Benzoic Anhydride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phuong Hoang; Nguyen, Hai Truong; Hansen, Poul Erik

    2017-01-01

    An efficient and facile bismuth trifluoromethanesulfonate-catalyzed benzoylation of aromatic compounds using benzoic anhydride under solvent-free microwave irradiation has been developed. The microwave-assisted Friedel-Crafts benzoylation results in good yields within short reaction times. Bismuth...

  1. Experimental standard molar enthalpies of formation of some 4-alkoxybenzoic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Lobo Ferreira, Ana I.M.C.; Maciel, Fabrice M.

    2010-01-01

    The present work is part of a research program on the energetics of the linear 4-n-alkoxybenzoic acids, aiming the study of the enthalpic effect of the introduction of an alkoxy chain in the position 4- of the benzoic acid ring. In this work, we present the results of the thermochemical research on 4-n-alkoxybenzoic acids with the alkoxy chain length n = 2, 4, and 8. The standard (p 0 =0.1MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of crystalline 4-ethoxybenzoic acid, 4-butoxybenzoic acid, and 4-(octyloxy)benzoic acid was measured, at T = 298.15 K, by static-bomb calorimetry. These values, combined with the values of standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, were used to derive the standard molar enthalpies of formation in the gaseous phase.

  2. UPS and DFT investigation of the electronic structure of gas-phase trimesic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisberg, L., E-mail: rebban@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Oswaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Pärna, R. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Oswaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, Fotongatan 2, 225 94 Lund (Sweden); Kikas, A.; Kuusik, I.; Kisand, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Oswaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Hirsimäki, M.; Valden, M. [Surface Science Laboratory, Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Nõmmiste, E. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Oswaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • In the current study outer valence band electronic structure of benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid was interpreted. • Experimental and calculated trimesic acid (TMA) spectrum were compared to ones of benzene and benzoic acid. • It is shown that similarities between MO energies and shapes for benzene and TMA exists. • Addition of carboxyl groups to the benzene ring clearly correlates with increasing binding energy of HOMO. - Abstract: Benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (trimesic acid, TMA) molecules in gas-phase have been investigated by using valence band photoemission. The photoelectron spectrum in the binding energy region from 9 to 22 eV is interpreted by using density functional theory calculations. The electronic structure of TMA is compared with benzene and benzoic acid in order to demonstrate changes in molecular orbital energies induced by addition of carboxyl groups to benzene ring.

  3. Food sources of total omega 3 fatty acids (18:3 + 20:5 + 22:6), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food sources of total omega 3 fatty acids (18:3 + 20:5 + 22:6), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  4. Fatty acids in serum lipid fractions as indicators of fat intake in 5-year-old children in the STRIP project

    OpenAIRE

    Hagström, Hanna; Jokinen, Eero; Seppänen, Ritva; Salo, Pia; Viikari, Jorma; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Helenius, Hans; Simell, Olli

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between dietary fat composition and the proportion of fatty acids in serum lipid fractions as biomarkers of previous dietary fat quality in 5-year-old children. Using 4-consecutive-day food records, the food consumption of half (n=50) of a group of randomly selected children who are participating in a prospective randomized coronary risk factor intervention project (STRIP; n=1062 at recruitment at 7 months of age) was estim...

  5. Long-Term Intake of Uncaria rhynchophylla Reduces S100B and RAGE Protein Levels in Kainic Acid-Induced Epileptic Seizures Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Nou-Ying; Lin, Yi-Wen; Ho, Tin-Yun; Cheng, Chin-Yi; Chen, Chao-Hsiang; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Epileptic seizures are crucial clinical manifestations of recurrent neuronal discharges in the brain. An imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neuronal discharges causes brain damage and cell loss. Herbal medicines offer alternative treatment options for epilepsy because of their low cost and few side effects. We established a rat epilepsy model by injecting kainic acid (KA, 12?mg/kg, i.p.) and subsequently investigated the effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and its underlying mec...

  6. gamma-Aminobutyric acid production in small and large intestine of normal and germ-free Wistar rats. Influence of food intake and intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berlo, C L; de Jonge, H R; van den Bogaard, A E; van Eijk, H M; Janssen, M A; Soeters, P B

    1987-09-01

    In recent hypotheses concerning the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is claimed to be produced by the colonic flora, although enzymes necessary to generate GABA have been reported to be present in intestinal mucosa. In this study, using normal and germ-free Wistar rats, we determined GABA levels and amino-grams of arterial blood and of venous effluent from small and large bowel. The data indicate that large and small intestinal mucosa significantly contribute to GABA production. In the fasted state GABA concentrations are greater in the venous effluent of the small bowel than in the venous effluent of the large bowel. Feeding increases the arterioportal differences, and uptake in the small bowel is still significantly higher than in the large bowel. This process is not, or can only be to a minor degree, bacterially mediated, because GABA production in the gut both in the fed and fasted state is of similar magnitude in germ-free and normal animals. gamma-Aminobutyric acid release correlates significantly with glutamine uptake in the small bowel of fasted rats. Only a small fraction of the glutamine taken up is needed to account for GABA release, so that conclusions concerning which amino acids may serve as precursors of GABA cannot be drawn. Further studies are needed to delineate the metabolic pathways leading to GABA synthesis.

  7. Theoretical Hammett Plot for the Gas-Phase Ionization of Benzoic Acid versus Phenol: A Computational Chemistry Lab Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Blake E.

    2013-01-01

    Computational chemistry undergraduate laboratory courses are now part of the chemistry curriculum at many universities. However, there remains a lack of computational chemistry exercises available to instructors. This exercise is presented for students to develop skills using computational chemistry software while supplementing their knowledge of…

  8. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase activities of benzoic acid derivate from the bark of Myristica fatua Houtt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megawati, Darmawan, Akhmad; Fajriah, Sofa; Primahana, Gian; Dewi, Rizna Triana; Minarti, Meiliawati, Lia

    2017-11-01

    Myrictica fatua Houtt widely used in Indonesian as one of the traditional medicinal plants. Cancer and diabetic mellitus (DM) type 2 are two degenerative diseases caused by the presence of excessive free radicals in the body. Antioxidant and anti-diabetic active compounds were needed to reduce the risk of the diseases. One of the chemical compound groups that can be used as antioxidant and antidiabetic is phenolic compound. Isolation of the methanolic extract of the bark of M. fatua Houtt using chromatography methods led to the isolation of phenolic compound. Methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate showed antioxidant and antidiabetic activities through DPPH free radicals scavenger and α-glucosidase inhibitions activities test showed IC50 value 7.96 and 7.68 ug / mL, respectively

  9. In vitro predictions of skin absorption of caffeine, testosterone, and benzoic acid: A multi-centre comparison study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Burgsteden, J.A. van; Cage, S.; Carmichael, P.L.; Dick, I.; Kenyon, S.; Korinth, G.; Larese, F.; Limasset, J.C.; Maas, W.J.M.; Montomoli, L.; Nielsen, J.B.; Payan, J.-P.; Robinson, E.; Sartorelli, P.; Schaller, K.H.; Wilkinson, S.C.; Williams, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    To obtain better insight into the robustness of in vitro percutaneous absorption methodology, the intra- and inter-laboratory variation in this type of study was investigated in 10 European laboratories. To this purpose, the in vitro absorption of three compounds through human skin (9 laboratories)

  10. Acquisition of the ability for Rhodopseudomonas palustris to degrade chlorinated benzoic acids as the sole carbon source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oda, Y; de Vries, YP; Forney, LJ; Gottschal, JC

    2001-01-01

    Three strains of Rhodopseudomonas palustris were isolated from phototrophic enrichment cultures containing 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA) and benzoate (BA). These new strains as well as several previously described strains of R. palustris were tested in this study and shown to degrade 3-CBA if grown in

  11. Effects of subacute ruminal acidosis and low feed intake on short-chain fatty acid transporters and flux pathways in Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laarman, A H; Pederzolli, R-L A; Wood, K M; Penner, G B; McBride, B W

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the role of protein-mediated transport pathways for short-chain fatty acid flux across the ruminal epithelium, using subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and feed restriction as models. Twenty-one Holstein steers (216.8 ± 31.4 kg BW) were individually housed and fed a total mixed ration (TMR) with a 50:50 forage:concentrate ad libitum for 5 d. After the 5 d diet adjustment period, calves were assigned 1 of 3 treatments: control (CTRL) calves were fed the TMR ad libitum on d 1, subacute ruminal acidosis calves were given 25% of their ad libitum DMI on d 1 and then given a barley grain challenge at 30% of ad libitum DMI on d2 (ACID) calves were given 25% of their ad libitum DMI on d 1 and then given a barley grain challenge at 30% of ad libitum DMI on d 2, and feed restriction (FR) calves were given 25% of their ad libitum DMI for 5 d. Reticuloruminal pH was continuously measured during the entire study. At the end of the study, rumen tissue was harvested and acetate and butyrate flux were measured. Selective inhibitors were used to differentiate total flux (TOTAL), protein-mediated flux (PMF), and passive diffusion flux (PDF). The duration that rumen pH was calves compared with CTRL and FR calves (57 ± 90 vs. 519.71 ± 90 vs. 30 ± 90 min/d for CTRL, ACID, and FR, respectively; < 0.01). Total acetate flux was greater in FR than in CTRL (630.6 ± 38.9 vs. 421.1 ± 41.4 nmol/cm × h, respectively; < 0.01), but no difference was observed between CTRL and ACID (421.1 ± 41.4 vs. 455.4 ± 38.9 nmol/cm × h, respectively). Also, total butyrate flux was greater in FR than in CTRL (1,241.9 ± 94.8 vs. 625.5 ± 86.3 nmol/cm × h, respectively; < 0.01), but no difference was detected between CTRL and ACID (625.5 ± 86.3 vs. 716.7 ± 81.0 nmol/cm × h, respectively). For butyrate flux, PMF was greater for FR than for CTRL (479.21 ± 103.9 vs. 99.9 ± 86.3 nmol/cm × h, respectively; < 0.01), but no difference was observed between

  12. Utilization of oriented crystal growth for screening of aromatic carboxylic acids cocrystallization with urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyłek, Maciej; Ziółkowska, Dorota; Kobierski, Mirosław; Mroczyńska, Karina; Cysewski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of molecular complex formation in the solid state of urea with benzoic acid analogues was measured directly on the crystallite films deposited on the glass surface using powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD). Obtained solid mixtures were also analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The simple droplet evaporation method was found to be efficient, robust, fast and cost-preserving approach for first stage cocrystal screening. Additionally, the application of orientation effect to cocrystal screening simplifies the analysis due to damping of majority of diffraction signals coming from coformers. During validation phase the proposed approach successfully reproduced both positive cases of cocrystallization (urea:salicylic acid and urea:4-hydroxy benzoic acid) as well as pairs of co-formers immiscible in the solid state (urea:benzoic acid and urea:acetylsalicylic acids). Based on validated approach new cocrystals of urea were identified in complexes with 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. In all cases formation of multicomponent crystal phase was confirmed by the appearance of new reflexes on the diffraction patterns and FTIR absorption band shifts of O-H and N-H groups.

  13. Synthesis and HPLC evaluation of carboxylic acid phases on a hydride surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesek, Joseph J; Matyska, Maria T; Gangakhedkar, Surekha; Siddiq, Rukhsana

    2006-04-01

    Three organic moieties containing carboxylic acid functional groups are attached to a particulate silica surface through silanization/hydrosilation. Two compounds (undecylenic acid and 10-undecynoic acid) have 11 carbon chains and the other is a five-carbon acid (pentenoic acid). Bonding is confirmed through carbon elemental analysis, diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform spectroscopy, and carbon-13 and silicon-29 CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy. The bonded phases are tested by HPLC using PTH amino acids, nucleic acids, theophylline-related compounds, anilines, benzoic acid compounds, choline, and tobramycin. The latter two compounds are used to investigate the aqueous normal phase properties of the three bonded materials.

  14. Acute oral intake of a higenamine-based dietary supplement increases circulating free fatty acids and energy expenditure in human subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang-Rok; Schriefer, JohnHenry M; Gunnels, Trint A; Harvey, Innocence C; Bloomer, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Background Higenamine, also known as norcoclaurine, is an herbal constituent thought to act as a beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist—possibly stimulating lipolysis. It was the purpose of this study to determine the impact of a higenamine-based dietary supplement on plasma free fatty acids and energy expenditure following acute oral ingestion. Methods Sixteen healthy subjects (8 men; 26.1 ± 2.5 yrs; 8 women 22.4 ± 3.1 yrs) ingested a dietary supplement containing a combination of higenamine, ca...

  15. The effect of Eimeria maxima infection on the expression of amino acid and sugar transporters aminopeptidase, as well as the di- and tri-peptide transporter PepT1, is not solely due to decreased feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miska, Katarzyna B; Fetterer, Raymond H

    2018-05-01

    Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria in poultry is endemic to poultry operations and results in decreased feed intake, diarrhea, and decreased weight gain. The goal was to determine the effect of Eimeria maxima infection on the expression of genes that encode peptide and amino acid transporters (AATs), and also to determine whether decreased feed intake contributes to the change in gene expression by including a pair-fed group of broilers. Three groups of male Ross broilers: 1) not infected, 2) infected, and 3) not infected pair-fed groups were used. Chicks were infected with 1,000 oocysts of E. maxima at 21 d of age. Feed consumption was obtained daily, and at d 0, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 post-infection (PI), 6 birds were euthanized, and a portion of the jejunum was removed for qRT-PCR. Infected birds had significantly decreased feed consumption between d 6 to 9 PI. At d 7 PI infected birds had a 45% reduction in weight gain, and pair-fed birds had a 32% reduction in weight gain. The feed conversion ratio at d 7 PI of infected birds was 2.2 while that of pair-fed birds was 1.7, compared to 1.5 in uninfected birds. Growth parameters were more affected in infected birds than in pair-fed birds. By measuring expression levels of nutrient uptake and processing genes via qRT-PCR, it was determined that genes encoding proteins located at the brush border of the gut epithelium were affected by infection as well as change in feed intake. The expression of AATs B°AT, b°,+AT, EAAT3, and PepT1 in infected birds decreased sharply at the height of infection; however, in birds that were pair fed, an increase in expression of b°,+AT, and PepT1 was observed, and little change was seen in expression of B°AT and EAAT3. In summary, the changes in expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters are distinct between coccidia-infected birds compared to healthy pair-fed birds.

  16. Long-Term Intake of Uncaria rhynchophylla Reduces S100B and RAGE Protein Levels in Kainic Acid-Induced Epileptic Seizures Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nou-Ying Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epileptic seizures are crucial clinical manifestations of recurrent neuronal discharges in the brain. An imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neuronal discharges causes brain damage and cell loss. Herbal medicines offer alternative treatment options for epilepsy because of their low cost and few side effects. We established a rat epilepsy model by injecting kainic acid (KA, 12 mg/kg, i.p. and subsequently investigated the effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR and its underlying mechanisms. Electroencephalogram and epileptic behaviors revealed that the KA injection induced epileptic seizures. Following KA injection, S100B levels increased in the hippocampus. This phenomenon was attenuated by the oral administration of UR and valproic acid (VA, 250 mg/kg. Both drugs significantly reversed receptor potentiation for advanced glycation end product proteins. Rats with KA-induced epilepsy exhibited no increase in the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 3, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and chemokine receptor type 2, which play a role in inflammation. Our results provide novel and detailed mechanisms, explaining the role of UR in KA-induced epileptic seizures in hippocampal CA1 neurons.

  17. Long-Term Intake of Uncaria rhynchophylla Reduces S100B and RAGE Protein Levels in Kainic Acid-Induced Epileptic Seizures Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Nou-Ying; Lin, Yi-Wen; Ho, Tin-Yun; Cheng, Chin-Yi; Chen, Chao-Hsiang; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Epileptic seizures are crucial clinical manifestations of recurrent neuronal discharges in the brain. An imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neuronal discharges causes brain damage and cell loss. Herbal medicines offer alternative treatment options for epilepsy because of their low cost and few side effects. We established a rat epilepsy model by injecting kainic acid (KA, 12 mg/kg, i.p.) and subsequently investigated the effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and its underlying mechanisms. Electroencephalogram and epileptic behaviors revealed that the KA injection induced epileptic seizures. Following KA injection, S100B levels increased in the hippocampus. This phenomenon was attenuated by the oral administration of UR and valproic acid (VA, 250 mg/kg). Both drugs significantly reversed receptor potentiation for advanced glycation end product proteins. Rats with KA-induced epilepsy exhibited no increase in the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 3, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and chemokine receptor type 2, which play a role in inflammation. Our results provide novel and detailed mechanisms, explaining the role of UR in KA-induced epileptic seizures in hippocampal CA1 neurons.

  18. Cardiometabolic Effects of Cheese Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev

    In several countries, the dietary guidelines for preventing CVD focus on reducing the intake of saturated fat. A high cheese intake in particular may however not be associated with CVD risk, despite a high content of saturated fat. This could be due to a reduced digestibility of fat in cheese....... The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate how the fat content of the cheese-matrix and the cheese ripening duration affect cardiometabolic risk markers and fecal fat excretion. The thesis is based on three intervention studies, two in pigs and one in humans. The results suggested that fat content...... of cheese-matrix may influence the HDL-cholesterol response, while the ripening duration may affect the level of free fatty acids and insulin in the blood. Furthermore the results showed that a diet with saturated fat in cheese or meat caused a higher HDL-cholesterol, but not LDL-cholesterol, compared...

  19. FINDIET 2007 Survey: energy and nutrient intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietinen, Pirjo; Paturi, Merja; Reinivuo, Heli; Tapanainen, Heli; Valsta, Liisa M

    2010-06-01

    The National FINDIET surveys are carried out every 5 years to monitor dietary habits and nutrient intake of the adult Finnish population. The latest survey was carried out in 2007. Cross-sectional population-based study. Dietary assessment was carried out using 48 h recall interviews. A picture book of food portions was used to estimate portion sizes and the national Food Composition Database Fineli(R) to calculate nutrient intakes. A representative sample taken in five regions in Finland. A total of 730 men and 846 women aged 24-64 years. The percentage contribution of fat to the total energy intake was 33 % in men and 31 % in women. The respective percentages for SFA in men and women were 13 % and 12 %, respectively, and 0.4 % for trans fatty acids in both genders. The average intakes of folate, vitamin D and fibre fell below the recommended levels, whereas the average salt intake was somewhat higher than the recommendations. Women's diet was higher in protein, dietary fibre and sucrose compared to that of men. According to the FINDIET 2007 Survey, the dietary habits of the adult Finnish population have headed in a positive direction overall. However, although the quality of the fats consumed has continued to improve, and the intake of salt has decreased, they still do not meet the recommended levels of intake. Similarly, the average intakes of folate and vitamin D continue to fall below the recommendations. There is also a need to increase fibre intake and to cut down the intake of sucrose.

  20. Acute oral intake of a higenamine-based dietary supplement increases circulating free fatty acids and energy expenditure in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Rok; Schriefer, Johnhenry M; Gunnels, Trint A; Harvey, Innocence C; Bloomer, Richard J

    2013-10-21

    Higenamine, also known as norcoclaurine, is an herbal constituent thought to act as a beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist-possibly stimulating lipolysis. It was the purpose of this study to determine the impact of a higenamine-based dietary supplement on plasma free fatty acids and energy expenditure following acute oral ingestion. Sixteen healthy subjects (8 men; 26.1 ± 2.5 yrs; 8 women 22.4 ± 3.1 yrs) ingested a dietary supplement containing a combination of higenamine, caffeine (270 mg), and yohimbe bark extract or a placebo, on two separate occasions in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design, separated by 6-8 days. Blood samples were collected immediately before ingestion, and at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes post ingestion, and analyzed for plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol. Breath samples were collected at the same times for a measure of kilocalorie expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) using indirect calorimetry. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all times. Data collection occurred in the morning following a 10 hour overnight fast. A condition effect was noted for both FFA (p 0.05). A condition effect was noted for heart rate (p = 0.03) and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001), with values higher for supplement compared to placebo. Ingestion of a higenamine-based dietary supplement stimulates lipolysis and energy expenditure, as evidenced by a significant increase in circulating FFA and kilocalorie expenditure. The same supplement results in a moderate increase in heart rate (~3 bpm) and systolic blood pressure (~12 mmHg), which is consistent with previous studies evaluating moderate doses of caffeine and yohimbine, suggesting that higenamine contributes little to the increase in these hemodynamic variables. These findings are in reference to young, healthy and active men and women.

  1. Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Russell J; Mente, Andrew; Maroleanu, Adriana; Cozma, Adrian I; Ha, Vanessa; Kishibe, Teruko; Uleryk, Elizabeth; Budylowski, Patrick; Schünemann, Holger; Beyene, Joseph; Anand, Sonia S

    2015-08-11

    (1.10, 0.95 to 1.27). Industrial, but not ruminant, trans fats were associated with CHD mortality (1.18 (1.04 to 1.33) v 1.01 (0.71 to 1.43)) and CHD (1.42 (1.05 to 1.92) v 0.93 (0.73 to 1.18)). Ruminant trans-palmitoleic acid was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (0.58, 0.46 to 0.74). The certainty of associations between saturated fat and all outcomes was "very low." The certainty of associations of trans fat with CHD outcomes was "moderate" and "very low" to "low" for other associations. Saturated fats are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke, or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogeneous with methodological limitations. Trans fats are associated with all cause mortality, total CHD, and CHD mortality, probably because of higher levels of intake of industrial trans fats than ruminant trans fats. Dietary guidelines must carefully consider the health effects of recommendations for alternative macronutrients to replace trans fats and saturated fats. © de Souza et al 2015.

  2. Growth and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Early, High-Dose Parenteral Amino Acid Intake in Very Low Birth Weight Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Maya; Jennings, Alishia; Przystac, Lynn; Phornphutkul, Chanika; Tucker, Richard; Vohr, Betty; Stephens, Bonnie E; Bliss, Joseph M

    2017-03-01

    Administration of high-dose parenteral amino acids (AAs) to premature infants within hours of delivery is currently recommended. This study compared the effect of lower and higher AA administration starting close to birth on short-term growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18-24 months corrected gestational age (CGA). Infants Toddler Development, Third Edition at 18-24 months CGA. Secondary outcomes were growth parameters at 36 weeks CGA among infants surviving to hospital discharge, serum bicarbonate, serum urea nitrogen, creatinine, AA profiles in the first week of life, and incidence of major morbidities and mortality. No differences in neurodevelopmental outcome were detected between the high and low AA groups. Infants in the high AA group had significantly lower mean weight, length, and head circumference percentiles than those in the standard AA group at 36 weeks CGA and at hospital discharge. These differences did not persist after controlling for birth growth parameters, except for head circumference. Infants in the high AA group had higher mean serum urea nitrogen than the standard group on each day throughout the first week. Current recommendations for high-dose AA starting at birth are not associated with improved growth or neurodevelopmental outcomes.

  3. RESEARCH OF THE ADSORPTION OF ORGANIC ACIDS IN SUGARCANE BAGASSE ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Omar Prieto García

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research a study of the adsorption of acetic, benzoic, butanoic, fumaric, maleic and succinic acids on sugarcane baggase ash is made. The adsorber material is characterized through physical criteria such as apparent and pictometric density, compressibility, porosity, superficial area and tortuosity. The sample has been examined by X-rays Diffraction, thermal analysis, IR-quality analysis. The isotherm for the sorption process is determined, where it is shown that the Freundlich model is adjusted to benzoic acid, the Langmuir and Toth model to acetic acid, Bunauer- Emmett- Teller (BET model to succinic acid and the butiric, maleic and fumaric acids are adjusted to Langmoir model. It is established that the first-order model is adjusted to the adsorption kinetics of the acetic and benzoic acids; while the rest of the acids are adjusted to a second-order model, in the case of the butanoic, succinic and maleic acids it is possible the occurrence of chemisorption processes.

  4. Dietary intake of Croatian lactating women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Krešić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason, breast-feeding women usually pay attention to their dietary practice during the breast-feeding period. The aim of this study was to examine changes in dietary intake of Croatian lactating women during six months postpartum. The study sample consisted of 83 lactating women whose diet records were collected at three measurements rounds: at 1 ± 0.25, 3 ± 0.25 and 6 ± 0.25 months postpartum. The mothers´ diets were investigated using two consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Energy and nutrient intakes were estimated using a nutritional database. The obtained results have shown that the diet of Croatian lactating women is hypocaloric (65.73 – 79.52 % DRI, p < 0.001 and deficient in magnesium, zinc, vitamins A, B1, B6, D and folate. Also evident was a moderate imbalance in the distribution of energy percentages from macronutrients. During six months postpartum, lactating women continuously decreased food intake resulting in a gradual decrease in energy intake (p < 0.001 and in the intake of all micronutrients. However, during six months postpartum, lactating women increased the share of total fat in energy intake (p = 0.006 and the share of saturated fatty acids (p = 0.048, while the share of monounsaturated fatty acids in total energy intake decreased (p = 0.004. It could be concluded that it is worthwhile to further study the nutritional status of Croatian lactating women during this vulnerable period especially regarding their micronutrients intake in order to achieve the recommended dietary requirements.

  5. Risk–Benefit Assessment of Monomethylmercury and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake for Ringed Seal Consumption with Particular Emphasis on Vulnerable Populations in the Western Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Gmelch

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many northern Inuit communities rely on traditional food as major source of nourishment. An essential part of the traditional Arctic diet is marine mammals such as ringed seals or beluga. Being top predators, these animals are often highly contaminated with various toxins. In contrast, some tissues of marine mammals are also characterized by high amounts of n3-PUFAs (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we try to balance the risks associated with the consumption of different tissue types of ringed seals in terms of the neurotoxin monomethylmercury (MMHg with the benefits of consumption due to high n3-PUFA concentrations. Fetuses are at the highest risk of neurological impairments because MMHg can easily cross the placental barrier. Therefore, women of childbearing age served as an indicator population for especially susceptible subpopulations. We calculated maximal weekly maternal portions sizes if mutual consumption of muscle and blubber tissue or liver and blubber tissue was assumed. Those weekly portion sizes resulted in an estimated overall IQ point gain of infants of 0, whereas the consumption of liver or muscle tissue without blubber could lead to an IQ loss. In contrast to former studies, our data do not generally prohibit the consumption of liver tissue. Instead, our results suggest that a maximal weekly consumption of 125 g liver tissue together with 1 g of blubber tissue is acceptable and does not lead to neurological damages in the long term. Similarly, the consumption of maximal 172 g muscle tissue can be balanced by the mutual consumption of 1 g blubber tissue.

  6. Plasma and Urinary Phenolic Profiles after Acute and Repetitive Intake of Wild Blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo P. Feliciano

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that blueberries may have cardiovascular and cognitive health benefits. In this work, we investigated the profile of plasma and urine (polyphenol metabolites after acute and daily consumption of wild blueberries for 30 days in 18 healthy men. The inter-individual variability in plasma and urinary polyphenol levels was also investigated. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 2 h post-consumption on day 1 and day 30. Twenty-four-hour urine was also collected on both days. A total of 61 phenolic metabolites were quantified in plasma at baseline, of which 43 increased after acute or chronic consumption of blueberries over one month. Benzoic and catechol derivatives represented more than 80% of the changes in phenolic profile after 2 h consumption on day 1, whereas hippuric and benzoic derivatives were the major compounds that increased at 0 and 2 h on day 30, respectively. The total (polyphenol urinary excretion remained unchanged after 30 days of wild blueberry intake. The inter-individual variability ranged between 40%–48% in plasma and 47%–54% in urine. Taken together, our results illustrate that blueberry (polyphenols are absorbed and extensively metabolized by phase II enzymes and by the gut microbiota, leading to a whole array of metabolites that may be responsible for the beneficial effects observed after blueberry consumption.

  7. Plasma and Urinary Phenolic Profiles after Acute and Repetitive Intake of Wild Blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Rodrigo P; Istas, Geoffrey; Heiss, Christian; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana

    2016-08-25

    Recent studies have shown that blueberries may have cardiovascular and cognitive health benefits. In this work, we investigated the profile of plasma and urine (poly)phenol metabolites after acute and daily consumption of wild blueberries for 30 days in 18 healthy men. The inter-individual variability in plasma and urinary polyphenol levels was also investigated. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 2 h post-consumption on day 1 and day 30. Twenty-four-hour urine was also collected on both days. A total of 61 phenolic metabolites were quantified in plasma at baseline, of which 43 increased after acute or chronic consumption of blueberries over one month. Benzoic and catechol derivatives represented more than 80% of the changes in phenolic profile after 2 h consumption on day 1, whereas hippuric and benzoic derivatives were the major compounds that increased at 0 and 2 h on day 30, respectively. The total (poly)phenol urinary excretion remained unchanged after 30 days of wild blueberry intake. The inter-individual variability ranged between 40%-48% in plasma and 47%-54% in urine. Taken together, our results illustrate that blueberry (poly)phenols are absorbed and extensively metabolized by phase II enzymes and by the gut microbiota, leading to a whole array of metabolites that may be responsible for the beneficial effects observed after blueberry consumption.

  8. Separation and determination of some carboxylic acids by capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sladkov, V.; Fourest, B

    2006-07-01

    Separation and determination of some organic acids, mono-carboxylic (formic and acetic), dicarboxylic (oxalic and tartaric), tricarboxylic (citric) acids and aromatic acids (phtalic, benzoic, mellitic and trimellitic), by capillary electrophoresis are reviewed. The method development parameters, such as separation and injection mode, are discussed. Special attention is paid to the comparison of different detection types (spectroscopic and electrochemical). The optimisation of the carrier electrolyte composition (choice of carrier electrolyte, effect of pH, ionic strength, electro-osmotic flow modifier) is treated. Different additives (alkali-earth and transition metal ions, cyclodextrins and alcohol), which are often used for improving organic acid separation, are also considered. (authors)

  9. Separation and determination of some carboxylic acids by capillary electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladkov, V.; Fourest, B.

    2006-01-01

    Separation and determination of some organic acids, mono-carboxylic (formic and acetic), dicarboxylic (oxalic and tartaric), tricarboxylic (citric) acids and aromatic acids (phtalic, benzoic, mellitic and trimellitic), by capillary electrophoresis are reviewed. The method development parameters, such as separation and injection mode, are discussed. Special attention is paid to the comparison of different detection types (spectroscopic and electrochemical). The optimisation of the carrier electrolyte composition (choice of carrier electrolyte, effect of pH, ionic strength, electro-osmotic flow modifier) is treated. Different additives (alkali-earth and transition metal ions, cyclodextrins and alcohol), which are often used for improving organic acid separation, are also considered. (authors)

  10. Intake of energy and nutrients. Euronut SENECA investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreiras, O; van Staveren, W A; Cruz, J A; Nes, M; Lund-Larsen, K

    1991-12-01

    As part of the Euronut SENECA study, food consumption has been assessed in 1217 men and 1241 women, born between 1913 and 1918 and living in 18 towns in 12 European countries. The method used was a standardized modified dietary history, including a 3-day estimated record and a food frequency list based on local food patterns. Intakes of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fatty acids, cholesterol and alcohol are described in this paper. As expected, a difference between men and women in energy and nutrient intake was observed in all towns. There was a great variation between towns in mean dietary intakes of all dietary components. Mean energy intake of men ranged from 12.7 MJ in Marki (Poland) to 8.2 MJ in Yverdon (Switzerland) and Chateau Renault-Amboise (France). For women the range was from 10.9 MJ in Marki (Poland) to 6.3 MJ in Yverdon (Switzerland) and Vila Franca de Xira (Portugal). A geographical pattern can be detected for the intake of fatty acids. Intakes of saturated fat were lower in southern than in northern European towns. The calculated ratio for intakes of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids (polyunsaturated fatty acids plus monounsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids) for all participants was higher in the southern European centres than in the northern centres and ranged from 2.7 in Markopoulo (Greece) to 1.2 in Elverum (Norway) and Marki (Poland). Alcohol consumption was considerable higher in men than in women. In men a north-south gradient in alcohol intake can be detected, with the highest intake in the two centres in Italy, where, on average 11% of energy intake was derived from alcohol.

  11. Misclassification of iodine intake level from morning spot urine samples with high iodine excretion among Inuit and non-Inuit in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stig; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Laurberg, Peter

    2015-05-14

    Iodine nutrition is commonly assessed from iodine excretion in urine. A 24 h urine sample is ideal, but it is cumbersome and inconvenient. Hence, spot urine samples with creatinine to adjust for differences in void volume are widely used. Still, the importance of ethnicity and the timing of spot urine samples need to be settled. We, thus, collected 104 early morning spot urine samples and 24 h urine samples from Inuit and non-Inuit living in Greenland. Diet was assessed by a FFQ. Demographic data were collected from the national registry and by questionnaires. Iodine was measured using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction, creatinine using the Jaffe method and para-amino benzoic acid by the HPLC method for the estimation of completeness of urine sampling and compensation of incomplete urine samples to 24 h excretion. A population-based recruitment was done from the capital city, a major town and a settlement (n 36/48/20). Participants were seventy-eight Inuit and twenty-six non-Inuit. The median 24 h iodine excretion was 138 (25th-75th percentile 89-225) μg/97 (25th-75th percentile 72-124) μg in Inuit/non-Inuit (P= 0.030), and 153 (25th-75th percentile 97-251) μg/102 (25th-75th percentile 73-138) μg (P= 0.026) when including compensated iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in 24 h urine samples increased with a rising intake of traditional Inuit foods (P= 0.005). Iodine excretion was lower in morning spot urine samples than in 24 h urine samples (P< 0.001). This difference was associated with iodine intake levels (P< 0.001), and was statistically significant when the iodine excretion level was above 150 μg/24 h. In conclusion, the iodine intake level was underestimated from morning spot urine samples if iodine excretion was above the recommended level.

  12. Thermodynamic properties of isomeric iso-butoxybenzoic acids: Experimental and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubczyk, Michał; Sporzyński, Andrzej; Emel’yanenko, Vladimir N.; Varfolomeev, Mikhail A.; Verevkin, Sergey P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Vapor pressures of butoxy benzoic acid derivatives were measured. • Vaporization, sublimation and fusion enthalpies were derived. • Molar enthalpies of formation were measured by calorimetry. • Thermochemical data tested for consistency using additivity rules and computations. • Simple additivity method suggested for prediction thermochemical properties. - Abstract: Standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation at the temperature T = 298.15 K of the 2-, 3-, and 4-iso-butoxybenzoic acids were measured using the combustion calorimetry. Standard molar enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation were derived from the vapor pressure temperature dependencies measured by the transpiration method. Molar enthalpies of the solid state phase transitions were measured by the DSC. Thermodynamic data on alkoxy substituted benzoic acids available in the literature were collected and combined with own experimental results. This data set on alkoxybenzoic acids was evaluated by using quantum-chemical and group-additivity methods

  13. Thermodynamic properties of isomeric iso-butoxybenzoic acids: Experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubczyk, Michał; Sporzyński, Andrzej [Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-664 Warszawa (Poland); Emel’yanenko, Vladimir N.; Varfolomeev, Mikhail A. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Verevkin, Sergey P., E-mail: sergey.verevkin@uni-rostock.de [Department of Physical Chemistry, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Department of Physical Chemistry and Department, Science and Technology of Life, Light and Matter, University of Rostock, D-18059 Rostock (Germany)

    2015-09-10

    Highlights: • Vapor pressures of butoxy benzoic acid derivatives were measured. • Vaporization, sublimation and fusion enthalpies were derived. • Molar enthalpies of formation were measured by calorimetry. • Thermochemical data tested for consistency using additivity rules and computations. • Simple additivity method suggested for prediction thermochemical properties. - Abstract: Standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation at the temperature T = 298.15 K of the 2-, 3-, and 4-iso-butoxybenzoic acids were measured using the combustion calorimetry. Standard molar enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation were derived from the vapor pressure temperature dependencies measured by the transpiration method. Molar enthalpies of the solid state phase transitions were measured by the DSC. Thermodynamic data on alkoxy substituted benzoic acids available in the literature were collected and combined with own experimental results. This data set on alkoxybe