Sample records for benzoates

  1. Benzoate transport in Pseudomonas putida CSV86. (United States)

    Choudhary, Alpa; Purohit, Hemant; Phale, Prashant S


    Pseudomonas putida strain CSV86 metabolizes variety of aromatic compounds as the sole carbon source. Genome analysis revealed the presence of genes encoding putative transporters for benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, phenylacetate, p-hydroxyphenylacetate and vanillate. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that benzoate transport and metabolism genes are clustered at the ben locus as benK-catA-benE-benF. Protein topology prediction suggests that BenK (aromatic acid-H+ symporter of major facilitator superfamily) has 12 transmembrane α-helices with the conserved motif LADRXGRKX in loop 2, while BenE (benzoate-H+ symporter protein) has 11 predicted transmembrane α-helices. benF and catA encode benzoate specific porin, OprD and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, respectively. Biochemical studies suggest that benzoate was transported by an inducible and active process. Inhibition (90%-100%) in the presence of dinitrophenol suggests that the energy for the transport process is derived from the proton motive force. The maximum rate of benzoate transport was 484 pmole min-1 mg-1 cells with an affinity constant, Kmof 4.5 μM. Transcriptional analysis of the benzoate and glucose-grown cells showed inducible expression of benF, benK and benE, suggesting that besides outer membrane porin, both inner membrane transporters probably contribute for the benzoate transport in P. putida strain CSV86. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  2. Interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijo, J.; Yonetani, I.


    The interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate was investigated by PMR spectroscopy. The interaction of theobromine with pentadeuterated benzoic acid (benzoic acid-d5) was examined in the same manner but to a lesser degree. Chemical shifts of theobromine protons were determined as a function of sodium benzoate concentration in deuterium oxide at 30 and 15 degrees. Signals of both methyl groups of theobromine underwent significant upfield shifts when sodium benzoate was added to a theobromine solution. This fact suggests that a complex is formed by vertical stacking or plane-to-plane stacking. The same results were obtained for benzoic acid-d5.

  3. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 582.3733 Section 582.3733 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582...

  4. in Binary Liquid Mixtures of Ethyl benzoate

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    Shaik Babu


    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity is measured at 2MHz frequency in the binary mixtures of Ethyl Benzoate with 1-Propanol, 1-Butanol, 1-Pentanol and theoretical values of ultrasonic velocity have been evaluated at 303K using Nomoto's relation, Impedance relation, Ideal mixture relation, Junjie's method and free length theory. Theoretical values are compared with the experimental values and the validity of the theories is checked by applying the chi-square test for goodness of fit and by calculating the average percentage error (APE. A good agreement has been found between experimental and Nomoto’s ultrasonic velocity.

  5. Radiation and thermal polymerization of allyl(p-allylcarbonate) benzoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-V, D.; Herrera-G, A.M.; Castillo-Rojas, S.


    Bulk polymerization of novel allyl(p-allylcarbonate) benzoate was investigated using different sources of energy, such as gamma rays, ultraviolet rays as well as thermal polymerization. The poly(allyl(p-allylcarbonate) benzoate) obtained is a cross-linking, transparent, thermoset polycarbonate. Compositions of the monomer and the polycarbonate were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and 1 H NMR spectroscopy.

  6. 21 CFR 522.842 - Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. 522.842 Section 522.842 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.842 Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. (a) Sponsors. See sponsors in...

  7. Potential Safety Issues Surrounding the Use of Benzoate Preservatives

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    Peter W. Piper


    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate (E211 and potassium sorbate (E202 have long been used for large-scale beverage preservation, yet it is potassium sorbate that is now the preferred option for most soft drink manufacturers. Partly this is a reaction to the discovery that benzoate can cause drinks to contain traces of the carcinogen benzene. This benzene is thought to have its origins in a free-radical catalysed reaction of the benzoate with ascorbic acid. However, there may be additional benefits to using potassium sorbate rather than the benzoate preservatives in beverages. In children, a high dietary intake of sodium benzoate may be associated with asthma, allergy, or attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder. Benzoate is now known to influence cognitive functioning. By acting as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO, thereby reducing the DAAO-catalysed degradation of D-serine, it can upregulate the activity of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors in the brain. A high benzoate intake might also generate glycine deficiency, lack of glycine generally exerting a negative impact on brain neurochemistry. There are therefore strong grounds for suspecting that dietary benzoate can have neuromodulatory (mood, learning, and personality effects and influence child hyperactivity disorders.

  8. Canine olfactory sensitivity to cocaine hydrochloride and methyl benzoate (United States)

    Waggoner, L. Paul; Johnston, James M.; Williams, Marc; Jackson, Jan; Jones, Meredith H.; Boussom, Teresa; Petrousky, James A.


    Methyl benzoate is a consistent product of cocaine hydrochloride exposed to humid air. The detection responses of dogs trained to detect illicit cocaine hydrochloride may be controlled by vapor from cocaine, methyl benzoate, or other constituents of illicit cocaine. The present study addressed the following questions: 1) How capable are dogs of detecting methyl benzoate compared to cocaine hydrochloride, 2) When dogs are trained to detect methyl benzoate, do they respond to cocaine hydrochloride as being the same or different from methyl benzoate. These questions were investigated using random source dogs trained and tested under laboratory conditions. Odor stimuli were generated and delivered by a vapor generation systems, the outputs from which were characterized by thermal desorption GC/MS. ONe group of dogs was trained to discriminate pharmaceutical grade and illicit cocaine hydrochloride from clean air and tested using a two lever procedure to determine their sensitivity to these substances. A second group of dogs was trained to discriminate between methyl benzoate and clean air and tested for their sensitivity to the substance. The dogs in this second group were then tested using a three lever procedure to determine their sensitivity to these substances. A second group of dogs was trained to discriminate between methyl benzoate and clean air and tested for their sensitivity to the substance. The dogs in this second group were then tested using a three lever procedure to determine whether they responded to cocaine hydrochloride as the same or different from methyl benzoate.

  9. Inhibition of Sodium Benzoate on Stainless Steel in Tropical Seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seoh, S. Y.; Senin, H. B.; Nik, W. N. Wan; Amin, M. M.


    The inhibition of sodium benzoate for stainless steel controlling corrosion was studied in seawater at room temperature. Three sets of sample have been immersed in seawater containing sodium benzoate with the concentrations of 0.3M, 0.6M and 1.0M respectively. One set of sample has been immersed in seawater without adding any sodium benzoate. It was found that the highest corrosion rate was observed for the stainless steel with no inhibitor was added to the seawater. As the concentration of sodium benzoate being increased, the corrosion rate is decreases. Results show that by the addition of 1.0M of sodium benzoate in seawater samples, it giving ≥ 90% efficiencies

  10. Determination of Synthetic Food Colors, Caffeine, Sodium Benzoate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of Synthetic Food Colors, Caffeine, Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate in Sports Drinks. Fatemeh Zamani Mazdeh, Zeinab Moradi, Ghazaleh Moghaddam, Zhila Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Farideh Esmaeili Aftabdari, Parnaz Badaei, Mannan Hajimahmoodi ...

  11. A Mouse Model of Hypospadias Induced by Estradiol Benzoate. (United States)

    He, Hou-Guang; Han, Cong-Hui; Zhang, Wei


    We wished to establish a mouse model of hypospadias using injections of estradiol benzoate for investigating the molecular mechanisms of hypospadias. Fifty timed pregnant mice were randomly divided into five study groups: A, B, C, D, and E. These groups were injected subcutaneously with estradiol benzoate mixed with sesame oil at, respectively, the doses of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, or 12.5 mg kg(-1) days(-1) from gestation day (GD) 12 to GD 16. The pups' mortality was recorded on the day of delivery. Urethras and positions of testes were examined on postnatal day 28. The numbers of live pups were significantly lower in the study groups D and E compared to study group A (p Hypospadias was seen in groups C (3.3 %; 1/30), D (18.2 %; 4/22), and E (21.4 %; 3/14), while cryptorchidism was observed in groups C (10 %; 3/30), D (31.8 %; 7/22), and E (57.1 %; 8/14) on postnatal day 28. The experimental model of hypospadias induced by estradiol benzoate in the group D (2.5 mg kg(-1) days(-1)) was more reliable considering high mortality of the study group E. The dose of estradiol benzoate used in the group D is suitable for establishing mouse model of hypospadias.

  12. Synthesis and comparative antibacterial studies of some benzylidene monosaccharide benzoates

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    Mohammed Matin


    Full Text Available Some 4,6-O-benzylidene protected 2,3-di-O-benzoates of methyl a-D-glucopyranoside and methyl a-D-mannopyranoside were prepared. All the compounds (1-7 were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity study against ten human pathogenic bacteria. The study revealed that the benzoylated mannopyranosides (5-7 are more prone towards antibacterial functionalities than that of the glucopyranosides (2-3.

  13. Comparative Effects of Water, Acid and Sodium Benzoate as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative effects of water, sulphuric acid and sodium benzoate as additives on the micelle-catalyzed aquation reactions of the complexes:Fe(Me2Phen)3 2+ and FE(Me4Phen) were studied in acetone using Triton X-100 (TX-100), as the surfactant-catalyst. FE(Me4Phen)2+ equates faster than FE(Me2Phen)2+ in the ...


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    Full Text Available A new benzoate-utilizing strain, Serratia marcescens DS-8, isolated from the environment was characterized. The strain was enterobacilli, Gram negative, mesophilic, non ha lophilic, and aerobic bacterium that showed motile ovale-rod shaped cells. The isolate produced extracellular chitinase, protease, and prodigiosin (a red pigment pr oduced by several Serratia strains yielding bright red or pink colonies. A physiological assay using Microbact* test showed that the strain was closely related to Klebsiella ozaenae (49.85% and Serratia liquefaciens (24.42%, respectively. However, 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicated that the strain was closely related to S. marcescens DSM 30121 with similarity level of 98%. DS-8 strain was able to synthesize its own vitamins. Optimum growth in benzoate was obtained at pH between 7-8.5 and NaCl concentration of 1- 1.5% (w/v. The isolate could grow in benzoate-containing medium up to 10 mM. Other carbon sources that could support the growth of DS-8 were casamino acid, glutamate, glucose, acetate, potato star ch, and ethanol.

  15. Kinetics of interaction between substrates/substrate analogs and benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase from benzoate-degrading Rhodococcus opacus 1CP. (United States)

    Solyanikova, Inna P; Borzova, Oksana V; Emelyanova, Elena V


    Benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase (BDO) of Rhodococcus opacus 1CP, which carried out the initial attack on benzoate, was earlier shown to be the enzyme with a narrow substrate specificity. A kinetics of interaction between benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase and substituted benzoates was assessed taking into account the enlarged list of the type of inhibition and using whole cells grown on benzoate. The type of inhibition was determined and the constants of a reaction of BDO with benzoate in the presence of 2-chlorobenzoate (2CBA), 3,5-dichlorobenzoate (3,5DCBA), and 3-methylbenzoate (3MBA) were calculated. For 2CBA and 3MBA, the types of inhibition were classified as biparametrically disсoordinated inhibition and transient inhibition (from activation towards inhibition), respectively. The process of not widely recognized pseudoinhibition of a BDO reaction with benzoate by 3,5DCBA was assessed by the vector method for the representation of enzymatic reactions. Ki value was determined for 2CBA, 3MBA, and 3,5DCBA as 337.5, 870.3, and 14.7 μM, respectively.

  16. 76 FR 12873 - Potassium Benzoate; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance (United States)


    ..., and dispersing agents; propellants in aerosol dispensers; microencapsulating agents; and emulsifiers.... Genotoxicity studies indicate the benzoates are not mutagenic; however chromosomal aberration studies gave... indicate that benzoates are not mutagenic and benzoic acid did not induce reproductive toxicity in a 4...

  17. [Resistance risk and resistance stability of Frankliniella occidentalis to imidacloprid, emamectin benzoate, and phoxim]. (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Yin; Yu, Yi; Liu, Yong-Jie; Ma, Jing-Yu


    In order to effectively control the damage of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), Phaseolus vuglaris was dipped with imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate, respectively to select the resistance populations of F. occidentalis from its susceptible population, and the resistance inheritance and resistance risk were analyzed with the resistance reality heredity. After 32, 32, and 24 generations' selection, the F. occidentalis populations obtained 13.8-fold, 29.4-fold and 39.0-fold resistance to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate, respectively. The resistance reality heritability to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate was 0.112, 0.166, and 0.259, respectively. The resistance development rate to emamectin benzoate was the fastest, followed by to phoxim, and to imidacloprid. The higher the resistance levels of the selected populations, the lower the differences between the larva and adult susceptibility to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate. Stopping selection for 12 continuous generations, the resistance level of the selected resistance populations to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate had definite decline, but it was difficult to regain the original susceptibility. F. occidentalis had a greater potential to gain high level resistance to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate. Compared with the resistance of F. occidentalis to phoxim and emamectin benzoate, the resistance to imidacloprid increased slower and decreased faster, and thus, imidacloprid was more appropriate to control F. occidentalis in practice.

  18. Vibrational spectra and antimicrobial activity of selected bivalent cation benzoates (United States)

    Borawska, M. H.; Koczoń, P.; Piekut, J.; Świsłocka, R.; Lewandowski, W.


    Selected bands of FT-IR spectra of Mg(II), Ca(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) benzoates of both solid state and water solution, were assigned to appropriate molecular vibrations. Next evaluation of electronic charge distribution in both carboxylic anion and aromatic ring of studied compounds was performed. Classical plate tests and turbidimetry measurements, monitoring growth of bacteria Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and yeasts Pichia anomala and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during 24 h of incubation, in optimal growth conditions (control) and in medium with addition of studied benzoate (concentration of 0.01% expressed as the concentration of benzoic acid), proved antimicrobial activity of studied compounds against investigated micro-organisms. PLS (partially least square) and PCR (principal component regression) techniques were applied to build a model, correlating spectral data reflecting molecular structure of studied compounds, with degree of influence of those compounds on growth of studied micro-organisms. Statistically significant correlation within cross validation diagnostic of PLS-1 calibration was found, when log 1/T of selected spectral regions of water solution samples were used as input data. The correlation coefficients between predicted with PLS calibration based on created 1, 2 or 3 factor models, and actual values of antimicrobial activity were: 0.70; 0.76, 0.81 for P. anomala, B. subtilis, and E. coli, respectively. Log(PRESS) values of appropriate models were 2.10, 2,39 and 3.23 for P. anomala, B. subtilis, and E. coli, respectively.

  19. Lean production of taste improved lipidic sodium benzoate formulations. (United States)

    Eckert, C; Pein, M; Breitkreutz, J


    Sodium benzoate is a highly soluble orphan drug with unpleasant taste and high daily dose. The aim of this study was to develop a child appropriate, individually dosable, and taste masked dosage form utilizing lipids in melt granulation process and tableting. A saliva resistant coated lipid granule produced by extrusion served as reference product. Low melting hard fat was found to be appropriate as lipid binder in high-shear granulation. The resulting granules were compressed to minitablets without addition of other excipients. Compression to 2mm minitablets decreased the dissolved API amount within the first 2 min of dissolution from 33% to 23%. The Euclidean distances, calculated from electronic tongue measurements, were reduced, indicating an improved taste. The reference product showed a lag time in dissolution, which is desirable for taste masking. Although a lag time was not achieved for the lipidic minitablets, drug release in various food materials was reduced to 2%, assuming a suitable taste masking for oral sodium benzoate administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Benzoate degradation by Rhodococcus opacus 1CP after dormancy: Characterization of dioxygenases involved in the process. (United States)

    Solyanikova, Inna P; Emelyanova, Elena V; Borzova, Oksana V; Golovleva, Ludmila A


    The process of benzoate degradation by strain Rhodococcus opacus 1CP after a five-year dormancy was investigated and its peculiarities were revealed. The strain was shown to be capable of growth on benzoate at a concentration of up to 10 g L(-1). The substrate specificity of benzoate dioxygenase (BDO) during the culture growth on a medium with a low (200-250 mg L(-1)) and high (4 g L(-1)) concentration of benzoate was assessed. BDO of R. opacus 1CP was shown to be an extremely narrow specificity enzyme. Out of 31 substituted benzoates, only with one, 3-chlorobenzoate, its activity was higher than 9% of that of benzoate. Two dioxygenases, catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (Cat 1,2-DO) and protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (PCA 3,4-DO), were identified in a cell-free extract, purified and characterized. The substrate specificity of Cat 1,2-DO isolated from cells of strain 1CP after the dormancy was found to differ significantly from that of Cat 1,2-DO isolated earlier from cells of this strain grown on benzoate. By its substrate specificity, the described Cat 1,2-DO was close to the Cat 1,2-DO from strain 1CP grown on 4-methylbenzoate. Neither activity nor inhibition by protocatechuate was observed during the reaction of Cat 1,2-DO with catechol, and catechol had no inhibitory effect on the reaction of PCA 3,4-DO with protocatechuate.

  1. 2-(1,3-Benzoxazol-2-yl-1-phenylethenyl benzoate

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    Mohammad Hassan Ghorbani


    Full Text Available In the title molecule, C22H15NO3, the configuration about the ethylenic double bond is Z configuration and it is approximately coplanar with the adjacent phenyl ring and benzoxazole ring system as indicated by the C(H=C(O—Cphenyl—Cphenyl and Obenzoxazole—C—C(H=C(O torsion angles of 179.88 (15 and 5.7 (2°, respectively. The dihedral angle between the essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.080 Å 2-(1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl-1-phenylethenyl group and the benzoate phenyl ring is 61.51 (6°. A short intramolecular O...O non-bonded interaction of 2.651 (2 Å is present.

  2. Effects of sodium benzoate, a widely used food preservative, on glucose homeostasis and metabolic profiles in humans. (United States)

    Lennerz, Belinda S; Vafai, Scott B; Delaney, Nigel F; Clish, Clary B; Deik, Amy A; Pierce, Kerry A; Ludwig, David S; Mootha, Vamsi K


    Sodium benzoate is a widely used preservative found in many foods and soft drinks. It is metabolized within mitochondria to produce hippurate, which is then cleared by the kidneys. We previously reported that ingestion of sodium benzoate at the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) dose leads to a robust excursion in the plasma hippurate level [1]. Since previous reports demonstrated adverse effects of benzoate and hippurate on glucose homeostasis in cells and in animal models, we hypothesized that benzoate might represent a widespread and underappreciated diabetogenic dietary exposure in humans. Here, we evaluated whether acute exposure to GRAS levels of sodium benzoate alters insulin and glucose homeostasis through a randomized, controlled, cross-over study of 14 overweight subjects. Serial blood samples were collected following an oral glucose challenge, in the presence or absence of sodium benzoate. Outcome measurements included glucose, insulin, glucagon, as well as temporal mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiles. We did not find a statistically significant effect of an acute oral exposure to sodium benzoate on glucose homeostasis. Of the 146 metabolites targeted, four changed significantly in response to benzoate, including the expected rise in benzoate and hippurate. In addition, anthranilic acid, a tryptophan metabolite, exhibited a robust rise, while acetylglycine dropped. Although our study shows that GRAS doses of benzoate do not have an acute, adverse effect on glucose homeostasis, future studies will be necessary to explore the metabolic impact of chronic benzoate exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Anaphylaxis Triggered by Benzyl Benzoate in a Preparation of Depot Testosterone Undecanoate

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    Gregory S. Y. Ong


    Full Text Available We report the first case of an anaphylactic reaction to Reandron 1000 (depot testosterone undecanoate with a castor oil and benzyl benzoate vehicle. While considered to have a favourable safety profile, serious complications such as oil embolism and anaphylaxis can occur. In our patient, skin testing identified benzyl benzoate to be the trigger, with no reaction to castor oil or testosterone undecanoate components. As benzyl benzoate exists in multiple pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics, individual components of pharmaceuticals should be tested when investigating drug allergies. Doctors should be alert to the potential for serious reactions to any of the components of Reandron 1000.

  4. Benzoate Anion-Intercalated Layered Cobalt Hydroxide Nanoarray: An Efficient Electrocatalyst for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction. (United States)

    Ge, Ruixiang; Ren, Xiang; Ji, Xuqiang; Liu, Zhiang; Du, Gu; Asiri, Abdullah M; Sun, Xuping; Chen, Liang


    Efficient oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts are highly desired to improve the overall efficiency of electrochemical water splitting. We develop a benzoate anion-intercalated layered cobalt hydroxide nanobelt array on nickel foam (benzoate-Co(OH) 2 /NF) through a one-pot hydrothermal process. As a 3 D electrode, benzoate-Co(OH) 2 /NF with an expanded interlayer spacing (14.72 Å) drives a high OER catalytic current density of 50 mA cm -2 at an overpotential of 291 mV, outperforming its carbonate anion-intercalated counterpart with a lower interlayer spacing of 8.81 Å (337 mV overpotential at 50 mA cm -2 ). Moreover, this benzoate-Co(OH) 2 /NF can maintain its catalytic activity for 21 h. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Cross-resistance and Inheritance of Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). (United States)

    Che, Wunan; Huang, Jianlei; Guan, Fang; Wu, Yidong; Yang, Yihua


    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a worldwide pest of many crops. Chemical insecticides are heavily used for its control in China, and serious resistance has been evolved in the field to a variety of insecticides including emamectin benzoate. Through repeated backcrossing to a susceptible strain (WH-S) and selection with emamectin benzoate, the trait conferring resistance to emamectin benzoate in a field-collected population of S. exigua (moderately resistant to emamectin benzoate and strongly resistant to pyrethroids and indoxacarb) was introgressed into WH-S to generate a near-isogenic resistant strain (WH-EB). Compared with WH-S, the WH-EB strain developed a 1,110-fold resistance to emamectin benzoate and a high level of cross-resistance to abamectin (202-fold), with low levels of cross-resistance to cypermethrin (10-fold) and chlorfluazuron (7-fold), but no cross-resistance to representatives of another six different classes of insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, indoxacarb, spinosad, tebufenozide, and chlorpyrifos). Resistance to emamectin benzoate in WH-EB was autosomal, incompletely dominant, and polygenic. Limited cross-resistance in WH-EB indicates that emamectin benzoate can be rotated with other classes of insecticides to which it does not show cross-resistance to delay the evolution of resistance in S. exigua. The incompletely dominant nature of resistance in S. exigua may explain the rapid evolution of resistance to emamectin benzoate in the field, and careful deployment of this chemical within a resistance management program should be considered. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  6. Increased fitness and realized heritability in emamectin benzoate-resistant Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). (United States)

    Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Pathan, Attaullah Khan; Razaq, Muhammad


    The common green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea is a key biological control agent employed in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for managing various insect pests. A field collected population of C. carnea was selected for emamectin benzoate resistance in the laboratory and fitness costs and realized heritability were investigated. After five generations of selection with emamectin benzoate, C. carnea developed a 318-fold resistance to the insecticide. The resistant population had a relative fitness of 1.49, with substantially higher emergence rate of healthy adults, fecundity and hatchability and shorter larval duration, pupal duration, and development time compared to the susceptible population. Mean population growth rates; such as the intrinsic rate of natural population increase and biotic potential were higher for the emamectin benzoate selected population compared to the susceptible population. The realized heritability (h(2)) value of emamectin benzoate resistance was 0.34 in emamectin benzoate selected population of C. carnea. Chrysoperla species which show resistance to insecticides makes them compatible with those IPM systems where emamectin benzoate is employed.

  7. A Floral Fragrance, Methyl Benzoate, is An Efficient Green Pesticide (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Zhang, Aijun


    Over-reliance on synthetic pesticides in insect pest control has caused widespread public and scientific concerns for human health and the environment, especially since many insect pests have already developed resistances to conventional pesticides and Bt products. For this reason, there is a considerable interest in development of alternative control methods for insect pest management. Based on laboratory studies, we report that methyl benzoate (MB), a naturally-occurring compound in many plants, may possess toxicity against various stages of a variety of insect pests, including the brown marmorated stinkbug, Halyomorpha halys, diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, as well as the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii. Based on our laboratory toxicity data, MB was at least 5 to 20 times more toxic than the conventional pyrethroid (β-cyfluthrin), sulfur & pyrethrin mixture, and some organic commercial products available on the market against H. halys, P. xylostella, and M. sexta, eggs. Because MB is considered an environment-friendly, it has great potential to be used as an alternative tool to synthetic pesticide for insect pest management in crop production, thereby, reducing threats to natural ecosystems and human health caused by over-application of conventional synthetic pesticides.

  8. Inhibitory effects of benzyl benzoate and its derivatives on angiotensin II-induced hypertension. (United States)

    Ohno, Osamu; Ye, Mao; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Yazawa, Kazunaga; Mura, Emi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Ichino, Takao; Yamada, Kaoru; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Ohno, Tomohiro; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Ishida, Junji; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Uemura, Daisuke


    Hypertension is a lifestyle-related disease which often leads to serious conditions such as heart disease and cerebral hemorrhage. Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays an important role in regulating cardiovascular homeostasis. Consequently, antagonists that block the interaction of Ang II with its receptors are thought to be effective in the suppression of hypertension. In this study, we searched for plant compounds that had antagonist-like activity toward Ang II receptors. From among 435 plant samples, we found that EtOH extract from the resin of sweet gum Liquidambar styraciflua strongly inhibited Ang II signaling. We isolated benzyl benzoate and benzyl cinnamate from this extract and found that those compounds inhibited the function of Ang II in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. An in vivo study showed that benzyl benzoate significantly suppressed Ang II-induced hypertension in mice. In addition, we synthesized more than 40 derivatives of benzyl benzoate and found that the meta-methyl and 3-methylbenzyl 2'-nitrobenzoate derivatives showed about 10-fold higher activity than benzyl benzoate itself. Thus, benzyl benzoate, its derivatives, and benzyl cinnamate may be useful for reducing hypertension.

  9. Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate preservatives in food stuffs in Iran. (United States)

    Amirpour, Mansooreh; Arman, Azim; Yolmeh, Ahmad; Akbari Azam, Maryam; Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Zhila


    A high-performance liquid chromatography method was applied for the determination of the levels of benzoate and sorbate in 400 food samples, including pickled cucumbers, canned tomato pastes, sour cherry jams, soft drinks, fruit juices and dairy products (UF-Feta cheeses, Lighvan cheeses, lactic cheeses, yogurts and doogh). The results showed that 270 (67.5%) of all samples contained benzoate ranging from 11.9 to 288.5 mg kg(-1) in lactic cheese and fruit juice, respectively. The levels of sorbate in 98 (24.5%) of the samples were 20.1 to 284.3 mg kg(-1) in doogh and fruit juice, respectively. Moreover, benzoate was detected in all dairy products ranging from 11.9 mg kg(-1) in lactic cheese to 91.2 mg kg(-1) in UF-Feta cheese. A low concentration of benzoate could originate naturally, due to specific biochemical mechanisms during cheese, yogurt and doogh maturation. In conclusion, a minimum level for benzoate in dairy products should be defined in the legislation.

  10. Temperature-Dependent Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Methyl-Benzoate Anions: Observation of Steric Effect in Ortho-Methyl-Benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Hin-koon; Wang, Xue B.; Kiran, Boggavarapu; Wang, Lai S.


    Temperature-dependent photoelectron spectra of benzoate anion (C6H5CO2-) and its three methyl-substituted isomers (o-, m-, p-CH3C6H4CO2-) have been obtained using a newly developed low-temperature photoelectron spectroscopy apparatus that features an electrospray source and a cryogenically controlled ion trap. Detachment channels due to removing electrons from the carboxylate group and benzene ring electrons were distinctly observed. Well-resolved vibrational structures were obtained in the lower binding energy region due to the OCO bending modes, except for o-CH3C6H4CO2-, which yielded broad spectra even at the lowest ion trap temperature (18 K). Theoretical calculations revealed a large geometry change in the OCO angles between the anion and neutral ground states, consistent with the broad ground state bands observed for all species. A strong steric effect was observed between the carboxylate and the methyl group in o-CH3C6H4CO2-, such that the -CO2- group is pushed out of the plane of the benzene ring by {approx}25 degrees and its internal rotational barrier is significantly reduced. The low rotational barrier in o-CH3C6H4CO2-, which makes it very difficult to be cooled vibrationally, and the strong coupling between the OCO bending and CO2 torsional modes yielded the broad PES spectra for this isomer. It is shown that there is no C-H?O hydrogen bond in o-CH3C6H4CO2- and the interaction between the carboxylate and methyl groups in this anion is found to be repulsive in nature.

  11. Study of o-125I-benzoate excretion mechanisms in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, R.; Laznicek, M.; Kvetina, J.; Laznickova, A.


    An analysis of the mechanisms of renal clearance of o- 125 I-benzoate in the rabbit based on the inhibition of the secretory transport by probenecid showed that o- 125 I-benzoate was eliminated in the kidneys not only by glomerular filtration but also by tubular secretion. The total amount of the drug excreted in the urine was affected by tubular resorption (apparently by the process of passive diffusion), which exceeded tubular secretion. A comparison of the chromatograms of the plasma and the urine before and after the competitive inhibition of the tubular active transport by probenecid revealed a higher amount of o- 125 I-benzoylglucuronide in the urine in the case of inhibition. The results suggest that the kidneys participated in the total biotransformation of o- 125 I-benzoate. The excretion of the original drug and metabolites in the bile contributed less than 1% to the total clearance in rabbits. (author). 3 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  12. [Clinico-immunological study of 16 cases of benzoate intolerance in children]. (United States)

    Pétrus, M; Bonaz, S; Causse, E; Micheau, P; Rhabbour, M; Netter, J C; Bildstein, G


    The authors report a sery of 16 cases of intolerance to the benzoates in children. Sixteen children (9 boys and 7 girls) were directed to the Hospital of Tarbes from June 1995 to July 1995, for recurring urticaria (7/16) combined with asthma (1/16), atopic eczema (2/16), dermorespiratory syndrome (2/16) and asthma (1/16). All were subject to an immunological examination comprising alimentation inquiry, prick test, IgE determination, RAST, oral provocation test to benzoates, which establishes the diagnosis, whose confirmation is certified by the benefit of the food eviction. To conclusion, the authors underline several points: the presumable underestimation of the intolerance, the often mentioned atopic familial context, the observed pathology (urticaria, asthma, eczema), the importance of the provocation test. Finally, besides food such as grey shrimps, sodas and antibiotic syrups, one finds benzoates in the antiallergic syrups initially prescribed as a preventive measure.

  13. Conductive iron oxide minerals accelerate syntrophic cooperation in methanogenic benzoate degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Li; Tang, Jia; Wang, Yueqiang; Hu, Min; Zhou, Shungui, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Paddy soil contaminated with benzoate incubated with hematite and magnetite. • Iron oxides addition enhanced methanogenic benzoate degradation by 25–53%. • The facilitated syntrophy might involve direct interspecies electron transfer. • Bacillaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Methanobacterium are potentially involved. - Abstract: Recent studies have suggested that conductive iron oxide minerals can facilitate syntrophic metabolism of the methanogenic degradation of organic matter, such as ethanol, propionate and butyrate, in natural and engineered microbial ecosystems. This enhanced syntrophy involves direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) powered by microorganisms exchanging metabolic electrons through electrically conductive minerals. Here, we evaluated the possibility that conductive iron oxides (hematite and magnetite) can stimulate the methanogenic degradation of benzoate, which is a common intermediate in the anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds. The results showed that 89–94% of the electrons released from benzoate oxidation were recovered in CH{sub 4} production, and acetate was identified as the only carbon-bearing intermediate during benzoate degradation. Compared with the iron-free controls, the rates of methanogenic benzoate degradation were enhanced by 25% and 53% in the presence of hematite and magnetite, respectively. This stimulatory effect probably resulted from DIET-mediated methanogenesis in which electrons transfer between syntrophic partners via conductive iron minerals. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Bacillaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Methanobacterium are potentially involved in the functioning of syntrophic DIET. Considering the ubiquitous presence of iron minerals within soils and sediments, the findings of this study will increase the current understanding of the natural biological attenuation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic environments.

  14. Identification of the Biotransformation Products of 2-Ethylhexyl 4-(N,N-Dimethylamino)benzoate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon, Z.; de Vlieger, J.; Chisvert, A.; Salvador, A.; Lingeman, H.; Irth, H.; Giera, M.A.


    Nowadays, 2-ethylhexyl 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)benzoate (EDP) is one of the most widely used UV filters in sunscreen cosmetics and other cosmetic products. However, undesirable processes such as percutaneous absorption and biological activity have been attributed to this compound. The in vitro

  15. Effect of sodium benzoate on the growth and enzyme activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 17, 2009 ... The effect of different concentrations of sodium benzoate on the growth and enzyme elaboration potentials of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium citrinum in zobo drink packaged in glass bottles were investigated. All the tested concentrations of 0.025, 0.05 and 0.075% (w/v) caused decreases in the counts of ...

  16. Toxic effects of pollutants on the Mineralization of 4-chlorophenol and Benzoate in methanogenic river sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beelen P; van Vlaardingen PLA


    The toxic effects of pollutants on the mineralization of 2 mug/l [U-14C] 4-chlorophenol and benzoate were studied in microcosms with methanogenic sediment from the Rhine river. In contrast with studies using a high substrate concentration no lag time was observed and the half-lives for

  17. Effects of sodium benzoate on storage stability of previously improved beverage from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.). (United States)

    Adeola, Abiodun A; Aworh, Ogugua C


    The effect of sodium benzoate on the quality attributes of improved tamarind beverage during storage was investigated. Tamarind beverages were produced according to a previously reported improved method, with or without chemical preservatives (100 mg/100 mL sodium benzoate). Tamarind beverage produced according to traditional processing method served as the control. The tamarind beverages were stored for 4 months at room (29 ± 2°C) and refrigerated (4-10°C) temperatures. Samples were analyzed, at regular intervals, for chemical, sensory, and microbiological qualities. Appearance of coliforms or overall acceptability score of 5.9 was used as deterioration index. The control beverages deteriorated by 2nd and 10th days at room and refrigerated temperatures, respectively. Improved tamarind beverage produced without the inclusion of sodium benzoate was stable for 3 and 5 weeks at room and refrigerated temperatures, respectively. Sodium benzoate extended the shelf life of the improved tamarind beverage to 6 and 13 weeks, respectively, at room and refrigerated temperatures.

  18. Isolation and characterization of related substances in alogliptin benzoate by LC-QTOF mass spectrometric techniques. (United States)

    Lu, Yuting; Yang, Danyi; Li, Zhiyu; Hang, Taijun; Song, Min


    A highly specific and efficient LC-QTOF mass spectrometric method was developed for the separation and characterization of process related substances and the major degradation products in alogliptin benzoate and its tablets. The separation was performed on Phenomenex Gemini-NX C18 column (250mm×4.6mm, 5μm) using 0.2% formic acid-0.2% ammonium acetate in water as mobile phase A, acetonitrile and methanol (60:40, v/v) as mobile phase B in linear gradient elution mode. Forced degradation studies were also conducted under ICH prescribed stress conditions. Alogliptin benzoate and its tablets were tending to degrade under acid, alkaline, oxidative and thermal stresses, while relatively stable to photolytic stress. A total of seven related substances were detected and characterized through liquid chromatography-high resolution QTOF mass spectrometry techniques, including process related substances and degradation products, and two of them were further synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy. Based on the related substances elucidation and the plausible formation mechanisms, efficient approaches were proposed to reduce or eliminate related substances, and in consequence the quality of alogliptin benzoate and its tablets have been promoted obviously. Therefore, the impurity profiles obtained are critical to the quality control and manufacturing processes optimization and monitoring of alogliptin benzoate and its tablets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Subtractive hybridization and random arbitrarily primed PCR analyses of a benzoate-assimilating bacterium, Desulfotignum balticum. (United States)

    Habe, Hiroshi; Kobuna, Akinori; Hosoda, Akifumi; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki; Omori, Toshio; Watanabe, Kazuya


    Subtractive hybridization (SH) and random arbitrarily primed PCR (RAP-PCR) were used to detect genes involved in anaerobic benzoate degradation by Desulfotignum balticum. Through SH, we obtained 121 DNA sequences specific for D. balticum but not for D. phosphitoxidans (a non-benzoate-assimilating species). Furthermore, RAP-PCR analysis showed that a 651-bp DNA fragment, having 55% homology with the solute-binding protein of the ABC transporter system in Methanosarcina barkeri, was expressed when D. balticum was grown on benzoate, but not on pyruvate. By shotgun sequencing of the fosmid clone (38,071 bp) containing the DNA fragment, 33 open reading frames (ORFs) and two incomplete ORFs were annotated, and several genes within this region corresponded to the DNA fragments obtained by SH. An 11.3-kb gene cluster (ORF10-17) revealed through reverse transcription-PCR showed homology with the ABC transporter system and TonB-dependent receptors, both of which are presumably involved in the uptake of siderophore/heme/vitamin B(12), and was expressed in response to growth on benzoate.

  20. An Overview on the Effects of Sodium Benzoate as a Preservative in Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Context Food spoilage has been a common problem throughout history, and much of the spoilage is caused the activity of microorganisms or enzymatic reactions during the storage of food. Thus, using chemical substances could prevent or delay food spoilage and this has led to the great success of these compounds in the treatment of human diseases. Sodium benzoate is one of the synthetic additives that are widely used in the food industry. Evidence Acquisition In this review we summarized the history and role of benzoate sodium in the food industry, its limited value in different food, other uses, pharmacokinetics, and its toxicity in animal studies. A literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, Scopus, Science Direct, and Scientific Information Databases (SID. Results Sodium benzoate is used in different industries as well as the food industry and it has adverse effects similar to other food additives. Conclusions Studies on natural ingredients in foods to find compounds with similar effects as benzoate with less adverse effects is necessary.

  1. Ultrasound mediated alkaline hydrolysis of methyl benzoate – reinvestigation with crucial parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivakumara, Manickam; Senthilkumar, Paramasivam; Majumdara, Sukti; Pandit, Aniruddha B.


    In the present work hydrolysis of methyl benzoate was carried out using aqueous sodium hydroxide solution at room temperature in the presence of ultrasound since otherwise the same reaction takes place at relatively high temperature. Also, the above hydrolysis reaction was investigated at a

  2. Benzoates intakes from non-alcoholic beverages in Brazil, Canada, Mexico and the United States. (United States)

    Martyn, Danika; Lau, Annette; Darch, Maryse; Roberts, Ashley


    Food consumption data from national dietary surveys were combined with brand-specific-use levels reported by beverage manufacturers to calculate the exposure to benzoic acid and its salts (INS Nos 210-213) from non-alcoholic beverages in Brazil, Canada, Mexico and the United States. These four jurisdictions were identified as having some of the most prevalent use of benzoates in beverages globally. Use levels were weighted according to the brand's market volume share in the respective countries. Benzoates were reported to be used primarily in 'water-based flavoured drinks' (Codex General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA) category 14.1.4). As such, the assessments focused only on intakes from these beverage types. Two different models were established to determine exposure: probabilistic (representing non-brand loyal consumers) and distributional (representing brand-loyal consumers). All reported-use levels were incorporated into both models, including those above the Codex interim maximum benzoate use level (250 mg kg -1 ). The exception to this was in the brand-loyal models for consumers of regular carbonated soft drinks (brand loyal category) which used (1) the interim maximum use level for beverages with a pH ≤ 3.5 and (2) all reported use levels for beverages pH > 3.5 (up to 438 mg kg -1 ). The estimated exposure levels using both models were significantly lower than the ADI established for benzoates at the mean level of intake (4-40% ADI) and lower than - or at the ADI only for toddlers/children - at the 95th percentile (23-110% ADI). The results rendered in the models do not indicate a safety concern in these jurisdictions, and as such provide support for maintaining the current Codex interim maximum benzoate level of 250 mg kg -1 in water-based beverages.

  3. Cloning and Expression of the Benzoate Dioxygenase Genes from Rhodococcus sp. Strain 19070 (United States)

    Haddad, Sandra; Eby, D. Matthew; Neidle, Ellen L.


    The bopXYZ genes from the gram-positive bacterium Rhodococcus sp. strain 19070 encode a broad-substrate-specific benzoate dioxygenase. Expression of the BopXY terminal oxygenase enabled Escherichia coli to convert benzoate or anthranilate (2-aminobenzoate) to a nonaromatic cis-diol or catechol, respectively. This expression system also rapidly transformed m-toluate (3-methylbenzoate) to an unidentified product. In contrast, 2-chlorobenzoate was not a good substrate. The BopXYZ dioxygenase was homologous to the chromosomally encoded benzoate dioxygenase (BenABC) and the plasmid-encoded toluate dioxygenase (XylXYZ) of gram-negative acinetobacters and pseudomonads. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis failed to identify any plasmid in Rhodococcus sp. strain 19070. Catechol 1,2- and 2,3-dioxygenase activity indicated that strain 19070 possesses both meta- and ortho-cleavage degradative pathways, which are associated in pseudomonads with the xyl and ben genes, respectively. Open reading frames downstream of bopXYZ, designated bopL and bopK, resembled genes encoding cis-diol dehydrogenases and benzoate transporters, respectively. The bop genes were in the same order as the chromosomal ben genes of P. putida PRS2000. The deduced sequences of BopXY were 50 to 60% identical to the corresponding proteins of benzoate and toluate dioxygenases. The reductase components of these latter dioxygenases, BenC and XylZ, are 201 residues shorter than the deduced BopZ sequence. As predicted from the sequence, expression of BopZ in E. coli yielded an approximately 60-kDa protein whose presence corresponded to increased cytochrome c reductase activity. While the N-terminal region of BopZ was approximately 50% identical in sequence to the entire BenC or XylZ reductases, the C terminus was unlike other known protein sequences. PMID:11375157

  4. Investigation of comparative efficacy of eugenol and benzyl benzoate in therapy of sheep mange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jezdimirović Milanka


    Full Text Available The acaricide efficacy, tolerance and safety of eugenol (10 and 20 % in the treatment of sarcoptic mange in sheep have been investigated. The results were compared with those corresponding for benzyl benzoate (25 %, which was applied to sheep in the same way. The treatment was applied on sheep three times in one-week intervals. Skin scrapings were sampled seven days after each treatment, as well as twenty-eight days following the third one. The changes on the skin were quantified and the mean recovery response (MRR was calculated. The clinical efficacy was assessed according to the MRR and the number of mites in the samples. Following the first treatment 10%eugenol was not significantly less efficacious in comparison with the higher concentration. Having been applied twice 20% eugenol was significantly more efficacious when compared to the lower concentration, which remained the same seven and twenty-eight days after the third application. The efficacy of 10% eugenol in the therapy of mange was significantly higher in comparison with benzyl benzoate following one, two or three administrations. The efficacy of benzyl benzoate four weeks after the third treatment was still significantly lower in comparison with 10% eugenol. The efficacy of 20% eugenol was significantly higher in comparison with its lower concentration as well as that of benzyl benzoate, following the second, and seven and twenty-eight days after the third one. No signs of local or systemic intolerance were observed in sheep treated with either 10 or 20% eugenol, or 25 % benzyl benzoate. .

  5. Benzoate-induced stress enhances xylitol yield in aerobic fed-batch culture of Candida mogii TISTR 5892. (United States)

    Wannawilai, Siwaporn; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote; Chisti, Yusuf


    Production of the natural sweetener xylitol from xylose via the yeast Candida mogii TISTR 5892 was compared with and without the growth inhibitor sodium benzoate in the culture medium. Sodium benzoate proved to be an uncompetitive inhibitor in relatively poorly oxygenated shake flask aerobic cultures. In a better controlled aerobic environment of a bioreactor, the role of sodium benzoate could equally well be described as competitive, uncompetitive or noncompetitive inhibitor of growth. In intermittent fed-batch fermentations under highly aerobic conditions, the presence of sodium benzoate at 0.15gL(-1) clearly enhanced the xylitol titer relative to the control culture without the sodium benzoate. The final xylitol concentration and the average xylitol yield on xylose were nearly 50gL(-1) and 0.57gg(-1), respectively, in the presence of sodium benzoate. Both these values were substantially higher than reported for the same fermentation under microaerobic conditions. Therefore, a fed-batch aerobic fermentation in the presence of sodium benzoate is promising for xylitol production using C. mogii. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of sodium benzoate on blood ammonia response to oral glutamine challenge in cirrhotic patients: a note of caution. (United States)

    Efrati, C; Masini, A; Merli, M; Valeriano, V; Riggio, O


    The administration of sodium benzoate provides an alternative pathway for the disposal of waste nitrogen and this substance has been used to treat patients with urea cycle defects and more recently cirrhotics with hepatic encephalopathy. The aim of the study was to assess the ammonia-lowering effect of benzoate in cirrhotic patients without overt hepatic encephalopathy. Glutamine challenge, a method to induce an increase of blood ammonia, was performed in six cirrhotics before and after 5 days of benzoate treatment (10 microg/day). Number Connection Test and Posner's Attention Test were also performed before and after benzoate treatment. Blood ammonia increased after the glutamine load both before (from 66 +/- 12 microg/dl to 123 +/- 34 microg/dl and 179 +/- 53 microg/dl after 30 and 60 min, respectively; ANOVA p = 0.0004) and after benzoate treatment (from 102 +/- 27 microg/dl to 185 +/- 49 microg/dl and 250 +/- 39 microg/dl after 30 and 60 min, respectively; ANOVA p = 0.00001). However, after benzoate treatment, the basal values (102 +/- 27 vs 66 +/- 12 microg/dl; p = 0.01) and peak increments of ammonia (166 +/- 56 microg/dl vs 102 +/- 40 microg/dl; p = 0.04) were significantly higher than before. The Number Connection test and the Posner's test were not altered by benzoate treatment. Benzoate increased both the basal and post-glutamine ammonia levels. These results confirm what has already been observed in experimental animals and suggest a note of caution in the use of sodium benzoate in cirrhotic patients.

  7. Investigation on the adsorption characteristics of sodium benzoate and taurine on gold nanoparticle film by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy (United States)

    Kumar, Naveen; Thomas, S.; Tokas, R. B.; Kshirsagar, R. J.


    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies of sodium benzoate and taurine adsorbed on gold nanoparticle (AuNp) film on silanised glass slides have been studied by attenuated total reflection technique (ATR). The surface morphology of the AuNp films has been measured by Atomic Force Microscopy. The ATR spectra of sodium benzoate and taurine deposited on AuNp film are compared with ATR spectra of their powdered bulk samples. A new red-shifted band appeared along with the symmetric and asymmetric stretches of carboxylate group of sodium benzoate leading to a broadening of the above peaks. Similar behavior is also seen in the case of symmetric and asymmetric stretches of sulphonate group of taurine. The results indicate presence of both chemisorbed and physisorbed layers of both sodium benzoate and taurine on the AuNp film with bottom layer chemically bound to AuNp through carboxylate and sulphonate groups respectively.

  8. Identification of anthranilate and benzoate metabolic operons of Pseudomonas fluorescens and functional characterization of their promoter regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Vincent D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an effort to identify alternate recombinant gene expression systems in Pseudomonas fluorescens, we identified genes encoding two native metabolic pathways that were inducible with inexpensive compounds: the anthranilate operon (antABC and the benzoate operon (benABCD. Results The antABC and benABCD operons were identified by homology to the Acinetobacter sp. anthranilate operon and Pseudomonas putida benzoate operon, and were confirmed to be regulated by anthranilate or benzoate, respectively. Fusions of the putative promoter regions to the E. coli lacZ gene were constructed to confirm inducible gene expression. Each operon was found to be controlled by an AraC family transcriptional activator, located immediately upstream of the first structural gene in each respective operon (antR or benR. Conclusion We have found the anthranilate and benzoate promoters to be useful for tightly controlling recombinant gene expression at both small (

  9. Preparation and physicochemical characteristics of polylactide microspheres of emamectin benzoate by modified solvent evaporation/extraction method. (United States)

    Zhang, Shao Fei; Chen, Peng Hao; Zhang, Fei; Yang, Yan Fang; Liu, De Kun; Wu, Gang


    Emamectin benzoate is highly effective against insect pests and widely used in the world. However, its biological activity is limited because of high resistance of target insects and rapid degradation speed in fields. Preparation and physicochemical characterization of degradable microcapsules of emamectin benzoate were studied by modified solvent evaporation/extraction method using polylactide (PLA) as wall material. The influence of different compositions of the solvent in internal organic phase and external aqueous phase on diameter, span, pesticide loading, and entrapment rate of the microspheres was investigated. The results indicated that the process of solvent extraction and the formation of the microcapsules would be accelerated by adding water-miscible organic solvents such as ethyl ether, acetone, ethyl acetate, or n-butanol into internal organic phase and external aqueous phase. Accelerated formation of the microcapsules would result in entrapment rates of emamectin benzoate increased to as high as 97%. In addition, by adding ethanol into the external aqueous phase, diameters would reduce to 6.28 μm, whereas the loading efficiency of emamectin benzoate did not increase. The PLA microspheres prepared under optimum conditions were smoother and more spherical. The degradation rate in PLA microspheres of emamectin benzoate on the 10th day was 4.29 ± 0.74%, whereas the degradation rates of emamectin benzoate in methanol solution and solid technical material were 46.3 ± 2.11 and 22.7 ± 1.51%, respectively. The PLA skeleton had combined with emamectin benzoate in an amorphous or molecular state by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) determination. The results indicated that PLA microspheres of emamectin benzoate with high entrapment rate, loading efficiency, and physicochemical characteristics could be obtained by adding water-miscible organic solvents into the internal organic phase and external aqueous phase.

  10. Preparation of lipophilic alkyl (hydroxy)benzoates by solvent-free lipase-catalyzed esterification and transesterification. (United States)

    Vosmann, K; Wiege, B; Weitkamp, P; Weber, N


    Long-chain alkyl benzoates, e.g., lauryl 4-hydroxybenzoate, palmityl 4-hydroxybenzoate, and oleyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoate, are formed in high to moderate conversion by lipase-catalyzed transesterification of the corresponding short-chain alkyl benzoates (0.3 to 1 mmol) with fatty alcohols in an equimolar ratio. The substrates are reacted in vacuo in the absence of solvents and drying agents in the reaction mixture. Immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435) demonstrates higher activity for the transesterification of various methyl (hydroxy)benzoates with long-chain alcohols than for the corresponding esterification reactions. For example, transesterification activity is around 25-fold higher than esterification activity for the preparation of oleyl 4-hydroxybenzoate. The relative transesterification activities of methoxy- and hydroxy-substituted methyl benzoates found for Novozym 435 are as follows: 2-methoxybenzoate approximately 3-methoxybenzoate > 4-methoxybenzoate > 3-hydroxybenzoate approximately 2-hydroxybenzoate > 4-hydroxybenzoate approximately 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoate approximately 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoate > > 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate. With respect to the position of the substituents at the phenyl moiety of methyl benzoates, transesterification activity of Novozym 435 increases in the order ortho approximately meta > para. Compounds with inverse chemical structure, e.g., (methoxy)benzyl alkanoates, are formed in much higher rates both by esterification and transesterification than the analogous alkyl benzoates. Purification by deacidification, crystallization, or vacuum distillation yielded 74% to 89% of the reaction products.

  11. Cytological and cytochemical effects of sodium benzoate and gamma irradiation on human peripheral lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, N.A.F.


    In vitro studies of human peripheral lymphocytes were conducted to elucidate and compare the effects of a suspected chemical clastogen, sodium benzoate, widely used in the food industry as an antimicrobial food additive, to that of a well-known physical mutagen, gamma rays. Blood from ten normal donors, five males and five females, was collected and treated with various doses of the two agents independently and in combination during G 0 or G 1 phase. Induction of structural chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and unscheduled DNA synthesis were used as parameters to monitor the effects of the two agents. Sodium benzoate at the same concentrations used in the food industry (0.05% and 0.10%) caused inhibition of mitosis and induced chromatid-type aberrations (gaps and breaks). The frequency of aberrations increased as the concentration of sodium benzoate increased. No increase in SCEs over the control level was observed as either concentration tested. The relative amount of DNA damage inflicted in the treated lymphocytes estimated as 3 H-tritiated thymidine incorporation (unscheduled DNA synthesis) was highly significant. In contrast, blood irradiated with 300, 600, or 900 rad 60 Co gamma rays produced chromatid and chromosome aberrations in cultured lymphocytes, dicentrics being the most frequent exchange event. The aberration yield was found to be dose-dependent and to fit the quadratic model. Unscheduled DNA synthesis as measured by lymphocyte 3 H-TdR incorporation following gamma irradiation was highly significantly increased with the largest uptake occurring during the first hour of incubation. The combined treatment of gamma irradiation plus 0.05% sodium benzoate did not increase the aberration frequencies over the independent irradiation treatments and had no effect on SCEs frequencies

  12. In vitro effects of sodium benzoate on the activities of aspartate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro effects of varying concentrations sodium benzoate on the activities of aspartate (E.C. and alanine (E.C. aminotransferases (AST and ALT, respectively) and alkaline phosphatase (E.C.; abbreviated as ALP) from human erythrocytes of different genotypes (HbAA, HbAS and HbSS) were ...

  13. An Overview on the Effects of Sodium Benzoate as a Preservative in Food Products


    Shahmohammadi; Javadi; Nassiri-Asl


    Context Food spoilage has been a common problem throughout history, and much of the spoilage is caused the activity of microorganisms or enzymatic reactions during the storage of food. Thus, using chemical substances could prevent or delay food spoilage and this has led to the great success of these compounds in the treatment of human diseases. Sodium benzoate is one of the synthetic additives that are widely used in the food industry. Evidenc...

  14. Intragastric infusion of denatonium benzoate attenuates interdigestive gastric motility and hunger scores in healthy female volunteers


    Deloose, Eveline; Janssen, Pieter; Corsetti, Maura; Biesiekierski, Jessica; Masuy, Imke; Rotondo, Alessandra; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan


    Background: Denatonium benzoate (DB) has been shown to influence ongoing ingestive behavior and gut peptide secretion.\\ud Objective: We studied how the intragastric administration of DB affects interdigestive motility, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, hunger and satiety ratings, and food intake in healthy volunteers.\\ud Design: Lingual bitter taste sensitivity was tested with the use of 6 concentrations of DB in 65 subjects. A placebo or 1 μmol DB/kg was given intragastrically to as...

  15. Modelling the effects of lactic acid, sodium benzoate and temperature on the growth of Candida maltosa. (United States)

    Valík, Ľ; Ačai, P; Liptáková, D


    The growth of the oxidatively imperfect yeast Candida maltosa Komagata, Nakase et Katsuya was studied experimentally and modelled mathematically in relation to sodium benzoate and lactic acid concentrations at different temperatures. Application of gamma models for the growth rate resulted in determination of cardinal temperature parameters for the growth environment containing lactic acid or sodium benzoate (T min  = 0·7/1·3°C, T max  = 45·3/45·0°C, T opt  = 36·1/37·0°C, μ opt  = 0·88/0·96 h -1 ) as well as the maximal lactic acid concentration for growth (1·9%) or sodium benzoate (1397 mg kg -1 ). Based on the model, the times to reach the density of C. maltosa at the level of 10 5  CFU per ml can be determined at each combination of storage temperature and preservative concentration. The approach used in this study can broaden knowledge of the microbiological quality of fermented milk products during storage as well as the preservation efficacy of mayonnaise dressing for storage and consumption. The strain of Candida maltosaYP1 was originally isolated from air filters that ensured clean air overpressure in yoghurt fermentation tanks. Its growth in contaminated yoghurts manifested outwardly through surface growth, assimilation lactic acid and slight production of carbon dioxide. This was the opportunity to model the effects of lactic acid and sodium benzoate on growth and predict its behaviour in foods. The approach used in this study provides knowledge about microbiological quality development during storage of the fermented milk products as well as some preserved foods for storage and consumption. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Synthesis, characterization, and controlled release anticorrosion behavior of benzoate intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Zhang, Dun, E-mail: [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China)


    Graphical abstract: The benzoate anion released from Zn-Al LDHs provides a more effective long-term protection against corrosion of Q235 carbon steel in 3.5% NaCl solution. Highlights: {yields} A benzoate anion corrosion inhibitor intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) has been assembled by coprecipitation method. {yields} The kinetic simulation indicates that the ion-exchange one is responsible for the release process and the diffusion through particle is the rate limiting step. {yields} A significant reduction of the corrosion rate is observed when the LDH nanohybrid is present in the corrosive media. -- Abstract: Corrosion inhibitor-inorganic clay composite including benzoate anion intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are assembled by coprecipitation. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum analyses indicate that the benzoate anion is successfully intercalated into the LDH interlayer and the benzene planes are vertically bilayer-positioned as a quasi-guest ion-pair form in the gallery space. Kinetic simulation for the release data, XRD and FT-IR analyses of samples recovered from the release medium indicate that ion-exchange is responsible for the release process and diffusion through the particle is also indicated to be the rate-limiting step. The anticorrosion capabilities of LDHs loaded with corrosion inhibitor toward Q235 carbon steel are analyzed by polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. Significant reduction of corrosion rate is observed when the LDH nanohybrid is present in the corrosive medium. This hybrid material may potentially be applied as a nanocontainer in self-healing coatings.

  17. Synthesis, structure and some properties of a manganese(II) benzoate containing diimine (United States)

    Paul, Pranajit; Roy, Subhadip; Sarkar, Sanjoy; Chowdhury, Shubhamoy; Purkayastha, R. N. Dutta; Raghavaiah, Pallepogu; McArdle, Patrick; Deb, Lokesh; Devi, Sarangthem Indira


    A new monomeric manganese(II) benzoate complex containing nitrogen donor 2,2‧-bipyridine, [Mn(OBz)2(bipy)(H2O)] (OBz = benzoate, bipy = 2,2‧-bipyridine) has been synthesized from aqueous methanol medium and characterized by analytical, spectroscopic and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The compound exhibits moderate to appreciable antimicrobial activity. The complex crystallizes in space group P21/n. Mn(II) atom is ligated by two N atoms of bipyridine, three O atoms from a monodentate and a bidentate benzoate ligand and a water molecule forming distorted octahedral structure. The coordinated water molecule forms intramolecular hydrogen bonds and links the monomer molecules into hydrogen bonded dimer. The hydrogen bonded dimers are involved in intermolecular C-H···O and π-π stacking interactions. Density functional theory (DFT) computation was carried out to compute the frequencies of relevant vibrational modes and electronic properties, the results are in compliance with the experimentally obtained structural and spectral data.

  18. Presence of benzoate type toxins in Gymnodinium catenatum Graham isolated from the Mexican Pacific. (United States)

    Bustillos-Guzmán, J; Vale, P; Band-Schmidt, C


    Benzoate type toxins have been described as an important component of Gymnodinium catenatum cells. In this paper we study these toxins in a G. catenatum strain isolated from the Mexican coast. A partition of the toxins was done by solid-phase extraction on a COOH cartridge and detected by HPLC coupled to fluorescence after pre-column periodate oxidation. Two groups of the hydrophobic analogues of saxitoxin were identified: those containing a sulphate group in the benzoate moiety instead of a hydroxyl group like GC1/2 or GC3 and the hydroxy-benzoate analogues, with a sulphate group at the eleventh position of the STX core present or absent (GCs-GTX and GCs-STX analogues, respectively). These toxins are more abundant, in a relative basis, when comparing with a G. catenatum toxin content isolated from Portugal. This is the first report of the presence of these toxins in a Mexican strain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploiting members of the BAHD acyltransferase family to synthesize multiple hydroxycinnamate and benzoate conjugates in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudes, Aymerick [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mouille, Maxence [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, David S. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Benites, Veronica T. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); San Francisco State Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wang, George [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Roux, Lucien [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Tsai, Yi-Lin [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Baidoo, Edward E. K. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chiu, Tsan-Yu [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heazlewood, Joshua L. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); The Univ. of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Scheller, Henrik V. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Keasling, Jay D. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Technical Univ. of Denmark, Horsholm (Denmark); Deutsch, Samuel [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Loqué, Dominique [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France)


    BAHD acyltransferases, named after the first four biochemically characterized enzymes of the group, are plant-specific enzymes that catalyze the transfer of coenzyme A-activated donors onto various acceptor molecules. They are responsible for the synthesis in plants of a myriad of secondary metabolites, some of which are beneficial for humans either as therapeutics or as specialty chemicals such as flavors and fragrances. The production of pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and commodity chemicals using engineered microbes is an alternative, green route to energy-intensive chemical syntheses that consume petroleum-based precursors. However, identification of appropriate enzymes and validation of their functional expression in heterologous hosts is a prerequisite for the design and implementation of metabolic pathways in microbes for the synthesis of such target chemicals. As a result, for the synthesis of valuable metabolites in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we selected BAHD acyltransferases based on their preferred donor and acceptor substrates. In particular, BAHDs that use hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs and/or benzoyl-CoA as donors were targeted because a large number of molecules beneficial to humans belong to this family of hydroxycinnamate and benzoate conjugates. The selected BAHD coding sequences were synthesized and cloned individually on a vector containing the Arabidopsis gene At4CL5, which encodes a promiscuous 4-coumarate:CoA ligase active on hydroxycinnamates and benzoates. The various S. cerevisiae strains obtained for co-expression of At4CL5 with the different BAHDs effectively produced a wide array of valuable hydroxycinnamate and benzoate conjugates upon addition of adequate combinations of donors and acceptor molecules. In particular, we report here for the first time the production in yeast of rosmarinic acid and its derivatives, quinate hydroxycinnamate esters such as chlorogenic acid, and glycerol hydroxycinnamate esters

  20. Catabolic pathways and cellular responses of Pseudomonas putida P8 during growth on benzoate with a proteomics approach. (United States)

    Cao, Bin; Loh, Kai-Chee


    The catabolic pathways and cellular responses of Pseudomonas putida P8 during growth on benzoate were studied through proteomics approach. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) gel profiles of P. putida cells grown on 100 and 800 mg/L benzoate were quantitatively compared using threshold criteria and statistical tools. Protein spots of interest were identified through database searching based on peptide mass fingerprints (PMFs) obtained using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Eight catabolic enzymes involved in both the ortho-cleavage (CatB, PcaI, and PcaF) and the meta-cleavage (DmpC, DmpD, DmpE, DmpF, and DmpG) pathways for benzoate biodegradation were identified in P. putida grown on 800 mg/L of benzoate while no meta-cleavage pathway enzymes were observed in the 2-DE gel profiles of P. putida grown on 100 mg/L of benzoate. The activation of both the ortho- and the meta-cleavage pathways in P. putida P8 grown on high benzoate concentration was confirmed directly at the protein level. In addition, another 28 differentially expressed proteins were also identified, including proteins involved in (i) detoxification and stress response (AhpC, ATPase-like ATP-binding region, putative DNA-binding stress protein, SodB and catalase/peroxidase HPI); (ii) carbohydrate, amino acid/protein and energy metabolism (isocitrate dehydrogenase, SucC, SucD, AcnB, GabD, ArcA, ArgI, Efp and periplasmic binding proteins of several ABC-transporters); and (iii) cell envelope and cell division (bacterial surface antigen family protein and MinD). Based on the data obtained, physiological changes of P. putida in response to growth on benzoate at different concentrations were discussed.

  1. Benzoate- and Salicylate-Tolerant Strains of Escherichia coli K-12 Lose Antibiotic Resistance during Laboratory Evolution. (United States)

    Creamer, Kaitlin E; Ditmars, Frederick S; Basting, Preston J; Kunka, Karina S; Hamdallah, Issam N; Bush, Sean P; Scott, Zachary; He, Amanda; Penix, Stephanie R; Gonzales, Alexandra S; Eder, Elizabeth K; Camperchioli, Dominic W; Berndt, Adama; Clark, Michelle W; Rouhier, Kerry A; Slonczewski, Joan L


    Escherichia coli K-12 W3110 grows in the presence of membrane-permeant organic acids that can depress cytoplasmic pH and accumulate in the cytoplasm. We conducted experimental evolution by daily diluting cultures in increasing concentrations of benzoic acid (up to 20 mM) buffered at external pH 6.5, a pH at which permeant acids concentrate in the cytoplasm. By 2,000 generations, clones isolated from evolving populations showed increasing tolerance to benzoate but were sensitive to chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Sixteen clones grew to stationary phase in 20 mM benzoate, whereas the ancestral strain W3110 peaked and declined. Similar growth occurred in 10 mM salicylate. Benzoate-evolved strains grew like W3110 in the absence of benzoate, in media buffered at pH 4.8, pH 7.0, or pH 9.0, or in 20 mM acetate or sorbate at pH 6.5. Genomes of 16 strains revealed over 100 mutations, including single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), large deletions, and insertion knockouts. Most strains acquired deletions in the benzoate-induced multiple antibiotic resistance (Mar) regulon or in associated regulators such as rob and cpxA, as well as the multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps emrA, emrY, and mdtA Strains also lost or downregulated the Gad acid fitness regulon. In 5 mM benzoate or in 2 mM salicylate (2-hydroxybenzoate), most strains showed increased sensitivity to the antibiotics chloramphenicol and tetracycline; some strains were more sensitive than a marA knockout strain. Thus, our benzoate-evolved strains may reveal additional unknown drug resistance components. Benzoate or salicylate selection pressure may cause general loss of MDR genes and regulators. Benzoate is a common food preservative, and salicylate is the primary active metabolite of aspirin. In the gut microbiome, genetic adaptation to salicylate may involve loss or downregulation of inducible multidrug resistance systems. This discovery implies that aspirin therapy may modulate the human gut microbiome to

  2. Toxicity of emamectin benzoate to Cydia pomonella (L.) and Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): laboratory and field tests. (United States)

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Anfora, Gianfranco; Angeli, Gino; Civolani, Stefano; Schmidt, Silvia; Pasqualini, Edison


    Emamectin benzoate is a novel macrocyclic lactone insecticide derived from naturally occurring avermectin molecules isolated by fermentation from the soil microorganism Streptomyces avermitilis Kim & Goodfellow. The present study aims to evaluate the toxicity of emamectin benzoate to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, C. molesta (Busck), under laboratory and semi-field conditions. Dose response bioassays showed that emamectin benzoate had a high level of intrinsic toxicity to early-stage larvae of both species, and that contact activity might contribute significantly to mortality. In the semi-field trials, residual toxicity lasted for more than 1 week. Ovicidal activity was recorded only for C. pomonella (approximately 30%), irrespective of the concentrations tested. Field trials confirmed the efficacy of emamectin benzoate on codling moth when applied at 7 day intervals. Fruit damage, both from the first and second generations, was comparable with that on treatment with chlorpyrifos-ethyl, used as a chemical reference. Emamectin benzoate may be considered a valuable tool for the control of codling moth as a component of an IPM programme. Its collective advantages are: high efficacy, lack of cross-resistance with currently used products, control of secondary pests such as oriental fruit moth and selective toxicity that spares beneficials. 2008 Society of Chemical Industry

  3. Airborne contact urticaria due to sodium benzoate in a pharmaceutical manufacturing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nethercott, J.R.; Lawrence, M.J.; Roy, A.M.; Gibson, B.L.


    Three workers exposed to airborne contact with sodium benzoate (SB) in a pharmaceutical plant developed transient urticaria related to skin contamination with SB. Patch test responses to SB and benzoic acid (BA), without occlusion, were similar to those of three previously unexposed controls in keeping with the nonimmunologic nature of the reaction. Sweating, which lowers skin pH and increases topical BA concentration, appeared to increase the susceptibility to urticaria in two of the three workers. Ventilation and hygiene control methods designed to reduce SB skin contamination eliminated the problem in the workplace. 10 references, 1 table.

  4. The Electrical Properties for Phenolic Isocyanate-Modified Bisphenol-Based Epoxy Resins Comprising Benzoate Group. (United States)

    Lee, Eun Yong; Chae, Il Seok; Park, Dongkyung; Suh, Hongsuk; Kang, Sang Wook


    Epoxy resin has been required to have a low dielectric constant (D(k)), low dissipation factor (Df), low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), low water absorption, high mechanical, and high adhesion properties for various applications. A series of novel phenolic isocyanate-modified bisphenol-based epoxy resins comprising benzoate group were prepared for practical electronic packaging applications. The developed epoxy resins showed highly reduced dielectric constants (D(k)-3.00 at 1 GHz) and low dissipation values (Df-0.014 at 1 GHz) as well as enhanced thermal properties.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutopo Hadi


    Full Text Available A series of dibutyl-, diphenyl- and triphenyltin(IV benzoate derivatives has been prepared. The products were obtained by reacting the dibutyltin(IV dichloride, diphenyltin(IV dichloride and triphenyltin(IV chloride respectively via the dibutyltin(IV oxide, diphenyltin(IV dihydroxide and triphenyltin(IV hydroxide with benzoate acid and its derivative. The targeted compounds have been tested with anticancer activity against leukemia cancer cell, L-1210. The compounds synthesized were well characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, IR and UV-Vis spectroscopies as well as based on the microanalytical data. The results showed that triphenyltin(IV benzoate and its derivative prepared exhibit higher anticancer activity than those of dibutyltin(IV and diphenyltin(IV analogous.

  6. Penentuan Kadar Pengawet Natrium Benzoat Yang Terdapat Pada Minuman Bersoda Di Laboratorium Kesehatan Daerah Provinsi Sumatera Utara Medan


    Manik, Riza Yanti


    142401220 Telah dilakukan penentuan kadar pengawet natrium benzoat yang terdapat pada minuman bersoda di laboratorium kesehatan daerah Provinsi Sumatera Utara Medan. Dari data yang diperoleh pada 5 sampel minuman bersoda A, B, C, D dan E diperoleh kadar pengawet natrium benzoat pada minuman bersoda A, B, C, D,dan E masing-masing sebanyak200 mg/L, 400 mg/L, 600 mg/L, 400 mg/L dan 400 mg/L. Kadar pengawet natrium benzoatyang terdapat pada sampel masih dalam batasan normal dan memenuhi persya...

  7. Secondary. cap alpha. -deuterium kinetic isotope effects in solvolyses of ferrocenylmethyl acetate and benzoate in ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutic, D. (Univ. of Zagreb, Yugoslavia); Asperger, S.; Borcic, S.


    Secondary ..cap alpha..-deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIE) in solvolyses of ferrocenyldideuteriomethyl acetate and benzoate were determined in 96% (v/v) ethanol, at 25/sup 0/C, as k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.24 and 1.26, respectively. The KIEs were also determined in the presence of 0.1 mol dm/sup -3/ lithium perchlorate: the k/sub H//k/ sub D/ values were 1.23 and 1.22 for acetate and benzoate complexes, respectively. The maximum KIE for the C-O bond cleavage of a primary substrate is as large as, or larger than, that of secondary derivatives, which is estimated to be 1.23 per deuterium. The measured KIE of about 12% per D therefore represents a strongly reduced effect relative to its maximum. The solvolyses exhibit ''a special salt effect''. This effect indicates the presence of solvent-separated ion pairs and the return to tight pairs. As the maximum KIE is expected in solvolyses involving transformation of one type of ion pair into another, the strongly reduced ..cap alpha..-D KIE supports the structure involving direct participation of electrons that in the ground state are localized at the iron atom. The alkyl-oxygen cleavage is accompanied by 10-15% acyl-oxygen cleavage.

  8. Guar gum benzoate nanoparticle reinforced gelatin films for enhanced thermal insulation, mechanical and antimicrobial properties. (United States)

    Kundu, Sonia; Das, Aatrayee; Basu, Aalok; Abdullah, Md Farooque; Mukherjee, Arup


    This work relates to guar gum benzoate self assembly nanoparticles synthesis and nano composite films development with gelatin. Guar gum benzoate was synthesized in a Hofmeister cation guided homogeneous phase reaction. Self assembly polysaccharide nanoparticles were prepared in solvent displacement technique. Electron microscopy and DLS study confirmed uniform quasi spherical nanoparticles with ζ-potential - 28.7mV. Nanocomposite films were further developed in gelatin matrix. The film capacity augmenting due to nanoparticles incorporation was noteworthy. Superior barrier properties, reinforcing and thermal insulation effects were observed in films dispersed with 20% w/w nanoparticles. Detailed FTIR studies and thermal analysis confirmed nanoparticles interactions in the film matrix. The nanocomposite film water vapour permeability was at 0.75gmm -1 kPa -1 h -1 , thermal conductivity 0.39Wm -1 K -1 and the tensile strength were recorded at 3.87MPa. The final film expressed excellent antimicrobial properties against water born gram negative and gram positive bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnetic ordering of quasi-1 D S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet Cu benzoate at sub-mK temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaki, Y.; Masutomi, R.; Kubota, M.; Ishimoto, H.; Asano, T.; Ajiro, Y.


    We have measured the AC susceptibility of quasi-1D S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet Cu benzoate at temperatures down to 0.2 mK. A sharp susceptibility peak is observed at 0.8 mK under an earth field. This fact indicates a 3D ordering of linear chains coupled by a weak magnetic interaction between chains

  10. Use of emanation thermal analysis and evolved gas analysis in thermal study of zinc(II) benzoate complex compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Findoráková, L.; Györyová, K.; Večerníková, Eva; Balek, V.


    Roč. 98, č. 3 (2009), s. 765-769 ISSN 1388-6150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : zinc(II) benzoate * caffeine * urea * thermogravimetry Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.587, year: 2009

  11. Elimination kinetic of 17B-estradiol 3-benzoate and 17B-nandrolone laureate ester metabolites in calves' urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinel, G.; Rambaud, L.; Cacciatore, G.; Bergwerff, A.; Elliott, C.; Nielen, M.W.F.


    Efficient control of the illegal use of anabolic steroids must both take into account metabolic patterns and associated kinetics of elimination; in this context, an extensive animal experiment involving 24 calves and consisting of three administrations of 17 beta-estradiol 3-benzoate and 17

  12. Optimization of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as host for the production of cis, cis-muconate from benzoate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duuren, van J.B.J.H.


    Optimization of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as host for the production of cis, cis-muconate from benzoate P. putida KT2440 was used as biocatalyst given its versatile and energetically robust metabolism. Therefore, a mutant was generated and a process developed based on which a life cycle assessment


    Flow-through aquifer columns were used to evaluate the efficacy of using benzoate as a biostimulatory substrate to enhance the aerobic biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and o-xylene (BTX), fed continuously at low concentra tions (about 0.2 mg/L each). When used as a cosubstr...

  14. Crystal structure of {[2-hydroxy-2-(3-methoxyphenylcyclohexyl]methyl}dimethylammonium benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sheshadri


    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H26NO2+·C7H5O2−, is a benzoate salt of the painkiller Tramadol. The six-membered cyclohexane ring of the cation adopts a slightly distorted chair conformation and carries OH and 3-methoxyphenyl substituents at the 2-position and a protonated methylazaniumylmethyl group at the 3-position. In addition, a weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond is observed in the cation. In the crystal, weak O—H...O, N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds link the components into chains along [010]. A C—H...π contact is also observed.

  15. Neuroprotective benzyl benzoate glycosides from Disporum viridescens roots in HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells. (United States)

    Cho, Namki; Yang, Heejung; Lee, Mina; Huh, Jungmoo; Kim, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Hong-Pyo; Sung, Sang-Hyun


    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract from Disporum viridescens roots led to the isolation of five new benzyl benzoate glycosides, BBGs (1-5). The neuroprotective activities of the BBGs were screened using neuronal HT22 hippocampal cells. BBG-D (4) significantly protected murine hippocampal HT22 cells against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity by maintaining the antioxidative defense systems such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and the glutathione content. BBG-D, in a dose-and time-dependent manner, increased HO-1 expression through the selective activation of pERK signaling among the MAPK pathways. These results suggest that BBG-D could be a promising candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases related to glutamate-induced oxidative neuronal cytotoxicity.

  16. A novel 3α-p-Nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate and two new triterpenoids from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L). (United States)

    Tanaka, Reiko; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nakasuji, Saori; Ue, Yasuhiro; Shuto, Daisuke; Igarashi, Keishi; Okada, Rina; Yamada, Takeshi


    Three novel multiflorane-type triterpenoids, 3α-p-nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (1), 3α-acetoxymultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (2), and 3α-acetoxymultiflora-5(6):7:9(11)-triene-29-benzoate (3), along with two known related compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L). Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HREIMS. Triterpenoids possessing a nitro group were not isolated previously.

  17. Transcriptional Modulation of Transport- and Metabolism-Associated Gene Clusters Leading to Utilization of Benzoate in Preference to Glucose in Pseudomonas putida CSV86. (United States)

    Choudhary, Alpa; Modak, Arnab; Apte, Shree K; Phale, Prashant S


    The effective elimination of xenobiotic pollutants from the environment can be achieved by efficient degradation by microorganisms even in the presence of sugars or organic acids. Soil isolate Pseudomonas putida CSV86 displays a unique ability to utilize aromatic compounds prior to glucose. The draft genome and transcription analyses revealed that glucose uptake and benzoate transport and metabolism genes are clustered at the glc and ben loci, respectively, as two distinct operons. When grown on glucose plus benzoate, CSV86 displayed significantly higher expression of the ben locus in the first log phase and of the glc locus in the second log phase. Kinetics of substrate uptake and metabolism matched the transcription profiles. The inability of succinate to suppress benzoate transport and metabolism resulted in coutilization of succinate and benzoate. When challenged with succinate or benzoate, glucose-grown cells showed rapid reduction in glc locus transcription, glucose transport, and metabolic activity, with succinate being more effective at the functional level. Benzoate and succinate failed to interact with or inhibit the activities of glucose transport components or metabolic enzymes. The data suggest that succinate and benzoate suppress glucose transport and metabolism at the transcription level, enabling P. putida CSV86 to preferentially metabolize benzoate. This strain thus has the potential to be an ideal host to engineer diverse metabolic pathways for efficient bioremediation. IMPORTANCE Pseudomonas strains play an important role in carbon cycling in the environment and display a hierarchy in carbon utilization: organic acids first, followed by glucose, and aromatic substrates last. This limits their exploitation for bioremediation. This study demonstrates the substrate-dependent modulation of ben and glc operons in Pseudomonas putida CSV86, wherein benzoate suppresses glucose transport and metabolism at the transcription level, leading to preferential

  18. Optimasi Fase Gerak Metanol-Dapar Fosfat dan Laju Alir pada Penetapan Kadar Natrium Benzoat dan Kalium Sorbat dalam Sirup dengan Metode Kromatografi Cair Kinerja Tinggi (KCKT)


    Sibarani, Mastin


    Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate are preservatives, which is commonly used in foods and beverages. The adding purpose is to prevent the growth of bacteria, fungi, and molds so that the process of decaying and acidification due to the decomposition can be prevented. The purpose of this research is to obtain optimum analysis conditions in the determination of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in syrup by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in reversed phase with shimpac VP...

  19. Efficacy of vinegar, sorbitol and sodium benzoate in mitigation of Salmonella contamination in betel leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Asmaul Husna


    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to mitigate Salmonella from betel leaf in Mymensingh. A total of 35 betel leaf samples were collected from 2 baroujes and 5 local markets in Mymensingh. The samples were sub-divided into two groups: (i phosphate buffer solution (PBS washed, and (ii grinded sample. There was control and treated (with 1.5% vinegar, sorbitol, and sodium benzoate sub-groups in both groups. Mitigation of Salmonella was determined by comparing Total Viable Count (TVC and Total Salmonella Count (TSAC of control with treated groups. No bacterial growth was observed in the betel leaf samples collected directly from barouj level. At market level, when grinded, there was no growth of bacteria in Plate Count Agar (PCA and Salmonella- Shigella (SS or Xylose Lysine De-oxy-chocolate (XLD in both treated and untreated groups. But when the PBS washed samples were used, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL of betel leaf ranged from 5.16±0.82 to 5.96±1.11, whereas the TSAC value ranged from 4.87±0.58 to 5.56±1.00 for untreated group. In vinegar, there was no growth, but when treated with sorbitol, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 5.00±0.54 to 5.66±1.09, and TSAC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 4.28±0.71 to 4.78±0.64. When treated with sodium benzoate, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 5.06±0.53 to 5.75±1.02, and TSAC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 4.34±0.79 to 4.92±0.64. Data of this study indicates that all the three chemicals were effective in terms of reducing bacterial load but vinegar (1.5% was found to be the most effective against Salmonella as well as some other bacteria when treated for 10 min.

  20. Adsorption of choline benzoate ionic liquid on graphene, silicene, germanene and boron-nitride nanosheets: a DFT perspective. (United States)

    García, Gregorio; Atilhan, Mert; Aparicio, Santiago


    The adsorption of choline benzoate ([CH][BE]) ionic liquid (IL) on the surface of different hexagonal nanosheets has been studied using Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. For this, the interaction mechanism, binding energies and electronic structure of [CH][BE] ionic liquid on four types of nanosheets, i.e., graphene, silicene, germanene and boron-nitride, were estimated and compared. The adsorption of [CH][BE] ionic liquid on different nanosheets is mainly featured by van der Waals forces, leading to strong benzoate ion-surface π-stacking. Likewise, there is also an important charge transfer from the anion to the sheet. The electronic structure analysis shows that Si- and Ge-based sheets lead to the largest changes in the HOMO and LUMO levels of choline benzoate. This paper provides new insights into the capability of DFT methods to provide useful information about the adsorption of ionic liquids on nanosheets and how ionic liquid features could be tuned through the adsorption on the suitable nanosheet.

  1. Determination of Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate in “Doogh” Samples in Post Market Surveillance in Iran 2012

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    B. Akbari-adergani


    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate are two major chemical preservatives which are used in Doogh (Iranian traditional dairy drink. In this study, a total of 27 commercial brands of highly consumed of Doogh samples were analyzed. The means and standard deviation for concentration of these preservatives based on HPLC results for analysis of benzoate and sorbate were 195·9 (SD 1·8 and 328·8 (SD 2·1 mg.Kg-1 respectively. The minimum and maximum of benzoate content in various brands were 18.3 and 2345.1 mg.Kg-1 and for sorbate were not detected and 4961.3 mg.Kg-1 respectively. The study revealed that there was not significant difference in preservative concentration in the samples that belonged to various dates. However, a few samples had a high preservative concentration, which could be a risk factor for human health, especially when their intake was being occurred by various foodstuffs simultaneously.

  2. Comparison of anti-Vibrio activities of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, and glycerol and sucrose esters of fatty acids. (United States)

    Beuchat, L R


    The effects of fatty acids and their glycerol and sucrose esters, potassium sorbate, and sodium benzoate on growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in laboratory media at pH 6.7 were evaluated. The minimum concentrations at which inhibition by esters of glycerol could be detected were lowest for monolaurin (5 microgram/ml) and monocaprin (40 microgram/ml); these concentrations were lower than those observed for inhibition by lauric and capric acids, respectively. Inhibitory action of sucrose caprylate was detected at 40 microgram/ml, whereas sucrose caprate was effective at 100 microgram/ml; sucrose esters of lauric, myristic, and palmitic acids were ineffective at 100 microgram/ml. Potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate inhibited growth at concentrations as low as 30 and 300 microgram/ml, respectively, and enhanced the rate of thermal inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus at slightly higher concentrations. Fatty acid esters of glycerol and sucrose offer potential as perservatives for slightly acid or alkaline low-fat foods which do not lend themselves to the full antimicrobial action of traditional food preservatives such as potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate. PMID:7406487

  3. Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation of zinc benzoate for ZnO thin films and non-isothermal decomposition kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, A.; Constantinescu, C.; Mandruleanu, Anca; Rotaru, P.; Moldovan, A.; Gyoryova, Katarina; Dinescu, Maria; Balek, V.


    Zinc(II) coordination compounds may provide a better source for ZnO thin films obtaining, since ZnO was found as the final product of their thermal decomposition. Thin films of zinc benzoate have been obtained on silicon substrates by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique, using a Nd:YAG laser working at 266 nm. A comparative study of 1% zinc benzoate frozen solution in methanol at different fulences was carried out for 20,000 laser pulses; for the best deposition fluence a double deposition time was employed. Comparative thermal analysis and non-isothermal kinetic investigation of Zn(C 6 H 5 COO) 2 .2H 2 O dehydration and decomposition was performed. Thin films of ZnO have been obtained by thermal treatment of the MAPLE obtained thin films, according to the thermal analysis and decomposition kinetics of zinc benzoate. The obtained morphologies, before and after thermal treatment, have been investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  4. Identification of the electron transfer flavoprotein as an upregulated enzyme in the benzoate utilization of Desulfotignum balticum. (United States)

    Habe, Hiroshi; Kobuna, Akinori; Hosoda, Akifumi; Kosaka, Tomoyuki; Endoh, Takayuki; Tamura, Hiroto; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki; Omori, Toshio; Watanabe, Kazuya


    Desulfotignum balticum utilizes benzoate coupled to sulfate reduction. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) analysis was conducted to detect proteins that increased more after growth on benzoate than on butyrate. A comparison of proteins on 2D gels showed that at least six proteins were expressed. The N-terminal sequences of three proteins exhibited significant identities with the alpha and beta subunits of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) from anaerobic aromatic-degraders. By sequence analysis of the fosmid clone insert (37,590 bp) containing the genes encoding the ETF subunits, we identified three genes, whose deduced amino acid sequences showed 58%, 74%, and 62% identity with those of Gmet_2267 (Fe-S oxidoreductase), Gmet_2266 (ETF beta subunit), and Gmet_2265 (ETF alpha subunit) respectively, which exist within the 300-kb genomic island of aromatic-degradation genes from Geobacter metallireducens GS-15. The genes encoding ETF subunits found in this study were upregulated in benzoate utilization.

  5. High secondary [alpha]-deuterium kinetic isotope effect in the acetolysis and formolysis of dideuterioferrocenylmethyl benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, S. (Research Center of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Zagreb (Croatia)); Kukric, Z.; Sutic, D. (Sarajevo Univ. (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics); Saunders, W.H. Jr. (Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)


    Acetolysis and formolysis of dideuterioferrocenylmethyl benzoate exhibit large secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effects and an abnormal temperature dependence. In the presence of LiClO[sub 4], which prevents the reversion from solvent-separated to contact ion-pairs, K[sub H]/K[sub D] at 25 [sup o]C amount to 1.53 [+-] 0.02 (acetolysis) and 1.48 [+-] 0.03 (formolysis). In the presence of LiClO[sub 4] the ratios of Arrhenius pre-exponential factors, A[sub H]/A[sub D], are significantly less than unity and amount to 0.49 [+-] 0.01 (acetolysis) and 0.38 [+-] 0.04 (formolysis). In the absence of LiClO[sub 4] the A[sub H]/A[sub D] ratios are much smaller (0.02 both in acetolysis and formolysis). We suggest that these surprisingly low values result from a change in rate-determining step over the temperature range, from formation of the solvent-separated ion-pair at low temperatures to reaction of the dissociated carbocation with solvent at the highest temperatures. Whether tunnelling plays any role in these solvolyses is discussed. (Author).

  6. Structures of alkyl benzoate binary mixtures. A Kirkwood-Buff fluctuation theory study using UNIFAC. (United States)

    Alcalde, Rafael; Aparicio, Santiago; García, Begoña; Leal, José M


    The structure of the alkyl benzoate + n-alkane, and + alkan-1-ol binary mixtures were analyzed according to the Kirkwood-Buff fluctuation theory on the basis of both the mixture properties measured over a wide temperature range and the activity coefficients calculated with the modified UNIFAC (Dortmund) model as well. Application of this model reveals that both the microheterogeneous structure and the clustering effects are strongly dependent on the chain length of the n-alkane and alkan-1-ol cosolvents. Knowledge of the local composition around each type of molecule is drawn from the Kirkwood-Buff integrals and the excess (or deficit) molecules aggregated around a central one. The rather high values of the integrals evaluated for some of these systems provide first-hand evidence for phase splitting. The conclusions drawn support previous analyses and confirm the adequacy of the methodology put forward for studying liquid mixtures at microscopic level; easily measurable experimental properties can advantageously be used with the fluctuation theory.

  7. Third-order NLO properties of solution grown methyl- p-hydroxy benzoate single crystals (United States)

    Manikandan, S.; Sabari Girisun, T. C.; Mohandoss, R.; Dhanuskodi, S.; Manivannan, S.


    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of solution-grown methyl- p-hydroxy benzoate (MHB) single crystals were studied by Z-scan technique using a He-Ne (632.8 nm, 30 mW) laser. From the closed aperture Z-scan data, the valley followed by peak on the normalized transmittance indicates the sign of the nonlinear refractive index is positive and shows a self focusing nature. From the open aperture Z-scan curve, it is found that the nonlinear absorption is due to saturation. The order of magnitude of third order susceptibility was estimated to be 10-6 esu. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum of MHB single crystal reveals a very low cutoff wavelength (310 nm) and transparency in the entire visible region. Also the material has direct allowed transition and it possesses a band gap of 3.7 eV. The dissipation factor is low and SHG efficiency is high. The higher magnitudes of second and third order NLO parameters make the material suitable for photonic applications like frequency conversion and eye/sensor protection.

  8. Monitoring benzene formation from benzoate in model systems by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (United States)

    Aprea, Eugenio; Biasioli, Franco; Carlin, Silvia; Märk, Tilmann D.; Gasperi, Flavia


    The presence of benzene in food and in particular in soft drinks has been reported in several studies and should be considered in fundamental investigations about formation of this carcinogen compound as well as in quality control. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) has been used here for rapid, direct quantification of benzene and to monitor its formation in model systems related to the use of benzoate, a common preservative, in presence of ascorbic acid: a widespread situation that yields benzene in, e.g., soft drinks and fruit juices. Firstly, we demonstrate here that PTR-MS allows a rapid determination of benzene that is in quantitative agreement with independent solid phase micro-extraction/gas chromatography (SPME/GC) analysis. Secondly, as a case study, the effect of different sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose) on benzene formation is investigated indicating that they inhibit its formation and that this effect is enhanced for reducing sugars. The sugar-induced inhibition of benzene formation depends on several parameters (type and concentration of sugar, temperature, time) but can be more than 80% in situations that can be expected in the storage of commercial soft drinks. This is consistent with the reported observations of higher benzene concentrations in sugar-free soft drinks.

  9. Determination of Benzoate Level in Canned Pickles and Pickled Cucumbers in Food Producing Factories in Markazi Province and those that their Products were Sold in Arak City, Iran

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    Mostafa Delavar


    Full Text Available Background: Anecdotal information has suggested that sodium benzoate is used with more than permissible doses during production steps of food products especially pickles and pickled cucumbers in food producing factories in Markazi province and other food producing factories . The present study was done to evaluate factual concentration of sodium benzoate in these products. Methods: In this study, 8 samples from canned pickled cucumbers and 10 samples from canned pickles were randomly gathered from food production factories in Markazi province between March and September 2010. Also, 25 samples from canned pickled cucumbers and 15 samples from canned pickles and 7 samples of bulk cargo pickled cucumbers were collected from the other provinces in Arak city. Sodium benzoate level was determined in the samples using UV-VIS spectrophotometry method. The determined values were analyzed by N-par test using SPSS software version 16.0. Results: Sodium benzoate level was near zero in the samples of canned pickles and pickled cucumbers from producing factories. This was 200-400 PPM in 7 samples from bulk cargo pickled cucumbers which was higher than permissible dose. There was not a statistically significant difference between mean benzoate level of canned pickles and pickled cucumbers produced in Markazi providence factories and other food factories. Benzoate level was significantly higher than permissible dose in bulk cargo pickled cucumbers. Conclusion: Food products from production factories do not have higher than permissible level of sodium benzoate; however, this is higher in bulk cargo pickled cucumbers. Hence, stricter control on bulk cargo pickled cucumber products is recommended.

  10. Intragastric infusion of denatonium benzoate attenuates interdigestive gastric motility and hunger scores in healthy female volunteers. (United States)

    Deloose, Eveline; Janssen, Pieter; Corsetti, Maura; Biesiekierski, Jessica; Masuy, Imke; Rotondo, Alessandra; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan


    Background: Denatonium benzoate (DB) has been shown to influence ongoing ingestive behavior and gut peptide secretion. Objective: We studied how the intragastric administration of DB affects interdigestive motility, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, hunger and satiety ratings, and food intake in healthy volunteers. Design: Lingual bitter taste sensitivity was tested with the use of 6 concentrations of DB in 65 subjects. A placebo or 1 μmol DB/kg was given intragastrically to assess its effect on fasting gastrointestinal motility and hunger ratings, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, satiety, and caloric intake. Results: Women ( n = 39) were more sensitive toward a lingual bitter stimulus ( P = 0.005) than men ( n = 26). In women ( n = 10), intragastric DB switched the origin of phase III contractions from the stomach to the duodenum ( P = 0.001) and decreased hunger ratings ( P = 0.04). These effects were not observed in men ( n = 10). In women ( n = 12), motilin ( P = 0.04) plasma concentrations decreased after intragastric DB administration, whereas total and octanoylated ghrelin were not affected. The intragastric administration of DB decreased hunger ( P = 0.008) and increased satiety ratings ( P = 0.01) after a meal (500 kcal) in 13 women without affecting gastric emptying in 6 women. Caloric intake tended to decrease after DB administration compared with the placebo (mean ± SEM: 720 ± 58 compared with 796 ± 45 kcal; P = 0.08) in 20 women. Conclusions: Intragastric DB administration decreases both antral motility and hunger ratings during the fasting state, possibly because of a decrease in motilin release. Moreover, DB decreases hunger and increases satiety ratings after a meal and shows potential for decreasing caloric intake. This trial was registered at as NCT02759926. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Up-regulation of neurotrophic factors by cinnamon and its metabolite sodium benzoate: Therapeutic implications for neurodegenerative disorders


    Jana, Arundhati; Modi, Khushbu K.; Roy, Avik; Anderson, John A.; van Breemen, Richard B.; Pahan, Kalipada


    This study underlines the importance of cinnamon, a widely-used food spice and flavoring material, and its metabolite sodium benzoate (NaB), a widely-used food preservative and a FDA-approved drug against urea cycle disorders in humans, in increasing the levels of neurotrophic factors [e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3)] in the CNS. NaB, but not sodium formate (NaFO), dose-dependently induced the expression of BDNF and NT-3 in primary human neurons and as...

  12. Crystal structure of 3-({[(morpholin-4-yl)carbono-thio-yl]sulfan-yl}acet-yl)phenyl benzoate. (United States)

    Ambekar, Sachin P; Mahesh Kumar, K; Shirahatti, Arun Kumar M; Kotresh, O; Anil Kumar, G N


    In the title compound, C20H19NO4S2, the morpholine ring adopts the expected chair conformation. The central phenyl ring makes dihedral angles of 67.97 (4) and 7.74 (3)°, respectively, with the benzoate phenyl ring and the morpholine mean plane. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag chains along the b-axis direction. C-H⋯π inter-actions link centrosymmetrically related mol-ecules, reinforcing the three-dimensional structure.


    Several 2-substituted benzoates (including 2-trifluoromethyl-, 2-chloro-, 2-bromo-, 2-iodo-, 2-nitro-, 2-methoxy-, and 2-acetyl-benzoates) were converted by phthalate-grown Arthrobacter keyseri 12B to the corresponding 2-substituted 3,4-dihydroxybenzoates (protocatechuates)...

  14. Evaluation of estradiol benzoate as a pre-treatment for oocyte recovery in sheep

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    Marilu Constantino Max


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the number of follicles, oocytes and the recovery rate in sheep submitted to the one-shot protocol with or without ovarian priming with estradiol benzoate (EB. Pluriparous non-lactating sheep (n=33 with an average age of five years (range 4-6 and a body condition score of 3.0±0.3 were divided into three groups. The one-shot group (n=10 was treated with a subcutaneous implant containing 1.5 mg of norgestomet from D0 to D10. The animals in this group were administered 0.04 mg of D-cloprostenol, 200 IU of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and 300 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on D8. Animals in the EB group (n=11 received the same treatment as one-shot plus the administration of 0.6 mg of EB on D0. In the untreated group (n=12, the animals received no hormone stimulation. The collection of the oocytes was performed by laparotomy 36 h after the administration of gonadotropins (D10. Oocytes were searched and classified based on morphology. An increase was observed (p<0.05 in the number of follicles aspirated in the one-shot vs. the EB and untreated groups (16.3±5.6 vs. 9.5±2.4 and 12.1±4.1, respectively. The average number of oocytes and the recovery rate were higher (p<0.05 in the one-shot and EB groups compared to the untreated group, resulting in 14.2±9.0 and 87.1% (142/163, 11.0±6.2 and 91.4% (122/134 vs. 6.8±3.5 and 71.9% (82/114, respectively. It was concluded that the EB did not improve efficiency in the oneshot protocol, but was significantly better than in untreated animals

  15. The modulatory effect of estradiol benzoate on superoxide dismutase activity in the developing rat brain

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    Pejic S.


    Full Text Available The sensitivity of copper,zinc (CuZn- and manganese (Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD to exogenous estradiol benzoate (EB was investigated in Wistar rats during postnatal brain development. Enzyme activities were measured in samples prepared from brains of rats of both sexes and various ages between 0 and 75 days, treated sc with 0.5 µg EB/100 g body weight in 0.1 ml olive oil/100 g body weight, 48 and 24 h before sacrifice. In females, EB treatment stimulated MnSOD activity on days 0 (66.1%, 8 (72.7% and 15 (81.7%. In males, the stimulatory effect of EB on MnSOD activity on day 0 (113.6% disappeared on day 8 and on days 15 and 45 it became inhibitory (40.3 and 30.5%, respectively. EB had no effect on the other age groups. The stimulatory effect of EB on CuZnSOD activity in newborn females (51.8% changed to an inhibitory effect on day 8 (38.4% and disappeared by day 45 when inhibition was detected again (48.7%. In males, the inhibitory effect on this enzyme was observed on days 0 (45.0% and 15 (28.9%, and then disappeared until day 60 when a stimulatory effect was observed (38.4%. EB treatment had no effect on the other age groups. The sensitivity of MnSOD to estradiol differed significantly between sexes during the neonatal and prepubertal period, whereas it followed a similar pattern thereafter. The sensitivity of CuZnSOD to estradiol differed significantly between sexes during most of the study period. Regression analysis showed that the sensitivity of MnSOD to this estrogen tended to decrease similarly in both sexes, whereas the sensitivity of CuZnSOD showed a significantly different opposite tendency in female and male rats. These are the first reports indicating hormonal modulation of antioxidant enzyme activities related to the developmental process.

  16. Synergistic Processing of Biphenyl and Benzoate: Carbon Flow Through the Bacterial Community in Polychlorinated-Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil. (United States)

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Uhlik, Ondrej; Leigh, Mary Beth


    Aerobic mineralization of PCBs, which are toxic and persistent organic pollutants, involves the upper (biphenyl, BP) and lower (benzoate, BZ) degradation pathways. The activity of different members of the soil microbial community in performing one or both pathways, and their synergistic interactions during PCB biodegradation, are not well understood. This study investigates BP and BZ biodegradation and subsequent carbon flow through the microbial community in PCB-contaminated soil. DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify the bacterial guilds involved in utilizing (13)C-biphenyl (unchlorinated analogue of PCBs) and/or (13)C-benzoate (product/intermediate of BP degradation and analogue of chlorobenzoates). By performing SIP with two substrates in parallel, we reveal microbes performing the upper (BP) and/or lower (BZ) degradation pathways, and heterotrophic bacteria involved indirectly in processing carbon derived from these substrates (i.e. through crossfeeding). Substrate mineralization rates and shifts in relative abundance of labeled taxa suggest that BP and BZ biotransformations were performed by microorganisms with different growth strategies: BZ-associated bacteria were fast growing, potentially copiotrophic organisms, while microbes that transform BP were oligotrophic, slower growing, organisms. Our findings provide novel insight into the functional interactions of soil bacteria active in processing biphenyl and related aromatic compounds in soil, revealing how carbon flows through a bacterial community.

  17. Transformation of the Ionic X-Ray Contrast Agent Diatrizoate and Related Triiodinated Benzoates by Trametes versicolor (United States)

    Rode, Ulrike; Müller, Rudolf


    Iodinated X-ray contrast agents are considered to be nondegradable by microorganisms. The decomposition of the ionic X-ray contrast agents Diatrizoate (3,5-di(acetamido)-2,4,6-triiodobenzoic acid) and Iodipamide (3,3′-adipoyl-diimino-di(2,4,6-triiodobenzoic acid) and related triiodinated benzoates (Acetrizoate [3-acetylamino-2,4,6-triiodobenzoic acid] and Aminotrizoate [3-amino-2,4,6-triiodobenzoic acid]) by Trametes versicolor has been investigated. The fungus was able to transform all tested triiodinated benzoates cometabolically. During transformation of these compounds, iodide was released, but deiodination was not complete. T. versicolor liberated traces of 14CO2 from uniformly ring-14C-labeled Diatrizoate (3,5-di(acetamido)-2,4,6-triiodobenzoate). Various extracellular metabolites were detected during transformation of the different substances. In the transformation of Diatrizoate, the three main metabolites were identified as 3,5-di(acetamido)-2,6-diiodobenzoic acid, 3,5-di(acetamido)-2,4-diiodobenzoic acid, and 3,5-di(acetamido)-2-iodobenzoic acid, suggesting reductive deiodinations in steps as initial transformation steps. PMID:9687487

  18. Changes induced by UV radiation in the presence of sodium benzoate in films formulated with polyvinyl alcohol and carboxymethyl cellulose. (United States)

    Villarruel, S; Giannuzzi, L; Rivero, S; Pinotti, A


    This work was focused on: i) developing single and blend films based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) studying their properties, ii) analyzing the interactions between CMC and PVOH and their modifications UV-induced in the presence of sodium benzoate (SB), and iii) evaluating the antimicrobial capacity of blend films containing SB with and without UV treatment. Once the blend films with SB were exposed to UV radiation, they exhibited lower moisture content as well as a greater elongation at break and rougher surfaces compared to those without treatment. Considering oxygen barrier properties, the low values obtained would allow their application as packaging with selective oxygen permeability. Moreover, the characteristics of the amorphous phase of the matrix prevailed with a rearrangement of the structure of the polymer chain, causing a decrease of the crystallinity degree. These results were supported by X-rays and DSC analysis. FT-IR spectra reflected some degree of polymer-polymer interaction at a molecular level in the amorphous regions. The incorporation of sodium benzoate combined with UV treatment in blend films was positive from the microbial point of view because of the growth inhibition of a wide spectrum of microorganisms. From a physicochemical perspective, the UV treatment of films also changed their morphology rendering them more insoluble in water, turning the functionalized blend films into a potential material to be applied as food packaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The pWW0 plasmid imposes a stochastic expression regime to the chromosomal ortho pathway for benzoate metabolism in Pseudomonas putida. (United States)

    Silva-Rocha, Rafael; de Lorenzo, Victor


    Environmental plasmids often expand the metabolic repertoire of bacteria that carry them, but they also interfere with the biochemical and genetic network of the host. The pWW0 plasmid born by Pseudomonas putida mt-2 encodes the TOL pathway for degradation of toluene/m-xylene through production of intermediate compounds benzoate/3-methylbenzoate. These can be also recognized as substrates by the chromosomally encoded ben and cat gene products, thereby creating a manifest regulatory and biochemical conflict. In this context, we have investigated how the introduction of the pWW0 plasmid into P. putida affects behaviour of the promoter of the ben pathway (Pb) in single cells. Using a series of standardized transcriptional fusions to green fluorescent protein, we found that acquisition of the TOL pathway switches the activation course of the Pb promoter from unimodal/graded to bimodal/stochastic when cells were exposed to benzoate. This behaviour was propagated downstream into the Pc promoter of the cat gene cluster, which responds to the benzoate-degradation intermediate cis,cis-muconate. The TOL plasmid thus imposes expression of the chromosomal Pb with a stochastic behaviour likely to result in biochemical heterogeneity of the otherwise genetically clonal population when exposed to benzoate as a growth substrate.

  20. Nanostructure conducting molecularly imprinted polypyrrole film as a selective sorbent for benzoate ion and its application in spectrophotometric analysis of beverage samples. (United States)

    Manbohi, Ahmad; Shamaeli, Ehsan; Alizadeh, Naader


    The benzoate anion was selectively extracted by electrochemically controlled solid-phase microextraction (EC-SPME) using a electro-synthesised nanostructure conducting molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (CMIP) film that imprinted for benzoate ions (template ion). The sorbent behaviors of CMIP were characterised using spectrophotometry analysis. The effect of pH, uptake and released times and potentials, template ion concentration, and interference were investigated, and experimental conditions optimised. The film exhibited excellent selectivity in the presence of potential interference from anions including salicylate, sorbate, citrate, phosphate, acetate and chloride ions. The calibration graph was linear (R(2)⩾ 0.993) in the range 1.1 × 10(-5)-5.5 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) and detection limit was 5.2 × 10(-6) mol L(-1). The relative standard deviation was less than 4.5% (n=3). The CMIP film, as a solid-phase micro-extraction absorbent, was applied for the selective clean up and quantification of benzoate in beverage samples using the EC-SPME-spectrophotometric method. The results were in agreement with those obtained using HPLC analysis. This method has a good selectivity and mechanical stability and is disposable simple to construct. However, HPLC method is more selective for determination of benzoate in some food products which have interference compounds such as vanilla and flavoring agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Di-μ-iodido-bis(iodido{methyl 4-[(pyridin-2-ylmethylideneamino]benzoate-κ2N,N′}cadmium

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    Tushar S. Basu Baul


    Full Text Available The complete binuclear molecule of the title compound, [Cd2I4(C14H12N2O22], is generated by the application of a centre of inversion. The Cd—I bond lengths of the central core are close and uniformly longer than the exocyclic Cd—I bond. The coordination sphere of the CdII atom is completed by two N atoms of a chelating methyl 4-[(pyridin-2-ylmethylideneamino]benzoate ligand, and is based on a square pyramid with the terminal I atom in the apical position. The three-dimensional crystal packing is stabilized by C—H...O and C—H...π interactions, each involving the pyridine ring.

  2. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activities of Transition Metal Complexes of methyl 2-(((E)-(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene)amino)benzoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, M.; Rehman, S.


    New metal complexes with Schiff base ligand methyl 2-(((E)-(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene)amino)benzoate, were synthesized and characterized. Elemental analyses, EI-MS, 1H and 13C(1H)-NMR were used for ligand characterization whereas elemental analyses, EI-MS, IR and UV-Visible spectroscopic techniques were used for the transition metal compounds. All these analyses reveal the bis arrangement of the ligand around the metal centres. The compounds were studied for their antimicrobial activities against different pathogenic microbial species. It was found that the Schiff base ligand was completely inactive in comparison to the transition metal compounds. It was also observed that nickel based metal complex shown good results against Candida albican (25 mm) and zinc based metal complex against Agrobacterium tumefaciens (16 mm). (author)

  3. The ZbYME2 gene from the food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii confers not only YME2 functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but also the capacity for catabolism of sorbate and benzoate, two major weak organic acid preservatives. (United States)

    Mollapour, M; Piper, P W


    A factor influencing resistances of food spoilage microbes to sorbate and benzoate is whether these organisms are able to catalyse the degradation of these preservative compounds. Several fungi metabolize benzoic acid by the beta-ketoadipate pathway, involving the hydroxylation of benzoate to 4-hydroxybenzoate. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to use benzoate as a sole carbon source, apparently through the lack of benzoate-4-hydroxylase activity. However a single gene from the food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii, heterologously expressed in S. cerevisiae cells, can enable growth of the latter on benzoate, sorbate and phenylalanine. Although this ZbYME2 gene is essential for benzoate utilization by Z. bailii, its ZbYme2p product has little homology to other fungal benzoate-4-hydroxylases studied to date, all of which appear to be microsomal cytochrome P450s. Instead, ZbYme2p has strong similarity to the matrix domain of the S. cerevisiae mitochondrial protein Yme2p/Rna12p/Prp12p and, when expressed as a functional fusion to green fluorescent protein in S. cerevisiae growing on benzoate, is largely localized to mitochondria. The phenotypes associated with loss of the native Yme2p from S. cerevisiae, mostly apparent in yme1,yme2 cells, may relate to increased detrimental effects of endogenous oxidative stress. Heterologous expression of ZbYME2 complements these phenotypes, yet it also confers a potential for weak acid preservative catabolism that the native S. cerevisiae Yme2p is unable to provide. Benzoate utilization by S. cerevisiae expressing ZbYME2 requires a functional mitochondrial respiratory chain, but not the native Yme1p and Yme2p of the mitochondrion.

  4. Dioxygenases of Chlorobiphenyl-Degrading Species Rhodococcus wratislaviensis G10 and Chlorophenol-Degrading Species Rhodococcus opacus 1CP Induced in Benzoate-Grown Cells and Genes Potentially Involved in These Processes. (United States)

    Solyanikova, I P; Borzova, O V; Emelyanova, E V; Shumkova, E S; Prisyazhnaya, N V; Plotnikova, E G; Golovleva, L A


    Dioxygenases induced during benzoate degradation by the actinobacterium Rhodococcus wratislaviensis G10 strain degrading haloaromatic compounds were studied. Rhodococcus wratislaviensis G10 completely degraded 2 g/liter benzoate during 30 h and 10 g/liter during 200 h. Washed cells grown on benzoate retained respiration activity for more than 90 days, and a high activity of benzoate dioxygenase was recorded for 10 days. Compared to the enzyme activities with benzoate, the activity of benzoate dioxygenases was 10-30% with 13 of 35 substituted benzoate analogs. Two dioxygenases capable of cleaving the aromatic ring were isolated and characterized: protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. Catechol inhibited the activity of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase. Protocatechuate did not affect the activity of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. A high degree of identity was shown by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for protein peaks of the R. wratislaviensis G10 and Rhodococcus opacus 1CP cells grown on benzoate or LB. DNA from the R. wratislaviensis G10 strain was specifically amplified using specific primers to variable regions of genes coding α- and β-subunits of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase and to two genes of the R. opacus 1CP coding catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. The products were 99% identical with the corresponding regions of the R. opacus 1CP genes. This high identity (99%) between the genes coding degradation of aromatic compounds in the R. wratislaviensis G10 and R. opacus 1CP strains isolated from sites of remote location (1400 km) and at different time (20-year difference) indicates a common origin of biodegradation genes of these strains and a wide distribution of these genes among rhodococci.

  5. One-pot, four-component synthesis of pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazoles catalyzed by sodium benzoate in aqueous medium

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    Hamzeh Kiyani


    Full Text Available An efficient, green, and facile four-component reaction for the preparation of pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole derivatives through the condensation reaction of aryl aldehydes, ethyl acetoacetate, malononitrile, and hydrazine hydrate or phenyl hydrazine in the presence of commercially available organocatalyst sodium benzoate under aqueous condition is reported. The products are produced with high yields and in shorter reaction times. It also is mild, safe, green and environmental friendly.

  6. Adjunctive sarcosine plus benzoate improved cognitive function in chronic schizophrenia patients with constant clinical symptoms: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yuan; Liang, Sun-Yuan; Chang, Yue-Cune; Ting, Shuo-Yen; Kao, Ching-Ling; Wu, Yu-Hsin; Tsai, Guochuan E; Lane, Hsien-Yuan


    Objectives Hypofunction of NMDA receptor is implicated in the pathophysiology, particularly cognitive impairment, of schizophrenia. Sarcosine, a glycine transporter I (GlyT-1) inhibitor, and sodium benzoate, a d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) inhibitor, can both enhance NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission. We proposed simultaneously inhibiting DAAO and GlyT-1 may be more effective than inhibition of either in improving the cognitive and global functioning of schizophrenia patients. Methods This study compared add-on sarcosine (2 g/day) plus benzoate (1 g/day) vs. sarcosine (2 g/day) for the clinical symptoms, as well as the cognitive and global functioning, of chronic schizophrenia patients in a 12-week, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale every 3 weeks. Seven cognitive domains, recommended by the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia Committee, were measured at weeks 0 and 12. Results Adjunctive sarcosine plus benzoate, but not sarcosine alone, improved the cognitive and global functioning of patients with schizophrenia, even when their clinical symptoms had not improved. Conclusions This finding suggests N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-enhancement therapy can improve the cognitive function of patients with schizophrenia, further indicating this pro-cognitive effect can be primary without improvement in clinical symptoms.

  7. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 2-Hydroxy-3-[(2-aryloxyethylamino]propyl 4-[(Alkoxycarbonylamino]benzoates

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    Jan Tengler


    Full Text Available A series of twenty substituted 2-hydroxy-3-[(2-aryloxyethylamino]propyl 4-[(alkoxycarbonylamino]benzoates were prepared and characterized. As similar compounds have been described as potential antimycobacterials, primary in vitro screening of the synthesized carbamates was also performed against two mycobacterial species. 2-Hydroxy-3-[2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethylamino]-propyl 4-(butoxycarbonylaminobenzoate hydrochloride, 2-hydroxy-3-[2-(4-methoxyphenoxyethylamino]-propyl 4-(butoxycarbonylaminobenzoate hydrochloride, and 2-hydroxy-3-[2-(2-methoxyphenoxyethylamino]-propyl 4-(butoxycarbonylaminobenzoate hydrochloride showed higher activity against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. intracellulare than the standards ciprofloxacin, isoniazid, or pyrazinamide. Cytotoxicity assay of effective compounds was performed using the human monocytic leukaemia THP-1 cell line. Compounds with predicted amphiphilic properties were also tested for their effects on the rate of photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts. All butyl derivatives significantly stimulated the rate of PET, indicating that the compounds can induce conformational changes in thylakoid membranes resulting in an increase of their permeability and so causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from electron transport.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and thermal behaviour of solid-state compounds of benzoates with some bivalent transition metal ions

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    Adriano B. Siqueira


    Full Text Available Solid-state MBz compounds, where M stands for bivalent Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn and Bz is benzoate, have been synthesized. Simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, infrared spectroscopy and complexometry were used to characterize and to study the thermal behaviour of these compounds. The procedure used in the preparation of the compounds via reaction of basic carbonates with benzoic acid is not efficient in eliminating excess acid. However the TG-DTA curves permitted to verify that the binary compounds can be obtained by thermosynthesis, because the benzoic acid can be eliminated before the thermal decomposition of these compounds. The results led to information about the composition, dehydration, thermal stability, thermal decomposition and structure of the isolated compounds. On heating, these compounds decompose in two (Mn, Co, Ni, Zn or three (Fe, Cu steps with formation of the respective oxide (Mn3O4, Fe2O3, Co3O4, NiO, CuO and ZnO as final residue. The theoretical and experimental spectroscopic studies suggest a covalent bidentate bond between ligand and metallic center.

  9. DNA content alterations in Tetrahymena pyriformis macronucleus after exposure to food preservatives sodium nitrate and sodium benzoate. (United States)

    Loutsidou, Ariadni C; Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Chasapis, C T; Terzoudi, Georgia I; Spiliopoulou, Chara A; Stefanidou, Maria E


    The toxicity, in terms of changes in the DNA content, of two food preservatives, sodium nitrate and sodium benzoate was studied on the protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis using DNA image analysis technology. For this purpose, selected doses of both food additives were administered for 2 h to protozoa cultures and DNA image analysis of T. pyriformis nuclei was performed. The analysis was based on the measurement of the Mean Optical Density which represents the cellular DNA content. The results have shown that after exposure of the protozoan cultures to doses equivalent to ADI, a statistically significant increase in the macronuclear DNA content compared to the unexposed control samples was observed. The observed increase in the macronuclear DNA content is indicative of the stimulation of the mitotic process and the observed increase in MOD, accompanied by a stimulation of the protozoan proliferation activity is in consistence with this assumption. Since alterations at the DNA level such as DNA content and uncontrolled mitogenic stimulation have been linked with chemical carcinogenesis, the results of the present study add information on the toxicogenomic profile of the selected chemicals and may potentially lead to reconsideration of the excessive use of nitrates aiming to protect public health.

  10. An assessment of detection canine alerts using flowers that release methyl benzoate, the cocaine odorant, and an evaluation of their behavior in terms of the VOCs produced. (United States)

    Cerreta, Michelle M; Furton, Kenneth G


    In recent years, the high frequency of illicit substance abuse reported in the United States has made the development of efficient and rapid detection methods important. Biological detectors, such as canines (Canis familiaris), are valuable tools for rapid, on-site identification of illicit substances. However, research indicates that in many cases canines do not alert to the contraband, but rather to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are released from the contraband, referred to as the "active odor." In 2013, canine accuracy and reliability were challenged in the Supreme Court case, State of Florida v. Jardines. In this case, it was stated that if a canine alerts to the active odor, and not the contraband, the canine's accuracy and selectivity could be questioned, since many of these compounds have been found in common household products. Specifically, methyl benzoate, the active odor of cocaine, has been found to be the most abundant compound produced by snapdragon flowers. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the odor profiles of various species of snapdragon flowers to assess how significantly methyl benzoate contributes to the total VOC profile or fragrance that is produced. Particularly, this study examines the VOCs released from newly grown snapdragon flowers and determines its potential at eliciting a false alert from specially trained detection canines. The ability of detection canines to differentiate between cocaine and snapdragon flowers was determined in order to validate the field accuracy and discrimination power of these detectors. An optimized method using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) was used to test the different types and abundances of compounds generated from snapdragon flowers at various stages throughout the plants' life cycle. The results indicate that although methyl benzoate is present in the odor profile of snapdragon flowers, other

  11. Fate of benzoate paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins from Gymnodinium catenatum in shellfish and fish detected by pre-column oxidation and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. (United States)

    Vale, Paulo


    Several cultured strains of Gymnodinium catenatum isolated worldwide have been shown to produce important proportions of the recently discovered benzoate paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins GC1 through GC3. These toxins pose a new challenge for the HPLC analysis of shellfish predating during blooms of this microalga because due to their hydrophobicity are retained along the C18 solid-phase extraction step employed to eliminate interferences. The production of GC toxins was confirmed in a clone of G.catenatum isolated from the Portuguese Northwest coast during the winter bloom of 2005, in addition to a clone from 1989 reported previously by other authors. The major peroxide oxidation products of GC1+2 and GC3 were, respectively, dcGTX2+3 and dcSTX. The search of benzoate analogues in bivalves contaminated during the winter 2005 bloom showed these analogues constituted a minor component of the N(1)-H containing toxins, as selectively detected by peroxide oxidation. While in G.catenatum GC1-3 were the major components after C1+2 and B1, in bivalves dcGTX2+3 and dcSTX were the major components after C1+2 and B1. Similar conclusions were later extended to more shellfish species naturally contaminated during the autumn bloom of 2007. In the gut content of sardines GC toxins were present, while in crabs predating upon shellfish, these were absent. A generalised conversion of GC toxins into decarbamoyl analogues was confirmed by in vitro incubations of bivalve's digestive glands with semi-purified GC toxins. This is the first report of widespread carbamoylase activity in shellfish, exclusively targeted at benzoate PSP analogues and that is heat-inactivated. Despite the high proportion of benzoate analogues produced by G.catenatum, analyses of bivalves contaminated with PSP toxins seem to be simplified due to the important conversion of benzoate into decarbamoyl analogues that occurs in bivalves. These last analogues are detected by common HPLC methods used for food

  12. Sodium benzoate, a food preservative, affects the functional and activation status of splenocytes at non cytotoxic dose. (United States)

    Yadav, Ashish; Kumar, Arvind; Das, Mukul; Tripathi, Anurag


    Sodium benzoate (SB) is a widely used food preservative due to its bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties. The acceptable daily intake of SB is 5 mg/kg-bw, however, it has been found to be used in the food commodities at relatively high levels (2119 mg/kg). Earlier studies on SB have shown its immunosuppressive properties, but comprehensive immunotoxicity data is lacking. Our studies have shown that SB was non cytotoxic in splenocytes up to 1000 μg/ml for 72 h, however at 2500 μg/ml it was found to be cytotoxic. Thus, 1000 μg/ml dose of SB was chosen for the subsequent experiments. SB significantly suppresses the proliferation of Con A and LPS stimulated splenocytes at 72 h, while allogenic response of T cells was significantly decreased after 96 h. SB did not affect the relative expression of CD3e or CD4 molecules following 72 h exposure, however, it downregulated the relative expression of CD8 co-receptor. Further, exposure of splenocytes to SB for 72 h led to reduced expression of CD28 and CD95, which play a vital role in T cell activation. SB also suppresses the relative expression of CD19, CD40 and CD95 receptors on B cells after 72 h. In addition to the functional responses, SB lowered the expression of IL4, IL6, IFNγ and IL17 cytokines in Con A stimulated splenocytes; and IL6, IFNγ and TNFα in LPS stimulated splenocytes following 48 h of exposure. Taken together, the present study is suggestive of the immunomodulatory potential of SB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sodium Benzoate, a Metabolite of Cinnamon and a Food Additive, Upregulates Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor in Astrocytes and Oligodendrocytes. (United States)

    Modi, Khushbu K; Jana, Malabendu; Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada


    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a promyelinating trophic factor that plays an important role in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, mechanisms by which CNTF expression could be increased in the brain are poorly understood. Recently we have discovered anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of sodium benzoate (NaB), a metabolite of cinnamon and a widely-used food additive. Here, we delineate that NaB is also capable of increasing the mRNA and protein expression of CNTF in primary mouse astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and primary human astrocytes. Accordingly, oral administration of NaB and cinnamon led to the upregulation of astroglial and oligodendroglial CNTF in vivo in mouse brain. Induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal model of MS, reduced the level of CNTF in the brain, which was restored by oral administration of cinnamon. While investigating underlying mechanisms, we observed that NaB induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated NaB-induced expression of CNTF. The activation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein by NaB, the recruitment of CREB and CREB-binding protein to the CNTF promoter by NaB and the abrogation of NaB-induced expression of CNTF in astrocytes by siRNA knockdown of CREB suggest that NaB increases the expression of CNTF via the activation of CREB. These results highlight a novel myelinogenic property of NaB and cinnamon, which may be of benefit for MS and other demyelinating disorders.

  14. Development and validation of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for estimation of rizatriptan benzoate in oral strip formulations. (United States)

    Bhagawati, S T; Reddy, M Sreenivasa; Avadani, Kiran; Muddukrishna, B S; Dengale, Swapnil J; Bhat, Krishnamurthy


    A simple, accurate, precise, and reproducible reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the determination of rizatriptan benzoate in oral strip formulations. Separation was achieved under optimized chromatographic condition on a Hiper C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 m) using Shimadzu HPLC. The mobile phase consisted of phosphate buffer (20 mM pH adjusted to 3.2 ± 0.005 with ortho phosphoric acid): Methanol in the ratio of 70:30 v/v with isocratic elution at a flow rate of 1 ml/min at ambient temperature was performed. The detection was carried out at 225 nm using photodiode array detector. The method was validated as per Q1A (R2) guidelines and suitability of developed method was ascertained by using optimized oral strip formulation. The retention time of rizatriptan benzoate was found to be 5.17 min, and the calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 0.20-20 mg/mL (r (2)= 0.9998). The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation were found to be 0.016 mg/mL and 0.0528 mg/mL, respectively. Method validation parameters were found to be within the specified limits. The percentage drug content of oral strips formulation was found to be 98.96 ± 1.37. The proposed HPLC method may be used efficiently for routine and quality control analysis of rizatriptan benzoate in pharmaceutical formulations.

  15. Organocatalytic synthesis and sterol 14alpha-demethylase binding interactions of enantioriched 3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butyl benzoates. (United States)

    Ming, Zhi-Hui; Xu, Sheng-Zhen; Zhou, Lei; Ding, Ming-Wu; Yang, Jiao-Yan; Yang, Shao; Xiao, Wen-Jing


    1H-1,2,4-Triazole reacted with 2-butenal in the presence of diaryl prolinol silyl ether 3 and benzonic acid to give 3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butanal 4, which was subsequently reduced and then treated with various acyl chloride to generate enantioriched 3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butyl benzoates 6. Some of triazoles 6 exhibited strong binding interactions with the cytochrome P450-dependent sterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51). For example, compound (R)-6f showed the best binding activity with K(d) 0.3381 microM.

  16. Crystal structure of 3-({[(morpholin-4-yl)carbono­thio­yl]sulfan­yl}acet­yl)phenyl benzoate (United States)

    Ambekar, Sachin P.; Mahesh Kumar, K.; Shirahatti, Arun Kumar M.; Kotresh, O.; Anil Kumar, G. N.


    In the title compound, C20H19NO4S2, the morpholine ring adopts the expected chair conformation. The central phenyl ring makes dihedral angles of 67.97 (4) and 7.74 (3)°, respectively, with the benzoate phenyl ring and the morpholine mean plane. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag chains along the b-axis direction. C—H⋯π inter­actions link centrosymmetrically related mol­ecules, reinforcing the three-dimensional structure. PMID:25484757

  17. The reproductive performance of dairy cows with anovulatory anoestrus that were injected with either gonadotrophin-releasing hormone or oestradiol benzoate as part of a re-treatment process after insemination

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    B.V.E. Segwagwe


    Full Text Available This experiment compared the reproductive performance of synchronised anoestrous dairy cows that were treated initially with a combination of progesterone and oestradiol benzoate and then with either gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH or oestradiol benzoate to resynchronise returns to service. It was hypothesised that injecting anoestrous dairy cows with GnRH 12-15 days after insemination and coinciding with the time of insertion of a controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing (CIDR device would increase conception rates to the preceding 1st insemination compared with oestradiol benzoate treated cows; both GnRH and oestradiol benzoate would resynchronising the returns to service of those cows that did not conceive to the preceding insemination. Groups of cows in 11 herds were presented for a veterinary examination after they had not been seen in oestrus postpartum. Those cows diagnosed with anovulatory anoestrus (n = 1112 by manual rectal palpation and / or ultrasonography were enrolled in the trial. Each enrolled cow was injected with 2mg oestradiol benzoate i.m. on Day -10, (where Day 0 was the 1st day of the planned insemination concurrently with vaginal insertion of a CIDR device. The device inserted was withdrawn on Day -2 and then each cow injected i.m. with 1 mg of oestradiol benzoate on Day -1 unless it was in oestrus. Observation for oestrus preceded each insemination. Every cow that had been inseminated on Days -1,0,1 or 2 was presented for treatment for resynchrony on Day 14 (n=891. They were divided into 2 groups; those with an even number were each injected i.m. with 250 µg of a GnRH agonist (Treatment group n = 477; each of the cows with an odd number injected i.m. with 1mg of oestradiol benzoate (control group, n = 414. Each GnRH or oestradiol benzoate injection preceded reinsertion of a CIDR device previously inserted from Days -10 to -2. It was withdrawn on Day 22, 24 hours before injecting 1mg oestradiol benzoate

  18. Effects of estradiol benzoate on 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activities in female rat anterior pituitary gland, liver and thyroid gland

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    Lisbôa P.C.


    Full Text Available There is little information on the possible effects of estrogen on the activity of 5'-deiodinase (5'-ID, an enzyme responsible for the generation of T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. In the present study, anterior pituitary sonicates or hepatic and thyroid microsomes from ovariectomized (OVX rats treated or not with estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.7 or 14 µg/100 g body weight, sc, for 10 days were assayed for type I 5'-ID (5'-ID-I and type II 5'-ID (5'-ID-II, only in pituitary activities. The 5'-ID activity was evaluated by the release of 125I from deiodinated 125I rT3, using specific assay conditions for type I or type II. Serum TSH and free T3 and free T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. OVX alone induced a reduction in pituitary 5'-ID-I (control = 723.7 ± 67.9 vs OVX = 413.9 ± 26.9; P<0.05, while the EB-treated OVX group showed activity similar to that of the normal group. Thyroid 5'-ID-I showed the same pattern of changes, but these changes were not statistically significant. Pituitary and hepatic 5'-ID-II did not show major alterations. The treatment with the higher EB dose (14 µg, contrary to the results obtained with the lower dose, had no effect on the reduced pituitary 5'-ID-I of OVX rats. However, it induced an important increment of 5'-ID-I in the thyroid gland (0.8 times higher than that of the normal group: control = 131.9 ± 23.7 vs ovx + EB 14 µg = 248.0 ± 31.2; P<0.05, which is associated with increased serum TSH (0.6-fold vs OVX, P<0.05 but normal serum free T3 and free T4. The data suggest that estrogen is a physiological stimulator of anterior pituitary 5'-ID-I and a potent stimulator of the thyroid enzyme when employed at high doses

  19. Oestradiol-17β plasma concentrations after intramuscular injection of oestradiol benzoate or oestradiol cypionate in llamas (Lama glama

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    Aba Marcelo A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Llamas (Lama glama are induced ovulators and the process of ovulation depends on dominant follicular size. In addition, a close relationship between behavioural estrus and ovulation is not registered in llamas. Therefore, the exogenous control of follicular development with hormones aims to predict the optimal time to mate. Oestradiol-17β (E2 and its esters are currently used in domestic species, including camelids, in synchronization treatments. But, in llamas, there is no reports regarding the appropriate dosages to be used and most protocols have been designed by extrapolation from those recommended for other ruminants. The aim of the present study was to characterize plasma E2 concentrations in intact female llamas following a single intramuscular (i.m. injection of two oestradiol esters: oestradiol benzoate (EB and oestradiol cypionate (ECP. Methods Twelve non pregnant and non lactating sexually mature llamas were i.m. injected on day 0 with 2.5 mg of EB (EB group, n = 6 or ECP (ECP group, n = 6. Blood samples were collected immediately before injection, at 1, 6, 12, 24 h after treatment and then daily until day 14 post injection. Changes in hormone concentrations with time were analyzed in each group by analysis of variance (ANOVA using a repeated measures (within-SS design. Plasma E2 concentrations and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC values were compared between groups by ANOVA. In all cases a Least-Significant Difference test (LSD was used to determine differences between means. Hormonal and AUC data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. Results Peak plasma E2 concentrations were achieved earlier and were higher in EB group than in ECP group. Thereafter, E2 returned to physiological concentrations earlier in EB group (day 5 than in ECP group (day 9. Although plasma E2 profiles differed over time among groups there were no differences between them on AUC values. Conclusions The i.m. injection of a single dose

  20. Effects of estradiol benzoate, raloxifen and an ethanolic extract of Cimicifuga racemosa in nonclassical estrogen regulated organs of ovariectomized rats. (United States)

    Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Jarry, Hubertus; Wuttke, Wolfgang


    The special extract of Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) BNO 1055 was shown to have bone protective effects without exerting estrogenic effects in the uterus or mammary gland. Whether the effects of CR BNO 1055 would be exerted in other organs that also express estrogen receptors (ERs) but in which the effects of estrogens and of the selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifen (Ral) were not thoroughly studied was therefore investigated in the present contribution. Rats were ovariectomized (ovx) and their food immediately substituted with estradiol benzoate (EB), Ral or 2 doses of CR BNO 1055 for 3 months. Expressions of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) and of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) genes were determined in the vagina, liver, thyroid gland, lung, spleen, colon and kidney by means of quantitative RT-PCRs. Body weights in all treatment groups were significantly reduced and uterine weights in the EB treated animals were largely and in the Ral treated animals slightly but significantly increased. CR BNO 1055 was without effects in the uterus. We tested 3 genes: ERalpha gene expression was significantly reduced in the vagina, liver and kidney and remained unaffected in all other organs with the exception of the thyroid gland where ERalpha gene expression was stimulated by EB, Ral had--if any--similar effects in these organs. The CR extract BNO 1055 was devoid of any effect on ERalpha gene expression. ERbeta gene expression was suppressed in the vagina and colon by EB and this effect was shared by Ral in the colon. In the thyroid, EB and Ral stimulated ERbeta gene expression. Expression of IGF-1 gene was stimulated by EB and CR BNO 1055 in the vagina and kidney and inhibited by EB and Ral in the liver. No effects were observed by CR BNO 1055 in these organs. The effects of Ral, if occurring, were similar to those of EB while CR BNO 1055 was ineffective in all organs but the vagina. In the colon, reduced ERbeta gene activity may

  1. Radiation protection to irradiated animals by the treatment of estradiol benzoate and Chinese medicine of tonifying vital energy and eliminating the stagment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingdi; Chen Yongming; Weng Shifang; Wang Hongfu


    The hematopoietic aplasia caused by irradiation was involved in injury of parenchyma cell and microenvironment. This paper reports the combined radiation protective effect of estradiol benzoate, which protects hematopoietic cells, and the Chinese medicine of qi jia dan, a kind of tonifying vital energy and eliminating the stagment prescription for improving microcirculation disturbantces. It showed that the survival rate of the estradiol benzoate-protected group, which was given 3 days before radiation increased by 26.7 percent compared with the untreated group. The chinese medicien administrated to the mice within 3 days after the exposure increased the survival rate by 23.4 percent compared with the control group. The survival rate of the group exposed to 7.5 Gy with combined therapy enhanced 33.4 percent more than the untreated (control) group. The result obtained from dogs indicated the effect of combined therapy group was more better than single therapy group for relieving the symptoms and rerising of blood. The paper concluded that the combined therapy from both parenchyma and microenvironment is more helpful to accelerate the recovery of radiation damage


    Bamigboye J, Taiwo; Josephine Y, Osasan; Olujide O, Olubiyi; A, Oyemitan Idris; Shakir A M, Atoyebi; Mark R J, Elsegood; Raymond C F, Jones


    Mondia whitei L. (Hook. F.) Skeels (Periplocaceae) is a medicinal plant used locally in managing pain, fever, loss of appetite and as aphrodiasc in the South-Western states of Nigeria. However, the fruit is consumed habitually in the South-Eastern states of Nigeria, leading to speculation that it may possess some central nervous system effect but which has not been scientifically investigated, hence this study. Fresh fruits of Mondia whitei were collected and identified by a taxonomist. They were chopped into small pieces and extracted with absolute ethanol. The crude extract was subjected to various chromatographic techniques to isolate a novel compound whose structure was elucidated from the analysis of the crystal data and by extensive use of spectroscopy. The structure was confirmed by synthesis. The compound was subjected to anxiolytic and sedative activity assay. Computational analysis of the receptor binding event of isolated compound at the gamma amino butyric acid A receptor was also evaluated. The structure of the compound was elucidated as para pentyl phenyl benzoate. The neuropharmacological evaluation of the compound indicated significant (pchlorpromazine, benzamidine, and is comparable with the affinity obtained for pentobarbitone and diazepam. These present data provide evidence for the role of para pentyl phenyl benzoate in the habitual consumption of the fruit as well as its central nervous system activities.

  3. Identification of halogenated photoproducts generated after ultraviolet-irradiation of parabens and benzoates in water containing chlorine by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Lores, Marta


    This work presents a new solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-based approach to investigate the formation of halogenated by-products generated by the UV-induced photodegradation of parabens and their congener benzoates in water containing chlorine. Degradation of parent species, and further identification of their transformation by-products were monitored by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In order to improve detectability, SPME was applied as a preconcentration step after UV-irradiation of target preservatives. Experiments performed with dechlorinated water, ultrapure water, and tap water showed that under UV-light, the presence of even low levels of free chlorine, increases the photodegradation rate of target preservatives, enhancing the formation of halogenated photoproducts. Monobrominated, dibrominated and bromochlorinated hydroxybenzoates were identified, and the transformation of benzoates into halogenated parabens was also confirmed. Bromination is expected to occur when free chlorine is present, due to the presence of traces of bromide in water samples. Five halogenated phenols (mainly brominated) were detected as breakdown photoproducts from both families of target preservatives. On the basis of the appearance of the aforementioned by-products, a tentative transformation pathway, consistent with the photoformation-photodecay kinetics of the by-products, is proposed herein for the first time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) control provided by emamectin benzoate and two neonicotinoid insecticides, one and two seasons after treatment. (United States)

    McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Anulewicz, Andrea C; Lewis, Phillip; Cappaert, David


    Effective methods are needed to protect ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) from emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive buprestid that has killed millions of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. We randomly assigned 175 ash trees (11.5-48.1 cm in diameter) in 25 blocks located in three study sites in Michigan to one of seven insecticide treatments in May 2007. Treatments included 1) trunk-injected emamectin benzoate; 2) trunk-injected imidacloprid; 3) basal trunk spray of dinotefuran with or 4) without Pentra-Bark, an agricultural surfactant; 5) basal trunk spray of imidacloprid with or 6) without Pentra-Bark; or (7) control. Foliar insecticide residues (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and toxicity of leaves to adult A. planipennis (4-d bioassays) were quantified at 3-4-wk intervals posttreatment. Seven blocks of trees were felled and sampled in fall 2007 to quantify A. planipennis larval density. Half of the remaining blocks were retreated in spring 2008. Bioassays and residue analyses were repeated in summer 2008, and then all trees were sampled to assess larval density in winter. Foliage from emamectin benzoate-treated trees was highly toxic to adult A. planipennis, and larval density was or = 2 yr may reduce costs or logistical issues associated with treatment.

  5. Extraction of lanthanides ions (III) from aqueous solution by sodium salt of the N(4-amino-benzoate)-propyl-silica gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retamero, R.C.


    The silica gel 60 of specific superficial area 486 m 2 .g -1 was modified chemically with the ligand 4-amino benzoate of sodium in water-ethanol environment (l:L). The adsorptions of metallic ions were from water solutions at approximately 2 x 10 -3 M of chloride of Pr(III), Nd(III), Eu(III) and Ho(III). In these experiments we could see that the system gets the equilibrium of adsorption rapidly and that the pH of the environment has a great influence on the process of adsorption, being that the number of metal mols adsorpted in the matrix varied between 10,00 and 17,00 x 10 -5 mols. g -1 with a pH of approximately 5 for all the lanthanides, where the adsorption curves reach equilibrium. (author)

  6. High-efficiency astatination of antibodies using N-iodosuccinimide as the oxidising agent in labelling of N-succinimidyl 3-(trimethylstannyl)benzoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindegren, S.; Andersson, H.; Baeck, T.; Jacobsson, L.; Karlsson, B.; Skarnemark, G.


    Monoclonal antibodies C215, reactive with colorectal carcinomas, and MOv18, reactive with most of the ovarian carcinomas, were radiohalogenated with [ 211 At]astatine. The radiohalogen was conjugate coupled to antibodies via the intermediate labelling reagent N-succinimidyl-3-(trimethylstannyl)benzoate (m-MeATE) in a two-step, single-pot reaction. Optimisation of the labelling of the reagent was achieved using N-iodosuccinimide, NIS, as the oxidising agent. The yields ranged from 69-95% in the labelling of 0.1-1.0 nmole of the m-MeATE precursor. Subsequent conjugation to antibodies resulted in yields of 58±7%. In vitro binding to tumour cells showed that the immunoreactivity of both antibodies was retained after astatine labelling

  7. The crystal structure of zwitterionic 2-{[(4-iminiumyl-3-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridin-1-ylmethyl]carbamoyl}benzoate hemihydrate

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    C. S. Chidan Kumar


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C15H15N3O3·0.5H2O, comprises two 2-{[(4-iminiumyl-3-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridin-1-ylmethyl]carbamoyl}benzoate zwitterions (A and B and a water molecule. The dihedral angles between the pyridine and phenyl rings in the zwitterions are 53.69 (10 and 73.56 (11° in A and B, respectively. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...O, O—H...O, C—H...O and C—H...π(ring hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network. The crystal structure also features π–π interactions involving the centroids of the pyridine and phenyl rings [centroid–centroid distances = 3.5618 (12 Å in A and 3.8182 (14 Å in B].

  8. Effect of sodium benzoate on DNA breakage, micronucleus formation and mitotic index in peripheral blood of pregnant rats and their newborns

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    Cetin Saatci


    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate (SB is one of the most widely used additives in food products in the world. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of three different concentrations of SB on the DNA breakage in liver cells and on the micronuclei formation and the mitotic index in lymphocytes of pregnant rats and their fetuses, as well as to evaluate the effects of SB on the fetus development. The results showed that general genomic injuries were present in almost all the liver cell samples obtained from the SB group compared with the control (non-treated group. This indicates that SB usage may cause DNA damage and increase micronuclei formation. We recommend that pregnant women should avoid consuming foodstuffs containing SB as an additive.

  9. LC-MS/MS Analysis and Pharmacokinetics of Sodium (±-5-Bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl Benzoate (BZP, an Innovative Potent Anti-Ischemic Stroke Agent in Rats

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    Xin Tian


    Full Text Available A rapid, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of sodium (±-5-Bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl benzoate (BZP and its active metabolite 3-butyl-6-bromo-1(3H-isobenzofuranone (Br-NBP in rat plasma using potassium 2-(1-hydroxypentyl-benzoate (PHPB and l-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP as internal standards (IS. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hypersil GOLD C18 column using a gradient elution of ammonium acetate and methanol at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Good linearity was achieved within the wide concentration range of 5–10,000 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precision was less than 8.71% and the accuracy was within −8.53% and 6.38% in quality control and the lower limit of quantitation samples. BZP and Br-NBP were stable during the analysis and the storage period. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic studies of BZP in Sprague-Dawley rats for the first time. After a single intravenous administration of BZP at the dose of 0.75 mg/kg, the plasma concentration of BZP and Br-NBP declined rapidly and the AUC0-t of BZP was significantly greater in female rats compared to male rats (p < 0.05. The data presented in this study serve as a firm basis for further investigation of BZP in both preclinical and clinical phases.

  10. Impact of Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin Associated with Temporary Weaning, Estradiol Benzoate, or Estradiol Cypionate on Timed Artificial Insemination in Primiparous Bos Indicus Cows

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    Andre Luis Bastos Souza

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the impact of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG associated with different timed artificial insemination (TAI protocols on the pregnancy rate (PR in Bos indicus cows previously treated with progesterone. Five hundred and fifty-seven primiparous cows were subjected to the following treatments: on day 0 (d0, GeCGTW (group equine Chorionic Gonadotropin+Temporary Weaning;n=178 received 0,558 g intravaginal progesterone (P4+1.0 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB (IM; on d8 (P4 removal+0,075 mg D-cloprostenol + 400 IU eCG + TW for 48 h; on d10, TAI + calves return to dam; GeCGEB (group equine Chorionic Gonadotropin+Estradiol benzoate; n=176 the same as GeCGTW without TW + application of 1.0 mg of EB on d9; GeCGEC (group equine Chorionic Gonadotropin+Estradiol Cypionate; n=203, the same as GeCGTW without TW+1.5 mg EC (IM. On d35, post TAI, pregnancy diagnosis (PD was performed. Non-pregnant animals remained under clean-up bulls for 90 days. After this period, the animals were subjected to PD using ultrasound. The PR of TAI was 51.1%, 47.1%, and 47.8% for GeCGTW, GeCGEB24, and GeCGEC (P>0.05 respectively. The PR under clean-up bulls was 88.3%, 47.3%, and 31.1% (P<0.05. The final PR (TAI+clean-up bulls of the groups was 94.4%, 72.1%, and 64.0%, respectively (P<0.05. It was concluded that no differences in PR among the protocols related to TAI were detected; PR in the GeCGTW protocol under clean-up bulls was higher compared to others (P<0.05; the overall PR of cows subjected to TAI+clean-up bulls was significantly higher in GeCGTW than in the other groups.

  11. Gastroprotective Activity of Ethyl-4-[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene) Amino]benzoate against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Ulcer in Rats (United States)

    Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Shakir, Raied Mustafa; Bardi, Daleya Abdulaziz; Al-Wajeeh, Nahla Saeed; Ablat, Abdulwali; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Norazit, Anwar; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen


    Background The study was carried out to determine the cytotoxic, antioxidant and gastro-protective effect of ethyl-4-[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylid ene)amino] benzoate (ETHAB) in rats. Methodology/Principal Findings The cytotoxic effect of ETHAB was assessed using a MTT cleavage assay on a WRL68 cell line, while its antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro. In the anti-ulcer study, rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 and group 2 received 10% Tween 20 (vehicle). Group 3 received 20 mg/kg Omeprazole. Groups 4, 5 and 6 received ETHAB at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, respectively. After an hour, group 1 received the vehicle. Groups 2–6 received absolute ethanol to induce gastric mucosal lesions. In the WRL68 cell line, an IC50 of more than 100 µg/mL was observed. ETHAB results showed antioxidant activity in the DPPH, FRAP, nitric oxide and metal chelating assays. There was no acute toxicity even at the highest dosage (1000 mg/kg). Microscopy showed that rats pretreated with ETHAB revealed protection of gastric mucosa as ascertained by significant increases in superoxide dismutase (SOD), pH level, mucus secretion, reduced gastric lesions, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and remarkable flattened gastric mucosa. Histologically, pretreatment with ETHAB resulted in comparatively better gastric protection, due to reduction of submucosal edema with leucocyte infiltration. PAS staining showed increased intensity in uptake of Alcian blue. In terms of immunohistochemistry, ETHAB showed down-expression of Bax proteins and over-expression of Hsp70 proteins. Conclusion/Significance The gastroprotective effect of ETHAB may be attributed to antioxidant activity, increased gastric wall mucus, pH level of gastric contents, SOD activity, decrease in MDA level, ulcer area, flattening of gastric mucosa, reduction of edema and leucocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer, increased PAS staining, up-regulation of Hsp70 protein and suppressed expression of Bax. Key words

  12. Synchronization of ovulation in crossbred dairy heifers using gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist, prostaglandin F2a and human chorionic gonadotrophin or estradiol benzoate

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    C. Castilho


    Full Text Available Girolando (Gir x Holstein is a very common dairy breed in Brazil because it combines the rusticity of Gir (Bos indicus with the high milk yield of Holstein (Bos taurus. The ovarian follicular dynamics and hormonal treatments for synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination were studied in Girolando heifers. The injection of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist was followed 6 or 7 days (d later by prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a. Twenty-four hours after PGF2a injection either human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, GPh-d6 and GPh-d7 groups or estradiol benzoate (EB, GPE-d6 and GPE-d7 groups was administered to synchronize ovulation and consequently allow timed artificial insemination (AI 24 and 30 h after hCG and EB injection, respectively. Follicular dynamics in Girolando heifers was characterized by the predominance of three follicular waves (71.4% with sizes of dominant follicles (10-13 mm and corpus luteum (approximately 20 mm similar to those for Bos indicus cattle. In the GnRH-PGF-hCG protocol, hCG administration induced earlier ovulation (67.4 h, P<0.01 compared to the control group (GnRH-PGF and a better synchronization of ovulation, since most of it occurred within a period of 12 to 17 h. Pregnancy rate after timed AI was 42.8 (3/7, GPh-d6 to 50% (7/14, GPh-d7. In contrast, estradiol benzoate (GnRH-PGF-EB protocol synchronized ovulation of only 5 of 11 heifers from the GPE-d7 group and of none (0/7 from the GPE-d6 group, which led to low pregnancy rates after timed AI (27.3 and 0%, respectively. However, since a small number of Girolando heifers was used to determine pregnancy rates in the present study, pregnancy rates should be confirmed with a larger number of animals.

  13. Concentration and application order effects of sodium benzoate and eugenol mixtures on the growth inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. (United States)

    Dai, Yumei; McLandsborough, Lynne A; Weiss, Jochen; Peleg, Micha


    Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii cells was monitored in the presence of sodium benzoate and eugenol alone or combined. The two antimicrobials' concentration, addition order, and timing were varied to determine and quantify any additive inhibitory effect on the yeasts. The yeast growth was also followed in the presence of ethanol, which served as solubilizer, at pertinent concentrations. The growth patterns are depicted as adjusted optical density compared with time curves. They all had sigmoid shape, described mathematically by a shifted logistic model that had an almost perfect fit to the data. The model's 3 parameters accounted for the curve's asymptote, the location of its inflection point and slope, which are rough measures of the overall growth level and its degree of suppression, the time to reach the peak growth rate and its retardation, and the overall growth rate, respectively. Maximum growth inhibition was achieved when the sodium benzoate and eugenol were administered together or alone in full dose. When each was administered alone but in 2 half dose additions, their efficacy dropped. When they were used together but added sequentially with a 24 h pause, their administration order had a noticeable effect on the treatment's efficacy, which depended on their respective concentrations. These observations are presented in a slightly modified version of the "hurdle" ideogram. They suggest that sequencing the administration of antimicrobials can be a simple tool to probe their mode of activity and quantify their efficacy. Reducing the amount of additives in foods is a goal pursued by many branches of the food industry. In microbial growth suppression, a promising way to accomplish such a reduction is through the administration of 2 or more antimicrobials, preferably natural, exploiting their synergism. To search for effective combinations, in respect to type and concentration, one needs an insight into their mode of activity

  14. The effect of nisin A and sodium benzoate on behavior of Listeria monosytogenes and some microbial and chemical parameters in silver carp (Hypophtalmichtys molitrix fillet stored at 4˚C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Safari


    Full Text Available The effect of nisin A and sodium benzoate on Listeria monocytogenes, as well as some microbial (mesophilic, psychrotrophic and lactic acid bacteria and chemical (peroxide and TVN in silver carp (Hypophtalmichtys molitrix fillet during storage period (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days at 4˚C were evaluated. For this, Listeria monocytogenes (4 logCFU/g was inoculated to the fillets and were dipped into 2% sodium benzoate solution for 15 min and left to stand for 10 min at 4˚C. Subsequently nisin A was added to the fillet (0/15 g/kg and samples were kept at 4˚C while packaged in vacuum condition. The results showed that, application of nisin A and sodium benzoate decrease the number of Listeria monocytogenes from 4/12 to 3/66. However, in control groups the number of bacterium was increased from 4/43 to 5/14. Moreover, the number of mesophilic bacteria in treatment and control groups was increased from 4/39 to 6/79 and 4/48 to 7/93, respectively. The number of psychrotrophic bacteria in treatment and control groups was increased from 4/16 to 6/72 and 4/34 to 7/92, respectively. The similar result was achieved for lactic acid bacteria in which the number of these bacteria was increased from 2/74 to 4/08 and 2/9 to 4/78, respectively. Moreover, different peroxide value and TVN for treatment and control groups was achieved. In conclusion, application of nisin A and sodium benzoate showed different inhibitory effects on Listeria monocytogenes in culture media and silver carp.

  15. Synchronization of ovulation in crossbred dairy heifers using gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist, prostaglandin F2alpha and human chorionic gonadotrophin or estradiol benzoate. (United States)

    Castilho, C; Gambini, A L; Fernandes, P; Trinca, L A; Teixeira, A B; Barros, C M


    Girolando (Gir x Holstein) is a very common dairy breed in Brazil because it combines the rusticity of Gir (Bos indicus) with the high milk yield of Holstein (Bos taurus). The ovarian follicular dynamics and hormonal treatments for synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination were studied in Girolando heifers. The injection of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist was followed 6 or 7 days (d) later by prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). Twenty-four hours after PGF2alpha injection either human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, GPh-d6 and GPh-d7 groups) or estradiol benzoate (EB, GPE-d6 and GPE-d7 groups) was administered to synchronize ovulation and consequently allow timed artificial insemination (AI) 24 and 30 h after hCG and EB injection, respectively. Follicular dynamics in Girolando heifers was characterized by the predominance of three follicular waves (71.4%) with sizes of dominant follicles (10-13 mm) and corpus luteum (approximately 20 mm) similar to those for Bos indicus cattle. In the GnRH-PGF-hCG protocol, hCG administration induced earlier ovulation (67.4 h, PGirolando heifers was used to determine pregnancy rates in the present study, pregnancy rates should be confirmed with a larger number of animals.

  16. An electrochemical sensor for rizatriptan benzoate determination using Fe3O4 nanoparticle/multiwall carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrode in real samples. (United States)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Maleki, Somayeh; Heidari, Mozhgan; Afkhami, Abbas


    In this paper a sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor for determination of rizatriptan benzoate (RZB) was proposed. A glassy carbon electrode was modified with nanocomposite of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4/MWCNTs/GCE). The results obtained clearly show that the combination of MWCNTs and Fe3O4 nanoparticles definitely improves the sensitivity of modified electrode to RZB determination. The morphology and electroanalytical performance of the fabricated sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), square wave voltammetry (SWV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Also, the effect of experimental and instrumental parameters on the sensor response was evaluated. The square wave voltammetric response of the electrode to RZB was linear in the range 0.5-100.0 μmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.09 μmol L(-1) under the optimum conditions. The investigated method showed good stability, reproducibility and repeatability. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for real life samples of blood serum and RZB determination in pharmaceutical. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Moessbauer spectroscopic study on valence-detrapping and trapping of mixed-valence trinuclear iron (III, III, II) fluorine-substitute benzoate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Y.; Onaka, S.; Ogiso, R.; Takayama, T.; Takahashi, M.; Nakamoto, T.


    Four mixed-valence trinuclear iron(III, III, II) fluorine-substituted benzoate complexes were synthesized; Fe 3 O(C 6 F 5 COO) 6 (C 5 H 5 N) 3 ·CH 2 Cl 2 (1), Fe 3 O(C 6 F 5 COO) 6 (C 5 H 5 N) 3 (2), Fe 3 O(2H-C 6 F 4 COO) 6 (C 5 H 5 N) 3 (3), and Fe 3 O(4H-C 6 F 4 COO) 6 (C 5 H 5 N) 3 (4). By means of 57 Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy, valence-detrapping and trapping phenomena have been investigated for the four mixed-valence complexes. The valence state of three iron ions is trapped at lower temperatures while it is fully detrapped at higher temperatures for 1. Valence detrapping is not observed for 2, 3, and 4 even at room temperature, although Moessbauer spectra for 3 and 4 show a complicated temperature dependence. (author)

  18. Food additives: Sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, azorubine, and tartrazine modify the expression of NFκB, GADD45α, and MAPK8 genes. (United States)

    Raposa, B; Pónusz, R; Gerencsér, G; Budán, F; Gyöngyi, Z; Tibold, A; Hegyi, D; Kiss, I; Koller, Á; Varjas, T


    It has been reported that some of the food additives may cause sensitization, inflammation of tissues, and potentially risk factors in the development of several chronic diseases. Thus, we hypothesized that expressions of common inflammatory molecules - known to be involved in the development of various inflammatory conditions and cancers - are affected by these food additives. We investigated the effects of commonly used food preservatives and artificial food colorants based on the expressions of NFκB, GADD45α, and MAPK8 (JNK1) from the tissues of liver. RNA was isolated based on Trizol protocol and the activation levels were compared between the treated and the control groups. Tartrazine alone could elicit effects on the expressions of NFκB (p = 0.013) and MAPK8 (p = 0.022). Azorubine also resulted in apoptosis according to MAPK8 expression (p = 0.009). Preservatives were anti-apoptotic in high dose. Sodium benzoate (from low to high doses) dose-dependently silenced MAPK8 expression (p = 0.004 to p = 0.002). Addition of the two preservatives together elicited significantly greater expression of MAPK8 at half-fold dose (p = 0.002) and at fivefold dose (p = 0.008). This study suggests that some of the food preservatives and colorants can contribute to the activation of inflammatory pathways.

  19. Aminoalcohols and benzoates-friends or foes? Tuning nuclearity of Cu(ii) complexes, studies of their structures, magnetism, and catecholase-like activities as well as performing DFT and TDDFT studies. (United States)

    Sama, Farasha; Dhara, Ashish Kumar; Akhtar, Muhammad Nadeem; Chen, Yan-Cong; Tong, Ming-Liang; Ansari, Istikhar A; Raizada, Mukul; Ahmad, Musheer; Shahid, M; Siddiqi, Zafar A


    Herein, the coordination chemistry of a series of Cu(ii) complexes of various aminoalcohol and benzoate ligands was explored. The pH-dependent reactions of copper(ii) salts with propanolamine (Hpa), N-methyl diethanolamine (H 2 mdea), triethanolamine (H 3 tea), and n butyl-diethanolamine (H 2 budea) were carried out in the presence of various benzoates (benzoic acid, 2-hydroxy benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, 3-methoxy benzoic acid, and 4-methoxy benzoic acid). The resulting complexes [Cu 2 (pa) 2 (benzoate) 2 ] (1), [Cu 2 (pa) 2 (3-methoxybenzoate) 2 ] (2), [Cu 2 (pa) 2 (4-methoxybenzoate) 2 ] (3), [Cu 2 (H 2 tea) 2 (benzoate) 2 ]·2H 2 O (4), [Cu 2 (H 2 tea) 2 (2-hydroxybenzoate) 2 ]·2H 2 O (5), [Cu 2 (H 3 tea) 2 (4-hydroxybenzoate) 2 ][Cu(Htea) 2 ]·2H 2 O (6), [Cu(H 2 mdea) 2 ][benzoate] 2 (7), [Cu(H 2 mdea) 2 ][4-methoxybenzoate] 2 (8), [Cu(H 2 bdea) 2 ][2-hydroxybenzoate] 2 (9), [Cu 2 (benzoate) 4 (benzoic acid) 2 ] (10), [Cu 2 (4-methoxybenzoate) 4 (CH 3 CN) 2 ]·4CH 3 CN (11) and [Cu 3 (H 2 tea) 2 (benzoate) 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ] (12) were formed as mono-, di- or trinuclear entities depending upon the pH conditions of the reaction. The complexes were characterized employing spectral, magnetic, single-crystal X-ray and DFT/TDDFT studies. 7 and 8 exhibited emission peaks at 510 and 460 nm, respectively, in the solid-state photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The temperature variable magnetic properties of 1-12 revealed the presence of antiferromagnetic (in 1-3 and 7-11) or ferromagnetic interactions (in 4-6 and 12) with Curie constants C = 0.24 (7), 0.28 (8) or 0.35 cm 3 K mol -1 (9) and Weiss constants θ = -0.34 (7), -0.32 (8) or -0.40 (9) K for the mononuclear complexes. The dinuclear complexes demonstrated J values of -89.2(2) (1), -71.1(3) (2), -59.6(1) (3), 98(1) (4), 79.1(2) (5), -85.4(2) (10) and -89.5(2) (11) cm -1 . Strong ferromagnetic interactions were observed in the case of 6 (J = 172(3) cm -1 and zJ' = 2.3(2) cm -1 ), which were comparable with those

  20. Cinnamon and Its Metabolite Sodium Benzoate Attenuate the Activation of p21rac and Protect Memory and Learning in an Animal Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

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    Khushbu K Modi

    Full Text Available This study underlines the importance of cinnamon, a commonly used natural spice and flavoring material, and its metabolite sodium benzoate (NaB in attenuating oxidative stress and protecting memory and learning in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD. NaB, but not sodium formate, was found to inhibit LPS-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in mouse microglial cells. Similarly, NaB also inhibited fibrillar amyloid beta (Aβ- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium(+-induced microglial production of ROS. Although NaB reduced the level of cholesterol in vivo in mice, reversal of the inhibitory effect of NaB on ROS production by mevalonate, and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, but not cholesterol, suggests that depletion of intermediates, but not end products, of the mevalonate pathway is involved in the antioxidant effect of NaB. Furthermore, we demonstrate that an inhibitor of p21rac geranylgeranyl protein transferase suppressed the production of ROS and that NaB suppressed the activation of p21rac in microglia. As expected, marked activation of p21rac was observed in the hippocampus of subjects with AD and 5XFAD transgenic (Tg mouse model of AD. However, oral feeding of cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum powder and NaB suppressed the activation of p21rac and attenuated oxidative stress in the hippocampus of Tg mice as evident by decreased dihydroethidium (DHE and nitrotyrosine staining, reduced homocysteine level and increased level of reduced glutathione. This was accompanied by suppression of neuronal apoptosis, inhibition of glial activation, and reduction of Aβ burden in the hippocampus and protection of memory and learning in transgenic mice. Therefore, cinnamon powder may be a promising natural supplement in halting or delaying the progression of AD.

  1. Potassium 2-(1-hydroxypentyl)-benzoate inhibits ADP-induced rat platelet aggregation through P2Y1-PLC signaling pathways. (United States)

    Yang, Hongyan; Xu, Shaofeng; Li, Jiang; Wang, Ling; Wang, Xiaoliang


    Potassium 2-(1-hydroxypenty1)-benzoate (dl-PHPB) is a new drug candidate for treatment of ischemic stroke with antiplatelet effect. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of dl-PHPB in inhibiting platelet aggregation. The ADP-activated P2Y1-Gq-PLC and P2Y12-Gi-AC pathways were observed, respectively. Intravenous injection of dl-PHPB (1.3, 3.9, 12.9 mg/kg) significantly inhibited ADP-, collagen-, and arachidonic acid-induced rat platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner, and dl-PHPB had a relatively more potent inhibitory effect on ADP-induced rat platelet aggregation than other agonists. Dl-PHPB also showed a decreased expression of CD62P (a marker for platelet activation) mediated by ADP. Both dl-PHPB and ticlopidine (P2Y12 receptor antagonist) decreased cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration. But, dl-PHPB did not reverse the inhibition of PGE1-induced platelet cAMP formation by ADP, which was different from ticlopidine. Further, dl-PHPB instead of ticlopidine showed increasing phospholipase C-β phosphorylation (ser(1105)). The m-3M3FBS, a phospholipase C activator, attenuated the inhibitory effect of dl-PHPB on ADP-induced platelet aggregation and enhanced IP1 accumulation in rat platelets. Dl-PHPB decreased IP1 accumulation induced by ADP but had no effect on IP1 level enhanced by m-3M3FBS. Our results suggest that dl-PHPB has a potent antiplatelet effect, which is mainly through blockade of P2Y1 receptor-PLC-IP3 pathway and decreasing cytoplasmic calcium.

  2. Effect of diphenyliodonium hexafluorphosphate on resin cements containing different concentrations of ethyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate as co-initiators. (United States)

    Andrade, Kamila Menezes Guedes de; Palialol, Alan Rodrigo; Lancellotti, Ailla C; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Watts, David C; Gonçalves, Luciano Souza; Lima, Adriano Fonseca; Marchi, Giselle Maria


    The present study evaluated the influence of diphenyliodonium hexafluorphosphate (DPI) combined with two different amines [ethyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (EDAB) and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA)] on the properties of model resin cements. A comonomer base containing a 1:1 mass ratio of 2.2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (bis-GMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) was obtained, after which 1mol% of camphorquinone and 0.1mol% of hydroxyl butyl toluene were added to the comonomer blend. Concentrations of co-initiators varied at 0, 0.5 or 1mol% for DPI and in 1 or 2mol% for amines (DMAEMA or EDAB). Silanated Ba-Al-Si glass (60wt%) was added as filler. The combination of each amine and DPI concentration resulted in 12 formulations, which had the following properties analyzed: degree of conversion (DC), water sorption (Wsp) and solubility (Wsl), flexural strength (FS) and flexural modulus (Ef). Data for DC, FS and Ef were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05) and Wsp and Wsl by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (α=0.05). EDAB promoted a higher DC than did DMAEMA; however, DPI increased DC for all materials with DMAEMA. The physical properties of resin formulations containing EDAB were significantly better than those of groups with DMAEMA; however, DPI had a positive influence on the chemical and physical properties of the model resin cement containing DMAEMA, especially with higher concentrations of amine. EDAB proved to be more reactive than DMAEMA, being less influenced by DPI. Resins containing a 1:2 CQ/amine ratio had better properties than those with 1:1. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Food additives such as sodium sulphite, sodium benzoate and curcumin inhibit leptin release in lipopolysaccharide-treated murine adipocytes in vitro. (United States)

    Ciardi, Christian; Jenny, Marcel; Tschoner, Alexander; Ueberall, Florian; Patsch, Josef; Pedrini, Michael; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Fuchs, Dietmar


    Obesity leads to the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways, resulting in a state of low-grade inflammation. Recently, several studies have shown that the exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could initiate and maintain a chronic state of low-grade inflammation in obese people. As the daily intake of food additives has increased substantially, the aim of the present study was to investigate a potential influence of food additives on the release of leptin, IL-6 and nitrite in the presence of LPS in murine adipocytes. Leptin, IL-6 and nitrite concentrations were analysed in the supernatants of murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes after co-incubation with LPS and the food preservatives, sodium sulphite (SS), sodium benzoate (SB) and the spice and colourant, curcumin, for 24 h. In addition, the kinetics of leptin secretion was analysed. A significant and dose-dependent decrease in leptin was observed after incubating the cells with SB and curcumin for 12 and 24 h, whereas SS decreased leptin concentrations after 24 h of treatment. Moreover, SS increased, while curcumin decreased LPS-stimulated secretion of IL-6, whereas SB had no such effect. None of the compounds that were investigated influenced nitrite production. The food additives SS, SB and curcumin affect the leptin release after co-incubation with LPS from cultured adipocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Decreased leptin release during the consumption of nutrition-derived food additives could decrease the amount of circulating leptin to which the central nervous system is exposed and may therefore contribute to an obesogenic environment.

  4. An electrochemical sensor for rizatriptan benzoate determination using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle/multiwall carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrode in real samples

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    Madrakian, Tayyebeh, E-mail:; Maleki, Somayeh; Heidari, Mozhgan; Afkhami, Abbas


    In this paper a sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor for determination of rizatriptan benzoate (RZB) was proposed. A glassy carbon electrode was modified with nanocomposite of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNTs/GCE). The results obtained clearly show that the combination of MWCNTs and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles definitely improves the sensitivity of modified electrode to RZB determination. The morphology and electroanalytical performance of the fabricated sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), square wave voltammetry (SWV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Also, the effect of experimental and instrumental parameters on the sensor response was evaluated. The square wave voltammetric response of the electrode to RZB was linear in the range 0.5–100.0 μmol L{sup −1} with a detection limit of 0.09 μmol L{sup −1} under the optimum conditions. The investigated method showed good stability, reproducibility and repeatability. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for real life samples of blood serum and RZB determination in pharmaceutical. - Highlights: • Simple and sensitive Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNTs/GCE for rizatriptan benzoate determination • The surface morphology of nanocomposite was characterized by SEM and EDS. • Rizatriptan benzoate was measured at 0.09 μmol L{sup −1} with good sensitivity and selectivity. • The electrode has been successfully applied in serum and pharmaceutical samples. • The nanocomposite had excellent electrocatalytic activity and biocompatibility.

  5. Ethyl 2-[(azidocarbonylamino]benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Yassine


    Full Text Available In the almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.038 Å title compound, C10H10N4O3, an intramolecular N—H...O interaction closes an S(6 ring. In the crystal, aromatic π–π stacking interactions occur [inter-centroid distance = 3.65 (2 Å].

  6. Butyl 2-[(azidocarbonylamino]benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Yassine


    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H14N4O3, is planar with an r.m.s deviation of 0.025 Å from the plane through all 19 non-hydrogen atoms. An intramolecular N—H...O interaction closes an S(6 ring. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...π and weak offset π–π stacking interactions [inter-centroid distance = 3.614 (2 Å], forming undulating sheets parallel to (001.

  7. Increasing estradiol benzoate, pretreatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and impediments for successful estradiol-based fixed-time artificial insemination protocols in dairy cattle. (United States)

    Monteiro, P L J; Borsato, M; Silva, F L M; Prata, A B; Wiltbank, M C; Sartori, R


    With the objective to optimize fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols based on estradiol benzoate (EB) and progesterone (P4), we performed 2 experiments (Exp.) in dairy cows. In Exp. 1 (n=44), we hypothesized that increased EB (EB3=3 mg vs. EB2=2 mg) on d 0 would improve synchronization of ovarian follicle wave emergence. Likewise, in Exp. 2 (n=82), we hypothesized that a GnRH treatment on d -3 (early in a follicular wave on d 0) versus d -7 (presence of a dominant follicle on d 0) would better synchronize wave emergence. Moreover, results from both experiments were combined to identify reasons for the lack of synchronization. All cows were treated with EB at the time of introduction of a P4 implant (d 0). On d 7, cows were given 25 mg of prostaglandin F2α; on d 8, the implant was removed and cows were given 1mg of estradiol cypionate. All cows received FTAI on d 10. In both experiments, daily ultrasound evaluations were performed and, in Exp. 2, circulating P4 was evaluated during the protocol. Pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) was determined on d 31 and 59 after FTAI. In Exp. 1, EB dose did not change time to wave emergence, but EB3 compared with EB2 decreased the percentage of cows with a corpus luteum on d 7 (19.8 vs. 55.3%) and time to ovulation (10.4 vs. 10.9 d). In Exp. 2, although we detected a tendency for delayed follicle wave emergence after the start of the FTAI protocol in cows ovulating to GnRH given on d -7, there was no difference in percentage of cows with a synchronized wave emergence (~80%). Regardless of treatment, more cows with P4<0.1 ng/mL, compared with P4≥0.1 and <0.22 ng/mL at the time of AI, ovulated to the protocol (81.2 vs. 58.0%) and had increased P/AI (47.4 vs. 21.4%). An analysis of data from both experiments showed that only 73.8% (93/126) of cows had synchronized wave emergence, and only 77.8% (98/126) of cows ovulated at the end of the protocol. Fertility was much greater in cows that had emergence of a

  8. Ovulation synchronization with estradiol benzoate or GnRH in a timed artificial insemination protocol in buffalo cows and heifers during the nonbreeding season. (United States)

    Carvalho, N A T; Soares, J G; Souza, D C; Maio, J R G; Sales, J N S; Martins Júnior, B; Macari, R C; D'Occhio, M J; Baruselli, P S


    The aim of this study was to compare estradiol benzoate (EB) and GnRH for the induction of ovulation in a TAI protocol in buffalo during the nonbreeding season. In experiment 1, 141 buffaloes (56 cows and 85 heifers) received an intravaginal P4 device (1.0 g) plus EB (2.0-mg, intramuscular [im]) at random stage of the estrous cycle (Day 0). On Day 9, the P4 device was removed, and buffaloes were given PGF 2α (0.53-mg im sodium cloprostenol) plus eCG (400-IU im). Buffaloes were then randomly allocated to one of three groups and treated as follows: EB24 (n = 47), EB (1.0 mg im) 24 hours after P4 device removal; EB36 (n = 50), EB 36 hours after P4 device removal; GnRH48 (n = 44), GnRH (10 μg im buserelin acetate) 48 hours after P4 device removal. Ultrasound examinations were performed on Day 0 to ascertain ovarian follicular status, Day 9 to measure follicular diameter, and from Day 11 to Day 14 (every 12 hours for 60 hours) to establish the time of ovulation. There were no significant differences between EB24, EB36, and GnRH48 for diameter of the ovulatory follicle (13.1 ± 0.3, 13.7 ± 0.3, and 13.7 ± 0.3 mm; P = 0.26) and ovulation rate (78.7%, 82.0%, and 84.1%; P = 0.93). When compared with heifers, cows had a greater diameter of the dominant follicle on Day 9 (10.3 ± 0.3 and 8.6 ± 0.2 mm; P = 0.0001), diameter of the ovulatory follicle (14.1 ± 0.3 and 13.1 ± 0.2 mm; P = 0.01), ovulation rate (91.1% and 75.3%; P = 0.02), and interval from P4 device removal to ovulation (76.3 ± 1.3 and 72.5 ± 1.4 hours; P = 0.05). In experiment 2, 511 buffaloes (354 cows and 157 heifers) were assigned to the same treatments described in experiment 1 (EB24, n = 168; EB36, n = 172; and GnRH48, n = 171), and all animals were submitted to timed artificial insemination (TAI) 64 hours after P4 device removal. Pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken 30 days after TAI. There were no significant differences between EB24, EB36, and

  9. Antibacterial activity of acidified sodium benzoate against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in tryptic soy broth and on cherry tomatoes. (United States)

    Chen, Huaiqiong; Zhong, Qixin


    Concerns about undesirable by-products from chlorine sanitation of fresh produce and the limited efficacy with the presence of organic matter, have led to studies on alternative washing solutions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of acidified sodium benzoate (NaB) solutions against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in growth medium and on cherry tomatoes. Experimentally, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs, >3 Log reduction) of NaB against E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895, S. Enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes Scott A were determined at pH 7.0-4.0 using micro-broth dilution method and agar plating method, respectively. The reduction of the three bacteria in tryptic soy broth (TSB) by 500 and 1000 ppm NaB at pH 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 for 30 min at 21 °C was compared. Residual bacterial cocktails inoculated on cherry tomatoes were determined after soaking in 3000 ppm NaB solution adjusted to pH 2.0 for 3 min at 21 °C. Results showed that the MBC of NaB reduced from >10,000 ppm at pH 7.0 to 1000 ppm at pH 4.0 and was identical for the three bacteria. The log reduction of bacteria in TSB indicated that 1000 ppm NaB at pH 2.0 was the most effective in killing the three pathogens. The respective reduction of E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica cocktails inoculated on cherry tomatoes immersed in 3000 ppm NaB (pH 2.0) at 21 °C for 3 min was 4.99 ± 0.57 and 4.08 ± 0.65 log CFU/g, which was significantly higher (p  0.05) to 200 ppm chlorine. Furthermore, the reduction of bacterial cocktails on tomatoes by 3000 ppm NaB at pH 2.0 was not affected after adding 1% tomato puree, and bacteria were not detected in NaB washing solutions with and without 1% tomato puree and on following un-inoculated tomatoes. This study showed that acidified NaB solution may be used as an alternative post-harvest wash of

  10. Neutral losses of sodium benzoate and benzoic acid in the fragmentation of the [M + Na]+ ions of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide via intramolecular rearrangement in electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Chai, Yunfeng; Gao, Guanwei; Shen, Shanshan; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin


    Electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry can be applied to determine structural information about organic compounds. The [M + Na] + ion is one of the major precursor ions in ESI mass spectrometry, but its fragmentation mechanism study is still insufficient. This study reveals the interesting fragmentation reactions of the [M + Na] + ions of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide. The fragmentations of the [M + Na] + , [M + Li] + , and [M + H] + ions of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide were studied using a hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer and an ion trap mass spectrometer. A hydrogen/deuterium (H/D)-exchange experiment in the amide group of methoxyfenozide allowed for the confirmation of the fragmentation mechanism. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed for a further understanding of the fragmentation mechanism of the [M + Na] + ion of methoxyfenozide. Neutral losses of sodium benzoate and benzoic acid in the fragmentation of the [M + Na] + ions of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide were observed as the major fragmentation pathways. In contrast, similar fragmentations were not observed or minor pathways in the fragmentation of the [M + Li] + and [M + H] + ions of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide. In addition, a minor product ion resulting from loss of NaOH was identified, which was the first reported example in the fragmentation of sodiated compounds in mass spectrometry. Losses of sodium benzoate and benzoic acid in the fragmentation of the [M + Na] + ions of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide are proposed to be formed through an intramolecular rearrangement reaction, which is supported by DFT calculations. An H/D-exchange experiment confirms that the carboxyl hydrogen of benzoic acid and the hydrogen of NaOH exclusively derive from the amide hydrogen of the precursor ion. This study enriches our knowledge on the Na + -induced fragmentation reactions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright

  11. An update on the use of benzoate, phenylacetate and phenylbutyrate ammonia scavengers for interrogating and modifying liver nitrogen metabolism and its implications in urea cycle disorders and liver disease. (United States)

    De Las Heras, Javier; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luis; Martínez-Chantar, María-Luz; Delgado, Teresa C


    Ammonia-scavenging drugs, benzoate and phenylacetate (PA)/phenylbutyrate (PB), modulate hepatic nitrogen metabolism mainly by providing alternative pathways for nitrogen disposal. Areas covered: We review the major findings and potential novel applications of ammonia-scavenging drugs, focusing on urea cycle disorders and liver disease. Expert opinion: For over 40 years, ammonia-scavenging drugs have been used in the treatment of urea cycle disorders. Recently, the use of these compounds has been advocated in acute liver failure and cirrhosis for reducing hyperammonemic-induced hepatic encephalopathy. The efficacy and mechanisms underlying the antitumor effects of these ammonia-scavenging drugs in liver cancer are more controversial and are discussed in the review. Overall, as ammonia-scavenging drugs are usually safe and well tolerated among cancer patients, further studies should be instigated to explore the role of these drugs in liver cancer. Considering the relevance of glutamine metabolism to the progression and resolution of liver disease, we propose that ammonia-scavenging drugs might also be used to non-invasively probe liver glutamine metabolism in vivo. Finally, novel derivatives of classical ammonia-scavenging drugs with fewer and less severe adverse effects are currently being developed and used in clinical trials for the treatment of acute liver failure and cirrhosis.

  12. trans-Bis[4-amino-3,5-bis-(2-pyrid-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-κN]diaqua-cobalt(II) bis-(3-carb-oxy-5-nitro-benzoate). (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Shao, Chun-Fu; Li, Cheng-Peng


    The title complex, [Co(C(12)H(10)N(6))(2)(H(2)O)(2)](C(8)H(4)NO(6))(2), is composed of a mononuclear cobalt(II) cation and two 3-carb-oxy-5-nitro-benzoate anions for charge balance. In the cation, the Co(II) atom is six-coordinated in a distorted octa-hedral geometry. It bonds to two O atoms of two water mol-ecules, and two pairs of N atoms from two 4-amino-3,5-bis-(2-pyrid-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole mol-ecules, which behave as bidentate chelating ligands. There are intra-molecular N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds in the cation. In the crystal, there are a number of inter-molecular N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, as well as inter-molecular π-π stacking inter-actions [centroid-centroid distances = 3.657 (2) and 3.847 (2) Å], that link the mol-ecules into two-dimensional networks lying parallel to the ab plane. The presence of C-H⋯O inter-actions leads to the formation of a three-dimensional network.

  13. Biphenyl alkyloxy benzoates ferroelectric liquid crystals : structural, thermodynamic and dielectric studies of the octyl and the decyl homologous ; electroclinic effect in the N^* phase near a N^*-SA-SC^* multicritical point (United States)

    Legrand, C.; Isaert, N.; Hmine, J.; Buisine, J. M.; Parneix, J. P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Destrade, C.


    A new biphenyl alkyloxy benzoate series is synthesized. Thermodynamic, structural and dielectric measurements have been performed on the two homologous n=8 and n=10. For these two compounds, the sequences N^*-SC^* or N^*-SA-SC^* are respectively observed under atmospheric pressure. Pressure-Temperature phase diagrams show that these phase transitions appear near a N^*-SA-SC^* multicritical point : for n=8, the SA phase is induced under moderate pressure ; for n=10, the SA temperature range is less than 1 °C at atmospheric pressure and slightly increases under pressure. The dielectric charcterization detects a relaxation process in the N^* phase near the N^*-SC^* or the N^*-SA phase transitions whose temperature dependence of the characteristic parameters are similar to these of the classical soft mode observed near the SA-SC^* phase transition. This relaxation process is attributed to an electroclinic effect in the N^* phase near the N^*-SC^* or the N^*-SA phase transitions. This is the first dielectric observation of such an effect, furthermore it is observed it is observed in pure compounds and it is of large amplitude. This is probably connected with hte high polarization, the local smectic order and the proximity of a N^*-SA-SC^* multicritical point. Une nouvelle série de biphényles benzoates a été synthétisée. Des mesures thermodynamiques, structurales et diélectriques ont été entreprises pour les homologues n=8 et n=10. Pour ces deux composés, les deux séquences N^*-SC^* et N^*-SA-SC^* sont respectivement observées sous pression atmosphérique. Les diagrammes de phase Pression-Température montrent que ces transitions de phases apparaissent près d'un point multicritique : pour n=8, la phase SA est induite sous une pression modérée ; pour n=10, le domaine d'existence de la phase SA inférieur à 1 °C à pression atmosphérique s'accroît légèrement avec la pression. La caractérisation diélectrique met en évidence un mécanisme de

  14. Engineering crystals that facilitate the acyl-transfer reaction: insight from a comparison of the crystal structures of myo-inositol-1,3,5-orthoformate-derived benzoates and carbonates. (United States)

    Tamboli, Majid I; Krishanaswamy, Shobhana; Gonnade, Rajesh G; Shashidhar, Mysore S


    Minor variations in the molecular structure of constituent molecules of reactive crystals often yield crystals with significantly different properties due to altered modes of molecular association in the solid state. Hence, these studies could provide a better understanding of the complex chemical processes occurring in the crystalline state. However, reactions that proceed efficiently in molecular crystals are only a small fraction of the reactions that are known to proceed (with comparable efficiency) in the solution state. Hence, for consistent progress in this area of research, investigation of newer reactive molecular crystals which support different kinds of reactions and their related systems is essential. The crystal structures and acyl-transfer reactivity of a myo-inositol-1,3,5-orthoformate-derived dibenzoate and its carbonate (4-O-benzoyl-2-O-phenoxycarbonyl-myo-inositol 1,3,5-orthoformate, C 21 H 18 O 9 ) and thiocarbonate (4-O-benzoyl-2-O-phenoxythiocarbonyl-myo-inositol 1,3,5-orthoformate, C 21 H 18 O 8 S) analogs are compared with the aim of understanding the relationship between crystal structure and acyl-transfer reactivity. Insertion of an O atom in the acyl (or thioacyl) group of an ester gives the corresponding carbonate (or thiocarbonate). This seemingly minor change in molecular structure results in a considerable change in the packing of the molecules in the crystals of myo-inositol-1,3,5-orthoformate-derived benzoates and the corresponding carbonates. These differences result in a lack of intermolecular acyl-transfer reactivity in crystals of myo-inositol-1,3,5-orthoformate-derived carbonates. Hence, this study illustrates the sensitivity of the relative orientation of molecules, their packing and ensuing changes in the reactivity of resulting crystals to minor changes in molecular structure.

  15. Growth, spectral, optical, laser damage threshold and DFT investigations on 2-amino 4-methyl pyridinium 4-methoxy benzoate (2A4MP4MB): A potential organic third order nonlinear optical material for optoelectronic applications (United States)

    Krishnakumar, M.; Karthick, S.; Thirupugalmani, K.; Babu, B.; Vinitha, G.


    In present investigation, single crystals of organic charge transfer complex, 2-amino-4-methyl pyridinium-4-methoxy benzoate (2A4MP4MB) was grown by controlled slow evaporation solution growth technique using methanol as a solvent at room temperature. Single crystal XRD analysis confirmed the crystal system and lattice parameters of 2A4MP4MB. The crystalline nature, presence of various vibrational modes and other chemical bonds in the compound have been recognized and confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic techniques respectively. The presence of various proton and carbon positions in title compound was confirmed using 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies. The wide optical operating window and cut-off wavelength were identified and band gap value of the title compound was calculated using UV-vis-NIR study. The specific heat capacity (cp) values of the title compound, 1.712 J g-1·K-1 at 300 K and 13.6 J g-1 K-1 at 433 K (melting point) were measured using Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetric studies (MDSC). From Z-scan study, nonlinear refractive index (n2), nonlinear absorption (β) and third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ(3)) values were determined. The self-defocusing effect and saturable absorption behavior of the material were utilized to exhibit the optical limiting action at λ = 532 nm by employing the same continuous wave (cw) Nd: YAG laser source. The laser damage threshold (LDT) study of title compound was carried out using Nd: YAG laser of 532 nm wavelength. The Vickers' micro hardness test was carried out at room temperature and obtained results were investigated using classical Meyer's law. In addition, DFT calculations were carried out for the first time for this compound. These characterization studies performed on the title compound planned to probe the valuable and safe region of optical, thermal and mechanical properties to improve efficacy of 2A4MP4MB single crystals in optoelectronic device

  16. 78 FR 18504 - Emamectin Benzoate; Pesticide Tolerance (United States)


    ..., and reliability as well as the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also... the PCT for the market leaders were exceeded. Further review of these cases identified factors... residue.* * * '' Consistent with FFDCA section 408(b)(2)(D), and the factors specified in FFDCA section...

  17. Performance of Holstein heifers fed sugarcane silages treated with urea, sodium benzoate or Lactobacillus buchneri Desempenho de novilhas Holandesas alimentadas com silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com uréia, benzoato de sódio ou Lactobacillus buchneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Faria Pedroso


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of heifers fed sugarcane silages produced with and without additives. Thirty-two Holstein heifers were randomly assigned, in a block design, to evaluate rations (46% silage; 54% concentrate; 12% crude protein containing silages treated with (fresh basis urea (0.5%, sodium benzoate (0.1% or Lactobacillus buchneri (3.64x10(5 cfu g-1 . Inoculation with L. buchneri improved daily gain (1.24 vs. 0.94 kg day-1 , and the addition of benzoate resulted in better feed conversion (7.6 vs. 9.4 kg of dry matter per kg of live weight, in relation to the untreated silage (control. Treatments did not affect dry matter intake (mean of 2.19% of live weight. Rations containing silages treated with benzoate or L. buchneri showed lower cost per kg of weight gain. Treatment with urea did not improve animal performance, but the cost per kg of weight gain was lower than that of the control ration.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a performance de novilhas alimentadas com silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com aditivos. Trinta e duas novilhas Holandesas foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em um delineamento em blocos, para avaliar rações (46% silagem; 54% concentrado; 12% proteína bruta contendo silagem tratada com (base matéria verde uréia (0,5%, benzoato de sódio (0,1% ou Lactobacillus buchneri (3,64x10(5 ufc g-1 . A inoculação de L. buchneri melhorou o ganho diário (1,24 vs. 0,94 kg dia-1 e a adição de benzoato melhorou a conversão alimentar (7,6 vs. 9,4 kg de matéria seca por kg de peso vivo, relativamente ao controle (silagem não tratada. Os tratamentos não afetaram o consumo de matéria seca (2,19% do peso vivo. As rações com silagens tratadas com benzoato ou L. buchneri mostraram menor custo por kg de ganho de peso. O tratamento com uréia não melhorou o desempenho animal, mas o custo por kg de ganho de peso foi menor do que na dieta controle.

  18. trans-Bis[4-amino-3,5-bis­(2-pyrid­yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-κN 3]diaqua­cobalt(II) bis­(3-carb­oxy-5-nitro­benzoate) (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Shao, Chun-Fu; Li, Cheng-Peng


    The title complex, [Co(C12H10N6)2(H2O)2](C8H4NO6)2, is composed of a mononuclear cobalt(II) cation and two 3-carb­oxy-5-nitro­benzoate anions for charge balance. In the cation, the CoII atom is six-coordinated in a distorted octa­hedral geometry. It bonds to two O atoms of two water mol­ecules, and two pairs of N atoms from two 4-amino-3,5-bis­(2-pyrid­yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole mol­ecules, which behave as bidentate chelating ligands. There are intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds in the cation. In the crystal, there are a number of inter­molecular N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, as well as inter­molecular π–π stacking inter­actions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.657 (2) and 3.847 (2) Å], that link the mol­ecules into two-dimensional networks lying parallel to the ab plane. The presence of C—H⋯O inter­actions leads to the formation of a three-dimensional network. PMID:22058688

  19. Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of the putative breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor [{sup 11}C]methyl 4-((4-(2-(6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-yl)ethyl)phenyl) amino-carbonyl)-2-(quinoline-2-carbonylamino)benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mairinger, Severin [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Molecular Medicine, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Langer, Oliver, E-mail: [Molecular Medicine, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Kuntner, Claudia; Wanek, Thomas [Molecular Medicine, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Bankstahl, Jens P.; Bankstahl, Marion [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy, University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover (Germany); Stanek, Johann [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Doerner, Bernd [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Bauer, Florian [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Baumgartner, Christoph [2nd Neurological Department, General Hospital Hietzing with Neurological Center Rosenhuegel, Vienna (Austria); Loescher, Wolfgang [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy, University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover (Germany); Erker, Thomas, E-mail: [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Mueller, Markus [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)


    Introduction: The multidrug efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is highly expressed in the blood-brain barrier (BBB), where it limits brain entry of a broad range of endogenous and exogenous substrates. Methyl 4-((4-(2-(6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-yl)ethyl)phenyl) amino-carbonyl)-2-(quinoline-2-carbonylamino)benzoate (1) is a recently discovered BCRP-selective inhibitor, which is structurally derived from the potent P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor tariquidar. The aim of this study was to develop a new PET tracer based on 1 to map BCRP expression levels in vivo. Methods: Compound 1 was labelled with {sup 11}C in its methyl ester function by reaction of the corresponding carboxylic acid 2 with [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of [{sup 11}C]-1 was performed in wild-type, Mdr1a/b{sup (-/-)}, Bcrp1{sup (-/-)} and Mdr1a/b{sup (-/-)}Bcrp1{sup (-/-)} mice (n=3 per mouse type) and radiotracer metabolism was assessed in plasma and brain. Results: Brain-to-plasma ratios of unchanged [{sup 11}C]-1 were 4.8- and 10.3-fold higher in Mdr1a/b{sup (-/-)} and in Mdr1a/b{sup (-/-)}Bcrp1{sup (-/-)} mice, respectively, as compared to wild-type animals, but only modestly increased in Bcrp1{sup (-/-)} mice. [{sup 11}C]-1 was rapidly metabolized in vivo giving rise to a polar radiometabolite which was taken up into brain tissue. Conclusion: Our data suggest that [{sup 11}C]-1 preferably interacts with P-gp rather than BCRP at the murine BBB which questions its reported in vitro BCRP selectivity. Consequently, [{sup 11}C]-1 appears to be unsuitable as a PET tracer to map cerebral BCRP expression.

  20. 21 CFR 522.1940 - Progesterone and estradiol benzoate. (United States)


    ... pellet containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (ii) Indications for use. For increased rate... pellet containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (ii) Indications for use. For increased rate...

  1. Dicyclo-hexyl-ammonium 3,5-dinitro-benzoate. (United States)

    Saeed, Sohail; Rashid, Naghmana; Hussain, Rizwan; Wong, Wing-Tak


    The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C(12)H(24)N(+)·C(7)H(3)N(2)O(6) (-), contains two cations and two anions. In the crystal, the cations and anions are connected by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a 12-membered ring with an R(4) (4)(12) graph-set motif. The center of this 12-membered ring coincides with an inversion centre. π-π stacking is observed between parallel benzene rings [centroid-centriod distance = 3.771 (2) Å].

  2. Synthesis of Gefitinibfrom Methyl 3-Hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Dong Li


    Full Text Available This paper reports a novel synthesis of gefitinib starting from methyl3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoate. The process starts with alkylation of the starting material, followed by nitration, reduction, cyclization, chlorination and two successive amination reactions. The intermediates andtarget molecule were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MSand the purities of all these compounds were determined by HPLC. This novelsynthetic route produced overall yields as high as 37.4%.

  3. Determination of Synthetic Food Colors, Caffeine, Sodium Benzoate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carried out by reverse phase liquid chromatography of an Agilent 1200 series liquid chromatograph equipped with a gradient pump capable of mixing four solvents, a vacuum membrane degasser, a 20 μL loop injector and a. UV Detector (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara,. CA, USA). Analysis was performed on an Eclipse.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson José Laurino Dionello


    Full Text Available

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a prostaglandin F2α analogue (PGF2α and oestradiol benzo-ate (ODB in estrus synchronization programs. A hundred and eighty five non-lactating females divided in 4 groups were used. G1 (44 and G2 (46 received two applications of PGF2α (D0 and D11 and G3 (26 and G4 (37 received one application after 5 days of estrous detection. G1 and G3 also received a 1 mg ODB application 48 hours after the PGF2α. The pregnancy rate at AI was 42,2% for G1, 47,8% for G2, 32,1% for G3 e 57,6% for G4 (p>0,05 and of 38,4% and 51,4% for animals submitted to FTAI and estrous detection, respectively (p>0,05. This results show that pregnancy rates of females fixed time inseminated didn’t differ of that inseminated after estrus detection.

    Key-words: Beef cattle, estrus synchronization, fixed time artificial insemination, prostaglandin.

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o emprego de um análogo da prostaglandina F2α (PGF2α em associação ao benzoato de estradiol (BE em programas de sincronização de cios. Utilizaram-se 185 fêmeas não-lactantes divididas em quatro grupos. O G1 (44 e o G2 (46 receberam duas aplicações de PGF2α (D0 e D11 e os animais do G3 (26 e G4 (37 uma aplicação de PGF2α, após cinco dias de detecção de cio. O G1 e o G3 receberam 1mg de BE 48 horas após a PGF2α. A taxa de prenhez na IA foi de 42,2% no G1, 47,8% no G2, 32,1% no G3 e 57,6% no G4 (p>0,05 e de 38,4% e 51,4% para animais submetidos à IATF e à detecção de cio, respectivamente (p>0,05. Notou-se que a taxa de prenhez nas fêmeas inseminadas em tempo-fixo não diferiu daquelas que foram inseminadas após a detecção de cio.

    Palavras-chaves: Bovinos de corte, inseminação artificial em tempo fixo, prostaglandina, sincronização de cios.

  5. Exploiting members of the BAHD acyltransferase family to synthesize multiple hydroxycinnamate and benzoate conjugates in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eudes, Aymerick; Mouille, Maxence; Robinson, David S.


    the production in yeast of rosmarinic acid and its derivatives, quinate hydroxycinnamate esters such as chlorogenic acid, and glycerol hydroxycinnamate esters. Similarly, we achieved for the first time the microbial production of polyamine hydroxycinnamate amides; monolignol, malate and fatty alcohol...

  6. Novel zinc(II) benzoate complex compounds with caffeine and urea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Findoráková, L.; Gyoryova, K.; Kovářová, Jana; Balek, V.; Nour El-Dien, F. A.; Halás, L.


    Roč. 95, č. 3 (2009), s. 923-928 ISSN 1388-6150 Grant - others:Slovak Ministry of Education(SK) 1/0122/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : caffeine * IR spectroscopy * thermal stability Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.587, year: 2009

  7. Evaluation of non-invasive trunk sprays and trunk-injected emamectic benzoate (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; D.L. Cappaert; T.M. Poland; A.C. Anulewicz; P. Lewis; J. Molongoski


    In 2007, we continued to evaluate two neo-nicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and dinotefuron, applied as non-invasive trunk sprays to control emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Neo-nicotinoid products are widely used to protect landscape ash trees because they are relatively safe for humans and non-target species. These...

  8. Isolation of novel para-pentyl phenyl benzoate from Mondia whitei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude extract was subjected to various chromatographic techniques to isolate a novel compound whose structure was elucidated from the analysis of the crystal data and by extensive use of spectroscopy. The structure was confirmed by synthesis. The compound was subjected to anxiolytic and sedative activity assay.

  9. Photovoltaic Performance of Polymers Based on Dithienylthienopyrazines Bearing Thermocleavable Benzoate Esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Helgesen; Krebs, Frederik C


    Thermocleavable low-band-gap polymers based on dithienylthienopyrazines were prepared and copolymerized with different donor units like dialkoxybenzene, fluorene, thiophene, and cyclopentadithiophene (CPDT) using both Stille and Suzuki cross-coupling reactions. In the solid state the band gaps...... are in the range of 1.17−1.37 eV. The polymers were explored as donor materials in bulk heterojunction solar cells together with PCBM as the acceptor material where they were shown to exhibit a photoresponse in the full absorption range up to 900 nm and power conversion efficiencies of up to 1.21% under 1 sun...

  10. Identification of bacteria utilizing biphenyl, benzoate, and naphthalene in long-term contaminated soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uhlík, O.; Wald, J.; Strejček, M.; Musilová, L.; Rídl, Jakub; Hroudová, Miluše; Vlček, Čestmír; Cardenas, E.; Mackova, M.; Macek, T.


    Roč. 7, č. 7 (2012), e40653 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08031 Grant - others:EK(XE) 265946; MŠMT(CZ) ME09024; GA ČR(CZ) GA525/09/1058 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : biodegradation * Proteobacteria * bioremediation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  11. 77 FR 31722 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Estradiol; Estradiol Benzoate and Testosterone Propionate... (United States)


    ... animal drug applications (ANADAs) for various steroid ear implants for cattle and for melengestrol acetate liquid Type A medicated article and use in combination medicated feeds for heifers fed in... DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS 0 9. The authority citation for 21 CFR part 558 continues to read as...

  12. Preconditioning with ethyl 3,4-dihydroxy benzoate augments aerobic respiration in rat skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimker C


    Full Text Available Charu Nimker, Deependra Pratap Singh, Deepika Saraswat, Anju Bansal Experimental Biology Division, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Defense Research and Development Organisation, Timarpur, Delhi, India Abstract: Muscle respiratory capacity decides the amount of exertion one's skeletal muscle can undergo, and endurance exercise is believed to increase it. There are also certain preconditioning methods by which muscle respiratory and exercise performance can be enhanced. In this study, preconditioning with ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (EDHB, a prolyl hydroxylase domain enzyme inhibitor, has been investigated to determine its effect on aerobic metabolism and bioenergetics in skeletal muscle, thus facilitating boost in physical performance in a rat model. We observed that EDHB supplementation increases aerobic metabolism via upregulation of HIF-mediated GLUT1 and GLUT4, thus enhancing glucose uptake in muscles. There was also a twofold rise in the activity of enzymes of tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and glycolysis, ie, hexokinase and phosphofructokinase. There was an increase in citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase activity, resulting in the rise in the levels of ATP due to enhanced Krebs cycle activity as substantiated by enhanced acetyl-CoA levels in EDHB-treated rats as compared to control group. Increased lactate dehydrogenase activity, reduced expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1, and increase in monocarboxylate transporter 4 suggest transport of lactate from muscle to blood. There was a concomitant decrease in plasma lactate, which might be due to enhanced transport of lactate from blood to the liver. This was further supported by the rise in liver pyruvate levels and liver glycogen levels in EDHB-supplemented rats as compared to control rats. These results suggest that EDHB supplementation leads to improved physical performance due to the escalation of aerobic respiration quotient, ie, enhanced muscle respiratory capacity. Keywords: cellular metabolism, exercise, ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, prolyl hydroxylase enzyme 

  13. Studi Awal Proses Pembuatan Glycerol Tribenzoat Dari Gliserol Dan Asam Benzoat Dengan Menggunakan Katalis Asam Klorida


    Abdurrakhman, A; Rifianto, Yanuar; Widayat, W


    Glycerol esterification process is one method that is widely in the conversion of glycerol. The product of conversion glycerol is environmentally friendly and renewable because it is not derived from petroleum. The products of the conversion of glycerol is commonly used in the food industry, cosmetics industry, polymer industry and can also be used as an additive for biodiesel which is also the compound before the glycerol formed. This study aims to examine the reaction of glycerol and benzoi...

  14. Effect of sodium benzoate on the growth and enzyme activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the tested concentrations of 0.025, 0.05 and 0.075% (w/v) caused decreases in the counts of A. niger and P. citrinum at 30 ± 2°C. Concentration of 0.05% (w/v) of the preservative hurdle showed complete inhibition of A. niger in the 4th week whereas the same effect was observed in the 5th week on P. citrinum. Enzyme ...

  15. Prodrugs of Fluoro-Substituted Benzoates of EGC as Tumor Cellular Proteasome Inhibitors and Apoptosis Inducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Ping Dou


    Full Text Available The most potent catechin in green tea is (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate [(-- EGCG], which, however, is unstable under physiological conditions. To discover more stable and more potent polyphenol proteasome inhibitors, we synthesized several novel fluoro-substituted (--EGCG analogs, named F-EGCG analogs, as well as their prodrug forms with all of -OH groups protected by acetate. We report that the prodrug form of one F-EGCG analog exhibited greater potency than the previously reported peracetate of (-- EGCG to inhibit proteasomal activity, suppress cell proliferation, and induce apoptosis in human leukemia Jurkat T cells, demonstrating the potential of these compounds to be developed into novel anti-cancer and cancer-preventive agents.

  16. Potassium Benzoate for Pyrotechnic Whistling Compositions: Its Synthesis and Characterization as an Anhydrous Salt, (United States)


    377-389 (1973). 17. J.P. Murray, K.J. Cavell and J.O. Hill, "A DSC Study of Benzoic Acid", Thermochim. Acta. 36, 97-101 (1980). ° 9 TABLE I DSC...Research Libraries, Chicago, Ill. Defense Attache, Australian Embassy, Bangkok, Thailand (Att. D. Pender) a DATE FILMED Ink DTI

  17. Hydrolysis of methyl benzoate from Piper arboreum by Naupactus bipes beetle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Clecio S.; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail:


    A new natural product was isolated from Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) leaves, the methyl 3-geranyl-4-hydroxybenzoate (1). The metabolism of P. arboreum leaves by Naupactus bipes beetle (Germar, 1824 - Coleoptera: Curculionidae) led to the hydrolysis of 1 to 3-geranyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2). The structures of both compounds were determined based on spectroscopic analysis ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, MS, and IR). (author)

  18. Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia: A Report of Two Infants Treated with Dextromethorphan and Sodium Benzoate


    Pereira-da-Silva, L; Carvalho, A; Videira-Amaral, J; Sequeira, S; Cabral, P; Gonçalves, H; Serrano, A; Galha, H; Cabral, A


    A hiperglicinémia não cetótica é um erro inato da degradação da glicina, resultando na sua excessiva acumulação nos tecidos corporais, designadamente no sistema nervoso central. Trata-se de uma doença muito grave e uma das terapêuticas recentemente propostas consiste na associação do dextrometorfano com o benzoato de sódio em altas doses. Admite-se a possibilidade de o dextrometorfano bloquear o complexo-canal receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato, implicado na toxicidade da hiperglicinémia a...

  19. Detectability of testosterone esters and estradiol benzoate in bovine hair and plasma following pour-on treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Groot, M.J.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Nijrolder, A.W.J.M.; Blokland, M.H.; Riedmaier, I.; Becker, C.; Meyer, H.H.D.; Nielen, M.W.F.


    The abuse of synthetic esters of natural steroids such as testosterone and estradiol in cattle fattening and sports is hard to detect via routine urine testing. The esters are rapidly hydrolysed in vivo into substances which are also endogenously present in urine. An interesting alternative can be

  20. Study using 1 H and 13 V NMR of 3-aryl-s-triazole benzoate azole type compounds and intermediaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garske, Jose Emilio L.; Bacha, Catarina T.M.; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo


    Approximately 62% of the compounds used for medical purposes are heterocyclic, and are distributed as follows: 95% containing hydrogen, 28% containing sulfur and 18% containing oxygen in the structural composition. Some triazole-s-triazole type hetero aromatic systems and intermediaries, such as 1-aryl hydrazides exhibited bactericide, anti inflammatory and fungi stat activities. All the triazoles are are obtained synthetically, and are not found in the Nature. The proton and carbon-13 spectra of the non usual I, II and III compounds that we obtained are discussed in this work

  1. Food Additive Sodium Benzoate (NaB Activates NFκB and Induces Apoptosis in HCT116 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betul Yilmaz


    Full Text Available NaB, the metabolite of cinnamon and sodium salt of benzoic acid is a commonly used food and beverage preservative. Various studies have investigated NaB for its effects on different cellular models. However, the effects of NaB on cancer cell viability signaling is substantially unknown. In this study, the effects of NaB on viability parameters and NFκB, one of the most important regulators in apoptosis, were examined in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Cell culture, light microscopy, spectrophotometry, flow cytometry, and western blot were used as methods to determine cell viability, caspase-3 activity, NFκB, Bcl-xl, Bim, and PARP proteins, respectively. NaB (6.25 mM–50 mM treatment inhibited cell viability by inducing apoptosis, which was evident with increased Annexin V-PE staining and caspase-3 activity. NFκB activation accompanied the induction of apoptosis in NaB treated cells. Inhibition of NFκB with BAY 11-7082 did not show a pronounced effect on cell viability but induced a more apoptotic profile, which was confirmed by increased PARP fragmentation and caspase-3 activity. This effect was mostly evident at 50 mM concentration of NaB. Bcl-xl levels were not affected by NaB or BAY 11-7082/NaB treatment; whereas, total Bim increased with NaB treatment. Inhibition of NFκB activity further increased Bim levels. Overall, these results suggest that NaB induces apoptosis and activates NFκB in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Activation of NFκB emerges as target in an attempt to protect cells against apoptosis.

  2. Inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and nonpathogenic E. coli in strawberry juice by pulsed electric field, sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and citric acid (United States)

    Introduction: Current regulations require that juice processors effect a 5 log CFU/ml reduction of a target pathogen prior to distributing products. Whereas thermal pasteurization reduces the sensory characteristics of juice by altering flavor components, pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment may ...

  3. Controlled fabrication of multilayered 4-(pyrrole-1-yl) benzoate supported poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) linked hybrid films of Prussian blue type nickel hexacyanoferrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makowski, Oktawian; Kowalewska, Barbara; Szymanska, Dorota; Stroka, Jadwiga; Miecznikowski, Krzysztof; Palys, Barbara; Kulesza, Pawel J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Malik, Marcin A. [Division of Chemistry, Department of Processing and Materials Engineering and Applied Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 19, 42-201 Czestochowa (Poland)


    The ability of 4-(pyrrole-1-yl) benzoic acid (PyBA) to form monolayer-type carboxylate-derivatized ultra-thin organic films on solid electrode surfaces was explored here to attract coordinatively and immobilize Ni{sup 2+} ions at the electrode/electrolyte interface. In the next step, the system was exposed to Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-} or Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 4-} solution to form a robust nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) layer. By repeated and alternate treatments in solutions of PyBA, Ni{sup 2+} cations, and Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-} or Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 4-} anions, the amount of the material could be increased systematically in a controlled fashion to form three-dimensional multilayered NiHCF-based assemblies. The layer-by-layer method was also extended to the growth of hybrid conducting polymer stabilized NiHCF films in which the initial PyBA-anchored NiHCF layer (formed on glassy carbon) was subsequently exposed (a desired number of times) through alternate immersions to the monomer (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-} and Ni{sup 2+} solutions. During voltammetric potential cycling (electropolymerization) in the external supporting electrolyte solution, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) or PEDOT linked NiHCF-based multilayered films were produced. They were characterized by good stability and high dynamics of charge transport. (author)

  4. Crystal structure of methyl 2-hydroxy-5-[(4-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1,3-thiazol-2-ylamino]benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaaban K. Mohamed


    Full Text Available The title compound, C11H10N2O4S, crystallized with two independent molecules (A and B in the asymmetric unit. They differ primarily in the rotational orientation of the five-membered heterocyclic ring. In molecule A this ring is inclined to the benzene ring by 48.17 (8°, while in molecule B the same dihedral angle is 23.07 (8°. In each molecule there is an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond involving the adjacent hydroxyl group and the ester carbonyl O atom. In the crystal, the A molecules are linked via pairs of N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers. These dimers are linked to the B molecules via N—H.·O, C—H...O and C—H...S hydrogen bonds forming corrugated sheets lying parallel to (102.

  5. CCDC 954773: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : Dimethylammonium tri-terbium tris(4-(tetrazol-2-id-5-yl)benzoate) tetrahydroxide trihydrate unknown solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Dongxu


    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  6. CCDC 954776: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : Dimethylammonium tri-yttrium tris(4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)benzoate) tetrahydroxide nonacosahydrate

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Dongxu


    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  7. CCDC 954775: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : Dimethylammonium tri-terbium tris(2-fluoro-4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)benzoate) tetrahydroxide tetradecahydrate

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Dongxu


    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  8. Synthesis, analysis, cholinesterase-inhibiting activity and molecular modelling studies of 3-(dialkylamino)-2-hydroxypropyl 4-[(alkoxy-carbonyl)amino]benzoates and their quaternary ammonium salts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Padrtova, T.; Marvanová, P.; Odehnalová, K.; Kubínová, R.; Parravicini, V.; Garro, A.; Enriz, R. D.; Humpa, O.; Oravec, Michal; Mokrý, P.


    Roč. 22, č. 12 (2017), č. článku 2048. ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) EF16_013/0001609 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Acetylcholinesterase * Arylcarbonyloxyaminopropanols * Butyrylcholinesterase * Quaternary ammonium salts * Tertiary amines Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 2.861, year: 2016

  9. Evaluation of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) control provided by emamectin benzoate and two neonicotinoid insecticides, one and two seasons after treatment (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; Andrea C. Anulewicz; Phillip Lewis; David. Cappaert


    Effective methods are needed to protect ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) from emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive buprestid that has killed millions of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. We randomly assigned 175 ash trees (11.5-48.1 cm in diameter) in 25 blocks...

  10. In vitro antibacterial activity of diterpene and benzoxazole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These 2 active fractions were further investigated through UV-Visible, NMR and FT-IR and were characterized as benzoate and diterpenes and their derivatives viz., 2,3-secoatisane type diterpene and 3,4,5-trihydroxy methyl benzoate. Keywords: 2,3-secoatisane, 3,4,5-trihydroxy methyl benzoate, Diterpenes, Mangroves.

  11. Sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and citric acid induce sublethal injury and enhance pulsed electric field inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and nonpathogenic surrogate E. coli in strawberry juice (United States)

    Current FDA regulations require that juice processors effect a 5 log CFU/ml reduction of a target pathogen prior to distributing products. Whereas thermal pasteurization reduces the sensory characteristics of juice by altering flavor components, pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment can be conducte...

  12. (4bS,8aS-1-Isopropyl-4b,8,8-trimethyl-4b,5,6,7,8,8a,9,10-octahydrophenanthren-2-yl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radouane Oubabi


    Full Text Available The title compound, C27H34O2, was hemisynthesized through direct benzoylation of the naturally occurring meroterpene totarol. The central fused six-membered ring has a half-chair conformation, whereas the terminal six-membered ring displays a chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the fused benzene ring and the benzoyl benzene ring is 73.05 (14°. The S,S chirality of the molecule is consistent with the synthetic pathway, and confirmed by the refinement of the Flack parameter.

  13. FT-IR Study of CO2 Adsorption in a Dynamic Copper(II) Benzoate-Pyrazine Host with CO2-CO2 Interactions in the Adsorbed State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, Kristi L. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Culp, Jeffrey T. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Goodman, Angela [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Matranga, Christopher [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    A detailed correlation is presented between the in situ Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectra of adsorbed CO2, CuBzPyz host bands, and CO2 adsorption sites using previously reported crystal structures of CO2- loaded CuBzPyz and CO2 adsorption. isotherms. Through the analysis of both in situ attenuated total reflectance FT-IR spectra taken at several points on the high pressure isotherm and in situ transmission FT-IR spectra acquired at low pressures and cryogenic temperatures, we provide additional insight into the pore-filling mechanism of CO2 on the structurally dynamic CuBzPyz host. The FT-IR spectrum of adsorbed CO2 shows distinct v2 and v3 spectral features that can be attributed to known CO2 adsorption sites observed in the reported crystal structure of the CO2-saturated phase of CuBzPyz. The availability of detailed high quality CO2-loaded structural data for CuBzPyz makes this system a case study for associating infrared spectral features with CO2 adsorption sites and should prove valuable for future interpretations of CO2 host-guest and guest-guest interactions when X-ray quality structural data is unavailable.

  14. Three New Multiflorane-Type Triterpenes from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiko Tanaka


    Full Text Available Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes; 7a-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1, 7-oxomultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (2, and multiflora-7,9(11-diene-3a,29-diol 3-p-hydroxybenzoate-29-benzoate (3, were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with three known compounds. Compound 3 and multiflora-7,9(11-diene-3a-29-diol 3-benzoate (5 exhibited potent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis, with low cytotoxicities, and 2 exhibited single-digit micromolar cytotoxicity against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  15. Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds. (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Takebayashi, Mika; Shinto, Mayumi; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko


    Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes; 7a-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7-oxomultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (2), and multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3a,29-diol 3-p-hydroxybenzoate-29-benzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with three known compounds. Compound 3 and multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3a-29-diol 3-benzoate (5) exhibited potent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis, with low cytotoxicities, and 2 exhibited single-digit micromolar cytotoxicity against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  16. Comparative studies between four chemicals for long-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative evaluation of four conservation chemicals (96% ethanol, 1% sodium benzoate, 10% formalin and glycerol), used to preserve Trichinella spiralis larvae's over 120 days, was performed. The results obtained after conservation with 96% ethanol, 1% sodium benzoate and glycerol showed no statistically ...

  17. Case Report: Infestation of Tunga penetrans in villages near Zomba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benzyl benzoate paint and liquid paraffin had been used in local Primary Healthcare settings previously and topical treatment with antiparasitic agents has been advocated in the literature, particularly for severe infestation. Benzyl benzoate and liquid paraffin were applied topically to four adults with numerous jigger flea ...

  18. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    + 62.5° in chloroform solution and [a]o noted in the literature for lupeol benzoate, -i- 60.9°. The benzoate was hydrolysed by heating with alcoholic potash for 5 hours according to the procedure already described. The product was sub- jected to slow crystallisation from a mixture of alcohol and acetone. By this means long ...

  19. The effects of different preservation methods on the quality of nunu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical preservatives used were sodium benzoate and benzoic acid (1% concentration, w/v of sample). Sodium benzoate proved to be the most effective of all methods of preservation. The microbial count was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) and there were very slight biochemical changes. Benzoic acid was also ...

  20. Safety assessment of poloxamers 101, 105, 108, 122, 123, 124, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 188, 212, 215, 217, 231, 234, 235, 237, 238, 282, 284, 288, 331, 333, 334, 335, 338, 401, 402, 403, and 407, poloxamer 105 benzoate, and poloxamer 182 dibenzoate as used in cosmetics. (United States)

    Singh-Joy, Subhashni D; McLain, Valerie C


    Poloxamers are polyoxyethlyene, polyoxypropylene block polymers. The impurities of commercial grade Poloxamer 188, as an example, include low-molecular-weight substances (aldehydes and both formic and acetic acids), as well as 1,4-dioxane and residual ethylene oxide and propylene oxide. Most Poloxamers function in cosmetics as surfactants, emulsifying agents, cleansing agents, and/or solubilizing agents, and are used in 141 cosmetic products at concentrations from 0.005% to 20%. Poloxamers injected intravenously in animals are rapidly excreted in the urine, with some accumulation in lung, liver, brain, and kidney tissue. In humans, the plasma concentration of Poloxamer 188 (given intravenously) reached a maximum at 1 h, then reached a steady state. Poloxamers generally were ineffective in wound healing, but were effective in reducing postsurgical adhesions in several test systems. Poloxamers can cause hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in animals, but overall, they are relatively nontoxic to animals, with LD(50) values reported from 5 to 34.6 g/kg. Short-term intravenous doses up to 4 g/kg of Poloxamer 108 produced no change in body weights, but did result in diffuse hepatocellular vacuolization, renal tubular dilation in kidneys, and dose-dependent vacuolization of epithelial cells in the proximal convoluted tubules. A short-term inhalation toxicity study of Poloxamer 101 at 97 mg/m(3) identified slight alveolitis after 2 weeks of exposure, which subsided in the 2-week postexposure observation period. A short-term dermal toxicity study of Poloxamer 184 in rabbits at doses up to 1000 mg/kg produced slight erythema and slight intradermal inflammatory response on histological examination, but no dose-dependent body weight, hematology, blood chemistry, or organ weight changes. A 6-month feeding study in rats and dogs of Poloxamer 188 at exposures up to 5% in the diet produced no adverse effects. Likewise, Poloxamer 331 (tested up to 0.5 g/kg day(-1)), Poloxamer 235 (tested up to 1.0 g/kg day(-1)), and Poloxamer 338 (at 0.2 or 1.0 g/kg day(-1)) produced no adverse effects in dogs. Poloxamer 338 (at 5.0 g/kg day(-1)) produced slight transient diarrhea in dogs. Poloxamer 188 at levels up to 7.5% in diet given to rats in a 2-year feeding study produced diarrhea at 5% and 7.5% levels, a small decrease in growth at the 7.5% level, but no change in survival. Doses up to 0.5 mg/kg day(-1) for 2 years using rats produced yellow discoloration of the serum, high serum alkaline phosphatase activity, and elevated serum glutamicpyruvic transaminase and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase activities. Poloxamers are minimal ocular irritants, but are not dermal irritants or sensitizers in animals. Data on reproductive and developmental toxicity of Poloxamers were not found. An Ames test did not identify any mutagenic activity of Poloxamer 407, with or without metabolic activation. Several studies have suggested anticarcinogenic effects of Poloxamers. Poloxamers appear to increase the sensitivity to anticancer drugs of multidrug-resistant cancer cells. In clinical testing, Poloxamer 188 increased the hydration of feces when used in combination with a bulk laxative treatment. Compared to controls, one study of angioplasty patients receiving Poloxamer 188 found a reduced myocardial infarct size and a reduced incidence of reinfarction, with no evidence of toxicity, but two other studies found no effect. Poloxamer 188 given to patients suffering from sickle cell disease had decreased pain and decreased hospitilization, compared to controls. Clinical tests of dermal irritation and sensitization were uniformly negative. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel stressed that the cosmetic industry should continue to use the necessary purification procedures to keep the levels below established limits for ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, and 1,4-dioxane. The Panel did note the absence of reproductive and developmental toxicity data, but, based on molecular weight and solubility, there should be little skin penetration and any penetration of the skin should be slow. Also, the available data demonstrate that Poloxamers that are introduced into the body via routes other than dermal exposure have a rapid clearance from the body, suggesting that there would be no risk of reproductive and/or developmental toxicity. Overall, the available data do not suggest any concern about carcinogenesis. Although there are gaps in knowledge about product use, the overall information available on the types of products in which these ingredients are used, and at what concentration, indicates a pattern of use. Based on these safety test data and the information that the manufacturing process can be controlled to limit unwanted impurities, the Panel concluded that these Poloxamers are safe as used.

  1. Benzoic acid fermentation from starch and cellulose via a plant-like β-oxidation pathway in Streptomyces maritimus. (United States)

    Noda, Shuhei; Kitazono, Eiichi; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko


    Benzoic acid is one of the most useful aromatic compounds. Despite its versatility and simple structure, benzoic acid production using microbes has not been reported previously. Streptomyces are aerobic, Gram-positive, mycelia-forming soil bacteria, and are known to produce various kinds of antibiotics composed of many aromatic residues. S. maritimus possess a complex amino acid modification pathway and can serve as a new platform microbe to produce aromatic building-block compounds. In this study, we carried out benzoate fermentation using S. maritimus. In order to enhance benzoate productivity using cellulose as the carbon source, we constructed endo-glucanase secreting S. maritimus. After 4 days of cultivation using glucose, cellobiose, or starch as a carbon source, the maximal level of benzoate reached 257, 337, and 460 mg/l, respectively. S. maritimus expressed β-glucosidase and high amylase-retaining activity compared to those of S. lividans and S. coelicolor. In addition, for effective benzoate production from cellulosic materials, we constructed endo-glucanase-secreting S. maritimus. This transformant efficiently degraded the phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC) and then produced 125 mg/l benzoate. Wild-type S. maritimus produce benzoate via a plant-like β-oxidation pathway and can assimilate various carbon sources for benzoate production. In order to encourage cellulose degradation and improve benzoate productivity from cellulose, we constructed endo-glucanase-secreting S. maritimus. Using this transformant, we also demonstrated the direct fermentation of benzoate from cellulose. To achieve further benzoate productivity, the L-phenylalanine availability needs to be improved in future.

  2. Benzoic acid fermentation from starch and cellulose via a plant-like β-oxidation pathway in Streptomyces maritimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noda Shuhei


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzoic acid is one of the most useful aromatic compounds. Despite its versatility and simple structure, benzoic acid production using microbes has not been reported previously. Streptomyces are aerobic, Gram-positive, mycelia-forming soil bacteria, and are known to produce various kinds of antibiotics composed of many aromatic residues. S. maritimus possess a complex amino acid modification pathway and can serve as a new platform microbe to produce aromatic building-block compounds. In this study, we carried out benzoate fermentation using S. maritimus. In order to enhance benzoate productivity using cellulose as the carbon source, we constructed endo-glucanase secreting S. maritimus. Results After 4 days of cultivation using glucose, cellobiose, or starch as a carbon source, the maximal level of benzoate reached 257, 337, and 460 mg/l, respectively. S. maritimus expressed β-glucosidase and high amylase-retaining activity compared to those of S. lividans and S. coelicolor. In addition, for effective benzoate production from cellulosic materials, we constructed endo-glucanase-secreting S. maritimus. This transformant efficiently degraded the phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC and then produced 125 mg/l benzoate. Conclusions Wild-type S. maritimus produce benzoate via a plant-like β-oxidation pathway and can assimilate various carbon sources for benzoate production. In order to encourage cellulose degradation and improve benzoate productivity from cellulose, we constructed endo-glucanase-secreting S. maritimus. Using this transformant, we also demonstrated the direct fermentation of benzoate from cellulose. To achieve further benzoate productivity, the L-phenylalanine availability needs to be improved in future.

  3. Use of a Parasitic Wasp as a Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Olson


    Full Text Available Screening cargo for illicit substances is in need of rapid high-throughput inspection systems that accurately identify suspicious cargo. Here we investigate the ability of a parasitic wasp, Microplitis croceipes to detect and respond to methyl benzoate, the volatile component of cocaine, by examining their response to training concentrations, their sensitivity at low concentrations, and their ability to detect methyl benzoate when two concealment substances (green tea and ground coffee are added to the testing arena. Utilizing classical associative learning techniques with sucrose as reward, we found that M. croceipes learns individual concentrations of methyl benzoate, and they can generalize this learning to concentrations 100× lower than the training concentration. Their sensitivity to methyl benzoate is very low at an estimated 3 ppb. They are also able to detect methyl benzoate when covered completely by green tea, but were not able to detect methyl benzoate when covered completely by coffee grounds. Habituation to the tea and coffee odors prior to testing improves their responses, resulting in effective detection of methyl benzoate covered by the coffee grounds. With the aid of the portable device called ‘the wasp hound’, the wasps appear to have potential to be effective on-site biosensors for the detection of cocaine.

  4. Chemical composition and acaricide activity of an essential oil from a rare chemotype of Cinnamomum verum Presl on Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). (United States)

    Monteiro, Ildenice Nogueira; Monteiro, Odair Dos Santos; Costa-Junior, Lívio Martins; da Silva Lima, Aldilene; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Mouchrek Filho, Victor Elias


    The Essential Oils (EOs) from the leaves of species Cinnamomum verum J. Presl are used in the pharmaceutical industry for their numerous biological activities. Currently, the main compound of C. verum EO is eugenol which has acaricidal activity; however, a rare chemotype with benzyl benzoate as the main component can be found. Benzyl benzoate is recognized as an acaricide; however, studies of the C. verum EOs benzyl benzoate chemotype on Rhipicephalus microplus were not reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricide activity of an EO from a rare chemotype of C. verum, as well as purified benzyl benzoate, against larvae and engorged females of R. microplus resistant to amidines and pyrethroids. The EO was extracted from C. verum leaves and the compounds present were identified using a gas phase chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. Efficacy against R. microplus was assessed by the larval packet and the engorged female immersion tests. A rare chemotype of C. verum was found to produce EOs with benzyl benzoate (65.4%) as the main compound. The C. verum essential oil was 3.3 times more efficient on the R. microplus larvae than was benzyl benzoate. However, no differences were found on the R. microplus engorged females. This is the first report regarding the acaricidal activity of C. verum with chemotype benzyl benzoate, and this compound showed acaricidal activity on R. microplus larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Iridium-Catalysed ortho-Directed Deuterium Labelling of Aromatic Esters—An Experimental and Theoretical Study on Directing Group Chemoselectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Devlin


    Full Text Available Herein we report a combined experimental and theoretical study on the deuterium labelling of benzoate ester derivatives, utilizing our developed iridium N-heterocyclic carbene/phosphine catalysts. A range of benzoate esters were screened, including derivatives with electron-donating and -withdrawing groups in the para- position. The substrate scope, in terms of the alkoxy group, was studied and the nature of the catalyst counter-ion was shown to have a profound effect on the efficiency of isotope exchange. Finally, the observed chemoselectivity was rationalized by rate studies and theoretical calculations, and this insight was applied to the selective labelling of benzoate esters bearing a second directing group.

  6. Olefin cross metathesis based de novo synthesis of a partially protected L-amicetose and a fully protected L-cinerulose derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Schmidt


    Full Text Available Cross metathesis of a lactate derived allylic alcohol and acrolein is the entry point to a de novo synthesis of 4-benzoate protected L-amicetose and a cinerulose derivative protected at C5 and C1.

  7. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    '-hydroxyphenylazo) benzoate. In series I the phenolic -OH group is alkylated, whereas in series II it is esterified with 4--alkoxybenzoyl group. In series I, all the nine members synthesized exhibit only enantiotropic smectic A mesophase.

  8. A Sequential Preparation of Organic Compounds for Senior Chemistry Classes (United States)

    Merrigan, Cecilia; Crotty, Patricia


    Describes procedures suitable for student preparation of benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, and ethyl benzoate sequentially from benzyl alcohol. Preparation for benzyl chloride also given. All reagents except benzyl alcohol are common inorganic chemicals. (AL)

  9. Growth and characterization of nonlinear optical single crystals: bis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methoxy benzoate (C4MB) single crystals were successfully grown by the slow evaporation solution growth technique. The harvested crystals were subjected to single-crystal X-ray diffraction, spectral, optical, thermal and mechanical studies in ...

  10. Determination of Components in Beverages by Thin-Layer Chromatography. (United States)

    Ma, Yinfa; Yeung, Edward S.


    Described is a simple and interesting chromatography experiment using three different fluorescence detection principles for the determination of caffeine, saccharin and sodium benzoate in beverages. Experimental procedures and an analysis and discussion of the results are included. (CW)

  11. Determination of Aspartame, Caffeine, Saccharin, and Benzoic Acid in Beverages by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. (United States)

    Delaney, Michael F.; And Others


    Describes a simple and reliable new quantitative analysis experiment using liquid chromatography for the determinaiton of caffeine, saccharin, and sodium benzoate in beverages. Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided. (JN)

  12. Azomesogens with methoxyethyl tail: Synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    '-hydroxyphenylazo) benzoate. In series I the phenolic -OH group is alkylated, whereas in series II it is esterified with 4--alkoxybenzoyl group. In series I, all the nine members synthesized exhibit only enantiotropic smectic A mesophase.

  13. 78 FR 20925 - Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing Product-Specific Bioequivalence... (United States)


    ... hydrochloride Desvenlafaxine Dutasteride; tamsulosin hydrochloride E Estramustine phosphate sodium Ethinyl... tromethamine L Loratadine M Miconazole Minocycline hydrochloride Mitotane N Nevirapine P Phentermine hydrochloride; topiramate R Rimexolone Rizatriptan benzoate [[Page 20926

  14. Generic and specific transcriptional responses to different weak organic acids in anaerobic chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, D.A.; Knijnenburg, T.A.; De Poorter, L.M.; Reinders, M.J.; Pronk, J.T.; Van Maris, A.J.


    Transcriptional responses to four weak organic acids (benzoate, sorbate, acetate and propionate) were investigated in anaerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To enable quantitative comparison of the responses to the acids, their concentrations were chosen such that

  15. Saline is as effective as nitrogen scavengers for treatment of hyperammonemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straten, G; de Sain - van der Velden, M.G.M.; van Geijlswijk, I M; Favier, R P; Mesu, S.J.; Holwerda-Loof, N E; van der Ham, M; Fieten, H; Rothuizen, J; Spee, B; Verhoeven - Duif, N.M.


    Urea cycle enzyme deficiency (UCED) patients with hyperammonemia are treated with sodium benzoate (SB) and sodium phenylacetate (SPA) to induce alternative pathways of nitrogen excretion. The suggested guidelines supporting their use in the management of hyperammonemia are primarily based on

  16. Intermolecular Hydroamination of Allenes with N-Unsubstituted Carbamates Catalyzed by a Gold(I) N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex (United States)

    Kinder, Robert E.; Zhang, Zhibin; Widenhoefer, Ross A.


    Reaction of 2,3-pentadienyl benzoate and benzyl carbamate with a catalytic 1:1 mixture of (NHC)AuCl and AgOTf in dioxane at 23 °C for 5 h led to isolation of (E)-4-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-pentenyl benzoate in 84% yield as a single regio- and diastereomer. Gold(I)-catalyzed hydroamination was effective for a number of N-unsubstituted carbamates and a range of substituted allenes. PMID:18570376

  17. Characterization of the Ptychodiscus brevis Polyether Neurotoxin Binding Component in Excitable Membranes (United States)


    and a solvent system consisting of CHCl 3 /’MeOH/trifluoroacetic acid (100/10/1). Saxitoxin was obtained from the FDA, batrachotoxin from NIH, and sea...and batrachotoxin benzoate (50-70 nM). Specific binding is saturable and Is relatively membrane- potential independent; there beinq a...their activity by sodium channel activators would be expected. In fact, tritiated batrachotoxin benzoate binding is enhanced up to 5-fold in the

  18. AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute) Reports, July, August and September 1987. (United States)


    batrachotoxin and toxin-stimulated 22Na+ uptake and [ 3Hlbatrachotoxinin A20-a- diminished the inhibitory effect of ethanol in vitro on sodium...ABSlEVIATIONS: BTX-B, batrachotoxin A 20-a-benzoate; BTX. batrachotoxin ; HEPES 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid. DPH, 1,6-diphenyl-1...disorder. ABIREVIATONS: BTX-B, batrachotoxin A 20-a-benzoate: HEPES. 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-l -pperazineethanesufonic acid; STX, saxitoxin. 536 1907 Ethanol and

  19. An empirical, quantitative approach to predict the reactivity of some substituted aromatic compounds towards reactive radical species (Cl2-*, Br2-*, *NO2, SO3-*, SO4-*) in aqueous solution. (United States)

    Minero, Claudio; Maurino, Valter; Pelizzetti, Ezio; Vione, Davide


    The Hammett approach, applied to the reaction of various classes of aromatic compounds with the radicals Cl2-*, Br2-*, *NO2, SO3-*, and SO4-* yielded good predictive models, supported by high values of the correlation coefficient r2 in the case of phenols with Cl2-* and of phenolates with *NO2 and SO3-*. Lower but statistically significant correlation coefficients could be obtained for benzoates with Cl2-*, phenolates with Br2-*, and benzoates and anisoles with SO4-*.

  20. Drug: D01989 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01989 Drug Estriol diacetate benzoate (JAN); Estriol benzoate diacetate; Holin (T...N) ... C29H32O6 D01989.gif ... Other ... DG01584 ... Estrogen receptor agonist ... DG01986 ... Estrogen ATC code: G03CA04 G0...3CC06 Chemical group: DG00463 ... Estrogen NR3A1 (ESR1) [HSA:2099] [KO:K08550]; NR3A2 (ESR2) [HSA:2100] [KO:K0

  1. Conformational equilibrium in supramolecular chemistry: Dibutyltriuret case


    Mroczy?ska, Karina; Kaczorowska, Ma?gorzata; Kolehmainen, Erkki; Grubecki, Ireneusz; Pietrzak, Marek; O?mia?owski, Borys


    Summary The association of substituted benzoates and naphthyridine dianions was used to study the complexation of dibutyltriuret. The title molecule is the simplest molecule able to form two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The naphthyridine salt was used to break two intramolecular hydrogen bonds at a time while with the use of substituted benzoates the systematic approach to study association was achieved. Both, titrations and variable temperature measurements shed the light on the importance...

  2. Chemical composition, fermentation profile and apparent digestibility of sugarcane silage treated with chemical additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Pedroso


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the indication of an additive for the ensilage of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.. In a laboratory trial, nine treatments were applied (g of additive/kg of fresh forage - FF to the sugarcane (RB867515, before ensiling in minisilos (15 x 30 cm PVC tubes during 78 days: untreated; urea (5 + sodium benzoate (0.5; urea (7.5 + benzoate (0.5; urea (5 + benzoate (0.75; urea (7.5 + benzoate (0.75; sodium propionate (1, 2 and 4; calcium hydroxide (10. Urea + benzoate in the lowest doses, propionate in the higher concentration and calcium hydroxide were selected, considering the ethanol content (26.5, 27.2 and 7.4 g/kg DM, respectively, total DM loss (88, 46 and 58 g/kg DM, respectively and digestibility (541, 496 and 516 g/kg DM, respectively of the silages. Silages treated with these doses of additives and the untreated silage (80 d of storage were fed (nine + seven d to 16 castrated male sheep (Santa Inês housed in metabolic cages. The silage with calcium hydroxide presented coefficients of apparent digestibility of DM (0.44, of NDF (0.4 and DM intake (20 g/kg live weight in the higher levels. Calcium hydroxide was superior to propionate and urea + benzoate, considering alcoholic fermentation control and reduction of losses in the silage and the forage’s nutritional value.

  3. Effects of estradiol, progestogens, and of tibolone on breast proliferation and apoptosis. (United States)

    Pompei, L M; Cunha, E P; Steiner, M L; Theodoro, T R; Mader, A M A A; Petri, G; Pinhal, M A S; Fernandes, C E


    To study the effects of estrogen therapy, alone or combined with progestogens, and of tibolone on the expression of proliferation and apoptosis markers in normal breast tissue. Thirty 250-day-old Wistar rats were castrated and 3 weeks later received one of the following treatments by gavage for 5 weeks: (1) estradiol benzoate; (2) estradiol benzoate + medroxyprogesterone acetate; (3) estradiol benzoate + norethisterone acetate; (4) estradiol benzoate + dydrogesterone; (5) tibolone; (6) placebo. Following treatment, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and caspase-3 was analyzed by quantitative immunohistochemistry in the breast tissue, and proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed semiquantitatively by microscopic imaging. There was a statistically significant difference among the groups for PCNA, caspase-3 and the caspase-3 : PCNA ratio. Tibolone was associated with the lowest proliferative activity, followed by estradiol benzoate + dydrogesterone; however, estradiol benzoate + dydrogesterone showed the greatest rate of apoptosis. The various progestogens can have more or less proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects than estradiol alone. Among the treatment schemes analyzed, the estradiol + dydrogesterone combination resulted in a higher apoptosis rate in relation to the proliferation rate and tibolone was associated with the lowest proliferation.

  4. Cloning and characterization of a benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase gene involved in floral scent production from lily (Lilium 'Yelloween'). (United States)

    Wang, H; Sun, M; Li, L L; Xie, X H; Zhang, Q X


    In lily flowers, the volatile ester methyl benzoate is one of the major and abundant floral scent compounds; however, knowledge regarding the biosynthesis of methyl benzoate remains unknown for Lilium. In this study, we isolated a benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (BSMT) gene, LiBSMT, from petals of Lilium 'Yelloween'. The gene has an open reading frame of 1083 base pairs (bp) and encodes a protein of 41.05 kDa. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses of LiBSMT revealed 40-50% similarity with other known benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases in other plant species, and revealed homology to BSMT of Oryza sativa. Heterologous expression of this gene in Escherichia coli yielded an enzyme responsible for catalyzing benzoic acid and salicylic acid to methyl benzoate and methyl salicylate, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that LiBSMT was preferentially expressed in petals. Moreover, the expression of LiBSMT in petals was developmentally regulated. These expression patterns correlate well with the emission of methyl benzoate. Our results indicate that LiBSMT plays an important role in floral scent methyl benzoate production and emission in lily flowers.

  5. Antagonistic control of a dual-input mammalian gene switch by food additives. (United States)

    Xie, Mingqi; Ye, Haifeng; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; Fussenegger, Martin


    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of mammalian trigger-inducible transgene-control devices that are able to programme complex cellular behaviour. Fruit-based benzoate derivatives licensed as food additives, such as flavours (e.g. vanillate) and preservatives (e.g. benzoate), are a particularly attractive class of trigger compounds for orthogonal mammalian transgene control devices because of their innocuousness, physiological compatibility and simple oral administration. Capitalizing on the genetic componentry of the soil bacterium Comamonas testosteroni, which has evolved to catabolize a variety of aromatic compounds, we have designed different mammalian gene expression systems that could be induced and repressed by the food additives benzoate and vanillate. When implanting designer cells engineered for gene switch-driven expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) into mice, blood SEAP levels of treated animals directly correlated with a benzoate-enriched drinking programme. Additionally, the benzoate-/vanillate-responsive device was compatible with other transgene control systems and could be assembled into higher-order control networks providing expression dynamics reminiscent of a lap-timing stopwatch. Designer gene switches using licensed food additives as trigger compounds to achieve antagonistic dual-input expression profiles and provide novel control topologies and regulation dynamics may advance future gene- and cell-based therapies. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Is expression of rat breast matrix components influenced by estrogen, progestins and tibolone? (United States)

    Cunha, E P; Pompei, L M; Theodoro, T R; Steiner, M L; Silva, V F; Silveira, E R A; Mader, A M A A; Pinhal, M A S; Fernandes, C E


    To study the effects of estrogen therapy, alone or combined with progestogens, and of tibolone on the expression of heparanase (HSPE), extracellular matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9), perlecan and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in normal breast tissue. Thirty 250-day-old Wistar rats were castrated and 3 weeks later received one of the following treatments by gavage for 5 weeks: (1) estradiol benzoate; (2) estradiol benzoate + medroxyprogesterone acetate; (3) estradiol benzoate + norethisterone acetate; (4) estradiol benzoate + dydrogesterone; (5) tibolone; (6) placebo. Following treatment, the expressions of mRNA for HSPE, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were analyzed by real-time PCR and the protein expressions of HSPE, MMP-2, MMP-9, perlecan and PCNA were quantified by immunohistochemistry. There was a statistically significant difference among the groups for the expression of HSPE mRNA due to high levels in the tibolone group. The groups differed in terms of PCNA, with lower levels found in the tibolone group followed by the estradiol benzoate + dydrogesterone group. A statistically significant positive correlation was observed for PCNA versus perlecan and MMP-9. There was no difference in the effects of combinations of estradiol and different progestogens on extracellular matrix components, and breast cell proliferation was associated with increases in perlecan and MMP-9.

  7. Metatranscriptome of an Anaerobic Benzene-Degrading, Nitrate-Reducing Enrichment Culture Reveals Involvement of Carboxylation in Benzene Ring Activation (United States)

    Luo, Fei; Gitiafroz, Roya; Devine, Cheryl E.; Gong, Yunchen; Hug, Laura A.; Raskin, Lutgarde


    The enzymes involved in the initial steps of anaerobic benzene catabolism are not known. To try to elucidate this critical step, a metatranscriptomic analysis was conducted to compare the genes transcribed during the metabolism of benzene and benzoate by an anaerobic benzene-degrading, nitrate-reducing enrichment culture. RNA was extracted from the mixed culture and sequenced without prior mRNA enrichment, allowing simultaneous examination of the active community composition and the differential gene expression between the two treatments. Ribosomal and mRNA sequences attributed to a member of the family Peptococcaceae from the order Clostridiales were essentially only detected in the benzene-amended culture samples, implicating this group in the initial catabolism of benzene. Genes similar to each of two subunits of a proposed benzene-carboxylating enzyme were transcribed when the culture was amended with benzene. Anaerobic benzoate degradation genes from strict anaerobes were transcribed only when the culture was amended with benzene. Genes for other benzoate catabolic enzymes and for nitrate respiration were transcribed in both samples, with those attributed to an Azoarcus species being most abundant. These findings indicate that the mineralization of benzene starts with its activation by a strict anaerobe belonging to the Peptococcaceae, involving a carboxylation step to form benzoate. These data confirm the previously hypothesized syntrophic association between a benzene-degrading Peptococcaceae strain and a benzoate-degrading denitrifying Azoarcus strain for the complete catabolism of benzene with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor. PMID:24795366

  8. Diaquabis(benzoato-κObis[4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-2-(pyridin-4-yl-κNimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide]cobalt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Miao Wang


    Full Text Available The title compound, [Co(C7H5O22(C12H16N3O22(H2O2], was obtained from a conventional solvent evaporation method. The complex molecule is centrosymmetric, so pairs of equivalent ligands lie trans to each other in a slightly distorted octahedral CoN2O4 geometry. The CoII ion is coordinated by the pyridine N atoms from NITpPy ligands [NITpPy is 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-2-(pyridin-4-ylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide, water O atoms and two monodentate benzoate O atoms. The complex molecules are connected by O—H...O hydrogen bonds between water molecules and benzoate ligands, forming chains parallel to [100]. π–π stacking interactions between the benzoate ligands with centroid–centroid distances of 3.752 (2 Å connect the chains into layers parallel to (10-1.

  9. Dietary preferences of weaned piglets offered diets containing organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A preference test and a performance trial were carried out to examine weaned piglets’ feed intake response to diets containing either lactic acid,formic acid,calcium formate,or sodium benzoate (8 g kg-1 feed.In Experiment 1, throughout a 21-d post-weaning period,30 entire litters (306 piglets weaned at the age of 30 d were allowed to choose between two organic-acid-supplemented diets. All of the four different organic-acid-supplemented diets were tested in pairs against each other,and the six possible combinations were lactic acid +formic acid,lactic acid +calcium formate,lactic acid + sodium benzoate,formic acid +calcium formate,formic acid +sodium benzoate,and calcium for-mate +sodium benzoate.Piglets preferred diets supplemented with sodium benzoate to ones supplemented with formic acid or calcium formate.The acceptability of diets supplemented with lactic acid,formic acid,or calcium formate was similar.In Experiment 2,until the age of 58 d,60 piglets from 10 litters weaned at the age of 28 or 38 d were fed non-acidified diets or ones supplemented with lactic acid,formic acid,calcium formate,or sodium benzoate.Feed consumption did not differ between piglets fed non-acidified and those fed organic-acid-supplemented diets. Growth performance was reduced by dietary calcium formate supplementation, while the performance of piglets fed other organic-acid-supplemented diets did not differ significantly from those fed the non-acidified control diet.The frequency of post-weaning diarrhoea was highest in piglets fed diets supplemented with calcium formate and lowest in piglets fed diets supplemented with formic acid.;

  10. In vitro synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis L. and some preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of the species Salvia officinalis L. and its synergistic action with the preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in vitro against selected food spoiling bacteria. Synergism was assessed by the checkerboard assay method and quantitatively represented by the FIC index. Synergistic action was established for aqueous extract/sodium benzoate, aqueous extract/potassium sorbate, aqueous extract/sodium nitrite combinations. Synergism was detected in relation to: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus subtilis and Proteus sp. Synergism was established at plant extract and preservative concentrations corresponding up to 1/8 MIC values.

  11. Preparation of ferric acetylacetonate, bonzonate and caprate labelled with Fe-55 and tests of application to liquid scintillation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos, J.M.; Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Malonda, A.


    The methods of preparation of ferric acetylacetonate, benzoate and caprate labelled with 55 Fe are described. The quenching effect, the spectral baehaviour and the count rate stability are studied by liquid scintillation measurements in toluene, INSTAGEL and HISAFE II, for two different values of the sample concentration. The ferric acetylaceton-ate is stable for all the three scintillators but shows a strong quench, while the ferric benzoate and caprate are stable only for INSTAGEL and HISAFE II showing no significant quench at the concentrat-ions of interest in habitual measurements. (Author)

  12. Evidence for acetyl coenzyme A and cinnamoyl coenzyme A in the anaerobic toluene mineralization pathway in Azoarcus tolulyticus Tol-4.


    Chee-Sanford, J C; Frost, J W; Fries, M R; Zhou, J; Tiedje, J M


    A toluene-degrading denitrifier, Azoarcus tolulyticus Tol-4, was one of eight similar strains isolated from three petroleum-contaminated aquifer sediments. When the strain was grown anaerobically on toluene, 68% of the carbon from toluene was found as CO2 and 30% was found as biomass. Strain Tol-4 had a doubling time of 4.3 h, a Vmax of 50 micromol x min-1 x g of protein-1, and a cellular yield of 49.6 g x mol of toluene-1. Benzoate appeared to be an intermediate, since F-benzoates accumulate...

  13. Contact allergy to isoeugenol and its derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanaka, Susumu; Royds, C; Buckley, Christopher D


    in 19, isoeugenyl benzoate in 4, isoeugenyl phenylacetate in 16, isoeugenyl methyl ether in 6 and benzyl isoeugenyl ether in 2 patients. There was a concomitant reaction to isoeugenol in 36/40 of those positive to transisoeugenol, 13/19 of those to isoeugenyl acetate, 3/4 of those to isoeugenyl benzoate...... and 15/16 of those to isoeugenyl phenylacetate but in none of those 6 positive to isoeugenyl methyl ether and in neither of those 2 positive to benzyl isoeugenyl ether. Concomitant contact allergy between isoeugenol and its derivatives may occur through chemical cross-reactivity or local skin metabolism...

  14. Synthesis of bio-based nanocomposites for controlled release of antimicrobial agents in food packaging (United States)

    DeGruson, Min Liu

    The utilization of bio-based polymers as packaging materials has attracted great attention in both scientific and industrial areas due to the non-renewable and nondegradable nature of synthetic plastic packaging. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biobased polymer with excellent film-forming and coating properties, but exhibits brittleness, insufficient gas barrier properties, and poor thermal stability. The overall goal of the project was to develop the polyhydroxyalkanoate-based bio-nanocomposite films modified by antimicrobial agents with improved mechanical and gas barrier properties, along with a controlled release rate of antimicrobial agents for the inhibition of foodborne pathogens and fungi in food. The ability for antimicrobial agents to intercalate into layered double hydroxides depended on the nature of the antimicrobial agents, such as size, spatial structure, and polarity, etc. Benzoate and gallate anions were successfully intercalated into LDH in the present study and different amounts of benzoate anion were loaded into LDH under different reaction conditions. Incorporation of nanoparticles showed no significant effect on mechanical properties of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) films, however, significantly increased the tensile strength and elongation at break of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV) films. The effects of type and concentration of LDH nanoparticles (unmodified LDH and LDH modified by sodium benzoate and sodium gallate) on structure and properties of PHBV films were then studied. The arrangement of LDH in the bio-nanocomposite matrices ranged from exfoliated to phase-separated depending on the type and concentration of LDH nanoparticles. Intercalated or partially exfoliated structures were obtained using modified LDH, however, only phase-separated structures were formed using unmodified LDH. The mechanical (tensile strength and elongation at break) and thermo-mechanical (storage modulus) properties were significantly improved with low

  15. catena-Poly[[aqua(benzoato-κ2O,O′(benzoic acid-κOcalcium]-μ3-benzoato-κ4O:O,O′:O′

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimjon Azizov


    Full Text Available In title compound, [Ca(C7H5O22(C7H6O2(H2O]n, the eightfold-coordinated CaII ion is bonded to four carboxylate O atoms from two benzoate ions, an O atom from benzoic acid and a water O atom. One of the carboxylate groups bridges adjacent Ca2+ ions, forming a polymeric ribbon structure parallel to [010]. In the crystal, the benzoate anions and water molecule interact by way of inter- and intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  16. PENAMBAHAN ASAM ASETAT DAN FUMARAT UNTUK MEMPERTAHANKAN KUALITAS PIKEL UBI JALAR KUNING PASCA FERMENTASI (Addition of Acetic and Fumaric Acid to Maintain Quality of Fermented Yellow Sweet Potatoes Pickle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neti Yuliana


    bakteri bukan asam laktat, dan bakteri asam laktat masing masing <30 koloni/ml, total asam 1,35%, pH 3,18 dan total padatan terlarut 2,07o brix, warna orange pucat, beraroma asam dengan tingkat penerimaan panelis 87%. Berdasarkan penerimaan sensoris, perlakuan asam fumarat lebih baik daripada asam asetat ataupun kombinasai asam asetat-fumarat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa asam asetat, fumarat dan kombinasi keduanya dapat mempertahankan kualitas pikel ubi jalar kuning yang berpotensi menjadi alternatif pengganti pengawet benzoat. Kata Kunci: Pikel ubi jalar kuning, asetat, fumarat, natrium benzoat

  17. Multicolored, Low-Voltage-Driven, Flexible Organic Electrochromic Devices Based on Oligomers. (United States)

    Wan, Zhijun; Zeng, Jinming; Li, Hui; Liu, Ping; Deng, Wenji


    In this study, a series of organic conjugated oligomers containing 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and aromatic groups are synthesized, which are as follows: 2,5-di(methyl benzoate)-3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene (1EDOT-2B-COOCH 3 ), 5,5'-di(methyl benzoate)-2,2'-bi(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (2EDOT-2B-COOCH 3 ), 5,5″-di(methyl benzoate)-2,2':5',2″-ter(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (3EDOT-2B-COOCH 3 ), and 5,5″'-di(methyl benzoate)-2,2':5',2″: 5″,2″'-quater(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (4EDOT-2B-COOCH 3 ). Using these oligomers as active materials, flexible organic electrochromic devices are fabricated. The device structure is indium tin oxide-PET plastic slide (ITO-PET)/active layer/conducting gel/ITO-PET, and the electrochromic properties of oligomers are investigated. These oligomers exhibit reversible color changes upon electrochemical doping and dedoping. The highest optical contrast is exhibited by 4EDOT-2B-COOCH 3 , which is 75.2% at 700 nm. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Evaluation of Local Gum of Acacia polyacantha as a Suspending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The local gum of Acacia polyacantha was evaluated as a suspending agent in metronidazole benzoate suspensions in comparison with Acacia senegal and NaCMC at concentration range of 1-4% (w/v). The resulting suspensions were evaluated for their sedimentation volume (%), degree of flocculation, rheology, ...

  19. Diluted melt proton exchange slab waveguides in LiNbO3: A new fabrication and characterization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veng, Torben; Skettrup, Torben


    A method of dilute-melt proton exchange employing a mixture of glycerol and KHSO4 with lithium benzoate added is used to fabricate planar waveguides in c-cut LiNbO3. With this exchange melt system the waveguide refractive index profiles can be fabricated with a high degree of reproducibility. In ...

  20. Determination of Cinnamaldehyde in Cinnamon by SPME-GC-MS: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment (United States)

    Wang, Yimin; Ocariz, Jessica; Hammersand, Jennifer; MacDonald, Evan; Bartczak, Ashley; Kero, Frank; Young, Vaneica Y.; Williams, Kathryn R.


    Students analyze "trans"-cinnamaldehyde in commercial cinnamon using solid-phase microextraction and GC-MS with ethyl benzoate as the internal standard. Aside from the instrumentation, the experiment utilizes readily available low hazard materials and can be completed within one four-hour laboratory period. (Contains 2 figures.)

  1. Three-dimensional imaging analysis of Yersinia ruckeri infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gills by optical projection tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Maki; Raida, Martin Kristian

    incubated whole with rabbit anti-Y. ruckeri polyclonal antibody and Alexa Fluor®594 conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG. After embedding in 1% low melting point agarose, specimens were dehydrated in 100% methanol and cleared in BABB (benzyl alcohol: benzyl benzoate) for OPT scanning. 3D imaging results showed...

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Validation of an HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Analysis of Dextromethorphan HBr, Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate and Sodium Benzoate in Cough Mixture Abstract · Vol 26, No 1 (2008) - Articles Short Communication: Comparative Quality Evaluation of Some Brands of Paracetamol Tablets, Suppositories and Syrups

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mndalira, K. Vol 12, No 2 (2013) - Articles Vitamin C stability in pineapple, guava and baobab juices under different storage conditions using different levels of sodium benzoate and metabisulphite. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1684-5315. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  4. Screening of natural spices for improving the microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 30, 2014 ... refrigerator and control samples (Table 1). The optimum concentration to obtain a consistent preservative effect of Sodium benzoate was 1%, at this concentration; the preservative effect was similar to those obtained from the spices (Table 1). Enumeration of the frequency of occurrence of the bacterial ...

  5. Evaluation of the effectiveness of insecticide trunk injections for control of Latoia lepida (Cramer in the sweet olive tree Osmanthus fragrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Huang


    Full Text Available The screening of suitable insecticides is a key factor in successfully applying trunk injection technology to ornamental plants. In this study, six chemical pesticides were selected and injected into the trunks of Osmanthus fragrans to control the nettle caterpillar, Latoia lepida (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae, using a no-pressure injection system. The absorption rate of the insecticides, the leaf loss due to insect damage, and the mortality and frass amount of L. lepida larvae were evaluated after 77 and 429 days. The results showed that 4% imidacloprid + carbosulfan and 21% abamectin + imidacloprid + omethoate had the fastest conductivity and were completely absorbed into the trunkswithin14 days; however, the efficiencies of these insecticides in controlling L. lepidawere extremely low. Additionally, the treatment 10% emamectin benzoate + clothianidin and 2.5% emamectin benzoate was almost completely absorbed within 30 days and exhibited a longer duration of insecticide efficiency (>80% mortality in the upper and lower leaves of the canopy. Treatment with these insecticides also resulted in significantly lower leaf loss and frass amounts. We conclude that emamectin benzoate and emamectin benzoate + clothianidin have a rapid uptake into O. fragrans, and are effective as insecticides over long durations. Hence, they may be a suitable control option for L. lepida in O. fragrans plants.

  6. The first exposure assessment of legacy and unrestricted brominated flame retardants in predatory birds of Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle Leontina Bernard


    The exposure to legacy polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) and unrestricted 1,2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), bis (2-ethylhexyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP) and 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-benzoate (EH-TBB) was examined in tail fea...

  7. Microbiological screening of street-vended groundnut cake, Kulikuli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peanuts are rich in calories and contain many nutrients, minerals, antioxidants, and vitamins that are essential for optimum health. ... displayed the highest TBC when compared with laboratory-prepared samples treated with natural spices, even better than the preservative chemical (sodium benzoate) treated samples.

  8. The effect of garlic and ginger phytogenics on the shelf life and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained showed that the treatment of freshly prepared soursop juices with sodium benzoate, and a mixture of garlic and ginger improved storage span and reduced health risks of infection and/or intoxication from their consumption. Keywords: Shelf life, soursop juice, phytogenics, preservatives, microbial load.

  9. Disease: H00164 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate [DR:D02277] ... ICD-10: E72.2 MeSH: D020165 OMIM: 237300 PMID:17310273 ... AUTHORS ... Kurokawa... K, Yorifuji T, Kawai M, Momoi T, Nagasaka H, Takayanagi M, Kobayashi K, Yoshino M, ...Kosho T, Adachi M, Otsuka H, Yamamoto S, Murata T, Suenaga A, Ishii T, Terada K, Shimura N, Kiwaki K, Shintaku H, Yamakawa

  10. Research note : Miscibility behaviour of binary mixtures of benzyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Miscibility of binary mixtures of benzyl benzoate and liquid paraffin as functions of temperature and composition has been determined using phase separation method. The binary mixtures demonstrated a critical (upper) solution temperature of 35 °C at 101325 Nm-2 with a mixing gap. A tie-line drawn at 28 °C across the ...

  11. In vitro and In vivo Studies on Stilbene Analogs as Potential Treatment Agents for Colon Cancer (United States)

    Based upon the potential of resveratrol as a cancer chemopreventive agent, 27 stilbenes analogs were synthesized and tested against colon cancer cell line HT-29. Among these compounds, amino derivative (Z)-4-(3,5-dimethoxystyryl) aniline (4), (Z)-methyl 4-(3,5-dimethoxystyryl) benzoate (6) and (Z)-1...

  12. Optimising carbon and nitrogen sources for Azotobacter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 11, 2011 ... The present work deals with selecting and optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources for producing biomass from Azotobacter chroococcum. Four carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, manitol and sodium benzoate) and four nitrogen sources (yeast extract, meat extract, NH4Cl and (NH4)2SO4) were ...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moradi, Zeinab. Vol 15, No 1 (2016) - Articles Determination of Synthetic Food Colors, Caffeine, Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate in Sports Drinks Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1596-9827. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  14. Use of a parasitic wasp as a biosensor (United States)

    Screening cargo for illicit substances is still in need of high-throughput inspection systems that can rapidly screen and accurately identify suspicious cargo. Here we investigate the ability of a parasitic wasp, Microplitis croceipes to detect and respond to methyl benzoate, the volatile component ...

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 153 ... Vol 3, No 2 (2000): April, Comparative Effects of Water, Acid and Sodium Benzoate as Additives on the Micelle-Influenced Aquation Reactions of Some Iron (II) Phenanthroline Complexes in Acetone, Abstract. A.O. Fadiran, J. Ige. Vol 8, No 2 (2005):, Comparison of land equivalent ratio, yield and income ...

  16. 27 CFR 21.151 - List of denaturants authorized for denatured spirits. (United States)



  17. Variable Denticity in Carboxylate Binding to the Uranyl Coordination Complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenewold, G.S.; De Jong, Wibe A.; Oomens, Jos; Van Stipdonk, Michael J.


    Tris-carboxylate complexes of the uranyl (UO2)2+ cation with acetate and benzoate were generated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and then isolated in a Fourier transformion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Wavelength-selective infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) of the tris-acetatouranyl anion resulted in a redox elimination of an acetate radical, which was used to generate an IR spectrum that consisted of six prominent absorption bands. These were interpreted with the aid of density functional theory calculations in terms of symmetric and antisymmetric -CO2 stretches of both the monodentate and bidentate acetate, CH3 bending and umbrella vibrations, and a uranyl O-U-O asymmetric stretch. The comparison of the calculated and measured IR spectra indicated that the tris-acetate complex contained two acetate ligands bound in a bidentate fashion, while the third acetate was monodentate. In similar fashion, the tris-benzoate uranyl anion was formed and photodissociated by loss of a benzoate radical, enabling measurement of the infrared spectrum that was in close agreement with that calculated for a structure containing one monodentate, and two bidentate benzoate ligands.

  18. 2018-04-07T17:44:17Z oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    article/35131 2018-04-07T17:44:17Z epj:ART Development and Validation of an HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Analysis of Dextromethorphan HBr, Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate and Sodium Benzoate in Cough Mixture Wongiel, S Hymete, ...

  19. Titanium dioxide surfaces and interfaces studied using ESDIAD, LEED and STM

    CERN Document Server

    Cocks, I D


    resolved into two contributions: H atoms bonded at the oxide substrate, and the rupture of the C-H bonds of the acetate. It is proposed that acetates are bridge bonded with five-fold coordinated Ti sup 4 sup + ions, with their molecular plane perpendicular to the surface. Decomposition of acetate at room temperature occurs under electron beam radiation, desorbing CH sub 2 CO and CH sub 3 /CH sub 4. Adsorption of benzoic acid at the TiO sub 2 (110) surface is dissociative, forming benzoate and surface hydroxyls. Adsorbed benzoate is bonded with the five-fold coordinated Ti sup 4 sup + cations, forming a pseudo (2x1) overlayer at a saturation coverage of 0.5 ML. Attractive interactions between benzoate aromatic rings leads to the formation of dimerised benzoate rows along the [001] direction. TiO sub 2 surfaces have been studied by electron stimulated desorption ion angular distribution (ESDIAD), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). The TiO sub 2 (100) surface was stu...

  20. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Applied Chemistry Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, MS University of Baroda,. Kalabhavan, P B No. ... Two new mesogenic homologous series are synthesized from methoxyethyl 4-(4′-hydroxy- phenylazo) benzoate. In series ... TA-4000 system, adopting a scanning rate of 5°C/min. The calorimeter was ...

  1. Optimising carbon and nitrogen sources for Azotobacter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work deals with selecting and optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources for producing biomass from Azotobacter chroococcum. Four carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, manitol and sodium benzoate) and four nitrogen sources (yeast extract, meat extract, NH4Cl and (NH4)2SO4) were evaluated during the first ...

  2. Stress-induced sensitization of the limbic system in ovariectomized rats is partly restored by cyclic 17 beta-estradiol administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Marjolein; Bakker, Petra L.; Koch, T; Ter Horst, Gert J.

    Chronic stress induces neurobiological alterations which have consequences for subsequent stress handling. In the current experiment, ovariectomized rats were subjected daily to a stressor for 21 days. Thereafter, the rats were treated for 21 days with 17 beta-estradiol benzoate (10 mu g/250 g, once

  3. N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) en de N-nitrosamine problematiek in cosmetica - Een vogelperspectief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaessen HAMG; Rijst van der EC; Melis PHAM; ARO


    The N-nitrosamine problem in cosmetics has been reviewed on behalf of the Chief Inspectorate of Health Protection (HIGB). Problem issues that emerge from this review are NDELA [N-nitroso-diethanolamine] and NMPABAO [2-ethylhexyl 4-(N-nitroso-N-methylamino)-benzoate]. Data on the NMPABAO content of

  4. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Name of the substance in the pure in mixtures with Difference. State phenols. Ethyl acetate .. 4 h 1739 1700, 1739 39. Ethylbenzoate t 4 1720 1695, 1720 25. Ethyl cinnamate w v. . . . . 1712 1685, 1712 27. Phenyl acetate. . A 1766 1716, 1766 50. Phenyl propionate 760 1710, 1760 50. Phenyl benzoate b a 1740 1704, ...

  5. 1276-IJBCS-Article-Gbonjubola Oluseson A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The antibacterial activity of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate was investigated against bacterial isolates from packaged orange drinks using agar well diffusion and broth dilution methods. The antibacterial activity of the test agents against the standard NCTC bacteria species was also tested. The bacterial count from the.

  6. Ruthenium(II)-catalyzed synthesis of hydroxylated arenes with ester as an effective directing group. (United States)

    Yang, Yiqing; Lin, Yun; Rao, Yu


    An unprecedented Ru(II) catalyzed ortho-hydroxylation has been developed for the facile synthesis of a variety of multifunctionalized arenes from easily accessible ethyl benzoates with ester as an efficient directing group. Both the TFA/TFAA cosolvent system and oxidants serve as the critical success factors in this transformation. The reaction demonstrates excellent reactivity, good functional group tolerance, and high yields.

  7. Extension of shelf life of garri by hygienic handling and sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of hygienic handling and sodium benzoate treatment on the microbial, quality and shelf stability of garri was evaluated for 14 month using standard methods. Results indicated that there were less bacteria and fungi in the hygienically handled garri at the end of the storage period than for conventionally handled ...

  8. Effects of Preservative Techniques on the Storage Stability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of different preservative techniques on the storage stability of sorghum stem sheath beverage was studied. A portion of the beverage samples were pasteurized at 75oC for 15 mins, another pasteurized and refrigerated and the other pasteurized and preserved with 0.1% sodium benzoate and they were studied at ...

  9. Screening Maritime Shipping Containers for Weapons of Mass Destruction (United States)


    detection capability. The BSAS is a benign bio- safety level I test material that has similar properties to a biological threat (size, fluorescence, etc...Chemical Cyclohexanone Drug Marker, Background Methyl benzoate Drug Marker Limonene Smuggled Agriculture a-Pinene Common Background Dimcthylmethyl

  10. Therapeutic role of glucogalactan polysaccharide extracted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 17, 2015 ... yellow colour due to the reaction of thiocholine with dithiobisnitro- benzoate ions. Determination of homocysteine was carried out using HPLC (Varian Inc., CA, ..... regulation of cerebral blood flow, and in memory acquisition. In fact, NO appears to be a double-edged sword, simultaneously neurotoxic and ...

  11. ascorbic acid retention in canned lime juice preserved with sulfur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ASCORBIC ACID RETENTION IN CANNED LIME JUICE. PRESERVED WITH SULFUR DIOXIDE AND BENZOIC ACID. Francis M Malhooko“ and Elizabeth N Kiniiya'. ABSTRACT. The effects of two levels each of sodium metabisulfite and sodium benzoate on the shelf-life of canned lime juice stored at ambient temperature ...

  12. Characterization of 3-chlorobenzoate degrading aerobic bacteria isolated under various environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krooneman, J; Sliekers, AO; Gomes, TMP; Forney, LJ; Gottschal, JC

    The rates of bacterial growth in nature are often restricted by low concentrations of oxygen or carbon substrates. In the present study the metabolic properties of 24 isolates that had been isolated using various concentrations of 3-chlorobenzoate, benzoate and oxygen as well as using continuous

  13. Shelf stability of agidi produced from maize (Zea mays) and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The shelf stability of agidi produced from maize (Zea mays) during ambient temperature (30.0±1.5°C) storage and the effects of sodium benzoate treatment in combination with low temperature storage (12-. 14°C) was evaluated for eight weeks ... All these suggest the need to develop methods of extending the shelf life while ...

  14. Influence of storage temperatures on physicochemical sensory and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Storage stability of mango pulp (Mp) was determined at room (r) 25 to 35°C and refrigerated (ref) 4°C with the addition of potassium sorbate (PS), sodium benzoate (SB) and potassium metabisulphite (PMS). The statistical analysis viz factorial analysis and least significant square design (LSD) verified the temperatures effect ...

  15. The mutagenic potentials of potassium bromate and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 16, 2007 ... Food additives are substances added to preserve flavour or improve the taste and appearance of food. The continuous consumption of these food additives could be hazardous to human health. Food additives including sodium bicarbonate, sodium benzoate, ammonium bicarbonate and potassium.

  16. Synthesis and anion exchange reactions of a layered copper-zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Acetate ions can be exchanged with simple inorganic anions such as chloride and nitrate, and organic anions such as benzoate and large surfactant anions such as dodecyl sulphate. Structures of these hydroxysalts are derived from that of Cu2(OH)3NO3 ⋅ H2O with some of the Cu2+ ions being replaced by Zn2+.

  17. Studies on the efficacy of some preservatives used in packaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate was investigated against bacterial isolates from packaged orange drinks using agar well diffusion and broth dilution methods. The antibacterial activity of the test agents against the standard NCTC bacteria species was also tested. The bacterial count from the ...

  18. Evidence for acetyl coenzyme A and cinnamoyl coenzyme A in the anaerobic toluene mineralization pathway in Azoarcus tolulyticus Tol-4. (United States)

    Chee-Sanford, J C; Frost, J W; Fries, M R; Zhou, J; Tiedje, J M


    A toluene-degrading denitrifier, Azoarcus tolulyticus Tol-4, was one of eight similar strains isolated from three petroleum-contaminated aquifer sediments. When the strain was grown anaerobically on toluene, 68% of the carbon from toluene was found as CO2 and 30% was found as biomass. Strain Tol-4 had a doubling time of 4.3 h, a Vmax of 50 micromol x min-1 x g of protein-1, and a cellular yield of 49.6 g x mol of toluene-1. Benzoate appeared to be an intermediate, since F-benzoates accumulated from F-toluenes and [14C]benzoate was produced from [14C]toluene in the presence of excess benzoate. Two metabolites, E-phenylitaconic acid (1 to 2%) and benzylsuccinic acid (toluene, [14C]acetate, and cinnamic acid. Evidence for anaerobic toluene metabolism by methyl group oxidation was not found, since benzylsuccinic acid and E-phenylitaconic acid were not detected after incubation with benzylalcohol and benzaldehyde, nor were benzylalcohol and benzaldehyde detected even in 14C trapping experiments. PMID:8975623

  19. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 4, 2005 ... prescribed for the treatment of scabies range between. 10% and 25% (Reynolds, 1989; Elgart, 1996;. Olasode and Onayemi, 1998). While such. Oladimeji and Orafidiya: Miscibility behaviour of binary mixtures of benzyl benzoate and liquid paraffin concentrations are readily miscible with liquid paraffin.

  20. Dgroup: DG00463 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00463 Chemical ... DGroup Estriol ... D00185 ... Estriol (JP17/USP) ... D01986 ... Estriol t...ripropionate (JAN) ... D01989 ... Estriol diacetate benzoate (JAN) D07920 ... Estriol succinate D07921 ... Estriol sod...ium succinate (BAN) Other ... DG01584 ... Estrogen receptor agonist ... DG01986 ... Estrogen ATC code: G03CA04 G03CC06 Estr

  1. Short Communication : Enhancing the Quality and Activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of application of benzoic acid, sodium benzoate and sodium metabisulfite, prior to sun drying of papaya latex, on enzymic activity, colour appearance and smell of the crude papain produced were investigated. The preservatives improved appearance/colour, smell and enzymic activity with respect to control sample ...

  2. Neurotensin enhances estradiol induced DNA synthesis in immature rat uterus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistry, A.; Vijayan, E.


    Systemic administration of Neurotensin, a tridecapeptide, in immature rats treated with estradiol benzoate significantly enhances uterine DNA synthesis as reflected by the incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine. The peptide may have a direct action on the uterus. Substance P, a related peptide, had no effect on uterine DNA synthesis. 18 references, 4 tables.

  3. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    MS) was .... 4.5%. 4.5%. 4.5%. 4.5%. Table 7: Other findings in the organic acid profile. Other finding. Number of patients. Diagnosis. Hippuric acid. Valproate. 4. 7. Na benzoate intake. Antiepileptic drugs ... in biological fluids, especially urine by.

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12059-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1e-08 (Q9FYZ9) RecName: Full=Benzoate carboxyl methyltransferase; ... 63 4e-08 AJ628349_1( AJ628349 |pid:none) Nicotiana suav... sativa (japonica cultivar-gr... 39 0.58 EF472973_1( EF472973 |pid:none) Nicotiana suaveolens salicylic aci.

  5. Enzymatic approach for the synthesis of biobased aromatic-aliphatic oligo-/polyesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fodor, Csaba; Golkaram, Milad; Woortman, Albert J. J.; van Dijken, Jur; Loos, Katja


    Aromatic moieties containing oligoesters have been synthesized by enzymatic polymerization of AB-type alkylenehydroxybenzoates via different polymerization methods. Oligo(2-hydroxyethoxy benzoate) (OHEBA) was obtained with number average molecular weights (M-n) around 2000 g mol(-1). A low degree of

  6. Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of levodropropizine. (United States)

    Caselli, Emilia; Tosi, Giovanni; Forni, Arrigo; Bucciarelli, Maria; Prati, Fabio


    Levodropropizine, an antitussive drug, was prepared in high enantiomeric excess in three steps, starting from dichloroacetone (2). Monosubstitution of 2 with sodium benzoate and subsequent baker's yeast reduction stereoselectively afforded the corresponding chlorohydrin in 73% ee, which was converted to levodropropizine and enantiomerically enriched up to 95% ee by fractional crystallisation.

  7. The mutagenic potentials of potassium bromate and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food additives are substances added to preserve flavour or improve the taste and appearance of food. The continuous consumption of these food additives could be hazardous to human health. Food additives including sodium bicarbonate, sodium benzoate, ammonium bicarbonate and potassium bromate were subjected ...

  8. The principles of ultra high pressure technology and its application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 18, 2008 ... Key words: Ultra-high pressure (UHP), food processing/preservation and new food-processing technologies. INTRODUCTION. Increasing .... solutions, silicone oil, sodium benzoate solutions, ethanol solutions, inert gases and .... The residual enzyme activity and dissolved oxygen results in enzymatic and ...

  9. A concise synthetic route to the conduritols from pentoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keinicke, Lise Edelmann; Madsen, Robert


    -bromopropenyl benzoate and occurs with good diastereoselectivity. An amino group can be introduced in the product by trapping the intermediate aldehyde as the imine prior to the allylation. The functionalised 1,7-octadienes, thus obtained, are converted into protected conduritols by ring-closing olefin...

  10. Effect of different stabilizers on the antibacterial activity of “ginger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of five stabilizers i.e. citric acid, sodium metabisulfite, sodium benzoate, olive oil and ascorbic acid mixed in the ginger - garlic paste were evaluated against five pathogens (E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter aerogenes). Activity of the control paste decreased ...

  11. Development and Validation of an HPLC Method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid, sensitive and selective reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DXM), sodium benzoate (SB) and potassium guaiacolesulfonate (PGS) in cough mixture. The combined drug mixtures were ...

  12. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Two new mesogenic homologous series are synthesized from methoxyethyl 4-(4′-hydroxy- phenylazo) benzoate. In series I the phenolic –OH group is alkylated, whereas in series II it is esterified with 4-n-alkoxybenzoyl group. In series I, all the nine members synthesized exhibit only enantiotropic smectic A ...

  13. agro-waste as source of fine and industrial chemicals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    benzoate which upon ozonolysis .... evaporation of acetone, the reaction mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (2 × 100 mL) and the combined organic extract washed with water (2 × 50 mL). .... 10 mL tert-butanol/water (1:1 ratio) were added.

  14. Effect of Sulfometuron Methyl on Ground Water and Stream Quality in Coastal Plain Forest Watersheds (United States)

    D.G. Neary; J.L. Michael


    Sulfometuron methyl [methyl 2-[[[[(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidinyl)a-mino]carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]benzoate] was applied by a ground sprayer at a maximum labeled rate of 0.42 kg ha-1 a.i. to a 4 ha Coastal Plain flatwoods watershed BS site preperation for tree planting. Herbicide residues were detected in streamflow for only seven days after...

  15. Proteomic characterization of the outer membrane vesicle of Pseudomonas putida KT2440. (United States)

    Choi, Chi-Won; Park, Edmond Changkyun; Yun, Sung Ho; Lee, Sang-Yeop; Lee, Yeol Gyun; Hong, Yeonhee; Park, Kyeong Ryang; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Gun-Hwa; Kim, Seung Il


    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are produced by various pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. In this study, we isolated OMVs from a representative soil bacterium, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which has a biodegradative activity toward various aromatic compounds. Proteomic analysis identified the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) OprC, OprD, OprE, OprF, OprH, OprG, and OprW as major components of the OMV of P. putida KT2440. The production of OMVs was dependent on the nutrient availability in the culture media, and the up- or down-regulation of specific OMPs was observed according to the culture conditions. In particular, porins (e.g., benzoate-specific porin, BenF-like porin) and enzymes (e.g., catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, benzoate dioxygenase) for benzoate degradation were uniquely found in OMVs prepared from P. putida KT2440 that were cultured in media containing benzoate as the energy source. OMVs of P. putida KT2440 showed low pathological activity toward cultured cells that originated from human lung cells, which suggests their potential as adjuvants or OMV vaccine carriers. Our results suggest that the protein composition of the OMVs of P. putida KT2440 reflects the characteristics of the total proteome of P. putida KT2440.

  16. Clinical Features of Reported Ethylene Glycol Exposures in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan A Jobson

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol is highly toxic and represents an important cause of poisonings worldwide. Toxicity can result in central nervous system dysfunction, cardiovascular compromise, elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis and acute kidney injury. Many states have passed laws requiring addition of the bittering agent, denatonium benzoate, to ethylene glycol solutions to reduce severity of exposures. The objectives of this study were to identify differences between unintentional and intentional exposures and to evaluate the utility of denatonium benzoate as a deterrent.Using the National Poison Data System, we performed a retrospective analysis of reported cases of ethylene glycol exposures from January 2006 to December 2013. Outcome classification was summed for intentionality and used as a basis for comparison of effect groups. There were 45,097 cases of ethylene glycol exposures resulting in 154 deaths. Individuals more likely to experience major effects or death were older, male, and presented with more severe symptoms requiring higher levels of care. Latitude and season did not correlate with increased exposures; however, there were more exposures in rural areas. Denatonium benzoate use appeared to have no effect on exposure severity or number.Deaths due to ethylene glycol exposure were uncommon; however, there were major clinical effects and more exposures in rural areas. Addition of denatonium benzoate was not associated with a reduction in exposures. Alternative means to deter ingestion are needed. These findings suggest the need to consider replacing ethylene glycol with alternative and less toxic agents.

  17. Synthesis and anion exchange reactions of a layered copper–zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. A mixed-metal hydroxysalt of formula Cu1⋅6Zn0⋅4(OH)3(OAc)⋅H2O has been synthesized by an acetate hydrolysis route. Acetate ions can be exchanged with simple inorganic anions such as chloride and nitrate, and organic anions such as benzoate and large surfactant anions such as dodecyl sulphate. Struc-.

  18. A Study on Shelf Life Prolonging Process of Chili Soy Sauce in Malaysian SMEs’ (Small Medium Enterprise) (United States)

    Mat Sharif, Zainon Binti; Taib, Norhasnina Binti Mohd; Yusof, Mohd Sallehuddin Bin; Rahim, Mohammad Zulafif Bin; Tobi, Abdul Latif Bin Mohd; Othman, Mohd Syafiq Bin


    This research paper presents the possible solutions to prolong the shelf life of spicy (chili) soy sauce. The current spicy soy sauce formulation is without adding preservative which result in shorter shelf life. It is suggested to add chemical preservative to this spicy soy sauce in order to prolong its shelf life without jeopardising its prevailing taste. The proposed preservative is sodium benzoate. It is hope that by adding sodium benzoate, it can prolong the shelf life of the products from one year to two years without jeopardising the taste and quality of the products. The problem to extend the shelf life of spicy (chilli) soy sauce was 100% solved. The product could be extended to 2 years without adding any preservative (sodium benzoate) as the main raw material (soy sauce) purchased from “Kicap Jalen” had been added sodium benzoate as their preservative to prolong the soy sauce shelf life. All the physicochemical and nutritional analysis shown good results. As for the microbiological analysis, all the 3 samples shown good results on the total plate count.

  19. Patch testing for food-associated allergies in orofacial granulomatosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, Laura


    Food-associated allergies, especially to benzoates and cinnamon-related compounds, have been associated with orofacial granulomatosis and both standard and urticarial patch testing have been used to detect such allergies. Elimination diets have also been shown to be effective in some patients.

  20. Controlling the proliferation of Zygosaccharomyces bailii in ephedrine anti-phlegm cough mixture. (United States)

    Charnock, C; Finsrud, T; Foss, C


    To explain a reported proliferation of Zygosaccharomyces bailii in a commercially available ephedrine anti-phlegm cough mixture preserved with 0.1% sodium benzoate, and to present a strategy for controlling its growth. A yeast strain was isolated from the cough mixture and identified using biochemical tests, selective media and 18S rDNA sequencing. Preservative minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined based on the broth microdilution technique. The cough mixture was reproduced using benzoate and a number of other candidate preservatives. Bottles were challenged with the yeast using the test for antimicrobial efficacy outlined in the monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia. The contaminating yeast was identified as Z. bailii. The yeast MIC value for benzoate was close to or above the concentration used in the commercially available cough mixture. Reintroduction of the strain into bottles preserved with benzoate or sorbate, gave an initial reduction in the inoculum concentration (>1 log) followed by growth to values close to those found in the contaminated product. Furthermore, yeast cells taken from bottles at the end of the challenge test, suffered no initial reduction in numbers and grew in fresh bottles of the product, possibly suggesting adaptation to weak-acid preservatives. Two paraben-based preservative systems passed the challenge test. Preservatives of the weak-acid type do not control the growth of Z. bailii in ephedrine cough mixture for reasons discussed in this article. If the raw juice used in production of the product cannot be treated to eliminate the yeast, other preservatives must be sought. We show that paraben-based systems are effective in this role, and these are discussed as possible replacements for benzoate in the cough mixture.

  1. Genome-wide investigation and functional characterization of the β-ketoadipate pathway in the nitrogen-fixing and root-associated bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Lizhao


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil microorganisms are mainly responsible for the complete mineralization of aromatic compounds that usually originate from plant products or environmental pollutants. In many cases, structurally diverse aromatic compounds can be converted to a small number of structurally simpler intermediates, which are metabolized to tricarboxylic acid intermediates via the β-ketoadipate pathway. This strategy provides great metabolic flexibility and contributes to increased adaptation of bacteria to their environment. However, little is known about the evolution and regulation of the β-ketoadipate pathway in root-associated diazotrophs. Results In this report, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the benzoate and 4-hydroxybenzoate catabolic pathways of Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501, with a focus on the functional characterization of the β-ketoadipate pathway. The P. stutzeri A1501 genome contains sets of catabolic genes involved in the peripheral pathways for catabolism of benzoate (ben and 4-hydroxybenzoate (pob, and in the catechol (cat and protocatechuate (pca branches of the β-ketoadipate pathway. A particular feature of the catabolic gene organization in A1501 is the absence of the catR and pcaK genes encoding a LysR family regulator and 4-hydroxybenzoate permease, respectively. Furthermore, the BenR protein functions as a transcriptional activator of the ben operon, while transcription from the catBC promoter can be activated in response to benzoate. Benzoate degradation is subject to carbon catabolite repression induced by glucose and acetate in A1501. The HPLC analysis of intracellular metabolites indicated that low concentrations of 4-hydroxybenzoate significantly enhance the ability of A1501 to degrade benzoate. Conclusions The expression of genes encoding proteins involved in the β-ketoadipate pathway is tightly modulated by both pathway-specific and catabolite repression controls in A1501. This strain provides an ideal

  2. Anaerobic Oxidation of Benzene by the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Ferroglobus placidus▿† (United States)

    Holmes, Dawn E.; Risso, Carla; Smith, Jessica A.; Lovley, Derek R.


    Anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to the reduction of Fe(III) was studied in Ferroglobus placidus in order to learn more about how such a stable molecule could be metabolized under strict anaerobic conditions. F. placidus conserved energy to support growth at 85°C in a medium with benzene provided as the sole electron donor and Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor. The stoichiometry of benzene loss and Fe(III) reduction, as well as the conversion of [14C]benzene to [14C]carbon dioxide, was consistent with complete oxidation of benzene to carbon dioxide with electron transfer to Fe(III). Benzoate, but not phenol or toluene, accumulated at low levels during benzene metabolism, and [14C]benzoate was produced from [14C]benzene. Analysis of gene transcript levels revealed increased expression of genes encoding enzymes for anaerobic benzoate degradation during growth on benzene versus growth on acetate, but genes involved in phenol degradation were not upregulated during growth on benzene. A gene for a putative carboxylase that was more highly expressed in benzene- than in benzoate-grown cells was identified. These results suggest that benzene is carboxylated to benzoate and that phenol is not an important intermediate in the benzene metabolism of F. placidus. This is the first demonstration of a microorganism in pure culture that can grow on benzene under strict anaerobic conditions and for which there is strong evidence for degradation of benzene via clearly defined anaerobic metabolic pathways. Thus, F. placidus provides a much-needed pure culture model for further studies on the anaerobic activation of benzene in microorganisms. PMID:21742914

  3. Effects of estradiol on worm burden and peripheral leukocytes in Parastrongylus malaysiensis-infected rats. (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ahmad, R A; Badrul-Munir, M Z


    Gonadectomized male laboratory rats were given 0.06 mg/kg estradiol benzoate daily for 14 days before being inoculated with 50 third-stage larvae of Parastrongylus malaysiensis. Hormone treatment was continued until the rats were killed. The numbers of larvae in the brain and of adult worms in the pulmonary area of the rats were determined every 7 days after the inoculation. It was found that the rats treated daily with estradiol benzoate had significantly and consistently higher numbers of larvae and adult worms as compared with the controls. The number of total leukocytes increased significantly after the rats were infected. The results show that estradiol-treated rats become susceptible to P. malaysiensis infection, which may indicate that the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone observed in earlier studies may partly be caused by estradiol that was peripherally aromatized from testosterone.

  4. Mechanism of action of benzoic acid on Zygosaccharomyces bailii: effects on glycolytic metabolite levels, energy production, and intracellular pH. (United States)

    Warth, A D


    The effects of benzoic acid in the preservative-resistant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii were studied. At concentrations of benzoic acid up to 4 mM, fermentation was stimulated and only low levels of benzoate were accumulated. Near the MIC (10 mM), fermentation was inhibited, ATP levels declined, and benzoate was accumulated to relatively higher levels. Intracellular pH was reduced but not greatly. Changes in the levels of metabolites at different external benzoic acid levels showed that glycolysis was limited at pyruvate kinase and glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase-phosphoglycerate kinase steps. Inhibition of phosphofructokinase and several other glycolytic enzymes was not responsible for the inhibition of fermentation. Instead, the results suggest that the primary action of benzoic acid in Z. bailii is to cause a general energy loss, i.e., ATP depletion. PMID:1785916

  5. Inhibition effect of food preservatives on endoproteinases. (United States)

    Esimbekova, Elena N; Asanova, Anastasiya A; Deeva, Anna A; Kratasyuk, Valentina A


    The present manuscript proposes a novel approach to assess the impact of food additives on human metabolism by analysing their effect on biomarker enzyme activity. Alterations in the activity of pancreatic enzymes, such as chymotrypsin and trypsin, which are affected by the most common food preservatives, sodium benzoate (E211), potassium sorbate (E202) and sorbic acid (E200), have been evaluated. The proteinase activity was analysed with a bioluminescent method using the light intensity decay constant. Our study revealed that the preservatives reduce proteinase activity by 50% (EC 50 ) at a much lower concentration than their acceptable daily intake (ADI). Thus, sodium benzoate and sorbic acid have an inhibition effect on chymotrypsin at concentrations 14 times lower and 70 times lower than their ADI and this increases with exposure time. Food preservative consumption impacts negatively on protein digestion, which is especially dangerous for patients with pancreatitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of a Pseudomonas putida rough variant evolved in a mixed species biofilm with Acinetobacter sp. strain C6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susse Kirkelund; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Gjermansen, Morten


    Genetic differentiation by natural selection is readily observed among microbial populations, but a more comprehensive understanding of evolutionary forces, genetic causes, and resulting phenotypic advantages is not often sought. Recently, a surface population of Pseudomonas putida bacteria...... biosynthesis. Here we investigate further the biofilm physiology and the phenotypic characteristics of the selected P. putida rough colony variants. The coexistence of the P. putida population in a mixed-species biofilm with Acinetobacter sp. strain C6 is dependent on the benzoate excreted from Acinetobacter....... putida wild-type cells, which readily dispersed from the mixed-species biofilm in response to oxygen starvation, the rough variant cells displayed a nondispersal phenotype. However, in monospecies biofilms proliferating on benzoate, the rough variant (like the wild-type population) dispersed in response...

  7. DFT and ab initio study of structure of dyes derived from 2-hydroxy and 2,4-dihydroxy benzoic acids. (United States)

    Dabbagh, Hossein A; Teimouri, Abbas; Chermahini, Alireza Najafi; Shahraki, Maryam


    We present a detailed analysis of the structural, infrared spectra and visible spectra of a series of azo dyes preparation of salicylic acid and 2,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid derivatives as the coupling component. The preparation of these azo dyes with salicylic acid and 2,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid derivatives (salicylic acid, methyl salicylate, ethyl salicylate, butyl salicylate, methyl 2,4-dihydroxy benzoate, ethyl 2,4-dihydroxy benzoate, salicylaldehyde, salicylamide, 2,4-dihydroxy benzamide, salicylaldoxime) have been investigated theoretically by performing HF and DFT levels of theory using the standard 6-31G* basis set. The optimized geometries and calculated vibrational frequencies are evaluated via comparison with experimental values. The vibrational spectral data obtained from solid phase FT-IR spectra are assigned modes based on the results of the theoretical calculations. The observed spectra are found to be in good agreement with the calculations.

  8. Physico- chemical study of Ceratitis capitata rearing diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Sghiri, Mohamed Ali; Maddouri Fakri


    The inhibition of the microbial growth in the rearing diet of ceratitis capitata made it possible to increase the productivity in pupae. The follow-up of the microbial load and the physicochemical parameters of the diets used with varous microbial inhibitors (potassium sorbate in combination with sodium benzoate with varous amounts, on the one hand, and of another share, nipagine in combination with sodium benzoate also with varous amounts) during a rearing of ceratitis capitata on the laboratory scale made it possible to select the diet D as being the most favorable diet. Indeed, a stability of the physico chemical parameters as well as a weak evolution of the microbial load are noted in this diet. (author). 16 refs

  9. Isolation and stabilization of dark red food dye from beta vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisa, A.U.; Firdous, S.; Ijaz, N.


    Natural highly coloured dark red pigment was isolated from Beta vulgaris. In paste and powdered form. Total colouring matter of the concentrated colour was 1.86% and 4.5%, respectively, for the paste and powdered forms, calculated as betanine. Sodium benzoate (0.01%) was used as the stabilizer for paste, while silicon dioxide (2%) was added in addition to sodium benzoate (0.01%) for storage of the red colour in powdered form. Other parameters that may influence the stability of the colour, such as pH temperature and relative humidity, were studied. Toxicity evaluation, and lead and arsenic levels were determined. The addition of stabilizers, like citric acid, ascorbic acid, EDTA and sodium chloride, were also investigated, none of which showed useful effect. (author)

  10. Seven-Year Evaluation of Insecticide Tools for Emerald Ash Borer in Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Lamiales: Oleaceae) Trees. (United States)

    Bick, Emily N; Forbes, Nora J; Haugen, Christopher; Jones, Grant; Bernick, Shawn; Miller, Fredric


    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is decimating ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Combatting EAB includes the use of insecticides; however, reported insecticide efficacy varies among published studies. This study assessed the effects of season of application, insecticide active ingredient, and insecticide application rate on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) (Lamiales: Oleaceae) canopy decline caused by EAB over a 5- to 7-yr interval. Data suggested that spring treatments were generally more effective in reducing canopy decline than fall treatments, but this difference was not statistically significant. Lowest rates of decline (<5% over 5 yr) were observed in trees treated with imidacloprid injected annually in the soil during spring (at the higher of two tested application rates; 1.12 g/cm diameter at 1.3 m height) and emamectin benzoate injected biennially into the stem. All tested insecticides (dinotefuran, emamectin benzoate, and imidacloprid) under all tested conditions significantly reduced the rate of increase of dieback.

  11. Determination of testosterone esters and estradiol esters in bovine and porcine blood serum. (United States)

    Rejtharová, Martina; Rejthar, Libor; Čačková, Katarína


    Monitoring of steroid esters in blood serum is desirable in order to detect the possible illegal use of natural hormones as growth promoters. A method for the determination of testosterone propionate, testosterone benzoate, testosterone isocaproate, testosterone decanoate and estradiol benzoate in bovine and porcine blood serum was developed. The procedure consists of protein precipitation and removal of phospholipids using a HybridSPE®-Phospholipid column followed by clean-up on a hydrophilic modified styrene polymer Supel TM -Select HLB column and LC-MS/MS measurement. The method was validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Decision limits for all analytes were observed in the range 5-30 pg ml - 1 . The method was shown to be robust for bovine and porcine serum analyses and can be applied for both screening and confirmatory determination in routine residue monitoring.

  12. Chemical stability of {gamma}-butyrolactone-based electrolytes for aluminium electrolytic capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ue, Makoto [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Takeda, Masayuki [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Suzuki, Yoko [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Mori, Shoichiro [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan)


    {gamma}-Butyrolactone-based electrolytes have been used as the operating electrolytes for aluminum electrolytic capacitors. The chemical stability of these electrolytes at elevated temperatures has been examined by monitoring the decrease in their electrolytic conductivities. The deteriorated electrolytes were analyzed by gas and liquid chromatography and the conductivity decrease was directly correlated with the loss of acid components. In quaternary ammonium hydrogen maleate/{gamma}-butyrolactone electrolytes, the maleate anion decomposed by decarboxylation resulting in a complex polymer containing polyester and polyacrylate structures. Quaternary ammonium benzoate/{gamma}-butyrolactone electrolytes decomposed by SN2 reactions giving alkyl benzoates and trialkylamines. The deterioration of the carboxylate salt/{gamma}-butyrolactone electrolytes was accelerated by electrolysis. (orig.)

  13. Conformational equilibrium in supramolecular chemistry: Dibutyltriuret case. (United States)

    Mroczyńska, Karina; Kaczorowska, Małgorzata; Kolehmainen, Erkki; Grubecki, Ireneusz; Pietrzak, Marek; Ośmiałowski, Borys


    The association of substituted benzoates and naphthyridine dianions was used to study the complexation of dibutyltriuret. The title molecule is the simplest molecule able to form two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The naphthyridine salt was used to break two intramolecular hydrogen bonds at a time while with the use of substituted benzoates the systematic approach to study association was achieved. Both, titrations and variable temperature measurements shed the light on the importance of conformational equilibrium and its influence on association in solution. Moreover, the associates were observed by mass spectrometry. The DFT-based computations for complexes and single bond rotational barriers supports experimental data and helps understanding the properties of multiply hydrogen bonded complexes.

  14. Synthesis, spectroscopy and supramolecular structures of two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    May 16, 2007 ... Abstract. The aqueous reaction of [Mg(H2O)6]Cl2 with the in situ generated sodium salt of 4-nitro- benzoic acid (4-nbaH) and N-methylimidazole (N-MeIm) results in the formation of the dinuclear complex. [Mg(H2O)(N-MeIm)2(4-nba)2]2 1 (4-nba = 4-nitro benzoate), while the direct reaction of [Mg(H2O)6] ...

  15. Etude par RMN de composés organiques contenant des chalcogènes—VIII. RMN du 13C dans la chromannone, la chromone, la coumarannone-3 et la coumarine et leurs analogues soufrés, séléniś et tellurés (United States)

    Baiwir, Marcel; Llabrès, Gabriel; Christiaens, Léon; Luxen, André; Piette, Jean-Louis

    13C NMR spectra of the title compounds have been fully assigned. The results have been compared with those relative to other chalcogenated compounds, such as anisole, phenyl benzoate, benzofuran,… and their analogs. In chalcogenochromones and -coumarines, the heteroatom lone pair delocalization spreads to some extent over the heterocyclic part of the molecules, while in chalcogenochromanones and -indoxyles, it only extends to the homocycle. This electronic effect seems also to affect the heavy atom effect exhibited by Te-containing compounds.

  16. Drug Discovery, Design and Delivery (United States)


    benzoate) nanoparticles by nanoprecipitation with and without a lipophilic probe ( coumarin ) to study stability and drug release. The advantage of this...degradation. Addition of a lipophilic molecule such as coumarin 6 to the media allows for up to 1.6% of the polymer weight to be entrapped during...indicate that 78% of the coumarin 6 was encapsulated within the polymer matrix of the nanoparticle, and the residual surface-bond coumarin 6 was quickly

  17. Shelf stability of agidi produced from maize (Zea mays) and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shelf stability of agidi produced from maize (Zea mays) during ambient temperature (30.0±1.5°C) storage and the effects of sodium benzoate treatment in combination with low temperature storage (12-14°C) was evaluated for eight weeks. Results indicates high total aerobic bacterial count (1.05x1010 cfu/g) and fungi ...

  18. Ligand-based transport resonances of single-molecule magnet spin filters: Suppression of the Coulomb blockade and determination of the orientation of the magnetic easy axis


    Renani, Fatemeh Rostamzadeh; Kirczenow, George


    We investigate single molecule magnet transistors (SMMTs) with ligands that support transport resonances. We find the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of Mn12-benzoate SMMs (with and without thiol or methyl-sulfide termination) to be on ligands, the highest occupied molecular orbitals being on the Mn12 magnetic core. We predict gate controlled switching between Coulomb blockade and coherent resonant tunneling in SMMTs based on such SMMs, strong spin filtering by the SMM in both transport ...

  19. Acylation of aromatic alcohols and phenols over InCl3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    K-10) on the yield of benzyl benzoate in the benzoylation of benzyl alcohol (by benzoyl chlo- ride) at 50°C over the InCl3/Mont. K-10 catalyst. Table 1. Effect of InCl3 loading on the acidity (ammo- nia chemisorbed at 200°C) and yield in the benzoylation of benzyl alcohol (by benzoyl chloride) over InCl3/Mont. K-10 catalyst at ...

  20. Entomological Issues during the Korean War, 1950-1953 (United States)


    North malaria, and epidemic hemorrhagic Korean POWs were kept at this location, fever) threatened all civilian and military and a 10% DDT dust was...N- disease with a rodent reservoir, all butylacetanilide for ticks, 30% benzyl potential vectors ( mites , mosquitoes, benzoate for chiggers and fleas...leaf litter may have limited the determined the disease to be habitats capable of supporting ticks that hemorrhagic smallpox, not plague. US

  1. A New Method for the Characterisation of Solutes and Solvent Phases Using Solvatochromic Parameters (United States)


    for hydrogen bond basicity using the solvatochromic comparison method. Solvatochromic literally means solvent colour , and is derived from the effect...the solvent has on the colour of an indicator used in the parameter determination. The principle is based on the fact that the wavelength of maximum...1.20Ethylene dipropanoate 1.05Propylene diacrylate 1.10 Benz)! acetate 1.19 0.95Methyl benzoate 0.77 1󈧏Methyl salicylate 0.82 hbnrcomoundga

  2. Status, Antimicrobial Mechanism, and Regulation of Natural Preservatives in Livestock Food Systems


    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong


    This review discusses the status, antimicrobial mechanisms, application, and regulation of natural preservatives in livestock food systems. Conventional preservatives are synthetic chemical substances including nitrates/nitrites, sulfites, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, and potassium sorbate. The use of artificial preservatives is being reconsidered because of concerns relating to headache, allergies, and cancer. As the demand for biopreservation in food systems has increased, new natural a...

  3. Effect of a protease inhibitor on the stability of catalase in liver and blood from acatalasemic and normal mice.


    Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Ogata, Masana


    Effects of Gabexate mesilate (GM) (([ethyl-4-(6-guanidino hexanoyloxy) benzoate] methane sulfonate)), a protease inhibitor, on the activities of catalase in liver, erythrocytes and reticulocytes from acatalasemic mice were examined. Preincubation without GM at 37 degrees C for 160 min lowered the catalase activities of liver, erythrocytes and reticulocytes from acatalasemic mice, to 24%, 40% and 10% of the initial levels, respectively. But, preincubation with GM at 37 degrees C for 160 min de...

  4. Isolation of Secondary Metabolites from the Roots of Salix Babylonica (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Raturi, Rakesh; Badoni, P. P.


    Chemical examination of ethanolic extract of Salix babylonica, root, led to isolation of 2-(Hydroxymethyl) phenyl β-D-glucopyranoside(1) and 2-[(benzoyloxy)methyl]-4-hydroxyphenyl β-D-glucopyranoside 3-Benzoate (2)with previously known compounds β-Sitosterol, kaempferol 7-O-glucoside andapigenin 7-O-galactoside. Compounds 1and 2 had been isolated for the first time from this plant. The structures of the compounds had been elucidated with the help of spectral and chemical studies.

  5. Comparison of N95 disposable filtering facepiece fits using bitrex qualitative and TSI Portacount quantitative fit testing. (United States)

    Clapham, S J


    As a means of evaluating the use of denatonium benzoate (bitrex) as a qualitative fit test agent with filtering facepiece respirators, the bitrex qualitative and TSI Protacount(R) quantitative fit-test methods were compared using N95 filtering facepieces. Seventy-nine paired tests (trial) were performed. Detection of bitrex during a qualitative fit test or measurement of a fit factor of TSI Portacount (plus N95 companion accessory) quantitatively establishes an acceptable fit.

  6. Control of Native Spoilage Yeast on Dealcoholized Red Wine by Preservatives Alone and in Binary Mixtures. (United States)

    Sánchez-Rubio, Marta; Guerrouj, Kamal; Taboada-Rodríguez, Amaury; López-Gómez, Antonio; Marín-Iniesta, Fulgencio


    In order to preserve a commercial dealcoholized red wine (DRW), a study with 4 preservatives and binary mixtures of them were performed against 2 native spoilage yeasts: Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) for potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, sodium metabisulfite and dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) were evaluated in DRW stored at 25 °C. MICs of potassium sorbate and sodium metabisulfite were 250 and 60 mg/kg, respectively for both target strains. However for sodium benzoate, differences between yeasts were found; R. mucilaginosa was inhibited at 125 mg/kg, while S. cerevisiae at 250 mg/kg. Regarding MFC, differences between strains were only found for sodium metabisulfite obtaining a MFC of 500 mg/kg for R. mucilaginosa and a MFC of 250 mg/kg for S. cerevisiae. Potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate showed the MFC at 1000 mg/kg and DMDC at 200 mg/kg. Regarding the effect of binary mixtures the Fractional Fungicidal Concentration Index (FFC i ) methodology showed that binary mixtures of 100 mg/kg DMDC/200 mg/kg potassium sorbate (FFC i = 0.7) and 50 mg/kg DMDC / 400 mg/kg sodium benzoate (FFC i = 0.65) have both synergistic effect against the 2 target strains. These binary mixtures can control the growth of spoilage yeasts in DRW without metabisulfite addition. The results of this work may be important in preserving the health of DRW consumers by eliminating the use of metabisulfite and reducing the risk of growth of R. mucilagosa, recently recognized as an emerging pathogen. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. The Acetylcholine Receptor and Its Ionic Channel as Targets for Drugs and Toxins (United States)


    Warnick, J.E., and Albuquerque, E.X. Batrachotoxin -A 20- a -benzoate: A new radloa.tive ligand for voltage- sensitive sodium channels. Cell. Mol. Neurobin... batrachotoxin (MTI) are of particular relevance because we found earlier that BTX, although not reacting with the ACh receptor-ionic channel complex...of the radioactive batrachotoxin -A 20 a -bensoate would enable us to *,.luate again the molecular events involved in the action of the toxin. The

  8. 300 The Method of Antigen Specific Damage of Leucocytes by Food Additives in Patients with Bronchial Asthma


    Titova, Nadya


    Background Diagnosis of adverse reactions to food additives is difficult due to a variety of mechanisms involved and the lack of sufficiently reliable methods for their determination. The diagnosis of intolerance to food additives is still based only on placebo-controlled oral provocation. Methods The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of intolerance to ponceau 4R (E124), indigo carmine (E132), azorubine (E122), tartrazine (E102), sunset yellow (E110) and sodium benzoate (E211) ...

  9. Odor-Evoked Inhibition of Olfactory Sensory Neurons Drives Olfactory Perception in Drosophila (United States)


    octanoate methyl-octanoate ethyl 3-hydroxybutyrate hexyl- acetate methyl- acetate 3-methylbutanol ethyl -cinnamate acetophenone benzaldehyde ethyl -benzoate... ethyl 3-hydroxybutyrate, an excitatory 123 odor for Or85a-OSNs, increased the membrane conductance of the same OSNs and 124 produced an inward...acetophenone and excitatory odor ethyl 3-hydroxybutyrate (Fig. 2a). Power spectral 136 analysis revealed similar waveforms between the basal inward

  10. Synthesis and labelling of organo-metallic prosthetic groups used for indirect radioiodination of peptides and proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzi, Oscar R.; Castiglia, Silvia G.


    In the framework of an IAEA co-ordinated research programme the prosthetic compound ATE [N-succidinimil 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate] has been synthesized and it has been labelled with 131 I and 125 I. Its structure has been confirmed by NMR and mass spectrometry. The labelled ATE has been conjugated with human immunoglobulin G with a yield of 41%-57%. Indirect radioiodination of peptides is currently prepared. (author)

  11. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2 g of co-methoxy resacetophenone. 3: 7-Dimethoxy-8-methylflavone from the above ketone.-An intimate mixture of the ketone (1.g.), sodium benzoate (1.5 g) and benzoic anhydride. (4.g.) was heated in an oil-bath at 200 for 4 hours under a pressure of about. 40 mm. of mercury. The residue was treated with a large excess ...

  12. Analysis of a Brazilian green propolis from Baccharis dracunculifolia by HPLC-APCI-MS and GC-MS


    Chang, Roberto; Piló-Veloso, Dorila; Morais, Sérgio A. L.; Nascimento, Evandro A.


    Ethanol and dichloromethane extracts of a Brazilian green propolis from Baccharis dracunculifolia were analyzed by HPLC-APCI-MS and GC-MS, respectively. The HPLC-APCI-MS technique, at the positive mode, furnished a complete and unequivocal chemical composition of the green propolis sample. It serves as fingerprint for different propolis samples. The composition of the ethanol extract consisted mainly of cinnamic acid and derivatives, flavonoids, benzoic acid and a few benzoates, non-hydroxyla...

  13. Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols over Gold Catalysts: Role of Acid and Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Søren Kegnæs; DeLa Riva, Andrew T.; Helveg, Stig


    Gold nanoparticles are deposited on potassium titanate nanowires and used as heterogeneous catalysts in the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol in methanol to methyl benzoate at ambient conditions. The presence of a catalytic amount of base promotes the reaction and the formation of free benzoic...... acid during the reaction poisons the catalyst. The activity however, of the catalyst can be restored again by addition of base....

  14. Dgroup: DG01584 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01584 DGroup Estrogen receptor agonist -estr- ... DG00461 ... Ethinylestradiol ... D00554... ... Ethinyl estradiol (USP); Ethinylestradiol (JP17/INN) ... D07928 ... Ethinylestradiol propanesulfonate DG00462 ... Estradiol ... D00105 ... Estr...adiol (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01413 ... Estradiol valerate (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01617 ... Estrad...iol dipropionate (JAN) ... D01953 ... Estradiol benzoate (JP17) ... D04061 ... Estradiol a...cetate (USAN) ... D04063 ... Estradiol cypionate (USP) ... D04064 ... Estradiol enanthate (USAN) ... D04065 ... Estradio

  15. Towards successful bioaugmentation with entrapped cells as a soil remediation technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Dechesne, Arnaud; Binning, Philip John


    Soil remediation technologies are proposed that rely on inoculation with degrading microorganisms entrapped in protective carriers. A mathematical model developed to model entrapped cell bioaugmentation describes the 3-D diffusion-driven mass transfer of benzoate, and its mineralization by Pseudo...... but is restricted in dry conditions, as confirmed by performing cell counts. This highlights the potential of entrapped cells when they act as seeds for soil colonization....

  16. Bromophycoic acids: bioactive natural products from a Fijian red alga Callophycus sp. (United States)

    Teasdale, Margaret E; Shearer, Tonya L; Engel, Sebastian; Alexander, Troy S; Fairchild, Craig R; Prudhomme, Jacques; Torres, Manuel; Le Roch, Karine; Aalbersberg, William; Hay, Mark E; Kubanek, Julia


    Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from a Fijian red alga in the genus Callophycus resulted in the isolation of five new compounds of the diterpene-benzoate class. Bromophycoic acids A-E (1-5) were characterized by NMR and mass spectroscopic analyses and represent two novel carbon skeletons, one with an unusual proposed biosynthesis. These compounds display a range of activities against human tumor cell lines, malarial parasites, and bacterial pathogens including low micromolar suppression of MRSA and VREF.

  17. Reaction of (CP(2)asterisk-lnH)(2) (ln=Y, La) and CP(2)asterisk-Y(2-C(6)H(4)CH(2)NMe(2)) with esters and amides and molecular-structure of [CP(2)asterisk-Y(mu- ocme=chc(oet)o)](2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelman, B.J; Wierda, F.; Meetsma, A.; Teuben, J.H


    The activation of esters and amides by (Cp(2)*LnH)(2) [Ln = Y (1a), Ln = La (1b), Cp*=C(5)Me] and Cp(2)*Y(2-C(6)H(4)CH(2)NMe(2)) (2) is described. Compounds 1a and 1b react with ethyl acetate to form Cp(2)*YOEt (3a) and Cp(2)*LaOEt (30). With 1a and ethyl benzoate a 1:1 mixture of 3a and

  18. Effects of DNP on the cell surface properties of marine bacteria and its implication for adhesion to surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jain, A.; Nishad, K.K.; Bhosle, N.B.

    of hydrogen peroxide as model antimicrobial agent for examining resisitance mechanisms. Methods Enzymol 310 : 599-608. Haque H, Cutright TJ & Zhang newby BM (2005) Effectiveness of sodium benzoate as a freshwater low toxicity antifoulant when dispersed... and the Environment (D Almorza C A, Brebbia D Sales & V Popov) (Editors),ISBN 1-85312-907- 0. Min Seok chae, Heidi Schraft, Lisbeth Truelstrup Hansen & Robet Mackereth (2006) Effect of physiochemical surface characteristic of Listeria monocytogenes strains...

  19. 高校化学「エステルの合成」に関する教材研究(第2報) : サリチル酸メチルおよび安息香酸メチルの合成


    山本, 祥子; 島田, 秀昭; ヤマモト, ショウコ; シマダ, ヒデアキ; Yamamoto, Shoko; Shimada, Hideaki


    The synthesis of ester is used as a teaching material in high school chemistry. Previously, we reported that the suitable conditions for the synthesis of ethyl acetate in safely and short time.In the present study, to obtain the suitableconditions for the synthesis the other esters such as methyl salicylate and methyl benzoate, we examined the effectsof reaction temperature, reaction time and amount of saturated sodium hydrogen carbonate solution. Experimentalconditions for the saponification...

  20. Kinetic Basis for the Conjugation of Auxin by a GH3 Family Indole-acetic Acid-Amido Synthetase*


    Chen, Qingfeng; Westfall, Corey S.; Hicks, Leslie M.; Wang, Shiping; Jez, Joseph M.


    The GH3 family of acyl-acid-amido synthetases catalyze the ATP-dependent formation of amino acid conjugates to modulate levels of active plant hormones, including auxins and jasmonates. Initial biochemical studies of various GH3s show that these enzymes group into three families based on sequence relationships and acyl-acid substrate preference (I, jasmonate-conjugating; II, auxin- and salicylic acid-conjugating; III, benzoate-conjugating); however, little is known about the kinetic and chemi...

  1. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    benzoate (5g): Light orange crystaline solid, yield 97% (4.635 g, crystallization) or. 99% (4.732g, filtration), m.p. 182–186. ◦. C; refractive index nD22: 1.697. Anal. Calcd. for C25H20ClN3O5: C,. 62.83; H, 4.22; Cl, 7.42; N, 8.79%. Found: C, 62.88;.

  2. Experimental evidence of the dependence of spin tunnelling on the concentration of dislocations in Mn12 crystals


    Torres, F.; Hernandez, J. M.; Molins, E.; Garcia-Santiago, A.; Tejada, J.


    We present experimental results on resonant spin tunnelling in a single crystal of Mn$_{12}$-2Cl benzoate with different concentration of dislocations. The time evolution of the magnetisation follows the stretched exponential over a few time decades. The values of parameters of stretched exponential deduced from experiment have been used to determine the concentration of dislocations before and after the cooling-annealing process, using the algorithm recently suggested by Garanin and Chudnovsky.

  3. In-situ Substrate Addition to Create Reactive Zones for Treatment of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons: Cost and Performance Report (United States)


    solution, typically consisting of a carbohydrate such as molasses, whey, high fructose corn syrup, lactate, butyrate , or benzoate. The technology alters...generated through fermentation but can then be further degraded biologically. Excessive fermentation can also decrease pH and potentially mobilize naturally...sampled when other indicators suggested the possibility of carbon overloading leading to fermentation . Injection well pH was measured before every

  4. A Química de Lauráceas Brasileiras. LXX. Estirilpironas de Aniba kappleri


    Santos, Margarida M. dos; Mesquita, Antônio A. L.; Gottlieb, Otto R.


    Summary The trunk wood of Aniba kappleri Mez (family Lauraceae) contains besides sitosterol, octacosanoic acid and rhamnocitrin (7-O-methylkaempferol), three esters, namely benzyl benzoate, benzyl 2-hydroxybenzoate and benzyl 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate, and two α-pyrones, namely 4-methoxy-6- (E) -(3',4'-methy!enedioxystyryl)-2-pyrone and 4-methoxy-6-{E)-(3',4'-dimethoxystyryl]-2pyrone. A dimer of the latter compound, which was obtained additionally, is considered to be an artifact.

  5. Pseudomonas putida CSV86: A Candidate Genome for Genetic Bioaugmentation


    Paliwal, Vasundhara; Raju, Sajan C.; Modak, Arnab; Phale, Prashant S.; Purohit, Hemant J.


    Pseudomonas putida CSV86, a plasmid-free strain possessing capability to transfer the naphthalene degradation property, has been explored for its metabolic diversity through genome sequencing. The analysis of draft genome sequence of CSV86 (6.4 Mb) revealed the presence of genes involved in the degradation of naphthalene, salicylate, benzoate, benzylalcohol, p-hydroxybenzoate, phenylacetate and p-hydroxyphenylacetate on the chromosome thus ensuring the stability of the catabolic potential. Mo...

  6. Predicted formation constants using the unified theory of metal ion complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.L.; Wanner, H.


    Formation constants are listed for standard conditions, i.e., 298.15K (25 0 C), 10 5 Pa, and zero ionic strength for a number of species containing selected elements (Am, Cs, Np, Pa, Pb, Pd, Pu, Ra, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, U) and ligands (hydroxide, fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, iodate, sulphate, ammonia, nitrate, hydrogen phosphate, dihydrogen phosphate, carbonate, bicarbonate, oxalate, formate, thiocyanate, acetate, benzoate, catecholate, ethylenediamine, glycinate, glycollate and phenolate) that have been considered important for nuclear technology. 16 refs

  7. Efficacy of two systemic insecticides injected into loblolly pine for protection against southern pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). (United States)

    Grosman, Donald M; Clarke, Stephen R; Upton, William W


    We evaluated the efficacy of systemic insecticides emamectin benzoate and fipronil for preventing mortality of individual loblolly pines, Pinus taeda L., as a result of attacks by southern pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) for two consecutive years in Mississippi (2005-2006) and Alabama (2006-2007). Trees were injected once in the spring of 2005 (Mississippi) or 2006 (Alabama) and then were baited with species-specific bark beetle lures several weeks later. The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, was the target species but was changed to Ips spp. in Mississippi (but not Alabama) the second year because of few southern pine beetle attacks on baited trees. Single injections of emamectin benzoate were effective in reducing tree mortality caused by bark beetles compared with untreated checks. Although less effective overall, fipronil also significantly reduced tree mortality from southern pine beetle compared with the checks during the second year in Alabama. Tree mortality continued well after the lures had been removed. Evaluations of bolts taken from experimental trees killed in 2006 indicated that emamectin benzoate effectively prevented parent bark beetle gallery construction and that fipronil significantly reduced lengths of galleries constructed by adult beetles, brood development, and emergence, compared with checks. In contrast, neither insecticide treatment prevented the bark beetles from inoculating blue stain fungi, Ophiostoma spp., into treated trees.

  8. Effect of Using Additive to Microbiology Activities of Mozzarella Cheese Storage at Refrigerator Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wildan Yudha Prasetyo


    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the best preservative between potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, and chitosan on the microbiological quality of Mozzarella cheese stored at refrigerator temperature. The results showed that the addition of preservatives potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, and chitosan did not give a significantly different effect (P> 0.05 on the TPC, total number of molds, and total number of yeasts of Mozzarella cheese. Storage time of Mozzarella cheese that nested on the type of added preservatives did not give a significantly different effect (P>0.05 on the TPC and total number of yeasts but gave a significantly different effect (P<0.05 on the number of molds of Mozzarella cheese. Based on the research data, it can be concluded that the utilization of preservative potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, and chitosan were effective in suppressing the growth of microorganisms. Potassium sorbate tends to be more effective in suppressing the growth of microorganisms in Mozzarella cheese stored at refrigerator temperature. Key words: whey, texture, fat, organoleptic, nata de milko

  9. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of select macrocyclic lactones insecticides on forager worker honey bees under laboratory experimental conditions. (United States)

    Abdu-Allah, Gamal A M; Pittendrigh, Barry R


    Selective insecticide application is one important strategy for more precisely targeting harmful insects while avoiding or mitigating collateral damage to beneficial insects like honey bees. Recently, macrocyclic lactone-class insecticides have been introduced into the market place as selective bio-insecticides for controlling many arthropod pests, but how to target this selectivity only to harmful insects has yet to be achieved. In this study, the authors investigated the acute toxicity of fourmacrocyclic lactone insecticides (commercialized as abamectin, emamectin benzoate, spinetoram, and spinosad) both topically and through feeding studies with adult forager honey bees. Results indicated emamectin benzoate as topically 133.3, 750.0, and 38.3-fold and orally 3.3, 7.6, and 31.7-fold more toxic, respectively than abamectin, spinetoram and spinosad. Using Hazard Quotients for estimates of field toxicity, abamectin was measured as the safest insecticide both topically and orally for honey bees. Moreover, a significant reduction of sugar solution consumption by treatment group honey bees for orally applied emamectin benzoate and spinetoram suggests that these insecticides may have repellent properties.

  10. Aromatic compound in different peach cultivars and effect of preservatives on the final aroma of cooked fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavcon-Kralj Mojca


    Full Text Available In our study, we were used four yellow-fleshed peach cultivars ‟Royal Glory‟, „Redhaven", 'Maria Marta' and 'Norman', during two-year period. The characterization of aromatic constituents of investigated cultivars was done using headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME. The intention was to make implicit discrimination between cultivars by analysis of components present in all cultivars during two-year period. Also, the impact of added preservatives (Na-benzoate and citric acid on the final aroma of cooked peaches was studied. The cultivars' differences and the impact of preservatives (Na-benzoate and citric acid were statistically evaluated. Multiple discriminant analysis of peaches‟ aromatic profile was used to segregate investigated peach cultivars. Although they were very similar, the cultivars were segregated by two discriminant function, function 1 (which accounted for 56.9% of this peach model and function 2 (31.7%. The use of preservatives had also an important impact on the aromatic profile of cooked peaches. The statistical analysis indicated that from 57 identified volatiles, 40 volatiles showed statistically significant difference regarding the way of preservation. The main negative impact had Na-benzoate compared to control or samples preserved with citric acid.

  11. Acaricidal activity of constituents derived from peppermint oil against Tyrophagus putrescentiae. (United States)

    Park, Jun-Hwan; Yang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hoi-Seon


    The acaricidal activities of peppermint oil and menthol isomers against mites in stored food were evaluated using fumigant and contact bioassays and were compared with the activity of benzyl benzoate as a synthetic acaricide. Based on the 50% lethal dose (LD50) values against Tyrophagus putrescentiae in the fumigant bioassay, menthol (0.96 μg/cm(2)) was approximately 12.18 times more effective than benzyl benzoate (11.70 μg/cm(2)), followed by (+)-neomenthol (1.33 μg/cm(2)), (-)-menthol (1.60 μg/cm(2)), and (+)-menthol (1.90 μg/cm(2)). In the filter paper bioassay, menthol (0.55 μg/cm(2)) was about 15.18 times more active than benzyl benzoate (8.35 μg/cm(2)), followed by (-)-menthol (0.84 μg/cm(2)), (+)-menthol (0.92 μg/cm(2)), and (+)-neomenthol (1.72 μg/cm(2)). However, (+)-isomenthol did not exhibit any acaricidal activity against T. putrescentiae in the fumigant and filter paper bioassays. These results indicate that peppermint oil and menthol isomers could be effective natural acaricides for managing mites in stored food.

  12. Anaerobic benzene degradation by Gram-positive sulfate-reducing bacteria. (United States)

    Abu Laban, Nidal; Selesi, Drazenka; Jobelius, Carsten; Meckenstock, Rainer U


    Despite its high chemical stability, benzene is known to be biodegradable with various electron acceptors under anaerobic conditions. However, our understanding of the initial activation reaction and the responsible prokaryotes is limited. In the present study, we enriched a bacterial culture that oxidizes benzene to carbon dioxide under sulfate-reducing conditions. Community analysis using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and FISH revealed 95% dominance of one phylotype that is affiliated to the Gram-positive bacterial genus Pelotomaculum showing that sulfate-reducing Gram-positive bacteria are involved in anaerobic benzene degradation. In order to get indications of the initial activation mechanism, we tested the substrate utilization, performed cometabolism tests and screened for putative metabolites. Phenol, toluene, and benzoate could not be utilized as alternative carbon sources by the benzene-degrading culture. Cometabolic degradation experiments resulted in retarded rates of benzene degradation in the presence of phenol whereas toluene had no effect on benzene metabolism. Phenol, 2-hydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, and benzoate were identified as putative metabolites in the enrichment culture. However, hydroxylated aromatics were shown to be formed abiotically. Thus, the finding of benzoate as an intermediate compound supports a direct carboxylation of benzene as the initial activation mechanism but additional reactions leading to its formation cannot be excluded definitely.

  13. Bis(μ-3-hydroxybenzoato-κ3O,O′:Obis[aqua(3-hydroxybenzoato-κ2O,O′(1,10-phenanthroline-κ2N,N′lead(II] monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Peng Xuan


    Full Text Available In the centrosymmetric binuclear title complex, [Pb2(C7H5O34(C12H8N22(H2O2]·H2O, each Pb atom is eight-coordinated in a PbO6N2 environment by two N atoms from the 1,10-phenanthroline (phen ligand, five carboxylate O atoms from four 3-hydroxybenzoate anions and one O atom from the coordinated water molecule in a distorted bicapped trigonal-prismatic geometry. The benzoate groups coordinate each PbII atom in two different ways. Two benzoate ions behave as bidentate ligands to the Pb atom, and another benzoate ion bridges the Pb atoms, forming a binuclear structure. The dimeric units are packed via O—H...O hydrogen bonds and π–π interactions between the aromatic rings of neighboring molecules, with centroid–centroid distances of 3.552 (2 and 3.641 (2 Å.

  14. Lethal trap trees: a potential option for emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) management. (United States)

    McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Lewis, Phillip A


    Economic and ecological impacts of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality resulting from emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) invasion are severe in forested, residential and urban areas. Management options include girdling ash trees to attract ovipositing adult beetles and then destroying infested trees before larvae develop or protecting ash with a highly effective, systemic emamectin benzoate insecticide. Injecting this insecticide and then girdling injected trees a few weeks later could effectively create lethal trap trees, similar to a bait-and-kill tactic, if girdling does not interfere with insecticide translocation. We compared EAB larval densities on girdled trees, trees injected with the emamectin benzoate insecticide, trees injected with the insecticide and then girdled 18-21 days later and untreated controls at multiple sites. Pretreatment larval densities did not differ among treatments. Current-year larval densities were higher on girdled and control trees than on any trees treated with insecticide at all sites. Foliar residue analysis and adult EAB bioassays showed that girdling trees after insecticide injections did not reduce insecticide translocation. Girdling ash trees to attract adult EAB did not reduce efficacy of emamectin benzoate trunk injections applied ≥ 18 days earlier and could potentially be used in integrated management programs to slow EAB population growth. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Analysis of preference for carbon source utilization among three strains of aromatic compounds degrading Pseudomonas. (United States)

    Karishma, M; Trivedi, Vikas D; Choudhary, Alpa; Mhatre, Akanksha; Kambli, Pranita; Desai, Jinal; Phale, Prashant S


    Soil isolates Pseudomonas putida CSV86, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PP4 and Pseudomonas sp. C5pp degrade naphthalene, phthalate isomers and carbaryl, respectively. Strain CSV86 displayed a diauxic growth pattern on phenylpropanoid compounds (veratraldehyde, ferulic acid, vanillin or vanillic acid) plus glucose with a distinct second lag-phase. The glucose concentration in the medium remained constant with higher cell respiration rates on aromatics and maximum protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase activity in the first log-phase, which gradually decreased in the second log-phase with concomitant depletion of the glucose. In strains PP4 and C5pp, growth profile and metabolic studies suggest that glucose is utilized in the first log-phase with the repression of utilization of aromatics (phthalate or carbaryl). All three strains utilize benzoate via the catechol 'ortho' ring-cleavage pathway. On benzoate plus glucose, strain CSV86 showed preference for benzoate over glucose in contrast to strains PP4 and C5pp. Additionally, organic acids like succinate were preferred over aromatics in strains PP4 and C5pp, whereas strain CSV86 co-metabolizes them. Preferential utilization of aromatics over glucose and co-metabolism of organic acids and aromatics are found to be unique properties of P. putida CSV86 as compared with strains PP4 and C5pp and this property of strain CSV86 can be exploited for effective bioremediation. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved.

  16. Occurrence of Antibiotic resistance in some bacterial strains due to gamma radiation, heavy metals or food preservatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattar, Z.A.; Bashandy, A.S.


    The susceptibility of bacterial strains (B. cereus, Staph. aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella) against 10 different antibiotics that are commonly used against food borne pathogens was studied. All the tested strains were observed to tolerate up to 100 mg/l copper sulphate or lead acetate, and there was a positive correlations between the tolerance to high levels of Cu or Pb and multiple antibiotic resistance was investigated. When the food preservatives (potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate) were added to the growth medium at different concentrations, the bacterial strains were able to tolerate up to 1000 ppm potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate (MIC). The antibiotic resistance of these strains was increased when grown on media supplemented with the MIC of sodium sorbate or potassium benzoate. When these bacterial strains were irradiated at dose levels of 1 or 3 or 5 KGy and examined for antibiotic sensitivity, a correlation was observed between the increases of radiation dose up to 5 KGy and the antibiotic resistance in all the studied strains

  17. Purity analyses of high-purity organic compounds with nitroxyl radicals based on the Curie-Weiss law (United States)

    Matsumoto, Nobuhiro; Shimosaka, Takuya


    This work reports an attempt to quantify the purities of powders of high-purity organic compounds with stable nitroxyl radicals (namely, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO), 1-oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-hydroxypiperidine (TEMPOL), and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl benzoate (4-hydroxy-TEMPO benzoate)) in terms of mass fractions by using our "effective magnetic moment method," which is based on both the Curie-Weiss law and a fundamental equation of electron paramagnetic resonance (ESR). The temperature dependence of the magnetic moment resulting from the radicals was measured with a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. The g value for each compound was measured with an X-band ESR spectrometer. The results of the purities were (0.998 ± 0.064) kg kg-1 for TEMPO, (1.019 ± 0.040) kg kg-1 for TEMPOL, and (1.001 ± 0.048) kg kg-1 for 4-hydroxy-TEMPO benzoate. These results demonstrate that this analytical method as a future candidate of potential primary direct method can measure the purities with expanded uncertainties of approximately 5%.

  18. Purity analyses of high-purity organic compounds with nitroxyl radicals based on the Curie–Weiss law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Nobuhiro, E-mail:; Shimosaka, Takuya [National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Central-3, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8563 (Japan)


    This work reports an attempt to quantify the purities of powders of high-purity organic compounds with stable nitroxyl radicals (namely, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO), 1-oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-hydroxypiperidine (TEMPOL), and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl benzoate (4-hydroxy-TEMPO benzoate)) in terms of mass fractions by using our “effective magnetic moment method,” which is based on both the Curie–Weiss law and a fundamental equation of electron paramagnetic resonance (ESR). The temperature dependence of the magnetic moment resulting from the radicals was measured with a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. The g value for each compound was measured with an X-band ESR spectrometer. The results of the purities were (0.998 ± 0.064) kg kg{sup −1} for TEMPO, (1.019 ± 0.040) kg kg{sup −1} for TEMPOL, and (1.001 ± 0.048) kg kg{sup −1} for 4-hydroxy-TEMPO benzoate. These results demonstrate that this analytical method as a future candidate of potential primary direct method can measure the purities with expanded uncertainties of approximately 5%.

  19. Chemicals and lemon essential oil effect on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Maldonado


    Full Text Available Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is considered to be one of the important target microorganisms in the quality control of acidic canned foods. There is an urgent need to develop a suitable method for inhibiting or controlling the germination and outgrowth of A.acidoterrestris in acidic drinks. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemicals used in the lemon industry (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and lemon essential oil as a natural compound, against a strain of A.acidoterrestris in MEB medium and in lemon juice concentrate. The results pointed out that sodium benzoate (500-1000-2000 ppm and lemon essential oil (0.08- 0.12- 0.16% completely inhibited the germination of A. acidoterrestris spores in MEB medium and LJC for 11 days. Potassium sorbate (600-1200 ppm was more effective to inhibit the growth of the microbial target in lemon juice than in MEB medium. The effect of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and essential oil was sporostatic in MEB and LJC as they did not affect spore viability.

  20. Essential oil of three Uvaria species from Ivory Coast. (United States)

    Muriel, Koffi A; Félix, Tonzibo Z; Figueredo, Gilles; Chalard, Pierre; N'guessan, Yao T


    Different parts of Uvaria ovata (Dunals) A, U. anonoides Baker f. and U. tortilis A. Chev were collected from Ivory Coast, in Toumodi (center), Agboville (south-east) and Sikensi (south), respectively. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus, were investigated by CG and CG/MS. The proportion of the chromatographed constituents identified varied from 92.5% to 98.5%. For U. ovata, the root bark oil comprised mainly camphene (10.2%), beta-pinene (10.1%), epi-alpha-cadinol (13.2%) and intermedeol (9.7%), while the oil of the stem bark was dominated by epi-alpha-cadinol (27.3%), intermedeol (11.9%) and benzyl benzoate (13.4%). The oil of the leaves showed beta-caryophyllene (15.6%), germacrene D (24.2%) and benzyl benzoate (18.3%) as the most abundant constituents. The leaf oil of U. anonoides was rich in 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (15.5%), bicyclogermacrene (21.3%) and benzyl benzoate (8.7%), while, gamma-terpinene (31.7%), beta-caryophyllene (23.9%) and germacrene D (15.8%) constituted the main components of the stem bark oil of U. tortilis.

  1. Biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatic solvents in the presence of aromatic compounds under methanogenic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, L.N.; Grbic-Galic, D.


    Transformation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was studied under methanogenic conditions, in the presence or absence of toluene, ethylbenzene, phenol, and benzoate. Microbial inoculate for the experiments were derived from three groundwater aquifers contaminated by jet fuel or creosote. CT and PCE were reductively dechlorinated in all the examined castes (CT to chloroform [CF]; PCE to trichloroethylene [TCE], trans-1,2-dichloroethylene [DCE], and vinyl chloride [VC]). In the aquifer microcosms, the electron donors used for the reductive transformations were most likely the unidentified organic compounds present on aquifer solids, or storage materials in microorganisms. Alternatively, molecular hydrogen from the anaerobic incubator atmosphere could have been used. The addition of benzoate caused a decrease in rates of dechlorination if benzoate was transformed. Phenol and ethylbenzene were not degraded and did not influence the transformation of CT or PCE. Toluene, in most of the studied cases, had no influence on reductive dechlorination of either CT or PCE. Only in microcosms derived from a JP-4 jet fuel-contaminated aquifer did the anaerobic degradation of toluene occur simultaneously with reductive dechlorination of PCE, suggesting that toluene might possibly have been used as an electron donor for reductive transformation of chlorinated solvents

  2. Conversion of lignin model compounds by Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and isolates from compost. (United States)

    Ravi, Krithika; García-Hidalgo, Javier; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie F; Lidén, Gunnar


    Starting from mature vegetable compost, four bacterial strains were selected using a lignin-rich medium. 16S ribosomal RNA identification of the isolates showed high score similarity with Pseudomonas spp. for three out of four isolates. Further characterization of growth on mixtures of six selected lignin model compounds (vanillin, vanillate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, p-coumarate, benzoate, and ferulate) was carried out with three of the Pseudomonas isolates and in addition with the strain Pseudomonas putida KT2440 from a culture collection. The specific growth rates on benzoate, p-coumarate, and 4-hydroxybenzoate were considerably higher (0.26-0.27 h -1 ) than those on ferulate and vanillate (0.21 and 0.22 h -1 ), as were the uptake rates. There was no direct growth of P. putida KT2440 on vanillin, but instead, vanillin was rapidly converted into vanillate at a rate of 4.87 mmol (g CDW  h) -1 after which the accumulated vanillate was taken up. The growth curve reflected a diauxic growth when mixtures of the model compounds were used as carbon source. Vanillin, 4-hydroxybenzoate, and benzoate were preferentially consumed first, whereas ferulate was always the last substrate to be taken in. These results contribute to a better understanding of the aromatic metabolism of P. putida in terms of growth and uptake rates, which will be helpful for the utilization of these bacteria as cell factories for upgrading lignin-derived mixtures of aromatic molecules.

  3. Novel sample preparation methods and field testing procedures used to determine the chemical basis of cocaine detection by canines (United States)

    Furton, Kenneth G.; Hsu, Ya-Li; Luo, Tien-Ying; Alvarez, Nayiby; Lagos, Pedro


    The use of canines to signal money associated with drug trafficking is a major point of contention among dog handlers, forensic scientists, and the legal community particularly in light of recent reports that a significant amount of money in circulation is contaminated with detectable amounts of cocaine. The questions raised include: What exactly are the dogs alerting to? How selective are the dogs? How sensitive are the dogs? How reliable are the dogs? Tests with various volatile cocaine by-products confirm that the dominant chemical in cocaine odor is methyl benzoate. Field tests on fifteen different drug detector dogs with varying breeds, ages and training regimes show a consistent threshold level of 1 (mu) g of methyl benzoate spiked along with cocaine on U.S. currency required to initiate an alert. The majority of the canines did not alert to pharmaceutical grade cocaine even at levels as high as 1 g. Methyl benzoate is shown to evaporate rapidly from individual bills and is a function of the available surface area for wrapped currency. The canines tested were remarkably selective and reliable even under varying test conditions and using different delivery devices.

  4. Quantum dots in photocatalytic applications: efficiently enhancing visible light photocatalytic activity by integrating CdO quantum dots as sensitizers. (United States)

    Reshak, A H


    The amalgamation of a wide optical band gap photocatalyst with visible-light-active CdO quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers is one of the most efficient ways to improve photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic performance of cadmium benzoate ((Cd(C 7 H 5 O 2 ) 2 ) 3 (CH 3 CN) 1 ) is comprehensively investigated. The estimated optical band gap of cadmium benzoate is 2.64 eV and the EPc and EPv are about -0.09 V (vs. NHE) and +2.55 V (vs. NHE), respectively, which implies that cadmium benzoate possesses a high negative reduction potential of excited electrons due to its higher conduction band position, and hence, the locations of the conduction band minimum and the valence band maximum meet the redox capacity. Thus, this composite photocatalyst exhibits superior activity in visible-light-driven photocatalytic H 2 evolution. We found that introducing the QDs enhance the photocatalytic performance towards the visible light region. The electronic band structure shows high k-dispersion bands around the Fermi level, which implies low effective masses, and hence, the high mobility carriers favor the enhancement of the charge transfer process. The mobility of the photogenerated carriers significantly influences the photocatalytic efficiency and the higher photogenerated carriers' mobility enhances the photocatalytic performance. Moreover, the result shows a great effective mass difference between electrons (e - ) and holes (h + ), which can facilitate the e - and h + migration and separation, and finally improve the photocatalytic performance. The large mobility difference is useful for the separation of e - and h + , the reduction of the e - and h + recombination rate, and the improvement of the photocatalytic activity. Thus, cadmium benzoate exhibits rapid generation of e - -h + pairs with photoexcitation and a high negative reduction potential of excited electrons due to its higher CB position. Based on these results one can conclude

  5. Ovarian modulation of the oestradiol-induced LH surge in prepubertal and sexually mature gilts. (United States)

    Elsaesser, F; Parvizi, N; Foxcroft, G


    The role of ovarian secretions in modulating positive oestrogen feedback on LH release in late prepubertal and sexually mature gilts was studied. Gilts were either ovariectomized (OVX) at 230 days of age (sexually mature, OVX 230, control), ovariectomized at 160 days of age (pre-pubertal, OVX 160) or ovariectomized at 160 days of age and given either low, high or very high oestradiol substitution therapy (two or three Silastic implants, 5 or 8 cm in length) from 160 days to 230 days (OVX 160 + 2E5, OVX 160 + 2E8 and OVX 160 + 3E8, respectively). The LH surge responses to three i.m. injections of oestradiol benzoate given at intervals of 12 h (in total 10 micrograms oestradiol benzoate kg-1 bodyweight) were compared at 260 days. An additional group of sexually mature gilts was ovariectomized at 260 days (OVX 260) and challenged with oestradiol benzoate at 360 days. LH surges with peak LH concentrations below pretreatment values (resembling LH responses to oestradiol benzoate in immature gilts) were classified as immature, and those with peak LH concentrations above pretreatment values as mature. LH concentrations before treatment with oestradiol benzoate were reduced (P gilts compared with OVX 230 (control). When compared with the control group, the time to LH surge peak was longer in OVX 260 gilts, LH peak amplitude was reduced in the OVX 160 group and the area under the curve of the LH surge (ng LH ml-1 plasma (48 h)-1) was less in all other groups (P gilts (6/1) and a low ratio in OVX 160 (1/7) and OVX 260 (1/6) gilts. The long-term effect of ovariectomy was partially overcome in the OVX 160 + 2E5 group (mature:immature = 3/3). However, previous exposure to supraphysiological concentrations of oestradiol (as in groups OVX 160 + 2E8 and OVX 160 + 3E8) resulted in a high percentage of animals (66% and 100%, respectively) that did not respond to the oestradiol benzoate challenge with an LH surge. Immediately before oestradiol benzoate administration (30 days after

  6. Mycelium-Like Networks Increase Bacterial Dispersal, Growth, and Biodegradation in a Model Ecosystem at Various Water Potentials. (United States)

    Worrich, Anja; König, Sara; Miltner, Anja; Banitz, Thomas; Centler, Florian; Frank, Karin; Thullner, Martin; Harms, Hauke; Kästner, Matthias; Wick, Lukas Y


    Fungal mycelia serve as effective dispersal networks for bacteria in water-unsaturated environments, thereby allowing bacteria to maintain important functions, such as biodegradation. However, poor knowledge exists on the effects of dispersal networks at various osmotic (Ψo) and matric (Ψm) potentials, which contribute to the water potential mainly in terrestrial soil environments. Here we studied the effects of artificial mycelium-like dispersal networks on bacterial dispersal dynamics and subsequent effects on growth and benzoate biodegradation at ΔΨo and ΔΨm values between 0 and -1.5 MPa. In a multiple-microcosm approach, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged derivative of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as a model organism and sodium benzoate as a representative of polar aromatic contaminants. We found that decreasing ΔΨo and ΔΨm values slowed bacterial dispersal in the system, leading to decelerated growth and benzoate degradation. In contrast, dispersal networks facilitated bacterial movement at ΔΨo and ΔΨm values between 0 and -0.5 MPa and thus improved the absolute biodegradation performance by up to 52 and 119% for ΔΨo and ΔΨm, respectively. This strong functional interrelationship was further emphasized by a high positive correlation between population dispersal, population growth, and degradation. We propose that dispersal networks may sustain the functionality of microbial ecosystems at low osmotic and matric potentials. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Postharvest application of organic and inorganic salts to control potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) storage soft rot: plant tissue-salt physicochemical interactions. (United States)

    Yaganza, E S; Tweddell, R J; Arul, J


    Soft rot caused by Pectobacterium sp. is a devastating disease affecting stored potato tubers, and there is a lack of effective means of controlling this disease. In this study, 21 organic and inorganic salts were tested for their ability to control soft rot in potato tubers. In the preventive treatment, significant control of soft rot was observed with AlCl3 (≥66%) and Na2S2O3 (≥57%) and to a lesser extent with Al lactate and Na benzoate (≥34%) and K sorbate and Na propionate (≥27%). However, only a moderate control was achieved by curative treatment with AlCl3 and Na2S2O3 (42%) and sodium benzoate (≥33%). Overall, the in vitro inhibitory activity of salts was attenuated in the presence of plant tissue (in vivo) to different degrees. The inhibitory action of the salts in the preventive treatment, whether effective or otherwise, showed an inverse linear relationship with water ionization capacity (pK') of the salt ions, whereas in the curative treatment, only the effective salts showed this inverse linear relationship. Salt-plant tissue interactions appear to play a central role in the attenuated inhibitory activity of salts in potato tuber through reduction in the availability of the inhibitory ions for salt-bacteria interactions. This study demonstrates that AlCl3, Na2S2O3, and Na benzoate have potential in controlling potato tuber soft rot and provides a general basis for understanding of specific salt-tissue interactions.

  8. Effect of matricaria recutita on acute pain in the presence and absence of sex hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Kesmati


    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: Chamomile is a beneficial herbal drug that is used as an anti-inflammatory, sedative and anti-allergic agent. The mechanism of action of matricaria recutita (MR, a specious of chamomile, in nociception in male and female animals is not fully understood. In this study, the sedative effect of a species of chamomile, MR, on acute pain was investigated in both male and female adult mice in the presence and absence of sex hormones.
    METHODS: Male and female NMRI mice weighing 28 ± 3 grams were used. Animals of each sex were divided into intact and gonadectomized groups. Intact group received saline or MR extract (10, 30, 50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally. Gonadectomized group contained two subgroups: a group that received saline or MR hydro alcoholic extract (50 mg/kg, I.P., and b group that received sex hormones (testosterone in male mice and estradiol benzoate and progesterone in female mice, both with and without MR extract (50mg/kg, IP. The analgesia times in all groups were evaluated by hot plate test.
    RESULTS: MR increased analgesia time both in intact and gonadectomized male and female mice, but had no effect in the presence of pharmacological doses of testosterone (2 mg/kg, subcutaneous in male mice, and estradiol benzoate (0.1 mg/kg, SC and progesterone (0.5 mg/kg, SC in female mice.
    CONCLUSIONS: It seems that MR can induce a pain-relieving effect with and without physiological doses of sex hormones in male and female mice, but sex hormones probably interact with its analgesic effect in their pharmacological doses.
    KEY WORDS: Matricaria recutita, pain, testosterone, estradiol benzoate, progesterone, hot plate.

  9. Interaction between Sex Hormones and Matricaria Chamomilla Hydroalcholic Extract on Motor Activity Behavior in Gonadectomized Male and Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Raie


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Locomotor activity is an important physiologic phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. In previous study we showed that the matricaria chamomilla (chamomile hydroalcholic extract acts differently in male and female mice. Therefore in this study, the role of sex hormones and chamomile hydroalcholic extract were investigated on motor activity behavior in absence of sex glands in adult male and female NMRI mice. Materials and Methods: Gonadectomized male and female mice were divided into groups (seven mice in each group including: receiving testosterone (2 mg/kg S.C., estradiol benzoate (0.1 mg/kg S.C., and progesterone (0.5 mg/kg S.C. with and without hydroalcholic extract of chamomile (50 mg/kg i.p. Motor activity monitor system was used to evaluate locomotor activity parameters (fast and slow activity, fast and slow stereotype activity, fast and slow rearing in all groups. Results: 1 Testosterone had no any effect on motor activity parameters, but extract of chamomile with and without testosterone decreased motor activity parameters in male mice. 2 Estradiol benzoate and chamomile hydroalcholic extract in presence and absence of each other increased locomotor activity parameters in female mice. 3 Progesterone also did not change motor activity parameters in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract in female mice. 4 Administration of Estradiol benzoate with progestrone in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract did not alter motor activity parameters in female mice. Conclusion: It seems both of the chamomile hydroalcholic extract and estradiol enhance motor activity and probably act through same system and potentiate the effect of each other. Also it seems there are interaction between estradiol and progesterone and also between chamomile extract and progesterone. Testosterone probably did not have any interaction with chamomile extract in locomotor activity.

  10. Contact and fumigant toxicities of 3-methylphenol isolated from Ostericum koreanum and its derivatives against house dust mites. (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Yang, Ji-Yeon; Chung, Namhyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon


    The acaricidal activities of an active constituent derived from Ostericum koreanum roots and its derivatives were determined using fumigant and direct-contact toxicity bioassays against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus . This was compared with that of a commercial acaricide (benzyl benzoate). In the fumigant toxicity bioassay, 4-chloro-6-isopropyl-3-methylphenol (0.29 μg/cm(2)) was 37.17 times more effective than benzyl benzoate (10.78 μg/cm(2)) against D. farinae, followed by 6-fluoro-3-methylphenol (0.57 μg/cm(2)), 3-methylphenol (0.63 μg/cm(2)), 4-chloro-3-methylphenol (0.75 μg/cm(2)), and 4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol (0.78 μg/cm(2)). In the direct-contact toxicity bioassay, 4-chloro-6-isopropyl-3-methylphenol (0.21 μg/cm(2)) was 36.81 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (7.73 μg/cm(2)) against D. farinae, followed by 6-fluoro-3-methylphenol (0.40 μg/cm(2)), 3-methylphenol (0.41 μg/cm(2)), 4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol (0.56 μg/cm(2)), and 4-chloro-3-methylphenol (0.60 μg/cm(2)). The acaricidal effects of 3-methyphenol derivatives against D. pteronyssinus were similar to those against D. farinae. In structure-activity relationships, acaricidal activities could be related to the introduction of chloro, fluoro, and isopropyl functional groups onto the 3-methylphenol skeleton. These results indicate that naturally occurring 3-methylphenol and its derivatives are potential house dust mite control agents.

  11. The anxiolytic effect of essential oil of Cananga odorata exposure on mice and determination of its major active constituents. (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Linyin; Yao, Lei


    Essential oil from Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang essential oil, YYO) is usually used in reducing blood pressure, improving cognitive functioning in aromatherapy in human. Few reports showed its effect on anxiety behaviors. To investigate the anxiolytic effects of YYO exposure on anxiety animal models, determine the major active constituents and investigate the change of neurotransmitters after odor exposure. ICR mice were subjected to three anxiety models including open field, elevated plus maze and light-dark box tests after acute and chronic YYO exposure. Main constituents of YYO were defined using GC/MS. These compounds were then tested on the male mice separately on three anxiety models. The monoamines neurotransmitters and their metabolites were analyzed after acute odor exposure and elevated plus maze test. YYO exposure only showed significant anxiolytic effect on the male mice. It increased the time that mice visited open arms and light box area in elevated plus maze and light-dark box tests after acute and chronic YYO exposures. Three main constituents of YYO, benzyl benzoate, linalool and benzyl alcohol showed anxiolytic effect on the male mice individually. YYO exposure brought changes of neurotransmitters on the male mice more significantly than the female mice. It decreased the dopamine (DA) concentration in the striatum and increased the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration in the hippocampus of the male mice. The major constituent benzyl benzoate changed neurotransmitters concentration in accordance with the YYO. Moreover, it decreased the ratio of 5-HIAA/5-HT in the hippocampus. Both acute and chronic YYO exposure showed anxiolytic effect on the male mice. YYO and its major constituent benzyl benzoate might act on the 5-HTnergic and DAnergic pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. The emergence of aqueous chemiluminescence: new promising class of phenoxy 1,2-dioxetane luminophores. (United States)

    Gnaim, Samer; Green, Ori; Shabat, Doron


    The majority of known chemiluminescent compounds produce light through oxidation-dependent mechanisms. The unique notion of triggering chemiluminescence by a chemical reaction other than oxidation was first introduced by Schaap in 1987 with the development of chemically and enzymatically activated phenoxy-dioxetanes. Such dioxetanes are distinctive among chemiluminescent molecules since the oxidized high-energy species, the dioxetane, is stable for years at room temperature. Light emission is selectively activated by deprotection of the phenol-protecting group. The chemiluminescence quantum yields of such dioxetanes are relatively high in organic solvents like DMSO. In aqueous solution, however, light emission efficiency drops by approximately 10 000-fold due to energy loss to water molecules. As we sought to understand the low light emission efficiency in water, we realized that the dioxetane chemiexcitation leads to the release of an excited state benzoate molecule, which is a very weak emitter under aqueous conditions. Thus, we reasoned that emission in aqueous solution could be enhanced, if the emissive nature of the excited benzoate formed in water is improved. Introduction of an electron-withdrawing acrylic group at the ortho position of the phenol donor resulted in an excited benzoate species that emits light with high efficiency in aqueous solutions. A striking 3000-fold increase in chemiluminescence emission was observed by simply using an acrylonitrile substituent on the dioxetane probe. For the first time, scientists now have an effective single-entity chemiluminescent probe that can be used to evaluate biological processes. This discovery promoted us to develop numerous highly efficient chemiluminescent probes for detection of different enzymes and analytes in aqueous solution. We anticipate that further studies in this direction will lead to even better chemiluminescence probes with quantum yield emissions that are even higher than that of the

  13. Biodegradation of chlorimuron-ethyl and the associated degradation pathway by Rhodococcus sp. D310-1. (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Zang, Hailian; Yu, Qi; Lv, Tongyang; Cheng, Yi; Cheng, Xiaosong; Liu, Keran; Liu, Wanjun; Xu, Pianpian; Lan, Chuanzeng


    Chlorimuron-ethyl is a typical long-term residual sulfonylurea herbicide, and strategies for its removal have attracted increasing attention. Microbial degradation is considered the most acceptable dissipation method. In this study, we optimized the cultivation conditions (substrate concentration, pH, inoculum concentration, and temperature) of the chlorimuron-ethyl-degrading bacterium Rhodococcus sp. D310-1 using response surface methodology (RSM) to improve the biodegradation efficiency. A maximum biodegradation rate of 88.95 % was obtained. The Andrews model was used to describe the changes in the specific degradation rate as the substrate concentration increased. Chlorimuron-ethyl could be transformed with a maximum specific degradation rate (q max), half-saturation constant (K S), and inhibition constant (K i) of 0.4327 day(-1), 63.50045 mg L(-1), and 156.76666 mg L(-1), respectively. Eight biodegradation products (2-amino-4-chloro-6-methoxypyrimidine, ethyl 2-sulfamoyl benzoate, 2-sulfamoyl benzoic acid, o-benzoic sulfimide, 2-[[(4-chloro-6-methoxy-2-pyrimidinyl) carbamoyl] sulfamoyl] benzoic acid, ethyl 2-carbonyl sulfamoyl benzoate, ethyl 2-benzenesulfonyl isocyanate benzoate, and N,N-2(ethyl formate)benzene sulfonylurea) were identified, and three possible degradation pathways were proposed based on the results of high performance liquid chromatography HPLC, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses and the relevant literature. This systematic study is the first to examine the chlorimuron-ethyl degradation pathways of the genus Rhodococcus.

  14. Apple proliferation phytoplasma influences the pattern of plant volatiles emitted depending on pathogen virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit eRid


    Full Text Available Apple proliferation (AP and pear decline (PD are the most severe diseases in pome fruit growing areas. AP-infected trees show typical symptoms such as witches’ broom, enlarged stipules, tasteless and dwarf fruits. PD-infected pears show a progressive weakening, reduced terminal growth, smaller fruits and die within weeks (quick decline or years (slow decline. The diseases are caused by the cell-wall lacking bacteria Candidatus Phytoplasma mali (AP phytoplasma and Ca. P. pyri (PD phytoplasma, respectively. In previous studies it has been shown that AP-infected apple trees emitted higher amounts of the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene, an attractant of the insect vector Cacopsylla picta (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, thereby facilitating the dispersal of AP phytoplasma. In the present study, volatile organic compounds (VOCs occurring in the headspace of plants infected with Ca. P. mali strains causing different severity of symptoms in apple plants were collected, analyzed and identified. Headspace samples from healthy and AP-infected model plant tobacco (Nicotiana occidentalis and apple (Malus domestica as well as from healthy and PD-infected pear (Pyrus communis were investigated via thermodesorption and GC-MS analysis. Significantly higher concentrations of ethyl benzoate were produced in all phytoplasma-infected plants compared to healthy ones and an as yet unidentified sesquiterpene differed between the odor bouquets of healthy and by Ca. P. mali infected tobacco plants. Additionally, statistically significant higher amounts of both compounds were measured in the headspace of plants infected by the virulent AP strain. In apple, significantly higher concentrations of ethyl benzoate and methyl salicylate were observed for trees infected with strains of Ca. P. mali. Ethyl benzoate was also detected in the headspace of pear trees infected with Ca. P. pyri.

  15. Copper-Catalyzed Oxidative Dehydrogenative Carboxylation of Unactivated Alkanes to Allylic Esters via Alkenes (United States)


    We report copper-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenative carboxylation (ODC) of unactivated alkanes with various substituted benzoic acids to produce the corresponding allylic esters. Spectroscopic studies (EPR, UV–vis) revealed that the resting state of the catalyst is [(BPI)Cu(O2CPh)] (1-O2CPh), formed from [(BPI)Cu(PPh3)2], oxidant, and benzoic acid. Catalytic and stoichiometric reactions of 1-O2CPh with alkyl radicals and radical probes imply that C–H bond cleavage occurs by a tert-butoxy radical. In addition, the deuterium kinetic isotope effect from reactions of cyclohexane and d12-cyclohexane in separate vessels showed that the turnover-limiting step for the ODC of cyclohexane is C–H bond cleavage. To understand the origin of the difference in products formed from copper-catalyzed amidation and copper-catalyzed ODC, reactions of an alkyl radical with a series of copper–carboxylate, copper–amidate, and copper–imidate complexes were performed. The results of competition experiments revealed that the relative rate of reaction of alkyl radicals with the copper complexes follows the trend Cu(II)–amidate > Cu(II)–imidate > Cu(II)–benzoate. Consistent with this trend, Cu(II)–amidates and Cu(II)–benzoates containing more electron-rich aryl groups on the benzamidate and benzoate react faster with the alkyl radical than do those with more electron-poor aryl groups on these ligands to produce the corresponding products. These data on the ODC of cyclohexane led to preliminary investigation of copper-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenative amination of cyclohexane to generate a mixture of N-alkyl and N-allylic products. PMID:25389772

  16. Toxicity and bioefficacy of individual and combination of diversified insecticides against jute hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua. (United States)

    Selvaraj, K; Ramesh, V; Gotyal, B S; Satpathy, S


    Toxicity of conventional (profenofos 50 EC and λ-cyhalothrin 5 EC) and non-conventional (flubendiamide 480 SC, chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC, emamectin benzoate 5 SG) insecticides was determined on the basis of median lethal concentration (LC50) values on third instar larvae of jute hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua under laboratory conditions. Further, the promising binary insecticides combinations with lesser LC50 values and adequate synergistic activity were evaluated under field conditions. The LC50 values calculated for insecticides viz., chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide emamectin benzoate, λ-cyhalothrin and profenophos were 0.212, 0.232, 0.511, 0.985 and 3.263 ppm, respectively. Likewise, the LC50 values for flubendiamide with λ-cyhalothrin in 3:1 proportion was most toxic (0.103 ppm) amongst all the other binary combinations with λ-cyhalothrin. Chlorantraniliprole in combination with λ-cyhalothrin at 1:1 proportion (0.209 ppm) was most toxic followed by 3:1 proportion (0.345 ppm). Similarly, emamectin benzoate in combination with λ-cyhalothrin at 1:1 proportion was more toxic (0.271 ppm) than 3:1 ratio (0.333 ppm). Toxicity index of flubendiamide + λ-cyhalothrin (3:1 ratio) was highest (970.87). Bioefficacy of synergistic binary combinations along with individual insecticides established the superiority of profenophos + λ-cyhalothrin (3:1) with 89.12% reduction in infestation and recorded maximum fibre yield 38.67qha' under field condition. Moreover, combination of diverse insecticides group might sustain toxicity against the target insect for longer period with least probability of resistance development.

  17. Assessing the combined toxicity of conventional and newer insecticides on the cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis. (United States)

    Saddiq, Bushra; Ejaz, Masood; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Aslam, Muhammad


    Reduced susceptibility to insecticides often results in failure of insect pest control and repetitive use of broad-spectrum insecticides, which could have detrimental effects on beneficial arthropods and surrounding agro-ecosystems. The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley is a pest of worldwide importance that can be effectively controlled using a number of insecticides. This insect has developed resistance due to injudicious use and repeated exposure to insecticides throughout the year. The aim of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of the insecticides chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, spinosad, emamectin benzoate and indoxacarb tested either singly or in combination on laboratory susceptible (Lab-PK) and field population (Field Pop) of P. solenopsis. In the Field Pop, combination of chlorpyrifos with either spinosad or emamectin benzoate or indoxacarb showed a synergistic effect at 1:1, 1:10 and 1:20. The combination of deltamethrin with either emamectin benzoate or indoxacarb at all ratios showed synergistic effect, while the combination of deltamethrin with spinosad at 1:1 and 1:20 ratios showed antagonistic effects and that at 1:10 ratio showed synergistic effect against Field Pop. The results of synergism experiments using piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) enzyme inhibitors, when combined with insecticides against the Field Pop, toxicities of all tested insecticides were significantly increased. The present study suggests that insecticide combinations and synergism could help achieve effective control of less susceptible populations of P. solenopsis. This would contribute to suitably managing resistance of this pest to insecticides with reduced negative impacts on the surrounding environment.

  18. Effects of some organic acids and salts on microbial fermentation in the digestive tract of piglets estimated using an in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available An in vitro gas production technique was used to screen different organic acids (formic, propionic, lactic, citric, and fumaric acid, organic salts (calcium formate, potassium sorbate, and sodium benzoate, and inorganic phosphoric acid for their ability to modulate microbial fermentation in the digestive tract of piglets. For the incubation, 40 ml of culture medium (53% buffer, 45% frozen ileal digesta, and 2% fresh faeces was dispensed in vessels containing 5 ml of buffer, 0.5 g of feed, and 20 ìl of liquid or 20 mg of solid acidifiers. Gas production was measured every 15 min during the 24 h incubation at 39°C, and a Gompertz bacterial growth model was applied to the gas production data. Formic acid was the only acid that reduced the maximum rate of gas production (ìm compared to that in the control treatment (P 0.05. When investigating formic-acid-based mixtures that contained 1–5% of potassium sorbate and/or sodium benzoate, the estimated parameters for the Gompertz growth model did not differ from those for treatments with plain formic acid (P > 0.05. However, concentrations of total volatile fatty acids, acetic acid, propionic acid, and n-butyric acid were reduced by all the mixtures (P 0.05. In conclusion, organic acids and salts were found to differ in their ability to modulate microbial fermentation in the digestive tract of piglets. Mixing formic acid with potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate changed fermentation patterns, and the possibility to use them to enhance the antimicrobial effect of formic acid should be investigated further in vivo.;

  19. Synthetic Co-Attractants of the Aggregation Pheromone of the Date Palm Root Borer Oryctes agamemnon. (United States)

    Hasni, Narjes; Pinier, Centina; Imed, Cheraief; Ouhichi, Monêem; Couzi, Philippe; Chermiti, Brahim; Frérot, Brigitte; Saïd, Imen; Rochat, Didier


    Laboratory and field investigations to identify and evaluate plant co-attractants of the aggregation pheromone of the date palm pest Oryctes agamemnon are reported. Volatiles emitted by freshly cut palm core and palm core with feeding males, were collected, analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and evaluated in olfactometers alone or combined with synthetic pheromone. A collection of palm odor without male effluvia was attractive alone and enhanced attraction to synthetic pheromone in an olfactometer similar to that to a collection of palm odor emitted with feeding males and containing natural pheromone. Behavioral responses to collections of palm volatiles were correlated to the amount of volatiles material in them. Enhancement of the attractiveness of the pheromone was not correlated to chemicals specific to beetle feeding. The chemicals common to the active collections extracts were benzoate esters, mostly ethyl benzoate, anisole derivatives and sesquiterpenes. Blends of the most abundant components of the extracts were evaluated for enhancement of the attractiveness of pheromone (1 μg) in olfactometers at 1 or 10 μg doses. The mixtures were further evaluated by field trapping in Tunisia at 3-10 mg/day using reference (6 mg/day) or experimental pheromone formulations. A mixture of ethyl benzoate, 4-methylanisole and farnesol (1:1:1 w/w at 6.5 mg/day) enhanced captures in pheromone baited traps in 2014 and 2015 and this mixture was as active as the natural palm bait. The practical prospect of the result for the management for O. agamemnon, and other palm beetles is discussed.

  20. Post-processing application of chemical solutions for control of Listeria monocytogenes, cultured under different conditions, on commercial smoked sausage formulated with and without potassium lactate-sodium diacetate. (United States)

    Geornaras, Ifigenia; Skandamis, Panagiotis N; Belk, Keith E; Scanga, John A; Kendall, Patricia A; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N


    This study evaluated post-processing chemical solutions for their antilisterial effects on commercial smoked sausage formulated with or without 1.5% potassium lactate plus 0.05% sodium diacetate, and contaminated (approximately 3-4 log cfu/cm(2)) with 10-strain composite Listeria monocytogenes inocula prepared under various conditions. Inoculated samples were left untreated, or were immersed (2 min, 25 +/- 2 degrees C) in solutions of acetic acid (2.5%), lactic acid (2.5%), potassium benzoate (5%) or Nisaplin (0.5%, equivalent to 5000 IU/ml of nisin) alone, and in sequence (Nisaplin followed by acetic acid, lactic acid or potassium benzoate), before vacuum packaging and storage at 10 degrees C (48 days). Acetic acid, lactic acid or potassium benzoate applied alone reduced initial L. monocytogenes populations by 0.4-1.5 log cfu/cm(2), while treatments including Nisaplin caused reductions of 2.1-3.3 log cfu/cm(2). L. monocytogenes on untreated sausage formulated with antimicrobials had a lag phase duration of 10.2 days and maximum specific growth rate (mu(max)) of 0.089 per day, compared to no lag phase and mu(max) of 0.300 per day for L. monocytogenes on untreated product that did not contain antimicrobials in the formulation. The immersion treatments inhibited growth of the pathogen for 4.9-14.8 days on sausage formulated without potassium lactate-sodium diacetate; however, in all cases significant (P meat processors in their efforts to select required regulatory alternatives for control of post-processing contamination in meat products.

  1. Cyclopentadithiophene-benzoic acid copolymers as conductive binders for silicon nanoparticles in anode electrodes of lithium ion batteries. (United States)

    Wang, Kuo-Lung; Kuo, Tzu-Husan; Yao, Chun-Feng; Chang, Shu-Wei; Yang, Yu-Shuo; Huang, Hsin-Kai; Tsai, Cho-Jen; Horie, Masaki


    Cyclopentadithiophene and methyl-2,5-dibromobenzoate have been copolymerised via palladium complex catalysed direct arylation. The methyl ester group in the benzoate unit is converted to the carboxyl group via saponification. The polymers are mixed with Si nanoparticles for use as conducting binders in the fabrication of an anode electrode in lithium ion batteries. The battery with the electrode incorporating the saponified polymer shows much higher specific capacity of up to 1820 mA h g -1 (total weight) and a higher stability compared with the battery including the polymer before the saponification.

  2. U. S. Army Land Warfare Laboratory. Volume II Appendix B. Task Sheets (United States)


    Aerosols B-561 05-B-73 Entomological Use of Lights B-562 06-B-73 Pesticide Pyrolysis Device B-563 07-B-73 Drug Detection by an Enzyme Method B-564 08-8...experiment showed that addition of small amounts of benzyl diethyl ammonium benzoate (Bitrex or BEDAB) to the soil in which tomato plants wure growing...which hindered its evaluation. I B-563 TASK NUMBER: 06-B-73 "TITLE: Pesticide Pyrolysis Device AUTHORIZED FUNDING: $41,384 TASK DURATION: 3 August 1972

  3. Ligand-based transport resonances of single-molecule-magnet spin filters: Suppression of Coulomb blockade and determination of easy-axis orientation (United States)

    Rostamzadeh Renani, Fatemeh; Kirczenow, George


    We investigate single-molecule-magnet transistors (SMMTs) with ligands that support transport resonances. We find the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of Mn12-benzoate SMMs (with and without thiol or methyl-sulfide termination) to be on ligands, the highest occupied molecular orbitals being on the Mn12 magnetic core. We predict gate-controlled switching between Coulomb blockade and coherent resonant tunneling in SMMTs based on such SMMs, strong spin filtering by the SMM in both transport regimes, and that if such switching is observed, then the magnetic easy axis of the SMM is parallel to the direction of the current through the SMM.

  4. Conformation and chirality in liquid crystals (United States)

    West, John L.; Zhao, Lei


    High helical twisting powerchiral additives are required for an expanding variety of liquid crystal displays and devices. Molecular conformation plays a critical role in determining the helical twisting power, HTP, of chiral additives. We studied additives based on an isosorbide benzoate ester core. Molecular modeling revealed two low energy states with very different conformations for this core The ultra-violet absorption and NMR spectra show two stable isosorbide conformers These spectra reveal how the relative populations of these two conformations change with temperature and how this is related to the helical twisting power. Conformation changes can explain many of the observed anomalous responses of HPT to temperature.

  5. Estrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo of the fungicide fenarimol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C.; Nielsen, Flemming


    in fenarimol-treated animals. To our knowledge, only two other pesticides (o.p-DDT and methoxychlor) have previously been reported to induce an estrogenic response in the rodent uterotrophic bioassay. A pronounced xenoestrogenicity in serum samples from rats treated with fenarimol and estradiol benzoate (E2B......) separately or in combination was observed, demonstrating the usefulness of this approach for estimating the integrated internal exposure to xenoestrogens. The MCF-7 cell proliferation assay was used to investigate further the dose-response curves for the estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and aromatase inhibiting...

  6. Chemical constituents from Piptadenia rigida Benth., Fabaceae, "angico"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário G. de Carvalho


    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of the roots of Piptadenia rigida Benth., Fabaceae, known as "angico", afforded sitosterol, lupeol, betuline, the chalcone isoliquiritigenin, the flavonoids, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone, 7,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone, 7,8,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavanone, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde and methyl-3,4-dihydroxy-benzoate. Both flavones were also isolated from the branches of this plant. Five derivatives of the aldehyde were obtained by diazomethane treatment. The structures of compounds were identified by IR, NMR and mass spectral data analysis of natural compounds and some derivatives, and by comparison with literature data.

  7. Chemical constituents from Piptadenia rigida Benth., Fabaceae, "angico"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário G. de Carvalho


    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of the roots of Piptadenia rigida Benth., Fabaceae, known as "angico", afforded sitosterol, lupeol, betuline, the chalcone isoliquiritigenin, the flavonoids, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone, 7,3',4'-trihydroxyflavone, 7,8,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavanone, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde and methyl-3,4-dihydroxy-benzoate. Both flavones were also isolated from the branches of this plant. Five derivatives of the aldehyde were obtained by diazomethane treatment. The structures of compounds were identified by IR, NMR and mass spectral data analysis of natural compounds and some derivatives, and by comparison with literature data.

  8. Validity of a radioimmunoassay for serum and pituitary prolactin in adult male rats. Effects of bromocriptine and thyrotropin-releasing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, Max; Grizard, Genevieve; Boucher, Daniel


    Validity of a radioimmunoassay for rat prolactin (PRL) in serum and pituitary is analysed in adult male rats. Data are presented bearing on the accuracy, precision and sensitivity of the method. Serum levels and pituitary content are respectively ranged from 2,56 to 28,03 ng PRL RP 2 ml -1 and from 7,36 to 21,44 μg PRL RP 2 per gland in intact animals. Treatment with bromocriptine (10 days) results in a decrease of serum PRL levels and pituitary PRL contents. In progesterone-estradiol benzoate pretreated rats, serum PRL levels are increased 20 min after the injection of TRH [fr

  9. Degradation of Chlorinated Aromatic Compounds in UASB Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Nina; Hendriksen, Hanne Vang; Järvinen, Kimmo T.


    Data on anaerobic degradation of chloroaromatic compounds in Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactors (UASB-reactor) are presented and compared. Special attention is given to the metabolic pathways for degradation of chlorinated phenols by granular sludge. Results indicate that PCP can be degraded...... in UASB-reactors via stepwise dechlorination to phenol. Phenol will subsequently be converted to benzoate before ring cleavage. Dechlorination proceeds via different pathways dependent upon the inocula used. Results are further presented on the design of special metabolic pathways in granules which do...

  10. The Effects of CW-Related Chemicals on Social Behavior and Performance (United States)


    work wi’:h rhesus monkeys (Bunnell, et al, 1979a,b) the I-Troop males were placed on a FI schedule and the effects of cafeine sodium benzoate and...A, ° • ° A D \\ ELEOCTE _ ’•L 2 U N 16 1•89 CCNTR[’CT NO.: DAMD17-9-.-C-3260 TITLE: The Effects of CW-Related Chemicals on Social Behavior and...NO. Frederick, I 21701-5012 62734A 62734A875 AE 455 11. TITLE (Include Securtry Clauidication) The Effects of CW-Related Chemicals on Social Behavior

  11. Kajian Sistem Pengemasan Bunga Mawar Potong (Rosa hybrida) selama Penyimpanan untuk Memperpanjang Masa Pajangan


    Rokhani Hasbullah; Suroso; Desy Nofriati


    Pretreatment and packaging or rose cut flowers during stroage and transportation should be designed in order to keep its quality during vase life of the flowers. The objective of this study was to find out the pulsing solution and the design of packaging to prolong the vase life of the rose cut flowers. The flowers were harvested from Loji, Cipanas, when the flower was at two bud open stages. Before storage, the flowers were pulsed in the chemical solution of sucrose, glyserin, Na-benzoat and...

  12. Organic compounds inhibiting S. epidermidis adhesion and biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingdong; Hu, Yifan


    . epidermidis infections by preventing or eradicating biofilm formation of the bacterium is therefore a medically important challenge. We report here a study of biofilm formation of S. epidermidis on solid surfaces using a combination of confocal laser scanning (CLSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in both...... air and aqueous environments. We have investigated the inhibitory effects of surfaces treated with four organic compounds, two benzoate derivatives denoted as compound 59 and 75 and two carboxamicle derivatives denoted as compound 47 and 73, on S. epidermidis adhesion and biofilm formation. All four...

  13. Optical tissue clearing improves usability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for high-throughput analysis of the internal structure and 3D morphology of small biological objects such as vertebrate embryos (United States)

    Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas M.; Männer, Jörg


    Developmental biology studies frequently require rapid analysis of the morphology of a large number of embryos (highthroughput analysis). Conventional microscopic analysis is time-consuming and, therefore, is not well suited for highthroughput analysis. OCT facilitates rapid generation of optical sections through small biological objects at high resolutions. However, due to light scattering within biological tissues, the quality of OCT images drops significantly with increasing penetration depth of the light beam. We show that optical clearing of fixed embryonic organs with methyl benzoate can significantly reduce the light scattering and, thereby, improves the usability of OCT for high-throughput analysis of embryonic morphology.

  14. An elimination diet for chronic urticaria of childhood. (United States)

    Kemp, A S; Schembri, G


    Twenty-three children with chronic urticaria were treated with an elimination diet for two weeks. Eighteen completed the period of dietary elimination; in seven of the 18 children there was a marked remission of the urticaria during the second week of the diet. The administration of challenge capsules provoked an exacerbation of urticaria in five of the 14 (36%) children given aspirin. The incidence of reactions to tartrazine, sodium benzoate and yeast (7%) was not significantly different from those to the lactose placebo (9%). In selected cases, elimination diets with controlled reintroduction of foods have a role in the management of chronic urticaria in childhood.

  15. Effect of weak acid preservatives on growth of bakery product spoilage fungi at different water activities and pH values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Nielsen, Per Væggemose


    Inhibition of spoilage organisms from bakery products by weak acid preservatives in concentrations of 0%, 0.003%, 0.03% and 0.3% (w/v) was investigated experimentally on a substrate media with water activity (a(w)) and pH ranging from sourdough-fermented acidic rye bread to alkaline intermediate...... activity levels as well as higher pH values decreased spoilage-free times of the fungi. The preservative calcium propionate was less effective than potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate....

  16. catena-Poly[[bis-[2-(2,3-dimethyl-anilino)benzoato-κO]cadmium(II)]-di-μ-3-pyridylmethanol-κN:O;κO:N]. (United States)

    Moncol, Jan; Mikloš, Dušan; Segľa, Peter; Koman, Marian; Lis, Tadeusz


    In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Cd(C(15)H(14)NO(2))(2)(C(6)H(7)NO)(2)](n), the Cd atom displays a distorted octa-hedral geometry, including two pyridine N atoms and two hydroxyl O from four symmetry-related 3-pyridylmethanol (3-pyme) ligands and two carboxylate O atoms from mefenamate [2-(2,3-dimethyl-anilino)benzoate] anions. The Cd atoms are connected via the bridging 3-pyme ligands into chains, that extend in the a-axis direction. The Cd atom is located on a center of inversion, whereas the 3-pyme ligands and the mefenamate anions occupy general positions.

  17. Constituintes químicos de Lippia sidoides (Cham. Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria O. Costa

    Full Text Available Thirteen compounds, 3-O-acetyloleanolic acid (1, methyl 3,4-dihydroxy benzoate (2, lapachenol (3, tecomaquinone (4, tectoquinone (5, tectol (6, acetilated tectol (7, quercetin (8, luteolin (9, glucoluteolin (10, lippisidoquinone (11, taxifolin (12 and isolariciresinol (13, were isolated from ethanol extract of Lippia sidoides. Their structures were assigned unambiguously by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR, IR and EIMS spectral data analysis and comparison with the published data for structurally related compounds. In brazilian traditional medicine the aerial parts of this specie are used as anti-infective agent, particularly as antiseptic.

  18. Optical tissue clearing improves usability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for high-throughput analysis of the internal structure and 3D morphology of small biological objects such as vertebrate embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Männer, Jörg


    Developmental biology studies frequently require rapid analysis of the morphology of a large number of embryos (highthroughput analysis). Conventional microscopic analysis is time-consuming and, therefore, is not well suited for highthroughput analysis. OCT facilitates rapid generation of optical...... sections through small biological objects at high resolutions. However, due to light scattering within biological tissues, the quality of OCT images drops significantly with increasing penetration depth of the light beam. We show that optical clearing of fixed embryonic organs with methyl benzoate can...

  19. Effect of weak acid preservatives on growth of bakery product spoilage fungi at different water activities and pH values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Nielsen, Per Væggemose


    Inhibition of spoilage organisms from bakery products by weak acid preservatives in concentrations of 0%, 0.003%, 0.03% and 0.3% (w/v) was investigated experimentally on a substrate media with water activity (a(w)) and pH ranging from sourdough-fermented acidic rye bread to alkaline intermediate...... of bakery products was conducted using calcium propionate, potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate. The obtained data was modelled using survival analysis to determine 'spoilage-free time' for the fungi. At the low a(w) level (0.80) only Eurotium species grew within the test period of 30 days. Higher water...

  20. Acaricidal activities of β-caryophyllene oxide and structural analogues derived from Psidium cattleianum oil against house dust mites. (United States)

    Oh, Min-Seok; Yang, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Min-Gi; Lee, Hoi-Seon


    This study was to evaluate the acaricidal activities of an active compound isolated from Psidium cattleianum and structural analogues against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus. β-Caryophyllene oxide was isolated using chromatographic techniques. Based on the 50% lethal concentration (LD50) values against D. farinae using the fumigant method, β-caryophyllene oxide (1.36 µg cm(-2)) was ∼ 7.52 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (10.23 µg cm(-2)), followed by α-caryophyllene (1.75 µg cm(-2)) and β-caryophyllene (3.13 µg cm(-2)). Against D. pteronyssinus, β-caryophyllene oxide (1.38 µg cm(-2)) was ∼ 7.22 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (9.96 µg cm(-2)), followed by α-caryophyllene (1.71 µg cm(-2)) and β-caryophyllene (3.58 µg cm(-2)). In the contact toxicity method against D. farinae, β-caryophyllene oxide (0.44 µg cm(-2)) was ∼ 17.27 times more active than benzyl benzoate (7.60 µg cm(-2)), followed by α-caryophyllene (0.67 µg cm(-2)) and β-caryophyllene (0.91 µg cm(-2)). Against D. pteronyssinus, β-caryophyllene oxide (0.47 µg cm(-2)) was ∼ 13.06 times more effective than benzyl benzoate (6.14 µg cm(-2)), followed by α-caryophyllene (1.71 µg cm(-2)) and β-caryophyllene (3.58 µg cm(-2)). β-Caryophyllene oxide and structural analogues have potential for development as preventive agents for the control of house dust mites. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. 2-Oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl 4-tert-butylbenzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konan René Kambo


    Full Text Available In the title coumarin derivative, C20H18O4, the benzene ring of the benzoate group is oriented at a dihedral angle of 57.55 (9° with respect to the planar chromene ring system [maximum deviation from plane is 0.027 (2 Å]. In the crystal, inversion-related molecules are linked into dimers via C—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating R22(12 loops. The dimers are linked by further C—H...O hydrogen bonds forming layers, parallel to the bc plane, which are linked via C—H...π interactions, forming a three-dimensional framework

  2. Polarographic behaviour and determination of selenite and tellurite in simple solutions or in a binary mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.


    The polarographic behaviour of simple solutions of selenite and tellurite in 1 M ammonium salts of formate, acetate, tartrate, oxalate, and benzoate solutions in absence and in presence of Triton X-100 as a maximum suppressor and a temperature of 25 O C has been investigated. Schemes for the mechanism of reductions occuring at the DME have been deduced. A method for analytical determination of selenite and tellurite in simple solutions as well as in a binary mixture in the presence of 4-14 . 10 -3 % Triton X-100 is reported. (author)

  3. Enantioselective Iridium Catalyzed Carbonyl Allylation from the Alcohol Oxidation Level via Transfer Hydrogenation: Minimizing Pre-Activation for Synthetic Efficiency (United States)

    Han, Soo Bong; Kim, In Su; Krische, Michael J.


    Existing methods for enantioselective carbonyl allylation, crotylation and tert-prenylation require stoichiometric generation of pre-metallated nucleophiles and often employ stoichiometric chiral modifiers. Under the conditions of transfer hydrogenation employing an ortho-cyclometallated iridium C,O-benzoate catalyst, enantioselective carbonyl allylations, crotylations and tert-prenylations are achieved in the absence of stoichiometric metallic reagents or stoichiometric chiral modifiers. Moreover, under transfer hydrogenation conditions, primary alcohols function dually as hydrogen donors and aldehyde precursors, enabling enantioselective carbonyl addition directly from the alcohol oxidation level. PMID:20024203

  4. Effectiveness and Acceptability of Nutrient Solutions in Enhancing Fluid Intake in the Heat (United States)


    Nutrient solution but the carbohydrate source is entirely in the form of glucose polymers (Malti Dextrin 42) instead of partially from fructose. Several...Malti Dextrin -42 10.3960 Fructose 14.4372 Aspartame 0.1060 Salt 1.3250 Citric acid 2.6500 Tricalcium phosphate 0.3890 Sodium benzoate 0.2120...shade McCormick C00266 0.0042 163 APPENDIX APPENDIX A-2 ARMYADE FORMULA INGREDIENTS Malti Dextrin -42 Aspartame Magnesium Chloride NaHC03

  5. Effect of naloxone and morphine on the estradiol induced LH surge in gilts


    Yearwood, H.; Ziecik, A.J.; España España, F.


    This study examines the role of endogenous opioids in control of the estradiol-induced luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. In the experiment 1 (Exp.1), fifteen Duroc gills were ovarieclomized at the age of 5 to 6 months and one month later challenged with estradiol benzoate (EB, 25 µg/kg i.m.) at 0 h of the experiment. Control animals (n=5) received continuos i.v. infusion of saline solution (5 ml/h) from 30 to 34 h and from 60 to 64 h preceded by single i.v- injection of 10 ml of saline in each ...

  6. Synthesis and Protective Effect of New Ligustrazine-Benzoic Acid Derivatives against CoCl2-Induced Neurotoxicity in Differentiated PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimin Lei


    Full Text Available A series of novel ligustrazine-benzoic acid derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their protective effect against cobalt chloride-induced neurotoxicity in differentiated PC12 cells. Combining hematoxylin and eosin staining, we found compound that (3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-ylmethyl 3-methoxy-4-[(3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-ylmethoxy]benzoate (4a displayed promising protective effect on the proliferation of the injured PC12 cells (EC50 = 4.249 µM. Structure-activity relationships are briefly discussed.

  7. Decomposição térmica dos benzoatos de lantanídeos e ítrio no estado sólido em atmosfera de CO2


    Locatelli, J. R.; Siqueira, A. B.; Carvalho, C. T.; Ionashiro, M.


    Foram sintetizados no estado sólido os compostos Ln-Bz, onde Ln representa lantanídeos trivalentes e Bz benzoato. Análise termogravimétrica e análise térmica diferencial (TG/DTA) foi usada para estudar a decomposição térmica destes compostos em atmosfera de CO2. Solid-state Ln-Bz compounds, where Ln stands for trivalent lanthanides and Bz is benzoate have been synthesized. Simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis in a CO2 atmosphere were used to study the thermal de...

  8. The effects of spaying and anabolic implants on the average daily weight gain of heifers on pasture


    ZoBell, Dale R.; Goonewardene, Laksiri A.; Bertagnolli, Clark; Ziegler, Ken


    Two studies were carried out to determine the effects of spaying and implanting on the growth of heifers and compare Ralgro and Synovex-S for spayed heifers. In the first study, 121 crossbred heifers were randomly allocated to four groups: intact and no implant; intact and progesterone and estradiol benzoate (Synovex-S); spayed and no implant; and spayed and Synovex-S. The average daily gain (ADG) and body weight (BW) data were analyzed as a 2 × 2 factorial experiment with a pasture effect wh...

  9. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes. (United States)

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef


    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  10. Dgroup: DG00462 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00462 Chemical ... DGroup Estradiol ... D00105 ... Estradiol (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01413 ... Estr...adiol valerate (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01617 ... Estradiol dipropionate (JAN) ... D01953 ... Estradiol benzoate (JP17) D04061 ... Estr...adiol acetate (USAN) ... D04063 ... Estradiol cypionate (USP) ... D04064 ... Estradiol enanthate (USAN) D04065 ... Estr...adiol undecylate (USAN/INN) D07918 ... Estradiol hemihydrate D07919 ... Estr...adiol 17 beta-hemisuccinate Other ... DG01584 ... Estrogen receptor agonist ... DG01986 ... Estrogen Cyp substrate ... DG0

  11. Dgroup: DG01986 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01986 DGroup Estrogen ... DG00461 ... Ethinylestradiol ... D00554 ... Ethinyl estradiol (US...P); Ethinylestradiol (JP17/INN) ... D07928 ... Ethinylestradiol propanesulfonate DG00462 ... Estradiol ... D00105 ... Estr...adiol (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01413 ... Estradiol valerate (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01617 ... Estradiol dipropionate (JAN) ... D01953 ... Estr...adiol benzoate (JP17) ... D04061 ... Estradiol acetate (USAN) ... D04063 ... Estr...adiol cypionate (USP) ... D04064 ... Estradiol enanthate (USAN) ... D04065 ... Estradiol undecylate (USAN/INN) ... D07918 ... Estr

  12. Determination of Benzoic Acid, Sodium Saccharin, And Caffeine By High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Yandra Putra


    Full Text Available Concentrations of benzoic acid, sodium saccharin and caffeine in soft drink samples were determined by using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The optimum analytical conditions of those three samples was methanol-phosphate buffer (1:7 as mobile phases, with pH 4.5 and flow rate 1.0 mL/min, column C18 (150x4.6 mm i.d. as stationary phases at 400C with UV-Vis Spectrophotometer detection at 220 nm. The concentration level of those compounds observed was not beyond the maximum limit of SNI 01-011101995 for sodium saccharin and benzoic acid and SNI 01-6684-2002 for caffeine. The relative standard deviation based on retention time and peak area, as 0.37% and 0.59% for benzoic acid, 0.16% and 0.21% for sodium saccharin, 0.38% and 0.6% for caffeine. Finally, the recovery for benzoic acid, sodium saccharin and caffeine was 100.82%, 94.92% and 90.32%, respectively. The relative standard deviation and recovery of all samples met AOAC method requirements.ABSTRAKPenelitian tentang penentuan asam benzoat, natrium sakarin dan kafein telah dilakukansecara Kromatografi Cair Kinerja Tinggi (KCKT Fasa Balik. Kondisi optimum analisis dariketiga senyawa di atas adalah fasa gerak metanol-bufer fosfat (1:7 dengan pH 4,5, laju alir 1 mL/min, kolom C18 (150 x 4,6 mm i.d. dengan temperatur 40oC dan pendeteksiandengan Spektrofotometer UV/Vis pada panjang gelombang 220 nm. Metoda ini diaplikasikan pada beberapa sampel minuman ringan. Kadar ketiga senyawa ini di dalam sampel tidak melebihi batas maksimum yang diizinkan yaitu berdasarkan SNI 01-0222-1995 untuk natrium sakarin dan asam benzoat serta SNI 01-6684-2002 untuk kafein. Standar Deviasi Relatif ketiga senyawa ini berdasarkan waktu retensi dan luas puncak secara berturut-turut adalah; asam benzoat 0,37% dan 0,59%, natrium sakarin 0,16% dan 0,21%, kafein 0,38% dan 0,60%. Hasil perolehan kembali dari ketiga senyawa ini adalah asam benzoat 100,82%, natrium sakarin 94,92%, kafein 90,32%. Standar


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Rini Indriyanti


    Full Text Available Lalat buah Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae merupakan salah satu hama pen ting menyerang tanaman buah-buahan dan sayuran. B. carambolae di laboratorium tertarik pada olahan limbah kakao. Hasil uji coba di lapangan belum memuaskan karena olahan limbah kakao mudah rusak. Tujuan penelitian ini mengkaji respon lalat buah Bactrocera yang diberi umpan ekstrak olahan limbah kakao berpenga wet. Pengawet yang digunakan yakni: Natrium klorida (NaCl, Natrium benzoat (C7H5NaO2 dan Potasium sorbat (C6H7KO2. Konsentrasi yang dipakai masing-masing pengawet 0,1%; 0,2% dan 0,3%. Pengamatan dilakukan selama satu ming gu. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa daya tahan limbah yang diberi penga wet dan yang tidak dilihat secara secara fisik (warna dan tekstur tidak berbeda nyata, namun ada perbedaan bau. Limbah yang tidak diberi pengawet ada kecen derungan baunya tidak sedap dibanding yang diberi pengawet. Hal ini yang mempengaruhi ketertarikan lalat terhadap olahan limbah kakao. Respon ketertarikan lalat Bactrocera terhadap olahan limbah kakao yang diberi pengawet berbeda antara satu dengan yang lain. Respon ketertarikan tertinggi Bactrocera cenderung pada olahan limbah kakao yang diberi pengawet Natrium klorida 0,3%, Potasium sorbat 0,2% dan Natrium benzoat 0,1%.The fruit fly Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae is one of the important pests attacking crops of fruits and vegetables. In the laboratory, B. carambolae was attracted by the processed cocoa waste. The results of field trials have not been satisfactory yet, because the processed cocoa waste was easily damaged. The purpose of the study wast to examine the response of Bactrocera to the bait made of processed cocoa extract waste containing preservatives. The preservatives used were: Sodium chloride (NaCl, sodium benzoate (C7H5NaO2 and potassium sorbate (C6H7KO2. The concentration of each preservative was 0.1%; 0.2% and 0.3%. A one-week observation was made. The result showed that there was no

  14. Callophycoic acids and callophycols from the Fijian red alga Callophycus serratus. (United States)

    Lane, Amy L; Stout, Elizabeth P; Hay, Mark E; Prusak, Anne C; Hardcastle, Kenneth; Fairchild, Craig R; Franzblau, Scott G; Le Roch, Karine; Prudhomme, Jacques; Aalbersberg, William; Kubanek, Julia


    Callophycoic acids A-H (1-8) and callophycols A and B (9 and 10) were isolated from extracts of the Fijian red alga Callophycus serratus, and identified by NMR, X-ray, and mass spectral analyses. These natural products represent four novel carbon skeletons, providing the first examples of diterpene-benzoic acids and diterpene-phenols in macroalgae. Compounds 1-10 exhibited antibacterial, antimalarial, and anticancer activity, although they are less bioactive than diterpene-benzoate macrolides previously isolated from this red alga.

  15. Study of the physical properties of a mesogenic mixture showing induced smectic Ad phase by refractive index, density and x-ray diffraction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P D; Prasad, A; Das, M K


    The binary mixture of 4-n-pentyl phenyl 4-n'-hexyloxy benzoate (ME6O.5) and p-cyanophenyl trans-4-pentyl cyclohexane carboxylate (CPPCC) shows the presence of an induced smectic A d phase in a certain concentration range 0.03 CPPCC d to nematic phase transition for mixtures with x>0.33, whereas there is a discontinuity in these values for mixtures with x d phase stabilizes the layers but increases the orientational free volume, consistent with the lower orientational order parameter.

  16. Second-order optical nonlinearities in dilute melt proton exchange waveguides in z-cut LiNbO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veng, Torben Erik; Skettrup, Torben; Pedersen, Kjeld


    Planar optical waveguides with different refractive indices are made in z-cut LiNbO3 with a dilute proton exchange method using a system of glycerol containing KHSO4 and lithium benzoate. The optical second-order susceptibilities of these waveguides are measured by detecting the 266 nm reflected...... second-harmonic signal generated by a 532 nm beam directed onto the waveguide surface. It is found for this kind of waveguides that in the waveguide region all the second-order susceptibilities take values of at least 90% of the original LiNbO; values for refractive index changes less than similar to 0...

  17. Desempenho de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com rações produzidas com silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com aditivos ou cana-de-açúcar fresca


    Pedroso, André de Faria; Nussio, Luiz Gustavo; Rodrigues, Armando de Andrade; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela; Mourão, Gerson Barreto; Barioni Júnior, Waldomiro


    An experiment was performed aiming at evaluating the performance of dairy cows fed sugarcane silages treated with additives compared to cows fed fresh forage. Twenty-four Holstein cows were grouped in blocks of three cows, according to parity order and milk production level, in multiple 3 x 3 Latin Square design to evaluate three types of ration (63% roughage and 37% concentrate in dry matter - DM): ration with silage treated with urea (5.0 g/kg of fresh forage - FF) + sodium benzoate (0.5 g/...

  18. Two new cholinesterase inhibitors asiatoates A and B from Buddleja asiatica. (United States)

    Ali, Farman; Khan, Hidayat Ullah; Afzal, Masood; Samad, Abdul; Khan, Shafi Ullah; Ali, Irshad


    Two new benzoates, asiatoate A (1) and asiatoate B (2), have been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Buddleja asiatica whole plant. Their structures were elucidated with the help of spectroscopic data. Both showed significant inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butylcholinesterase (BChE) in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 values of compounds 1-2 were 5.54 and 8.34 μM against AChE while 30.94 and 35.94 μM against BChE, respectively.

  19. Antiandrogenic effects in short-term in vivo studies of the fungicide fenarimol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne; Jacobsen, H.; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng


    of ventral prostate, seminal vesicles. musc. levator anitbulbocavernosus, and bulbourethral glands. Qualitatively similar, but weaker, effects were also evident in intact fenarimol-exposed young adult males. except that prostates were not significantly affected. Changes in androgen-regulated gene expression...... that fenarimol acts as an antiandrogen in vivo having effects qualitatively comparable to those of flutamide on organ level, whereas differential effects on gene expression were observed. In an additional Hershberger test, the effects of fenarimol were compared to those of estradiol benzoate, prochloraz...

  20. The ability of fruit and vegetable enzyme system to hydrolyse ester bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mironowicz


    Full Text Available The pulp of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum, topinambur (Helianthus tuberosus and apples (Malus silvestris can hydrolyse totally, or almost totally, ester bonds in phenyl, α- and β-naphthyl, benzyl and cinnamyl acetates. In methyl 4-acetoxy-3-metoxybenzoate and methyl 2,5-diacetoxybenzoate as well as testosterone propionate and 16,17-acetonide of 21-acetoxy-6-fluoro-16α,17β,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3,20-dione, the hydrolysis is selective towards the substrate and the bioreagent. In contrast, ethyl benzoate and cinnamate are resistant to hydrolysis.

  1. Exogenous estradiol enhances apoptosis in regressing post-partum rat corpora lutea possibly mediated by prolactin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telleria Carlos M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In pregnant rats, structural luteal regression takes place after parturition and is associated with cell death by apoptosis. We have recently shown that the hormonal environment is responsible for the fate of the corpora lutea (CL. Changing the levels of circulating hormones in post-partum rats, either by injecting androgen, progesterone, or by allowing dams to suckle, was coupled with a delay in the onset of apoptosis in the CL. The objectives of the present investigation were: i to examine the effect of exogenous estradiol on apoptosis of the rat CL during post-partum luteal regression; and ii to evaluate the post-partum luteal expression of the estrogen receptor (ER genes. Methods In a first experiment, rats after parturition were separated from their pups and injected daily with vehicle or estradiol benzoate for 4 days. On day 4 post-partum, animals were sacrificed, blood samples were taken to determine serum concentrations of hormones, and the ovaries were isolated to study apoptosis in situ. In a second experiment, non-lactating rats after parturition received vehicle, estradiol benzoate or estradiol benzoate plus bromoergocryptine for 4 days, and their CL were isolated and used to study apoptosis ex vivo. In a third experiment, we obtained CL from rats on day 15 of pregnancy and from non-lactating rats on day 4 post-partum, and studied the expression of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs encoding the ERalpha and ERbeta genes. Results Exogenous administration of estradiol benzoate induced an increase in the number of apoptotic cells within the CL on day 4 post-partum when compared with animals receiving vehicle alone. Animals treated with the estrogen had higher serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations, with no changes in serum androstenedione. Administration of bromoergocryptine blocked the increase in serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations, and DNA fragmentation induced by the estrogen treatment. ERalpha and

  2. [Resistance mechanisms and cross-resistance of phoxim-resistant Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande population]. (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Yin; Zhou, Xian-Hong; Zhang, An-Sheng; Li, Li-Li; Men, Xing-Yuan; Zhang, Si-Cong; Liu, Yong-Jie; Yu, Yi


    To understand the resistance risks of Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande against phoxim, this paper studied the resistance mechanisms of phoxim-resistant F. occidentalis population against phoxim and the cross-resistance of the population against other insecticides. The phoxim-resistant population had medium level cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin, and methomyl, low level cross-resistance to chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid, emamectin-benzoate, and spinosad, but no cross-resistance to acetamiprid and abamectin. The synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO), s, s, s-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF), and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) had significant synergism (P occidentalis could play an important role in the resistance of the plant against phoxim.

  3. Molecular variations in aromatic cosolutes: critical role in the rheology of cationic wormlike micelles. (United States)

    Ito, Thiago H; Miranda, Paulo C M L; Morgon, Nelson H; Heerdt, Gabriel; Dreiss, Cécile A; Sabadini, Edvaldo


    Wormlike micelles formed by the addition to cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) of a range of aromatic cosolutes with small molecular variations in their structure were systematically studied. Phenol and derivatives of benzoate and cinnamate were used, and the resulting mixtures were studied by oscillatory, steady-shear rheology, and the microstructure was probed by small-angle neutron scattering. The lengthening of the micelles and their entanglement result in remarkable viscoelastic properties, making rheology a useful tool to assess the effect of structural variations of the cosolutes on wormlike micelle formation. For a fixed concentration of CTAB and cosolute (200 mmol L(-1)), the relaxation time decreases in the following order: phenol > cinnamate> o-hydroxycinnamate > salicylate > o-methoxycinnamate > benzoate > o-methoxybenzoate. The variations in viscoelastic response are rationalized by using Mulliken population analysis to map out the electronic density of the cosolutes and quantify the barrier to rotation of specific groups on the aromatics. We find that the ability of the group attached to the aromatic ring to rotate is crucial in determining the packing of the cosolute at the micellar interface and thus critically impacts the micellar growth and, in turn, the rheological response. These results enable us for the first time to propose design rules for the self-assembly of the surfactants and cosolutes resulting in the formation of wormlike micelles with the cationic surfactant CTAB.

  4. Sorption phenomena of modification of clinoptilolite tuffs by surfactant cations. (United States)

    Rozić, M; Ivanec Sipusić, D; Sekovanić, L; Miljanić, S; Curković, L; Hrenović, J


    The sorption of cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) onto the solid/liquid interfaces of different clinoptilolite rich tuffs (CT) is examined. Examined were CT from Serbia with 75% clinoptilolite, CT from Turkey with 70% clinoptilolite, and CT from Croatia with 60% clinoptilolite. The sorption of HDTMA cations increased in the following order: CT from Serbia>CT from Turkey>CT from Croatia. The maximum amounts of sorbed HDTMA cations, normalized with regard to external cation exchange capacities of tuffs, were 1.79, 1.70, and 1.14 for Serbian, Turkish, and Croatian CT. FTIR analysis of samples with the maximum amount of sorbed HDTMA cations showed that HDTMA chains on Serbian CT adopt mainly a stretched all-trans conformation, while at the surfaces of CT from Turkey and Croatia the amount of gauche conformations increased. The zeta potentials of CT samples with the maximum amount of sorbed HDTMA cations and the sorption of benzoate anions on these samples increased in the following order: CT from Turkey>CT from Serbia>CT from Croatia. It can be assumed that on the surface of CT from Turkey iron (hydr)oxide clusters or nanoparticles with positive surface sites are present, due to which the isoelectric point is sifted toward lower and the zeta potential toward higher values. Therefore, the sorption of benzoate anions on modified CT from Turkey is also higher.

  5. [Jatropha seed oils extracted by different methods and their effect on killing cercaria of Schistosoma japonicum]. (United States)

    Yi, Ping; Yu, Qu-zhi; Qu, Wen; Xia, Ying; Cheng, Wen-hua; Li, Shuang; Liu, Qin-qi; Tong, Yao; Tang, Li-jun


    To evaluate the effect of Jatropha seed oils extracted by different methods on killing cercaria of Schistosomajaponicum so as to screen the optimum process and formulations. The cercaria directly contacting tests with Jatropha seed oils extracted by 6 different extraction processes were carried out, and the mouse immediate contacting cercaria infection trials with different formulations of Jatropha seed oil and various additives were performed. With 95% ethanol, the ratio of material to liquid being 1:8, and 2 h extraction, the oil extraction rate was 30.7%. The cercaria directly contacting tests showed that 6 kinds of Jatropha seed oil killed all cercaria within 30 min. In the mouse immediate contacting cercaria infection trials, the worm declined rate of Jatropha seed oil liquid was 70.97%, and the worm declined rate of the sample added with benzyl benzoate was 58.87%, and the worm declined rate of the sample added with laurocapram was 77.42%. The worm declined rate of the samples added with benzyl benzoate, dibutyl phthalate and laurocapram was 100%. The process with 95% ethanol, the ratio of material to liquid being 1:8, and 2 h extraction is the optimum, and the Jatropha seed oil has a good killing schistosome cercaria effect.

  6. Food additives and behavior in 8- to 9-year-old children in Hong Kong: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (United States)

    Lok, Kris Y W; Chan, Ruth S M; Lee, Vivian W Y; Leung, Patrick W; Leung, Cynthia; Leung, Jason; Woo, Jean


    To test the individual effect of artificial food colorings (AFCs) and a preservative on the behavior of the general Chinese population. One hundred thirty children (70 boys and 60 girls) in Hong Kong with a mean age of 8.64 years were enlisted to the study with a within-subject crossover between AFCs, a preservative (sodium benzoate), and a placebo capsule. Two behavior scores were used including the strengths and weaknesses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and normal behavior rating scale and the child behavior checklist-teacher report form. Capsule A containing AFCs and Capsule B containing sodium benzoate had no significant adverse effect compared with placebo in both behavior scores. This result persisted when analysis was restricted to children with 85% consumption of capsule (per protocol analysis). There seem to be no significant associations between AFCs and a preservative on Chinese children's behavior at the age of 8 to 9 years. Future directions and implications of this research are discussed.

  7. Modulatory Effect of Fermented Papaya Extracts on Mammary Gland Hyperplasia Induced by Estrogen and Progestin in Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenqiang You


    Full Text Available Fermented papaya extracts (FPEs are obtained by fermentation of papaya by Aspergillus oryzae and yeasts. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of FPEs on mammary gland hyperplasia induced by estrogen and progestogen. Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, including a control group, an FPE-alone group, a model group, and three FPE treatment groups (each receiving 30, 15, or 5 ml/kg FPEs. Severe mammary gland hyperplasia was induced upon estradiol benzoate and progestin administration. FPEs could improve the pathological features of the animal model and reduce estrogen levels in the serum. Analysis of oxidant indices revealed that FPEs could increase superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities, decrease malondialdehyde (MDA level in the mammary glands and serum of the animal models, and decrease the proportion of cells positive for the oxidative DNA damage marker 8-oxo-dG in the mammary glands. Additionally, estradiol benzoate and progestin altered the levels of serum biochemical compounds such as aspartate transaminase (AST, total bilirubin (TBIL, and alanine transaminase (ALT, as well as hepatic oxidant indices such as SOD, GSH-Px, MDA, and 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG. These indices reverted to normal levels upon oral administration of a high dose of FPEs. Taken together, our results indicate that FPEs can protect the mammary glands and other visceral organs from oxidative damage.

  8. Modeling yeast spoilage in cold-filled ready-to-drink beverages with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, and Candida lipolytica. (United States)

    Battey, Alyce Stiles; Duffy, Siobain; Schaffner, Donald W


    Mathematical models were developed to predict the probability of yeast spoilage of cold-filled ready-to-drink beverages as a function of beverage formulation. A Box-Behnken experimental design included five variables, each at three levels: pH (2.8, 3.3, and 3.8), titratable acidity (0.20, 0.40, and 0.60%), sugar content (8.0, 12.0, and 16.0 degrees Brix), sodium benzoate concentration (100, 225, and 350 ppm), and potassium sorbate concentration (100, 225, and 350 ppm). Duplicate samples were inoculated with a yeast cocktail (100 microl/50 ml) consisting of equal proportions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, and Candida lipolytica (approximately 5.0 x 10(4) CFU/ml each). The inoculated samples were plated on malt extract agar after 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Logistic regression was used to create the predictive models. The pH and sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate concentrations were found to be significant factors controlling the probability of yeast growth. Interaction terms for pH and each preservative were also significant in the predictive model. Neither the titratable acidity nor the sugar content of the model beverages was a significant predictor of yeast growth in the ranges tested.

  9. Efficacy, acceptability and cost effectiveness of four therapeutic agents for treatment of scabies. (United States)

    Abdel-Raheem, Talal A; Méabed, Eman M H; Nasef, Ghada A; Abdel Wahed, Wafaa Y; Rohaim, Rania M A


    The aim of this study is to evaluate four drug regimens for treatment of scabies as regard their efficacy, acceptability and cost effectiveness. Two hundred cases with ordinary scabies were randomized into four groups. First group received ivermectin 200 μg/kg body weight single oral dose, repeated after one week. The second received benzyl benzoate 20% cream. The third received permethrin 2.5%-5% lotion, whereas the fourth group received 5-10% sulfur ointment. Topical treatments were applied for five consecutive nights. Patients were followed up for two weeks for cure rate and adverse effects. At the end of the study, permethrin provided a significant efficacy of 88% and acceptability in 100% of cases, but had higher cost to treat one case (20.25 LE). Ivermectin provided efficacy and acceptability rates of 84% and 96%, respectively, and had a cheaper cost (9.5 LE). Benzyl benzoate provided 80% for both rates and was the cheapest drug. Sulfur ointment provided the least rates, and it was the most expensive. Treatment choice will depend on the age, the general condition of cases, patient compliance to topical treatment and his ability to stick to its roles, and the economic condition of the patient.

  10. The Treatment of Scabies. (United States)

    Dressler, Corinna; Rosumeck, Stefanie; Sunderkötter, Cord; Werner, Ricardo Niklas; Nast, Alexander


    Scabies is a contagious infestation transmitted by skin-to-skin contact and sometimes by contact with contaminated material. The scabies mite burrows into the skin, producing a papular rash and severe itch at typical sites of predilection. We systematically reviewed the literature to compare the efficacy of various anti-scabies agents, including a calculation of relative risks and confidence intervals. A literature search yielded 596 initial hits; after screening in accor-dance with the defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 16 studies were selected for this review. Among topical treatments for scabies, permethrin was equally effective or more effective than crotamiton or benzyl benzoate. In a comparison of topical versus systemic treatment, topical permethrin and systemic ivermectin did not differ substantially in efficacy (7 comparative studies revealed no difference; one revealed a difference in favor of permethrin). Comparative trials of topical benzyl benzoate versus systemic ivermectin yielded inconsistent findings. Single and double administrations of ivermectin were similarly effective. In trials involving entire populations with a high prevalence of scabies, systemic ivermectin was found to be superior to topical permethrin. There are hardly any differences in efficacy between the available treatments for scabies. Single administrations of permethrin 5%, crotamiton 10%, and systemic ivermectin are all comparably effective. There are differences in the frequeny and ease of application as well as when eradicating scabies in populations with a high prevalence.

  11. [Scabies: epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features in Bangui]. (United States)

    Kobangué, L; Guéréndo, P; Abéyé, J; Namdito, P; Mballa, M D; Gresenguet, G


    The scabies infects about 300 million people worldwide. Its spread is linked to living conditions especially in economically poor countries. In Central African Republic (CAR) we do not have data on this disease often causes morbidity and expenses, and the disease is often confused and poorly treated. The authors' goal was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic characteristics of scabies in Bangui. This was a cross-sectional study by counting records of cases of scabies observed in the dermatology and venereology department of Bangui from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2010. The diagnosis was based mainly on the combination of a concept of pruritus predominantly night with the notion of contagion and preferential localization of lesions. Three hundred and seventy six cases of scabies were identified from a total of 6391 patients (a hospital prevalence of 5.88%) with high frequency among the population aged 0 to 9 years (33%), an important achievement of the disadvantaged classes (preschool age and pupils / students respectively 25.5% and 26.3%), a prevalence of scabies nodules as type of clinical lesion, localization predominantly on buttocks and the most common complication of eczema-type (19.9 %). Benzyl benzoate solution at 25% applied for 2 consecutive days yielded very satisfactory results (96.7% on day 28) in all forms. The scabies is present in CAR with classical clinical and epidemiological aspects. We recommend first-line benzyl benzoate in two days of application.

  12. Treatment for crusted scabies: limitations and side effects of treatment with ivermectin. (United States)

    Fujimoto, Kazuhisa; Kawasaki, Yushi; Morimoto, Kensuke; Kikuchi, Izumi; Kawana, Seiji


    Skin eruption with mild itching of the hands and feet developed in a man in his 90s 1 month after he was hospitalized following a traffic accident. Scabies was diagnosed in an attending nurse 3 months after the patient's hospitalization, and infection from the patient was suspected. Cornification of the patient's soles and marked hypertrophy of the nails of both feet were observed. After a large number of scabies mites were detected on microscopic examination, crusted scabies was diagnosed. The patient was given oral ivermectin, 6 mg, once per week for 3 weeks, and crotamiton topical ointment containing 30% benzyl benzoate was applied on the body from the neck down. However, because a large number of scabies mites were detected again on microscopic examination, the dose of ivermectin was increased to 12 mg and administered 3 times. One week after the sixth dose of ivermectin was administered, hemorrhagic scabs around the mouth and erosion of the tongue developed. Mucosal drug eruption was suspected, and eruptions around the mouth and on the tongue resolved within 1 week after ivermectin being discontinued. 1% gamma-benzene hexachloride ointment was applied topically on the body from the neck down once a week, crotamiton ointment containing benzyl benzoate was applied daily, and the hypertrophic parts of the nails were removed. The patient subsequently achieved a full recovery.

  13. Divergent trend in density versus viscosity of ionic liquid/water mixtures: a molecular view from guanidinium ionic liquids. (United States)

    Singh, Akhil Pratap; Gardas, Ramesh L; Senapati, Sanjib


    Ionic liquids (ILs) have shown great potential in the dissolution and stability of biomolecules when a low-to-moderate quantity of water is added. Hence, determining the thermophysical properties and understanding these novel mixtures at the molecular level are of both fundamental and practical importance. In this context, here we report the synthesis of two nontoxic guanidinium cation based ILs, tetramethylguanidinium benzoate [TMG][BEN] and tetramethylguanidinium salicylate [TMG][SAL], and present a detailed comparison of their thermophysical properties in the presence of water. The results show that the [TMG][SAL]/water mixtures have higher density and higher apparent molar volume, but a lower viscosity and higher compressibility than the [TNG][BEN]/water mixtures. The measured viscosity and compressibility data are explained from ab initio quantum mechanical calculations and liquid-phase molecular dynamics simulations, where salicylate anions of denser [TMG][SAL]/water were found to exist as isolated ions due to intramolecular H-bonding. On the contrary, intermolecular H-bonding among the benzoate anions and their strong tendency to form an extended H-bonding network with water made [TMG][BEN]/water solutions more viscous and less compressible. This study shows the importance of probing these emerging solvents at the molecular-to-atomic level, which could be helpful in their optimal usage for task-specific applications.

  14. Fate of Parabens and Their Metabolites in Two Wastewater Treatment Plants in New York State, United States. (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Kannan, Kurunthachalam


    Little is known about the occurrence and fate of parabens and their metabolites in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, mass loadings, removal efficiencies, and environmental emission of six parabens, four of their metabolites (4-hydroxy benzoate, 3,4-dihydroxy benzoate, methyl-protocatechuate, and ethyl-protocatechuate) and benzoic acid were studied based on the concentrations determined in wastewater influent, primary effluent, final effluent, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sludge collected from two WWTPs (denoted as WWTP(A) and WWTP(B)) in the Albany area of New York State. The median respective concentrations of sum of parabens (Σparabens = 6 parent compounds) and paraben-metabolites (Σmetabolites = 4 metabolites) were 73.1-158 and 5460-10,000 ng/L in influents, and 1.96-5.57 and 2060-2550 ng/L in final effluents. The concentrations of Σmetabolites were significantly higher than those of Σparabens in sludge and SPM. The removal efficiencies for parabens (89.6-99.9%) were higher than those for their metabolites (25.9-90.6%). The respective mass loadings of parabens and their metabolites were 46.3 and 6210 mg/d/1000 people for WWTP(A) and 176 and 63,100 mg/d/1000 people for WWTP(B). The environmental emission of parabens and their metabolites through WWTP discharges was 4.85-6.16 and 1270-2050 mg/d/1000 people, respectively.

  15. Kajian Sistem Pengemasan Bunga Mawar Potong (Rosa hybrida selama Penyimpanan untuk Memperpanjang Masa Pajangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhani Hasbullah


    Full Text Available Pretreatment and packaging or rose cut flowers during stroage and transportation should be designed in order to keep its quality during vase life of the flowers. The objective of this study was to find out the pulsing solution and the design of packaging to prolong the vase life of the rose cut flowers. The flowers were harvested from Loji, Cipanas, when the flower was at two bud open stages. Before storage, the flowers were pulsed in the chemical solution of sucrose, glyserin, Na-benzoat and citric acid at different concentrations. Each 20 cuts of flower were placed in the boxes of 60  15  7 cm3with different ventilation system. The result showed that the pulsing solution with 3 % sucrose, 25% glyserin, 300 ppm Na-benzoat and 375 ppm citrit acid caused a signioficant decrease in the respiration rate and prolonged the vase life of the flowers. The packaging model gave an effect of modified atmospheric environment inside the packaging and significantly affected the flower quality during stronge. The result suggested that the use of the packaging with the ventilation of 3.5 cm in diameter using polypropilene film would be suitable for rose cut flowers packaging during storage. The packaging model prolonged the vase lilfe of the flowers until 6 days after 5 days of storage and decreased the flowers senescene up to 20-25%.

  16. Dyes, preservatives and salicylates in the induction of food intolerance and/or hypersensitivity in children. (United States)

    Ibero, M; Eseverri, J L; Barroso, C; Botey, J


    We present 25 patients, aged between 18 and 153 months, with clinical symptoms suggestive of allergy to food antigens. After undergoing exhaustive studies (including case histories, cutaneous tests for reactions to food antigen, peripheral eosinophils, secretory and humoral immunity, determination of total IgE and of specific RAST, exclusion-provocation diets) and without being able to identify an offender, patients were submitted to oral provocation with different food additives (tartrazine, sunset yellow FCF, new coccine, erythrosine, sodium benzoate, 4-methyl hydroxybenzoate and acetylsalicylic acid) after 48 hours of exclusion from their diets of dyes, preservatives and salicylates. The results obtained reflect, at a global level, 57.89% of positivities for dyes, 34.21% for the benzoates and 7.81% for acetyl-salicylic acid. The low incidence of crossed intolerance phenomena should be emphasized (32% of the patients). The disparity of our results with those of other authors could be due to the age of our patients, the clinical patterns they present and the dietary habits of different countries and regions.

  17. Optimized Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Method and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection for Simultaneous Determination of Sorbic and Benzoic Acids and Evaluation of Contamination of These Preservatives in Iranian Foods. (United States)

    Javanmardi, Fardin; Arefhosseini, Seyyed Rafie; Ansarin, Masood; Nemati, Mahboob


    A rapid, simple, and sensitive dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure followed by HPLC-UV was applied to determine the benzoate and sorbate in foods. The method was optimized for some variables including extraction solvent type and volume, dispersing solvent type and volume, and the effects of salt and pH. Optimum conditions were determined as follows: sample volume, 5 mL; extraction solvent (chloroform) volume, 250 μL; disperser solvent (acetone) volume, 1.2 mL; NaCl amount, 0.75 g/5 mL at pH 4. Sixty samples were analyzed, including 15 doogh, 15 fruit juice, 15 cookie, and 15 tomato paste; benzoic acid was detected in 57 samples (95%) at levels up to 448.1 μg/mL and sorbic acid in 31 samples (51.6%) at levels up to 1369 μg/mL. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the LOD and LOQ were determined as 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mL for benzoate and 0.08 and 0.3 μg/mL for sorbate, respectively. The results showed that these preservatives are commonly used at high levels in yogurt drinks (dooghs) and cookies. Also, the concentration of benzoic acid that was detected in the tomato paste and fruit juice samples was low but may affect children and sensitive persons.

  18. Antimicrobial activity study of a μ3-oxo bridged [Fe3O(PhCO2)6(MeOH)3](NO3)(MeOH)2] cluster (United States)

    Pathak, Sayantan; Jana, Barun; Mandal, Manab; Mandal, Vivekananda; Ghorai, Tanmay K.


    Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of a tri-nuclear μ3-Oxobridged Fe(III) cluster [Fe3O(PhCO2)6(MeOH)3](NO3)(MeOH)2(1) is reported. Cluster 1 is synthesized in a single pot reaction among Fe(NO3)3·9H2O, C6H5COOH, NaN3 (1:4:1) in MeOH. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of the isolated crystals show that it is μ3-Oxo bridged trimeric assembly of three Fe atoms via bridging benzoate anions. Furthermore, BVS calculations show that all three Fe atoms in complex 1 are in +3 oxidation state and are surrounded by benzoate anions and methanol in octahedral environment. The oxidation state of iron is also confirmed from the cyclic voltamogram. FT-IR spectroscopy and CHN analysis of the isolated crystals further supports the functional group attached to the periphery of the complex. The nanomolecular size of complex 1 is 1.29 nm. The antimicrobial efficiency studies of the complex 1 show significant inhibition of the growth of the organisms, viz. B. cereus MTCC 1272, S. epidermidis MTCC 3086 and S. typhimurium MTCC 98 and produced 23 ± 1.93 mm, 16 ± 1.77 mm and 12 ± 2.42 mm inhibition zones respectively. However, it shows zero inhibition to the strain of E. coli MTCC 723.

  19. Pyrethroid receptor in the insect Na sup + channel: Alteration of its properties in pyrethroid-resistant flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauron, D.; Barhanin, J.; Amichot, M.; Pralavorio, M.; Berge, J.B.; Lazdunski, M. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Nice (France))


    Resistance to insecticides is a major problem in agriculture. ({sup 3}H)Saxitoxin binding experiments have shown that pyrethroid-sensitive and pyrethroid-resistant flies have the same amount of Na{sup +} channel protein in their brain membranes. Also, although flies are resistant to pyrethroids, they remain as sensitive to batrachotoxin, which is another type of Na{sup +} channel activators, as pyrethroid-sensitive flies. Pyrethroid binding sites have been characterized by use of the properties of pyrethroids to increase the specific ({sup 3}H)batrachotoxinin A 20{alpha}-benzoate binding component. K{sub 0.5} values for association of pyrethroids at the Na{sup +} channel of pyrethroid-sensitive flies are in the range of 0.15-0.25 {mu}M. Conversely, pyrethroids do not produce a significant increase of ({sup 3}H)batrachotoxinin A 20{alpha}-benzoate binding in pyrethroid-resistant flies even at high concentrations of the insecticide. It is concluded that linkage between pyrethroid and batrachotoxin binding sites is altered in the pyrethroid-resistant fly strains. This alteration is probably due to a drastically decreased affinity of the Na{sup +} channel for pyrethroids.

  20. Toxicity of nine insecticides on four natural enemies of Spodoptera exigua. (United States)

    Liu, Yongqiang; Li, Xiangying; Zhou, Chao; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei


    Spodoptera exigua, which feeds on various crops worldwide, has natural enemies that are susceptible to the insecticides used against S. exigua. We investigate the toxicity and residue risk of 9 insecticides on the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus. S. manilae and T. remus adults were sensitive to all 9 insecticides (LC 50 less than 2.75 mg a.i. liter -1 ), while H. axyridis and C. sinica adults were less sensitive (LC 50 between 6 × 10 -5  mg a.i. liter -1 and 78.95 mg a.i. liter -1 ). Emamectin benzoate, spinosad, indoxacarb, alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr and chlorantraniliprole showed no toxicity on H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus pupae with the recommended field concentrations. The risk analysis indicated that chlorantraniliprole is harmless to larvae of four natural enemies and adult of H. axyridis, C. sinica and S. manilae. Emamectin benzoate and spinosad had higher safety to the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus with the risk duration less than 4d. Indoxacarb, tebufenozide, chlorfenapyr, methomyl, alpha-cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos showed dangerously toxic and long risk duration on S. manilae and T. remus adults.

  1. Contact and fumigant toxicity of Armoracia rusticana essential oil, allyl isothiocyanate and related compounds to Dermatophagoides farinae. (United States)

    Yun, Yeon-Kyeong; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Jun-Ran; Hwang, Kumnara; Ahn, Young-Joon


    The toxicity to adult Dermatophagoides farinae of allyl isothiocyanate identified in horseradish, Armoracia rusticana, oil and another 27 organic isothiocyanates was evaluated using contact + fumigant and vapour-phase mortality bioassays. Results were compared with those of two conventional acaricides, benzyl benzoate and dibutyl phthalate. Horseradish oil (24 h LC(50), 1.54 µg cm(-2)) and allyl isothiocyanate (2.52 µg cm(-2)) were highly toxic. Benzyl isothiocyanate (LC(50) , 0.62 µg cm(-2)) was the most toxic compound, followed by 4-chlorophenyl, 3-bromophenyl, 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl, cyclohexyl, 2-chlorophenyl, 4-bromophenyl and 2-bromophenyl isothiocyanates (0.93-1.41 µg cm(-2)). All were more effective than either benzyl benzoate (LC(50) , 4.58 µg cm(-2)) or dibutyl phthalate (24.49 µg cm(-2)). The structure-activity relationship indicates that types of functional group and chemical structure appear to play a role in determining the isothiocyanate toxicities to adult D. farinae. In the vapour-phase mortality bioassay, these isothiocyanates were consistently more toxic in closed versus open containers, indicating that their mode of delivery was, in part, a result of vapour action. In the light of global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic acaricides in indoor environments, the horseradish oil-derived compounds and the isothiocyanates described herein merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of house dust mite populations as fumigants with contact action. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Repellent activity of essential oils and some of their individual constituents against Tribolium castaneum herbst. (United States)

    Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Stashenko, Elena E


    A tool for integrated pest management is the use of essential oils (EOs) and plant extracts. In this study, EOs from Tagetes lucida , Lepechinia betonicifolia , Lippia alba , Cananga odorata , and Rosmarinus officinalis , species grown in Colombia, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These oils as well as several of their constituents were tested for repellent activity against Tribolium castaneum , using the area preference method. The main components (>10%) found in EOs were methylchavicol, limonene/α-pinene, carvone/limonene, benzyl acetate/linalool/benzyl benzoate, and α-pinene, for T. lucida, L. betonicifolia, L. alba, C. odorata, and R. officinalis, respectively. All EOs were repellent, followed a dose-response relationship, and had bioactivity similar to or better than that of commercial compound IR3535. EOs from C. odorata and L. alba were the most active. Compounds from EOs, such benzyl benzoate, β-myrcene, and carvone, showed good repellent properties. In short, EOs from plants cultivated in Colombia are sources of repellents against T. castaneum.

  3. Influence of anabolic agents on protein synthesis and degradation in muscle cells grown in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, R.A.; Thorpe, S.D.; Byers, F.M.; Schelling, G.T.; Gunn, J.M.

    Muscle cell culture (L/sub 6/) studies were conducted to determine whether anabolic agents have a direct effect on the muscle cell. The effect of zeranol, testosterone propionate, estradiol benzoate, progesterone, dexamethasone and anabolic agent-dexamethasone combinations on protein synthesis and degradation were measured. Myoblast and myotube cultures were pretreated with 1 compounds for 12, 24 and 48 h before a 6-h synthesis or degradation measuring period. Protein synthesis was determined as cpm of (/sup 3/H) leucine incorporated per mg cell protein. Protein degradation was measured by a pulse-chase procedure using (/sup 3/H) leucine and expressed as the percentage labeled protein degraded in 6 h. Progesterone slightly increased protein synthesis in myoblast cultures. Testosterone propionate had no effect on synthesis. Protein synthesis was decreased by estradiol benzoate in myotube cultures. Protein degradation was not altered appreciably by anabolic agents. Protein synthesis was initially inhibited in myotubes by dexamethasone, but increased in myoblasts and myotubes in the extended incubation time. Dexamethasone also consistently increased protein degradation, but this required several hours to be expressed. Anabolic agents did not interfere with dexamethasone-induced increases in protein synthesis and degradation. The magnitude of response and sensitivity were similar for both the myoblast and the more fully differentiated myotube for all compounds tested. These results indicate that anabolic agents at the 1 level do not have a direct anabolic effect on muscle or alter glucocorticoid-induced catabolic response in muscle.

  4. Influence of anabolic agents on protein synthesis and degradation in muscle cells grown in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, R.A.; Thorpe, S.D.; Byers, F.M.; Schelling, G.T.; Gunn, J.M.


    Muscle cell culture (L 6 ) studies were conducted to determine whether anabolic agents have a direct effect on the muscle cell. The effect of zeranol, testosterone propionate, estradiol benzoate, progesterone, dexamethasone and anabolic agent-dexamethasone combinations on protein synthesis and degradation were measured. Myoblast and myotube cultures were pretreated with 1 μM compounds for 12, 24 and 48 h before a 6-h synthesis or degradation measuring period. Protein synthesis was determined as cpm of [ 3 H] leucine incorporated per mg cell protein. Protein degradation was measured by a pulse-chase procedure using [ 3 H] leucine and expressed as the percentage labeled protein degraded in 6 h. Progesterone slightly increased protein synthesis in myoblast cultures. Testosterone propionate had no effect on synthesis. Protein synthesis was decreased by estradiol benzoate in myotube cultures. Protein degradation was not altered appreciably by anabolic agents. Protein synthesis was initially inhibited in myotubes by dexamethasone, but increased in myoblasts and myotubes in the extended incubation time. Dexamethasone also consistently increased protein degradation, but this required several hours to be expressed. Anabolic agents did not interfere with dexamethasone-induced increases in protein synthesis and degradation. The magnitude of response and sensitivity were similar for both the myoblast and the more fully differentiated myotube for all compounds tested. These results indicate that anabolic agents at the 1 μM level do not have a direct anabolic effect on muscle or alter glucocorticoid-induced catabolic response in muscle

  5. Determination of benzene in different food matrices by distillation and isotope dilution HS-GC/MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros Vinci, Raquel; Canfyn, Michael; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Schaetzen, Thibault de; Van Overmeire, Ilse; De Beer, Jacques; Van Loco, Joris


    Benzene is classified by the IARC as carcinogenic to humans. Several sources may contribute for the occurrence of benzene in foods, such as, environmental contamination and the reaction of benzoate salts with ascorbic acid (naturally present or added as food additives). Matrix effect on benzene recovery (e.g. in fatty foods) and artefactual benzene formation from benzoate during analysis in the presence of ascorbate are some of the challenges presented when determining benzene in a wide range of foodstuffs. Design of experiment (DOE) was used to determine the most important variables in benzene recovery from headspace GC/MS. Based on the results of the DOE, a versatile method for the extraction of benzene from all kind of food commodities was developed. The method which consisted of distillation and isotope dilution HS-GC/MS was in-house validated. Artefactual benzene was prevented by addition of a borate buffer solution (pH 11) under distillation conditions. The method presented in this study allows the use of a matrix-independent calibration with detection limits below the legal limit established by the European Council for benzene in drinking water (1 μg L -1 ).

  6. A comparative computationally study about the defined M(II) pincer hydrogenation catalysts (M = Fe, Ru, Os). (United States)

    Jiao, Haijun; Junge, Kathrin; Alberico, Elisabetta; Beller, Matthias


    The mechanism of acetonitrile and methyl benzoate catalytic hydrogenation using pincer catalysts M(H)2 (CO)[NH(C2 H4 PiPr2 )2 ] (1M) and M(H)(CO)[N(C2 H4 PiPr2 )2 ] (2M) (M = Fe, Ru, Os) has been computed at various levels of density functional theory. The computed equilibrium between 1Fe and 2Fe agrees perfectly with the experimental observations. On the basis of the activation barriers and reaction energies, the best catalysts for acetonitrile hydrogenation are 1Fe/2Fe and 1Ru/2Ru, and the best catalysts for methyl benzoate hydrogenation are 1Ru/2Ru. The best catalysts for the dehydrogenation of benzyl alcohol are 1Ru/2Ru. It is to note that the current polarizable continuum model is not sufficient in modeling the solvation effect in the energetic properties of these catalysts as well as their catalytic properties in hydrogenation reaction, as no equilibrium could be established between 1Fe and 2Fe. Comparison with other methods and procedures has been made. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Anaerobic degradation of alkylated benzenes in denitrifying laboratory aquifer columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, E.P.; Zeyer, J.; Eicher, P.; Schwarzenbach, R.P.


    Toluene and m-xylene were rapidly mineralized in an anaerobic laboratory aquifer column operated under continuous-flow conditions with nitrate as an electron acceptor. The oxidation of toluene and m-xylene was coupled with the reduction of nitrate, and mineralization was confirmed by trapping 14 CO 2 evolved from 14 C-ring-labeled substrates. Substrate degradation also took place when nitrous oxide replaced nitrate as an electron acceptor, but decomposition was inhibited in the presence of molecular oxygen or after the substitution of nitrate by nitrite. The m-xylene-adapted microorganisms in the aquifer column degraded toluene, benzaldehyde, benzoate, m-toluylaldehyde, m-toluate, m-cresol, p-cresol, and p-hydroxybenzoate but were unable to metabolize benzene, naphthalene, methylcyclohexane, and 1,3-dimethylcyclohexane. Isotope-dilution experiments suggested benzoate as an intermediate formed during anaerobic toluene metabolism. The finding that the highly water-soluble nitrous oxide served as electron acceptor for the anaerobic mineralization of some aromatic hydrocarbons may offer attractive options for the in situ restoration of polluted aquifers

  8. Comparative Probabilistic Assessment of Occupational Pesticide Exposures Based on Regulatory Assessments. (United States)

    Pouzou, Jane G; Cullen, Alison C; Yost, Michael G; Kissel, John C; Fenske, Richard A


    Implementation of probabilistic analyses in exposure assessment can provide valuable insight into the risks of those at the extremes of population distributions, including more vulnerable or sensitive subgroups. Incorporation of these analyses into current regulatory methods for occupational pesticide exposure is enabled by the exposure data sets and associated data currently used in the risk assessment approach of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Monte Carlo simulations were performed on exposure measurements from the Agricultural Handler Exposure Database and the Pesticide Handler Exposure Database along with data from the Exposure Factors Handbook and other sources to calculate exposure rates for three different neurotoxic compounds (azinphos methyl, acetamiprid, emamectin benzoate) across four pesticide-handling scenarios. Probabilistic estimates of doses were compared with the no observable effect levels used in the EPA occupational risk assessments. Some percentage of workers were predicted to exceed the level of concern for all three compounds: 54% for azinphos methyl, 5% for acetamiprid, and 20% for emamectin benzoate. This finding has implications for pesticide risk assessment and offers an alternative procedure that may be more protective of those at the extremes of exposure than the current approach. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Study on Mixed Solvency Concept in Formulation Development of Aqueous Injection of Poorly Water Soluble Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Singh Solanki


    Full Text Available In the present investigation, mixed-solvency approach has been applied for the enhancement of aqueous solubility of a poorly water- soluble drug, zaltoprofen (selected as a model drug, by making blends (keeping total concentrations 40% w/v, constant of selected water-soluble substances from among the hydrotropes (urea, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, nicotinamide; water-soluble solids (PEG-4000, PEG-6000; and co-solvents (propylene glycol, glycerine, PEG-200, PEG-400, PEG-600. Aqueous solubility of drug in case of selected blends (12 blends ranged from 9.091 ± 0.011 mg/ml–43.055 ± 0.14 mg/ml (as compared to the solubility in distilled water 0.072 ± 0.012 mg/ml. The enhancement in the solubility of drug in a mixed solvent containing 10% sodium citrate, 5% sodium benzoate and 25 % S cosolvent (25% S cosolvent contains PEG200, PEG 400, PEG600, Glycerine and Propylene glycol was more than 600 fold. This proved a synergistic enhancement in solubility of a poorly water-soluble drug due to mixed cosolvent effect. Each solubilized product was characterized by ultraviolet and infrared techniques. Various properties of solution such as pH, viscosity, specific gravity and surface tension were studied. The developed formulation was studied for physical and chemical stability. This mixed solvency shall prove definitely a boon for pharmaceutical industries for the development of dosage form of poorly water soluble drugs.

  10. Amyl: A Misunderstood Word (United States)

    Kjonaas, Richard A.


    There is much confusion associated with the word amyl. For example, many textbooks draw a structural formula of n-pentyl acetate rather than isopentyl acetate when referring to the chief component of banana oil (amyl acetate). When younger chemists are taught to use the words propyl, butyl, and pentyl in place of n-propyl, n-butyl, and n-pentyl, they then incorrectly assume that this practice also applies to the word amyl. As is the case with banana oil, if the word amyl is going to be used to refer to just one of the isomeric pentyl groups, it should rightfully be isopentyl. The reason for this dates back to an abundant and important article of commerce called amylic alcohol (also called potato oil) which consisted chiefly of isopentyl alcohol. In fact, one can look in various chemical catalogs and handbooks of today and see such names as amyl benzoate and amyl nitrite used in place of isopentyl benzoate and isopentyl nitrite. Adding to all the confusion is the common practice of using the word amyl along with the singular form of another word when referring to an isomeric mixture; i.e. using amyl acetate rather than amyl acetates when referring to a mixture of pentyl acetates.

  11. Potential immunogenic polypeptides of Burkholderia pseudomallei identified by shotgun expression library and evaluation of their efficacy for serodiagnosis of melioidosis. (United States)

    Puah, Suat Moi; Puthucheary, S D; Chua, Kek Heng


    The search for novel immunogenic polypeptides to improve the accuracy and reliability of serologic diagnostic methods for Burkholderia pseudomallei infection is ongoing. We employed a rapid and efficient approach to identify such polypeptides with sera from melioidosis patients using a small insert genomic expression library created from clinically confirmed local virulent isolates of B. pseudomallei. After 2 rounds of immunoscreening, 6 sero-positive clones expressing immunogenic peptides were sequenced and their identities were: benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase beta subunit, a putative 200 kDa antigen p200, phosphotransferase enzyme family protein, short chain dehydrogenase and 2 hypothetical proteins. These immunogens were then transferred to an ELISA platform for further large scale screening. By combining shotgun expression library and ELISA assays, we identified 2 polypeptides BPSS1904 (benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase beta subunit) and BPSL3130 (hypothetical protein), which had sensitivities of 78.9% and 79.4% and specificities of 88.1% and 94.8%, respectively in ELISA test, thus suggesting that both are potential candidate antigens for the serodiagnosis of infections caused by B. pseudomallei.

  12. Field background odour should be taken into account when formulating a pest attractant based on plant volatiles. (United States)

    Cai, Xiaoming; Bian, Lei; Xu, Xiuxiu; Luo, Zongxiu; Li, Zhaoqun; Chen, Zongmao


    Attractants for pest monitoring and controlling can be developed based on plant volatiles. Previously, we showed that tea leafhopper (Empoasca onukii) preferred grapevine, peach plant, and tea plant odours to clean air. In this research, we formulated three blends with similar attractiveness to leafhoppers as peach, grapevine, and tea plant volatiles; these blends were composed of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-ocimene, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, benzaldehyde, and ethyl benzoate. Based on these five compounds, we developed two attractants, formula-P and formula-G. The specific component relative to tea plant volatiles in formula-P was benzaldehyde, and that in formula-G was ethyl benzoate. These two compounds played a role in attracting leafhoppers. In laboratory assays, the two attractants were more attractive than tea plant volatiles to the leafhoppers, and had a similar level of attractiveness. However, the leafhoppers were not attracted to formula-P in the field. A high concentration of benzaldehyde was detected in the background odour of the tea plantations. In laboratory tests, benzaldehyde at the field concentration was attractive to leafhoppers. Our results indicate that the field background odour can interfere with a point-releasing attractant when their components overlap, and that a successful attractant must differ from the field background odour.

  13. The biochemical characterization, stabilization studies and the antiproliferative effect of bromelain against B16F10 murine melanoma cells. (United States)

    São Paulo Barretto Miranda, Íngara Keisle; Fontes Suzart Miranda, Anderson; Souza, Fernanda Vidigal Duarte; Vannier-Santos, Marcos André; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Pepe, Iuri Muniz; Rodowanski, Ivanoé João; Ferreira, Katiúcia Tícila de Souza Eduvirgens; Mendes Souza Vaz, Luciano; de Assis, Sandra Aparecida


    The current study aims to extract bromelain from different parts (stem, crown, peels, pulp and leaves) of Ananas comosus var. comosus AGB 772; to determine of optimum pH and temperature; to test bromelain stability in disodium EDTA and sodium benzoate, and to investigate its pharmacological activity on B16F10 murine melanoma cells in vitro. The highest enzymatic activity was found in bromelain extracted from the pulp and peel. The optimum bromelain pH among all studied pineapple parts was 6.0. The optimum temperature was above 50 °C in all bromelain extracts. The fluorescence analysis confirmed the stability of bromelain in the presence of EDTA and sodium benzoate. Bromelain was pharmacologically active against B16F10 melanoma cells and it was possible verifying approximately 100% inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in vitro. Since bromelain activity was found in different parts of pineapple plants, pineapple residues from the food industry may be used for bromelain extraction.

  14. A cold active (2R,3R)-(-)-di-O-benzoyl-tartrate hydrolyzing esterase from Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. (United States)

    Zimmer, Christian; Platz, Tanja; Cadez, Neza; Giffhorn, Friedrich; Kohring, Gert-Wieland


    In a screening procedure a pink-colored yeast was isolated from enrichment cultures with (2R,3R)-(-)-di-O-benzoyl-tartrate (benzoyl-tartrate) as the sole carbon source. The organism saar1 was identified by morphological, physiological, and 18S ribosomal DNA/internal transcribed spacer analysis as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, a basidiomycetous yeast. During growth the yeast hydrolyzed the dibenzoyl ester stoichiometrically to the monoester using the separated benzoate as the growth substrate, before the monoester was further cleaved into benzoate and tartrate, which were both metabolized. The corresponding benzoyl esterase was purified from the culture supernatant and characterized as a monomeric glycosylated 86-kDa protein with an optimum pH of 7.5 and an optimum temperature of 45 degrees C. At 0 degrees C the esterase still exhibited 20% of the corresponding activity at 30 degrees C, which correlates it to psychrophilic enzymes. The esterase could hydrolyze short chain p-nitrophenyl-alkyl esters and several benzoyl esters like benzoyl-methyl ester, ethylene-glycol-dibenzoyl ester, phenyl-benzoyl ester, cocaine, and 1,5-anhydro-D: -fructose-tribenzoyl ester. However feruloyl-ethyl ester was not hydrolyzed. The activity characteristics let the enzyme appear as a promising tool for synthesis of benzoylated compounds for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, or fine chemical applications, even at low temperatures.

  15. Porous phosphorescent coordination polymers for oxygen sensing. (United States)

    Xie, Zhigang; Ma, Liqing; deKrafft, Kathryn E; Jin, Athena; Lin, Wenbin


    Phosphorescent cyclometalated iridium tris(2-phenylpyridine) derivatives were designed and incorporated into coordination polymers as tricarboxylate bridging ligands. Three different crystalline coordination polymers were synthesized using a solvothermal technique and were characterized using a variety of methods, including single-crystal X-ray diffraction, PXRD, TGA, IR spectroscopy, gas adsorption measurements, and luminescence measurements. The coordination polymer built from Ir[3-(2-pyridyl)benzoate](3), 1, was found to be highly porous with a nitrogen BET surface area of 764 m(2)/g, whereas the coordination polymers built from Ir[4-(2-pyridyl)benzoate](3), 2 and 3, were nonporous. The (3)MLCT phosphorescence of each of the three coordination polymers was quenched in the presence of O(2). However, only 1 showed quick and reversible luminescence quenching by oxygen, whereas 2 and 3 exhibited gradual and irreversible luminescence quenching by oxygen. The high permanent porosity of 1 allows for rapid diffusion of oxygen through the open channels, leading to efficient and reversible quenching of the (3)MLCT phosphorescence. This work highlights the opportunity of designing highly porous and luminescent coordination polymers for sensing other important analytes.

  16. Exploring the Degradation of Ibuprofen by Bacillus thuringiensis B1(2015b: The New Pathway and Factors Affecting Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Marchlewicz


    Full Text Available Ibuprofen is one of the most often detected pollutants in the environment, particularly at landfill sites and in wastewaters. Contamination with pharmaceuticals is often accompanied by the presence of other compounds which may influence their degradation. This work describes the new degradation pathway of ibuprofen by Bacillus thuringiensis B1(2015b, focusing on enzymes engaged in this process. It is known that the key intermediate which transformation limits the velocity of the degradation process is hydroxyibuprofen. As the degradation rate also depends on various factors, the influence of selected heavy metals and aromatic compounds on ibuprofen degradation by the B1(2015b strain was examined. Based on the values of non-observed effect concentration (NOEC it was found that the toxicity of tested metals increases from Hg(II < Cu(II < Cd(II < Co(II < Cr(VI. Despite the toxic effect of metals, the biodegradation of ibuprofen was observed. The addition of Co2+ ions into the medium significantly extended the time necessary for the complete removal of ibuprofen. It was shown that Bacillus thuringiensis B1(2015b was able to degrade ibuprofen in the presence of phenol, benzoate, and 2-chlorophenol. Moreover, along with the removal of ibuprofen, degradation of phenol and benzoate was observed. Introduction of 4-chlorophenol into the culture completely inhibits degradation of ibuprofen.

  17. Novel thiosalicylate-based ionic liquids for heavy metal extractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyma, Raphlin; Platzer, Sonja [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Jirsa, Franz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Zoology, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006, Johannesburg (South Africa); Kandioller, Wolfgang, E-mail: [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Krachler, Regina; Keppler, Bernhard K. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)


    Highlights: • Six thiosalicylate-based ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids (ILs) were newly synthesized. • ILs showed good extraction of cadmium, copper, and zinc. • Phosphonium ILs showed better extraction efficiencies than their ammonium counterparts. - Abstract: This study aims to develop novel ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids (ILs) with thiosalicylate (TS) derivatives as anions and evaluate their extracting efficiencies towards heavy metals in aqueous solutions. Six ILs were synthesized, characterized, and investigated for their extracting efficacies for cadmium, copper, and zinc. Liquid-liquid extractions of Cu, Zn, or Cd with ILs after 1–24 h using model solutions (pH 7; 0.1 M CaCl{sub 2}) were assessed using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (F-AAS). Phosphonium-based ILs trihexyltetradecylphosphonium 2-(propylthio)benzoate [P{sub 66614}][PTB] and 2-(benzylthio)benzoate [P{sub 66614}][BTB] showed best extraction efficiency for copper and cadmium, respectively and zinc was extracted to a high degree by [P{sub 66614}][BTB] exclusively.

  18. Magnetic activated carbon-Fe3O4 nanocomposites--synthesis and applications in the removal of acid yellow dye 17 from water. (United States)

    Ranjithkumar, V; Hazeen, A Nizarul; Thamilselvan, M; Vairam, S


    In this work, synthesis of activated carbon-Fe3O4 composites using activated carbon and iron benzoate/oxalate precursors by simple pyrolytic method and its utility for the removal of acid yellow dye from water are presented. Iron carboxylates held up into the pores of carbon dissociate at their decomposition temperatures form dispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles in carbon matrix. The composites were characterized by FTIR, PXRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and magnetization measurements. The size of the nano iron oxides are in the range of 21-33 nm formed from iron benzoate precursor and 6-11 nm from iron oxalate precursor. The oxides are magnetic and their saturation magnetization in the range of 0.08-0.16 emu/g and Coercivity (H(c)) 474-600, being lower and higher than that of bare bulk Fe3O4 are due to the nano size of oxides. Composites find application in the removal of acid yellow dye 17 from the synthetic aqueous solution at pH 5. The adsorption data are found to fit well for Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Kinetics data of adsorption of dyes indicate that the adsorption follows pseudo-second order kinetic model.

  19. Chemical composition of essential oils from four Vietnamese species of piper (piperaceae). (United States)

    Hieu, Le D; Thang, Tran D; Hoi, Tran M; Ogunwande, Isiaka A


    The chemical composition of essential oils from four Piper species, Piper retrofractum Vahl., P. boehmeriaefolium (Miq.) C. DC., P. sarmentosum Roxb., and P. maclurei Merr., were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nineteen to sixty-four compounds representing 92.0%-98.4% of the total contents were identified in the oil samples. The major constituents identified in P. retrofractum leaf oil were benzyl benzoate (14.4%), myrcene (14.4%), bicycloelemene (9.9%), bicyclogermacrene (7.0%) and β-caryophyllene (5.3%). On the other hand, the main constituents of P. boehmeriaefolium were α-copaene (28.3%), α-pinene (7.4%) and 1, 8-cineole (5.7%). P. sarmentosum showed a very different chemical profile characterized mainly by aromatic compounds and devoid of monoterpene hydrocarbons. The major constituents were benzyl benzoate (49.1%), benzyl alcohol (17.9%), 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid phenylmethyl ester (10.0%) and 2-butenyl-benzene (7.9%). The leaf of P. maclurei was characterized by higher amount of (E)-cinnamic acid (37.4%) and (E)-nerolidol (19.4%). Moreover, (Z)-9-octadecanoic acid methyl ester (28.0%), (E)-cinnamyl acetate (17.2%), phytol (12.2%) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (8.8%) were the major compounds identified in the stem oil.

  20. Statistical investigation of lead removal with various functionalized carboxylate ferroxane nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moattari, Rozita M.; Rahimi, Safoora [Polymer Research Lab., Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabi, Laleh, E-mail: [Polymer Research Lab., Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Derakhshan, Ali Ashraf [Young Researchers Club, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Keyhani, Mohammad [Polymer Research Lab., Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Four new carboxylate ferroxane nanostructures were synthesized and characterized. • Carboxylate ferroxanes were used as nanosorbents for lead removal. • Taguchi method was used to design the experiments. • Statistical analyses evaluated the three model responses [R%, Logit (R%), C{sub ratio}]. • Maleate ferroxane performed the best of the four nanosorbents studied. - Abstract: Four new types of carboxylate-ferroxane nanoparticles, namely; maleate ferroxane (MF), fumarateferroxane (FF), para-amino benzoate ferroxane (PABF) and para-hydroxy benzoate ferroxane (PHBF) were synthesized, characterized and used for lead removal from aqueous solutions. Lepidocrocite nanoparticles were also synthesized and characterized asa precursorforcarboxylate-ferroxanes. FTIR, SEM and DLS analysis characterized the synthesized samplesand final Pb(II) concentration were analysed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. Performance evaluation of the nanoparticlesin adsorption process was achieved using Taguchi experimental design. Variables in adsorption process were initial pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, adsorbent typeand initial concentration of Pb{sup 2+} ions. The initial Pb(II) concentration was the most influential factor in the adsorption process among the five factors. Adsorption of lead was performed through two possible mechanisms; ion exchange and complex formation. Maleate ferroxane performed the best lead removal efficiency among the four types of ferroxane nanostructures studied. The adsorption kinetic data described well with a pseudo-second-order model and the equilibrium data fitted well to the Frendlich isotherm.

  1. Esterase activity in the guinea pig thyroid under normal and pathological conditions (vitamin A deficiency) with special regard to cyst-like structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S


    By use of different activators and inhibitors, TOCP(tri-o-cresyl phosphate), PCMB (parachloromercury benzoate), NiCl2, Pb(NO3)2, HgCl2, Hg(NO3)2, eserine and sodium taurocholate, it is shown that the esterase in the cyst cells and in group I cells of the guinea pig thyroid probably are A-esterase......By use of different activators and inhibitors, TOCP(tri-o-cresyl phosphate), PCMB (parachloromercury benzoate), NiCl2, Pb(NO3)2, HgCl2, Hg(NO3)2, eserine and sodium taurocholate, it is shown that the esterase in the cyst cells and in group I cells of the guinea pig thyroid probably are A......-esterase isoenzymes. The activity in the majority of cyst cells is considerably stronger than in the other thyroid epithelial cells, and it is resistant to Hg inactivation. Neither esterase type nor intensity of the reaction product is altered in group I-II or cyst cells during vitamin A-deficiency. When a normal...... diet is given, the esterase in all thyroid epithelial cells is very sensitive to sodium taurocholate, while in cyst cells it is rather resistant to this inhibitor at vitamin-A-deficiency....

  2. Nematicidal natural products from the aerial parts of Buddleja crispa. (United States)

    Sultana, Nighat; Akhter, Musarrat; Khan, Rashid Ali; Afza, Nighat; Tareen, Rasool Bakh; Malik, Abdul


    Studies on the aerial parts of Buddleja crispa yielded 13 known compounds, nonyl benzoate, hexyl p-hydroxy-cinnamate, ginipin, gardiol, 1-heptacosanol, steroidal galactoside (22 R)-stigmasta-7,9 (11)-dien-22 beta-ol-3beta-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, 3-methoxy benzoic acid, beta-sitosterol and ursolic acid. Besides this two iridoid galactosides buddlejosides A, buddlejosides B and a benzofuran-type sesquiterpene buddlejone have been isolated from the ETOAC fraction of B. crispa. Together with the above compounds, methyl benzoate (1) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy benzoic acid (2) were also isolated. Compound 2 (C(8)H(8)O(4)) was identified by comparison of its data with those reported earlier, which was originally isolated from Onosma hispidum, and this is the first report of its isolation from this species. For compounds 1 and 2, the total alcoholic soluble extract, methanol soluble, chloroform soluble, ethyl acetate soluble and petroleum ether soluble extract of the aerial parts of B. crispa were screened for nematicidal activity against nematodes of freshly hatched second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode), exhibiting 92%, 40%, 88%, 83%, 82% and 50% mortality, respectively, of eloids M. incognita at 0.5% concentration. Compound 1 was more potent than the nematicide Azadirachta indica at the same concentration. Negative results were obtained for the nematicidal activity of petroleum ether extract of B. crispa leaves.

  3. Insights into the degradation capacities of Amycolatopsis tucumanensis DSM 45259 guided by microarray data. (United States)

    Bourguignon, Natalia; Bargiela, Rafael; Rojo, David; Chernikova, Tatyana N; de Rodas, Sara A López; García-Cantalejo, Jesús; Näther, Daniela J; Golyshin, Peter N; Barbas, Coral; Ferrero, Marcela; Ferrer, Manuel


    The analysis of catabolic capacities of microorganisms is currently often achieved by cultivation approaches and by the analysis of genomic or metagenomic datasets. Recently, a microarray system designed from curated key aromatic catabolic gene families and key alkane degradation genes was designed. The collection of genes in the microarray can be exploited to indicate whether a given microbe or microbial community is likely to be functionally connected with certain degradative phenotypes, without previous knowledge of genome data. Herein, this microarray was applied to capture new insights into the catabolic capacities of copper-resistant actinomycete Amycolatopsis tucumanensis DSM 45259. The array data support the presumptive ability of the DSM 45259 strain to utilize single alkanes (n-decane and n-tetradecane) and aromatics such as benzoate, phthalate and phenol as sole carbon sources, which was experimentally validated by cultivation and mass spectrometry. Interestingly, while in strain DSM 45259 alkB gene encoding an alkane hydroxylase is most likely highly similar to that found in other actinomycetes, the genes encoding benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase, phthalate 4,5-dioxygenase and phenol hydroxylase were homologous to proteobacterial genes. This suggests that strain DSM 45259 contains catabolic genes distantly related to those found in other actinomycetes. Together, this study not only provided new insight into the catabolic abilities of strain DSM 45259, but also suggests that this strain contains genes uncommon within actinomycetes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Braga Sobrinho


    Full Text Available Studies on availability of suitable and economic diets for adults and larvae of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 were carried out at the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories in Seibersdorf, Austria with the aim to find the best diets to fit in a large scale mass rearing production. The best diet for adult was the combination of Hydrolysate Corn Protein + Yeast Hydrolysate Enzymatic + Sugar (3:1:3. This diet resulted in the highest numbers of egg/female/day, spermatozoid in the spermathecae, percentages of egg hatch, the lowest mortality rate of adults and the highest average mating duration compared with the standard adult diet based on Yeast Hydrolysate Enzymatic + Sugar (1:3. Among eleven larval diets tested, diets based on sugarcane and sugarbeet bagases plus 7% brewer yeast, 8% sugar, 0.2% sodium benzoate, 0.8% of hydrochloric acid and 60% water (adjusted, yielded the highest percentages of egg hatching, pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. There was no statistical difference with the standard larval diet based on wheat germ 3%, corncob 15%, corn flower 8%, brewer yeast 6%, sugar 8%, sodium benzoate 0.23%, hydrochloric acid 0.63%, nipagin 0.14% and water 59% (adjusted. The significant performance of these adult and larval diets open discussion for future researches on improvement of rearing techniques required for the establishment of sterile insect technique (SIT program focused on the South American fruit fly.

  5. Effect of Preservative on the Shelf Life of Yoghurt Produced from Soya Beans Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak G. AKPAN


    Full Text Available This study concentrated on the effects of preservatives on shelf life of yoghurt produced from Soya beans milk. The yoghurt was produced by heating Soya beans milk slurry, cooled and incubated with starter culture. After the required yoghurt has been formed, sugar, flavour and preservatives were added. Study of the effect of preservatives revealed that Sodium benzoate preservative used at 20mg/ml give the best (optimum preservation on both shelf and refrigeration storage for 15 and 21 days respectively. This is because the inhibitive ability of Sodium benzoate at lower temperature is higher than that of Potassium metabisulphate preservative. The study also revealed that 40mg/ml concentration of the combined preservatives gives the best (optimum concentration level for both shelf and refrigeration storage with pH values of 3.92 and 4.01 respectively after 14 days fermentation. The preservatives concentration added are within the threshold values specified by Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON and National Agency for Food Administration and Control (NAFDAC.

  6. A new amino acid substitution (Ala-205-Phe) in acetolactate synthase (ALS) confers broad spectrum resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. (United States)

    Brosnan, James T; Vargas, Jose J; Breeden, Gregory K; Grier, Logan; Aponte, Raphael A; Tresch, Stefan; Laforest, Martin


    This is a first report of an Ala-205-Phe substitution in acetolactate synthase conferring resistance to imidazolinone, sulfonylurea, triazolopyrimidines, sulfonylamino-carbonyl-triazolinones, and pyrimidinyl (thio) benzoate herbicides. Resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS) and photosystem II inhibiting herbicides was confirmed in a population of allotetraploid annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.; POAAN-R3) selected from golf course turf in Tennessee. Genetic sequencing revealed that seven of eight POAAN-R3 plants had a point mutation in the psbA gene resulting in a known Ser-264-Gly substitution on the D1 protein. Whole plant testing confirmed that this substitution conferred resistance to simazine in POAAN-R3. Two homeologous forms of the ALS gene (ALSa and ALSb) were detected and expressed in all POAAN-R3 plants sequenced. The seven plants possessing the Ser-264-Gly mutation conferring resistance to simazine also had a homozygous Ala-205-Phe substitution on ALSb, caused by two nucleic acid substitutions in one codon. In vitro ALS activity assays with recombinant protein and whole plant testing confirmed that this Ala-205-Phe substitution conferred resistance to imidazolinone, sulfonylurea, triazolopyrimidines, sulfonylamino-carbonyl- triazolinones, and pyrimidinyl (thio) benzoate herbicides. This is the first report of Ala-205-Phe mutation conferring wide spectrum resistance to ALS inhibiting herbicides.

  7. Design, synthesis and molecular docking studies of novel N-benzenesulfonyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-based triazoles with potential anticancer activity. (United States)

    Pingaew, Ratchanok; Mandi, Prasit; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong


    A novel series of N-benzenesulfonyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines (14-33) containing triazole moiety were designed and synthesized through rational cycloadditions using the modified Pictet-Spengler reaction and the Click chemistry. Antiproliferative activity against four cancer cell lines (e.g., HuCCA-1, HepG2, A549 and MOLT-3) revealed that many substituted triazole analogs of benzoates (20, 29) and benzaldehydes (30, 32) exhibited anticancer activity against all of the tested cancer cell lines in which the ester analog 20 was shown to be the most potent compound against HuCCA-1 (IC50 = 0.63 μM) and A549 (IC50 = 0.57 μM) cell lines. Triazoles bearing phenyl (15, 24), tolyl (26, 27), acetophenone (19), benzoate (20, 29), benzaldehyde (21, 30) and naphthalenyl (25) substituents showed stronger anticancer activity against HepG2 cells than that of the etoposide. Interestingly, the p-tolyl analog (27) displayed the most potent inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.56 μM) against HepG2 cells without affecting normal cells. Of the investigated tetrahydroisoquinoline-triazoles, the promising compounds 20 and 27 were selected for molecular docking against AKR1C3, which was identified to be a plausible target site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. [Food additives as a cause of medical symptoms: relationship shown between sulfites and asthma and anaphylaxis; results of a literature review]. (United States)

    Reus, K E; Houben, G F; Stam, M; Dubois, A E


    To determine if a causal connection exists between food additives and various medical complaints. Literature study. Medline over the period January 1966-January 1999 was searched for articles on the following substances not containing protein and lactose: monosodium glutamate (MSG), sulfites, azo-dyes (tartrazine, sunset yellow, azorubin, amarant, cochineal red), benzoates, sorbates, butylated hydroxyanisole/butylated hydroxytoluene (BHA/BHT), parabens, cinnamon and vanilla, in combination with key words regarding food and side effects. Of those studies purporting to demonstrate an effect, only double-blind randomized placebo-controlled studies with oral challenge were assessed further, unless the complaint was anaphylaxis. Of studies not demonstrating an effect the design was assessed. Only for sulfites as causative agents of asthma and anaphylaxis, methodologically adequate studies demonstrating a causal connection could be found. For azo-dyes, benzoates, MSG, sorbates and BHA/BHT, no link with medical symptoms was demonstrable. For parabens, cinnamon and vanilla there were insufficient or inadequate data to justify a conclusion.

  9. Influence of ferutinin on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. II: Role in recovering osteoporosis (United States)

    Ferretti, Marzia; Bertoni, Laura; Cavani, Francesco; Zavatti, Manuela; Resca, Elisa; Carnevale, Gianluca; Benelli, Augusta; Zanoli, Paola; Palumbo, Carla


    The aim of the present investigation, which represents an extension of a previous study, was to investigate the effect of ferutinin in recovering severe osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency after rat ovariectomy and to compare phytoestrogen effects with those of estrogens commonly used in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) by women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. The animal model used was the Sprague–Dawley ovariectomized rat. Ferutinin was orally administered (2 mg kg−1 per day) for 30 or 60 days starting from 2 months after ovariectomy (i.e. when osteoporosis was clearly evident) and its effects were compared with those of estradiol benzoate (1.5 μg per rat twice a week, subcutaneously injected) vs. vehicle-treated ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated (SHAM) rats. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on trabecular bone of lumbar vertebrae (4th and 5th) and distal femoral epiphysis, as well as on cortical bone of femoral diaphysis. Bone histomorphometric analyses showed that ferutinin seems to display the same effects on bone mass recorded with estradiol benzoate, thus suggesting that it could enhance the recovery of bone loss due to severe estrogen deficiency in OVX rats. On this basis, the authors propose listing ferutinin among the substances representing a potential alternative for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, which occurs as a result of estrogen deficiency. PMID:20492429

  10. Anti-leishmanial activity of heteroleptic organometallic Sb(v) compounds. (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Irshad; Rauf, Muhammad Khawar; Badshah, Amin; Kumar, Ish; Forsyth, Craig M; Junk, Peter C; Kedzierski, Lukasz; Andrews, Philip C


    In seeking new drugs for the treatment of the parasitic disease Leishmaniasis, an extensive range of organometallic antimony(v) dicarboxylates of the form [SbR3(O2CR')2] have been synthesised, characterised and evaluated. The organometallic moieties (R) in the complexes vary in being Ph, tolyl (o, m or p), or benzyl. The carboxylates are predominantly substituted benzoates with some compounds incorporating acetato or cinnamato ligands. The crystal structures of [Sb(p-Tol)3(O2CC6H2-3,4,5-(OMe)3)2]·0.5PhMe and [SbPh3(m-CH3C6H4CH2CO2)2] were determined and shown to adopt a typical trigonal pyramidal geometry, being monomeric with a five coordinate Sb centre. In total, the biological activity of 26 Sb(v) compounds was assessed against the Leishmania major parasite, and also human fibroblast skin cells to give a measure of general toxicity. Of these, 11 compounds (predominantly substituted benzoates with m- or p-tolyl ligands) proved to be highly effective against the parasite amastigotes at concentrations of 0.5-3.5 μM, while being non-toxic towards the mammalian cells at levels below 25 μM, making them highly promising drug candidates.

  11. Synthesis, characterisation and anion exchange properties of copper, magnesium, zinc and nickel hydroxy nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswick, Timothy; Jones, William; Pacula, Aleksandra; Serwicka, Ewa


    Anion exchange reactions of four structurally related hydroxy salts, Cu 2 (OH) 3 NO 3 , Mg 2 (OH) 3 NO 3 , Ni 2 (OH) 3 NO 3 and Zn 3 (OH) 4 (NO 3 ) 2 are compared and trends rationalised in terms of the strength of the covalent bond between the nitrate group and the matrix cation. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis are used to characterise the materials. Replacement of the nitrate anions in the zinc and copper salts with benzoate anions is possible although exchange of the zinc salt is accompanied by modification of the layer structure from one where zinc is exclusively six-fold coordinated to a structure where there is both six- and four-fold zinc coordination. Magnesium and nickel hydroxy nitrates, on the other hand, hydrolyse to their respective metal hydroxides. -- Graphical abstract: PXRD patterns of exchange products of (a) Zn 3 (OH) 4 (NO 3 ) 2 (b) Zn 5 (OH) 8 (NO 3 ) 2 .2H 2 O and (c) Cu 2 (OH) 3 NO 3 with benzoate anions

  12. Identification of odor signature chemicals in cocaine using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography and detector-dog response to isolated compounds spiked on U.S. paper currency. (United States)

    Furton, Kenneth G; Hong, Yi-Cheng; Hsu, Ya-Li; Luo, Tianying; Rose, Stefan; Walton, John


    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography (GC) is optimized and applied to the analysis of street-cocaine samples followed by the field-testing of isolated chemicals using certified detector dogs. SPME proves to be a very sensitive and rapid method for isolating odor chemicals from street-cocaine samples. SPME-GC and activated charcoal strip (ACS)-SPME-GC signature profile methods are developed for the detection and quantitation of cocaine-odor chemicals, including the optimization of controllable variables such as fiber chemistry, extraction time, and desorption time. The volatile odor chemicals in representative illicit cocaine samples are identified and quantitated by the ACS-SPME-GC signature profile method and direct injection. Field tests with drug detector dogs show methyl benzoate to be the dominant signature odor chemical along with cocaine on U.S. currency at a threshold level of approximately 1-10 microg when spiked or when 10 ng/s methyl benzoate is diffused from polymer bottles, which is required in order to initiate an alert. No other substance studied initiated consistent responses by the drug dogs. The results indicate that the microgram levels of cocaine that have been reported on circulated U.S. currency are insufficient to signal an alert from law-enforcement trained drug detector dogs.

  13. Indispensable but insufficient role of renal D-amino acid oxidase in chiral inversion of NG-nitro-D-arginine. (United States)

    Xin, Yan-Fei; Li, Xin; Hao, Bin; Gong, Nian; Sun, Wen-Qiang; Konno, Ryuichi; Wang, Yong-Xiang


    Unidirectionally chiral inversion of N(G)-nitro-D-arginine (D-NNA) to its L-enantiomer (L-NNA) occurred in rats, and it was blocked markedly (ca. 80%) by renal vascular ligation, and entirely (100%) by the D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) inhibitor sodium benzoate, suggesting that renal DAO is essential for the inversion. However, the doses of sodium benzoate administrated were extremely high (e.g., 400 mg/kg) due to its low potency. It is thus possible that sodium benzoate-mediated blockade of D-NNA inversion might be due to its nonspecific (or non-DAO-related) effects. In addition, after D-NNA was incubated with the pure enzyme of DAO in vitro without tissue homogenates, L-NNA was not produced, even though D-NNA was disposed. We propose that this occurred because D-NNA was first converted to its corresponding alpha-keto acid by DAO and then to L-NNA by transaminase(s); however, there was no direct evidence for this process. The goal of this study is to further elucidate the process of D-NNA chiral inversion both in vivo and in in vitro tissue homogenates by comparing mutant ddY/DAO(-/-) mice that lack DAO activity entirely compared to normal ddY/DAO(+/+) mice and Swiss mice. Furthermore, the ability to produce L-NNA from D-NNA-corresponding alpha-keto acids (N(G)-nitroguanidino-2-oxopentanoic acid) produced by porcine kidney-derived DAO (pkDAO) was also studied in the DAO inhibitor-pretreated rats. We found that D-NNA chiral inversion occurred in Swiss mice and ddY/DAO(+/+) mice both in vivo and in in vitro kidney homogenates, but not in ddY/DAO(-/-) mice, correlated to their DAO activities. The alpha-keto acid (N(G)-nitro-guanidino-2-oxopentanoic acid) from D-NNA was able to produce L-NNA, and subsequent vasoconstriction and pressor responses. These results indicate that the role of renal DAO is indispensible but insufficient for chiral inversion of D-NNA and other neutral and polar D-amino acids, and unidentified aminotransferase(s) are involved in a subsequent

  14. Increased leukotriene production by food additives in patients with atopic dermatitis and proven food intolerance. (United States)

    Worm, M; Vieth, W; Ehlers, I; Sterry, W; Zuberbier, T


    Recently, we identified a subgroup of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) with a clinical relevant food intolerance proven by double blind placebo controlled challenge. In search of possible pathomechanisms involved in this food intolerance, which leads to aggravation of the disease, the aim of the present study was to determine sulfidoleukotriene production in these patients using isolated leucocytes from the peripheral blood after stimulation with different food additives. Leukotriene production of peripheral leucocytes was detected by incubation of isolated cells with the food additives at different concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 200 microg/mL after pre-stimulation with IL-3. Ten non-atopic donors (A), nine AD patients of the diet responder group with negative oral provocation test against food additives (B) and nine patients of the responder group with positive reactions after the oral provocation test (C) were investigated. In the non-atopic group (A), no increased sulfidoleukotriene (sLT) release was observed for all food additives tested. In group B, increased sLT production was determined using tartrazine in one patient (1/9) and using nitrite in two patients (2/9), whereas sLT production remained below the cut-off range in all patients of group B (9/9) using benzoate, metabisulfite and salicylate. By contrast, in group C increased sLT production was observed with food colour mix in 1/9, with tartrazine in 3/9, with benzoate in 4/9, with nitrite in 5/9, with salicylate in 2/9 and with metabisulfite in 1/9. However, no increased sLT concentration was determined in the presence of the tested food additives in two patients of group C. Increased sLT production by peripheral leucocytes in the presence of single food additives was observed in the majority of patients with a proven food intolerance towards food additives proven by double-blind-placebo-controlled challenges. These food additives were particulary tartrazine, benzoate and nitrite. These findings

  15. Genome-scale constraint-based modeling of Geobacter metallireducens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Famili Iman


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geobacter metallireducens was the first organism that can be grown in pure culture to completely oxidize organic compounds with Fe(III oxide serving as electron acceptor. Geobacter species, including G. sulfurreducens and G. metallireducens, are used for bioremediation and electricity generation from waste organic matter and renewable biomass. The constraint-based modeling approach enables the development of genome-scale in silico models that can predict the behavior of complex biological systems and their responses to the environments. Such a modeling approach was applied to provide physiological and ecological insights on the metabolism of G. metallireducens. Results The genome-scale metabolic model of G. metallireducens was constructed to include 747 genes and 697 reactions. Compared to the G. sulfurreducens model, the G. metallireducens metabolic model contains 118 unique reactions that reflect many of G. metallireducens' specific metabolic capabilities. Detailed examination of the G. metallireducens model suggests that its central metabolism contains several energy-inefficient reactions that are not present in the G. sulfurreducens model. Experimental biomass yield of G. metallireducens growing on pyruvate was lower than the predicted optimal biomass yield. Microarray data of G. metallireducens growing with benzoate and acetate indicated that genes encoding these energy-inefficient reactions were up-regulated by benzoate. These results suggested that the energy-inefficient reactions were likely turned off during G. metallireducens growth with acetate for optimal biomass yield, but were up-regulated during growth with complex electron donors such as benzoate for rapid energy generation. Furthermore, several computational modeling approaches were applied to accelerate G. metallireducens research. For example, growth of G. metallireducens with different electron donors and electron acceptors were studied using the genome

  16. Synthesis, and structural characterization of mixed ligand copper(II) complexes of N,N,N‧,N'-tetramethylethylenediamine incorporating carboxylates (United States)

    Batool, Syeda Shahzadi; Gilani, Syeda Rubina; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Rüffer, Tobias


    Two ternary copper(II) complexes of N,N,N‧,N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (tmen = C6H16N2) with benzoic acid and p-aminobenzoic acid, having the formula [Cu(tmen)(BA)2(H2O)2] (1), and [Cu(tmen)(pABA)2]. 1/2 CH3OH (2) {(Where BA1- = benzoate1- (C6H5CO21-), pABA1- = p-aminobenzoate1- (p-H2NC6H5CO21-)} have been prepared and characterized by elemental combustion analysis, Uv-Visible spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, thermal, and single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The complex 1 is a monomer with distorted octahedral geometry. In its CuN2O4 chromophore, the Cu(II) centre is coordinated by two N atoms of a symmetrically chelating tmen ligand, by two carboxylate-O atoms from two monodentate benzoate1- anions, and by two apical aqua-O atoms, which define the distorted octahedral structure. The complex 2 is a monomer with a distorted square planar coordination geometry. In CuN2O2 chromophore, tmen is coordinated to Cu(II) ion in a chelating bidentate fashion, while the two p-aminobenzoate1- anions coordinate to Cu(II) centre through their carboxylate-O atoms in a monodentate manner, forming a square planar structure. The observed difference between asymmetric ѵas(OCO) and symmetric ѵs(OCO) stretching IR vibrations of the carboxylate moieties for 1 and 2 is 220 cm-1 and 232 cm-1, respectively, which suggests monodentate coordination mode (Δν OCO>200) of the carboxylate groups to Cu(II) ion. Thermogravimetric studies of 1 indicates removal of two water molecules at 171 °C, elimination of a tmen upto 529 °C and of two benzoate groups upto 931 °C. In tga curve of 2, methanol is lost upto 212 °C, while tmen is lost from 212 to 993 °C. The antibacterial activities of these new compounds against various bacterial strains were also investigated.

  17. Complex profiles of hydrophobic paralytic shellfish poisoning compounds in Gymnodinium catenatum identified by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Vale, Paulo


    The presence of hydrophobic analogues of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) was studied in a Portuguese strain of Gymnodinium catenatum by conventional pre-column oxidation HPLC after a prolonged acetonitrile gradient coupled with fluorescence detection. Prior separation of hydrophobic PSTs analogues from hydrophilic analogues was done by solid-phase extraction (SPE) partitioning on a C18 cartridge. Several unknown oxidation products, with emission spectra similar to known PSTs, appeared after periodate or hydrogen peroxide oxidation. The compounds producing these oxidation products could be grouped into three major sub-groups according to SPE partitioning. The first one eluting with 10 and 20% MeOH, produced the first set of oxidation products observed after the saxitoxin oxidation product. The second one eluting with 30-100% MeOH produced the second set of oxidation products. The third one eluted with acidified 90% MeOH produced the third and last set of oxidation products. Additionally, the oxidation products corresponding to decarbamoyl gonyautoxins and decarbamoyl saxitoxins were also abundant, resulting from ester cleavage of the benzoate side chain of these compounds during the oxidation. Analysis of these fractions by LC-MS demonstrated the second sub-group was constituted by analogues of the 11-hydroxysulfated GC1/GC2, while the third sub-group was constituted by analogues of GC3, which lack the 11-hydroxysulfate. In addition to GC1/GC2 and GC3, novel analogues differing by 16u could be related, respectively, to the N1-hydroxyl analogues of GC1-GC3, designated GC4-GC6. A novel family of GC analogues, differing, by 16u from GC1-GC6, were hypothesized to possess an extra hydroxyl in the benzoate side chain, existing in both N1-hydroxylated and non-N1-hydroxylated variants, and tentatively designated GC1a-GC6a. The first sub-group was hypothesized to constitute an additional novel family of GC analogues with a hydroxysulfate group instead of the

  18. Genomic and microarray analysis of aromatics degradation in Geobacter metallireducens and comparison to a Geobacter isolate from a contaminated field site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jizhong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Groundwater and subsurface environments contaminated with aromatic compounds can be remediated in situ by Geobacter species that couple oxidation of these compounds to reduction of Fe(III-oxides. Geobacter metallireducens metabolizes many aromatic compounds, but the enzymes involved are not well known. Results The complete G. metallireducens genome contained a 300 kb island predicted to encode enzymes for the degradation of phenol, p-cresol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoate, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, and benzoate. Toluene degradation genes were encoded in a separate region. None of these genes was found in closely related species that cannot degrade aromatic compounds. Abundant transposons and phage-like genes in the island suggest mobility, but nucleotide composition and lack of synteny with other species do not suggest a recent transfer. The inferred degradation pathways are similar to those in species that anaerobically oxidize aromatic compounds with nitrate as an electron acceptor. In these pathways the aromatic compounds are converted to benzoyl-CoA and then to 3-hydroxypimelyl-CoA. However, in G. metallireducens there were no genes for the energetically-expensive dearomatizing enzyme. Whole-genome changes in transcript levels were identified in cells oxidizing benzoate. These supported the predicted pathway, identified induced fatty-acid oxidation genes, and identified an apparent shift in the TCA cycle to a putative ATP-yielding succinyl-CoA synthase. Paralogs to several genes in the pathway were also induced, as were several putative molybdo-proteins. Comparison of the aromatics degradation pathway genes to the genome of an isolate from a contaminated field site showed very similar content, and suggested this strain degrades many of the same compounds. This strain also lacked a classical dearomatizing enzyme, but contained two copies of an eight-gene cluster encoding redox proteins that was 30-fold

  19. Synthesis and anti-cancer potential of the positional isomers of NOSH-aspirin (NBS-1120) a dual nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide releasing hybrid. (United States)

    Vannini, Federica; MacKessack-Leitch, Andrew C; Eschbach, Erin K; Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder; Kashfi, Khosrow


    We recently reported the synthesis of NOSH-aspirin, a novel hybrid compound capable of releasing both nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). In NOSH-aspirin, the two moieties that release NO and H2S are covalently linked at the 1, 2 positions of acetyl salicylic acid, i.e., ortho-NOSH-aspirin. Here we report on the synthesis of meta- and para-NOSH-aspirins. We also made a head-to-head evaluation of the effects of these three positional isomers of NOSH-aspirin on colon cancer cell kinetics and induction of reactive oxygen species, which in recent years has emerged as a key event in causing cancer cell regression. Electron donating/withdrawing groups incorporated about the benzoate moiety significantly affected the potency of these compounds with respect to colon cancer cell growth inhibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of waste banana peels and radish leaves for their biofuels potentialInvestigation of waste banana peels and radish leaves for their biofuels potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Khan


    Full Text Available This article is mainly based on the production of biodiesel and bioethanol from waste banana peels and radish leaves. The oily content from both the samples were converted to biodiesel by acid catalyzed and base catalyzed transesterification using methanol and ethanol. The biodiesel so obtained was subjected to analysis in accordance with the American Standard for Testing Materials (ASTM. The carbohydrates were extracted by distilled water and characterized by physical, chemical and biochemical methods. The carbohydrates were subjected to anaerobic fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce bioethanol which was confirmed by the preparation of UV active derivatives namely ethyl benzoate and ethyl salicylate. The highest % yield of fatty acid methyl ester and fatty acid ethyl ester was found to be 75% and 38%, respectively. The yield of bioethanol from banana peels and radish leaves was found to be 1.37% and 1.23%, respectively.

  1. Dimethyl 2,2′-[ethane-1,2-diylbis(sulfanediyl]dibenzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Hu


    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H18O4S2, was synthesized by the reaction of 1,2-dibromoethane with methyl thiosalicylate. The complete molecule is generated by crystallographic twofold symmetry: two methyl benzoate units are linked by an –S–(CH22–S– bridging chain with a gauche S—CH2—CH2—S torsion angle [72.88 (16°]. The two aromatic rings form a dihedral angle of 79.99 (6°. In the crystal, adjacent molecules are linked into a three-dimensional network by non-classical C—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  2. Treatment of Scabies: Comparison of Lindane 1% vs Permethrin 5. (United States)

    Rezaee, Elham; Goldust, Mohamad; Alipour, Houman


    Scabies, whose etiologic agent is Sarcoptes scabiei, is a neglected parasitic disease that is a major public health problem in many resourcepoor regions. Its current therapies include benzyl benzoate, lindane, permethrin, sulfur, crotamiton, monosulfiram, and oral ivermectin. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of lindane 1% lotion vs permethrin 5% in the treatment of scabies. A total of 120 patients with scabies attending a dermatology outpatient department were included. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Sixty patients and their family contacts received 5% permethrin cream and the other 60 received 1% lindane lotion. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks. Permethrin provided improvement in 48 patients (80%) after 2 weeks, whereas lindane was effective in only 28 patients (46.6%). Permethrin (5%) cream was found to be significantly more effective in the treatment of scabies compared with lindane in this study. Adverse effects were rare in both the permethrin and lindane groups.

  3. Introduction of a De Novo Bioremediation Ability, Aryl Reductive Dechlorination, into Anaerobic Granular Sludge by Inoculation of Sludge with Desulfomonile tiedjei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Christiansen, Nina; Mathrani, Indra Madan


    Methanogenic upflow anaerobic granular-sludge blanket (UASB) reactors treat wastewaters at a high rate while simultaneously producing a useful product, methane; however, recalcitrant environmental pollutants may not be degraded. To impart 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CB)-dechlorinating ability to UASB...... reactors, we inoculated granular sludge in UASB reactors with either a pure culture of Desulfomonile tiedjei (a 3-CB-dechlorinating anaerobe) or a three-member consortium consisting of D. tiedjei, a benzoate degrader, and an H-2-utilizing methanogen. No degradation occurred in an uninoculated control...... reactor which was started with the same granular sludge, but inoculated reactors and granules from the inoculated UASB systems rapidly transformed 3-CB (54 mu-mol/day/g of granule biomass). After several months at a hydraulic retention time of 0.5 day, much shorter than the generation time of D. tiedjei...

  4. Chemotaxis of Azospirillum species to aromatic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-de-Victoria, G.; Lovell, C.R. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States))


    Azospirillum sspeciesare free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria commonly found in soils and in association with plant roots, including important agricultural crops. Rhizosphere colonization my Azospirillum species has been shown to stimulate growth of a variety of plant species. Chemotaxis is one of the properties which may contribute to survival, rhizosphere colonization and the initiation of mutualistic interactions by Azospirillum species. This study evaluates the chemotactic responses of three Azospirillum stains to a variety of aromatic compounds:benzoate, catechol, 4-HB, and PCA. Results indicate that the same aromatic substance can elicit different chemotactic responses from different Azospirillum species, and that Azospirillum can detect aromatic substrates at concentrations similar to those they encounter naturally. 36 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  5. Diaqua-(5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxyl-ato)(4-nitro-benzoato)copper(II). (United States)

    Hu, Fei-Long; Yin, Xian-Hong; Feng, Yu; Mi, Yan; Zhang, Shan-Shan


    In the title complex, [Cu(C(7)H(4)NO(4))(C(5)H(5)N(2)O(2))(H(2)O)(2)], the Cu(II) ion is coordinated in a slightly distorted square-pyramidal enviroment. The basal plane is formed by an N atom and an O atom from a 5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxyl-ate ligand and by two O atoms from two water ligands. The apical position is occupied by a carboxylate O atom from a 4-nitro-benzoate ligand. In the crystal structure, inter-molecular O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link complex moleclues, forming extended chains parallel to the a axis.

  6. Successive cycles of utilization of novozym 435 in three different reaction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerin, L.; Oestreicher, E. G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ceni, G.; Richett, A.; Kubiak, G.; Oliveira, J. Vladimir; Toniazzo, G.; Treichel, H.; Oliveira, D., E-mail: helen@uricer.ed [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil)


    The main focus of this work was to investigate the residual esterification activity and the product conversion after 10 successive cycles of utilization of a commercial lipase in three systems: esterification of 2-ethyl hexanol and palmitic acid in a solvent-free system; esterification of ascorbic acid and palmitic acid in tert-butanol; and transesterification of glycerol and methyl benzoate in 2-propanol. These systems were chosen based on previous results by our research group in terms of product conversion. Before scale-up, there is a need for evaluating several cycles of utilization of the biocatalyst. The esterification of 2-ethyl hexanol showed that after 10 cycles the enzyme retained 90% of its activity. The system consisting of ascorbic acid, palmitic acid, Novozym 435 and tert-butanol showed that a reduction in enzyme activity was accompanied by a reduction in reaction conversion; the same behavior was not observed for the third system. (author)

  7. [Benzene in food and human environment]. (United States)

    Jedra, Małgorzata; Starski, Andrzej


    Benzene is releasing to environment in cause of industry activities. This compound is known as carcinogenic. This article contains information about benzene occurrence in people environment and sources of people exposition on this compound. Toxicology and metabolism in human organism were discussed. Benzene contamination of various food was presented on the basis of our results and also other European and American investigations and Codex Alimentarius documents. Especially formation and occurrence of benzene in non-alcoholic beverages preserved by benzoates were considered. Article describes also action, which was taken up by non-alcoholic beverages industry to mitigate benzene formation in soft drinks. National regulations concerning maximum levels of benzene in drinking water and air were also presented.

  8. Potentially harmful excipients in neonatal medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellis, Georgi; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Varendi, Heili


    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe administration of eight potentially harmful excipients of interest (EOI)-parabens, polysorbate 80, propylene glycol, benzoates, saccharin sodium, sorbitol, ethanol and benzalkonium chloride-to hospitalised neonates in Europe and to identify risk factors for exposure....... METHODS: All medicines administered to neonates during 1 day with individual prescription and demographic data were registered in a web-based point prevalence study. Excipients were identified from the Summaries of Product Characteristics. Determinants of EOI administration (geographical region......, gestational age (GA), active pharmaceutical ingredient, unit level and hospital teaching status) were identified using multivariable logistical regression analysis. RESULTS: Overall 89 neonatal units from 21 countries participated. Altogether 2095 prescriptions for 530 products administered to 726 neonates...

  9. Binding of cyclic carboxylates to octa-acid deep-cavity cavitand (United States)

    Gibb, Corinne L. D.; Gibb, Bruce C.


    As part of the fourth statistical assessment of modeling of proteins and ligands ( prediction challenge, the strength of association of nine guests ( 1- 9) binding to octa-acid host was determined by a combination of 1H NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry. Association constants in sodium tetraborate buffered (pH 9.2) aqueous solution ranged from 5.39 × 102 M-1 in the case of benzoate 1, up to 3.82 × 105 M-1 for trans-4-methylcyclohexanoate 7. Overall, the free energy difference between the free energies of complexation of these weakest and strongest binding guests was ΔΔG° = 3.88 kcal mol-1. Based on a multitude of previous studies, the anticipated order of strength of binding was close to that which was actually obtained. However, the binding of guest 3 (4-ethylbenzoate) was considerably stronger than initially estimated.

  10. Structural Basis for Prereceptor Modulation of Plant Hormones by GH3 Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, Corey S.; Zubieta, Chloe; Herrmann, Jonathan; Kapp, Ulrike; Nanao, Max H.; Jez, Joseph M. (WU); (EMBL); (ESRF)


    Acyl acid amido synthetases of the GH3 family act as critical prereceptor modulators of plant hormone action; however, the molecular basis for their hormone selectivity is unclear. Here, we report the crystal structures of benzoate-specific Arabidopsis thaliana AtGH3.12/PBS3 and jasmonic acid-specific AtGH3.11/JAR1. These structures, combined with biochemical analysis, define features for the conjugation of amino acids to diverse acyl acid substrates and highlight the importance of conformational changes in the carboxyl-terminal domain for catalysis. We also identify residues forming the acyl acid binding site across the GH3 family and residues critical for amino acid recognition. Our results demonstrate how a highly adaptable three-dimensional scaffold is used for the evolution of promiscuous activity across an enzyme family for modulation of plant signaling molecules.

  11. Three new triterpene esters from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds. (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Ueda, Shinsuke; Kanazawa, Jokaku; Naoe, Hiroki; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko


    Three new multiflorane-type triterpene esters, i.e. 7α-hydroxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7α-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (2), and 7β-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with the known compound, multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (4). Compound 1 exhibited melanogenesis inhibitory activities comparable with those of arbutin. In cytotoxicity assays, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited weak cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 34.5-93.7 μM against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  12. Three New Triterpene Esters from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kikuchi


    Full Text Available Three new multiflorane-type triterpene esters, i.e. 7α-hydroxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1, 7α-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (2, and 7β-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (3, were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with the known compound, multiflora-7,9(11-diene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (4. Compound 1 exhibited melanogenesis inhibitory activities comparable with those of arbutin. In cytotoxicity assays, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited weak cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 34.5–93.7 μM against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  13. Effect of Different Carbon Substrates on Nitrate Stable Isotope Fractionation During Microbial Denitrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wunderlich, Anja; Meckenstock, Rainer; Einsiedl, Florian


    -labeled water and 18O-labeled nitrite were added to the microcosm experiments to study the effect of putative backward reactions of nitrite to nitrate on the stable isotope fractionation. We found no evidence for a reverse reaction. Significant variations of the stable isotope enrichment factor ε were observed......In batch experiments, we studied the isotope fractionation in N and O of dissolved nitrate during dentrification. Denitrifying strains Thauera aromatica and “Aromatoleum aromaticum strain EbN1” were grown under strictly anaerobic conditions with acetate, benzoate, and toluene as carbon sources. 18O...... of nitrate transport across the cell wall compared to the kinetics of the intracellular nitrate reduction step of microbial denitrification....

  14. Application of response surface methodology method in designing corrosion inhibitor (United States)

    Asmara, Y. P.; Athirah; Siregar, J. P.; Kurniawan, T.; Bachtiar, D.


    In oil and gas pipelines and offshore structure, inhibitors have been considered to be the first choice to reduce corrosion rate. There are many corrosion inhibitor compositions available in the market. To produce the best corrosion inhibitor requires many experimental data which is not efficient. These experiments used response surface methodology (RSM) to select corrosion inhibitor compositions. The experiments investigated effects of corrosion inhibition on corrosion rate of low carbon steel in 3% NaCl solution with different concentrations of selected main inhibitor compositions which are ethyl acetate (EA), ethylene glycol (EG) and sodium benzoate (SB). Corrosion rate were calculated using linear polarization resistance (LPR). All of the experiments were set in natural conditions at pH 7. MINITAB® version 15 was used for data analysis. It is shown that a quadratic model is a representative model can predict best corrosion inhibitor composition comprehensibly.

  15. In vitro synergistic antibacterial activity of Melissa officinalis L. and some preservatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanojeic, D.; Comic, L.; Stefanovic, O.; Solujic Sukdolak, S.


    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the species Melissa officinalis L. and their in vitro synergistic action with preservatives, namely: sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate against selected food spoiling bacteria, for a potential use in food industry. Synergistic action was noticed in almost every combination between plant extracts and preservatives. This work showed that the active compounds from ethanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis L. significantly enhanced the effectiveness of tested preservatives. Synergism was established at plant extract and preservative concentrations corresponding to 1/4 and 1/8 minimal inhibitory concentration values, which indicated the possibility of avoiding the use of higher concentrations of tested preservatives. (Author) 25 refs.

  16. Progress in decontamination by halophilic microorganisms in saline wastewater and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Xuliang; Han Zhen; Bai Zhihui; Zhuang Guoqiang; Shim Hojae


    Environments with high-salt concentrations are often populated by dense microbial communities. Halophilic microorganisms can be isolated from different saline environments and different strains even belonging to the same genus have various applications. Wastewater and soil rich in both organic matter and salt are difficult to treat using conventional microorganisms typically found in wastewater treatment and soil bioremediation facilities. Studies on decontaminative capabilities and decontamination pathways of organic contaminants (i.e., aromatic compounds benzoate, cinnamate, 3-phenylpropionate, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid), heavy metals (i.e., tellurium, vanadium), and nutrients in the biological treatment of saline wastewater and soil by halophilic microorganisms are discussed in this review. - Review on the decontaminative capabilities of halophilic microorganisms in saline wastewater and soil.

  17. Crusted scabies in an adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma patient successfully treated with oral ivermectin. (United States)

    Yonekura, Kentaro; Kanekura, Takuro; Kanzaki, Tamotsu; Utsunomiya, Atae


    We report an adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) patient whose crusted scabies was successfully treated with oral ivermectin. This 63-year-old man had previously been treated with oral prednisolone, sobuzoxane and etoposide for approximately 1 year. When he developed crusted scabies, he received two doses of oral ivermectin (200 microg/kg) 10 days apart and the concomitant topical application of crotamiton containing 30% benzyl benzoate. This produced remarkable results, suggesting that oral ivermectin should be considered for the treatment of crusted scabies even in immunocompromised patients. While ivermectin may be useful for treating intractable scabies, attention must be paid to the possible appearance of ivermectin-resistant mites.

  18. Bullous scabies simulating pemphigoid. (United States)

    Roxana Stan, T; Piaserico, Stefano; Bordignon, Matteo; Salmaso, Roberto; Zattra, Edoardo; Alaibac, Mauro


    Scabies is a contagious infestation affecting subjects of all ages, races, and social conditions. We report a case of a 79-year-old man who developed a bullous pemphigoid-like eruption. He presented to our unit 4 months after the onset of symptoms. An autoimmune bullous disease was suspected. Direct immunofluorescence on a skin specimen and anti-desmoglein 1, anti-desmoglein 3, and anti-bullous pemphigoid antigen 180 were negative. Surprisingly, the histology of a skin lesion demonstrated the presence of scabies, which was successfully treated with benzyl benzoate 20%. The diagnosis of bullous scabies should be considered for any bullous eruptions accompanied by papules and itching resistant to steroid treatment and with negative immunopathologic findings.

  19. Reactive Chemical Vapor Deposition Method as New Approach for Obtaining Electroluminescent Thin Film Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina V. Utochnikova


    Full Text Available The new reactive chemical vapor deposition (RCVD method has been proposed for thin film deposition of luminescent nonvolatile lanthanide aromatic carboxylates. This method is based on metathesis reaction between the vapors of volatile lanthanide dipivaloylmethanate (Ln(dpm3 and carboxylic acid (HCarb orH2Carb′ and was successfully used in case of HCarb. Advantages of the method were demonstrated on example of terbium benzoate (Tb(bz3 and o-phenoxybenzoate thin films, and Tb(bz3 thin films were successfully examined in the OLED with the following structure glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/TPD/Tb(bz3/Ca/Al. Electroluminescence spectra of Tb(bz3 showed only typical luminescent bands, originated from transitions of the terbium ion. Method peculiarities for deposition of compounds of dibasic acids H2Carb′ are established on example of terbium and europium terephtalates and europium 2,6-naphtalenedicarboxylate.

  20. catena-Poly[[bis­[2-(2,3-dimethyl­anilino)benzoato-κO]cadmium(II)]-di-μ-3-pyridylmethanol-κ2 N:O;κ2 O:N (United States)

    Moncol, Jan; Mikloš, Dušan; Segľa, Peter; Koman, Marian; Lis, Tadeusz


    In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Cd(C15H14NO2)2(C6H7NO)2]n, the Cd atom displays a distorted octa­hedral geometry, including two pyridine N atoms and two hydroxyl O from four symmetry-related 3-pyridylmethanol (3-pyme) ligands and two carboxylate O atoms from mefenamate [2-(2,3-dimethyl­anilino)benzoate] anions. The Cd atoms are connected via the bridging 3-pyme ligands into chains, that extend in the a-axis direction. The Cd atom is located on a center of inversion, whereas the 3-pyme ligands and the mefenamate anions occupy general positions. PMID:21201841