Sample records for benzoates

  1. (Benzoylaminomethyl 4-[(Benzoylaminomethoxy]benzoate

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    Ana Poceva Panovska


    Full Text Available In this note, two procedures for the synthesis of (benzoylaminomethyl 4-[(benzoylamino­methoxy]benzoate (3 are presented. The first procedure is carried out in dioxane/water using benzoylaminomethyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, while the second one employs a suspension of 4-hydroxy­benzoic acid in dioxane. In both procedures, benzamidomethyl triethylammonium chloride is used for the benzamidomethylation reaction.

  2. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Methyl benzoate

    CERN Document Server

    Maiti, Kiran Sankar


    Methyl benzoate (MB) is studied as a model compound for the development of new IR pulse schemes with possible applicability to biomolecules. Anharmonic vibrational modes of MB are calculated on different level (MP2, SCS, CCSD(T) with varying basis sets) ab-initio PESs using the vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF) method and its correlation corrected extensions. Dual level schemes, combining different quantum chemical methods for diagonal and coupling potentials, are systematically studied and applied successfully to reduce the computational cost. Isotopic substitution of {\\beta}-hydrogen by deuterium is studied to obtain a better understanding of the molecular vibrational coupling topology.

  3. Interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate

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    Nishijo, J.; Yonetani, I.


    The interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate was investigated by PMR spectroscopy. The interaction of theobromine with pentadeuterated benzoic acid (benzoic acid-d5) was examined in the same manner but to a lesser degree. Chemical shifts of theobromine protons were determined as a function of sodium benzoate concentration in deuterium oxide at 30 and 15 degrees. Signals of both methyl groups of theobromine underwent significant upfield shifts when sodium benzoate was added to a theobromine solution. This fact suggests that a complex is formed by vertical stacking or plane-to-plane stacking. The same results were obtained for benzoic acid-d5.

  4. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 582.3733 Section 582.3733 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  5. Anaerobic degradation of benzoate by sulfate-reducing bacteria

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    Silva, S.P.; Adorno, M.A.T.; Moraes, E.M.; Varesche, M.B.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Biological Processes Laboratory


    Anaerobic processes are an efficient way to degrade aromatic compounds in industrial wastewater, such as phenol, cresol and benzoate. This study characterized the bacteria that degrades benzoate, an anaerobic degradation intermediate of several complex aromatic compounds. In particular, the study assessed the capacity to use benzoate with sulfate reducing bacteria in mesophilic conditions. Biofilm from polyurethane foam matrices of a fixed bed reactor was used as the cellular inoculum to treat industrial wastewater containing organic peroxide. Dilution techniques were used to purify the material and obtain cultures of cocci. The benzoate consumption capacity in sulfidogenic conditions was observed when the purified inoculum was applied to batch reactors with different benzoate/sulfate relations. Results indicate that purification was positive to bacteria that can degrade aromatic compounds. Desulfococcus multivorans bacteria was identified following the physiologic and kinetic experiments. The 0.6 benzoate/sulfate relation was considered ideal for complete consumption of carbon and total use of sulfur. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Radiation and thermal polymerization of allyl(p-allylcarbonate) benzoate

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    Lopez-V, D., E-mail: dlopez@siu.buap.m [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Antiguo Edificio de la Fac. de Cs., Quimica. Av. San Claudio y Boulevard de la 14 sur, Col. San Manuel, Puebla, Pue., CP 72500 (Mexico); Herrera-G, A.M., E-mail: mherrera@uaeh.reduaeh.m [Centro de Inv. en Materiales y Metalurgia, UAEH. Km 4.5, C.U., CP 42184, Pachuca de S. Hidalgo (Mexico); Castillo-Rojas, S., E-mail: castillo@nucleares.unam.m [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 DF (Mexico)


    Bulk polymerization of novel allyl(p-allylcarbonate) benzoate was investigated using different sources of energy, such as gamma rays, ultraviolet rays as well as thermal polymerization. The poly(allyl(p-allylcarbonate) benzoate) obtained is a cross-linking, transparent, thermoset polycarbonate. Compositions of the monomer and the polycarbonate were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy.

  7. Safety assessment of alkyl benzoates as used in cosmetics. (United States)

    'Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan


    The functions of alkyl benzoates in cosmetics include fragrance ingredients, skin-conditioning agents--emollient, skin-conditioning agents--miscellaneous, preservatives, solvents, and plasticizers. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel reviewed the relevant animal and human data and noted gaps in the available safety data for some of the alkyl benzoates. Similar structure activity relationships, biologic functions, and cosmetic product usage allowed the available data of many of the alkyl benzoates to be extended to the entire group. Carcinogenicity data were not available, but available data indicated that these alkyl benzoate cosmetic ingredients are not genotoxic. Also benzoic acid and tested component alcohols were not reproductive or developmental toxicants, are not genotoxic in almost all assays, and are not carcinogenic. These ingredients were determined to be safe in the present practices of use and concentration.

  8. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Tetranuclear Zinc Benzoate

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    YIN Ming-cai; WANG Chi-wei; AI Chang-chun; YUAN Liang-jie; SUN Ju-tang


    A tetranuclear zinc benzoate Zn4O(C6H5CO2)6 was synthesized and characterized by X-ray single crystal determination. It crystallizes in cubic, space group Ia-3d. Its crystal cell is very large, a=4.100 63(18) nm, V=68.953(5) nm3 and Z = 48. The structure is composed of discrete Zn4O(C6H5CO2)6 molecules. In each molecule, four zinc atoms are held together by a central oxygen atom, which results in the formation of a regular tetrahedron. All benzoate ligands coordinate to zinc atoms in a bidentate bridging mode. Each zinc atom is in a slightly distorted tetrahedral geometry, coordinated by three benzoate oxygen atoms and the central oxygen atom. The intermolecular interactions result in the formation of a three-dimensional supramolecular framework, with non-intersecting parallel channels.

  9. Rizatriptan benzoate influences the endogenous pain modulatory system in a rat model of migraine☆


    Yao,Gang; Man, Yuhong; Luo, Xiangdan; Yu, Tingmin; Ji, Lin


    The present study utilized a nitroglycerin-induced rat model of migraine to detect the effects of rizatriptan benzoate on proenkephalin and substance P gene expression in the midbrain using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and investigate whether rizatriptan benzoate can regulate the endogenous pain modulatory system. The results showed that rizatriptan benzoate significantly reduced expression of the mRNAs for proenkephalin and substance P. Rizatriptan benzoate may inhibit th...

  10. Rizatriptan benzoate influences the endogenous pain modulatory system in a rat model of migraine. (United States)

    Yao, Gang; Man, Yuhong; Luo, Xiangdan; Yu, Tingmin; Ji, Lin


    The present study utilized a nitroglycerin-induced rat model of migraine to detect the effects of rizatriptan benzoate on proenkephalin and substance P gene expression in the midbrain using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and investigate whether rizatriptan benzoate can regulate the endogenous pain modulatory system. The results showed that rizatriptan benzoate significantly reduced expression of the mRNAs for proenkephalin and substance P. Rizatriptan benzoate may inhibit the analgesic effect of the endogenous pain modulatory system.

  11. Rizatriptan benzoate influences the endogenous pain modulatory system in a rat model of migraine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Yao; Yuhong Man; Xiangdan Luo; Tingmin Yu; Lin Ji


    The present study utilized a nitroglycerin-induced rat model of migraine to detect the effects of rizatriptan benzoate on proenkephalin and substance P gene expression in the midbrain using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and investigate whether rizatriptan benzoate can regulate the endogenous pain modulatory system. The results showed that rizatriptan benzoate significantly reduced expression of the mRNAs for proenkephalin and substance P. Rizatriptan benzoate may inhibit the analgesic effect of the endogenous pain modulatory system.

  12. Thermoreversible biogels for intranasal delivery of rizatriptan benzoate

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    Chand Renuka


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to formulate and evaluate a thermoreversible formulation containing rizatriptan benzoate for intranasal administration. Chitosan and aqueous β-glycerolphosphate were mixed in cold condition to obtain chitosan-β-glycerolphosphate mixtures, which served as the thermoreversible systems. Rizatriptan benzoate was incorporated at a final strength of 25 mg/ml. Both in vitro release and ex vivo permeation of rizatriptan from gels were measured at 37º using Franz diffusion cells Formulations were tested in vivo in mice for reduction in locomotor activity using digital actophotometer and nasal mucosal tissues were examined histopathologically.

  13. 77 FR 31722 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Estradiol; Estradiol Benzoate and Testosterone Propionate... (United States)


    ... COMPONENT E-C 522.1940 (progesterone and estradiol benzoate) with TYLAN (tylosin tartrate). COMPONENT E-S (progesterone and estradiol benzoate) with TYLAN (tylosin tartrate). 118-123 COMPONENT 200 (estradiol benzoate... and testosterone propionate) with TYLAN (tylosin tartrate). 200-221 COMPONENT TE-IS...


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    Full Text Available A new benzoate-utilizing strain, Serratia marcescens DS-8, isolated from the environment was characterized. The strain was enterobacilli, Gram negative, mesophilic, non ha lophilic, and aerobic bacterium that showed motile ovale-rod shaped cells. The isolate produced extracellular chitinase, protease, and prodigiosin (a red pigment pr oduced by several Serratia strains yielding bright red or pink colonies. A physiological assay using Microbact* test showed that the strain was closely related to Klebsiella ozaenae (49.85% and Serratia liquefaciens (24.42%, respectively. However, 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicated that the strain was closely related to S. marcescens DSM 30121 with similarity level of 98%. DS-8 strain was able to synthesize its own vitamins. Optimum growth in benzoate was obtained at pH between 7-8.5 and NaCl concentration of 1- 1.5% (w/v. The isolate could grow in benzoate-containing medium up to 10 mM. Other carbon sources that could support the growth of DS-8 were casamino acid, glutamate, glucose, acetate, potato star ch, and ethanol.

  15. Interspecies acetate transfer influences the extent of anaerobic benzoate degradation by syntrophic consortia

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    Warikoo, V.; McInerney, M.J.; Suflita, J.M. [and others


    Benzoate degradation by an anaerobic, syntrophic bacterium, strain SB, in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G-11 reached a threshold value which depended on the amount of acetate added, and ranged from about 2.5 to 29.9 {mu}M. Increasing acetate concentrations also uncompetitively inhibited benzoate degradation. The apparent V{sub max} and K{sub m} for benzoate degradation decreased with increasing acetate concentration, but the benzoate degradation capacity (V{sub max}/K{sub m}) of cell suspensions remained comparable. The addition of an acetate-using bacterium to cocultures after the threshold was reached resulted in the degradation of benzoate to below the detection limit. Mathematical simulations showed that the benzoate threshold was not predicted by the inhibitory effect of acetate on benzoate degradation kinetics. With nitrate instead of sulfate as the terminal electron acceptor, no benzoate threshold was observed in the presence of 20 mM acetate even though the degradation capacity was lower with nitrate than with sulfate. When strain SB was grown with a hydrogen-using partner that had a 5-fold lower hydrogen utilization capacity, a 5 to 9-fold lower the benzoate degradation capacity was observed compared to SB/G-11 cocultures. The Gibb`s free energy for benzoate degradation was less negative in cell suspensions with threshold compared to those without threshold. These studies showed that the threshold was not a function of the inhibition of benzoate degradation capacity by acetate, or the toxicity of the undissociated form of acetate. Rather a critical or minimal Gibb`s free energy may exist where thermodynamic constraints preclude further benzoate degradation.

  16. Analisa Pengawet Natrium Benzoat Pada Manisan Buah Di Pasar Tradisional Kota Medan Tahun 2010.


    Amalia Kurnia Sari P


    Preservative sodium benzoate chemical with formula of C7H5O2 This research was a descriptive survey researched that analyzed the content of sodium benzoate on the candied fruit. Fruit with total sampling 12 sample candied fruit consisting of three kinds of fruit, salak, mango and kedondong. Primary data from this research were obtained from laboratory test on sodium benzoate preservative substences contained in the candied fruit. Data obtained were analyzed descriptively. Na were Substance...

  17. Determination of Hammett Equation Rho Constant for the Hydrolysis of p-Nitrophenyl Benzoate Esters (United States)

    Keenan, Sheue L.; Peterson, Karl P.; Peterson, Kelly; Jacobson, Kyle


    Seven p-nitrophenyl benzoate esters (p-nitrophenyl benzoate, p-nitrophenyl m-anisate, p-nitrophenyl p-anisate, p-nitrophenyl m-chlorobenzoate, p-nitrophenyl p-chlorobenzoate, p-nitrophenyl m-toluate, p-nitrophenyl p-toluate) were synthesized and characterized by students in a second-semester organic laboratory course. In a subsequent laboratory…

  18. 40 CFR 721.4060 - Alkylene glycol tereph-tha-late and substituted benzoate esters (generic name). (United States)


    ... substituted benzoate esters (generic name). 721.4060 Section 721.4060 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... substituted benzoate esters (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... substituted benzoate esters (PMN P-89-596) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  19. Formulation and evaluation of rizatriptan benzoate mouth disintegrating tablets. (United States)

    Keny, R V; Desouza, Chrisma; Lourenco, C F


    The present investigation deals with development of mouth disintegrating tablets of rizatriptan benzoate to produce the intended benefits. Mouth disintegrating tablets of rizatriptan benzoate were prepared using superdisintegrants crospovidone, carboxymethylcellulose calcium, Indion 414 and Indion 234 using the direct compression method. The tablets prepared were evaluated for thickness, uniformity of weight, content uniformity, hardness, friability, wetting time, in vitro and in vivo disintegration time, mouth feel, in vitro drug release and assay by high performance liquid chromatography. The tablets disintegrated in vitro and in vivo within 4 to 7 s and 6 to 19 s, respectively. Almost 90% of drug was released from all formulations within 20 min. The drug release from the formulations followed first order kinetics. Stability studies of the tablets at 40+/-2 degrees /75%+/-5% RH for 1 mo showed non significant drug loss. The formulation containing combination of crospovidone and Indion 234 was found to give the best results. Apart from fulfilling all official and other specifications, the tablets exhibited higher rate of release.

  20. Formulation and evaluation of rizatriptan Benzoate mouth disintegrating tablets

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    Keny R


    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with development of mouth disintegrating tablets of rizatriptan benzoate to produce the intended benefits. Mouth disintegrating tablets of rizatriptan benzoate were prepared using superdisintegrants crospovidone, carboxymethylcellulose calcium, Indion 414 and Indion 234 using the direct compression method. The tablets prepared were evaluated for thickness, uniformity of weight, content uniformity, hardness, friability, wetting time, in vitro and in vivo disintegration time, mouth feel, in vitro drug release and assay by high performance liquid chromatography. The tablets disintegrated in vitro and in vivo within 4 to 7 s and 6 to 19 s, respectively. Almost 90% of drug was released from all formulations within 20 min. The drug release from the formulations followed first order kinetics. Stability studies of the tablets at 40±2 o /75%±5% RH for 1 mo showed non significant drug loss. The formulation containing combination of crospovidone and Indion 234 was found to give the best results. Apart from fulfilling all official and other specifications, the tablets exhibited higher rate of release.

  1. Lean production of taste improved lipidic sodium benzoate formulations. (United States)

    Eckert, C; Pein, M; Breitkreutz, J


    Sodium benzoate is a highly soluble orphan drug with unpleasant taste and high daily dose. The aim of this study was to develop a child appropriate, individually dosable, and taste masked dosage form utilizing lipids in melt granulation process and tableting. A saliva resistant coated lipid granule produced by extrusion served as reference product. Low melting hard fat was found to be appropriate as lipid binder in high-shear granulation. The resulting granules were compressed to minitablets without addition of other excipients. Compression to 2mm minitablets decreased the dissolved API amount within the first 2 min of dissolution from 33% to 23%. The Euclidean distances, calculated from electronic tongue measurements, were reduced, indicating an improved taste. The reference product showed a lag time in dissolution, which is desirable for taste masking. Although a lag time was not achieved for the lipidic minitablets, drug release in various food materials was reduced to 2%, assuming a suitable taste masking for oral sodium benzoate administration.

  2. Environmental fate of emamectin benzoate after tree micro injection of horse chestnut trees. (United States)

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter


    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies.

  3. Effect of Emamectin Benzoate on Root-Knot Nematodes and Tomato Yield.

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    Xingkai Cheng

    Full Text Available Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita is an obligate, sedentary endoparasite of more than 3000 plant species, that causes heavy economic losses and limit the development of protected agriculture of China. As a biological pesticide, emamectin benzoate has effectively prevented lepidopteran pests; however, its efficacy to control M. incognita remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was to test soil application of emamectin benzoate for management of M. incognita in laboratory, greenhouse and field trials. Laboratory results showed that emamectin benzoate exhibited high toxicity to M. incognita, with LC50 and LC90 values 3.59 and 18.20 mg L(-1, respectively. In greenhouse tests, emamectin benzoate soil application offered good efficacy against M. incognita while maintaining excellent plant growth. In field trials, emamectin benzoate provided control efficacy against M. incognita and resulted in increased tomato yields. Compared with the untreated control, there was a 36.5% to 81.3% yield increase obtained from all treatments and the highest yield was received from the highest rate of emamectin benzoate. The results confirmed that emamectin benzoate has enormous potential for the control of M. incognita in tomato production in China.

  4. Effects of sodium benzoate, a widely used food preservative, on glucose homeostasis and metabolic profiles in humans. (United States)

    Lennerz, Belinda S; Vafai, Scott B; Delaney, Nigel F; Clish, Clary B; Deik, Amy A; Pierce, Kerry A; Ludwig, David S; Mootha, Vamsi K


    Sodium benzoate is a widely used preservative found in many foods and soft drinks. It is metabolized within mitochondria to produce hippurate, which is then cleared by the kidneys. We previously reported that ingestion of sodium benzoate at the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) dose leads to a robust excursion in the plasma hippurate level [1]. Since previous reports demonstrated adverse effects of benzoate and hippurate on glucose homeostasis in cells and in animal models, we hypothesized that benzoate might represent a widespread and underappreciated diabetogenic dietary exposure in humans. Here, we evaluated whether acute exposure to GRAS levels of sodium benzoate alters insulin and glucose homeostasis through a randomized, controlled, cross-over study of 14 overweight subjects. Serial blood samples were collected following an oral glucose challenge, in the presence or absence of sodium benzoate. Outcome measurements included glucose, insulin, glucagon, as well as temporal mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiles. We did not find a statistically significant effect of an acute oral exposure to sodium benzoate on glucose homeostasis. Of the 146 metabolites targeted, four changed significantly in response to benzoate, including the expected rise in benzoate and hippurate. In addition, anthranilic acid, a tryptophan metabolite, exhibited a robust rise, while acetylglycine dropped. Although our study shows that GRAS doses of benzoate do not have an acute, adverse effect on glucose homeostasis, future studies will be necessary to explore the metabolic impact of chronic benzoate exposure.

  5. Preparation and Evaluation of Emamectin Benzoate Solid Microemulsion

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    Lei Feng


    Full Text Available The solid microemulsions of emamectin benzoate with the same content of surfactants were prepared by a self-emulsifying method. Emulsifier 600# and emulsifier 700# (3/2, w/w screened from eleven kinds of commonly used surfactants displayed great emulsifying properties. The redispersed solution of the solid microemulsion presented aqueous microemulsion characteristic. The mean particle size and polydispersity index were 10.34 ± 0.10 nm and 0.283 ± 0.013, respectively. The solid microemulsion showed excellent storage stability and the bioassay compared with water dispersible granules against diamondback moths provided a proof of its improved biological activities. This formulation could significantly reduce surfactants and is perspective in plant protection for improving bioavailability and environmental friendliness.

  6. 2-(1,3-Benzoxazol-2-yl-1-phenylethenyl benzoate

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    Mohammad Hassan Ghorbani


    Full Text Available In the title molecule, C22H15NO3, the configuration about the ethylenic double bond is Z configuration and it is approximately coplanar with the adjacent phenyl ring and benzoxazole ring system as indicated by the C(H=C(O—Cphenyl—Cphenyl and Obenzoxazole—C—C(H=C(O torsion angles of 179.88 (15 and 5.7 (2°, respectively. The dihedral angle between the essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.080 Å 2-(1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl-1-phenylethenyl group and the benzoate phenyl ring is 61.51 (6°. A short intramolecular O...O non-bonded interaction of 2.651 (2 Å is present.

  7. Methyl 4-[N-(5-bromopyrimidin-2-ylcarbamoyl]benzoate

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    Hui-Ling Hu


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H10BrN3O3, the pyrimidine and benzene rings are twisted with an interplanar angle of 58.4 (1°. The secondary amide group adopts a cis conformation with an H—N—C—O torsion angle of 14.8 (1°. In the crystal, molecules are connected into inversion dimers via pairs of N—H...N hydrogen bonds, generating an R22(8 motif. The dimers are further connected through a C—Br...O interaction [3.136 (1 Å and 169.31 (1°] into a chain along [110]. Weak C—H...N hydrogen bonds between the methyl benzoate groups and pyrimidine rings are also observed in the crystal structure.

  8. Alkaline earth layered benzoates as reusable heterogeneous catalysts for the methyl esterification of benzoic acid

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    Swamy Arêa Maruyama


    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of layered barium, calcium and strontium benzoates and evaluates the potential of these materials as catalysts in the synthesis of methyl benzoate. The methyl esterification of benzoic acid was investigated, where the effects of temperature, alcohol:acid molar ratio and amount of catalyst were evaluated. Ester conversions of 65 to 70% were achieved for all the catalysts under the best reaction conditions. The possibility of recycling these metallic benzoates was also demonstrated, evidenced by unaltered catalytic activity for three consecutive reaction cycles.

  9. Toxicity and residual efficacy of chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, and emamectin benzoate to obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). (United States)

    Sial, Ashfaq A; Brunner, Jay F


    Studies were conducted to determine the residual toxicity of spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate to obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Larvae were exposed to apple (Malus spp.) foliage collected at different intervals after an airblast sprayer application at the manufacturer-recommended field rate and half the field rate. A mortality of 100% was recorded at field rate applications of spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate through 59, 38, and 10 d after treatment (DAT), respectively. Significantly less foliage was consumed by C. rosaceana larvae surviving in the emamectin, chlorantraniliprole, and spinetoram treatments compared with those exposed to untreated foliage. Third-instar C. rosaceana exposed to fresh residues on terminal foliage showed 100% mortality after 5-d exposure to spinetoram residues and after 10-d exposure to chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate. The effects of larval movement from foliage with fresh residues was examined by transferring neonate larvae from foliage treated with spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, or emamectin benzoate to untreated foliage after various exposure intervals. An exposure of 1, 3, and 6 d was required for spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate to cause 100% mortality at the field rate, respectively. The higher the concentration of chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate, the less exposure time was necessary to cause high levels of mortality in C. rosaceana neonates. Our results indicate that these novel insecticides are highly toxic to C. rosaceana larvae. Implications of these results for C. rosaceana management programs are discussed.

  10. A Floral Fragrance, Methyl Benzoate, is An Efficient Green Pesticide (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Zhang, Aijun


    Over-reliance on synthetic pesticides in insect pest control has caused widespread public and scientific concerns for human health and the environment, especially since many insect pests have already developed resistances to conventional pesticides and Bt products. For this reason, there is a considerable interest in development of alternative control methods for insect pest management. Based on laboratory studies, we report that methyl benzoate (MB), a naturally-occurring compound in many plants, may possess toxicity against various stages of a variety of insect pests, including the brown marmorated stinkbug, Halyomorpha halys, diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, as well as the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii. Based on our laboratory toxicity data, MB was at least 5 to 20 times more toxic than the conventional pyrethroid (β-cyfluthrin), sulfur & pyrethrin mixture, and some organic commercial products available on the market against H. halys, P. xylostella, and M. sexta, eggs. Because MB is considered an environment-friendly, it has great potential to be used as an alternative tool to synthetic pesticide for insect pest management in crop production, thereby, reducing threats to natural ecosystems and human health caused by over-application of conventional synthetic pesticides.

  11. Synthesis and structure of linear hexanuclear manganese (Ⅱ) benzoate cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌能; 陈久桐; 朱红平; 黄子祥; 刘秋田


    From a reaction system including benzoic acid and Mn(NO3)2 in alkali medium, two hexanuclear manganese benzoate cluster compounds have been synthesized. A compound [Et4N]2[Mn6(PhCOO)14] has been structurally characterized, which contains hexanuclear Mn11 moieties extending unlimitedly to form one-dimensional linear structure. Carboxyl oxygen atoms are bridged in variety of modes to the Mn atoms, forming an arrangement like a sinusoid for the Mn atoms. The structural parameters of these compounds were compared with the data obtained from EXAFS determination for the Mn cluster in the OEC of PS11, supporting that the coordination sphere of the Mn site in the OEC may contain carboxyl bridges. The possible combination modes between the carboxyl group and the Mn atoms have been suggested. The NMR signals exhibit widening and shift produced by the influence of the paramagnetic Mn" sites. The red-shift of the absorption in IR spectrum was observed to be attributed to the coordination of the carboxyl group to the Mn

  12. Synthesis and structure of linear hexanuclear manganese (II) benzoate cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    From a reaction system including benzoic acid and Mn(NO3)2 in alkali medium, two hexanuclear manganese benzoate cluster compounds have been synthesized. A compound [Et4N]2[Mn6(PhCOO)14] has been structurally characterized, which contains hexanuclear MnII moie-ties extending unlimitedly to form one-dimensional linear structure. Carboxyl oxygen atoms are bridged in variety of modes to the Mn atoms, forming an arrangement like a sinusoid for the Mn atoms. The structural parameters of these compounds were compared with the data obtained from EXAFS determination for the Mn cluster in the OEC of PSII, supporting that the coordination sphere of the Mn site in the OEC may contain carboxyl bridges. The possible combination modes between the carboxyl group and the Mn atoms have been suggested. The NMR signals exhibit widening and shift produced by the influence of the paramagnetic MnII sites. The red-shift of the absorption in IR spectrum was observed to be attributed to the coordination of the carboxyl group to the Mn atom, supporting the result of the study on crystal structure.

  13. Expression, purification and kinetic characterization of recombinant benzoate dioxygenase from Rhodococcus ruber UKMP-5M

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    Arezoo Tavakoli


    Full Text Available In this study, benzoate dioxygenase from Rhodococcus ruber UKMP-5M was catalyzed by oxidating the benzene ring to catechol and other derivatives. The benzoate dioxygenase (benA gene from Rhodococcus ruber UKMP-5M was then expressed, purified, characterized, The benA gene was amplified (642 bp, and the product was cloned into a pGEM-T vector.The recombinant plasmid pGEMT-benA was digested by double restriction enzymes BamHI and HindIII to construct plasmid pET28b-benA and was then ligated into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3. The recombinant E. coli was induced with 0.5 mM isopropyl β-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG at 22˚C to produce benzoate dioxygenase. The enzyme was then purified by ion exchange chromatography after 8 purification folds. The resulting product was 25 kDa, determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and western blotting. Benzoate dioxygenase activity was found to be 6.54 U/mL and the optimal pH and temperature were 8.5 and 25°C, respectively. Maximum velocity (Vmax and Michaelis constant (Km were 7.36 U/mL and 5.58 µM, respectively. The end metabolite from the benzoate dioxygenase reaction was cyclohexane dione, which was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS.

  14. Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate preservatives in food stuffs in Iran. (United States)

    Amirpour, Mansooreh; Arman, Azim; Yolmeh, Ahmad; Akbari Azam, Maryam; Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Zhila


    A high-performance liquid chromatography method was applied for the determination of the levels of benzoate and sorbate in 400 food samples, including pickled cucumbers, canned tomato pastes, sour cherry jams, soft drinks, fruit juices and dairy products (UF-Feta cheeses, Lighvan cheeses, lactic cheeses, yogurts and doogh). The results showed that 270 (67.5%) of all samples contained benzoate ranging from 11.9 to 288.5 mg kg(-1) in lactic cheese and fruit juice, respectively. The levels of sorbate in 98 (24.5%) of the samples were 20.1 to 284.3 mg kg(-1) in doogh and fruit juice, respectively. Moreover, benzoate was detected in all dairy products ranging from 11.9 mg kg(-1) in lactic cheese to 91.2 mg kg(-1) in UF-Feta cheese. A low concentration of benzoate could originate naturally, due to specific biochemical mechanisms during cheese, yogurt and doogh maturation. In conclusion, a minimum level for benzoate in dairy products should be defined in the legislation.

  15. Development and validation of UV spectrophotometric method to study stress degradation behaviour of rizatriptan benzoate. (United States)

    Amolkumar, Kempwade; Ashok, Taranalli; Kiran, Jadhav


    Rizatriptan benzoate is a 5 HT 1B/1D receptor agonist which is prescribed for the treatment of migraine. In the present study new, simple, specific ultraviolet spectrophotometric method for rizatriptan benzoate was developed and validated. Forced degradation studies were carried out in acidic, alkaline and neutral pH conditions. The absorbance maxima peak was found to be 224 nm and linearity was observed in the concentration range of 0. 5-2. 5 µg . mL-1 with regression coefficient value of 0. 998 8. The method was validated and found to be precise. The percent recovery for rizatriptan benzoate was found to be 98. 576±0. 202. The bulk drug was found to be stable in neutral and acidic pH conditions but got degraded in 1 N NaOH solution.

  16. Development and Validation of UV Spectrophotometric Method to Study Stress Degradation Behaviour of Rizatriptan Benzoate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kempwade Amolkumar; Taranalli Ashok; Jadhav Kiran


    Rizatriptan benzoate is a 5 HT 1B/1D receptor agonist which is prescribed for the treatment of mi-graine .In the present study new ,simple ,specific ultraviolet spectrophotometric method for rizatriptan benzo-ate was developed and validated .Forced degradation studies were carried out in acidic ,alkaline and neutral pH conditions .The absorbance maxima peak was found to be 224 nm and linearity was observed in the concentra-tion range of 0.5~2.5 μg・mL -1 with regression coefficient value of 0.998 8 .The method was validated and found to be precise .The percent recovery for rizatriptan benzoate was found to be 98.576 ± 0.202 .The bulk drug was found to be stable in neutral and acidic pH conditions but got degraded in 1 N NaOH solution .

  17. Conductive iron oxide minerals accelerate syntrophic cooperation in methanogenic benzoate degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Li; Tang, Jia; Wang, Yueqiang; Hu, Min; Zhou, Shungui, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Paddy soil contaminated with benzoate incubated with hematite and magnetite. • Iron oxides addition enhanced methanogenic benzoate degradation by 25–53%. • The facilitated syntrophy might involve direct interspecies electron transfer. • Bacillaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Methanobacterium are potentially involved. - Abstract: Recent studies have suggested that conductive iron oxide minerals can facilitate syntrophic metabolism of the methanogenic degradation of organic matter, such as ethanol, propionate and butyrate, in natural and engineered microbial ecosystems. This enhanced syntrophy involves direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) powered by microorganisms exchanging metabolic electrons through electrically conductive minerals. Here, we evaluated the possibility that conductive iron oxides (hematite and magnetite) can stimulate the methanogenic degradation of benzoate, which is a common intermediate in the anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds. The results showed that 89–94% of the electrons released from benzoate oxidation were recovered in CH{sub 4} production, and acetate was identified as the only carbon-bearing intermediate during benzoate degradation. Compared with the iron-free controls, the rates of methanogenic benzoate degradation were enhanced by 25% and 53% in the presence of hematite and magnetite, respectively. This stimulatory effect probably resulted from DIET-mediated methanogenesis in which electrons transfer between syntrophic partners via conductive iron minerals. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Bacillaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Methanobacterium are potentially involved in the functioning of syntrophic DIET. Considering the ubiquitous presence of iron minerals within soils and sediments, the findings of this study will increase the current understanding of the natural biological attenuation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic environments.

  18. Development and Validation of HPTLC Method for the Estimation of Rizatriptan Benzoate in Bulk and Tablets. (United States)

    Sundar, B Syama; Suneetha, A


    A new, simple high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been proposed for the determination of rizatriptan benzoate in a tablet dosage form. The drug was separated on aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60 F(254) with dichloromethane-acetone-acetic acid 3:2:0.2(v/v/v) as mobilephase. Quantitative analysis was performed by densitometric scanning at 230 nm. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The calibration plot was linear over the range 200-700 ng/band for rizatriptan benzoate. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of drug in bulk and marketed tablets.

  19. Toxic effects of pollutants on the Mineralization of 4-chlorophenol and Benzoate in methanogenic river sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beelen P; van Vlaardingen PLA


    The toxic effects of pollutants on the mineralization of 2 mug/l [U-14C] 4-chlorophenol and benzoate were studied in microcosms with methanogenic sediment from the Rhine river. In contrast with studies using a high substrate concentration no lag time was observed and the half-lives for 4-chlorophen

  20. Identification of a Transcriptional Repressor Involved in Benzoate Metabolism in Geobacter bemidjiensis ▿



    Subsurface environments contaminated with aromatic compounds can be remediated in situ by Geobacter species. A transcription factor that represses expression of bamA, a benzoate-inducible gene, in Geobacter bemidjiensis during growth with acetate was identified. It is likely that this repressor also regulates other genes involved in aromatic compound metabolism.

  1. An Overview on the Effects of Sodium Benzoate as a Preservative in Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Context Food spoilage has been a common problem throughout history, and much of the spoilage is caused the activity of microorganisms or enzymatic reactions during the storage of food. Thus, using chemical substances could prevent or delay food spoilage and this has led to the great success of these compounds in the treatment of human diseases. Sodium benzoate is one of the synthetic additives that are widely used in the food industry. Evidence Acquisition In this review we summarized the history and role of benzoate sodium in the food industry, its limited value in different food, other uses, pharmacokinetics, and its toxicity in animal studies. A literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, Scopus, Science Direct, and Scientific Information Databases (SID. Results Sodium benzoate is used in different industries as well as the food industry and it has adverse effects similar to other food additives. Conclusions Studies on natural ingredients in foods to find compounds with similar effects as benzoate with less adverse effects is necessary.

  2. Regulation of expression of the Aspergillus niger benzoate para-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, J.M. van den; Punt, P.J.; Gorcom, R.F.M. van; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den


    Cytochrome P450 enzyme systems are found throughout nature and are involved in many different, often complex, bioconversions. In the endoplasmic reticulum of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger a cytochrome P450 enzyme system is present that is capable of the para-hydroxylation of benzoate. The

  3. Effects of sodium benzoate on storage stability of previously improved beverage from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.). (United States)

    Adeola, Abiodun A; Aworh, Ogugua C


    The effect of sodium benzoate on the quality attributes of improved tamarind beverage during storage was investigated. Tamarind beverages were produced according to a previously reported improved method, with or without chemical preservatives (100 mg/100 mL sodium benzoate). Tamarind beverage produced according to traditional processing method served as the control. The tamarind beverages were stored for 4 months at room (29 ± 2°C) and refrigerated (4-10°C) temperatures. Samples were analyzed, at regular intervals, for chemical, sensory, and microbiological qualities. Appearance of coliforms or overall acceptability score of 5.9 was used as deterioration index. The control beverages deteriorated by 2nd and 10th days at room and refrigerated temperatures, respectively. Improved tamarind beverage produced without the inclusion of sodium benzoate was stable for 3 and 5 weeks at room and refrigerated temperatures, respectively. Sodium benzoate extended the shelf life of the improved tamarind beverage to 6 and 13 weeks, respectively, at room and refrigerated temperatures.

  4. Ultrasound mediated alkaline hydrolysis of methyl benzoate – reinvestigation with crucial parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivakumara, Manickam; Senthilkumar, Paramasivam; Majumdara, Sukti; Pandit, Aniruddha B.


    In the present work hydrolysis of methyl benzoate was carried out using aqueous sodium hydroxide solution at room temperature in the presence of ultrasound since otherwise the same reaction takes place at relatively high temperature. Also, the above hydrolysis reaction was investigated at a relative

  5. Photodegradation of emamectin benzoate and its influence on efficacy against the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis (United States)

    Emamectin benzoate is a novel insecticide with characteristics of translaminar movement into plant leaf tissue. The compound was derived from the avermectin family and improved with thermal stability, greater water solubility, and a broader spectrum of insecticidal activity than avermectin. To deter...

  6. Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate in Processed Meat Products Collected in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen T.H. Hoang


    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbates are the two typical preservatives widely used in Vietnam and other countries. The maximum level (ML of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in processed meat products imposed by Ministry of Public Health is 1000 ppm. Although there are warnings about overusing of these preservatives that related to human health, many manufacturers do not follow the regulations. The aim of this study was to survey and consider the amounts and presence of these preservatives in processed meat products by using High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method. 90 samples of brands and no brands including Vietnamese pork rolls, pâtés, hams, sausages, and fermented pork rolls that available at markets in Ho Chi Minh City were analysed for these two preservatives. There was a preference for using sodium benzoate in all samples. Moreover, Vietnamese pork roll samples had the highest percentage of samples with preservatives concentrations exceeding the ML. Among 90 samples, sodium benzoate was detected in 52.2% of samples and 17.8% of them exceeded the ML, while potassium sorbate was found in 24.4% of samples and only 2.2% of them exceeded the regulated amount. 46.4% of Vietnamese pork rolls, 12.5% of pâtés, and 9.1% of fermented pork rolls had sodium benzoate exceeded the ML, whilst ham and sausage samples contained the concentrations inside the safety limits. Furthermore, only one sample of Vietnamese pork rolls and one sample of sausages had potassium sorbate concentrations surpassing the ML with the level of 1,717.57 mg/kg and 1,814.00 mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, branded samples showed a significantly different result in compared with no branded samples. Of branded samples, exceeding sodium benzoate level ML was detected in 10% of samples and none of the samples found surpassing potassium sorbate limit amount. Nevertheless, 27.5% and 5% of unbranded samples had sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate higher than

  7. Effect of sodium benzoate preservative on micronucleus induction, chromosome break, and Ala40Thr superoxide dismutase gene mutation in lymphocytes. (United States)

    Pongsavee, Malinee


    Sodium benzoate is food preservative that inhibits microbial growth. The effects of sodium benzoate preservative on micronucleus induction, chromosome break, and Ala40Thr superoxide dismutase gene mutation in lymphocytes were studied. Sodium benzoate concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/mL were treated in lymphocyte cell line for 24 and 48 hrs, respectively. Micronucleus test, standard chromosome culture technique, PCR, and automated sequencing technique were done to detect micronucleus, chromosome break, and gene mutation. The results showed that, at 24- and 48-hour. incubation time, sodium benzoate concentrations of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/mL increased micronucleus formation when comparing with the control group (P sodium benzoate concentrations of 2.0 mg/mL increased chromosome break when comparing with the control group (P Sodium benzoate did not cause Ala40Thr (GCG→ACG) in superoxide dismutase gene. Sodium benzoate had the mutagenic and cytotoxic toxicity in lymphocytes caused by micronucleus formation and chromosome break.

  8. Effect of Sodium Benzoate Preservative on Micronucleus Induction, Chromosome Break, and Ala40Thr Superoxide Dismutase Gene Mutation in Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinee Pongsavee


    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate is food preservative that inhibits microbial growth. The effects of sodium benzoate preservative on micronucleus induction, chromosome break, and Ala40Thr superoxide dismutase gene mutation in lymphocytes were studied. Sodium benzoate concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/mL were treated in lymphocyte cell line for 24 and 48 hrs, respectively. Micronucleus test, standard chromosome culture technique, PCR, and automated sequencing technique were done to detect micronucleus, chromosome break, and gene mutation. The results showed that, at 24- and 48-hour. incubation time, sodium benzoate concentrations of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/mL increased micronucleus formation when comparing with the control group (P<0.05. At 24- and 48-hour. incubation time, sodium benzoate concentrations of 2.0 mg/mL increased chromosome break when comparing with the control group (P<0.05. Sodium benzoate did not cause Ala40Thr (GCG→ACG in superoxide dismutase gene. Sodium benzoate had the mutagenic and cytotoxic toxicity in lymphocytes caused by micronucleus formation and chromosome break.

  9. Investigation of comparative efficacy of eugenol and benzyl benzoate in therapy of sheep mange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jezdimirović Milanka


    Full Text Available The acaricide efficacy, tolerance and safety of eugenol (10 and 20 % in the treatment of sarcoptic mange in sheep have been investigated. The results were compared with those corresponding for benzyl benzoate (25 %, which was applied to sheep in the same way. The treatment was applied on sheep three times in one-week intervals. Skin scrapings were sampled seven days after each treatment, as well as twenty-eight days following the third one. The changes on the skin were quantified and the mean recovery response (MRR was calculated. The clinical efficacy was assessed according to the MRR and the number of mites in the samples. Following the first treatment 10%eugenol was not significantly less efficacious in comparison with the higher concentration. Having been applied twice 20% eugenol was significantly more efficacious when compared to the lower concentration, which remained the same seven and twenty-eight days after the third application. The efficacy of 10% eugenol in the therapy of mange was significantly higher in comparison with benzyl benzoate following one, two or three administrations. The efficacy of benzyl benzoate four weeks after the third treatment was still significantly lower in comparison with 10% eugenol. The efficacy of 20% eugenol was significantly higher in comparison with its lower concentration as well as that of benzyl benzoate, following the second, and seven and twenty-eight days after the third one. No signs of local or systemic intolerance were observed in sheep treated with either 10 or 20% eugenol, or 25 % benzyl benzoate. .


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张克立; 袁继兵; 袁良杰; 孙聚堂


    Barium benzoate was synthesized in semi-solid phase reaction. The complex was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, X-ray powder diffraction. It is layered structure, monoclinic system. The mechanism of thermal decomposition for barium benzoate was studied by using TG, DTA, IR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. The thermal decompositon of barium benzoate in nitrogen proceeded in one stage: it decomposed to form BaCO3 and organic compounds. The organic compounds obtained from decomposition reaction are mainly benzophenone, triphenylmethane and so on.

  11. Investigation of low levels of plasma valproic acid concentration following simultaneous administration of sodium valproate and rizatriptan benzoate. (United States)

    Hokama, Nobuo; Hobara, Norio; Kameya, Hiromasa; Ohshiro, Susumu; Hobara, Narumi; Sakanashi, Matao


    Drug interaction between rizatriptan benzoate, an anti-migraine agent, and sodium valproate (VPA-Na), an anticonvulsant, was studied in rats. When rizatriptan benzoate was administered orally immediately after VPA-Na oral administration, the pharmacokinetic parameters, such as plasma valproic acid (VPA) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve up to 3 h (AUC(0-3)), were significantly decreased compared with those in the control group. However, when rizatriptan benzoate was administered intraperitoneally immediately after VPA-Na orally, these parameters were not changed. In addition, when benzoic acid was administered orally immediately after VPA-Na orally, these were significantly lower compared with the control values. Therefore, it might be possible that VPA transport by monocarboxylate transporter was competitively inhibited by rizatriptan benzoate and thus absorption of VPA was decreased.

  12. Identification of anthranilate and benzoate metabolic operons of Pseudomonas fluorescens and functional characterization of their promoter regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Vincent D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an effort to identify alternate recombinant gene expression systems in Pseudomonas fluorescens, we identified genes encoding two native metabolic pathways that were inducible with inexpensive compounds: the anthranilate operon (antABC and the benzoate operon (benABCD. Results The antABC and benABCD operons were identified by homology to the Acinetobacter sp. anthranilate operon and Pseudomonas putida benzoate operon, and were confirmed to be regulated by anthranilate or benzoate, respectively. Fusions of the putative promoter regions to the E. coli lacZ gene were constructed to confirm inducible gene expression. Each operon was found to be controlled by an AraC family transcriptional activator, located immediately upstream of the first structural gene in each respective operon (antR or benR. Conclusion We have found the anthranilate and benzoate promoters to be useful for tightly controlling recombinant gene expression at both small (

  13. Development and evaluation of tamarind seed xyloglucan-based mucoadhesive buccal films of rizatriptan benzoate. (United States)

    Avachat, Amelia M; Gujar, Kishore N; Wagh, Kishor V


    Mucoadhesive buccal films were developed using tamarind seed xyloglucan (TSX) as novel mucoadhesive polysaccharide polymer for systemic delivery of rizatriptan benzoate through buccal route. Formulations were prepared based on 3(2) factorial design with concentrations of TSX and carbopol 934P (CP) as independent variables. Three dependent variables considered were tensile strength, bioadhesion force and drug release. DSC analysis revealed no interaction between drug and polymers. Ex vivo diffusion studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cell, while bioadhesive properties were evaluated using texture analyzer with porcine buccal mucosa as model tissue. Results revealed that bilayer film containing 4% (w/v) TSX and 0.5% (w/v) CP in the drug layer and 1% (w/v) ethyl cellulose in backing layer demonstrated diffusion of 93.45% through the porcine buccal mucosa. Thus, this study suggests that tamarind seed polysaccharide can act as a potential mucoadhesive polymer for buccal delivery of a highly soluble drug like rizatriptan benzoate.

  14. Comparison of ivermectin and benzyl benzoate lotion for scabies in Nigerian patients. (United States)

    Sule, Halima M; Thacher, Tom D


    Few studies have compared ivermectin directly with topical agents in developing countries. We compared the effectiveness of oral ivermectin (200 microg/kg) with topical 25% benzyl benzoate and monosulfiram soap in 210 subjects of age 5 to 65 years with scabies. Subjects with persistent lesions after 2 weeks received a second course of treatment. All lesions had resolved after 2 weeks in 77 of 98 (79%) subjects treated with ivermectin and in 60 of 102 (59%) subjects treated topically (P = 0.003). The improvement in severity score was greater in the ivermectin group than in the topical treatment group (P topical treatment group (P = 0.04). Compared with topical benzyl benzoate and monosulfiram in the treatment of scabies, ivermectin was at least as effective and led to more rapid improvement.

  15. Growth and studies of cyclohexylammonium 4-methoxy benzoate single crystal for nonlinear optical applications (United States)

    Sathya, P.; Gopalakrishnan, R.


    Cyclohexylammonium 4-Methoxy Benzoate (C4MB) was synthesised and the functional groups were confirmed by FTIR analysis. The purified C4MB (by repeated recrystallisation) was used for single crystal growth. Single crystal of cyclohexylammonium 4-methoxy benzoate was successfully grown by slow evaporation solution growth method at ambient temperature. Structural orientations were determined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer. Optical absorption and cut off wavelength were identified by UV-Visible spectroscopy. Thermal stability of the crystal was studied from thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses curves. Mechanical stability of the grown crystal was analysed by Vicker's microhardness tester. The Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) study revealed that the C4MB compound exhibits the SHG efficiency 3.3 times greater than KDP crystal.

  16. Growth and studies of cyclohexylammonium 4-methoxy benzoate single crystal for nonlinear optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathya, P.; Gopalakrishnan, R., E-mail: [Crystal Research Lab, Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai-600002 (India)


    Cyclohexylammonium 4-Methoxy Benzoate (C4MB) was synthesised and the functional groups were confirmed by FTIR analysis. The purified C4MB (by repeated recrystallisation) was used for single crystal growth. Single crystal of cyclohexylammonium 4-methoxy benzoate was successfully grown by slow evaporation solution growth method at ambient temperature. Structural orientations were determined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer. Optical absorption and cut off wavelength were identified by UV-Visible spectroscopy. Thermal stability of the crystal was studied from thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses curves. Mechanical stability of the grown crystal was analysed by Vicker’s microhardness tester. The Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) study revealed that the C4MB compound exhibits the SHG efficiency 3.3 times greater than KDP crystal.

  17. An Overview on the Effects of Sodium Benzoate as a Preservative in Food Products


    Shahmohammadi; Javadi; Nassiri-Asl


    Context Food spoilage has been a common problem throughout history, and much of the spoilage is caused the activity of microorganisms or enzymatic reactions during the storage of food. Thus, using chemical substances could prevent or delay food spoilage and this has led to the great success of these compounds in the treatment of human diseases. Sodium benzoate is one of the synthetic additives that are widely used in the food industry. Evidenc...

  18. Bacterial degradation of benzoate: cross-regulation between aerobic and anaerobic pathways



    We have studied for the first time the transcriptional regulatory circuit that controls the expression of the box genes encoding the aerobic hybrid pathway used to assimilate benzoate via coenzyme A (CoA) derivatives in bacteria. The promoters responsible for the expression of the box cluster in the β-proteobacterium Azoarcus sp., their cognate transcriptional repressor, the BoxR protein, and the inducer molecule (benzoyl-CoA) have been characterized. The BoxR protein shows a significant sequ...

  19. Simultaneous determination of a quaternary mixture of oxomemazine, sodium benzoate, guaifenesin and paracetamol by chromatographic methods


    Nehal F. Farid; Nariman A. El Ragehy; Maha A. Hegazy; Mohamed Abdelkawy; Fadia H. Metwally


    The aim of the present work was to develop simple, accurate, sensitive and selective methods for the simultaneous determination of oxomemazine (Ox), sodium benzoate (SB), guaifenesin (Gu), andparacetamol (Par). Two methods were described and validated for the simultaneous determination of the four drugs in syrup and suppositories. The first method was a reversed phase HPLC and UVdetection at 220 nm. The assay was performed using C 18 column and an isocratic elution using acetonitrile – methan...

  20. Development and validation of a specific stability indicating high performance liquid chromatographic method for rizatriptan benzoate. (United States)

    Mallikarjuna Rao, B; Sangaraju, Sivaiah; Srinivasu, M K; Madhavan, P; Lalitha Devi, M; Rajendra Kumar, P; Chandrasekhar, K B; Arpitha, Ch; Satya Balaji, T


    A gradient, reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) method was developed for the quantitative determination of rizatriptan benzoate, used to treat relieves migraine headache symptoms. The developed method can be also employed for the related substance determination in bulk samples. Forced degradation studies were performed on bulk sample of rizatriptan benzoate using acid (0.5 N hydrochloric acid), base (0.1 N sodium hydroxide), oxidation (3.0% hydrogen peroxide), water hydrolysis, heat (60 degrees C) and photolytic degradation. Mild degradation of the drug substance was observed in base hydrolysis and considerable degradation observed during oxidative stress. The chromatographic method was fine tuned using the samples generated from forced degradation studies. Good resolution between the peaks corresponds to degradation products and the analyte was achieved on Agilent Zorbax SB-CN (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column. The mobile phase consists of a mixture of aqueous potassium di hydrogen ortho phosphate (pH 3.4), acetonitrile and methanol. The stress sample solutions were assayed against the qualified reference standard of rizatriptan benzoate and the mass balance in each case was close to 99.7% indicating that the developed method is stability indicating. Validation of the developed method was carried out as per ICH requirements.

  1. Bioavailability Enhancement of Rizatriptan Benzoate by Oral Disintegrating Strip: In vitro and In vivo Evaluation. (United States)

    Bhagawati, S T; Chonkar, Ankita D; Dengale, Swapnil J; Reddy, Sreenivasa M; Bhat, Krishnamurthy


    Oral disintegrating strips containing rizatriptan benzoate, a selective 5-hydroxy tryptamine receptor agonist with anti migraine property, was developed using polyvinyl alcohol, sodium alginate and hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose as the base materials. The analytical and bioanalytical methods were developed and validated using HPLC (PDA and flouroscence detectors). The dissolution study performed on the strips revealed that all the five formulations, release the drug within eight minutes. Under ICH accelerated stability conditions, strips were stable at 40°C and 75% humidity for eight weeks. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic properties of oral strip were compared with rizatriptan benzoate marketed tablet. Oral disintegrating strip and tablet showed significantly higher bioavailability. Oral strip exhibited better pharmacokinetic parameters than rizatriptan marketed tablet. The Tmax, Cmax, AUC and t1/2 for oral strip were found to be 1.00 h, 64.13±19.46 ng/mL, 352.00±71.57 ng/mL/h and 3.09±1.03 h respectively, whereas, tablet showed 1.5 h, 38.00±13.43 ng/mL, 210.38± 40.37ng/mL/h and 1.66±0.31 h respectively. These findings confirm that the rizatriptan benzoate oral disintegrating strip is potentially a useful tool for an effective treatment of migraine with improved bioavailability, rapid onset of action and with increased patient compliance.

  2. Synthesis, structure and some properties of a manganese(II) benzoate containing diimine (United States)

    Paul, Pranajit; Roy, Subhadip; Sarkar, Sanjoy; Chowdhury, Shubhamoy; Purkayastha, R. N. Dutta; Raghavaiah, Pallepogu; McArdle, Patrick; Deb, Lokesh; Devi, Sarangthem Indira


    A new monomeric manganese(II) benzoate complex containing nitrogen donor 2,2‧-bipyridine, [Mn(OBz)2(bipy)(H2O)] (OBz = benzoate, bipy = 2,2‧-bipyridine) has been synthesized from aqueous methanol medium and characterized by analytical, spectroscopic and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The compound exhibits moderate to appreciable antimicrobial activity. The complex crystallizes in space group P21/n. Mn(II) atom is ligated by two N atoms of bipyridine, three O atoms from a monodentate and a bidentate benzoate ligand and a water molecule forming distorted octahedral structure. The coordinated water molecule forms intramolecular hydrogen bonds and links the monomer molecules into hydrogen bonded dimer. The hydrogen bonded dimers are involved in intermolecular C-H···O and π-π stacking interactions. Density functional theory (DFT) computation was carried out to compute the frequencies of relevant vibrational modes and electronic properties, the results are in compliance with the experimentally obtained structural and spectral data.

  3. Identification of bacteria utilizing biphenyl, benzoate, and naphthalene in long-term contaminated soil.

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    Ondrej Uhlik

    Full Text Available Bacteria were identified associated with biodegradation of aromatic pollutants biphenyl, benzoate, and naphthalene in a long-term polychlorinated biphenyl- and polyaromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. In order to avoid biases of culture-based approaches, stable isotope probing was applied in combination with sequence analysis of 16 S rRNA gene pyrotags amplified from (13C-enriched DNA fractions. Special attention was paid to pyrosequencing data analysis in order to eliminate the errors caused by either generation of amplicons (random errors caused by DNA polymerase, formation of chimeric sequences or sequencing itself. Therefore, sample DNA was amplified, sequenced, and analyzed along with the DNA of a mock community constructed out of 8 bacterial strains. This warranted that appropriate tools and parameters were chosen for sequence data processing. (13C-labeled metagenomes isolated after the incubation of soil samples with all three studied aromatics were largely dominated by Proteobacteria, namely sequences clustering with the genera Rhodanobacter Burkholderia, Pandoraea, Dyella as well as some Rudaea- and Skermanella-related ones. Pseudomonads were mostly labeled by (13C from naphthalene and benzoate. The results of this study show that many biphenyl/benzoate-assimilating bacteria derive carbon also from naphthalene, pointing out broader biodegradation abilities of some soil microbiota. The results also demonstrate that, in addition to traditionally isolated genera of degradative bacteria, yet-to-be cultured bacteria are important players in bioremediation. Overall, the study contributes to our understanding of biodegradation processes in contaminated soil. At the same time our results show the importance of sequencing and analyzing a mock community in order to more correctly process and analyze sequence data.

  4. Ultrasonic Investigations of Molecular Interaction in Binary Mixtures of Benzyl Benzoate with Acetonitrile and Benzonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jaya Madhuri


    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity have been measured in the binary mixtures of benzyl benzoate with acetonitrile, benzonitrile at three temperatures 30, 40 and 50 °C. From the experimental data, thermodynamic parameters like adiabatic compressibility, internal pressure, enthalpy, activation energy etc., were computed and the molecular interactions were predicted based on the variation of excess parameters in the mixture. Also theoretical evaluation of velocities was made employing the standard theories. CFT and NOMOTO were found to have an edge. All the three mixtures have shown out strong intermolecular interactions between the unlike molecules and endothermic type of chemical reaction.

  5. Two new terpenoid benzoates with antitumor activity from the roots of Ferula dissecta. (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Han, Hong-Ying; Li, Guo-Yu; Wang, Hang-Yu; Zhang, Cui; Zhang, Ke; Tan, Yong; Li, Ping-Ya; Wang, Jin-Hui


    Two new sesquiterpene benzoates, syreiteate A (1) and syreiteate B (2), were isolated from the roots of Ferula dissecta (Ledeb.) Ledeb. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D ((1)H and (13)C) NMR, 2D (HSQC, HMBC, DQF-COSY, and NOESY) NMR, and ESI-TOF-MS. Their configurations were determined on the basis of the analysis of the coupling constants, NOESY correlations, and circular dichroism spectrum. Compounds 1 and 2 showed potent growth inhibitory activity against cervical cancer HeLa cell line with the IC50 values of 13.2 and 19.3 μM, respectively.

  6. Application of N-succinimidyl 4-[18F](fluoromethyl) benzoate to protein labeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    N-succinimidyl 4-[18F](fluoromethyl) benzoate for protein labeling was prepared (57%, EOB) in about 30min. Reaction conditions of S18FMB with IgG including pH of solutions, protein concentration, reaction temperature and time were studied. The optimal labeling conditions were: 0.2mg/mL IgG, pH = 7.8-8.5, 25℃, and reaction time 5min.Under these conditions the yield was about 80%. The 18F-labeled protein was purified by size exclusion chromatography.

  7. Unexpected red shift of C-H vibrational band of Methyl benzoate

    CERN Document Server

    Maiti, Kiran Sankar; Scheurer, Christoph


    The C-H vibrational bands become more and more important in the structural determination of biological molecules with the development of CARS microscopy and 2DIR spectroscopy. Due to the congested pattern, near degeneracy, and strong anharmonicity of the C-H stretch vibrations, assignment of the C-H vibrational bands are often misleading. Anharmonic vibrational spectra calculation with multidimensional potential energy surface interprets the C-H vibrational spectra more accurately. In this article we have presented the importance of multidimensional potential energy surface in anharmonic vibrational spectra calculation and discuss the unexpected red shift of C-H vibrational band of Methyl benzoate.

  8. The Electrical Properties for Phenolic Isocyanate-Modified Bisphenol-Based Epoxy Resins Comprising Benzoate Group. (United States)

    Lee, Eun Yong; Chae, Il Seok; Park, Dongkyung; Suh, Hongsuk; Kang, Sang Wook


    Epoxy resin has been required to have a low dielectric constant (D(k)), low dissipation factor (Df), low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), low water absorption, high mechanical, and high adhesion properties for various applications. A series of novel phenolic isocyanate-modified bisphenol-based epoxy resins comprising benzoate group were prepared for practical electronic packaging applications. The developed epoxy resins showed highly reduced dielectric constants (D(k)-3.00 at 1 GHz) and low dissipation values (Df-0.014 at 1 GHz) as well as enhanced thermal properties.

  9. Airborne contact urticaria due to sodium benzoate in a pharmaceutical manufacturing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nethercott, J.R.; Lawrence, M.J.; Roy, A.M.; Gibson, B.L.


    Three workers exposed to airborne contact with sodium benzoate (SB) in a pharmaceutical plant developed transient urticaria related to skin contamination with SB. Patch test responses to SB and benzoic acid (BA), without occlusion, were similar to those of three previously unexposed controls in keeping with the nonimmunologic nature of the reaction. Sweating, which lowers skin pH and increases topical BA concentration, appeared to increase the susceptibility to urticaria in two of the three workers. Ventilation and hygiene control methods designed to reduce SB skin contamination eliminated the problem in the workplace. 10 references, 1 table.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Wang; Zuo-qing Shi; Rong-fu Shi; Yun-ge Fan; Yi-zhong Yang


    This paper presents experimental observations on the adsorption of individual solutes by a simple thermodynamic framework, and the equilibrium adsorption of ethyl benzoate and diethyl phthalate on phenolic resin adsorbent in hexane solutions within the temperature range of 293-313 K. The experimental results show that the Freundlich adsorption law is applicable to the adsorption of ethyl benzoate and diethyl phthalate on the adsorbent, since all the correlative factors R' are larger than 0.99. The negative values of all the isosteric adsorption enthalpies for ethyl benzoate and diethyl phthalate indicate that they undergo exothermic processes, while their magnitudes (19-28 kJ/mol) manifest a hydrogen bonding sorption process. Other thermodynamic properties: the free energy changes and the entropy change associated with the adsorption have been calculated from the Gibbs adsorption equation and the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation.

  11. PH-stat fed-batch process to enhance the production of cis, cis-muconate from benzoate by Pseudomonas putida KT2440-JD1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duuren, J.B.J.H. van; Wijte, D.; Karge, B.; Martins dos Santos, V.A.; Yang, Y.; Mars, A.E.; Eggink, G.


    Pseudomonas putida KT2440-JD1 is able to cometabolize benzoate to cis, cis-muconate in the presence of glucose as growth substrate. P. putida KT2440-JD1 was unable to grow in the presence of concentrations above 50 mM benzoate or 600 mM cis, cis-muconate. The inhibitory effects of both compounds wer

  12. Generation of a catR deficient mutant of P. putida KT2440 that produces cis, cis-muconate from benzoate at high rate and yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duuren, J.B.J.H. van; Wijte, D.; Leprince, A.; Karge, B.; Puchalka, J.; Wery, J.; Dos Santos, V.A.P.M.; Eggink, G.; Mars, A.E.


    Pseudomonas putida KT2440-JD1 was derived from P. putida KT2440 after N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG)-mutagenesis and exposure to 3-fluorobenzoate (3-FB). The mutant was no longer able to grow using benzoate as a sole carbon source, but co-metabolized benzoate to cis, cis-muconate during

  13. Thermodynamic and Acoustic Study on Molecular Interactions in Certain Binary Liquid Systems Involving Ethyl Benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nagarjun


    Full Text Available Speeds of sound and density for binary mixtures of ethyl benzoate (EB with N,N-dimethylformamide (NNDMF, N,N-dimethyl acetamide (NNDMAc, and N,N-dimethylaniline (NNDMA were measured as a function of mole fraction at temperatures 303.15, 308.15 K, 313.15 K, and 318.15 K and atmospheric pressure. From the experimental data, adiabatic compressibility (βad, intermolecular free length (Lf, and molar volume (V have been computed. The excess values of the above parameters were also evaluated and discussed in light of molecular interactions. Deviation in adiabatic compressibilities and excess intermolecular free length (LfE are found to be negative over the molefraction of ethyl benzoate indicating the presence of strong interactions between the molecules. The negative excess molar volume VE values are attributed to strong dipole-dipole interactions between unlike molecules in the mixtures. The binary data of Δβad, VE, and LfE were correlated as a function of molefraction by using the Redlich-Kister equation.

  14. Development and preventative effect against pine wilt disease of a novel liquid formulation of emamectin benzoate. (United States)

    Takai, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshio; Kawazu, Kazuyoshi


    Injection of the poorly water-soluble emamectin benzoate (EB) into pine trunks required the development of an efficient liquid formulation. For injection into big trees in forests a good rate of injection and a high active content were required. Tests on the viscosity and EB-solubilizing ability of 14 various solubilizers in diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DGMBE) led to the selection of Sorpol SM-100PM as the solubilizer of the formulation. Relationships between the solubilizing ability and amounts of Sorpol SM-100PM and DGMBE relative to that of EB, and between the concentration of the latter and the viscosity or the injection rate of the formulation led to a novel 40 g litre(-1) emamectin benzoate formulation (Shot Wan Liquid Formulation), which was composed of EB (40), Sorpol SM-100PM (120), DGMBE (160) and distilled water (50 g litre(-1)) in methanol. Injection of this formulation at a dose of 10 g EB per unit volume of pine tree prevented over 90% of the trees from wilting caused by pine wood nematode, and this preventative effect continued for 3 years. Neither discolouration of the leaves nor injury around the injection hole on the trees was observed after injection of the formulation.

  15. Simultaneous Determination of Potassium Sorbate and Sodium Benzoate in Doogh Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sohrabvandi


    Full Text Available In this research, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC as a simple and rapid technique was used for the determination of potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate in different brands of Doogh (typical Iranian drink based on fermented milk. The chromatographic separation was achieved with a C18 column (250 mm×4 I.D, 5 µm and one buffered mobile phase, acetate buffer (0.2 mol/L, pH4.4: acetonitrile (63:37 at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The effluent was monitored at 235nm, respectively. The main affecting factors, such as Carrez solution amount, pH and centrifuge speed were optimized. Limits of detection (LODs were 1.823 for sorbic acid and 1.985 for benzoic acid. Relative standard deviations (RSDs for quintuplicate analyses were 4.4 for sorbic acid and 4.087 for benzoic acid. The method also showed good linearity in a range from 4 to 1000 mg/L with correlation coefficients (R2 of 0.990 for sorbic acid and 0.995 for benzoic acid. Recoveries for the two analytes were 80 for sorbic acid and 65 for benzoic acid. Comparing to the other techniques, the proposed method was significantly less time-consuming and had more acceptable accuracy, precision and interruption elimination in samples. The developed method was successfully used for the routine monitoring of benzoate and sorbate in Doogh.

  16. Secondary. cap alpha. -deuterium kinetic isotope effects in solvolyses of ferrocenylmethyl acetate and benzoate in ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutic, D. (Univ. of Zagreb, Yugoslavia); Asperger, S.; Borcic, S.


    Secondary ..cap alpha..-deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIE) in solvolyses of ferrocenyldideuteriomethyl acetate and benzoate were determined in 96% (v/v) ethanol, at 25/sup 0/C, as k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.24 and 1.26, respectively. The KIEs were also determined in the presence of 0.1 mol dm/sup -3/ lithium perchlorate: the k/sub H//k/ sub D/ values were 1.23 and 1.22 for acetate and benzoate complexes, respectively. The maximum KIE for the C-O bond cleavage of a primary substrate is as large as, or larger than, that of secondary derivatives, which is estimated to be 1.23 per deuterium. The measured KIE of about 12% per D therefore represents a strongly reduced effect relative to its maximum. The solvolyses exhibit ''a special salt effect''. This effect indicates the presence of solvent-separated ion pairs and the return to tight pairs. As the maximum KIE is expected in solvolyses involving transformation of one type of ion pair into another, the strongly reduced ..cap alpha..-D KIE supports the structure involving direct participation of electrons that in the ground state are localized at the iron atom. The alkyl-oxygen cleavage is accompanied by 10-15% acyl-oxygen cleavage.

  17. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving sublingual films of Rizatriptan Benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhyan Bhupinder


    Full Text Available Rizatriptan Benzoate, a serotonin 5-HT1 receptor agonist is a new generation antimigraine drug which has oral bioavailability of 47% due to hepatic first pass metabolism. The present study investigated the possibility of developing Rizatriptan benzoate fast dissolving sublingual films allowing fast, reproducible drug dissolution in the oral cavity, thus bypassing first pass metabolism to provide rapid onset of action of the drug. The fast dissolving films were prepared by solvent casting method. Low viscosity grade of hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC E 15 and maltodextrin were used in combination as film forming polymer, due to their hydrophilic nature and palatable taste. To decrease the disintegration time of formulations sodium starch glycolate was used as disintegrating agent. Glycerol, mannitol, aspartame and sodium lauryl sulphate were used as a cooling agent, sweetening agent and oral penetration enhancer respectively. All the films formulations (F1-F8 was evaluated for their thickness, weight variations, tensile strength, percentage elongation, folding endurance, surface pH, in-vitro disintegration, drug content, in-vitro drug release and ex-vivo permeation. Disintegration time showed by the formulations was found to be in range of 25-50 sec. Formulations F1 and F2 showed 90% in-vitro drug release within 7 min and 61% ex-vivo drug permeation within16 min. The film showed an excellent stability at least for 4 weeks when stored at 400 C and 75% in humidity.

  18. Ivermectin alone or in combination with benzyl benzoate in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-associated scabies. (United States)

    Alberici, F; Pagani, L; Ratti, G; Viale, P


    In order to establish a safe and reliable treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated scabies, we have treated 60 episodes of scabies in this setting, occurring in 39 patients, with one of the following regimens: (i) topical treatment with benzyl benzoate solution; (ii) single-dose oral treatment with ivermectin alone; and (iii) combination therapy with benzyl benzoate solution and oral ivermectin, employing the same regimens as single-agent therapy. Patients were stratified according to the severity score of the disease and the outcome (eradication, relapse, failure). We found that both benzyl benzoate and ivermectin alone were quite effective in mild to moderate scabies, but they were both associated with an unacceptable rate of relapse and failure in severe or crusted scabies. In contrast, combined treatment produced an optimal rate of success, without significant treatment-related side-effects. Therefore, we consider that combination treatment with benzyl benzoate solution and oral ivermectin is preferable to single-agent therapy in crusted scabies occurring in HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients.

  19. Optimization of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as host for the production of cis, cis-muconate from benzoate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duuren, van J.B.J.H.


    Optimization of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as host for the production of cis, cis-muconate from benzoate P. putida KT2440 was used as biocatalyst given its versatile and energetically robust metabolism. Therefore, a mutant was generated and a process developed based on which a life cycle assessment

  20. Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin suppress Th1-type immune response in vitro. (United States)

    Maier, Elisabeth; Kurz, Katharina; Jenny, Marcel; Schennach, Harald; Ueberall, Florian; Fuchs, Dietmar


    Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin are demonstrated to suppress in a dose-dependent manner Th1-type immune response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro. Results show an anti-inflammatory property of compounds which however could shift the Th1-Th2-type immune balance towards Th2-type immunity.

  1. Effect of emamectin benzoate on mortality, proboscis extension, gustation and reproduction of the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea. (United States)

    López, Juan D; Latheef, M A; Hoffmann, W C


    Newly emerged corn earworm adults, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) require a carbohydrate source from plant or other exudates and nectars for dispersal and reproduction. Adults actively seek and forage at feeding sites upon eclosion in the habitat of the larval host plant or during dispersal to, or colonization of, a suitable reproductive habitat. This nocturnal behavior of H. zea has potential for exploitation as a pest management strategy for suppression using an adult feeding approach. This approach entails the use of a feeding attractant and stimulant in combination with a toxicant that when ingested by the adult will either reduce fecundity/fertility at sub-lethal dosages or kill the adult. The intent of this study was to assess reproductive inhibition and toxicity of emamectin benzoate on H. zea when ingested by the adults when mixed in ppm active ingredient (wt:vol) with 2.5 M sucrose as a feeding stimulant. Because the mixture has to be ingested to function, the effect of emamectin benzoate was also evaluated at sub-lethal and lethal concentrations on proboscis extension and gustatory response of H. zea in the laboratory. Feral males captured in sex pheromone-baited traps in the field were used for toxicity evaluations because they were readily available and were more representative of the field populations than laboratory-reared adults. Laboratory-reared female moths were used for reproduction effects because it is very difficult to collect newly emerged feral females from the field. Emamectin benzoate was highly toxic to feral H. zea males with LC(50) values (95% CL) being 0.718 (0.532-0.878), 0.525 (0.316-0.751), and 0.182 (0.06-0.294) ppm for 24, 48 and 72 h responses, respectively. Sub-lethal concentrations of emamectin benzoate did not significantly reduce proboscis extension response of feral males and gustatory response of female H. zea. Sublethal concentrations of emamectin benzoate significantly reduced percent larval hatch of

  2. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of sodium benzoate as a silage additive for pigs, poultry, bovines, ovines, goats, rabbits and horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed


    Full Text Available

    Sodium benzoate is intended for use as a technological additive to improve the ensiling process at a proposed dose of 2 400 mg/kg fresh matter, the eventual use of the silage being for pigs, poultry, bovines, ovines, goats, rabbits and horses. The application of sodium benzoate in the preparation of silage at the proposed dose was safe for the target animals. The proposed maximum dose of sodium benzoate is estimated to result in a comparable consumer exposure as does its use as preservative in other feedingstuffs and to make a minimal contribution to consumer exposure. The FEEDAP Panel concluded that sodium benzoate when used as a silage additive is safe for the consumer. Sodium benzoate is not considered as a skin irritant but may be mildly irritant to the eyes. As no data on sensitisation appear to be available, the FEEDAP Panel considered it prudent to treat sodium benzoate as a potential sensitiser. In the absence of information on particle size and dusting potential, a risk from inhalation cannot be excluded. The FEEDAP Panel concluded that there are no safety concerns for the environment resulting from the use of sodium benzoate as a silage additive. Based on a series of laboratory studies, sodium benzoate at the recommended dose was shown to have the potential to improve the production of silage by reducing pH and increasing the preservation of dry matter. This was demonstrated in a range of easy, moderately difficult and difficult to ensile forage materials. Sodium benzoate at concentrations between 250 and 2 500 mg/kg forage also has the potential to increase the aerobic stability of ensiled materials at a wide range of dry matter content.

  3. Exploiting members of the BAHD acyltransferase family to synthesize multiple hydroxycinnamate and benzoate conjugates in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eudes, Aymerick; Mouille, Maxence; Robinson, David S.


    hydroxycinnamate esters; tropane alkaloids; and benzoate/caffeate alcohol esters. In some instances, the additional expression of Flavobacterium johnsoniae tyrosine ammonia-lyase (FjTAL) allowed the synthesis of p-coumarate conjugates and eliminated the need to supplement the culture media with 4-hydroxycinnamate......Background: BAHD acyltransferases, named after the first four biochemically characterized enzymes of the group, are plant-specific enzymes that catalyze the transfer of coenzyme A-activated donors onto various acceptor molecules. They are responsible for the synthesis in plants of a myriad...... syntheses that consume petroleum-based precursors. However, identification of appropriate enzymes and validation of their functional expression in heterologous hosts is a prerequisite for the design and implementation of metabolic pathways in microbes for the synthesis of such target chemicals...

  4. Electro-optic and dynamic studies of biphenyl benzoate ferroelectric liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemine, J., E-mail: hemine1@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite Hassan II, Mohammedia-Casablanca, BP 146, F.S.T. Mohammedia (Morocco); Daoudi, A. [Universite Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ULCO, LDSMM, F-59140 Dunkerque (France); CNRS UMR8024, F-59140 Dunkerque (France); Legrand, C. [Universite Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ULCO, LEMCEL, F-62228 Calais (France); El kaaouachi, A.; Nafidi, A. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences Ibnou Zohr, BP 28/S 80000 Agadir (Morocco); Ismaili, M.; Isaert, N. [Universite Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); USTL, LDSMM, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); CNRS UMR8024, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Nguyen, H.T. [Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, Universite de Bordeaux 1, 33600 Pessac (France)


    We present electro-optic and dynamic properties on three homologous of biphenyl benzoate series of ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) exhibiting the chiral smectic C phase (SmC*). The three compounds present high spontaneous polarization and show the SmC*-SmA*-N* phase sequence. Dielectric spectroscopy was used to provide the dynamics and dipolar ordering of the ferroelectric phase. The Goldstone relaxation mode was studied for sample cells on planar geometry without a DC bias voltage. The rotational viscosity corresponding to molecular motions in the SmC* phase was determined from dielectric measurements. The Arrhenius-type behavior of the rotational viscosity was found and the corresponding activation energies were evaluated.

  5. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of sodium benzoate, a food preservative, with calf thymus DNA. (United States)

    Zhang, Guowen; Ma, Yadi


    The interaction between sodium benzoate (SB) and calf thymus DNA in simulated physiological buffer (pH 7.4) using acridine orange (AO) dye as a fluorescence probe, was investigated by UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy along with DNA melting studies and viscosity measurements. An expanded UV-Vis spectral data matrix was resolved by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) approach. The equilibrium concentration profiles and the pure spectra for SB, DNA and DNA-SB complex from the high overlapping composite response were simultaneously obtained. The results indicated that SB could bind to DNA, and hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds played a vital role in the binding process. Moreover, SB was able to quench the fluorescence of DNA-AO complex through a static procedure. The quenching observed was indicative of an intercalative mode of interaction between SB and DNA, which was supported by melting studies, viscosity measurements and CD analysis.

  6. σ- versus π-Activation of Alkynyl Benzoates Using B(C6F53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bähr


    Full Text Available We have prepared a range of alkynyl benzoates in high yields and have investigated their reactivities with the strong Lewis acid B(C6F53. In such molecules both σ-activation of the carbonyl and π-activation of the alkyne are possible. In contrast to the reactivity of propargyl esters with B(C6F53 which proceed via 1,2-addition of the ester and B(C6F53 across the alkyne, the inclusion of an additional CH2 spacer switches off the intramolecular cyclization and selective σ-activation of the carbonyl group is observed through adduct formation. This change in reactivity appears due to the instability of the species which would be formed through B(C6F53 activation of the alkyne.

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Sodium Benzoate Potassium Sor­bate and Natamycin Content in Iranian Yoghurt Drink (Doogh and the Associated Risk of Their Intake through Doogh Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Esfandiari


    Full Text Available Background: Regarding the public health concerns over the use of food preservatives in yoghurt drink “Doogh", the aim of this study was the determination of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamycin in Doogh. Based on Iranian national standard, none of these preservatives are permitted to be used in Doogh.Methods: A total of 39 Doogh samples were analyzed through RP- HPLC in order to quantify sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamaycin simultaneously. Exposure to each preservative is estimated by mean and maximum concentrations as the residue levels. The per capita Doogh consumption was calculated by the published data from official reports for Doogh annual production in Iran.Results: All samples were shown to contain sodium benzoate while natamaycin was detected in 10.25% of the samples and potassium sorbate was not detected in any of them. Sodium benzoate concentration extremely varied among the investigated samples ranged from 0.94 to 9.77 mg/l. Due to the result of the exposure estimation, no serious public health concern would exist regarding the mentioned preservatives.Conclusions: The detection of sodium benzoate in all Doogh samples could indicate the natural production of benzoic acid in yoghurt. Sodium benzoate may be formed through the interaction of the added food grade salt to the Doogh formula which contains benzoic acid. The results of exposure estimation show the lack of health risk within the usage of preservatives in spite of the national regulatory agencies does not permit the preservative use.

  8. Changes induced by UV radiation in the presence of sodium benzoate in films formulated with polyvinyl alcohol and carboxymethyl cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarruel, S. [Faculty of Exact Sciences, UNLP (Argentina); Giannuzzi, L.; Rivero, S. [Center for Research and Development in Food Cryotechnology (CCT-CONICET La Plata), 47 and 116 (Argentina); Pinotti, A., E-mail: [Center for Research and Development in Food Cryotechnology (CCT-CONICET La Plata), 47 and 116 (Argentina); Faculty of Engineering, UNLP, La Plata 1900 (Argentina)


    This work was focused on: i) developing single and blend films based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) studying their properties, ii) analyzing the interactions between CMC and PVOH and their modifications UV-induced in the presence of sodium benzoate (SB), and iii) evaluating the antimicrobial capacity of blend films containing SB with and without UV treatment. Once the blend films with SB were exposed to UV radiation, they exhibited lower moisture content as well as a greater elongation at break and rougher surfaces compared to those without treatment. Considering oxygen barrier properties, the low values obtained would allow their application as packaging with selective oxygen permeability. Moreover, the characteristics of the amorphous phase of the matrix prevailed with a rearrangement of the structure of the polymer chain, causing a decrease of the crystallinity degree. These results were supported by X-rays and DSC analysis. FT-IR spectra reflected some degree of polymer–polymer interaction at a molecular level in the amorphous regions. The incorporation of sodium benzoate combined with UV treatment in blend films was positive from the microbial point of view because of the growth inhibition of a wide spectrum of microorganisms. From a physicochemical perspective, the UV treatment of films also changed their morphology rendering them more insoluble in water, turning the functionalized blend films into a potential material to be applied as food packaging. - Highlights: • CMC:PVOH blend films were developed with the addition of sodium benzoate (SB). • Exposition to UV radiation was carried out with sodium benzoate as photoinitiator. • Blend films were exposed to UV radiation to modify their surface morphology. • Low O{sub 2} permeability of UV treated blends allow them to be used as selective packaging. • Efficacy of SB as an antimicrobial agent was examined with and without UV radiation.

  9. Efficacy of vinegar, sorbitol and sodium benzoate in mitigation of Salmonella contamination in betel leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Asmaul Husna


    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to mitigate Salmonella from betel leaf in Mymensingh. A total of 35 betel leaf samples were collected from 2 baroujes and 5 local markets in Mymensingh. The samples were sub-divided into two groups: (i phosphate buffer solution (PBS washed, and (ii grinded sample. There was control and treated (with 1.5% vinegar, sorbitol, and sodium benzoate sub-groups in both groups. Mitigation of Salmonella was determined by comparing Total Viable Count (TVC and Total Salmonella Count (TSAC of control with treated groups. No bacterial growth was observed in the betel leaf samples collected directly from barouj level. At market level, when grinded, there was no growth of bacteria in Plate Count Agar (PCA and Salmonella- Shigella (SS or Xylose Lysine De-oxy-chocolate (XLD in both treated and untreated groups. But when the PBS washed samples were used, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL of betel leaf ranged from 5.16±0.82 to 5.96±1.11, whereas the TSAC value ranged from 4.87±0.58 to 5.56±1.00 for untreated group. In vinegar, there was no growth, but when treated with sorbitol, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 5.00±0.54 to 5.66±1.09, and TSAC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 4.28±0.71 to 4.78±0.64. When treated with sodium benzoate, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 5.06±0.53 to 5.75±1.02, and TSAC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 4.34±0.79 to 4.92±0.64. Data of this study indicates that all the three chemicals were effective in terms of reducing bacterial load but vinegar (1.5% was found to be the most effective against Salmonella as well as some other bacteria when treated for 10 min.

  10. Dietary exposure of children and teenagers to benzoates, sulphites, butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluen (BHT) in Beirut (Lebanon). (United States)

    Soubra, L; Sarkis, D; Hilan, C; Verger, Ph


    The acceptable daily intake (ADI) for a considered chemical is by definition the amount of that substance which can be ingested every day during the life time without appreciable health risk. The theoretical risk of exceeding the ADI for benzoates, sulphites, butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluen (BHT) has often been examined on the basis of worst case scenario. The aim of this paper is to assess the actual intake of the food additives listed above for a group of the Lebanese population (students aged between 9 and 18 years old) likely to be highly exposed to food additives through the consumption of processed foods. Dietary exposure was obtained by combining food consumption data with food additives levels determined by chemical analysis. Food products available in Lebanon and containing added benzoates, sulphites, BHA and BHT were identified. Overall 420 samples of foods and beverages were analysed. The determination of food additives residue levels was carried out according to the official methods adopted in "Lebanese Institute for agronomic research" (IRAL) on food as consumed. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) could be exceeded for sulphites and BHT by a fraction of the population, in particular within children of 9-13 years old. Among all food additive-containing foods, the highest contributors were: soft drinks to benzoates intake, nuts and canned juices to sulphites intake, bread and biscuits to BHA intake and chewing gum to BHT intake.

  11. Effects of heat shocks on microbial community structure and microbial activity of a methanogenic enrichment degrading benzoate. (United States)

    Mei, R; Narihiro, T; Nobu, M K; Liu, W-T


    In anaerobic digesters, temperature fluctuation could lead to process instability and failure. It is still not well understood how digester microbiota as a whole respond to heat shock, and what specific organisms are vulnerable to perturbation or responsible for process recovery after perturbation. To address these questions, a mesophilic benzoate-degrading methanogenic culture enriched from digester was subjected to different levels of heat shock. Three types of methane production profiles after perturbation were observed in comparison to the control: uninhibited, inhibited with later recovery, and inhibited without recovery. These responses were correlated with the microbial community compositions based on the analyses of 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene. Specifically, the primary benzoate-degrading syntroph was highly affected by heat shock, and its abundance and activity were both crucial to the restoration of benzoate degradation after heat shock. In contrast, methanogens were stable regardless whether methane production was inhibited. Populations related to 'Candidatus Cloacimonetes' and Firmicutes showed stimulated growth. These observations indicated distinct physiological traits and ecological niches associated with individual microbial groups. The results obtained after exposure to heat shock can be critical to more comprehensive characterization of digester ecology under perturbations.

  12. Spectroscopic, optical, thermal, antimicrobial and density functional theory studies of 4-aminopyridinium 4-hydroxy benzoate hydrate crystal (United States)

    Karthiga Devi, P.; Venkatachalam, K.; Poonkothai, M.


    The organic crystal 4-aminopyridinium 4-hydroxy benzoate hydrate was grown using slow evaporation method. Various characterization techniques such as single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-visible-NIR spectroscopy and thermal analysis (TG-DSC) were employed to assay the structure and properties of the grown crystal. The antimicrobial evaluation of 4-aminopyridinium 4-hydroxy benzoate hydrate crystal was also performed against some bacteria and fungi. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 4-aminopyridinium 4-hydroxy benzoate hydrate were determined for bacterial and fungal strains. The assessment of optimized structure of the molecule and vibrational frequencies were done using DFT/B3LYP method with 6-31 G (d, p) basis set. The stability of the molecule, hyperconjugative interactions, delocalization of charges and intermolecular hydrogen bond were studied by applying natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. TD-DFT method employing polarizable continuum model (PCM) was used to examine the electronic absorption spectrum. Evaluation of molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), Mulliken population charges and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were also carried out. In addition, from the optimized geometry, frontier molecular orbitals analysis was executed.

  13. Identification, isolation and characterization of process-related impurities in Rizatriptan benzoate. (United States)

    Raj, T Joseph Sunder; Bharathi, Ch; Kumar, M Saravana; Prabahar, Joseph; Kumar, P Naveen; Sharma, Hemant Kumar; Parikh, Kalpesh


    Three process-related impurities were observed in routine monitoring of the samples by HPLC. These impurities were identified by LC-MS. One of the impurities, Imp-3 [rizatriptan-2,5-dimer] was reported in literature. Other two impurities were isolated by preparative HPLC and characterized by NMR, Mass and IR. Pure impurities obtained by isolation were co-injected with Rizatriptan benzoate sample to confirm the retention times in HPLC. Structure elucidation of these impurities by spectral data has been discussed in detail. These impurities were identified as 4-(5-((1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-3-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-1H-indol-1-yl)-4-(5-((1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-3-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-1H-indol-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylbutan-1-amine [rizatriptan-1,2-dimer] and [4,4-bis-(5-((1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-3-(2-(dimethylamino)-ethyl)-1H-indol-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylbutan-1-amine [rizatriptan-2,2-dimer].

  14. High secondary [alpha]-deuterium kinetic isotope effect in the acetolysis and formolysis of dideuterioferrocenylmethyl benzoate

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    Asperger, S. (Research Center of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Zagreb (Croatia)); Kukric, Z.; Sutic, D. (Sarajevo Univ. (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics); Saunders, W.H. Jr. (Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)


    Acetolysis and formolysis of dideuterioferrocenylmethyl benzoate exhibit large secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effects and an abnormal temperature dependence. In the presence of LiClO[sub 4], which prevents the reversion from solvent-separated to contact ion-pairs, K[sub H]/K[sub D] at 25 [sup o]C amount to 1.53 [+-] 0.02 (acetolysis) and 1.48 [+-] 0.03 (formolysis). In the presence of LiClO[sub 4] the ratios of Arrhenius pre-exponential factors, A[sub H]/A[sub D], are significantly less than unity and amount to 0.49 [+-] 0.01 (acetolysis) and 0.38 [+-] 0.04 (formolysis). In the absence of LiClO[sub 4] the A[sub H]/A[sub D] ratios are much smaller (0.02 both in acetolysis and formolysis). We suggest that these surprisingly low values result from a change in rate-determining step over the temperature range, from formation of the solvent-separated ion-pair at low temperatures to reaction of the dissociated carbocation with solvent at the highest temperatures. Whether tunnelling plays any role in these solvolyses is discussed. (Author).

  15. 17beta-estradiol benzoate decreases the AHP amplitude in CA1 pyramidal neurons. (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Foster, Thomas C


    Disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis is hypothesized to mediate several electrophysiological markers of brain aging. Recent evidence indicates that estradiol can rapidly alter Ca(2+)-dependent processes in neurons through nongenomic mechanisms. In the current study, electrophysiological effects of 17beta-estradiol benzoate (EB) on the Ca(2+)-activated afterhyperpolarization (AHP) were investigated using intracellular sharp electrode recording in hippocampal slices from ovariectomized Fischer 344 female rats. The AHP amplitude was enhanced in aged (22-24 mo) compared with young (5-8 mo) rats and direct application of EB (100 pM) reduced the AHP in aged rats. The age-related difference was due, in part, to the increased AHP amplitude of aged animals, since an EB-mediated decrease in the AHP could be observed in young rats when the extracellular Ca(2+) was elevated to increase the AHP amplitude. In aged rats, bath application of EB occluded the ability of the L-channel blocker, nifedipine (10 microM), to attenuate the AHP. The results support a role for EB in modifying hippocampal Ca(2+)-dependent processes in a manner diametrically opposite that observed during aging, possibly through L-channel inhibition.

  16. Spectral Properties and Solubilization Location of 2'-Ethylhexyl 4-(N,N-Dimethylamino)benzoate in Micelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Ding; Xin-zhen Du; Chun Wang; Xiao-quan Lu


    Dual fluorescence and UV absorption of 2'-ethylhexyl 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)benzoate (EHDMAB) were investigated in cationic,non-ionic and anionic miceUes.When EHDMAB was solubilized in different micellss, the UV absorption of EHDMAB was enhanced.Twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) emission with longer wavelength was observed in ionic micelles,whereas TICT emission with shorter wavelength was obtained in non-ionic micelles.In particular,dual fluorescence of EHDMAB was significantly quenched by the positively charged pyridinium ions arranged in the Stern layer of cationic micelles.UV radiation absorbed mainly decays via TICT emission and radiationless deactivation.The dimethylamino group of EHDMAB experiences different polar environments in ionic and non-ionic micelles according to the polarity dependence of TICT emission of EHDMAB in organic solvents.In terms of the molecular structures and sizes of EHDMAB and surfactants,each individual EHDMAB molecule should be buried in micelles with its dimethylamino group toward the polar head groups of different micelles and with its 2'-ethylhexyl chain toward the hydrophobic micellar core.Dynamic fluorescence quenching measurements of EHDMAB provide further support for the location of EHDMAB in different micelles.

  17. Simultaneous determination of a quaternary mixture of oxomemazine, sodium benzoate, guaifenesin and paracetamol by chromatographic methods

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    Nehal F. Farid


    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to develop simple, accurate, sensitive and selective methods for the simultaneous determination of oxomemazine (Ox, sodium benzoate (SB, guaifenesin (Gu, andparacetamol (Par. Two methods were described and validated for the simultaneous determination of the four drugs in syrup and suppositories. The first method was a reversed phase HPLC and UVdetection at 220 nm. The assay was performed using C 18 column and an isocratic elution using acetonitrile – methanol – 35 mM KH2PO4 (20: 5: 75; by volume, pH was adjusted to 2.9 ± 0.1 as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.5 mL/min and separation was achieved in less than 15 min. The second method was a TLC- spectrodensitometric method, used to separate, identify and quantify the four drugs when present in combination. The drugs were applied on silica gel plates and development was made using methylene chloride- methanol- acetic acid- 33% ammonia (89: 8.4: 2: 0.6, by volume as a mobile phase. The bands of the four drugs were quantified by scanning spectrodensitometricaly at 270 nm. The suggested chromatographic methods were validated and applied successfully to the analysis of the syrup and suppositories.

  18. Molecular modeling of layered double hydroxide intercalated with benzoate, modeling and experiment. (United States)

    Kovár, Petr; Pospísil, M; Nocchetti, M; Capková, P; Melánová, Klára


    The structure of Zn4Al2 Layered Double Hydroxide intercalated with benzencarboxylate (C6H5COO-) was solved using molecular modeling combined with experiment (X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectroscopy, TG measurements). Molecular modeling revealed the arrangement of guest molecules, layer stacking, water content and water location in the interlayer space of the host structure. Molecular modeling using empirical force field was carried out in Cerius(2) modeling environment. Results of modeling were confronted with experiment that means comparing the calculated and measured diffraction pattern and comparing the calculated water content with the thermogravimetric value. Good agreement has been achieved between calculated and measured basal spacing: d(calc) = 15.3 A and d(exp) = 15.5 A. The number of water molecules per formula unit (6H2O per Zn4Al2(OH)12) obtained by modeling (i.e., corresponding to the energy minimum) agrees with the water content estimated by thermogravimetry. The long axis of guest molecules are almost perpendicular to the LDH layers, anchored to the host layers via COO- groups. Mutual orientation of benzoate ring planes in the interlayer space keeps the parquet arrangement. Water molecules are roughly arranged in planes adjacent to host layers together with COO- groups.

  19. Determination of Benzoate Level in Canned Pickles and Pickled Cucumbers in Food Producing Factories in Markazi Province and those that their Products were Sold in Arak City, Iran

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    Mostafa Delavar


    Full Text Available Background: Anecdotal information has suggested that sodium benzoate is used with more than permissible doses during production steps of food products especially pickles and pickled cucumbers in food producing factories in Markazi province and other food producing factories . The present study was done to evaluate factual concentration of sodium benzoate in these products. Methods: In this study, 8 samples from canned pickled cucumbers and 10 samples from canned pickles were randomly gathered from food production factories in Markazi province between March and September 2010. Also, 25 samples from canned pickled cucumbers and 15 samples from canned pickles and 7 samples of bulk cargo pickled cucumbers were collected from the other provinces in Arak city. Sodium benzoate level was determined in the samples using UV-VIS spectrophotometry method. The determined values were analyzed by N-par test using SPSS software version 16.0. Results: Sodium benzoate level was near zero in the samples of canned pickles and pickled cucumbers from producing factories. This was 200-400 PPM in 7 samples from bulk cargo pickled cucumbers which was higher than permissible dose. There was not a statistically significant difference between mean benzoate level of canned pickles and pickled cucumbers produced in Markazi providence factories and other food factories. Benzoate level was significantly higher than permissible dose in bulk cargo pickled cucumbers. Conclusion: Food products from production factories do not have higher than permissible level of sodium benzoate; however, this is higher in bulk cargo pickled cucumbers. Hence, stricter control on bulk cargo pickled cucumber products is recommended.

  20. Intragastric infusion of denatonium benzoate attenuates interdigestive gastric motility and hunger scores in healthy female volunteers. (United States)

    Deloose, Eveline; Janssen, Pieter; Corsetti, Maura; Biesiekierski, Jessica; Masuy, Imke; Rotondo, Alessandra; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan


    Background: Denatonium benzoate (DB) has been shown to influence ongoing ingestive behavior and gut peptide secretion.Objective: We studied how the intragastric administration of DB affects interdigestive motility, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, hunger and satiety ratings, and food intake in healthy volunteers.Design: Lingual bitter taste sensitivity was tested with the use of 6 concentrations of DB in 65 subjects. A placebo or 1 μmol DB/kg was given intragastrically to assess its effect on fasting gastrointestinal motility and hunger ratings, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, satiety, and caloric intake.Results: Women (n = 39) were more sensitive toward a lingual bitter stimulus (P = 0.005) than men (n = 26). In women (n = 10), intragastric DB switched the origin of phase III contractions from the stomach to the duodenum (P = 0.001) and decreased hunger ratings (P = 0.04). These effects were not observed in men (n = 10). In women (n = 12), motilin (P = 0.04) plasma concentrations decreased after intragastric DB administration, whereas total and octanoylated ghrelin were not affected. The intragastric administration of DB decreased hunger (P = 0.008) and increased satiety ratings (P = 0.01) after a meal (500 kcal) in 13 women without affecting gastric emptying in 6 women. Caloric intake tended to decrease after DB administration compared with the placebo (mean ± SEM: 720 ± 58 compared with 796 ± 45 kcal; P = 0.08) in 20 women.Conclusions: Intragastric DB administration decreases both antral motility and hunger ratings during the fasting state, possibly because of a decrease in motilin release. Moreover, DB decreases hunger and increases satiety ratings after a meal and shows potential for decreasing caloric intake. This trial was registered at as NCT02759926.

  1. Ameliorative effect of vitamin C against hepatotoxicity induced by emamectin benzoate in rats. (United States)

    Khaldoun Oularbi, H; Richeval, C; Lebaili, N; Zerrouki-Daoudi, N; Baha, M; Djennas, N; Allorge, D


    In the present study, we aimed to assess the potential protective effect of ascorbic acid (AA) against emamectin benzoate (EMB)-induced hepatotoxicity. For this purpose, biochemical, histopathological and analytical investigations were performed. Male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups, that is, a control group, an EMB group given 10 mg EMB/kg body weight (BW) by gavage and an EMB + AA group given 10 mg EMB/kg BW and vitamin C intraperitoneally (200 mg/kg). The duration of the treatment was 28 days and the duration of the study was 42 days. There was a statistically significant increase of all hepatic biomarkers, that is, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities, and glycemia, in EMB-treated group when compared with the control group. Light microscopic observations revealed variable signs of hepatotoxicity in the EMB group, which were represented by alteration of normal hepatic architecture, inflammatory cell infiltration, hepatocellular steatosis and foci of necrosis at 28 and 42 days post-treatment. However, co-treatment with vitamin C reduced EMB-related liver toxicity and diminished the abnormal biochemical and architectural damage. Emamectin B1a and B1b residues were detectable in all plasma samples of treated rats at 14, 21 and 28 days of treatment. The drug liver tissue concentration was significantly lower in EMB + AA group compared with EMB group at 28 and 42 days. In conclusion, the findings of the present study clearly indicate a significant protective action of vitamin C against EMB hepatotoxicity.

  2. Sensitive and selective spectrophotometric assay of rizatriptan benzoate in pharmaceuticals using three sulphonphthalein dyes

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    K.N. Prashanth


    Full Text Available Three simple, rapid, selective and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of rizatriptan benzoate (RTB in bulk drug and in tablets. The methods are based on the formation of intense yellow colored ion–pair complexes between RTB and sulphonphthalein acid dyes, namely, bromophenol blue (BPB, bromocresol purple (BCP, bromothymol blue (BTB in chloroform medium. The colored products are measured at 425 nm (RTB–BPB complex, RTB–BCP complex and 420 nm (RTB–BTB complex. The reactions were extremely rapid at room temperature and the absorbance values remained constant for 90 min (methods A and B and over 12 h (method C. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration ranges of 0.8–16.0, 1.0–20.0 and 1.2–24 μg ml−1 with molar absorptivity values of 1.76 × 104, 1.96 × 104 and 1.63 × 104 l mol−1 cm−1 for BPB, BCP and BTB methods, respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQ were 0.39, 0.34 and 0.27 μg ml−1 for BPB, BCP and BTB methods, respectively. Other method validation parameters, such as precision, accuracy, robustness, ruggedness and selectivity, were satisfactory. The composition of the ion–pair was found to be 1:1 by Job’s method. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of RTB in commercial tablets. No interference was observed from common tablet adjuvants. Statistical comparison of the results with the reference method showed excellent agreement and indicated no significant difference in accuracy and precision.

  3. Exogenous Estradiol Benzoate Induces Spermatogenesis Disorder through Influencing Apoptosis and Oestrogen Receptor Signalling Pathway. (United States)

    Lei, X; Cui, K; Liu, Q; Zhang, H; Li, Z; Huang, B; Shi, D


    As the exact role for exogenous oestrogen in spermatogenesis is not fully understood, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of estradiol benzoate (EB) exposure to male mice on their spermatogenesis and fertility. Sixty male mice aged 4 weeks were randomly divided into three groups, including a control group and two treatment groups. The mice of the control group were injected with 250 μl paraffin oil only by every other day subcutaneous injection for 4 weeks. Meantime, the mice of the treatment groups were injected with EB at the concentration of 5 or 10 mg/kg, respectively. Results showed that EB slowed down the body weight gains and generated testicular atrophy with spermatogenesis disorder compared with that of the control mice, and consequently induced their infertility. Moreover, the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the testis of EB-treated mice was significantly increased with the EB concentration rise. In comparison with controls, the mRNA expression level of pro-apoptosis factors (Fas, TNF, Cytochrome C, Apaf1, Chop, Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Caspase-9 and Caspase-12) and key genes in oestrogen receptor (ER) signalling pathway (ER α, ER β, Erk1/2, Hsp90 and DAX-1) were upregulated in the testes of the treatment groups. Furthermore, Western blotting results proved the protein expression level of Fas, TNF, Cytochrome C, Chop, Caspase-3, cleaved Caspase-3, Caspase-9, Erk1/2 and Hsp90 were upregulated, and the phosphorylation level of Erk1/2 was also increased. These results indicate that EB may impair spermatogenesis through influencing the apoptosis and ER signalling pathway.

  4. Ivermectin versus benzyl benzoate applied once or twice to treat human scabies in Dakar, Senegal : a randomized controlled trial


    Ly, Fatimata; Caumes, Eric; Ndaw, Cheick Ahmet Tidiane; Ndiaye, Bassirou; Mahé, Antoine


    Objective To compare the effectiveness of oral ivermectin (IV) and two different modalities of topical benzyl benzoate (BB) for treating scabies in a community setting. Methods The trial included patients aged 5-65 years with scabies who attended the dermatology department at the Institut d'Hygiene Sociale in Dakar, Senegal. The randomized, open trial considered three treatments: a single application of 12.5% BB over 24 hours (BB1. group), two applications of BB, each over 24 hours (BB2 group...

  5. Crystal structure of ethyl 4-[(E-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino]benzoate: a p-hydroxy Schiff base

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    Jing Ling


    Full Text Available The title p-hydroxy Schiff base, C17H17NO4, was synthesized via the condensation reaction of benzocaine with vanillin. The benzylidine and benzoate rings are inclined to one another by 24.58 (8°, and the conformation about the C=N bond is E. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag chains propagating along [010]. Adjacent chains are linked by C—H...π and weak offset π–π interactions [intercentroid distance = 3.819 (1 Å], forming sheets parallel to (10-2.


    Several 2-substituted benzoates (including 2-trifluoromethyl-, 2-chloro-, 2-bromo-, 2-iodo-, 2-nitro-, 2-methoxy-, and 2-acetyl-benzoates) were converted by phthalate-grown Arthrobacter keyseri 12B to the corresponding 2-substituted 3,4-dihydroxybenzoates (protocatechuates)...

  7. Migration of Chemotactic Bacteria Transverse to Flow in Response to a Benzoate Source Plume Created in a Saturated Sand-Packed Microcosm (United States)

    Ford, R.; Boser, B.


    Bioremediation processes depend on contact between microbial populations and the groundwater contaminants that they biodegrade. Chemotaxis, the ability of bacteria to sense a chemical gradient and swim preferentially toward locations of higher concentration, can enhance the transport of bacteria toward contaminant sources that may not be readily accessible by advection and dispersion alone. A two-dimensional rectangular-shaped microcosm packed with quartz sand was used to quantify the effect of chemotaxis on the migration of bacteria within a saturated model aquifer system. Artificial groundwater was pumped through the microcosm at a rate of approximately 1 m/day. A plume of sodium benzoate was created by continuous injection into an upper port of the microcosm to generate a chemical gradient in the vertical direction transverse to flow. Chemotactic bacteria, Pseudomonas putida F1, or the nonchemotactic mutant, P. putida F1 CheA, were injected with a conservative tracer in a port several centimeters below the benzoate position. As the injectates traversed the one-meter length of the microcosm, samples were collected from a dozen effluent ports to determine vertical concentration distributions for the bacteria, benzoate and tracer. A moment analysis was implemented to estimate the center of mass, variance, and skewness of the concentration profiles. The transverse dispersion coefficient and the transverse dispersivity for chemotactic and nonchemotactic bacteria were also evaluated. Experiments performed with a continuous injection of bacteria showed that the center of mass for chemotactic bacteria was closer to the benzoate source on average than the nonchemotactic control (relative to the conservative tracer). These results demonstrated that chemotaxis can increase bacterial transport toward contaminants, potentially enhancing the effectiveness of in situ bioremediation. Experiments with 2 cm and 3 cm spacing between bacteria and benzoate injection locations were

  8. Induction of parturition in swine with prostaglandin F(2)alpha, estradiol benzoate and oxytocin. (United States)

    Gall, M A; Day, B N


    Pregnant sows and gilts were administered either 0, 2.5, 5, 10 or 20 mg prostaglandin F(2)alpha (PGF(2)alpha) intramuscularly on Day 112 or 113 of gestation at 0800 h in an effort to induce parturition. The average interval from PGF(2)alpha injection to farrowing was 55.1 +/- 5.7, 29.4 +/- 3.1, 32.1 +/- 4.6, 27.8 +/- 1.8 and 26.9 +/- 1.1 h for 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg, respectively. All PGF(2)alpha treatments increased (P gestation length was significantly shorter in treated gilts; however, no detrimental effect on pig performance or pig survivability was observed. A second trial evaluated the effect of a 10-mg dose of PGF(2)alpha on the induction of parturition in sows in order to obtain a majority of sows farrowing within normal working hours (0700 to 1700 h). The interval from injection to farrowing was decreased (P < 0.05) by PGF(2)alpha treatment (66.2 +/- 5.3 vs 28.1 +/- 2.2 h). Fifty-seven percent (P < 0.05) of PGF(2)alpha-treated sows farrowed between 0700 and 1700 h as compared to 13.6% for control sows. A third trial was conducted to examine a sequential treatment of PGF(2)alpha and oxytocin to control the time of parturition more precisely. Sows receiving only 10 mg of PGF(2)alpha farrowed on an average 31.1 +/- 1.4 h after injection. The injection of 40 IU oxytocin 24 to 28 h after PGF(2)alpha decreased (P < 0.05) the interval from PGF(2)alpha to farrowing (28.1 +/- 0.9 h). The addition of oxytocin increased (P < 0.05) the number of sows farrowing within 3 h of injection (33 vs 86% for PGF(2)alpha and PGF(2)alpha + oxytocin treatments, respectively). A fourth trial was designed to determine if the addition of exogenous estradiol benzoate (EB) to a sequential treatment of PGF(2)alpha and oxytocin would improve the predictability and synchronization of the induced parturition. Sows were assigned to receive either saline, 10 mg PGF(2)alpha + 40 IU oxytocin or 10 mg PGF(2)alpha + 5 mg EB + 40 IU oxytocin. The addition of EB reduced (P < 0.01) the variance in

  9. The modulatory effect of estradiol benzoate on superoxide dismutase activity in the developing rat brain

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    S. Pejic


    Full Text Available The sensitivity of copper,zinc (CuZn- and manganese (Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD to exogenous estradiol benzoate (EB was investigated in Wistar rats during postnatal brain development. Enzyme activities were measured in samples prepared from brains of rats of both sexes and various ages between 0 and 75 days, treated sc with 0.5 µg EB/100 g body weight in 0.1 ml olive oil/100 g body weight, 48 and 24 h before sacrifice. In females, EB treatment stimulated MnSOD activity on days 0 (66.1%, 8 (72.7% and 15 (81.7%. In males, the stimulatory effect of EB on MnSOD activity on day 0 (113.6% disappeared on day 8 and on days 15 and 45 it became inhibitory (40.3 and 30.5%, respectively. EB had no effect on the other age groups. The stimulatory effect of EB on CuZnSOD activity in newborn females (51.8% changed to an inhibitory effect on day 8 (38.4% and disappeared by day 45 when inhibition was detected again (48.7%. In males, the inhibitory effect on this enzyme was observed on days 0 (45.0% and 15 (28.9%, and then disappeared until day 60 when a stimulatory effect was observed (38.4%. EB treatment had no effect on the other age groups. The sensitivity of MnSOD to estradiol differed significantly between sexes during the neonatal and prepubertal period, whereas it followed a similar pattern thereafter. The sensitivity of CuZnSOD to estradiol differed significantly between sexes during most of the study period. Regression analysis showed that the sensitivity of MnSOD to this estrogen tended to decrease similarly in both sexes, whereas the sensitivity of CuZnSOD showed a significantly different opposite tendency in female and male rats. These are the first reports indicating hormonal modulation of antioxidant enzyme activities related to the developmental process.

  10. Short communication: Use of a mixture of sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate in aerobically challenged silages. (United States)

    Knicky, Martin; Spörndly, Rolf


    Aerobic instability is still a common problem with many types of silages, particularly well-fermented silages. This study evaluated the effect of adding an additive mixture based on sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate to a variety of crop materials on fermentation quality and aerobic stability of silages. Ensiling conditions were challenged by using a low packing density (104±4.3kg of dry matter/m(3)) of forage and allowing air ingression into silos (at 14 and 7 d before the end of the storage, for 8 h per event). Additive-treated silages were found to have significantly lower pH and reduced formation of ammonia-N, 2.3-butanediol, and ethanol compared with untreated control silages. Yeast growth was significantly reduced by additive treatment in comparison with untreated control silage. Consequently, additive-treated silages were considerably more aerobically stable (6.7 d) than untreated control silages (0.5 d). Overall, adding 5mL/kg of fresh crop of the additive based on sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate reduced undesirable microorganisms in silages and thereby provided suitable ensiling conditions and prolonged aerobic stability, even under air-challenged laboratory ensiling conditions.

  11. Elucidation of the thermophilic phenol biodegradation pathway via benzoate during the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste. (United States)

    Hoyos-Hernandez, Carolina; Hoffmann, Marieke; Guenne, Angeline; Mazeas, Laurent


    Anaerobic digestion makes it possible to valorize municipal solid waste (MSW) into biogas and digestate which are, respectively, a renewable energy source and an organic amendment for soil. Phenols are persistent pollutants present in MSW that can inhibit the anaerobic digestion process and have a toxic effect on microbiota if they are applied to soil together with digestate. It is then important to define the operational conditions of anaerobic digestion which allow the complete degradation of phenol. In this context, the fate of phenol during the anaerobic digestion of MSW at 55°C was followed using an isotopic tracing approach ((13)C6-phenol) in experimental microcosms with inoculum from an industrial thermophilic anaerobic digester. With this approach, it was possible to demonstrate the complete phenol biodegradation into methane and carbon dioxide via benzoate. Benzoate is known to be a phenol metabolite under mesophilic conditions, but in this study it was found for the first time to be a phenol degradation product at thermophilic temperature.

  12. Effectiveness of sodium benzoate as a freshwater low toxicity antifoulant when dispersed in solution and entrapped in silicone coatings. (United States)

    Haque, Haroon; Cutright, Teresa J; Newby, Bi-Min Zhang


    The traditional solution for preventing organisms from attaching to submerged surfaces is to apply antifouling coatings or biocides. Based on the varied defence mechanisms exhibited by biofilms, the antifoulant needs to prevent bacterial attachment during the early stages of biofilm formation. The potential of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate (NaB) as antifoulants for deterring freshwater bacterial attachment was evaluated with the antifoulants dispersed in solution or entrapped in silicone coatings. Effectiveness was based on the decrease in microbial attachment, limited toxicity, and minimum alteration of the properties of the coatings. The optimal NaB concentration when dispersed in solution, 700 mg l-1, resulted in a biofilm surface coverage of only 3.34% after four weeks. The model silicone, Sylgard 184, demonstrated a better overall performance than the commercial coating, RTV11. Sylgard 184 containing sodium benzoate had 41-52% less biofilm in comparison to the control Sylgard 184, whereas both the control and NaB-entrapped RTV11 coatings had significant biofilm coverage.

  13. [Analysis of preservatives used in cosmetic products: salicylic acid, sodium benzoate, sodium dehydroacetate, potassium sorbate, phenoxyethanol, and parabens]. (United States)

    Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Uchino, Tadashi; Nishimura, Tetsuji


    Preservatives are used to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in cosmetic products. The Japanese standards for cosmetics set restrictions on the maximum amount of each preservative added to cosmetics as per the purpose of use of cosmetics. For the investigation into the actual conditions of commonly used preservatives in commercial cosmetics, we analyzed parabens, phenoxyethanol, sodium benzoate, sodium dehydroacetate, salicylic acid, and potassium sorbate by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twenty-one samples were obtained from cosmetic product manufacturers located in 14 prefectures in Japan. Among different acid- and salt-based preservatives, sodium benzoate was observed to have been used in many products. These acid- and salt-based preservatives were used with parabens in personal washing products, such as shampoo and soap. The labels of two of the cosmetic product samples displayed inaccurate ingredient information, that is, a preservative other than the one used in the corresponding product was listed on them. The amount of preservatives used did not exceed regulatory limits in any of the analyzed samples.

  14. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of benzoate and sorbate in yogurt drinks and method optimization by central composite design. (United States)

    Kamankesh, Marzieh; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Tehrani, Zohreh Modarres; Ferdowsi, Roohallah; Hosseini, Hedayat


    A new method based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determination of benzoate and sorbate salts in yogurt drinks was developed. The effective parameters in DLLME process, including volume of extraction and disperser solvents, pH and salt effect, were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design. The yogurt drink samples were extracted using NaOH and Carrez solutions (potassium hexaferrocyanide and zinc acetate) were used for sedimentation of proteins. For DLLME, a mixture of extraction solvent (1-octanol) and disperser solvent (ethanol) was rapidly injected into the sample solution by syringe and cloudy solution is formed. Subsequently, the upper 1-octanol layer was analyzed by HPLC. The detection limits for benzoate and sorbate were 0.06 ng mL(-1) and 0.15 ng mL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for seven analyses were 4.96% for benzoate and 4.58% for sorbate. The proposed method demonstrated good linearity and high enrichment factor. A clean separation and good chromatogram is readily achieved without the presence of matrix interference. A comparison of this method with previous methods demonstrated that the proposed method is an accurate, rapid and reliable sample-pretreatment method that gives very good enrichment factors and detection limits for extracting and determining sorbate and benzoate in yogurt drink samples.

  15. The efficacy of emamectin benzoate against infestations of Lepeophtheirus salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L in Scotland, 2002-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Lees

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infestations of the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, commonly referred to as sea lice, represent a major challenge to commercial salmon aquaculture. Dependence on a limited number of theraputants to control such infestations has led to concerns of reduced sensitivity in some sea lice populations. This study investigates trends in the efficacy of the in-feed treatment emamectin benzoate in Scotland, the active ingredient most widely used across all salmon producing regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Study data were drawn from over 50 commercial Atlantic salmon farms on the west coast of Scotland between 2002 and 2006. An epi-informatics approach was adopted whereby available farm records, descriptive epidemiological summaries and statistical linear modelling methods were used to identify factors that significantly affect sea lice abundance following treatment with emamectin benzoate (SLICE(R, Schering Plough Animal Health. The results show that although sea lice infestations are reduced following the application of emamectin benzoate, not all treatments are effective. Specifically there is evidence of variation across geographical regions and a reduction in efficacy over time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Reduced sensitivity and potential resistance to currently available medicines are constant threats to maintaining control of sea lice populations on Atlantic salmon farms. There is a need for on-going monitoring of emamectin benzoate treatment efficacy together with reasons for any apparent reduction in performance. In addition, strategic rotation of medicines should be encouraged and empirical evidence for the benefit of such strategies more fully evaluated.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永清; 张宪武; 王志纲


    目的:探讨长期烫吸安钠咖对肝功的影响.方法:应用MoDULAR P800仪器,对烫吸安钠咖组36例及正常对照组14例测定肝功情况,对结果进行比较分析.结果:与对照组比较,烫吸安钠咖组的总胆红素含量低,在统计学上存在显著性差异(P<0.01);谷丙转氨酶、肌酐含量高,在统计学上存在差异(P<0.05).结论:长期烫吸安钠咖对肝功有一定的影响.%Objective :To observe the effect of long - term use of caffeine sodium benzoate on liver function. Methods:To compare the liver function of long - term users of caffeine sodium benzoate with that of the control group by MoDULAR P800 made in USA. Results: Compared with the control, the bilirubin total in the long - term users of caffeine sodium benzoate was lower, showing significant difference (P < 0.01), the glutamate pyruvate transaminase, creatinine were higher(P < 0.05). Conclusion: Long - term use of caffeine sodium benzoate can influence the users' liver function to some extent.

  17. Di-μ-iodido-bis(iodido{methyl 4-[(pyridin-2-ylmethylideneamino]benzoate-κ2N,N′}cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar S. Basu Baul


    Full Text Available The complete binuclear molecule of the title compound, [Cd2I4(C14H12N2O22], is generated by the application of a centre of inversion. The Cd—I bond lengths of the central core are close and uniformly longer than the exocyclic Cd—I bond. The coordination sphere of the CdII atom is completed by two N atoms of a chelating methyl 4-[(pyridin-2-ylmethylideneamino]benzoate ligand, and is based on a square pyramid with the terminal I atom in the apical position. The three-dimensional crystal packing is stabilized by C—H...O and C—H...π interactions, each involving the pyridine ring.

  18. Degradation of organic ultraviolet filter diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate in aqueous solution by UV/H2O2. (United States)

    Gong, Ping; Yuan, Haixia; Zhai, Pingping; Dong, Wenbo; Li, Hongjing


    Steady-state and transient-state photolysis experiments were conducted to investigate the degradation of organic ultraviolet filter diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DHHB) in the aqueous solution by UV/H2O2. Results showed that the obvious degradation of DHHB was not observed under UV irradiation (λ = 254 nm), and the DHHB degradation was conducted due to the oxidation by hydroxyl radical (HO·). While the H2O2 concentration was between 0.05 and 0.10 mol L(-1), the highest DHHB degradation efficiency was obtained. The lower solution pH favored the transformation of DHHB, and the coexisting Cl(-) and NO3(-) ions slightly enhanced the conversion. The degradation of DHHB by HO· followed a pseudo-first-order kinetic model with different initial DHHB concentrations. By intermediate products during DHHB oxidation and laser flash photolysis spectra analysis, a primary degradation pathway was proposed.

  19. Novel 3-D Supramolecular Architectures Constructed from Zn2+ ions, Oxybis(4-benzoate) and Di(2-pyridyl)amine Ligands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Long; LI Dong-Sheng; FU Feng; WANG Ji-Jiang; HU Huai-Ming; WANG Yao-Yu


    Using the V-shaped oba dianions as bridging ligands and dpa molecules as terminal ligands, a new 1D helical coordination-polymeric chain, [Zn(oba)(dpa)]n [oba=oxybis(4-benzoate), dpa=di(2-pyridyl)amine], was synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, UV-Vis and IR spectra, and TGA analysis. X-ray structural analysis revealed that, oba and dpa ligands played an important role in the self-assembly of the helical chains by providing potential supramolecular recognition sites for π-π aromatic stacking and hydrogen-bond interactions, resulting in the self-assembly of the (4,4) networks to give a 3-D supramolecular framework.The photoluminescence properties of the title compound were also investigated, showing intense blue photoluminescence properties at room temperature.

  20. Design, synthesis, molecular docking studies and in vitro screening of ethyl 4-(3-benzoylthioureido) benzoates as urease inhibitors. (United States)

    Saeed, Aamer; Khan, Muhammad Siraj; Rafique, Hummera; Shahid, Mohammad; Iqbal, Jamshed


    Thioureas are exceptionally versatile building blocks towards the synthesis of wide variety of heterocyclic systems, which also possess extensive range of pharmacological activities. The substituted benzoic acids were converted into corresponding acid chlorides, these acid chlorides were then treated with potassium thiocyanate in acetone and then the reaction mixture was refluxed for 1-2h afford ethyl 4-(3-benzoylthioureido)benzoates thioureas in good yields. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their urease inhibitory activities and were found to be potent inhibitors of urease enzyme. Compounds 1f and 1g were identified as the most potent urease inhibitors (IC50 0.21 and 0.13 μM, respectively), and was 100-fold more potent than the standard inhibitors. Further molecular docking studies were carried out using the crystal structure of urease to find out the binding mode of the inhibitors with the enzyme.

  1. Growth and characterization of nonlinear optical single crystals: bis(cyclohexylammonium) terephthalate and cyclohexylammonium para-methoxy benzoate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sathya; M Anantharaja; N Elavarasu; R Gopalakrishnan


    Bis(cyclohexylammonium) terephthalate (BCT) and cyclohexylammonium 4-methoxy benzoate (C4MB) single crystals were successfully grown by the slow evaporation solution growth technique. The harvested crystals were subjected to single-crystal X-ray diffraction, spectral, optical, thermal and mechanical studies in order to evaluate physiochemical properties. The Kurtz and Perry technique for second harmonic generation (SHG) study revealed that the powdered materials of BCT and C4MB exhibit SHG efficiency 0.2 times less and 1.3 times greater than that of standard reference material potassium dihydrogen phosphate. C4MB crystal exhibits high efficiency than BCT, because of methoxy group substituted in the para position of phenyl ring. With high SHG efficiency and thermal stability para substituted C4MB crystal will be a potential candidate for optical device fabrication.

  2. Administration of estradiol benzoate before insemination could skew secondary sex ratio toward males in Holstein dairy cows. (United States)

    Emadi, S R; Rezaei, A; Bolourchi, M; Hovareshti, P; Akbarinejad, V


    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of estradiol benzoate administration before insemination on secondary sex ratio (proportion of male calves at birth) in Holstein dairy cows. Cows (n = 1,647) were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups by parity over a 1-yr period. Cows in the control group (n = 827; 232 primiparous and 595 multiparous cows) received 2 administrations of PGF2α (500 μg) 14 d apart, started at 30 to 35 d postpartum. Twelve d after the second PGF2α injection, cows received GnRH (100 μg), followed by administration of PGF2α 7 d later. Cows in the treatment group (n = 820; 238 primiparous and 582 multiparous cows) received the same hormonal administrations as the cows in the control group. Additionally, cows in the treatment group received estradiol benzoate (1 mg) 1 d after the third PGF2α injection. Estrus detection by visual observation was started 1 d after the third PGF2α injection and after estradiol administration in the control (for 6 d) and treatment (for 36 h) groups, respectively. Artificial insemination was carried out 12 h after observation of standing estrus. Exposure of cows to heat stress at conception was determined based on temperature-humidity index. Estrus detection rate was lower in primiparous than in multiparous cows (P heat stress diminished heat detection rate and fertility (P calves being male in Holstein dairy cows. Moreover, the results showed that cows exposed to heat stress around conception had diminished fertility and increased secondary sex ratio.

  3. Influence of flavone extract from cultivated saussurea on learning and memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease A comparison with estradiol benzoate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiqiang Chen; Shuiming Gong; Yan Li; Ming Li; Zemin Yang; Lirong Zhang


    The present study established a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, and investigated the effects of treatment with flavone extract from artificially cultivated saussurea. A positive control group was treated with estradiol benzoate, and learning and memory ability were examined in the 8-arm radial maze. The learning and recognition ability of mice with Alzheimer's disease treated with flavone extract was significantly improved and the number of hippocampal neurons was significantly increased in the flavone-treated and positive control groups compared with the model group. The results indicate that flavone extract from artificially cultivated saussurea can improve learning and memory deficits in mice with Alzheimer's disease, exerting effects similar to those of estradiol benzoate.

  4. One-pot, four-component synthesis of pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazoles catalyzed by sodium benzoate in aqueous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Kiyani


    Full Text Available An efficient, green, and facile four-component reaction for the preparation of pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole derivatives through the condensation reaction of aryl aldehydes, ethyl acetoacetate, malononitrile, and hydrazine hydrate or phenyl hydrazine in the presence of commercially available organocatalyst sodium benzoate under aqueous condition is reported. The products are produced with high yields and in shorter reaction times. It also is mild, safe, green and environmental friendly.

  5. Siderophore-Producing Bacteria from a Sand Dune Ecosystem and the Effect of Sodium Benzoate on Siderophore Production by a Potential Isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teja Gaonkar


    Full Text Available Bioremediation in natural ecosystems is dependent upon the availability of micronutrients and cofactors, of which iron is one of the essential elements. Under aerobic and alkaline conditions, iron oxidizes to Fe+3 creating iron deficiency. To acquire this essential growth-limiting nutrient, bacteria produce low-molecular-weight, high-affinity iron chelators termed siderophores. In this study, siderophore-producing bacteria from rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere areas of coastal sand dunes were isolated using a culture-dependent approach and were assigned to 8 different genera with the predominance of Bacillus sp. Studies on the ability of these isolates to grow on sodium benzoate revealed that a pigmented bacterial culture TMR2.13 identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed growth on mineral salts medium (MSM with 2% of sodium benzoate and produced a yellowish fluorescent siderophore identified as pyoverdine. This was inhibited above 54 μM of added iron in MSM with glucose without affecting growth, while, in presence of sodium benzoate, siderophore was produced even up to the presence of 108 μM of added iron. Increase in the requirement of iron for metabolism of aromatic compounds in ecosystems where the nutrient deficiencies occur naturally would be one of the regulating factors for the bioremediation process.

  6. Determination of Rizatriptan Benzoate by Potentiometric Titration%电位滴定法测定苯甲酸利扎曲普坦的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于小琴; 陈雅男; 臧晓红


    Objective To establish a potentiometric titration method for determination of rizatriptan benzoate. Methods The samples was dissolved in 40 mL of glacial acetic acid and 5 mL of acetic anhydride were titrated potentiometrically with 0.1 mol/L perchloric acid solution. And blank test calibration was performed for titration results.Results The content of rizatriptan benzoate was 100.21 %, withRSD of 0.2 %.ConclusionThis method can be simple and accurate, and suitable for the determination of rizatriptan benzoate.%目的:建立电位滴定法测定苯甲酸利扎曲普坦的含量的方法。方法以冰醋酸40 mL和醋酐5 mL溶解样品后,采用电位滴定法用高氯酸滴定液(0.1 mol/L)滴定,并将滴定结果用空白试验校正。结果测得的苯甲酸利扎曲普坦样品的含量为100.21%,RSD为0.2%。结论该方法操作简单、准确度高,适合苯甲酸利扎曲普坦含量的检测。

  7. Detection of emamectin benzoate tolerance emergence in different life stages of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. (United States)

    Jones, P G; Hammell, K L; Gettinby, G; Revie, C W


    Emamectin benzoate has been used to treat sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Recent evidence suggests a reduction in effectiveness in some locations. A major challenge in the detection of tolerance emergence can be the typically low proportion of resistant individuals in a population during the early phases. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for determining differences in temporal development of tolerance between sea lice life stages and to explore how these differences might be used to improve the monitoring of treatment effectiveness in a clinical setting. This study examined two data sets based on records of sea lice abundance following emamectin benzoate treatments from the west coast of Scotland (2002-2006) and from New Brunswick, Canada (2004-2008). Life stages were categorized into two groups (adult females and the remaining mobile stages) to examine the trends in mean abundance and treatment effectiveness. Differences in emamectin benzoate effectiveness were found between the two groups by year and location, suggesting that an important part of monitoring drug resistance development in aquatic ectoparasites may be the need to focus on key life stages.

  8. Siderophore-producing bacteria from a sand dune ecosystem and the effect of sodium benzoate on siderophore production by a potential isolate. (United States)

    Gaonkar, Teja; Nayak, Pramoda Kumar; Garg, Sandeep; Bhosle, Saroj


    Bioremediation in natural ecosystems is dependent upon the availability of micronutrients and cofactors, of which iron is one of the essential elements. Under aerobic and alkaline conditions, iron oxidizes to Fe(+3) creating iron deficiency. To acquire this essential growth-limiting nutrient, bacteria produce low-molecular-weight, high-affinity iron chelators termed siderophores. In this study, siderophore-producing bacteria from rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere areas of coastal sand dunes were isolated using a culture-dependent approach and were assigned to 8 different genera with the predominance of Bacillus sp. Studies on the ability of these isolates to grow on sodium benzoate revealed that a pigmented bacterial culture TMR2.13 identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed growth on mineral salts medium (MSM) with 2% of sodium benzoate and produced a yellowish fluorescent siderophore identified as pyoverdine. This was inhibited above 54 μM of added iron in MSM with glucose without affecting growth, while, in presence of sodium benzoate, siderophore was produced even up to the presence of 108 μM of added iron. Increase in the requirement of iron for metabolism of aromatic compounds in ecosystems where the nutrient deficiencies occur naturally would be one of the regulating factors for the bioremediation process.

  9. Modeling the efficacy of triplet antimicrobial combinations: yeast suppression by lauric arginate, cinnamic acid, and sodium benzoate or potassium sorbate as a case study. (United States)

    Dai, Yumei; Normand, Mark D; Weiss, Jochen; Peleg, Micha


    The growth of four spoilage yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, and Brettanomyces naardenensis, was inhibited with three-agent (triplet) combinations of lauric arginate, cinnamic acid, and sodium benzoate or potassium sorbate. The inhibition efficacy was determined by monitoring the optical density of yeast cultures grown in microtiter plates for 7 days. The relationship between the optical density and the sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate concentrations followed a single-term exponential decay model. The critical effective concentration was defined as the concentration at which the optical density was 0.05, which became an efficacy criterion for the mixtures. Critical concentrations of sodium benzoate or potassium sorbate as a function of the lauric arginate and cinnamic acid concentrations were then fitted with an empirical model that mapped three-agent combinations of equal efficacy. The contours of this function are presented in tabulated form and as two- and three-dimensional plots. Triplet combinations were highly effective against all four spoilage yeasts at three practical pH levels, especially at pH 3.0. The triplet combinations were particularly effective for inhibiting growth of Z. bailii, and combinations containing potassium sorbate had synergistic activities. The equal efficacy concentration model also allowed tabulation of the cost of the various combinations of agents and identification of those most economically feasible.

  10. Synthesis, structure and temperature-depended 2D IR correlation spectroscopy of an organo-bismuth benzoate with 1,10-phenanthroline (United States)

    Sun, Yan-Qiong; Zhong, Jie-Cen; Liu, Le-Hui; Qiu, Xing-Tai; Chen, Yi-Ping


    An organo-bismuth benzoate with phen as auxiliary ligand, [Bi(phen)(C6H5COO)(C6H4COO)] (1) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) has been hydrothermally synthesized from bismuth nitrate, 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid with phen as auxiliary ligand and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, PXRD, IR spectra, TG analyses, temperature-depended 2D-IR COS (two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy). Interestingly, benzoate anions in 1 came from the desulfuration reaction of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid under hydrothermal condition. Compound 1 is a discrete organo-bismuth compound with benzoate and phen ligands. The offset face-to-face π-π stacking interactions and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the isolate complex into a 3D supramolecular network. The temperature-depended 2D-IR COS indicates that the stretching vibrations of Cdbnd C/Cdbnd N of aromatic rings and Cdbnd O bonds are sensitive to the temperature change.

  11. An assessment of detection canine alerts using flowers that release methyl benzoate, the cocaine odorant, and an evaluation of their behavior in terms of the VOCs produced. (United States)

    Cerreta, Michelle M; Furton, Kenneth G


    In recent years, the high frequency of illicit substance abuse reported in the United States has made the development of efficient and rapid detection methods important. Biological detectors, such as canines (Canis familiaris), are valuable tools for rapid, on-site identification of illicit substances. However, research indicates that in many cases canines do not alert to the contraband, but rather to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are released from the contraband, referred to as the "active odor." In 2013, canine accuracy and reliability were challenged in the Supreme Court case, State of Florida v. Jardines. In this case, it was stated that if a canine alerts to the active odor, and not the contraband, the canine's accuracy and selectivity could be questioned, since many of these compounds have been found in common household products. Specifically, methyl benzoate, the active odor of cocaine, has been found to be the most abundant compound produced by snapdragon flowers. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the odor profiles of various species of snapdragon flowers to assess how significantly methyl benzoate contributes to the total VOC profile or fragrance that is produced. Particularly, this study examines the VOCs released from newly grown snapdragon flowers and determines its potential at eliciting a false alert from specially trained detection canines. The ability of detection canines to differentiate between cocaine and snapdragon flowers was determined in order to validate the field accuracy and discrimination power of these detectors. An optimized method using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) was used to test the different types and abundances of compounds generated from snapdragon flowers at various stages throughout the plants' life cycle. The results indicate that although methyl benzoate is present in the odor profile of snapdragon flowers, other

  12. Tolerance and efficacy of emamectin benzoate and ivermectin for the treatment of Pseudocapillaria tomentosa in laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio). (United States)

    Collymore, Chereen; Watral, Virginia; White, Julie R; Colvin, Michael E; Rasmussen, Skye; Tolwani, Ravi J; Kent, Michael L


    Tolerance of adult zebrafish and efficacy of emamectin benzoate and ivermectin in eliminating Pseudocapillaria tomentosa infection were evaluated. In the tolerance study, behavioral changes, fecundity, histopathology, and mortality were evaluated for in-feed administration of emamectin (0.05, 0.10, and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg). All doses of emamectin were well tolerated. Ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg administration resulted in mild behavioral changes and a transient decrease in fecundity. Ivermectin 0.10 mg/kg administration resulted in severe behavioral changes and some mortality. In the efficacy study, emamectin (0.05 and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 mg/kg) were evaluated for their efficacy in eliminating P. tomentosa infection. Emamectin reduced parasite burden in infected zebrafish, and ivermectin eliminated intestinal nematode infections. Despite a small margin of safety, ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg was effective at eliminating P. tomentosa infection in adult zebrafish. Higher doses or a longer course of treatment may be needed for complete elimination of P. tomentosa infection using emamectin. In this study, we propose two possible treatments for intestinal nematode infections in zebrafish.

  13. In vitro and in vivo metabolism of ethyl 4-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)azo]benzoate. (United States)

    Bekce, Banu; Sener, Göksel; Oktav, Mehmet; Ulgen, Mert; Rollas, Sevim


    Azo compounds are extensively used for colouring food, drink, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, textiles and printing inks. Publications in the literature have shown that azo dyes can pose threats to public health by metabolic and chemical oxidation and reduction reactions. In the present study, the in vivo and in vitro biotransformation of ethyl 4-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)azo]benzoate, an azo compound which is structurally similar to 1-phenylazo-2-naphthol was studied to investigate its in vivo and in vitro metabolic products. For the in vitro biotransformation study, rat liver microsomal preparations fortified with NADPH as a co-factor were used. Three unidentified metabolic products were observed. For the in vivo biotransformation study, a concentrated solution of this substrate was given orally to female rats. After the administration of substrate, blood samples of rats are taken at certain intervals. The blood plasma were obtained by centrifuging blood samples. The cold acetonitrile was added to plasma to precipitate plasma proteins and plasma was centrifuged. The supernatant was evaporated at room temperature. The residue was reconstituted with acetonitrile and examined by the HPLC. The unchanged substrate together with the corresponding reduction and acetylation products were detected in plasma. However, no initial hydrolysis occurred in the ester moiety.

  14. Synthesis, crystal structure, and fluorescence of two dimeric europium(Ⅲ) complexes with 2-(trifluoromethyl)benzoate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yanqiu; LI Peizhou; LI Xia


    Two complexes [Eu2(2-TFMBA)6(2,2'-bipy)2].2H2O (1) and Eu2(2-TFMBA)6(1,10-phen)2 (2) (2-TFMBA=2-(Trifluoromethyl) benzoate; 2,2'-bipy=2,2'-bipyridine; 1,10-phen=1,10-phenanthroline) were synthesized by solvent method and determined by X-ray diffrac-tion analysis. Complex 1 crystallizes in monoclinic system with space group P21/c, whereas complex 2 crystallizes in triclinic system with space group P-1. Both are binuclear molecules with an inversion center. In complex 1, two center Eu3+ ions are linked together by four 2-TFMBA ligands in bidentate-bridging mode. Each Eu3+ion is eight-coordinated with six O atoms from five 2-TFMBA ligands and two N atoms from one 2,2'-bipy molecule. In complex 2, two center Eu3+ ions are linked together by four 2-TFMBA ligands in two modes, namely, bidentate-bridging and tridentate-bridging. Each Eu3+ ion is nine-coordinated with seven O atoms from five 2-TFMBA ligands and two N atoms from one 1,10-phen molecule. The two complexes both exhibited strong red fluorescence under ultraviolet light, and the 5D0→7Fj (j=0-4) transition emissions of Eu3+ ion were observed in their emission spectra.

  15. Application of Box-Behnken design to formulate and optimize multipolymeric fast dissolving film of rizatriptan benzoate

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    Dharmik M. Mehta


    Full Text Available The present investigation aims at formulation and optimization of multipolymeric fast dissolving film of rizatriptan benzoate. Three film forming polymers namely hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, maltodextrin and polyvinylalcohol were explored using Box-Behnken experimental design to derive optimized fast dissolving film formulation using desirability function. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed for five dependent variables tensile strength, folding endurance, load at yield, percentage elongation and percentage drug release in 30 s (Q 30. Mathematical regression equations were derived by applying ANOVA and validated using checkpoint batches. Results of the experimental design exposed that the effect of independent factors HPMC and maltodextrin significantly influenced the mechanical properties and percentage drug release from the film. Optimized batch was derived based on set criteria using desirability function. Reponses of the optimized formulation were tensile strength (500 N/m 2, folding endurance (203, load at yield (15.06 N/m 2, percentage elongation (4.56% and Q 30 (60.03% falling under acceptable limits. High percentage drug release from the film in simulated saliva and simulated gastric fluid reveal fast dissolving characteristics. Fast dissolving dosage form can help patients with diseases like migraine.

  16. Analysis of citrates and benzoates used in poly(vinyl chloride) by supercritical fluid extraction and gas chromatography. (United States)

    Guerra, R M; Marín, M L; Sánchez, A; Jiménez, A


    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been demonstrated to be a useful tool in the determination of additives in polymeric materials. This paper describes the determination of some citrates and benzoates in poly(vinyl chloride) blended with 33-34% of plasticizer using off-line SFE followed by gas chromatography. Experimental factors affecting SFE have been studied by gravimetric analysis, followed by analysis of the extracts using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. The extraction process is governed by the solubility of the plasticizers in the supercritical fluid or by their diffusion through the polymer matrix, which depend on the pressure and temperature used. Maximum extraction (>99%) is obtained at pressures and temperatures higher than 40 MPa and 80 degrees C, respectively. Due to purge losses, the collection efficiency of plasticizers into a liquid solvent ranges from 85 to 90%. The applicability of the SFE method is demonstrated using real samples and comparing the results with those obtained by conventional Soxhlet extraction.

  17. Use of estradiol benzoate to induce ovulation in a short-term protocol for fixed-time AI in sheep

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    Caliê Castilho


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the hormonal protocol for fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI with a progesterone vaginal device for six days applying equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG or estradiol benzoate (EB as an ovulation inducer in ewes. On day 0 (D0, the ewes (n=31 received a device containing 0.33 g of intravaginal progesterone (CIDR® and were divided into three groups. The G-CT (control group used CIDR for nine days and upon withdrawal of the progesterone, were administered prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2? and eCG. In the eCG (G-eCG group, CIDR was administered for six days, instead of nine as in the G-CT group, followed by PGF2a and eCG after progesterone withdrawal. In the EB (G-EB group, CIDR was also administered for six days, but eCG was not applied, and EB was used to induce ovulation 24 hours after removing the CIDR and PGF2a application. TAI was realized in all groups 50 hours after CIDR withdrawal. The pregnancy rate in the G-eCG group (66% was higher (p 0.05 compared to the G-CT group (30%. It is possible to reduce the application time of the progesterone and use eCG for TAI in sheep; however, using EB resulted in a low ovulation rate in the sheep.

  18. Detection on emamectin benzoate-induced apoptosis and DNA damage in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf-9 cell line. (United States)

    Wu, Xiwei; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Chao; Zong, Mimi; Huang, Qingchun; Tao, Liming


    Emamectin benzoate (EMB), an important macrocyclic lactone insecticide that belongs to the avermectin family and possesses excellent potency in controlling pests, is non-carcinogenic and non-mutagenic conducted in rats and mice, but EMB-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in arthropod insect have been seldom reported yet. In the present paper, we quantified the cytotoxicity of EMB through the detections on cell viability, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf-9 cells in vitro. The results showed that EMB caused a concentration- and time-dependent reduction on the viability of Sf-9 cells, and the median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were 3.34μM at 72h of exposure. The dual acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining showed that exposure to EMB induced a significant time- and concentration-dependent increase on cell apoptosis. The alkaline comet assay revealed that EMB induced significant increases on single-strand DNA breaks, and the percentage of γH2AX-positive cells represented a time- and concentration-dependent formation of DNA double-strand breaks in Sf-9 cells. Interestingly, the similar cytotoxic actions of EMB also went for the human cancerous HeLa cells as a control cell group. Data demonstrated the potential cytotoxic effect of EMB on Sf-9 cells that was significantly greater than the effect of hydrogen peroxide at the same concentrations.

  19. Energetic domains and conformational analysis of human serum albumin upon co-incubation with sodium benzoate and glucose. (United States)

    Taghavi, F; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Bohlooli, M; Habibi-Rezaei, M; Hadi Alijanvand, H; Amanlou, M; Sheibani, N; Saboury, A A; Ahmad, F


    Sodium benzoate (SB), a powerful inhibitor of microbial growth, is one of the most commonly used food preservative. Here, we determined the effects of SB on human serum albumin (HSA) structure in the presence or absence of glucose after 35 days of incubation under physiological conditions. The biochemical, biophysical, and molecular approaches including free amine content assay (TNBSA assay), fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and molecular docking and LIGPLOT studies were utilized for structural studies. The TNBSA results indicated that SB has the ability to bind Lys residues in HSA through covalent bonds. The docking and LIGPLOT studies also determined another specific site via hydrophobic interactions. The CD results showed more structural helicity for HSA incubated with SB, while HSA incubated with glucose had the least, and HSA incubated with glucose + SB had medium helicity. Fluorescence spectrophotometry results demonstrated partial unfolding of HSA incubated with SB in the presence or absence of glucose, while maximum partial unfolding was observed in HSA incubated with glucose. These results were confirmed by DSC and its deconvoluted thermograms. The DSC results also showed significant changes in HSA energetic structural domains due to HSA incubation with SB in the presence or absence of glucose. Together, our studies showed the formation of three different intermediates and indicate that biomolecular investigation are effective in providing new insight into safety determinations especially in health-related conditions including diabetes.

  20. Single and double hydrogen atom migrations in substituted alkyl benzoates: a study on the substituent effect using MIKE spectrometry (United States)

    Tobita, Seiji; Tajima, Susumu; Ishihara, Yasuko; Kojima, Masahiro; Shigihara, Atsushi


    The substituent effect on the single and double hydrogen atom migrations is ionized ortho-, meta-, and para-substituted isobutyl (XC6H4COOC4H9) and isopropyl (XC6H4COOC3H7) benzoates is investigated by mass-analyzed ion kinetic energy spectrometry. The observed product ion ratios [XC6H4COOH]+/[XC6H4COOH2]+ show a general tendency: the compounds with an electron-donating substituent favour the formation of [XC6H4COOH]+ by single hydrogen atom migration (McLafferty rearrangement), while those with an electron-withdrawing substituent produce preferentially [XC6H4COOH2]+ through double hydrogen atom migration (McLaffery + 1 rearrangement). The thermochemical considerations combined with MO calculations show that the substituent effects observed are rationalized by the effects of substituent on the ionization energy (IE) and proton affinity (PA) of XC6H4COOH, i.e. the product ratios are determined by the difference of the product thermochemical stabilities which can be evaluated as IE(XC6H4COOH) + PA(XC6H4COOH).

  1. Characterization of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate: Cross-Resistance Patterns and Fitness Cost Analysis. (United States)

    Afzal, M B S; Shad, S A


    Cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a sucking pest of worldwide importance causing huge losses by feeding upon cotton in various parts of the world. Because of the importance of this pest, this research was carried out to select emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis in the laboratory to study cross-resistance, stability, realized heritability, and fitness cost of emamectin resistance. After selection from third generation (G3) to G6, P. solenopsis developed very high emamectin resistance (159.24-fold) when compared to a susceptible unselected population (Unsel pop). Population selected to emamectin benzoate conferred moderate (45.81-fold), low (14.06-fold), and no cross-resistance with abamectin, cypermethrin, and profenofos, respectively compared to the Unsel pop. A significant decline in emamectin resistance was observed in the resistant population when not exposed to emamectin from G7 to G13. The estimated realized heritability (h (2)) for emamectin resistance was 0.84. A high fitness cost was associated with emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis. Results of this study may be helpful in devising insecticide resistance management strategies for P. solenopsis.

  2. Simplified RP-HPLC method for multi-residue analysis of abamectin, emamectin benzoate and ivermectin in rice. (United States)

    Xie, Xianchuan; Gong, Shu; Wang, Xiaorong; Wu, Yinxing; Zhao, Li


    A rapid, reliable and sensitive reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection (RP-FLD-HPLC) was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of the abamectin (ABA), emamectin (EMA) benzoate and ivermectin (IVM) residues in rice. After extraction with acetonitrile/water (2 : 1) with sonication, the avermectin (AVMs) residues were directly derivatised by N-methylimidazole (N-NMIM) and trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) and then analysed on RP-FLD-HPLC. A good linear relationship (r(2 )> 0.99) was obtained for three AVMs ranging from 0.01 to 5 microg ml(-1), i.e. 0.01-5.0 microg g(-1) in rice matrix. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were between 0.001 and 0.002 microg g(-1) and between 0.004 and 0.006 microg g(-1), respectively. Recoveries were from 81.9% to 105.4% and precision less than 12.4%. The proposed method was successfully applied to routine analysis of the AVMs residues in rice.

  3. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 2-Hydroxy-3-[(2-aryloxyethylamino]propyl 4-[(Alkoxycarbonylamino]benzoates

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    Jan Tengler


    Full Text Available A series of twenty substituted 2-hydroxy-3-[(2-aryloxyethylamino]propyl 4-[(alkoxycarbonylamino]benzoates were prepared and characterized. As similar compounds have been described as potential antimycobacterials, primary in vitro screening of the synthesized carbamates was also performed against two mycobacterial species. 2-Hydroxy-3-[2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethylamino]-propyl 4-(butoxycarbonylaminobenzoate hydrochloride, 2-hydroxy-3-[2-(4-methoxyphenoxyethylamino]-propyl 4-(butoxycarbonylaminobenzoate hydrochloride, and 2-hydroxy-3-[2-(2-methoxyphenoxyethylamino]-propyl 4-(butoxycarbonylaminobenzoate hydrochloride showed higher activity against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. intracellulare than the standards ciprofloxacin, isoniazid, or pyrazinamide. Cytotoxicity assay of effective compounds was performed using the human monocytic leukaemia THP-1 cell line. Compounds with predicted amphiphilic properties were also tested for their effects on the rate of photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts. All butyl derivatives significantly stimulated the rate of PET, indicating that the compounds can induce conformational changes in thylakoid membranes resulting in an increase of their permeability and so causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from electron transport.

  4. Vibrational spectroscopy, intramolecular CH⋯O interaction and conformational analysis of 2,5-dimethyl-benzyl benzoate (United States)

    Viana, Rommel B.; Ribeiro, Gabriela L. O.; Valencia, Leidy J.; Varela, Jaldyr J. G.; Viana, Anderson B.; da Silva, Albérico B. F.; Moreno-Fuquen, Rodolfo


    The aim of this study was to report the spectroscopic and electronic properties of 2,5-dimethyl-benzyl benzoate. FT-IR and Raman vibrational spectral analyses were performed, while a computational approach was used to elucidate the vibrational frequency couplings. The electronic properties were predicted using the Density Functional Theory, while the G3MP2 method was employed in the thermochemical calculation. A conformational analysis, frontier orbitals, partial atomic charge distribution and the molecular electrostatic potential were also estimated. Concerning to the dihedral angles in the ester group, a conformational analysis showed a barrier energy of 10 kcal mol-1, while other small barriers (below 0.6 kcal mol-1) were predicted within the potential surface energy investigation. Insights into the relative stability among the different positions of methyl groups in the phenyl ring demonstrated that the energy gaps were lower than 1 kcal mol-1 among the regioisomers. In addition, the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) was used to understand the intramolecular CH⋯O interaction in the title compound, while various methodologies were applied in the atomic charge distribution to evaluate the susceptibility to the population method.

  5. DNA content alterations in Tetrahymena pyriformis macronucleus after exposure to food preservatives sodium nitrate and sodium benzoate. (United States)

    Loutsidou, Ariadni C; Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Chasapis, C T; Terzoudi, Georgia I; Spiliopoulou, Chara A; Stefanidou, Maria E


    The toxicity, in terms of changes in the DNA content, of two food preservatives, sodium nitrate and sodium benzoate was studied on the protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis using DNA image analysis technology. For this purpose, selected doses of both food additives were administered for 2 h to protozoa cultures and DNA image analysis of T. pyriformis nuclei was performed. The analysis was based on the measurement of the Mean Optical Density which represents the cellular DNA content. The results have shown that after exposure of the protozoan cultures to doses equivalent to ADI, a statistically significant increase in the macronuclear DNA content compared to the unexposed control samples was observed. The observed increase in the macronuclear DNA content is indicative of the stimulation of the mitotic process and the observed increase in MOD, accompanied by a stimulation of the protozoan proliferation activity is in consistence with this assumption. Since alterations at the DNA level such as DNA content and uncontrolled mitogenic stimulation have been linked with chemical carcinogenesis, the results of the present study add information on the toxicogenomic profile of the selected chemicals and may potentially lead to reconsideration of the excessive use of nitrates aiming to protect public health.

  6. Safety and determination benzoic acid and sodium benzoate%苯甲酸和苯甲酸钠安全性与检测方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李菊; 刘淑君; 黄雪琳


      As one of the acidic preservative,the abuse of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate is very dangerous. Because the residue of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate would do great harm to the human health even cause cancer after they were taken through the food and medicament. The researchers have dedicated many efforts to research for residue determination of benzoic acid and Sodium Benzoate. The security and methods for benzoic acid and sodium benzoate detection were summarized. this study was useful for the detecting technology of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate residues.%  苯甲酸和苯甲酸钠是一种酸性防腐剂,过量滥用很危险;因苯甲酸和苯甲酸钠被人体过量摄入后,会对人体健康造成极大危害,甚至致癌。该文对苯甲酸和苯甲酸钠残留安全性及检测方法进行综述,以期为苯甲酸和苯甲酸钠残留检测方法研究提供参考。

  7. Sensitive and selective methods for the determination of rizatriptan benzoate in pharmaceuticals using N-bromosuccinimide and two dyes

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    Kudige Nagaraj Prashanth


    Full Text Available One titrimetric and two spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of rizatriptan benzoate (RTB in bulk drugs and in tablets. The methods use N-bromosuccinimide (NBS as an analytical reagent, janus green (JG and calmagite (CMG as auxiliary reagents. All the three methods are indirect in which the unreacted NBS is determined after the reaction between RTB and NBS is judged complete by iodometric back titration (method A or by reacting with a fixed amount of either janus green (method B or calmagite (method C followed by the measurement of absorbance at 620 nm (method B or 540 nm (method C. Titrimetry allows the determination of 1–10 mg of RTB and follows a reaction stoichiometry of 1:3 (RTB:NBS, whereas spectrophotometric methods are applicable over the concentration ranges of 0.5–8.0 μg ml−1 in method B and 1.5–30.0 μg ml−1 in method C. Method B with a calculated molar absorptivity of 3.03 × 104 L mol−1 cm−1 is the second most sensitive spectrophotometric method ever developed for RTB. The quality control/assurance parameters such as limits of detection (LOD, quantification (LOQ and Sandelle’s sensitivity values are also reported for the spectrophotometric method. The accuracy and precision of the methods were studied on intra-day and inter-day basis. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical adjuvants. Statistical comparison of the results with a reference method showed excellent agreement, and indicates no significant difference in accuracy and precision. The reliability of the methods was further ascertained by recovery studies via standard addition procedures.

  8. Up-regulation of neurotrophic factors by cinnamon and its metabolite sodium benzoate: therapeutic implications for neurodegenerative disorders. (United States)

    Jana, Arundhati; Modi, Khushbu K; Roy, Avik; Anderson, John A; van Breemen, Richard B; Pahan, Kalipada


    This study underlines the importance of cinnamon, a widely-used food spice and flavoring material, and its metabolite sodium benzoate (NaB), a widely-used food preservative and a FDA-approved drug against urea cycle disorders in humans, in increasing the levels of neurotrophic factors [e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3)] in the CNS. NaB, but not sodium formate (NaFO), dose-dependently induced the expression of BDNF and NT-3 in primary human neurons and astrocytes. Interestingly, oral administration of ground cinnamon increased the level of NaB in serum and brain and upregulated the levels of these neurotrophic factors in vivo in mouse CNS. Accordingly, oral feeding of NaB, but not NaFO, also increased the level of these neurotrophic factors in vivo in the CNS of mice. NaB induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA), but not protein kinase C (PKC), and H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated NaB-induced increase in neurotrophic factors. Furthermore, activation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein, but not NF-κB, by NaB, abrogation of NaB-induced expression of neurotrophic factors by siRNA knockdown of CREB and the recruitment of CREB and CREB-binding protein to the BDNF promoter by NaB suggest that NaB exerts its neurotrophic effect through the activation of CREB. Accordingly, cinnamon feeding also increased the activity of PKA and the level of phospho-CREB in vivo in the CNS. These results highlight a novel neutrophic property of cinnamon and its metabolite NaB via PKA - CREB pathway, which may be of benefit for various neurodegenerative disorders.

  9. DNA methylome changes by estradiol benzoate and bisphenol A links early-life environmental exposures to prostate cancer risk (United States)

    Cheong, Ana; Zhang, Xiang; Cheung, Yuk-Yin; Tang, Wan-yee; Chen, Jing; Ye, Shu-Hua; Medvedovic, Mario; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Prins, Gail S.; Ho, Shuk-Mei


    ABSTRACT Developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), 17β-estradiol-3-benzoate (EB) and bisphenol A (BPA), increases susceptibility to prostate cancer (PCa) in rodent models. Here, we used the methylated-CpG island recovery assay (MIRA)-assisted genomic tiling and CpG island arrays to identify treatment-associated methylome changes in the postnatal day (PND)90 dorsal prostate tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats neonatally (PND1, 3, and 5) treated with 25 µg/pup or 2,500 µg EB/kg body weight (BW) or 0.1 µg BPA/pup or 10 µg BPA/kg BW. We identified 111 EB-associated and 86 BPA-associated genes, with 20 in common, that have significant differentially methylated regions. Pathway analysis revealed cancer as the top common disease pathway. Bisulfite sequencing validated the differential methylation patterns observed by array analysis in 15 identified candidate genes. The methylation status of 7 (Pitx3, Wnt10b, Paqr4, Sox2, Chst14, Tpd52, Creb3l4) of these 15 genes exhibited an inverse correlation with gene expression in tissue samples. Cell-based assays, using 5-aza-cytidine-treated normal (NbE-1) and cancerous (AIT) rat prostate cells, added evidence of DNA methylation-mediated gene expression of 6 genes (exception: Paqr4). Functional connectivity of these genes was linked to embryonic stem cell pluripotency. Furthermore, clustering analyses using the dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed that expression of this set of 7 genes was associated with recurrence-free survival of PCa patients. In conclusion, our study reveals that gene-specific promoter methylation changes, resulting from early-life EDC exposure in the rat, may serve as predictive epigenetic biomarkers of PCa recurrence, and raises the possibility that such exposure may impact human disease. PMID:27415467

  10. Sodium benzoate, a food preservative, affects the functional and activation status of splenocytes at non cytotoxic dose. (United States)

    Yadav, Ashish; Kumar, Arvind; Das, Mukul; Tripathi, Anurag


    Sodium benzoate (SB) is a widely used food preservative due to its bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties. The acceptable daily intake of SB is 5 mg/kg-bw, however, it has been found to be used in the food commodities at relatively high levels (2119 mg/kg). Earlier studies on SB have shown its immunosuppressive properties, but comprehensive immunotoxicity data is lacking. Our studies have shown that SB was non cytotoxic in splenocytes up to 1000 μg/ml for 72 h, however at 2500 μg/ml it was found to be cytotoxic. Thus, 1000 μg/ml dose of SB was chosen for the subsequent experiments. SB significantly suppresses the proliferation of Con A and LPS stimulated splenocytes at 72 h, while allogenic response of T cells was significantly decreased after 96 h. SB did not affect the relative expression of CD3e or CD4 molecules following 72 h exposure, however, it downregulated the relative expression of CD8 co-receptor. Further, exposure of splenocytes to SB for 72 h led to reduced expression of CD28 and CD95, which play a vital role in T cell activation. SB also suppresses the relative expression of CD19, CD40 and CD95 receptors on B cells after 72 h. In addition to the functional responses, SB lowered the expression of IL4, IL6, IFNγ and IL17 cytokines in Con A stimulated splenocytes; and IL6, IFNγ and TNFα in LPS stimulated splenocytes following 48 h of exposure. Taken together, the present study is suggestive of the immunomodulatory potential of SB.

  11. Sodium benzoate, a metabolite of cinnamon and a food additive, upregulates ciliary neurotrophic factor in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (United States)

    Modi, Khushbu K.; Jana, Malabendu; Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada


    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a promyelinating trophic factor that plays an important role in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, mechanisms by which CNTF expression could be increased in the brain are poorly understood. Recently we have discovered anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of sodium benzoate (NaB), a metabolite of cinnamon and a widely-used food additive. Here, we delineate that NaB is also capable of increasing the mRNA and protein expression of CNTF in primary mouse astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and primary human astrocytes. Accordingly, oral administration of NaB and cinnamon led to the upregulation of astroglial and oligodendroglial CNTF in vivo in mouse brain. Induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, reduced the level of CNTF in the brain, which was restored by oral administration of cinnamon. While investigating underlying mechanisms, we observed that NaB induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated NaB-induced expression of CNTF. The activation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein by NaB, the recruitment of CREB and CREB-binding protein to the CNTF promoter by NaB and the abrogation of NaB-induced expression of CNTF in astrocytes by siRNA knockdown of CREB suggest that NaB increases the expression of CNTF via the activation of CREB. These results highlight a novel myelinogenic property of NaB and cinnamon, which may be of benefit for MS and other demyelinating disorders. PMID:26399250


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Aderinola


    Full Text Available The quality parameters of kunu-zaki supplemented with groundnut was investigated in this study. Millet, groundnut, ginger, dry red pepper and sugar were used for the production. After production, some samples were pasteurized at 700C for 30 minutes and stored at refrigerated (oC and ambient conditions (oC. A fresh control sample was also prepared at interval for comparison. Analyses were carried out to determine the chemical composition, microbiological and sensory qualities of product during storage over a period of twenty seven (27 days. Results showed that addition of groundnut improved chemical composition of the fresh samples. It could be attributed to the crude protein and the fat content in the added groundnut. The results were: moisture, 75.7%; crude protein, 13.06%; fat, 7.35%; ash, 0.39% and carbohydrate, 3.5%. The pH values for the fresh samples were: 3.31 (pasteurized refrigerated; 3.31 (pasteurized unrefrigerated; 3.57 (unpasteurized refrigerated; 3.64 (unpasteurized unrefrigerated and 3.93 for the Fresh sample. The results of the mineral element (mg/100g were: Ca, 152; Na, 0.19; Mg, 4.76; K, 2.74 and P, 123.22. There was no detection of the presence of the indicator organism – E coli. Results of the sensory evaluation of the product carried out using a five-man panel showed that there were no differences in the appearance, taste and flavor for the first day. However, the pasteurized refrigerated sample with the addition of sodium benzoate was better on the overall acceptability.

  13. 超声法制备苯甲酸钠微胶囊的工艺研究%Research on Processing Technology of Sodium Benzoate Microcapsules by Ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章斌; 刘志聪; 侯小桢; 赖宣; 许淼鑫; 王士超


    以β-环糊精为壁材,以包埋率为指标,采用单因素试验和Box-Behnken 中心组合设计试验对超声法制备苯甲酸钠微胶囊的工艺进行优化。试验结果表明:超声法制备苯甲酸钠包合物的最佳工艺条件为芯/壁材比1∶7.17,超声包埋时间29.9 min,超声包埋功率180 W,此条件下的实际包埋率为80.5%,与模型预测值之间具有较好的拟合性。%Takeβ-cyclodextrin as wall material and embedding rate of sodium benzoate as main index, the single factor experiment and Box-Behnken response surface methodology for optimization of sodi-um benzoate microcapsules by ultrasound method is explored.The results show that the optimum process conditions for preparation of sodium benzoate clathrate by ultrasound method are as follows:the core/wall material ratio of 1∶7.17,the ultrasonic embedding time of 29.9 min,the ultrasonic embedding power of 180 W,the embedding rate can reach 80.5%,and the regression model is con-sistent with the predicted results.

  14. Transcription analysis of stx1, marA, and eaeA genes in Escherichia coli O157:H7 treated with sodium benzoate. (United States)

    Critzer, Faith J; Dsouza, Doris H; Golden, David A


    Expression of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) operon causes increased antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens. The activator of this operon, MarA, can alter expression of >60 genes in Escherichia coli K-12. However, data on the expression of virulence and resistance genes when foodborne pathogens are exposed to antimicrobial agents are lacking. This study was conducted to determine transcription of marA (mar activator), stx1 (Shiga toxin 1), and eaeA (intimin) genes of E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 as affected by sodium benzoate. E. coli O157:H7 was grown in Luria-Bertani broth containing 0 (control) and 1% sodium benzoate at 37 degrees C for 24 h, and total RNA was extracted. Primers were designed for hemX (209 bp; housekeeping gene), marA (261 bp), and eaeA (223 bp) genes; previously reported primers were used for stx1. Tenfold dilutions of RNA were used in a real-time one-step reverse transcriptase PCR to determine transcription levels. All experiments were conducted in triplicate, and product detection was validated by gel electrophoresis. For marA and stx1, real-time one-step reverse transcriptase PCR products were detected at a 1-log-greater dilution in sodium benzoate-treated cells than in control cells, although cell numbers for each were similar (7.28 and 7.57 log CFU/ml, respectively). This indicates a greater (albeit slight) level of their transcription in treated cells than in control cells. No difference in expression of eaeA was observed. HemX is a putative uroporphyrinogen III methylase. The hemX gene was expressed at the same level in control and treated cells, validating hemX as an appropriate housekeeping marker. These data indicate that stx1 and marA genes could play a role in pathogen virulence and survival when treated with sodium benzoate, whereas eaeA expression is not altered. Understanding adaptations of E. coli O157:H7 during antimicrobial exposure is essential to better understand and implement methods to inhibit or control

  15. Practical synthesis of methyl (E)-2-(3-(3-(2-(7-chloro-2-quinolinyl)ethenyl)phenyl)-3-oxopropyl)benzoate, a key intermediate of Montelukast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang He; Yang Hui Guo; Ya Ping Wang; Xiang Jing Wang; Ji Zhang; Wen Sheng Xiang


    A novel and practical synthetic route is presented for the preparation of methyl-(E)-2-(3-(3-(2-(7-chloro-2-quinolinyl)ethenyl)phenyl)-3-oxopropyl)benzoate,the key intermediate of Montelukast,a leukotriene antagonist.The main diarylpropane framework was prepared via a polarity conversation reaction resulting in an acyl anion equivalent followed by a nucleophilic substitution reaction.The overall yield of this approach was 61%.This method is simple for operation and suitable for industrial production.

  16. The reproductive performance of dairy cows with anovulatory anoestrus that were injected with either gonadotrophin-releasing hormone or oestradiol benzoate as part of a re-treatment process after insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V.E. Segwagwe


    Full Text Available This experiment compared the reproductive performance of synchronised anoestrous dairy cows that were treated initially with a combination of progesterone and oestradiol benzoate and then with either gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH or oestradiol benzoate to resynchronise returns to service. It was hypothesised that injecting anoestrous dairy cows with GnRH 12-15 days after insemination and coinciding with the time of insertion of a controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing (CIDR device would increase conception rates to the preceding 1st insemination compared with oestradiol benzoate treated cows; both GnRH and oestradiol benzoate would resynchronising the returns to service of those cows that did not conceive to the preceding insemination. Groups of cows in 11 herds were presented for a veterinary examination after they had not been seen in oestrus postpartum. Those cows diagnosed with anovulatory anoestrus (n = 1112 by manual rectal palpation and / or ultrasonography were enrolled in the trial. Each enrolled cow was injected with 2mg oestradiol benzoate i.m. on Day -10, (where Day 0 was the 1st day of the planned insemination concurrently with vaginal insertion of a CIDR device. The device inserted was withdrawn on Day -2 and then each cow injected i.m. with 1 mg of oestradiol benzoate on Day -1 unless it was in oestrus. Observation for oestrus preceded each insemination. Every cow that had been inseminated on Days -1,0,1 or 2 was presented for treatment for resynchrony on Day 14 (n=891. They were divided into 2 groups; those with an even number were each injected i.m. with 250 µg of a GnRH agonist (Treatment group n = 477; each of the cows with an odd number injected i.m. with 1mg of oestradiol benzoate (control group, n = 414. Each GnRH or oestradiol benzoate injection preceded reinsertion of a CIDR device previously inserted from Days -10 to -2. It was withdrawn on Day 22, 24 hours before injecting 1mg oestradiol benzoate

  17. Effects of estradiol benzoate on 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activities in female rat anterior pituitary gland, liver and thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbôa P.C.


    Full Text Available There is little information on the possible effects of estrogen on the activity of 5'-deiodinase (5'-ID, an enzyme responsible for the generation of T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. In the present study, anterior pituitary sonicates or hepatic and thyroid microsomes from ovariectomized (OVX rats treated or not with estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.7 or 14 µg/100 g body weight, sc, for 10 days were assayed for type I 5'-ID (5'-ID-I and type II 5'-ID (5'-ID-II, only in pituitary activities. The 5'-ID activity was evaluated by the release of 125I from deiodinated 125I rT3, using specific assay conditions for type I or type II. Serum TSH and free T3 and free T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. OVX alone induced a reduction in pituitary 5'-ID-I (control = 723.7 ± 67.9 vs OVX = 413.9 ± 26.9; P<0.05, while the EB-treated OVX group showed activity similar to that of the normal group. Thyroid 5'-ID-I showed the same pattern of changes, but these changes were not statistically significant. Pituitary and hepatic 5'-ID-II did not show major alterations. The treatment with the higher EB dose (14 µg, contrary to the results obtained with the lower dose, had no effect on the reduced pituitary 5'-ID-I of OVX rats. However, it induced an important increment of 5'-ID-I in the thyroid gland (0.8 times higher than that of the normal group: control = 131.9 ± 23.7 vs ovx + EB 14 µg = 248.0 ± 31.2; P<0.05, which is associated with increased serum TSH (0.6-fold vs OVX, P<0.05 but normal serum free T3 and free T4. The data suggest that estrogen is a physiological stimulator of anterior pituitary 5'-ID-I and a potent stimulator of the thyroid enzyme when employed at high doses

  18. Estudio de las Propiedades Anticorrosivas del Benzoato de Hierro (III en Pinturas Base Solvente Study of Anticorrosive Properties of the Iron (III Benzoate in Solvent Based Paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Blustein


    Full Text Available La acción inhibidora del benzoato de hierro en electrodos de acero SAE 1010 en contacto con una suspensión acuosa fue estudiada mediante ensayos electroquímicos. Paralelamente, la eficiencia anticorrosiva de este producto incorporado a cubiertas orgánicas base solvente fue evaluada mediante ensayos de envejecimiento acelerado (cámara de niebla salina y de humedad. La evolución del comportamiento protector de la cubierta aplicada sobre paneles de acero pintados e inmersos en una solución 0.5M de NaClO4 fue periódicamente monitoreada por espectroscopía de impedancia electroquímica. Los resultados obtenidos indican que las pinturas formuladas con benzoato férrico presentan una capacidad anticorrosiva comparable a las formuladas con fosfato de cinc.This study investigated the inhibitory action of iron benzoate on SAE 1010 steel electrodes in aqueous suspensions using electrochemical assays. The anticorrosive efficiency of this product added to organic solvent-based coatings was also evaluated by means of accelerated weathering tests (salt spray cabinet and humidity chamber. The evolution of the protective behavior of the coating applied on steel panels and immersed in 0.5M NaClO4 solution was periodically checked by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results obtained showed that paints formulated with ferric benzoate provide anticorrosive protection similar to those formulated with zinc phosphate.

  19. Nociceptive behaviors were induced by electrical stimulation of the dura mater surrounding the superior sagittal sinus in conscious adult rats and reduced by morphine and rizatriptan benzoate. (United States)

    Dong, Zhao; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaolin; Yu, Shengyuan


    The trigeminovascular nociception induced by electrical stimulation of the dura mater surrounding the superior sagittal sinus in anesthetized animals has been widely used as a model for investigation of the pathophysiology of vascular headache such as migraine. However, little is known whether pain behaviors can be induced using this model in conscious animals. Thus, to establish a new model of trigeminovascular nociception in conscious animals and to examine the effects of morphine and rizatriptan benzoate on nociceptive behaviors in this new model, we electrically stimulated the dura mater surrounding the superior sagittal sinus. We found that grooming and head-flick activities were altered partially in a frequency-dependent way and that frequencies ranging from 10 to 20 Hz more easily provoked these behaviors. Moreover, we also demonstrated that these behaviors were reduced by morphine and rizatriptan benzoate. Thus, this new model will provide a useful and appropriate tool to directly assess changes in the intensity of pain for further investigation of pathophysiological mechanisms of migraine in conscious animals.

  20. Fixation of chiral smectic liquid crystal (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate using UV curing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afrizal,, E-mail:; Nurdelima,; Umeir [Faculty of Mathemathics and Natural Science, University of State Jakarta, Jakarta (Indonesia); Hikam, Muhammad; Soegiyono, Bambang [Department of Materials Science, University of Indonesia, Depok (Indonesia); Riswoko, Asep [Center for Material Technology, BPPT, Jl. MH.Thamrin 8 Jakarta (Indonesia)


    Chiral Smectic Liquid Crystal (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate has been synthesized using method of steglich esterification at room temperature. The mesomorphic behavior of chiral smectic at 55°C that showed schlieren texture in POM analysis. Fixation of structure chiral smectic liquid crystal by means of photopolymerization of monomer (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate under UV irradiation which called UV curing techniques. The curing process using UV 3 lamps 100 volt at 60°C for an hour. The product of photopolymerization could be seen by analysis of FTIR spectra both monomer and polymer. FTIR spectra of monomer, two peaks for ester carbonyl and C-C double bond groups appeared at 1729.09 cm-1and 3123.46 cm{sup −1}. After UV curing process, peak for the carbonyl group at 1729.09 cm{sup −1} decreased and a new peak at 1160.21 cm{sup −1} appeared due to the carbonyl group attached to a C-C bond group and then peak at 3123.46 cm{sup −1} for C-C double bond group was disappeared.

  1. Microbial evolution during storage of seasoned olives prepared with organic acids with potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, and ozone used as preservatives. (United States)

    Arroyo López, F N; Durán Quintana, M C; Garrido Fernández, A


    The effect of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, and ozone in combination with citric, lactic, and acetic acids on the microbial population of seasoned table olives of the olive 'Aloreña' cultivar was studied in both fresh (FF) and stored fruits (SF). The inactivation/growth curves were modeled and the biological parameters estimated, with yeast used as the target microorganism. Regardless of the acid added, potassium sorbate showed a general inactivation effect on yeasts in the products prepared from both FF and SE Sodium benzoate had a rapid inactivation effect with FF, but with SF, it was effective only in the presence of acetic acid. A strain of Issatchenkia occidentalis was found that was resistant to the combination of this preservative with citric or lactic acids. In FF, ozone showed an initial marked inhibition against yeasts, but later, yeasts were again able to grow. In SF, ozone was a strong inactivating agent when it replaced any of the traditional preservatives. Lactic acid bacteria were always absent in products prepared from FF, and apparently were not affected by the different preservative agents in those prepared from SF. The behavior of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria populations in commercial products were similar to those found in experimental treatments.

  2. Inhibitor effects of sodium benzoate on corrosion resistance of Al6061-B4C composites in NaCl and H3BO3 solutions (United States)

    Rafi-ud-din; Shafqat, Q. A.; Shahzad, M.; Ahmad, Ejaz; Asghar, Z.; Rafiq, Nouman; Qureshi, A. H.; Syed, Waqar adil; asim Pasha, Riffat


    Sodium benzoate (SB) is used for the first time to inhibit the corrosion of Al6061-B4C composites in H3BO3 and NaCl solutions. Al6061100-x -x wt% B4C (x = 0, 5, and 10) composites are manufactured by a powder metallurgy route. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of SB is investigated as a function of the volume fractions of B4C particles by using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance techniques. Without the use of an inhibitor, an increase of the B4C particles in the composite decreases the corrosion resistance of Al6061-B4C composites. It is found that SB is an efficient corrosion inhibitor for Al6061-B4C composites in both investigated solutions. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of SB increases with an increase in B4C content. Since SB is an adsorption type inhibitor, it is envisaged that an extremely thin layer of molecules adsorbs onto the surface and suppresses the oxidation and reduction. It is found that the inhibitor effect of SB is more pronounced in a H3BO3 environment than in NaCl solution. Further, the mechanism of corrosion inhibition by SB is illustrated by using optical and scanning electron microscopy of corroded samples. It is found that the adsorption of benzoate ions on the Al surface and its bonding with Al3+ ions forms a hydrophobic layer on top of the exposed Al surface, which enhances the protection against dissolved boride ions.

  3. Design, synthesis and in vitro antibacterial activities of methyl-4-((substituted phenyl) [6H-indolo (2,3-b)quinoxalin-6-yl]methyl-amino)benzoate derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yellajyosula Lakshmi Narasimha Murthy; Nagalakshmi Karthikeyan; Govindh Boddeti; Bhagavathula S. Diwakar; E. Rajendra Singh


    A series of new methyl-4-((substituted phenyl) [6H-indolo (2,3-b)quinoxalin-6yllmethylamino)benzoate derivatives have been synthesized and assayed for their antibacterial activity on 9 different bacterial strains. Among the screened compounds 2e-2g exhibited potent inhibitory activity compared to standard drug employed, worth further investigation.

  4. The Fos expression in rat brain following electrical stimulation of dura mater surrounding the superior sagittal sinus changed with the pre-treatment of rizatriptan benzoate. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Yu, Shengyuan; Dong, Zhao; Jiang, Lei


    Fos expression in the brain was systematically investigated by means of immunohistochemical staining after electrical stimulation of the dura mater surrounding the superior sagittal sinus in conscious rats. Fos-like immunoreactive neurons are distributed mainly in the upper cervical spinal cord, spinal trigeminal nucleus caudal part, raphe magnus nucleus, periaqueductal gray, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, and mediodorsal thalamus nucleus. With the pre-treatment of intraperitoneal injection of rizatriptan benzoate, the number of Fos-like immunoreactive neurons decreased in the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudal part and raphe magnus nucleus, increased in the periaqueductal gray, and remained unchanged in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and mediodorsal thalamus nucleus. These results provide morphological evidence that the nuclei described above are involved in the development and maintenance of the trigeminovascular headache.

  5. Effect of sodium benzoate on DNA breakage, micronucleus formation and mitotic index in peripheral blood of pregnant rats and their newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetin Saatci


    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate (SB is one of the most widely used additives in food products in the world. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of three different concentrations of SB on the DNA breakage in liver cells and on the micronuclei formation and the mitotic index in lymphocytes of pregnant rats and their fetuses, as well as to evaluate the effects of SB on the fetus development. The results showed that general genomic injuries were present in almost all the liver cell samples obtained from the SB group compared with the control (non-treated group. This indicates that SB usage may cause DNA damage and increase micronuclei formation. We recommend that pregnant women should avoid consuming foodstuffs containing SB as an additive.

  6. Excess parameters for binary mixtures of ethyl benzoate with 1-propanol, 1-butanol and 1-pentanol at T=303, 308, 313, 318, and 323 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreehari Sastry, S., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Andhra Pradesh 522 510 (India); Babu, Shaik, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Andhra Pradesh 522 510 (India); Vishwam, T., E-mail: [Department of Engineering Physics, Gitam University, Hyderabad Campus, Andhra Pradesh 502 239 (India); Parvateesam, K., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Andhra Pradesh 522 510 (India); Sie Tiong, Ha., E-mail: [Faculty of Science, Department of Chemical Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak (Malaysia)


    Various thermo–acoustic parameters, such as excess isentropic compressibility (K{sub s}{sup E}), excess molar volume (V{sup E}), excess free length (L{sub f}{sup E}), excess Gibb's free energy (ΔG{sup *E}), and excess Enthalpy (H{sup E}), have been calculated from the experimentally determined data of density, viscosity and speed of sound for the binary mixtures of ethyl benzoate+1-propanol, or +1-butanol, or +1-pentanol over the entire range of composition at different temperatures (303, 308, 313, 318 and 323 K). The excess functions have been fitted to the Redlich–Kister type polynomial equation. The deviations for excess thermo–acoustic parameters have been explained on the basis of the intermolecular interactions present in these binary mixtures.

  7. Identification of the novel synthetic cannabimimetic 8-quinolinyl 4-methyl-3-(1-piperidinylsulfonyl)benzoate (QMPSB) and other designer drugs in herbal incense. (United States)

    Blakey, Karen; Boyd, Sue; Atkinson, Sarah; Wolf, Jenna; Slottje, Pim M; Goodchild, Katrina; McGowan, Jenny


    The identification and structural elucidation of the novel synthetic cannabimimetic 8-quinolinyl 4-methyl-3-(1-piperidinylsulfonyl)benzoate (QMPSB) by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR is reported. QMPSB was identified in Queensland, Australia on plant material packaged as herbal incense. The identification of QMPSB was initially hampered due to trans-esterification occurring in the extraction solvent. An investigation of the trans-esterification of QMPSB in methanol and ethanol was conducted and analytical data for the respective methyl and ethyl esters are reported. Analytical data is presented for two other compounds detected on seized plant material packaged as herbal incense: the synthetic cannabimimetic 1-[(N-methylpiperidin-2-yl)methyl]-3-(4-methyl-1-naphthoyl)indole (MAM-1220) and the JWH-081 analogue 1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-3-(4-methoxy-1-naphthoyl)indole (CHM-081).

  8. LC-MS/MS Analysis and Pharmacokinetics of Sodium (±-5-Bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl Benzoate (BZP, an Innovative Potent Anti-Ischemic Stroke Agent in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tian


    Full Text Available A rapid, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of sodium (±-5-Bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl benzoate (BZP and its active metabolite 3-butyl-6-bromo-1(3H-isobenzofuranone (Br-NBP in rat plasma using potassium 2-(1-hydroxypentyl-benzoate (PHPB and l-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP as internal standards (IS. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Hypersil GOLD C18 column using a gradient elution of ammonium acetate and methanol at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Good linearity was achieved within the wide concentration range of 5–10,000 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precision was less than 8.71% and the accuracy was within −8.53% and 6.38% in quality control and the lower limit of quantitation samples. BZP and Br-NBP were stable during the analysis and the storage period. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic studies of BZP in Sprague-Dawley rats for the first time. After a single intravenous administration of BZP at the dose of 0.75 mg/kg, the plasma concentration of BZP and Br-NBP declined rapidly and the AUC0-t of BZP was significantly greater in female rats compared to male rats (p < 0.05. The data presented in this study serve as a firm basis for further investigation of BZP in both preclinical and clinical phases.

  9. 中心组合设计优化复凝聚法制备甲维盐微囊工艺%Optimization of Technology for Complex Coacervation on Emamectin Benzoate Microcapsule Preparation by Center Composite Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈效忠; 李守君; 李晓凤; 王玉峰; 于莲; 慎爱民; 江欣; 苏瑾; 宗希明


    [Aims] Optimized the preparation technology of emamectin-benzoate microcapsule. [Methods] Emamectin-benzoate was encapsulated into microcapsules using gelatin and arabic gum as coating materials by complex coacervation. Mass concentration of the emamectin-benzoate was analysed by UV spectrophotometry and the entrapment rate was reckoned. The entrapment rate was used as index, and the preparation technology was optimized by CCD. [Results] The optimum technology conditions of emamectin benzoate microcapsule was set up. The stirred rate was 600 r/min, the reaction temperature was 47 ℃, the reaction time was 107 min and the entrapment rate was 74.27%. [Conclusions] The deviation between predictive value of CCD and measured value was little, optimize method was feasible, and the entrapment rate was higher than before.%[目的]优化甲维盐微囊制备工艺.[方法]实验以明胶和阿拉伯胶为壁材,采用复凝聚法制备甲维盐微囊.用紫外分光光度法测定甲维盐含量,计算包封率.以包封率为指标,通过中心组合设计对制备工艺进行优化.[结果]复凝聚法制备甲维盐微囊的最佳工艺为600 r/min,47℃,反应107 min,包封率为74.27%.[结论]CCD预测值与实际测量值偏差小,优化方法可行,且包封率较高.

  10. Impact of Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin Associated with Temporary Weaning, Estradiol Benzoate, or Estradiol Cypionate on Timed Artificial Insemination in Primiparous Bos Indicus Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Luis Bastos Souza

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the impact of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG associated with different timed artificial insemination (TAI protocols on the pregnancy rate (PR in Bos indicus cows previously treated with progesterone. Five hundred and fifty-seven primiparous cows were subjected to the following treatments: on day 0 (d0, GeCGTW (group equine Chorionic Gonadotropin+Temporary Weaning;n=178 received 0,558 g intravaginal progesterone (P4+1.0 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB (IM; on d8 (P4 removal+0,075 mg D-cloprostenol + 400 IU eCG + TW for 48 h; on d10, TAI + calves return to dam; GeCGEB (group equine Chorionic Gonadotropin+Estradiol benzoate; n=176 the same as GeCGTW without TW + application of 1.0 mg of EB on d9; GeCGEC (group equine Chorionic Gonadotropin+Estradiol Cypionate; n=203, the same as GeCGTW without TW+1.5 mg EC (IM. On d35, post TAI, pregnancy diagnosis (PD was performed. Non-pregnant animals remained under clean-up bulls for 90 days. After this period, the animals were subjected to PD using ultrasound. The PR of TAI was 51.1%, 47.1%, and 47.8% for GeCGTW, GeCGEB24, and GeCGEC (P>0.05 respectively. The PR under clean-up bulls was 88.3%, 47.3%, and 31.1% (P<0.05. The final PR (TAI+clean-up bulls of the groups was 94.4%, 72.1%, and 64.0%, respectively (P<0.05. It was concluded that no differences in PR among the protocols related to TAI were detected; PR in the GeCGTW protocol under clean-up bulls was higher compared to others (P<0.05; the overall PR of cows subjected to TAI+clean-up bulls was significantly higher in GeCGTW than in the other groups.

  11. Antifungal Activity of Diglycerin Ester of Fatty Acids against Yeasts and Its Comparison with Those of Sucrose Monopalmitate and Sodium Benzoate. (United States)

    Shimazaki, Aiko; Sakamoto, Jin J; Furuta, Masakazu; Tsuchido, Tetsuaki


    The antifungal activities of diglycerin monoester of fatty acids (DGCs), which have been employed as food emulsifiers, were examined against three yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans and Candida utilis and were compared with those of sucrose monoester of palmitic acid (SC16) as another type of emulsifier and sodium benzoate (SB) as a weak acid food preservative. When the minimum growth inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of diglycerin monolaurate (DGC12) against these yeasts were determined 2 d after incubation in YM broth at pH5.0, they were relatively low, being 0.01% (w/v), for both S. cerevisiae and C. utilis, whereas was high, being 4.0% (w/v), for C. albicans. On the contrary, the MICs of sucrose monopalmitate (SC16) were high, being 3.0 and 4.0% (w/v), for the former two yeasts, respectively, but 0.6% (w/v) for the last yeast. In contrast to these emulsifiers, the MICs of sodium benzoate (SB) were similar independently upon the yeast strain, being in order 0.4, 0.3 and 0.5% (w/v), for the above yeasts, respectively. The anti-yeast activities of DGC12 and SC16 were gradually increased with a decrease in pH, in a manner similar to that of SB, except for the action of SC16 on C. albicans, for which the activity was more effective at pHs 5.0 and 6.0 than at pHs 4.0 and 7.0. Among DGCs tested having different fatty acid moieties in the molecule, lauroyl ester (DGC12) was more effective than myristoyl and palmitoyl esters against S. cerevisiae and C. utilis. The inhibitory effect of DGC12 on the yeast growth depended upon both the cell density and the strength of aeration during the treatment. Further, DGC12 was found to kill S. cerevisiae and C. utilis cells at a rather low concentration of 0.005% (w/v) in 50mM acetate buffer at pH5.0, although, against C. albicans cells, only slight fungicidal activity was demonstrated at a high concentration of 0.5% (w/v). The results obtained support the effectiveness of practical application of DGC12 to acidic

  12. 苯甲酸钠对草履虫的毒性作用研究%Research on the Toxicity of Sodium Benzoate against Paramecium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊; 李霖; 张晓燕


    The acute and chronic toxicity of sodium benzoate (SB) against paramecium was studied in this article. The one-hour acute toxicity experiment showed that the higher SB concentration was, the greater was the toxic effect. LC50 was 14.14g·L^-1 while the maximum totally-lethal concentration and minimum lethal con-centration was 19g·L^-1 and 8g·L^-1, respectively. The chronic toxicity experiment indicated that there existed significant dose-response-effect as well as time-response effect between the population growth rate and SB concentration. When the SB concentration was less than the minimum lethal concentration, an increased population growth rate was observed with the higher SB concentration when treated with a certain range of SB con- centration within a certain time. This promotion effect of sodium benzoate on the reproduction of paramecium might be due to the effect of environmental estrogens.%本文研究了苯甲酸钠对草履虫的急性和慢性毒性作用。结果表明:1h急性毒性实验显示,浓度越大,死亡率越高。1h急性毒性作用LC50为14.14g·L^-1,绝对致死剂量为19g·L^-1,最小致死剂量为8g·L^-1。慢性毒性实验显示,种群增长率与苯甲酸钠浓度间具有显著的反应-剂量效应和反应-时间效应,在小于绝对致死剂量情况下,一定时间、一定浓度范围内呈现出浓度越大,种群增长率越高的现象。苯甲酸钠对草履虫生殖的促进作用有可能是环境雌激素的效应。

  13. 甲维盐与苏云金杆菌复配对黄野螟增效作用研究%Studies on the Synergistic Effects of Emamectin--benzoate and Bacillus thuringiensis on Heortia vitessoides Moore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲; 郑礼飞; 陈志云; 李东文; 曹春雷; 李奕震


    The synergistic effects of Emamectin--benzoate, Bacillus thuringiensis, and their mixtures on Heortza wtessoides were tested in the laboratory by the leaf--dipping method. The results showed that the LC50 of Emamectin--benzoate and Bacillus thuringiensis were 0. 0000001286mg/L and 0. 0006943385mg/L, respectively. The mixture of Emamectin--benzoate and Bacillus thuringiensis with ratio of 8 : 2, 7 : 3 or 6:4 had remarkable synergistic effects.%采用浸叶法测定了两种农药对黄野螟的增效作用及两种药剂复配的适宜配比。结果表明:甲维盐和苏云金杆菌对黄野螟的制剂LC50值分别是0.0000001286mg/L和0.0006943385mg/L,前者毒力大于后者;两者以重量比为8∶2、7:3和6:4混配时的增效作用最明显。

  14. 苯甲酸降解途径及转化生产粘康酸的研究进展%Research Progress in Benzoate Degradation Pathways and Transformation for cis,cis-Muconic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢能中; 黄艳燕; 李检秀; 郭铃; 李亿; 王青艳; 陈东; 杜奇石; 黄日波


    苯甲酸是多种芳香化合物生物代谢的重要中间物,对微生物降解苯甲酸的生物化学和遗传学研究,有利于阐明芳香化合物的生物降解机制,分离和培育出降解谱广和降解性能高的菌株应用于废水处理、环境修复和生物转化。苯甲酸的儿茶酚邻位裂解(ortho-cleavage)途径会产生粘康酸,后者是一种潜在的平台化合物,用于生产新型功能树脂、生物塑料、食品添加剂等产品。本文综述了微生物降解苯甲酸和转化生产粘康酸的研究和进展,并提出该领域研究今后的发展方向,为后续研究提供有价值的参考。%Benzoate is a model aromatic compound,which is also an important intermediate of a variety of aromatic compounds. Studying microbial degradation of benzoate provides knowledge on the metabolic mechanism of other aromatic compounds,facilitates the screen of efficient bacteria for wastewater treatment,environmental remediation and biotransforma-tion.Benzoate can be metabolized via catechol by means of the ortho-cleavage pathway to yield cis,cis-muconic acid,which is suggested to be an interesting platform chemical for the pro-duction of new functional resins,bio-plastics and food additives.In this paper,various benzoate degradation pathways and cis,cis-muconic acid production by biotransformation of benzoate are reviewed, and guidelines for developing high performance microbial cell factory for cis,cis-muconic acid production are also proposed.

  15. Metallo-porphyrazines with eight [5-thiopentyl 3,4,5-tris(benzyloxy)benzoate] groups: Synthesis, characterization, aggregation, and solubility behavior (United States)

    Gonca, Ergün


    Metal-free and metallo-porphyrazines having eight 5-hydroxypentylthio units at the peripheral positions have been prepared from 2,3-bis(5-hydroxypentylthio)maleonitrile. By the esterification reaction of magnesium hydroxy-porphyrazine with 3,4,5-tris(benzyloxy)benzoic acid in dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and toluene-p-sulfonic acid, the reactivity of the hydroxypentyl units was indicated. On the other hand, iron porphyrazine derivatives with eight [5-thiopentyl 3,4,5-tris(benzyloxy)benzoate] groups attached to the periphery positions were synthesized. By the reaction of metal-free porphyrazine with iron (II) acetate and further processing with HCl solution, FePzCl was obtained. Finally, by reacting FePzCl with pyridine or pyrazine, [FePz(py)2] and [FePz(pyz)]n complexes were prepared, respectively. The characterizations of target complexes were carried out by utilizing different spectroscopic methods such as FT-IR, UV-vis, mass, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR together with elemental analysis.

  16. Crystal structures of (E-4-[1-(2-carbamothioylhydrazinylideneethyl]phenyl acetate and (E-4-[1-(2-carbamothioylhydrazinylideneethyl]phenyl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan Viswanathan


    Full Text Available In the title compounds, C11H13N3O2S, (I, and C16H15N3O2S, (II, the thiosemicarbazone group adopts an extended conformation. The acetate ester (I crystallizes with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. In the benzoate ester (II, the planes of the two aryl rings are inclined to one another by 46.70 (7°. In both compounds, there is a short intramolecular N—H...N contact present, forming an S(5 ring motif. In the crystals of both compounds, molecules are linked via pairs of N—H...S hydrogen bonds, forming dimers with R22(8 ring motifs. The dimers are linked by N—H...S and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming slabs parallel to (01-1. In (I, there are N—H...π and C—H...π interactions present within the slabs, while in (II, there are only N—H...π interactions present.

  17. Study of the photochemical transformation of 2-ethylhexyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (OD-PABA) under conditions relevant to surface waters. (United States)

    Calza, P; Vione, D; Galli, F; Fabbri, D; Dal Bello, F; Medana, C


    We studied the aquatic environmental fate of 2-ethylhexyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (OD-PABA), a widespread sunscreen, to assess its environmental persistence and photoinduced transformation. Direct photolysis is shown to play a key role in phototransformation, and this fast process is expected to be the main attenuation route of OD-PABA in sunlit surface waters. The generation of transformation products (TPs) was followed via HPLC/HRMS. Five (or four) TPs were detected in the samples exposed to UVB (or UVA) radiation, respectively. The main detected TPs of OD-PABA, at least as far as HPLC-HRMS peak areas are concerned, would involve a dealkylation or hydroxylation/oxidation process in both direct photolysis and indirect phototransformation. The latter was simulated by using TiO2-based heterogeneous photocatalysis, involving the formation of nine additional TPs. Most of them resulted from the further degradation of the primary TPs that can also be formed by direct photolysis. Therefore, these secondary TPs might also occur as later transformation intermediates in natural aquatic systems.

  18. Self-assembly and UV-curing Property of Polymerized Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Monomer of Sodium 3,4,5-tris(11-acryloxyundecyloxy)benzoate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-qin Bai; Jin-bao Guo; Ying Wang; Jie Wei


    A polymerized lyotropic liquid crystal monomer of sodium 3,4,5-tris (11-acryloxyundecyloxy)benzoate was synthesized by a convenient route starting from 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid via esterification followed by etherification,acylation and finally neutralization.The chemical structure was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis.The self-organization behavior of the monomer with deionized water in methanol at room temperature was also demonstrated.The assemblies were characterized by polarized optical microscope and X-ray diffraction.The results show that a solution containing 80∶20 of the monomer to water was found to be able to self-organize into Lamellar (La) phase and 92∶8 with inverted hexagonal (HⅡ) phase,which was in accordance with the theoretical calculation of critical packing parameter.It suggests that the concentration of the monomer was the key factor to influence assembly structure.Additionally,the acrylate conversion with different photoinitiators and nanostructure retention after polymerization were investigated.The research shows that the acrylate conversion of the monomer with Darocur2959 could reach up to 78% when irradiated by 30 mW/cm2 UV light of 365 nm for 30 min characterized by Real-time FT-IR as well as the sol-gel method.Meanwhile,the La and HⅡI phase nanostructures were both retained after polymerization.

  19. An electrochemical sensor for rizatriptan benzoate determination using Fe3O4 nanoparticle/multiwall carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrode in real samples. (United States)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Maleki, Somayeh; Heidari, Mozhgan; Afkhami, Abbas


    In this paper a sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor for determination of rizatriptan benzoate (RZB) was proposed. A glassy carbon electrode was modified with nanocomposite of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4/MWCNTs/GCE). The results obtained clearly show that the combination of MWCNTs and Fe3O4 nanoparticles definitely improves the sensitivity of modified electrode to RZB determination. The morphology and electroanalytical performance of the fabricated sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), square wave voltammetry (SWV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Also, the effect of experimental and instrumental parameters on the sensor response was evaluated. The square wave voltammetric response of the electrode to RZB was linear in the range 0.5-100.0 μmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.09 μmol L(-1) under the optimum conditions. The investigated method showed good stability, reproducibility and repeatability. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for real life samples of blood serum and RZB determination in pharmaceutical.

  20. Ferrous-salt-promoted damage to deoxyribose and benzoate. The increased effectiveness of hydroxyl-radical scavengers in the presence of EDTA. (United States)

    Gutteridge, J M


    Hydroxyl radicals (OH.) in free solution react with scavengers at rates predictable from their known second-order rate constants. However, when OH. radicals are produced in biological systems by metal-ion-dependent Fenton-type reactions scavengers do not always appear to conform to these established rate constants. The detector molecules deoxyribose and benzoate were used to study damage by OH. involving a hydrogen-abstraction reaction and an aromatic hydroxylation. In the presence of EDTA the rate constant for the reaction of scavengers with OH. was generally higher than in the absence of EDTA. This radiomimetic effect of EDTA can be explained by the removal of iron from the detector molecule, where it brings about a site-specific reaction, by EDTA allowing more OH. radicals to escape into free solution to react with added scavengers. The deoxyribose assay, although chemically complex, in the presence of EDTA appears to give a simple and cheap method of obtaining rate constants for OH. reactions that compare well with those obtained by using pulse radiolysis.

  1. Food additives: Sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, azorubine, and tartrazine modify the expression of NFκB, GADD45α, and MAPK8 genes. (United States)

    Raposa, B; Pónusz, R; Gerencsér, G; Budán, F; Gyöngyi, Z; Tibold, A; Hegyi, D; Kiss, I; Koller, Á; Varjas, T


    It has been reported that some of the food additives may cause sensitization, inflammation of tissues, and potentially risk factors in the development of several chronic diseases. Thus, we hypothesized that expressions of common inflammatory molecules - known to be involved in the development of various inflammatory conditions and cancers - are affected by these food additives. We investigated the effects of commonly used food preservatives and artificial food colorants based on the expressions of NFκB, GADD45α, and MAPK8 (JNK1) from the tissues of liver. RNA was isolated based on Trizol protocol and the activation levels were compared between the treated and the control groups. Tartrazine alone could elicit effects on the expressions of NFκB (p = 0.013) and MAPK8 (p = 0.022). Azorubine also resulted in apoptosis according to MAPK8 expression (p = 0.009). Preservatives were anti-apoptotic in high dose. Sodium benzoate (from low to high doses) dose-dependently silenced MAPK8 expression (p = 0.004 to p = 0.002). Addition of the two preservatives together elicited significantly greater expression of MAPK8 at half-fold dose (p = 0.002) and at fivefold dose (p = 0.008). This study suggests that some of the food preservatives and colorants can contribute to the activation of inflammatory pathways.

  2. Toughening of Epoxy Resin with Solid Amine Terminated Poly (ethy-lene glycol) Benzoate and Effect of Red Mud Waste Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.C.Samanta; T.Maity; S.Dalai; A.K.Banthia


    An investigation was carried out to modify the toughness of triethylene tetramine cured DGEBA (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A) resin using solid amine terminated poly (ethylene glycol) benzoate (ATPEGB) as modifier with and without red mud waste particles. The solid ATPEGB modifier synthesized from the acid catalyzed esterification reaction of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and 4-amino benzoic acid was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopies, viscosity measurements, and solubility parameter calculation. The unfilled and red mud waste filled modified epoxy networks were evaluated with impact, adhesive, tensile, flexural and thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric (TG) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The effect of modifier concentration and red mud waste particles on toughening behavior was also investigated. The optimum properties were obtained at 12.5 phr (parts per hundred parts of resin) concentration of the modifier. The ATPEGB modified cured epoxy was thermally stable up to 315℃. The morphology on fracture surfaces of cured epoxy was also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  3. Phase transition from focal conic to cubic smectic blue phase in partially fluorinated cyano-phenyl alkyl benzoate ester doped with ultrahigh twisting power chiral dopant

    CERN Document Server

    Nayek, Prasenjit; Li, Guoqiang


    Blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) has important applications in adaptive lenses and phase modulators due to its polarization-independent property. During our efforts for development of the new materials, we found a novel phenomenology of phase transition, from focal conic smectic to smectic blue phase in a partially fluorinated cyanophenyl alkyl benzoate ester based nematic liquid crystal (LCM-5773) doped by ultra-high twisting power [H.T.P~160 um^-1] chiral dopant (R5011/3 wt%). Polarized optical microscopy (POM) investigations revealed focal conic and fan-shaped textures typical for columnar mesophases. These focal conic domains (FCDs) are squeezed under electric field and finally at a critical electric field they undergo a dark state. When the electric field is withdrawn, the FCDs are regrown in a one dimensional array with smaller domain size. Interestingly, we have observed the domain size of the FCDs can grow several times by decreasing the cooling rate (0.02 degrees(C)/min.) ten times without any change...

  4. The Gibbs free energy of formation of halogenated benzenes, benzoates and phenols and their potential role as electron acceptors in anaerobic environments. (United States)

    Dolfing, Jan; Novak, Igor


    The sequence of redox reactions in the natural environment generally follows the electron affinity of the electron acceptors present and can be rationalized by the redox potentials of the appropriate half-reactions. Answering the question how halogenated aromatics fit into this sequence requires information on their Gibbs free energy of formation values. In 1992 Gibbs free energy data for various classes of halogenated aromatic compounds were systematically explored for the first time based on Benson's group contribution method. Since then more accurate quantum chemical calculation methods have become available. Here we use these methods to estimate enthalpy and Gibbs free energy of formation values of all chlorinated and brominated phenols. These data and similar state-of-the-art datasets for halogenated benzenes and benzoates were then used to calculate two-electron redox potentials of halogenated aromatics for standard conditions and for pH 7. The results underline the need to take speciation into consideration when evaluating redox potentials at pH 7 and highlight the fact that halogenated aromatics are excellent electron acceptors in aqueous environments.

  5. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Thermal Stability of a Saturated Dimeric Ce(Ⅲ)-chelated Complex Based on Benzoate and 1,10-Phenanthroline Ligands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The title complex, [Ce(BA)3phen]2 (BA = benzoate, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline),was prepared by the reaction of Ce(NO3)3·6H2O, benzoic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline. The complex was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR spectra and TG-DTG techniques. The results show that the crystal is of triclinic, space group P(1) with a =10.912(2), b = 11.962(3), c = 12.474(3)(A), a = 104.889(3), β = 93.523(3), γ = 113.332(3)°,C66H46Ce2N4O12, Mr = 1366.90, V= 1420.2(6) (A)3, Z = 1, Dc = 1.598 g/cm3,μ = 1.652 mm-1, S =1.024 and F(000) = 682. The final R = 0.0391 and wR = 0.0947 for 4878 observed reflections with I > 2σ(1). The structure of the title complex consists of two Ce(C6H5COO)3(C12H8N2) units,forming a binuclear molecule. Each Ce(Ⅲ) is coordinated by two O atoms of one bidentate chelating carboxylate group, five O atoms of two bidentate bridging and two tridentate chelating-bridging carboxylate groups, and two N atoms of one 1,10-phenanthroline molecule to complete a distorted monocapped square antiprism geometry. Its thermogravimetric analysis was determined by TG-DTG techniques.

  6. Toxic effects of sub-chronic exposure of male albino rats to emamectin benzoate and possible ameliorative role of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil. (United States)

    El-Sheikh, El-Sayed A; Galal, Azza A A


    Emamectin benzoate (EB) is an avermectin insecticide used extensively in pest control on vegetable and field crops. Few studies have been done for evaluating adverse effects of EB. In the current study, we evaluated the toxic effects of EB on male rats and the possible ameliorative role of fennel essential oil (FEO). Thirty two male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. All groups were treated orally with distilled water (control group), 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW (FEO group), 2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (EB group), and 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW+2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (FEO+EB group) for 28 days. The obtained results showed that EB treatment resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, body weight gain, RBC count, Hb concentration, % PCV, MCV and MCHC. Moreover, EB significantly decreased total leukocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet count but significantly increased granulocyte count. EB markedly decreased total protein, albumin, globulin, IgG and IgM concentrations with a significant increase in TNF-α secretion. EB had a negative impact on the liver as it significantly increased ALT, ALP, and MDA, while decreasing SOD activity. Regarding to the histopathological examination, EB treatment induced coagulative necrosis and blood vessels congestion of the liver in treated rats. Furthermore, it resulted in depletion and necrosis of the white pulp of the spleen in treated rats. The co-administration of FEO with EB, however, improved the majority of parameters studied, suggesting that FEO is an important substance in decreasing toxic effects of EB.

  7. Biological effects of the anti-parasitic chemotherapeutant emamectin benzoate on a non-target crustacean, the spot prawn (Pandalus platyceros Brandt, 1851) under laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhoen, Nik [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Stn CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Ikonomou, Michael G. [Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 9860 West Saanich Road, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, BC, V8L 4B2 (Canada); Buday, Craig [Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC, V7H 1V2 (Canada); Jordan, Jameson; Rehaume, Vicki; Cabecinha, Melissa [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Stn CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Dubetz, Cory; Chamberlain, Jon [Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 9860 West Saanich Road, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, BC, V8L 4B2 (Canada); Pittroff, Sabrina; Vallee, Kurtis [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Stn CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Aggelen, Graham van [Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC, V7H 1V2 (Canada); Helbing, Caren C., E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Stn CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada)


    The potential impact of commercial salmon aquaculture along the coast of British Columbia on the health of non-target marine wildlife is of growing concern. In the current initiative, the biological effects on gene expression within spot prawn (Pandalus platyceros) exposed to the sea lice controlling agent, emamectin benzoate (EB; 0.1-4.8 mg/kg sediment), were investigated. A mean sediment/water partitioning coefficient (K{sub p}) was determined to be 21.81 and significant levels of EB were detected in the tail muscle tissue in all exposed animals. Animals selected for the experiment did not have eggs and were of similar weight. Significant mortality was observed within 8 days of EB treatment at concentrations between 0.1 and 0.8 mg/kg and there was no effect of EB on molting. Twelve spot prawn cDNA sequences were isolated from the tail muscle either by directed cloning or subtractive hybridization of control versus EB exposed tissues. Three of the transcripts most affected by EB exposure matched sequences encoding the 60S ribosomal protein L22, spliceosome RNA helicase WM6/UAP56, and the intracellular signal mediator histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 suggesting that translation, transcription regulation, and apoptosis pathways were impacted. The mRNA encoding the molting enzyme, {beta}-N-acetylglucosaminidase, was not affected by EB treatment. However, the expression of this transcript was extremely variable making it unsuitable for effects assessment. The results suggest that short-term exposure to EB can impact biological processes within this non-target crustacean.

  8. Structural and spectroscopic characterization of 1-(diaminomethylene) thiouron-1-ium benzoate and bis(1-(diaminomethylene)thiouron-1-ium) phthalate trihydrate (United States)

    Perpétuo, Genivaldo Julio; Janczak, Jan


    Two single crystals of 1-(diaminomethylene) thiouron-1-ium benzoate (1) and bis(1-(diaminomethylene)thiouron-1-ium) phthalate trihydrate (2) were grown using a solution growth technique. The compound 1 crystallises in the centrosymmetric P21/c space group of the monoclinic system, whereas the compound 2 in the centrosymmetric Pbcn space group of orthorhombic system. The solid-state organisation of 1 and 2 has been analysed with respect to cation-anion and hydrogen bonding interactions. The oppositely charged units interact via almost linear hydrogen bonds with the graphs of R22(8) and R21(6) forming molecular complexes. In the crystal 1 the R22(8) motif is formed by donation to the carboxylate group from amine group joined to C1 and from imine group and R21(6) motif is formed by donation to the O2 from amine group joined to C2 and from imine group, whereas in crystal 2 the graphs are formed oppositely. Interactions between the hydrogen-bonded molecular complexes in 1 lead to formation of layered 2D structure, whereas in 2, due to presence of hydrated water molecules lead to formation of 3D hydrogen-bonded supramolecular network. The obtained deuterated analogues of 1 and 2 crystallise similar as H-compound in the monoclinic and orthorhombic system with quite similar lattice parameters. The compounds were also characterised by the FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies. The characteristic bands of the functional and skeletal groups are discussed.

  9. Food additives such as sodium sulphite, sodium benzoate and curcumin inhibit leptin release in lipopolysaccharide-treated murine adipocytes in vitro. (United States)

    Ciardi, Christian; Jenny, Marcel; Tschoner, Alexander; Ueberall, Florian; Patsch, Josef; Pedrini, Michael; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Fuchs, Dietmar


    Obesity leads to the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways, resulting in a state of low-grade inflammation. Recently, several studies have shown that the exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could initiate and maintain a chronic state of low-grade inflammation in obese people. As the daily intake of food additives has increased substantially, the aim of the present study was to investigate a potential influence of food additives on the release of leptin, IL-6 and nitrite in the presence of LPS in murine adipocytes. Leptin, IL-6 and nitrite concentrations were analysed in the supernatants of murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes after co-incubation with LPS and the food preservatives, sodium sulphite (SS), sodium benzoate (SB) and the spice and colourant, curcumin, for 24 h. In addition, the kinetics of leptin secretion was analysed. A significant and dose-dependent decrease in leptin was observed after incubating the cells with SB and curcumin for 12 and 24 h, whereas SS decreased leptin concentrations after 24 h of treatment. Moreover, SS increased, while curcumin decreased LPS-stimulated secretion of IL-6, whereas SB had no such effect. None of the compounds that were investigated influenced nitrite production. The food additives SS, SB and curcumin affect the leptin release after co-incubation with LPS from cultured adipocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Decreased leptin release during the consumption of nutrition-derived food additives could decrease the amount of circulating leptin to which the central nervous system is exposed and may therefore contribute to an obesogenic environment.

  10. Cinnamon and Its Metabolite Sodium Benzoate Attenuate the Activation of p21rac and Protect Memory and Learning in an Animal Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushbu K Modi

    Full Text Available This study underlines the importance of cinnamon, a commonly used natural spice and flavoring material, and its metabolite sodium benzoate (NaB in attenuating oxidative stress and protecting memory and learning in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD. NaB, but not sodium formate, was found to inhibit LPS-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in mouse microglial cells. Similarly, NaB also inhibited fibrillar amyloid beta (Aβ- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium(+-induced microglial production of ROS. Although NaB reduced the level of cholesterol in vivo in mice, reversal of the inhibitory effect of NaB on ROS production by mevalonate, and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, but not cholesterol, suggests that depletion of intermediates, but not end products, of the mevalonate pathway is involved in the antioxidant effect of NaB. Furthermore, we demonstrate that an inhibitor of p21rac geranylgeranyl protein transferase suppressed the production of ROS and that NaB suppressed the activation of p21rac in microglia. As expected, marked activation of p21rac was observed in the hippocampus of subjects with AD and 5XFAD transgenic (Tg mouse model of AD. However, oral feeding of cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum powder and NaB suppressed the activation of p21rac and attenuated oxidative stress in the hippocampus of Tg mice as evident by decreased dihydroethidium (DHE and nitrotyrosine staining, reduced homocysteine level and increased level of reduced glutathione. This was accompanied by suppression of neuronal apoptosis, inhibition of glial activation, and reduction of Aβ burden in the hippocampus and protection of memory and learning in transgenic mice. Therefore, cinnamon powder may be a promising natural supplement in halting or delaying the progression of AD.

  11. Synergistic Potentiation of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Gating by Two Chemically Distinct Potentiators, Ivacaftor (VX-770) and 5-Nitro-2-(3-Phenylpropylamino) Benzoate. (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Ying; Sohma, Yoshiro; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang


    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by loss-of-function mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene encoding a phosphorylation-activated but ATP-gated chloride channel. Previous studies suggested that VX-770 [ivacaftor, N-(2,4-di-tert-butyl-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide], a CFTR potentiator now used in clinics, increases the open probability of CFTR by shifting the gating conformational changes to favor the open channel configuration. Recently the chloride channel blocker and CFTR potentiator 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoate (NPPB) has been reported to enhance CFTR activity by a mechanism that exploits the ATP hydrolysis-driven, nonequilibrium gating mechanism unique to CFTR. Surprisingly however, NPPB increased the activity of nonhydrolytic G551D-CFTR, the third most common disease-associated mutation. Here, we further investigated the mechanism of NPPB's effects on CFTR gating by assessing its interaction with well-studied VX-770. Interestingly, once G551D-CFTR was maximally potentiated by VX-770, NPPB further increased its activity. However, quantitative analysis of this drug-drug interaction suggests that this pharmacologic synergism is not due to independent actions of NPPB and VX-770 on CFTR gating; instead, our data support a dependent mechanism involving two distinct binding sites. This latter idea is further supported by the observation that the locked-open time of a hydrolysis-deficient mutant K1250A was shortened by NPPB but prolonged by VX-770. In addition, the effectiveness of NPPB, but not of VX-770, was greatly diminished in a mutant whose second nucleotide-binding domain was completely removed. Interpreting these results under the framework of current understanding of CFTR gating not only reveals insights into the mechanism of action for different CFTR potentiators but also brings us one step forward to a more complete schematic for CFTR gating.

  12. An electrochemical sensor for rizatriptan benzoate determination using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle/multiwall carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrode in real samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh, E-mail:; Maleki, Somayeh; Heidari, Mozhgan; Afkhami, Abbas


    In this paper a sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor for determination of rizatriptan benzoate (RZB) was proposed. A glassy carbon electrode was modified with nanocomposite of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNTs/GCE). The results obtained clearly show that the combination of MWCNTs and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles definitely improves the sensitivity of modified electrode to RZB determination. The morphology and electroanalytical performance of the fabricated sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), square wave voltammetry (SWV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Also, the effect of experimental and instrumental parameters on the sensor response was evaluated. The square wave voltammetric response of the electrode to RZB was linear in the range 0.5–100.0 μmol L{sup −1} with a detection limit of 0.09 μmol L{sup −1} under the optimum conditions. The investigated method showed good stability, reproducibility and repeatability. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for real life samples of blood serum and RZB determination in pharmaceutical. - Highlights: • Simple and sensitive Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNTs/GCE for rizatriptan benzoate determination • The surface morphology of nanocomposite was characterized by SEM and EDS. • Rizatriptan benzoate was measured at 0.09 μmol L{sup −1} with good sensitivity and selectivity. • The electrode has been successfully applied in serum and pharmaceutical samples. • The nanocomposite had excellent electrocatalytic activity and biocompatibility.

  13. HPLC测定布洛芬口服溶液中苯甲酸钠、安赛蜜含量%Content Determination of Sodium Benzoate and Acesulfame in Ibuprofen Oral Solution by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎艳刚; 段峰; 郭丽蓉; 程飞; 王真; 杨武亮


    目的:建立HPLC测定布洛芬口服溶液中苯甲酸钠和安赛蜜含量的方法.方法:采用HPLC测定,色谱条件为J'sphere ODS-H80色谱柱(4.6 mm×250 mm,4.0 μm),流动相0.02 mol·L-1乙酸铵-甲醇(85∶ 15),流速1 mL· min-1,柱温30℃,检测波长230 nm,进样量10 μL.结果:苯甲酸钠和安赛蜜可有效分离,安赛蜜、苯甲酸钠线性范围依次为15.75 ~110.25,7.8~47.8 μg;平均回收率依次为100.51%(RSD 0.79%),100.42%(RSD 1.56%).结论:该方法灵敏、简便、重复性好,可为布洛芬口服溶液中苯甲酸钠和安赛蜜的含量测定提供参考.%Objective: To establish a HPLC method for simultaneously determining the content of sodium benzoate and acesulfame in ibuprofen oral solution. Method: The content of sodium benzoate and acesulfame was determined by HPLC, chromatographic conditions were as follows; J'sphere ODS-H80 column ( 4. 6 mm × 250 mm, 4.0 μm) , the mobile phase of methanol-0. 02 mol·L-1ammonium acetate (15:85) , column temperature 30 ℃ , the flow rate of 1. 0 mL · min-1 , detection wavelength 230 nm, the injection volume 10 μL. Result: Acesulfame showed a good linear relationship at the range of 15.75-110.25 μg, the average recovery of it was 100. 51% with RSD 0. 79% . Sodium benzoate showed a good linear relationship at the range of 7. 847. 8 μg, the average recovery was 100.42% with RSD 1.56%. Conclusion: This method was sensitive, simple and reproducible, it could provide a reference for determining the content of sodium benzoate and acesulfame in ibuprofen oral solution.

  14. Preclinical pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and plasma protein binding of sodium (±-5-bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl benzoate (BZP, an innovative potent anti-ischemic stroke agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tian


    Full Text Available Sodium (±-5-bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl benzoate (BZP is a potential cardiovascular drug and exerts potent neuroprotective effect against transient and long-term ischemic stroke in rats. BZP could convert into 3-butyl-6-bromo-1(3H-isobenzofuranone (Br-NBP in vitro and in vivo. However, the pharmacokinetic profiles of BZP and Br-NBP still have not been evaluated. For the purpose of investigating the pharmacokinetic profiles, tissue distribution and plasma protein binding of BZP and Br-NBP, a rapid, sensitive and specific method based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS has been developed for determination of BZP and Br-NBP in biological samples. The results indicated that BZP and Br-NBP showed a short elimination half-life, and pharmacokinetic profile in rats (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg; i.v. and beagle dogs (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg; i.v.gtt were obtained after single dosing of BZP. After multiple dosing of BZP, there was no significant accumulation of BZP and Br-NBP in the plasma of rats and beagle dogs. Following i.v. single dose (6 mg/kg to rats, BZP and Br-NBP were distributed rapidly into all tissues examined, with the highest concentrations of BZP and Br-NBP in lung and kidney, respectively. The brain distribution of Br-NBP in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO rats was more than in normal rats (P<0.05. The plasma protein binding degree of BZP at three concentrations (8000, 20000 and 80000 ng/mL from rat, beagle dog and human plasma were 98.1~98.7%, 88.9~92.7% and 74.8%~83.7% respectively. In conclusion, both BZP and Br-NBP showed short half-life, good dose-linear pharmacokinetic profile, wide tissue distribution and different degree protein binding to various species plasma. This was the first preclinical pharmacokinetic investigation of BZP and Br-NBP in both rats and beagle dogs, which provided vital guidance for further preclinical research and the subsequent clinical trials.

  15. Efficiency of fixed-time artificial insemination using a progesterone device combined with GnRH or estradiol benzoate in Nellore heifers

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    Vinícius Antônio Pelissari Poncio


    Full Text Available he use of estrogens in artificial insemination protocols for cattle is the least expensive and most efficient method currently available. However, the trend to prohibit the use of estrogens for this purpose has made it necessary to find alternatives that replace estrogens without compromising the reproductive performance of the animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate conception rates in Bos indicus beef heifers treated with a progesterone device (P4 combined with GnRH or an estradiol ester. On day 0, pubertal Nellore heifers (n = 100 received an intravaginal device containing 1 g P4 and were randomly divided into two groups. The GnRH group (n = 49 received an intramuscular injection of 100 µg GnRH, while the E2 group (n = 51 received 2 mg estradiol benzoate (EB. The P4 device was removed after 5 (GnRH group or 8 days (E2 group, followed by an injection of 125 µg of the PGF2α, analog cloprostenol. On that occasion, the E2 group received an additional injection of 300 IU eCG. Twenty-four hours later, the GnRH group received a second injection of 125 µg cloprostenol, while the E2 group received 1 mg EB. The heifers were inseminated 72 (GnRH group or 54 hours (E2 group after removal of the P4 device. At the time of insemination, the GnRH group received additionally an injection of 100 µg GnRH. Estrus was monitored during the period of cloprostenol injection until the time of artificial insemination and pregnancy was diagnosed 40 days after insemination by transrectal ultrasonography. The data were analyzed by Fisher’s exact test. The pregnancy rate was 38.8% and 31.4% in the GnRH and E2 groups, respectively (P>0.05. The ovarian condition of the heifers (estrus or anestrus tended to influence (P=0.07 pregnancy rates in the GnRH group, but not in the E2 group. At the time of artificial insemination, 33.3% of heifers in the GnRH group showed signs of estrus versus 88.2% in the E2 group (P<0.05. However, the time of estrus

  16. Alternative solvent-based methyl benzoate vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of benzimidazole fungicides in environmental water samples. (United States)

    Santaladchaiyakit, Yanawath; Srijaranai, Supalax


    Vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using methyl benzoate as an alternative extraction solvent for extracting and preconcentrating three benzimidazole fungicides (i.e., carbendazim, thiabendazole, and fluberidazole) in environmental water samples before high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis has been developed. The selected microextraction conditions were 250 μL of methyl benzoate containing 300 μL of ethanol, 1.0% w/v sodium acetate, and vortex agitation speed of 2100 rpm for 30 s. Under optimum conditions, preconcentration factors were 14.5-39.0 for the target fungicides. Limits of detection were obtained in the range of 0.01-0.05 μg/L. The proposed method was then applied to surface water samples and the recovery evaluations at three spiked concentration levels of 5, 30, and 50 μg/L were obtained in the range of 77.4-110.9% with the relative standard deviation water samples.

  17. Effects of sodium benzoate on liver and kidney in rats%苯甲酸钠多次给药对大鼠肝肾功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锦玉; 李荣欣; 李京路; 毕红征


    目的:研究食品防腐剂苯甲酸钠多次给药对大鼠肝肾功能的影响。方法:选取50只健康SPF级SD大鼠,分为5组,每组10只,苯甲酸钠低、中、高剂量组分别灌胃给予苯甲酸钠(0.1、0.2、0.4 g/kg),阳性对照组给予山梨酸钾(0.2 g/kg),空白对照组给予生理盐水,1次/d,连续4周。检测末次给药后大鼠血清学指标(ALT、AST、ALP、GGT、TP、ALB、TBIL、BUN、Cre、UA),并观察肝肾组织病理学改变。结果:与空白对照组相比,苯甲酸钠低、中、高剂量组大鼠的各项血清生化学指标均有一定的异常,高剂量组最为显著(P均<0.05)。苯甲酸钠高剂量组大鼠肝脏出现了明显病理学异常,各组大鼠肾脏均未见病理学改变。结论:苯甲酸钠多次给药对大鼠肝肾,尤其是肝脏有一定的损害。%Aim:To study the effects of sodium benzoate on liver and kidney in rats .Methods: Fifty healthy SD rats were allocated into 5 groups and treated with sodium benzoate (0.1,0.2,0.4 g/kg),potassium sorbate(0.2 g/kg) and normal saline by gavage for 4 weeks.The serum indicators such as ALT , AST, ALP, GGT, TP, ALB, TBIL, BUN,Cre, and UA were determined and the liver and renal histology of the rats was observed .Results:Rats in each dose group of sodium ben-zoate had abnormal serum biochemical indicators , especially in high dose group .Furthermore, rats in sodium benzoate high dose group showed obvious pathological abnormalities in liver .Rats in all groups showed no pathological changes in kidneys . Conclusion:The frequent use of sodium benzoate could do harms to the kidney and liver especially to the liver in rats .

  18. Ethyl 2-[(azidocarbonylamino]benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Yassine


    Full Text Available In the almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.038 Å title compound, C10H10N4O3, an intramolecular N—H...O interaction closes an S(6 ring. In the crystal, aromatic π–π stacking interactions occur [inter-centroid distance = 3.65 (2 Å].

  19. Butyl 2-[(azidocarbonylamino]benzoate

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    Hasna Yassine


    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H14N4O3, is planar with an r.m.s deviation of 0.025 Å from the plane through all 19 non-hydrogen atoms. An intramolecular N—H...O interaction closes an S(6 ring. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...π and weak offset π–π stacking interactions [inter-centroid distance = 3.614 (2 Å], forming undulating sheets parallel to (001.

  20. Gonadorelin at the outset and/or end of an ovulation synchronization progesterone estradiol benzoate-based protocol in Nellore females

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    Carla Cristian Campos


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of gonadorelin (GnRH, used both at the outset of a timed artificial insemination (TAI protocol to synchronize follicular wave recruitment and at the end to synchronize ovulation, on the conception rate (CR in Nellore cows. The experiment was conducted on two beef cattle farms in the Vale do Araguaia, MT. The body condition score (BCS evaluation and ultrasound examination to determine ovarian status [follicle diameter < 10 mm, ? 10 mm or presence of corpus luteum (CL] were performed at the beginning (Day 0 of the TAI protocol. Multiparous cows (n = 494 were subjected to the following protocol: Day 0 – insertion of intravaginal progesterone device (P4 DIB®, MSD previously used for 8 or 16 days and IM administration of 2.0 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB, Gonadiol®, MSD; Day 8 – P4 device withdrawal, IM injection of 300 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG, Folligon®, MSD, 1.0 mg of estradiol cypionate (ECP®, Zoetis and 0.265 mg of Sodium cloprostenol (PGF2?, Ciosin®, MSD; Day 10 – TAI, performed by a single inseminator. Animals were randomly assigned to one of four groups: control (n = 126, GnRH D0 (n = 123, GnRH D10 (n = 123 and GnRH D0 + D10 (n = 122. Animals treated with GnRH received 50 mcg of gonadorelin (GnRH, Cystorelin®, Merial. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasound 39 ± 10 days after TAI. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS program (P < 0.05. The overall CR was 42.71%. Effect of treatment was not detected (P = 0.2482 on CR, which was 36.89% ± 0.19 (47/126 for the control group, 46.08% ± 0.19 (56/123 for GnRH D0, 48.30% ± 0.18 (61/123 for GnRH D10 and 38.48% ± 0.19 (47/122 for GnRH D0 + D10. An effect of farm was detected; the CR was 47.32% ± 0.13 at Farm A and was 38.24% ± 0.13 at Farm B (P = 0.0249. No effects of the interaction between farm and treatment were observed (P = 0.7662, nor of those among ovarian condition and treatment (P = 0.1225 on CR. Cows with

  1. Increasing estradiol benzoate, pretreatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and impediments for successful estradiol-based fixed-time artificial insemination protocols in dairy cattle. (United States)

    Monteiro, P L J; Borsato, M; Silva, F L M; Prata, A B; Wiltbank, M C; Sartori, R


    With the objective to optimize fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols based on estradiol benzoate (EB) and progesterone (P4), we performed 2 experiments (Exp.) in dairy cows. In Exp. 1 (n=44), we hypothesized that increased EB (EB3=3 mg vs. EB2=2 mg) on d 0 would improve synchronization of ovarian follicle wave emergence. Likewise, in Exp. 2 (n=82), we hypothesized that a GnRH treatment on d -3 (early in a follicular wave on d 0) versus d -7 (presence of a dominant follicle on d 0) would better synchronize wave emergence. Moreover, results from both experiments were combined to identify reasons for the lack of synchronization. All cows were treated with EB at the time of introduction of a P4 implant (d 0). On d 7, cows were given 25 mg of prostaglandin F2α; on d 8, the implant was removed and cows were given 1mg of estradiol cypionate. All cows received FTAI on d 10. In both experiments, daily ultrasound evaluations were performed and, in Exp. 2, circulating P4 was evaluated during the protocol. Pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) was determined on d 31 and 59 after FTAI. In Exp. 1, EB dose did not change time to wave emergence, but EB3 compared with EB2 decreased the percentage of cows with a corpus luteum on d 7 (19.8 vs. 55.3%) and time to ovulation (10.4 vs. 10.9 d). In Exp. 2, although we detected a tendency for delayed follicle wave emergence after the start of the FTAI protocol in cows ovulating to GnRH given on d -7, there was no difference in percentage of cows with a synchronized wave emergence (~80%). Regardless of treatment, more cows with P4<0.1 ng/mL, compared with P4≥0.1 and <0.22 ng/mL at the time of AI, ovulated to the protocol (81.2 vs. 58.0%) and had increased P/AI (47.4 vs. 21.4%). An analysis of data from both experiments showed that only 73.8% (93/126) of cows had synchronized wave emergence, and only 77.8% (98/126) of cows ovulated at the end of the protocol. Fertility was much greater in cows that had emergence of a

  2. HPLC法测定氨酚麻美糖浆中苯甲酸钠的含量%Determination of Sodium Benzoate in Paracetamol, Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride and Dextromethorphane Syrup by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 卢丹; 王冬


    目的:建立氨酚麻美糖浆中苯甲酸钠含量测定方法。方法:采用HPLC法测定,色谱柱为Thermo C18(4.6 mm ×100 mm,2.4μm),流动相为0.05 mol· L-1磷酸二氢钾溶液(用磷酸调节pH值至3.5±0.1)-甲醇(38∶62),检测波长为215 nm,进样量2μL。结果:苯甲酸钠在40.14~281.01μg· mL-1浓度范围内线性关系良好,平均回收率为99.0%( RSD=1.5%)。结论:所建方法专属性好,准确,重复性好,可为氨酚麻美糖浆中有效检测防腐剂苯甲酸钠的含量提供参考。%Objective:To establish an HPLC method for determining the content of sodium benzoate in paracetamol , pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and dextromethorphane syrup.Methods:The determination was performed on a column Thermo C 18 (4.6 mm ×100 mm, 2.4 μm) with a mixture of 0.05 mol· L-1 potassium dihydrogenphosphate solution (adjusted pH with phosphoric acid to 3.5 ±0.1) and methanol (38∶62) as mobile phase, the wavelength was 215 nm and the injection volume was 2μL.Results:A good linearity was obtained in range of 40.14-281.01 μg · mL-1 of sodium benzoate and the average recovery was 99.0%( RSD=1.5%) .Conclu-sion:This method is specific and accurate with good repeatability.It would take a good role in the control of sodium benzoate in their mixture syrup.

  3. Content Determination of Sodium Benzoate in Acetaminophen Oral Solution by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定对乙酰氨基酚口服溶液中苯甲酸钠含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 陈乃江; 姜燕


    Objective To determine the content of sodium benzoate in acetaminophen oral solution by HPLC. Methods The Phenomenex Gemini C18 column(250 mmí4. 6 mm, 5 μm) was used, and the mobile phase was acetonitrile -0. 05 mol/L ammonium acetate(15:85). The flow rate was 1. 0 mL/min and the detection wavelength was set at 230 nm. The column temperature was 30 ℃ and the injection volume was 20 μL. Results The linear range of sodium benzoate was 10. 04-100. 4 μg/mL ( r=0. 999 9 ) , the average recovery was 99. 83% and RSD was 0. 99%( n=9 ) , the limit of detection was 1. 3 ng. Conclusion The method is applicable to the quality control of sodium benzoate in acetaminophen oral solution, which can provide reference for the standard improvement.%目的:建立测定对乙酰氨基酚口服溶液中防腐剂苯甲酸钠含量的高效液相色谱法。方法色谱柱为Phenomenex Gemini C18柱(250 mm伊4.6 mm,5μm),流动相为乙腈-0.05 mol/L乙酸铵(15:85),流速为1.0 mL/min,检测波长为230 nm,柱温为30益,进样量为20μL。结果苯甲酸钠质量浓度在10.04~100.4μg/mL范围内与峰面积线性关系良好( r=0.9999),平均回收率为99.83%, RSD为0.99%( n=9),苯甲酸钠检测限为1.3 ng。结论该方法适用于对乙酰氨基酚口服溶液中苯甲酸钠的质量控制,可为该品种标准的提升提供参考。

  4. Studies on Excess Volume, Viscosity, and Speed of Sound of Binary Mixtures of Methyl Benzoate in Ethers at T=(303.15,308.15, and 313.15 K

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    M. V. Rathnam


    Full Text Available Densities, viscosities, and speed of sound have been determined at T = (303.15, 308.15, and 313.15 K for the binary mixtures of methyl benzoate with tetrahydrofuran, 1,4-dioxane, anisole, and butyl vinyl ether over the entire range of composition. Using these measured values, excess volume VE, deviation in viscosities Δη, excess Gibb’s free energy of activation for viscous flow ΔG*E, and deviation in isentropic compressibility Δks have been calculated. These calculated binary data have been fitted to Redlich-Kister equation to determine the appropriate coefficients. The values of excess volume VE and deviation in viscosities Δη are negative over the entire range of composition for all the binary systems at the studied temperatures. The behavior of these parameters with composition of the mixture has been discussed in terms of molecular interactions between the components of liquids.

  5. Crystal structure of ethyl 4-[(E)-(4-hy­droxy-3-meth­oxy­benzyl­idene)amino]­benzoate: a p-hy­droxy Schiff base (United States)

    Ling, Jing; Kavuru, Padmini; Wojtas, Lukasz; Chadwick, Keith


    The title p-hy­droxy Schiff base, C17H17NO4, was synthesized via the condensation reaction of benzocaine with vanillin. The benzyl­idine and benzoate rings are inclined to one another by 24.58 (8)°, and the conformation about the C=N bond is E. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag chains propagating along [010]. Adjacent chains are linked by C—H⋯π and weak offset π–π inter­actions [inter­centroid distance = 3.819 (1) Å], forming sheets parallel to (10-2). PMID:27555938

  6. 苯甲酸铜三元配合物的谱学研究与成键特征%Study on the synthesis and spectrum of copper(Ⅱ) benzoate ternary complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田俐; 陈琳


    对苯甲酸铜三元配合物单晶[Cu(ba)2(phen)(H2O)]2(ba表示苯甲酸根阴离子;phen 表示1,10-邻菲咯啉)进行了红外光谱和电子吸收光谱研究,探讨了配位中心铜(Ⅱ)离子的成键特征.%In this paper, the copper(Ⅱ) benzoate ternary complex [Cu(ba)2(phen)(H2O)]2(where ba=benzoic acid and phen=1,10-phenanthroline has been synthesized. It was studied by IR and UV-VIS spectrum which indicates that Cu(Ⅱ)ion is five coordinated in the complex.

  7. HPLC法测定并比较药用级与非药用级苯甲酸钠的含量%Determination and Comparison of the Content of Sodium Benzoate in Medicinal and Non-medicinal Grade by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粟贵; 刘雁鸣; 龙海燕; 李颖; 廖彬


    OBJECTIVE:To establish a method to determine and compare the contents of sodium benzoate in medicinal(phar-maceutical excipients and active pharmaceutical ingredients) and non-medicinal (chemical reagents and food additives) grade. METHODS:HPLC was conducted for content determination,SPSS 18.0 software was adopted to compare the results. The column was Purospher STAR LP RP-18 endcapped with mobile phase of acetotrile-0.02% formic acid(adjusted pH to 4.0 with aqua ammo-nia)(30∶70,V/V)at a flow rate was 1.0 ml/min,the detection wavelength was 230 nm,column temperature was 35 ℃,and vol-ume injection was 20 μl. RESULTS:The linear range of sodium benzoate was 10.5-525.3 μg/ml(r=0.999 9);RSDs of precision, stability,reproducibility and durability tests were lower than 0.5%;recovery was 99.38%-101.26%(RSD=0.56%,n=9). The av-erage contents of sodium benzoate in medicinal and non-medicinal grade were between 99.400%-99.875%,but the average content of non-medicinal grade is lower than the medical grade. CONCLUSIONS:The method is accurate and simple with high specificity and good reproducibility,and can be used to determine and compare the content of sodium benzoate in medicinal and non-medici-nal grade.%目的:建立测定并比较药用级(药用辅料和原料药)与非药用级(化学试剂和食品添加剂)苯甲酸钠含量的方法。方法:采用高效液相色谱法测定含量,并采用SPSS 18.0软件对含量测定结果进行统计和比较。色谱柱为Purospher STAR LP RP-18 endcapped,流动相为乙腈-0.02%甲酸(用氨水调pH至4.0)(30∶70,V/V),流速为1.0 ml/min,检测波长为230 nm,柱温为35℃,进样量为20μl。结果:苯甲酸钠检测质量浓度线性范围为10.5~525.3μg/ml(r=0.9999);精密度、稳定性、重复性、耐用性试验的RSD<0.5%;加样回收率为99.38%~101.26%(RSD=0.56%,n=9)。药用级与非药用级样品含量均值在99.400%~99.875%之

  8. Resistance risk and resistance stability of Frankliniella occidentalis to imidacloprid, emamectin benzoate, and phoxim%西花蓟马对吡虫啉、辛硫磷和甲维盐的抗性风险和抗性稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王圣印; 于毅; 刘永杰; 马井玉


    In order to effectively control the damage of Frankliniella occidentalis ( Pergande) , Phaseolus vuglaris was dipped with imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate, respectively to select the resistance populations of F. occidentalis from its susceptible population, and the resistance inheritance and resistance risk were analyzed with the resistance reality heredity. After 32, 32, and 24 generations' selection, the F. occidentalis populations obtained 13.8-fold, 29.4-fold and 39.0-fold resistance to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate, respectively. The resistance reality heritability to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate was 0. 112, 0. 166, and 0.259, respectively. The resistance development rate to emamectin benzoate was the fastest, followed by to phoxim, and to imidacloprid. The higher the resistance levels of the selected populations , the lower the differences between the larva and adult susceptibility to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate. Stopping selection for 12 continuous generations, the resistance level of the selected resistance populations to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate had definite decline, but it was difficult to regain the original susceptibility. F. occidentalis had a greater potential to gain high level resistance to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate. Compared with the resistance of F. occidentalis to phoxim and emamectin benzoate, the resistance to imidacloprid increased slower and decreased faster, and thus, imidacloprid was more appropriate to control F.occidentalis in practice.%为有效控制西花蓟马的危害,采用吡虫啉、辛硫磷和甲维盐药液浸泡芸豆法,分别对西花蓟马敏感种群成虫进行抗性选育,获得抗性种群,应用抗性现实遗传力分析抗性遗传和抗性风险.结果表明:经过32代、32代和24代抗性选育,西花蓟马对吡虫啉、辛硫磷和甲维盐的抗性分别达到13.8、29.4和39.0倍.西花蓟马对吡虫啉、辛

  9. 5%甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐微乳剂对6种环境生物的急性毒性%Acute toxicity of 5% emamectin benzoate on six untargeted species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游泳; 林涛; 李建宇; 史梦竹; 郑丽祯; 傅建炜; 魏辉


    甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐是一种新型的抗生素类杀虫剂、杀螨剂,其大量使用可能会导致一系列的生态风险,因此有必要开展其对相关环境生物毒性的研究。测定了甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐对意大利蜜蜂、日本鹌鹑、斑马鱼、家蚕、大型溞和赤子爱胜蚓6种非靶标生物的急性毒性。5%甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐微乳剂对蜜蜂的急性经口LC50(48 h)为0.555・ L-1,对鹌鹑的经口LD50(7 d)为148.369・ kg-1,对斑马鱼的LC50(96 h)为0.368・ L-1,对家蚕的急性摄入毒性LC50(96 h)为0.005・ L-1,对大型溞的运动抑制毒性EC50(48 h)为0.020 a.i. mg・ L-1,对蚯蚓的急性毒性LC50(14 d)为18.397・ kg-1。该农药对家蚕和大型溞均为剧毒,对蜜蜂和斑马鱼均为高毒,对鹌鹑中毒,对蚯蚓低毒。总体而言,甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐微乳剂对环境生物危害大,在使用过程中要注意。%Background Emamectin benzoate is a novel antibiotic insecticide and acaricide .Its extensive use may lead to serious ecological risks .It is necessary to evaluate its biological toxicity in relation to untargeted species .[Method]The acute toxicity of 5% emamectin benzoate on six representative untargeted species , i.e.honeybee ( Apis mellifera) , Japanese quail ( Coturnix japoni-ca) , zebra fish ( Danio rerio) , silkworm ( Bombyx mori) , Daphnia magna and earthworm ( Eisenia fetida) , was tested in laborato-ry.[Result]The results showed that the LC50(48 h) for acute oral toxicity (microemulsion) on bee was 0.555・ L-1(high-ly toxic).The LD50(7 d) for quail was 148.369・ kg-1(moderately toxic);the LC50(96 h) for zebra fish was 0.368 a.i. mg・ L-1;the LC50(96 h) for silkworm was 0.005・ L-1(extremely toxic), the EC50(48 h) for Daphnia magna was 0.020・ L-1(extremely toxic);and the LC50

  10. Micellar electrokinetic chromatographic separation and determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate and sodium saccharin%胶束电动色分离测定山梨酸钾、苯甲酸钠和糖精钠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建平; 张建夫; 田军丽; 刘秋艳; 邓洪瑞; 王晓璐


    A new micellar electrokinetic chromatography with photo diode array detection method was developed to separate and determine potassium sorbate,sodium benzoate and sodium saccharin.In conditions of sodium dodecyl sulphate 24 mmol/L,Na2B4O7 20 mmol/L,pH 9.6,and separation voltage 12 kV,the separation was achieved within 4.2 min.Good linear relationships between peak height and concentration were found in the tested range.Relative standard deviations (n=6) of migration times or peak heights were less than 0.63%.The detection limits for potassium sorbate,sodium benzoate and sodium saccharin were 0.42,0.43,and 0.42 μg/L respectively.The sensitivity was improved ten to a hundred times more than those of high performance liquid chromatography method reported recently.The method was applied to the determination of the three food additives in real drink samples with recoveries of 89.3%-112.0%.%建立了一个胶束电动色谱-二极管阵列检测方法,用于分离测定山梨酸钾、苯甲酸钠和糖精钠.在优化条件下,使用24 mmol/L十二烷基硫酸钠、20 mmol/L硼砂,pH 9.6、电压12 kV,分离时间仅用4.2 min.测定范围内,峰高与分析物浓度呈良好的线性关系,迁移时间和峰高的相对标准偏差(n=6)小于0.63%,3个分析物的检测限分别为0.42、0.43和0.42 μg/L,与高效液相色谱方法相比灵敏度增加了约10~100倍.方法被用于实际饮料样品中的3种食品添加剂的测定,回收率89.3%~112.0%.

  11. Dietary exposure to benzoates (E210-E213), parabens (E214-E219), nitrites (E249-E250), nitrates (E251-E252), BHA (E320), BHT (E321) and aspartame (E951) in children less than 3 years old in France. (United States)

    Mancini, F R; Paul, D; Gauvreau, J; Volatier, J L; Vin, K; Hulin, M


    This study aimed to estimate the exposure to seven additives (benzoates, parabens, nitrites, nitrates, BHA, BHT and aspartame) in children aged less than 3 years old in France. A conservative approach, combining individual consumption data with maximum permitted levels, was carried out for all the additives. More refined estimates using occurrence data obtained from products' labels (collected by the French Observatory of Food Quality) were conducted for those additives that exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Information on additives' occurrence was obtained from the food labels. When the ADI was still exceeded, the exposure estimate was further refined using measured concentration data, if available. When using the maximum permitted level (MPL), the ADI was exceeded for benzoates (1.94 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)), nitrites (0.09 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and BHA (0.39 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) in 25%, 54% and 20% of the entire study population respectively. The main food contributors identified with this approach were current foods as these additives are not authorised in specific infant food: vegetable soups and broths for both benzoates and BHA, delicatessen and meat for nitrites. The exposure estimate was significantly reduced when using occurrence data, but in the upper-bound scenario the ADI was still exceeded significantly by the age group 13-36 months for benzoates (2%) and BHA (1%), and by the age group 7-12 months (16%) and 13-36 months (58%) for nitrites. Measured concentration data were available exclusively for nitrites and the results obtained using these data showed that the nitrites' intake was below the ADI for all the population considered in this study. These results suggest that refinement of exposure, based on the assessment of food levels, is needed to estimate the exposure of children to BHA and benzoates for which the risk of exceeding the ADI cannot be excluded when using occurrence data.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江; 陈劲春; 曹小岗; 周远连


    以苯甲酸钠(Sodium Benzoate)为唯一碳源筛选到49株菌株,其中4株菌株表现出最佳的转化苯甲酸钠为邻苯二酚(Catechol)的能力.对B5进行了形态学和生理生化鉴定,初步确定其为假单胞菌.经紫外光谱和邻苯二酚特异性试验,证明该菌能转化苯甲酸钠合成邻苯二酚.该菌在6mg/mL的苯甲酸钠中培养24h,邻苯二酚的产量为1.6mg/mL.在培养基中加入甘油,利用静止细胞发酵培养16h,邻苯二酚的产量为2.1mg/mL,分子水平转化率达到46.11%.

  13. Thermoacoustic, Volumetric, and Viscometric Investigations in Binary Liquid System of Cyclohexanone with Benzyl Benzoate at T = 308.15, 313.15, and 318.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk. Md Nayeem


    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocities (u, densities (ρ, and viscosities (η of binary liquid mixtures of cyclohexanone with benzyl benzoate, including pure liquids, over the entire composition range have been measured at 308.15 K, 313.15 K, and 318.15 K. Using the experimental results, parameters such as molar volume (Vm, isentropic compressibility (ks, intermolecular free length (Lf, acoustic impedance (Z, internal pressure (πi, enthalpy (H, Gibbs free energy of activation of viscous flow (G*E, and excess/deviation properties of these including partial molar volumes (V-m,1 and V-m,2, excess partial molar volumes (V-m,1E and V-m,2E, partial molar volume of the components at infinite dilution (V-m,1∞, V-m,2∞, and excess partial molar volume at infinite dilution (V-m,1E,∞and V-m,2E,∞ have been computed. The observed negative values of VmE, Δks, LfE, and πiE and positive values of zE, HE, ΔG*E, Δη, and Δu for all the liquid mixtures studied clearly indicate the presence of strong dipole-dipole-type interactions, fitting of smaller molecules into bigger molecules. Further theoretical values of sound velocity and viscosity in the mixtures have been evaluated using various theories and have been compared with experimental values to verify the applicability of such theories to the systems studied.

  14. 防腐剂苯甲酸(钠)测定方法的研究进展%Research progress on determination methods of benzoic acid or sodium benzoate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢兆辉; 李学贵; 许禔森


    苯甲酸(钠)作为食品防腐剂,合理地使用可以有效延长食品的保质期,但过量的添加则会直接损害人类的身体健康。为了保证食品安全,需要找到一种简便、快速及高灵敏度的苯甲酸(钠)测定方法。该文论述了近些年来测定苯甲酸(钠)的多种方法,如高效液相色谱法、气相色谱法、离子交换色谱法、纸色谱法、薄层色谱法、紫外分光光度法、毛细管电泳法、动力学荧光法、滴定分析法和发光细菌法等,为苯甲酸(钠)的测定提供参考。%As a food preservative,reasonably usingof benzoic acidor sodium benzoatecan extend the shelf lifeof food effectively,but excessive addition will directly effect the human health. Inorder to ensure the food safety,a simple,rapid and highly efficient method for the determinationof benzoic acidor sodium benzoate is needed. This article reviewed kindsof determination methods applied in recent years,such as high–performance liquidchromatography,gaschromatography,ion exchange chromatography,paperchromatography,thin layerchromatography,ultraviolet spectrophotometry, capillary electrophoresis,kinetic fluorescence,titrimetry and luminescent bacteria,incontent for members' reference.

  15. Final report of the safety assessment of Alcohol Denat., including SD Alcohol 3-A, SD Alcohol 30, SD Alcohol 39, SD Alcohol 39-B, SD Alcohol 39-C, SD Alcohol 40, SD Alcohol 40-B, and SD Alcohol 40-C, and the denaturants, Quassin, Brucine Sulfate/Brucine, and Denatonium Benzoate. (United States)


    Alcohol Denat. is the generic term used by the cosmetics industry to describe denatured alcohol. Alcohol Denat. and various specially denatured (SD) alcohols are used as cosmetic ingredients in a wide variety of products. Many denaturants have been previously considered, on an individual basis, as cosmetic ingredients by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel, whereas others, including Brucine and Brucine Sulfate, Denatonium Benzoate, and Quassin, have not previously been evaluated. Quassin is a bitter alkaloid obtained from the wood of Quassia amara. Quassin has been used as an insect antifeedant and insecticide and several studies demonstrate its effectiveness. At oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg using rats, Quassin was not toxic in acute and short-term tests, but some reversible piloerection, decrease in motor activity, and a partial loss of righting reflex were found in mice at 500 mg/kg. At 1000 mg/kg given intraperitoneally (i.p.), all mice died within 24 h of receiving treatment. In a cytotoxicity test with brine shrimp, 1 mg/ml of Quassin did not possess any cytotoxic or antiplasmodial activity. Quassin administered to rat Leydig cells in vitro at concentrations of 5-25 ng/ml inhibited both the basal and luteinizing hormone (LH)-stimulated testosterone secretion in a dose-related fashion. Quassin at doses up to 2.0 g/kg in drinking water using rats produced no significant effect on the body weights, but the mean weights of the testes, seminal vesicles, and epididymides were significantly reduced, and the weights of the anterior pituitary glands were significantly increased. The sperm counts and levels of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone were significantly lower in groups treated with Quassin. Brucine is a derivative of 2-hydroxystrychnine. Swiss-Webster mice given Brucine base, 30 ml/kg, had an acute oral LD(50) of 150 mg/kg, with central nervous system depression followed by convulsions and seizures in some cases. In those

  16. Hydrogen-bonding synthons in lamotrigine salts: 3,5-diamino-6-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,2,4-triazin-2-ium 2-[(2-carboxyphenyl)disulfanyl]benzoate in its monohydrate and anhydrous forms. (United States)

    Freire, Eleonora; Polla, Griselda; Baggio, Ricardo


    Lamotrigine is a drug used in the treatment of epilepsy and related convulsive diseases. The drug in its free form is rather inadequate for pharmacological use due to poor absorption by the patient, which limits its bioavailability. On the other hand, the lamotrigine molecule is an excellent hydrogen-bonding agent and this has been exploited intensively in the search for better formulations. The formulation presently commercialized (under the brand name Lamictal) is rather complex and includes a number of anions in addition to the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The title salts of lamotrigine, namely 3,5-diamino-6-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,2,4-triazin-2-ium 2-[(2-carboxyphenyl)disulfanyl]benzoate monohydrate, C9H8Cl2N5(+)·C14H9O4S2(-)·H2O, (I), and the anhydrate, C9H8Cl2N5(+)·C14H9O4S2(-), (II), contain a lamotriginium cation (L), a hydrogen dithiodibenzoate monoanion (D) and, in the case of (I), a disordered solvent water molecule. Both L and D present their usual configurations severely twisted around their central C-C and S-S bonds, respectively. The supramolecular structure generated by the many available donor and acceptor sites is characterized by a planar antisymmetric motif of the form D-L-L-D, i.e. the structural building block. Although this characteristic motif is extremely similar in both structures, its conformation involves different donors and acceptors in its R2(2)(8) central L-L homosynthon. The lateral R2(2)(8) D-L heterosynthons are, on the other hand, identical. These substructures are further connected by strong hydrogen bonds into broad two-dimensional structures, in turn weakly linked to each other. Even if the homo- and heterosynthons in (I) and (II) are rather frequent in lamotrigine structural chemistry, the composite tetrameric synthon appears to be much less common. The occurrence of these motifs among lamotrigine salts and cocrystals is analyzed.

  17. Effects of emulsifier and co-emulsifier on the particle diameter and surface tension of emulsion in water of emamectin benzoate%乳化剂和共乳化剂对甲维盐水乳剂乳液稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范福玉; 郭瑞峰; 黄彬彬; 黄珍珠; 吴祖建; 吴刚


    在筛选出合适的乳化剂和共乳化剂的基础上,研究了乳化剂亲水亲油平衡值(HLB)、含量以及共乳化剂含量对1%甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐水乳剂乳液体系稳定性的影响,以及乳化剂在54℃热贮2周的稳定性.结果表明,乳化剂的HLB可以为水乳剂的乳液稳定性提供参考依据,乳液的粒径和表面张力随着乳化剂含量的升高而减小,当乳化剂含量增大到一定程度后,粒径和表面张力开始趋于稳定.共乳化剂对水乳剂的粒径没有太大影响,但可以显著降低水乳剂的表面张力,增强体系的稳定性.水乳剂乳液粒径和表面张力在一定范围内可以反映出乳液体系的稳定性,当粒径和表面张力变小时,乳化剂HLB、含量或共乳化剂含量能够满足热贮稳定性,则此时乳化剂或共乳化剂种类及含量为最佳.%Based on the successful screening for the optimal emulsifiers and co-emulsifiers, the effects of hydrophile lipophile balance (HLB) values of emulsifiers and the concentrations of emulsifiers and co-emulsifiers on the stability of 1% emulsion in water (EW) of emamectin benzoate were studied at 54 ℃ for two weeks. In addition, the stability of emulsifiers was studied. The results showed that the stability of the latex was related to the HLB values of the emulsifiers. The particle diameter and surface tension of the EW decreased corresponding to the increase of the concentration of emulsifier, but particle diameter and surface tension of the 1% emamectin benzoate EW tended to be stable whether the concentration of the emulsifiers increased or not at a higher concentra tion. No significant effect of co-emulsifiers on the particle diameter of the EW was found. However, co-emulsifiers could increase the stability of the 1% emamectin benzoate EW by decreasing surface tension. The results indicated that the stability of the 1% emamectin benzoate Ew could be reflected by particle diameter and surface

  18. Crystal structures of (±)-(1SR,5SR,6SR,7SR,10SR,11SR,13RS,14SR)-13-hy-droxy-7-meth-oxy-meth-oxy-11,15,18,18-tetra-methyl-3-oxo-2,4-dioxa-tetra-cyclo-[,5).0(6,11)]octa-dec-15-en-10-yl benzoate, its 13-epimer and 13-one derivative. (United States)

    Oishi, Takeshi; Fukaya, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Yu; Sugai, Tomoya; Watanabe, Ami; Sato, Takaaki; Chida, Noritaka


    The title compounds, C29H38O8·0.25C5H12, (A), C29H38O8, (B), and C29H36O8, (C), are tetra-cyclic benzoates possessing a taxane skeleton with a fused dioxolane ring as the core structure. In the asymmetric unit of (A), there are two independent benzoate mol-ecules (A and A') and a half mol-ecule of solvent pentane disordered about an inversion center. The mol-ecular conformations of (A), (B) and (C) are similar except for the flexible meth-oxy-meth-oxy group. The cyclo-hexane, cyclo-hexene and central cyclo-octane rings adopt chair, half-chair and chair-chair (extended crown) forms, respectively. The dioxolane rings are essentially planar, while the dioxolane ring of A' is slightly twisted from the mean plane. In the crystal of (A), inter-molecular O-H⋯O, C-H⋯O and C-H⋯π inter-actions link the independent benzoates alternately, forming a chain structure. In the crystals of (B) and (C), mol-ecules are linked through O-H⋯O and C-H⋯π inter-actions, and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, respectively, into similar chains. Further, weak inter-molecular C-H⋯O inter-actions connect the chains into a three-dimensional network in (A) and a sheet in (B), whereas no other interactions are observed for (C).

  19. 78 FR 18504 - Emamectin Benzoate; Pesticide Tolerance (United States)


    ... is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers determine whether this... (PP 1E7904) by IR-4, 500 College Rd. East, Suite 201 W, Princeton, NJ 08540. The petition requested... based on field trial data. Tolerance-level residues were used for tree nuts (including pistachios)...

  20. Sorbate and benzoate in Turkish retail foodstuffs. (United States)

    Ulca, Pelin; Atamer, Beril; Keskin, Mehtap; Senyuva, Hamide Z


    From 2008 to 2011, surveys were conducted to determine the levels of benzoic and sorbic acids and their respective salts in 983 retail food samples which included sauces, vegetable and fruit preparations, flavoured syrups, food supplements, cereals, bakery products, jelly, synthetic cream, sprays, mustards, jam and preserves, molasses, chewing gum, confectionery, non-alcoholic beverages, tea, wine, vinegar, brine and beers. The analysis involved methanol extraction of the foodstuff and direct determination by HPLC with UV detection. Quality assurance was employed with each batch of samples. Accuracy was ensured through regular participation in proficiency tests. Over this four-year period, a total of 23 samples (2.3%), some syrups, tomato sauces and fruit contained individual or combined levels of sorbic and benzoic acids above regulatory limits. Unauthorised use of benzoic acid was also detected in a syrup sample, bakery products and fruit preserves.

  1. Residual Amount of Emamectin Benzoate and Imidacloprid in Tomato and Soil Determined by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定甲维盐和吡虫啉在番茄及其土壤中的残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅; 尹显慧; 杨商海; 谭业创; 何祖兴; 龙友华


    The residual amount of emamectin benzoate and imidacloprid in tomato and soil were determined by HPLC-UV to establish a rapid analysis method for determining residual amount of Emamectin benzoate and Imidacloprid in tomato and soil simultaneously.The results showed that when the adding amount of the mixed sample of emamectin benzoate and imidacloprid is 0.05 ~ 1.0 mg/kg,the added recovery of emamectin benzoate in tomato and soil is 82.54% ~ 86.60% with 0.96% ~ 3.30%relative deviation and 82.50%~96.21% with 0.79%~3.93% relative deviation,and the added recovery of imidacloprid in tomato and soil is 83.25% ~ 94.20% with 0.71% ~ 1.78% relative deviation and 90.52%~98.39% with 0.80%~3.24% relative deviation respectively; which indicates that the determinining method with good accuracy and precision can meet the demand of pesticide residues analysis and be suitably used in residual determination of emamectin benzoate and imidacloprid in tomato and soil. The residual amount of emamectin benzoate and imidacloprid in tomato and soil 5d after spraying determined by the method is 0.03~0.05 mg/kgand 0.05 ~ 0.10 mg/kg,and 0.03 ~ 0.05 mg/kg and 0.04~0.08 mg/kg respectively.The residual amounts of emamectin benzoate and imidacloprid in tomato and soil do not exceed national maximum residual limit in tomato.%为建立同时检测番茄及其土壤中甲维盐和吡虫啉残留的快速分析方法,采用丙酮/水(1∶1, V/V)提取样品,经硅胶和活性炭混合物层析柱净化,HPLC-UV 检测,对甲维盐和吡虫啉在番茄及其土壤中的残留进行了检测。结果表明:1)甲维盐和吡虫啉的混合标样添加量为0.05~1.0 mg/kg 时,甲维盐在番茄和土壤中的添加回收率分别为82.54%~86.60%和82.50%~96.21%,相对偏差分别为0.96%~3.30%和0.79%~3.93%;吡虫啉在番茄和土壤中的添加回收率分别为83.25%~94.20%和90.52%~98.39%,相对偏差分别为0

  2. 2.2%甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐微乳剂防治水稻二化螟药效试验%Control efficacy of 2.2% emamectin benzoate ME against rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩鹏杰; 范仁俊; 封云涛; 杜恩强; 赵荣华


    [Objective]The objective of the current study was to elucidate the control efficacy of 2.2% emamectin benzoate ME against rice stem borer ( Chilo suppressaiis), and the duration of its effectiveness, for effectively controlling the rice stem borer. [Method]Rice plants were sprayed with 2.2% emamectin benzoate ME (10,20,30 ga.i./ha), 5% fipronil SC (30 ga.i./ha) and 20% triazophos EC (400 ga.i./ha) at the peak stage of egg hatching in rice stem borer. Spray of water was used as control. The first and second generations of rice stem borer were chosen as the control targets of a new biological pesticide emamectin benzoate 2.2% ME. Rate of dead heart panicle and seedling protection effect of pesticides on rice were investigated on appearance of significant disease symptoms. The phytotoxicity of emamectin benzoate on rice and beneficial species was also observed. [Result]Tbe results showed that the damage of rice stem borer was effectively and persistently controlled by emamectin benzoate 2.2% ME. The seedling protection and insecticidal effect were ranged between 90-100% and 92-100%, respectively, at 36 d after application for controlling the first generation of rice stem borer. In case of second generation of rice stem borer, the rate of white panicle and damaged plant were controlled at 0.3-1.2% and 0.2-1.8%, respectively, with the control efficiency of 85.0-98.0%. Any detrimental effects were not observed on rice, other beneficial insect species or the aquatic organisms, after spraying 2.2% emamectin benzoate ME. [Conclusion]2.2% emamectin benzoate ME was found to effectively control the rice stem borers for long duration. Its spray at 15-30 ga.i./ha concentration during the peak incidences of adult borers was recommended for controlling rice stem borer effectively.%[目的]明确甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐(简称甲维盐)对水稻二化螟的防治效果和持效期,为水稻二化螟防治提供科学依据.[方法]设2.2%

  3. Synthesis of n-butyl p-hydroxyl benzoate catalyzed by dawson structure phosphotungstic acid%Dawso结构磷钨酸催化合成对羟基苯甲酸正丁酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹小华; 张杨帆; 徐常龙; 叶兴琳; 周德志


    Preparation of n-butyl p-hydroxybenzoate by the esterification of p-hydroxy benzoic acid and n-butanol using dawson structure phosphotungstic acid as catalyst was reported. The catalyst was characterized by Py-IR and NH3-TPD. The main influential factors of reaction were investigated by orthogonal experiments and the possible reaction mechanism was discussed. Py-IR results showed that both Bronsted(B)acid sites and Lewis(L)acid sites co-exist on the surface of the catalyst. The results of NH3-TPD suggested that the catalyst possessed weak,medium and strong acid sites,among which the medium acid sites accounted for the lar-gest proportion. The results obtained indicated that the esterification reaction was a Brö nsted acid-Lewis acid cooperativity catalytic reaction. Dawson structure phosphotungstic acid possessed a fairly high catalytic activity for the esterification reaction. The optimal condition could be listed as follows:the best reaction temperature was 125℃,the reaction time was 3. 0 h,the mass ratio of the cata-lyst to total reactants was 4. 9%,and the molar ratio of n-butyl alcohol to p-hydroxyl benzoic acid was 2∶1. Under these conditions, the yield of butyl p-hydroxyl benzoate could reach 91. 3%, and it was still over 70. 3%when the catalyst was reused for five times. The primary advantage of replacement of sulphuric acid to dawson structure phosphotungstic acid might be not only as the im-provement of yield and selectivity,but also the simplification of the process and the reduction of environmental pollution. The cata-lyst could be used repeatedly after being treated simply.%以对羟基苯甲酸和正丁醇为原料、Dawson结构磷钨酸( H6 P2 W18 O62·13H2 O)为催化剂,催化对合成对羟基苯甲酸正丁酯,并对催化剂进行Py-IR、NH3-TPD表征。通过正交实验考察了各因素对酯收率的影响,探索了反应机理。 Py-IR结果显示催化剂同时具有Brönsted酸中心和Lewis酸中心,NH3-TPD证实催化剂表面

  4. H9P2W15V3/C催化绿色合成对羟基苯甲酸丁酯%Green synthesis of butyl p-hydroxy benzoate catalyzed by H9P2W15V3/C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹小华; 任杰; 刘朝霞; 谢宝华; 徐常龙; 严平


    以活性碳为载体,通过浸渍法制备了H9P2W15V3/C催化剂,对催化剂进行Uv-Vis、FT-IR表征。以对羟基苯甲酸丁酯的合成反应为探针,考察了催化剂的催化性能。研究了磷钨钒杂多酸负载量、催化剂用量、醇酸比、反应时间和反应温度对反应的影响。通过单因素实验和正交实验确定了反应的最佳条件:杂多酸负载量为30%,催化剂用量8.7%(按反应体系总质量计算),醇酸摩尔比2:1,反应时间3h,反应温度125℃,酯化率可达91.30%。催化重复使用5次,酯化率仍可达76.42%。%Tungstovanadophosphoric heteropoly acid with tri-vanadium-substituted Dawson structure supported on activated carbon was prepared by impregnation method and characterized by FT-IR, Uv-Vis. The catalytic performance in synthesis of butyl p-hydroxy benzoate was investigated.The main effects of the reaction were optimized with simple and orthogonal fact experiments.The optimized conditions were as follows: the supported quantity was 30% ,the mass ratio of the catalyst to total reactant was 8.7%,the molar ratio of n-butyl alcohol to p-hydroxy benzoic acid was 2: 1, the reaction time was 3h, the reaction temperature was 125℃.Yield of butyl p-hydroxy benzoate could reach 9L30% under the optimum conditions.The catalyst could be reused for 5 times and the isolated yield of butyl p-hydroxy benzoate was still above 76.42%.

  5. Crystal structure of hexa-prop-2-en-1-yl 4,4',4'',4''',4'''',4'''''-[1,3,5,2λ(5),4λ(5),6λ(5)-tri-aza-triphosphinine-2,2,4,4,6,6-hexa-yl-hexa-kis-(-oxy)]hexa-benzoate. (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Li, Qian; Zheng, Fu-Wei; He, Juan; Qu, Ling-Bo


    In the title compound, C60H54N3O18P3, the central phosphazene ring is essentially planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of the six fitted atoms of 0.068 Å. The P-N bond lengths are within the narrow range 1.575 (2)-1.585 (2) Å, indicating the electrons are delocalized within the ring. The two ethenyl benzoate substituents on each P atom are located up and down with respect to the plane of the central P3N3 ring. The atoms of two terminal propenyl groups are disordered over two sets of sites, with refined site-occupancy ratios of 0.249 (12):0.751 (12) and 0.476 (9):0.524 (9). No intermolecular interactions are observed.

  6. 10%多杀霉素·甲维盐水分散粒剂防治3代水稻二化螟田间药效试验%Field Trial of Spinosad · Emamectin Benzoate 10% WG against the 3 Generation of Rice Stem Borer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨会营; 王占娣; 曹冬磊; 刘晓娇; 马嵩岳; 张浩; 吴勇


    [Aims] The objective of this study was to investigate the synergic effect of the mixture of spinosad and emamectin on the rice stem borer. The control effect was evaluated by spraying of spinosad· Emamectin benzoate 10% WG to the stems of rice plants in field. [Results] The higher the dose, the greater the protecting seedling and insecticidal effects on rice of spinosad · Emamectin benzoate 10% WG, while the effects of spinosad 5% WG and emamectin 5% WG used separately were both significantly lower than those of the mixture. [Conclusions] The synergic effect of the mixture of spinosad and emamectin on the rice stem borer were obviously.%[目的]为了考察多杀霉素与甲维盐混配对防治二化螟是否有增效作用.田间采用茎叶喷雾方式,测试10%多杀霉素·甲维盐水分散粒剂对水稻二化螟的防治效果.[结果]单独使用5%多杀霉素水分散粒剂和5%甲维盐水分散粒剂对水稻的保苗效果和杀虫效果均较低,而10%多杀霉素·甲维盐水分散粒剂随着其用量的增加对水稻的保苗效果和杀虫效果增加,与2个单剂的作用效果存在显著差异.[结论]多杀霉素和甲维盐混配有明显的增效作用.

  7. Application and their environmental safeties of alkyl polyglycoside and di-potassium monododecyl phosphate in emamectin benzoate 30 ME%烷基糖苷和单烷基磷酸酯钾盐在3%甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐微乳剂中的应用及其环境安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迎; 魏方林; 王阳阳; 王昕; 朱国念


    为探讨绿色表面活性剂烷基糖苷(APG)和单烷基磷酸酯钾盐(MAPK)在3%甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐(简称甲维盐)微乳剂中的应用,以传统表面活性剂辛基酚聚氧乙烯醚(OP-10)和壬基酚聚氧乙烯醚磷酸酯(NP-10P)作对照,在运用拟三元相图法确定最佳复配比例的基础上,比较了MAPK/APG复配体系和NP-10P/OP-10复配体系对甲维盐的增溶作用;在表面活性剂总质量分数为10%及最佳复配比例下,分别采用2种表面活性剂复配体系制备了技术质量指标符合标准的3%甲维盐微乳剂,并测定了其对小菜蛾Plutella xylostella的生物活性;就绿色表面活性剂和传统表面活性剂对环境的安全性(对水生生物的安全性和生物降解性)进行了比较.结果表明:在最佳复配比例下,MAPK/APG[ m(MAPK):m(APG)=2:1]的表面活性及对甲维盐的增溶能力均低于NP-10P/OP-10[m(NP-10P):m(OP-10)=1:2];用2种表面活性剂复配体系制备的微乳剂对小菜蛾的生物活性无明显差异;4种表面活性剂对斑马鱼和大型溞的毒性趋势相似——APG毒性最小,MAPK和NP-10P的毒性相当,OP-10毒性最大;28 d后APG、MAPK、NP-10P和OP-10的生物降解率分别为61.5%、49.7%、17.9%和15.0%,MAPK和APG的生物降解率明显高于NP-10P和OP-10.表明绿色表面活性剂APG和MAPK在农药制剂领域具有较好的开发应用前景.%For the purpose of investigating the application of green surfactants (alkyl polyglycoside-APG and di-potassium monododecyl phosphate-MAPK) in emamectin benzoate 30 ME, traditional surfactants (OP-10 and NP-10P) was used as contrast. Base on the best mixing ratio determined by drawing the pseudo-ternary phase diagrams, comparison of mixed system MAPK/APG[m(MAPK) :m (APG) =2:l]with mixed system NP-10P/OP-10[m(NP-10P) :m (OP-10) =1:2] on solubilization of emamectin benzoate was made. Emamectin benzoate 30 ME, whose quality requirements were up tostandard, were

  8. Simultaneous determination of the content of acetaminophen and sodium benzoate in acetaminophen oral liquid preparation by gas chromatography%气相色谱法同时测定对乙酰氨基酚口服液体制剂中对乙酰氨基酚和苯甲酸钠的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广倩; 莫炫永; 姚国新


    目的 建立气相色谱法用于测定对乙酰氨基酚口服液体制剂中对乙酰氨基酚和苯甲酸钠的含量.方法 岛津GC-17AA气相色谱仪采用SE-54石英毛细管柱(30 m× 0.25 mm,0.5μm),检测器为氢焰检测器(FID),高纯N2为载气.氢焰检测器(FID)温度300℃,进样量为,气体分流比为20∶1;柱初始温度为50℃,程序升温以25℃·min-1升温至120℃保持3min,以8℃·min-1升温至170℃保持10 rmin,以10℃·min-1升温至250℃保持5min.结果本次建立的用于测定对乙酰氨基酚和苯甲酸钠含量的气相色谱法,其线性范围分别为39.87~398.7 mg·L-1(r=0.999 3)、2.006~ 6.018 mg·L-1(r=0.9991);回归方程分别为A=3 552 039ρ+ 57 673、A =450 650ρ+ 41 921;平均回收率(n=9)分别为97.28%(RSD%=0.87%)、95.15% (RSD=1.32%).结论本方法简便、快速、专属性强,可有效地控制口服液体制剂中对乙酰氨基酚、苯甲酸钠的含量.%AIM To establish a gas chromatography method for determining the content of acetaminophen and sodium benzoate content in acetaminophen oral liquid preparation. METHODS Shimadzu GC - 17AA gas chromatograph used SE -54 fused silica capillary column (30 m×0.25 mm×0.5 μm). The detector was hydrogen flame detector (FID),carrier gas was high purity N2.The FID temperature was 300℃, injection volume was 1 μL, gas split ratio was 20:1, the initial column temperature was 50℃, reached to 120 ℃ with the speed of 25℃·min-1 and keeping for 3 min, reached to 170℃ with the speed of 8℃ · min-1 and keeping for 10 min,reached to 250℃ with the speed of 10℃ ·min-1 and keeping for 5 min. RESULTS The linear range of acetaminophen and sodium benzoate was 39.87 - 398.7 mg·L-1 (r = 0.9993) and2.006-6.018 mg·L-1(r = 0.9991), respectively. The regression equation was A = 3552039ρ + 57 673,A=450 650p +41 921. The average recovery (n=9) was 97.28% (RSD = 0.87%) and 95.15% (RSD = 1.32%),respectively. CONCLUSION The method is simple

  9. BTA/苯甲酸钠对LaFe11.6Si1.4合金的腐蚀抑制%Corrosion Inhibition of LaFe11.6Si1.4 Alloy by BTA/Sodium Benzoate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恩耀; 陈云贵; 唐永柏; 王金伟


    The corrosion behavior of LaFe11.6Si1.4 alloy was investigated in benzotriazole and sodium benzoate mixed solution. Polarization measurements and electrochemical impendence spectroscopy techniques were used to measure the electrochemical parameters. Experiment results show that the inhibition efficiency is influenced strongly by the concentration of benzotriazole and pH value. The high concentration benzotriazole and high pH value are beneficial to form a compact oxidation layer and thus prevent the dissolution of Fe.%研究LaFe11.6Si1.4合金在苯甲酸钠与苯并三氮唑混合溶液中的腐蚀行为.利用动电位极化曲线与电化学阻抗谱对合金的耐腐蚀性进行表征.结果显示,高浓度的苯并三氮唑和高pH值有利于形成厚的氧化层,进而降低合金表面Fe的溶解.

  10. The Expression of Hepatocellular/placenta FXR and BSEP in Pregnant Rats with Progesterone/Estradiol Benzoate Induced%雌孕激素对孕鼠肝脏、胎盘组织FXR/BSEP受体系统表达的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利平; 刘建; 黄楠


    目的:通过测定孕酮、苯甲酸雌二醇诱发的孕鼠肝内胆汁淤积症模型肝脏、胎盘组织中法尼醇受体(farnesoid X receptor,FXR)及胆盐输出泵(bile salt export pump,BSEP)的表达情况,探讨雌孕激素诱导妊娠期肝内胆汁淤积症(Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, ICP)过程中FXR和BSEP的作用机制。方法孕15dSD大鼠60只随机分成对照组、实验组(A组、B组),分别给予生理盐水,孕酮,苯甲酸雌二醇。于用药前、用药后测定血清中谷丙转氨酶(ALT)、谷草转氨酶(AST)、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、总胆酸(TBA)总胆红素(TBIL)、直接胆红素(DBIL)、间接胆红素(IBIL)水平;测定胎鼠生长发育情况;H.E染色观察肝脏、胎盘组织形态学变化,免疫组化法测定肝脏及胎盘BSEP、FXR的表达情况。结果用药后,实验组各项血清生化指标明显高于对照组水平(P0.05);实验组用药后各项血清生化指标较用药前显著升高(P0.05).The physical indexs of fetal rats were analyzed, and results indicated that control group was better than experiment group(P<0.05). In group A, B, there are obvious histopathological changes in liver indicated that intrahepatic cholestasis was induced by EB In pregnant rats. In experiment group, the degrees of FXR in the liver were signiifcantly higher (P<0.05);but the BSEP were lower (P<0.05)contrast with control group. In placenta, existed the expression of FXR/BSEP too. Conclusion Estradiol benzoate is the best candidate for inducing animal model of ICP, progesterone too. The augment of FXR expression in liver and down-regulating of BSEP by estrogen or progesterone may be the pathogenesis of intrahepatic homeostasis for pregnancy rats. Several progesterone metabolites are able to induce trans-inhibition of BSEP and the subsequent trans-inhibition of BSEP and thesubsequent toxicity induced by the accumulation of BAs, which may play a

  11. Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of the putative breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor [{sup 11}C]methyl 4-((4-(2-(6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-yl)ethyl)phenyl) amino-carbonyl)-2-(quinoline-2-carbonylamino)benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mairinger, Severin [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Molecular Medicine, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Langer, Oliver, E-mail: [Molecular Medicine, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Kuntner, Claudia; Wanek, Thomas [Molecular Medicine, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Bankstahl, Jens P.; Bankstahl, Marion [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy, University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover (Germany); Stanek, Johann [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Doerner, Bernd [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Bauer, Florian [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Baumgartner, Christoph [2nd Neurological Department, General Hospital Hietzing with Neurological Center Rosenhuegel, Vienna (Austria); Loescher, Wolfgang [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy, University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover (Germany); Erker, Thomas, E-mail: [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Mueller, Markus [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)


    Introduction: The multidrug efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is highly expressed in the blood-brain barrier (BBB), where it limits brain entry of a broad range of endogenous and exogenous substrates. Methyl 4-((4-(2-(6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-yl)ethyl)phenyl) amino-carbonyl)-2-(quinoline-2-carbonylamino)benzoate (1) is a recently discovered BCRP-selective inhibitor, which is structurally derived from the potent P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor tariquidar. The aim of this study was to develop a new PET tracer based on 1 to map BCRP expression levels in vivo. Methods: Compound 1 was labelled with {sup 11}C in its methyl ester function by reaction of the corresponding carboxylic acid 2 with [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of [{sup 11}C]-1 was performed in wild-type, Mdr1a/b{sup (-/-)}, Bcrp1{sup (-/-)} and Mdr1a/b{sup (-/-)}Bcrp1{sup (-/-)} mice (n=3 per mouse type) and radiotracer metabolism was assessed in plasma and brain. Results: Brain-to-plasma ratios of unchanged [{sup 11}C]-1 were 4.8- and 10.3-fold higher in Mdr1a/b{sup (-/-)} and in Mdr1a/b{sup (-/-)}Bcrp1{sup (-/-)} mice, respectively, as compared to wild-type animals, but only modestly increased in Bcrp1{sup (-/-)} mice. [{sup 11}C]-1 was rapidly metabolized in vivo giving rise to a polar radiometabolite which was taken up into brain tissue. Conclusion: Our data suggest that [{sup 11}C]-1 preferably interacts with P-gp rather than BCRP at the murine BBB which questions its reported in vitro BCRP selectivity. Consequently, [{sup 11}C]-1 appears to be unsuitable as a PET tracer to map cerebral BCRP expression.

  12. Microwave solid phase synthesis and crystal structure of benzoic acid 3-hydroxy -4- ( 3-hydroxy-3-phenylacryloyl ) phenyl benzoate-zinc ( Ⅱ ) complex%苯甲酸3-羟基-4-(3-羟基-3-苯基丙烯酰)-苯酯合锌(Ⅱ)配合物的微波固相合成及晶体结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢露; 徐锁平; 徐郭; 姚佰全; 顾小芳


    以苯甲酸3-羟基-4-(3-羟基-3-苯基丙烯酰)-苯酯和醋酸锌为原料,在微波辅助作用下固相合成了苯甲酸3-羟基4-(3-羟基-3-苯基丙烯酰)-苯酯合锌(Ⅱ)配合物.利用红外光谱及单晶X射线法对目标化合物进行了表征.结果显示,该配合物为三斜晶系,空间群为P-1,晶体学参数:a=0.716 9(7) nm,b=0.939 8(2) nm,c=1.645 6(5)nm; α=106.584(2)°,β=95.591 0(10)°,γ=90.988 0(10)°; F(000) =456,Z=1,V=1.056 5(3)nm3,Dc=1.377 9·cm-3,Mr=876.19.最终结构偏离因子R=0.040 3,Rω=0.094 1,S=1.022.最终差值电子密度的最大值和最小值分别为282 nm-3和-334 nm-3.%The complex benzoic acid 3-hydroxy-4-(3-hydroxy-3-phcnyl-aeryloyl)-phcnyl benzoate-zinc( Ⅱ) has been designed and microwave solid phase synthesized by benzoic acid 3-hydroxy-4-(3-hydroxy-3-phenyl-acryloyl)-phenyl benzoate and zinc acetate. The structure was determined by IR and single X-ray crystallography analysis. The title complex crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-l with the cell parameters α = 0. 716 9(7) nm.,b≠0. 939 8(2) nm, c=l. 645 6(5) nm;α=106. 584(2) °β=95. 591 0(10)°,γ= 90. 988 0(10)°;F(000) = 456,Z= 1,V= 1. 056 5(3) nm3,Dc = l. 377 g ·cm-3, M, =876. 19,R = 0. 040 3,Rω =0.094 1,S= 1.022. The largest difference in peak and hole of electron density are 282 nm-3 and -334 nm-3.

  13. A nonmerohedral twin of methyl 2-[methyl(methylsulfonylamino]benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafiq


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C10H13NO4S, comprises two crystallographically independent molecules. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds, which link molecules along the b axis. The crystal is a nonmerohedral twin, the refined ratio of the twin components being 0.344 (2:0.656 (2.

  14. 21 CFR 522.1940 - Progesterone and estradiol benzoate. (United States)


    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... 400 pounds (lb) of body weight. For subcutaneous ear implantation, one dose per animal. Do not use in bull calves intended for reproduction. Safety and effectiveness have not been established in...

  15. Microwave assisted solid-state synthesis, crystal structure and properties of the dialkyltin 2-Naphthyl benzoate%微波固相合成二正丁基锡2-萘甲酸酯配合物{[n-Bu2Sn(O2CC10H9)]2O}2及其结构与性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张复兴; 王剑秋; 邝代治; 冯泳兰; 张志坚; 李俊华; 张可


    二正丁基氧化锡和2-萘甲酸按物质的量比1∶1,通过微波固相合成法合成了二正丁基锡2-萘甲酸酯配合物{[n-Bu2Sn(O2CC10H9)]2O}2.经X-射线衍射方法测定了其晶体结构,配合物属三斜晶系,空间群为π,晶体学参数a=1.19564(7)nm,b=1.26634(7)nm,c=1.42679(9)nm,α=79.7120(10),β=69.0330(10)°,γ=72.1050(10)°,V=1.9146(2)nm3,Z=1,Dc=1.430 g/cra3,μ(MoKa)=13.42 cm-1,F(000)=836,R1=0.0426,wR2=0.1189.配合物是以Sn2O2构成的平面四元环为中心环的二聚体结构,锡原子均为五配位的畸变三角双锥构型.对其结构进行量子化学从头计算,探讨了配合物的稳定性、分子轨道能量以及一些前沿分子轨道的组成特征.通过循环伏安法研究了其电化学性质.%The dialkyltin 2-Naphthyl benzoate Compound {[n-Bu2Sn(O2CC10H9)]2I}2 was synthesized by Microwave assisted solid-state synthesis. Its structure has been determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction. The crystal belongs to triclinic with space groupPI-, a = 1.19564(7) nm, b =1.26634(7) nm, c =1. 42679(9) nm, α = 79.7120(10),βi = 69.0330(10)°, γ=72.1050(10)°, V= 1.9146(2) nm3, Z=1, Dc = 1.430 g/cm3, μ(UoKa)=l3A2 cm-1, F(000)=836, R1=0.0426, wR2=0.1189. In the complex, the tin atoms are rendered five-coordination in a distorted tigonal bipyram idalstructure, and the dimer structure is shaped by one Sn2O2 planar. The study on title complex has been performed, with quantum chemistry calculation by means of G98W package and taking Lanl2dz basis set. The stabilities of the complex, the orbital energies and composition characteristics of some frontier molecular orbitals have been investigated. The electrochemistry propertieswere studied by cyclic voltammetry.

  16. Synthesis and Film-forming Property of Drag Reducing Agents with Inhibition Performance for Natural Gas Based on Mannich Base-Benzoate%缓蚀型天然气减阻剂Mannich碱-苯甲酸盐的合成及其成膜性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵巍; 王晓霖; 陈建磊


    Objective Drag reducing agent with inhibition performance was synthesized, in order to meet the requirements of in-creasing the rate of gas transmission, seasonal variety and safe operation. Methods A novel drag reducing agent with inhibition per-formance, 1,4-bis(phenyl methylene-N,N′-din-butyl amine) piperazine benzoate (BPDBPB) was synthesized by nucleophilic ad-dition reaction. The structure of BPDBPB was characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ( FTIR) , Nuclear magne-tic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H NMR) and elemental analysis ( ELA) . Film-forming property and stability were assayed by Scan-ning electron microscope ( SEM) , electrochemical impedance and polarization method. Results The results of FTIR, 1 H NMR and ELA tests confirmed that the product was the target compound. Spraying BPDBPB on the surface of the steel sheet led to formation of a dense protective film, which largely decreased the roughness of the steel. In electrochemical impedance test, the DRA formed two capacitive arcs successively from high frequency region to the low frequency region. The capacitive arc formed in the high fre-quency region possessed smaller diameter, while that formed in the low frequency region had larger diameter. In the electrochemi-cal polarization test, compared to blank polarization, the anodic polarization curve was slightly steepened, and the self-corrosion potential was increased by 0. 092 V while the value of self-corrosion current was decreased by 0. 71×10-5 A. Conclusion The DRA synthesized possessed good film-forming property, and largely reduced the roughness of the steel surface. And the film structure formed possessed good stability.%目的:合成一种缓蚀型天然气减阻剂,满足新旧天然气管道增大输气量、季节性调峰和安全稳定运行的需求。方法通过亲核加成反应,合成缓蚀型天然气减阻剂———1,4-双(苯基亚甲基-N,N′-二正丁基胺)哌嗪四苯甲酸盐( BPDBPB)。采

  17. Synthesis and Properties of Copper(Ⅱ) Complex with Caffeine and Benzoate%新法合成Cu2(Benzoate)4(Caffeine)4及其性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟地长; 石少明; 邓记华; 李冬青; 边贺东; 陈振锋



  18. Efecto de la progesterona natural con o sin la adición de benzoato de estradiol sobre la presentación de celo, ovulación y gestación en animales tipo Bos indicus en el trópico mexicano Effect of natural progesterone with and without estradiol benzoate on the onset signs of oestrus, ovulation and pregnancy in Bos indicus cattle raised under mexican tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. DIAZ


    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de un dispositivo intravaginal que contiene 1.9 g de progesterona y una cápsula de 10 mg de benzoato de estradiol (BE (CIDR-B®, seguido o no de la aplicación intramuscular de BE, a las 24 horas de retirado el dispositivo, y se observó el porcentaje de estro, ovulación y gestación. Se utilizaron 122 vacas (experimento 1 y 30 novillas (experimento 2 tipo Bos indicus, que fueron asignadas aleatoriamente a tres grupos:Grupo ST: 20 vacas y 10 novillas sin tratamiento; Grupo CIDR-BE: 51 vacas y 10 novillas con un dispositivo por 10 ó 13 días respectivamente; y Grupo CIDRB+ E: 51 vacas y 10 novillas con un dispositivo por 10 ó 13 días, además de una inyección a las 24 horas de 1 ó 2 mg de BE. La detección de estros se realizó mediante la observación visual, haciéndose durante 96 horas después de retirar el CIDR-B, y posteriormente entre los 17 a 24 días posteriores a cada período de servicios, hasta concluir los 90 días que duró el empadre. Las que presentaron estro entre los días 0 a 47 fueron servidas por IA y las que lo presentaron del 48 al 90 por monta natural. Se tomaron muestras sanguíneas para medir niveles de progesterona para corroborar ovulación. El diagnóstico de gestación se realizó por palpación rectal y ultrasonografía. Las variables categóricas se analizaron mediante la prueba exacta de Fisher y las continuas mediante t de Student. Las condiciones reproductivas previas de las vacas se relacionaron con celos, ovulación y gestación con un modelo lineal logarítmico del Proc CATMOD, SAS. En ambos experimentos el grupo CIDR-B+E presentó un alto porcentaje de estro, 92.2 y 90.0% para vacas y novillas, siendo diferente (pThe effect of a intravaginal device containing 1.9 g of progesterone and one capsule of 10 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB (CIDR-B was evaluated in Bos indicus cattle. Upon withdrawal, calculations regarding estrous rate, ovulation and pregnancy were considered. 122 Bos

  19. 76 FR 12873 - Potassium Benzoate; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance (United States)


    ... received by the Hearing Clerk on or before May 9, 2011. Addresses for mail and hand delivery of objections...., textiles (clothing and diapers), carpets, swimming pools, and hard surface disinfection on walls,...

  20. Synthesis of Rizatriptan Benzoate%苯甲酸利扎曲坦的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱华; 沈义鹏


    目的 合成一种新型的5-HT1B/1D受体激动剂.方法 以三氮唑为起始原料,经过缩合、还原、肼化、缩合、甲基化5步反应制得利扎曲坦.结果 合成收率高(23%),条件温和,目标化合物的结构经元素分析、质谱、氢谱和红外光谱确证,产品纯度可高达99%.

  1. Interaction of benzoate pyrimidine analogues with class 1A dihydroorotate dehydrogenase from Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, Abigail E; Thymark, Majbritt; Gattis, Samuel G;


    Dihydroorotate dehydrogenases (DHODs) catalyze the oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate in the only redox reaction in pyrimidine biosynthesis. The pyrimidine binding sites are very similar in all structurally characterized DHODs, suggesting that the prospects for identifying a class-specific in......Dihydroorotate dehydrogenases (DHODs) catalyze the oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate in the only redox reaction in pyrimidine biosynthesis. The pyrimidine binding sites are very similar in all structurally characterized DHODs, suggesting that the prospects for identifying a class......-specific inhibitor directed against this site are poor. Nonetheless, two compounds that bind specifically to the Class 1A DHOD from Lactococcus lactis, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (3,4-diOHB) and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate (3,5-diOHB), have been identified [Palfey et al. (2001) J. Med. Chem. 44, 2861-2864]. The mechanism...... of inhibitor binding to the Class 1A DHOD from L. lactis has now been studied in detail and is reported here. Titrations showed that 3,4-diOHB binds more tightly at higher pH, whereas the opposite is true for 3,5-diOHB. Isothermal titration calorimetry and absorbance spectroscopy showed that 3,4-diOHB ionizes...

  2. Supramolecular Complexation Behavior of Novel Cyclotrivera-trylene Derivatives with Benzoate Pendants with C60

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Hao-Oiang; JIANG Xi-Kui; LI Zhan-Ting


    Four novel cyclotriveratrylene (CTV) derivatives with threebenzoate pendants bearing different aliphatic chains have been prepared in good yields,starting from.CTV.The complexa-tion behavior of these CTV derivatives towards C60 in arene solvents has been measured by UV-visible spectroscopy and high complexation constants are obtained.It is observed the me complexation is promoted by introducing methyl ester groups to the aromatic pendants, while this pro-moting effect is reduced when the methyl groups are replaced by longer alkyl groups.

  3. Biotinyl-methyl 4-(amidomethyl) benzoate is a competitive inhibitor of human biotinidase (United States)

    Posttranslational modification of histones by biotinylation can be catalyzed by both biotinidase (BTD) and holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS). Biotinylation of histones is an important epigenetic mechanism to regulate gene expression, DNA repair, and chromatin remodeling. The role of BTD in histone ...

  4. Photovoltaic Performance of Polymers Based on Dithienylthienopyrazines Bearing Thermocleavable Benzoate Esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Helgesen; Krebs, Frederik C


    are in the range of 1.17−1.37 eV. The polymers were explored as donor materials in bulk heterojunction solar cells together with PCBM as the acceptor material where they were shown to exhibit a photoresponse in the full absorption range up to 900 nm and power conversion efficiencies of up to 1.21% under 1 sun...

  5. Methyl 3,5-bis[(4-hydroxymethyl-2-methoxyphenoxymethyl]benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Travis Holman


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C26H28O8, the central aromatic ring forms dihedral angles of 24.32 (11 and 80.19 (7° with the two adjoining vanillyl alcohol rings. In the crystal, O—H...O hydrogen bonds connect the molecules, forming a hydrogen-bonded sheet-like motif extended in the ab plane.

  6. Hydrolysis of methyl benzoate from Piper arboreum by Naupactus bipes beetle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Clecio S.; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail:


    A new natural product was isolated from Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) leaves, the methyl 3-geranyl-4-hydroxybenzoate (1). The metabolism of P. arboreum leaves by Naupactus bipes beetle (Germar, 1824 - Coleoptera: Curculionidae) led to the hydrolysis of 1 to 3-geranyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2). The structures of both compounds were determined based on spectroscopic analysis ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, MS, and IR). (author)

  7. Di-n-butylammonium 2-[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylsulfanyl]benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. Alhadi


    Full Text Available The title salt, C8H20N+·C22H27O3S−, is a proton-transfer compound derived from the recently reported parent carboxylic acid [Alhadi et al. (2010. Acta Cryst. E66, o1787] by the addition of a second equivalent of di-n-butylamine, yielding the di-n-butylammonium carboxylate salt. The structure of the carboxylate anion resembles that of the parent carboxylic acid. The main difference lies in the position of the H atom in the 4-hydroxy group. In the anion the O—H bond is perpendicular, rather than parallel, to the benzyl ring. This position appears to facilitate hydrogen bonding to an O atom of the carboxylate group of a symmetry-related anion. In addition, there are three N—H...O hydrogen bonds. In contrast, the neutral species hydrogen bonds via a carboxylic acid dimer. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings in the anion is 79.19 (7°.

  8. Spectroscopic investigation of europium benzoate in acetonitrile: Luminescence enhancement and complexation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Satendra; Maji, S. [Materials Chemistry Division, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Joseph, M. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Sankaran, K., E-mail: [Materials Chemistry Division, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)


    Luminescence from Eu{sup 3+} complexed with benzoic acid (BA) has been studied using acetonitrile (MeCN) as solvent. More than two orders luminescence enhancement is found as compared to Eu{sup 3+}–BA complex in aqueous medium. The lifetime of Eu{sup 3+} in this complex is 900 μs which is much higher as compared to 118 μs in aqueous medium, suggesting the luminescence enhancement is a result of reduction in non-radiative decay channels in MeCN medium. Luminescence spectroscopy along with UV–vis spectroscopy is used to study the complexation behavior of Eu{sup 3+}–BA in this medium. In contrary to aqueous medium where Eu{sup 3+}–BA forms ML and ML{sub 2} type species, spectroscopic data reveal formation of only ML{sub 3} complex with composition Eu(BA){sub 3}(MeCN){sub 6} in MeCN medium. Absorbance, luminescence lifetimes and the ratio of areas of 615–592 nm peaks are used in HypSpec computation program to determine the log β for the ML{sub 3} complex. - Highlights: • Luminescence and complexation of Eu{sup 3+}–BA have been studied in MeCN. • The luminescence intensity of Eu{sup 3+}–BA is 320 times more in MeCN compared to aqueous medium. • Luminescence enhancement is a result of sensitization and reduction in non-radiative decay channels in MeCN. • Eu{sup 3+} forms only ML{sub 3} type complex with BA in MeCN contrary to aqueous medium where it forms ML and ML{sub 2} type species.

  9. {2-[(Benzoyloxymethyl]-1-oxo-3H-pyrrolizin-2-yl}methyl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Peng


    Full Text Available The title compound, C23H19NO5, was prepared by esterification of 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizin-1-one with benzoyl chloride in pyridine·The pyrrolizine ring system is approximately planar with a maximum deviation of 0.008 (2 Å from the least-squares plane; the two phenyl rings are oriented at dihedral angles of 64.26 (11 and 70.75 (10° with respect to the pyrrolizine ring system. Weak intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonding occurs in the crystal structure.

  10. Different dimensional coordination polymers with 4,4'-oxybis(benzoate): Syntheses, structures and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lun, Huijie [Henan Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalate, Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan, 475004 (China); Li, Yamin, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Zhang, Xudong [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Yang, Jing-He; Xiao, Changyu [Henan Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalate, Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan, 475004 (China); Xu, Yanqing [School of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Cluster Science, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Li, Junrui [Henan Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalate, Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan, 475004 (China)


    Five transition-metal coordination polymers, namely, [Zn{sub 7}Cl{sub 6}(oba){sub 4}]{sub n} (1), [Cd{sub 7}Cl{sub 6}(oba){sub 4}]{sub n} (2), [Zn(oba)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (3), [Ag{sub 2}(oba)]{sub n} (4) and [Co(oba)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (5) (H{sub 2}oba=4,4′-oxydibenzoic acid), have been achieved under hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized by IR, elemental analyses, X-ray single-crystal diffraction and TGA. The X-ray single-crystal diffraction reveals that compounds 1 and 2 are isomorphism, featuring pillared-layer 3D motifs, in which the 2D inorganic layers (Zn{sub 6}Cl{sub 7}){sub n} (or (Cd{sub 6}Cl{sub 7}){sub n}) are connected by oba{sup 2−} pillars. Compound 3 exhibits 1D stair-like chain and extends to a 3D network by two different interchain O–H–O hydrogen bonding interactions while compound 4 features wave chains and stretches to 2D layer by interchain Ag–O weak contacts. Compound 5 shows 2D network in which Co-chains are pillared by oba{sup 2−} ligand and then forms a 3D network by four different O–H–O hydrogen bonding interactions. Furthermore, 1–4 exhibit luminescent properties at a solid state and 5 shows antiferromagnetic behavior. - Graphical abstract: Five new transition-metal coordination complexes 1–5 have been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffractions, IR spectra, elemental analyses, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), photoluminescent spectra and magnetic measurement. - Highlights: • Compound 1 exhibits a pillared-layer 3D network. • The photoluminescent properties of 1–4 have been measured. • Compound 5 exhibits antiferromagnetic behavior.

  11. Methyl 4-{[6-(4-bromophenyl-3-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridazin-4-yl]methyl}benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adailton J. Bortoluzzi


    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, C19H17BrN2O3, consists of two cyclic groups, viz. 4-(methoxycarbonylphenyl and 6-(4-bromophenyl-3-oxo-2,3,4,5-dihydropyridazin-4-yl, which are linked by a methylene spacer. The pyridazine ring is twisted and the dihedral angle between its mean plane and that of the bromophenyl mean plane is 17.2 (2°. The 4-(methoxycarbonylphenyl group shows a quasi-planar conformation, where the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the phenyl ring and carboxylate ester group is 7.9 (4°. Centrosymmetric intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds form dimers. These are linked by C—Br...O=C interactions [Br...O = 3.10 (1 Å] to form a one-dimensional polymeric structure running along the [1overline{2}0] direction.

  12. Effect of emamectin benzoate on mortality, proboscis extension, gustation and reproduction of the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (United States)

    Newly emerged bollworm adults, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) require carbohydrate source from plant exudates and nectars for reproduction. Adults actively seek such feeding sites upon eclosion in their natural habitat. We wanted to evaluate this nocturnal behavior of the bollworm for potential use as a p...

  13. Detectability of testosterone esters and estradiol benzoate in bovine hair and plasma following pour-on treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Groot, M.J.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Nijrolder, A.W.J.M.; Blokland, M.H.; Riedmaier, I.; Becker, C.; Meyer, H.H.D.; Nielen, M.W.F.


    The abuse of synthetic esters of natural steroids such as testosterone and estradiol in cattle fattening and sports is hard to detect via routine urine testing. The esters are rapidly hydrolysed in vivo into substances which are also endogenously present in urine. An interesting alternative can be p

  14. A kinetic model for toluene oxidation comprising benzylperoxy benzoate ester as reactive intermediate in the formation of benzaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.A.A.; Alsters, P. L.; Versteeg, G. F.


    During the oxidation of toluene under semibatch conditions, the formation of benzyl alcohol is initially equal to the rate of formation of benzaldehyde. As the overall conversion increases the benzyl alcohol concentration at first decreases much faster than benzaldehyde, but this decrease slows down

  15. Bis(quinolin-8-ol)silver(I) 2-hydr-oxy-3,5-dinitro-benzoate. (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Lan; Jian, Fang-Fang


    The title compound, [Ag(C(9)H(7)NO)(2)](C(7)H(3)N(2)O(7)), was prepared from 3,5-dinitro-salicylic acid (DNS), quinolin-8-ol and AgNO(3). The Ag(I) atom is coordinated by two N atoms and two O atoms from two quinolin-8-ols in a roughly planar [maximum deviation = 0.223 (2) Å] environment. The two quinolin-8-ol ligands are bent slightly with respect to each other, making a dihedral angle of 9.55 (9)°. The DNS anion inter-acts with the silver complex through O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  16. Bis(quinolin-8-ol)silver(I) 2-hydr­oxy-3,5-dinitro­benzoate


    Fang-Fang Jian; Chun-Lan Zhang


    The title compound, [Ag(C9H7NO)2](C7H3N2O7), was prepared from 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS), quinolin-8-ol and AgNO3. The AgI atom is coordinated by two N atoms and two O atoms from two quinolin-8-ols in a roughly planar [maximum deviation = 0.223 (2) Å] environment. The two quinolin-8-ol ligands are bent slightly with respect to each other, making a dihedral angle of 9.55 (9)°. The DNS anion interacts with the silver complex through O...

  17. Cinnamate:CoA ligase initiates the biosynthesis of a benzoate-derived xanthone phytoalexin in Hypericum calycinum cell cultures. (United States)

    Gaid, Mariam M; Sircar, Debabrata; Müller, Andreas; Beuerle, Till; Liu, Benye; Ernst, Ludger; Hänsch, Robert; Beerhues, Ludger


    Although a number of plant natural products are derived from benzoic acid, the biosynthesis of this structurally simple precursor is poorly understood. Hypericum calycinum cell cultures accumulate a benzoic acid-derived xanthone phytoalexin, hyperxanthone E, in response to elicitor treatment. Using a subtracted complementary DNA (cDNA) library and sequence information about conserved coenzyme A (CoA) ligase motifs, a cDNA encoding cinnamate:CoA ligase (CNL) was isolated. This enzyme channels metabolic flux from the general phenylpropanoid pathway into benzenoid metabolism. HcCNL preferred cinnamic acid as a substrate but failed to activate benzoic acid. Enzyme activity was strictly dependent on the presence of Mg²⁺ and K⁺ at optimum concentrations of 2.5 and 100 mM, respectively. Coordinated increases in the Phe ammonia-lyase and HcCNL transcript levels preceded the accumulation of hyperxanthone E in cell cultures of H. calycinum after the addition of the elicitor. HcCNL contained a carboxyl-terminal type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal made up by the tripeptide Ser-Arg-Leu, which directed an amino-terminal reporter fusion to the peroxisomes. Masking the targeting signal by carboxyl-terminal reporter fusion led to cytoplasmic localization. A phylogenetic tree consisted of two evolutionarily distinct clusters. One cluster was formed by CoA ligases related to benzenoid metabolism, including HcCNL. The other cluster comprised 4-coumarate:CoA ligases from spermatophytes, ferns, and mosses, indicating divergence of the two clades prior to the divergence of the higher plant lineages.

  18. Anion-controlled assembly of metal 3,5-bis(benzimidazol-1-ylmethyl) benzoate complexes: Synthesis, characterization and property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuai, Hai-Wei [Coordination Chemistry Institute, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Faculty of Life Science and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003 (China); Lv, Gao-Chao; Hou, Chao [Coordination Chemistry Institute, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Sun, Wei-Yin, E-mail: [Coordination Chemistry Institute, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)


    Hydrothermal reactions of 3,5-bis(benzimidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzoic acid (HL) with Cd(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) salts provide eight new metal complexes which were characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, IR, elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. Two cadmium frameworks [Cd(L){sub 2}]·2H{sub 2}O (1) and [Cd(L)Cl] (2) have 3D structures with (4{sup 2}.6{sup 5}.8{sup 3})(4{sup 2}.6) and rtl (4.6{sup 2}){sub 2}(4{sup 2}.6{sup 10}.8{sup 3}) topologies, respectively. Structural diversity of four copper complexes [Cu{sub 3}(L){sub 2}]·NO{sub 3}·0.5H{sub 2}O (3), [Cu{sub 2}(HL){sub 2}(SO{sub 4})]·3.5H{sub 2}O (4), [Cu(L)(bdc){sub 0.5}]·1.5H{sub 2}O (5) and [Cu{sub 2}(L)(HL)(Hbdc)] (6) (H{sub 2}bdc=1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid) is achieved through the alteration of copper salts and addition of auxiliary ligand. As a result, 3 has a 1D ladder structure, 4 is a discrete dinuclear complex, 5 displays a (3,4)-connected 2-nodal 3-fold interpenetrating framework with (4{sup 2}.6.10{sup 2}.12)(4{sup 2}.6) topology, 6 exhibits a 4-connected uninodal 2D sql (4{sup 4}.6{sup 2}) network. Within the zinc series, ZnCl{sub 2} and ZnSO{sub 4} were used for the syntheses of [Zn(L)Cl] (7) and [Zn(L)(SO{sub 4}){sub 0.5}]·2H{sub 2}O (8), respectively. 7 shows a 3-connected uninodal 2D hcb network with (6{sup 3}) topology and 8 is a (3,6)-connected 2-nodal 3D framework with (4{sup 2}.6){sub 2}(4{sup 4}.6{sup 2}.8{sup 8}.10) topology. The luminescent properties of the Cd(II) and Zn(II) complexes were investigated. - Graphical abstract: Eight new complexes have been successfully synthesized from the hydrothermal reactions of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) salts with 3,5-bis(benzimidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzoic acid. The complexes exhibited anion-controlled structural diversity. - Highlights: • Metal complexes have diverse structures of 1D chains, 2D networks and 3D frameworks. • Anion-controlled assembly of the complexes is reported. • The luminescent properties of the Cd(II) and Zn(II) complexes were investigated.

  19. A Kinetic Model for Toluene Oxidation Comprising Benzylperoxy Benzoate Ester as Reactive Intermediate in the Formation of Benzaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.A.A.; Alsters, P.L.; Versteeg, G.F.


    During the oxidation of toluene under semibatch conditions, the formation of benzyl alcohol is initially equal to the rate of formation of benzaldehyde. As the overall conversion increases the benzyl alcohol concentration at first decreases much faster than benzaldehyde, but this decrease slows down

  20. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV) and microbiological studies of di-substituted benzoates of alkali metals (United States)

    Kalinowska, M.; Świsłocka, R.; Borawska, M.; Piekut, J.; Lewandowski, W.


    The FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV spectra of 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic and 3,5-dichlorobenzoic acids as well as lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium 3,5-dihydroxy- and 3,5-dichlorobenzoates were recorded, assigned and compared. The theoretical geometries, Mulliken atomic charges, IR wavenumbers were obtained in B3LYP/6-311++G** level. On the basis of the gathered experimental and theoretical data the effect of metals and substituents on the electronic system of studied compounds were investigated. Moreover, the antimicrobiological activity of studied compounds against two species of bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococus aureus and one species of yeast: Candida albicans were studied after 24 and 48 h of incubation. The attempt was made, to find out whether there is any correlation between the first principal component and the degree of growth inhibition exhibited by studied compounds in relation to selected microorganisms.

  1. Inhibition Effect of Benzotriazole and Benzoate for Cast Aluminum%杂原子化合物对铸铝的缓蚀作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田兆庆; 董荣芬; 姜效军; 张崇欢; 吴文福


    采用电化学阻抗谱(EIS)和失重法研究了苯并三氮唑(BTA)与苯甲酸钠(SB)对乙二醇水溶液中铸铝的防腐性能.EIS结果显示BTA与SB对铸铝具有缓蚀作用,且1.0 g/L BTA的效果最佳;以1.0 g/L的BTA和4.0 g/L的SB配成的复合缓蚀剂的Rp最大,缓蚀效果最好,证明两者之间具有很好的协同缓蚀效果.失重法实验结果表明,复合缓蚀剂缓蚀效率可达95%.

  2. Cinnamate:CoA Ligase Initiates the Biosynthesis of a Benzoate-Derived Xanthone Phytoalexin in Hypericum calycinum Cell Cultures1[W][OA (United States)

    Gaid, Mariam M.; Sircar, Debabrata; Müller, Andreas; Beuerle, Till; Liu, Benye; Ernst, Ludger; Hänsch, Robert; Beerhues, Ludger


    Although a number of plant natural products are derived from benzoic acid, the biosynthesis of this structurally simple precursor is poorly understood. Hypericum calycinum cell cultures accumulate a benzoic acid-derived xanthone phytoalexin, hyperxanthone E, in response to elicitor treatment. Using a subtracted complementary DNA (cDNA) library and sequence information about conserved coenzyme A (CoA) ligase motifs, a cDNA encoding cinnamate:CoA ligase (CNL) was isolated. This enzyme channels metabolic flux from the general phenylpropanoid pathway into benzenoid metabolism. HcCNL preferred cinnamic acid as a substrate but failed to activate benzoic acid. Enzyme activity was strictly dependent on the presence of Mg2+ and K+ at optimum concentrations of 2.5 and 100 mm, respectively. Coordinated increases in the Phe ammonia-lyase and HcCNL transcript levels preceded the accumulation of hyperxanthone E in cell cultures of H. calycinum after the addition of the elicitor. HcCNL contained a carboxyl-terminal type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal made up by the tripeptide Ser-Arg-Leu, which directed an amino-terminal reporter fusion to the peroxisomes. Masking the targeting signal by carboxyl-terminal reporter fusion led to cytoplasmic localization. A phylogenetic tree consisted of two evolutionarily distinct clusters. One cluster was formed by CoA ligases related to benzenoid metabolism, including HcCNL. The other cluster comprised 4-coumarate:CoA ligases from spermatophytes, ferns, and mosses, indicating divergence of the two clades prior to the divergence of the higher plant lineages. PMID:22992510

  3. Preparation of Rizatriptan benzoate fast disintegrating oral tablet%苯甲酸利扎曲普坦口腔速崩片的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄东升; 产运霞; 耿玉先; 辛正洪; 宋梦薇


    目的 制备苯甲酸利扎曲普坦口腔速崩片.方法 选用微晶纤维素(MCC)和低取代羟丙基纤维素(LHPC)作为崩解剂,通过粉末直接压片工艺制备口腔速崩片.考察速崩片的性质.结果 当MCC/LHPC的比例为9:1时,其体外崩解时间在20 s以内,体内崩解时间在30 s以内.结论 所制片剂口感良好,优化的工艺可以工业化生产.

  4. Study on Formulation of the Rizatriptan Benzoate Films%苯甲酸利扎曲普坦膜剂的处方研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  5. Quantification of rizatriptan benzoate by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定苯甲酸利扎曲普坦的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛正洪; 宋梦薇


    目的:建立HPLC法测定苯甲酸利扎曲普坦的含量.方法:采用高效液相色谱法,色谱柱为Kromasil C18色谱柱(150 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm),以乙腈-0.1%十二烷基硫酸钠溶液-磷酸(60:40:0.1)为流动相,流速为1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长为225 nm,柱温40℃.结果:线性范围为5.0~100 μg·mL-1 (r=1.000),相对标准偏差为0.4%~0.5%.结论:本实验建立了一种灵敏、快速、准确的HPLC法测定苯甲酸利扎曲普坦的含量.

  6. Dissolution of rizatriptan benzoate tablets%苯甲酸利扎曲普坦片的溶出度考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶亚琳; 张贞良; 金星; 曹洋


    目的建立苯甲酸利扎曲普坦片的溶出度考察方法,以有效控制药品质量.方法以0.1 mol·L-1HCl为溶媒,搅拌浆转速75 r·min-1,20 min取样,在280 nm处测其吸收度计算溶出量.结果苯甲酸利扎曲普坦在5.28~52.7 μg·mL-1吸收度与浓度呈良好线性关系,A=0.014 68 C+0.001 629,r=0.999 9,平均加样回收率为99.8%,RSD=0.80%,3批样品的20 min溶出度均在93%以上.结论方法简便、准确,结果可靠.可用于苯甲酸利扎曲普坦片的溶出度测定.

  7. DFT studies of calcium(II), strontium(II) and barium(II) benzoates with N,N,N‧,N‧-Tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl/propyl)ethylenediamine (United States)

    Obrai, Sangeeta; Kumar, Rakesh; Goyal, Milli; Kaushal, Svati


    The computational study of some s-block metal nitrobenzoateate complexes: [Ca(THEEN)(H2O)]2+ (1), [Ca(THPEN)(H2O)2]2+ (2), [Sr(THPEN)(H2O)3]2+ (3), [Ba(THPEN)(H2O)2]22+(4), [Ba(THEEN)(H2O)2]22+ (5), (where THEEN (N,N,N‧,N'-Tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine) and THPEN (N,N,N‧,N'- Tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine) are tetrapodal ligands) is presented here using density functional theory (DFT) in its hybrid form B3LYP. The geometries of the title complexes are described by the quantum-chemical approach using input coordinates obtained from the previously synthesized and X-ray characterized diffraction data of [Ca(THEEN)(H2O)](DNB)2.H2O, [Ca(THPEN)(H2O)2](DNB)2.H2O [Sr(THPEN)(H2O)3](DNB)2, [Ba(THPEN)(H2O)2]2(DNB)4.2H2O and [Ba(THEEN)(H2O)2]2(ONB)4 (where DNB- is 3,5-dinitrobenzoate anion and ONB- is 2-nitrobenzoate). Only the primary coordination sphere of complexes (1) - (5) is optimized in the gaseous state. The calculation of energy gaps of frontier orbitals (HOMO-LUMO), 13C -NMR shifts and vibrational bands is carried out using B3LYP/6-31G**/LANL2DZ level of theory. The calculated geometric and spectral parameters reproduced the experimental data with well-agreement. HOMO-LUMO energy gap suggest that [Ca(THPEN)(H2O)2]2+ (2) is the most stable (HLG = 6.893 eV) among all the similar previously and presently reported complexes.

  8. Crystal structure of methyl 2-hydroxy-5-[(4-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1,3-thiazol-2-ylamino]benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaaban K. Mohamed


    Full Text Available The title compound, C11H10N2O4S, crystallized with two independent molecules (A and B in the asymmetric unit. They differ primarily in the rotational orientation of the five-membered heterocyclic ring. In molecule A this ring is inclined to the benzene ring by 48.17 (8°, while in molecule B the same dihedral angle is 23.07 (8°. In each molecule there is an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond involving the adjacent hydroxyl group and the ester carbonyl O atom. In the crystal, the A molecules are linked via pairs of N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers. These dimers are linked to the B molecules via N—H.·O, C—H...O and C—H...S hydrogen bonds forming corrugated sheets lying parallel to (102.

  9. Determination of Sodium Benzoate in Milk Powders by Infrared Spectrophotometry%红外光谱法测定奶粉中苯甲酸钠的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    回瑞华; 侯冬岩; 关崇新; 郭华



  10. Research Prowess of Catalysts in synthesis of n-Butyl Benzoate%合成苯甲酸正丁酯催化剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞善信; 文瑞明; 刘美艳



  11. Two novel interpenetrated zinc(Ⅱ) and cadmium(Ⅱ) coordination polymers based on 4-imidazole-benzoate: Syntheses, crystal structures and properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI ZhengShuai; CHEN ShuiSheng; ZHANG ZhengHua; CHEN ManSheng; LIU GuangXiang; SUN WeiYin


    Two novel interpenetrated coordination polymers, [Zn(IBA)2]n (1) and {[Cd(IBA)2(H2O)]-4H2O}n (2),have been synthesized by using 4-imidazole-benzoic acid (HIBA) as ligand under hydrothermal con-ditions. Complex I crystallizes in a chiral space group and has a two-fold interpenetrated 2D network structure with (4,4) topology, while complex 2 is a 3D porous dia network with four nets interpene-trating each other. The SHG activity of 1 and the photoluminescent property of 2 have been investi-gated.

  12. Inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and nonpathogenic E. coli in strawberry juice by pulsed electric field, sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and citric acid (United States)

    Introduction: Current regulations require that juice processors effect a 5 log CFU/ml reduction of a target pathogen prior to distributing products. Whereas thermal pasteurization reduces the sensory characteristics of juice by altering flavor components, pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment may ...

  13. Diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DHHB) as additive to the UV filter avobenzone in cosmetic sunscreen formulations - Evaluation of the photochemical behavior and photostabilizing effect. (United States)

    Kawakami, Camila Martins; Máximo, Leandro Nériton Cândido; Fontanezi, Bianca Bueno; da Silva, Roberto Santana; Gaspar, Lorena Rigo


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the photochemical behavior of DHHB and its photostabilizing effect on avobenzone (AVO) in different sunscreen formulations. The formulations were subjected to photostability studies by HPLC and spectrophotometry. In vitro phototoxicity was assessed using 3T3 fibroblast cultures. The mechanism of interaction between DHHB and AVO was investigated by steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. All formulations provided ultra-protection against UVA radiation. HPLC results demonstrated that DHHB did not present a photostabilizing effect on AVO. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed that AVO and DHHB interact by a static quenching mechanism and DHHB did not affect the AVO excited state lifetime. In addition, the energy transfer by Förster mechanism (FRET), which is the most often mechanism responsible for singlet-singlet quenching, is unlikely in this work. These results suggest why DHHB did not work as a photostabilizer on AVO singlet excited state. Phototoxicity results demonstrated that combinations containing DHHB (C2) did not show a phototoxic potential. Finally, although DHHB was considered to be photostable for all formulations studied (F2 and F3) it did not increase the photostability of AVO (F3). Thus, we suggested that formulations containing DHHB (F2) should be considered more advantageous than formulations containing AVO and AVO/DHHB (F1 and F3 respectively).

  14. Comparison of the crystal structures of methyl 4-bromo-2-(meth-oxy-meth-oxy)benzoate and 4-bromo-3-(meth-oxy-meth-oxy)benzoic acid. (United States)

    Suchetan, P A; Suneetha, V; Naveen, S; Lokanath, N K; Krishna Murthy, P


    The title compounds, C10H11BrO4, (I), and C9H9BrO4, (II), are derivatives of bromo-hy-droxy-benzoic acids. Compound (II) crystallizes with two independent mol-ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. In both (I) and (II), the O-CH2-O-CH3 side chain is not in its fully extended conformation; the O-C-O-C torsion angle is 67.3 (3) ° in (I), and -65.8 (3) and -74.1 (3)° in mol-ecules A and B, respectively, in compound (II). In the crystal of (I), mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming C(5) chains along [010]. The chains are linked by short Br⋯O contacts [3.047 (2) Å], forming sheets parallel to the bc plane. The sheets are linked via C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming a three-dimensional architecture. In the crystal of (II), mol-ecules A and B are linked to form R 2 (2)(8) dimers via two strong O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. These dimers are linked into ⋯A-B⋯A-B⋯A-B⋯ [C 2 (2)(15)] chains along [011] by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The chains are linked by slipped parallel π-π inter-actions [inter-centroid distances = 3.6787 (18) and 3.8431 (17) Å], leading to the formation of slabs parallel to the bc plane.

  15. Benzoylation of Ergosterol through Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution and Subsequent Formation of Ergosterol Benzoate Endoperoxide by Reaction with Singlet Oxygen Generated by Photosensitization (United States)

    Roslaniec, Mary C.; Sanford, Elizabeth M.


    Reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen have been a major focus of research in medicine. The effect of singlet oxygen on sterols within biological membranes is becoming increasingly more important. Ergosterol, a vitamin D precursor, is one such sterol. The benzoylation of ergosterol and subsequent reaction with singlet oxygen to form an…

  16. Drug: D02409 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02409 Mixture, Drug Caffeine and sodium benzoate (JP16); Sodium caffeine benzoate;...s 211 Cardiotonics 2115 Caffeines D02409 Caffeine and sodium benzoate (JP16) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical...for gastric secretion V04CG30 Caffeine and sodium benzoate D02409 Caffeine and so...n Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 21 Cardiovascular agent

  17. 用正相色谱法氰基键合柱定量分析甲维·柴乳油中的甲维盐%Quantitative Analysis of Emamectin Benzoate in the Formulation of Emamectin Benzoate-Diesel Oil by Normal Phase-Liquid Chromatography Using a CN Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕富春; 吴国旭


    研究了用氰基键合相色谱柱定量分析甲维·柴乳油中甲维盐HPLC的方法.本方法在1.25 (g~20 (g进样范围内呈线性,相关系数值 (R) 为0.9999.测得的回收率范围为98%~100.5%,变异系数小于10%.

  18. Drug: D03844 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03844 Mixture, Drug Phenytoin - phenobarbital - caffeine and sodium benzoate; Hydantol F (TN) Phenytoin...3 Antiepileptics 1139 Others D03844 Phenytoin - phenobarbital - caffeine and sodium benzoate Anatomical Ther...PTICS N03A ANTIEPILEPTICS N03AB Hydantoin derivatives N03AB52 Phenytoin, combinations D03844 Phenytoin - phenobarbital - caffeine and sodium benzoate PubChem: 17397930 ...

  19. 高效液相色谱法测定丁香中防腐剂苯甲酸钠含量%HPLC Determination of Preservative Sodium Benzoate in Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴翔翎; 凌娅; 潘青华


    目的:测定丁香药材中防腐剂苯甲酸钠的含量.方法:采用高效液相色谱法,以甲醇-0.05 mol·L-1磷酸二氢钾溶液混合溶液(500mL 0.05 mol·L-1磷酸二氢钾溶液中分别加入冰醋酸和异丙醇各11.6 mL)(22:78)为流动相;流速为1 mL·min-1;检测波长为231 nm测定苯甲酸钠的含量.结果:本法对丁香药材中苯甲酸钠检测重现性较好,苯甲酸钠在12.08~96.64μg·mL-1之间有良好的线性关系,加样回收率为97.5%,相对标准偏差RSD=1.2%(n=5).结论:本法对控制中药材中防腐剂苯甲酸钠的含量有着重要的参考价值.

  20. Experiment study on the teratogenicity of emamectin benzoate in rats%甲胺基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐原药对大鼠致畸毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢广云; 王健; 赵文锦; 刘黎; 孙金秀


    将受孕的雌鼠随机分为低、中、高3个染毒剂量组和溶剂对照组,每组15只孕鼠.分别染毒1、4、8 mg/kg的甲胺基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐原药,溶剂对照组经口给予蒸馏水.对照组和各染毒组在母鼠受孕后7~16 d,采用灌胃法染毒,于妊娠第20天处死母鼠,观察母鼠和胎鼠的生长发育情况.8 mg/kg组妊娠动物于染毒3~5 d后出现间断性四肢颤抖和抽搐,染毒结束后,症状逐渐减轻或消失;胎鼠的骨骼检查中可见枕骨发育不全和胸骨缺失,骨骼畸形率为12.76%,与溶剂对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).中、低剂量组各项检查与对照组比较差异无统计学意义.提示在本实验条件下,甲胺基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐原药对大鼠的母体毒性和胚胎发育毒性的未观察到有害作用剂量(NOA-EL)为4 mg/kg;无致畸作用.

  1. Determination of the Dissolution of Rizatriptan Benzoate Tablets by UV Spectrophotometry%紫外分光光度法测定苯甲酸利扎曲普坦片的溶出度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛廷淇; 陈红梅


    目的:建立测定苯甲酸利扎曲普坦片溶出度的方法.方法:采用紫外分光光度法在280nm处测定其吸收度,并计算溶出量.结果:苯甲酸利扎曲普坦检测浓度在2.5~30μg/ml范围内线性关系良好(r=0.9 999),平均回收率为99.18%(RSD=0.25%),3批样品的30min溶出度均在90%以上.结论:本方法简便、准确,结果可靠,适用于苯甲酸利扎曲普坦片的溶出度测定.

  2. 苯甲酸利扎曲普坦含量及有关物质的HPLC测定%Determination of Rizatriptan Benzoate and Its Related Substances by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钧; 高小玲; 江文明; 蒋新国


    建立了HPLC法测定苯甲酸利扎曲普坦含量及有关物质.采用ODS C18柱,流动相为0.1%三乙胺(用磷酸调至pH 7.0)-乙腈(90:10),流速1.2ml/min,柱温40℃,检测波长225nm.线性范围5~200μg/ml(r=0.9999),日内、日间RSD均小于2%.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of rizatriptan benzoate in healthy volunteers%苯甲酸利扎曲普坦在健康受试者体内的药代动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛萍; 宋敏; 杭太俊; 马鹏程; 陶蕾


    目的:研究健康受试者单剂量口服苯甲酸利扎曲普坦(RZT)片的药代动力学.方法:采用LC-MS/MS法测定10名健康受试者单剂量口服RZT片5,10,15 mg后的血浆药物浓度经时过程和尿样累计排泄率,DAS 2.0程序计算主要药代动力学参数.结果:血浆RZT的线性范围为0.20~100 μg·L-1,定量下限为0.20 μg·L-1;尿样的线性范围为0.020~10.0 mg·L-1,定量下限为0.020 mg·L-1.测得健康受试者单剂量口服5,10,15 mg RZT片后的主要药动学参数Cmax、Tmax、t1/2AUC0-12h、CL/F、V/F分别为(13.69±3.36),(37.96±8.86),(46.83±15.54)μg·L-1;(2.15±0.71),(0.97±0.64),(1.95±0.76)h;(1.54±0.31),(1.57±0.24),(1.70±0.22)h;(43.64±9.56),(118.36±20.86),(168.72±53.38)h·μg·L-1;(117.80±24.85),(86.28±14.87),(100.56±50.64)L·h-1和(265.40±95.96),(193.51±39.09),(244.82±111.76)L.低、中、高剂量下12 h尿样累计排泄率分别为(10.91±3.43)%,(15.49±3.71)%,(14.90±7.04)%.结论:RZT在体内的AUC00-12h、Cmax均与剂量呈线性关系(r>0.99),男性与女性间药代动力学存在一定差异,但无统计学意义.

  4. 苯甲酸利扎曲普坦的高效液相色谱分析方法研究%Determination of rizatriptan benzoate and its impurities by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎平; 冯翠玲; 谢剑炜


    目的:建立苯甲酸利扎曲普坦和有关杂质的HPLC测定方法.方法:采用高效液相色谱法,色谱柱为Zorbax-C18(250mm×4.6mm,5μm).流动相为乙腈-0.02mol·L-1磷酸二氢钾-三乙胺(25:75:0.5,用磷酸调pH 5),流速为1.0mL·min-1,在220nm波长处检测.含量测定采用外标法,杂质检查采用面积归一化法.结果:本品与有关物质能较好分离,苯甲酸利扎曲普坦在0.04~0.4mg·mL-1范围内呈直线关系,最低检测限4ng·mL-1.结论:本方法专属性强,重现性好,用于含量测定和杂质检查.

  5. 苯甲酸利扎曲普坦治疗偏头痛的疗效观察%Curative effects observation of treatment with Rizatriptan benzoate for migraine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淳; 张标; 刘平; 陈纯; 冯芹; 廖断修; 付秀全


    目的 观察苯甲酸利扎曲普坦(欣渠)治疗偏头痛的疗效. 方法将63例偏头痛患者随机分为欣渠组(31例)与复方对乙酰氨基酚(散利痛)组(32例),头痛发作开始时分别服用欣渠10 mg及散利痛1片.观察患者服药后起效的时间,服药后0.5 h、1 h、2 h、4 h的有效率及服药后4 h的视觉模糊评分(VAS),服药后完全止痛持续时间. 结果与散利痛组比较,欣渠组起效时间显著缩短,完全止痛持续时间显著延长(P<0.01,P<0.05).欣渠组服药后1 h、4 h的有效率(51.6%,80.6%)明显高于散利痛组(28.1%,56.3%)( 均P<0.05);两组治疗后VAS均比治疗前显著降低(均P<0.01),两组间差异无统计学意义.两组各有3例出现轻微不适.结论 欣渠治疗偏头痛疗效显著,能减轻偏头痛发作的程度,缩短发作时间.

  6. Preparation and in vitro/in vivo Evaluation of Rizatriptan Benzoate Fast Dissolving Films%苯甲酸利扎曲普坦速溶膜剂的研制及体内外评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兵; 张桦; 陈芳


    以拉伸性能和溶化时间为指标筛选处方,制备了以聚乙烯醇(PVA)和玉米淀粉为成膜材料的苯甲酸利扎曲普坦速溶膜剂,并进行体内外评价.采用不同方法测定溶化时间,结果均表明其体外溶化迅速,并在Beagle犬口中能在20 s内完全溶化.使用桨法和漏槽式溶出仪法测定其体外溶出特性,结果均显示40~45 s时的溶出率达80%以上,1 min内完全溶解.鉴于膜剂的独特性质,以溶出度来评价速溶膜的溶化性能更为科学,其中漏槽式溶出仪法重现性更好、区分力更大,适合膜剂体外溶出性能的评价.Beagle犬体内药动学试验结果表明,口服自制速溶膜剂与灌胃同剂量的苯甲酸利扎曲普坦溶液具有相似的药动学性质,本品的相对生物利用度为(97.5±11.4)%.

  7. Determination of the Principal Agents in Rizatriptan Benzoate Tablets by HPLC%HPLC法测定苯甲酸利扎曲普坦片中主药的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:建立以高效液相色谱法测定苯甲酸利扎曲普坦片中主药含量的方法.方法:色谱柱为C18,流动相为乙腈-水(用醋酸调节pH至3.4,25∶75),检测波长为227nm,进样量为20μL,流速为1mL·min-1.结果:苯甲酸利扎曲普坦检测浓度的线性范围为0.001~0.200 mg·mL-1(r=0.999 9);平均回收率为100.78%(RSD=0.15%).结论:本方法灵敏、可靠、选择性高,适用于该制剂的质量控制.

  8. 高效液相色谱法测定苯甲酸利扎曲普坦片含量及含量均匀度%Determination of the content and content uniformity of Rizatriptan benzoate tablets by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶亚琳; 张贞良; 金星


    目的采用高效液相色谱法测定苯甲酸利扎曲普坦片含量及含量均匀度.方法色谱条件为Prodigy ODS C18硅烷键合硅胶填充柱(150 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm);流动相为乙腈-0.025%磷酸二氢钾-三乙胺(36∶264∶1),10%磷酸调pH 5.0;检测波长为225 nm;进样量为20 μL;流速为1.0 mL*min-1.结果在进样量为0.101~1.01 μg,样品浓度和峰面积成良好线性关系,r=0.999 9,平均回收率为101.20%,RSD为2.2%. 结论方法灵敏可靠,选择性高.

  9. Optimized Formulation of Rizatriptan Benzoate Tablet by a Central Composite Design/Response Surface Methodology%星点设计-效应面法优化苯甲酸利扎曲普坦片的处方

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟; 阙俐; 陈健; 沈熊; 夏红


    目的星点设计-效应面优化法优化苯甲酸利扎曲普坦片的处方.方法以微晶纤维素的用量和交联聚维酮的用量为考察因素,崩解时间为指标,用线性方程和二次及三次多项式描述崩解时间和两个影响因素之间的数学关系,根据最佳数学模型描绘效应面,选择最佳处方,并进行预测分析.结果崩解时间与微晶纤维素的用量和交联聚维酮用量间的关系不能用线性方程描述,二次及三次多项式拟合,相关系数分别为0.992 4和0.998 5,具有较高的可信度.优选的最佳条件为微晶纤维素的用量为3.0 g,交联聚维酮的用量为0.3 g.最佳处方的崩解时间理论值与预测值差为-2.68%.结论所建立的模型预测性良好.

  10. Analysis and dietary exposure assessment of the benzoic acid and sodium benzoate of biscuits%饼干中苯甲酸及其钠盐含量分析及其膳食暴露评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱加虹; 王小骊; 袁玉伟; 张玉; 胡桂仙; 董秀金


    对市场中210个饼干样品进行苯甲酸及其钠盐含量用HPLC方法进行测定,并对检测数据采用膳食暴露评估方法,评估城市居民的膳食风险。结果显示,婴儿(6-12个月)膳食暴露量为12.25-31.62μg/kgbw·d,其97.5/99百分位值的膳食暴露量为73.99-195.62μg/kgbw·d,建议婴儿(6-12个月)少量食用或食用不含苯甲酸的婴儿饼干。对于1-3岁的幼儿其膳食暴露量为10.25-13.25μg/kgbw·d,在97.5/99百分位值的膳食暴露量为105.24-139.10μg/kgbw·d,食用此类食品的风险是可以接受的。对于3岁以上人群食用此类食品的风险比1-3岁幼儿更小,风险程度更低。另外,饼干中威化和酥性类饼干中苯甲酸的残留水平相对于其他类饼干含量略高,而发酵和韧性类的饼干中苯甲酸的含量相稍低:同时显示江苏产的产品质量相对较好。%The content of benzoic acid and its sodium of 210 biscuits samples in the market was determined by HPLC method, and according the test data, using dietary exposure assessment methods to assess dietary risk urban residents. The results showed that infants (6-12 months) dietary exposure round 12.25-31.62 μg/kg bw· d, the 97.5/99 percentile dietary exposure round 73.99-195.62 μg/kg bw·d, recommends that infants (6 to 12 months) eating a small amount of such biscuits or eating edible acid-free baby biscuits. For children aged 1 to 3, its dietary exposure is round 10.25-13.25 μg/kg bw'd, the 97.5/99 percentile dietary exposure round 105.24-139.10 μg/kg bw·d, consumption of such food risk is acceptable. For people over 3 years old the risk of eating these foods is smaller than children aged 1 to 3, lower level of risk. In addition, wafer biscuit and crisp crackers in the level of benzoic acid residue content relative to other types of biscuits is slightly higher, and fermented and tenacity in the biscuit category with lower benzoic acid content, also shows the relative quality of products produced in Jiangsu is better than otherproduced place.

  11. Acute Toxicity of Emamectin Benzoate on Environmental Organism%甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐乳油对环境生物的急性毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏方林; 朱金文; 李少南; 朱国念


    室内测试甲氨基阿维茵素苯甲酸盐乳油对鹌鹑、蜜蜂、家蚕、鱼、蝌蚪5种环境生物的急性毒性.该药剂对鹌鹑7d的LD50为115(a.i.)mg/kg,对蜜蜂48h的LC50为0.0864(a.i.)mg/L,对家蚕96h的LC50为0.006 22(a.i.)mg/L,对斑马鱼96h的LC50为0.113(a.i.)mg/L,对蝌蚪48h的LC50为0.264(a.i.)mg/L.试验结果表明,甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐乳油对鹌鹑中毒,对蜜蜂剧毒,对家蚕剧毒,对鱼高毒,对蝌蚪高毒,对环境生物有较大风险,生产上使用该药剂时应注意环境生物的安全.

  12. 苯甲酸钠在组培中对外植体污染及分化的影响%Preliminary studies on effect of sodium benzoate to the system of asepsis explants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建荣; 黄萍萍


    以"林畲早薯"山药茎段、"龙薯3号"甘薯茎尖和"六月红"芋茎尖为外植体,研究了培养基中添加高温处理和常温无菌过滤处理25 mg/L苯甲酸钠的杀菌抑菌效果.结果表明,25 mg/L苯甲酸钠能有效降低植物组织培养过程中的污染率,并且对外植体分化率的影响不明显;经高温处理和常温下过滤处理的苯甲酸钠在植物组织培养中的杀菌抑茵效果区别不显著.

  13. 吸收光谱法同时检测食品中的苯甲酸钠与山梨酸钾%Simultaneous Determination of Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate in Food by Absorption Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋萍; 卓婧; 周淑晶


    Based on the UV - Vis absorption characteristics of preservatives and partial least squares variable selection method, the concentration forecasting model of benzoic sodium and sorbic potassium mixture solution was studied. The ultraviolet absorbance spectra of these complexes were examined, and the results indicated that the response signals and concentrations presented good linearities in the ranges of 0. 1 -16. 0 mg/L for benzoic sodium and 0. 1 -6. 0 mg/L for sorbic potassium. The detection limits were 0. 05 mg/L for benzoic sodium and 0. 01 mg/L for sorbic potassium. The reported model was applied in the simultaneous determination in food samples such as drinks, wine, cake and preserves without any preliminary chemical separation. The relative standard deviations were less than 10% and the recoveries were in the range of 82% - 107% . The detection data are consistent with those of the national standard method.%利用苯甲酸钠和山梨酸钾的紫外吸收光谱特性,设计了正交试验,结合偏最小二乘变量筛选法,获得变量数少、相关系数高、预报准确性好、能同时对苯甲酸钠和山梨酸钾进行浓度预报的模型,并应用于饮料、蜜饯、糕点和调色酒样品中苯甲酸钠和山梨酸钾的检测.样品平行测定结果的相对标准偏差均小于10%,方法的加标回收率为82% ~ 107%,苯甲酸钠和山梨酸钾的检测范围分别为0.1~16.0 mg·L-1和0.1~6.0 mg·L-1,检出限分别为0.05 mg·L-1和0.01 mg·L-1.样品的检测结果与国标法的检测结果相吻合.

  14. 苯甲酸钠微波催化合成乙酰水杨酸的研究%Study on the Synthesis of Acetylsalicylic Acid with Sodium Benzoate by Microwave Radiation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝红英; 侯巧芝; 肖培杰; 王慧星


    [目的]利用微波辐射法制备乙酰水杨酸.[方法]以水杨酸和乙酸酐为原料,以苯甲酸钠作为催化剂,微波辐射合成乙酰水杨酸.采用正交试验优化微波辐射苯甲酸钠催化合成乙酰水杨酸的工艺条件,并探讨合成工艺的影响因素.[结果]乙酰水杨酸的最佳合成工艺为:6.3 g水杨酸,9ml乙酸酐,催化剂苯甲酸钠用量0.4g,微波功率240W,辐射时间90s.在此优化条件下,乙酰水杨酸产率达67.07%.[结论]与传统合成工艺相比,微波辐射合成乙酰水杨酸反应时间短,产品收率高.

  15. 苯甲酸雌二醇对睡眠剥夺大鼠学习记忆的影响%Effects of estradiol benzoate on learning and memory in rats after sleep deprivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李生莹; 景建超; 仝铁


    目的:研究苯甲酸雌二醇对睡眠剥夺(sleep deprivation,SD)大鼠学习记忆的影响.方法:用小平台水环境(flower pot)法建立SD大鼠模型,SD 72小时后用"Y"迷宫测定大鼠学习记忆能力.结果:SD夺72小时后正确反应率实验组显著高于对照组,总触电时问实验组显著低于对照组,且以中剂量组的效果最好.结论:苯甲酸雌二醇对SD所致的大鼠学习记忆障碍有明显的改善作用.

  16. 尼泊金酯与苯甲酸钠在酱油、食醋中应用的探讨%Comparison of the addition of paraben and sodium benzoate in sauce/vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张显久; 苏得俏; 沈健; 陈国安; 毛忠贵



  17. Sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and citric acid induce sublethal injury and enhance pulsed electric field inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and nonpathogenic surrogate E. coli in strawberry juice (United States)

    Current FDA regulations require that juice processors effect a 5 log CFU/ml reduction of a target pathogen prior to distributing products. Whereas thermal pasteurization reduces the sensory characteristics of juice by altering flavor components, pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment can be conducte...

  18. Synthesis of n-Butyl Benzoate Catalyzed by Bi-capped Keggin Heteropolyacid with High Content of Vanadium%Bi-capped Keggin型高钒杂多酸催化合成苯甲酸正丁酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻明友; 何则强; 熊利芝; 黄可龙; 吴显明; 肖卓炳


    以苯甲酸和正丁醇为原料,甲苯为带水剂,用自制的Bi-capped Keggin型高钒杂多酸H7PV12Mo2O42为催化剂,合成了苯甲酸正丁酯.探讨了催化剂用量、原料配比、带水剂用量和反应时间对产品收率的影响.结果表明,合成该酯的最佳工艺条件为:n(正丁醇)/n(苯甲酸)=3,催化剂用量为反应物料总质量的10%,带水剂用量15 mL,反应温度控制在110~115℃,反应时间90 min.在最佳实验条件下,酯收率可达87.12%,表明H7PV12Mo2O42是一种合成苯甲酸正丁酯的优良催化剂.

  19. (4bS,8aS-1-Isopropyl-4b,8,8-trimethyl-4b,5,6,7,8,8a,9,10-octahydrophenanthren-2-yl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radouane Oubabi


    Full Text Available The title compound, C27H34O2, was hemisynthesized through direct benzoylation of the naturally occurring meroterpene totarol. The central fused six-membered ring has a half-chair conformation, whereas the terminal six-membered ring displays a chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the fused benzene ring and the benzoyl benzene ring is 73.05 (14°. The S,S chirality of the molecule is consistent with the synthetic pathway, and confirmed by the refinement of the Flack parameter.

  20. Energetics and kinetics of anaerobic aromatic and fatty acid degradation. Progress report, March 1992--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney M.J.


    Factors affecting the rate and extent of benzoate degradation by anaerobic syntrophic consortia were studied. Cocultures of a syntrophic benzoate degrader, strain SB, with a hydrogen/formate-using sulfate reducer degraded benzoate to a threshold that depended on the amount of substrate and acetate present. The benzoate threshold was not a function of the inhibition of benzoate degradation capacity by acetate or the toxicity of the undissociated form of acetate. Rather, a critical or minimal Gibb`s free energy value may exist where thermodynamic constraints preclude further benzoate degradation. A sensitive assay to detect low formate concentrations was developed to measure the formate levels when the benzoate threshold was reached. We showed that increased acetate concentrations, even when hydrogen and formate levels are low, affects the extent of benzoate degradation, implicating the importance of interspecies acetate transfer. In addition to benzoate, various saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, 2-methylbutyrate, and methyl esters of fatty acids supported growth in coculture with a hydrogen-using partner. SB is the only syntrophic bacterium known to use both benzoate and fatty acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SB clustered with sulfate reducers in the delta subclass of the Proteobacteria. SB grew well in coculture with Desulfoarculus baarsii, a sulfate reducer that uses formate but not hydrogen. This unequivocally shows that SB can grow by interspecies formate transfer.

  1. Metabolism of aromatic compounds by Caulobacter crescentus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, D.K.; Bourquin, A.W.


    Cultures of Caulobacter crescentus were found to grow on a variety of aromatic compounds. Degradation of benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, and phenol was found to occur via ..beta..-ketoadipate. The induction of degradative enzymes such as benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase, the ring cleavage enzyme catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, and cis,cis-muconate lactonizing enzyme appeared similar to the control mechanism present in Pseudomonas spp. Both benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase had stringent specificities, as revealed by their action toward substituted benzoates and substituted catechols, respectively.

  2. Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds. (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Takebayashi, Mika; Shinto, Mayumi; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko


    Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes; 7a-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7-oxomultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (2), and multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3a,29-diol 3-p-hydroxybenzoate-29-benzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with three known compounds. Compound 3 and multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3a-29-diol 3-benzoate (5) exhibited potent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis, with low cytotoxicities, and 2 exhibited single-digit micromolar cytotoxicity against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  3. Energetics and kinetics of anaerobic aromatic and fatty acid degradation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. McInerney


    The factors that affect the rate and extent of a model aromatic compound, benzoate, in methanogenic environments was studied. Benzoate is degraded to a threshold concentration below which no further substrate degradation occurs. The threshold concentration depended on the substrate concentration and the amount of acetate present. The threshold value was not a function of the kinetic ability of the organism or toxicity of the end products. Rather a minimal Gibb's free energy value may exist where thermodynamic constraints preclude further benzoate degradation. In addition, new bacterial species were isolated and described, that degrade benzoate or reduce iron, cobalt and other metals.

  4. 21 CFR 82.2051 - Lakes (Ext. D&C). (United States)


    ..., titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, talc, rosin, aluminum benzoate, calcium carbonate, or on any combination of... color with the basic radical sodium, potassium, aluminum, barium, calcium, strontium, or zirconium....

  5. Male reproductive effects of octylphenol and estradiol in Fischer and Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossaini, Alireza; Dalgaard, Majken; Vinggaard, Anne


    to vehicle or 400 mg/kg bw of 4-tert-octylphenol administrated orally by gavage. Estradiol benzoate, at a dose of 40 mug/kg bw, was used as positive control agent. Treatment with estradiol benzoate decreased serum levels of testosterone, LH, FSH, inhibin and increased prolactin. Additionally, estradiol...


    An analytical method was developed to determine simultaneously, the inorganic anion CrO2-4, and organic aromatic compounds including benzoate, 2-Cl-benzoate, phenol, m-cresol and o-/p-cresol by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Chromate and the aromatics were separated in a relativ...

  7. Synthesis of disubstituted homodiamantanes by acylative ring expansion using benzoyl trifluoromethanesulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Okazaki, Shusaku Mandai, Toshikazu Kitagawa and Ken'ichi Takeuchi


    Full Text Available Diamantane is a hydrocarbon whose carbon framework is a part of diamond lattices. Acylative ring expansion of 1- and 4-diamantanecarbaldehyde using benzoyl trifluoromethanesulfonate and trifluoromethanesulfonic acid yielded 10-hydroxyhomodiamant-9-yl benzoate and 7-hydroxyhomodiamant-8-yl benzoate, whose skeletal structures are same as pentacyclo[,13.02,7.06,12]tetradecane.

  8. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives (United States)

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  9. Environ: E00552 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -3-Hexenyl benzoate, Methyl linolenate Jasminum officinale [TAX:126433] Oleaceae (olive...sophytol, Benzyl benzoate [DR:D01138], Benzyl acetate [CPD:C15513] Essential oils [BR:br08321] Dicot plants: asterids Oleaceae (olive family) E00552 Jasmine oil CAS: 8022-96-6 ...

  10. Benzoic acid fermentation from starch and cellulose via a plant-like β-oxidation pathway in Streptomyces maritimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noda Shuhei


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzoic acid is one of the most useful aromatic compounds. Despite its versatility and simple structure, benzoic acid production using microbes has not been reported previously. Streptomyces are aerobic, Gram-positive, mycelia-forming soil bacteria, and are known to produce various kinds of antibiotics composed of many aromatic residues. S. maritimus possess a complex amino acid modification pathway and can serve as a new platform microbe to produce aromatic building-block compounds. In this study, we carried out benzoate fermentation using S. maritimus. In order to enhance benzoate productivity using cellulose as the carbon source, we constructed endo-glucanase secreting S. maritimus. Results After 4 days of cultivation using glucose, cellobiose, or starch as a carbon source, the maximal level of benzoate reached 257, 337, and 460 mg/l, respectively. S. maritimus expressed β-glucosidase and high amylase-retaining activity compared to those of S. lividans and S. coelicolor. In addition, for effective benzoate production from cellulosic materials, we constructed endo-glucanase-secreting S. maritimus. This transformant efficiently degraded the phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC and then produced 125 mg/l benzoate. Conclusions Wild-type S. maritimus produce benzoate via a plant-like β-oxidation pathway and can assimilate various carbon sources for benzoate production. In order to encourage cellulose degradation and improve benzoate productivity from cellulose, we constructed endo-glucanase-secreting S. maritimus. Using this transformant, we also demonstrated the direct fermentation of benzoate from cellulose. To achieve further benzoate productivity, the L-phenylalanine availability needs to be improved in future.

  11. The effects of raloxifene and estradiol benzoate on expression of estrogen sulfotransferase in human breast tissues implanted into nude mice%雷洛昔芬与苯甲酸雌二醇对人乳腺组织雌激素硫酸转移酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文慧; 唐蔚青; 王抒; 张玉凤; 吴宜勇


    目的 观察雷洛昔芬和苯甲酸雌二醇对植入裸鼠的人乳腺组织雌激素硫酸转移酶(EST)表达的影响. 方法 15例正常乳腺组织植入75只裸鼠.每例标本分5份,分别植入5只裸鼠后分为5组:对照 (Ⅰ组)、苯甲酸雌二醇 1 mg/kg (Ⅱ组)及雷洛昔芬0.3 mg/kg (Ⅲ组)、3 mg/kg (Ⅳ组)、30 mg/kg (Ⅴ组).给药30 d 后取出移植的乳腺组织,采用逆转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)方法检测EST mRNA的表达. 结果 与I组相比,Ⅱ组EST mRNA表达升高;半定量 EST mRNA约为对照组的2倍(P0.05). 结论 剂量1 mg/kg的雌激素上调EST 表达,雷洛昔芬对正常乳腺的EST表达无影响.

  12. Safety assessment of poloxamers 101, 105, 108, 122, 123, 124, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 188, 212, 215, 217, 231, 234, 235, 237, 238, 282, 284, 288, 331, 333, 334, 335, 338, 401, 402, 403, and 407, poloxamer 105 benzoate, and poloxamer 182 dibenzoate as used in cosmetics. (United States)

    Singh-Joy, Subhashni D; McLain, Valerie C


    Poloxamers are polyoxyethlyene, polyoxypropylene block polymers. The impurities of commercial grade Poloxamer 188, as an example, include low-molecular-weight substances (aldehydes and both formic and acetic acids), as well as 1,4-dioxane and residual ethylene oxide and propylene oxide. Most Poloxamers function in cosmetics as surfactants, emulsifying agents, cleansing agents, and/or solubilizing agents, and are used in 141 cosmetic products at concentrations from 0.005% to 20%. Poloxamers injected intravenously in animals are rapidly excreted in the urine, with some accumulation in lung, liver, brain, and kidney tissue. In humans, the plasma concentration of Poloxamer 188 (given intravenously) reached a maximum at 1 h, then reached a steady state. Poloxamers generally were ineffective in wound healing, but were effective in reducing postsurgical adhesions in several test systems. Poloxamers can cause hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in animals, but overall, they are relatively nontoxic to animals, with LD(50) values reported from 5 to 34.6 g/kg. Short-term intravenous doses up to 4 g/kg of Poloxamer 108 produced no change in body weights, but did result in diffuse hepatocellular vacuolization, renal tubular dilation in kidneys, and dose-dependent vacuolization of epithelial cells in the proximal convoluted tubules. A short-term inhalation toxicity study of Poloxamer 101 at 97 mg/m(3) identified slight alveolitis after 2 weeks of exposure, which subsided in the 2-week postexposure observation period. A short-term dermal toxicity study of Poloxamer 184 in rabbits at doses up to 1000 mg/kg produced slight erythema and slight intradermal inflammatory response on histological examination, but no dose-dependent body weight, hematology, blood chemistry, or organ weight changes. A 6-month feeding study in rats and dogs of Poloxamer 188 at exposures up to 5% in the diet produced no adverse effects. Likewise, Poloxamer 331 (tested up to 0.5 g/kg day(-1)), Poloxamer 235 (tested up to 1.0 g/kg day(-1)), and Poloxamer 338 (at 0.2 or 1.0 g/kg day(-1)) produced no adverse effects in dogs. Poloxamer 338 (at 5.0 g/kg day(-1)) produced slight transient diarrhea in dogs. Poloxamer 188 at levels up to 7.5% in diet given to rats in a 2-year feeding study produced diarrhea at 5% and 7.5% levels, a small decrease in growth at the 7.5% level, but no change in survival. Doses up to 0.5 mg/kg day(-1) for 2 years using rats produced yellow discoloration of the serum, high serum alkaline phosphatase activity, and elevated serum glutamicpyruvic transaminase and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase activities. Poloxamers are minimal ocular irritants, but are not dermal irritants or sensitizers in animals. Data on reproductive and developmental toxicity of Poloxamers were not found. An Ames test did not identify any mutagenic activity of Poloxamer 407, with or without metabolic activation. Several studies have suggested anticarcinogenic effects of Poloxamers. Poloxamers appear to increase the sensitivity to anticancer drugs of multidrug-resistant cancer cells. In clinical testing, Poloxamer 188 increased the hydration of feces when used in combination with a bulk laxative treatment. Compared to controls, one study of angioplasty patients receiving Poloxamer 188 found a reduced myocardial infarct size and a reduced incidence of reinfarction, with no evidence of toxicity, but two other studies found no effect. Poloxamer 188 given to patients suffering from sickle cell disease had decreased pain and decreased hospitilization, compared to controls. Clinical tests of dermal irritation and sensitization were uniformly negative. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel stressed that the cosmetic industry should continue to use the necessary purification procedures to keep the levels below established limits for ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, and 1,4-dioxane. The Panel did note the absence of reproductive and developmental toxicity data, but, based on molecular weight and solubility, there should be little skin penetration and any penetration of the skin should be slow. Also, the available data demonstrate that Poloxamers that are introduced into the body via routes other than dermal exposure have a rapid clearance from the body, suggesting that there would be no risk of reproductive and/or developmental toxicity. Overall, the available data do not suggest any concern about carcinogenesis. Although there are gaps in knowledge about product use, the overall information available on the types of products in which these ingredients are used, and at what concentration, indicates a pattern of use. Based on these safety test data and the information that the manufacturing process can be controlled to limit unwanted impurities, the Panel concluded that these Poloxamers are safe as used.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤华; 谭会兵; 左萍萍; 葛秦生


    目的探讨苯甲酸雌二醇对大鼠海马CA1区、齿状回突触素(synaptophysin,Syn)及钙结合蛋白(calbindinD28k,CaBP,parvalbumin,PV)的调节作用.方法用大鼠卵巢切除(OVX)动物模型,用免疫组化结合图象分析的方法.结果 OVX组大鼠海马CA1区及齿状回突触素、PV,CaBP积分光密度及面积密度均显著低于对照组,补充苯甲酸雌二醇35 d,这3项指标的积分光密度及面积密度均告恢复,与OVX组相比,呈显著性差异.结论苯甲酸雌二醇可能通过调节海马、齿状回神经元突触密度,为改善学习记忆功能,缓解AD病人的症状提供结构基础,并通过维持胞内Ca2+的恒定达到保护神经元的目的.

  14. Effects of sarcoptic mange and its control with oil of Cedrus deodara, Pongamia glabra, Jatropha curcas and benzyl benzoate, both with and without ascorbic acid on growing sheep: assessment of weight gain, liver function, nutrient digestibility, wool production and meat quality. (United States)

    Dimri, U; Sharma, M C


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of commonly used acaricidal drugs in India and also to assess the effect of ascorbic acid as adjunct therapy in 72 growing sheep with sarcoptic mange, aged 5-6 months and weighing 20.4-31.7 kg. Eight replicates of nine animals were formed based on sex, and day 0 body weight. Drugs were applied locally on the affected parts daily and recovery changes in skin lesions were observed at the time of every application. L-ascorbic acid was administered intramuscularly. Skin scrapings were collected daily from each group and examined for the presence of mites. Body weights were measured every 10th day from day 0 to 60. Nutrient digestiblity was evaluated by studying digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, nitrogen free extract, total carbohydrates and nutrient balance (nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus) for a 30-day period. The liver function was evaluated by bromosulphophthalein (BSP) dye retention time. The animals were shorn on day 60 post-treatment (PT). Meat quality assesment was carried out by killing sheep at 60 days PT and estimating pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), tenderness, muscle colour, rib eye area and fat thickness. The lambs treated with oil of Jatropha curcas ascorbic acid had significantly (P dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract and total carbohydrate, but no significant differences for nitrogen-free extract. Treated sheep had significantly higher positive nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balances compared with infested untreated sheep. Oil of J. curcas plus ascorbic acid (OJC-AA) treated group was better over all other treated groups with respect to nutrient digestibility. The BSP test revealed significant (P < 0.05) increase in BSP retention time in sheep with sarcoptic mange. Post -treatment, the BSP retention time decreased in all treated groups and the decrease was maximum in OJC-AA treated group. The carcasses of sheep treated with OJC-AA had significantly (P < 0.01) higher water holding capacity, rib eye area and back fat thickness than the untreated infected control group. The muscle pH and tenderness values were significantly lower in OJC-AA treated group post-slaughter than infested untreated control group. Muscle colour of OJC-AA treated group was maximum bright red. The lambs treated with OJC-AA had significantly (P < 0.05) greater clean fleece weight and fleece yield than the untreated infected group. It is concluded that OJC was the better therapy for sarcoptic mange of sheep and ascorbic acid as adjunct therapy is advisable. OJC-AA therapy may be better from the point of view of improving two most important production parameters in sheep, that is, wool yield and meat production.

  15. 外源性雌激素苯甲酸雌二醇对青春期前雄性大鼠生殖系统的影响%Influence of extrinsic estrogen estradiol benzoate on the reproductive system of prepubertal male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季加芬; 李会丽; 杨培培; 赵月华; 刘长云


    [Objective] To observe the influence of extrinsic estrogen on the reproductive system of prepubertal male rats.[Methods] A total of 45 rats were randomly divided into high dose group,low dose group and control group.E2B was administered through gastric tube in male rats with 15 000 μg/kg,15μg/kg,0 μg/kg,dose respectively.One time every two days,after three weeks,normal breeding to ninth weeks,then put to death and draw materials,and measured corresponding index.[Results] Compared with control group,T concentration of low dose decreased(P<0.05),but FSH,LH and E2 concentration increased,the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01).Four kinds of hormone of high dose changed more apparent(P<0.01).In two experimental group,the differences of T,FSH,LH and E2 concentration had statistical significances (P<0.05).The testicular reproductive small tube and AGD of two experimental group were both abnormal changed,but changes in high dose group were more obvious than those in low group.[Conclusion] EES can change the normal serum sex hormone levels and reproductive small tube of preadolescence male rats.%[目的]观察外源性雌激素对青春期前雄性大鼠生殖系统的影响. [方法]将45只大鼠随机分为用高、低剂量组和对照组,苯甲酸雌二醇(E2B)染毒剂量分别为15 000 μg/kg、15 μg/kg,0 μg/kg灌胃摄入,对照组给予同等体积玉米油,隔日1次,在分别作用3个周后正常饲养至生后9周,处死取材,测定相应指标. [结果] 与对照组相比,低剂量组睾酮(testosterone,T)浓度降低(P<0.05),卵泡刺激素(follicle-stimulating hormone,FSH)、黄体生成素(luteinizing hormone,LH)及雌二醇(estrodiol,E2)浓度升高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).高剂量组4种激素水平改变更显著(P<0.01).另外,两实验组相比,T、FSH、LH及E2浓度的差异也有统计学意义(P<0.05).两实验组睾丸生殖小管、肛生殖距(AGD)均有异常改变,高剂量组改变较低剂量组明显. [结论]外源性雌激素可改变青春期前雄性大鼠血清性激素水平,并使生殖小管的正常结构和形态发生异常改变.

  16. Crystal structure of tri-aqua-(1,10-phen-anthroline-κ(2) N,N')(2,4,5-tri-fluoro-3-meth-oxy-benzoato-κO (1))cobalt(II) 2,4,5-tri-fluoro-3-meth-oxy-benzoate. (United States)

    Sun, Junshan


    The title salt, [Co(C8H4F3O3)(C12H8N2)(H2O)3](C8H4F3O3), was obtained under solvothermal conditions by the reaction of 2,4,5-tri-fluoro-3-meth-oxy-benzoic acid with CoCl2 in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). The Co(II) ion is octa-hedrally coordinated by two N atoms [Co-N = 2.165 (2) and 2.129 (2) Å] from the phen ligand, by one carboxyl-ate O atom [Co-O = 2.107 (1) Å] and by three O atoms from water mol-ecules [Co-O = 2.093 (1), 2.102 (1) and 2.114 (1) Å]. The equatorial positions of the slightly distorted octa-hedron are occupied by the N atoms, the carboxyl-ate O and one water O atom. An intra- and inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding network between the water-containing complex cation and the organic anion leads to the formation of ribbons parallel to [010].

  17. Productive degradation of the biocide benzylbenzoate by Acinetobacter sp. strain AG1 isolated from the River Elbe. (United States)

    Göttsching, Anja; Schmidt, Stefan


    From water sampled in the River Elbe, we isolated a bacterial strain able to use the biocidal compound benzylbenzoate as its sole source of carbon and energy under aerobic conditions. This isolate was tentatively assigned to the genus Acinetobacter due to its morphological, physiological and partial SSU rRNA gene sequence properties. The productive bacterial degradation of the biocide benzylbenzoate was demonstrated, and the catabolic sequence was elucidated biochemically. Growth experiments, along with enzymatic studies, demonstrated that strain Acinetobacter sp. AG1 hydrolyzed benzylbenzoate enzymatically to yield benzylalcohol and benzoate. Benzylalcohol was further transformed to benzoate via benzaldehyde. Benzoate was subsequently channeled via catechol into the oxoadipate pathway for further degradation.

  18. Determination of Aspartame, Caffeine, Saccharin, and Benzoic Acid in Beverages by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. (United States)

    Delaney, Michael F.; And Others


    Describes a simple and reliable new quantitative analysis experiment using liquid chromatography for the determinaiton of caffeine, saccharin, and sodium benzoate in beverages. Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided. (JN)

  19. Drug: D08696 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08696 Mixture, Drug Acetaminophen - ephedra herb - scopolia extract - caffeine and... sodium benzoate - magnesium oxide mixt; Asgen (TN) Acetaminophen [DR:D00217], Ephedra herb [DR:D06791], Scopolia extract

  20. Drug: D04459 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L SYSTEM G03F PROGESTOGENS AND ESTROGENS IN COMBINATION G03FA Progestogens and estrogens, fixed combinatio...ns G03FA04 Progesterone and estrogen D04459 Progesterone - estradiol benzoate mixt PubChem: 17398113 ...

  1. Caffeine, Is it effective for prevention of postdural puncture headache in young adult patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Ragab


    Conclusion: It seems that the incidence of postdural puncture headache decreases in those patients who received caffeine sodium benzoate. The article can potentially help clinicians to use caffeine as an effective drug for prevention of PDPH.

  2. Drug: D00675 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00675 Drug Rizatriptan benzoate (JAN/USAN); Maxalt (TN) C15H19N5. C7H6O2 391.2008 ...gans 21 Cardiovascular agents 216 Vasoconstrictors 2160 Vasoconstrictors D00675 Rizatriptan benzoate (JAN/US...YSTEM N02 ANALGESICS N02C ANTIMIGRAINE PREPARATIONS N02CC Selective serotonin (5HT1) agonists N02CC04 Rizatriptan D00675 Rizatriptan...nin (5-HT) 1b/1d Receptor Agonists Rizatriptan D00675 Rizatriptan benzoate (JAN/U...n 5-HT1B-receptor [HSA:3351] [KO:K04153] Rizatriptan [ATC:N02CC04] D00675 Rizatriptan benzoate (JAN/USAN) 5-

  3. Synthesis of acyl derivatives of salicin, salirepin, and arbutin. (United States)

    Stepanova, Elena V; Belyanin, Maxim L; Filimonov, Victor D


    The total synthesis of two natural phenolglycosides of the family Salicaceae, namely: populoside and 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy benzyl (3-methoxy-4-hydroxy) cinnamoate and nine not found yet in plants acyl derivatives of phenoglycosides: 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-benzylcinnamoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-benzyl (4-hydroxy) benzoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-benzyl (3-methoxy-4-hydroxy) benzoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy benzyl (3,4-dihydroxy) cinnamoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy benzylcinnamoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy benzyl (4-hydroxy) benzoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy benzyl (3-methoxy-4-hydroxy) benzoate, 2-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-benzoyloxy benzylbenzoate and 4-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-phenylbenzoate, starting from readily available phenols and glucose was developed for the first time.

  4. Aromatic compound degradation by iron reducing bacteria isolated from irrigated tropical paddy soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wenjing; WANG Hongtao; HUANG Changyong; W. Reichardt


    Forty-six candidate phenol/benzoate degrading-iron reducing bacteria were isolated from long term irrigated tropical paddy soils by enrichment procedures. Pure cultures and some prepared mixed cultures were examined for ferric oxide reduction and phenol/benzoate degradation. All the isolates were iron reducers, but only 56.5% could couple iron reduction to phenol and/or benzoate degradation, as evidenced by depletion of phenol and benzoate after one week incubation. Analysis of degradative capability using Biolog MT plates revealed that most of them could degrade other aromatic compounds such as ferulic acid, vanillic acid, and hydroxybenzoate. Mixed-cultures and soft samples displayed greater capacity for aromatic degradation and iron reduction than pure bacterial isolates, suggesting that these reactions may be coupled via a consortia-based mechanism in paddy soils.

  5. Olefin cross metathesis based de novo synthesis of a partially protected L-amicetose and a fully protected L-cinerulose derivative (United States)

    Hauke, Sylvia


    Summary Cross metathesis of a lactate derived allylic alcohol and acrolein is the entry point to a de novo synthesis of 4-benzoate protected L-amicetose and a cinerulose derivative protected at C5 and C1. PMID:24991253

  6. Olefin cross metathesis based de novo synthesis of a partially protected L-amicetose and a fully protected L-cinerulose derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Schmidt


    Full Text Available Cross metathesis of a lactate derived allylic alcohol and acrolein is the entry point to a de novo synthesis of 4-benzoate protected L-amicetose and a cinerulose derivative protected at C5 and C1.

  7. Drug: D10159 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (TN); Oseni (TN); Incresync (TN) Alogliptin benzoate [DR:D06553], Pioglitazone hydrochloride [DR:D00945] Antidiabetic...R:br08301] 3 Agents affecting metabolism 39 Other agents affecting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic

  8. Energetics and kinetics of anaerobic aromatic and fatty acid degradation. Progress report, November 1992--November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, M.J.


    The kinetics of benzoate degradation by the anaerobic syntrophic bacterium, Syntrophus buswellii, in coculture with different sulfate reducers was studied with sulfate or nitrate as the electron acceptor. A threshold value for benzoate degradation dependent on the acetate concentration was observed with sulfate, but not nitrate, as the electron acceptor. No threshold was observed in tricultures containing an acetate-using sulfate reducer. The addition of the acetate-using sulfate reducer to cocultures that had degraded benzoate to its threshold value resulted in further degradation of benzoate to levels below the analytical detection limit (ca. 200 nM). These data are consistent with a thermodynamic explanation for the threshold, and exclude the possibility that the threshold was the result of the inhibitory action of the undissociated form of acetate.

  9. A Sequential Preparation of Organic Compounds for Senior Chemistry Classes (United States)

    Merrigan, Cecilia; Crotty, Patricia


    Describes procedures suitable for student preparation of benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, and ethyl benzoate sequentially from benzyl alcohol. Preparation for benzyl chloride also given. All reagents except benzyl alcohol are common inorganic chemicals. (AL)

  10. Assessment of the feasibility of the formulation of preparation for the growth inhibition of metronidazole-resistant strains isolated from the periodontal pockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toskić-Radojičić Marija


    Full Text Available Introduction. Topical metronidazole benzoate preparations, applied directly into the space between the teeth and periodontal tissue, are the treatment of choice for periodontal pockets. Oleogels and hydrogels, as the biomucoadhesive bases for the manufacturing of these preparations, were developed in our previous trials. The aim of our latest research was to develop a preparation that would solve the problem of inhibiting the metronidazole-resistant anaerobic strains, isolated from the periodontal pockets. Methods. Metronidazole-resistant strains were isolated from the periodontal pocket swabs, using the established susceptibility testing. Further testing of the antimicrobial activity of the prepared formulations was performed by the membrane-free diffusion method in agar gel. Oleogels and hydrogels were tested with: tetracycline (2.5%, metronidazole (25%, and metronidazole benzoate (40%, as well as with oleogels and hydrogels containing the combination of 2.5% tetracycline and 40% metronidazole benzoate. Results. Satisfying results were achieved with the preparation containing 2.5% tetracycline along with metronidazole benzoate. The main fact revealed by this study was that there was no synergism in tetracycline and metronidazole benzoate activities, if the strain was susceptible to both active substances. Conclusion. The best results in the inhibition of the growth of metronidazole-resistant anaerobic strains were obtained by 2.5% tetracycline and metronidazole benzoate preparations in oleogel base.

  11. The effect of GnRH or oestradiol injected at pro-oestrus on luteal function and follicular dynamics of the subsequent oestrous cycle in non-lactating cycling Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V.E. Segwagwe


    Full Text Available Oestrous synchronization involves synchronization of ovarian follicular turnover, new wave emergence, and finally induction of ovulation. The final step can be synchronized by the parenteral administration of either GnRH or oestradiol benzoate. This study investigated corpus luteum and follicular emergence after ovulation had been induced by the administration of either GnRH or oestradiol benzoate. The injection of oestradiol benzoate may have delayed the emergence of the first follicular wave subsequent to the induced ovulation; administration of oestradiol benzoate or GnRH lowered the progesterone rise so that the maximum dioestrous concentration of progesterone on Day 9 was lower when cows were treated during pro-oestrus compared to the spontaneously ovulating controls. One implication of findings from the present study is that induction of ovulation with either oestradiol benzoate or GnRH, administered 24 or 36 h after withdrawal of the CIDR device, respectively, may lower fertility. Future studies must identify the timing of administration relative to the time of CIDR device withdrawal and the optimum concentration of oestradiol benzoate or GnRH that would not have untoward effects on the development of the corpus lutea, particularly within the first week of dioestrus.

  12. Synthesis,Crystal Structure,Quantum Chemistry and Thermal Stability of the Bis-Oxygen-Bridged Tetranuclear Dibutyltin (2,4,6-trimethyl) benzoate%双氧桥联四核二丁基锡(2,4,6-三甲基)苯甲酸酯配合物的合成、结构、量子化学及热稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋伍玖; 邝代治; 庾江喜; 冯泳兰; 张复兴; 王剑秋


    2,4,6-三甲基苯甲酸(TMBA)与(n-Bu)2SnO反应,合成氧桥联的四核二丁基锡(2,4,6-三甲基)苯甲酸酯配合物{[n-Bu)2Sn (2,4,6-TMBA)]2Oh,经元素分析、1H NMR、13C NMR、IR和X-射线衍射表征分子结构,该配合物晶体属三斜晶系,空间群P(1),晶体学参数:a=1.272 56(2) nm,b=1.322 73(2) nm,c=1.437 25(3) nm,α=111.197 0(10)°,β=99.691 0(10)°,γ=11 1.790 0(10)°,Z=1,V=1.962 35(6) nm3,Dc=1.368 g·cm-3,μ(Mo Kα)=1.308 mm-1,F(000)=828,R=0.040 9,wR=0.109 1.配合物以Sn2O2平面四元环中心对称,每个桥联氧原子还连接一个环外锡,形成双氧桥联四核二丁基锡结构.环上与环外Sn原子均呈现五配位畸变三角双锥构型.利用量子化学G03W软件,在Lanl2dz基组对配合物的稳定性、分子轨道能量、原子净电荷布居及前沿分子轨道组成进行了研究.并通过热重分析对配合物进行了热稳定性研究.%An organooxotin complex of {[n-Bu2Sn(2,4,6-TMBA)]2O}2 has been synthesized by the reaction of n-Bu2Sn0 with 2,4,6-TMBA and characterized by IR,1H NMR, 13C NMR and elemental analysis. The crystal structure has been determined by X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in the monoclinic, space group P1, with a= 1.272 56(2) nm, 6 = 1.322 73(2) nm, c = 1.437 25(3) nm, α=111.197 0(10)°, β=99.691 0(10)°,γ=111.790 0(10)°, Z=1, V=1.962 35(6)nm3, Dc=1.368 Mg·m-3(Mo Kα)=1.308 mm-1, F(000)=828, R=0.037 2, wR=0.096 1. This complex belongs to centrosymmetric structure mode with a four-membered central endocyclic Sn2O2 unit in which the bridging oxygen atoms are tri-coordinated. Each bridging oxygen atom also connects with an exocyclic tin atom. The endocyclic and exocyclic tin atoms all are five-coordinated in a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. The stabilities, some frontier molecular orbital energies, the populations of the atomic net charges and composition characteristics of some frontier molecular orbital of the complex have been investigated. The complex was studies by TGA analysis. CCDC: 837504.

  13. Phenotype fingerprinting suggests the involvement of single-genotype consortia in degradation of aromatic compounds by Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V Karpinets

    Full Text Available Anaerobic degradation of complex organic compounds by microorganisms is crucial for development of innovative biotechnologies for bioethanol production and for efficient degradation of environmental pollutants. In natural environments, the degradation is usually accomplished by syntrophic consortia comprised of different bacterial species. This strategy allows consortium organisms to reduce efforts required for maintenance of the redox homeostasis at each syntrophic level. Cellular mechanisms that maintain the redox homeostasis during the degradation of aromatic compounds by one organism are not fully understood. Here we present a hypothesis that the metabolically versatile phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris forms its own syntrophic consortia, when it grows anaerobically on p-coumarate or benzoate as a sole carbon source. We have revealed the consortia from large-scale measurements of mRNA and protein expressions under p-coumarate, benzoate and succinate degrading conditions using a novel computational approach referred as phenotype fingerprinting. In this approach, marker genes for known R. palustris phenotypes are employed to determine the relative expression levels of genes and proteins in aromatics versus non-aromatics degrading condition. Subpopulations of the consortia are inferred from the expression of phenotypes and known metabolic modes of the R. palustris growth. We find that p-coumarate degrading conditions may lead to at least three R. palustris subpopulations utilizing p-coumarate, benzoate, and CO2 and H2. Benzoate degrading conditions may also produce at least three subpopulations utilizing benzoate, CO2 and H2, and N2 and formate. Communication among syntrophs and inter-syntrophic dynamics in each consortium are indicated by up-regulation of transporters and genes involved in the curli formation and chemotaxis. The N2-fixing subpopulation in the benzoate degrading consortium has preferential activation of the

  14. Antagonistic control of a dual-input mammalian gene switch by food additives. (United States)

    Xie, Mingqi; Ye, Haifeng; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; Fussenegger, Martin


    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of mammalian trigger-inducible transgene-control devices that are able to programme complex cellular behaviour. Fruit-based benzoate derivatives licensed as food additives, such as flavours (e.g. vanillate) and preservatives (e.g. benzoate), are a particularly attractive class of trigger compounds for orthogonal mammalian transgene control devices because of their innocuousness, physiological compatibility and simple oral administration. Capitalizing on the genetic componentry of the soil bacterium Comamonas testosteroni, which has evolved to catabolize a variety of aromatic compounds, we have designed different mammalian gene expression systems that could be induced and repressed by the food additives benzoate and vanillate. When implanting designer cells engineered for gene switch-driven expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) into mice, blood SEAP levels of treated animals directly correlated with a benzoate-enriched drinking programme. Additionally, the benzoate-/vanillate-responsive device was compatible with other transgene control systems and could be assembled into higher-order control networks providing expression dynamics reminiscent of a lap-timing stopwatch. Designer gene switches using licensed food additives as trigger compounds to achieve antagonistic dual-input expression profiles and provide novel control topologies and regulation dynamics may advance future gene- and cell-based therapies.

  15. Octabutylbis[μ2-4-(diethylaminobenzoato-κ2O:O′]bis[4-(diethylaminobenzoato-κO]di-μ3-oxido-tetratin(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yip-Foo Win


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title complex, [Sn4(C4H98(C11H14NO24O2], consists of two crystallographically independent half-molecules. The other halves are generated by crystallographic inversion centers. In each tetranuclear molecule, both of the two independent Sn atoms are five-coordinated, with distorted trigonal–bipyramidal SnC2O3 geometries. One Sn atom is coordinated by two butyl groups, one O atom of the benzoate anion and two bridging O atoms, whereas the other Sn atom is coordinated by two butyl groups, two O atoms of the benzoate anions and a bridging O atom. All the butyl groups are equatorial with respect to the SnO3 trigonal plane. Weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds stabilize the molecular structures. In one molecule, two of the butyl groups and the bridging benzoate anion are each disordered over two positions.

  16. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage using acetic acid and food preservatives. (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F


    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to ensure preservation were low enough so that stored cucumbers could be converted to the finished product without the need to wash out and discard excess acid or preservative. Since no thermal process was required, this method of preservation would be applicable for storing cucumbers in bulk containers. Acid tolerant pathogens died off in less than 24 h with the pH, acetic acid, and sodium benzoate concentrations required to assure the microbial stability of cucumbers stored at 30 degrees C. Potassium sorbate as a preservative in this application was not effective. Yeast growth was observed when sulfite was used as a preservative.

  17. Energetics and kinetics of anaerobic aromatic and fatty acid degradation. Progress report, November 1993--November 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, M.J.


    Factors influencing the rate and extent of benzoate degradation by the anaerobic syntrophic consortia were studied. Nonlinear regression analysis showed that the cause of the benzoate threshold was not a diminished benzoate degradation capacity. Analysis of cocultures with hydrogen users that differed in their hydrogen utilization capacities showed that the threshold did not depend on the kinetic properties of the syntrophic partner. These data support a thermodynamic explanation for the threshold, and exclude the possibility that a change in the affinity of the enzyme system due to acetate inhibition caused the threshold. Modeling studies showed that the threshold value could be predicted from the concentrations of the end products, assuming a critical Gibb`s free energy value. This work shows that interspecies acetate transfer is important in controlling the extent of metabolism by syntrophic organisms.

  18. Synthesis of bio-based nanocomposites for controlled release of antimicrobial agents in food packaging (United States)

    DeGruson, Min Liu

    The utilization of bio-based polymers as packaging materials has attracted great attention in both scientific and industrial areas due to the non-renewable and nondegradable nature of synthetic plastic packaging. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biobased polymer with excellent film-forming and coating properties, but exhibits brittleness, insufficient gas barrier properties, and poor thermal stability. The overall goal of the project was to develop the polyhydroxyalkanoate-based bio-nanocomposite films modified by antimicrobial agents with improved mechanical and gas barrier properties, along with a controlled release rate of antimicrobial agents for the inhibition of foodborne pathogens and fungi in food. The ability for antimicrobial agents to intercalate into layered double hydroxides depended on the nature of the antimicrobial agents, such as size, spatial structure, and polarity, etc. Benzoate and gallate anions were successfully intercalated into LDH in the present study and different amounts of benzoate anion were loaded into LDH under different reaction conditions. Incorporation of nanoparticles showed no significant effect on mechanical properties of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) films, however, significantly increased the tensile strength and elongation at break of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV) films. The effects of type and concentration of LDH nanoparticles (unmodified LDH and LDH modified by sodium benzoate and sodium gallate) on structure and properties of PHBV films were then studied. The arrangement of LDH in the bio-nanocomposite matrices ranged from exfoliated to phase-separated depending on the type and concentration of LDH nanoparticles. Intercalated or partially exfoliated structures were obtained using modified LDH, however, only phase-separated structures were formed using unmodified LDH. The mechanical (tensile strength and elongation at break) and thermo-mechanical (storage modulus) properties were significantly improved with low

  19. In vitro synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis L. and some preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of the species Salvia officinalis L. and its synergistic action with the preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in vitro against selected food spoiling bacteria. Synergism was assessed by the checkerboard assay method and quantitatively represented by the FIC index. Synergistic action was established for aqueous extract/sodium benzoate, aqueous extract/potassium sorbate, aqueous extract/sodium nitrite combinations. Synergism was detected in relation to: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus subtilis and Proteus sp. Synergism was established at plant extract and preservative concentrations corresponding up to 1/8 MIC values.


    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ed clinical and electrophysiologic improvement in a child with GCE who was treated with dextromethorphan and... 65 hours of life. The child died at 5 months and 7 days of age in spite of increasing doses of dextromethorphan.... After the patient developed hypsarrhythmia and had a single seizure, treatment with both sodium benzoate and dextromethorphan... mental retardation. Discontinuation of dextromethorphan after one year did not change the clinical or EEG s... I.; Fiorini, P.: Failure of early dextromethorphan and sodium benzoate therapy in an infant with nonketotic

  1. PENAMBAHAN ASAM ASETAT DAN FUMARAT UNTUK MEMPERTAHANKAN KUALITAS PIKEL UBI JALAR KUNING PASCA FERMENTASI (Addition of Acetic and Fumaric Acid to Maintain Quality of Fermented Yellow Sweet Potatoes Pickle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neti Yuliana


    bakteri bukan asam laktat, dan bakteri asam laktat masing masing <30 koloni/ml, total asam 1,35%, pH 3,18 dan total padatan terlarut 2,07o brix, warna orange pucat, beraroma asam dengan tingkat penerimaan panelis 87%. Berdasarkan penerimaan sensoris, perlakuan asam fumarat lebih baik daripada asam asetat ataupun kombinasai asam asetat-fumarat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa asam asetat, fumarat dan kombinasi keduanya dapat mempertahankan kualitas pikel ubi jalar kuning yang berpotensi menjadi alternatif pengganti pengawet benzoat. Kata Kunci: Pikel ubi jalar kuning, asetat, fumarat, natrium benzoat

  2. Drug: D02286 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ANAL FISSURES FOR TOPICAL USE C05AA Corticosteroids C05AA05 Betamethasone D02286 Betamethasone benzoate (US...OSTEROIDS, PLAIN D07AC Corticosteroids, potent (group III) D07AC01 Betamethasone D02286 Betamethasone benzoa...te (USP) D07X CORTICOSTEROIDS, OTHER COMBINATIONS D07XC Corticosteroids, potent, other combinations D07XC01 ...M R01 NASAL PREPARATIONS R01A DECONGESTANTS AND OTHER NASAL PREPARATIONS FOR TOPICAL USE R01AD Corticosteroids...MATORY AGENTS S01BA Corticosteroids, plain S01BA06 Betamethasone D02286 Betametha

  3. Hazardous concentrations of pollutants for micro-organisms in river sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beelen P; van Vlaardingen PLA


    The toxic effects of 5 toxicants on 5 anaerobic microbial processes in fresh water sediments were measured. Four 14-C labelled substrates were mineralized to 14-CO2 at concentrations from 1-4 mug/l in fresh sediment microcosms. The half-lives of the substrates acetate, benzoate and 4-monochlorophe

  4. Highly selective and effective solid phase microextraction of benzoic acid esters using ionic liquid functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes-doped polyaniline coating. (United States)

    Ai, Youhong; Wu, Mian; Li, Lulu; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao


    The present work reports the electrochemical fabrication of an ionic liquid functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes-polyaniline (MWCNT@IL/PANI) nanocomposite coating and its application in the headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography (GC) determination of benzoic acid esters (i.e., methyl benzoate, ethyl benzoate, propyl benzoate and butyl benzoate). The MWCNTs was firstly functionalized with amine-terminated IL (MWCNT@IL) through chemical reduction, and then was doped in PANI during the electropolymerization of aniline. The resulting coating was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and thermo gravimetry. It showed net-like structure and had high thermal stability (up to 330°C). Furthermore, it presented high selectivity for the four benzoic acid esters and thus suited for their HS-SPME-GC determination. Results showed that under optimized extraction conditions, the detection limits were less than 6.1ngL(-1) (S/N=3) and the linear detection ranges were 0.012-50μgL(-1) (R≥0.9957) for these analytes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were lower than 6.4% for five successive measurements with one fiber, and the RSDs for fiber-to-fiber were 4.4-9.6% (n=5). The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of these benzoic acid esters in perfume samples.

  5. p-Anisaldehyde: acaricidal component of Pimpinella anisum seed oil against the house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. (United States)

    Lee, Hoi-Seon


    The acaricidal activity of anise seed oil-derived p-anisaldehyde and commercially available components of anise seed oil was examined against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus and compared with those of the synthetic acaricides, benzyl benzoate and N,N-diethyl- m-toluamide (DEET). On the basis of LD 50 values, the compound most toxic to D. farinae adults was p-anisaldehyde (1.11 microg/cm2) followed by benzyl benzoate (9.32 microg/cm2), DEET (36.84 microg/cm2), 3-carene (42.10 microg/cm2), and estragol (43.23 microg/cm2). Against D. pteronyssinus adults, p-anisaldehyde (0.98 microg/cm2) was much more effective than benzyl benzoate (6.54 microg/cm2), DEET (17.79 microg/cm2), 3-carene (39.84 microg/cm 2), and estragol (40.11 microg/cm2). p-Anisaldehyde was about 8.4 and 6.7 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate against D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus adults, respectively. The results suggested that p-anisaldehyde may be useful as a lead compound for the development of new agents for the selective control of house dust mites.

  6. Physiology of Geobacter metallireducens under excess and limitation of electron donors. Part I. Batch cultivation with excess of carbon sources. (United States)

    Marozava, Sviatlana; Röling, Wilfred F M; Seifert, Jana; Küffner, Robert; von Bergen, Martin; Meckenstock, Rainer U


    For microorganisms that play an important role in bioremediation, the adaptation to swift changes in the availability of various substrates is a key for survival. The iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter metallireducens was hypothesized to repress utilization of less preferred substrates in the presence of high concentrations of easily degradable compounds. In our experiments, acetate and ethanol were preferred over benzoate, but benzoate was co-consumed with toluene and butyrate. To reveal overall physiological changes caused by different single substrates and a mixture of acetate plus benzoate, a nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach (nano-LC-MS/MS) was performed using label-free quantification. Significant differential expression during growth on different substrates was observed for 155 out of 1477 proteins. The benzoyl-CoA pathway was found to be subjected to incomplete repression during exponential growth on acetate in the presence of benzoate and on butyrate as a single substrate. Peripheral pathways of toluene, ethanol, and butyrate degradation were highly expressed only during growth on the corresponding substrates. However, low expression of these pathways was detected in all other tested conditions. Therefore, G. metallireducens seems to lack strong carbon catabolite repression under high substrate concentrations, which might be advantageous for survival in habitats rich in fatty acids and aromatic hydrocarbons.

  7. Analysis of Volatile Constituents of Gardenia flowers by GC/MS%气相色谱/质谱法研究栀子花头香成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄巧巧; 蒋可志; 冯建跃; 陈关喜


    The floral volatiles of Gardenia jasminodes vat. grandiflora were investigated by adsorption wire/GC/MS. As a result 86 compounds were separated and determined, which amount to 98.5% of the total volatiles. The main compounds were linalool, β-myrcene, methyl benzoate, L-limonene, ocimene, cis-3-hexenyl tiglate, cis-3-hexenylisovalerate, iso-amyltiglate, etc.

  8. Estrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo of the fungicide fenarimol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C.; Nielsen, Flemming


    in fenarimol-treated animals. To our knowledge, only two other pesticides (o.p-DDT and methoxychlor) have previously been reported to induce an estrogenic response in the rodent uterotrophic bioassay. A pronounced xenoestrogenicity in serum samples from rats treated with fenarimol and estradiol benzoate (E2B...

  9. A New Cytotoxic Compound from Penicillium auratiogriseum, Symbiotic or Epiphytic Fungus of Sponge Mycale plumose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new compound, (S)-2, 4-dihydroxy-1-butyl (4-hydroxy) benzoate (1), and a known compound, fructigenines A (2), were isolated from fungus Penicillium auratiogriseum derived from sponge Mycale plumose, by bioassay-guided fractionation. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Both compounds showed cytotoxic activity against tsFT210 cells.

  10. Issues for Storing Plant-Based Alternative Fuels in Marine Environments (United States)


    anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons were detected in fuel layers by GC-MS prior to incuba- tion. At the end of the incubation, several putative...contention that hydrocarbon removal was due at least in part to biodegradation by seawater microorganisms. Benzoate. cresols and alkanoic acids...oligotrophic and eutrophic environments, respectively) were used to evaluate potential biodegradation and corrosion problems during exposure to

  11. Potentially harmful excipients in neonatal medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellis, Georgi; Metsvaht, Tuuli; Varendi, Heili


    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe administration of eight potentially harmful excipients of interest (EOI)-parabens, polysorbate 80, propylene glycol, benzoates, saccharin sodium, sorbitol, ethanol and benzalkonium chloride-to hospitalised neonates in Europe and to identify risk factors for exposure...

  12. 40 CFR 180.597 - Mesosulfuron-methyl; tolerances for residues. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mesosulfuron-methyl; tolerances for... § 180.597 Mesosulfuron-methyl; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide mesosulfuron-methyl, (methyl 2- carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl] -4- methyl]benzoate])...

  13. Synthesis of Two New Group 13 Benzoato-Chloro Complexes: A Structural Study of Gallium and Indium Chelating Carboxylates (United States)

    Duraj, Stan A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Woloszynek, Robert; Protasiewicz, John D.; Dequeant, Michael; Ren, Tong


    Two new heteroleptic chelated-benzoato gallium (III) and indium (III) complexes have been prepared and structurally characterized. The molecular structures of [GaCl2(4-Mepy)2(O2CPh)]4-Mepy (1) and [InCl(4-Mepy)2(O2CPh)2]4-Mepy (2) have been determined by single-crystal x-ray diffraction. The gallium compound (1) is a distorted octahedron with cis-chloride ligands co-planar with the chelating benzoate and the 4-methylpyridines trans to each other. This is the first example of a Ga(III) structure with a chelating benzoate. The indium compound (2) is a distorted pentagonal bipyramid with two chelating benzoates, one 4-methylpyridine in the plane and a chloride trans to the other 4-methylpyridine. The indium bis-benzoate is an unusual example of a seven-coordinate structure with classical ligands. Both complexes, which due to the chelates, could also be described as pseudo-trigonal bipyramidal, include a three-bladed motif with three roughly parallel aromatic rings that along with a solvent of crystallization and electron-withdrawing chloride ligand(s) stabilize the solid-state structures.

  14. Patch testing for food-associated allergies in orofacial granulomatosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, Laura


    Food-associated allergies, especially to benzoates and cinnamon-related compounds, have been associated with orofacial granulomatosis and both standard and urticarial patch testing have been used to detect such allergies. Elimination diets have also been shown to be effective in some patients.

  15. Free carboxylate stretching modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, J.; Steill, J. D.


    We report the first IR spectroscopic observation of carboxylate stretching modes in free space, i.e., in the complete absence of solvent or counterions. Gas-phase spectra of a series of benzoate anions have been recorded and compared to condensed-phase spectra, revealing the profound influence of th

  16. Mercury and lead tolerance in hypersaline sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harithsa, S.; Kerkar, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) HSR 1, HSR 4, and HSR 14 isolated from the salt pans of Goa, India grew best at 90-100 ppt salinity on substrates like formate, acetate, lactate, butyrate, ethanol and benzoate. They were gram negative, non...

  17. Evaluation of the effectiveness of insecticide trunk injections for control of Latoia lepida (Cramer) in the sweet olive tree Osmanthus fragrans (United States)

    Li, Yan; Shi, Xiao-Hua


    The screening of suitable insecticides is a key factor in successfully applying trunk injection technology to ornamental plants. In this study, six chemical pesticides were selected and injected into the trunks of Osmanthus fragrans to control the nettle caterpillar, Latoia lepida (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), using a no-pressure injection system. The absorption rate of the insecticides, the leaf loss due to insect damage, and the mortality and frass amount of L. lepida larvae were evaluated after 77 and 429 days. The results showed that 4% imidacloprid + carbosulfan and 21% abamectin + imidacloprid + omethoate had the fastest conductivity and were completely absorbed into the trunkswithin14 days; however, the efficiencies of these insecticides in controlling L. lepidawere extremely low. Additionally, the treatment 10% emamectin benzoate + clothianidin and 2.5% emamectin benzoate was almost completely absorbed within 30 days and exhibited a longer duration of insecticide efficiency (>80% mortality) in the upper and lower leaves of the canopy. Treatment with these insecticides also resulted in significantly lower leaf loss and frass amounts. We conclude that emamectin benzoate and emamectin benzoate + clothianidin have a rapid uptake into O. fragrans, and are effective as insecticides over long durations. Hence, they may be a suitable control option for L. lepida in O. fragrans plants. PMID:27688974

  18. Síntese do isobutileno e seu emprego em reações de esterificação: propostas de aulas práticas de química orgânica para a graduação Synthesis and esterification reactions of isobutylene: an undergratuate organic chemistry experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Cunha


    Full Text Available An experiment for the synthesis of isobutylene from tert-butanol dehydratation using oxalic acid as catalyst, followed by preparations of tert-butyl benzoate and tert-butyl cinnamate is described. The synthesis are simple, requiring two periods of 4 hours and are suitable for undergraduate organic chemistry experimental courses.

  19. Tuning Aryl−CH···O Intermolecular Interactions on Pt(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demers-Carpentier, Vincent; Laliberte, Marc-André; Pan, Yunxiang


    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) data are reported for the room-temperature adsorption of 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone (TFAP), 2,2,2-trifluorovinylbenzene (TFVB), octafluoroacetophenone (OFAP), and methyl benzoate (MB) on Pt(111). The objective of the study is to establish the role of aryl−CH··...

  20. Tuning Aryl−CH···O Intermolecular Interactions on Pt(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demers-Carpentier, Vincent; Laliberte, Marc-André; Pan, Yunxiang


    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) data are reported for the room-temperature adsorption of 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone (TFAP), 2,2,2-trifluorovinylbenzene (TFVB), octafluoroacetophenone (OFAP), and methyl benzoate (MB) on Pt(111). The objective of the study is to establish the role of aryl−CH··...

  1. Synthesis and decomposition of a novel carboxylate precursor to indium oxide (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Andras, Maria T.; Duraj, Stan A.; Clark, Eric B.; Hehemann, David G.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Fanwick, Phillip E.


    Reaction of metallic indium with benzoyl peroxide in 4-1 methylpyridine (4-Mepy) at 25 C produces an eight-coordinate mononuclear indium(III) benzoate, In(eta(sup 2)-O2CC6H5)3(4-Mepy)2 4H2O (I), in yields of up to 60 percent. The indium(III) benzoate was fully characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography; (I) exists in the crystalline state as discrete eight-coordinate molecules; the coordination sphere around the central indium atom is best described as pseudo-square pyramidal. Thermogravimetric analysis of (I) and X-ray diffraction powder studies on the resulting pyrolysate demonstrate that this new benzoate is an inorganic precursor to indium oxide. Decomposition of (I) occurs first by loss of 4-methylpyridine ligands (100 deg-200 deg C), then loss of benzoates with formation of In2O3 at 450 C. We discuss both use of carboxylates as precursors and our approach to their preparation.

  2. Interfacing supercritical fluid reaction apparatus with on-line liquid chromatography: monitoring the progress of a synthetic organic reaction performed in supercritical fluid solution. (United States)

    Ramsey, Edward D; Li, Ben; Guo, Wei; Liu, Jing Y


    An interface has been developed that connects a supercritical fluid reaction (SFR) vessel directly on-line to a liquid chromatograph. The combined SFR-LC system has enabled the progress of the esterification reaction between phenol and benzoyl chloride to synthesize phenyl benzoate in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solution to be dynamically monitored. This was achieved by the periodic SFR-LC analysis of samples directly withdrawn from the esterification reaction mixture. Using the series of SFR-LC analysis results obtained for individual esterification reactions, the reaction progress profile for each esterification reaction was obtained by expressing the measured yield of phenyl benzoate as a function of reaction time. With reaction temperature fixed at 75°C, four sets (n=3) of SFR-LC reaction progress profiles were obtained at four different SFR pressures ranging from 13.79 to 27.58 MPa. The maximum SFR yield obtained for phenyl benzoate using a standard set of reactant concentrations was 85.2% (R.S.D. 4.2%) when the reaction was performed at 13.79 MPa for 90 min. In comparison, a phenyl benzoate yield of less than 0.3% was obtained using the same standard reactant concentrations after 90 min reaction time at 75°C using either: heptane, ethyl acetate or acetonitrile as conventional organic reaction solvents.

  3. Retardation Of Lipid Oxidation In Fish Oil-Enriched Fish Pâté- Combination Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte


    stored at 2 or 10C were equally stable. Mixing fish oil with rapeseed oil before emulsification slightly increased the stability of the fish pâtés. Addition of antimicrobial agents, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate increased oxidative stability. It is recommended to produce enriched fish pâté...

  4. Disease: H00187 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available um benzoate [DR:D02277] Phenylbutyrate [DR:D05868] ICD-10: E72.4 MeSH: D020163 OMIM: 311250 PMID:18038189 Gropman AL, Summar M, Leona...rd JV Neurological implications of urea cycle disorders. J Inherit Metab Dis 30:865

  5. Formulation and Evaluation of Hydrotropic Solublization Based Suspensions of Griseofulvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Shete,


    Full Text Available Purpose: Hydrotropes increases the solubility of organics in water. Objective of present investigation was to enhance the solubility of griseofulvin using the technique of hydrotropic solubilization technique and convert them into suitable oral liquid dosage form (suspension useful for enhancement of bioavailability. Methods: 0.5M, 1M, 2M of the hydrotropes (tri sodium citrate, urea, sodium acetate, sodium benzoate and sodium salicylates were used to study the saturation solubility. Solubility was found to be greater with sodium benzoate. Suspensions were prepared by using sodium benzoate solution, greseofulvin, xanthan gum, acacia, sodium alginate as a aqueous phase, dispersed phase and suspending agents respectively. Prepared suspensions were characterized for appearance of phases, density, particle size of dispersed Phase, pourability, sedimentationvolume and invitro drug release. Results: All formulations of sodium benzoate suspension were uniformly distributed, density in the range of 1.020 to 1.050gm/ml, particle size of the dispersed phase was 10μm to 20μm, suspensions were easily pourable from the bottle and sedimentation volume in the rage of 0.5-1. More than 70% drug release was obtained at the end of the 45 minutes. Conclusions: Hydrotropic solublization technique for preparation of suspensions of poor water soluble drugs will gave stability to the formulation and helps in enhancement of bioavailability of greseofulvin.

  6. Asymmetric banana-shaped liquid crystals with two different terminal alkoxy tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achten, R.; Cuypers, R.; Giesbers, M.; Koudijs, A.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.


    Two series of asymmetric banana-shaped compounds have been synthesized and studied. In the 1,3-phenylene bis[4-(4'-alkoxybenzoyloxy)]benzoate series the lack of symmetry was derived solely from the difference in length of the two terminal alkoxy chains. In the 3,4'-biphenylene bis[4-(4'-alkoxybenzoy

  7. The Characterisitic of Proton-Exchanged LiNbO_3 Waveguide Formed by Different Proton Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Benzoic acid as a source of proton is widely used in the technology of manufacture of proton exchanged ( PE) waveguide .But the diffusing speed of proton is too fast to make the waveguide stable in the pure benzoic acid. The characteristic of waveguide is improved with mixture of benzoic acid and lithium benzoate .

  8. The Characterisitic of Proton-Exchanged LiNbO3 Waveguide Formed by Different Proton Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiying Zhu; Guoliang Jing; Yifang Yuan; Baoxue Chen


    Benzoic acid as a source of proton is widely used in the technology of manufacture of proton exchanged ( PE) waveguide .But the diffusing speed of proton is too fast to make the waveguide stable in the pure benzoic acid. The characteristic of waveguide is improved with mixture of benzoic acid and lithium benzoate .

  9. Fermentation parameters, quality and losses in sugarcane silages treated with chemical additives and a bacterial inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Faria Pedroso


    Full Text Available The objective of this trial was to evaluate chemical additives and a bacterial inoculant on the inhibition of alcoholic fermentation and reduction of losses in sugarcane silages. Treatments were (doses on a fresh forage basis: without additive (control; urea (10 g/kg; urea (5 g/kg + sodium benzoate (0.5 g/kg; sodium benzoate (1 g/kg; urea + ammonium sulfate in a 9:1 relation (10 g/kg; Lactobacillus buchneri (5 × 10(4 cfu/g. Silages were produced in 10.16- × 30-cm PVC tubes, provided with tight lids adapted with Bunsen valves for gas losses quantification. Minisilos were opened 139 days after ensiling. Ethanol content (227 g/kg dry matter - DM and total DM loss (30% were high in the control silage. All additives, except benzoate, decreased ethanol concentration in silages. Inoculation with L. buchneri increased acetic acid content in the silage, resulting in a 41% reduction in ethanol content and the lowest gas loss among treatments (15.2%. There was synergistic effect between additives for the combined use of urea and benzoate. Silage treated with urea + ammonium sulfate has higher content of total digestible nutrients than the silage treated with urea exclusively.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, A; Casares, F; Alonso, L; Nieuwenhuis, P; Vicente, A; Zapata, AG


    The accessibility of the thymus parenchyma for relatively large Mw (+/- 150 Kd) proteins has been studied by the intravenous injection of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific either for all T cells (His-17) or MHC class II molecules (His-19) in control and estradiol benzoate (EB)-treated adult Wist

  11. Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols over Gold Catalysts: Role of Acid and Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Søren Kegnæs; DeLa Riva, Andrew T.; Helveg, Stig


    Gold nanoparticles are deposited on potassium titanate nanowires and used as heterogeneous catalysts in the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol in methanol to methyl benzoate at ambient conditions. The presence of a catalytic amount of base promotes the reaction and the formation of free benzoic...

  12. [Effects of food supplements on the safety and quality of seafoods]. (United States)

    Vorob'ev, V V


    The safety of foodstuffs from the hydrocoles made with food supplements is considered. The use in the seafoods of sodium benzoate (E 211), a preservative, monosodium glutamate (E 621), an agent enhancing the flavor of the food, does not provide safety of products, the use of which negative influences human health.

  13. Esterase activity in the guinea pig thyroid under normal and pathological conditions (vitamin A deficiency) with special regard to cyst-like structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S


    By use of different activators and inhibitors, TOCP(tri-o-cresyl phosphate), PCMB (parachloromercury benzoate), NiCl2, Pb(NO3)2, HgCl2, Hg(NO3)2, eserine and sodium taurocholate, it is shown that the esterase in the cyst cells and in group I cells of the guinea pig thyroid probably are A...

  14. Protocol for the Synthesis of Ortho-trifluoromethoxylated Aniline Derivatives. (United States)

    Feng, Pengju; Ngai, Ming-Yu


    Molecules bearing trifluoromethoxy (OCF3) group often show desired pharmacological and biological properties. However, facile synthesis of trifluoromethoxylated aromatic compounds remains a formidable challenge in organic synthesis. Conventional approaches often suffer from poor substrate scope, or require use of highly toxic, difficult-to-handle, and/or thermally labile reagents. Herein, we report a user-friendly protocol for the synthesis of methyl 4-acetamido-3-(trifluoromethoxy)benzoate using 1-trifluoromethyl-1,2-benziodoxol-3(1H)-one (Togni reagent II). Treating methyl 4-(N-hydroxyacetamido)benzoate (1a) with Togni reagent II in the presence of a catalytic amount of cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) in chloroform at RT afforded methyl 4-(N-(trifluoromethoxy)acetamido)benzoate (2a). This intermediate was then converted to the final product methyl 4-acetamido-3-(trifluoromethoxy)benzoate (3a) in nitromethane at 120 °C. This procedure is general and can be applied to the synthesis of a broad spectrum of ortho-trifluoromethoxylated aniline derivatives, which could serve as useful synthetic building blocks for the discovery and development of new pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and functional materials.

  15. Use of a parasitic wasp as a biosensor (United States)

    Screening cargo for illicit substances is still in need of high-throughput inspection systems that can rapidly screen and accurately identify suspicious cargo. Here we investigate the ability of a parasitic wasp, Microplitis croceipes to detect and respond to methyl benzoate, the volatile component ...

  16. Determination of Cinnamaldehyde in Cinnamon by SPME-GC-MS: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment (United States)

    Wang, Yimin; Ocariz, Jessica; Hammersand, Jennifer; MacDonald, Evan; Bartczak, Ashley; Kero, Frank; Young, Vaneica Y.; Williams, Kathryn R.


    Students analyze "trans"-cinnamaldehyde in commercial cinnamon using solid-phase microextraction and GC-MS with ethyl benzoate as the internal standard. Aside from the instrumentation, the experiment utilizes readily available low hazard materials and can be completed within one four-hour laboratory period. (Contains 2 figures.)

  17. Drug: D08214 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08214 Drug Metronidazole benzoate (USP); Elyzol (TN) C13H13N3O4 275.0906 275.26 D08214.gif Antiprotozoa...cs Agents against Amebiasis and other antiprotozoals Nitroimidazole derivatives Metronidazole [ATC:A01AB17 D

  18. 21 CFR 82.1051 - Lakes (D&C). (United States)


    ..., gloss white, clay, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, talc, rosin, aluminum benzoate, calcium carbonate, or... radical sodium, potassium, aluminum, barium, calcium, strontium, or zirconium; or (ii) a salt prepared... subpart, by combining such color with the basic radical sodium, potassium, aluminum, barium,...

  19. 77 FR 63829 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations (United States)


    ..., human health, and agricultural advocates; the chemical industry; pesticide users; and members of the.... hydrochloride. 001529-00030 Fungitrol 158 Alkyl* amine Fungicide. hydrochloride *(as in fatty acids of coconut oil), Tributyltin benzoate. 002829-00127 Vinyzene IT-3000 Octhilinone. DIDP. 002829-00139 Vinyzene...

  20. Limited diffusive fluxes of substrate facilitate coexistence of two competing bacterial strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Or, D.; Smets, Barth F.


    dish and a perforated Teflon((R)) membrane to control diffusive fluxes of substrate (benzoate) whilst permitting direct observation of bacterial colonies. The system was inoculated with prescribed strains of Pseudomonas, whose growth was quantified by microscopic monitoring of the fluorescent proteins...

  1. Titanium dioxide surfaces and interfaces studied using ESDIAD, LEED and STM

    CERN Document Server

    Cocks, I D


    resolved into two contributions: H atoms bonded at the oxide substrate, and the rupture of the C-H bonds of the acetate. It is proposed that acetates are bridge bonded with five-fold coordinated Ti sup 4 sup + ions, with their molecular plane perpendicular to the surface. Decomposition of acetate at room temperature occurs under electron beam radiation, desorbing CH sub 2 CO and CH sub 3 /CH sub 4. Adsorption of benzoic acid at the TiO sub 2 (110) surface is dissociative, forming benzoate and surface hydroxyls. Adsorbed benzoate is bonded with the five-fold coordinated Ti sup 4 sup + cations, forming a pseudo (2x1) overlayer at a saturation coverage of 0.5 ML. Attractive interactions between benzoate aromatic rings leads to the formation of dimerised benzoate rows along the [001] direction. TiO sub 2 surfaces have been studied by electron stimulated desorption ion angular distribution (ESDIAD), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). The TiO sub 2 (100) surface was stu...

  2. 直馏柴油催化氧化脱硫均相催化剂的制备与评价%Preparation and evaluation of desulfurization catalysts for homogeneous catalytic oxidation of straight-run diesel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓东; 刘亮; 税蕾蕾


    Large investment, high operating cost and severe operation condition exist in the technology of diesel hydrodesulfurization, and the technology of H2O2 oxidative desulfurization of diesel has such problems as high oxidizer cost, oxidizer not regenerable, and treatment of sour water. A new catalytic oxidative desulfurization method for straight-run diesel is presented in this paper. In order to produce lowsulfur diesel, the sulfide in diesel oil was oxidized and converted into sulfone-polar sulfide with homogeneous catalysts and air oxidizer, and then removed by extractant. The homogenous catalysts were prepared by compound decomposition. The catalysts selected could dissolve in diesel at a given temperature and separate out at a lower temperature. The effects of catalytic oxidation of zinc benzoate, manganese benzoate and manganese phthalate were tested. The desulfurization effect of zinc benzoate and manganese benzoate was much better and the sulfur content of the desulfurized diesel met the standard of Eu Ⅱ diesel (<300μg·g-1 ).

  3. ATR-FTIR and XPS study on the structure of complexes formed upon the adsorption of simple organic acids on aluminum hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xiao-hong; CHEN Guang-hao; SHANG Chii


    Information on the binding of organic ligands to metal (hydr)oxide surfaces is useful for understanding the adsorption behaviour of natural organic matter (NOM) on metal (hydr)oxide. In this study, benzoate and salicylate were employed as the model organic ligands and aluminum hydroxide as the metal hydroxide. The attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra revealed that the ligands benzoate and salicylate do coordinate directly with the surface of hydrous aluminum hydroxide, thereby forming inner-sphere surface complexes. It is concluded that when the initial pH is acidic or neutral, monodentate and bridging complexes are to be formed between benzoate and aluminum hydroxide while bridging complexes predominate when the initial pH is alkalic. Monodentate and bridging complexes can be formed at pH 5 while precipitate and bridging complexes are formed at pH 7 when salicylate anions are adsorbed on aluminum hydroxide. The X-ray photoelectron (XP) spectra demonstrated the variation of C 1s binding energy in the salicyate and phenolic groups before and after adsorption. It implied that the benzoate ligands are adsorbed through the complexation between carboxylate moieties and the aluminum hydroxide surface, while both carboxylate group and phenolic group are involved in the complexation reaction when salicylate is adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide. The information offered by the XPS confirmed the findings obtained with ATR-FTIR.

  4. Chain Elongation of Aldoses by Indium-Mediated Coupling with 3-Bromopropenyl Esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmelund, Anders; Madsen, Robert


    A procedure is described for acyloxyallylation of unprotected aldoses with two functionalized reagents: 3-bromopropenyl acetate and 3-bromopropenyl benzoate. The reaction is performed in ethanol or a dioxane/water mixture in the presence of indium metal. The products are deesterified in the worku...

  5. Three-dimensional imaging analysis of Yersinia ruckeri infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gills by optical projection tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Maki; Raida, Martin Kristian

    incubated whole with rabbit anti-Y. ruckeri polyclonal antibody and Alexa Fluor®594 conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG. After embedding in 1% low melting point agarose, specimens were dehydrated in 100% methanol and cleared in BABB (benzyl alcohol: benzyl benzoate) for OPT scanning. 3D imaging results showed...

  6. Efficacy of Four Nematicides Against the Reproduction and Development of Pinewood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. (United States)

    Bi, Zhenzhen; Gong, Yanting; Huang, Xiaojuan; Yu, Hongshi; Bai, Liqun; Hu, Jiafu


    To understand the efficacy of emamectin benzoate, avermectin, milbemectin, and thiacloprid on the reproduction and development of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, seven parameters, namely population growth, fecundity, egg hatchability, larval lethality, percent larval development, body size, and sexual ratio, were investigated using sublethal (LC20) doses of these compounds in the laboratory. Emamectin benzoate treatment led to a significant suppression in population size, brood size, and percent larval development with 411, 3.50, and 49.63%, respectively, compared to 20850, 24.33, and 61.43% for the negative control. The embryonic and larval lethality increased obviously from 12.47% and 13.70% to 51.37% and 75.30%, respectively. In addition, the body length was also significantly reduced for both males and females in the emamectin benzoate treatment. Avermectin and milbemectin were also effective in suppressing population growth by increasing larval lethality and reducing larval development, although they did not affect either brood size or embryonic lethality. Body length for both male and female worms was increased by avermectin. Thiacloprid caused no adverse reproductive effects, although it suppressed larval development. Sexual ratio was not affected by any of these four nematicides. Our results indicate that emamectin benzoate, milbemectin, and avermectin are effective against the reproduction of B. xylophilus. We think these three nematicides can be useful for the control of pine wilt disease.

  7. Estrogen Abolishes Latent Inhibition in Ovariectomized Female Rats (United States)

    Nofrey, Barbara S.; Ben-Shahar, Osnat M.; Brake, Wayne G.


    Estrogen is frequently prescribed as a method of birth control and as hormone replacement therapy for post-menopausal women with varied effects on cognition. Here the effects of estrogen on attention were examined using the latent inhibition (LI) behavioral paradigm. Ovariectomized (OVX) female rats were given either estrogen benzoate (EB, 10 or…

  8. Incorporation of preservatives in polylactic acid films for inactivating E. coli O157:H7 and extending microbiological shelf-life of strawberry puree (United States)

    Antimicrobial films of polylactic acid polymer incorporated with nisin, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), sodium benzoate (SB), potassium sorbate (PS) and their combination were developed and their antimicrobial effects on the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and natural background mic...

  9. Drug: D10253 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ); Vipdomet (TN) Alogliptin benzoate [DR:D06553], Metformin hydrochloride [DR:D00944] Treatment of type 2 di...NG DRUGS, EXCL. INSULINS A10BD Combinations of oral blood glucose lowering drugs A10BD13 Metformin and alogl

  10. 77 FR 30526 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations (United States)


    ... Sucker Alcohols, Cx--Cxx. Plucker Concentrate. OH080002 Tree-Age Emamectin benzoate. OR100006 Dual Magnum.... The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for the Public Reading Room is (202) 566-1744, and the telephone number...

  11. 77 FR 10512 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information (United States)


    ...-12-0161 01/23/2012 04/21/2012 CBI (G) Resin used (G) MDI in production modified of synthetic... homopolymer instruments. with cyclic ether. P-12-0167 01/24/2012 04/22/2012 Dakota (S) dispersive (S) Tar...-, N-[2- alkyloxy-, N-[2-alkyloxy)-1- (hydroxymethyl)ethyl] derivates, benzoates (salts) P-11-0501...

  12. A Guided-Inquiry Approach to the Sodium Borohydride Reduction and Grignard Reaction of Carbonyl Compounds (United States)

    Rosenberg, Robert E.


    The guided-inquiry approach is applied to the reactions of sodium borohydride and phenyl magnesium bromide with benzaldehyde, benzophenone, benzoic anhydride, and ethyl benzoate. Each team of four students receives four unknowns. Students identify the unknowns and their reaction products by using the physical state of the unknown, an…

  13. 常用食品防腐剂的抑菌效果%Antibacterial Effect of Commonly Used Food Preservatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春红; 乔琳; 古红梅; 李季平; 杨潇


    取一定量大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌菌悬液分别接种在含不同质量浓度的苯甲酸钠和山梨酸钾的液体培养基中培养18h,然后测定OD值,研究两种防腐剂对大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌的抑菌效果.结果表明,防腐剂苯甲酸钠(≥0.2 g/L)和山梨酸钾(≥0.3 g/L)对两种菌的生长都呈显著的抑制作用,且随浓度增加抑菌作用逐渐增强;相同浓度下苯甲酸钠的抑菌效果要好于山梨酸钾.%In order to study the antibacterial effect of Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate on E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Certain density bacterial suspension was added into the liquid culture medium included of different concentration of Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate to cultivate for 18 hours, and then the values of OD determined. The results showed that Sodium Benzoate (≥0.2g/L) and Potassium Sorbate (≥0.3g/L) had significant antibacterial effect on the two bacteria. The antibacterial effect gradually increased along with the increasing of concentration of Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate; The antibacterial effect of Sodium Benzoate was better than Potassium Sorbate at the same concentration.

  14. Energetics and kinetics of anaerobic aromatic and fatty acid degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, M.J.


    The kinetics of benzoate degradation by the anaerobic syntrophic bacterium, Syntrophus buswellii, was studied in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G11. The threshold value for benzoate degradation was dependent on the acetate concentration with benzoate threshold values ranging from 2.4 [mu]M at 20 mM acetate to 30.0 [mu]M at 65 mM acetate. Increasing acetate concentrations also inhibited the rate of benzoate degradation with a apparent K[sub i] for acetate inhibition of 7.0 mM. Lower threshold values were obtained when nitrate rather than sulfate was the terminal electron acceptor. These data are consistent with a thermodynamic explanation for the threshold, and suggest that there is a minimum Gibbs free energy value required for the degradation of benzoate. An acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase has been isolated from Syntrophomonas wolfei; it is apparently a key enzyme controlling the synthesis of poly-B-hydroxyalkanoate from acetyl-CoA in this organism. Kinetic characterization of the acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase from S. wolfei showed that it is similar in its structural, kinetic, and apparent regulatory properties to other biosynthetic acetoacetyl-CoA thiolases from phylogenetically distinct bacteria that synthesize PHA. Intracellular concentrations of CoA and acetyl-CoA are believed to be critical factors regulating the activity of the acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase in S. wolfei. We have also isolated and characterized several new halophilic anaerobic fermentative anaerobes. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that one of these bacteria is a new species in the genus, Haloanaerobium. Two other species appear to be members of the genus, Halobacteroides. Several halophilic acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria have also been isolated and their physiological properties are currently under investigation. We have also isolated an acetate-using dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium.

  15. Rh-Catalyzed C–C Bond Cleavage by Transfer Hydroformylation (United States)

    Murphy, Stephen K.; Park, Jung-Woo; Cruz, Faben A.; Dong, Vy M.


    The dehydroformylation of aldehydes to generate olefins occurs during the biosynthesis of various sterols, including cholesterol in humans. Here, we implement a synthetic version that features the transfer of a formyl group and hydride from an aldehyde substrate to a strained olefin acceptor. A Rh(Xantphos)(benzoate) catalyst activates aldehyde C–H bonds with high chemoselectivity to trigger C–C bond cleavage and generate olefins at low loadings (0.3 to 2 mol%) and temperatures (22 to 80 °C). This mild protocol can be applied to various natural products and was used to achieve a three step synthesis of (+)-yohimbenone. A study of the mechanism reveals that the benzoate counterion acts as a proton-shuttle to enable transfer hydroformylation. PMID:25554782

  16. Assessment of insecticide resistance of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Emilia-Romagna region. (United States)

    Civolani, Stefano; Boselli, Mauro; Butturini, Alda; Chicca, Milvia; Fano, Elisa Anna; Cassanelli, Stefano


    The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the key pest of vineyard, Vitis vinifera L. In Italy, failures in field chemical pest control have been recently reported. The susceptibility to insecticides indoxacarb, methoxyfenozide, and emamectin benzoate was then evaluated in a L. botrana population collected from a vineyard in Emilia-Romagna (northeastern Italy) where pest management programs achieved unsatisfactory results. The field trial showed that the indoxacarb efficacy toward L. botrana was very low in the two timings of application (7.9 and -1.5%) in comparison with untreated control, while the efficacy of methoxyfenozide (76.1%) and emamectin benzoate (88.8%) was high. The decreased efficacy of indoxacarb was also supported by the results of the laboratory bioassay on neonate L. botrana larvae, in which the resistance ratio was 72-fold in comparison with that of the susceptible strain.

  17. Biodegradation of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl by Sinorhizobium meliloti NM. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomi; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yongming; Dick, Richard P


    A rhizobial strain, Sinorhizobium meliloti NM, could use 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloro-biphenyl (PCB 77) as the sole carbon and energy source for growth in mineral salt medium. The degradation efficiency of PCB 77 by strain NM and the bacterial growth increased with a decrease in PCB 77 concentration (5-0.25mgL(-1)). The addition of secondary carbon sources, phenolic acids and one surfactant influenced PCB 77 degradation, rhizobial growth and biofilm formation. The highest degradation efficiency was observed in the presence of caffeic acid. Benzoate and chloride ions were detected as the PCB 77 metabolites. The up-regulation of benzoate metabolism-related gene expression was also observed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This report is the first to demonstrate Sinorhizobium using coplanar tetrachlorobiphenyl as a sole carbon and energy source, indicating the potential wide benefit to the field of rhizobia-assisted bioremediation.

  18. Proteolytic activity of beef luncheon fungi as affected by incorporation of some food preservatives. (United States)

    Saleem, A; El-Said, A H M


    Screening of thirty-one fungal isolates (representing 16 genera, 28 species and 3 varieties) collected from beef luncheon meat for their abilities to produce protease enzyme revealed that eleven isolates (35.48%) exhibited high protease production. However, fifteen isolates (48.39%) had moderate ability and 5 isolates (16.13%) were low producers. Aspergillus flavus, Gibberella fujikuroi and Penicillium chrysogenum were the most active producers of protease. The incorporation of five chemical substances used as food preservatives (disodium phosphate, sodium benzoate, citric acid, potassium sorbate and sodium citrate) individually in the culture medium for protease production exhibited depressive effect on protease production as well as on mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus, Gibberella fujikuroi and Penicillium chrysogenum , except in few cases the mycelial growth of A. flavus and G. fujikuroi was increased by the lowest concentration (100 ppm) of sodium benzoate, citric acid and disodium phosphate.

  19. Metal-free carbonylations by photoredox catalysis. (United States)

    Majek, Michal; Jacobi von Wangelin, Axel


    The synthesis of benzoates from aryl electrophiles and carbon monoxide is a prime example of a transition-metal-catalyzed carbonylation reaction which is widely applied in research and industrial processes. Such reactions proceed in the presence of Pd or Ni catalysts, suitable ligands, and stoichiometric bases. We have developed an alternative procedure that is free of any metal, ligand, and base. The method involves a redox reaction driven by visible light and catalyzed by eosin Y which affords alkyl benzoates from arene diazonium salts, carbon monoxide, and alcohols under mild conditions. Tertiary esters can also be prepared in high yields. DFT calculations and radical trapping experiments support a catalytic photoredox pathway without the requirement for sacrificial redox partners.


    Korshun, M; Dema, O; Kucherenko, O; Ruda, T; Korshun, O; Gorbachevskyi, R; Pelio, I; Antonenko, A


    Application of pesticides in modern agriculture is a powerful permanent risk factor for public health and the natural environment. The aim of the study was a comparative hygienic assessment of soil pollution hazards by the most widely used herbicides of different chemical classes (sulfonylureas, imidazolinones, pyrimidinyl (thio) benzoates, semicarbazones). Hygienic field experiment for studying of the dynamics of residual amounts of the test substances in the soil under different climatic zones of Ukraine was conducted. Half life periods (DT50) or herbicides in soil were calculated using the method of mathematical modeling. Ecotoxicological risk of herbicides on ecosystems and ecological communities was determined. It was established that bispyribac-sodium (pyrimidinyl (thio) benzoates) and imidazolinones are persist the longest time in soil and most rapidly degradable is diflufenzopyr (semicarbazone); ecotoxicological risk of the studied herbicides for terrestrial biocenoses of Ukraine by 4-6 orders of magnitude lower than dihlordifeniltrihlormetilmetan (DDT).

  1. Evaluation of the Bitterness-Masking Effect of Powdered Roasted Soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa Makita


    Full Text Available The masking of bitterness is considered important because many pharmaceutical compounds have a bitter taste. The bitterness-masking effect of powdered roasted soybeans (PRS was investigated using a bitter taste sensor. PRS was revealed to significantly suppress the bitterness of quinine hydrochloride and denatonium benzoate. Furthermore, the bitterness-masking mechanism of PRS extracts was evaluated using dynamic light scattering. These results showed that the extracted suspension consisted of particles that were several hundreds of nanometers in size. Analysis of the PRS extracts by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicated that denatonium benzoate was entrapped in the PRS extracts. Thus, PRS may be useful as a bitterness-masking agent in orally administered pharmaceuticals.

  2. Orientation and crystallinity of bifunctional adsorbates

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, C C


    3-thiophene carboxylate (3-TC) and 9-anthracene carboxylate (9-AC) on the clean and O(2x1)/Cu(110) surfaces demonstrates the sensitivity of the technique to orientation parallel and perpendicular to the surface. The coverage dependent molecular polar and azimuthal orientations are determined from high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and are correlated with the RAS results via LEED patterns of the ordered structures. A complete vibrational assignment of 9-AC is given. Coadsorption of phase separated domains of (2x3)N and alpha-phase benzoate/Cu(110) was used to identify plausible adsorption sites for upright benzoate species. A multiple regression model to analyse scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) images was developed, which properly addresses the non-normally distributed noise present in the digitally sampled images. Electron energy loss-low energy electron diffraction (ELS-LEED) measurements show enhancement of the vibrational losses in the dipole mechanism regime appropriate for eac...

  3. Tetra-μ-benzoato-bis[(3,5-dimethylpyridinecopper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Guo


    Full Text Available In the centrosymmetric binuclear title compound, [Cu2(C7H5O24(C7H9N2], the CuII atom is coordinated by four O atoms from benzoate anions and one N atom from a dimethylpyridine ligand. A paddle-wheel-like dimer is formed by two CuII ions and four benzoate anions with two 3,5-dimethylpyridine ligands at the axial position of the CuII ions. The dihedral angle between the two unique benzene rings is 84.26 (16°. The dihedral angles between the pyridine ring and the benzene rings are 61.67 (15 and 34.27 (14°. There is π–π stacking of inversion-related pyridine rings, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.833 (2 Å.

  4. Demonstrating Chemical and Analytical Concepts in the Undergraduate Laboratory Using Capillary Electrophoresis and Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography (United States)

    Palmer, Christopher P.


    This paper describes instrumental analysis laboratory exercises that utilize capillary electrophoresis and micellar electrokinetic chromatography to demonstrate several analytical and chemical principles. Alkyl parabens (4-hydroxy alkyl benzoates), which are common ingredients in cosmetic formulations, are separated by capillary electrophoresis. The electrophoretic mobilities of the parabens can be explained on the basis of their relative size. 3-Hydroxy ethylbenzoate is also separated to demonstrate the effect of substituent position on the acid dissociation constant and the effect this has on electrophoretic mobility. Homologous series of alkyl benzoates and alkyl phthalates (common plasticizers) are separated by micellar electrokinetic chromatography at four surfactant concentrations. This exercise demonstrates the separation mechanism of micellar electrokinetic chromatography, the concept of chromatographic phase ratio, and the concepts of micelle formation. A photodiode array detector is used in both exercises to demonstrate the advantages and limitations of the detector and to demonstrate the effect of pH and substituent position on the spectra of the analytes.

  5. Desenvolvimento e validação de método analítico para determinação de benzoato, sorbato, metil e propilparabenos em produtos alimentícios utilizando a eletroforese capilar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Flávio da Silveira Petruci


    Full Text Available In this work, a rapid and simple method using capillary electrophoresis (CE was developed for the determination of the benzoate, sorbate, methyl and propylparaben in foodstuffs. A running buffer consisting of 20 mmol L-1 (pH = 9.3 tetraborate enabled separation of the analytes in less than 5 min. The detector wavelength was set at 220 nm. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of sodas, sweeteners, sauces and juices. The range of preservatives found were from 478.5-466.6 mg kg-1 for methylparaben , 83.7-231.3 mg kg-1 for sorbate and 336.7-428.3 mg kg-1 for benzoate.

  6. Chemical stability of γ-butyrolactone-based electrolytes for aluminum electrolytic capacitors (United States)

    Ue, Makoto; Takeda, Masayuki; Suzuki, Yoko; Mori, Shoichiro

    γ-Butyrolactone-based electrolytes have been used as the operating electrolytes for aluminum electrolytic capacitors. The chemical stability of these electrolytes at elevated temperatures has been examined by monitoring the decrease in their electrolytic conductivities. The deteriorated electrolytes were analyzed by gas and liquid chromatography and the conductivity decrease was directly correlated with the loss of acid components. In quaternary ammonium hydrogen maleate/γ-butyrolactone electrolytes, the maleate anion decomposed by decarboxylation resulting in a complex polymer containing polyester and polyacrylate structures. Quaternary ammonium benzoate/γ-butyrolactoneelectrolytes decomposed by SN2 reactions giving alkyi benzoates and trialkylamines. The deterioration of the carboxylate salt/γ-butyrolactone electrolytes was accelerated by electrolysis.

  7. Towards successful bioaugmentation with entrapped cells as a soil remediation technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Dechesne, Arnaud; Binning, Philip John


    Soil remediation technologies are proposed that rely on inoculation with degrading microorganisms entrapped in protective carriers. A mathematical model developed to model entrapped cell bioaugmentation describes the 3-D diffusion-driven mass transfer of benzoate, and its mineralization by Pseudo......Soil remediation technologies are proposed that rely on inoculation with degrading microorganisms entrapped in protective carriers. A mathematical model developed to model entrapped cell bioaugmentation describes the 3-D diffusion-driven mass transfer of benzoate, and its mineralization...... saturation 7%) and agree satisfactory well with model predictions. In contrast, much larger mineralization rates are measured for wet conditions (water saturation of 68%). This discrepancy originates from extensive cell dispersal, not accounted for in the model, which occurs in wet conditions...

  8. Recent Developments in the Identification of Mechanisms for Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (United States)


    31 (1997) pp.813-818. 36 Weiner, J.M., Lovley D.R.; "Rapid Benzene Degradation in Methanogenic Sediments from a Petroleum-Contaminated Aquifer ...wide variety of electron donors and acceptors. In the absence of an electron acceptor, SRB can enter into syntrophic relationships with methanogens or...Microorganisms," Corrosion, 64(2008) pp.854-859. 22 Dolfing, J., Tiedje J.M.; "Acetate Inhibition of Methanogenic Syntrophic Benzoate Degradation

  9. Synthesis and Mesomorphic Properties of Some ω'-Alkoxy-ω-benzoxypolyfluorotolane Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN, Chuan; RONG, Guo-Bin; YU, Hong-Bin; WEN, Jian-Xun


    Four homologue series of 4-cyano- and 4-nitro-substituted benzoate-tolanes were synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR, MS spectra and elemental analysis. Their phase transition behaviors were investigated by DSC and polarized optical microscope. The effects on the mesomorphic properties of different positions of the perfluorophenyl in the molecular core unit, the terminal cyano-substituted systems and the terminal nitro-substituted ones were discussed.

  10. A New Humidity-Sensitive Material Based on PPBT Prepared with Palladium Complex Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Soluble Poly(propargyl benzoate) (PPBT) with p -conjugated structure was synthesized using a novel bis(triphenylphosphine)-bisacetylide palladium complex catalyst [Pd(PPh3)2(Co CCH2OOCPh)2] (PPB). An interdigital gold electrode was covered by screen printing films of doped PPBT (DPPBT) to prepare a resistance-type humidity sensor, which exhibits electrical response towards relative humidity (RH%) variations in the range 11%-96%. PPBT shows promise as a new humidity-sensitive material.

  11. Effect of estradiol on chlamydial genital infection of female guinea pigs.


    Rank, R G; White, H. J.; Hough, A. J.; Pasley, J N; Barron, A L


    Female guinea pigs were treated daily with 1 mg of beta-estradiol-3-benzoate intramuscularly beginning 14 days before intravaginal inoculation with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis and continuing during the course of the infection. Treatment with estradiol was found to markedly influence the course of genital infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis, producing infections of greater intensity and longer duration than those in control...

  12. Growth, optical, thermal and mechanical studies of methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate single crystals (United States)

    Vijayan, N.; Ramesh Babu, R.; Gunasekaran, M.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Ramasamy, P.


    Bulk single crystals of methyl 4-hydroxy benzoate have been successfully grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. The grown crystals have been subjected to spectroscopic studies like FT-IR and FT-Raman. The hardness of the crystal was measured by Vicker's microhardness tester. The lattice parameters have been calculated by X-ray diffraction technique and the values are in good agreement with the reported JCPDS file.

  13. Effects of Oxygen on Biodegradation of Fuels in a Corroding Environment (United States)


    known to be more labile than hydrocarbons to anaerobic biodegradation (Aktas, et al, 2010), so the preferential loss of these peaks from the...the contention that hydrocarbon removal was due at least in part to biodegradation by seawater microorganisms. Benzoate, cresols and alkanoic acids...RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) · Oxygen Effects on Biodegradation of Fuels in a Corroding Environment Deniz F. Aktas

  14. Novel Interphases: Synthesis, Molecular Orientation and Grafting of Liquid Crystal Polymers on Carbon Fibers (United States)


    presumably due to the alkaline nature of the TBAF solution bringing about a base - catalyzed ester hydrolysis of the more susceptible biphenyl benzoate...polymer- based composites. A protection- polymerization-deprotection scheo.e was developed for the synthesis of these functionallzed polymers. Optical... Transesterification . 26 Grafting via Esterification in Solution ...... .. 41 1.3 Summary ....... .................... .. 43 1.4 Experimental

  15. [New facts about the molecular background of isovanilline-type sweeteners]. (United States)

    Kálmán, Noémi; Magyarné-Jeszenszki, Erzsébet; Kurtán, Tibor; Antus, Sándor


    As a continuation of our studies on the relationship between structure and sweet taste of isovanilline-type sweeteners, (3-hydroxy-4-methoxy)benzyl-benzoate (17) and -salicylate (17c), analogues of dihydrochalcone-type sweetener analogues of (+)-phyllodulcin [(+)-5] and CH-401 (14c) have been synthesized. Surprisingly, 17c has been found to be tastless, while 17e was slightly sweet. These observations could be explained by the current hypothesis on the receptor model for isovanilline-type sweet derivatives.

  16. A novel 2D (3,5)-connected coordination framework with Zn 2(COO) 3 SBU (United States)

    Han, Lei; Xu, Lan-Ping; Zhao, Wen-Na


    A novel 2D Zn(II)-organic coordination framework, [Zn 2(hfipbb) 2] n ( 1) (hfipbb = 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)bis(benzoate)), has been synthesized under hydrothermal reaction. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction revealed that 1 is a (3,5)-connected coordination network based on Zn 2(COO) 3 secondary building unit and flexible V-shaped organic linkers. The luminescent property and thermal stability of 1 have also been investigated.

  17. Mite-control activities of active constituents isolated from Pelargonium graveolens against house dust mites. (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Kim, Min-Gi; Lee, Hoi-Seon


    The mite-control activities of materials obtained from Pelargonium graveolens oil against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus were examined using an impregnated fabric disk bioassay and were compared with those shown by commercial benzyl benzoate and N,N-diethylm- toluamide (DEET). Purification of the biologically active constituents from P. graveolens oil was done by silica gel chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The structures of the active components were analyzed by EI/MS, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, (1)H-(13)C COSYNMR, and DEPT-NMR spectra, and were identified as geraniol (C(10)H(18)O, MW 154.25, trans-3,7-dimethyl-2,6- octadien-1-ol) and beta-citronellol (C(10)H(20)O, MW 156.27, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol). Based on the LD50 values, the most toxic compound was geraniol (0.26 microg/cm(2)), followed by beta-citronellol (0.28 microg/cm(2)), benzyl benzoate (10.03 microg/ cm(2)), and DEET (37.12 microg/cm(2)) against D. farinae. In the case of D. pteronyssinus, geraniol (0.28 microg/cm(2)) was the most toxic, followed by beta-citronellol (0.29 microg/cm(2)), benzyl benzoate (9.58 microg/cm(2)), and DEET (18.23 microg/cm(2)). These results suggest that D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus may be controlled more effectively by the application of geraniol and beta-citronellol than benzyl benzoate and DEET. Furthermore, geraniol and beta-citronellol isolated from P. graveolens could be useful for managing populations of D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus.

  18. Bridging the Gap between Gene Expression and Metabolic Phenotype via Kinetic Models (United States)


    Figure 2 depicts the metabolic network, which includes the glycolysis pathway, the pentose phosphate pathway, the citric acid cycle , and pathways for...metabolism and amino acids synthesis pathways of S. cerevisiae. The network includes glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), the citric acid cycle ...expression changes led to observed phenotypic alterations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae treated with weak organic acids (i.e., acetate, benzoate, propionate

  19. Anion Binding Studies on Receptors Derived from the Indolo[2,3-a]carbazole Scaffold Having Different Binding Cavity Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán Sánchez


    Full Text Available The indolo[2,3-a]carbazole scaffold is a fused polyheteroaromatic system bearing two NH groups which suitably converge as hydrogen bond donor sites for the recognition of anions. A simple derivatisation of the indolocarbazole system at positions 1 and 10 with different functional groups, namely alcohols and amides, has contributed to modulate the anion binding selectivity and sensibility. A particularly good response has been obtained for the benzoate anion.


    Goldberg, Marvin C.; Cunningham, Kirkwood M.


    Goethite ( alpha -FeOOH) is a common mineral constituent of suspended and bed sediments in aquatic environments. Many types of naturally-occurring organic molecules, including organic carboxylates, are known to sorb to its surface. Carboxylates should be susceptable to photo-oxidation. An experimental program was conducted with systems containing adsorbed films of oxalate, citrate, tartrate, glycolate, formate, maleate, fumarate, butanoate, and benzoate on Goethite, respectively. Photolytic effects were observed at pH 6. 5 and 5. 5.

  1. Conflicting demands on detoxification pathways influence how common brushtail possums choose their diets. (United States)

    Marsh, Karen J; Wallis, Ian R; McLean, Stuart; Sorensen, Jennifer S; Foley, William J


    Most herbivores eat more and survive better when they have access to a variety of foods. One explanation involves the detoxification of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs). By feeding from a variety of plants that contain different classes of PSMs, animals can use multiple detoxification pathways and presumably consume more food. Although popular, this theory is difficult to test because it requires knowledge of the detoxification pathways of each PSM in the diet. We established that common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) use various combinations of oxidation, hydrolysis, and conjugation with glucuronic acid (GA) or glycine to detoxify six PSMs. Compared to their ingestion of a single PSM, possums ate more when offered a choice between two diets containing PSMs that require apparently independent detoxification pathways (benzoate and 1,8-cineole, benzoate and p-cymene, benzoate and orcinol, benzoate and salicin, or orcinol and 1,8-cineole). However, possums still did not eat as much of these diets as they did of a basal diet free of PSMs. This suggests that detoxification pathways are never independent, but are separated instead by degrees. In contrast, possums offered a choice of two PSMs that require competing detoxification pathways (1,8-cineole and p-cymene, 1,8-cineole and salicin, or orcinol and salicin) ate no more than when offered diets containing one of the compounds. There was an exception: even though both rutin and orcinol are detoxified via conjugation with GA, the feeding behavior of possums did not suggest competition for detoxification pathways. This implies that the supply of GA is not limiting. This study provides the first convincing evidence that herbivorous mammals can eat more by selecting mixed diets with a diversity of PSMs that make full use of their detoxification potential. It also emphasizes that other behavioral and physiological factors, such as transient food aversions, influence feeding behavior.

  2. Three new compounds from the leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Three new compounds named (2E)prenyl benzoate-4-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl (1→6) β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 7-methoxy-8-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl coumarin (2), and 3,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxy benzenepentanoic acid (3) were isolated from the leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms. The structures of new compounds were determined by means of 2D NMR experiments and chemical methods.

  3. Inducer responses of BenM, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator from Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craven, Sarah H.; Ezezika, Obidimma C.; Haddad, Sandra; Hall, Ruth A.; Momany, Cory; Neidle, Ellen L.; Georgia


    BenM and CatM control transcription of a complex regulon for aromatic compound degradation. These Acinetobacter baylyi paralogues belong to the largest family of prokaryotic transcriptional regulators, the LysR-type proteins. Whereas BenM activates transcription synergistically in response to two effectors, benzoate and cis,cis-muconate, CatM responds only to cis,cis-muconate. Here, site-directed mutagenesis was used to determine the physiological significance of an unexpected benzoate-binding pocket in BenM discovered during structural studies. Residues in BenM were changed to match those of CatM in this hydrophobic pocket. Two BenM residues, R160 and Y293, were found to mediate the response to benzoate. Additionally, alteration of these residues caused benzoate to inhibit activation by cis,cis-muconate, positioned in a separate primary effector-binding site of BenM. The location of the primary site, in an interdomain cleft, is conserved in diverse LysR-type regulators. To improve understanding of this important family, additional regulatory mutants were analysed. The atomic-level structures were characterized of the effector-binding domains of variants that do not require inducers for activation, CatM(R156H) and BenM(R156H,T157S). These structures clearly resemble those of the wild-type proteins in their activated muconate-bound complexes. Amino acid replacements that enable activation without effectors reside at protein interfaces that may impact transcription through effects on oligomerization.

  4. Technical Protocol for Using Soluble Carbohydrates to Enhance Reductive Dechlorination of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons (United States)


    subsurface injection of a soluble electron donor solution (typically comprised of a carbohydrate such as molasses, whey , high fructose corn syrup (HFCS... whey , high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), glucose, lactate, butyrate, benzoate). Other approaches to enhanced anaerobic bioremediation exist, but will...other methods for sample analysis are drawn from standard reference works such as “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater ” (APHA

  5. Formation, Characterization and Stability of Natural Antimicrobial-Cyclodextrin Complexes


    Samperio, Cristian


    As a response of the need for a natural antimicrobial to replace sodium benzoateâ s use as a preservative in beverages, twenty eight compounds known to have antimicrobial activity were evaluated to quantify their solubility. Twenty three of the compounds evaluated are components of plant essential oils and the remaining five compounds are alkyl esters of para-hydroxybenzoic acid. The test compounds were evaluated for aqueous solubility as well as their solubility in an acid-based beverage mi...

  6. Radiolabeling of N-Succinimidyl-3-[125I]iodobenzoate intermediate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-Hua; WANG Yong-Xian; YIN Duan-Zhi; LI Jun-Ling


    Organostannanes were important precursors which was easy to radioiodinate. N-Succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (STB) was radiolabeled using Iodogen to get radioactive N-Succinimidyl-3-iodobenzoate (S125IB) with 96% of high radiochemical yield. The optimization of labeling condition was explored in this study.S125IB was stable at room temperature in dark. Cold SIB was prepared as a standard and IR and NMR results were given in this article.

  7. Identification of enzymes involved in anaerobic benzene degradation by a strictly anaerobic iron-reducing enrichment culture. (United States)

    Abu Laban, Nidal; Selesi, Draženka; Rattei, Thomas; Tischler, Patrick; Meckenstock, Rainer U


    Anaerobic benzene degradation was studied with a highly enriched iron-reducing culture (BF) composed of mainly Peptococcaceae-related Gram-positive microorganisms. The proteomes of benzene-, phenol- and benzoate-grown cells of culture BF were compared by SDS-PAGE. A specific benzene-expressed protein band of 60 kDa, which could not be observed during growth on phenol or benzoate, was subjected to N-terminal sequence analysis. The first 31 amino acids revealed that the protein was encoded by ORF 138 in the shotgun sequenced metagenome of culture BF. ORF 138 showed 43% sequence identity to phenylphosphate carboxylase subunit PpcA of Aromatoleum aromaticum strain EbN1. A LC/ESI-MS/MS-based shotgun proteomic analysis revealed other specifically benzene-expressed proteins with encoding genes located adjacent to ORF 138 on the metagenome. The protein products of ORF 137, ORF 139 and ORF 140 showed sequence identities of 37% to phenylphosphate carboxylase PpcD of A. aromaticum strain EbN1, 56% to benzoate-CoA ligase (BamY) of Geobacter metallireducens and 67% to 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase (UbiD/UbiX) of A. aromaticum strain EbN1 respectively. These genes are proposed as constituents of a putative benzene degradation gene cluster (∼ 17 kb) composed of carboxylase-related genes. The identified gene sequences suggest that the initial activation reaction in anaerobic benzene degradation is probably a direct carboxylation of benzene to benzoate catalysed by putative anaerobic benzene carboxylase (Abc). The putative Abc probably consists of several subunits, two of which are encoded by ORFs 137 and 138, and belongs to a family of carboxylases including phenylphosphate carboxylase (Ppc) and 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase (UbiD/UbiX).

  8. A comprehensive study of the presence of some food additives in non-alcoholic beverages in Republic of Macedonia from the period 2008- 2012


    Kostik, Vesna


    Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavour or enhance its taste and appearance. The most abundant additives used in production of refreshing-non alcoholic beverages (soft drinks) are: potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate caffeine, some artificial food colourings, artificial sweeteners etc. Different medical studies have shown that the usage of additives have various impact on human’s health. In the current study, the presence of: preservatives (potassium sorbate and sodium ...

  9. Comparative study of the antimicrobial activity of essential oil and two different extract from Salvia urmiensis Bunge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Hossein Farjam


    Objective: In this study, antimicrobial activity of essential oil, ethyl acetate and ether extracts of S. urmiensis Bunge were screened against some species of bacteria and fungi. Also, the essential oil of the aerial part of S. urmiensis Bunge was examined by GC and GC-MS. Methods:The oils obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus from fresh and dried aerial parts of S. urmiensis Bunge were analyzed by GC and GC-MS to investigate the variations of oil components. Ethyl acetate and ether extracts of S. urmiensis Bunge were obtained using powdered aerial part and appropriate amounts of each solvent (ethyl acetate, ether) by maceration method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oil and extracts against the bacteria and fungi was determined using broth microdilution method. Results: In the essential oil of S. urmiensis Bunge 27 Compounds have been identified. Benzyl benzoate (60.3 %), n-hexyl benzoate (16.7 %), Amyl benzoate (5.2 %) and 2- octyl benzoate (4.2 %) were the main components of the essential oil. The essential oil analysis showed greatest antimicrobial activity againstStaphylococcus epidermidis (5.3 μg/ml) and S. cerevisiae (9.3 μg/ml). The ethyl acetate showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis (106.7 μg/ml), Candida albicans (5.3 μg/ml) and ether extract showed greatest antimicrobial activity against Klebseilla pneumoniae (10.7 μg/ml) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10.7 μg/ml). Conclusions: we suggest that the antimicrobial activity of S. urmiensis may be due to its content of germacrene and linalool.

  10. Chemicals and lemon essential oil effect on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris viability. (United States)

    Maldonado, Maria Cristina; Aban, Marina Paola; Navarro, Antonio Roberto


    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is considered to be one of the important target microorganisms in the quality control of acidic canned foods. There is an urgent need to develop a suitable method for inhibiting or controlling the germination and outgrowth of A.acidoterrestris in acidic drinks. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemicals used in the lemon industry (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate), and lemon essential oil as a natural compound, against a strain of A.acidoterrestris in MEB medium and in lemon juice concentrate. The results pointed out that sodium benzoate (500-1000-2000 ppm) and lemon essential oil (0.08-0.12-0.16%) completely inhibited the germination of A. acidoterrestris spores in MEB medium and LJC for 11 days. Potassium sorbate (600-1200 ppm) was more effective to inhibit the growth of the microbial target in lemon juice than in MEB medium. The effect of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and essential oil was sporostatic in MEB and LJC as they did not affect spore viability.

  11. Structural determination of elicitors in Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) that induce Japonica rice plant varieties (Oryza sativa L.) to produce an ovicidal substance against S. furcifera eggs. (United States)

    Yang, Jeong-Oh; Nakayama, Naoya; Toda, Kyohei; Tebayashi, Shinichi; Kim, Chul-Sa


    Certain Japonica rice plant varieties (Oryza sativa L.) show resistance to the eggs of the white backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera Horváth) by the formation of watery lesions and production of benzyl benzoate, an active ovicidal compound. Benzyl benzoate results in high ovicidal activity of S. furcifera eggs and reduces egg hatchability. The production of benzyl benzoate by the rice plants is only induced by an unknown elicitor(s) from the female S. furcifera. Therefore, we tried to isolate and identify these elicitors. An active 80% MeOH extract of S. furcifera was separated on a reverse-phase ODS MPLC, and the elicitor(s) was eluted in 100% MeOH and 100% EtOH fractions. Further separation of the active 100% MeOH fraction using a HPLC led to the isolation of four active compounds. The structures of each compound were determined by using NMR, LC-MS, and GC-MS spectra. The compounds were 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-X-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine.

  12. Active monoterpene ketones isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis with fumigant and contact action against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank). (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Park, Jun-Hwan; Chung, Namhyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon


    The acaricidal activities of an active material derived from Rosmarinus officinalis oil and its relative monoterpene ketones were determined using fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against Tyrophagus putrescentiae and were compared with that of a commercial acaricide (benzyl benzoate). The active component of R. officinalis oil, isolated by silica gel column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, was identified as camphor, based on various spectroscopic analyses. In the fumigant toxicity bioassay, camphor (2.25 μg/cm(3)) was 5.58 times more active than benzyl benzoate (12.56 μg/cm(3)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (3.89 μg/cm(3)) and (-)-camphor (5.61 μg/cm(3)). In the contact toxicity bioassay, camphor (1.34 μg/cm(2)) was 6.74 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (9.03 μg/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (2.23 μg/cm(2)) and (-)-camphor (2.94 μg/cm(2)). These results indicate that camphor and its derivatives are very useful as potential control agents against stored food mites regardless of the application method.

  13. Acaricidal activity of constituents identified in Foeniculum vulgare fruit oil against Dermatophagoides spp. (Acari: Pyroglyphidae). (United States)

    Lee, Hoi-Seon


    Acaricidal activities of components derived from Foeniculum vulgare fruit oil against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were examined using direct contact application and compared with that of the commercial repellent benzyl benzoate. The major biologically active constituent of Foeniculum fruit oil was characterized as (+)-fenchone by spectroscopic analyses. On the basis of LD(50) values, the compound most toxic to D. farinae was p-anisaldehyde (11.3 mg/m(2)) followed by (+)-fenchone (38.9 mg/m(2)), (-)-fenchone (41.8 mg/m(2)), benzyl benzoate (89.2 mg/m(2)), thymol (90.3 mg/m(2)), and estragol (413.3 mg/m(2)). Against D. pteronyssinus, p-anisaldehyde (10.1 mg/m(2)) was much more effective than benzyl benzoate (67.5 mg/m(2)), thymol (68.5 mg/m(2)), and estragol (389.9 mg/m(2)). These results indicate that the acaricidal activity of F. vulgare fruit oil likely results from (+)-fenchone and p-anisaldehyde. (+)-Fenchone was 20.3 times more abundant in the oil than p-anisaldehyde. (+)-Fenchone and p-anisaldehyde merit further study as potential house dust mite control agents or as lead compounds.

  14. Octabutylbis(μ2-2-chloro-5-nitrobenzoatobis(2-chloro-5-nitrobenzoatodi-μ3-oxido-tetratin(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun


    Full Text Available The title complex, [Sn4(C4H98(C7H3ClNO44O2], is a cluster formed by a crystallographic inversion center around the central Sn2O2 ring. Both of the two independent Sn atoms are five-coordinated, with distorted trigonal–bipyramidal SnC2O3 geometries. One Sn atom is coordinated by two butyl groups, one O atom of the benzoate anion and two bridging O atoms, whereas the other Sn atom is coordinated by two butyl groups, two O atoms of the benzoate anions and a bridging O atom. The O atoms of the bridging benzoate anion are disordered over two sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.862 (12:0.138 (12. One of the butyl groups coordinated to the Sn2O2 ring is disordered over two sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.780 (8:0.220 (8, whereas both of the two butyl groups coordinated to the other Sn atom are disordered over two sites with occupancy ratios of 0.788 (5:0.212 (5 and 0.827 (10:0.173 (10. All the butyl groups are equatorial with respect to the SnO3 trigonal plane. In the crystal, complex molecules are stacked down [010] with weak intermolecular C—H...π interactions stabilizing the crystal structure.

  15. Production of aroma compounds from whey using Wickerhamomyces pijperi. (United States)

    Izawa, Naoki; Kudo, Miyuki; Nakamura, Yukako; Mizukoshi, Harumi; Kitada, Takahiro; Sone, Toshiro


    The production of aroma compounds by the microbial fermentation of whey was studied. Seven strains of the yeast Wickerhamomyces pijperi were used for the fermentation of glucose-added whey (whey-g). Twelve aroma compounds (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl propionate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl benzoate) were identified in the fermented broth using headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. The major components were ethyl acetate (several tens to hundreds ppm), acetaldehyde (several tens ppm) and isoamyl alcohol (about 10 ppm). The strong fruity odor of ethyl benzoate (about 1 ppm) was detected in the broth of W. pijperi YIT 8095 and YIT 12779. The balance of aroma compounds produced was varied depending on the media used, and ethyl benzoate was only produced when using whey-g. The variation in the production of the aroma compounds over time using W. pijperi YIT 12779 at various culture temperatures (from 15-30°C) was also studied. From the results we propose that W. pijperi could be used as a novel microorganism for production of aroma compounds from whey.

  16. Evaluation of crude sesquiterpenoid extract of Phellinus fastuosus as a natural preservative. (United States)

    Sharifi, Asghar; Bhosle, S R; Vaidya, J G

    It has been revealed that the use of synthetic food preservatives has variety of various side effects and hence search of safe and effective natural preservative has become a need. With the afore said objective the present study to screen the possibility of using sesquiterpenoid extract of local folk mushroom Phellinus fastuosus as food preservative was undertaken. Microbial growth inhibition by sesquiterpenoid extract of Phellinus was evaluated in the media with natural ingredient such as milk agar (MA), tomato juice agar (TJA), wheat flour agar (WFA) and pineapple juice agar (PAJA) with the composition with Phellinus extract, sodium benzoate and combinations. Three strains of bacteria and one strain of fungus were used astest organisms. The sesquiterpenoid extract of Phellinus at 0.02% concentration significantly inhibited the growth of all test organisms on natural media and the results were comparable with sodium benzoate. Similarly combination of Phellinus extract and sodium benzoate completely inhibited the growth of all microorganisms in all media, suggesting the possibility of using the Phellinus extract as food preservative.

  17. Aromatic compound in different peach cultivars and effect of preservatives on the final aroma of cooked fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavcon-Kralj Mojca


    Full Text Available In our study, we were used four yellow-fleshed peach cultivars ‟Royal Glory‟, „Redhaven", 'Maria Marta' and 'Norman', during two-year period. The characterization of aromatic constituents of investigated cultivars was done using headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME. The intention was to make implicit discrimination between cultivars by analysis of components present in all cultivars during two-year period. Also, the impact of added preservatives (Na-benzoate and citric acid on the final aroma of cooked peaches was studied. The cultivars' differences and the impact of preservatives (Na-benzoate and citric acid were statistically evaluated. Multiple discriminant analysis of peaches‟ aromatic profile was used to segregate investigated peach cultivars. Although they were very similar, the cultivars were segregated by two discriminant function, function 1 (which accounted for 56.9% of this peach model and function 2 (31.7%. The use of preservatives had also an important impact on the aromatic profile of cooked peaches. The statistical analysis indicated that from 57 identified volatiles, 40 volatiles showed statistically significant difference regarding the way of preservation. The main negative impact had Na-benzoate compared to control or samples preserved with citric acid.

  18. Acaricidal activity of active constituent isolated in Chamaecyparis obtusa leaves against Dermatophagoides spp. (United States)

    Jang, Young-Su; Lee, Chi-Hoon; Kim, Moo-Key; Kim, Jeong-Hak; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon


    Acaricidal activities of materials derived from Chamaecyparis obtusa leaves against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were examined using the dry film method and compared with that of commercial benzyl benzoate and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). The active constituent of the C. obtusa leaves was identified as beta-thujaplicin (C10H12(O2)) by spectroscopic analyses. Responses varied with dose. On the basis of a 24 h LC50 value, acaricidal activity against D. farinaewas more pronounced with beta-thujaplicin (72.2 mg/m2) than benzyl benzoate (89.9 mg/m2) and DEET (377 mg/m2). Acaricidal activity against D. pteronyssinus was more pronounced in beta-thujaplicin (62.1 mg/m2) than benzyl benzoate (72.4 mg/m2) and DEET (193 mg/m2). These results indicate that acaricidal activity of C. obtusa leaves likely results from by beta-thujaplicin. Beta-thujaplicin merits further study as potential house dust mite control agents or lead compounds.

  19. 苯甲酸釜残液全部回收的工艺开发利用%Development on the Technique of Total Recovery of Benzoic Acid Residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐姣; 何杰; 张卫江; 杨焘; 焦书军; 胡雪东


    Benzoic acid residue is solid waste produced from the production of benzoic acid by oxidizing toluene. Because it contained important chemical raw materials such as benzoic acid, benzyl benzoate and fluorenone, it is necessary to recover them from the residue. In this work the technique featured with high efficiency evaporation and vacuum distillation was developed to obtain total recovery and utilization of the benzoic acid residue. By con-trolling the operation temperature at 260℃ and the pressure of 16 kPa in the rising and falling film evaporators, heavy components separated efficiently from the residue can be polymerized and the light components consisting of 63% of the residue entered into a benzoic acid vacuum distillation column. Keeping the temperature of polymeriza-tion at (280±10)℃, coumarone resin was produccd after adjusting the softening point according to the market re-quirements. Vacuum distillation was operated under the following conditions: top temperature at 186℃, top pres-sure of 16 kPa, bottom temperature at 240 250℃, reflux ratio being 3:1. Benzoic acid of 98% purity was distilled out from the column as a side stream and the bottom product was crude benzyl benzoate. By the developed tech-nique, the benzoic acid residue was splitted into three products, benzoic acid, crude benzyl benzoate and coumarone resin without any surplus waste.

  20. Essential oil of three Uvaria species from Ivory Coast. (United States)

    Muriel, Koffi A; Félix, Tonzibo Z; Figueredo, Gilles; Chalard, Pierre; N'guessan, Yao T


    Different parts of Uvaria ovata (Dunals) A, U. anonoides Baker f. and U. tortilis A. Chev were collected from Ivory Coast, in Toumodi (center), Agboville (south-east) and Sikensi (south), respectively. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus, were investigated by CG and CG/MS. The proportion of the chromatographed constituents identified varied from 92.5% to 98.5%. For U. ovata, the root bark oil comprised mainly camphene (10.2%), beta-pinene (10.1%), epi-alpha-cadinol (13.2%) and intermedeol (9.7%), while the oil of the stem bark was dominated by epi-alpha-cadinol (27.3%), intermedeol (11.9%) and benzyl benzoate (13.4%). The oil of the leaves showed beta-caryophyllene (15.6%), germacrene D (24.2%) and benzyl benzoate (18.3%) as the most abundant constituents. The leaf oil of U. anonoides was rich in 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (15.5%), bicyclogermacrene (21.3%) and benzyl benzoate (8.7%), while, gamma-terpinene (31.7%), beta-caryophyllene (23.9%) and germacrene D (15.8%) constituted the main components of the stem bark oil of U. tortilis.

  1. Anaerobic benzene degradation by Gram-positive sulfate-reducing bacteria. (United States)

    Abu Laban, Nidal; Selesi, Drazenka; Jobelius, Carsten; Meckenstock, Rainer U


    Despite its high chemical stability, benzene is known to be biodegradable with various electron acceptors under anaerobic conditions. However, our understanding of the initial activation reaction and the responsible prokaryotes is limited. In the present study, we enriched a bacterial culture that oxidizes benzene to carbon dioxide under sulfate-reducing conditions. Community analysis using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and FISH revealed 95% dominance of one phylotype that is affiliated to the Gram-positive bacterial genus Pelotomaculum showing that sulfate-reducing Gram-positive bacteria are involved in anaerobic benzene degradation. In order to get indications of the initial activation mechanism, we tested the substrate utilization, performed cometabolism tests and screened for putative metabolites. Phenol, toluene, and benzoate could not be utilized as alternative carbon sources by the benzene-degrading culture. Cometabolic degradation experiments resulted in retarded rates of benzene degradation in the presence of phenol whereas toluene had no effect on benzene metabolism. Phenol, 2-hydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, and benzoate were identified as putative metabolites in the enrichment culture. However, hydroxylated aromatics were shown to be formed abiotically. Thus, the finding of benzoate as an intermediate compound supports a direct carboxylation of benzene as the initial activation mechanism but additional reactions leading to its formation cannot be excluded definitely.

  2. Sphingobium fuliginis HC3: a novel and robust isolated biphenyl- and polychlorinated biphenyls-degrading bacterium without dead-end intermediates accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Hu

    Full Text Available Biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are typical environmental pollutants. However, these pollutants are hard to be totally mineralized by environmental microorganisms. One reason for this is the accumulation of dead-end intermediates during biphenyl and PCBs biodegradation, especially benzoate and chlorobenzoates (CBAs. Until now, only a few microorganisms have been reported to have the ability to completely mineralize biphenyl and PCBs. In this research, a novel bacterium HC3, which could degrade biphenyl and PCBs without dead-end intermediates accumulation, was isolated from PCBs-contaminated soil and identified as Sphingobium fuliginis. Benzoate and 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA transformed from biphenyl and 3-chlorobiphenyl (3-CB could be rapidly degraded by HC3. This strain has strong degradation ability of biphenyl, lower chlorinated (mono-, di- and tri- PCBs as well as mono-CBAs, and the biphenyl/PCBs catabolic genes of HC3 are cloned on its plasmid. It could degrade 80.7% of 100 mg L -1 biphenyl within 24 h and its biphenyl degradation ability could be enhanced by adding readily available carbon sources such as tryptone and yeast extract. As far as we know, HC3 is the first reported that can degrade biphenyl and 3-CB without accumulation of benzoate and 3-CBA in the genus Sphingobium, which indicates the bacterium has the potential to totally mineralize biphenyl/PCBs and might be a good candidate for restoring biphenyl/PCBs-polluted environments.

  3. New cholinesterase inhibitory constituents from Lonicera quinquelocularis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilfaraz Khan

    Full Text Available A phytochemical investigation on the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Lonicera quinquelocularis (whole plant led to the first time isolation of one new phthalate; bis(7-acetoxy-2-ethyl-5-methylheptyl phthalate (3 and two new benzoates; neopentyl-4-ethoxy-3, 5-bis (3-methyl-2-butenyl benzoate (4 and neopentyl-4-hydroxy-3, 5-bis (3-methyl-2-butenyl benzoate (5 along with two known compounds bis (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (1 and dioctyl phthalate (2. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with available data in the literature. All the compounds (1-5 were tested for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE inhibitory activities in dose dependent manner. The IC50 (50% inhibitory effect values of compounds 3 and 5 against AChE were 1.65 and 3.43 µM while the values obtained against BChE were 5.98 and 9.84 µM respectively. Compounds 2 and 4 showed weak inhibition profile.

  4. Effects of Droplet Distribution on Insecticide Toxicity to Asian Corn Borers (Ostrinia furnaealis) and Spiders (Xysticus ephippiatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Dai-bin; ZHANG Lin-na; YAN Xiao-jing; WANG Zhen-ying; YUAN Hui-zhu


    Distribution of horizontal boom produced droplets downwards into maize canopies at lfowering period and its effects on the efifcacies of emamectin benzoate, lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole against the second generation of Asian corn borer (ACB) larvae and their toxicity to spiders were studied. When insecticides were sprayed downwards into the maize canopies, randomly ifltering out droplets by upper leaves led to great variations of droplet coverage and density within the canopies. Consequently, the efifcacies of lambda-cyhalothrin and emamectin benzoate against ACB larvae were decreased because of randomly filtering out droplets by upper leaves. But field investigation showed that lambda-cyhalothrin was extremely toxic to hunting spiders, Xysticus ephippiatus, and not suitable to IPM programs in regulation of the second generation of ACB. Therefore,randomly ifltering out droplets by upper leaves decreased lambda-cyhalothrin’s efifcacy against ACB larvae, but did little to decrease its toxicity to X. ephippiatus. Amamectin benzoate can reduce the populations of X. ephippiatus by 58.1-61.4%, but the populations can recover at the end of the experiment. Chlorantraniliprole was relatively safe to X. ephippiatus. It only reduced the populations of X. ephippiatus by 22.3-33.0%, and the populations can totally recover 9 d after application.

  5. Semelhança entre os mecanismos de formação da anemia por soro anti-plaqueta e por benzoato de estradiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. O. Cruz


    Full Text Available Benzoato de estradiol aplicado em altas doses a cães tem uma ação essencialmente trombocitopênica e o mecanismo de formação da anemia que se estabelece é semelhante ao observado na anemia da purpura experimental pelo sôro anti-plaqueta. O quadro patológico é, em ambos os casos, resultante desta trombocitopenia aguda.The paper stresses the similarity between pathological changes produced in dogs by estradiol benzoate and anti-platelet serum. Estradiol benzoate when administered in large doses (0.1 mg per kilo produces primarily a thrombocytopenia after a short period (4 to 6 days. As a consequence of the lack of platelets in circulation (1/3 to 1/10 from the normal volume, a picture of purpura appears with predominance of intestinal hemorrhages followed by severe anemia (8 to 15 days. When active anti-platelet serum is administered a thrombocytopenia is rapidly obtained (12 to 48 hours. Intestinal purpuric lesions are very conspicuous and hemorrhages with acute anemia are always present. These results show the identity of the mechanism of anemia produced by estradiol benzoate and anti-platelet serum. The pratical value of determinations of occult blood in feces of patients with thrombocytopenic purpura is emphasized, as an aid to diagnosis and observation od crises of the Werlhof's disease.

  6. Chemicals and lemon essential oil effect on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Maldonado


    Full Text Available Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is considered to be one of the important target microorganisms in the quality control of acidic canned foods. There is an urgent need to develop a suitable method for inhibiting or controlling the germination and outgrowth of A.acidoterrestris in acidic drinks. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemicals used in the lemon industry (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and lemon essential oil as a natural compound, against a strain of A.acidoterrestris in MEB medium and in lemon juice concentrate. The results pointed out that sodium benzoate (500-1000-2000 ppm and lemon essential oil (0.08- 0.12- 0.16% completely inhibited the germination of A. acidoterrestris spores in MEB medium and LJC for 11 days. Potassium sorbate (600-1200 ppm was more effective to inhibit the growth of the microbial target in lemon juice than in MEB medium. The effect of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and essential oil was sporostatic in MEB and LJC as they did not affect spore viability.

  7. Silicon-containing bis-azomethines: Synthesis, structural characterization, evaluation of the photophysical properties and biological activity (United States)

    Zaltariov, Mirela-Fernanada; Vlad, Angelica; Cazacu, Maria; Avadanei, Mihaela; Vornicu, Nicoleta; Balan, Mihaela; Shova, Sergiu


    A new diamine, (dimethylsilanediyl)bis(methylene)bis(4-aminobenzoate) (1), containing dimethylsilane spacer, was prepared by the condensation of p-aminobenzoic acid with bis(chloromethyl)dimethylsilane. This was subsequently reacted with salicylaldehyde, 3-hydroxy-salicylaldehyde, and 3-methoxy-salicyladehyde, when corresponding Schiff bases (E)-(dimethylsilanediyl)bis(methylene)bis(4-((E)-(2-hydroxybenzilidene)amino)benzoate (2), (E)-(dimethylsilanediyl)bis(methylene)bis(4-((E)-(2-hydroxybenzilidene)amino)benzoate (3), and (E)-(dimethylsilanediyl)bis(methylene) bis(4-((E)-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzilidene)amino)benzoate (4), respectively were formed. All the obtained compounds were structurally characterized by spectral (FT-IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR) analyses and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Photophysical studies revealed that the new prepared Schiff bases are good UV light absorbing and fluorescent materials. Thus, they exhibit strong UV/Vis-absorption at 250-400 nm and violet or orange emission, in sensitive dependence on the polarity of the solvents and the nature of the substituent (sbnd H, sbnd OH and sbnd OCH3) at the aromatic ring. The antimicrobial activity of these compounds was first studied in vitro by the disk diffusion assay against two species of bacteria and three fungi. The minimum inhibitory concentration was then determined with the reference of standard compounds. The results displayed that Schiff bases 3 and 4 having hydroxy- and methoxy-substituents on the aromatic ring were better inhibitors of both types of species (bacteria and fungi) than standard compounds, Caspofungin and Kanamycin.

  8. Single-crystalline organic-inorganic layered cobalt hydroxide nanofibers: facile synthesis, characterization, and reversible water-induced structural conversion. (United States)

    Guo, Xiaodi; Wang, Lianying; Yue, Shuang; Wang, Dongyang; Lu, Yanluo; Song, Yufei; He, Jing


    New pink organic-inorganic layered cobalt hydroxide nanofibers intercalated with benzoate ions [Co(OH)(C6H5COO)·H2O] have been synthesized by using cobalt nitrate and sodium benzoate as reactants in water with no addition of organic solvent or surfactant. The high-purity nanofibers are single-crystalline in nature and very uniform in size with a diameter of about 100 nm and variable lengths over a wide range from 200 μm down to 2 μm by simply adjusting reactant concentrations. The as-synthesized products are well-characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), fast Fourier transforms (FFT), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), elemental analysis (EA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis). Our results demonstrate that the structure consists of octahedral cobalt layers and the benzoate anions, which are arranged in a bilayer due to the π-π stacking of small aromatics. The carboxylate groups of benzoate anions are coordinated to Co(II) ions in a strong bridging mode, which is the driving force for the anisotropic growth of nanofibers. When NaOH is added during the synthesis, green irregular shaped platelets are obtained, in which the carboxylate groups of benzoate anions are coordinated to the Co(II) ions in a unidentate fashion. Interestingly, the nanofibers exhibit a reversible transformation of the coordination geometry of the Co(II) ions between octahedral and pseudotetrahedral with a concomitant color change between pink and blue, which involves the loss and reuptake of unusual weakly coordinated water molecules without destroying the structure. This work offers a facile, cost-effective, and green strategy to rationally design and synthesize functional nanomaterials for future applications in catalysis, magnetism

  9. 烫吸安钠咖对大鼠行为及超敏 CRP 的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彩虹; 王学磊


    Objective to observe the effects of caffeine and sodium benzoate on iron absorption behavior of rats and blood Hs crP.Method the use of caffeine and sodium Benzoate tablets on rats inhalingtest, behavior change and blood of different doses of rat ultra sensitive crP results are compared and analyzed. Results compared with the control group, high dose and low dose groups,are restless and voiding phenomenon, there is significant differencestatistically P 0.05.Conclusion long-term use of caffeine and sodium benzoate in ratscan cause restlessness, excited, high-sensitivity crP increased obviously.%目的:观察烫吸安钠咖对大鼠行为及血液超敏 crP 的影响。方法使用安钠咖片对大鼠进行烫吸试验,对不同剂量下大鼠的行为改变及血液超敏crP结果进行比较分析。结果与对照组相比,高剂量及低剂量组,均有躁动及排尿现象,统计学上存在显著差异P <0.05;高剂量组超敏 crP 明显增高,有显著性差异P <0.01,低剂量组超敏 crP 无明显增高, P >0.05。结论长期烫吸安钠咖可导致大鼠躁动、兴奋,可致超敏 crP 明显增高。

  10. Effect of matricaria recutita on acute pain in the presence and absence of sex hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Kesmati


    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: Chamomile is a beneficial herbal drug that is used as an anti-inflammatory, sedative and anti-allergic agent. The mechanism of action of matricaria recutita (MR, a specious of chamomile, in nociception in male and female animals is not fully understood. In this study, the sedative effect of a species of chamomile, MR, on acute pain was investigated in both male and female adult mice in the presence and absence of sex hormones.
    METHODS: Male and female NMRI mice weighing 28 ± 3 grams were used. Animals of each sex were divided into intact and gonadectomized groups. Intact group received saline or MR extract (10, 30, 50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally. Gonadectomized group contained two subgroups: a group that received saline or MR hydro alcoholic extract (50 mg/kg, I.P., and b group that received sex hormones (testosterone in male mice and estradiol benzoate and progesterone in female mice, both with and without MR extract (50mg/kg, IP. The analgesia times in all groups were evaluated by hot plate test.
    RESULTS: MR increased analgesia time both in intact and gonadectomized male and female mice, but had no effect in the presence of pharmacological doses of testosterone (2 mg/kg, subcutaneous in male mice, and estradiol benzoate (0.1 mg/kg, SC and progesterone (0.5 mg/kg, SC in female mice.
    CONCLUSIONS: It seems that MR can induce a pain-relieving effect with and without physiological doses of sex hormones in male and female mice, but sex hormones probably interact with its analgesic effect in their pharmacological doses.
    KEY WORDS: Matricaria recutita, pain, testosterone, estradiol benzoate, progesterone, hot plate.

  11. Terpenoids inhibit Candida albicans growth by affecting membrane integrity and arrest of cell cycle. (United States)

    Zore, Gajanan B; Thakre, Archana D; Jadhav, Sitaram; Karuppayil, S Mohan


    Anti-Candida potential of six terpenoids were evaluated in this study against various isolates of Candida albicans (n=39) and non-C. albicans (n=9) that are differentially susceptible to fluconazole. All the six terpenoids tested, showed excellent activity and were equally effective against isolates of Candida sps., tested in this study. Linalool and citral were the most effective ones, inhibiting all the isolates at ≤0.064% (v/v). Five among the six terpenoids tested were fungicidal. Time dependent kill curve assay showed that MFCs of linalool and eugenol were highly toxic to C. albicans, killing 99.9% inoculum within seven min of exposure, while that of citronellal, linalyl acetate and citral required 15min, 1h and 2h, respectively. FIC index values (Linalool - 0.140, benzyl benzoate - 0.156, eugenol - 0.265, citral - 0.281 and 0.312 for linalyl acetate and citronellal) and isobologram obtained by checker board assay showed that all the six terpenoids tested exhibit excellent synergistic activity with fluconazole against a fluconazole resistant strain of C. albicans. Terpenoids tested arrested C. albicans cells at different phases of the cell cycle i.e. linalool and LA at G1, citral and citronellal at S phase and benzyl benzoate at G2-M phase and induced apoptosis. Linalool, citral, citronellal and benzyl benzoate caused more than 50% inhibition of germ tube induction at 0.008%, while eugenol and LA required 0.032 and 0.016% (v/v) concentrations, respectively. MICs of all the terpenoids for the C. albicans growth were non toxic to HeLa cells. Terpenoids tested exhibited excellent activity against C. albicans yeast and hyphal form growth at the concentrations that are non toxic to HeLa cells. Terpenoids tested in this study may find use in antifungal chemotherapy, not only as antifungal agents but also as synergistic agents along with conventional drugs like fluconazole.

  12. Co-metabolic conversion of toluene in anaerobic n-alkane-degrading bacteria. (United States)

    Rabus, Ralf; Jarling, René; Lahme, Sven; Kühner, Simon; Heider, Johann; Widdel, Friedrich; Wilkes, Heinz


    Diverse microorganisms have been described to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons anaerobically. Strains able to utilize n-alkanes do not grow with aromatic hydrocarbons, whereas strains able to utilize aromatic hydrocarbons do not grow with n-alkanes. To investigate this specificity in more detail, three anaerobic n-alkane degraders (two denitrifying, one sulfate-reducing) and eight anaerobic alkylbenzene degraders (five denitrifying, three sulfate-reducing) were incubated with mixtures of n-alkanes and toluene. Whereas the toluene degradationers formed only the characteristic toluene-derived benzylsuccinate and benzoate, but no n-alkane-derived metabolites, the n-alkane degraders formed toluene-derived benzylsuccinate, 4-phenylbutanoate, phenylacetate and benzoate besides the regular n-alkane-derived (1-methylalkyl)succinates and methyl-branched alkanoates. The co-metabolic conversion of toluene by anaerobic n-alkane degraders to the level of benzoate obviously follows the anaerobic n-alkane degradation pathway with C-skeleton rearrangement and decarboxylation rather than the β-oxidation pathway of anaerobic toluene metabolism. Hence, petroleum-derived aromatic metabolites detectable in anoxic environments may not be exclusively formed by genuine alkylbenzene degraders. In addition, the hitherto largely unexplored fate of fumarate hydrogen during the activation reactions was examined with (2,3-(2) H(2) )fumarate as co-substrate. Deuterium was completely exchanged with hydrogen at the substituted carbon atom (C-2) of the succinate adducts of n-alkanes, whereas it is retained in toluene-derived benzylsuccinate, regardless of the type of enzyme catalysing the fumarate addition reaction.

  13. Effect of selected generally recognized as safe preservative sprays on growth of Listeria monocytogenes on chicken luncheon meat. (United States)

    Islam, Mahbub; Chen, Jinru; Doyle, Michael P; Chinnan, Manjeet


    The ability of selected generally recognized as safe (GRAS) chemical preservatives to reduce populations or inhibit growth of Listeria monocytogenes on chicken luncheon meat was evaluated. Slices of luncheon meat were treated by evenly spraying onto their surfaces 0.2 ml of a solution of one of four preservatives (sodium benzoate, sodium propionate, potassium sorbate, and sodium diacetate) at one of three different concentrations (15, 20, or 25% [wt/vol]). Each slice was then surface inoculated with a five-strain mixture of 10(5) CFU of L. monocytogenes per ml, held at 4, 13, or 22 degrees C, and assayed for L. monocytogenes immediately after inoculation and at 3, 7, 10, and 14 days of storage. Initial reductions of L. monocytogenes populations ranged from 0.78 to 1.32 log10 CFU g(-1) at day 0 for sodium benzoate- or sodium diacetate-treated meat, whereas reductions for the sodium propionate or potassium sorbate treatments were only 0.14 to 0.36 log10 CFU g(-1). After 14 days of storage at 4 degrees C, L. monocytogenes populations on all treated slices were 1.5 to 3 log10 CFU g(-1) less than on the untreated slices. At 13 degrees C and after 14 days of storage, L. monocytogenes populations were 3.5 and 5.2 log10 CFU g(-1) less on luncheon meat slices treated with 25% sodium benzoate or 25% sodium diacetate, respectively, and ca. 2 log10 CFU g(-1) less when treated with 25% sodium propionate or 25% potassium sorbate than on untreated control slices. Only sodium diacetate was highly inhibitory to L. monocytogenes on meat slices held at 22 degrees C for 7 days or longer. Untreated luncheon meat held at 22 degrees C was visibly spoiled within 10 days, whereas there was no evidence of visible spoilage on any treated luncheon meat at 14 days of storage.

  14. Effect of preservatives on Shiga toxigenic phages and Shiga toxin of Escherichia coli O157:H7. (United States)

    Subils, Tomás; Aquili, Virginia; Ebner, Guillermo; Balagué, Claudia


    Toxin synthesis by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) appears to be coregulated through the induction of the integrated bacteriophages that encode the toxin genes. These phages might be the principal means for the dissemination and release of Shiga toxins. We evaluated the effect of three common food preservatives, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, and sodium propionate, on the propagation of the phages and Shiga toxins. We tested each preservative at four concentrations, 1, 1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg/ml, both on free phages and on lysogenic phages in bacteria. We also evaluated the expression of a lambdoid phage, which was exposed to increasing concentrations of preservatives, by measuring β-galactosidase activity from SPC105, a transductant strain. Furthermore, we tested the effect of the preservatives on cytotoxigenic activity of Shiga toxin on Vero cells. We detected an increase of the inhibitory effect of the phage lytic activity, both in lysogenic and free phages, as the preservative concentration increased. However, the inhibition was higher on the lysogenic phages release than on free phages. Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate were about equal at inhibiting phages; they were more effective than sodium propionate. A significant decrease of lacZ expression, encoded in a lambda phage, was observed. We also found a reduction in Shiga toxin titer caused by exposure of E. coli O157:H7 to 5 mg/ml sodium benzoate or potassium sorbate. These results imply that these three preservatives, used to inhibit microbial spoilage of foods, also act to inhibit lytic activity and dispersion of a phage carrying the gene encoding powerful Shiga cytotoxins. Also notable was the inactivation of Shiga toxin activity, although this effect was detected using concentrations of preservatives greater than those allowed by the Argentine Food Code.

  15. Full-Length Structures of BenM and Two Variants Reveal Different Oligomerization Schemes for LysR-Type Transcriptional Regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruangprasert, Ajchareeya; Craven, Sarah H.; Neidle, Ellen L.; Momany, Cory (Georgia)


    BenM, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) from the bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi, responds synergistically to benzoate and cis,cis-muconate. With these effectors, BenM activates gene expression during benzoate consumption. Without effectors, BenM represses transcription. Here, X-ray crystallography was used to determine the full-length structures of BenM and two variants that activate transcription without benzoate or cis,cis-muconate: BenM(R156H) and BenM(E226K). Previous studies indicate that these regulators function as tetramers. Here, interconnections between subunits in the crystals prevented the formation of a closed oligomer and highlighted the inherent flexibility of this multidomain regulator. Nevertheless, analysis of subunit interfaces suggested the functional significance of key interactions. The structures of BenM and its variants were nearly identical, implying that transcriptional differences rely on factors beyond major conformational changes defined solely by sequence. Comparisons of BenM with other LTTRs, including unpublished structures in the Protein Data Bank, revealed extensive variation in the relative orientations of DNA-binding domains (DBDs) and effector-binding domains (EBDs). To form dimers, different LTTRs used similar interfaces between two EBDs, each containing two subdomains: EBD-I and EBD-II. Surprisingly, the dimers used three substantially different schemes to form higher-order oligomers. In one scheme used by BenM, oligomer assembly involved contacts between the EBD-II regions and the DBD regions of adjacent subunits. In another scheme, there were no contacts between the EBDs; only the DBDs were involved in tetramer formation. In the third scheme, the oligomer interface involved DBD and EBD-I/EBD-II contacts. These diverse schemes demonstrate novel variation in the oligomeric structures of individual LTTRs within this large and important family.

  16. Postharvest application of organic and inorganic salts to control potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) storage soft rot: plant tissue-salt physicochemical interactions. (United States)

    Yaganza, E S; Tweddell, R J; Arul, J


    Soft rot caused by Pectobacterium sp. is a devastating disease affecting stored potato tubers, and there is a lack of effective means of controlling this disease. In this study, 21 organic and inorganic salts were tested for their ability to control soft rot in potato tubers. In the preventive treatment, significant control of soft rot was observed with AlCl3 (≥66%) and Na2S2O3 (≥57%) and to a lesser extent with Al lactate and Na benzoate (≥34%) and K sorbate and Na propionate (≥27%). However, only a moderate control was achieved by curative treatment with AlCl3 and Na2S2O3 (42%) and sodium benzoate (≥33%). Overall, the in vitro inhibitory activity of salts was attenuated in the presence of plant tissue (in vivo) to different degrees. The inhibitory action of the salts in the preventive treatment, whether effective or otherwise, showed an inverse linear relationship with water ionization capacity (pK') of the salt ions, whereas in the curative treatment, only the effective salts showed this inverse linear relationship. Salt-plant tissue interactions appear to play a central role in the attenuated inhibitory activity of salts in potato tuber through reduction in the availability of the inhibitory ions for salt-bacteria interactions. This study demonstrates that AlCl3, Na2S2O3, and Na benzoate have potential in controlling potato tuber soft rot and provides a general basis for understanding of specific salt-tissue interactions.

  17. Interaction between Sex Hormones and Matricaria Chamomilla Hydroalcholic Extract on Motor Activity Behavior in Gonadectomized Male and Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Raie


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Locomotor activity is an important physiologic phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. In previous study we showed that the matricaria chamomilla (chamomile hydroalcholic extract acts differently in male and female mice. Therefore in this study, the role of sex hormones and chamomile hydroalcholic extract were investigated on motor activity behavior in absence of sex glands in adult male and female NMRI mice. Materials and Methods: Gonadectomized male and female mice were divided into groups (seven mice in each group including: receiving testosterone (2 mg/kg S.C., estradiol benzoate (0.1 mg/kg S.C., and progesterone (0.5 mg/kg S.C. with and without hydroalcholic extract of chamomile (50 mg/kg i.p. Motor activity monitor system was used to evaluate locomotor activity parameters (fast and slow activity, fast and slow stereotype activity, fast and slow rearing in all groups. Results: 1 Testosterone had no any effect on motor activity parameters, but extract of chamomile with and without testosterone decreased motor activity parameters in male mice. 2 Estradiol benzoate and chamomile hydroalcholic extract in presence and absence of each other increased locomotor activity parameters in female mice. 3 Progesterone also did not change motor activity parameters in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract in female mice. 4 Administration of Estradiol benzoate with progestrone in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract did not alter motor activity parameters in female mice. Conclusion: It seems both of the chamomile hydroalcholic extract and estradiol enhance motor activity and probably act through same system and potentiate the effect of each other. Also it seems there are interaction between estradiol and progesterone and also between chamomile extract and progesterone. Testosterone probably did not have any interaction with chamomile extract in locomotor activity.

  18. Influence of colostrum preservation and sodium bicarbonate on performance of dairy calves. (United States)

    Jenny, B F; Hodge, S E; O'Dell, G D; Ellers, J E


    Forty-eight Holstein calves were fed one of four liquid diets from 3 to 30 days of age to compare sodium benzoate, propionic acid, and formaldehyde as preservatives for colostrum. Colostrum batches were fermented at temperatures of 20 degrees C or higher. Diets were 2.73 kg of 1) naturally fermented colostrum, or colostrum treated with 2) sodium benzoate (.5% by weight), 3) propionic acid (1.0% by weight), or 4) formaldehyde (.05% by weight). Colostrum diets were diluted with .91 kg water. Prior to feeding, 25 g. sodium bicarbonate was added to liquid diets of one-half the calves on each treatment. Liquid diets were fed once daily. Water and a 15% crude protein complete starter were offered for ad libitum consumption. Calves were weaned abruptly at 30 days of age and received only water and starter from 31 to 44 days of age. Daily gain from 0 to 4 wk and 0 to 6 wk favored calves fed colostrum treated with sodium benzoate or propionic acid. Gains from 0 to 6 wk were .33, .44, .45, and .32 kg/day for the four diets, and feed efficiencies (kg dry matter intake/kg gain) were 3.23, 2.36, 2.76, and 2.89 during the same period. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to colostrum diets improved intake during the 1st wk of feeding. Gain and feed efficiency were similar during wk 0 to 4 but favored slightly calves not receiving sodium bicarbonate during the overall study, wk 0 to 6. Daily gain and efficiencies during wk 0 to 6 were .41 and 2.53 for calves without .36 and 3.01 with sodium bicarbonate added to colostrum diets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Apple proliferation phytoplasma influences the pattern of plant volatiles emitted depending on pathogen virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit eRid


    Full Text Available Apple proliferation (AP and pear decline (PD are the most severe diseases in pome fruit growing areas. AP-infected trees show typical symptoms such as witches’ broom, enlarged stipules, tasteless and dwarf fruits. PD-infected pears show a progressive weakening, reduced terminal growth, smaller fruits and die within weeks (quick decline or years (slow decline. The diseases are caused by the cell-wall lacking bacteria Candidatus Phytoplasma mali (AP phytoplasma and Ca. P. pyri (PD phytoplasma, respectively. In previous studies it has been shown that AP-infected apple trees emitted higher amounts of the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene, an attractant of the insect vector Cacopsylla picta (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, thereby facilitating the dispersal of AP phytoplasma. In the present study, volatile organic compounds (VOCs occurring in the headspace of plants infected with Ca. P. mali strains causing different severity of symptoms in apple plants were collected, analyzed and identified. Headspace samples from healthy and AP-infected model plant tobacco (Nicotiana occidentalis and apple (Malus domestica as well as from healthy and PD-infected pear (Pyrus communis were investigated via thermodesorption and GC-MS analysis. Significantly higher concentrations of ethyl benzoate were produced in all phytoplasma-infected plants compared to healthy ones and an as yet unidentified sesquiterpene differed between the odor bouquets of healthy and by Ca. P. mali infected tobacco plants. Additionally, statistically significant higher amounts of both compounds were measured in the headspace of plants infected by the virulent AP strain. In apple, significantly higher concentrations of ethyl benzoate and methyl salicylate were observed for trees infected with strains of Ca. P. mali. Ethyl benzoate was also detected in the headspace of pear trees infected with Ca. P. pyri.

  20. Reactivity of Electron-Deficient Alkynes on Gold Nanoparticles


    Leyva Perez, Antonio; Oliver Meseguer, Judit; Cabrero Antonino, Jose Ramón; Rubio Marqués, Paula; Serna, Pedro; Al-Resayes, Saud I.; Corma Canós, Avelino


    Propiolates cyclotrimerize in the presence of catalytic amounts of gold nanoparticles to give aryl benzoates in high yields and with turnover frequencies of thousands per hour. Types of alkynes other than propiolates do not react, and, if molecular oxygen is present and dissociated by the gold nanoparticles, electron-rich arenes engage with the propiolate to form a new C–C bond. The activation of propiolates and electron-rich arenes to form C–C bonds, beyond gold-catalyzed Michael additions, ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapadiya Nidhi


    Full Text Available The study on solubility yields information about the structure and intermolecular forces of drugs. Use of the solubility characteristics in bioavailability, pharmacological action and solubility enhancement of various poorly soluble compounds is a challenging task for researchers and pharmaceutical scientists. Hydrotropy is one of the solubility enhancement techniques which enhance solubility to many folds with use of hydrotropes like sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, urea, niacinamide etc. and have many advantages like; it does not require chemical modification of hydrophobic drugs, use of organic solvents, or preparation of emulsion system etc.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of novel redox-active percec-type dendrons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Yu Cheng; Bi Ye Ren; Rui Liu; Xue Yi Chang; Zhen Tong


    Three novel redox-active percec-type dendrons were synthesized by mucleophilic substitution reaction of 11-bromoundecyl ferrocene and substituted benzoate.All the resultant ferrocenyl-modified dendrons were confirmed through FT-IR,NMR,and elemental analysis,etc.Furthermore,the thermal properties and electrochemical behavior of these dendrons were monitored with thermogravimetry analysis (TG),differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),polarized optical microscope (POM),and cyclic voltammetry (CV).Abound phase behavior and reversible electrochemical redox reaction process in the DMF solution of these dendrons was observed.

  3. Studies on the Solute Solvent Interaction of Nimesulide in Aqueous Solutions of Hydrotropic Agents at Different Temperatures


    Solanki, Chandravir S.; Sushree Tripathy; Minaketan Tripathy; Dash, Upendra N.


    The present study deals with experiments so as to highlight the solute (drug nimesulide) - solvent(water) interactions and related modifications in case of the presence of hydrotropic agents at different temperatures T(=298.15 to 313.15)K. Density and viscosity values of nimesulide have been determined in water in (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1 and 2) mol dm-3 aqueous solutions of hydrotropic agents (sodium benzoate, sodium salicylate, sodium bromide and nicotinamide) at temperatures 298.15, 303...

  4. Alienusolin, a new 4α-deoxyphorbol ester derivative, and crotonimide C, a new glutarimide alkaloid from the Kenyan Croton alienus. (United States)

    Ndunda, Beth; Langat, Moses K; Wanjohi, John M; Midiwo, Jacob O; Kerubo, Leonidah O


    Two novel compounds, alienusolin, a 4α-deoxyphorbol ester (1), crotonimide C, a glutarimide alkaloid derivative (2), and ten known compounds, julocrotine (3), crotepoxide (4), monodeacetyl crotepoxide (5), dideacetylcrotepoxide, (6), β-senepoxide (7), α-senepoxide (8), (+)-(2S,3R-diacetoxy-1-benzoyloxymethylenecyclohex-4,6-diene (9), benzyl benzoate (10), acetyl aleuritolic (11), and 24-ethylcholesta-4,22-dien-3-one (12) were isolated from the Kenyan Croton alienus. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, GCMS, and HRESIMS studies.

  5. Nanoemulsion based intranasal delivery of antimigraine drugs for nose to brain targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanushali R


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop intranasal nanoemulsion and gel formulations for rizatriptan benzoate for prolonged action. Nanoemulsion formulations were prepared by constructing pseudo-ternary phase diagrams using lipophilic and hydrophilic surfactants and water. Various mucoadhesive agents were tried out to form thermo-triggered mucoadhesive nanoemulsions. Mucoadhesive gel formulations of rizatriptan were prepared using different ratios of HPMC and Carbopol 980. Comparative evaluation of intranasal nanoemulsions and intranasal mucoadhesive gels indicated that greater brain-targeting could be achieved with nanoemulsions.

  6. Thermal Stability and Luminescence Properties of Eu3+ and Tb3+ Complexes with a Silica Matrix by Sol-Gel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑萍; 王瑞芬; 张建军; 刘翠格


    Ternary complexes of europium and terbium with benzoic acid and 1, 10-phenanthroline [RE(BA)3phen] (BA=benzoate phen=1,10-phenanthroline) were introduced into a silica matrix by sol-gel method. The thermal stability and luminescence behavior of the complexes in silica gels were studied in comparison with the corresponding solid-state complexes by thermal decomposition, excitation and emission spectra. The thermal stability of the complexes is enhanced in silica gel matrix and the luminescence remaines unchanged.

  7. The synthesis and characterization of novel brush-type chiral stationary phase based on terpenoid selector for resolution of chiral drugs


    Wang Dao-Cai; Luo Jia; Yao Shun; Song Hang


    In the light of the chiral resolution mechanism and structures of brush-type CSP, a new chiral selector 4′-carboxyl-1′-ursolic methyl ester-3β-yl-benzoate has been prepared. Then the terpenoid chiral selector was covalently linked to 3-aminopropyl silica gel. Its structure identification data are provided by 1H NMR, MS and elementary analysis. The enantiodiscriminating capability of the brush-type CSP was evaluated by static adsorption experiment with methyl mandelate, aniline derivative of m...

  8. GC/MS Analysis of Organic Compounds in Hot Water-Extractable Fraction from Shenfu Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bao-min; YUAN Cheng; ZONG Zhi-min; CAO Jing-pei; LIU Guang-feng; WEI Xian-yong


    Shenfu Coal was extracted with hot pure water and slurry was isolated. The concentrated benzene-soluble fraction (CBSF) was analyzed with GC/MS and four types of organic compounds (OCs) were detected: HACOCs, DTEs, DMDT and LCAs. The amount of benzyl benzoate which is the most abundant OC was calculated by an internal standard method with an indicated amount of BP. The broken hydrogen bonds and ether bonds were responsible for the extraction of OCs from the coal .DTEs, DMDT and LCAs are essentially insoluble in water, whereas they are soluble, probably owing to intermolecular interaction of OCs with HACOCs.

  9. Effects of Some Pesticides on Development of Ascaris suum Eggs


    Yu, Yong-Man; Kim, Jin-Won; Na, Won-Seok; Youn, Young-Nam; Choi, In-Wook; Lee, Young-Ha


    To evaluate the effects of pesticides to parasite eggs, Ascaris suum eggs were incubated with 5 different pesticides (1:1,500-1:2,000 dilutions of 2% emamectin benzoate, 5% spinetoram, 5% indoxacarb, 1% deltamethrin, and 5% flufenoxuron; all v/v) at 20℃ for 6 weeks, and microscopically evaluated the egg survival and development on a weekly basis. The survival rate of A. suum eggs incubated in normal saline (control eggs) was 90±3% at 6 weeks. However, the survival rates of eggs treated with p...

  10. Skeletally Diverse Synthesis of Innovative [2,1-c]-1,4-Oxazepine and [1,4]-Quinoxaline Systems. (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Hsin; Wu, Wen-Chun; Dangate, Prasad S; Shen, Li-Ching; Chung, Wen-Sheng; Sun, Chung-Ming


    An efficient, innovative synthesis of [2,1-c]-1, 4-oxazepine and [1,4]-quinoxaline heterocycles along with the embodied pyrimido-pyrrolo motifs was established. Initially, the pyrrole ring was installed using microwave irradiation through an intramolecular base-catalyzed cyclization between acetyl bromomethyl pyrimidine dione and o-amino phenyl methanol or o-phenylenediamine methyl benzoates. Furthermore, oxazepine, and quinoxaline scaffolds were constructed by an acid-catalyzed condensation with a variety of aldehydes by an unconventional Pictet-Spengler reaction strategy. An important aspect of this work is to build novel heterocyclic ring systems with potential medicinal interest.

  11. Tetra-μ-benzoato-bis[(quinoxalinecopper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmee Kim


    Full Text Available The paddlewheel-type centrosymmetric dinuclear title complex, [Cu2(C7H5O24(C8H6N22], contains four bridging benzoate groups and two terminal quinoxaline ligands. The octahedral coordination around each Cu atom, with four O atoms in the equatorial plane, is completed by an N atom of a quinoxaline molecule [Cu—N = 2.2465 (18 Å] and by the second Cu atom [Cu...Cu = 2.668 (5 Å]. The Cu atom is 0.216 Å out of the plane of the four O atoms.

  12. Aromatic N-oxides in construction of different carboxylate coordination polymers of zinc(II), cadmium(II) and mercury(II) (United States)

    Sarma, Rupam; Baruah, Jubaraj B.


    The coordination polymers [Zn(C 6H 5COO) 2(PNO)] n ( 1), [Zn 2(C 6H 5COO) 4(4,4'-BPNO)] n ( 2), [Zn 4(C 6H 4C 2O 4) 4(4,4'-BPNO) 2(H 2O) 5] n· nH 2O ( 3), [Cd(C 6H 5COO) 2(PNO)] n ( 4), [Cd 3(C 6H 5COO) 6(4,4'-BPNO) 2] n·2 nH 2O ( 5), [Cd(C 6H 4C 2O 4)(4,4'-BPNO)(H 2O)] n ( 6) and [Hg(C 6H 5COO) 2(4,4'-BPNO) 2] n ( 7), (where PNO = pyridine N-oxide, 4,4'-BPNO = 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide) are synthesized and structurally characterized. The structures of these coordination polymers exhibit mononuclear to trinuclear nodes built by ligation of carboxylate to metal ions connected by N-oxide ligands. Pyridine N-oxide interconnects metal nodes by acting as μ 2-bridging ligand in complexes 1, and 4. In the linear coordination polymer 2, the paddle wheel structure of zinc(II) benzoate units are interconnected by 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide which acts as a bidentate spacer ligand adopting a trans μ 2-η 1 : η 1 coordination mode. The polymeric structure of 3 formed by terephthalate and 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide with zinc(II) contains self-assembled dinuclear Zn 2O 2 type of carboxylate cores, with 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide coordinating through cis μ 2-η 1 : η 1 coordination mode. The cadmium coordination polymer 5, comprising of 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide and benzoate, has trinuclear cadmium benzoate cores wherein the terminal cadmium ions are interconnected by monodentate 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide bridges. The coordination polymer 6 comprises of mononuclear cadmium nodes independently bridged by terephthalate and 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide thereby leading to a 3-fold interpenetrated three dimensional network. Double helical polymeric structure is observed in the coordination polymer 7 derived from mononuclear mercury(II) benzoate nodes bridged by 4,4'-bipyridyl- N,N'-dioxide with cis μ 2-η 1 : η 1 coordination mode.

  13. Structural, electro-optical and dielectric characterizations of ferroelectric liquid crystals showing the SmC*-SmA*-N* phase sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemine, J. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite Hassan II, F.S.T. Mohammedia, BP 146 Mohammedia (Morocco)]. E-mail:; Legrand, C. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Materiaux et des Composants pour l' Electronique, E.A. 2601, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, BP 717 62228 Calais (France); Isaert, N. [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structures des Materiaux Moleculaires, UMR 8024, Universite de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); El Kaaouachi, A. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences Ibnou Zohr, BP 28/S 80000 Agadir (Morocco); Nguyen, H.T. [Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, Universite de Bordeaux 1, 33600 Pessac (France)


    Structural (helical pitch), electro-optical (tilt angle, spontaneous polarization and response time) and dielectric (Goldstone mode) characterizations have been performed on two pure ferroelectric liquid crystals of a biphenyl alkyloxy benzoate series and they show the N*-SmA*-SmC* phase sequence. The different results are discussed: the helical pitch, the spontaneous polarization and the rotational viscosity which is determined as a function of temperature by two methods using electro-optical or dielectric measurements. An Arrhenius behaviour of the rotational viscosity is found for the two compounds. The corresponding activation energies are determined.

  14. Dielectric spectroscopy investigation for determining the rotational viscosity and the twist elastic constant for the ferroelectric chiral smectic C liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hmine, J [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite Hassan II, FST Mohammadia BP 146, Mohammadia (Morocco); Legrand, C [Laboratoire d' Etude des Materiaux et des Composants pour l' Electronique, EA 2601, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale BP 717, Calais (France); Isaert, N [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structures des Materiaux Moleculaires, URA no 801, Universite de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Nguyen, H T [Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, Universite de Bordeaux 1, 33600 Pessac (France)


    We present new results of structural, electro-optical and dielectric measurements, concerning the Goldstone mode rotational viscosity and the twist elastic constant in the ferroelectric chiral smectic C phase near an N multicritical point. This study has been performed on the pure chiral homologue with n = 11 from the series of biphenyl alkyloxy benzoates. An Arrhenius behaviour of the Goldstone mode rotational viscosity was obtained and the activation energy was determined for this material. The characteristic parameters are also compared to those obtained for the n = 10 compound.

  15. Photoinduced charge transfer involving a MoMo quadruply bonded complex to a perylene diimide. (United States)

    Alberding, Brian G; Brown-Xu, Samantha E; Chisholm, Malcolm H; Epstein, Arthur J; Gustafson, Terry L; Lewis, Sharlene A; Min, Yong


    Evidence, based on femtosecond transient absorption and time resolved infrared spectroscopy, is presented for photoinduced charge transfer from the Mo2δ orbital of the quadruply bonded molecule trans-Mo2(T(i)PB)2(BTh)2, where T(i)PB = 2,4,6-triisopropyl benzoate and BTh = 2,2'-bithienylcarboxylate, to di-n-octyl perylene diimide and di-n-hexylheptyl perylene diimide in thin films and solutions of the mixtures. The films show a long-lived charge separated state while slow back electron transfer, τBET ~ 500 ps, occurs in solution.

  16. Reuse of norgestomet implants in an eCG-based superovulation protocol administered to Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) cows


    Sudano, Mateus Jose [UNESP; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda da Cruz [UNESP; Sartori, Roberto; Machado, Rui


    This study assessed the reuse of norgestomet implants in Nelore cows that were superstimulated with eCG. In a crossover design trial, eight cows were randomly divided into two experimental groups and twice superstimulated: Group 1 - half of the cows received a new norgestomet implant and 2 mg estradiol benzoate (EB) on Day 0; Group 2 - remaining cows received two once-used norgestomet implants and 2 mg EB also on Day 0. on Day 4 all cows received a single dose of 2000 IU eCG, and on Day 6 cow...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Rini Indriyanti


    Full Text Available Lalat buah Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae merupakan salah satu hama pen ting menyerang tanaman buah-buahan dan sayuran. B. carambolae di laboratorium tertarik pada olahan limbah kakao. Hasil uji coba di lapangan belum memuaskan karena olahan limbah kakao mudah rusak. Tujuan penelitian ini mengkaji respon lalat buah Bactrocera yang diberi umpan ekstrak olahan limbah kakao berpenga wet. Pengawet yang digunakan yakni: Natrium klorida (NaCl, Natrium benzoat (C7H5NaO2 dan Potasium sorbat (C6H7KO2. Konsentrasi yang dipakai masing-masing pengawet 0,1%; 0,2% dan 0,3%. Pengamatan dilakukan selama satu ming gu. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa daya tahan limbah yang diberi penga wet dan yang tidak dilihat secara secara fisik (warna dan tekstur tidak berbeda nyata, namun ada perbedaan bau. Limbah yang tidak diberi pengawet ada kecen derungan baunya tidak sedap dibanding yang diberi pengawet. Hal ini yang mempengaruhi ketertarikan lalat terhadap olahan limbah kakao. Respon ketertarikan lalat Bactrocera terhadap olahan limbah kakao yang diberi pengawet berbeda antara satu dengan yang lain. Respon ketertarikan tertinggi Bactrocera cenderung pada olahan limbah kakao yang diberi pengawet Natrium klorida 0,3%, Potasium sorbat 0,2% dan Natrium benzoat 0,1%.The fruit fly Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae is one of the important pests attacking crops of fruits and vegetables. In the laboratory, B. carambolae was attracted by the processed cocoa waste. The results of field trials have not been satisfactory yet, because the processed cocoa waste was easily damaged. The purpose of the study wast to examine the response of Bactrocera to the bait made of processed cocoa extract waste containing preservatives. The preservatives used were: Sodium chloride (NaCl, sodium benzoate (C7H5NaO2 and potassium sorbate (C6H7KO2. The concentration of each preservative was 0.1%; 0.2% and 0.3%. A one-week observation was made. The result showed that there was no

  18. Synthesis and anion exchange reactions of a layered copper-zinc hydroxy double salt, Cu1×6Zn0×4(OH)3(OAc)×H2O

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jacqueline Therese Rajamathi; Sylvia Britto; Michael Rajamathi


    A mixed-metal hydroxysalt of formula Cu1.6Zn0.4(OH)3(OAc)$\\cdot$H2O has been synthesized by an acetate hydrolysis route. Acetate ions can be exchanged with simple inorganic anions such as chloride and nitrate, and organic anions such as benzoate and large surfactant anions such as dodecyl sulphate. Structures of these hydroxysalts are derived from that of Cu2(OH)3NO3$\\cdot$H2O with some of the Cu2+ ions being replaced by Zn2+.

  19. Glycine Encephalopathy - GeneReviews - NCBI Bookshelf [GeneReviews

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eizure disorder, which is often relatively easy to treat with either benzoate or dextromethorphan alone or w...ficulty emptying the bladder. It is unclear if this is a side effect of dextromethorphan or a manifestation .... Antagonists at the NMDA receptor site include dextromethorphan, ketamine, and felbamate. Use of each has r...stimulated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channel complex with use of dextromethorphan, ketamine, or f...monitored; the therapeutic level is not defined, but should be greater than 0 and lower than 100 nmol/L. Overdose of dextromethorphan

  20. Optical tissue clearing improves usability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for high-throughput analysis of the internal structure and 3D morphology of small biological objects such as vertebrate embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Männer, Jörg


    Developmental biology studies frequently require rapid analysis of the morphology of a large number of embryos (highthroughput analysis). Conventional microscopic analysis is time-consuming and, therefore, is not well suited for highthroughput analysis. OCT facilitates rapid generation of optical...... sections through small biological objects at high resolutions. However, due to light scattering within biological tissues, the quality of OCT images drops significantly with increasing penetration depth of the light beam. We show that optical clearing of fixed embryonic organs with methyl benzoate can...... significantly reduce the light scattering and, thereby, improves the usability of OCT for high-throughput analysis of embryonic morphology....

  1. catena-Poly[[bis-[2-(2,3-dimethyl-anilino)benzoato-κO]cadmium(II)]-di-μ-3-pyridylmethanol-κN:O;κO:N]. (United States)

    Moncol, Jan; Mikloš, Dušan; Segľa, Peter; Koman, Marian; Lis, Tadeusz


    In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Cd(C(15)H(14)NO(2))(2)(C(6)H(7)NO)(2)](n), the Cd atom displays a distorted octa-hedral geometry, including two pyridine N atoms and two hydroxyl O from four symmetry-related 3-pyridylmethanol (3-pyme) ligands and two carboxylate O atoms from mefenamate [2-(2,3-dimethyl-anilino)benzoate] anions. The Cd atoms are connected via the bridging 3-pyme ligands into chains, that extend in the a-axis direction. The Cd atom is located on a center of inversion, whereas the 3-pyme ligands and the mefenamate anions occupy general positions.

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-suppressive compounds from scrap cultivation beds of the mushroom Hericium erinaceum. (United States)

    Ueda, Keiko; Kodani, Shinya; Kubo, Masakazu; Masuno, Kazuhiko; Sekiya, Atsushi; Nagai, Kaoru; Kawagishi, Hirokazu


    Four compounds were isolated from scrap cultivation beds of the mushroom, Hericium erinaceum. Compounds 1-4 were identified as methyl 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methylbutanoyl) benzoate, 2-chloro-1,3-dimethoxy-5-methylbenzene, methyl 4-chloro-3,5-dimethoxybenzoate, and 4-chloro-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde by an interpretation of the NMR and MS data, respectively. This is the first reported isolation of 1 from a natural source. All the compounds showed protective activity against endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent cell death.

  3. Synthesis and Protective Effect of New Ligustrazine-Benzoic Acid Derivatives against CoCl2-Induced Neurotoxicity in Differentiated PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimin Lei


    Full Text Available A series of novel ligustrazine-benzoic acid derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their protective effect against cobalt chloride-induced neurotoxicity in differentiated PC12 cells. Combining hematoxylin and eosin staining, we found compound that (3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-ylmethyl 3-methoxy-4-[(3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-ylmethoxy]benzoate (4a displayed promising protective effect on the proliferation of the injured PC12 cells (EC50 = 4.249 µM. Structure-activity relationships are briefly discussed.

  4. Variable Temperature Infrared Spectroscopy Investigations of Benzoic Acid Desorption from Sodium and Calcium Montmorillonite Clays. (United States)

    Nickels, Tara M; Ingram, Audrey L; Maraoulaite, Dalia K; White, Robert L


    Processes involved in thermal desorption of benzoic acid from sodium and calcium montmorillonite clays are investigated by using variable temperature diffuse reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS). By monitoring the temperature dependence of infrared absorbance bands while heating samples, subtle changes in molecular vibrations are detected and employed to characterize specific benzoic acid adsorption sites. Abrupt changes in benzoic acid adsorption site properties occur for both clay samples at about 125 °C. Difference spectra absorbance band frequency variations indicate that adsorbed benzoic acid interacts with interlayer cations through water bridges and that these interactions can be disrupted by the presence of organic anions, in particular, benzoate.

  5. Studies on Intermolecular Energy Transfer and Relaxation Processes in Solid Rare Earth Complexes by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍荣护; 赵化章; 于锡娟; 宋慧宇; 苏庆德


    The photoacoustic spectra of Eu(benz)3*(phen)2 (benz: benzoate, phen: phenanthroline) and Eu0.8Ln0.2(benz)3*(phen)2 (Ln3+: La3+ or Nd3+) were reported. The intermolecular energy transfer processes were studied from the point of the nonradiative transitions. Combined with the fluorescence spectroscopy, photoacoustic spectroscopy reflects the variation of the luminescence efficiencies of solid samples. The luminescence efficiency increases when La3+ is introduced, but it decreases greatly when Nd3+ is added, which is due to the difference of intermolecular energy transfer processes. The models of intramolecular and intermolecular energy transfer and relaxation processes were established.

  6. Principles of inhibiting of corrosion-static crack growth in constructional steels caused by hydrogen embrittlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaniv, O.N.; Nikiforchin, G.N.; Tsirul' nik, A.T.


    The effectiveness of a range of organic and inorganic corrosion inhibitors was studied on a series of structural chromium steels--including 45KhN2MFA, 60KhS, and 30KhGSN2A--of different strength levels and certain principles are formulated for developing and selecting inhibitors based on the hydrogen mechanism of corrosive media. The inhibitors tested include monoethanol amine, urotropin, sodium benzoate, thiourea, sodium phosphates and chromates, various nitrates, and the IRT range of inhibitors.

  7. Progress in decontamination by halophilic microorganisms in saline wastewater and soil. (United States)

    Zhuang, Xuliang; Han, Zhen; Bai, Zhihui; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Shim, Hojae


    Environments with high-salt concentrations are often populated by dense microbial communities. Halophilic microorganisms can be isolated from different saline environments and different strains even belonging to the same genus have various applications. Wastewater and soil rich in both organic matter and salt are difficult to treat using conventional microorganisms typically found in wastewater treatment and soil bioremediation facilities. Studies on decontaminative capabilities and decontamination pathways of organic contaminants (i.e., aromatic compounds benzoate, cinnamate, 3-phenylpropionate, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid), heavy metals (i.e., tellurium, vanadium), and nutrients in the biological treatment of saline wastewater and soil by halophilic microorganisms are discussed in this review.

  8. 2-Oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl 4-tert-butylbenzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konan René Kambo


    Full Text Available In the title coumarin derivative, C20H18O4, the benzene ring of the benzoate group is oriented at a dihedral angle of 57.55 (9° with respect to the planar chromene ring system [maximum deviation from plane is 0.027 (2 Å]. In the crystal, inversion-related molecules are linked into dimers via C—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating R22(12 loops. The dimers are linked by further C—H...O hydrogen bonds forming layers, parallel to the bc plane, which are linked via C—H...π interactions, forming a three-dimensional framework

  9. Exogenous estradiol enhances apoptosis in regressing post-partum rat corpora lutea possibly mediated by prolactin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telleria Carlos M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In pregnant rats, structural luteal regression takes place after parturition and is associated with cell death by apoptosis. We have recently shown that the hormonal environment is responsible for the fate of the corpora lutea (CL. Changing the levels of circulating hormones in post-partum rats, either by injecting androgen, progesterone, or by allowing dams to suckle, was coupled with a delay in the onset of apoptosis in the CL. The objectives of the present investigation were: i to examine the effect of exogenous estradiol on apoptosis of the rat CL during post-partum luteal regression; and ii to evaluate the post-partum luteal expression of the estrogen receptor (ER genes. Methods In a first experiment, rats after parturition were separated from their pups and injected daily with vehicle or estradiol benzoate for 4 days. On day 4 post-partum, animals were sacrificed, blood samples were taken to determine serum concentrations of hormones, and the ovaries were isolated to study apoptosis in situ. In a second experiment, non-lactating rats after parturition received vehicle, estradiol benzoate or estradiol benzoate plus bromoergocryptine for 4 days, and their CL were isolated and used to study apoptosis ex vivo. In a third experiment, we obtained CL from rats on day 15 of pregnancy and from non-lactating rats on day 4 post-partum, and studied the expression of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs encoding the ERalpha and ERbeta genes. Results Exogenous administration of estradiol benzoate induced an increase in the number of apoptotic cells within the CL on day 4 post-partum when compared with animals receiving vehicle alone. Animals treated with the estrogen had higher serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations, with no changes in serum androstenedione. Administration of bromoergocryptine blocked the increase in serum prolactin and progesterone concentrations, and DNA fragmentation induced by the estrogen treatment. ERalpha and

  10. Contemporary Understanding and Management of Overt and Covert Hepatic Encephalopathy. (United States)

    NeSmith, Meghan; Ahn, Joseph; Flamm, Steven L


    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a major complication of liver disease that leads to significant morbidity and mortality. Caring for hospitalized patients with HE is becoming more complex, and the economic burden of HE continues to rise. Defining and diagnosing HE, particularly covert HE (CHE), remain challenging. In this article, we review new tools and those currently under development for the diagnosis of CHE and the latest advances in the acute and long-term management of overt HE (OHE) and CHE. In particular, we review the latest data on the use of lactulose and rifaximin for treatment of OHE and summarize the data on adjunctive agents such as sodium benzoate and probiotics.

  11. Azomesogens with methoxyethyl tail: Synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Prajapati; H M Pandya


    Two new mesogenic homologous series are synthesized from methoxyethyl 4-(4'-hydroxyphenylazo) benzoate. In series I the phenolic -OH group is alkylated, whereas in series II it is esterified with 4--alkoxybenzoyl group. In series I, all the nine members synthesized exhibit only enantiotropic smectic A mesophase. In series II, all the twelve homologues exhibit enantiotropic nematic mesophase. Smectic A mesophase appears from the -decyloxy derivative as a enantiotropic phase and persists till the last -hexadecyloxy member. The mesomorphic properties of both the series are compared with each other and also with the properties of other structurally related series to evaluate the effect of the methoxyethyl tail on mesomorphism.

  12. Determination of preservatives in cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceuticals using fast liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Baranowska, Irena; Wojciechowska, Iwona; Solarz, Natalia; Krutysza, Ewa


    This paper reports the development of a method for simultaneously determining five preservatives in cosmetics, cleaning agents and pharmaceuticals by fast liquid chromatography. Methylisothiazolinone, methylchloroisothiazolinone, benzyl alcohol, sodium benzoate and methylparaben were separated on a Chromolith Fast Gradient reversed-phase 18e column using gradient elution with acetonitrile and a 0.1% aqueous solution of formic acid, with a run time of 3 min. The preparation of solid and liquid samples included ultrasonic extraction with methanol with recoveries ranging from 69 to 119%. The developed method was used to analyze samples of cosmetics (66 samples), cleaning agents (five samples) and pharmaceutical industry products (17 samples).

  13. Catalyst system and process for benzyl ether fragmentation and coal liquefaction (United States)

    Zoeller, Joseph Robert


    Dibenzyl ether can be readily cleaved to form primarily benzaldehyde and toluene as products, along with minor amounts of bibenzyl and benzyl benzoate, in the presence of a catalyst system comprising a Group 6 metal, preferably molybdenum, a salt, and an organic halide. Although useful synthetically for the cleavage of benzyl ethers, this cleavage also represents a key model reaction for the liquefaction of coal; thus this catalyst system and process should be useful in coal liquefaction with the advantage of operating at significantly lower temperatures and pressures.

  14. Chemical defense in the cave-dwelling millipede Brachydesmus troglobius Daday, 1889 (Diplopoda, Polydesmidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarov Slobodan E.


    Full Text Available The troglomorphic millipede Brachydesmus troglobius Daday, 1889 (Polydesmida: Polydesmidae secretes allomones from glands on both lateral surfaces of its body segments. The secretion was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis with electron and chemical ionization, and was shown to be composed of a mixture of benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, benzoylnitrile, benzoic acid and mandelonitrile benzoate. Hydrogen cyanide was qualitatively identified by the picric acid test. This is the first identification of these compounds in a cave-dwelling polydesmid.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-hua Cheng; Jun Luo; Zhen Liu; Jing-wen Sun; Wei-huan Huang; Ming-ge Zhang; Jian-jun Yi


    The formations of defective MgCl2 surfaces,and subsequent adsorption of Ti species and electron donor,as well as propylene polymerization over the Ziegler-Natta catalyst have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) method.Twelve possible support models of regular and defective MgC12 (110) and (100) surfaces were built.The individual adsorptions of titanium chlorides as mononuclear or dinuclear,and ethyl benzoate (EB) as electron donor,on these models were evaluated.The analysis of energies presented the cases of EB adsorption were generally more stable than titanium chlorides on both surfaces.Thus,EB as internal electron donor mainly prevented TiCl4 from coordinating on the MgC12 surfaces where mostly non-stereospecific active sites could be formed.Exceptionally,A5 the site model with terminal Cl-vacancy on the MgC12 support,presented stronger adsorption of TiCl4 than that of EB on (110) surface.Since the TiCl4 and ethyl benzoate (EB) would compete to adsorb on the support surface,it seems reasonable to assume that TiCl4 might predominately occupy this site,which can act as the most plausible active site for propylene polymerization.The first insertion of propylene monomer into the A5 active site model showed that it exhibited good regioselectivity but poor stereospecificity in the absence of electron donor.

  16. Thermo-induced vesicular dynamics of membranes containing cholesterol derivatives. (United States)

    Yoda, Tsuyoshi; Vestergaard, Mun'delanji C; Hamada, Tsutomu; Le, Phuc Thi Minh; Takagi, Masahiro


    Membrane structural organization is an intrinsic property of a cell membrane. Any changes in lipid composition, and/or any stimuli that affect molecular packing induce structural re-organization. It membrane dynamics provide a means by which changes in structure organization can be determined, upon a change in the membrane internal or external environment. Here, we report on the effect of thermo-stress on membranes containing cholesterol liquid crystal (LC) compounds cholesterol benzoate (BENZO) and oxidized cholesterols. We have (1) revealed that lipid vesicles containing this artificial cholesterol derivative (BENZO) is thermo-responsive, and that this thermo-sensitivity is significantly similar to naturally oxy-cholesterols (2) elucidated the mechanism behind the membrane perturbation. Using Langmuir monolayer experiments, we have demonstrated that membrane perturbation was due to an increase in the molecular surface area, (3) discussed the similarities between cholesterol benzoate in the cholesterol LC state and in lipid bilayer membranes. Last, (4) drawing from previously reported findings, our new data on membrane dynamics, and the discussion above, we propose that artificial cholesterol derivatives such as BENZO, open new possibilities for controlled and tailored design using model membrane systems. Examples could include the development of membrane technology and provide a trigger for progress in thermo-tropical liquid crystal engineering.

  17. Syntheses, characterisation and crystal structures of ferrocenyl β-diketones and their Schiff base Nsbnd Nsbnd O ligand derivatives with 2-picolylamine (United States)

    Artigas, Vania; González, Deborah; Fuentealba, Mauricio


    Ferrocenyl β-diketones compounds β3-4 were synthesised by Claisen condensation reaction between acetylferrocene and ethyl benzoate or 4-bromoethyl benzoate. We also synthesised four new Schiff base ligands L1-4 by condensation reaction between β1-4 and 2-picolylamine. Identities of all these compounds were confirmed by satisfactory elemental analysis, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) correlation and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. In addition, all these compounds were authenticated by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In solution, 1H NMR spectra of β3 and β4 exhibit a mixture of keto:enol tautomer ratios of 12:88 and 8:92, respectively, calculated by the integration of the free cyclopentadienyl ring. In contrast, the proton NMR spectra of L1-4 showed only the keto-enamine tautomer displacements. In addition, decoupled 13C NMR spectrum clearly confirmed the existence of these tautomers. These results are in accordance with X-ray crystallographic studies, in which the enol and keto-enamine forms were elucidated for β-diketones and Schiff base ligands, respectively.

  18. Physiology of Geobacter metallireducens under excess and limitation of electron donors. Part II. Mimicking environmental conditions during cultivation in retentostats. (United States)

    Marozava, Sviatlana; Röling, Wilfred F M; Seifert, Jana; Küffner, Robert; von Bergen, Martin; Meckenstock, Rainer U


    The strict anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens was cultivated in retentostats under acetate and acetate plus benzoate limitation in the presence of Fe(III) citrate in order to investigate its physiology under close to natural conditions. Growth rates below 0.003h(-1) were achieved in the course of cultivation. A nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach (nano-LC-MS/MS) with subsequent label-free quantification was performed on proteins extracted from cells sampled at different time points during retentostat cultivation. Proteins detected at low (0.002h(-1)) and high (0.06h(-1)) growth rates were compared between corresponding growth conditions (acetate or acetate plus benzoate). Carbon limitation significantly increased the abundances of several catabolic proteins involved in the degradation of substrates not present in the medium (ethanol, butyrate, fatty acids, and aromatic compounds). Growth rate-specific physiology was reflected in the changed abundances of energy-, chemotaxis-, oxidative stress-, and transport-related proteins. Mimicking natural conditions by extremely slow bacterial growth allowed to show how G. metallireducens optimized its physiology in order to survive in its natural habitats, since it was prepared to consume several carbon sources simultaneously and to withstand various environmental stresses.

  19. Dendronized Polyimides Bearing Long-Chain Alkyl Groups and Their Application for Vertically Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Tsuda


    Full Text Available Polyimides having dendritic side chains were investigated. The terphenylene diamine monomer having a first-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris(n-dodecyloxy-benzoate and the monomer having a second-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris[-3’,4’,5’-tri(n-dodecyloxybenzyloxy]benzoate were successfully synthesized and the corresponding soluble dendritic polyimides were obtained by polycondensation with conventional tetracarboxylic dianhydride monomers such as benzophenone tertracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA. The two-step polymerizations in NMP that is a general method for the synthesis of soluble polyimides is difficult; however, the expected dendritic polyimides can be obtained in aromatic polar solvents such as m-cresol and pyridine. The solubility of these dendoronized polyimides is characteristic; soluble in common organic solvents such as dichloromethane, chloroform, toluene and THF. These dendronized polyimides exhibited high glass transition temperatures and good thermal stability in both air and under nitrogen. Their application as alignment layers for LCDs was investigated, and it was found that these polyimides having dendritic side chains were applicable for the vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal displays (VAN-LCDs.

  20. Design, synthesis and molecular docking studies of novel N-benzenesulfonyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-based triazoles with potential anticancer activity. (United States)

    Pingaew, Ratchanok; Mandi, Prasit; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong


    A novel series of N-benzenesulfonyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines (14-33) containing triazole moiety were designed and synthesized through rational cycloadditions using the modified Pictet-Spengler reaction and the Click chemistry. Antiproliferative activity against four cancer cell lines (e.g., HuCCA-1, HepG2, A549 and MOLT-3) revealed that many substituted triazole analogs of benzoates (20, 29) and benzaldehydes (30, 32) exhibited anticancer activity against all of the tested cancer cell lines in which the ester analog 20 was shown to be the most potent compound against HuCCA-1 (IC50 = 0.63 μM) and A549 (IC50 = 0.57 μM) cell lines. Triazoles bearing phenyl (15, 24), tolyl (26, 27), acetophenone (19), benzoate (20, 29), benzaldehyde (21, 30) and naphthalenyl (25) substituents showed stronger anticancer activity against HepG2 cells than that of the etoposide. Interestingly, the p-tolyl analog (27) displayed the most potent inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.56 μM) against HepG2 cells without affecting normal cells. Of the investigated tetrahydroisoquinoline-triazoles, the promising compounds 20 and 27 were selected for molecular docking against AKR1C3, which was identified to be a plausible target site.