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Sample records for benzoate pc code

  1. HOTSPOT Health Physics codes for the PC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homann, S.G.

    1994-03-01

    The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculation tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes are a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. HOTSPOT programs are reasonably accurate for a timely initial assessment. More importantly, HOTSPOT codes produce a consistent output for the same input assumptions and minimize the probability of errors associated with reading a graph incorrectly or scaling a universal nomogram during an emergency. The HOTSPOT codes are designed for short-term (less than 24 hours) release durations. Users requiring radiological release consequences for release scenarios over a longer time period, e.g., annual windrose data, are directed to such long-term models as CAPP88-PC (Parks, 1992). Users requiring more sophisticated modeling capabilities, e.g., complex terrain; multi-location real-time wind field data; etc., are directed to such capabilities as the Department of Energy`s ARAC computer codes (Sullivan, 1993). Four general programs -- Plume, Explosion, Fire, and Resuspension -- calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Other programs deal with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. Additional programs estimate the dose commitment from the inhalation of any one of the radionuclides listed in the database of radionuclides; calibrate a radiation survey instrument for ground-survey measurements; and screen plutonium uptake in the lung (see FIDLER Calibration and LUNG Screening sections).

  2. 20-SIM code generation for PC/104 target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, Marcel

    2001-01-01

    From version 3.2, 20-Sim will contain a new tool, called C-code generation. With this tool it will be possible to generate C code from a 20-Sim model. This tool works on basis of templates. For each target, a target specific template has to be made. The goal of this project was to write a new 20-Sim

  3. VENTURE/PC manual: A multidimensional multigroup neutron diffusion code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C.; Cho, K.W. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States))

    1991-12-01

    VENTURE/PC is a recompilation of part of the Oak Ridge BOLD VENTURE code system, which will operate on an IBM PC or compatible computer. Neutron diffusion theory solutions are obtained for multidimensional, multigroup problems. This manual contains information associated with operating the code system. The purpose of the various modules used in the code system, and the input for these modules are discussed. The PC code structure is also given. Version 2 included several enhancements not given in the original version of the code. In particular, flux iterations can be done in core rather than by reading and writing to disk, for problems which allow sufficient memory for such in-core iterations. This speeds up the iteration process. Version 3 does not include any of the special processors used in the previous versions. These special processors utilized formatted input for various elements of the code system. All such input data is now entered through the Input Processor, which produces standard interface files for the various modules in the code system. In addition, a Standard Interface File Handbook is included in the documentation which is distributed with the code, to assist in developing the input for the Input Processor.

  4. VENTURE/PC manual: A multidimensional multigroup neutron diffusion code system. Version 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C.; Cho, K.W. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)

    1991-12-01

    VENTURE/PC is a recompilation of part of the Oak Ridge BOLD VENTURE code system, which will operate on an IBM PC or compatible computer. Neutron diffusion theory solutions are obtained for multidimensional, multigroup problems. This manual contains information associated with operating the code system. The purpose of the various modules used in the code system, and the input for these modules are discussed. The PC code structure is also given. Version 2 included several enhancements not given in the original version of the code. In particular, flux iterations can be done in core rather than by reading and writing to disk, for problems which allow sufficient memory for such in-core iterations. This speeds up the iteration process. Version 3 does not include any of the special processors used in the previous versions. These special processors utilized formatted input for various elements of the code system. All such input data is now entered through the Input Processor, which produces standard interface files for the various modules in the code system. In addition, a Standard Interface File Handbook is included in the documentation which is distributed with the code, to assist in developing the input for the Input Processor.

  5. Vectorial Resilient PC(l) of Order k Boolean Functions from AG-Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao CHEN; Liang MA; Jianhua LI

    2011-01-01

    Propagation criteria and resiliency of vectorial Boolean functions are important for cryptographic purpose (see [1- 4, 7, 8, 10, 11, 16]). Kurosawa, Stoh [8] and Carlet [1]gave a construction of Boolean functions satisfying PC(l) of order k from binary linear or nonlinear codes. In this paper, the algebraic-geometric codes over GF(2m) are used to modify the Carlet and Kurosawa-Satoh's construction for giving vectorial resilient Boolean functions satisfying PC(l) of order k criterion. This new construction is compared with previously known results.

  6. Parallel implementation of a lattice-gauge-theory code: studying quark confinement on PC clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Cucchieri, A; Travieso, G; Taurines, A R; Cucchieri, Attilio; Mendes, Tereza; Travieso, Gonzalo; Taurines, Andre R.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the implementation of a parallel Monte Carlo code for high-performance simulations on PC clusters with MPI. We carry out tests of speedup and efficiency. The code is used for numerical simulations of pure SU(2) lattice gauge theory at very large lattice volumes, in order to study the infrared behavior of gluon and ghost propagators. This problem is directly related to the confinement of quarks and gluons in the physics of strong interactions.

  7. Identification and Functional Characterization of G6PC2 Coding Variants Influencing Glycemic Traits Define an Effector Transcript at the G6PC2-ABCB11 Locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Anubha; Sim, Xueling; Ng, Hui Jin; Manning, Alisa; Rivas, Manuel A.; Highland, Heather M.; Locke, Adam E.; Grarup, Niels; Im, Hae Kyung; Cingolani, Pablo; Flannick, Jason; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fuchsberger, Christian; Gaulton, Kyle J.; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Rayner, N. William; Robertson, Neil R.; Beer, Nicola L.; Rundle, Jana K.; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Ladenvall, Claes; Blancher, Christine; Buck, David; Buck, Gemma; Burtt, Noël P.; Gabriel, Stacey; Gjesing, Anette P.; Groves, Christopher J.; Hollensted, Mette; Huyghe, Jeroen R.; Jackson, Anne U.; Jun, Goo; Justesen, Johanne Marie; Mangino, Massimo; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Neville, Matt; Onofrio, Robert; Small, Kerrin S.; Stringham, Heather M.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Trakalo, Joseph; Abecasis, Goncalo; Bell, Graeme I.; Blangero, John; Cox, Nancy J.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Hanis, Craig L.; Seielstad, Mark; Wilson, James G.; Christensen, Cramer; Brandslund, Ivan; Rauramaa, Rainer; Surdulescu, Gabriela L.; Doney, Alex S. F.; Lannfelt, Lars; Linneberg, Allan; Isomaa, Bo; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Jørgensen, Torben; Kuusisto, Johanna; Uusitupa, Matti; Salomaa, Veikko; Spector, Timothy D.; Morris, Andrew D.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Collins, Francis S.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Bergman, Richard N.; Ingelsson, Erik; Lind, Lars; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Hansen, Torben; Watanabe, Richard M.; Prokopenko, Inga; Dupuis, Josee; Karpe, Fredrik; Groop, Leif; Laakso, Markku; Pedersen, Oluf; Florez, Jose C.; Morris, Andrew P.; Altshuler, David; Meigs, James B.; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Gloyn, Anna L.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI) have identified common variant signals which explain 4.8% and 1.2% of trait variance, respectively. It is hypothesized that low-frequency and rare variants could contribute substantially to unexplained genetic variance. To test this, we analyzed exome-array data from up to 33,231 non-diabetic individuals of European ancestry. We found exome-wide significant (P<5×10-7) evidence for two loci not previously highlighted by common variant GWAS: GLP1R (p.Ala316Thr, minor allele frequency (MAF)=1.5%) influencing FG levels, and URB2 (p.Glu594Val, MAF = 0.1%) influencing FI levels. Coding variant associations can highlight potential effector genes at (non-coding) GWAS signals. At the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus, we identified multiple coding variants in G6PC2 (p.Val219Leu, p.His177Tyr, and p.Tyr207Ser) influencing FG levels, conditionally independent of each other and the non-coding GWAS signal. In vitro assays demonstrate that these associated coding alleles result in reduced protein abundance via proteasomal degradation, establishing G6PC2 as an effector gene at this locus. Reconciliation of single-variant associations and functional effects was only possible when haplotype phase was considered. In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that, paradoxically, glucose-raising alleles at this locus are protective against type 2 diabetes (T2D), the p.Val219Leu G6PC2 variant displayed a modest but directionally consistent association with T2D risk. Coding variant associations for glycemic traits in GWAS signals highlight PCSK1, RREB1, and ZHX3 as likely effector transcripts. These coding variant association signals do not have a major impact on the trait variance explained, but they do provide valuable biological insights. PMID:25625282

  8. Identification and functional characterization of G6PC2 coding variants influencing glycemic traits define an effector transcript at the G6PC2-ABCB11 locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubha Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome wide association studies (GWAS for fasting glucose (FG and insulin (FI have identified common variant signals which explain 4.8% and 1.2% of trait variance, respectively. It is hypothesized that low-frequency and rare variants could contribute substantially to unexplained genetic variance. To test this, we analyzed exome-array data from up to 33,231 non-diabetic individuals of European ancestry. We found exome-wide significant (P<5×10-7 evidence for two loci not previously highlighted by common variant GWAS: GLP1R (p.Ala316Thr, minor allele frequency (MAF=1.5% influencing FG levels, and URB2 (p.Glu594Val, MAF = 0.1% influencing FI levels. Coding variant associations can highlight potential effector genes at (non-coding GWAS signals. At the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus, we identified multiple coding variants in G6PC2 (p.Val219Leu, p.His177Tyr, and p.Tyr207Ser influencing FG levels, conditionally independent of each other and the non-coding GWAS signal. In vitro assays demonstrate that these associated coding alleles result in reduced protein abundance via proteasomal degradation, establishing G6PC2 as an effector gene at this locus. Reconciliation of single-variant associations and functional effects was only possible when haplotype phase was considered. In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that, paradoxically, glucose-raising alleles at this locus are protective against type 2 diabetes (T2D, the p.Val219Leu G6PC2 variant displayed a modest but directionally consistent association with T2D risk. Coding variant associations for glycemic traits in GWAS signals highlight PCSK1, RREB1, and ZHX3 as likely effector transcripts. These coding variant association signals do not have a major impact on the trait variance explained, but they do provide valuable biological insights.

  9. NUSTART: A PC code for NUclear STructure And Radiative Transition analysis and supplementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.L.; Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.

    1990-10-01

    NUSTART is a computer program for the IBM PC/At. It is designed for use with the nuclear reaction cross-section code STAPLUS, which is a STAPRE-based CRAY computer code that is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NUSTART code was developed to handle large sets of discrete nuclear levels and the multipole transitions among these levels; it operates in three modes. The Data File Error Analysis mode analyzes an existing STAPLUS input file containing the levels and their multipole transition branches for a number of physics and/or typographical errors. The Interactive Data File Generation mode allows the user to create input files of discrete levels and their branching fractions in the format required by STAPLUS, even though the user enters the information in the (different) format used by many people in the nuclear structure field. In the Branching Fractions Calculations mode, the discrete nuclear level set is read, and the multipole transitions among the levels are computed under one of two possible assumptions: (1) the levels have no collective character, or (2) the levels are all rotational band heads. Only E1, M1, and E2 transitions are considered, and the respective strength functions may be constants or, in the case of E1 transitions, the strength function may be energy dependent. The first option is used for nuclei closed shells; the bandhead option may be used to vary the E1, M1, and E2 strengths for interband transitions. K-quantum number selection rules may be invoked if desired. 19 refs.

  10. Development of environmental dose assessment system (EDAS) code of PC version

    CERN Document Server

    Taki, M; Kobayashi, H; Yamaguchi, T

    2003-01-01

    A computer code (EDAS) was developed to assess the public dose for the safety assessment to get the license of nuclear reactor operation. This code system is used for the safety analysis of public around the nuclear reactor in normal operation and severe accident. This code was revised and composed for personal computer user according to the Nuclear Safety Guidelines reflected the ICRP1990 recommendation. These guidelines are revised by Nuclear Safety Commission on March, 2001, which are 'Weather analysis guideline for the safety assessment of nuclear power reactor', 'Public dose around the facility assessment guideline corresponding to the objective value for nuclear power light water reactor' and 'Public dose assessment guideline for safety review of nuclear power light water reactor'. This code has been already opened for public user by JAERI, and English version code and user manual are also prepared. This English version code is helpful for international cooperation concerning the nuclear safety assessme...

  11. Development of environmental dose assessment system (EDAS) code of PC version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki, Mitsumasa; Kikuchi, Masamitsu; Kobayashi, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Takenori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-05-01

    A computer code (EDAS) was developed to assess the public dose for the safety assessment to get the license of nuclear reactor operation. This code system is used for the safety analysis of public around the nuclear reactor in normal operation and severe accident. This code was revised and composed for personal computer user according to the Nuclear Safety Guidelines reflected the ICRP1990 recommendation. These guidelines are revised by Nuclear Safety Commission on March, 2001, which are 'Weather analysis guideline for the safety assessment of nuclear power reactor', 'Public dose around the facility assessment guideline corresponding to the objective value for nuclear power light water reactor' and 'Public dose assessment guideline for safety review of nuclear power light water reactor'. This code has been already opened for public user by JAERI, and English version code and user manual are also prepared. This English version code is helpful for international cooperation concerning the nuclear safety assessment with JAERI. (author)

  12. T-MAPS, a PC-code for calculating average and local (``flash``) temperatures on sliding interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, F.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ashby, M.F. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering

    1993-08-01

    When contacting solids slide, work is done against friction. Almost all the frictional work appears as heat, generated at or very close to the surface at which the two solids meet. The local increase in temperature influences both the friction and the rate of wear. In this paper, a user-friendly PC-code is described in which frictional heating is analyzed using a particularly simple framework. The code provides for a wide range of geometries for the two contacting solids, which may differ in their thermal and mechanical properties, and may not be in perfect contact with the heat sinks to which they are attached. The results of the code are presented as temperature maps which show the surface temperature of a sliding couple over a wide range of load and sliding velocity. The basic analysis underlying a previous version of the code was presented previously. We introduce here some significant changes, particularly with respect to the problem of asperity contact lifetime and show some excellent comparisons between various experimental results and predictions of the T-MAPS 4 software.

  13. (Benzoylaminomethyl 4-[(Benzoylaminomethoxy]benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Poceva Panovska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this note, two procedures for the synthesis of (benzoylaminomethyl 4-[(benzoylamino­methoxy]benzoate (3 are presented. The first procedure is carried out in dioxane/water using benzoylaminomethyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, while the second one employs a suspension of 4-hydroxy­benzoic acid in dioxane. In both procedures, benzamidomethyl triethylammonium chloride is used for the benzamidomethylation reaction.

  14. 基于SoPC的QR二维码识别系统设计*%Design of QR code recognition system based on SoPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婉婉; 胡文龙; 李宏; 雷霞

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a QR code recognition system based on SoPC , whose purpose is to provide a kind of fast , low-cost , and interfaces-flexibled QR code reading scheme for handheld and embedded devices . The system consists of the image grabbing module , image preprocessing module , QR code decoding and error-correcting module , and peripheral interfaces module . Image grabbing module drives the CMOS camera to get the QR code image , with the image preprocessing module then preprocesses the image to facilitate decode , and the QR code decoding and error-correcting module realizes the code correcting and decoding towards QR code data .%介绍了一种基于 SoPC 的 QR 二维码识别系统,其目的在于为手持和嵌入式设备提供一种识别速度快、成本低、接口灵活的 QR 码识读方案。该系统包括图像采集、图像预处理、QR 码解码及纠错、外设接口等组成单元。图像采集单元驱动 CMOS 摄像头获取 QR 码图像,图像预处理单元将 QR 码图像进行一系列预处理以方便解码, QR 码解码及纠错单元实现对 QR 码的纠错与解码。

  15. Improvements in the Monte Carlo code for simulating 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence system measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, M. S.; Takeda, M. N.; Toledo, F.; Brancaccio, F.; Tongu, M. L. O.; Koskinas, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation code known as ESQUEMA has been developed by the Nuclear Metrology Laboratory (Laboratório de Metrologia Nuclear-LMN) in the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares-IPEN) to be used as a benchmark for radionuclide standardization. The early version of this code simulated only β-γ and ec-γ emitters with reasonably high electron and X-ray energies. To extend the code to include other radionuclides and enable the code to be applied to software coincidence counting systems, several improvements have been made and are presented in this work.

  16. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Methyl benzoate

    CERN Document Server

    Maiti, Kiran Sankar

    2014-01-01

    Methyl benzoate (MB) is studied as a model compound for the development of new IR pulse schemes with possible applicability to biomolecules. Anharmonic vibrational modes of MB are calculated on different level (MP2, SCS, CCSD(T) with varying basis sets) ab-initio PESs using the vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF) method and its correlation corrected extensions. Dual level schemes, combining different quantum chemical methods for diagonal and coupling potentials, are systematically studied and applied successfully to reduce the computational cost. Isotopic substitution of {\\beta}-hydrogen by deuterium is studied to obtain a better understanding of the molecular vibrational coupling topology.

  17. Interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijo, J.; Yonetani, I.

    1982-03-01

    The interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate was investigated by PMR spectroscopy. The interaction of theobromine with pentadeuterated benzoic acid (benzoic acid-d5) was examined in the same manner but to a lesser degree. Chemical shifts of theobromine protons were determined as a function of sodium benzoate concentration in deuterium oxide at 30 and 15 degrees. Signals of both methyl groups of theobromine underwent significant upfield shifts when sodium benzoate was added to a theobromine solution. This fact suggests that a complex is formed by vertical stacking or plane-to-plane stacking. The same results were obtained for benzoic acid-d5.

  18. 4-Bromo­phenyl benzoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, B. Thimme; Foro, Sabine; Babitha, K. S.; Fuess, Hartmut

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the title compound (4BPBA), C13H9BrO2, is similar to that of phenyl benzoate (PBA), 4-methyl­phenyl benzoate (4MePBA) and 4-methoxy­phenyl benzoate, with somewhat different bond parameters. The dihedral angle between the phenyl and benzoyl rings in 4BPBA is 58.43 (17)°, compared with values of 55.7° in PBA and 60.17 (7)° in 4MPBA. The mol­ecules in the title compound are packed into infinite chains in the a-axis direction. PMID:21202158

  19. PC Pricer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PC Pricer is a tool used to estimate Medicare PPS payments. The final payment may not be precise to how payments are determined in the Medicare claims processing...

  20. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 582.3733 Section 582.3733 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  1. Anaerobic degradation of benzoate by sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, S.P.; Adorno, M.A.T.; Moraes, E.M.; Varesche, M.B.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Biological Processes Laboratory

    2004-07-01

    Anaerobic processes are an efficient way to degrade aromatic compounds in industrial wastewater, such as phenol, cresol and benzoate. This study characterized the bacteria that degrades benzoate, an anaerobic degradation intermediate of several complex aromatic compounds. In particular, the study assessed the capacity to use benzoate with sulfate reducing bacteria in mesophilic conditions. Biofilm from polyurethane foam matrices of a fixed bed reactor was used as the cellular inoculum to treat industrial wastewater containing organic peroxide. Dilution techniques were used to purify the material and obtain cultures of cocci. The benzoate consumption capacity in sulfidogenic conditions was observed when the purified inoculum was applied to batch reactors with different benzoate/sulfate relations. Results indicate that purification was positive to bacteria that can degrade aromatic compounds. Desulfococcus multivorans bacteria was identified following the physiologic and kinetic experiments. The 0.6 benzoate/sulfate relation was considered ideal for complete consumption of carbon and total use of sulfur. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Radiation and thermal polymerization of allyl(p-allylcarbonate) benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-V, D., E-mail: dlopez@siu.buap.m [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Antiguo Edificio de la Fac. de Cs., Quimica. Av. San Claudio y Boulevard de la 14 sur, Col. San Manuel, Puebla, Pue., CP 72500 (Mexico); Herrera-G, A.M., E-mail: mherrera@uaeh.reduaeh.m [Centro de Inv. en Materiales y Metalurgia, UAEH. Km 4.5, C.U., CP 42184, Pachuca de S. Hidalgo (Mexico); Castillo-Rojas, S., E-mail: castillo@nucleares.unam.m [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 DF (Mexico)

    2011-03-15

    Bulk polymerization of novel allyl(p-allylcarbonate) benzoate was investigated using different sources of energy, such as gamma rays, ultraviolet rays as well as thermal polymerization. The poly(allyl(p-allylcarbonate) benzoate) obtained is a cross-linking, transparent, thermoset polycarbonate. Compositions of the monomer and the polycarbonate were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy.

  3. Alteration of urinary carnitine profile induced by benzoate administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, T

    1991-01-01

    To study the effect of sodium benzoate on carnitine metabolism, the acylcarnitine profile in the urine of five normal volunteers and two patients with urea cycle disorders was examined with fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry. The volunteer subjects were given 5 g of sodium benzoate orally and the two patients with urea cycle disorders (carbamyl phosphate synthetase deficiency type I and ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency) were already undergoing treatment with sodium benzoate and L-carnitine. The amount of benzoylcarnitine excretion depended on the dose of both sodium benzoate and L-carnitine in a reciprocal relation. Increased excretions of acetylcarnitine and propionylcarnitine were also noted after sodium benzoate administration. The alteration of the urinary aclycarnitine profile was consistent with the change of mitochondrial CoA profile predicted by in vitro studies of an animal model. It is suggested that urinary acylcarnitine analysis is important to assess the effect of benzoate administration on mitochondrial function in vivo. Supplementation with carnitine may be necessary to minimise the adverse effects of sodium benzoate treatment in hyperammonaemia. PMID:1863104

  4. Safety assessment of alkyl benzoates as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2012-01-01

    The functions of alkyl benzoates in cosmetics include fragrance ingredients, skin-conditioning agents--emollient, skin-conditioning agents--miscellaneous, preservatives, solvents, and plasticizers. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel reviewed the relevant animal and human data and noted gaps in the available safety data for some of the alkyl benzoates. Similar structure activity relationships, biologic functions, and cosmetic product usage allowed the available data of many of the alkyl benzoates to be extended to the entire group. Carcinogenicity data were not available, but available data indicated that these alkyl benzoate cosmetic ingredients are not genotoxic. Also benzoic acid and tested component alcohols were not reproductive or developmental toxicants, are not genotoxic in almost all assays, and are not carcinogenic. These ingredients were determined to be safe in the present practices of use and concentration.

  5. 4-Chloro­phenyl 4-methyl­benzoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, B. Thimme; Foro, Sabine; Babitha, K. S.; Fuess, Hartmut

    2008-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound (4CP4MBA), C14H11ClO2, resembles those of 3-chloro­phenyl 4-methyl­benzoate (3CP4MBA), 4-methyl­phenyl 4-methyl­benzoate (4MP4MBA), 4-methyl­phenyl 4-chloro­benzoate (4MP4CBA) and other aryl benzoates with similar bond parameters. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings in 4CP4MBA is 63.89 (8)°, compared with 71.75 (7)° in 3CP4MBA, 63.57 (5)° in 4MP4MBA and 51.86 (4)° in 4MP4CBA. In the crystal structure of the title compound, the mol­ecules are linked into an infinite chain along the a axis via C—H—O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21203226

  6. Exploiting members of the BAHD acyltransferase family to synthesize multiple hydroxycinnamate and benzoate conjugates in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudes, Aymerick [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mouille, Maxence [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, David S. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Benites, Veronica T. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); San Francisco State Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wang, George [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Roux, Lucien [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Tsai, Yi-Lin [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Baidoo, Edward E. K. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chiu, Tsan-Yu [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heazlewood, Joshua L. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); The Univ. of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Scheller, Henrik V. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Keasling, Jay D. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Technical Univ. of Denmark, Horsholm (Denmark); Deutsch, Samuel [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Loqué, Dominique [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-11-21

    BAHD acyltransferases, named after the first four biochemically characterized enzymes of the group, are plant-specific enzymes that catalyze the transfer of coenzyme A-activated donors onto various acceptor molecules. They are responsible for the synthesis in plants of a myriad of secondary metabolites, some of which are beneficial for humans either as therapeutics or as specialty chemicals such as flavors and fragrances. The production of pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and commodity chemicals using engineered microbes is an alternative, green route to energy-intensive chemical syntheses that consume petroleum-based precursors. However, identification of appropriate enzymes and validation of their functional expression in heterologous hosts is a prerequisite for the design and implementation of metabolic pathways in microbes for the synthesis of such target chemicals. As a result, for the synthesis of valuable metabolites in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we selected BAHD acyltransferases based on their preferred donor and acceptor substrates. In particular, BAHDs that use hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs and/or benzoyl-CoA as donors were targeted because a large number of molecules beneficial to humans belong to this family of hydroxycinnamate and benzoate conjugates. The selected BAHD coding sequences were synthesized and cloned individually on a vector containing the Arabidopsis gene At4CL5, which encodes a promiscuous 4-coumarate:CoA ligase active on hydroxycinnamates and benzoates. The various S. cerevisiae strains obtained for co-expression of At4CL5 with the different BAHDs effectively produced a wide array of valuable hydroxycinnamate and benzoate conjugates upon addition of adequate combinations of donors and acceptor molecules. In particular, we report here for the first time the production in yeast of rosmarinic acid and its derivatives, quinate hydroxycinnamate esters such as chlorogenic acid, and glycerol hydroxycinnamate esters

  7. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Tetranuclear Zinc Benzoate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Ming-cai; WANG Chi-wei; AI Chang-chun; YUAN Liang-jie; SUN Ju-tang

    2004-01-01

    A tetranuclear zinc benzoate Zn4O(C6H5CO2)6 was synthesized and characterized by X-ray single crystal determination. It crystallizes in cubic, space group Ia-3d. Its crystal cell is very large, a=4.100 63(18) nm, V=68.953(5) nm3 and Z = 48. The structure is composed of discrete Zn4O(C6H5CO2)6 molecules. In each molecule, four zinc atoms are held together by a central oxygen atom, which results in the formation of a regular tetrahedron. All benzoate ligands coordinate to zinc atoms in a bidentate bridging mode. Each zinc atom is in a slightly distorted tetrahedral geometry, coordinated by three benzoate oxygen atoms and the central oxygen atom. The intermolecular interactions result in the formation of a three-dimensional supramolecular framework, with non-intersecting parallel channels.

  8. Rizatriptan benzoate influences the endogenous pain modulatory system in a rat model of migraine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Yao; Yuhong Man; Xiangdan Luo; Tingmin Yu; Lin Ji

    2012-01-01

    The present study utilized a nitroglycerin-induced rat model of migraine to detect the effects of rizatriptan benzoate on proenkephalin and substance P gene expression in the midbrain using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and investigate whether rizatriptan benzoate can regulate the endogenous pain modulatory system. The results showed that rizatriptan benzoate significantly reduced expression of the mRNAs for proenkephalin and substance P. Rizatriptan benzoate may inhibit the analgesic effect of the endogenous pain modulatory system.

  9. Rizatriptan benzoate influences the endogenous pain modulatory system in a rat model of migraine☆

    OpenAIRE

    Yao,Gang; Man, Yuhong; Luo, Xiangdan; Yu, Tingmin; Ji, Lin

    2012-01-01

    The present study utilized a nitroglycerin-induced rat model of migraine to detect the effects of rizatriptan benzoate on proenkephalin and substance P gene expression in the midbrain using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and investigate whether rizatriptan benzoate can regulate the endogenous pain modulatory system. The results showed that rizatriptan benzoate significantly reduced expression of the mRNAs for proenkephalin and substance P. Rizatriptan benzoate may inhibit th...

  10. Rizatriptan benzoate influences the endogenous pain modulatory system in a rat model of migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Gang; Man, Yuhong; Luo, Xiangdan; Yu, Tingmin; Ji, Lin

    2012-01-15

    The present study utilized a nitroglycerin-induced rat model of migraine to detect the effects of rizatriptan benzoate on proenkephalin and substance P gene expression in the midbrain using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and investigate whether rizatriptan benzoate can regulate the endogenous pain modulatory system. The results showed that rizatriptan benzoate significantly reduced expression of the mRNAs for proenkephalin and substance P. Rizatriptan benzoate may inhibit the analgesic effect of the endogenous pain modulatory system.

  11. Thermoreversible biogels for intranasal delivery of rizatriptan benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chand Renuka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to formulate and evaluate a thermoreversible formulation containing rizatriptan benzoate for intranasal administration. Chitosan and aqueous β-glycerolphosphate were mixed in cold condition to obtain chitosan-β-glycerolphosphate mixtures, which served as the thermoreversible systems. Rizatriptan benzoate was incorporated at a final strength of 25 mg/ml. Both in vitro release and ex vivo permeation of rizatriptan from gels were measured at 37º using Franz diffusion cells Formulations were tested in vivo in mice for reduction in locomotor activity using digital actophotometer and nasal mucosal tissues were examined histopathologically.

  12. 77 FR 31722 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Estradiol; Estradiol Benzoate and Testosterone Propionate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... COMPONENT E-C 522.1940 (progesterone and estradiol benzoate) with TYLAN (tylosin tartrate). COMPONENT E-S (progesterone and estradiol benzoate) with TYLAN (tylosin tartrate). 118-123 COMPONENT 200 (estradiol benzoate... and testosterone propionate) with TYLAN (tylosin tartrate). 200-221 COMPONENT TE-IS...

  13. Scale-PC shielding analysis sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1996-05-01

    The SCALE computational system is a modular code system for analyses of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. With the release of SCALE-PC Version 4.3, the radiation shielding analysis community now has the capability to execute the SCALE shielding analysis sequences contained in the control modules SAS1, SAS2, SAS3, and SAS4 on a MS- DOS personal computer (PC). In addition, SCALE-PC includes two new sequences, QADS and ORIGEN-ARP. The capabilities of each sequence are presented, along with example applications.

  14. Biomimicry 1: PC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberland, D C; Gunn, J; Malik, N; Holt, C M

    1998-01-01

    The surface properties of stents can be modified by coating them, for example with a polymer. Phosphorylcoline (PC) is the major component of the outer layer of the cell membrane. The haemo- and biocompatibility of a PC-containing polymer is thus based on biomimicry, and has been confirmed by several experiments showing much reduced thrombogenicity of PC-coated surfaces, and porcine coronary artery implants showing no sign of adverse effect. Clinical experience with the PC-coated BiodivYsio appears favourable. The PC coating can be tailored for take up and controlled elution of various drugs for stent-based local delivery, a property which is being actively explored.

  15. Monte Carlo tests of the ELIPGRID-PC algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J.R.

    1995-04-01

    The standard tool for calculating the probability of detecting pockets of contamination called hot spots has been the ELIPGRID computer code of Singer and Wickman. The ELIPGRID-PC program has recently made this algorithm available for an IBM{reg_sign} PC. However, no known independent validation of the ELIPGRID algorithm exists. This document describes a Monte Carlo simulation-based validation of a modified version of the ELIPGRID-PC code. The modified ELIPGRID-PC code is shown to match Monte Carlo-calculated hot-spot detection probabilities to within {plus_minus}0.5% for 319 out of 320 test cases. The one exception, a very thin elliptical hot spot located within a rectangular sampling grid, differed from the Monte Carlo-calculated probability by about 1%. These results provide confidence in the ability of the modified ELIPGRID-PC code to accurately predict hot-spot detection probabilities within an acceptable range of error.

  16. Dimethyl-ammonium 3-carb-oxy-benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Tausif; Koteswara Rao, Vandavasi; Zeller, Matthias; Lovelace-Cameron, Sherri R

    2012-06-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title organic salt, C(2)H(8)N(+)·C(8)H(5)O(4) (-), consists of two dimethyl-ammonium cations and two 3-carb-oxy-benzoate anions. The 3-carb-oxy-benzoate anions are linked via strong inter-molecular and nearly symmetrical O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds forming infinite chains parallel to [111]. Neighbouring chains are further connected by the dimethyl-ammonium cations via N-H⋯O bonds, resulting in a double-chain-like structure. The dihedral angles of all carboxylate groups with respect to the phenylene rings are in the range 7.9 (1)-20.48 (9)°.

  17. A PC based thin film dosimeter system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Hargittai, P.; Kovacs, A.

    2000-01-01

    A dosimeter system based on the Riso B3 dosimeter film, an office scanner for use with PC and the associated software is presented. The scanned image is analyzed either with standard software (Paint Shop Pro 5 or Excel) functions or with the computer code "Scanalizer" that allows presentation...

  18. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL BENZOATE- UTILIZING Serratia marcescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIUS SUWANTO

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new benzoate-utilizing strain, Serratia marcescens DS-8, isolated from the environment was characterized. The strain was enterobacilli, Gram negative, mesophilic, non ha lophilic, and aerobic bacterium that showed motile ovale-rod shaped cells. The isolate produced extracellular chitinase, protease, and prodigiosin (a red pigment pr oduced by several Serratia strains yielding bright red or pink colonies. A physiological assay using Microbact* test showed that the strain was closely related to Klebsiella ozaenae (49.85% and Serratia liquefaciens (24.42%, respectively. However, 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicated that the strain was closely related to S. marcescens DSM 30121 with similarity level of 98%. DS-8 strain was able to synthesize its own vitamins. Optimum growth in benzoate was obtained at pH between 7-8.5 and NaCl concentration of 1- 1.5% (w/v. The isolate could grow in benzoate-containing medium up to 10 mM. Other carbon sources that could support the growth of DS-8 were casamino acid, glutamate, glucose, acetate, potato star ch, and ethanol.

  19. Interspecies acetate transfer influences the extent of anaerobic benzoate degradation by syntrophic consortia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warikoo, V.; McInerney, M.J.; Suflita, J.M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Benzoate degradation by an anaerobic, syntrophic bacterium, strain SB, in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G-11 reached a threshold value which depended on the amount of acetate added, and ranged from about 2.5 to 29.9 {mu}M. Increasing acetate concentrations also uncompetitively inhibited benzoate degradation. The apparent V{sub max} and K{sub m} for benzoate degradation decreased with increasing acetate concentration, but the benzoate degradation capacity (V{sub max}/K{sub m}) of cell suspensions remained comparable. The addition of an acetate-using bacterium to cocultures after the threshold was reached resulted in the degradation of benzoate to below the detection limit. Mathematical simulations showed that the benzoate threshold was not predicted by the inhibitory effect of acetate on benzoate degradation kinetics. With nitrate instead of sulfate as the terminal electron acceptor, no benzoate threshold was observed in the presence of 20 mM acetate even though the degradation capacity was lower with nitrate than with sulfate. When strain SB was grown with a hydrogen-using partner that had a 5-fold lower hydrogen utilization capacity, a 5 to 9-fold lower the benzoate degradation capacity was observed compared to SB/G-11 cocultures. The Gibb`s free energy for benzoate degradation was less negative in cell suspensions with threshold compared to those without threshold. These studies showed that the threshold was not a function of the inhibition of benzoate degradation capacity by acetate, or the toxicity of the undissociated form of acetate. Rather a critical or minimal Gibb`s free energy may exist where thermodynamic constraints preclude further benzoate degradation.

  20. Analisa Pengawet Natrium Benzoat Pada Manisan Buah Di Pasar Tradisional Kota Medan Tahun 2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Amalia Kurnia Sari P

    2011-01-01

    Preservative sodium benzoate chemical with formula of C7H5O2 This research was a descriptive survey researched that analyzed the content of sodium benzoate on the candied fruit. Fruit with total sampling 12 sample candied fruit consisting of three kinds of fruit, salak, mango and kedondong. Primary data from this research were obtained from laboratory test on sodium benzoate preservative substences contained in the candied fruit. Data obtained were analyzed descriptively. Na were Substance...

  1. PC clusters at CERN's PC farm

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    These Linux-based PC clusters are mainly used for batch and interactive data processing. When the LHC starts operation in 2008, it will produce enough data every year to fill a stack of CDS 20 km tall, so high quality processing is required. To further facilitate this the LHC Computing Grid (LCG) has been set up to share processing power between facilities around the world.

  2. The PC graphics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Julio

    2003-01-01

    Part I - Graphics Fundamentals PC GRAPHICS OVERVIEW History and Evolution Short History of PC Video PS/2 Video Systems SuperVGA Graphics Coprocessors and Accelerators Graphics Applications State-of-the-Art in PC Graphics 3D Application Programming Interfaces POLYGONAL MODELING Vector and Raster Data Coordinate Systems Modeling with Polygons IMAGE TRANSFORMATIONS Matrix-based Representations Matrix Arithmetic 3D Transformations PROGRAMMING MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS Numeric Data in Matrix Form Array Processing PROJECTIONS AND RENDERING Perspective The Rendering Pipeline LIGHTING AND SHADING Lightin

  3. Leo II PC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LEO II is a second-generation software system developed for use on the PC, which is designed to convert location references accurately between legal descriptions and...

  4. Determination of Hammett Equation Rho Constant for the Hydrolysis of p-Nitrophenyl Benzoate Esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Sheue L.; Peterson, Karl P.; Peterson, Kelly; Jacobson, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    Seven p-nitrophenyl benzoate esters (p-nitrophenyl benzoate, p-nitrophenyl m-anisate, p-nitrophenyl p-anisate, p-nitrophenyl m-chlorobenzoate, p-nitrophenyl p-chlorobenzoate, p-nitrophenyl m-toluate, p-nitrophenyl p-toluate) were synthesized and characterized by students in a second-semester organic laboratory course. In a subsequent laboratory…

  5. Determination of Hammett Equation Rho Constant for the Hydrolysis of p-Nitrophenyl Benzoate Esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Sheue L.; Peterson, Karl P.; Peterson, Kelly; Jacobson, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    Seven p-nitrophenyl benzoate esters (p-nitrophenyl benzoate, p-nitrophenyl m-anisate, p-nitrophenyl p-anisate, p-nitrophenyl m-chlorobenzoate, p-nitrophenyl p-chlorobenzoate, p-nitrophenyl m-toluate, p-nitrophenyl p-toluate) were synthesized and characterized by students in a second-semester organic laboratory course. In a subsequent laboratory…

  6. 40 CFR 721.4060 - Alkylene glycol tereph-tha-late and substituted benzoate esters (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted benzoate esters (generic name). 721.4060 Section 721.4060 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... substituted benzoate esters (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... substituted benzoate esters (PMN P-89-596) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  7. Lean production of taste improved lipidic sodium benzoate formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, C; Pein, M; Breitkreutz, J

    2014-10-01

    Sodium benzoate is a highly soluble orphan drug with unpleasant taste and high daily dose. The aim of this study was to develop a child appropriate, individually dosable, and taste masked dosage form utilizing lipids in melt granulation process and tableting. A saliva resistant coated lipid granule produced by extrusion served as reference product. Low melting hard fat was found to be appropriate as lipid binder in high-shear granulation. The resulting granules were compressed to minitablets without addition of other excipients. Compression to 2mm minitablets decreased the dissolved API amount within the first 2 min of dissolution from 33% to 23%. The Euclidean distances, calculated from electronic tongue measurements, were reduced, indicating an improved taste. The reference product showed a lag time in dissolution, which is desirable for taste masking. Although a lag time was not achieved for the lipidic minitablets, drug release in various food materials was reduced to 2%, assuming a suitable taste masking for oral sodium benzoate administration.

  8. Formulation and evaluation of rizatriptan benzoate mouth disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keny, R V; Desouza, Chrisma; Lourenco, C F

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation deals with development of mouth disintegrating tablets of rizatriptan benzoate to produce the intended benefits. Mouth disintegrating tablets of rizatriptan benzoate were prepared using superdisintegrants crospovidone, carboxymethylcellulose calcium, Indion 414 and Indion 234 using the direct compression method. The tablets prepared were evaluated for thickness, uniformity of weight, content uniformity, hardness, friability, wetting time, in vitro and in vivo disintegration time, mouth feel, in vitro drug release and assay by high performance liquid chromatography. The tablets disintegrated in vitro and in vivo within 4 to 7 s and 6 to 19 s, respectively. Almost 90% of drug was released from all formulations within 20 min. The drug release from the formulations followed first order kinetics. Stability studies of the tablets at 40+/-2 degrees /75%+/-5% RH for 1 mo showed non significant drug loss. The formulation containing combination of crospovidone and Indion 234 was found to give the best results. Apart from fulfilling all official and other specifications, the tablets exhibited higher rate of release.

  9. Formulation and evaluation of rizatriptan Benzoate mouth disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keny R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with development of mouth disintegrating tablets of rizatriptan benzoate to produce the intended benefits. Mouth disintegrating tablets of rizatriptan benzoate were prepared using superdisintegrants crospovidone, carboxymethylcellulose calcium, Indion 414 and Indion 234 using the direct compression method. The tablets prepared were evaluated for thickness, uniformity of weight, content uniformity, hardness, friability, wetting time, in vitro and in vivo disintegration time, mouth feel, in vitro drug release and assay by high performance liquid chromatography. The tablets disintegrated in vitro and in vivo within 4 to 7 s and 6 to 19 s, respectively. Almost 90% of drug was released from all formulations within 20 min. The drug release from the formulations followed first order kinetics. Stability studies of the tablets at 40±2 o /75%±5% RH for 1 mo showed non significant drug loss. The formulation containing combination of crospovidone and Indion 234 was found to give the best results. Apart from fulfilling all official and other specifications, the tablets exhibited higher rate of release.

  10. Building the perfect PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This popular Build-It-Yourself (BIY) PC book covers everything you want to know about building your own system: Planning and picking out the right components, step-by-step instructions for assembling your perfect PC, and an insightful discussion of why you'd want to do it in the first place. Most big brand computers from HP, Dell and others use lower-quality components so they can meet their aggressive pricing targets. But component manufacturers also make high-quality parts that you can either purchase directly, or obtain through distributors and resellers. Consumers and corporations

  11. Troubleshoot PC problems yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Most tasks on a modern PC are within the abilities of the ordinary user: more D-I-Y than Hi-Tech. and can be carried out with a single screwdriver and standard software tools. Get a kick-start with this little book which will give you just enough to get you going...

  12. Environmental fate of emamectin benzoate after tree micro injection of horse chestnut trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies.

  13. Effect of Emamectin Benzoate on Root-Knot Nematodes and Tomato Yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingkai Cheng

    Full Text Available Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita is an obligate, sedentary endoparasite of more than 3000 plant species, that causes heavy economic losses and limit the development of protected agriculture of China. As a biological pesticide, emamectin benzoate has effectively prevented lepidopteran pests; however, its efficacy to control M. incognita remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was to test soil application of emamectin benzoate for management of M. incognita in laboratory, greenhouse and field trials. Laboratory results showed that emamectin benzoate exhibited high toxicity to M. incognita, with LC50 and LC90 values 3.59 and 18.20 mg L(-1, respectively. In greenhouse tests, emamectin benzoate soil application offered good efficacy against M. incognita while maintaining excellent plant growth. In field trials, emamectin benzoate provided control efficacy against M. incognita and resulted in increased tomato yields. Compared with the untreated control, there was a 36.5% to 81.3% yield increase obtained from all treatments and the highest yield was received from the highest rate of emamectin benzoate. The results confirmed that emamectin benzoate has enormous potential for the control of M. incognita in tomato production in China.

  14. Effects of sodium benzoate, a widely used food preservative, on glucose homeostasis and metabolic profiles in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennerz, Belinda S; Vafai, Scott B; Delaney, Nigel F; Clish, Clary B; Deik, Amy A; Pierce, Kerry A; Ludwig, David S; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2015-01-01

    Sodium benzoate is a widely used preservative found in many foods and soft drinks. It is metabolized within mitochondria to produce hippurate, which is then cleared by the kidneys. We previously reported that ingestion of sodium benzoate at the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) dose leads to a robust excursion in the plasma hippurate level [1]. Since previous reports demonstrated adverse effects of benzoate and hippurate on glucose homeostasis in cells and in animal models, we hypothesized that benzoate might represent a widespread and underappreciated diabetogenic dietary exposure in humans. Here, we evaluated whether acute exposure to GRAS levels of sodium benzoate alters insulin and glucose homeostasis through a randomized, controlled, cross-over study of 14 overweight subjects. Serial blood samples were collected following an oral glucose challenge, in the presence or absence of sodium benzoate. Outcome measurements included glucose, insulin, glucagon, as well as temporal mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiles. We did not find a statistically significant effect of an acute oral exposure to sodium benzoate on glucose homeostasis. Of the 146 metabolites targeted, four changed significantly in response to benzoate, including the expected rise in benzoate and hippurate. In addition, anthranilic acid, a tryptophan metabolite, exhibited a robust rise, while acetylglycine dropped. Although our study shows that GRAS doses of benzoate do not have an acute, adverse effect on glucose homeostasis, future studies will be necessary to explore the metabolic impact of chronic benzoate exposure.

  15. Alkaline earth layered benzoates as reusable heterogeneous catalysts for the methyl esterification of benzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swamy Arêa Maruyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of layered barium, calcium and strontium benzoates and evaluates the potential of these materials as catalysts in the synthesis of methyl benzoate. The methyl esterification of benzoic acid was investigated, where the effects of temperature, alcohol:acid molar ratio and amount of catalyst were evaluated. Ester conversions of 65 to 70% were achieved for all the catalysts under the best reaction conditions. The possibility of recycling these metallic benzoates was also demonstrated, evidenced by unaltered catalytic activity for three consecutive reaction cycles.

  16. Methyl 4-[N-(5-bromopyrimidin-2-ylcarbamoyl]benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ling Hu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H10BrN3O3, the pyrimidine and benzene rings are twisted with an interplanar angle of 58.4 (1°. The secondary amide group adopts a cis conformation with an H—N—C—O torsion angle of 14.8 (1°. In the crystal, molecules are connected into inversion dimers via pairs of N—H...N hydrogen bonds, generating an R22(8 motif. The dimers are further connected through a C—Br...O interaction [3.136 (1 Å and 169.31 (1°] into a chain along [110]. Weak C—H...N hydrogen bonds between the methyl benzoate groups and pyrimidine rings are also observed in the crystal structure.

  17. Preparation and Evaluation of Emamectin Benzoate Solid Microemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid microemulsions of emamectin benzoate with the same content of surfactants were prepared by a self-emulsifying method. Emulsifier 600# and emulsifier 700# (3/2, w/w screened from eleven kinds of commonly used surfactants displayed great emulsifying properties. The redispersed solution of the solid microemulsion presented aqueous microemulsion characteristic. The mean particle size and polydispersity index were 10.34 ± 0.10 nm and 0.283 ± 0.013, respectively. The solid microemulsion showed excellent storage stability and the bioassay compared with water dispersible granules against diamondback moths provided a proof of its improved biological activities. This formulation could significantly reduce surfactants and is perspective in plant protection for improving bioavailability and environmental friendliness.

  18. 2-(1,3-Benzoxazol-2-yl-1-phenylethenyl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Ghorbani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecule, C22H15NO3, the configuration about the ethylenic double bond is Z configuration and it is approximately coplanar with the adjacent phenyl ring and benzoxazole ring system as indicated by the C(H=C(O—Cphenyl—Cphenyl and Obenzoxazole—C—C(H=C(O torsion angles of 179.88 (15 and 5.7 (2°, respectively. The dihedral angle between the essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.080 Å 2-(1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl-1-phenylethenyl group and the benzoate phenyl ring is 61.51 (6°. A short intramolecular O...O non-bonded interaction of 2.651 (2 Å is present.

  19. 2-Oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konan René Kambo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C16H10O4, the dihedral angle between the coumarin ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.015 Å and the benzoate group is 83.58 (9°, which compares to a value of 81.8° obtained from a DFT calculation at the B3LYP/6–311 G(d,p level. In the crystal, C—O...π and C—H...π interactions and aromatic π–π [Cg...Cg = 3.7214 (14 and 3.7059 (14 Å] stacking generate a three-dimensional network.

  20. Triterpene benzoates from the bark of Picramnia teapensis (Simaroubaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Gamboa Tatiana

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new benzoic acid esters of triterpene alcohols [lup-20(29-en-28-oic acid 3alpha,7beta-dibenzoate and 3alpha-hydroxy-lup-20(29-en-28-oic acid 7beta-benzoate] were isolated from the stem bark of Picramnia teapensis Tul. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectral analyses. Other known compounds, beta-sitosterol, estigmasterol, lupeol and epilupeol, were identified in mixture by GC-MS. The triterpene esters have not shown in-vitro inhibitory effect on the growth of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus (Fisher, referred also as Leucocoprinus gongylophorus (Heim, syn Rozites gongylophora (Möller, the symbiotic fungus cultivated by the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens L.

  1. Architecture of Trusted PC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shuhua; ZHU Yuefei

    2006-01-01

    This paper, focusing on the trusted computing group's standards, explained the key concept of trusted computing and provided the architecture of trusted PC. It built trust bottom-up by starting with trusted hardware and adding layers of trusted software. It is a system-level solution available to all applications running on the member platforms. This solution reduces the security burden on applications and thus simplifies application programming.

  2. Toxicity and residual efficacy of chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, and emamectin benzoate to obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sial, Ashfaq A; Brunner, Jay F

    2010-08-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the residual toxicity of spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate to obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Larvae were exposed to apple (Malus spp.) foliage collected at different intervals after an airblast sprayer application at the manufacturer-recommended field rate and half the field rate. A mortality of 100% was recorded at field rate applications of spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate through 59, 38, and 10 d after treatment (DAT), respectively. Significantly less foliage was consumed by C. rosaceana larvae surviving in the emamectin, chlorantraniliprole, and spinetoram treatments compared with those exposed to untreated foliage. Third-instar C. rosaceana exposed to fresh residues on terminal foliage showed 100% mortality after 5-d exposure to spinetoram residues and after 10-d exposure to chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate. The effects of larval movement from foliage with fresh residues was examined by transferring neonate larvae from foliage treated with spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, or emamectin benzoate to untreated foliage after various exposure intervals. An exposure of 1, 3, and 6 d was required for spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate to cause 100% mortality at the field rate, respectively. The higher the concentration of chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate, the less exposure time was necessary to cause high levels of mortality in C. rosaceana neonates. Our results indicate that these novel insecticides are highly toxic to C. rosaceana larvae. Implications of these results for C. rosaceana management programs are discussed.

  3. Synthesis and Protective Effect of New Ligustrazine-Benzoic Acid Derivatives against CoCl2-Induced Neurotoxicity in Differentiated PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimin Lei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel ligustrazine-benzoic acid derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their protective effect against cobalt chloride-induced neurotoxicity in differentiated PC12 cells. Combining hematoxylin and eosin staining, we found compound that (3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-ylmethyl 3-methoxy-4-[(3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-ylmethoxy]benzoate (4a displayed promising protective effect on the proliferation of the injured PC12 cells (EC50 = 4.249 µM. Structure-activity relationships are briefly discussed.

  4. Synthesis and structure of linear hexanuclear manganese (II) benzoate cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From a reaction system including benzoic acid and Mn(NO3)2 in alkali medium, two hexanuclear manganese benzoate cluster compounds have been synthesized. A compound [Et4N]2[Mn6(PhCOO)14] has been structurally characterized, which contains hexanuclear MnII moie-ties extending unlimitedly to form one-dimensional linear structure. Carboxyl oxygen atoms are bridged in variety of modes to the Mn atoms, forming an arrangement like a sinusoid for the Mn atoms. The structural parameters of these compounds were compared with the data obtained from EXAFS determination for the Mn cluster in the OEC of PSII, supporting that the coordination sphere of the Mn site in the OEC may contain carboxyl bridges. The possible combination modes between the carboxyl group and the Mn atoms have been suggested. The NMR signals exhibit widening and shift produced by the influence of the paramagnetic MnII sites. The red-shift of the absorption in IR spectrum was observed to be attributed to the coordination of the carboxyl group to the Mn atom, supporting the result of the study on crystal structure.

  5. A Floral Fragrance, Methyl Benzoate, is An Efficient Green Pesticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Zhang, Aijun

    2017-02-01

    Over-reliance on synthetic pesticides in insect pest control has caused widespread public and scientific concerns for human health and the environment, especially since many insect pests have already developed resistances to conventional pesticides and Bt products. For this reason, there is a considerable interest in development of alternative control methods for insect pest management. Based on laboratory studies, we report that methyl benzoate (MB), a naturally-occurring compound in many plants, may possess toxicity against various stages of a variety of insect pests, including the brown marmorated stinkbug, Halyomorpha halys, diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, as well as the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii. Based on our laboratory toxicity data, MB was at least 5 to 20 times more toxic than the conventional pyrethroid (β-cyfluthrin), sulfur & pyrethrin mixture, and some organic commercial products available on the market against H. halys, P. xylostella, and M. sexta, eggs. Because MB is considered an environment-friendly, it has great potential to be used as an alternative tool to synthetic pesticide for insect pest management in crop production, thereby, reducing threats to natural ecosystems and human health caused by over-application of conventional synthetic pesticides.

  6. Synthesis and structure of linear hexanuclear manganese (Ⅱ) benzoate cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌能; 陈久桐; 朱红平; 黄子祥; 刘秋田

    2001-01-01

    From a reaction system including benzoic acid and Mn(NO3)2 in alkali medium, two hexanuclear manganese benzoate cluster compounds have been synthesized. A compound [Et4N]2[Mn6(PhCOO)14] has been structurally characterized, which contains hexanuclear Mn11 moieties extending unlimitedly to form one-dimensional linear structure. Carboxyl oxygen atoms are bridged in variety of modes to the Mn atoms, forming an arrangement like a sinusoid for the Mn atoms. The structural parameters of these compounds were compared with the data obtained from EXAFS determination for the Mn cluster in the OEC of PS11, supporting that the coordination sphere of the Mn site in the OEC may contain carboxyl bridges. The possible combination modes between the carboxyl group and the Mn atoms have been suggested. The NMR signals exhibit widening and shift produced by the influence of the paramagnetic Mn" sites. The red-shift of the absorption in IR spectrum was observed to be attributed to the coordination of the carboxyl group to the Mn

  7. PC Inspector File Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    PC Inspector File Recovery是一个数据修复软件,它支持Fat12/16/32和NTFS文件系统。3.x的新特点:1,即使在引导区或FAT被删除或损坏的情况下,也能自动寻找到驱动器(对NTFS系统不具有该功能)。2.按照原始的时间和日期重新恢复文件。3.支持恢复文件的储存及网络驱。

  8. Demand for PC Increases Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ PC (polycarbonate) is an engineering thermoplastic with excellent comprehensive properties. It has the advantages of great strength, high toughness, good heat resistance,light weight, excellent workability and stable color and is therefore extensively used in several sectors:automotive, electronic/electric,construction, office equipment,packaging, sports ware, medical/health care and household utensils.PC can also be used to make PC copolymers or alloyed with other monomers or resins to improve its properties.

  9. Repairing and Upgrading Your PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Repairing and Upgrading Your PC delivers start-to-finish instructions, simple enough for even the most inexperienced PC owner, for troubleshooting, repairing, and upgrading your computer. Written by hardware experts Robert Bruce Thompson and Barbara Fritchman Thompson, this book covers it all: how to troubleshoot a troublesome PC, how to identify which components make sense for an upgrade, and how to tear it all down and put it back together. This book shows how to repair and upgrade all of your PC's essential components.

  10. Expression, purification and kinetic characterization of recombinant benzoate dioxygenase from Rhodococcus ruber UKMP-5M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Tavakoli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, benzoate dioxygenase from Rhodococcus ruber UKMP-5M was catalyzed by oxidating the benzene ring to catechol and other derivatives. The benzoate dioxygenase (benA gene from Rhodococcus ruber UKMP-5M was then expressed, purified, characterized, The benA gene was amplified (642 bp, and the product was cloned into a pGEM-T vector.The recombinant plasmid pGEMT-benA was digested by double restriction enzymes BamHI and HindIII to construct plasmid pET28b-benA and was then ligated into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3. The recombinant E. coli was induced with 0.5 mM isopropyl β-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG at 22˚C to produce benzoate dioxygenase. The enzyme was then purified by ion exchange chromatography after 8 purification folds. The resulting product was 25 kDa, determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and western blotting. Benzoate dioxygenase activity was found to be 6.54 U/mL and the optimal pH and temperature were 8.5 and 25°C, respectively. Maximum velocity (Vmax and Michaelis constant (Km were 7.36 U/mL and 5.58 µM, respectively. The end metabolite from the benzoate dioxygenase reaction was cyclohexane dione, which was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS.

  11. Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate preservatives in food stuffs in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirpour, Mansooreh; Arman, Azim; Yolmeh, Ahmad; Akbari Azam, Maryam; Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Zhila

    2015-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method was applied for the determination of the levels of benzoate and sorbate in 400 food samples, including pickled cucumbers, canned tomato pastes, sour cherry jams, soft drinks, fruit juices and dairy products (UF-Feta cheeses, Lighvan cheeses, lactic cheeses, yogurts and doogh). The results showed that 270 (67.5%) of all samples contained benzoate ranging from 11.9 to 288.5 mg kg(-1) in lactic cheese and fruit juice, respectively. The levels of sorbate in 98 (24.5%) of the samples were 20.1 to 284.3 mg kg(-1) in doogh and fruit juice, respectively. Moreover, benzoate was detected in all dairy products ranging from 11.9 mg kg(-1) in lactic cheese to 91.2 mg kg(-1) in UF-Feta cheese. A low concentration of benzoate could originate naturally, due to specific biochemical mechanisms during cheese, yogurt and doogh maturation. In conclusion, a minimum level for benzoate in dairy products should be defined in the legislation.

  12. A Low Cost Sounding System Using PC and Stereo Equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Joel F; Prasad, Narasimha S; Hodson, Wade D

    2011-01-01

    A system using a PC computer, speakers, and a microphone are used to measure distance or the speed of sound using a carrier modulated by pseudo random noise (PN)codes. This system can easily be built by students using computer and audio equipment commonly found in the lab or at home.

  13. Qualification plan for the Genmod-PC computer program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, R.B.; Wright, G.M.; Dunford, D.W.; Linauskas, S.H

    2002-07-01

    Genmod-PC is an internal dosimetry code that uses Microsoft Windows operating system, and that currently calculates radionuclide doses and intakes for an adult male. This report provides a plan for specifying the quality assurance measures that conform to the recommendations of the Canadian Standards Association, as well as AECL procedural requirements for a legacy computer program developed at AECL. (author)

  14. Desain dan Implementasi Sistem Kendali CNC Router Menggunakan PC untuk Flame Cutting Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Roni Permana Saputra; Anwar Muqorobin; Arif Santoso; Teguh Pudji Purwanto

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on design of router control systems based on computer numerical control (CNC) using personal computer (PC) implemented in flame cutting machine (FCM). NC-Code entered into the computer translated to be a command signal sent by the PC to a microcontroller to control the end effector’s movement alongthe X and Y axis simultaneously based on linear and circular interpolations calculation on the PC. This control system is implemented on FCM by connecting the output control of th...

  15. Development and validation of UV spectrophotometric method to study stress degradation behaviour of rizatriptan benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amolkumar, Kempwade; Ashok, Taranalli; Kiran, Jadhav

    2015-01-01

    Rizatriptan benzoate is a 5 HT 1B/1D receptor agonist which is prescribed for the treatment of migraine. In the present study new, simple, specific ultraviolet spectrophotometric method for rizatriptan benzoate was developed and validated. Forced degradation studies were carried out in acidic, alkaline and neutral pH conditions. The absorbance maxima peak was found to be 224 nm and linearity was observed in the concentration range of 0. 5-2. 5 µg . mL-1 with regression coefficient value of 0. 998 8. The method was validated and found to be precise. The percent recovery for rizatriptan benzoate was found to be 98. 576±0. 202. The bulk drug was found to be stable in neutral and acidic pH conditions but got degraded in 1 N NaOH solution.

  16. Development and Validation of UV Spectrophotometric Method to Study Stress Degradation Behaviour of Rizatriptan Benzoate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kempwade Amolkumar; Taranalli Ashok; Jadhav Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Rizatriptan benzoate is a 5 HT 1B/1D receptor agonist which is prescribed for the treatment of mi-graine .In the present study new ,simple ,specific ultraviolet spectrophotometric method for rizatriptan benzo-ate was developed and validated .Forced degradation studies were carried out in acidic ,alkaline and neutral pH conditions .The absorbance maxima peak was found to be 224 nm and linearity was observed in the concentra-tion range of 0.5~2.5 μg・mL -1 with regression coefficient value of 0.998 8 .The method was validated and found to be precise .The percent recovery for rizatriptan benzoate was found to be 98.576 ± 0.202 .The bulk drug was found to be stable in neutral and acidic pH conditions but got degraded in 1 N NaOH solution .

  17. Conductive iron oxide minerals accelerate syntrophic cooperation in methanogenic benzoate degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Li; Tang, Jia; Wang, Yueqiang; Hu, Min; Zhou, Shungui, E-mail: sgzhou@soil.gd.cn

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Paddy soil contaminated with benzoate incubated with hematite and magnetite. • Iron oxides addition enhanced methanogenic benzoate degradation by 25–53%. • The facilitated syntrophy might involve direct interspecies electron transfer. • Bacillaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Methanobacterium are potentially involved. - Abstract: Recent studies have suggested that conductive iron oxide minerals can facilitate syntrophic metabolism of the methanogenic degradation of organic matter, such as ethanol, propionate and butyrate, in natural and engineered microbial ecosystems. This enhanced syntrophy involves direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) powered by microorganisms exchanging metabolic electrons through electrically conductive minerals. Here, we evaluated the possibility that conductive iron oxides (hematite and magnetite) can stimulate the methanogenic degradation of benzoate, which is a common intermediate in the anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds. The results showed that 89–94% of the electrons released from benzoate oxidation were recovered in CH{sub 4} production, and acetate was identified as the only carbon-bearing intermediate during benzoate degradation. Compared with the iron-free controls, the rates of methanogenic benzoate degradation were enhanced by 25% and 53% in the presence of hematite and magnetite, respectively. This stimulatory effect probably resulted from DIET-mediated methanogenesis in which electrons transfer between syntrophic partners via conductive iron minerals. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Bacillaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Methanobacterium are potentially involved in the functioning of syntrophic DIET. Considering the ubiquitous presence of iron minerals within soils and sediments, the findings of this study will increase the current understanding of the natural biological attenuation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic environments.

  18. USL/DBMS NASA/PC R and D project C programming standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Moreau, Dennis R.

    1984-01-01

    A set of programming standards intended to promote reliability, readability, and portability of C programs written for PC research and development projects is established. These standards must be adhered to except where reasons for deviation are clearly identified and approved by the PC team. Any approved deviation from these standards must also be clearly documented in the pertinent source code.

  19. Development and Validation of HPTLC Method for the Estimation of Rizatriptan Benzoate in Bulk and Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, B Syama; Suneetha, A

    2010-11-01

    A new, simple high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been proposed for the determination of rizatriptan benzoate in a tablet dosage form. The drug was separated on aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60 F(254) with dichloromethane-acetone-acetic acid 3:2:0.2(v/v/v) as mobilephase. Quantitative analysis was performed by densitometric scanning at 230 nm. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The calibration plot was linear over the range 200-700 ng/band for rizatriptan benzoate. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of drug in bulk and marketed tablets.

  20. ELIPGRID-PC: A PC program for calculating hot spot probabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    ELIPGRID-PC, a new personal computer program has been developed to provide easy access to Singer`s 1972 ELIPGRID algorithm for hot-spot detection probabilities. Three features of the program are the ability to determine: (1) the grid size required for specified conditions, (2) the smallest hot spot that can be sampled with a given probability, and (3) the approximate grid size resulting from specified conditions and sampling cost. ELIPGRID-PC also provides probability of hit versus cost data for graphing with spread-sheets or graphics software. The program has been successfully tested using Singer`s published ELIPGRID results. An apparent error in the original ELIPGRID code has been uncovered and an appropriate modification incorporated into the new program.

  1. Effects of sodium benzoate on storage stability of previously improved beverage from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, Abiodun A; Aworh, Ogugua C

    2014-01-01

    The effect of sodium benzoate on the quality attributes of improved tamarind beverage during storage was investigated. Tamarind beverages were produced according to a previously reported improved method, with or without chemical preservatives (100 mg/100 mL sodium benzoate). Tamarind beverage produced according to traditional processing method served as the control. The tamarind beverages were stored for 4 months at room (29 ± 2°C) and refrigerated (4-10°C) temperatures. Samples were analyzed, at regular intervals, for chemical, sensory, and microbiological qualities. Appearance of coliforms or overall acceptability score of 5.9 was used as deterioration index. The control beverages deteriorated by 2nd and 10th days at room and refrigerated temperatures, respectively. Improved tamarind beverage produced without the inclusion of sodium benzoate was stable for 3 and 5 weeks at room and refrigerated temperatures, respectively. Sodium benzoate extended the shelf life of the improved tamarind beverage to 6 and 13 weeks, respectively, at room and refrigerated temperatures.

  2. Photodegradation of emamectin benzoate and its influence on efficacy against the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamectin benzoate is a novel insecticide with characteristics of translaminar movement into plant leaf tissue. The compound was derived from the avermectin family and improved with thermal stability, greater water solubility, and a broader spectrum of insecticidal activity than avermectin. To deter...

  3. Ultrasound mediated alkaline hydrolysis of methyl benzoate – reinvestigation with crucial parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivakumara, Manickam; Senthilkumar, Paramasivam; Majumdara, Sukti; Pandit, Aniruddha B.

    2002-01-01

    In the present work hydrolysis of methyl benzoate was carried out using aqueous sodium hydroxide solution at room temperature in the presence of ultrasound since otherwise the same reaction takes place at relatively high temperature. Also, the above hydrolysis reaction was investigated at a relative

  4. Identification of a Transcriptional Repressor Involved in Benzoate Metabolism in Geobacter bemidjiensis ▿

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Subsurface environments contaminated with aromatic compounds can be remediated in situ by Geobacter species. A transcription factor that represses expression of bamA, a benzoate-inducible gene, in Geobacter bemidjiensis during growth with acetate was identified. It is likely that this repressor also regulates other genes involved in aromatic compound metabolism.

  5. An Overview on the Effects of Sodium Benzoate as a Preservative in Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahmohammadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Food spoilage has been a common problem throughout history, and much of the spoilage is caused the activity of microorganisms or enzymatic reactions during the storage of food. Thus, using chemical substances could prevent or delay food spoilage and this has led to the great success of these compounds in the treatment of human diseases. Sodium benzoate is one of the synthetic additives that are widely used in the food industry. Evidence Acquisition In this review we summarized the history and role of benzoate sodium in the food industry, its limited value in different food, other uses, pharmacokinetics, and its toxicity in animal studies. A literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, Scopus, Science Direct, and Scientific Information Databases (SID. Results Sodium benzoate is used in different industries as well as the food industry and it has adverse effects similar to other food additives. Conclusions Studies on natural ingredients in foods to find compounds with similar effects as benzoate with less adverse effects is necessary.

  6. Toxic effects of pollutants on the Mineralization of 4-chlorophenol and Benzoate in methanogenic river sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beelen P; van Vlaardingen PLA

    1993-01-01

    The toxic effects of pollutants on the mineralization of 2 mug/l [U-14C] 4-chlorophenol and benzoate were studied in microcosms with methanogenic sediment from the Rhine river. In contrast with studies using a high substrate concentration no lag time was observed and the half-lives for 4-chlorophen

  7. Regulation of expression of the Aspergillus niger benzoate para-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, J.M. van den; Punt, P.J.; Gorcom, R.F.M. van; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    2000-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzyme systems are found throughout nature and are involved in many different, often complex, bioconversions. In the endoplasmic reticulum of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger a cytochrome P450 enzyme system is present that is capable of the para-hydroxylation of benzoate. The

  8. Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate in Processed Meat Products Collected in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen T.H. Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbates are the two typical preservatives widely used in Vietnam and other countries. The maximum level (ML of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in processed meat products imposed by Ministry of Public Health is 1000 ppm. Although there are warnings about overusing of these preservatives that related to human health, many manufacturers do not follow the regulations. The aim of this study was to survey and consider the amounts and presence of these preservatives in processed meat products by using High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method. 90 samples of brands and no brands including Vietnamese pork rolls, pâtés, hams, sausages, and fermented pork rolls that available at markets in Ho Chi Minh City were analysed for these two preservatives. There was a preference for using sodium benzoate in all samples. Moreover, Vietnamese pork roll samples had the highest percentage of samples with preservatives concentrations exceeding the ML. Among 90 samples, sodium benzoate was detected in 52.2% of samples and 17.8% of them exceeded the ML, while potassium sorbate was found in 24.4% of samples and only 2.2% of them exceeded the regulated amount. 46.4% of Vietnamese pork rolls, 12.5% of pâtés, and 9.1% of fermented pork rolls had sodium benzoate exceeded the ML, whilst ham and sausage samples contained the concentrations inside the safety limits. Furthermore, only one sample of Vietnamese pork rolls and one sample of sausages had potassium sorbate concentrations surpassing the ML with the level of 1,717.57 mg/kg and 1,814.00 mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, branded samples showed a significantly different result in compared with no branded samples. Of branded samples, exceeding sodium benzoate level ML was detected in 10% of samples and none of the samples found surpassing potassium sorbate limit amount. Nevertheless, 27.5% and 5% of unbranded samples had sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate higher than

  9. Effect of sodium benzoate preservative on micronucleus induction, chromosome break, and Ala40Thr superoxide dismutase gene mutation in lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongsavee, Malinee

    2015-01-01

    Sodium benzoate is food preservative that inhibits microbial growth. The effects of sodium benzoate preservative on micronucleus induction, chromosome break, and Ala40Thr superoxide dismutase gene mutation in lymphocytes were studied. Sodium benzoate concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/mL were treated in lymphocyte cell line for 24 and 48 hrs, respectively. Micronucleus test, standard chromosome culture technique, PCR, and automated sequencing technique were done to detect micronucleus, chromosome break, and gene mutation. The results showed that, at 24- and 48-hour. incubation time, sodium benzoate concentrations of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/mL increased micronucleus formation when comparing with the control group (P sodium benzoate concentrations of 2.0 mg/mL increased chromosome break when comparing with the control group (P Sodium benzoate did not cause Ala40Thr (GCG→ACG) in superoxide dismutase gene. Sodium benzoate had the mutagenic and cytotoxic toxicity in lymphocytes caused by micronucleus formation and chromosome break.

  10. Effect of Sodium Benzoate Preservative on Micronucleus Induction, Chromosome Break, and Ala40Thr Superoxide Dismutase Gene Mutation in Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinee Pongsavee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate is food preservative that inhibits microbial growth. The effects of sodium benzoate preservative on micronucleus induction, chromosome break, and Ala40Thr superoxide dismutase gene mutation in lymphocytes were studied. Sodium benzoate concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/mL were treated in lymphocyte cell line for 24 and 48 hrs, respectively. Micronucleus test, standard chromosome culture technique, PCR, and automated sequencing technique were done to detect micronucleus, chromosome break, and gene mutation. The results showed that, at 24- and 48-hour. incubation time, sodium benzoate concentrations of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/mL increased micronucleus formation when comparing with the control group (P<0.05. At 24- and 48-hour. incubation time, sodium benzoate concentrations of 2.0 mg/mL increased chromosome break when comparing with the control group (P<0.05. Sodium benzoate did not cause Ala40Thr (GCG→ACG in superoxide dismutase gene. Sodium benzoate had the mutagenic and cytotoxic toxicity in lymphocytes caused by micronucleus formation and chromosome break.

  11. Investigation of comparative efficacy of eugenol and benzyl benzoate in therapy of sheep mange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jezdimirović Milanka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The acaricide efficacy, tolerance and safety of eugenol (10 and 20 % in the treatment of sarcoptic mange in sheep have been investigated. The results were compared with those corresponding for benzyl benzoate (25 %, which was applied to sheep in the same way. The treatment was applied on sheep three times in one-week intervals. Skin scrapings were sampled seven days after each treatment, as well as twenty-eight days following the third one. The changes on the skin were quantified and the mean recovery response (MRR was calculated. The clinical efficacy was assessed according to the MRR and the number of mites in the samples. Following the first treatment 10%eugenol was not significantly less efficacious in comparison with the higher concentration. Having been applied twice 20% eugenol was significantly more efficacious when compared to the lower concentration, which remained the same seven and twenty-eight days after the third application. The efficacy of 10% eugenol in the therapy of mange was significantly higher in comparison with benzyl benzoate following one, two or three administrations. The efficacy of benzyl benzoate four weeks after the third treatment was still significantly lower in comparison with 10% eugenol. The efficacy of 20% eugenol was significantly higher in comparison with its lower concentration as well as that of benzyl benzoate, following the second, and seven and twenty-eight days after the third one. No signs of local or systemic intolerance were observed in sheep treated with either 10 or 20% eugenol, or 25 % benzyl benzoate. .

  12. THERMAL DECOMPOSITION MECHANISM OF BARIUM BENZOATE%苯甲酸钡的热分解机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张克立; 袁继兵; 袁良杰; 孙聚堂

    1999-01-01

    Barium benzoate was synthesized in semi-solid phase reaction. The complex was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, X-ray powder diffraction. It is layered structure, monoclinic system. The mechanism of thermal decomposition for barium benzoate was studied by using TG, DTA, IR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. The thermal decompositon of barium benzoate in nitrogen proceeded in one stage: it decomposed to form BaCO3 and organic compounds. The organic compounds obtained from decomposition reaction are mainly benzophenone, triphenylmethane and so on.

  13. Multiple Beamforming with Perfect Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Boyu

    2011-01-01

    In Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) beamforming, without channel coding, there is a trade-off between full diversity and full multiplexing. Adding channel coding, full diversity and full multiplexing can be both achieved, as long as the code rate Rc and the number of subchannels S satisfy RcS1. Recently discovered Perfect Space-Time Block Codes (PSTBCs) are full-rate full-diversity space-time codes, achieving maximum coding gain. In this paper, two novel techniques, Perfect Coded Multiple Beamforming (PCMB) and Bit-Interleaved Coded Multiple Beamforming with Perfect Coding (BICMB-PC), are proposed, employing PSTBCs. PCMB achieves full diversity, full multiplexing, and full rate simultaneously, and its performance is close to PSTBC and FPMB, while the decoding complexity is significantly less than PSTBC and much lower than FPMB of dimensions 2 and 4. On the other hand, BICMB-PC achieves both full diversity and full multiplexing, and its performance is similar to BICMB-FP, but provides much lower decoding com...

  14. Investigation on the adsorption characteristics of sodium benzoate and taurine on gold nanoparticle film by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naveen; Thomas, S.; Tokas, R. B.; Kshirsagar, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies of sodium benzoate and taurine adsorbed on gold nanoparticle (AuNp) film on silanised glass slides have been studied by attenuated total reflection technique (ATR). The surface morphology of the AuNp films has been measured by Atomic Force Microscopy. The ATR spectra of sodium benzoate and taurine deposited on AuNp film are compared with ATR spectra of their powdered bulk samples. A new red-shifted band appeared along with the symmetric and asymmetric stretches of carboxylate group of sodium benzoate leading to a broadening of the above peaks. Similar behavior is also seen in the case of symmetric and asymmetric stretches of sulphonate group of taurine. The results indicate presence of both chemisorbed and physisorbed layers of both sodium benzoate and taurine on the AuNp film with bottom layer chemically bound to AuNp through carboxylate and sulphonate groups respectively.

  15. Identification of anthranilate and benzoate metabolic operons of Pseudomonas fluorescens and functional characterization of their promoter regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Vincent D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an effort to identify alternate recombinant gene expression systems in Pseudomonas fluorescens, we identified genes encoding two native metabolic pathways that were inducible with inexpensive compounds: the anthranilate operon (antABC and the benzoate operon (benABCD. Results The antABC and benABCD operons were identified by homology to the Acinetobacter sp. anthranilate operon and Pseudomonas putida benzoate operon, and were confirmed to be regulated by anthranilate or benzoate, respectively. Fusions of the putative promoter regions to the E. coli lacZ gene were constructed to confirm inducible gene expression. Each operon was found to be controlled by an AraC family transcriptional activator, located immediately upstream of the first structural gene in each respective operon (antR or benR. Conclusion We have found the anthranilate and benzoate promoters to be useful for tightly controlling recombinant gene expression at both small (

  16. Investigation of low levels of plasma valproic acid concentration following simultaneous administration of sodium valproate and rizatriptan benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokama, Nobuo; Hobara, Norio; Kameya, Hiromasa; Ohshiro, Susumu; Hobara, Narumi; Sakanashi, Matao

    2007-03-01

    Drug interaction between rizatriptan benzoate, an anti-migraine agent, and sodium valproate (VPA-Na), an anticonvulsant, was studied in rats. When rizatriptan benzoate was administered orally immediately after VPA-Na oral administration, the pharmacokinetic parameters, such as plasma valproic acid (VPA) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve up to 3 h (AUC(0-3)), were significantly decreased compared with those in the control group. However, when rizatriptan benzoate was administered intraperitoneally immediately after VPA-Na orally, these parameters were not changed. In addition, when benzoic acid was administered orally immediately after VPA-Na orally, these were significantly lower compared with the control values. Therefore, it might be possible that VPA transport by monocarboxylate transporter was competitively inhibited by rizatriptan benzoate and thus absorption of VPA was decreased.

  17. Strict and direct transcriptional repression of the pobA gene by benzoate avoids 4-hydroxybenzoate degradation in the pollutant degrader bacterium Cupriavidus necator JMP134.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, Raúl A; Pérez-Pantoja, Danilo; González, Bernardo

    2011-06-01

    As other environmental bacteria, Cupriavidus necator JMP134 uses benzoate as preferred substrate in mixtures with 4-hydroxybenzoate, strongly inhibiting its degradation. The mechanism underlying this hierarchical use was studied. A C. necator benA mutant, defective in the first step of benzoate degradation, is unable to metabolize 4-hydroxybenzoate when benzoate is also included in the medium, indicating that this substrate and not one of its catabolic intermediates is directly triggering repression. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-hydroxylase-encoding pobA transcripts are nearly absent in presence of benzoate and a fusion of pobA promoter to lacZ reporter confirmed that benzoate drastically decreases the transcription of this gene. Expression of pobA driven by a heterologous promoter in C. necator benA mutant, allows growth on 4-hydroxybenzoate in presence of benzoate, overcoming its repressive effect. In contrast with other bacteria, regulators of benzoate catabolism do not participate in repression of 4-hydroxybenzoate degradation. Moreover, the effect of benzoate on pobA promoter can be observed in heterologous strains with the sole presence of PobR, the transcriptional activator of pobA gene, indicating that PobR is enough to fully reproduce the phenomenon. This novel mechanism for benzoate repression is probably mediated by direct action of benzoate over PobR. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Preparation and physicochemical characteristics of polylactide microspheres of emamectin benzoate by modified solvent evaporation/extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao Fei; Chen, Peng Hao; Zhang, Fei; Yang, Yan Fang; Liu, De Kun; Wu, Gang

    2013-12-18

    Emamectin benzoate is highly effective against insect pests and widely used in the world. However, its biological activity is limited because of high resistance of target insects and rapid degradation speed in fields. Preparation and physicochemical characterization of degradable microcapsules of emamectin benzoate were studied by modified solvent evaporation/extraction method using polylactide (PLA) as wall material. The influence of different compositions of the solvent in internal organic phase and external aqueous phase on diameter, span, pesticide loading, and entrapment rate of the microspheres was investigated. The results indicated that the process of solvent extraction and the formation of the microcapsules would be accelerated by adding water-miscible organic solvents such as ethyl ether, acetone, ethyl acetate, or n-butanol into internal organic phase and external aqueous phase. Accelerated formation of the microcapsules would result in entrapment rates of emamectin benzoate increased to as high as 97%. In addition, by adding ethanol into the external aqueous phase, diameters would reduce to 6.28 μm, whereas the loading efficiency of emamectin benzoate did not increase. The PLA microspheres prepared under optimum conditions were smoother and more spherical. The degradation rate in PLA microspheres of emamectin benzoate on the 10th day was 4.29 ± 0.74%, whereas the degradation rates of emamectin benzoate in methanol solution and solid technical material were 46.3 ± 2.11 and 22.7 ± 1.51%, respectively. The PLA skeleton had combined with emamectin benzoate in an amorphous or molecular state by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) determination. The results indicated that PLA microspheres of emamectin benzoate with high entrapment rate, loading efficiency, and physicochemical characteristics could be obtained by adding water-miscible organic solvents into the internal organic phase and external aqueous phase.

  19. Comparison of ivermectin and benzyl benzoate lotion for scabies in Nigerian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, Halima M; Thacher, Tom D

    2007-02-01

    Few studies have compared ivermectin directly with topical agents in developing countries. We compared the effectiveness of oral ivermectin (200 microg/kg) with topical 25% benzyl benzoate and monosulfiram soap in 210 subjects of age 5 to 65 years with scabies. Subjects with persistent lesions after 2 weeks received a second course of treatment. All lesions had resolved after 2 weeks in 77 of 98 (79%) subjects treated with ivermectin and in 60 of 102 (59%) subjects treated topically (P = 0.003). The improvement in severity score was greater in the ivermectin group than in the topical treatment group (P topical treatment group (P = 0.04). Compared with topical benzyl benzoate and monosulfiram in the treatment of scabies, ivermectin was at least as effective and led to more rapid improvement.

  20. Development and evaluation of tamarind seed xyloglucan-based mucoadhesive buccal films of rizatriptan benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avachat, Amelia M; Gujar, Kishore N; Wagh, Kishor V

    2013-01-16

    Mucoadhesive buccal films were developed using tamarind seed xyloglucan (TSX) as novel mucoadhesive polysaccharide polymer for systemic delivery of rizatriptan benzoate through buccal route. Formulations were prepared based on 3(2) factorial design with concentrations of TSX and carbopol 934P (CP) as independent variables. Three dependent variables considered were tensile strength, bioadhesion force and drug release. DSC analysis revealed no interaction between drug and polymers. Ex vivo diffusion studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cell, while bioadhesive properties were evaluated using texture analyzer with porcine buccal mucosa as model tissue. Results revealed that bilayer film containing 4% (w/v) TSX and 0.5% (w/v) CP in the drug layer and 1% (w/v) ethyl cellulose in backing layer demonstrated diffusion of 93.45% through the porcine buccal mucosa. Thus, this study suggests that tamarind seed polysaccharide can act as a potential mucoadhesive polymer for buccal delivery of a highly soluble drug like rizatriptan benzoate.

  1. Growth and studies of cyclohexylammonium 4-methoxy benzoate single crystal for nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathya, P.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2015-06-01

    Cyclohexylammonium 4-Methoxy Benzoate (C4MB) was synthesised and the functional groups were confirmed by FTIR analysis. The purified C4MB (by repeated recrystallisation) was used for single crystal growth. Single crystal of cyclohexylammonium 4-methoxy benzoate was successfully grown by slow evaporation solution growth method at ambient temperature. Structural orientations were determined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer. Optical absorption and cut off wavelength were identified by UV-Visible spectroscopy. Thermal stability of the crystal was studied from thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses curves. Mechanical stability of the grown crystal was analysed by Vicker's microhardness tester. The Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) study revealed that the C4MB compound exhibits the SHG efficiency 3.3 times greater than KDP crystal.

  2. Growth and studies of cyclohexylammonium 4-methoxy benzoate single crystal for nonlinear optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathya, P.; Gopalakrishnan, R., E-mail: krgkrishnan@annauniv.edu [Crystal Research Lab, Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai-600002 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Cyclohexylammonium 4-Methoxy Benzoate (C4MB) was synthesised and the functional groups were confirmed by FTIR analysis. The purified C4MB (by repeated recrystallisation) was used for single crystal growth. Single crystal of cyclohexylammonium 4-methoxy benzoate was successfully grown by slow evaporation solution growth method at ambient temperature. Structural orientations were determined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer. Optical absorption and cut off wavelength were identified by UV-Visible spectroscopy. Thermal stability of the crystal was studied from thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses curves. Mechanical stability of the grown crystal was analysed by Vicker’s microhardness tester. The Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) study revealed that the C4MB compound exhibits the SHG efficiency 3.3 times greater than KDP crystal.

  3. Simultaneous determination of a quaternary mixture of oxomemazine, sodium benzoate, guaifenesin and paracetamol by chromatographic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nehal F. Farid; Nariman A. El Ragehy; Maha A. Hegazy; Mohamed Abdelkawy; Fadia H. Metwally

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop simple, accurate, sensitive and selective methods for the simultaneous determination of oxomemazine (Ox), sodium benzoate (SB), guaifenesin (Gu), andparacetamol (Par). Two methods were described and validated for the simultaneous determination of the four drugs in syrup and suppositories. The first method was a reversed phase HPLC and UVdetection at 220 nm. The assay was performed using C 18 column and an isocratic elution using acetonitrile – methan...

  4. An Overview on the Effects of Sodium Benzoate as a Preservative in Food Products

    OpenAIRE

    Shahmohammadi; Javadi; Nassiri-Asl

    2016-01-01

    Context Food spoilage has been a common problem throughout history, and much of the spoilage is caused the activity of microorganisms or enzymatic reactions during the storage of food. Thus, using chemical substances could prevent or delay food spoilage and this has led to the great success of these compounds in the treatment of human diseases. Sodium benzoate is one of the synthetic additives that are widely used in the food industry. Evidenc...

  5. Bacterial degradation of benzoate: cross-regulation between aerobic and anaerobic pathways

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We have studied for the first time the transcriptional regulatory circuit that controls the expression of the box genes encoding the aerobic hybrid pathway used to assimilate benzoate via coenzyme A (CoA) derivatives in bacteria. The promoters responsible for the expression of the box cluster in the β-proteobacterium Azoarcus sp., their cognate transcriptional repressor, the BoxR protein, and the inducer molecule (benzoyl-CoA) have been characterized. The BoxR protein shows a significant sequ...

  6. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    OpenAIRE

    Melis Köse; Ebru Canda; Mehtap Kagnici; Sema Kalkan Uçar; Mahmut Çoker

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreo...

  7. Synthesis, structure and some properties of a manganese(II) benzoate containing diimine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Pranajit; Roy, Subhadip; Sarkar, Sanjoy; Chowdhury, Shubhamoy; Purkayastha, R. N. Dutta; Raghavaiah, Pallepogu; McArdle, Patrick; Deb, Lokesh; Devi, Sarangthem Indira

    2015-12-01

    A new monomeric manganese(II) benzoate complex containing nitrogen donor 2,2‧-bipyridine, [Mn(OBz)2(bipy)(H2O)] (OBz = benzoate, bipy = 2,2‧-bipyridine) has been synthesized from aqueous methanol medium and characterized by analytical, spectroscopic and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The compound exhibits moderate to appreciable antimicrobial activity. The complex crystallizes in space group P21/n. Mn(II) atom is ligated by two N atoms of bipyridine, three O atoms from a monodentate and a bidentate benzoate ligand and a water molecule forming distorted octahedral structure. The coordinated water molecule forms intramolecular hydrogen bonds and links the monomer molecules into hydrogen bonded dimer. The hydrogen bonded dimers are involved in intermolecular C-H···O and π-π stacking interactions. Density functional theory (DFT) computation was carried out to compute the frequencies of relevant vibrational modes and electronic properties, the results are in compliance with the experimentally obtained structural and spectral data.

  8. Detection of denatonium benzoate (bitrex) remnants in noncommercial alcoholic beverages by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Andrzej; Czerwicka, Małgorzata; Smulko, Janusz; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2014-09-01

    Illegal alcoholic beverages are often introduced into market using cheap technical alcohol, which is contaminated by denatonium benzoate (Bitrex) of very small concentration. Bitrex is the most bitter chemical compound and has to be removed before alcohol consumption. The home-made methods utilize sodium hypochlorite to disintegrate particles of denatonium benzoate in alcohol and to remove bitter taste before trading. In this experimental studies, we propose a novel method that detects in a fast way the remnants of denatonium benzoate in dubious alcohol samples by Raman spectroscopy. This method applies a portable Raman spectrometer of excitation wavelength 785 nm and utilizes the effect of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to recognize the suspected alcoholic beverages. High effectiveness (over 98%) of YES/NO classification of the investigated samples was observed when the nonlinear algorithm support vector machine (SVM) was exploited at carefully adjusted detection parameters. The method can identify illicit alcohol within minutes. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Development and validation of a specific stability indicating high performance liquid chromatographic method for rizatriptan benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikarjuna Rao, B; Sangaraju, Sivaiah; Srinivasu, M K; Madhavan, P; Lalitha Devi, M; Rajendra Kumar, P; Chandrasekhar, K B; Arpitha, Ch; Satya Balaji, T

    2006-06-16

    A gradient, reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) method was developed for the quantitative determination of rizatriptan benzoate, used to treat relieves migraine headache symptoms. The developed method can be also employed for the related substance determination in bulk samples. Forced degradation studies were performed on bulk sample of rizatriptan benzoate using acid (0.5 N hydrochloric acid), base (0.1 N sodium hydroxide), oxidation (3.0% hydrogen peroxide), water hydrolysis, heat (60 degrees C) and photolytic degradation. Mild degradation of the drug substance was observed in base hydrolysis and considerable degradation observed during oxidative stress. The chromatographic method was fine tuned using the samples generated from forced degradation studies. Good resolution between the peaks corresponds to degradation products and the analyte was achieved on Agilent Zorbax SB-CN (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column. The mobile phase consists of a mixture of aqueous potassium di hydrogen ortho phosphate (pH 3.4), acetonitrile and methanol. The stress sample solutions were assayed against the qualified reference standard of rizatriptan benzoate and the mass balance in each case was close to 99.7% indicating that the developed method is stability indicating. Validation of the developed method was carried out as per ICH requirements.

  10. Bioavailability Enhancement of Rizatriptan Benzoate by Oral Disintegrating Strip: In vitro and In vivo Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagawati, S T; Chonkar, Ankita D; Dengale, Swapnil J; Reddy, Sreenivasa M; Bhat, Krishnamurthy

    2016-01-01

    Oral disintegrating strips containing rizatriptan benzoate, a selective 5-hydroxy tryptamine receptor agonist with anti migraine property, was developed using polyvinyl alcohol, sodium alginate and hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose as the base materials. The analytical and bioanalytical methods were developed and validated using HPLC (PDA and flouroscence detectors). The dissolution study performed on the strips revealed that all the five formulations, release the drug within eight minutes. Under ICH accelerated stability conditions, strips were stable at 40°C and 75% humidity for eight weeks. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic properties of oral strip were compared with rizatriptan benzoate marketed tablet. Oral disintegrating strip and tablet showed significantly higher bioavailability. Oral strip exhibited better pharmacokinetic parameters than rizatriptan marketed tablet. The Tmax, Cmax, AUC and t1/2 for oral strip were found to be 1.00 h, 64.13±19.46 ng/mL, 352.00±71.57 ng/mL/h and 3.09±1.03 h respectively, whereas, tablet showed 1.5 h, 38.00±13.43 ng/mL, 210.38± 40.37ng/mL/h and 1.66±0.31 h respectively. These findings confirm that the rizatriptan benzoate oral disintegrating strip is potentially a useful tool for an effective treatment of migraine with improved bioavailability, rapid onset of action and with increased patient compliance.

  11. PC 2 Phone Event Announcer

    CERN Document Server

    Parhizkar, Behrang; Ali, Mohammad Nabil Sadegh; Ramachandran, Anand; Navaratnam, Sujata

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, mobile phones are indispensable devices; it has become a trend now that college and university students are owners of such devices and this particular factor plays a very important role behind the coming up with the proposed system. "PC 2 Phone event Announcer", is the name of the new proposed system suggested to solve the existing communication problem between the College staff and students. As the name suggests, it can be deduced that the system will involve computers and phones, more specifically mobile phones.

  12. Data acquisition techniques using PC

    CERN Document Server

    Austerlitz, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Data Acquisition Techniques Using Personal Computers contains all the information required by a technical professional (engineer, scientist, technician) to implement a PC-based acquisition system. Including both basic tutorial information as well as some advanced topics, this work is suitable as a reference book for engineers or as a supplemental text for engineering students. It gives the reader enough understanding of the topics to implement a data acquisition system based on commercial products. A reader can alternatively learn how to custom build hardware or write his or her own software.

  13. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  14. Identification of bacteria utilizing biphenyl, benzoate, and naphthalene in long-term contaminated soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Uhlik

    Full Text Available Bacteria were identified associated with biodegradation of aromatic pollutants biphenyl, benzoate, and naphthalene in a long-term polychlorinated biphenyl- and polyaromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. In order to avoid biases of culture-based approaches, stable isotope probing was applied in combination with sequence analysis of 16 S rRNA gene pyrotags amplified from (13C-enriched DNA fractions. Special attention was paid to pyrosequencing data analysis in order to eliminate the errors caused by either generation of amplicons (random errors caused by DNA polymerase, formation of chimeric sequences or sequencing itself. Therefore, sample DNA was amplified, sequenced, and analyzed along with the DNA of a mock community constructed out of 8 bacterial strains. This warranted that appropriate tools and parameters were chosen for sequence data processing. (13C-labeled metagenomes isolated after the incubation of soil samples with all three studied aromatics were largely dominated by Proteobacteria, namely sequences clustering with the genera Rhodanobacter Burkholderia, Pandoraea, Dyella as well as some Rudaea- and Skermanella-related ones. Pseudomonads were mostly labeled by (13C from naphthalene and benzoate. The results of this study show that many biphenyl/benzoate-assimilating bacteria derive carbon also from naphthalene, pointing out broader biodegradation abilities of some soil microbiota. The results also demonstrate that, in addition to traditionally isolated genera of degradative bacteria, yet-to-be cultured bacteria are important players in bioremediation. Overall, the study contributes to our understanding of biodegradation processes in contaminated soil. At the same time our results show the importance of sequencing and analyzing a mock community in order to more correctly process and analyze sequence data.

  15. Unexpected red shift of C-H vibrational band of Methyl benzoate

    CERN Document Server

    Maiti, Kiran Sankar; Scheurer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The C-H vibrational bands become more and more important in the structural determination of biological molecules with the development of CARS microscopy and 2DIR spectroscopy. Due to the congested pattern, near degeneracy, and strong anharmonicity of the C-H stretch vibrations, assignment of the C-H vibrational bands are often misleading. Anharmonic vibrational spectra calculation with multidimensional potential energy surface interprets the C-H vibrational spectra more accurately. In this article we have presented the importance of multidimensional potential energy surface in anharmonic vibrational spectra calculation and discuss the unexpected red shift of C-H vibrational band of Methyl benzoate.

  16. The Electrical Properties for Phenolic Isocyanate-Modified Bisphenol-Based Epoxy Resins Comprising Benzoate Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Yong; Chae, Il Seok; Park, Dongkyung; Suh, Hongsuk; Kang, Sang Wook

    2016-03-01

    Epoxy resin has been required to have a low dielectric constant (D(k)), low dissipation factor (Df), low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), low water absorption, high mechanical, and high adhesion properties for various applications. A series of novel phenolic isocyanate-modified bisphenol-based epoxy resins comprising benzoate group were prepared for practical electronic packaging applications. The developed epoxy resins showed highly reduced dielectric constants (D(k)-3.00 at 1 GHz) and low dissipation values (Df-0.014 at 1 GHz) as well as enhanced thermal properties.

  17. Application of N-succinimidyl 4-[18F](fluoromethyl) benzoate to protein labeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    N-succinimidyl 4-[18F](fluoromethyl) benzoate for protein labeling was prepared (57%, EOB) in about 30min. Reaction conditions of S18FMB with IgG including pH of solutions, protein concentration, reaction temperature and time were studied. The optimal labeling conditions were: 0.2mg/mL IgG, pH = 7.8-8.5, 25℃, and reaction time 5min.Under these conditions the yield was about 80%. The 18F-labeled protein was purified by size exclusion chromatography.

  18. Two new terpenoid benzoates with antitumor activity from the roots of Ferula dissecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Han, Hong-Ying; Li, Guo-Yu; Wang, Hang-Yu; Zhang, Cui; Zhang, Ke; Tan, Yong; Li, Ping-Ya; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Two new sesquiterpene benzoates, syreiteate A (1) and syreiteate B (2), were isolated from the roots of Ferula dissecta (Ledeb.) Ledeb. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D ((1)H and (13)C) NMR, 2D (HSQC, HMBC, DQF-COSY, and NOESY) NMR, and ESI-TOF-MS. Their configurations were determined on the basis of the analysis of the coupling constants, NOESY correlations, and circular dichroism spectrum. Compounds 1 and 2 showed potent growth inhibitory activity against cervical cancer HeLa cell line with the IC50 values of 13.2 and 19.3 μM, respectively.

  19. Ultrasonic Investigations of Molecular Interaction in Binary Mixtures of Benzyl Benzoate with Acetonitrile and Benzonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jaya Madhuri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity have been measured in the binary mixtures of benzyl benzoate with acetonitrile, benzonitrile at three temperatures 30, 40 and 50 °C. From the experimental data, thermodynamic parameters like adiabatic compressibility, internal pressure, enthalpy, activation energy etc., were computed and the molecular interactions were predicted based on the variation of excess parameters in the mixture. Also theoretical evaluation of velocities was made employing the standard theories. CFT and NOMOTO were found to have an edge. All the three mixtures have shown out strong intermolecular interactions between the unlike molecules and endothermic type of chemical reaction.

  20. Airborne contact urticaria due to sodium benzoate in a pharmaceutical manufacturing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nethercott, J.R.; Lawrence, M.J.; Roy, A.M.; Gibson, B.L.

    1984-10-01

    Three workers exposed to airborne contact with sodium benzoate (SB) in a pharmaceutical plant developed transient urticaria related to skin contamination with SB. Patch test responses to SB and benzoic acid (BA), without occlusion, were similar to those of three previously unexposed controls in keeping with the nonimmunologic nature of the reaction. Sweating, which lowers skin pH and increases topical BA concentration, appeared to increase the susceptibility to urticaria in two of the three workers. Ventilation and hygiene control methods designed to reduce SB skin contamination eliminated the problem in the workplace. 10 references, 1 table.

  1. PC-BLAS. PC Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, R.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1986-11-01

    PC-BLAS is a highly optimized version of the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS), a standardized set of thirty-eight routines that perform low-level operations on vectors of numbers in single and double-precision real and complex arithmetic. Routines are included to find the index of the largest component of a vector, apply a Givens or modified Givens rotation, multiply a vector by a constant, determine the Euclidean length, perform a dot product, swap and copy vectors, and find the norm of a vector. The BLAS have been carefully written to minimize numerical problems such as loss of precision and underflow and are designed so that the computation is independent of the interface with the calling program. This independence is achieved through judicious use of Assembly language macros. Interfaces are provided for Lahey Fortran 77, Microsoft Fortran 77, and Ryan-McFarland IBM Professional Fortran.

  2. STUDY ON THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF ADSORPTION OF ETHYL BENZOATE AND DIETHYL PHTHALATE BY PHENOLIC RESIN ADSORBENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Wang; Zuo-qing Shi; Rong-fu Shi; Yun-ge Fan; Yi-zhong Yang

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents experimental observations on the adsorption of individual solutes by a simple thermodynamic framework, and the equilibrium adsorption of ethyl benzoate and diethyl phthalate on phenolic resin adsorbent in hexane solutions within the temperature range of 293-313 K. The experimental results show that the Freundlich adsorption law is applicable to the adsorption of ethyl benzoate and diethyl phthalate on the adsorbent, since all the correlative factors R' are larger than 0.99. The negative values of all the isosteric adsorption enthalpies for ethyl benzoate and diethyl phthalate indicate that they undergo exothermic processes, while their magnitudes (19-28 kJ/mol) manifest a hydrogen bonding sorption process. Other thermodynamic properties: the free energy changes and the entropy change associated with the adsorption have been calculated from the Gibbs adsorption equation and the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation.

  3. PC/104 Embedded IOCs at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianxun Yan, Trent Allison, Sue Witherspoon, Anthony Cuffe

    2009-10-01

    Jefferson Lab has developed embedded IOCs based on PC/104 single board computers (SBC) for low level control systems. The PC/104 IOCs run EPICS on top of the RTEMS operating system. Two types of control system configurations are used in different applications, PC/104 SBC with commercial PC/104 I/O cards and PC/104 SBC with custom designed FPGA-based boards. RTEMS was built with CEXP shell to run on the PC/104 SBC. CEXP shell provides the function of dynamic object loading, which is similar to the widely used VxWorks operating system. Standard software configurations were setup for PC/104 IOC application development to provide a familiar format for new projects as well as ease the conversion of applications from VME based IOCs to PC/104 IOCs. Many new projects at Jefferson Lab are going to employ PC/104 SBCs as IOCs and some applications have already been running them for accelerator operations. The PC/104 - RTEMS IOC provides a free open source Real-Time Operating System (RTOS), low cost/maintenance, easily installed/ configured, flexible, and reliable solution for accelerator control and 12GeV Upgrade projects.

  4. PH-stat fed-batch process to enhance the production of cis, cis-muconate from benzoate by Pseudomonas putida KT2440-JD1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duuren, J.B.J.H. van; Wijte, D.; Karge, B.; Martins dos Santos, V.A.; Yang, Y.; Mars, A.E.; Eggink, G.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440-JD1 is able to cometabolize benzoate to cis, cis-muconate in the presence of glucose as growth substrate. P. putida KT2440-JD1 was unable to grow in the presence of concentrations above 50 mM benzoate or 600 mM cis, cis-muconate. The inhibitory effects of both compounds wer

  5. Generation of a catR deficient mutant of P. putida KT2440 that produces cis, cis-muconate from benzoate at high rate and yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duuren, J.B.J.H. van; Wijte, D.; Leprince, A.; Karge, B.; Puchalka, J.; Wery, J.; Dos Santos, V.A.P.M.; Eggink, G.; Mars, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440-JD1 was derived from P. putida KT2440 after N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG)-mutagenesis and exposure to 3-fluorobenzoate (3-FB). The mutant was no longer able to grow using benzoate as a sole carbon source, but co-metabolized benzoate to cis, cis-muconate during

  6. pH-stat fed-batch process to enhance the production of cis, cis-muconate from benzoate by Pseudomonas putida KT2440-JD1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duuren, van J.B.J.H.; Wijte, D.; Karge, B.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Yang, Y.; Mars, A.E.; Eggink, G.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440-JD1 is able to cometabolize benzoate to cis, cis-muconate in the presence of glucose as growth substrate. P. putida KT2440-JD1 was unable to grow in the presence of concentrations above 50 mM benzoate or 600 mM cis, cis-muconate. The inhibitory effects of both compounds wer

  7. Channel coding techniques for wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Deergha Rao, K

    2015-01-01

    The book discusses modern channel coding techniques for wireless communications such as turbo codes, low-density parity check (LDPC) codes, space–time (ST) coding, RS (or Reed–Solomon) codes and convolutional codes. Many illustrative examples are included in each chapter for easy understanding of the coding techniques. The text is integrated with MATLAB-based programs to enhance the understanding of the subject’s underlying theories. It includes current topics of increasing importance such as turbo codes, LDPC codes, Luby transform (LT) codes, Raptor codes, and ST coding in detail, in addition to the traditional codes such as cyclic codes, BCH (or Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem) and RS codes and convolutional codes. Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) communications is a multiple antenna technology, which is an effective method for high-speed or high-reliability wireless communications. PC-based MATLAB m-files for the illustrative examples are provided on the book page on Springer.com for free dow...

  8. Rotordynamics on the PC: Further Capabilities of ARDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David P.

    1997-01-01

    Rotordynamics codes for personal computers are now becoming available. One of the most capable codes is Analysis of RotorDynamic Systems (ARDS) which uses the component mode synthesis method to analyze a system of up to 5 rotating shafts. ARDS was originally written for a mainframe computer but has been successfully ported to a PC; its basic capabilities for steady-state and transient analysis were reported in an earlier paper. Additional functions have now been added to the PC version of ARDS. These functions include: 1) Estimation of the peak response following blade loss without resorting to a full transient analysis; 2) Calculation of response sensitivity to input parameters; 3) Formulation of optimum rotor and damper designs to place critical speeds in desirable ranges or minimize bearing loads; 4) Production of Poincard plots so the presence of chaotic motion can be ascertained. ARDS produces printed and plotted output. The executable code uses the full array sizes of the mainframe version and fits on a high density floppy disc. Examples of all program capabilities are presented and discussed.

  9. NETPEM-PC: users manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janson, B.N.; Zozaya-Gorostiza, C.; Southworth, F.

    1986-09-01

    This manual describes how to use the Network Performance Evaluation Model (NETPEM) on an IBM PC/XT computer. The program was developed as an aid to help urban transportation planners assess the impacts of high occupancy vehicle lanes on corridor wide levels of traffic congestion, energy consumption and emissions production. The program is written in TURBO-Pascal, with LOTUS 123 spreadsheet templates available for making changes to many of the model's input data and parameters, as well as for displaying certain outputs from the model's execution. The theoretical formulation of the model and a number of example runs are described in a companion report written by Janson, Zozaya-Gorostiza and Southworth (ORNL/TM-10060).

  10. PC Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-09

    PC-BLAS is a highly optimized version of the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS), a standardized set of thirty-eight routines that perform low-level operations on vectors of numbers in single and double-precision real and complex arithmetic. Routines are included to find the index of the largest component of a vector, apply a Givens or modified Givens rotation, multiply a vector by a constant, determine the Euclidean length, perform a dot product, swap and copy vectors, and find the norm of a vector. The BLAS have been carefully written to minimize numerical problems such as loss of precision and underflow and are designed so that the computation is independent of the interface with the calling program. This independence is achieved through judicious use of Assembly language macros. Interfaces are provided for Lahey Fortran 77, Microsoft Fortran 77, and Ryan-McFarland IBM Professional Fortran.

  11. Secondary. cap alpha. -deuterium kinetic isotope effects in solvolyses of ferrocenylmethyl acetate and benzoate in ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutic, D. (Univ. of Zagreb, Yugoslavia); Asperger, S.; Borcic, S.

    1982-12-17

    Secondary ..cap alpha..-deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIE) in solvolyses of ferrocenyldideuteriomethyl acetate and benzoate were determined in 96% (v/v) ethanol, at 25/sup 0/C, as k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.24 and 1.26, respectively. The KIEs were also determined in the presence of 0.1 mol dm/sup -3/ lithium perchlorate: the k/sub H//k/ sub D/ values were 1.23 and 1.22 for acetate and benzoate complexes, respectively. The maximum KIE for the C-O bond cleavage of a primary substrate is as large as, or larger than, that of secondary derivatives, which is estimated to be 1.23 per deuterium. The measured KIE of about 12% per D therefore represents a strongly reduced effect relative to its maximum. The solvolyses exhibit ''a special salt effect''. This effect indicates the presence of solvent-separated ion pairs and the return to tight pairs. As the maximum KIE is expected in solvolyses involving transformation of one type of ion pair into another, the strongly reduced ..cap alpha..-D KIE supports the structure involving direct participation of electrons that in the ground state are localized at the iron atom. The alkyl-oxygen cleavage is accompanied by 10-15% acyl-oxygen cleavage.

  12. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving sublingual films of Rizatriptan Benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhyan Bhupinder

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Rizatriptan Benzoate, a serotonin 5-HT1 receptor agonist is a new generation antimigraine drug which has oral bioavailability of 47% due to hepatic first pass metabolism. The present study investigated the possibility of developing Rizatriptan benzoate fast dissolving sublingual films allowing fast, reproducible drug dissolution in the oral cavity, thus bypassing first pass metabolism to provide rapid onset of action of the drug. The fast dissolving films were prepared by solvent casting method. Low viscosity grade of hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC E 15 and maltodextrin were used in combination as film forming polymer, due to their hydrophilic nature and palatable taste. To decrease the disintegration time of formulations sodium starch glycolate was used as disintegrating agent. Glycerol, mannitol, aspartame and sodium lauryl sulphate were used as a cooling agent, sweetening agent and oral penetration enhancer respectively. All the films formulations (F1-F8 was evaluated for their thickness, weight variations, tensile strength, percentage elongation, folding endurance, surface pH, in-vitro disintegration, drug content, in-vitro drug release and ex-vivo permeation. Disintegration time showed by the formulations was found to be in range of 25-50 sec. Formulations F1 and F2 showed 90% in-vitro drug release within 7 min and 61% ex-vivo drug permeation within16 min. The film showed an excellent stability at least for 4 weeks when stored at 400 C and 75% in humidity.

  13. Thermodynamic and Acoustic Study on Molecular Interactions in Certain Binary Liquid Systems Involving Ethyl Benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nagarjun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Speeds of sound and density for binary mixtures of ethyl benzoate (EB with N,N-dimethylformamide (NNDMF, N,N-dimethyl acetamide (NNDMAc, and N,N-dimethylaniline (NNDMA were measured as a function of mole fraction at temperatures 303.15, 308.15 K, 313.15 K, and 318.15 K and atmospheric pressure. From the experimental data, adiabatic compressibility (βad, intermolecular free length (Lf, and molar volume (V have been computed. The excess values of the above parameters were also evaluated and discussed in light of molecular interactions. Deviation in adiabatic compressibilities and excess intermolecular free length (LfE are found to be negative over the molefraction of ethyl benzoate indicating the presence of strong interactions between the molecules. The negative excess molar volume VE values are attributed to strong dipole-dipole interactions between unlike molecules in the mixtures. The binary data of Δβad, VE, and LfE were correlated as a function of molefraction by using the Redlich-Kister equation.

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Potassium Sorbate and Sodium Benzoate in Doogh Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sohrabvandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC as a simple and rapid technique was used for the determination of potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate in different brands of Doogh (typical Iranian drink based on fermented milk. The chromatographic separation was achieved with a C18 column (250 mm×4 I.D, 5 µm and one buffered mobile phase, acetate buffer (0.2 mol/L, pH4.4: acetonitrile (63:37 at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The effluent was monitored at 235nm, respectively. The main affecting factors, such as Carrez solution amount, pH and centrifuge speed were optimized. Limits of detection (LODs were 1.823 for sorbic acid and 1.985 for benzoic acid. Relative standard deviations (RSDs for quintuplicate analyses were 4.4 for sorbic acid and 4.087 for benzoic acid. The method also showed good linearity in a range from 4 to 1000 mg/L with correlation coefficients (R2 of 0.990 for sorbic acid and 0.995 for benzoic acid. Recoveries for the two analytes were 80 for sorbic acid and 65 for benzoic acid. Comparing to the other techniques, the proposed method was significantly less time-consuming and had more acceptable accuracy, precision and interruption elimination in samples. The developed method was successfully used for the routine monitoring of benzoate and sorbate in Doogh.

  15. Smartphone Application Development : Porting existing PC game for multiple platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Östh, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    An already created PC game exists and the goal of this project is to find a solution to port the game to the most popular smartphone platforms using mostly one generic code. The game to be ported is a musical game where the player uses an acoustic guitar to interact with the game using with the help of real time audio analysis. This thesis goes through the development process to reach the objective by investigating proper tools and issues around the performance and human-computer interaction ...

  16. PC Cluster Machine Equipped with High-Speed Communication Software

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, M

    2004-01-01

    A high performance Beowulf (PC cluster) machine installed with Linux operating system and MPI (Message Passing Interface) for interprocessor communications has been constructed using Gigabit Ethernet and the communication software GAMMA (Genoa Active Message Machine), instead of the standard TCP/IP protocol. Fast C/Fortran compilers have been exploited with the GAMMA communication libraries. This method has eliminated large communication overhead of TCP/IP and resulted in significant increase in the computational performance of real application programs including the first-principle molecular dynamics simulation code. (Keywords: non TCP/IP, active messages, small latency, fast C/Fortran compilers, materials science, first-principle molecular dynamics)

  17. SISTEM PENDUKUNG KEPUTUSAN BERBASIS TABLET PC (PERSONAL COMPUTER SEBAGAI PENENTU STATUS GIZIGIZI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Suryanto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini mencoba merancang suatu aplikasi sistem pendukung keputusan yang digunakan untuk menentukan status gizi seseorang. Sistem yang dirancang ini berbasis Tablet PC. Hal ini dilakukan karena ukuran Tablet PC yang relatif kecil sehingga dapat dengan mudah dibawah kemana saja (mobile. Hingga saat ini telah banyak masyarakat umum yang menggunakan Tablet PC untuk menunjang kebutuhannya sehari-hari. Tujuan yang ingin diperoleh melalui penelitian ini adalah : 1.Membangun aplikasi pendukung keputusan berbasis Tablet PC untuk menentukan status gizi seseorang. 2. Ingin membuat aplikasi pendukung keputusan berbasis Tablet PC untuk menentukan status gizi seseorang yang sifatnya portable, bisa digunakan setiap saat dan oleh siapa saja penggunanya. Langkah kerja dari pembuatan aplikasi adalah peneliti membuat aplikasi dari suatu bahasa pemrograman Java. Pada proses ini yang dilakukan adalah membuat sebuah project Android yang di dalamnya terdapat source code, resource files dan Android manifest file. Proses penulisan source code dilakukan dengan bantuan software IDE (Integrated Development Environment Eclipse. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan terciptanya perangkat lunak (software aplikasi pendukung keputusan berbasis Tablet PC untuk menentukan status gizi.

  18. Holographic codes

    CERN Document Server

    Latorre, Jose I

    2015-01-01

    There exists a remarkable four-qutrit state that carries absolute maximal entanglement in all its partitions. Employing this state, we construct a tensor network that delivers a holographic many body state, the H-code, where the physical properties of the boundary determine those of the bulk. This H-code is made of an even superposition of states whose relative Hamming distances are exponentially large with the size of the boundary. This property makes H-codes natural states for a quantum memory. H-codes exist on tori of definite sizes and get classified in three different sectors characterized by the sum of their qutrits on cycles wrapped through the boundaries of the system. We construct a parent Hamiltonian for the H-code which is highly non local and finally we compute the topological entanglement entropy of the H-code.

  19. Sharing code

    OpenAIRE

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  20. Triphenylmethyl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Sykora

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C26H20O2, has long been known, but was not structurally characterized until now. It adopts the Z conformation and the atoms comprising the ester linkage are essentially coplanar (r.m.s. deviation of 0.0234 Å. The acyl C—O bond length of 1.470 (2 Å falls within the normal range seen for esters of tertiary alcohols and is below the value of 1.496 Å found in tri-tert-butylmethyl 4-nitrobenzoate.

  1. Optimization of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as host for the production of cis, cis-muconate from benzoate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duuren, van J.B.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as host for the production of cis, cis-muconate from benzoate P. putida KT2440 was used as biocatalyst given its versatile and energetically robust metabolism. Therefore, a mutant was generated and a process developed based on which a life cycle assessment

  2. Ivermectin alone or in combination with benzyl benzoate in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-associated scabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberici, F; Pagani, L; Ratti, G; Viale, P

    2000-05-01

    In order to establish a safe and reliable treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated scabies, we have treated 60 episodes of scabies in this setting, occurring in 39 patients, with one of the following regimens: (i) topical treatment with benzyl benzoate solution; (ii) single-dose oral treatment with ivermectin alone; and (iii) combination therapy with benzyl benzoate solution and oral ivermectin, employing the same regimens as single-agent therapy. Patients were stratified according to the severity score of the disease and the outcome (eradication, relapse, failure). We found that both benzyl benzoate and ivermectin alone were quite effective in mild to moderate scabies, but they were both associated with an unacceptable rate of relapse and failure in severe or crusted scabies. In contrast, combined treatment produced an optimal rate of success, without significant treatment-related side-effects. Therefore, we consider that combination treatment with benzyl benzoate solution and oral ivermectin is preferable to single-agent therapy in crusted scabies occurring in HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients.

  3. Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin suppress Th1-type immune response in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Elisabeth; Kurz, Katharina; Jenny, Marcel; Schennach, Harald; Ueberall, Florian; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2010-07-01

    Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin are demonstrated to suppress in a dose-dependent manner Th1-type immune response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro. Results show an anti-inflammatory property of compounds which however could shift the Th1-Th2-type immune balance towards Th2-type immunity.

  4. PC-based tele-audiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Min; Lee, Haet Bit; Park, Cheol Soo; Oh, Seung Ha; Park, Kwang Suk

    2007-10-01

    A personal computer (PC)-based audiometer was developed for interactive remote audiometry. This paper describes a tele-audiometric system and evaluates the performance of the device when compared with conventional face-to-face audiometry. The tele-audiometric system is fully PC-based. A sound card featuring a high-quality digital-to-analog converter is used as a pure-tone generator. The audiometric programs were developed based on Microsoft Windows in order to maximize usability. Audiologists and their subjects can use the tele-audiometry system as one would utilize any PC application. A calibration procedure has been applied for the standardization of sound levels in the remote system. The performance of this system was evaluated by comparing PC-based audiometry with the conventional clinical audiometry system for 37 subjects. Also, performance of the PC-based system was evaluated during use at a remote site. The PC-based audiometry system estimated the audiometric threshold with an error of less than 2.3 dBSPL. Only 10.7% of the results exhibited an error greater than 5 dBSPL during use at a remote site. The PC-based tele-audiomerty showed acceptable results for use at a remote site. This PC-based system can be used effectively and easily in many locations that have Internet access but no local audiologists.

  5. Hydrogen bonds in PC61BM solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Chun-Qi; Li, Wen-Jie; Du, Ying-Ying; Chen, Guang-Hua; Chen, Zheng; Li, Hai-Yang; Li, Hong-Nian

    2015-09-01

    We have studied the hydrogen bonds in PC61BM solids. Inter-molecular interaction is analyzed theoretically for the well-defined monoclinic (P21/n) structure. The results indicate that PC61BM combines into C-H⋯Od bonded molecular chains, where Od denotes the doubly-bonded O atom of PC61BM. The molecular chains are linked together by C-H⋯Os bonds, where Os denotes the singly-bonded O atom of PC61BM. To reveal the consequences of hydrogen bond formation on the structural properties of PC61BM solids (not limited to the monoclinic structure), we design and perform some experiments for annealed samples with the monoclinic (P21/n) PC61BM as starting material. The experiments include differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption measurements. Structural phase transitions are observed below the melting point. The C-H⋯Od bonds seem persisting in the altered structures. The inter-molecular hydrogen bonds can help to understand the phase separation in polymer/PC61BM blends and may be responsible for the existence of liquid PC61BM.

  6. Medium effect (transfer activity coefficient) of methanol and acetonitrile on beta-cyclodextrin/benzoate complexation in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, Simo P; Sarmini, Karim; Fanali, Salvatore; Kenndler, Ernst

    2003-04-01

    Association constants, Kc, were derived from the electrophoretic mobilities of the anionic solutes (seven benzoates with hydroxy or chloro substituents) by capillary zone electrophoresis in different solvent systems, consisting of binary mixtures of water with up to 20% (v/v) methanol or acetonitrile, respectively. The association constants expectedly are found to decrease with increasing organic solvent concentration. The effect of organic solvents on the Kc of the benzoates with beta-cyclodextrin was analyzed applying the concept of the transfer activity coefficient (or the medium effect). This concept enables the evaluation of the significance of the contributions of the individual species involved in the complexation equilibrium in the different solvents: the benzoate ion, beta-cyclodextrin, and the anionic benzoate-beta-cyclodextrin complex. The medium effect on benzoate was calculated from the change in acidity constant of benzoic acid in the different mixed solvents and the corresponding transfer activity coefficients of the proton and the molecular acid. The transfer activity coefficients for beta-cyclodextrin results from its solubility at saturation in the different solvents. In this way, an estimation of the standard free energy of transfer, deltaG(t)0, of each species involved in the complexation equilibrium was possible for the transfer from water into the respective mixed solvent. It was found that the organic solvents do not significantly affect deltaG(t)0 for the benzoate anion. However, the organic solvents play a different role concerning the stabilization of beta-cyclodextrin and the complex anion: whereas the addition of acetonitrile has nearly no influence on deltaG(t)0 of the anionic complex, the reduction in Kc is caused by the enhanced stabilization of beta-cyclodextrin (reflected by its better solubility). Addition of methanol, on the other hand, lowers the solubility of beta-cyclodextrin, thus giving positive values for deltaG(t)0. Thus

  7. Effect of emamectin benzoate on mortality, proboscis extension, gustation and reproduction of the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Juan D; Latheef, M A; Hoffmann, W C

    2010-01-01

    Newly emerged corn earworm adults, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) require a carbohydrate source from plant or other exudates and nectars for dispersal and reproduction. Adults actively seek and forage at feeding sites upon eclosion in the habitat of the larval host plant or during dispersal to, or colonization of, a suitable reproductive habitat. This nocturnal behavior of H. zea has potential for exploitation as a pest management strategy for suppression using an adult feeding approach. This approach entails the use of a feeding attractant and stimulant in combination with a toxicant that when ingested by the adult will either reduce fecundity/fertility at sub-lethal dosages or kill the adult. The intent of this study was to assess reproductive inhibition and toxicity of emamectin benzoate on H. zea when ingested by the adults when mixed in ppm active ingredient (wt:vol) with 2.5 M sucrose as a feeding stimulant. Because the mixture has to be ingested to function, the effect of emamectin benzoate was also evaluated at sub-lethal and lethal concentrations on proboscis extension and gustatory response of H. zea in the laboratory. Feral males captured in sex pheromone-baited traps in the field were used for toxicity evaluations because they were readily available and were more representative of the field populations than laboratory-reared adults. Laboratory-reared female moths were used for reproduction effects because it is very difficult to collect newly emerged feral females from the field. Emamectin benzoate was highly toxic to feral H. zea males with LC(50) values (95% CL) being 0.718 (0.532-0.878), 0.525 (0.316-0.751), and 0.182 (0.06-0.294) ppm for 24, 48 and 72 h responses, respectively. Sub-lethal concentrations of emamectin benzoate did not significantly reduce proboscis extension response of feral males and gustatory response of female H. zea. Sublethal concentrations of emamectin benzoate significantly reduced percent larval hatch of

  8. Creating a portable data-collection system with Microsoft Embedded Visual Tools for the Pocket PC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an overview and illustrative example for creating a portable data-collection system using Microsoft Embedded Visual Tools for the Pocket PC. A description of the Visual Basic programming language is given, along with examples of computer code procedures for developing data-collection software. Program specifications, strategies for customizing the collection system, and troubleshooting tips are also provided.

  9. Green PC Saves Human Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Shaik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is the study and practice of using computing resources efficiently. This give idea about reduce the use of hazardous materials maximize energy efficiency during the product's lifetime, and promote recyclability. Green computing can be broadly defined as the problem of reducing the overall carbon footprint of computing and communication infrastructure, such as data centers, by using energy-efficient design and operations. As the environmentalists and energy conservationists ponder over the issue of conserving environment, technologists have come out with a simple solution to let you contribute to the “Go Green” campaign- with the help of Green PCs. By using green computing practices; you can improve energy management, increase energy efficiency, reduce e-waste, and save money. Taking into consideration the popular use of information technology industry, it has to lead a revolution of sorts by turning green in a manner no industry has ever done before. It is worth emphasizing that this “green technology” should not be just about sound bytes to impress activists but concrete action and organizational policy. The plan towards Green PC should include new electronic products and services with optimum efficiency and all possible options towards energy savings and technical issues in high-performance green computing span the spectrum from green infrastructure like energy-efficient buildings, intelligent cooling systems, green power sources for green hardware multi-core computing systems, energy-efficient server design, energy-efficient solid-state storage for green software and applications.

  10. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...

  11. Polar Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    QPSK Gaussian channels . .......................................................................... 39 vi 1. INTRODUCTION Forward error correction (FEC...Capacity of BSC. 7 Figure 5. Capacity of AWGN channel . 8 4. INTRODUCTION TO POLAR CODES Polar codes were introduced by E. Arikan in [1]. This paper...Under authority of C. A. Wilgenbusch, Head ISR Division EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report describes the results of the project “More reliable wireless

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of sodium benzoate as a silage additive for pigs, poultry, bovines, ovines, goats, rabbits and horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Sodium benzoate is intended for use as a technological additive to improve the ensiling process at a proposed dose of 2 400 mg/kg fresh matter, the eventual use of the silage being for pigs, poultry, bovines, ovines, goats, rabbits and horses. The application of sodium benzoate in the preparation of silage at the proposed dose was safe for the target animals. The proposed maximum dose of sodium benzoate is estimated to result in a comparable consumer exposure as does its use as preservative in other feedingstuffs and to make a minimal contribution to consumer exposure. The FEEDAP Panel concluded that sodium benzoate when used as a silage additive is safe for the consumer. Sodium benzoate is not considered as a skin irritant but may be mildly irritant to the eyes. As no data on sensitisation appear to be available, the FEEDAP Panel considered it prudent to treat sodium benzoate as a potential sensitiser. In the absence of information on particle size and dusting potential, a risk from inhalation cannot be excluded. The FEEDAP Panel concluded that there are no safety concerns for the environment resulting from the use of sodium benzoate as a silage additive. Based on a series of laboratory studies, sodium benzoate at the recommended dose was shown to have the potential to improve the production of silage by reducing pH and increasing the preservation of dry matter. This was demonstrated in a range of easy, moderately difficult and difficult to ensile forage materials. Sodium benzoate at concentrations between 250 and 2 500 mg/kg forage also has the potential to increase the aerobic stability of ensiled materials at a wide range of dry matter content.

  13. A novel 3α-p-Nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate and two new triterpenoids from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Reiko; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nakasuji, Saori; Ue, Yasuhiro; Shuto, Daisuke; Igarashi, Keishi; Okada, Rina; Yamada, Takeshi

    2013-06-26

    Three novel multiflorane-type triterpenoids, 3α-p-nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (1), 3α-acetoxymultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (2), and 3α-acetoxymultiflora-5(6):7:9(11)-triene-29-benzoate (3), along with two known related compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L). Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HREIMS. Triterpenoids possessing a nitro group were not isolated previously.

  14. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of sodium benzoate, a food preservative, with calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guowen; Ma, Yadi

    2013-11-01

    The interaction between sodium benzoate (SB) and calf thymus DNA in simulated physiological buffer (pH 7.4) using acridine orange (AO) dye as a fluorescence probe, was investigated by UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy along with DNA melting studies and viscosity measurements. An expanded UV-Vis spectral data matrix was resolved by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) approach. The equilibrium concentration profiles and the pure spectra for SB, DNA and DNA-SB complex from the high overlapping composite response were simultaneously obtained. The results indicated that SB could bind to DNA, and hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds played a vital role in the binding process. Moreover, SB was able to quench the fluorescence of DNA-AO complex through a static procedure. The quenching observed was indicative of an intercalative mode of interaction between SB and DNA, which was supported by melting studies, viscosity measurements and CD analysis.

  15. σ- versus π-Activation of Alkynyl Benzoates Using B(C6F53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bähr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We have prepared a range of alkynyl benzoates in high yields and have investigated their reactivities with the strong Lewis acid B(C6F53. In such molecules both σ-activation of the carbonyl and π-activation of the alkyne are possible. In contrast to the reactivity of propargyl esters with B(C6F53 which proceed via 1,2-addition of the ester and B(C6F53 across the alkyne, the inclusion of an additional CH2 spacer switches off the intramolecular cyclization and selective σ-activation of the carbonyl group is observed through adduct formation. This change in reactivity appears due to the instability of the species which would be formed through B(C6F53 activation of the alkyne.

  16. Electro-optic and dynamic studies of biphenyl benzoate ferroelectric liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemine, J., E-mail: hemine1@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite Hassan II, Mohammedia-Casablanca, BP 146, F.S.T. Mohammedia (Morocco); Daoudi, A. [Universite Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ULCO, LDSMM, F-59140 Dunkerque (France); CNRS UMR8024, F-59140 Dunkerque (France); Legrand, C. [Universite Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ULCO, LEMCEL, F-62228 Calais (France); El kaaouachi, A.; Nafidi, A. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences Ibnou Zohr, BP 28/S 80000 Agadir (Morocco); Ismaili, M.; Isaert, N. [Universite Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); USTL, LDSMM, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); CNRS UMR8024, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Nguyen, H.T. [Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, Universite de Bordeaux 1, 33600 Pessac (France)

    2010-05-01

    We present electro-optic and dynamic properties on three homologous of biphenyl benzoate series of ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) exhibiting the chiral smectic C phase (SmC*). The three compounds present high spontaneous polarization and show the SmC*-SmA*-N* phase sequence. Dielectric spectroscopy was used to provide the dynamics and dipolar ordering of the ferroelectric phase. The Goldstone relaxation mode was studied for sample cells on planar geometry without a DC bias voltage. The rotational viscosity corresponding to molecular motions in the SmC* phase was determined from dielectric measurements. The Arrhenius-type behavior of the rotational viscosity was found and the corresponding activation energies were evaluated.

  17. Elevated PC responsive B cells and anti-PC antibody production in transgenic mice harboring anti-PC immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkert, C A; Manz, J; Linton, P J; Klinman, N R; Storb, U

    1989-12-01

    The rearrangement of heavy and light chain immunoglobulin genes is necessary for the production of functional antibody molecules. The myeloma MOPC 167 produces specific antibodies to the antigen phosphorylcholine (PC), which is present on bacterial surfaces, fungi and other environmental contaminants. Rearranged heavy and light chain immunoglobulin genes cloned from MOPC 167 were microinjected into mouse eggs. Within the resulting transgenic mice, expression of the transgenes were limited to lymphoid tissues. Transgenic mice produced elevated levels of anti-PC antibodies constitutively, at 16 days of age, when normal non-transgenic mice were not fully immunocompetent. A triggering antigenic stimulus was not necessary to evoke anti-PC immunoglobulin production. Additionally, the frequency of PC-responsive B cells in these transgenic mice was further increased upon specific immunization.

  18. Do the Pc+ pentaquarks have strange siblings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebed, Richard F.

    2015-12-01

    The recent LHCb discovery of states Pc+(4380 ), Pc+(4450 ), believed to be c c ¯u u d pentaquark resonances, begs the question of whether equivalent states with c c ¯→s s ¯ exist, and how they might be produced. The precise analogue to the Pc+ discovery channel Λb→J /ψ K-p , namely, Λc→ϕ π0p , is feasible for this study and indeed is less Cabibbo suppressed, although its limited phase space suggests that evidence of a s s ¯u u d resonance Ps+ would be confined to the kinematic end-point region.

  19. Intracranial artery velocity measurement using 4D PC MRI at 3 T: comparison with transcranial ultrasound techniques and 2D PC MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meckel, Stephan [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Leitner, Lorenz; Schubert, Tilman [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Bonati, Leo H.; Lyrer, Philippe [University Hospital Basel, Department of Neurology, Basel (Switzerland); Santini, Francesco [University Hospital Basel, Department of Radiological Physics, Institute of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Stalder, Aurelien F. [Xuanwu Hospital - Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Chicago (United States); Wetzel, Stephan G. [Neuroradiology, Swiss Neuro Institute, Klinik Hirslanden, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-04-15

    4D phase contrast MR imaging (4D PC MRI) has been introduced for spatiotemporal evaluation of intracranial hemodynamics in various cerebrovascular diseases. However, it still lacks validation with standards of reference. Our goal was to compare blood flow quantification derived from 4D PC MRI with transcranial ultrasound and 2D PC MRI. Velocity measurements within large intracranial arteries [internal carotid artery (ICA), basilar artery (BA), and middle cerebral artery (MCA)] were obtained in 20 young healthy volunteers with 4D and 2D PC MRI, transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD), and transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCD). Maximum velocities at peak systole (PSV) and end diastole (EDV) were compared using regression analysis and Bland-Altman plots. Correlation of 4D PC MRI measured velocities was higher in comparison with TCD (r = 0.49-0.66) than with TCCD (0.35-0.44) and 2D PC MRI (0.52-0.60). In mid-BA and ICA C7 segment, a significant correlation was found with TCD (0.68-0.81 and 0.65-0.71, respectively). No significant correlation was found in carotid siphon. On average over all volunteers, PSVs and EDVs in MCA were minimally underestimated compared with TCD/TCCD. Minimal overestimation of velocities was found compared to TCD in mid-BA and ICA C7 segment. 4D PC MRI appears as valid alternative for intracranial velocity measurement consistent with previous reference standards, foremost with TCD. Spatiotemporal averaging effects might contribute to vessel size-dependent mild underestimation of velocities in smaller (MCA), and overestimation in larger-sized (BA and ICA) arteries, respectively. Complete spatiotemporal flow analysis may be advantageous in anatomically complex regions (e.g. carotid siphon) relative to restrictions of ultrasound techniques. (orig.)

  20. The PC index: review of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. McCreadie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Polar Cap (PC index is a controversial topic within the IAGA scientific community. Since 1997 discussions of the validity of the index to be endorsed as an official IAGA index have ensued. There is no doubt as to the scientific merit of the index which is not discussed here. What is in doubt is the methodology of the derivation of the index by different groups. The Polar Cap index (PC: PCN, northern; PCS, southern described in Troshichev et al. (2006 and Stauning et al. (2006, both termed the "unified PC index", and the PCN index routinely derived at DMI are inspected using only available published literature. They are found to contain different derivation procedures, thus are not unified. The descriptions of the derivation procedures are found to not be adequate to independently derive the PC indices.

  1. [Dry eye syndrome and the PC screen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Iulia; Stan, Cristina; Marc, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    To study the correlation between PC screen exposure of over 8 hours and Dry Eye Syndrome in 18-25 years-old students. This is a cross-sectional, cohort clinical study, carried out in March 2012 - February 2013. All subjects completed a questionnaire, underwent a slit lamp examination and measurement of visual acuity. Among the 59 participants of this study, 26 were EXPOSED (> 8 hours of PC screen exposure = EXPOSED) and 33 were NONEXPOSED. The 18-25 - year old participants who were exposed over 8 hours to the PC screen had a relative risk of 5,5 to develop Dry Eye Syndrome, compared to NONEXPOSED participants. Results indicate that Dry Eye Syndrome incidence and intensity of symptoms had increased proportionally with the hours of exposure. Tear Film Breakup Time, the Ocular Protection Index and the PC Ocular Protection Index decreased with the hours of PC screen exposure, suggesting a behavioral change in the EXPOSED participants. Exposure of over 8 hours to the PC screen caused Dry Eye Syndrome in 18-25 - year old students, with a relative risk of 5,5.

  2. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  3. Collaborative Simulation Grid: Multiscale Quantum-Mechanical/Classical Atomistic Simulations on Distributed PC Clusters in the US and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hideaki; Kalia, Rajiv; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Ogata, Shuji; Kouno, Takahisa; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Tsuruta, Kanji; Saini, Subhash; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A multidisciplinary, collaborative simulation has been performed on a Grid of geographically distributed PC clusters. The multiscale simulation approach seamlessly combines i) atomistic simulation backed on the molecular dynamics (MD) method and ii) quantum mechanical (QM) calculation based on the density functional theory (DFT), so that accurate but less scalable computations are performed only where they are needed. The multiscale MD/QM simulation code has been Grid-enabled using i) a modular, additive hybridization scheme, ii) multiple QM clustering, and iii) computation/communication overlapping. The Gridified MD/QM simulation code has been used to study environmental effects of water molecules on fracture in silicon. A preliminary run of the code has achieved a parallel efficiency of 94% on 25 PCs distributed over 3 PC clusters in the US and Japan, and a larger test involving 154 processors on 5 distributed PC clusters is in progress.

  4. Simultaneous Determination of Sodium Benzoate Potassium Sor­bate and Natamycin Content in Iranian Yoghurt Drink (Doogh and the Associated Risk of Their Intake through Doogh Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Esfandiari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regarding the public health concerns over the use of food preservatives in yoghurt drink “Doogh", the aim of this study was the determination of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamycin in Doogh. Based on Iranian national standard, none of these preservatives are permitted to be used in Doogh.Methods: A total of 39 Doogh samples were analyzed through RP- HPLC in order to quantify sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamaycin simultaneously. Exposure to each preservative is estimated by mean and maximum concentrations as the residue levels. The per capita Doogh consumption was calculated by the published data from official reports for Doogh annual production in Iran.Results: All samples were shown to contain sodium benzoate while natamaycin was detected in 10.25% of the samples and potassium sorbate was not detected in any of them. Sodium benzoate concentration extremely varied among the investigated samples ranged from 0.94 to 9.77 mg/l. Due to the result of the exposure estimation, no serious public health concern would exist regarding the mentioned preservatives.Conclusions: The detection of sodium benzoate in all Doogh samples could indicate the natural production of benzoic acid in yoghurt. Sodium benzoate may be formed through the interaction of the added food grade salt to the Doogh formula which contains benzoic acid. The results of exposure estimation show the lack of health risk within the usage of preservatives in spite of the national regulatory agencies does not permit the preservative use.

  5. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    ; alternatives to mainstream development, from performances of the live-coding scene to the organizational forms of commons-based peer production; the democratic promise of social media and their paradoxical role in suppressing political expression; and the market’s emptying out of possibilities for free...... development, Speaking Code unfolds an argument to undermine the distinctions between criticism and practice, and to emphasize the aesthetic and political aspects of software studies. Not reducible to its functional aspects, program code mirrors the instability inherent in the relationship of speech...... expression in the public realm. The book’s line of argument defends language against its invasion by economics, arguing that speech continues to underscore the human condition, however paradoxical this may seem in an era of pervasive computing....

  6. Changes induced by UV radiation in the presence of sodium benzoate in films formulated with polyvinyl alcohol and carboxymethyl cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarruel, S. [Faculty of Exact Sciences, UNLP (Argentina); Giannuzzi, L.; Rivero, S. [Center for Research and Development in Food Cryotechnology (CCT-CONICET La Plata), 47 and 116 (Argentina); Pinotti, A., E-mail: acaimpronta@hotmail.com [Center for Research and Development in Food Cryotechnology (CCT-CONICET La Plata), 47 and 116 (Argentina); Faculty of Engineering, UNLP, La Plata 1900 (Argentina)

    2015-11-01

    This work was focused on: i) developing single and blend films based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) studying their properties, ii) analyzing the interactions between CMC and PVOH and their modifications UV-induced in the presence of sodium benzoate (SB), and iii) evaluating the antimicrobial capacity of blend films containing SB with and without UV treatment. Once the blend films with SB were exposed to UV radiation, they exhibited lower moisture content as well as a greater elongation at break and rougher surfaces compared to those without treatment. Considering oxygen barrier properties, the low values obtained would allow their application as packaging with selective oxygen permeability. Moreover, the characteristics of the amorphous phase of the matrix prevailed with a rearrangement of the structure of the polymer chain, causing a decrease of the crystallinity degree. These results were supported by X-rays and DSC analysis. FT-IR spectra reflected some degree of polymer–polymer interaction at a molecular level in the amorphous regions. The incorporation of sodium benzoate combined with UV treatment in blend films was positive from the microbial point of view because of the growth inhibition of a wide spectrum of microorganisms. From a physicochemical perspective, the UV treatment of films also changed their morphology rendering them more insoluble in water, turning the functionalized blend films into a potential material to be applied as food packaging. - Highlights: • CMC:PVOH blend films were developed with the addition of sodium benzoate (SB). • Exposition to UV radiation was carried out with sodium benzoate as photoinitiator. • Blend films were exposed to UV radiation to modify their surface morphology. • Low O{sub 2} permeability of UV treated blends allow them to be used as selective packaging. • Efficacy of SB as an antimicrobial agent was examined with and without UV radiation.

  7. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  8. Efficacy of vinegar, sorbitol and sodium benzoate in mitigation of Salmonella contamination in betel leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Asmaul Husna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to mitigate Salmonella from betel leaf in Mymensingh. A total of 35 betel leaf samples were collected from 2 baroujes and 5 local markets in Mymensingh. The samples were sub-divided into two groups: (i phosphate buffer solution (PBS washed, and (ii grinded sample. There was control and treated (with 1.5% vinegar, sorbitol, and sodium benzoate sub-groups in both groups. Mitigation of Salmonella was determined by comparing Total Viable Count (TVC and Total Salmonella Count (TSAC of control with treated groups. No bacterial growth was observed in the betel leaf samples collected directly from barouj level. At market level, when grinded, there was no growth of bacteria in Plate Count Agar (PCA and Salmonella- Shigella (SS or Xylose Lysine De-oxy-chocolate (XLD in both treated and untreated groups. But when the PBS washed samples were used, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL of betel leaf ranged from 5.16±0.82 to 5.96±1.11, whereas the TSAC value ranged from 4.87±0.58 to 5.56±1.00 for untreated group. In vinegar, there was no growth, but when treated with sorbitol, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 5.00±0.54 to 5.66±1.09, and TSAC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 4.28±0.71 to 4.78±0.64. When treated with sodium benzoate, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 5.06±0.53 to 5.75±1.02, and TSAC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 4.34±0.79 to 4.92±0.64. Data of this study indicates that all the three chemicals were effective in terms of reducing bacterial load but vinegar (1.5% was found to be the most effective against Salmonella as well as some other bacteria when treated for 10 min.

  9. Ligand sensitized luminescence of uranyl by benzoic acid in acetonitrile medium: a new luminescent uranyl benzoate specie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satendra; Maji, S; Joseph, M; Sankaran, K

    2015-03-05

    Benzoic acid (BA) is shown to sensitize and enhance the luminescence of uranyl ion in acetonitrile medium. Luminescence spectra and especially UV-Vis spectroscopy studies reveal the formation of tri benzoate complex of uranyl i.e. [UO2(C6H5COO)3](-) which is highly luminescent. In particular, three sharp bands at 431, 443, 461nm of absorption spectra provides evidence for tri benzoate specie of uranyl in acetonitrile medium. The luminescence lifetime of uranyl in this complex is 68μs which is much more compared to the lifetime of uncomplexed uranyl (20μs) in acetonitrile medium. In contrary to aqueous medium where uranyl benzoate forms 1:1 and 1:2 species, spectroscopic data reveal formation of 1:3 complex in acetonitrile medium. Addition of water to acetonitrile results in decrease of luminescence intensity of this specie and the luminescence features implode at 20% (v/v) of water content. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the existence of [UO2(C6H5COO)3](-) specie in acetonitrile is reported. Mechanism of luminescence enhancement is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary exposure of children and teenagers to benzoates, sulphites, butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluen (BHT) in Beirut (Lebanon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubra, L; Sarkis, D; Hilan, C; Verger, Ph

    2007-02-01

    The acceptable daily intake (ADI) for a considered chemical is by definition the amount of that substance which can be ingested every day during the life time without appreciable health risk. The theoretical risk of exceeding the ADI for benzoates, sulphites, butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluen (BHT) has often been examined on the basis of worst case scenario. The aim of this paper is to assess the actual intake of the food additives listed above for a group of the Lebanese population (students aged between 9 and 18 years old) likely to be highly exposed to food additives through the consumption of processed foods. Dietary exposure was obtained by combining food consumption data with food additives levels determined by chemical analysis. Food products available in Lebanon and containing added benzoates, sulphites, BHA and BHT were identified. Overall 420 samples of foods and beverages were analysed. The determination of food additives residue levels was carried out according to the official methods adopted in "Lebanese Institute for agronomic research" (IRAL) on food as consumed. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) could be exceeded for sulphites and BHT by a fraction of the population, in particular within children of 9-13 years old. Among all food additive-containing foods, the highest contributors were: soft drinks to benzoates intake, nuts and canned juices to sulphites intake, bread and biscuits to BHA intake and chewing gum to BHT intake.

  11. Determination of Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate in “Doogh” Samples in Post Market Surveillance in Iran 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Akbari-adergani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate are two major chemical preservatives which are used in Doogh (Iranian traditional dairy drink. In this study, a total of 27 commercial brands of highly consumed of Doogh samples were analyzed. The means and standard deviation for concentration of these preservatives based on HPLC results for analysis of benzoate and sorbate were 195·9 (SD 1·8 and 328·8 (SD 2·1 mg.Kg-1 respectively. The minimum and maximum of benzoate content in various brands were 18.3 and 2345.1 mg.Kg-1 and for sorbate were not detected and 4961.3 mg.Kg-1 respectively. The study revealed that there was not significant difference in preservative concentration in the samples that belonged to various dates. However, a few samples had a high preservative concentration, which could be a risk factor for human health, especially when their intake was being occurred by various foodstuffs simultaneously.

  12. Effects of heat shocks on microbial community structure and microbial activity of a methanogenic enrichment degrading benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, R; Narihiro, T; Nobu, M K; Liu, W-T

    2016-11-01

    In anaerobic digesters, temperature fluctuation could lead to process instability and failure. It is still not well understood how digester microbiota as a whole respond to heat shock, and what specific organisms are vulnerable to perturbation or responsible for process recovery after perturbation. To address these questions, a mesophilic benzoate-degrading methanogenic culture enriched from digester was subjected to different levels of heat shock. Three types of methane production profiles after perturbation were observed in comparison to the control: uninhibited, inhibited with later recovery, and inhibited without recovery. These responses were correlated with the microbial community compositions based on the analyses of 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene. Specifically, the primary benzoate-degrading syntroph was highly affected by heat shock, and its abundance and activity were both crucial to the restoration of benzoate degradation after heat shock. In contrast, methanogens were stable regardless whether methane production was inhibited. Populations related to 'Candidatus Cloacimonetes' and Firmicutes showed stimulated growth. These observations indicated distinct physiological traits and ecological niches associated with individual microbial groups. The results obtained after exposure to heat shock can be critical to more comprehensive characterization of digester ecology under perturbations.

  13. Ligand sensitized luminescence of uranyl by benzoic acid in acetonitrile medium: A new luminescent uranyl benzoate specie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satendra; Maji, S.; Joseph, M.; Sankaran, K.

    2015-03-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) is shown to sensitize and enhance the luminescence of uranyl ion in acetonitrile medium. Luminescence spectra and especially UV-Vis spectroscopy studies reveal the formation of tri benzoate complex of uranyl i.e. [UO2(C6H5COO)3]- which is highly luminescent. In particular, three sharp bands at 431, 443, 461 nm of absorption spectra provides evidence for tri benzoate specie of uranyl in acetonitrile medium. The luminescence lifetime of uranyl in this complex is 68 μs which is much more compared to the lifetime of uncomplexed uranyl (20 μs) in acetonitrile medium. In contrary to aqueous medium where uranyl benzoate forms 1:1 and 1:2 species, spectroscopic data reveal formation of 1:3 complex in acetonitrile medium. Addition of water to acetonitrile results in decrease of luminescence intensity of this specie and the luminescence features implode at 20% (v/v) of water content. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the existence of [UO2(C6H5COO)3]- specie in acetonitrile is reported. Mechanism of luminescence enhancement is discussed.

  14. Spectroscopic, optical, thermal, antimicrobial and density functional theory studies of 4-aminopyridinium 4-hydroxy benzoate hydrate crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthiga Devi, P.; Venkatachalam, K.; Poonkothai, M.

    2016-09-01

    The organic crystal 4-aminopyridinium 4-hydroxy benzoate hydrate was grown using slow evaporation method. Various characterization techniques such as single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-visible-NIR spectroscopy and thermal analysis (TG-DSC) were employed to assay the structure and properties of the grown crystal. The antimicrobial evaluation of 4-aminopyridinium 4-hydroxy benzoate hydrate crystal was also performed against some bacteria and fungi. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 4-aminopyridinium 4-hydroxy benzoate hydrate were determined for bacterial and fungal strains. The assessment of optimized structure of the molecule and vibrational frequencies were done using DFT/B3LYP method with 6-31 G (d, p) basis set. The stability of the molecule, hyperconjugative interactions, delocalization of charges and intermolecular hydrogen bond were studied by applying natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. TD-DFT method employing polarizable continuum model (PCM) was used to examine the electronic absorption spectrum. Evaluation of molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), Mulliken population charges and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were also carried out. In addition, from the optimized geometry, frontier molecular orbitals analysis was executed.

  15. Development of Visualization Software for McCARD Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang Je; Lee, Byungchul; Shim, Hyung Jin; Yoeng Choi, Kwang; Roh, Chang Hyun

    2014-06-01

    In order to confirm geometrical modeling of input file of the McCARD (Monte Carlo Code for Advanced Reactor Design and analysis) code, a 2D visualization program with a 3D modeling has been developed. It requires lots of mathematical operations and advanced technologies for design graphical program of complicated geometries. The software is coded with the visual C++ language and run under the Windows PC environment.

  16. Optimal codes as Tanner codes with cyclic component codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando; Zeng, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study a class of graph codes with cyclic code component codes as affine variety codes. Within this class of Tanner codes we find some optimal binary codes. We use a particular subgraph of the point-line incidence plane of A(2,q) as the Tanner graph, and we are able to describe...... the codes succinctly using Gröbner bases....

  17. Desain dan Implementasi Sistem Kendali CNC Router Menggunakan PC untuk Flame Cutting Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Permana Saputra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on design of router control systems based on computer numerical control (CNC using personal computer (PC implemented in flame cutting machine (FCM. NC-Code entered into the computer translated to be a command signal sent by the PC to a microcontroller to control the end effector’s movement alongthe X and Y axis simultaneously based on linear and circular interpolations calculation on the PC. This control system is implemented on FCM by connecting the output control of the microcontroller with the driver actuator of the FCM in the form of a DC motor. The obtained result is in the form of a CNC router control system prototype to be implemented in the FCM which is capable to perform linear interpolation and circular interpolation. 

  18. Found a USB stick? Go and infect your PC!

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Err. Wait. Please no! USB sticks are not innocent little things. They can quickly mutate into malicious nasty beasts! Just in the recent past, at least two physics experiments were suffering as their control and data acquisition PCs, respectively, were infected by USB sticks holding malicious code. A bit longer ago, a series of laptops were infected at a 2008 computing conference as an infected USB stick made its tour around. Bad luck for those who ran a Windows operating system and inserted that stick…   So, you found a USB stick in the cafeteria? Take care. If this were a lollipop, you wouldn’t just pick it up and lick it, would you? So beware of USB sticks whose origin or previous usage you don’t know. They might infect your PC once plugged in. In order to be on the safe side, accept and share only USB sticks whose owner you trust. Run up-to-date anti-virus software on your PC, make sure that its operating system is patched...

  19. Peak Pc Prediction in Conjunction Analysis: Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis. Pc Behavior Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, J.J.; Hejduk, M.D.; Stamey, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite conjunction risk typically evaluated through the probability of collision (Pc). Considers both conjunction geometry and uncertainties in both state estimates. Conjunction events initially discovered through Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) screenings, usually seven days before Time of Closest Approach (TCA). However, JSpOC continues to track objects and issue conjunction updates. Changes in state estimate and reduced propagation time cause Pc to change as event develops. These changes a combination of potentially predictable development and unpredictable changes in state estimate covariance. Operationally useful datum: the peak Pc. If it can reasonably be inferred that the peak Pc value has passed, then risk assessment can be conducted against this peak value. If this value is below remediation level, then event intensity can be relaxed. Can the peak Pc location be reasonably predicted?

  20. Simultaneous determination of a quaternary mixture of oxomemazine, sodium benzoate, guaifenesin and paracetamol by chromatographic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehal F. Farid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to develop simple, accurate, sensitive and selective methods for the simultaneous determination of oxomemazine (Ox, sodium benzoate (SB, guaifenesin (Gu, andparacetamol (Par. Two methods were described and validated for the simultaneous determination of the four drugs in syrup and suppositories. The first method was a reversed phase HPLC and UVdetection at 220 nm. The assay was performed using C 18 column and an isocratic elution using acetonitrile – methanol – 35 mM KH2PO4 (20: 5: 75; by volume, pH was adjusted to 2.9 ± 0.1 as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.5 mL/min and separation was achieved in less than 15 min. The second method was a TLC- spectrodensitometric method, used to separate, identify and quantify the four drugs when present in combination. The drugs were applied on silica gel plates and development was made using methylene chloride- methanol- acetic acid- 33% ammonia (89: 8.4: 2: 0.6, by volume as a mobile phase. The bands of the four drugs were quantified by scanning spectrodensitometricaly at 270 nm. The suggested chromatographic methods were validated and applied successfully to the analysis of the syrup and suppositories.

  1. Spectral Properties and Solubilization Location of 2'-Ethylhexyl 4-(N,N-Dimethylamino)benzoate in Micelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Ding; Xin-zhen Du; Chun Wang; Xiao-quan Lu

    2008-01-01

    Dual fluorescence and UV absorption of 2'-ethylhexyl 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)benzoate (EHDMAB) were investigated in cationic,non-ionic and anionic miceUes.When EHDMAB was solubilized in different micellss, the UV absorption of EHDMAB was enhanced.Twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) emission with longer wavelength was observed in ionic micelles,whereas TICT emission with shorter wavelength was obtained in non-ionic micelles.In particular,dual fluorescence of EHDMAB was significantly quenched by the positively charged pyridinium ions arranged in the Stern layer of cationic micelles.UV radiation absorbed mainly decays via TICT emission and radiationless deactivation.The dimethylamino group of EHDMAB experiences different polar environments in ionic and non-ionic micelles according to the polarity dependence of TICT emission of EHDMAB in organic solvents.In terms of the molecular structures and sizes of EHDMAB and surfactants,each individual EHDMAB molecule should be buried in micelles with its dimethylamino group toward the polar head groups of different micelles and with its 2'-ethylhexyl chain toward the hydrophobic micellar core.Dynamic fluorescence quenching measurements of EHDMAB provide further support for the location of EHDMAB in different micelles.

  2. High secondary [alpha]-deuterium kinetic isotope effect in the acetolysis and formolysis of dideuterioferrocenylmethyl benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, S. (Research Center of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Zagreb (Croatia)); Kukric, Z.; Sutic, D. (Sarajevo Univ. (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics); Saunders, W.H. Jr. (Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-02-01

    Acetolysis and formolysis of dideuterioferrocenylmethyl benzoate exhibit large secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effects and an abnormal temperature dependence. In the presence of LiClO[sub 4], which prevents the reversion from solvent-separated to contact ion-pairs, K[sub H]/K[sub D] at 25 [sup o]C amount to 1.53 [+-] 0.02 (acetolysis) and 1.48 [+-] 0.03 (formolysis). In the presence of LiClO[sub 4] the ratios of Arrhenius pre-exponential factors, A[sub H]/A[sub D], are significantly less than unity and amount to 0.49 [+-] 0.01 (acetolysis) and 0.38 [+-] 0.04 (formolysis). In the absence of LiClO[sub 4] the A[sub H]/A[sub D] ratios are much smaller (0.02 both in acetolysis and formolysis). We suggest that these surprisingly low values result from a change in rate-determining step over the temperature range, from formation of the solvent-separated ion-pair at low temperatures to reaction of the dissociated carbocation with solvent at the highest temperatures. Whether tunnelling plays any role in these solvolyses is discussed. (Author).

  3. Molecular modeling of layered double hydroxide intercalated with benzoate, modeling and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovár, Petr; Pospísil, M; Nocchetti, M; Capková, P; Melánová, Klára

    2007-08-01

    The structure of Zn4Al2 Layered Double Hydroxide intercalated with benzencarboxylate (C6H5COO-) was solved using molecular modeling combined with experiment (X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectroscopy, TG measurements). Molecular modeling revealed the arrangement of guest molecules, layer stacking, water content and water location in the interlayer space of the host structure. Molecular modeling using empirical force field was carried out in Cerius(2) modeling environment. Results of modeling were confronted with experiment that means comparing the calculated and measured diffraction pattern and comparing the calculated water content with the thermogravimetric value. Good agreement has been achieved between calculated and measured basal spacing: d(calc) = 15.3 A and d(exp) = 15.5 A. The number of water molecules per formula unit (6H2O per Zn4Al2(OH)12) obtained by modeling (i.e., corresponding to the energy minimum) agrees with the water content estimated by thermogravimetry. The long axis of guest molecules are almost perpendicular to the LDH layers, anchored to the host layers via COO- groups. Mutual orientation of benzoate ring planes in the interlayer space keeps the parquet arrangement. Water molecules are roughly arranged in planes adjacent to host layers together with COO- groups.

  4. Magnetic properties of a quasi-one-dimensional S=1/2 antiferromagnet: Copper benzoate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dender, D.C.; Davidovic, D.; Reich, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    We use magnetic susceptibility and inelastic neutron scattering measurements to show that copper benzoate, Cu(C6D5COO)(2) . 3D(2)O, is a quasi-one-dimensional S=1/2 antiferromagnet with an exchange constant J=1.57 meV Below T=0.8 K a ferromagnetic contribution to the susceptibility marks the onset...... of canted three-dimensional (3D) antiferromagnetic order. An external magnetic field suppresses this effect, and the susceptibility measured in high held shows only the response of a S=1/2 chain. The dynamic correlation function S((q) over tilde,omega) measured by neutron scattering shows only 1D spin...... correlations for (h) over bar omega greater than or equal to 0.4 meV at T=1.8 K. There is clear evidence of a continuum of magnetic excitations, consistent with the current theoretical picture of the excitation spectrum of the S=1/2 chain at T=0 K....

  5. 17beta-estradiol benzoate decreases the AHP amplitude in CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Foster, Thomas C

    2002-08-01

    Disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis is hypothesized to mediate several electrophysiological markers of brain aging. Recent evidence indicates that estradiol can rapidly alter Ca(2+)-dependent processes in neurons through nongenomic mechanisms. In the current study, electrophysiological effects of 17beta-estradiol benzoate (EB) on the Ca(2+)-activated afterhyperpolarization (AHP) were investigated using intracellular sharp electrode recording in hippocampal slices from ovariectomized Fischer 344 female rats. The AHP amplitude was enhanced in aged (22-24 mo) compared with young (5-8 mo) rats and direct application of EB (100 pM) reduced the AHP in aged rats. The age-related difference was due, in part, to the increased AHP amplitude of aged animals, since an EB-mediated decrease in the AHP could be observed in young rats when the extracellular Ca(2+) was elevated to increase the AHP amplitude. In aged rats, bath application of EB occluded the ability of the L-channel blocker, nifedipine (10 microM), to attenuate the AHP. The results support a role for EB in modifying hippocampal Ca(2+)-dependent processes in a manner diametrically opposite that observed during aging, possibly through L-channel inhibition.

  6. Identification, isolation and characterization of process-related impurities in Rizatriptan benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, T Joseph Sunder; Bharathi, Ch; Kumar, M Saravana; Prabahar, Joseph; Kumar, P Naveen; Sharma, Hemant Kumar; Parikh, Kalpesh

    2009-01-15

    Three process-related impurities were observed in routine monitoring of the samples by HPLC. These impurities were identified by LC-MS. One of the impurities, Imp-3 [rizatriptan-2,5-dimer] was reported in literature. Other two impurities were isolated by preparative HPLC and characterized by NMR, Mass and IR. Pure impurities obtained by isolation were co-injected with Rizatriptan benzoate sample to confirm the retention times in HPLC. Structure elucidation of these impurities by spectral data has been discussed in detail. These impurities were identified as 4-(5-((1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-3-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-1H-indol-1-yl)-4-(5-((1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-3-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-1H-indol-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylbutan-1-amine [rizatriptan-1,2-dimer] and [4,4-bis-(5-((1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-3-(2-(dimethylamino)-ethyl)-1H-indol-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylbutan-1-amine [rizatriptan-2,2-dimer].

  7. Biosynthesis and emission of insect-induced methyl salicylate and methyl benzoate from rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Nan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guan, Ju [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ferrer, Jean-Luc [Universite Joseph Fourier, France; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Chern, Mawsheng [University of California, Davis; Ronald, Pamela [University of California, Davis; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Chen, Feng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Two benzenoid esters, methyl salicylate (MeSA) and methyl benzoate (MeBA), were detected from insect-damaged rice plants. By correlating metabolite production with gene expression analysis, five candidate genes encoding putative carboxyl methyltransferases were identified. Enzymatic assays with Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant proteins demonstrated that only one of the five candidates, OsBSMT1, has salicylic acid (SA) methyltransferase (SAMT) and benzoic acid (BA) methyltransferase (BAMT) activities for producing MeSA and MeBA, respectively. Whereas OsBSMT1 is phylogenetically relatively distant from dicot SAMTs, the three-dimensional structure of OsBSMT1, which was determined using homology-based structural modeling, is highly similar to those of characterized SAMTs. Analyses of OsBSMT1 expression in wild-type rice plants under various stress conditions indicate that the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating the production and emission of MeSA in rice. Further analysis using transgenic rice plants overexpressing NH1, a key component of the SA signaling pathway in rice, suggests that the SA signaling pathway also plays an important role in governing OsBSMT1 expression and emission of its products, probably through a crosstalk with the JA signaling pathway. The role of the volatile products of OsBSMT1, MeSA and MeBA, in rice defense against insect herbivory is discussed.

  8. Tablet PC Support of Students' Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Kothaneth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of rapid technology development, it comes as no surprise that technology continues to impact the educational domain, challenging traditional teaching and learning styles. This study focuses on how students with different learning styles use instructional technology, and in particular, the tablet PC, to enhance their learning experience. The VARK model was chosen as our theoretical framework as we analyzed responses of an online survey, both from a quantitative and qualitative standpoint. Results indicate that if used correctly, the tablet PC can be used across different learning styles to enrich the educational experience.

  9. Tablet PC Support of Students' Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Kothaneth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of rapid technology development, it comes as no surprise that technology continues to impact the educational domain, challenging traditional teaching and learning styles. This study focuses on how students with different learning styles use instructional technology, and in particular, the tablet PC, to enhance their learning experience. The VARK model was chosen as our theoretical framework as we analyzed responses of an online survey, both from a quantitative and qualitative standpoint. Results indicate that if used correctly, the tablet PC can be used across different learning styles to enrich the educational experience.

  10. Determination of Benzoate Level in Canned Pickles and Pickled Cucumbers in Food Producing Factories in Markazi Province and those that their Products were Sold in Arak City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Delavar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anecdotal information has suggested that sodium benzoate is used with more than permissible doses during production steps of food products especially pickles and pickled cucumbers in food producing factories in Markazi province and other food producing factories . The present study was done to evaluate factual concentration of sodium benzoate in these products. Methods: In this study, 8 samples from canned pickled cucumbers and 10 samples from canned pickles were randomly gathered from food production factories in Markazi province between March and September 2010. Also, 25 samples from canned pickled cucumbers and 15 samples from canned pickles and 7 samples of bulk cargo pickled cucumbers were collected from the other provinces in Arak city. Sodium benzoate level was determined in the samples using UV-VIS spectrophotometry method. The determined values were analyzed by N-par test using SPSS software version 16.0. Results: Sodium benzoate level was near zero in the samples of canned pickles and pickled cucumbers from producing factories. This was 200-400 PPM in 7 samples from bulk cargo pickled cucumbers which was higher than permissible dose. There was not a statistically significant difference between mean benzoate level of canned pickles and pickled cucumbers produced in Markazi providence factories and other food factories. Benzoate level was significantly higher than permissible dose in bulk cargo pickled cucumbers. Conclusion: Food products from production factories do not have higher than permissible level of sodium benzoate; however, this is higher in bulk cargo pickled cucumbers. Hence, stricter control on bulk cargo pickled cucumber products is recommended.

  11. Evaluations of emamectin benzoate and propiconazole for protecting individual Pinus contorta from mortality attributed to colonization by Dendroctonus ponderosae and associated fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettig, Christopher J; Munson, A Steven; Grosman, Donald M; Bush, Parshall B

    2014-05-01

    Protection of conifers from bark beetle colonization typically involves applications of liquid formulations of contact insecticides to the tree bole. An evaluation was made of the efficacy of bole injections of emamectin benzoate alone and combined with the fungicide propiconazole for protecting individual lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud., from mortality attributed to colonization by mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and progression of associated blue stain fungi. Injections of emamectin benzoate applied in mid-June did not provide adequate levels of tree protection; however, injections of emamectin benzoate + propiconazole applied at the same time were effective for two field seasons. Injections of emamectin benzoate and emamectin benzoate + propiconazole in mid-September provided tree protection the following field season, but unfortunately efficacy could not be determined during a second field season owing to insufficient levels of tree mortality observed in the untreated control, indicative of low D. ponderosae populations. Previous evaluations of emamectin benzoate for protecting P. contorta from mortality attributed to D. ponderosae have failed to demonstrate efficacy, which was later attributed to inadequate distribution of emamectin benzoate following injections applied several weeks before D. ponderosae colonization. The present data indicate that injections of emamectin benzoate applied in late summer or early fall will provide adequate levels of tree protection the following summer, and that, when emamectin benzoate is combined with propiconazole, tree protection is afforded the year that injections are implemented. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Fast detection of covert visuospatial attention using hybrid N2pc and SSVEP features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Minpeng; Wang, Yijun; Nakanishi, Masaki; Wang, Yu-Te; Qi, Hongzhi; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Ming, Dong

    2016-12-01

    Objective. Detecting the shift of covert visuospatial attention (CVSA) is vital for gaze-independent brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), which might be the only communication approach for severely disabled patients who cannot move their eyes. Although previous studies had demonstrated that it is feasible to use CVSA-related electroencephalography (EEG) features to control a BCI system, the communication speed remains very low. This study aims to improve the speed and accuracy of CVSA detection by fusing EEG features of N2pc and steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP). Approach. A new paradigm was designed to code the left and right CVSA with the N2pc and SSVEP features, which were then decoded by a classification strategy based on canonical correlation analysis. Eleven subjects were recruited to perform an offline experiment in this study. Temporal waves, amplitudes, and topographies for brain responses related to N2pc and SSVEP were analyzed. The classification accuracy derived from the hybrid EEG features (SSVEP and N2pc) was compared with those using the single EEG features (SSVEP or N2pc). Main results. The N2pc could be significantly enhanced under certain conditions of SSVEP modulations. The hybrid EEG features achieved significantly higher accuracy than the single features. It obtained an average accuracy of 72.9% by using a data length of 400 ms after the attention shift. Moreover, the average accuracy reached ˜80% (peak values above 90%) when using 2 s long data. Significance. The results indicate that the combination of N2pc and SSVEP is effective for fast detection of CVSA. The proposed method could be a promising approach for implementing a gaze-independent BCI.

  13. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, G.

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh

  14. An Automation Interface for Kappa PC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    The reports documents an automation interface for Kappa PC. The automation interface can be used to embed Kappa applications in 32-bit Windowsapplications.The interface includes functions for initialising Kappa, for loading an application, for settingvalues, for getting values, and for stopping...

  15. An Automation Interface for Kappa PC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    The reports documents an automation interface for Kappa PC. The automation interface can be used to embed Kappa applications in 32-bit Windowsapplications.The interface includes functions for initialising Kappa, for loading an application, for settingvalues, for getting values, and for stopping...

  16. New unifying procedure for PC index calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) index is a controversial topic within the IAGA scientific community. Since 1997 discussions of the validity of the index to be endorsed as an official IAGA index have ensued. Currently, there are now the three separate PC index versions constructed from the different procedures used at the three institutes: the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI), the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), and the Danish National Space Institute (DTU Space). It is demonstrated in this presentation, that two consistent unifying procedures can be built from the best elements of the three different versions. One procedure uses a set of coefficients aimed at the calculation of final PC index values to be accepted by IAGA. The other procedure uses coefficients aimed at on-line real-time production of preliminary PC index values for Space Weather monitoring applications. For each of the two cases the same procedure is used for the northern (PCN) and the southern (PCS) polar cap indices, and the derived PCN and PCS coefficients are similar.

  17. NOVEL BIPHASE CODE -INTEGRATED SIDELOBE SUPPRESSION CODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Feixue; Ou Gang; Zhuang Zhaowen

    2004-01-01

    A kind of novel binary phase code named sidelobe suppression code is proposed in this paper. It is defined to be the code whose corresponding optimal sidelobe suppression filter outputs the minimum sidelobes. It is shown that there do exist sidelobe suppression codes better than the conventional optimal codes-Barker codes. For example, the sidelobe suppression code of length 11 with filter of length 39 has better sidelobe level up to 17dB than that of Barker code with the same code length and filter length.

  18. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing...

  19. Intragastric infusion of denatonium benzoate attenuates interdigestive gastric motility and hunger scores in healthy female volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, Eveline; Janssen, Pieter; Corsetti, Maura; Biesiekierski, Jessica; Masuy, Imke; Rotondo, Alessandra; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Background: Denatonium benzoate (DB) has been shown to influence ongoing ingestive behavior and gut peptide secretion.Objective: We studied how the intragastric administration of DB affects interdigestive motility, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, hunger and satiety ratings, and food intake in healthy volunteers.Design: Lingual bitter taste sensitivity was tested with the use of 6 concentrations of DB in 65 subjects. A placebo or 1 μmol DB/kg was given intragastrically to assess its effect on fasting gastrointestinal motility and hunger ratings, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, satiety, and caloric intake.Results: Women (n = 39) were more sensitive toward a lingual bitter stimulus (P = 0.005) than men (n = 26). In women (n = 10), intragastric DB switched the origin of phase III contractions from the stomach to the duodenum (P = 0.001) and decreased hunger ratings (P = 0.04). These effects were not observed in men (n = 10). In women (n = 12), motilin (P = 0.04) plasma concentrations decreased after intragastric DB administration, whereas total and octanoylated ghrelin were not affected. The intragastric administration of DB decreased hunger (P = 0.008) and increased satiety ratings (P = 0.01) after a meal (500 kcal) in 13 women without affecting gastric emptying in 6 women. Caloric intake tended to decrease after DB administration compared with the placebo (mean ± SEM: 720 ± 58 compared with 796 ± 45 kcal; P = 0.08) in 20 women.Conclusions: Intragastric DB administration decreases both antral motility and hunger ratings during the fasting state, possibly because of a decrease in motilin release. Moreover, DB decreases hunger and increases satiety ratings after a meal and shows potential for decreasing caloric intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02759926.

  20. Ameliorative effect of vitamin C against hepatotoxicity induced by emamectin benzoate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaldoun Oularbi, H; Richeval, C; Lebaili, N; Zerrouki-Daoudi, N; Baha, M; Djennas, N; Allorge, D

    2016-07-26

    In the present study, we aimed to assess the potential protective effect of ascorbic acid (AA) against emamectin benzoate (EMB)-induced hepatotoxicity. For this purpose, biochemical, histopathological and analytical investigations were performed. Male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups, that is, a control group, an EMB group given 10 mg EMB/kg body weight (BW) by gavage and an EMB + AA group given 10 mg EMB/kg BW and vitamin C intraperitoneally (200 mg/kg). The duration of the treatment was 28 days and the duration of the study was 42 days. There was a statistically significant increase of all hepatic biomarkers, that is, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities, and glycemia, in EMB-treated group when compared with the control group. Light microscopic observations revealed variable signs of hepatotoxicity in the EMB group, which were represented by alteration of normal hepatic architecture, inflammatory cell infiltration, hepatocellular steatosis and foci of necrosis at 28 and 42 days post-treatment. However, co-treatment with vitamin C reduced EMB-related liver toxicity and diminished the abnormal biochemical and architectural damage. Emamectin B1a and B1b residues were detectable in all plasma samples of treated rats at 14, 21 and 28 days of treatment. The drug liver tissue concentration was significantly lower in EMB + AA group compared with EMB group at 28 and 42 days. In conclusion, the findings of the present study clearly indicate a significant protective action of vitamin C against EMB hepatotoxicity.

  1. Exogenous Estradiol Benzoate Induces Spermatogenesis Disorder through Influencing Apoptosis and Oestrogen Receptor Signalling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, X; Cui, K; Liu, Q; Zhang, H; Li, Z; Huang, B; Shi, D

    2016-02-01

    As the exact role for exogenous oestrogen in spermatogenesis is not fully understood, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of estradiol benzoate (EB) exposure to male mice on their spermatogenesis and fertility. Sixty male mice aged 4 weeks were randomly divided into three groups, including a control group and two treatment groups. The mice of the control group were injected with 250 μl paraffin oil only by every other day subcutaneous injection for 4 weeks. Meantime, the mice of the treatment groups were injected with EB at the concentration of 5 or 10 mg/kg, respectively. Results showed that EB slowed down the body weight gains and generated testicular atrophy with spermatogenesis disorder compared with that of the control mice, and consequently induced their infertility. Moreover, the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the testis of EB-treated mice was significantly increased with the EB concentration rise. In comparison with controls, the mRNA expression level of pro-apoptosis factors (Fas, TNF, Cytochrome C, Apaf1, Chop, Caspase-3, Caspase-8, Caspase-9 and Caspase-12) and key genes in oestrogen receptor (ER) signalling pathway (ER α, ER β, Erk1/2, Hsp90 and DAX-1) were upregulated in the testes of the treatment groups. Furthermore, Western blotting results proved the protein expression level of Fas, TNF, Cytochrome C, Chop, Caspase-3, cleaved Caspase-3, Caspase-9, Erk1/2 and Hsp90 were upregulated, and the phosphorylation level of Erk1/2 was also increased. These results indicate that EB may impair spermatogenesis through influencing the apoptosis and ER signalling pathway.

  2. Sensitive and selective spectrophotometric assay of rizatriptan benzoate in pharmaceuticals using three sulphonphthalein dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Prashanth

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Three simple, rapid, selective and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of rizatriptan benzoate (RTB in bulk drug and in tablets. The methods are based on the formation of intense yellow colored ion–pair complexes between RTB and sulphonphthalein acid dyes, namely, bromophenol blue (BPB, bromocresol purple (BCP, bromothymol blue (BTB in chloroform medium. The colored products are measured at 425 nm (RTB–BPB complex, RTB–BCP complex and 420 nm (RTB–BTB complex. The reactions were extremely rapid at room temperature and the absorbance values remained constant for 90 min (methods A and B and over 12 h (method C. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration ranges of 0.8–16.0, 1.0–20.0 and 1.2–24 μg ml−1 with molar absorptivity values of 1.76 × 104, 1.96 × 104 and 1.63 × 104 l mol−1 cm−1 for BPB, BCP and BTB methods, respectively. The limits of quantification (LOQ were 0.39, 0.34 and 0.27 μg ml−1 for BPB, BCP and BTB methods, respectively. Other method validation parameters, such as precision, accuracy, robustness, ruggedness and selectivity, were satisfactory. The composition of the ion–pair was found to be 1:1 by Job’s method. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of RTB in commercial tablets. No interference was observed from common tablet adjuvants. Statistical comparison of the results with the reference method showed excellent agreement and indicated no significant difference in accuracy and precision.

  3. Good Codes From Generalised Algebraic Geometry Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Jibril, Mubarak; Ahmed, Mohammed Zaki; Tjhai, Cen

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic geometry codes or Goppa codes are defined with places of degree one. In constructing generalised algebraic geometry codes places of higher degree are used. In this paper we present 41 new codes over GF(16) which improve on the best known codes of the same length and rate. The construction method uses places of small degree with a technique originally published over 10 years ago for the construction of generalised algebraic geometry codes.

  4. Crystal structure of ethyl 4-[(E-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino]benzoate: a p-hydroxy Schiff base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ling

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The title p-hydroxy Schiff base, C17H17NO4, was synthesized via the condensation reaction of benzocaine with vanillin. The benzylidine and benzoate rings are inclined to one another by 24.58 (8°, and the conformation about the C=N bond is E. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag chains propagating along [010]. Adjacent chains are linked by C—H...π and weak offset π–π interactions [intercentroid distance = 3.819 (1 Å], forming sheets parallel to (10-2.

  5. Ivermectin versus benzyl benzoate applied once or twice to treat human scabies in Dakar, Senegal : a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Fatimata; Caumes, Eric; Ndaw, Cheick Ahmet Tidiane; Ndiaye, Bassirou; Mahé, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of oral ivermectin (IV) and two different modalities of topical benzyl benzoate (BB) for treating scabies in a community setting. Methods The trial included patients aged 5-65 years with scabies who attended the dermatology department at the Institut d'Hygiene Sociale in Dakar, Senegal. The randomized, open trial considered three treatments: a single application of 12.5% BB over 24 hours (BB1. group), two applications of BB, each over 24 hours (BB2 group...

  6. PC8 [corrected], a new member of the convertase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzaniti, A; Goodge, K; Jay, P; Taviaux, S A; Lam, M H; Berta, P; Martin, T J; Moseley, J M; Gillespie, M T

    1996-03-15

    A novel subtilisin-like protein, PC8, was identified by PCR using degenerate primers to conserved amino acid residues in the catalytic region of members of the prohormone convertase family. PC8 was predicted to be 785 residues long and was structurally related to the mammalian convertases furin, PACE4, PC1 and PC2, sharing more than 50% amino acid identity over the catalytic region with these family members. PC8 possessed the catalytically important Asp, His, Asn and Ser amino acids, the homo B domain of this family of enzymes and a C-terminal hydrophobic sequence indicative of a transmembrane domain. Structurally, PC8 is more related to furin and PACE4 than to PC1 or PC2. Like furin and PACE4, PC8 mRNA was found to be widely expressed; this is in contrast with PC1 and PC2, which have a restricted distribution. Two transcripts, of 4.5 and 3.5 kb, were detected in both human cell lines and rat tissues. Unlike furin and PACE4, both of which map to chromosome 15, PC8 maps to chromosome 11q23-11q24, suggesting that this gene may have resulted from an ancient gene duplication event from either furin or PACE4, or conversely that these genes arose from PC8.

  7. PLASMID-ENCODED PHTHALATE CATABOLIC PATHWAY IN ARTHROBACTER KEYSERI 12B: BIOTRANSFORMATIONS OF 2-SUBSTITUTED BENZOATES AND THEIR USE IN CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PHTHALATE CATABOLISM GENES AND GENE PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several 2-substituted benzoates (including 2-trifluoromethyl-, 2-chloro-, 2-bromo-, 2-iodo-, 2-nitro-, 2-methoxy-, and 2-acetyl-benzoates) were converted by phthalate-grown Arthrobacter keyseri 12B to the corresponding 2-substituted 3,4-dihydroxybenzoates (protocatechuates)...

  8. PC12 differentiation on biopolymer nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchini, Marco [Scuola Normale Superiore and NEST-CNR-INFM, Pisa (Italy); Bumma, Giorgia [Scuola Normale Superiore and Italian Institute of Technology, Pisa (Italy); Serresi, Michela [Scuola Normale Superiore and Italian Institute of Technology, Pisa (Italy); Beltram, Fabio [Scuola Normale Superiore and NEST-CNR-INFM, Pisa (Italy)

    2007-12-19

    The study of nervous system regeneration and axonal outgrowth control are relevant in several research areas, like neurophysiology or biomedical engineering. Among the elements that control neuron dynamics, the host substrate topography is a key parameter in determining cell differentiation. We present time-lapse experiments to analyze the differentiation dynamics of PC12 cells on nanopatterned biocompatible substrates. 200 nm depth gratings were fabricated on tissue-culture polystyrene substrates by nanoimprint lithography; different linewidths and pitches were compared down to 500 nm and 1000 nm, respectively. PC12 cells were cultured on these substrates and, following NGF administration to the medium, body morphology, cell movement and neuritogenesis were monitored at different time periods. In addition to demonstrating guided differentiation, our studies show complex time variations in body morphology and axon length, and guided cell movement. We show unstable synaptic connections and cell-body polarization, and the competition between topographical guidance and cell-cell interactions.

  9. PC12 differentiation on biopolymer nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, Marco; Bumma, Giorgia; Serresi, Michela; Beltram, Fabio

    2007-12-01

    The study of nervous system regeneration and axonal outgrowth control are relevant in several research areas, like neurophysiology or biomedical engineering. Among the elements that control neuron dynamics, the host substrate topography is a key parameter in determining cell differentiation. We present time-lapse experiments to analyze the differentiation dynamics of PC12 cells on nanopatterned biocompatible substrates. 200 nm depth gratings were fabricated on tissue-culture polystyrene substrates by nanoimprint lithography; different linewidths and pitches were compared down to 500 nm and 1000 nm, respectively. PC12 cells were cultured on these substrates and, following NGF administration to the medium, body morphology, cell movement and neuritogenesis were monitored at different time periods. In addition to demonstrating guided differentiation, our studies show complex time variations in body morphology and axon length, and guided cell movement. We show unstable synaptic connections and cell-body polarization, and the competition between topographical guidance and cell-cell interactions.

  10. Pc3 pulsations during variable IMF conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Villante

    Full Text Available Pc3 geomagnetic field fluctuations detected at low latitude (L'Aquila, Italy during the passage of a high velocity solar wind stream, characterized by variable interplanetary magnetic field conditions, are analyzed. Higher frequency resonant fluctuations and lower frequency phenomena are simultaneously observed; the intermittent appearance and the variable frequency of the longer period modes can be well interpreted in terms of the variable IMF elements; moreover their polarization characteristics are consistent with an origin related to external waves propagating in antisunward direction. A comparison with simultaneous observations performed at Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica provides additional evidence for a clear relationship between the IMF and Pc3 pulsations also at very high latitudes.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; solar wind · magnetosphere interactions

  11. PC12 polarity on biopolymer nanogratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchini, M; Ferrari, A; Beltram, F [Scuola Normale Superiore and NEST-CNR-INFM, Pisa (Italy); Scuola Normale Superiore and Italian Institute of Technology, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: m.cecchini@sns.it

    2008-03-15

    Cell differentiation properties are strongly entangled with the morphology and physical properties of the extracellular environment. A complete understanding of this interaction needs artificial scaffolds with controlled nano-/micro-topography. We induced specific topographies by nanoimprint lithography (NIL) on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) dishes substrates and, using light microscopy and high-magnification scanning-electron-microscopy, quantitatively compared the changes in PC12 differentiation phenotype induced by the periodicity of the nanopatterns. This analysis revealed that nanogratings reduce the number of neurites produced by PC12 cells upon treatment with NGF and that neuronal bipolarity correlated with an increased stretching of the cell body and a reduced length of the cell neuronal protrusions.

  12. Implications of a ${J}^{PC}$ exotic

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1997-01-01

    Recent experimental data from BNL on the isovector J^PC =1^-+ exotic at 1.6 GeV indicate the existence of a non-quarkonium state consistent with lattice gauge theory predictions. We discuss how further experiments can strengthen this conclusion. We show that the \\rho\\pi, \\eta'\\pi and \\eta\\pi couplings of this state qualitatively support the hypothesis that it is a hybrid meson, although other interpretations cannot be eliminated.

  13. What does the simulation system SOL/PC do?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Magariu

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available The simulation system SOL/PC is presented. It is intended for researching and projecting complex weakly formalized systems. SOL/PC provides models description, checking and editing, executing experiments with models and analyzing the experiments results.

  14. Migration of Chemotactic Bacteria Transverse to Flow in Response to a Benzoate Source Plume Created in a Saturated Sand-Packed Microcosm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, R.; Boser, B.

    2012-12-01

    Bioremediation processes depend on contact between microbial populations and the groundwater contaminants that they biodegrade. Chemotaxis, the ability of bacteria to sense a chemical gradient and swim preferentially toward locations of higher concentration, can enhance the transport of bacteria toward contaminant sources that may not be readily accessible by advection and dispersion alone. A two-dimensional rectangular-shaped microcosm packed with quartz sand was used to quantify the effect of chemotaxis on the migration of bacteria within a saturated model aquifer system. Artificial groundwater was pumped through the microcosm at a rate of approximately 1 m/day. A plume of sodium benzoate was created by continuous injection into an upper port of the microcosm to generate a chemical gradient in the vertical direction transverse to flow. Chemotactic bacteria, Pseudomonas putida F1, or the nonchemotactic mutant, P. putida F1 CheA, were injected with a conservative tracer in a port several centimeters below the benzoate position. As the injectates traversed the one-meter length of the microcosm, samples were collected from a dozen effluent ports to determine vertical concentration distributions for the bacteria, benzoate and tracer. A moment analysis was implemented to estimate the center of mass, variance, and skewness of the concentration profiles. The transverse dispersion coefficient and the transverse dispersivity for chemotactic and nonchemotactic bacteria were also evaluated. Experiments performed with a continuous injection of bacteria showed that the center of mass for chemotactic bacteria was closer to the benzoate source on average than the nonchemotactic control (relative to the conservative tracer). These results demonstrated that chemotaxis can increase bacterial transport toward contaminants, potentially enhancing the effectiveness of in situ bioremediation. Experiments with 2 cm and 3 cm spacing between bacteria and benzoate injection locations were

  15. Genetic algorithms with permutation coding for multiple sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Othman, Mohamed Tahar; Abdel-Azim, Gamil

    2013-08-01

    Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is one of the topics of bio informatics that has seriously been researched. It is known as NP-complete problem. It is also considered as one of the most important and daunting tasks in computational biology. Concerning this a wide number of heuristic algorithms have been proposed to find optimal alignment. Among these heuristic algorithms are genetic algorithms (GA). The GA has mainly two major weaknesses: it is time consuming and can cause local minima. One of the significant aspects in the GA process in MSA is to maximize the similarities between sequences by adding and shuffling the gaps of Solution Coding (SC). Several ways for SC have been introduced. One of them is the Permutation Coding (PC). We propose a hybrid algorithm based on genetic algorithms (GAs) with a PC and 2-opt algorithm. The PC helps to code the MSA solution which maximizes the gain of resources, reliability and diversity of GA. The use of the PC opens the area by applying all functions over permutations for MSA. Thus, we suggest an algorithm to calculate the scoring function for multiple alignments based on PC, which is used as fitness function. The time complexity of the GA is reduced by using this algorithm. Our GA is implemented with different selections strategies and different crossovers. The probability of crossover and mutation is set as one strategy. Relevant patents have been probed in the topic.

  16. Space Time Codes from Permutation Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Henkel, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    A new class of space time codes with high performance is presented. The code design utilizes tailor-made permutation codes, which are known to have large minimal distances as spherical codes. A geometric connection between spherical and space time codes has been used to translate them into the final space time codes. Simulations demonstrate that the performance increases with the block lengths, a result that has been conjectured already in previous work. Further, the connection to permutation codes allows for moderate complex en-/decoding algorithms.

  17. 39 CFR 501.16 - PC postage payment methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PC postage payment methodology. 501.16 Section 501.16 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAGE PROGRAMS AUTHORIZATION TO MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.16 PC postage payment methodology. (a) The PC Postage customer is...

  18. Induction of parturition in swine with prostaglandin F(2)alpha, estradiol benzoate and oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, M A; Day, B N

    1987-03-01

    Pregnant sows and gilts were administered either 0, 2.5, 5, 10 or 20 mg prostaglandin F(2)alpha (PGF(2)alpha) intramuscularly on Day 112 or 113 of gestation at 0800 h in an effort to induce parturition. The average interval from PGF(2)alpha injection to farrowing was 55.1 +/- 5.7, 29.4 +/- 3.1, 32.1 +/- 4.6, 27.8 +/- 1.8 and 26.9 +/- 1.1 h for 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg, respectively. All PGF(2)alpha treatments increased (P gestation length was significantly shorter in treated gilts; however, no detrimental effect on pig performance or pig survivability was observed. A second trial evaluated the effect of a 10-mg dose of PGF(2)alpha on the induction of parturition in sows in order to obtain a majority of sows farrowing within normal working hours (0700 to 1700 h). The interval from injection to farrowing was decreased (P < 0.05) by PGF(2)alpha treatment (66.2 +/- 5.3 vs 28.1 +/- 2.2 h). Fifty-seven percent (P < 0.05) of PGF(2)alpha-treated sows farrowed between 0700 and 1700 h as compared to 13.6% for control sows. A third trial was conducted to examine a sequential treatment of PGF(2)alpha and oxytocin to control the time of parturition more precisely. Sows receiving only 10 mg of PGF(2)alpha farrowed on an average 31.1 +/- 1.4 h after injection. The injection of 40 IU oxytocin 24 to 28 h after PGF(2)alpha decreased (P < 0.05) the interval from PGF(2)alpha to farrowing (28.1 +/- 0.9 h). The addition of oxytocin increased (P < 0.05) the number of sows farrowing within 3 h of injection (33 vs 86% for PGF(2)alpha and PGF(2)alpha + oxytocin treatments, respectively). A fourth trial was designed to determine if the addition of exogenous estradiol benzoate (EB) to a sequential treatment of PGF(2)alpha and oxytocin would improve the predictability and synchronization of the induced parturition. Sows were assigned to receive either saline, 10 mg PGF(2)alpha + 40 IU oxytocin or 10 mg PGF(2)alpha + 5 mg EB + 40 IU oxytocin. The addition of EB reduced (P < 0.01) the variance in

  19. The modulatory effect of estradiol benzoate on superoxide dismutase activity in the developing rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pejic

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of copper,zinc (CuZn- and manganese (Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD to exogenous estradiol benzoate (EB was investigated in Wistar rats during postnatal brain development. Enzyme activities were measured in samples prepared from brains of rats of both sexes and various ages between 0 and 75 days, treated sc with 0.5 µg EB/100 g body weight in 0.1 ml olive oil/100 g body weight, 48 and 24 h before sacrifice. In females, EB treatment stimulated MnSOD activity on days 0 (66.1%, 8 (72.7% and 15 (81.7%. In males, the stimulatory effect of EB on MnSOD activity on day 0 (113.6% disappeared on day 8 and on days 15 and 45 it became inhibitory (40.3 and 30.5%, respectively. EB had no effect on the other age groups. The stimulatory effect of EB on CuZnSOD activity in newborn females (51.8% changed to an inhibitory effect on day 8 (38.4% and disappeared by day 45 when inhibition was detected again (48.7%. In males, the inhibitory effect on this enzyme was observed on days 0 (45.0% and 15 (28.9%, and then disappeared until day 60 when a stimulatory effect was observed (38.4%. EB treatment had no effect on the other age groups. The sensitivity of MnSOD to estradiol differed significantly between sexes during the neonatal and prepubertal period, whereas it followed a similar pattern thereafter. The sensitivity of CuZnSOD to estradiol differed significantly between sexes during most of the study period. Regression analysis showed that the sensitivity of MnSOD to this estrogen tended to decrease similarly in both sexes, whereas the sensitivity of CuZnSOD showed a significantly different opposite tendency in female and male rats. These are the first reports indicating hormonal modulation of antioxidant enzyme activities related to the developmental process.

  20. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  1. Elucidation of the thermophilic phenol biodegradation pathway via benzoate during the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos-Hernandez, Carolina; Hoffmann, Marieke; Guenne, Angeline; Mazeas, Laurent

    2014-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion makes it possible to valorize municipal solid waste (MSW) into biogas and digestate which are, respectively, a renewable energy source and an organic amendment for soil. Phenols are persistent pollutants present in MSW that can inhibit the anaerobic digestion process and have a toxic effect on microbiota if they are applied to soil together with digestate. It is then important to define the operational conditions of anaerobic digestion which allow the complete degradation of phenol. In this context, the fate of phenol during the anaerobic digestion of MSW at 55°C was followed using an isotopic tracing approach ((13)C6-phenol) in experimental microcosms with inoculum from an industrial thermophilic anaerobic digester. With this approach, it was possible to demonstrate the complete phenol biodegradation into methane and carbon dioxide via benzoate. Benzoate is known to be a phenol metabolite under mesophilic conditions, but in this study it was found for the first time to be a phenol degradation product at thermophilic temperature.

  2. Effectiveness of sodium benzoate as a freshwater low toxicity antifoulant when dispersed in solution and entrapped in silicone coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Haroon; Cutright, Teresa J; Newby, Bi-Min Zhang

    2005-01-01

    The traditional solution for preventing organisms from attaching to submerged surfaces is to apply antifouling coatings or biocides. Based on the varied defence mechanisms exhibited by biofilms, the antifoulant needs to prevent bacterial attachment during the early stages of biofilm formation. The potential of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate (NaB) as antifoulants for deterring freshwater bacterial attachment was evaluated with the antifoulants dispersed in solution or entrapped in silicone coatings. Effectiveness was based on the decrease in microbial attachment, limited toxicity, and minimum alteration of the properties of the coatings. The optimal NaB concentration when dispersed in solution, 700 mg l-1, resulted in a biofilm surface coverage of only 3.34% after four weeks. The model silicone, Sylgard 184, demonstrated a better overall performance than the commercial coating, RTV11. Sylgard 184 containing sodium benzoate had 41-52% less biofilm in comparison to the control Sylgard 184, whereas both the control and NaB-entrapped RTV11 coatings had significant biofilm coverage.

  3. Short communication: Use of a mixture of sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate in aerobically challenged silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knicky, Martin; Spörndly, Rolf

    2015-08-01

    Aerobic instability is still a common problem with many types of silages, particularly well-fermented silages. This study evaluated the effect of adding an additive mixture based on sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate to a variety of crop materials on fermentation quality and aerobic stability of silages. Ensiling conditions were challenged by using a low packing density (104±4.3kg of dry matter/m(3)) of forage and allowing air ingression into silos (at 14 and 7 d before the end of the storage, for 8 h per event). Additive-treated silages were found to have significantly lower pH and reduced formation of ammonia-N, 2.3-butanediol, and ethanol compared with untreated control silages. Yeast growth was significantly reduced by additive treatment in comparison with untreated control silage. Consequently, additive-treated silages were considerably more aerobically stable (6.7 d) than untreated control silages (0.5 d). Overall, adding 5mL/kg of fresh crop of the additive based on sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate reduced undesirable microorganisms in silages and thereby provided suitable ensiling conditions and prolonged aerobic stability, even under air-challenged laboratory ensiling conditions.

  4. [Analysis of preservatives used in cosmetic products: salicylic acid, sodium benzoate, sodium dehydroacetate, potassium sorbate, phenoxyethanol, and parabens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Uchino, Tadashi; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    Preservatives are used to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in cosmetic products. The Japanese standards for cosmetics set restrictions on the maximum amount of each preservative added to cosmetics as per the purpose of use of cosmetics. For the investigation into the actual conditions of commonly used preservatives in commercial cosmetics, we analyzed parabens, phenoxyethanol, sodium benzoate, sodium dehydroacetate, salicylic acid, and potassium sorbate by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twenty-one samples were obtained from cosmetic product manufacturers located in 14 prefectures in Japan. Among different acid- and salt-based preservatives, sodium benzoate was observed to have been used in many products. These acid- and salt-based preservatives were used with parabens in personal washing products, such as shampoo and soap. The labels of two of the cosmetic product samples displayed inaccurate ingredient information, that is, a preservative other than the one used in the corresponding product was listed on them. The amount of preservatives used did not exceed regulatory limits in any of the analyzed samples.

  5. Pairing and sinking of binary SMBHs in sub-pc resolution simulations of galaxy mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Chapon, Damien; Teyssier, Romain

    2011-01-01

    We study the formation of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) binary and the shrinking of the separation of the two holes to sub-pc scales starting from a realistic major merger between two gas-rich spiral galaxies with mass comparable to our Milky Way. The simulations are the first of this kind carried out with an Adaptive Mesh refinement (AMR) code (here RAMSES), and the first capable to resolve separations as small as 0.1 pc. The collision of the two galaxies produces a gravo-turbulent rotating nuclear disk with mass (\\sim 10^9 Msun) and size (\\sim 60 pc) in excellent agreement with previous SPH simulations with particle splitting that used a similar setup (Mayer et al. 2007) but were limited to separations of a few parsecs. The AMR results confirm that the two black holes sink rapidly as a result of dynamical friction onto the gaseous background, reaching a separation of 1 pc in less than 10^7 yr. We show that the dynamical friction wake is well resolved by our model and we find good agreement with analytica...

  6. COBRA-IV PC: A personal computer version of COBRA-IV-I for thermal-hydraulic analysis of rod bundle nuclear fuel elements and cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    COBRA-IV PC is a modified version of COBRA-IV-I, adapted for use with most IBM PC and PC-compatible desktop computers. Like COBRA-IV-I, COBRA-IV PC uses the subchannel analysis approach to determine the enthalpy and flow distribution in rod bundles for both steady-state and transient conditions. The steady-state and transient solution schemes used in COBRA-IIIC are still available in COBRA-IV PC as the implicit solution scheme option. An explicit solution scheme is also available, allowing the calculation of severe transients involving flow reversals, recirculations, expulsions, and reentry flows, with a pressure or flow boundary condition specified. In addition, several modifications have been incorporated into COBRA-IV PC to allow the code to run on the PC. These include a reduction in the array dimensions, the removal of the dump and restart options, and the inclusion of several code modifications by Oregon State University, most notably, a critical heat flux correlation for boiling water reactor fuel and a new solution scheme for cross-flow distribution calculations. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. User`s guide and documentation manual for ``BOAST-VHS for the PC``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ming-Ming; Sarathi, P.; Heemstra, R.J.; Cheng, A.M.; Pautz, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The recent advancement of computer technology makes reservoir simulations feasible in a personal computer (PC) environment. This manual provides a guide for running BOAST-VHS, a black oil reservoir simulator for vertical/horizontal/slant wells, using a PC. In addition to detailed explanations of input data file preparation for simulation runs, special features of BOAST-VHS are described and three sample problems are presented. BOAST-VHS is a cost-effective and easy-to-use reservoir simulation tool for the study of oil production from primary depletion and waterflooding in a black oil reservoir. The well model in BOAST-VHS permits specification of any combination of horizontal, slanted, and vertical wells in the reservoir. BOAST-VHS was designed for an IBM PC/AT, PS-2, or compatible computer with 640 K bytes of memory. BOAST-VHS can be used to model a three-dimensional reservoir of up to 810 grid blocks with any combination of rows, columns, and layers, depending on the input data supplied. This dynamic redimensioning feature facilitates simulation work by avoiding the need to recompiling the simulator for different reservoir models. Therefore the program is only supplied as executable code without any source code.

  8. Strong Trinucleotide Circular Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Michel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we identified a hierarchy relation between trinucleotide comma-free codes and trinucleotide circular codes (see our previous works. Here, we extend our hierarchy with two new classes of codes, called DLD and LDL codes, which are stronger than the comma-free codes. We also prove that no circular code with 20 trinucleotides is a DLD code and that a circular code with 20 trinucleotides is comma-free if and only if it is a LDL code. Finally, we point out the possible role of the symmetric group ∑4 in the mathematical study of trinucleotide circular codes.

  9. IBM PC/IX operating system evaluation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation plan for the IBM PC/IX Operating System designed for IBM PC/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, networking, and the suitability of PC/IX as a development environment within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC Research and Development project. In order to compare and evaluate the PC/IX system, comparisons with other available UNIX-based systems are also included.

  10. Development of Advanced In core Management Codes for Ulchin Unit 1, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hee; Park, Moon Gyu [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the first case of FRAMATOME`s plants, Ulchin Unit 1 Cycle 8 core was loaded with V5H fuel. Because of the heterogeneity in the axial enrichment of the V5H fuel, FRAMATOME`s 2-D in core management codes, CEDRIC-CARIN-ESTHER, are no longer valid to be used for in core management. In order to analyze Ulchin Unit 1 an 2 cores loaded with V5H fuel exactly, this study substituted them with WH`s In core-3D and Tote code. The previous IN CORE-Tote codes have been utilized on the HP workstation or the IBM mainframe which are not easily accessible by the site engineers and require the complicated manipulation in the computer network system. This study developed the PC-version of IN CORE-3D and Tote codes available in plants, including an interface code linking the data measured by the in core instrument system (RIC-KIT system) to IN CORE code. These codes reduce the time to manage in core and increase the economic benefits. We installed the developed codes in Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 and actually applied them to the core power distribution measurement performed during Cycle 8 power escalation tests. The results satisfied all limits of Technical Specification very well. The major contents of this study can be categorized as follows. 1. Analysis of the in core management codes. (a) Analysis of flux mapping system and measurement reduction algorithm. (b) Analysis of the methodology of in core management codes. 2. Development and verification of PC-version in core management codes. (a) Development of the measured-data processing code (C2I). (b) Development of PC-version IN CORE code. (c) Development of PC-version Tote code (d) Verification of the developed codes. 3. Application to core physics test of Ulchin until cycle 8. (a) Power distribution measurement at 75% and 100%. (author). 14 refs., figs., tabs.

  11. Installation and implementation of PC COSYMA; PC COSYMAn kaeyttoeoenotto ja soveltaminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy

    1995-12-01

    COSYMA is a probabilistic reactor accident consequence assessment model developed in the 1980`s by the research institutes of the EC countries, primarily by NRPB and KfK. In 1993 a simplified version of the program was released to be implemented on a PC. In the study the PC COSYMA program was applied to calculate as the end points nuclide concentrations, doses received, numbers of health effects, areas affected by countermeasures and other results related to countermeasure strategies. Some results are compared with the results obtained by the ARANO program developed by VTT Energy (Technical Research Centre of Finland) to quarantee proper interpretation of the application. (15 refs.).

  12. Cybernet空间节省型PC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    你是否有计算过你租用的Office费用占整个办公成本的几成?是否有发现辛苦赚来的钱除去房租物业所剩无几?不能怪你,只能怪目前高档办公志气的租金太高。有什么办法吗?试试Cybernet出品的空间节省型PC-ZPC-900,它将电脑主机整合到一个标准的104键键盘里,

  13. Measuring Bullet Velocity with a PC Soundcard

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, M; Courtney, Michael; Edwards, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a simple method for using a PC soundcard to accurately measure bullet velocity. The method involves placing the microphone within a foot of the muzzle and firing at a steel target between 50 and 100 yards away. The time of flight for the bullet is simply the recorded time between muzzle blast and sound of the bullet hitting the target minus the time it takes the sound to return from the target to the microphone. The average bullet velocity is simply the distance from the muzzle to the target divided by the time of flight of the bullet. This method can also be applied to measurement of paintball velocities.

  14. PC-based car license plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1992-11-01

    A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

  15. Joint source channel coding using arithmetic codes

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Dongsheng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the encoding process, arithmetic codes can be viewed as tree codes and current proposals for decoding arithmetic codes with forbidden symbols belong to sequential decoding algorithms and their variants. In this monograph, we propose a new way of looking at arithmetic codes with forbidden symbols. If a limit is imposed on the maximum value of a key parameter in the encoder, this modified arithmetic encoder can also be modeled as a finite state machine and the code generated can be treated as a variable-length trellis code. The number of states used can be reduced and techniques used fo

  16. The efficacy of emamectin benzoate against infestations of Lepeophtheirus salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L in Scotland, 2002-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Lees

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infestations of the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, commonly referred to as sea lice, represent a major challenge to commercial salmon aquaculture. Dependence on a limited number of theraputants to control such infestations has led to concerns of reduced sensitivity in some sea lice populations. This study investigates trends in the efficacy of the in-feed treatment emamectin benzoate in Scotland, the active ingredient most widely used across all salmon producing regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Study data were drawn from over 50 commercial Atlantic salmon farms on the west coast of Scotland between 2002 and 2006. An epi-informatics approach was adopted whereby available farm records, descriptive epidemiological summaries and statistical linear modelling methods were used to identify factors that significantly affect sea lice abundance following treatment with emamectin benzoate (SLICE(R, Schering Plough Animal Health. The results show that although sea lice infestations are reduced following the application of emamectin benzoate, not all treatments are effective. Specifically there is evidence of variation across geographical regions and a reduction in efficacy over time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Reduced sensitivity and potential resistance to currently available medicines are constant threats to maintaining control of sea lice populations on Atlantic salmon farms. There is a need for on-going monitoring of emamectin benzoate treatment efficacy together with reasons for any apparent reduction in performance. In addition, strategic rotation of medicines should be encouraged and empirical evidence for the benefit of such strategies more fully evaluated.

  17. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of benzoate and sorbate in yogurt drinks and method optimization by central composite design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamankesh, Marzieh; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Tehrani, Zohreh Modarres; Ferdowsi, Roohallah; Hosseini, Hedayat

    2013-05-15

    A new method based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determination of benzoate and sorbate salts in yogurt drinks was developed. The effective parameters in DLLME process, including volume of extraction and disperser solvents, pH and salt effect, were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design. The yogurt drink samples were extracted using NaOH and Carrez solutions (potassium hexaferrocyanide and zinc acetate) were used for sedimentation of proteins. For DLLME, a mixture of extraction solvent (1-octanol) and disperser solvent (ethanol) was rapidly injected into the sample solution by syringe and cloudy solution is formed. Subsequently, the upper 1-octanol layer was analyzed by HPLC. The detection limits for benzoate and sorbate were 0.06 ng mL(-1) and 0.15 ng mL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for seven analyses were 4.96% for benzoate and 4.58% for sorbate. The proposed method demonstrated good linearity and high enrichment factor. A clean separation and good chromatogram is readily achieved without the presence of matrix interference. A comparison of this method with previous methods demonstrated that the proposed method is an accurate, rapid and reliable sample-pretreatment method that gives very good enrichment factors and detection limits for extracting and determining sorbate and benzoate in yogurt drink samples.

  18. 长期烫吸安钠咖对肝功能的影响%EFFECT OF LONG- TERM USE OF CAFFEINE SODIUM BENZOATE ON LIVER FUNCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永清; 张宪武; 王志纲

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨长期烫吸安钠咖对肝功的影响.方法:应用MoDULAR P800仪器,对烫吸安钠咖组36例及正常对照组14例测定肝功情况,对结果进行比较分析.结果:与对照组比较,烫吸安钠咖组的总胆红素含量低,在统计学上存在显著性差异(P<0.01);谷丙转氨酶、肌酐含量高,在统计学上存在差异(P<0.05).结论:长期烫吸安钠咖对肝功有一定的影响.%Objective :To observe the effect of long - term use of caffeine sodium benzoate on liver function. Methods:To compare the liver function of long - term users of caffeine sodium benzoate with that of the control group by MoDULAR P800 made in USA. Results: Compared with the control, the bilirubin total in the long - term users of caffeine sodium benzoate was lower, showing significant difference (P < 0.01), the glutamate pyruvate transaminase, creatinine were higher(P < 0.05). Conclusion: Long - term use of caffeine sodium benzoate can influence the users' liver function to some extent.

  19. A MEMS stronglink with multi-try function used for PC startup in authentication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Sheng-yong; CHEN Wen-yuan; ZHANG Wei-ping; XIAO Qi-jun; TAN Shun-yi; FENG Min-hua

    2009-01-01

    The stronglink with multi-try function based on MEMS technology and the PC startup in authentication system have been designed and fabricated. The generation principle and structure of UQS code are introduced, which consists of two groups of metal counter-meshing gears, two pawl/ratchet mechanisms, two driving micromotors and two resetting micromotors. The energy-coupling element is a photoelectric sensor with a circular and notched plate. It is fabricated using the UV-LiGA process and precision mechanical engineering. The PC startup authentication system is controlled by BIOS program, which is written into the chip according with special format. The program in BIOS output signals controls the running of stronglink to finish the process of authentication. The device can run more than 10000 times before a stop. The driving voltage is 12 V, and the normal decoding time is 3 s.

  20. Comparison of Polar Cap (PC) index calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) index introduced by Troshichev and Andrezen (1985) is derived from polar magnetic variations and is mainly a measure of the intensity of the transpolar ionospheric currents. These currents relate to the polar cap antisunward ionospheric plasma convection driven by the dawn-dusk electric field, which in turn is generated by the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere. Coefficients to calculate PCN and PCS index values from polar magnetic variations recorded at Thule and Vostok, respectively, have been derived by several different procedures in the past. The first published set of coefficients for Thule was derived by Vennerstrøm, 1991 and is still in use for calculations of PCN index values by DTU Space. Errors in the program used to calculate index values were corrected in 1999 and again in 2001. In 2005 DMI adopted a unified procedure proposed by Troshichev for calculations of the PCN index. Thus there exists 4 different series of PCN index values. Similarly, at AARI three different sets of coefficients have been used to calculate PCS indices in the past. The presentation discusses the principal differences between the various PC index procedures and provides comparisons between index values derived from the same magnetic data sets using the different procedures. Examples from published papers are examined to illustrate the differences.

  1. 华硕Eee PC 1000H

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    屏幕扩大、外观翻新:低价已经再不是Eee PC的唯一定位,随着全面升级Atom平台和屏幕尺寸扩大,Eee PC开始呈现出消费化的趋势。Eee PC 1000H屏幕尺寸再次扩大,从最初的7英寸、8.9英寸,直到如今的10.2英寸,而屏幕分辨率保持和8.9英寸屏幕相同的1024×600,因此整个字体显示更大,阅读更舒适。1000H采用了和Eee PC901相同的硬件配置:Atom N270、1GB内存和80GB硬盘,

  2. The white dwarf population within 40 pc of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, S

    2016-01-01

    The white dwarf luminosity function is an important tool to understand the properties of the Solar neighborhood, like its star formation history, and its age. Here we present a population synthesis study of the white dwarf population within 40~pc from the Sun, and compare the results of this study with the properties of the observed sample. We use a state-of-the-art population synthesis code based on Monte Carlo techniques, that incorporates the most recent and reliable white dwarf cooling sequences, an accurate description of the Galactic neighborhood, and a realistic treatment of all the known observational biases and selection procedures. We find a good agreement between our theoretical models and the observed data. In particular, our simulations reproduce a previously unexplained feature of the bright branch of the white dwarf luminosity function, which we argue is due to a recent episode of star formation. We also derive the age of the Solar neighborhood employing the position of the observed cut-off of ...

  3. Model Children's Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  4. PC-based Multiple Information System Interface (PC/MISI) detailed design and implementation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    The design plan for the personal computer multiple information system interface (PC/MISI) project is discussed. The document is intended to be used as a blueprint for the implementation of the system. Each component is described in the detail necessary to allow programmers to implement the system. A description of the system data flow and system file structures is given.

  5. User`s guide and documentation manual for ``PC-Gel`` simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ming-Ming; Gao, Hong W.

    1993-10-01

    PC-GEL is a three-dimensional, three-phase (oil, water, and gas) permeability modification simulator developed by incorporating an in-situ gelation model into a black oil simulator (BOAST) for personal computer application. The features included in the simulator are: transport of each chemical species of the polymer/crosslinker system in porous media, gelation reaction kinetics of the polymer with crosslinking agents, rheology of the polymer and gel, inaccessible pore volume to macromolecules, adsorption of chemical species on rock surfaces, retention of gel on the rock matrix, and permeability reduction caused by the adsorption of polymer and gel. The in-situ gelation model and simulator were validated against data reported in the literature. The simulator PC-GEL is useful for simulating and optimizing any combination of primary production, waterflooding, polymer flooding, and permeability modification treatments. A general background of permeability modification using crosslinked polymer gels is given in Section I and the governing equations, mechanisms, and numerical solutions of PC-GEL are given in Section II. Steps for preparing an input data file with reservoir and gel-chemical transport data, and recurrent data are described in Sections III and IV, respectively. Example data inputs are enclosed after explanations of each input line to help the user prepare data files. Major items of the output files are reviewed in Section V. Finally, three sample problems for running PC-GEL are described in Section VI, and input files and part of the output files of these problems are listed in the appendices. For the user`s reference a copy of the source code of PC-GEL computer program is attached in Appendix A.

  6. Top Ten Inpatient Palliative Medicine Billing and Coding Mistakes (and How to Fix Them This Week)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher A.; Bull, Janet; Acevedo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Palliative care (PC) has undergone incredible growth in the last 10 years, having gained subspecialty status and penetration into 85% of hospitals over 300 beds. The comprehensive services provided by multiple members of the PC team combined with low reimbursement for nonprocedural medical care challenges all PC teams to operate with financial sustainability. Accurately and compliantly documenting and coding services provided to patients can help to maximize PC programs' revenues and limit operating subsidies received from health care systems or hospice programs. In this article we share common billing and coding mistakes made by our programs and colleagues while providing inpatient, consultative palliative care. Each mistake is explained and paired with a straightforward fix to enable compliant, efficient practice. This will allow clinicians to more accurately communicate to payers the complex care provided to inpatients by the PC team. This fuller picture of the complexity of care provided can increase reimbursements received by your PC program from payers. Understanding how to accurately document, code, and receive appropriate reimbursement will allow our field to continue to grow, broadening the reach of PC nationally to improve quality of life for all patients and families in need. PMID:25671789

  7. Di-μ-iodido-bis(iodido{methyl 4-[(pyridin-2-ylmethylideneamino]benzoate-κ2N,N′}cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar S. Basu Baul

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The complete binuclear molecule of the title compound, [Cd2I4(C14H12N2O22], is generated by the application of a centre of inversion. The Cd—I bond lengths of the central core are close and uniformly longer than the exocyclic Cd—I bond. The coordination sphere of the CdII atom is completed by two N atoms of a chelating methyl 4-[(pyridin-2-ylmethylideneamino]benzoate ligand, and is based on a square pyramid with the terminal I atom in the apical position. The three-dimensional crystal packing is stabilized by C—H...O and C—H...π interactions, each involving the pyridine ring.

  8. Growth and characterization of nonlinear optical single crystals: bis(cyclohexylammonium) terephthalate and cyclohexylammonium para-methoxy benzoate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sathya; M Anantharaja; N Elavarasu; R Gopalakrishnan

    2015-09-01

    Bis(cyclohexylammonium) terephthalate (BCT) and cyclohexylammonium 4-methoxy benzoate (C4MB) single crystals were successfully grown by the slow evaporation solution growth technique. The harvested crystals were subjected to single-crystal X-ray diffraction, spectral, optical, thermal and mechanical studies in order to evaluate physiochemical properties. The Kurtz and Perry technique for second harmonic generation (SHG) study revealed that the powdered materials of BCT and C4MB exhibit SHG efficiency 0.2 times less and 1.3 times greater than that of standard reference material potassium dihydrogen phosphate. C4MB crystal exhibits high efficiency than BCT, because of methoxy group substituted in the para position of phenyl ring. With high SHG efficiency and thermal stability para substituted C4MB crystal will be a potential candidate for optical device fabrication.

  9. Design, synthesis, molecular docking studies and in vitro screening of ethyl 4-(3-benzoylthioureido) benzoates as urease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Aamer; Khan, Muhammad Siraj; Rafique, Hummera; Shahid, Mohammad; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2014-02-01

    Thioureas are exceptionally versatile building blocks towards the synthesis of wide variety of heterocyclic systems, which also possess extensive range of pharmacological activities. The substituted benzoic acids were converted into corresponding acid chlorides, these acid chlorides were then treated with potassium thiocyanate in acetone and then the reaction mixture was refluxed for 1-2h afford ethyl 4-(3-benzoylthioureido)benzoates thioureas in good yields. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their urease inhibitory activities and were found to be potent inhibitors of urease enzyme. Compounds 1f and 1g were identified as the most potent urease inhibitors (IC50 0.21 and 0.13 μM, respectively), and was 100-fold more potent than the standard inhibitors. Further molecular docking studies were carried out using the crystal structure of urease to find out the binding mode of the inhibitors with the enzyme.

  10. Degradation of organic ultraviolet filter diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate in aqueous solution by UV/H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ping; Yuan, Haixia; Zhai, Pingping; Dong, Wenbo; Li, Hongjing

    2015-07-01

    Steady-state and transient-state photolysis experiments were conducted to investigate the degradation of organic ultraviolet filter diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DHHB) in the aqueous solution by UV/H2O2. Results showed that the obvious degradation of DHHB was not observed under UV irradiation (λ = 254 nm), and the DHHB degradation was conducted due to the oxidation by hydroxyl radical (HO·). While the H2O2 concentration was between 0.05 and 0.10 mol L(-1), the highest DHHB degradation efficiency was obtained. The lower solution pH favored the transformation of DHHB, and the coexisting Cl(-) and NO3(-) ions slightly enhanced the conversion. The degradation of DHHB by HO· followed a pseudo-first-order kinetic model with different initial DHHB concentrations. By intermediate products during DHHB oxidation and laser flash photolysis spectra analysis, a primary degradation pathway was proposed.

  11. Novel 3-D Supramolecular Architectures Constructed from Zn2+ ions, Oxybis(4-benzoate) and Di(2-pyridyl)amine Ligands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Long; LI Dong-Sheng; FU Feng; WANG Ji-Jiang; HU Huai-Ming; WANG Yao-Yu

    2007-01-01

    Using the V-shaped oba dianions as bridging ligands and dpa molecules as terminal ligands, a new 1D helical coordination-polymeric chain, [Zn(oba)(dpa)]n [oba=oxybis(4-benzoate), dpa=di(2-pyridyl)amine], was synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, UV-Vis and IR spectra, and TGA analysis. X-ray structural analysis revealed that, oba and dpa ligands played an important role in the self-assembly of the helical chains by providing potential supramolecular recognition sites for π-π aromatic stacking and hydrogen-bond interactions, resulting in the self-assembly of the (4,4) networks to give a 3-D supramolecular framework.The photoluminescence properties of the title compound were also investigated, showing intense blue photoluminescence properties at room temperature.

  12. Development of NUPREP PC Version and Input Structures for NUCIRC Single Channel Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Churl; Jun, Ji Su; Park, Joo Hwan

    2007-12-15

    The input file for a steady-state thermal-hydraulic code NUCIRC consists of common channel input data and specific channel input data in a case of single channel analysis. Even when all the data is ready for the 380 channels' single channel analyses, it takes long time and requires enormous effort to compose an input file by hand-editing. The automatic pre-processor for this tedious job is a NUPREP code. In this study, a NUPREP PC version has been developed from the source list in the program manual of NUCIRC-MOD2.000 that is imported in a form of an execution file. In this procedure, some errors found in PC executions and lost statements are fixed accordingly. It is confirmed that the developed NUPREP code produces input file correctly for the CANDU-6 single channel analysis. Additionally, the NUCIRC input structure and data format are summarized for a single channel analysis and the input CARDs required for the creep information of aged channels are listed.

  13. Administration of estradiol benzoate before insemination could skew secondary sex ratio toward males in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi, S R; Rezaei, A; Bolourchi, M; Hovareshti, P; Akbarinejad, V

    2014-07-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of estradiol benzoate administration before insemination on secondary sex ratio (proportion of male calves at birth) in Holstein dairy cows. Cows (n = 1,647) were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups by parity over a 1-yr period. Cows in the control group (n = 827; 232 primiparous and 595 multiparous cows) received 2 administrations of PGF2α (500 μg) 14 d apart, started at 30 to 35 d postpartum. Twelve d after the second PGF2α injection, cows received GnRH (100 μg), followed by administration of PGF2α 7 d later. Cows in the treatment group (n = 820; 238 primiparous and 582 multiparous cows) received the same hormonal administrations as the cows in the control group. Additionally, cows in the treatment group received estradiol benzoate (1 mg) 1 d after the third PGF2α injection. Estrus detection by visual observation was started 1 d after the third PGF2α injection and after estradiol administration in the control (for 6 d) and treatment (for 36 h) groups, respectively. Artificial insemination was carried out 12 h after observation of standing estrus. Exposure of cows to heat stress at conception was determined based on temperature-humidity index. Estrus detection rate was lower in primiparous than in multiparous cows (P heat stress diminished heat detection rate and fertility (P calves being male in Holstein dairy cows. Moreover, the results showed that cows exposed to heat stress around conception had diminished fertility and increased secondary sex ratio.

  14. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both...... the coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  15. PC/ABS及PC/ABS/PE-g-MAH共混体系相容性的研究%Compatibility of PC/ABS and PC/ABS/PE-g-MAH Blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐颂超; 蒋丽霞; 周达飞

    2000-01-01

    研究了聚碳酸酯与ABS(PC/ABS)及PC/ABS与马来酸酐接枝聚乙烯共聚物(PC/ABS/PE-g-MAH)共混体系的力学性能和应力开裂性能.用D SC和SEM研究了共混体系的相容性.结果表明:ABS的加入能提高PC的冲击强度,ABS的含量及品种影响PC/ABS合金的力学性能,ABS能提高PC的耐溶剂应力开裂性能.PC/ABS/PE-g-M AH共混体系的力学性能和相容性优于PC/ABS共混体系,PE-g-MAH起到了增容剂的作用.

  16. Characteristics of CoPc/CdS hybrid diode device

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Murat Çalişkan; Serço Serkis Yeşilkaya; Mevlüde Canlica

    2015-09-01

    CdS/CoPc hybrid heterojunctions were fabricated and characterized. CdS films were deposited by the spray pyrolysis technique on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates and CoPc films coated on CdS by chemical precipitation. Ag contact metal deposited on CoPc by e-beam evaporation and glass/ITO/CdS/ CoPc/Ag structures were fabricated. Rectification ratio, ideality factor, barrier height and junction parameters of the devices were determined. It is shown that device has diode characteristics with the ideality factor (n) of 4.8, rectification ratio of 4.5 and the built-in voltage (b) of 0.48 V. Absorption energy for CoPc was found as 1.57 eV. The results encourage utilizing CoPc as absorber organic material for solar cells.

  17. Coding for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on exercises help you learn to code like a pro No coding experience is required for Coding For Dummies,your one-stop guide to building a foundation of knowledge inwriting computer code for web, application, and softwaredevelopment. It doesn't matter if you've dabbled in coding or neverwritten a line of code, this book guides you through the basics.Using foundational web development languages like HTML, CSS, andJavaScript, it explains in plain English how coding works and whyit's needed. Online exercises developed by Codecademy, a leading online codetraining site, help hone coding skill

  18. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  19. Pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sravanthi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pachyonychia congenita is a rare type of ectodermal dysplasia further classified into 4 types. Cutaneous manifestations seen in most of the cases of Pachyonychia congenita include palmoplantar keratoderma, follicular hyperkeratosis, wedge shaped nails, oral leukokeratosis and woolly hair. A 25-year-old male presented to us with thickened nails and scanty scalp hair. On examination, we noticed hyperkeratotic plaques over both the soles, palmoplantar hyperhidrosis and yellowish discoloration, wedging with subungual hyperkeratosis of all the nails. Follicular hyperkeratotic papules and steatocystoma multiplex were also observed over the scalp and face. The patient had history of natal teeth and on dental examination, lower central incisors were absent. All cutaneous changes in our case had manifested first in the 2nd decade except for natal teeth. All the above features suggested the diagnosis of pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda, which is an infrequently reported rare variant.

  20. Graphical programming harnesses multicore PC technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    National Instruments

    2007-01-01

    @@ Multicore processing is generating considerable buzz within the PC industry,largely because both Intel and AMD have released initial versions of their own multicore processors.These first multicore processors contain two cores,or computing engines,located in one physical processor-hence the name dual-core processors.Processors with more than two cores also are on the horizon.Dualcore processors can simultaneously execute two computing tasks.This is advantageous in multitasking environments,such as Windows XP,in which you simultaneously run multiple applications.Two applications-National instruments LabVIEW and Microsoft Excel,for exampleeach can access a separate processor core at the same time,thus improving overall performance for applications such as data logging.

  1. Chaos A Program Collection for the PC

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Hans Jürgen; Hartmann, Timo

    2008-01-01

    This new edition strives yet again to provide readers with a working knowledge of chaos theory and dynamical systems through parallel introductory explanations in the book and interaction with carefully-selected programs supplied on the accompanying diskette. The programs enable readers, especially advanced-undergraduate students in physics, engineering, and math, to tackle relevant physical systems quickly on their PCs, without distraction from algorithmic details. For the third edition of Chaos: A Program Collection for the PC, each of the previous twelve programs is polished and rewritten in C++ (both Windows and Linux versions are included). A new program treats kicked systems, an important class of two-dimensional problems, which is introduced in Chapter 13. Each chapter follows the structure: theoretical background; numerical techniques; interaction with the program; computer experiments; real experiments and empirical evidence; reference. Interacting with the many numerical experiments have proven to h...

  2. A study of Pc-5 ULF oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Hudson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of Pc-5 magnetic pulsations using data from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES was carried out. Three-component dynamic magnetic field spectrograms have been used to survey ULF pulsation activity for the approximate fourteen month lifetime of CRRES. Two-hour panels of dynamic spectra were examined to find events which fall into two basic categories: 1 toroidal modes (fundamental and harmonic resonances and 2 poloidal modes, which include compressional oscillations. The occurence rates were determined as a function of L value and local time. The main result is a comparable probability of occurence of toroidal mode oscillations on the dawn and dusk sides of the magnetosphere inside geosynchronous orbit, while poloidal mode oscillations occur predominantly along the dusk side, consistent with high azimuthal mode number excitation by ring current ions.

    Pc-5 pulsations following Storm Sudden Commencements (SSCs were examined separately. The spatial distribution of modes for the SSC events was consistent with the statistical study for the lifetime of CRRES. The toroidal fundamental (and harmonic resonances are the dominant mode seen on the dawn-side of the magnetosphere following SSCs. Power is mixed in all three components. In the 21 dusk side SSC events there were only a few examples of purely compressional (two or radial (one power in the CRRES study, a few more examples of purely toroidal modes (six, with all three components predominant in about half (ten of the events.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics – Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities

  3. Virtual Reality Today on a PC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christel, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Describes a microcomputer-based digital video course that uses virtual reality to teach the code inspection (i.e., formal software technical review) process. Use of virtual reality for group process activities that involve interpersonal and group dynamic skills is discussed, and research indicating that realism improves course effectiveness is…

  4. Application of PC-ANN and PC-LS-SVM in QSAR of CCR1 antagonist compounds: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahlaei, Mohsen; Fassihi, Afshin; Saghaie, Lotfollah

    2010-04-01

    Principal component regression (PCR), principal component-artificial neural network (PC-ANN), and principal component-least squares-support vector machine (PC-LS-SVM) as regression methods were investigated for building quantitative structure-activity relationships for the prediction of inhibitory activity of some CCR1 antagonists. Nonlinear methods (PC-ANN and PC-LS-SVM) were better than the PCR method considerably in the goodness of fit and predictivity parameters and other criteria for evaluation of the proposed model. These results reflect a nonlinear relationship between the principal components obtained from molecular descriptors and the inhibitory activity of this set of molecules. The maximum variance in activity of the molecules, in PCR method was 45.5%, whereas nonlinear methods, PC-ANN and PC-LS-SVM, could explain more than 93.7% and 95.6% variance in activity data respectively.

  5. Comparison Studies of Dielectric and AC Conduction of PbPc and CuPc Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sivamalar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The thin film of Lead Phthalocyanine (PbPc and Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc on glass are prepared by Vacuum deposition method. Deposition of PbPc and CuPc on pre-cleaned glass substrates under the pressure of 10-6 Torr are achieved by slowly varying current of 20 Volt. The rate of evaporation is properly controlled and maintained constant during all the evaporations. The thicknesses of the films are 150 nm, 300 nm and 450 nm on glass substrate. Dielectric and AC conduction studies of Lead Phthalocyanine and Cupper Phthalocyanine thin films have been studied. The variations of capacitance with frequency at different, permittivity with temperature, capacitance with temperature and ac conductance with frequency at different temperatures of PbPc and CuPc have been studied. The activation energies have been determined from the slope of 1000/T vs. log Gp curves at different frequencies (where Gp= -Eg/RT.

  6. Implementation of a General Finite Element Code on an IBM PC Compatible Microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    l-r,0 ?CC.’j\\ WR1TE(#,’( APA )k’ PRICESSIN:G 9BLCY’ v, BLO-C 1,17 APPENDIX E MEF PROGRAM LISTINGS 4 The orogram listings for MEF are provided belowe...2,-30) (Vi :), ,!=-i, D- 2030 FORMATO )’ fl).iX,7E12.5) 40) CONTINUE C---- READ NODE CARDS 50 READ (MI, 1020) (’AV() 14=!,L16) 164 1020 tX FORM NEQ 00

  7. Locally Orderless Registration Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  8. Locally orderless registration code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  9. Study of Boiling Water Resistant PC/PE Alloy Materials%耐水煮PC/PE合金的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申景强; 刘振华; 诸泉; 蒋文真

    2012-01-01

    采用熔融共混工艺路线,选择合适的PC、PE和增容剂(PE-g-GMA)制备了PC/PE合金材料,研究了PE对PC/PE合金力学性能和热变形温度的影响,以及PC/PE合金经240 h水煮后的缺口冲击强度。结果表明当PE含量为5%时,PC/PE合金的综合物性最佳。%PC/PE alloy was prepared through melt blending process by using PC,PE and compatibilizing agents(PE-g-GMA).The effect of PE on mechanical property and heat deflection temperature of PC/PE alloy were studied and notched impact strength of PC/PE alloy after 240 hours in boiling water was characterized.The result showed that PC/PE alloy containing 5 WT% can achieve the best comprehensive properties.

  10. QR Codes 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  11. Constructing quantum codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Quantum error correcting codes are indispensable for quantum information processing and quantum computation.In 1995 and 1996,Shor and Steane gave first several examples of quantum codes from classical error correcting codes.The construction of efficient quantum codes is now an active multi-discipline research field.In this paper we review the known several constructions of quantum codes and present some examples.

  12. Application of simplified PC-SAFT to glycol ethers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Ane Søgaard; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2012-01-01

    The simplified PC-SAFT (sPC-SAFT) equation of state is applied for binary glycol ether-containing mixtures, and it is investigated how the results are influenced by inclusion of intramolecular association in the association theory. Three different glycol ethers are examined: 2-methoxyethanol, 2-e...

  13. Hydrogen bonds in PC{sub 61}BM solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Chun-Qi [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Key Laboratory of Organosilicon Chemistry and Material Technology of Ministry of Education, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China); Li, Wen-Jie; Du, Ying-Ying; Chen, Guang-Hua; Chen, Zheng; Li, Hai-Yang; Li, Hong-Nian, E-mail: phylihn@mail.zju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-09-15

    We have studied the hydrogen bonds in PC{sub 61}BM solids. Inter-molecular interaction is analyzed theoretically for the well-defined monoclinic (P2{sub 1}/n) structure. The results indicate that PC{sub 61}BM combines into C–H⋯O{sub d} bonded molecular chains, where O{sub d} denotes the doubly-bonded O atom of PC{sub 61}BM. The molecular chains are linked together by C–H⋯O{sub s} bonds, where O{sub s} denotes the singly-bonded O atom of PC{sub 61}BM. To reveal the consequences of hydrogen bond formation on the structural properties of PC{sub 61}BM solids (not limited to the monoclinic structure), we design and perform some experiments for annealed samples with the monoclinic (P2{sub 1}/n) PC{sub 61}BM as starting material. The experiments include differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption measurements. Structural phase transitions are observed below the melting point. The C–H⋯O{sub d} bonds seem persisting in the altered structures. The inter-molecular hydrogen bonds can help to understand the phase separation in polymer/PC{sub 61}BM blends and may be responsible for the existence of liquid PC{sub 61}BM.

  14. Attention selection, distractor suppression and N2pc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Veronica; Turatto, Massimo; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    N2pc is generally interpreted as the electrocortical correlate of the distractor-suppression mechanisms through which attention selection takes place in humans. Here, we present data that challenge this common N2pc interpretation. In Experiment 1, multiple distractors induced greater N2pc amplitudes even when they facilitated target identification, despite the suppression account of the N2pc predicted the contrary; in Experiment 2, spatial proximity between target and distractors did not affect the N2pc amplitude, despite resulting in more interference in response times; in Experiment 3, heterogeneous distractors delayed response times but did not elicit a greater N2pc relative to homogeneous distractors again in contrast with what would have predicted the suppression hypothesis. These results do not support the notion that the N2pc unequivocally mirrors distractor-suppression processes. We propose that the N2pc indexes mechanisms involved in identifying and localizing relevant stimuli in the scene through enhancement of their features and not suppression of distractors.

  15. Chromosomal distribution of PcG proteins during Drosophila development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Nègre

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycomb group (PcG proteins are able to maintain the memory of silent transcriptional states of homeotic genes throughout development. In Drosophila, they form multimeric complexes that bind to specific DNA regulatory elements named PcG response elements (PREs. To date, few PREs have been identified and the chromosomal distribution of PcG proteins during development is unknown. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP with genomic tiling path microarrays to analyze the binding profile of the PcG proteins Polycomb (PC and Polyhomeotic (PH across 10 Mb of euchromatin. We also analyzed the distribution of GAGA factor (GAF, a sequence-specific DNA binding protein that is found at most previously identified PREs. Our data show that PC and PH often bind to clustered regions within large loci that encode transcription factors which play multiple roles in developmental patterning and in the regulation of cell proliferation. GAF co-localizes with PC and PH to a limited extent, suggesting that GAF is not a necessary component of chromatin at PREs. Finally, the chromosome-association profile of PC and PH changes during development, suggesting that the function of these proteins in the regulation of some of their target genes might be more dynamic than previously anticipated.

  16. Influence of flavone extract from cultivated saussurea on learning and memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease A comparison with estradiol benzoate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiqiang Chen; Shuiming Gong; Yan Li; Ming Li; Zemin Yang; Lirong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The present study established a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, and investigated the effects of treatment with flavone extract from artificially cultivated saussurea. A positive control group was treated with estradiol benzoate, and learning and memory ability were examined in the 8-arm radial maze. The learning and recognition ability of mice with Alzheimer's disease treated with flavone extract was significantly improved and the number of hippocampal neurons was significantly increased in the flavone-treated and positive control groups compared with the model group. The results indicate that flavone extract from artificially cultivated saussurea can improve learning and memory deficits in mice with Alzheimer's disease, exerting effects similar to those of estradiol benzoate.

  17. Turbo Codes Extended with Outer BCH Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1996-01-01

    The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is proposed...

  18. Online Instructional Design Approaches Utilizing a Tablet PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Lowry

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Online students can experience what instructional strategies can be utilized using a Tablet PC in online courses. This paper summarizes how inking in Word, Powerpoint, and Windows Journal can be effective in an online course both asynchronously and synchronously. Approaches concerning assignments, discussion boards, presentations, note taking are discussed and how they can be more effective for faculty members and students using a Tablet PC. Students actually experience how a Tablet PC can be utilized in an asynchronous and synchronous environment. In summary, preliminary data will be discussed from the students and professor’s point of view and next steps. As content and assignments are being designed and developed for an online graduate course, it is important to keep in mind teaching styles, student’s learning styles, and a faculty member’s approach to promoting a Tablet PC in an online course. Even though graduate students were not required to have a Tablet PC, the course enabled them to understand how effective a Tablet PC could be in an online course whether it was delivered asynchronous or synchronously. Powerpoint presentations were created to delivery asynchronously and synchronously content to students by utilizing a Tablet PC to illustrate concepts within the presentation. Assignments were created such as evaluating e-learning products, creating a Blackboard unit, evaluating online courses, group instruction sessions, and weekly discussion boards. As these assignments were graded, comments were written on their Word and Powerpoint files using Tablet PC inking. As the Tablet PC initiative is less than one year old at Lawrence Technological University, preliminary data is being collected from faculty members and students. After this class is taught summer 2008, additional research on the efforts of course design and student learning will be explored. The Tablet PC has the potential for enhancing online course delivery.

  19. One-pot, four-component synthesis of pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazoles catalyzed by sodium benzoate in aqueous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Kiyani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient, green, and facile four-component reaction for the preparation of pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole derivatives through the condensation reaction of aryl aldehydes, ethyl acetoacetate, malononitrile, and hydrazine hydrate or phenyl hydrazine in the presence of commercially available organocatalyst sodium benzoate under aqueous condition is reported. The products are produced with high yields and in shorter reaction times. It also is mild, safe, green and environmental friendly.

  20. Hybrid Noncoherent Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Skachek, Vitaly; Nedic, Angelia

    2011-01-01

    We describe a novel extension of subspace codes for noncoherent networks, suitable for use when the network is viewed as a communication system that introduces both dimension and symbol errors. We show that when symbol erasures occur in a significantly large number of different basis vectors transmitted through the network and when the min-cut of the networks is much smaller then the length of the transmitted codewords, the new family of codes outperforms their subspace code counterparts. For the proposed coding scheme, termed hybrid network coding, we derive two upper bounds on the size of the codes. These bounds represent a variation of the Singleton and of the sphere-packing bound. We show that a simple concatenated scheme that represents a combination of subspace codes and Reed-Solomon codes is asymptotically optimal with respect to the Singleton bound. Finally, we describe two efficient decoding algorithms for concatenated subspace codes that in certain cases have smaller complexity than subspace decoder...

  1. Scanning tunneling microscopy investigation of self-assembled CuPc/F16CuPc binary superstructures on graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu Li; Li, Hui; Ma, Jing; Huang, Han; Chen, Wei; Wee, Andrew T S

    2010-03-01

    The self-assembly of the binary molecular system comprising copper(II) phthalocyanine (CuPc) and copper-hexadecafluoro-phthalocyanine (F(16)CuPc) on graphite has been investigated by in situ low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM). The adsorption of this binary molecular system on graphite results in the formation of a well-ordered chessboardlike nanopattern. The in-plane molecular orientation of the guest CuPc molecules can be tuned by varying the coverage. At low coverage, the sparse CuPc molecules are randomly embedded in the host F(16)CuPc monolayer, possessing two different in-plane orientations; as the CuPc coverage increases, the in-plane molecular orientations of CuPc and F(16)CuPc become unidirectional and a highly ordered chessboardlike pattern forms. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulation results suggest that the selective and directional intermolecular hydrogen bonding determines the in-plane molecular orientation as well as the supramolecular packing arrangement.

  2. GABAA receptor-mediated feedforward and feedback inhibition differentially modulate the gain and the neural code transformation in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun Jae; Park, Kyerl; Lee, Jaedong; Kim, Hyuncheol; Han, Kyu Hun; Kwag, Jeehyun

    2015-12-01

    Diverse variety of hippocampal interneurons exists in the CA1 area, which provides either feedforward (FF) or feedback (FB) inhibition to CA1 pyramidal cell (PC). However, how the two different inhibitory network architectures modulate the computational mode of CA1 PC is unknown. By investigating the CA3 PC rate-driven input-output function of CA1 PC using in vitro electrophysiology, in vitro-simulation of inhibitory network, and in silico computational modeling, we demonstrated for the first time that GABAA receptor-mediated FF and FB inhibition differentially modulate the gain, the spike precision, the neural code transformation and the information capacity of CA1 PC. Recruitment of FF inhibition buffered the CA1 PC spikes to theta-frequency regardless of the input frequency, abolishing the gain and making CA1 PC insensitive to its inputs. Instead, temporal variability of the CA1 PC spikes was increased, promoting the rate-to-temporal code transformation to enhance the information capacity of CA1 PC. In contrast, the recruitment of FB inhibition sub-linearly transformed the input rate to spike output rate with high gain and low spike temporal variability, promoting the rate-to-rate code transformation. These results suggest that GABAA receptor-mediated FF and FB inhibitory circuits could serve as network mechanisms for differentially modulating the gain of CA1 PC, allowing CA1 PC to switch between different computational modes using rate and temporal codes ad hoc. Such switch will allow CA1 PC to efficiently respond to spatio-temporally dynamic inputs and expand its computational capacity during different behavioral and neuromodulatory states in vivo.

  3. Modeling the efficacy of triplet antimicrobial combinations: yeast suppression by lauric arginate, cinnamic acid, and sodium benzoate or potassium sorbate as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yumei; Normand, Mark D; Weiss, Jochen; Peleg, Micha

    2010-03-01

    The growth of four spoilage yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, and Brettanomyces naardenensis, was inhibited with three-agent (triplet) combinations of lauric arginate, cinnamic acid, and sodium benzoate or potassium sorbate. The inhibition efficacy was determined by monitoring the optical density of yeast cultures grown in microtiter plates for 7 days. The relationship between the optical density and the sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate concentrations followed a single-term exponential decay model. The critical effective concentration was defined as the concentration at which the optical density was 0.05, which became an efficacy criterion for the mixtures. Critical concentrations of sodium benzoate or potassium sorbate as a function of the lauric arginate and cinnamic acid concentrations were then fitted with an empirical model that mapped three-agent combinations of equal efficacy. The contours of this function are presented in tabulated form and as two- and three-dimensional plots. Triplet combinations were highly effective against all four spoilage yeasts at three practical pH levels, especially at pH 3.0. The triplet combinations were particularly effective for inhibiting growth of Z. bailii, and combinations containing potassium sorbate had synergistic activities. The equal efficacy concentration model also allowed tabulation of the cost of the various combinations of agents and identification of those most economically feasible.

  4. Effect of lactic acid bacteria inoculants, formic acid, potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate on fermentation quality and aerobic stability of wilted grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. SAARISALO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of a novel strain of lactic acid bacteria inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum VTT E-78076, E76 on the fermentation quality of wilted silage was studied. Furthermore, the possibility to improve aerobic stability of silages by combining an inoculant and chemical preservatives was investigated. Two experiments were conducted with wilted timothy-meadow fescue herbage (dry matter 429 and 344 g kg-1 using six treatments. In experiment I, E76 (106 cfu g-1 fresh matter (FM was applied alone and in combination with sodium benzoate (0.3 g kg-1 grass FM or low rate of formic acid (0.4 l t-1 FM. In experiment II, E76 and a commercial inoculant were applied alone and in combination with sodium benzoate. Untreated silage and formic acid (4 l t-1 FM treated silage served as negative and positive controls in both experiments. The effect of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in experiment I, on aerobic stability was tested by treating silages prior to aerobic stability measurements. The novel lactic acid bacteria inoculant was equally effective in improving fermentation quality as the commercial inoculant. However, the aerobic stability of both inoculated silages was poorer than that of formic acid treated or the untreated one in one of the experiments. The results suggested that antimicrobial properties of E76 were not effective enough to improve aerobic instability. One option to overcome this problem is to use chemical additives in combination with the inoculants.;

  5. Detection of emamectin benzoate tolerance emergence in different life stages of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P G; Hammell, K L; Gettinby, G; Revie, C W

    2013-03-01

    Emamectin benzoate has been used to treat sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Recent evidence suggests a reduction in effectiveness in some locations. A major challenge in the detection of tolerance emergence can be the typically low proportion of resistant individuals in a population during the early phases. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for determining differences in temporal development of tolerance between sea lice life stages and to explore how these differences might be used to improve the monitoring of treatment effectiveness in a clinical setting. This study examined two data sets based on records of sea lice abundance following emamectin benzoate treatments from the west coast of Scotland (2002-2006) and from New Brunswick, Canada (2004-2008). Life stages were categorized into two groups (adult females and the remaining mobile stages) to examine the trends in mean abundance and treatment effectiveness. Differences in emamectin benzoate effectiveness were found between the two groups by year and location, suggesting that an important part of monitoring drug resistance development in aquatic ectoparasites may be the need to focus on key life stages.

  6. Siderophore-Producing Bacteria from a Sand Dune Ecosystem and the Effect of Sodium Benzoate on Siderophore Production by a Potential Isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teja Gaonkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation in natural ecosystems is dependent upon the availability of micronutrients and cofactors, of which iron is one of the essential elements. Under aerobic and alkaline conditions, iron oxidizes to Fe+3 creating iron deficiency. To acquire this essential growth-limiting nutrient, bacteria produce low-molecular-weight, high-affinity iron chelators termed siderophores. In this study, siderophore-producing bacteria from rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere areas of coastal sand dunes were isolated using a culture-dependent approach and were assigned to 8 different genera with the predominance of Bacillus sp. Studies on the ability of these isolates to grow on sodium benzoate revealed that a pigmented bacterial culture TMR2.13 identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed growth on mineral salts medium (MSM with 2% of sodium benzoate and produced a yellowish fluorescent siderophore identified as pyoverdine. This was inhibited above 54 μM of added iron in MSM with glucose without affecting growth, while, in presence of sodium benzoate, siderophore was produced even up to the presence of 108 μM of added iron. Increase in the requirement of iron for metabolism of aromatic compounds in ecosystems where the nutrient deficiencies occur naturally would be one of the regulating factors for the bioremediation process.

  7. Determination of Rizatriptan Benzoate by Potentiometric Titration%电位滴定法测定苯甲酸利扎曲普坦的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于小琴; 陈雅男; 臧晓红

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish a potentiometric titration method for determination of rizatriptan benzoate. Methods The samples was dissolved in 40 mL of glacial acetic acid and 5 mL of acetic anhydride were titrated potentiometrically with 0.1 mol/L perchloric acid solution. And blank test calibration was performed for titration results.Results The content of rizatriptan benzoate was 100.21 %, withRSD of 0.2 %.ConclusionThis method can be simple and accurate, and suitable for the determination of rizatriptan benzoate.%目的:建立电位滴定法测定苯甲酸利扎曲普坦的含量的方法。方法以冰醋酸40 mL和醋酐5 mL溶解样品后,采用电位滴定法用高氯酸滴定液(0.1 mol/L)滴定,并将滴定结果用空白试验校正。结果测得的苯甲酸利扎曲普坦样品的含量为100.21%,RSD为0.2%。结论该方法操作简单、准确度高,适合苯甲酸利扎曲普坦含量的检测。

  8. Syntrophus aciditrophicus sp. nov., a new anaerobic bacterium that degrades fatty acids and benzoate in syntrophic association with hydrogen-using microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B. E.; Bhupathiraju, V. K.; Tanner, R. S.; Woese, C. R.; McInerney, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Strain SBT is a new, strictly anaerobic, gram-negative, nonmotile, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacterium that degrades benzoate and certain fatty acids in syntrophic association with hydrogen/formate-using microorganisms. Strain SBT produced approximately 3 mol of acetate and 0.6 mol of methane per mol of benzoate in coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei strain JF1. Saturated fatty acids, some unsaturated fatty acids, and methyl esters of butyrate and hexanoate also supported growth of strain SBT in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G11. Strain SBT grew in pure culture with crotonate, producing acetate, butyrate, caproate, and hydrogen. The molar growth yield was 17 +/- 1 g cell dry mass per mol of crotonate. Strain SBT did not grow with fumarate, iron(III), polysulfide, or oxyanions of sulfur or nitrogen as electron acceptors with benzoate as the electron donor. The DNA base composition of strain SBT was 43.1 mol% G+C. Analysis of the 16 S rRNA gene sequence placed strain SBT in the delta-subdivision of the Proteobacteria, with sulfate-reducing bacteria. Strain SBT was most closely related to members of the genus Syntrophus. The clear phenotypic and genotypic differences between strain SBT and the two described species in the genus Syntrophus justify the formation of a new species, Syntrophus aciditrophicus.

  9. Siderophore-producing bacteria from a sand dune ecosystem and the effect of sodium benzoate on siderophore production by a potential isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaonkar, Teja; Nayak, Pramoda Kumar; Garg, Sandeep; Bhosle, Saroj

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation in natural ecosystems is dependent upon the availability of micronutrients and cofactors, of which iron is one of the essential elements. Under aerobic and alkaline conditions, iron oxidizes to Fe(+3) creating iron deficiency. To acquire this essential growth-limiting nutrient, bacteria produce low-molecular-weight, high-affinity iron chelators termed siderophores. In this study, siderophore-producing bacteria from rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere areas of coastal sand dunes were isolated using a culture-dependent approach and were assigned to 8 different genera with the predominance of Bacillus sp. Studies on the ability of these isolates to grow on sodium benzoate revealed that a pigmented bacterial culture TMR2.13 identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed growth on mineral salts medium (MSM) with 2% of sodium benzoate and produced a yellowish fluorescent siderophore identified as pyoverdine. This was inhibited above 54 μM of added iron in MSM with glucose without affecting growth, while, in presence of sodium benzoate, siderophore was produced even up to the presence of 108 μM of added iron. Increase in the requirement of iron for metabolism of aromatic compounds in ecosystems where the nutrient deficiencies occur naturally would be one of the regulating factors for the bioremediation process.

  10. Synthesis, structure and temperature-depended 2D IR correlation spectroscopy of an organo-bismuth benzoate with 1,10-phenanthroline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-Qiong; Zhong, Jie-Cen; Liu, Le-Hui; Qiu, Xing-Tai; Chen, Yi-Ping

    2016-11-01

    An organo-bismuth benzoate with phen as auxiliary ligand, [Bi(phen)(C6H5COO)(C6H4COO)] (1) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) has been hydrothermally synthesized from bismuth nitrate, 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid with phen as auxiliary ligand and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, PXRD, IR spectra, TG analyses, temperature-depended 2D-IR COS (two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy). Interestingly, benzoate anions in 1 came from the desulfuration reaction of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid under hydrothermal condition. Compound 1 is a discrete organo-bismuth compound with benzoate and phen ligands. The offset face-to-face π-π stacking interactions and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the isolate complex into a 3D supramolecular network. The temperature-depended 2D-IR COS indicates that the stretching vibrations of Cdbnd C/Cdbnd N of aromatic rings and Cdbnd O bonds are sensitive to the temperature change.

  11. Bitter taste stimuli induce differential neural codes in mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Wilson

    Full Text Available A growing literature suggests taste stimuli commonly classified as "bitter" induce heterogeneous neural and perceptual responses. Here, the central processing of bitter stimuli was studied in mice with genetically controlled bitter taste profiles. Using these mice removed genetic heterogeneity as a factor influencing gustatory neural codes for bitter stimuli. Electrophysiological activity (spikes was recorded from single neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius during oral delivery of taste solutions (26 total, including concentration series of the bitter tastants quinine, denatonium benzoate, cycloheximide, and sucrose octaacetate (SOA, presented to the whole mouth for 5 s. Seventy-nine neurons were sampled; in many cases multiple cells (2 to 5 were recorded from a mouse. Results showed bitter stimuli induced variable gustatory activity. For example, although some neurons responded robustly to quinine and cycloheximide, others displayed concentration-dependent activity (p<0.05 to quinine but not cycloheximide. Differential activity to bitter stimuli was observed across multiple neurons recorded from one animal in several mice. Across all cells, quinine and denatonium induced correlated spatial responses that differed (p<0.05 from those to cycloheximide and SOA. Modeling spatiotemporal neural ensemble activity revealed responses to quinine/denatonium and cycloheximide/SOA diverged during only an early, at least 1 s wide period of the taste response. Our findings highlight how temporal features of sensory processing contribute differences among bitter taste codes and build on data suggesting heterogeneity among "bitter" stimuli, data that challenge a strict monoguesia model for the bitter quality.

  12. PC-SEAPAK - ANALYSIS OF COASTAL ZONE COLOR SCANNER AND ADVANCED VERY HIGH RESOLUTION RADIOMETER DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    incompatibilities between the MVP-AT image board and ZENITH computers. Also, the MVP-AT image board is not necessarily compatible with 486-based systems; users of 486-based systems should consult with Matrox about compatibility concerns. Other PC-SEAPAK requirements include a Microsoft mouse (serial version), 2Mb RAM, and 100Mb hard disk space. For data ingest and backup, 9-track tape, 8mm tape and optical disks are supported and recommended. PC-SEAPAK has been under development since 1988. Version 4.0 was updated in 1992, and is distributed without source code. It is available only as a set of 36 1.2Mb 5.25 inch IBM MS-DOS format diskettes. PC-SEAPAK is a copyrighted product with all copyright vested in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Phar Lap's DOS_Extender run-time version is integrated into several of the programs; therefore, the PC-SEAPAK programs may not be duplicated. Three of the distribution diskettes contain DOS_Extender files. One of the distribution diskettes contains Media Cybernetics' HALO88 font files, also licensed by NASA for dissemination but not duplication. IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. HALO88 is a registered trademark of Media Cybernetics, but the product was discontinued in 1991.

  13. PC/ASA合金的研发%Research on PC/ASA Alloy Performance and Preparation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄李胜; 李景; 麦伟宗; 赖世亮

    2016-01-01

    利用双螺杆挤出机制备PC/ASA合金,探讨了不同PC与ASA配比对性能的影响。结果表明:在PC/ASA体系中,PC与ASA的配比为70∶30,添加4%的相容剂SMA以及0.8%的抗氧剂、润滑剂,能获得最优的性能:悬臂梁缺口冲击强度达66.7kJ/m2,拉伸强度达56.1MPa,弯曲强度达82.3MPa,热变形温度达105.6℃;同时比同等条件下制备出来的PC/ABS合金拥有更好的耐光性。%Using a twin-screw extruder equipment,PC/ASA alloy was prepared,the effects of different ratio of PC and ASA on performance were investigated. The results showed that:in PC/ASA system,PC and ASA ratio is 70∶30,adding compatibility agent SMA 4% and 0. 8% of antioxidant and lubricant,can achieve optimal perform-ance:Izod notched impact strength of 66. 7kJ/m2 , the tensile strength of 56. 1MPa, the bending strength of 82. 3MPa,heat distortion temperature of 105. 6℃;while PC/ABS was prepared under the same conditions,PC/ASA alloy has better lightfastness than PC/ABS.

  14. Network coding for computing: Linear codes

    CERN Document Server

    Appuswamy, Rathinakumar; Karamchandani, Nikhil; Zeger, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    In network coding it is known that linear codes are sufficient to achieve the coding capacity in multicast networks and that they are not sufficient in general to achieve the coding capacity in non-multicast networks. In network computing, Rai, Dey, and Shenvi have recently shown that linear codes are not sufficient in general for solvability of multi-receiver networks with scalar linear target functions. We study single receiver networks where the receiver node demands a target function of the source messages. We show that linear codes may provide a computing capacity advantage over routing only when the receiver demands a `linearly-reducible' target function. % Many known target functions including the arithmetic sum, minimum, and maximum are not linearly-reducible. Thus, the use of non-linear codes is essential in order to obtain a computing capacity advantage over routing if the receiver demands a target function that is not linearly-reducible. We also show that if a target function is linearly-reducible,...

  15. Practices in Code Discoverability

    CERN Document Server

    Teuben, Peter; Nemiroff, Robert J; Shamir, Lior

    2012-01-01

    Much of scientific progress now hinges on the reliability, falsifiability and reproducibility of computer source codes. Astrophysics in particular is a discipline that today leads other sciences in making useful scientific components freely available online, including data, abstracts, preprints, and fully published papers, yet even today many astrophysics source codes remain hidden from public view. We review the importance and history of source codes in astrophysics and previous efforts to develop ways in which information about astrophysics codes can be shared. We also discuss why some scientist coders resist sharing or publishing their codes, the reasons for and importance of overcoming this resistance, and alert the community to a reworking of one of the first attempts for sharing codes, the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL). We discuss the implementation of the ASCL in an accompanying poster paper. We suggest that code could be given a similar level of referencing as data gets in repositories such ...

  16. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  17. An assessment of detection canine alerts using flowers that release methyl benzoate, the cocaine odorant, and an evaluation of their behavior in terms of the VOCs produced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerreta, Michelle M; Furton, Kenneth G

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, the high frequency of illicit substance abuse reported in the United States has made the development of efficient and rapid detection methods important. Biological detectors, such as canines (Canis familiaris), are valuable tools for rapid, on-site identification of illicit substances. However, research indicates that in many cases canines do not alert to the contraband, but rather to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are released from the contraband, referred to as the "active odor." In 2013, canine accuracy and reliability were challenged in the Supreme Court case, State of Florida v. Jardines. In this case, it was stated that if a canine alerts to the active odor, and not the contraband, the canine's accuracy and selectivity could be questioned, since many of these compounds have been found in common household products. Specifically, methyl benzoate, the active odor of cocaine, has been found to be the most abundant compound produced by snapdragon flowers. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the odor profiles of various species of snapdragon flowers to assess how significantly methyl benzoate contributes to the total VOC profile or fragrance that is produced. Particularly, this study examines the VOCs released from newly grown snapdragon flowers and determines its potential at eliciting a false alert from specially trained detection canines. The ability of detection canines to differentiate between cocaine and snapdragon flowers was determined in order to validate the field accuracy and discrimination power of these detectors. An optimized method using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) was used to test the different types and abundances of compounds generated from snapdragon flowers at various stages throughout the plants' life cycle. The results indicate that although methyl benzoate is present in the odor profile of snapdragon flowers, other

  18. Enhancing QR Code Security

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Linfan; Zheng, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Quick Response code opens possibility to convey data in a unique way yet insufficient prevention and protection might lead into QR code being exploited on behalf of attackers. This thesis starts by presenting a general introduction of background and stating two problems regarding QR code security, which followed by a comprehensive research on both QR code itself and related issues. From the research a solution taking advantages of cloud and cryptography together with an implementation come af...

  19. Simplified RP-HPLC method for multi-residue analysis of abamectin, emamectin benzoate and ivermectin in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianchuan; Gong, Shu; Wang, Xiaorong; Wu, Yinxing; Zhao, Li

    2011-01-01

    A rapid, reliable and sensitive reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection (RP-FLD-HPLC) was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of the abamectin (ABA), emamectin (EMA) benzoate and ivermectin (IVM) residues in rice. After extraction with acetonitrile/water (2 : 1) with sonication, the avermectin (AVMs) residues were directly derivatised by N-methylimidazole (N-NMIM) and trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) and then analysed on RP-FLD-HPLC. A good linear relationship (r(2 )> 0.99) was obtained for three AVMs ranging from 0.01 to 5 microg ml(-1), i.e. 0.01-5.0 microg g(-1) in rice matrix. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were between 0.001 and 0.002 microg g(-1) and between 0.004 and 0.006 microg g(-1), respectively. Recoveries were from 81.9% to 105.4% and precision less than 12.4%. The proposed method was successfully applied to routine analysis of the AVMs residues in rice.

  20. Energetic domains and conformational analysis of human serum albumin upon co-incubation with sodium benzoate and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, F; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Bohlooli, M; Habibi-Rezaei, M; Hadi Alijanvand, H; Amanlou, M; Sheibani, N; Saboury, A A; Ahmad, F

    2014-01-01

    Sodium benzoate (SB), a powerful inhibitor of microbial growth, is one of the most commonly used food preservative. Here, we determined the effects of SB on human serum albumin (HSA) structure in the presence or absence of glucose after 35 days of incubation under physiological conditions. The biochemical, biophysical, and molecular approaches including free amine content assay (TNBSA assay), fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and molecular docking and LIGPLOT studies were utilized for structural studies. The TNBSA results indicated that SB has the ability to bind Lys residues in HSA through covalent bonds. The docking and LIGPLOT studies also determined another specific site via hydrophobic interactions. The CD results showed more structural helicity for HSA incubated with SB, while HSA incubated with glucose had the least, and HSA incubated with glucose + SB had medium helicity. Fluorescence spectrophotometry results demonstrated partial unfolding of HSA incubated with SB in the presence or absence of glucose, while maximum partial unfolding was observed in HSA incubated with glucose. These results were confirmed by DSC and its deconvoluted thermograms. The DSC results also showed significant changes in HSA energetic structural domains due to HSA incubation with SB in the presence or absence of glucose. Together, our studies showed the formation of three different intermediates and indicate that biomolecular investigation are effective in providing new insight into safety determinations especially in health-related conditions including diabetes.

  1. Transcriptomic responses to emamectin benzoate in Pacific and Atlantic Canada salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis with differing levels of drug resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Ben J G; Poley, Jordan D; Igboeli, Okechukwu O; Jantzen, Johanna R; Fast, Mark D; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2015-01-01

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis are an ecologically and economically important parasite of wild and farmed salmon. In Scotland, Norway, and Eastern Canada, L. salmonis have developed resistance to emamectin benzoate (EMB), one of the few parasiticides available for salmon lice. Drug resistance mechanisms can be complex, potentially differing among populations and involving multiple genes with additive effects (i.e., polygenic resistance). Indicators of resistance development may enable early detection and countermeasures to avoid the spread of resistance. Here, we collect sensitive Pacific L. salmonis and sensitive and resistant Atlantic L. salmonis from salmon farms, propagate in laboratory (F1), expose to EMB in bioassays, and evaluate either baseline (Atlantic only) or induced transcriptomic differences between populations. In all populations, induced responses were minor and a cellular stress response was not identified. Pacific lice did not upregulate any genes in response to EMB, but downregulated degradative enzymes and transport proteins at 50 ppb EMB. Baseline differences between sensitive and now resistant Atlantic lice were much greater than responses to exposures. All resistant lice overexpressed degradative enzymes, and resistant males, the most resistant group, overexpressed collagenases to the greatest extent. These results indicate an accumulation of baseline expression differences related to resistance. PMID:25685190

  2. Detection on emamectin benzoate-induced apoptosis and DNA damage in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf-9 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiwei; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Chao; Zong, Mimi; Huang, Qingchun; Tao, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate (EMB), an important macrocyclic lactone insecticide that belongs to the avermectin family and possesses excellent potency in controlling pests, is non-carcinogenic and non-mutagenic conducted in rats and mice, but EMB-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in arthropod insect have been seldom reported yet. In the present paper, we quantified the cytotoxicity of EMB through the detections on cell viability, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf-9 cells in vitro. The results showed that EMB caused a concentration- and time-dependent reduction on the viability of Sf-9 cells, and the median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were 3.34μM at 72h of exposure. The dual acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining showed that exposure to EMB induced a significant time- and concentration-dependent increase on cell apoptosis. The alkaline comet assay revealed that EMB induced significant increases on single-strand DNA breaks, and the percentage of γH2AX-positive cells represented a time- and concentration-dependent formation of DNA double-strand breaks in Sf-9 cells. Interestingly, the similar cytotoxic actions of EMB also went for the human cancerous HeLa cells as a control cell group. Data demonstrated the potential cytotoxic effect of EMB on Sf-9 cells that was significantly greater than the effect of hydrogen peroxide at the same concentrations.

  3. In vitro and in vivo metabolism of ethyl 4-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)azo]benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekce, Banu; Sener, Göksel; Oktav, Mehmet; Ulgen, Mert; Rollas, Sevim

    2005-01-01

    Azo compounds are extensively used for colouring food, drink, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, textiles and printing inks. Publications in the literature have shown that azo dyes can pose threats to public health by metabolic and chemical oxidation and reduction reactions. In the present study, the in vivo and in vitro biotransformation of ethyl 4-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)azo]benzoate, an azo compound which is structurally similar to 1-phenylazo-2-naphthol was studied to investigate its in vivo and in vitro metabolic products. For the in vitro biotransformation study, rat liver microsomal preparations fortified with NADPH as a co-factor were used. Three unidentified metabolic products were observed. For the in vivo biotransformation study, a concentrated solution of this substrate was given orally to female rats. After the administration of substrate, blood samples of rats are taken at certain intervals. The blood plasma were obtained by centrifuging blood samples. The cold acetonitrile was added to plasma to precipitate plasma proteins and plasma was centrifuged. The supernatant was evaporated at room temperature. The residue was reconstituted with acetonitrile and examined by the HPLC. The unchanged substrate together with the corresponding reduction and acetylation products were detected in plasma. However, no initial hydrolysis occurred in the ester moiety.

  4. Application of Box-Behnken design to formulate and optimize multipolymeric fast dissolving film of rizatriptan benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmik M. Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims at formulation and optimization of multipolymeric fast dissolving film of rizatriptan benzoate. Three film forming polymers namely hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, maltodextrin and polyvinylalcohol were explored using Box-Behnken experimental design to derive optimized fast dissolving film formulation using desirability function. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed for five dependent variables tensile strength, folding endurance, load at yield, percentage elongation and percentage drug release in 30 s (Q 30. Mathematical regression equations were derived by applying ANOVA and validated using checkpoint batches. Results of the experimental design exposed that the effect of independent factors HPMC and maltodextrin significantly influenced the mechanical properties and percentage drug release from the film. Optimized batch was derived based on set criteria using desirability function. Reponses of the optimized formulation were tensile strength (500 N/m 2, folding endurance (203, load at yield (15.06 N/m 2, percentage elongation (4.56% and Q 30 (60.03% falling under acceptable limits. High percentage drug release from the film in simulated saliva and simulated gastric fluid reveal fast dissolving characteristics. Fast dissolving dosage form can help patients with diseases like migraine.

  5. Characterization of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate: Cross-Resistance Patterns and Fitness Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, M B S; Shad, S A

    2016-06-01

    Cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a sucking pest of worldwide importance causing huge losses by feeding upon cotton in various parts of the world. Because of the importance of this pest, this research was carried out to select emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis in the laboratory to study cross-resistance, stability, realized heritability, and fitness cost of emamectin resistance. After selection from third generation (G3) to G6, P. solenopsis developed very high emamectin resistance (159.24-fold) when compared to a susceptible unselected population (Unsel pop). Population selected to emamectin benzoate conferred moderate (45.81-fold), low (14.06-fold), and no cross-resistance with abamectin, cypermethrin, and profenofos, respectively compared to the Unsel pop. A significant decline in emamectin resistance was observed in the resistant population when not exposed to emamectin from G7 to G13. The estimated realized heritability (h (2)) for emamectin resistance was 0.84. A high fitness cost was associated with emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis. Results of this study may be helpful in devising insecticide resistance management strategies for P. solenopsis.

  6. Single and double hydrogen atom migrations in substituted alkyl benzoates: a study on the substituent effect using MIKE spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobita, Seiji; Tajima, Susumu; Ishihara, Yasuko; Kojima, Masahiro; Shigihara, Atsushi

    1994-03-01

    The substituent effect on the single and double hydrogen atom migrations is ionized ortho-, meta-, and para-substituted isobutyl (XC6H4COOC4H9) and isopropyl (XC6H4COOC3H7) benzoates is investigated by mass-analyzed ion kinetic energy spectrometry. The observed product ion ratios [XC6H4COOH]+/[XC6H4COOH2]+ show a general tendency: the compounds with an electron-donating substituent favour the formation of [XC6H4COOH]+ by single hydrogen atom migration (McLafferty rearrangement), while those with an electron-withdrawing substituent produce preferentially [XC6H4COOH2]+ through double hydrogen atom migration (McLaffery + 1 rearrangement). The thermochemical considerations combined with MO calculations show that the substituent effects observed are rationalized by the effects of substituent on the ionization energy (IE) and proton affinity (PA) of XC6H4COOH, i.e. the product ratios are determined by the difference of the product thermochemical stabilities which can be evaluated as IE(XC6H4COOH) + PA(XC6H4COOH).

  7. Tolerance and efficacy of emamectin benzoate and ivermectin for the treatment of Pseudocapillaria tomentosa in laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collymore, Chereen; Watral, Virginia; White, Julie R; Colvin, Michael E; Rasmussen, Skye; Tolwani, Ravi J; Kent, Michael L

    2014-10-01

    Tolerance of adult zebrafish and efficacy of emamectin benzoate and ivermectin in eliminating Pseudocapillaria tomentosa infection were evaluated. In the tolerance study, behavioral changes, fecundity, histopathology, and mortality were evaluated for in-feed administration of emamectin (0.05, 0.10, and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg). All doses of emamectin were well tolerated. Ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg administration resulted in mild behavioral changes and a transient decrease in fecundity. Ivermectin 0.10 mg/kg administration resulted in severe behavioral changes and some mortality. In the efficacy study, emamectin (0.05 and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 mg/kg) were evaluated for their efficacy in eliminating P. tomentosa infection. Emamectin reduced parasite burden in infected zebrafish, and ivermectin eliminated intestinal nematode infections. Despite a small margin of safety, ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg was effective at eliminating P. tomentosa infection in adult zebrafish. Higher doses or a longer course of treatment may be needed for complete elimination of P. tomentosa infection using emamectin. In this study, we propose two possible treatments for intestinal nematode infections in zebrafish.

  8. Use of estradiol benzoate to induce ovulation in a short-term protocol for fixed-time AI in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caliê Castilho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the hormonal protocol for fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI with a progesterone vaginal device for six days applying equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG or estradiol benzoate (EB as an ovulation inducer in ewes. On day 0 (D0, the ewes (n=31 received a device containing 0.33 g of intravaginal progesterone (CIDR® and were divided into three groups. The G-CT (control group used CIDR for nine days and upon withdrawal of the progesterone, were administered prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2? and eCG. In the eCG (G-eCG group, CIDR was administered for six days, instead of nine as in the G-CT group, followed by PGF2a and eCG after progesterone withdrawal. In the EB (G-EB group, CIDR was also administered for six days, but eCG was not applied, and EB was used to induce ovulation 24 hours after removing the CIDR and PGF2a application. TAI was realized in all groups 50 hours after CIDR withdrawal. The pregnancy rate in the G-eCG group (66% was higher (p 0.05 compared to the G-CT group (30%. It is possible to reduce the application time of the progesterone and use eCG for TAI in sheep; however, using EB resulted in a low ovulation rate in the sheep.

  9. 2,9-Dimethyl-1,10-phenanthrolin-1-ium 2,4,5-tri-carb-oxy-benzoate monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Kai-Long

    2013-11-16

    In the preparation of the title hydrated salt, C14H13N2 (+)·C10H5O8 (-)·H2O, a proton has been transfered to the 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium cation, forming a 2,4,5-tri-carb-oxy-benzoate anion. In the anion, the mean planes of the protonated carboxyl-ate groups form dihedral angles of 11.0 (5), 4.4 (5) and 80.3 (4)° with the benzene ring to which they are attached. The mean plane of the deprotonated carboxyl-ate group forms a dihedral angle of 10.6 (5)° with the benzene ring. In the crystal, the anions are involved in carb-oxy-lic acid O-H⋯Ocarbox-yl hydrogen bonds, generating a two-dimensional network parallel to (001) containing R 4 (4)(28) and R 4 (4)(32) motifs. The 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium cations and water mol-ecules reside between the anion layers and are connected to the anions via N-H⋯Owater and Owater-H⋯Ocarbox-yl hydrogen bonds. An intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond is also observed in the anion.

  10. Synthesis, crystal structure, and fluorescence of two dimeric europium(Ⅲ) complexes with 2-(trifluoromethyl)benzoate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yanqiu; LI Peizhou; LI Xia

    2008-01-01

    Two complexes [Eu2(2-TFMBA)6(2,2'-bipy)2].2H2O (1) and Eu2(2-TFMBA)6(1,10-phen)2 (2) (2-TFMBA=2-(Trifluoromethyl) benzoate; 2,2'-bipy=2,2'-bipyridine; 1,10-phen=1,10-phenanthroline) were synthesized by solvent method and determined by X-ray diffrac-tion analysis. Complex 1 crystallizes in monoclinic system with space group P21/c, whereas complex 2 crystallizes in triclinic system with space group P-1. Both are binuclear molecules with an inversion center. In complex 1, two center Eu3+ ions are linked together by four 2-TFMBA ligands in bidentate-bridging mode. Each Eu3+ion is eight-coordinated with six O atoms from five 2-TFMBA ligands and two N atoms from one 2,2'-bipy molecule. In complex 2, two center Eu3+ ions are linked together by four 2-TFMBA ligands in two modes, namely, bidentate-bridging and tridentate-bridging. Each Eu3+ ion is nine-coordinated with seven O atoms from five 2-TFMBA ligands and two N atoms from one 1,10-phen molecule. The two complexes both exhibited strong red fluorescence under ultraviolet light, and the 5D0→7Fj (j=0-4) transition emissions of Eu3+ ion were observed in their emission spectra.

  11. Analysis of citrates and benzoates used in poly(vinyl chloride) by supercritical fluid extraction and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, R M; Marín, M L; Sánchez, A; Jiménez, A

    2002-03-15

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been demonstrated to be a useful tool in the determination of additives in polymeric materials. This paper describes the determination of some citrates and benzoates in poly(vinyl chloride) blended with 33-34% of plasticizer using off-line SFE followed by gas chromatography. Experimental factors affecting SFE have been studied by gravimetric analysis, followed by analysis of the extracts using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. The extraction process is governed by the solubility of the plasticizers in the supercritical fluid or by their diffusion through the polymer matrix, which depend on the pressure and temperature used. Maximum extraction (>99%) is obtained at pressures and temperatures higher than 40 MPa and 80 degrees C, respectively. Due to purge losses, the collection efficiency of plasticizers into a liquid solvent ranges from 85 to 90%. The applicability of the SFE method is demonstrated using real samples and comparing the results with those obtained by conventional Soxhlet extraction.

  12. Vibrational spectroscopy, intramolecular CH⋯O interaction and conformational analysis of 2,5-dimethyl-benzyl benzoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Rommel B.; Ribeiro, Gabriela L. O.; Valencia, Leidy J.; Varela, Jaldyr J. G.; Viana, Anderson B.; da Silva, Albérico B. F.; Moreno-Fuquen, Rodolfo

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to report the spectroscopic and electronic properties of 2,5-dimethyl-benzyl benzoate. FT-IR and Raman vibrational spectral analyses were performed, while a computational approach was used to elucidate the vibrational frequency couplings. The electronic properties were predicted using the Density Functional Theory, while the G3MP2 method was employed in the thermochemical calculation. A conformational analysis, frontier orbitals, partial atomic charge distribution and the molecular electrostatic potential were also estimated. Concerning to the dihedral angles in the ester group, a conformational analysis showed a barrier energy of 10 kcal mol-1, while other small barriers (below 0.6 kcal mol-1) were predicted within the potential surface energy investigation. Insights into the relative stability among the different positions of methyl groups in the phenyl ring demonstrated that the energy gaps were lower than 1 kcal mol-1 among the regioisomers. In addition, the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) was used to understand the intramolecular CH⋯O interaction in the title compound, while various methodologies were applied in the atomic charge distribution to evaluate the susceptibility to the population method.

  13. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 2-Hydroxy-3-[(2-aryloxyethylamino]propyl 4-[(Alkoxycarbonylamino]benzoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Tengler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of twenty substituted 2-hydroxy-3-[(2-aryloxyethylamino]propyl 4-[(alkoxycarbonylamino]benzoates were prepared and characterized. As similar compounds have been described as potential antimycobacterials, primary in vitro screening of the synthesized carbamates was also performed against two mycobacterial species. 2-Hydroxy-3-[2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethylamino]-propyl 4-(butoxycarbonylaminobenzoate hydrochloride, 2-hydroxy-3-[2-(4-methoxyphenoxyethylamino]-propyl 4-(butoxycarbonylaminobenzoate hydrochloride, and 2-hydroxy-3-[2-(2-methoxyphenoxyethylamino]-propyl 4-(butoxycarbonylaminobenzoate hydrochloride showed higher activity against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. intracellulare than the standards ciprofloxacin, isoniazid, or pyrazinamide. Cytotoxicity assay of effective compounds was performed using the human monocytic leukaemia THP-1 cell line. Compounds with predicted amphiphilic properties were also tested for their effects on the rate of photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts. All butyl derivatives significantly stimulated the rate of PET, indicating that the compounds can induce conformational changes in thylakoid membranes resulting in an increase of their permeability and so causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from electron transport.

  14. DNA content alterations in Tetrahymena pyriformis macronucleus after exposure to food preservatives sodium nitrate and sodium benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutsidou, Ariadni C; Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Chasapis, C T; Terzoudi, Georgia I; Spiliopoulou, Chara A; Stefanidou, Maria E

    2012-12-01

    The toxicity, in terms of changes in the DNA content, of two food preservatives, sodium nitrate and sodium benzoate was studied on the protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis using DNA image analysis technology. For this purpose, selected doses of both food additives were administered for 2 h to protozoa cultures and DNA image analysis of T. pyriformis nuclei was performed. The analysis was based on the measurement of the Mean Optical Density which represents the cellular DNA content. The results have shown that after exposure of the protozoan cultures to doses equivalent to ADI, a statistically significant increase in the macronuclear DNA content compared to the unexposed control samples was observed. The observed increase in the macronuclear DNA content is indicative of the stimulation of the mitotic process and the observed increase in MOD, accompanied by a stimulation of the protozoan proliferation activity is in consistence with this assumption. Since alterations at the DNA level such as DNA content and uncontrolled mitogenic stimulation have been linked with chemical carcinogenesis, the results of the present study add information on the toxicogenomic profile of the selected chemicals and may potentially lead to reconsideration of the excessive use of nitrates aiming to protect public health.

  15. The Australian experience with the PC-EVN recorder

    CERN Document Server

    Dodson, R; West, C; Phillips, C; Tzioumis, A K; Ritakari, J; Briggs, F

    2004-01-01

    We report on our experiences using the Metsahovi Radio Observatory's (MRO) VLBI Standard Interface (VSI, Whitney 2002) recorder in a number of astronomical applications. The PC-EVN device is a direct memory access (DMA) interface which allows 512 megabit per second (Mbps) or better recording to "off the shelf" PC components. We have used this setup to record at 640 Mbps for a pulsar coherent dispersion system and at 256 Mpbs for a global VLBI session. We have also demonstrated recording at 512 Mbps and will shortly form cross correlations between the CPSR-II and the PC-EVN systems.

  16. Refactoring test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon); A. van den Bergh; G. Kok

    2001-01-01

    textabstractTwo key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from

  17. Informal Control code logic

    CERN Document Server

    Bergstra, Jan A

    2010-01-01

    General definitions as well as rules of reasoning regarding control code production, distribution, deployment, and usage are described. The role of testing, trust, confidence and risk analysis is considered. A rationale for control code testing is sought and found for the case of safety critical embedded control code.

  18. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...

  19. Refactoring test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, A. van; Moonen, L.M.F.; Bergh, A. van den; Kok, G.

    2001-01-01

    Two key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from refactoring product

  20. ARC Code TI: CODE Software Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CODE is a software framework for control and observation in distributed environments. The basic functionality of the framework allows a user to observe a distributed...

  1. ARC Code TI: ROC Curve Code Augmentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve Code Augmentation was written by Rodney Martin and John Stutz at NASA Ames Research Center and is a modification of ROC...

  2. Fountain Codes: LT And Raptor Codes Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bazzi, Hiba Harb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital fountain codes are a new class of random error correcting codes designed for efficient and reliable data delivery over erasure channels such as internet. These codes were developed to provide robustness against erasures in a way that resembles a fountain of water. A digital fountain is rateless in a way that sender can send limitless number of encoded packets. The receiver doesn’t care which packets are received or lost as long as the receiver gets enough packets to recover original data. In this paper, the design of the fountain codes is explored with its implementation of the encoding and decoding algorithm so that the performance in terms of encoding/decoding symbols, reception overhead, data length, and failure probability is studied.

  3. Universal Rateless Codes From Coupled LT Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Aref, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    It was recently shown that spatial coupling of individual low-density parity-check codes improves the belief-propagation threshold of the coupled ensemble essentially to the maximum a posteriori threshold of the underlying ensemble. We study the performance of spatially coupled low-density generator-matrix ensembles when used for transmission over binary-input memoryless output-symmetric channels. We show by means of density evolution that the threshold saturation phenomenon also takes place in this setting. Our motivation for studying low-density generator-matrix codes is that they can easily be converted into rateless codes. Although there are already several classes of excellent rateless codes known to date, rateless codes constructed via spatial coupling might offer some additional advantages. In particular, by the very nature of the threshold phenomenon one expects that codes constructed on this principle can be made to be universal, i.e., a single construction can uniformly approach capacity over the cl...

  4. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  5. [Study on fluorescence labeling and determination of polypeptide (PC2~PC6) by high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-xi; Gao, Li-jie; Cao, Wei; Zheng, Li; Chen, Jun-hui; Xu, Xiu-li; Wang, Xiao-ru

    2014-12-01

    This study was based on the thiol groups (-SH) of PC2~PC6, which could be reacted with the Monobromobimane (mBBr), in order to get polypeptide derivatives with fluorescent signal. A new method was developed for measuring the Polypeptides by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector, then the chromatographic conditions of HPLC was optimized; meawhile the reaction proportion of PCs and mBBr was identified by Trap-MS. The results showed that, the reaction proportion of PCs and mBBr was 1:1, the polypeptide derivatives had good stability; the five compounds separation was better, and the peak time focused on the 16.6~22.0 min; the linear correlation coefficient of PC2, PC3, PC4, PC5 and PC6 was >0.9991, and the limits of quantification were 0.3, 0.05, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 mg · L(-1) respectively, the recovery rate was 83.0%-102.0%; the method was reproducible, RSD<2%, this method for measuring the peptide compounds was rapid and accurate.

  6. Coding for Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  7. Application of sPC-SAFT and group contribution sPC-SAFT to polymer systems-Capabilities and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tihic, Amra; von Solms, Nicolas; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2009-01-01

    A group contribution (GC) version of the simplified Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (sPC-SAFT) Equation of State is proposed in a previous work [A. Tihic, G.M. Kontogeorgis, N. von Solms, M.L. Michelsen, L Constantinou, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 47 (2008) 5092-5101]. The reported......PC-SAFT model, with and without GC. The reported results contribute to a better understanding of the applicability of the sPC-SAFT model to binary polymer mixtures, and identify both models as good predictive tools for several industrial applications. Limitations are also identified and discussed....

  8. NEW CONCEPT FOR DETERMINING THE ORDERS OF SAC AND PC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Baodian; Liu Dongsu; Ma Wenping; Wang Xinmei

    2004-01-01

    The autocorrelation of a Boolean function possesses the capability to reflect such characteristics as linear structure, Strict Avalanche Criterion(SAC) and Propagation Criterion(PC)of degree k. But it can do nothing in determining the order of SAC or PC. A calculating table for the autocorrelation is constructed in this paper so as to show what is beyond the autocorrelation and how the three cryptographic characteristics are exhibited. A deeper study on the calculating table in a similar way has helped us to develop a new concept, named as the general autocorrelation, to address efficiently the problem how to determine the orders of SAC and PC. The application on the Advanced Encryption Standard(AES) shows the SAC and PC characteristics of Boolean functions of AES S-box.

  9. 2010 ME70 Workshop (PC1003, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The third leg of the 2010 SEAMAP Reeffish Survey, PC 1003, was originally scheduled as an experimental multibeam sonar workshop. However, on July 12, 2010, FSV...

  10. Level of personal computer (PC) tablet penetration among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Level of personal computer (PC) tablet penetration among undergraduate students ... percentage and mean were used to interpret demography data and research ... computer, information and communication technology, mobile technologies ...

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Compatibilizer TLCP-b-PC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Ru; JIN Shu-wen; ZHANG Yue-ting; WU Cheng-xun

    2002-01-01

    The compatibilizer (TLCP-b-PC) of 60PHB/PET thermotropic liquid crystal polymer (TLCP) and polycarbonate (PC) blend system was prepared. The synthesis and characterization of the compatibilizer as well as its effects on the microscopic morphology and the mechanical properties of the TLCP/PC blend system were studied with a series of analysis ways, such as Soxhlet extraction, infrared absorption spectroscopy,electron microscopy, etc. It is shown that the ideal reaction condition for preparing the compatibilizer is:the reaction temperature of 275℃, the reaction time of 20minutes and without catalyst. And the compatibilizer can improve the compatibility of the blending system of 60PHB/PET and PC.

  12. Noisy Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Sung Hoon; Gamal, Abbas El; Chung, Sae-Young

    2010-01-01

    A noisy network coding scheme for sending multiple sources over a general noisy network is presented. For multi-source multicast networks, the scheme naturally extends both network coding over noiseless networks by Ahlswede, Cai, Li, and Yeung, and compress-forward coding for the relay channel by Cover and El Gamal to general discrete memoryless and Gaussian networks. The scheme also recovers as special cases the results on coding for wireless relay networks and deterministic networks by Avestimehr, Diggavi, and Tse, and coding for wireless erasure networks by Dana, Gowaikar, Palanki, Hassibi, and Effros. The scheme involves message repetition coding, relay signal compression, and simultaneous decoding. Unlike previous compress--forward schemes, where independent messages are sent over multiple blocks, the same message is sent multiple times using independent codebooks as in the network coding scheme for cyclic networks. Furthermore, the relays do not use Wyner--Ziv binning as in previous compress-forward sch...

  13. Testing algebraic geometric codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao

    2009-01-01

    Property testing was initially studied from various motivations in 1990's.A code C (∩)GF(r)n is locally testable if there is a randomized algorithm which can distinguish with high possibility the codewords from a vector essentially far from the code by only accessing a very small (typically constant) number of the vector's coordinates.The problem of testing codes was firstly studied by Blum,Luby and Rubinfeld and closely related to probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs).How to characterize locally testable codes is a complex and challenge problem.The local tests have been studied for Reed-Solomon (RS),Reed-Muller (RM),cyclic,dual of BCH and the trace subcode of algebraicgeometric codes.In this paper we give testers for algebraic geometric codes with linear parameters (as functions of dimensions).We also give a moderate condition under which the family of algebraic geometric codes cannot be locally testable.

  14. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  15. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  16. Code of Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelstein, Jennifer; Clegg, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Ethical codes have been hailed as an explicit vehicle for achieving more sustainable and defensible organizational practice. Nonetheless, when legal compliance and corporate governance codes are conflated, codes can be used to define organizational interests ostentatiously by stipulating norms...... for employee ethics. Such codes have a largely cosmetic and insurance function, acting subtly and strategically to control organizational risk management and protection. In this paper, we conduct a genealogical discourse analysis of a representative code of ethics from an international corporation...... to understand how management frames expectations of compliance. Our contribution is to articulate the problems inherent in codes of ethics, and we make some recommendations to address these to benefit both an organization and its employees. In this way, we show how a code of ethics can provide a foundation...

  17. Defeating the coding monsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colt, Ross

    2007-02-01

    Accuracy in coding is rapidly becoming a required skill for military health care providers. Clinic staffing, equipment purchase decisions, and even reimbursement will soon be based on the coding data that we provide. Learning the complicated myriad of rules to code accurately can seem overwhelming. However, the majority of clinic visits in a typical outpatient clinic generally fall into two major evaluation and management codes, 99213 and 99214. If health care providers can learn the rules required to code a 99214 visit, then this will provide a 90% solution that can enable them to accurately code the majority of their clinic visits. This article demonstrates a step-by-step method to code a 99214 visit, by viewing each of the three requirements as a monster to be defeated.

  18. Testing algebraic geometric codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Property testing was initially studied from various motivations in 1990’s. A code C  GF (r)n is locally testable if there is a randomized algorithm which can distinguish with high possibility the codewords from a vector essentially far from the code by only accessing a very small (typically constant) number of the vector’s coordinates. The problem of testing codes was firstly studied by Blum, Luby and Rubinfeld and closely related to probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs). How to characterize locally testable codes is a complex and challenge problem. The local tests have been studied for Reed-Solomon (RS), Reed-Muller (RM), cyclic, dual of BCH and the trace subcode of algebraicgeometric codes. In this paper we give testers for algebraic geometric codes with linear parameters (as functions of dimensions). We also give a moderate condition under which the family of algebraic geometric codes cannot be locally testable.

  19. Serially Concatenated IRA Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Taikun; Belzer, Benjamin J

    2007-01-01

    We address the error floor problem of low-density parity check (LDPC) codes on the binary-input additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, by constructing a serially concatenated code consisting of two systematic irregular repeat accumulate (IRA) component codes connected by an interleaver. The interleaver is designed to prevent stopping-set error events in one of the IRA codes from propagating into stopping set events of the other code. Simulations with two 128-bit rate 0.707 IRA component codes show that the proposed architecture achieves a much lower error floor at higher SNRs, compared to a 16384-bit rate 1/2 IRA code, but incurs an SNR penalty of about 2 dB at low to medium SNRs. Experiments indicate that the SNR penalty can be reduced at larger blocklengths.

  20. User's guide and documentation manual for BOAST-VHS for the PC''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ming-Ming; Sarathi, P.; Heemstra, R.J.; Cheng, A.M.; Pautz, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The recent advancement of computer technology makes reservoir simulations feasible in a personal computer (PC) environment. This manual provides a guide for running BOAST-VHS, a black oil reservoir simulator for vertical/horizontal/slant wells, using a PC. In addition to detailed explanations of input data file preparation for simulation runs, special features of BOAST-VHS are described and three sample problems are presented. BOAST-VHS is a cost-effective and easy-to-use reservoir simulation tool for the study of oil production from primary depletion and waterflooding in a black oil reservoir. The well model in BOAST-VHS permits specification of any combination of horizontal, slanted, and vertical wells in the reservoir. BOAST-VHS was designed for an IBM PC/AT, PS-2, or compatible computer with 640 K bytes of memory. BOAST-VHS can be used to model a three-dimensional reservoir of up to 810 grid blocks with any combination of rows, columns, and layers, depending on the input data supplied. This dynamic redimensioning feature facilitates simulation work by avoiding the need to recompiling the simulator for different reservoir models. Therefore the program is only supplied as executable code without any source code.

  1. NASA Lewis Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Ye; Tower, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed the LERCHP code. The PC-based LERCHP code can be used to predict the steady-state performance of heat pipes, including the determination of operating temperature and operating limits which might be encountered under specified conditions. The code contains a vapor flow algorithm which incorporates vapor compressibility and axially varying heat input. For the liquid flow in the wick, Darcy s formula is employed. Thermal boundary conditions and geometric structures can be defined through an interactive input interface. A variety of fluid and material options as well as user defined options can be chosen for the working fluid, wick, and pipe materials. This report documents the current effort at GRC to update the LERCHP code for operating in a Microsoft Windows (Microsoft Corporation) environment. A detailed analysis of the model is presented. The programming architecture for the numerical calculations is explained and flowcharts of the key subroutines are given

  2. Guest Foreword by Lord Phillips KG PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Phillips

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rt Hon The Lord Phillips of Worth Matravers KG PC, President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Ambition and excellence. Those two words epitomize Qatar. Under the leadership of his Highness the Emir, this small State has set out to make an impact on the world that belies its size. Ambitious was the plan to have an international broadcasting station. Ambitious was the plan to build from scratch a Museum of Islamic Art. Ambitious was the bid – the successful bid to host the World Cup in 2022. Ambitious is the bid to stage the Olympic Games in 2020. Qatar not merely has ambitions, it realizes its ambitions. And when it does so it is not enough to say that the result is ‘world class’, for Qatar sets out to be a world leader in whatever it puts its hand to. Excellence is the norm. Al Jazeera has established itself as the broadcasting station of choice for many throughout the world. The Doha Museum of Islamic Art is recognized as being second to none. In addition, the scale and standard of development in Doha itself is setting new standards of excellence in the fields of architecture and civil engineering. Thus when Qatar focuses its energies on education and the law, high achievements are expected. I shall have the honour of helping to achieve those expectations when I succeed Lord Woolf as President of Qatar’s new and impressive Civil and Commercial Court. The College of Law at Qatar University is already achieving excellence in the field of legal education. So, naturally, all expect great things of this new International Review of Law and I am delighted to have been invited to welcome it by this foreword. The range of the first edition is both international and topical. Those countries that have experienced the turbulence of the Arab Spring are settling new constitutions, and other countries are bent on constitutional reform designed to avoid such turbulence. So an erudite article on

  3. Gifted and Non-Identified as Gifted Students’ Preferred PC Game Types and PC Game Perceptions: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan ÜSTÜNEL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Computer games have gained a significance role in students’ daily life. Games also play an important role in PC technologies development and progress. In addition to the entertainment aspects of PC games, they are now being used in educational environments. The aim of the research is to determine gifted students' and that giftedness diagnostics not defined before, PC game types preference. With this aim, literature review on the subject has been conducted. 47 gifted students from Istanbul Science and Art Center have formed the sample group. 818 students from 16 different state schools attended by the gifted students have been included in the study. Aim of this study is to compare the difference in the perceptions of the gifted and the other students. The data were collected through a questionnaire. They were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the study reveals that the gifted students and non-identified students differentiate in preferences of PC games types.

  4. CoPc and CoPcF16 on gold: Site-specific charge-transfer processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Petraki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interface properties of cobalt(II phthalocyanine (CoPc and cobalt(II hexadecafluoro-phthalocyanine (CoPcF16 to gold are investigated by photo-excited electron spectroscopies (X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS and X-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy (XAES. It is shown that a bidirectional charge transfer determines the interface energetics for CoPc and CoPcF16 on Au. Combined XPS and XAES measurements allow for the separation of chemical shifts based on different local charges at the considered atom caused by polarization effects. This facilitates a detailed discussion of energetic shifts of core level spectra. The data allow the discussion of site-specific charge-transfer processes.

  5. Epitaxial growth and electronic properties of well ordered phthalocyanine heterojunctions MnPc/F{sub 16}CoPc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Susi; Mahns, Benjamin; Treske, Uwe; Knupfer, Martin [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Vilkov, Oleg [Center for Physical Methods of Surface Investigation, St. Petersburg State University, Ulyanovskaya Str. 1, St. Petersburg 198504, Russia and Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Technology Dresden, Zellescher Weg 16, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Haidu, Francisc; Fronk, Michael; Zahn, Dietrich R. T. [Physics Department/Semiconductor Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, Reichenhainer Str. 70, D-09126 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2014-09-07

    We have prepared phthalocyanine heterojunctions out of MnPc and F{sub 16}CoPc, which were studied by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. This heterojunction is characterized by a charge transfer at the interface, resulting in charged MnPc{sup δ} {sup +} and F{sub 16}CoPc{sup δ} {sup −} species. Our data reveal that the molecules are well ordered and oriented parallel to the substrate surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate the filling of the Co 3d{sub z{sup 2}} orbital due to the charge transfer, which supports the explanation of the density functional theory, that the charge transfer is local and affects the metal centers only.

  6. Safety and determination benzoic acid and sodium benzoate%苯甲酸和苯甲酸钠安全性与检测方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李菊; 刘淑君; 黄雪琳

    2012-01-01

      As one of the acidic preservative,the abuse of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate is very dangerous. Because the residue of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate would do great harm to the human health even cause cancer after they were taken through the food and medicament. The researchers have dedicated many efforts to research for residue determination of benzoic acid and Sodium Benzoate. The security and methods for benzoic acid and sodium benzoate detection were summarized. this study was useful for the detecting technology of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate residues.%  苯甲酸和苯甲酸钠是一种酸性防腐剂,过量滥用很危险;因苯甲酸和苯甲酸钠被人体过量摄入后,会对人体健康造成极大危害,甚至致癌。该文对苯甲酸和苯甲酸钠残留安全性及检测方法进行综述,以期为苯甲酸和苯甲酸钠残留检测方法研究提供参考。

  7. Group Control System by PC and PLC%PC-PLC组成的电梯群控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐勇奇; 赵葵银

    2001-01-01

    介绍一种由PC与PLC组成的电梯群控系统,讲述了系统的软件设计方法和PLC与PC之间的通讯方案。%This paper introduced the group control system of an elevator control system with PC and PLC and also described the design of its software and the communication method between PLC and PC.

  8. Salinomycin Exerts Anticancer Effects on PC-3 Cells and PC-3-Derived Cancer Stem Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinomycin is an antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces albus that selectively kills cancer stem cells (CSCs. However, the antitumor mechanism of salinomycin is unclear. This study investigated the chemotherapeutic efficacy of salinomycin in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. We found that cytotoxicity of salinomycin to PC-3 cells was stronger than to nonmalignant prostate cell RWPE-1, and exposure to salinomycin induced G2/M phage arrest and apoptosis of PC-3 cells. A mechanistic study found salinomycin suppressed Wnt/β-catenin pathway to induce apoptosis of PC-3 cells. An in vivo experiment confirmed that salinomycin suppressed tumorigenesis in a NOD/SCID mice xenograft model generated from implanted PC-3 cells by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, since the total β-catenin protein level was reduced and the downstream target c-Myc level was significantly downregulated. We also showed that salinomycin, but not paclitaxel, triggered more apoptosis in aldehyde dehydrogenase- (ALDH- positive PC-3 cells, which were considered as the prostate cancer stem cells, suggesting that salinomycin may be a promising chemotherapeutic to target CSCs. In conclusion, this study suggests that salinomycin reduces resistance and relapse of prostate tumor by killing cancer cells as well as CSCs.

  9. PC Tutor. Bericht uber ein PC-gestutzes Tutorensystem = PC Tutor. Report on a Tutoring System with Personal Computer. ZIFF Papiere 75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Helmut

    A project was conducted to increase as well as to professionalize communication between tutors and learners in a West German university's distance education program by the use of personal computers. Two tutors worked on the systematic development of a PC-based correcting system. The goal, apart from developing general language skills in English,…

  10. Structural and vibrational spectroscopic studies on charge transfer and ionic hydrogen bonding interactions of melaminium benzoate dihydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagathara, N; Marchewka, M K; Drozd, M; Gunasekaran, S; Rajakumar, P R; Anbalagan, G

    2015-06-15

    Single crystals of melaminium benzoate dihydrate (MBDH) have been grown from aqueous solution by the slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature. Crystalline nature of the grown crystal has been confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction studies. The optimized geometry, frequency and intensity of the vibrational bands of MBDH were obtained by the Hartree-Fock and density functional theory using B3LYP/cam-B3LYP with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The harmonic vibrational frequencies were calculated and the scaled values have been compared with the experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectral values. The obtained vibrational wavenumbers and optimized geometric parameters are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. UV-Visible spectrum was recorded in the region 200-400 nm and the electronic properties, HOMO-LUMO energies and other related electronic parameters are calculated. The isotropic chemical shifts computed by (1)H and (13)C NMR analysis also show good agreement with experimental observation. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis has been performed on MBDH compound to analyze the stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization. Molecular electrostatic potential surface (MEP) has also been performed by DFT/cam-B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Differential scanning calorimetric measurements performed on the powder sample indicate the phase transition point approximately at 368 and 358K for heating and cooling, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. DNA methylome changes by estradiol benzoate and bisphenol A links early-life environmental exposures to prostate cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Ana; Zhang, Xiang; Cheung, Yuk-Yin; Tang, Wan-yee; Chen, Jing; Ye, Shu-Hua; Medvedovic, Mario; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Prins, Gail S.; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), 17β-estradiol-3-benzoate (EB) and bisphenol A (BPA), increases susceptibility to prostate cancer (PCa) in rodent models. Here, we used the methylated-CpG island recovery assay (MIRA)-assisted genomic tiling and CpG island arrays to identify treatment-associated methylome changes in the postnatal day (PND)90 dorsal prostate tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats neonatally (PND1, 3, and 5) treated with 25 µg/pup or 2,500 µg EB/kg body weight (BW) or 0.1 µg BPA/pup or 10 µg BPA/kg BW. We identified 111 EB-associated and 86 BPA-associated genes, with 20 in common, that have significant differentially methylated regions. Pathway analysis revealed cancer as the top common disease pathway. Bisulfite sequencing validated the differential methylation patterns observed by array analysis in 15 identified candidate genes. The methylation status of 7 (Pitx3, Wnt10b, Paqr4, Sox2, Chst14, Tpd52, Creb3l4) of these 15 genes exhibited an inverse correlation with gene expression in tissue samples. Cell-based assays, using 5-aza-cytidine-treated normal (NbE-1) and cancerous (AIT) rat prostate cells, added evidence of DNA methylation-mediated gene expression of 6 genes (exception: Paqr4). Functional connectivity of these genes was linked to embryonic stem cell pluripotency. Furthermore, clustering analyses using the dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed that expression of this set of 7 genes was associated with recurrence-free survival of PCa patients. In conclusion, our study reveals that gene-specific promoter methylation changes, resulting from early-life EDC exposure in the rat, may serve as predictive epigenetic biomarkers of PCa recurrence, and raises the possibility that such exposure may impact human disease. PMID:27415467

  12. Up-regulation of neurotrophic factors by cinnamon and its metabolite sodium benzoate: therapeutic implications for neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Arundhati; Modi, Khushbu K; Roy, Avik; Anderson, John A; van Breemen, Richard B; Pahan, Kalipada

    2013-06-01

    This study underlines the importance of cinnamon, a widely-used food spice and flavoring material, and its metabolite sodium benzoate (NaB), a widely-used food preservative and a FDA-approved drug against urea cycle disorders in humans, in increasing the levels of neurotrophic factors [e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3)] in the CNS. NaB, but not sodium formate (NaFO), dose-dependently induced the expression of BDNF and NT-3 in primary human neurons and astrocytes. Interestingly, oral administration of ground cinnamon increased the level of NaB in serum and brain and upregulated the levels of these neurotrophic factors in vivo in mouse CNS. Accordingly, oral feeding of NaB, but not NaFO, also increased the level of these neurotrophic factors in vivo in the CNS of mice. NaB induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA), but not protein kinase C (PKC), and H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated NaB-induced increase in neurotrophic factors. Furthermore, activation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein, but not NF-κB, by NaB, abrogation of NaB-induced expression of neurotrophic factors by siRNA knockdown of CREB and the recruitment of CREB and CREB-binding protein to the BDNF promoter by NaB suggest that NaB exerts its neurotrophic effect through the activation of CREB. Accordingly, cinnamon feeding also increased the activity of PKA and the level of phospho-CREB in vivo in the CNS. These results highlight a novel neutrophic property of cinnamon and its metabolite NaB via PKA - CREB pathway, which may be of benefit for various neurodegenerative disorders.

  13. Sodium benzoate, a food preservative, affects the functional and activation status of splenocytes at non cytotoxic dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ashish; Kumar, Arvind; Das, Mukul; Tripathi, Anurag

    2016-02-01

    Sodium benzoate (SB) is a widely used food preservative due to its bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties. The acceptable daily intake of SB is 5 mg/kg-bw, however, it has been found to be used in the food commodities at relatively high levels (2119 mg/kg). Earlier studies on SB have shown its immunosuppressive properties, but comprehensive immunotoxicity data is lacking. Our studies have shown that SB was non cytotoxic in splenocytes up to 1000 μg/ml for 72 h, however at 2500 μg/ml it was found to be cytotoxic. Thus, 1000 μg/ml dose of SB was chosen for the subsequent experiments. SB significantly suppresses the proliferation of Con A and LPS stimulated splenocytes at 72 h, while allogenic response of T cells was significantly decreased after 96 h. SB did not affect the relative expression of CD3e or CD4 molecules following 72 h exposure, however, it downregulated the relative expression of CD8 co-receptor. Further, exposure of splenocytes to SB for 72 h led to reduced expression of CD28 and CD95, which play a vital role in T cell activation. SB also suppresses the relative expression of CD19, CD40 and CD95 receptors on B cells after 72 h. In addition to the functional responses, SB lowered the expression of IL4, IL6, IFNγ and IL17 cytokines in Con A stimulated splenocytes; and IL6, IFNγ and TNFα in LPS stimulated splenocytes following 48 h of exposure. Taken together, the present study is suggestive of the immunomodulatory potential of SB.

  14. Effects of support and modifiers on catalytic performance of zinc oxide for hydrogenation of methyl benzoate to benzaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Weijing; Lu Guanzhong; Liu Xu; Guo Yanglong; Wang Junsong; Guo Yun

    2003-09-28

    The ZnO supported on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, MCM-41, and {beta}-zeolite were prepared and examined in the hydrogenation of methyl benzoate (MB). ZnO supported on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} had a higher activity than ZnO. ZnO/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} modified with 23 ppm lithium had a high catalytic activity (97%) and high selectivity to benzaldehyde (BD, 87%) in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure and 400 deg. C. Chromium oxide modified ZnO/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} also had a high selectivity to BD. Hydrogenolysis of MB occurred over copper modified catalysts. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) revealed that in the ZnO/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, the ZnO, ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases exited mainly, the border of ZnO and ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} might be important for the hydrogenation of MB to BD. XPS and FT-IR revealed that the chemical environment of ZnO on the ZnO/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst is different to ZnO and other supported ZnO catalysts, which gives the ZnO/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst having a higher activity than ZnO or ZnO on SiO{sub 2}, MCM-41 or {beta}-zeolite. The presence of third metal (Li, Cr or Cu) oxide in ZnO/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} could change the electronic structure of Zn and the chemical phenomena of Zn-Al in catalyst and lead to change of the catalytic performance.

  15. EFFECT OF SODIUM BENZOATE ON THE QUALITY AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF KUNUN-ZAKI SUPPLEMENTED WITH GROUNDNUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Aderinola

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality parameters of kunu-zaki supplemented with groundnut was investigated in this study. Millet, groundnut, ginger, dry red pepper and sugar were used for the production. After production, some samples were pasteurized at 700C for 30 minutes and stored at refrigerated (oC and ambient conditions (oC. A fresh control sample was also prepared at interval for comparison. Analyses were carried out to determine the chemical composition, microbiological and sensory qualities of product during storage over a period of twenty seven (27 days. Results showed that addition of groundnut improved chemical composition of the fresh samples. It could be attributed to the crude protein and the fat content in the added groundnut. The results were: moisture, 75.7%; crude protein, 13.06%; fat, 7.35%; ash, 0.39% and carbohydrate, 3.5%. The pH values for the fresh samples were: 3.31 (pasteurized refrigerated; 3.31 (pasteurized unrefrigerated; 3.57 (unpasteurized refrigerated; 3.64 (unpasteurized unrefrigerated and 3.93 for the Fresh sample. The results of the mineral element (mg/100g were: Ca, 152; Na, 0.19; Mg, 4.76; K, 2.74 and P, 123.22. There was no detection of the presence of the indicator organism – E coli. Results of the sensory evaluation of the product carried out using a five-man panel showed that there were no differences in the appearance, taste and flavor for the first day. However, the pasteurized refrigerated sample with the addition of sodium benzoate was better on the overall acceptability.

  16. Sodium benzoate, a metabolite of cinnamon and a food additive, upregulates ciliary neurotrophic factor in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Khushbu K.; Jana, Malabendu; Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a promyelinating trophic factor that plays an important role in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, mechanisms by which CNTF expression could be increased in the brain are poorly understood. Recently we have discovered anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of sodium benzoate (NaB), a metabolite of cinnamon and a widely-used food additive. Here, we delineate that NaB is also capable of increasing the mRNA and protein expression of CNTF in primary mouse astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and primary human astrocytes. Accordingly, oral administration of NaB and cinnamon led to the upregulation of astroglial and oligodendroglial CNTF in vivo in mouse brain. Induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, reduced the level of CNTF in the brain, which was restored by oral administration of cinnamon. While investigating underlying mechanisms, we observed that NaB induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated NaB-induced expression of CNTF. The activation of cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein by NaB, the recruitment of CREB and CREB-binding protein to the CNTF promoter by NaB and the abrogation of NaB-induced expression of CNTF in astrocytes by siRNA knockdown of CREB suggest that NaB increases the expression of CNTF via the activation of CREB. These results highlight a novel myelinogenic property of NaB and cinnamon, which may be of benefit for MS and other demyelinating disorders. PMID:26399250

  17. Sensitive and selective methods for the determination of rizatriptan benzoate in pharmaceuticals using N-bromosuccinimide and two dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudige Nagaraj Prashanth

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One titrimetric and two spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of rizatriptan benzoate (RTB in bulk drugs and in tablets. The methods use N-bromosuccinimide (NBS as an analytical reagent, janus green (JG and calmagite (CMG as auxiliary reagents. All the three methods are indirect in which the unreacted NBS is determined after the reaction between RTB and NBS is judged complete by iodometric back titration (method A or by reacting with a fixed amount of either janus green (method B or calmagite (method C followed by the measurement of absorbance at 620 nm (method B or 540 nm (method C. Titrimetry allows the determination of 1–10 mg of RTB and follows a reaction stoichiometry of 1:3 (RTB:NBS, whereas spectrophotometric methods are applicable over the concentration ranges of 0.5–8.0 μg ml−1 in method B and 1.5–30.0 μg ml−1 in method C. Method B with a calculated molar absorptivity of 3.03 × 104 L mol−1 cm−1 is the second most sensitive spectrophotometric method ever developed for RTB. The quality control/assurance parameters such as limits of detection (LOD, quantification (LOQ and Sandelle’s sensitivity values are also reported for the spectrophotometric method. The accuracy and precision of the methods were studied on intra-day and inter-day basis. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical adjuvants. Statistical comparison of the results with a reference method showed excellent agreement, and indicates no significant difference in accuracy and precision. The reliability of the methods was further ascertained by recovery studies via standard addition procedures.

  18. Rewriting the Genetic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Takahito; Lajoie, Marc J; Englert, Markus; Söll, Dieter

    2017-09-08

    The genetic code-the language used by cells to translate their genomes into proteins that perform many cellular functions-is highly conserved throughout natural life. Rewriting the genetic code could lead to new biological functions such as expanding protein chemistries with noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) and genetically isolating synthetic organisms from natural organisms and viruses. It has long been possible to transiently produce proteins bearing ncAAs, but stabilizing an expanded genetic code for sustained function in vivo requires an integrated approach: creating recoded genomes and introducing new translation machinery that function together without compromising viability or clashing with endogenous pathways. In this review, we discuss design considerations and technologies for expanding the genetic code. The knowledge obtained by rewriting the genetic code will deepen our understanding of how genomes are designed and how the canonical genetic code evolved.

  19. On Polynomial Remainder Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jiun-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Polynomial remainder codes are a large class of codes derived from the Chinese remainder theorem that includes Reed-Solomon codes as a special case. In this paper, we revisit these codes and study them more carefully than in previous work. We explicitly allow the code symbols to be polynomials of different degrees, which leads to two different notions of weight and distance. Algebraic decoding is studied in detail. If the moduli are not irreducible, the notion of an error locator polynomial is replaced by an error factor polynomial. We then obtain a collection of gcd-based decoding algorithms, some of which are not quite standard even when specialized to Reed-Solomon codes.

  20. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  1. The aeroelastic code FLEXLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, B. [Stork Product Eng., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    To support the discussion on aeroelastic codes, a description of the code FLEXLAST was given and experiences within benchmarks and measurement programmes were summarized. The code FLEXLAST has been developed since 1982 at Stork Product Engineering (SPE). Since 1992 FLEXLAST has been used by Dutch industries for wind turbine and rotor design. Based on the comparison with measurements, it can be concluded that the main shortcomings of wind turbine modelling lie in the field of aerodynamics, wind field and wake modelling. (au)

  2. Opening up codings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensig, Jakob; Heinemann, Trine

    2015-01-01

    We welcome Tanya Stivers’s discussion (Stivers, 2015/this issue) of coding social interaction and find that her descriptions of the processes of coding open up important avenues for discussion, among other things of the precise ad hoc considerations that researchers need to bear in mind, both when....... Instead we propose that the promise of coding-based research lies in its ability to open up new qualitative questions....

  3. Industrial Computer Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1996-01-01

    This is an overview of new and updated industrial codes for seal design and testing. GCYLT (gas cylindrical seals -- turbulent), SPIRALI (spiral-groove seals -- incompressible), KTK (knife to knife) Labyrinth Seal Code, and DYSEAL (dynamic seal analysis) are covered. CGYLT uses G-factors for Poiseuille and Couette turbulence coefficients. SPIRALI is updated to include turbulence and inertia, but maintains the narrow groove theory. KTK labyrinth seal code handles straight or stepped seals. And DYSEAL provides dynamics for the seal geometry.

  4. ARC Code TI: ACCEPT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACCEPT consists of an overall software infrastructure framework and two main software components. The software infrastructure framework consists of code written to...

  5. QR codes for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Waters, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Find out how to effectively create, use, and track QR codes QR (Quick Response) codes are popping up everywhere, and businesses are reaping the rewards. Get in on the action with the no-nonsense advice in this streamlined, portable guide. You'll find out how to get started, plan your strategy, and actually create the codes. Then you'll learn to link codes to mobile-friendly content, track your results, and develop ways to give your customers value that will keep them coming back. It's all presented in the straightforward style you've come to know and love, with a dash of humor thrown

  6. Tokamak Systems Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.; Gorker, G.E.; Hooper, R.J.; Kalsi, S.S.; Metzler, D.H.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Roth, K.E.; Spampinato, P.T.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged.

  7. MORSE Monte Carlo code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described.

  8. 超声法制备苯甲酸钠微胶囊的工艺研究%Research on Processing Technology of Sodium Benzoate Microcapsules by Ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章斌; 刘志聪; 侯小桢; 赖宣; 许淼鑫; 王士超

    2014-01-01

    以β-环糊精为壁材,以包埋率为指标,采用单因素试验和Box-Behnken 中心组合设计试验对超声法制备苯甲酸钠微胶囊的工艺进行优化。试验结果表明:超声法制备苯甲酸钠包合物的最佳工艺条件为芯/壁材比1∶7.17,超声包埋时间29.9 min,超声包埋功率180 W,此条件下的实际包埋率为80.5%,与模型预测值之间具有较好的拟合性。%Takeβ-cyclodextrin as wall material and embedding rate of sodium benzoate as main index, the single factor experiment and Box-Behnken response surface methodology for optimization of sodi-um benzoate microcapsules by ultrasound method is explored.The results show that the optimum process conditions for preparation of sodium benzoate clathrate by ultrasound method are as follows:the core/wall material ratio of 1∶7.17,the ultrasonic embedding time of 29.9 min,the ultrasonic embedding power of 180 W,the embedding rate can reach 80.5%,and the regression model is con-sistent with the predicted results.

  9. Practical synthesis of methyl (E)-2-(3-(3-(2-(7-chloro-2-quinolinyl)ethenyl)phenyl)-3-oxopropyl)benzoate, a key intermediate of Montelukast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang He; Yang Hui Guo; Ya Ping Wang; Xiang Jing Wang; Ji Zhang; Wen Sheng Xiang

    2012-01-01

    A novel and practical synthetic route is presented for the preparation of methyl-(E)-2-(3-(3-(2-(7-chloro-2-quinolinyl)ethenyl)phenyl)-3-oxopropyl)benzoate,the key intermediate of Montelukast,a leukotriene antagonist.The main diarylpropane framework was prepared via a polarity conversation reaction resulting in an acyl anion equivalent followed by a nucleophilic substitution reaction.The overall yield of this approach was 61%.This method is simple for operation and suitable for industrial production.

  10. Transcription analysis of stx1, marA, and eaeA genes in Escherichia coli O157:H7 treated with sodium benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critzer, Faith J; Dsouza, Doris H; Golden, David A

    2008-07-01

    Expression of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) operon causes increased antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens. The activator of this operon, MarA, can alter expression of >60 genes in Escherichia coli K-12. However, data on the expression of virulence and resistance genes when foodborne pathogens are exposed to antimicrobial agents are lacking. This study was conducted to determine transcription of marA (mar activator), stx1 (Shiga toxin 1), and eaeA (intimin) genes of E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 as affected by sodium benzoate. E. coli O157:H7 was grown in Luria-Bertani broth containing 0 (control) and 1% sodium benzoate at 37 degrees C for 24 h, and total RNA was extracted. Primers were designed for hemX (209 bp; housekeeping gene), marA (261 bp), and eaeA (223 bp) genes; previously reported primers were used for stx1. Tenfold dilutions of RNA were used in a real-time one-step reverse transcriptase PCR to determine transcription levels. All experiments were conducted in triplicate, and product detection was validated by gel electrophoresis. For marA and stx1, real-time one-step reverse transcriptase PCR products were detected at a 1-log-greater dilution in sodium benzoate-treated cells than in control cells, although cell numbers for each were similar (7.28 and 7.57 log CFU/ml, respectively). This indicates a greater (albeit slight) level of their transcription in treated cells than in control cells. No difference in expression of eaeA was observed. HemX is a putative uroporphyrinogen III methylase. The hemX gene was expressed at the same level in control and treated cells, validating hemX as an appropriate housekeeping marker. These data indicate that stx1 and marA genes could play a role in pathogen virulence and survival when treated with sodium benzoate, whereas eaeA expression is not altered. Understanding adaptations of E. coli O157:H7 during antimicrobial exposure is essential to better understand and implement methods to inhibit or control

  11. Empirically modelled Pc3 activity based on solar wind parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raita

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available It is known that under certain solar wind (SW/interplanetary magnetic field (IMF conditions (e.g. high SW speed, low cone angle the occurrence of ground-level Pc3–4 pulsations is more likely. In this paper we demonstrate that in the event of anomalously low SW particle density, Pc3 activity is extremely low regardless of otherwise favourable SW speed and cone angle. We re-investigate the SW control of Pc3 pulsation activity through a statistical analysis and two empirical models with emphasis on the influence of SW density on Pc3 activity. We utilise SW and IMF measurements from the OMNI project and ground-based magnetometer measurements from the MM100 array to relate SW and IMF measurements to the occurrence of Pc3 activity. Multiple linear regression and artificial neural network models are used in iterative processes in order to identify sets of SW-based input parameters, which optimally reproduce a set of Pc3 activity data. The inclusion of SW density in the parameter set significantly improves the models. Not only the density itself, but other density related parameters, such as the dynamic pressure of the SW, or the standoff distance of the magnetopause work equally well in the model. The disappearance of Pc3s during low-density events can have at least four reasons according to the existing upstream wave theory: 1. Pausing the ion-cyclotron resonance that generates the upstream ultra low frequency waves in the absence of protons, 2. Weakening of the bow shock that implies less efficient reflection, 3. The SW becomes sub-Alfvénic and hence it is not able to sweep back the waves propagating upstream with the Alfvén-speed, and 4. The increase of the standoff distance of the magnetopause (and of the bow shock. Although the models cannot account for the lack of Pc3s during intervals when the SW density is extremely low, the resulting sets of optimal model inputs support the generation of mid latitude Pc3 activity predominantly through

  12. Investigation of Tensile Deformation Behavior of PC,ABS and PC/ABS Blends From Low to High Strain Rates%不同应变率下PC,ABS和PC/ABS合金拉伸变形行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹征南; 王铁军

    2012-01-01

    采用实验方法研究了PC(聚碳酸酯)、ABS(丙烯腈-丁二烯-苯乙烯)和PC/ABS合金(PC与ABS共混率为80∶20,60∶40,50∶50和40∶60),在不同应变率条件下的拉伸变形行为.采用MTS-810万能材料试验机和分离式Hopkinson拉杆实验系统分别进行了PC,ABS和PC/ABS合金室温条件下的准静态和冲击拉伸实验,得到了上述材料在不同应变率条件下的真应力-真应变曲线;通过对其变形特点的详细分析,讨论了应变率和ABS含量对拉伸变形的影响,并且给出了10-4 s-1~103 s-1应变率范围内屈服应力与应变率的线性关系式.%The objective is to experimentally study the tensile deformation behavior of die polycarbonate (PC), acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and PC/ABS blends (with the blending ratio of PC to ABS being 80:20, 60:40, 50:50 and 40:60) from low to high strain rates. Using universal MTS-810 machine and split Hopkinson Tension bar (SHTB) testing system, the quasi-static and impact tension tests were carried out at room temperature. The curves of true stress and true strain were obtained and the deformation behavior of PC, ABS and PC/ABS blends were characterized in detail. And the effects of strain rate on the yield stress from low to high strain rates were described with a linear relationship.

  13. The reproductive performance of dairy cows with anovulatory anoestrus that were injected with either gonadotrophin-releasing hormone or oestradiol benzoate as part of a re-treatment process after insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V.E. Segwagwe

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment compared the reproductive performance of synchronised anoestrous dairy cows that were treated initially with a combination of progesterone and oestradiol benzoate and then with either gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH or oestradiol benzoate to resynchronise returns to service. It was hypothesised that injecting anoestrous dairy cows with GnRH 12-15 days after insemination and coinciding with the time of insertion of a controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing (CIDR device would increase conception rates to the preceding 1st insemination compared with oestradiol benzoate treated cows; both GnRH and oestradiol benzoate would resynchronising the returns to service of those cows that did not conceive to the preceding insemination. Groups of cows in 11 herds were presented for a veterinary examination after they had not been seen in oestrus postpartum. Those cows diagnosed with anovulatory anoestrus (n = 1112 by manual rectal palpation and / or ultrasonography were enrolled in the trial. Each enrolled cow was injected with 2mg oestradiol benzoate i.m. on Day -10, (where Day 0 was the 1st day of the planned insemination concurrently with vaginal insertion of a CIDR device. The device inserted was withdrawn on Day -2 and then each cow injected i.m. with 1 mg of oestradiol benzoate on Day -1 unless it was in oestrus. Observation for oestrus preceded each insemination. Every cow that had been inseminated on Days -1,0,1 or 2 was presented for treatment for resynchrony on Day 14 (n=891. They were divided into 2 groups; those with an even number were each injected i.m. with 250 µg of a GnRH agonist (Treatment group n = 477; each of the cows with an odd number injected i.m. with 1mg of oestradiol benzoate (control group, n = 414. Each GnRH or oestradiol benzoate injection preceded reinsertion of a CIDR device previously inserted from Days -10 to -2. It was withdrawn on Day 22, 24 hours before injecting 1mg oestradiol benzoate

  14. New developments in the Saphire computer codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, K.D.; Wood, S.T.; Kvarfordt, K.J. [Idaho Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) refers to a suite of computer programs that were developed to create and analyze a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a nuclear power plant. Many recent enhancements to this suite of codes have been made. This presentation will provide an overview of these features and capabilities. The presentation will include a discussion of the new GEM module. This module greatly reduces and simplifies the work necessary to use the SAPHIRE code in event assessment applications. An overview of the features provided in the new Windows version will also be provided. This version is a full Windows 32-bit implementation and offers many new and exciting features. [A separate computer demonstration was held to allow interested participants to get a preview of these features.] The new capabilities that have been added since version 5.0 will be covered. Some of these major new features include the ability to store an unlimited number of basic events, gates, systems, sequences, etc.; the addition of improved reporting capabilities to allow the user to generate and {open_quotes}scroll{close_quotes} through custom reports; the addition of multi-variable importance measures; and the simplification of the user interface. Although originally designed as a PRA Level 1 suite of codes, capabilities have recently been added to SAPHIRE to allow the user to apply the code in Level 2 analyses. These features will be discussed in detail during the presentation. The modifications and capabilities added to this version of SAPHIRE significantly extend the code in many important areas. Together, these extensions represent a major step forward in PC-based risk analysis tools. This presentation provides a current up-to-date status of these important PRA analysis tools.

  15. Adaptation of reservoir engineering software to a DOS/Linux PC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emanuel, A.S.; Jones, R.C.; McWilliams, R.S.; Tsaio, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    Recent publications have described the implementation of state-of-the-art reservoir engineering applications based on integrated networks of mainframe, workstation, and desktop computers. These facilities provide excellent resources for geologic and engineering applications, but at the cost of substantial investment in computer hardware, network installation, and systems staffing. This paper describes an adaptation of similar state-of-the-art applications to a desktop platform that minimizes the required hardware and system investment. The platform is an Intel 486 or Pentium-based PC with two hard drives and 32 to 64 MB of memory. One disk is partitioned to a standard DOS/Windows environment. The other disk is partitioned to the Linux operating system. Linux is a freely available clone of Unix for the 80386/80486 CPU, which is supported by a worldwide volunteer effort. A machine of this type can be constructed from components for $4,000 to $8,000, depending on CPU and memory. A number of proprietary modeling codes have been ported over so that the PC can provide much of the capability of the network systems.

  16. A study on the interlink of CANDU safety analysis codes with development of GUI system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. J.; Jeo, Y. J.; Park, Q. C. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H. T.; Min, B. J. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    In order to improve the CANDU safety analysis code system, the interlink of containment analysis code, PRESCON2 to the system thermal hydraulics analysis code, CATHENA, has been implemented with development of the GUI system. Before the GUI development, we partly corrected two codes to optimize on the PC environment. The interlink of two codes could be executed by introducing three interlinking variables, mass flux, mixture enthalpy, and mixture specific volume. To guarantee the robustness of the codes, two codes are extremely linked by using the GUI system. The GUI system provides much of user-friendly functions and will be improved step by step. This study is expected to improve the safety assessment system and technology for CANDU NPPs.

  17. Research on universal combinatorial coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zhuo; Mo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The conception of universal combinatorial coding is proposed. Relations exist more or less in many coding methods. It means that a kind of universal coding method is objectively existent. It can be a bridge connecting many coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding is lossless and it is based on the combinatorics theory. The combinational and exhaustive property make it closely related with the existing code methods. Universal combinatorial coding does not depend on the probability statistic characteristic of information source, and it has the characteristics across three coding branches. It has analyzed the relationship between the universal combinatorial coding and the variety of coding method and has researched many applications technologies of this coding method. In addition, the efficiency of universal combinatorial coding is analyzed theoretically. The multicharacteristic and multiapplication of universal combinatorial coding are unique in the existing coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding has theoretical research and practical application value.

  18. Safety Code A12

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat

    2005-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Code A12 (Code A12) entitled "THE SAFETY COMMISSION (SC)" is available on the web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/479423/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC Unit Secretariat, e-mail: sc.secretariat@cern.ch SC Secretariat

  19. Dress Codes for Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses an e-mail survey of principals from across the country regarding whether or not their school had a formal staff dress code. The results indicate that most did not have a formal dress code, but agreed that professional dress for teachers was not only necessary, but showed respect for the school and had a…

  20. Nuremberg code turns 60

    OpenAIRE

    Thieren, Michel; Mauron, Alex

    2007-01-01

    This month marks sixty years since the Nuremberg code – the basic text of modern medical ethics – was issued. The principles in this code were articulated in the context of the Nuremberg trials in 1947. We would like to use this anniversary to examine its ability to address the ethical challenges of our time.

  1. Pseudonoise code tracking loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflame, D. T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A delay-locked loop is presented for tracking a pseudonoise (PN) reference code in an incoming communication signal. The loop is less sensitive to gain imbalances, which can otherwise introduce timing errors in the PN reference code formed by the loop.

  2. Scrum Code Camps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene; Dahlgaard, Bente

    2013-01-01

    is required. In this paper we present the design of such a new approach, the Scrum Code Camp, which can be used to assess agile team capability in a transparent and consistent way. A design science research approach is used to analyze properties of two instances of the Scrum Code Camp where seven agile teams...

  3. Scrum Code Camps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene; Dahlgaard, Bente

    2013-01-01

    is required. In this paper we present the design of such a new approach, the Scrum Code Camp, which can be used to assess agile team capability in a transparent and consistent way. A design science research approach is used to analyze properties of two instances of the Scrum Code Camp where seven agile teams...

  4. READING A NEURAL CODE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BIALEK, W; RIEKE, F; VANSTEVENINCK, RRD; WARLAND, D

    1991-01-01

    Traditional approaches to neural coding characterize the encoding of known stimuli in average neural responses. Organisms face nearly the opposite task - extracting information about an unknown time-dependent stimulus from short segments of a spike train. Here the neural code was characterized from

  5. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    , Twitter and Facebook). The focus is not to investigate the functionalities and efficiencies of the code, but to study and interpret the program level of code in order to trace the use of various technological methods such as third-party libraries and platforms’ interfaces. These are important...

  6. Measure of 1/f noise using the sound card of a PC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlà, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    An experimental setup is described to measure 1/f noise (pink noise) in conductors using a PC equipped with a sound card functioning as a spectrum analyzer. A simple auxiliary analog electronic circuit with three operational amplifiers has been assembled to yield the required amplification, to match the sound card signal levels, and to implement a bridge configuration to improve dynamical range. Test experiments and data analysis have been conducted using commonly available software, together with some custom scripts and C code. The whole setup is technically accessible and economical for both the high school and undergraduate levels. Results are reported for pink noise of vintage carbon resistors spanning seven frequency decades, from 1 mHz to 10 kHz.

  7. Dynamic Analysis of Spur Gear Transmissions (DANST). PC Version 3.00 User Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Lin, Hsiang Hsi; Delgado, Irebert R.

    1996-01-01

    DANST is a FORTRAN computer program for static and dynamic analysis of spur gear systems. The program can be used for parametric studies to predict the static transmission error, dynamic load, tooth bending stress and other properties of spur gears as they are influenced by operating speed, torque, stiffness, damping, inertia, and tooth profile. DANST performs geometric modeling and dynamic analysis for low- or high-contact-ratio spur gears. DANST can simulate gear systems with contact ratios ranging from one to three. It was designed to be easy to use and it is extensively documented in several previous reports and by comments in the source code. This report describes installing and using a new PC version of DANST, covers input data requirements and presents examples.

  8. Tough2/PC application simulation project for Heber geothermal field, California, a progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Timothy S.; Khan, M. Ali; Antunez, Emilio

    1996-01-24

    A numerical simulation model for the Heber geothermal field in Southern California is being developed under a technology transfer agreement between the Department of Energy/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR). The main objectives of the cooperation are (1) to train DOGGR personnel in the use of the TOUGH2PC computer code; and (2) to develop a module compatible with TOUGH2 to investigate the effects of production/injection operations on the ground surface subsidence-rebound phenomenon observed in the Heber geothermal field. Initial-state calibration (undisturbed system) runs are being conducted to calibrate the model.

  9. Transformation invariant sparse coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    Sparse coding is a well established principle for unsupervised learning. Traditionally, features are extracted in sparse coding in specific locations, however, often we would prefer invariant representation. This paper introduces a general transformation invariant sparse coding (TISC) model....... The model decomposes images into features invariant to location and general transformation by a set of specified operators as well as a sparse coding matrix indicating where and to what degree in the original image these features are present. The TISC model is in general overcomplete and we therefore invoke...... sparse coding to estimate its parameters. We demonstrate how the model can correctly identify components of non-trivial artificial as well as real image data. Thus, the model is capable of reducing feature redundancies in terms of pre-specified transformations improving the component identification....

  10. The SIFT Code Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The specification of Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT) consists of two parts, the specifications of the SIFT models and the specifications of the SIFT PASCAL program which actually implements the SIFT system. The code specifications are the last of a hierarchy of models describing the operation of the SIFT system and are related to the SIFT models as well as the PASCAL program. These Specifications serve to link the SIFT models to the running program. The specifications are very large and detailed and closely follow the form and organization of the PASCAL code. In addition to describing each of the components of the SIFT code, the code specifications describe the assumptions of the upper SIFT models which are required to actually prove that the code will work as specified. These constraints are imposed primarily on the schedule tables.

  11. The Aesthetics of Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    discusses code as the artist’s material and, further, formulates a critique of Cramer. The seductive magic in computer-generated art does not lie in the magical expression, but nor does it lie in the code/material/text itself. It lies in the nature of code to do something – as if it was magic......Computer art is often associated with computer-generated expressions (digitally manipulated audio/images in music, video, stage design, media facades, etc.). In recent computer art, however, the code-text itself – not the generated output – has become the artwork (Perl Poetry, ASCII Art, obfuscated...... avant-garde’. In line with Cramer, the artists Alex McLean and Adrian Ward (aka Slub) declare: “art-oriented programming needs to acknowledge the conditions of its own making – its poesis.” By analysing the Live Coding performances of Slub (where they program computer music live), the presentation...

  12. Combustion chamber analysis code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekwas, A. J.; Lai, Y. G.; Krishnan, A.; Avva, R. K.; Giridharan, M. G.

    1993-05-01

    A three-dimensional, time dependent, Favre averaged, finite volume Navier-Stokes code has been developed to model compressible and incompressible flows (with and without chemical reactions) in liquid rocket engines. The code has a non-staggered formulation with generalized body-fitted-coordinates (BFC) capability. Higher order differencing methodologies such as MUSCL and Osher-Chakravarthy schemes are available. Turbulent flows can be modeled using any of the five turbulent models present in the code. A two-phase, two-liquid, Lagrangian spray model has been incorporated into the code. Chemical equilibrium and finite rate reaction models are available to model chemically reacting flows. The discrete ordinate method is used to model effects of thermal radiation. The code has been validated extensively against benchmark experimental data and has been applied to model flows in several propulsion system components of the SSME and the STME.

  13. Astrophysics Source Code Library

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Alice; Berriman, Bruce; Hanisch, Robert J; Mink, Jessica; Teuben, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), founded in 1999, is a free on-line registry for source codes of interest to astronomers and astrophysicists. The library is housed on the discussion forum for Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) and can be accessed at http://ascl.net. The ASCL has a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used to generate results published in or submitted to refereed journals and continues to grow. The ASCL currently has entries for over 500 codes; its records are citable and are indexed by ADS. The editors of the ASCL and members of its Advisory Committee were on hand at a demonstration table in the ADASS poster room to present the ASCL, accept code submissions, show how the ASCL is starting to be used by the astrophysics community, and take questions on and suggestions for improving the resource.

  14. LACEwING: A New Moving Group Analysis Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Adric R.; Blunt, Sarah C.; Lambrides, Erini L.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.

    2017-03-01

    We present a new nearby young moving group (NYMG) kinematic membership analysis code, LocAting Constituent mEmbers In Nearby Groups (LACEwING), a new Catalog of Suspected Nearby Young Stars, a new list of bona fide members of moving groups, and a kinematic traceback code. LACEwING is a convergence-style algorithm with carefully vetted membership statistics based on a large numerical simulation of the Solar Neighborhood. Given spatial and kinematic information on stars, LACEwING calculates membership probabilities in 13 NYMGs and three open clusters within 100 pc. In addition to describing the inputs, methods, and products of the code, we provide comparisons of LACEwING to other popular kinematic moving group membership identification codes. As a proof of concept, we use LACEwING to reconsider the membership of 930 stellar systems in the Solar Neighborhood (within 100 pc) that have reported measurable lithium equivalent widths. We quantify the evidence in support of a population of young stars not attached to any NYMGs, which is a possible sign of new as-yet-undiscovered groups or of a field population of young stars.

  15. Demonstration of a PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Trocciola; Thomas N. Pompa; Linda S. Boyd

    2004-09-01

    This project involved the installation of a 200kW PC25C{trademark} phosphoric-acid fuel cell power plant at Orgenergogaz, a Gazprom industrial site in Russia. In April 1997, a PC25C{trademark} was sold by ONSI Corporation to Orgenergogaz, a subsidiary of the Russian company ''Gazprom''. Due to instabilities in the Russian financial markets, at that time, the unit was never installed and started by Orgenergogaz. In October of 2001 International Fuel Cells (IFC), now known as UTC Fuel Cells (UTCFC), received a financial assistance award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entitled ''Demonstration of PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia''. Three major tasks were part of this award: the inspection of the proposed site and system, start-up assistance, and installation and operation of the powerplant.

  16. Do the $P_c^+$ Pentaquarks Have Strange Siblings?

    CERN Document Server

    Lebed, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    The recent LHCb discovery of states $P_c^+(4380)$, $P_c^+(4450)$, believed to be $c\\bar c uud$ pentaquark resonances, begs the question of whether equivalent states with $c\\bar c \\to s\\bar s$ exist, and how they might be produced. The precise analogue to the $P_c^+$ discovery channel $\\Lambda_b \\to J/\\psi \\, K^- \\! p$, namely, $\\Lambda_c \\to \\phi \\pi^0 \\! p$, is feasible for this study and indeed is less Cabibbo-suppressed, although its limited phase space suggests that evidence of a $s\\bar s uud$ resonance $P_s^+$ would be confined to the kinematic endpoint region.

  17. Relations of PC indices to further geophysical activity parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) indices, PCN for the index values derived from Thule magnetic data and PCS derived from Vostok data, relate to the polar cap ionospheric plasma convection driven mainly by the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere. Thus, the PC indices serve to monitor the input power from the solar wind which drives a range of geophysical disturbances such as magnetic storms and substorms, energization of the plasma trapped in the Earth's near space, auroral activity, and heating of the upper atmosphere. The presentation will demonstrate the relations between the PC indices and further parameters and indices used to describe geophysical activity such as polar cap potentials, auroral electrojet activity, Joule and particle heating of the upper atmosphere, mid-latitude magnetic variations, and ring current indices Dst, SYM-H and ASY-H.

  18. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Yukari; Sun, Yongkun; Liu, Chuang; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetner added to many low-calorie foods. The safety of aspartame remains controversial even though there are many studies on its risks. In this study, to understand the physiological effects of trace amounts of artificial sweetners on cells, the effects of aspartame on apoptosis were investigated using a PC12 cell system. In addition, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by aspartame in PC12 cells and effects on apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor, and caspase family proteins were studied by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, aspartame exposure increased the expressions of caspases 8 and 9, and cytochrome c. These results indicate that aspartame induces apoptosis mainly via mitochondrial pathway involved in apoptosis due to oxigen toxicity.

  19. Review of methods to derive a Polar Cap (PC) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Since a Polar Cap (PC) index was introduced in 1985, several different methods have been used to derive index values. Basically, the northern (PCN) and southern (PCS) are based on geomagnetic recordings at Qaanaaq (Thule) and Vostok, respectively. However, different derivation methods can give index values differing by more than a factor 2. The PC indices are used, among other, in scientific analyses to link solar wind conditions to relevant geophysical effects and in forecast efforts to establish numerical criteria for imminent risk of geomagnetic storms and substorms. Thus, it is unfortunate that several different versions of the PC index have been in use, often without specifically mentioning the index version being used or without ensuring that proper documention and specification of the derivation method is available. The presentation shall briefly describe the basic calculation of a Polar Cap index and point specifically to the differences between the different derivation methods and to the consequences for the index values

  20. Processing and intracellular localization of rice stripe virus Pc2 protein in insect cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Shuling; Zhang, Gaozhan; Dai, Xuejuan; Hou, Yanling; Li, Min [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Liang, Jiansheng, E-mail: jsliang@yzu.edu.cn [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Liang, Changyong, E-mail: cyliang@yzu.edu.cn [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China)

    2012-08-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV) belongs to the genus Tenuivirus and its genome consists of four single-stranded RNAs encoding seven proteins. Here, we have analyzed the processing and membrane association of Pc2 encoded by vcRNA2 in insect cells. The enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was fused to the Pc2 and used for the detection of Pc2 fusion proteins. The results showed that Pc2 was cleaved to produce two proteins named Pc2-N and Pc2-C. When expressed alone, either Pc2-N or Pc2-C could transport to the Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes independently. Further mutagenesis studies revealed that Pc2 contained three ER-targeting domains. The results led us to propose a model for the topology of the Pc2 in which an internal signal peptide immediately followed a cleavage site, and two transmembrane regions are contained.

  1. [Quercetin induces the apoptosis of human PC-3 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing-Yi; Hu, Rui; Liu, Li; Yuan, Lin; Huang, Wei-Zhou; Ma, Long; Gu, Xiao-Jian

    2011-09-01

    To study the effect of quercetin on the apoptosis of human PC-3 cells. Human PC-3 cells were cultured in vitro and then treated with quercetin at the concentrations of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 micromol/L. The inhibition rate of quercetin on the PC-3 cells was detected by MTT, the apoptosis of the cells determined by flow cytometry, and the changes of the cellular ultramicrostructure observed by transmission electron microscopy. Quercetin markedly inhibited the proliferation of PC-3 cells in vitro in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Its inhibition rates were (3.01 +/- 1.32)%, (4.84 +/- 1.73)%, (20.35 +/- 1.30)%, (16.78 +/- 1.89)% and (27.25 +/- 4.01)% at 24 hours, and (10.18 +/- 1.16)%, (6.22 +/- 0.04)%, (24.29 +/- 4.19)%, (22.4 +/- 4.26)% and (41.42 +/- 5.43)% at 48 hours in the 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 micromol/L groups, respectively, with statistical significance at the concentration of > 150 micromol/L (P apoptosis of PC-3 cells was increased with the elevated concentration and prolonged time of Quercetin treatment, (19.10 +/- 0.28)% and (26.55 +/- 0.78)% at 24 hours, and (27.65 +/- 1.06)% and (38.30 +/- 5.96)% at 48 hours in the 150 and 200 micromol/L groups, respectively (P Quercetin can inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of human PC-3 cells, but its action mechanism remains to be further investigated.

  2. PC-Based Applications Programming on the SRS Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martlew, Brian; Owen, Hywel; Pugh, Martin; Rawlinson, Bill; Smith, Susan

    1997-05-01

    The CERN PC-based ISOLDE control system has been installed at the SRS electron storage ring at Daresbury Laboratory. The use of Windows NT for the control consoles together with PC and VME front-end computers running under several operating systems has resulted in a flexible and reliable system for accelerator control. The implementation and philosophy of control application programs, based around a suite of Microsoft Visual Basic and Excel programs, is described. In particular, the use of Excel to provide adaptable programs online allows rapid generation of new control functions; orbit correction and servoing at the application level are described as examples of this.

  3. Online medical symbol recognition using a Tablet PC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Amlan; Hu, Qian; Boykin, Stanley; Clark, Cheryl; Fish, Randy; Jones, Stephen; Moore, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a scheme to enhance the usability of a Tablet PC's handwriting recognition system by including medical symbols that are not a part of the Tablet PC's symbol library. The goal of this work is to make handwriting recognition more useful for medical professionals accustomed to using medical symbols in medical records. To demonstrate that this new symbol recognition module is robust and expandable, we report results on both a medical symbol set and an expanded symbol test set which includes selected mathematical symbols.

  4. Data Communication PC/NaI-borehole probe (Hardware & Software)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch

    Development of new hard- & software to a NaI borehole probe on a PC. Save data from the probe each 10'th sec, handle the data from the probe and make calculations every 10'th sec and show the results on the monitor.......Development of new hard- & software to a NaI borehole probe on a PC. Save data from the probe each 10'th sec, handle the data from the probe and make calculations every 10'th sec and show the results on the monitor....

  5. Embedded foveation image coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Bovik, A C

    2001-01-01

    The human visual system (HVS) is highly space-variant in sampling, coding, processing, and understanding. The spatial resolution of the HVS is highest around the point of fixation (foveation point) and decreases rapidly with increasing eccentricity. By taking advantage of this fact, it is possible to remove considerable high-frequency information redundancy from the peripheral regions and still reconstruct a perceptually good quality image. Great success has been obtained previously by a class of embedded wavelet image coding algorithms, such as the embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) and the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithms. Embedded wavelet coding not only provides very good compression performance, but also has the property that the bitstream can be truncated at any point and still be decoded to recreate a reasonably good quality image. In this paper, we propose an embedded foveation image coding (EFIC) algorithm, which orders the encoded bitstream to optimize foveated visual quality at arbitrary bit-rates. A foveation-based image quality metric, namely, foveated wavelet image quality index (FWQI), plays an important role in the EFIC system. We also developed a modified SPIHT algorithm to improve the coding efficiency. Experiments show that EFIC integrates foveation filtering with foveated image coding and demonstrates very good coding performance and scalability in terms of foveated image quality measurement.

  6. Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity in the net...... the number of dimensions seen by the network using a linear mapping. Receivers can tradeoff computational effort with network delay, decoding in the high field size, the low field size, or a combination thereof.......Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity...... in the network; and (iii) to deliver an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a high field size network coding system for high-end receivers while simultaneously catering to low-end ones that can only decode in a lower field size. Sources may encode using a high field size expansion to increase...

  7. Report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  8. Effects of estradiol benzoate on 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activities in female rat anterior pituitary gland, liver and thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbôa P.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on the possible effects of estrogen on the activity of 5'-deiodinase (5'-ID, an enzyme responsible for the generation of T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. In the present study, anterior pituitary sonicates or hepatic and thyroid microsomes from ovariectomized (OVX rats treated or not with estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.7 or 14 µg/100 g body weight, sc, for 10 days were assayed for type I 5'-ID (5'-ID-I and type II 5'-ID (5'-ID-II, only in pituitary activities. The 5'-ID activity was evaluated by the release of 125I from deiodinated 125I rT3, using specific assay conditions for type I or type II. Serum TSH and free T3 and free T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. OVX alone induced a reduction in pituitary 5'-ID-I (control = 723.7 ± 67.9 vs OVX = 413.9 ± 26.9; P<0.05, while the EB-treated OVX group showed activity similar to that of the normal group. Thyroid 5'-ID-I showed the same pattern of changes, but these changes were not statistically significant. Pituitary and hepatic 5'-ID-II did not show major alterations. The treatment with the higher EB dose (14 µg, contrary to the results obtained with the lower dose, had no effect on the reduced pituitary 5'-ID-I of OVX rats. However, it induced an important increment of 5'-ID-I in the thyroid gland (0.8 times higher than that of the normal group: control = 131.9 ± 23.7 vs ovx + EB 14 µg = 248.0 ± 31.2; P<0.05, which is associated with increased serum TSH (0.6-fold vs OVX, P<0.05 but normal serum free T3 and free T4. The data suggest that estrogen is a physiological stimulator of anterior pituitary 5'-ID-I and a potent stimulator of the thyroid enzyme when employed at high doses

  9. Application of RS Codes in Decoding QR Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Suxia(朱素霞); Ji Zhenzhou; Cao Zhiyan

    2003-01-01

    The QR Code is a 2-dimensional matrix code with high error correction capability. It employs RS codes to generate error correction codewords in encoding and recover errors and damages in decoding. This paper presents several QR Code's virtues, analyzes RS decoding algorithm and gives a software flow chart of decoding the QR Code with RS decoding algorithm.

  10. Evaluation Codes from an Affine Veriety Code Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation codes (also called order domain codes) are traditionally introduced as generalized one-point geometric Goppa codes. In the present paper we will give a new point of view on evaluation codes by introducing them instead as particular nice examples of affine variety codes. Our study...

  11. Microbial evolution during storage of seasoned olives prepared with organic acids with potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, and ozone used as preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo López, F N; Durán Quintana, M C; Garrido Fernández, A

    2006-06-01

    The effect of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, and ozone in combination with citric, lactic, and acetic acids on the microbial population of seasoned table olives of the olive 'Aloreña' cultivar was studied in both fresh (FF) and stored fruits (SF). The inactivation/growth curves were modeled and the biological parameters estimated, with yeast used as the target microorganism. Regardless of the acid added, potassium sorbate showed a general inactivation effect on yeasts in the products prepared from both FF and SE Sodium benzoate had a rapid inactivation effect with FF, but with SF, it was effective only in the presence of acetic acid. A strain of Issatchenkia occidentalis was found that was resistant to the combination of this preservative with citric or lactic acids. In FF, ozone showed an initial marked inhibition against yeasts, but later, yeasts were again able to grow. In SF, ozone was a strong inactivating agent when it replaced any of the traditional preservatives. Lactic acid bacteria were always absent in products prepared from FF, and apparently were not affected by the different preservative agents in those prepared from SF. The behavior of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria populations in commercial products were similar to those found in experimental treatments.

  12. Fixation of chiral smectic liquid crystal (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate using UV curing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afrizal,, E-mail: rizalunj04@yahoo.com; Nurdelima,; Umeir [Faculty of Mathemathics and Natural Science, University of State Jakarta, Jakarta (Indonesia); Hikam, Muhammad; Soegiyono, Bambang [Department of Materials Science, University of Indonesia, Depok (Indonesia); Riswoko, Asep [Center for Material Technology, BPPT, Jl. MH.Thamrin 8 Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Chiral Smectic Liquid Crystal (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate has been synthesized using method of steglich esterification at room temperature. The mesomorphic behavior of chiral smectic at 55°C that showed schlieren texture in POM analysis. Fixation of structure chiral smectic liquid crystal by means of photopolymerization of monomer (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate under UV irradiation which called UV curing techniques. The curing process using UV 3 lamps 100 volt at 60°C for an hour. The product of photopolymerization could be seen by analysis of FTIR spectra both monomer and polymer. FTIR spectra of monomer, two peaks for ester carbonyl and C-C double bond groups appeared at 1729.09 cm-1and 3123.46 cm{sup −1}. After UV curing process, peak for the carbonyl group at 1729.09 cm{sup −1} decreased and a new peak at 1160.21 cm{sup −1} appeared due to the carbonyl group attached to a C-C bond group and then peak at 3123.46 cm{sup −1} for C-C double bond group was disappeared.

  13. Estudio de las Propiedades Anticorrosivas del Benzoato de Hierro (III en Pinturas Base Solvente Study of Anticorrosive Properties of the Iron (III Benzoate in Solvent Based Paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Blustein

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La acción inhibidora del benzoato de hierro en electrodos de acero SAE 1010 en contacto con una suspensión acuosa fue estudiada mediante ensayos electroquímicos. Paralelamente, la eficiencia anticorrosiva de este producto incorporado a cubiertas orgánicas base solvente fue evaluada mediante ensayos de envejecimiento acelerado (cámara de niebla salina y de humedad. La evolución del comportamiento protector de la cubierta aplicada sobre paneles de acero pintados e inmersos en una solución 0.5M de NaClO4 fue periódicamente monitoreada por espectroscopía de impedancia electroquímica. Los resultados obtenidos indican que las pinturas formuladas con benzoato férrico presentan una capacidad anticorrosiva comparable a las formuladas con fosfato de cinc.This study investigated the inhibitory action of iron benzoate on SAE 1010 steel electrodes in aqueous suspensions using electrochemical assays. The anticorrosive efficiency of this product added to organic solvent-based coatings was also evaluated by means of accelerated weathering tests (salt spray cabinet and humidity chamber. The evolution of the protective behavior of the coating applied on steel panels and immersed in 0.5M NaClO4 solution was periodically checked by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results obtained showed that paints formulated with ferric benzoate provide anticorrosive protection similar to those formulated with zinc phosphate.

  14. Inhibitor effects of sodium benzoate on corrosion resistance of Al6061-B4C composites in NaCl and H3BO3 solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi-ud-din; Shafqat, Q. A.; Shahzad, M.; Ahmad, Ejaz; Asghar, Z.; Rafiq, Nouman; Qureshi, A. H.; Syed, Waqar adil; asim Pasha, Riffat

    2016-12-01

    Sodium benzoate (SB) is used for the first time to inhibit the corrosion of Al6061-B4C composites in H3BO3 and NaCl solutions. Al6061100-x -x wt% B4C (x = 0, 5, and 10) composites are manufactured by a powder metallurgy route. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of SB is investigated as a function of the volume fractions of B4C particles by using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance techniques. Without the use of an inhibitor, an increase of the B4C particles in the composite decreases the corrosion resistance of Al6061-B4C composites. It is found that SB is an efficient corrosion inhibitor for Al6061-B4C composites in both investigated solutions. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of SB increases with an increase in B4C content. Since SB is an adsorption type inhibitor, it is envisaged that an extremely thin layer of molecules adsorbs onto the surface and suppresses the oxidation and reduction. It is found that the inhibitor effect of SB is more pronounced in a H3BO3 environment than in NaCl solution. Further, the mechanism of corrosion inhibition by SB is illustrated by using optical and scanning electron microscopy of corroded samples. It is found that the adsorption of benzoate ions on the Al surface and its bonding with Al3+ ions forms a hydrophobic layer on top of the exposed Al surface, which enhances the protection against dissolved boride ions.

  15. Nociceptive behaviors were induced by electrical stimulation of the dura mater surrounding the superior sagittal sinus in conscious adult rats and reduced by morphine and rizatriptan benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhao; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaolin; Yu, Shengyuan

    2011-01-12

    The trigeminovascular nociception induced by electrical stimulation of the dura mater surrounding the superior sagittal sinus in anesthetized animals has been widely used as a model for investigation of the pathophysiology of vascular headache such as migraine. However, little is known whether pain behaviors can be induced using this model in conscious animals. Thus, to establish a new model of trigeminovascular nociception in conscious animals and to examine the effects of morphine and rizatriptan benzoate on nociceptive behaviors in this new model, we electrically stimulated the dura mater surrounding the superior sagittal sinus. We found that grooming and head-flick activities were altered partially in a frequency-dependent way and that frequencies ranging from 10 to 20 Hz more easily provoked these behaviors. Moreover, we also demonstrated that these behaviors were reduced by morphine and rizatriptan benzoate. Thus, this new model will provide a useful and appropriate tool to directly assess changes in the intensity of pain for further investigation of pathophysiological mechanisms of migraine in conscious animals.

  16. Distributed multiple description coding

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Huihui; Zhao, Yao

    2011-01-01

    This book examines distributed video coding (DVC) and multiple description coding (MDC), two novel techniques designed to address the problems of conventional image and video compression coding. Covering all fundamental concepts and core technologies, the chapters can also be read as independent and self-sufficient, describing each methodology in sufficient detail to enable readers to repeat the corresponding experiments easily. Topics and features: provides a broad overview of DVC and MDC, from the basic principles to the latest research; covers sub-sampling based MDC, quantization based MDC,

  17. Cryptography cracking codes

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    While cracking a code might seem like something few of us would encounter in our daily lives, it is actually far more prevalent than we may realize. Anyone who has had personal information taken because of a hacked email account can understand the need for cryptography and the importance of encryption-essentially the need to code information to keep it safe. This detailed volume examines the logic and science behind various ciphers, their real world uses, how codes can be broken, and the use of technology in this oft-overlooked field.

  18. Coded MapReduce

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Songze; Maddah-Ali, Mohammad Ali; Avestimehr, A. Salman

    2015-01-01

    MapReduce is a commonly used framework for executing data-intensive jobs on distributed server clusters. We introduce a variant implementation of MapReduce, namely "Coded MapReduce", to substantially reduce the inter-server communication load for the shuffling phase of MapReduce, and thus accelerating its execution. The proposed Coded MapReduce exploits the repetitive mapping of data blocks at different servers to create coding opportunities in the shuffling phase to exchange (key,value) pair...

  19. Classical Holographic Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Brehm, Enrico M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce classical holographic codes. These can be understood as concatenated probabilistic codes and can be represented as networks uniformly covering hyperbolic space. In particular, classical holographic codes can be interpreted as maps from bulk degrees of freedom to boundary degrees of freedom. Interestingly, they are shown to exhibit features similar to those expected from the AdS/CFT correspondence. Among these are a version of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula and intriguing properties regarding bulk reconstruction and boundary representations of bulk operations. We discuss the relation of our findings with expectations from AdS/CFT and, in particular, with recent results from quantum error correction.

  20. Quality assessment of platelet concentrates prepared by platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC and apheresis-PC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ravindra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC, and apheresis-PC were prepared and their quality parameters were assessed. Study Design: In this study, the following platelet products were prepared: from random donor platelets (i platelet rich plasma - platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, and (ii buffy coat poor- platelet concentrate (BC-PC and (iii single donor platelets (apheresis-PC by different methods. Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: swirling, volume of the platelet concentrate, platelet count, WBC count and pH. Results: A total of 146 platelet concentrates (64 of PRP-PC, 62 of BC-PC and 20 of apheresis-PC were enrolled in this study. The mean volume of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 62.30±22.68 ml, 68.81±22.95 ml and 214.05±9.91 ml and ranged from 22-135 ml, 32-133 ml and 200-251 ml respectively. The mean platelet count of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 7.6±2.97 x 1010/unit, 7.3±2.98 x 1010/unit and 4.13±1.32 x 1011/unit and ranged from 3.2-16.2 x 1010/unit, 0.6-16.4 x 1010/unit and 1.22-8.9 x 1011/unit respectively. The mean WBC count in PRP-PC (n = 10, BC-PC (n = 10 and apheresis-PC (n = 6 units was 4.05±0.48 x 107/unit, 2.08±0.39 x 107/unit and 4.8±0.8 x 106/unit and ranged from 3.4 -4.77 x 107/unit, 1.6-2.7 x 107/unit and 3.2 - 5.2 x 106/unit respectively. A total of 26 units were analyzed for pH changes. Out of these units, 10 each were PRP-PC and BC-PC and 6 units were apheresis-PC. Their mean pH was 6.7±0.26 (mean±SD and ranged from 6.5 - 7.0 and no difference was observed among all three types of platelet concentrate. Conclusion: PRP-PC and BC-PC units were comparable in terms of swirling, platelet count per unit and pH. As expected, we found WBC contamination to be less in BC-PC than PRP-PC units. Variation in volume was more in BC-PC than PRP-PC units and this suggests that further standardization is required for preparation of BC-PC

  1. LERC-SLAM - THE NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER SATELLITE LINK ATTENUATION MODEL PROGRAM (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    antenna required to establish a link with the satellite, the statistical parameters that characterize the rainrate process at the terminal site, the length of the propagation path within the potential rain region, and its projected length onto the local horizontal. The IBM PC version of LeRC-SLAM (LEW-14979) is written in Microsoft QuickBASIC for an IBM PC compatible computer with a monitor and printer capable of supporting an 80-column format. The IBM PC version is available on a 5.25 inch MS-DOS format diskette. The program requires about 30K RAM. The source code and executable are included. The Macintosh version of LeRC-SLAM (LEW-14977) is written in Microsoft Basic, Binary (b) v2.00 for Macintosh II series computers running MacOS. This version requires 400K RAM and is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette, which includes source code only. The Macintosh version was developed in 1987 and the IBM PC version was developed in 1989. IBM PC is a trademark of International Business Machines. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.

  2. Vision-based reading system for color-coded bar codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Erhard; Schroeder, Axel

    1996-02-01

    Barcode systems are used to mark commodities, articles and products with price and article numbers. The advantage of the barcode systems is the safe and rapid availability of the information about the product. The size of the barcode depends on the used barcode system and the resolution of the barcode scanner. Nevertheless, there is a strong correlation between the information content and the length of the barcode. To increase the information content, new 2D-barcode systems like CodaBlock or PDF-417 are introduced. In this paper we present a different way to increase the information content of a barcode and we would like to introduce the color coded barcode. The new color coded barcode is created by offset printing of the three colored barcodes, each barcode with different information. Therefore, three times more information content can be accommodated in the area of a black printed barcode. This kind of color coding is usable in case of the standard 1D- and 2D-barcodes. We developed two reading devices for the color coded barcodes. First, there is a vision based system, consisting of a standard color camera and a PC-based color frame grabber. Omnidirectional barcode decoding is possible with this reading device. Second, a bi-directional handscanner was developed. Both systems use a color separation process to separate the color image of the barcodes into three independent grayscale images. In the case of the handscanner the image consists of one line only. After the color separation the three grayscale barcodes can be decoded with standard image processing methods. In principle, the color coded barcode can be used everywhere instead of the standard barcode. Typical applications with the color coded barcodes are found in the medicine technique, stock running and identification of electronic modules.

  3. Charge transfer at F{sub 16}CoPc and CoPc interfaces to Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Susi; Treske, Uwe; Grobosch, Mandy; Knupfer, Martin [IFW Dresden (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    We analyze the electronic properties of the interfaces between cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc), as well as fluorinated cobalt phthalocyanine (F{sub 16}CoPc), and an Au(100) single-crystal using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and valence band ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. Our data demonstrate that for the monolayers of both materials a charge transfer occurs from the substrate to the center of the organic molecules resulting in a central Co(I) ion. This leads to the conclusion that this effect essentially is fluorination- and ligand-independent. (orig.)

  4. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION WITH CLIPSITS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, , .

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh

  5. The fast code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, L.N.; Wilson, R.E. [Oregon State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The FAST Code which is capable of determining structural loads on a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data are given at two wind speeds for the ESI-80. The FAST Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade bending, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffnesses, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms, and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST Code and test results is good. (au)

  6. VT ZIP Code Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) A ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) is a statistical geographic entity that approximates the delivery area for a U.S. Postal Service five-digit...

  7. Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity...... in the network; and (iii) to deliver an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a high field size network coding system for high-end receivers while simultaneously catering to low-end ones that can only decode in a lower field size. Sources may encode using a high field size expansion to increase...... the number of dimensions seen by the network using a linear mapping. Receivers can tradeoff computational effort with network delay, decoding in the high field size, the low field size, or a combination thereof....

  8. GOOGLE SUMMER OF CODE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leslie Hawthorn

    2008-01-01

      This article examines the Google Summer of Code (GSoC) program, the world's first global initiative to introduce College and University students to free/libre open source software (F/LOSS) development...

  9. Importance of Building Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Banerjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum standards for constructed objects such as buildings and non building structures. The main purpose of building codes are to protect public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures. The building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate governmental or private authority. Building codes are generally intended to be applied by architects, engineers, constructors and regulators but are also used for various purposes by safety inspectors, environmental scientists, real estate developers, subcontractors, manufacturers of building products and materials, insurance companies, facility managers, tenants and others.

  10. Bandwidth efficient coding

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, John B

    2017-01-01

    Bandwidth Efficient Coding addresses the major challenge in communication engineering today: how to communicate more bits of information in the same radio spectrum. Energy and bandwidth are needed to transmit bits, and bandwidth affects capacity the most. Methods have been developed that are ten times as energy efficient at a given bandwidth consumption as simple methods. These employ signals with very complex patterns and are called "coding" solutions. The book begins with classical theory before introducing new techniques that combine older methods of error correction coding and radio transmission in order to create narrowband methods that are as efficient in both spectrum and energy as nature allows. Other topics covered include modulation techniques such as CPM, coded QAM and pulse design.

  11. Coded Random Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paolini, Enrico; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Liva, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    , in which the structure of the access protocol can be mapped to a structure of an erasure-correcting code defined on graph. This opens the possibility to use coding theory and tools for designing efficient random access protocols, offering markedly better performance than ALOHA. Several instances of coded......The rise of machine-to-machine communications has rekindled the interest in random access protocols as a support for a massive number of uncoordinatedly transmitting devices. The legacy ALOHA approach is developed under a collision model, where slots containing collided packets are considered...... as waste. However, if the common receiver (e.g., base station) is capable to store the collision slots and use them in a transmission recovery process based on successive interference cancellation, the design space for access protocols is radically expanded. We present the paradigm of coded random access...

  12. Code Disentanglement: Initial Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlbier, John Greaton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockefeller, Gabriel M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Calef, Matthew Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-27

    The first step to making more ambitious changes in the EAP code base is to disentangle the code into a set of independent, levelized packages. We define a package as a collection of code, most often across a set of files, that provides a defined set of functionality; a package a) can be built and tested as an entity and b) fits within an overall levelization design. Each package contributes one or more libraries, or an application that uses the other libraries. A package set is levelized if the relationships between packages form a directed, acyclic graph and each package uses only packages at lower levels of the diagram (in Fortran this relationship is often describable by the use relationship between modules). Independent packages permit independent- and therefore parallel|development. The packages form separable units for the purposes of development and testing. This is a proven path for enabling finer-grained changes to a complex code.

  13. Privacy Impact Assessment for the PC Label System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PC Label System collects contact information for individuals with an interest in EPA's Region 1. Learn how this data will be collected in the system, how it will be used, access to the data, the purpose of data collection, and record retention policies

  14. PC vs. Mac--Which Way Should You Go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarz, Nan

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the factors in hardware, software, and administration to consider in developing specifications for choosing a computer operating system. Compares Microsoft Windows 95/NT that runs on PC/Intel-based systems and System 7.5 that runs on the Apple-based systems. Lists reasons why the Microsoft platform clearly stands above the Apple platform.…

  15. Group Contribution sPC-SAFT Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tihic, Amra

    2008-01-01

    Modellering af termodynamiske egenskaber og faseligevægte er en udfordring for den kemiske industri. Forenklet Perturbed Chains-Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (sPC-SAFT) er en tilstandsligning med udbredt anvendelse i en række industrielle sammenhænge. Modellen anvender tre parametre: segme...

  16. Annotated Raptor Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Mahdaviani, Kaveh; Tellambura, Chintha

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an extension of raptor codes is introduced which keeps all the desirable properties of raptor codes, including the linear complexity of encoding and decoding per information bit, unchanged. The new design, however, improves the performance in terms of the reception rate. Our simulations show a 10% reduction in the needed overhead at the benchmark block length of 64,520 bits and with the same complexity per information bit.

  17. The PC index: method of calculation and physical sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzhura, A.; Troshichev, O.

    2012-04-01

    The PC index has been introduced [Troshichev and Andrezen, 1985; Troshichev et al., 1988] to characterize magnetic activity in the polar caps generated by the solar wind coupling with the magnetosphere. The concept of the antisunward convection within the polar cap, controlled by the interplanetary electric field EKL determined by Kan and Lee (1979), served as a basis for the method of the index calculation. Value of disturbances in the polar cap geomagnetic H and D (or X and Y) components form the basis for derivation of the PC index. The technique of PC index derivation consists of two separate procedures: (1) derivation of the statistically justified regression coefficients determining relationship between the coupling function EKL and vector of polar cap magnetic disturbance δF, and (2) calculation of PC indices by data on current δF values with use of the regression coefficients established in course of the first procedure. To exclude from examination the geomagnetic field changes unrelated to the solar wind variations the value of geomagnetic disturbance is calculated in reference to the quiet daily variation. The regression coefficients α (slope) and β (intersection) describing a linear link between values δF and EKL are calculated in combination with the optimal angle φ providing the highest correlation between δF and EKL. Parameters α, β and φ are derived based on the statistically justified sets of data. As a result the PC index corresponding to the value of coupling function EKL, irrespective of UT time, season and point of observation is determined. Validation of the PC proper derivation has been testified by the following requirements imposed on the calculated PCN and PCS indices: PCN and PCS indices should be consistent with the interplanetary electric field EKL; PCN and PCS indices should be in close agreement with each other irrespective of season and UT time; indices should not demonstrate seasonal variation; indices should not

  18. Robust Nonlinear Neural Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qianli; Pitkow, Xaq

    2015-03-01

    Most interesting natural sensory stimuli are encoded in the brain in a form that can only be decoded nonlinearly. But despite being a core function of the brain, nonlinear population codes are rarely studied and poorly understood. Interestingly, the few existing models of nonlinear codes are inconsistent with known architectural features of the brain. In particular, these codes have information content that scales with the size of the cortical population, even if that violates the data processing inequality by exceeding the amount of information entering the sensory system. Here we provide a valid theory of nonlinear population codes by generalizing recent work on information-limiting correlations in linear population codes. Although these generalized, nonlinear information-limiting correlations bound the performance of any decoder, they also make decoding more robust to suboptimal computation, allowing many suboptimal decoders to achieve nearly the same efficiency as an optimal decoder. Although these correlations are extremely difficult to measure directly, particularly for nonlinear codes, we provide a simple, practical test by which one can use choice-related activity in small populations of neurons to determine whether decoding is suboptimal or optimal and limited by correlated noise. We conclude by describing an example computation in the vestibular system where this theory applies. QY and XP was supported by a grant from the McNair foundation.

  19. Scalable motion vector coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarien, Joeri; Munteanu, Adrian; Verdicchio, Fabio; Andreopoulos, Yiannis; Cornelis, Jan P.; Schelkens, Peter

    2004-11-01

    Modern video coding applications require transmission of video data over variable-bandwidth channels to a variety of terminals with different screen resolutions and available computational power. Scalable video coding is needed to optimally support these applications. Recently proposed wavelet-based video codecs employing spatial domain motion compensated temporal filtering (SDMCTF) provide quality, resolution and frame-rate scalability while delivering compression performance comparable to that of the state-of-the-art non-scalable H.264-codec. These codecs require scalable coding of the motion vectors in order to support a large range of bit-rates with optimal compression efficiency. Scalable motion vector coding algorithms based on the integer wavelet transform followed by embedded coding of the wavelet coefficients were recently proposed. In this paper, a new and fundamentally different scalable motion vector codec (MVC) using median-based motion vector prediction is proposed. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed MVC systematically outperforms the wavelet-based state-of-the-art solutions. To be able to take advantage of the proposed scalable MVC, a rate allocation mechanism capable of optimally dividing the available rate among texture and motion information is required. Two rate allocation strategies are proposed and compared. The proposed MVC and rate allocation schemes are incorporated into an SDMCTF-based video codec and the benefits of scalable motion vector coding are experimentally demonstrated.

  20. On Expanded Cyclic Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yingquan

    2008-01-01

    The paper has a threefold purpose. The first purpose is to present an explicit description of expanded cyclic codes defined in $\\GF(q^m)$. The proposed explicit construction of expanded generator matrix and expanded parity check matrix maintains the symbol-wise algebraic structure and thus keeps many important original characteristics. The second purpose of this paper is to identify a class of constant-weight cyclic codes. Specifically, we show that a well-known class of $q$-ary BCH codes excluding the all-zero codeword are constant-weight cyclic codes. Moreover, we show this class of codes achieve the Plotkin bound. The last purpose of the paper is to characterize expanded cyclic codes utilizing the proposed expanded generator matrix and parity check matrix. We analyze the properties of component codewords of a codeword and particularly establish the precise conditions under which a codeword can be represented by a subbasis. With the new insights, we present an improved lower bound on the minimum distance of...

  1. Efficient Server-Aided 2PC for Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohassel Payman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Secure Two-Party Computation (2PC protocols allow two parties to compute a function of their private inputs without revealing any information besides the output of the computation. There exist low cost general-purpose protocols for semi-honest parties that can be efficiently executed even on smartphones. However, for the case of malicious parties, current 2PC protocols are significantly less efficient, limiting their use to more resourceful devices. In this work we present an efficient 2PC protocol that is secure against malicious parties and is light enough to be used on mobile phones. The protocol is an adaptation of the protocol of Nielsen et al. (Crypto, 2012 to the Server-Aided setting, a natural relaxation of the plain model for secure computation that allows the parties to interact with a server (e.g., a cloud who is assumed not to collude with any of the parties. Our protocol has two stages: In an offline stage - where no party knows which function is to be computed, nor who else is participating - each party interacts with the server and downloads a file. Later, in the online stage, when two parties decide to execute a 2PC together, they can use the files they have downloaded earlier to execute the computation with cost that is lower than the currently best semi-honest 2PC protocols. We show an implementation of our protocol for Android mobile phones, discuss several optimizations and report on its evaluation for various circuits. For example, the online stage for evaluating a single AES circuit requires only 2.5 seconds and can be further reduced to 1 second (amortized time with multiple executions.

  2. Induction of cytoprotective autophagy in PC-12 cells by cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiwen [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Bijie Pilot Area Research Institute of Bijie University, Bijie 551700 (China); Zhu, Jiaqiao; Zhang, Kangbao; Jiang, Chenyang; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Yan; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong; Gu, Jianhong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Liu, Zongping, E-mail: liuzongping@yzu.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009 (China)

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •Cadmium can promote early upregulation of autophagy in PC-12 cells. •Autophagy precedes apoptosis in cadmium-treated PC-12 cells. •Cadmium-induced autophagy is cytoprotective in PC-12 cells. •Class III PI3K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathway plays a positive role in cadmium-triggered autophagy. -- Abstract: Laboratory data have demonstrated that cadmium (Cd) may induce neuronal apoptosis. However, little is known about the role of autophagy in neurons. In this study, cell viability decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in PC-12 cells. As cells were exposed to Cd, the levels of LC3-II proteins became elevated, specific punctate distribution of endogenous LC3-II increased, and numerous autophagosomes appeared, which suggest that Cd induced a high level of autophagy. In the late stages of autophagy, an increase in the apoptosis ratio was observed. Likewise, pre-treatment with chloroquine (an autophagic inhibitor) and rapamycin (an autophagic inducer) resulted in an increased and decreased percentage of apoptosis in contrast to other Cd-treated groups, respectively. The results indicate that autophagy delayed apoptosis in Cd-treated PC-12 cells. Furthermore, co-treatment of cells with chloroquine reduced autophagy and cell activity. However, rapamycin had an opposite effect on autophagy and cell activity. Moreover, class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways served a function in Cd-induced autophagy. The findings suggest that Cd can induce cytoprotective autophagy by activating class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways. In sum, this study strongly suggests that autophagy may serve a positive function in the reduction of Cd-induced cytotoxicity.

  3. Non-Binary Polar Codes using Reed-Solomon Codes and Algebraic Geometry Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Ryuhei

    2010-01-01

    Polar codes, introduced by Arikan, achieve symmetric capacity of any discrete memoryless channels under low encoding and decoding complexity. Recently, non-binary polar codes have been investigated. In this paper, we calculate error probability of non-binary polar codes constructed on the basis of Reed-Solomon matrices by numerical simulations. It is confirmed that 4-ary polar codes have significantly better performance than binary polar codes on binary-input AWGN channel. We also discuss an interpretation of polar codes in terms of algebraic geometry codes, and further show that polar codes using Hermitian codes have asymptotically good performance.

  4. Distributed Video Coding: Iterative Improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van

    Nowadays, emerging applications such as wireless visual sensor networks and wireless video surveillance are requiring lightweight video encoding with high coding efficiency and error-resilience. Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a new coding paradigm which exploits the source statistics...

  5. Polynomial weights and code constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massey, J; Costello, D; Justesen, Jørn

    1973-01-01

    polynomial included. This fundamental property is then used as the key to a variety of code constructions including 1) a simplified derivation of the binary Reed-Muller codes and, for any primepgreater than 2, a new extensive class ofp-ary "Reed-Muller codes," 2) a new class of "repeated-root" cyclic codes...... that are subcodes of the binary Reed-Muller codes and can be very simply instrumented, 3) a new class of constacyclic codes that are subcodes of thep-ary "Reed-Muller codes," 4) two new classes of binary convolutional codes with large "free distance" derived from known binary cyclic codes, 5) two new classes...... of long constraint length binary convolutional codes derived from2^r-ary Reed-Solomon codes, and 6) a new class ofq-ary "repeated-root" constacyclic codes with an algebraic decoding algorithm....

  6. The Redox-Active Chromium Phthalocyanine System: Isolation of Five Oxidation States from Pc(4-) Cr(I) to Pc(2-) Cr(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Thompson, John R; Leznoff, Clifford C; Leznoff, Daniel B

    2017-02-16

    The preparation and structural characterization of a series of chromium phthalocyanine complexes with multiple metal and ring oxidation states were achieved using PcCr(II) (1) (Pc=phthalocyanine) or PcCr(II) (THF)2 (1⋅THF2 ) as starting materials. The reaction of soluble 1⋅THF2 with Br2 or I2 gave the PcCr(III) halide complexes PcCrX(THF) (X=I/I3 , Br; 3, 4, respectively). Treatment of 1 with 0.5 equivalent of PhIO or air generated the dinuclear [PcCr(THF)]2 (μ-O) (5), whereas the addition of one equivalent of AgSbF6 to 1 resulted in oxidation to THF-solvated octahedral [PcCr(III) (THF)2 ]SbF6 (6). The reduction of 1 with three sequential equivalents of KEt3 BH resulted in the isolation of [K(DME)4 ][Pc(3-) Cr(II) ] (7), [K(DME)4 ]2 [Pc(4-) Cr(II) ] (8) and [K6 (DME)4 ][Pc(4-) Cr(I) ]2 (9), respectively. The reduced products are deep purple in colour, with visible absorption maxima between 500-580 nm. The ring-reduced complexes 7 and 8 are monomeric, whereas 9 is a 1D chain of dinuclear [PcCr]2 units with intercalated K(+) cations and supported by Cr-Cr interactions of 2.988(2) Å. Addition of four equivalents of KC8 resulted in the demetallated product PcK2 (DME)4 (10), which has a 1D chain structure. The isolation and structural characterization of new PcCr complexes spanning five oxidation states, including rare examples of crystalline reduced Pc-ring species emphasizes the broad redox activity and stability of phthalocyanine-based complexes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic-on-organic CuPc-H2 Pc heterojunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khasan S. Karimov; Zubair Ahmad; Farid Touati; M. Mahroof-Tahir; M. Muqeet Rehman; S. Zameer Abbas

    2015-01-01

    A novel surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic semiconductors CuPc and H2Pc are fabricated by vacuum deposition of the CuPc and H2Pc films on preliminary deposited metallic (Ag and Cu) electrodes. The gap between Ag and Cu electrodes is 30–40 µm. For the current–voltage (I–V ) characteristics the memory effect, switching effect, and negative differential resistance regions are observed. The switching mechanism is attributed to the electric-field-induced charge transfer. As a result the device switches from a low to a high-conductivity state and then back to a low conductivity state if the opposite polarity voltage is applied. The ratio of resistance at the high resistance state to that at the low resistance state is equal to 120–150. Under the switching condition, the electric current increases∼80–100 times. A comparison between the forward and reverse I–V characteristics shows the presence of rectifying behavior.

  8. The comparison of CAP88-PC version 2.0 versus CAP88-PC version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakubovich, B.A.; Klee, K.O.; Palmer, C.R.; Spotts, P.B.

    1997-12-01

    40 CFR Part 61 (Subpart H of the NESHAP) requires DOE facilities to use approved sampling procedures, computer models, or other approved procedures when calculating Effective Dose Equivalent (EDE) values to members of the public. Currently version 1.0 of the approved computer model CAP88-PC is used to calculate EDE values. The DOE has upgraded the CAP88-PC software to version 2.0. This version provides simplified data entry, better printing characteristics, the use of a mouse, and other features. The DOE has developed and released version 2.0 for testing and comment. This new software is a WINDOWS based application that offers a new graphical user interface with new utilities for preparing and managing population and weather data, and several new decay chains. The program also allows the user to view results before printing. This document describes a test that confirmed CAP88-PC version 2.0 generates results comparable to the original version of the CAP88-PC program.

  9. Design, synthesis and in vitro antibacterial activities of methyl-4-((substituted phenyl) [6H-indolo (2,3-b)quinoxalin-6-yl]methyl-amino)benzoate derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yellajyosula Lakshmi Narasimha Murthy; Nagalakshmi Karthikeyan; Govindh Boddeti; Bhagavathula S. Diwakar; E. Rajendra Singh

    2011-01-01

    A series of new methyl-4-((substituted phenyl) [6H-indolo (2,3-b)quinoxalin-6yllmethylamino)benzoate derivatives have been synthesized and assayed for their antibacterial activity on 9 different bacterial strains. Among the screened compounds 2e-2g exhibited potent inhibitory activity compared to standard drug employed, worth further investigation.

  10. Product Codes for Optical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    2002-01-01

    Many optical communicaton systems might benefit from forward-error-correction. We present a hard-decision decoding algorithm for the "Block Turbo Codes", suitable for optical communication, which makes this coding-scheme an alternative to Reed-Solomon codes.......Many optical communicaton systems might benefit from forward-error-correction. We present a hard-decision decoding algorithm for the "Block Turbo Codes", suitable for optical communication, which makes this coding-scheme an alternative to Reed-Solomon codes....

  11. Some new ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].

  12. Algebraic geometric codes with applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao

    2007-01-01

    The theory of linear error-correcting codes from algebraic geomet-ric curves (algebraic geometric (AG) codes or geometric Goppa codes) has been well-developed since the work of Goppa and Tsfasman, Vladut, and Zink in 1981-1982. In this paper we introduce to readers some recent progress in algebraic geometric codes and their applications in quantum error-correcting codes, secure multi-party computation and the construction of good binary codes.

  13. HUDU: The Hanford Unified Dose Utility computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherpelz, R.I.

    1991-02-01

    The Hanford Unified Dose Utility (HUDU) computer program was developed to provide rapid initial assessment of radiological emergency situations. The HUDU code uses a straight-line Gaussian atmospheric dispersion model to estimate the transport of radionuclides released from an accident site. For dose points on the plume centerline, it calculates internal doses due to inhalation and external doses due to exposure to the plume. The program incorporates a number of features unique to the Hanford Site (operated by the US Department of Energy), including a library of source terms derived from various facilities' safety analysis reports. The HUDU code was designed to run on an IBM-PC or compatible personal computer. The user interface was designed for fast and easy operation with minimal user training. The theoretical basis and mathematical models used in the HUDU computer code are described, as are the computer code itself and the data libraries used. Detailed instructions for operating the code are also included. Appendices to the report contain descriptions of the program modules, listings of HUDU's data library, and descriptions of the verification tests that were run as part of the code development. 14 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. A new approach to information coding and protection based on the theory of matroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Borshevich

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to coding and protection of information in the computer and telecommunication systems is proposed and discussed. It is based on the mathematical apparatus of the theory of matroids, which in combination with the randomization method gives the possibility to protect large volumes of information against spoils, having considerably high speed of coding/decoding of information even on the PC platform. The proposed approach open the way for building of a new class of codes usable for recovering of large amount of information with high degree of accuracy.

  15. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable

  16. Optical coding theory with Prime

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Wing C

    2013-01-01

    Although several books cover the coding theory of wireless communications and the hardware technologies and coding techniques of optical CDMA, no book has been specifically dedicated to optical coding theory-until now. Written by renowned authorities in the field, Optical Coding Theory with Prime gathers together in one volume the fundamentals and developments of optical coding theory, with a focus on families of prime codes, supplemented with several families of non-prime codes. The book also explores potential applications to coding-based optical systems and networks. Learn How to Construct

  17. Algebraic and stochastic coding theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kythe, Dave K

    2012-01-01

    Using a simple yet rigorous approach, Algebraic and Stochastic Coding Theory makes the subject of coding theory easy to understand for readers with a thorough knowledge of digital arithmetic, Boolean and modern algebra, and probability theory. It explains the underlying principles of coding theory and offers a clear, detailed description of each code. More advanced readers will appreciate its coverage of recent developments in coding theory and stochastic processes. After a brief review of coding history and Boolean algebra, the book introduces linear codes, including Hamming and Golay codes.

  18. Golden Coded Multiple Beamforming

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Boyu

    2010-01-01

    The Golden Code is a full-rate full-diversity space-time code, which achieves maximum coding gain for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems with two transmit and two receive antennas. Since four information symbols taken from an M-QAM constellation are selected to construct one Golden Code codeword, a maximum likelihood decoder using sphere decoding has the worst-case complexity of O(M^4), when the Channel State Information (CSI) is available at the receiver. Previously, this worst-case complexity was reduced to O(M^(2.5)) without performance degradation. When the CSI is known by the transmitter as well as the receiver, beamforming techniques that employ singular value decomposition are commonly used in MIMO systems. In the absence of channel coding, when a single symbol is transmitted, these systems achieve the full diversity order provided by the channel. Whereas this property is lost when multiple symbols are simultaneously transmitted. However, uncoded multiple beamforming can achieve the full div...

  19. Coded source neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100 m) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100um and 10um aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  20. Coded source neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Philip; Santos-Villalobos, Hector; Tobin, Ken

    2011-03-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100μm) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100μm and 10μm aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  1. Speech coding code- excited linear prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Bäckström, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This book provides scientific understanding of the most central techniques used in speech coding both for advanced students as well as professionals with a background in speech audio and or digital signal processing. It provides a clear connection between the whys hows and whats thus enabling a clear view of the necessity purpose and solutions provided by various tools as well as their strengths and weaknesses in each respect Equivalently this book sheds light on the following perspectives for each technology presented Objective What do we want to achieve and especially why is this goal important Resource Information What information is available and how can it be useful and Resource Platform What kind of platforms are we working with and what are their capabilities restrictions This includes computational memory and acoustic properties and the transmission capacity of devices used. The book goes on to address Solutions Which solutions have been proposed and how can they be used to reach the stated goals and ...

  2. Phase-coded pulse aperiodic transmitter coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Virtanen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Both ionospheric and weather radar communities have already adopted the method of transmitting radar pulses in an aperiodic manner when measuring moderately overspread targets. Among the users of the ionospheric radars, this method is called Aperiodic Transmitter Coding (ATC, whereas the weather radar users have adopted the term Simultaneous Multiple Pulse-Repetition Frequency (SMPRF. When probing the ionosphere at the carrier frequencies of the EISCAT Incoherent Scatter Radar facilities, the range extent of the detectable target is typically of the order of one thousand kilometers – about seven milliseconds – whereas the characteristic correlation time of the scattered signal varies from a few milliseconds in the D-region to only tens of microseconds in the F-region. If one is interested in estimating the scattering autocorrelation function (ACF at time lags shorter than the F-region correlation time, the D-region must be considered as a moderately overspread target, whereas the F-region is a severely overspread one. Given the technical restrictions of the radar hardware, a combination of ATC and phase-coded long pulses is advantageous for this kind of target. We evaluate such an experiment under infinitely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR conditions using lag profile inversion. In addition, a qualitative evaluation under high-SNR conditions is performed by analysing simulated data. The results show that an acceptable estimation accuracy and a very good lag resolution in the D-region can be achieved with a pulse length long enough for simultaneous E- and F-region measurements with a reasonable lag extent. The new experiment design is tested with the EISCAT Tromsø VHF (224 MHz radar. An example of a full D/E/F-region ACF from the test run is shown at the end of the paper.

  3. Nested Quantum Error Correction Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhuo; Fan, Hen; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-01-01

    The theory of quantum error correction was established more than a decade ago as the primary tool for fighting decoherence in quantum information processing. Although great progress has already been made in this field, limited methods are available in constructing new quantum error correction codes from old codes. Here we exhibit a simple and general method to construct new quantum error correction codes by nesting certain quantum codes together. The problem of finding long quantum error correction codes is reduced to that of searching several short length quantum codes with certain properties. Our method works for all length and all distance codes, and is quite efficient to construct optimal or near optimal codes. Two main known methods in constructing new codes from old codes in quantum error-correction theory, the concatenating and pasting, can be understood in the framework of nested quantum error correction codes.

  4. MHD Generation Code

    CERN Document Server

    Frutos-Alfaro, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full Magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program used the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the MHD equations to obtain a code that can be used as a seed for a MHD code for numerical applications. As an example, we present part of output of our programs for Cartesian coordinates and how to do the discretization.

  5. Autocatalysis, information and coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, P R

    2001-01-01

    Autocatalytic self-construction in macromolecular systems requires the existence of a reflexive relationship between structural components and the functional operations they perform to synthesise themselves. The possibility of reflexivity depends on formal, semiotic features of the catalytic structure-function relationship, that is, the embedding of catalytic functions in the space of polymeric structures. Reflexivity is a semiotic property of some genetic sequences. Such sequences may serve as the basis for the evolution of coding as a result of autocatalytic self-organisation in a population of assignment catalysts. Autocatalytic selection is a mechanism whereby matter becomes differentiated in primitive biochemical systems. In the case of coding self-organisation, it corresponds to the creation of symbolic information. Prions are present-day entities whose replication through autocatalysis reflects aspects of biological semiotics less obvious than genetic coding.

  6. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  7. Adjoint code generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Qiang; CAO JianWen; WANG Bin; ZHANG HaiBin

    2009-01-01

    The adjoint code generator (ADG) is developed to produce the adjoint codes, which are used to analytically calculate gradients and the Hessian-vector products with the costs independent of the number of the independent variables. Different from other automatic differentiation tools, the implementation of ADG has advantages of using the least program behavior decomposition method and several static dependence analysis techniques. In this paper we first address the concerned concepts and fundamentals, and then introduce the functionality and the features of ADG. In particular, we also discuss the design architecture of ADG and implementation details including the recomputation and storing strategy and several techniques for code optimization. Some experimental results in several applications are presented at the end.

  8. Code query by example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  9. Spread codes and spread decoding in network coding

    OpenAIRE

    Manganiello, F; Gorla, E.; Rosenthal, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the class of spread codes for the use in random network coding. Spread codes are based on the construction of spreads in finite projective geometry. The major contribution of the paper is an efficient decoding algorithm of spread codes up to half the minimum distance.

  10. Graph Codes with Reed-Solomon Component Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    We treat a specific case of codes based on bipartite expander graphs coming from finite geometries. The code symbols are associated with the branches and the symbols connected to a given node are restricted to be codewords in a Reed-Solomon code. We give results on the parameters of the codes...

  11. PHASE STRUCTURE AND COMPATIBILITY OF LADDERLIKE POLYPHENYLSILSESQUIOXANE (PPSQ)/POLYCARBONATE (PC) BLENDS PREPARED BY SOLUTION CASTING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-zhi Li; Liang-he Shi

    1999-01-01

    Blends of PC and PPSQ (A) with high Mw and good ladderlike regularity or PPSQ(B) with low Mw and more defective Si-atoms in its structure have been prepared by solution casting. The dispersed spheres (PPSQ(A)-rich) are unevenly dispersed in the continuous PC-rich phase and there is no phase-inversion as PPSQ(A) content increases when the percentage of PPSQ(A) is not more than70%. PPSQ(B)-rich spheres are evenly dispersed in the continuous phase (PC-rich) and phaseinversion occurs when PPSQ(B) percentage is up to 70%. Tg of PPSQ(A)/PC or PPSQ(B)/PC at some compositions are lower than that of pure PC due to the enlarged free-volume of PC-rich phase because some spheres of rigid PPSQ chains are included in the PC-rich phase. PC and PPSQ(A) or PPSQ(B)are partially compatible. The compatibility of PC and PPSQ(B) is better than that of PC and PPSQ(A)with high Mw and good ladderlike regularity. Heat history has some influence on the TgS and compatibility of PPSQ(A)/PC and PPSQ(B)/PC blends.

  12. Kinetics of alpha-PcCu --> beta-PcCu isothermal conversion in air and thermal behavior of beta-PcCu from in situ real-time laboratory parallel-beam X-ray powder diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballirano, Paolo; Caminiti, Ruggero

    2009-07-09

    The kinetics of the alpha-PcCu --> beta-PcCu conversion in air has been followed, under isothermal conditions, in situ real-time in the 423-443 K temperature range. Data have been fitted following the JMAK model. The reaction order of the kinetics at 423 K is consistent with a diffusion controlled, deceleratory nucleation rate process for 2D laminar particles, whereas at higher temperatures it is consistent with a phase boundary controlled, deceleratory nucleation rate process for 2D laminar particles. At 423 K, the overall transformation mechanism implies three steps: growth of the alpha-PcCu phase, disordering of adjacent columns of molecules of phthalocyanine, and nucleation and growth of the beta-PcCu phase. The calculated empirical activation energy is of 187 kJ/mol significantly greater than that for the alpha-PcCo --> beta-PcCo conversion. This fact seems to support the reported different structures of alpha-PcCo and alpha-PcCu. Investigation of the thermal behavior of beta-PcCu indicates a strongly anisotropic thermal expansion that follows the alpha(c) > alpha(a) approximately = alpha(b) trend. Moreover, the beta angle decreases with increasing temperature. Such anisotropy is consistent with the geometry of the very weak N3...H3 hydrogen bond which acts mainly along the c axis.

  13. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  14. Securing mobile code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

    2004-10-01

    If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called &apos

  15. A PC based control system for the CERN ISOLDE separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billinge, R.; Bret, A.; Deloose, I.; Pace, A.; Shering, G. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1992-12-01

    The control system of the two isotope separators of CERN, named ISOLDE, is being completely redesigned with the goal of having a flexible, high performance and inexpensive system. A new architecture that makes heavy use of the commercial software and hardware available for the huge Personal Computer (PC) market is being implemented on the 1700 geographically distributed control channels of the separators. 8 MS-DOS{sup TM} i386-based PCs with about 80 acquisition/control boards are used to access the equipments while 3 other PCs running Microsoft Windows{sup TM} and Microsoft Excel{sup TM} are used as consoles, the whole through a Novell{sup TM} Local Area Network with a PC Disk Server used as a database. This paper describes the interesting solutions found and discusses the reduced programming work load and costs that are expected to build the system before the start of the separators in March 1992. (author).

  16. Pocket PC-based portable gamma-ray spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamontip Ploykrachang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A portable gamma-ray spectrometer based on a Pocket PC has been developed. A 12-bit pipeline analog-to-digitalconverter (ADC associated with an implemented pulse height histogram function on field programmable gate array (FPGAoperating at 15 MHz is employed for pulse height analysis from built-in pulse amplifier. The system, which interfaces withthe Pocket PC via an enhanced RS-232 serial port under the microcontroller facilitation, is utilized for spectrum acquisition,display and analysis. The pulse height analysis capability of the system was tested and it was found that the ADC integralnonlinearity of ±0.45% was obtained with the throughput rate at 160 kcps. The overall system performance was tested usinga PIN photodiode-CsI(Tl crystal coupled scintillation detector and gamma standard radioactive sources of Cs-137 andCo-60. Low cost and the compact system size as a result of the implemented logical function are also discussed.

  17. A compact PC-based X-ray imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asimidis, A. [Physics Department, Laboratory B, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece)]. E-mail: aasimid@cc.uoi.gr; Evangelou, I. [Physics Department, Laboratory B, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Kokkas, P. [Physics Department, Laboratory B, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Manthos, N. [Physics Department, Laboratory B, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Triantis, F. [Physics Department, Laboratory B, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Speller, R.D. [Medical Physics and Bioengineering Department, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom); Hall, G. [Physics Department, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Stelt, P.F. van der [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, NL 1066 EA Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-04-01

    A compact, portable PC-based X-ray imaging system has been developed based on a 2D silicon microstrip sensor and particle physics readout electronics. The sensor is housed in a specially built hybrid, which also hosts the front-end electronics. The control and the readout electronics used are based on the standard PCI and PMC architectures and were originally developed for High Energy Physics Experiments. The use of PCI based electronics and the development of the control software for the PC-Linux platform led to a compact, portable, low cost imaging system. The system was initially tested and evaluated with beta particles from a {sup 90}Sr radioactive source, gamma rays from an {sup 241}Am radioactive source and cosmic rays, and it displayed consistent response. It was then operated using a compact X-ray machine with Mo tube and images of various targets were reconstructed offline using the ROOT data analysis package.

  18. Metal Detector By Using PIC Microcontroller Interfacing With PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Min Theint

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This system proposes metal detector by using PIC microcontroller interfacing with PC. The system uses PIC microcontroller as the main controller whether the detected metal is ferrous metal or non-ferrous metal. Among various types of metal sensors and various types of metal detecting technologies concentric type induction coil sensor and VLF very low frequency metal detecting technology are used in this system. This system consists of two configurations Hardware configuration and Software configuration. The hardware components include induction coil sensors which senses the frequency changes of metal a PIC microcontroller personal computer PC buzzer light emitting diode LED and webcam. The software configuration includes a program controller interface. PIC MikroCprogramming language is used to implement the control system. This control system is based on the PIC 16F887 microcontroller.This system is mainly used in mining and high security places such as airport plaza shopping mall and governmental buildings.

  19. PC analysis of stochastic differential equations driven by Wiener noise

    KAUST Repository

    Le Maitre, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    A polynomial chaos (PC) analysis with stochastic expansion coefficients is proposed for stochastic differential equations driven by additive or multiplicative Wiener noise. It is shown that for this setting, a Galerkin formalism naturally leads to the definition of a hierarchy of stochastic differential equations governing the evolution of the PC modes. Under the mild assumption that the Wiener and uncertain parameters can be treated as independent random variables, it is also shown that the Galerkin formalism naturally separates parametric uncertainty and stochastic forcing dependences. This enables us to perform an orthogonal decomposition of the process variance, and consequently identify contributions arising from the uncertainty in parameters, the stochastic forcing, and a coupled term. Insight gained from this decomposition is illustrated in light of implementation to simplified linear and non-linear problems; the case of a stochastic bifurcation is also considered.

  20. Qscilloscope: A Pc-Based Real Time Oscilloscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Dhanshri Damodar Patil,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The scenery of this paper is to design a PC- based Real Time Oscilloscope, called “Qscilloscope”. Qscilloscope is capable to connect a computer with a small device via universal serial bus (USB port for voltage signal waveform display and alteration. It detects maximum +20V to minimum -20V with the input frequency range from 0.1Hz - 1 kHz. Furthermore, it interfaces with host PC via the USB port from 9.6k to 115.2k baud rate. Qscilloscope Software Application is constructed by using Visual Basic .Net for user to interface the device with a well designed Graphic User Interface. It consists of several embedded features such as open, save and print waveform. By changing the scaling properties and graphic properties, users are allowed to modify the input signal to a desired output waveform.

  1. Structure of pentaquarks Pc+ in the chiral quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Ping, Jialun; Wang, Fan

    2017-01-01

    The recent experimental results of the LHCb Collaboration suggested the existence of pentaquark states with a charmonium. To understand the structure of the states, a dynamical calculation of 5-quark systems with quantum numbers I JP=1/2 (1/2 )±,1/2 (3/2 )±and1/2 (5/2 )±is performed in the framework of the chiral quark model with the help of the Gaussian expansion method. The results show that there are several negative parity resonance states while all of the positive parity states are the scattering states. The Pc(4380 ) state is suggested to be the pentaquark state of Σc*D ¯. Although the energy of ΣcD ¯* is very close to the mass of Pc(4450 ), the inconsistent parity prevents the assignment. The calculated distances between quarks confirm the molecular nature of the states.

  2. Tablet PC Enabled Body Sensor System for Rural Telehealth Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitha V. Panicker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Telehealth systems benefit from the rapid growth of mobile communication technology for measuring physiological signals. Development and validation of a tablet PC enabled noninvasive body sensor system for rural telehealth application are discussed in this paper. This system includes real time continuous collection of physiological parameters (blood pressure, pulse rate, and temperature and fall detection of a patient with the help of a body sensor unit and wireless transmission of the acquired information to a tablet PC handled by the medical staff in a Primary Health Center (PHC. Abnormal conditions are automatically identified and alert messages are given to the medical officer in real time. Clinical validation is performed in a real environment and found to be successful. Bland-Altman analysis is carried out to validate the wrist blood pressure sensor used. The system works well for all measurements.

  3. Intraocular pressure following ECCE, phacoemulsification, and PC-IOL implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooner, K S; Cooksey, J C; Perry, P; Zimmerman, T J

    1988-09-01

    Abnormal intraocular pressure (IOP), either transient or permanent, may follow extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with phacoemulsification (PE) and posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) implantation. We retrospectively studied IOP measurements at different intervals post ECCE and PE in 242 eyes of 211 patients: 105 males, 106 females, 198 Caucasians and 13 blacks. Elevated IOP (greater than 23 mm Hg) was observed in 20 eyes (8.2%). Only two patients (0.8%) had persistent (greater than 3 months) IOP elevation and needed antiglaucoma therapy. Six more eyes (2.5%), however, developed glaucoma after 1 year. Hence, the incidence of secondary pseudophakic glaucoma at the conclusion of this study was 3.3%. No patient required laser or other mechanical surgery for IOP control. ECCE and PE with PC-IOL does not appear to adversely affect IOP. Patients, however, must be followed closely, as some may develop glaucoma months after surgery.

  4. Flexible missile autopilot design studies with PC-MATLAB/386

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a responsive, high-bandwidth missile autopilot for airframes which have structural modes of unusually low frequency presents a challenging design task. Such systems are viable candidates for modern, state-space control design methods. The PC-MATLAB interactive software package provides an environment well-suited to the development of candidate linear control laws for flexible missile autopilots. The strengths of MATLAB include: (1) exceptionally high speed (MATLAB's version for 80386-based PC's offers benchmarks approaching minicomputer and mainframe performance); (2) ability to handle large design models of several hundred degrees of freedom, if necessary; and (3) broad extensibility through user-defined functions. To characterize MATLAB capabilities, a simplified design example is presented. This involves interactive definition of an observer-based state-space compensator for a flexible missile autopilot design task. MATLAB capabilities and limitations, in the context of this design task, are then summarized.

  5. Studies on molecular interactions between puerarin and PC liposomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescence emission spectra, FTIR spectra, zeta potential measurements, and ab initio quantum calculation are used to study the interaction between puerarin and membranes composed of egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposome. The hydrophobic interactions cause the puerarin molecule to partition into lipid bilayers with its B-ring, and favor the displacement of acid-base equilibrium of puerarin towards the base form. Due to the hydrogen bond formation between the puerarin hydroxyl groups and polar groups of PC molecules on the water/membrane interface, puerarin can easily intercalate into the organized structure of phospholipids and modulate the membrane function. Our results reveal that the liposome membrane integrity is significantly higher compared with that of empty liposome.

  6. A PC- Based Transient Method for Thermal Conductivity Measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Singh

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an indigenously developed thermal probe has been interfaced with a PC for automated measurement of thermal conductivity (K . The developed system has been calibrated and standardised by measuring K of glycerol. The maximum percentage error, for repeated sets of observations, was within 7.29 per cent of standard value reported for glycerol. This methodology has been successfully employed for measuring K of propellant oxidisers, additives, binders, etc.

  7. PC-give and David Hendry's econometric methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Neil R. Ericsson; Julia Campos; Hong-Anh Tran

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes David Hendry's empirical econometric methodology, unifying discussions in many of his and his co-authors' papers. Then, we describe how Hendry's suite of computer programs PC-GIVE helps users implement that methodology. Finally, we illustrate that methodology and the programs with three empirical examples: post­war narrow money demand in the United Kingdom, nominal income determination in the United Kingdom from Friedman and Schwartz (1982), and consumers' expenditure in...

  8. PC Based Display for Sonar Applications: A Design Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Miny

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to standardise the hardware and the software used for the sonar display systems. The idea of standardise hardware suggested itself in using an IBM-compatible PC AT which configures with an Intel 80386 CPU and a standard VGA display adapter card. The software consists of Intel assembly procedures embedded in a PASCAL (turbo 4.0 environment.

  9. The photodynamic antibacterial effects of silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaano, Matthew L; Rozario, Chantal; Nerandzic, Michelle M; Donskey, Curtis J; Lam, Minh; Baron, Elma D

    2015-04-08

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains in facultative anaerobic Gram-positive coccal bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is a global health issue. Typically, MRSA strains are found associated with institutions like hospitals but recent data suggest that they are becoming more prevalent in community-acquired infections. It is thought that the incidence and prevalence of bacterial infections will continue to increase as (a) more frequent use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppressive medications; (b) increased number of invasive medical procedures; and (c) higher incidence of neutropenia and HIV infections. Therefore, more optimal treatments, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), are warranted. PDT requires the interaction of light, a photosensitizing agent, and molecular oxygen to induce cytotoxic effects. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and characterized the mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by photodynamic therapy sensitized by silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 on (a) methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (ATCC 25923); (b) community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) (ATCC 43300); and (c) hospital acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) (PFGE type 300). Our data include confocal image analysis, which confirmed that Pc 4 is taken up by all S. aureus strains, and viable cell recovery assay, which showed that concentrations as low as 1.0 μM Pc 4 incubated for 3 h at 37 °C followed by light at 2.0 J/cm2 can reduce cell survival by 2-5 logs. These results are encouraging, but before PDT can be utilized as an alternative treatment for eradicating resistant strains, we must first characterize the mechanism of cell death that Pc 4-based PDT employs in eliminating these pathogens.

  10. The Photodynamic Antibacterial Effects of Silicon Phthalocyanine (Pc 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Dimaano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains in facultative anaerobic Gram-positive coccal bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, is a global health issue. Typically, MRSA strains are found associated with institutions like hospitals but recent data suggest that they are becoming more prevalent in community-acquired infections. It is thought that the incidence and prevalence of bacterial infections will continue to increase as (a more frequent use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppressive medications; (b increased number of invasive medical procedures; and (c higher incidence of neutropenia and HIV infections. Therefore, more optimal treatments, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT, are warranted. PDT requires the interaction of light, a photosensitizing agent, and molecular oxygen to induce cytotoxic effects. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and characterized the mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by photodynamic therapy sensitized by silicon phthalocyanine (Pc 4 on (a methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA (ATCC 25923; (b community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA (ATCC 43300; and (c hospital acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA (PFGE type 300. Our data include confocal image analysis, which confirmed that Pc 4 is taken up by all S. aureus strains, and viable cell recovery assay, which showed that concentrations as low as 1.0 μM Pc 4 incubated for 3 h at 37 °C followed by light at 2.0 J/cm2 can reduce cell survival by 2–5 logs. These results are encouraging, but before PDT can be utilized as an alternative treatment for eradicating resistant strains, we must first characterize the mechanism of cell death that Pc 4-based PDT employs in eliminating these pathogens.

  11. A scalable PC-based parallel computer for lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, Z; Papp, G

    2002-01-01

    A PC-based parallel computer for medium/large scale lattice QCD simulations is suggested. The Eotvos Univ., Inst. Theor. Phys. cluster consists of 137 Intel P4-1.7GHz nodes. Gigabit Ethernet cards are used for nearest neighbor communication in a two-dimensional mesh. The sustained performance for dynamical staggered(wilson) quarks on large lattices is around 70(110) GFlops. The exceptional price/performance ratio is below $1/Mflop.

  12. Practical Pocket PC Application w/Biometric Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Julian

    2004-01-01

    I work in the Flight Software Engineering Branch, where we provide design and development of embedded real-time software applications for flight and supporting ground systems to support the NASA Aeronautics and Space Programs. In addition, this branch evaluates, develops and implements new technologies for embedded real-time systems, and maintains a laboratory for applications of embedded technology. The majority of microchips that are used in modern society have been programmed using embedded technology. These small chips can be found in microwaves, calculators, home security systems, cell phones and more. My assignment this summer entails working with an iPAQ HP 5500 Pocket PC. This top-of-the-line hand-held device is one of the first mobile PC's to introduce biometric security capabilities. Biometric security, in this case a fingerprint authentication system, is on the edge of technology as far as securing information. The benefits of fingerprint authentication are enormous. The most significant of them are that it is extremely difficult to reproduce someone else's fingerprint, and it is equally difficult to lose or forget your own fingerprint as opposed to a password or pin number. One of my goals for this summer is to integrate this technology with another Pocket PC application. The second task for the summer is to develop a simple application that provides an Astronaut EVA (Extravehicular Activity) Log Book capability. The Astronaut EVA Log Book is what an astronaut would use to report the status of field missions, crew physical health, successes, future plans, etc. My goal is to develop a user interface into which these data fields can be entered and stored. The applications that I am developing are created using eMbedded Visual C++ 4.0 with the Pocket PC 2003 Software Development Kit provided by Microsoft.

  13. Excess parameters for binary mixtures of ethyl benzoate with 1-propanol, 1-butanol and 1-pentanol at T=303, 308, 313, 318, and 323 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreehari Sastry, S., E-mail: sreeharisastry@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Andhra Pradesh 522 510 (India); Babu, Shaik, E-mail: babu.computers@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Andhra Pradesh 522 510 (India); Vishwam, T., E-mail: vishwam@gitam.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, Gitam University, Hyderabad Campus, Andhra Pradesh 502 239 (India); Parvateesam, K., E-mail: kps27031966@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Andhra Pradesh 522 510 (India); Sie Tiong, Ha., E-mail: hast@utar.edu.my [Faculty of Science, Department of Chemical Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak (Malaysia)

    2013-07-01

    Various thermo–acoustic parameters, such as excess isentropic compressibility (K{sub s}{sup E}), excess molar volume (V{sup E}), excess free length (L{sub f}{sup E}), excess Gibb's free energy (ΔG{sup *E}), and excess Enthalpy (H{sup E}), have been calculated from the experimentally determined data of density, viscosity and speed of sound for the binary mixtures of ethyl benzoate+1-propanol, or +1-butanol, or +1-pentanol over the entire range of composition at different temperatures (303, 308, 313, 318 and 323 K). The excess functions have been fitted to the Redlich–Kister type polynomial equation. The deviations for excess thermo–acoustic parameters have been explained on the basis of the intermolecular interactions present in these binary mixtures.

  14. Inner-shell spectroscopy of benzaldehyde, terephthalaldehyde, ethyl benzoate, terephthaloyl chloride, and phosgene: Models for core excitation of poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, A.P.; Urquhart, S.G. [McMaster Univ., Ontario (Canada); Rightor, E.G. [Texas Polymer Centre, Freeport, TX (United States)

    1992-10-29

    Oscillator strengths for C 1s and O 1s excitation of terephthalaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and ethyl benzoate and C 1s, O 1s and Cl 2p excitation of terephthaloyl chloride and phosgene have been derived from electron energy loss spectra recorded under scattering conditions where electric dipole transitions dominate. Extended Hueckel molecular orbital (EHMO) calculations were used to aid interpretation of the core excitation spectra of these multifunctional organic molecules. The experimental molecular spectra and EHMO calculations were used to estimate the C 1s and O 1s core excitation spectra of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Comparisons to the C 1s and O 1s energy loss spectra of PET recorded in an electron microscope have demonstrated that gas-phase spectra and theoretical studies of molecular analogues are useful in interpreting the core excitation spectra of polymers. 48 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Identification of the novel synthetic cannabimimetic 8-quinolinyl 4-methyl-3-(1-piperidinylsulfonyl)benzoate (QMPSB) and other designer drugs in herbal incense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, Karen; Boyd, Sue; Atkinson, Sarah; Wolf, Jenna; Slottje, Pim M; Goodchild, Katrina; McGowan, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    The identification and structural elucidation of the novel synthetic cannabimimetic 8-quinolinyl 4-methyl-3-(1-piperidinylsulfonyl)benzoate (QMPSB) by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR is reported. QMPSB was identified in Queensland, Australia on plant material packaged as herbal incense. The identification of QMPSB was initially hampered due to trans-esterification occurring in the extraction solvent. An investigation of the trans-esterification of QMPSB in methanol and ethanol was conducted and analytical data for the respective methyl and ethyl esters are reported. Analytical data is presented for two other compounds detected on seized plant material packaged as herbal incense: the synthetic cannabimimetic 1-[(N-methylpiperidin-2-yl)methyl]-3-(4-methyl-1-naphthoyl)indole (MAM-1220) and the JWH-081 analogue 1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-3-(4-methoxy-1-naphthoyl)indole (CHM-081).

  16. Effect of sodium benzoate on DNA breakage, micronucleus formation and mitotic index in peripheral blood of pregnant rats and their newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetin Saatci

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate (SB is one of the most widely used additives in food products in the world. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of three different concentrations of SB on the DNA breakage in liver cells and on the micronuclei formation and the mitotic index in lymphocytes of pregnant rats and their fetuses, as well as to evaluate the effects of SB on the fetus development. The results showed that general genomic injuries were present in almost all the liver cell samples obtained from the SB group compared with the control (non-treated group. This indicates that SB usage may cause DNA damage and increase micronuclei formation. We recommend that pregnant women should avoid consuming foodstuffs containing SB as an additive.

  17. The Fos expression in rat brain following electrical stimulation of dura mater surrounding the superior sagittal sinus changed with the pre-treatment of rizatriptan benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Yu, Shengyuan; Dong, Zhao; Jiang, Lei

    2011-01-07

    Fos expression in the brain was systematically investigated by means of immunohistochemical staining after electrical stimulation of the dura mater surrounding the superior sagittal sinus in conscious rats. Fos-like immunoreactive neurons are distributed mainly in the upper cervical spinal cord, spinal trigeminal nucleus caudal part, raphe magnus nucleus, periaqueductal gray, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, and mediodorsal thalamus nucleus. With the pre-treatment of intraperitoneal injection of rizatriptan benzoate, the number of Fos-like immunoreactive neurons decreased in the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudal part and raphe magnus nucleus, increased in the periaqueductal gray, and remained unchanged in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and mediodorsal thalamus nucleus. These results provide morphological evidence that the nuclei described above are involved in the development and maintenance of the trigeminovascular headache.

  18. Next-Generation Sequencing of Protein-Coding and Long Non-protein-Coding RNAs in Two Types of Exosomes Derived from Human Whole Saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yuko; Tsujimoto, Masafumi; Yanoshita, Ryohei

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles containing microRNAs and mRNAs that are produced by various types of cells. We previously used ultrafiltration and size-exclusion chromatography to isolate two types of human salivary exosomes (exosomes I, II) that are different in size and proteomes. We showed that salivary exosomes contain large repertoires of small RNAs. However, precise information regarding long RNAs in salivary exosomes has not been fully determined. In this study, we investigated the compositions of protein-coding RNAs (pcRNAs) and long non-protein-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) of exosome I, exosome II and whole saliva (WS) by next-generation sequencing technology. Although 11% of all RNAs were commonly detected among the three samples, the compositions of reads mapping to known RNAs were similar. The most abundant pcRNA is ribosomal RNA protein, and pcRNAs of some salivary proteins such as S100 calcium-binding protein A8 (protein S100-A8) were present in salivary exosomes. Interestingly, lncRNAs of pseudogenes (presumably, processed pseudogenes) were abundant in exosome I, exosome II and WS. Translationally controlled tumor protein gene, which plays an important role in cell proliferation, cell death and immune responses, was highly expressed as pcRNA and pseudogenes in salivary exosomes. Our results show that salivary exosomes contain various types of RNAs such as pseudogenes and small RNAs, and may mediate intercellular communication by transferring these RNAs to target cells as gene expression regulators.

  19. Efficient Techniques for Formal Verification of PowerPC 750 Executables Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will develop an efficient tool for formal verification of PowerPC 750 executables. The PowerPC 750 architecture is used in the radiation-hardened RAD750...

  20. DIFFERENTIAL MODULATION OF CATECHOLAMINES BY CHLOROTRIAZINE HERBICIDES IN PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA (PC12) CELLS IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differential modulation of catecholamines by chlorotriazine herbicides in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells in vitro.Das PC, McElroy WK, Cooper RL.Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599, USA.Epidemiological, wildlife, and lab...