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Sample records for benzoate degradation capacity

  1. Interspecies acetate transfer influences the extent of anaerobic benzoate degradation by syntrophic consortia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warikoo, V.; McInerney, M.J.; Suflita, J.M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Benzoate degradation by an anaerobic, syntrophic bacterium, strain SB, in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G-11 reached a threshold value which depended on the amount of acetate added, and ranged from about 2.5 to 29.9 {mu}M. Increasing acetate concentrations also uncompetitively inhibited benzoate degradation. The apparent V{sub max} and K{sub m} for benzoate degradation decreased with increasing acetate concentration, but the benzoate degradation capacity (V{sub max}/K{sub m}) of cell suspensions remained comparable. The addition of an acetate-using bacterium to cocultures after the threshold was reached resulted in the degradation of benzoate to below the detection limit. Mathematical simulations showed that the benzoate threshold was not predicted by the inhibitory effect of acetate on benzoate degradation kinetics. With nitrate instead of sulfate as the terminal electron acceptor, no benzoate threshold was observed in the presence of 20 mM acetate even though the degradation capacity was lower with nitrate than with sulfate. When strain SB was grown with a hydrogen-using partner that had a 5-fold lower hydrogen utilization capacity, a 5 to 9-fold lower the benzoate degradation capacity was observed compared to SB/G-11 cocultures. The Gibb`s free energy for benzoate degradation was less negative in cell suspensions with threshold compared to those without threshold. These studies showed that the threshold was not a function of the inhibition of benzoate degradation capacity by acetate, or the toxicity of the undissociated form of acetate. Rather a critical or minimal Gibb`s free energy may exist where thermodynamic constraints preclude further benzoate degradation.

  2. Release and Degradation of Microencapsulated Spinosad and Emamectin Benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin Bin; Zhang, Shao Fei; Chen, Peng Hao; Wu, Gang

    2017-09-07

    The dynamics of release and degradation of the microencapsulation formulation containing spinosad (SP) and emamectin benzoate (EM) were evaluated in the present study. SP and EM were microencapsulated using biodegradable poly-lactic acid (PLA) as the wall material. Their release from and degradation within the prepared SP and EM microspheres (SP-EM-microspheres) were studied. It was found that the encapsulation significantly prolonged the insecticide release. The release could be further extended if the external aqueous phase was pre-saturated with the insecticides and the microspheres were additionally coated with gelatin. On the other hand, increasing the water content of the emulsion or the hydrophilic polycaprolactone (PCL) content in the PLA/PCL mixture accelerated the release. Due to the photolysis and hydrolysis of SP and EM by sunlight, the toxicity of the non-encapsulated insecticides in water declined continuously from 0 through the 9 th day (d), and dissipated in 13 d. In contrast, an aqueous suspension containing 5% SP-EM-microspheres maintained a mostly constant toxicity to Plutella xylostella for 17 d. The biodegradable SP-EM-microspheres showed significantly higher long-term toxicity to P. xylostella due to lower release, reduced photolysis and hydrolysis of the encapsulated insecticides, which were affected by the varied preparation conditions.

  3. Conductive iron oxide minerals accelerate syntrophic cooperation in methanogenic benzoate degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Li; Tang, Jia; Wang, Yueqiang; Hu, Min; Zhou, Shungui, E-mail: sgzhou@soil.gd.cn

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Paddy soil contaminated with benzoate incubated with hematite and magnetite. • Iron oxides addition enhanced methanogenic benzoate degradation by 25–53%. • The facilitated syntrophy might involve direct interspecies electron transfer. • Bacillaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Methanobacterium are potentially involved. - Abstract: Recent studies have suggested that conductive iron oxide minerals can facilitate syntrophic metabolism of the methanogenic degradation of organic matter, such as ethanol, propionate and butyrate, in natural and engineered microbial ecosystems. This enhanced syntrophy involves direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) powered by microorganisms exchanging metabolic electrons through electrically conductive minerals. Here, we evaluated the possibility that conductive iron oxides (hematite and magnetite) can stimulate the methanogenic degradation of benzoate, which is a common intermediate in the anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds. The results showed that 89–94% of the electrons released from benzoate oxidation were recovered in CH{sub 4} production, and acetate was identified as the only carbon-bearing intermediate during benzoate degradation. Compared with the iron-free controls, the rates of methanogenic benzoate degradation were enhanced by 25% and 53% in the presence of hematite and magnetite, respectively. This stimulatory effect probably resulted from DIET-mediated methanogenesis in which electrons transfer between syntrophic partners via conductive iron minerals. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Bacillaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Methanobacterium are potentially involved in the functioning of syntrophic DIET. Considering the ubiquitous presence of iron minerals within soils and sediments, the findings of this study will increase the current understanding of the natural biological attenuation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic environments.

  4. Benzoate Catabolite Repression of the Phthalate Degradation Pathway in Rhodococcus sp. Strain DK17▿

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ki Young; Zylstra, Gerben J.; Kim, Eungbin

    2006-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain DK17 exhibits a catabolite repression-like response when provided simultaneously with benzoate and phthalate as carbon and energy sources. Benzoate in the medium is depleted to detection limits before the utilization of phthalate begins. The transcription of the genes encoding benzoate and phthalate dioxygenase paralleled the substrate utilization profile. Two mutant strains with defective benzoate dioxygenases were unable to utilize phthalate in the presence of benzoat...

  5. Degradation dynamics of emamectin benzoate on cabbage under subtropical conditions of Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmail; Chahil, G S; Jyot, Gagan; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

    2013-07-01

    Emamectin benzoate (Proclaim 5 SG) was applied to cabbage at 8.5 and 17 g a.i. ha⁻¹, during the head initiation stage. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical method, for the determination of emamectin benzoate in cabbage, was developed. Average recoveries of emamectin benzoate ranged from 92 % to 96 % at different fortification levels (0.05, 0.25 and 0.50 mg kg⁻¹). The initial deposits, 0.11 and 0.21 mg kg⁻¹ of emamectin benzoate at 8.5 and 17 g a.i. ha⁻¹, dissipated below the determination limit of 0.05 mg kg⁻¹ in 3 and 5 days, respectively.

  6. Degradative capacities and bioaugmentation potential of an anaerobic benzene-degrading bacterium strain DN11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuki Kasai; Yumiko Kodama; Yoh Takahata; Toshihiro Hoaki; Kazuya Watanabe [Marine Biotechnology Institute, Kamaishi (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    Azoarcus sp. strain DN11 is a denitrifying bacterium capable of benzene degradation under anaerobic conditions. The present study evaluated strain DN11 for its application to bioaugmentation of benzene-contaminated underground aquifers. Strain DN11 could grow on benzene, toluene, m-xylene, and benzoate as the sole carbon and energy sources under nitrate-reducing conditions, although o- and p-xylenes were transformed in the presence of toluene. Phenol was not utilized under anaerobic conditions. Kinetic analysis of anaerobic benzene degradation estimated its apparent affinity and inhibition constants to be 0.82 and 11 {mu}M, respectively. Benzene-contaminated groundwater taken from a former coal-distillation plant site in Aichi, Japan was anaerobically incubated in laboratory bottles and supplemented with either inorganic nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and nitrate) alone, or the nutrients plus strain DN11, showing that benzene was significantly degraded only when DN11 was introduced. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments, and quantitative PCR revealed that DN11 decreased after benzene was degraded. Following the decrease in DN11 16S rRNA gene fragments corresponding to bacteria related to Owenweeksia hongkongensis and Pelotomaculum isophthalicum, appeared as strong bands, suggesting possible metabolic interactions in anaerobic benzene degradation. Results suggest that DN11 is potentially useful for degrading benzene that contaminates underground aquifers at relatively low concentrations. 50 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Subsurface microbial communities and degradative capacities during trichloroethylene bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfiffner, S.M.; Ringelberg, D.B.; Hedrick, D.B.; Phelps, T.J.; Palumbo, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    Subsurface amendments of air, methane, and nutrients were investigated for the in situ stimulation of trichloroethylene- degrading microorganisms at the US DOE Savannah River Integrated Demonstration. Amendments were injected into a lower horizontal well coupled with vacuum extraction from the vadose zone horizontal well. The amendments were sequenced to give increasingly more aggressive treatments. Microbial populations and degradative capacities were monitored in groundwaters samples bimonthly

  8. Potential Safety Issues Surrounding the Use of Benzoate Preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. Piper

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate (E211 and potassium sorbate (E202 have long been used for large-scale beverage preservation, yet it is potassium sorbate that is now the preferred option for most soft drink manufacturers. Partly this is a reaction to the discovery that benzoate can cause drinks to contain traces of the carcinogen benzene. This benzene is thought to have its origins in a free-radical catalysed reaction of the benzoate with ascorbic acid. However, there may be additional benefits to using potassium sorbate rather than the benzoate preservatives in beverages. In children, a high dietary intake of sodium benzoate may be associated with asthma, allergy, or attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder. Benzoate is now known to influence cognitive functioning. By acting as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO, thereby reducing the DAAO-catalysed degradation of D-serine, it can upregulate the activity of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors in the brain. A high benzoate intake might also generate glycine deficiency, lack of glycine generally exerting a negative impact on brain neurochemistry. There are therefore strong grounds for suspecting that dietary benzoate can have neuromodulatory (mood, learning, and personality effects and influence child hyperactivity disorders.

  9. Analysis on the capacity degradation mechanism of a series lithium-ion power battery pack based on inconsistency of capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhen-Po; Liu Peng; Wang Li-Fang

    2013-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery has been widely used as an energy source. Charge rate, discharge rate, and operating temperature are very important factors for the capacity degradations of power batteries and battery packs. Firstly, in this paper we make use of an accelerated life test and a statistical analysis method to establish the capacity accelerated degradation model under three constant stress parameters according to the degradation data, which are charge rate, discharge rate, and operating temperature, and then we propose a capacity degradation model according to the current residual capacity of a Li-ion cell under dynamic stress parameters. Secondly, we analyze the charge and discharge process of a series power battery pack and interpret the correlation between the capacity degradations of the battery pack and its charge/discharge rate. According to this cycling condition, we establish a capacity degradation model of a series power battery pack under inconsistent capacity of cells, and analyze the degradation mechanism with capacity variance and operating temperature difference. The comparative analysis of test results shows that the inconsistent operating temperatures of cells in the series power battery pack are the main cause of its degradation; when the difference between inconsistent temperatures is narrowed by 5 °C, the cycle life can be improved by more than 50%. Therefore, it effectively improves the cycle life of the series battery pack to reasonably assemble the batteries according to their capacities and to narrow the differences in operating temperature among cells. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  10. Development and application of a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method using photodiode array detection for simultaneous determination of granisetron, methylparaben, propylparaben, sodium benzoate, and their main degradation products in oral pharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewala, Ismail; El-Fatatry, Hamed; Emam, Ehab; Mabrouk, Mokhtar

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive RP-HPLC method using photodiode array detection was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of granisetron hydrochloride, 1-methyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid (the main degradation product of granisetron), sodium benzoate, methylparaben, propylparaben, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (the main degradation product of parabens) in granisetron oral drops and solutions. The separation of the compounds was achieved within 8 min on a SymmetryShield RP18 column (100 x 4.6 mm id, 3.5 microm particle size) using the mobile phase acetonitrile--0.05 M KH2PO4 buffered to pH 3 using H3PO4 (3+7, v/v). The photodiode array detector was used to test the purity of the peaks, and the chromatograms were extracted at 240 nm. The method was validated, and validation acceptance criteria were met in all cases. The robust method was successfully applied to the determination of granisetron and preservatives, as well as their degradation products in different batches of granisetron oral drops and solutions. The method proved to be sensitive for determination down to 0.04% (w/w) of granisetron degradation product relative to granisetron and 0.03% (w/w) 4-hydroxybenzoic acid relative to total parabens.

  11. Study of stiffness and bearing capacity degradation of reinforced concrete beams under constant-amplitude fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangping; Zhou, Jianting; Yan, Lei

    2018-01-01

    For a reinforced concrete beam subjected to fatigue loads, the structural stiffness and bearing capacity will gradually undergo irreversible degeneration, leading to damage. Moreover, there is an inherent relationship between the stiffness and bearing capacity degradation and fatigue damage. In this study, a series of fatigue tests are performed to examine the degradation law of the stiffness and bearing capacity. The results pertaining to the stiffness show that the stiffness degradation of a reinforced concrete beam exhibits a very clear monotonic decreasing "S" curve, i.e., the stiffness of the beam decreases significantly at the start of the fatigue loading, it undergoes a linear decline phase in the middle for a long loading period, and before the failure, the bearing capacity decreases drastically again. The relationship between the residual stiffness and residual bearing capacity is determined based on the assumption that the residual stiffness and residual bearing capacity depend on the same damage state, and then, the bearing capacity degradation model of the reinforced concrete beam is established based on the fatigue stiffness. Through the established model and under the premise of the known residual stiffness degradation law, the degradation law of the bearing capacity is determined by using at least one residual bearing capacity test data, for which the parameters of the stiffness degradation function are considered as material constants. The results of the bearing capacity show that the bearing capacity degradation of the reinforced concrete beam also exhibits a very clear monotonic decreasing "S" curve, which is consistent with the stiffness degradation process and in good agreement with the experiment. In this study, the stiffness and bearing capacity degradation expressions are used to quantitatively describe their occurrence in reinforced concrete beams. In particular, the expression of the bearing capacity degradation can mitigate numerous

  12. New degradation call admission control for increasing WCDMA system capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ningqing; Lu Zhi; Gu Xuemai

    2006-01-01

    Propose a new degradation call admission control(DCAC)scheme, which can be used in wideband code division multiple access communication system. So-called degradation is that non-real time call has the characteristic of variable bit rate, so decreasing its bit rate can reduce the load of the system, consequently the system can admit new call which should be blocked when the system is close to full load, therefore new call's access probability increases. This paper brings forward design project and does system simulation, simulation proves that DCAC can effectively decrease calls' blocking probability and increase the total number of the on-line users.

  13. CARBON FIXING CAPACITY OF AMAZONIAN SOILS IN RELATION TO ITS DEGRADATION CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Patricia Peña Venegas; Edmundo Rafael Mendoza Olmos; Carlos Hernando Rodríguez León; Gladys Inés Cardona Vanegas; Bernardo Eusebio Betancurt Parra; Maolenmarx Tatiana Garzón Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Amazonian deforestation and transformation alert about their effects worldwide. One concern is the increase of the Carbon (C) levels emitted. Previous works have estimated the fixed C in Amazon forests without including the C stored in soils. Within soil, the organic carbon molecules are highly sensitive to degradation, affecting the natural capacity of soils to fix and store C. The present study evaluates the impact of degradation in the natural capacity of Amazon soils to fix C. Thirty five...

  14. Feedback-Capacity of Degraded Gaussian Vector BC using Directed Information and Concave Envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    It is known that the capacity region of a two user physically degraded discrete memoryless (DM) broadcastchannel (BC) is not enlarged by feedback. An identical result holds true for a physically degraded Gaussian BC,established later using a variant of the Entropy Power Inequality (EPI). In this paper, we extend the latter resultto a physically degraded Gaussian Vector BC (PD-GVBC). However, the extension is not EPI based, but employs arecent result on the factorization of concave envelopes. ...

  15. CARBON FIXING CAPACITY OF AMAZONIAN SOILS IN RELATION TO ITS DEGRADATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Patricia Peña Venegas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian deforestation and transformation alert about their effects worldwide. One concern is the increase of the Carbon (C levels emitted. Previous works have estimated the fixed C in Amazon forests without including the C stored in soils. Within soil, the organic carbon molecules are highly sensitive to degradation, affecting the natural capacity of soils to fix and store C. The present study evaluates the impact of degradation in the natural capacity of Amazon soils to fix C. Thirty five farms with different typology were selected in Caquetá department which hold the highest deforestation and soil degradation rates in the Colombian Amazon. Soil samples were taken from natural forest relicts, cropping areas and introduced pastures of the farms, in locations with high, intermediate and low soil degradation. Aerial biomass was estimated in pastures with different level of soil degradation. Changes in the labile C stock were estimated from the soil organic carbon and the microbial biomass using substrate induced respiration. Results showed that the main C pool is in the natural forest relicts and the crops of the farms, independently from the size or type of farm sampled. The hills with higher intervention showed the lowest soil C fixation capacities. The soil C fixation capacity was related with changes in the soil microbial composition where conserved soils store preferentially C as fungal biomass while degraded soils store C as bacterial biomass. These estimations contribute to establish the cost of sustainability and soil degradation in the Colombian Amazon.

  16. Environmental fate of emamectin benzoate after tree micro injection of horse chestnut trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies. Published 2014 SETAC.

  17. Acute toxicity of emamectin benzoate and its desmethyl metabolite to Eohaustorius estuarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Jen-Ni; Buday, Craig; van Aggelen, Graham; Ikonomou, Michael George; Pasternak, John

    2010-08-01

    Emamectin benzoate is one of the active ingredients of the anti-sealice drug SLICE. Ten-day acute sediment lethal tests (10-d LC50) of emamectin benzoate and its desmethyl metabolite (AB1) were conducted to determine LC50 values using a sensitive representative West Coast amphipod crustacean, Eohaustorius estuarius. The 10-d LC50s of emamectin benzoate and AB1 to E. estuarius were 0.185 and 0.019 mg/kg wet weight sediment (0.146 and 0.015 mg/kg dry wt), respectively. The degradation properties of emamectin benzoate and AB1 during the 10-d period were also measured and described. No obvious decay patterns were observed for either emamectin benzoate and AB1 over the 10-d period. Copyright 2010 SETAC

  18. Acute poisoning with emamectin benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin, Ja-Liang

    2004-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate is the 4'-deoxy-4'-epi-methyl-amino benzoate salt of avermectin B1 (abamectin), which is similar structurally to natural fermentation products of Streptomyces avermitilis. Emamectin benzoate is being developed as a newer broad-spectrum insecticide for vegetables and has a very low application rate. The mechanism of action involves stimulation of high-affinity GABA receptors and a consequent increase in membrane chloride ion permeability. Animal studies indicate a wide margin of safety because mammalian species are much less sensitive due to lower GABA receptor affinities and relative impermeability of the blood-brain barrier. Notably, the literature has not reported human exposure resulting in toxicity. This paper describes a case of acute poisoning with Proclaim insecticide (Syngenta, Taiwan), consisting of 2.15% w/w emamectin benzoate in 2, 6-bis (1, 1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl-phenol and 1-hexanol. The clinical manifestation was transient gastrointestinal upset with endoscopy-proven gastric erosion and superficial gastritis, mild central nervous system depression, and aspiration pneumonia. No specific antidote exists for emamectin benzoate intoxication; this patient was treated successfully with gastric lavage, administration of activated charcoal, and empiric antibiotics. Drugs that enhance GABA activity such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines were avoided.

  19. An insect herbivore microbiome with high plant biomass-degrading capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garret Suen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini, which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome's predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy.

  20. An Insect Herbivore Microbiome with High Plant Biomass-Degrading Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suen, Garret; Barry, Kerrie; Goodwin, Lynne; Scott, Jarrod; Aylward, Frank; Adams, Sandra; Pinto-Tomas, Adrian; Foster, Clifton; Pauly, Markus; Weimer, Paul; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Osterberger, Jolene; Harkins, Timothy; Slater, Steven; Donohue, Timothy; Currie, Cameron; Tringe, Susannah G.

    2010-09-23

    Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini), which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome?s predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy.

  1. A dynamic capacity degradation model and its applications considering varying load for a large format Li-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Minggao; Feng, Xuning; Han, Xuebing; Lu, Languang; Li, Zhe; He, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic capacity degradation model for large format Li-ion battery is proposed. • The change of the model parameters directly link with the degradation mechanisms. • The model can simulate the fading behavior of Li-ion battery under varying loads. • The model can help evaluate the longevity of a battery system under specific load. • The model can help predict the evolution of cell variations within a battery pack. - Abstract: The capacity degradation of the lithium ion battery should be well predicted during battery system design. Therefore, high-fidelity capacity degradation models that are suitable for the task of capacity prediction are required. This paper proposes a novel capacity degradation model that can simulate the degradation dynamics under varying working conditions for large-format lithium ion batteries. The degradation model is built based on a mechanistic and prognostic model (MPM) whose parameters are closely linked with the degradation mechanisms of lithium ion batteries. Chemical kinetics was set to drive the parameters of the MPM to change as capacity degradation continues. With the dynamic parameters of the MPM, the capacity predicted by the degradation model decreases as the cycle continues. Accelerated aging tests were conducted on three types of commercial lithium ion batteries to calibrate the capacity degradation model. The good fit with the experimental data indicates that the model can capture the degradation mechanisms well for different types of commercial lithium ion batteries. Furthermore, the calibrated model can be used to (1) evaluate the longevity of a battery system under a specific working load and (2) predict the evolution of cell variations within a battery pack when different cell works at different conditions. Correlated applications are discussed using the calibrated degradation model.

  2. Molecular characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum DMDL 9010, a strain with efficient nitrite degradation capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-tao Fei

    Full Text Available Nitrites commonly found in food, especially in fermented vegetables, are potential carcinogens. Therefore, limiting nitrites in food is critically important for food safety. A Lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 was previously isolated from fermented vegetables by our group, and is not yet fully characterized. A number of phenotypical and genotypical approaches were employed to characterize Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010. Its nitrite degradation capacity was compared with four other Lactobacillus strains, including Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 719, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricu 1.83, Streptococcus thermophilus 1.204, and lactobacillus plantarum 8140, on MRS medium. Compared to these four Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 had a significantly higher nitrite degradation capacity (P<0.001. Based on 16S rDNA sequencing and sequence comparison, Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 was identified as either Lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus pentosus. To further identify this strain, the flanking regions (922 bp and 806 bp upstream and downstream, respectively of the L-lactate dehydrogenase 1 (L-ldh1 gene were amplified and sequenced. Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 had 98.92 and 76.98% sequence identity in the upstream region with L. plantarum WCFS1 and L. pentosus IG1, respectively, suggesting that Lactobacillu sp. DMDL 9010 is an L. plantarum strain. It was therefore named L. plantarum DMDL 9010. Our study provides a platform for genetic engineering of L. plantarum DMDL 9010, in order to further improve its nitrite degradation capacity.

  3. Molecular characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum DMDL 9010, a strain with efficient nitrite degradation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yong-tao; Liu, Dong-mei; Luo, Tong-hui; Chen, Gu; Wu, Hui; Li, Li; Yu, Yi-gang

    2014-01-01

    Nitrites commonly found in food, especially in fermented vegetables, are potential carcinogens. Therefore, limiting nitrites in food is critically important for food safety. A Lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010) was previously isolated from fermented vegetables by our group, and is not yet fully characterized. A number of phenotypical and genotypical approaches were employed to characterize Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010. Its nitrite degradation capacity was compared with four other Lactobacillus strains, including Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus 719, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricu 1.83, Streptococcus thermophilus 1.204, and lactobacillus plantarum 8140, on MRS medium. Compared to these four Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 had a significantly higher nitrite degradation capacity (PLactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 was identified as either Lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus pentosus. To further identify this strain, the flanking regions (922 bp and 806 bp upstream and downstream, respectively) of the L-lactate dehydrogenase 1 (L-ldh1) gene were amplified and sequenced. Lactobacillus sp. DMDL 9010 had 98.92 and 76.98% sequence identity in the upstream region with L. plantarum WCFS1 and L. pentosus IG1, respectively, suggesting that Lactobacillu sp. DMDL 9010 is an L. plantarum strain. It was therefore named L. plantarum DMDL 9010. Our study provides a platform for genetic engineering of L. plantarum DMDL 9010, in order to further improve its nitrite degradation capacity.

  4. Sonodegradation of cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside: degradation kinetic analysis and its impact on antioxidant capacity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianxia; Li, Xinghua; Lin, Xinyu; Mei, Zhouxiong; Li, Yitao; Ding, Lijun; Bai, Weibin

    2017-03-01

    As an alternative preservation method for thermal treatment, ultrasound comprises a novel non-thermal processing technology that can significantly avoid undesirable nutritional changes. However, the recent literature indicates that anthocyanin degradation occurs when ultrasound is applied in juice at high amplitude parameters. Such work has mainly focussed on the effect of ultrasound on stability, the antioxidant capacity of cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside (Cy-3-glc-rut) and the correlation between anthocyanin degradation and ·OH generation in a simulated system. The spectral intensities of Cy-3-glc-rut at 518 and 282 nm decreased with increasing ultrasound power and treatment time. The degradation of Cy-3-glc-rut was consistent with first-order reaction kinetics (r 2  > 0.9000) and there was a good linear correlation between anthocyanin degradation and hydroxyl radical formation induced by ultrasound (r 2  = 0.9258). Moreover, a decrease in the antioxidant activity of Cy-3-glc-rut after ultrasound evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power methods was observed. Overall, the results of the present study show that ultrasound will accelerate the degradation of Cy-3-glc-rut with the growth of power over time. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Benzoate-mediated changes on expression profile of soluble proteins in Serratia sp. DS001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandeeti, E V P; Chinnaboina, M R; Siddavattam, D

    2009-05-01

    To assess differences in protein expression profile associated with shift in carbon source from succinate to benzoate in Serratia sp. DS001 using a proteomics approach. A basic proteome map was generated for the soluble proteins extracted from Serratia sp. DS001 grown in succinate and benzoate. The differently and differentially expressed proteins were identified using ImageMaster 2D Platinum software (GE Healthcare). The identity of the proteins was determined by employing MS or MS/MS. Important enzymes such as Catechol 1,2 dioxygenase and transcriptional regulators that belong to the LysR superfamily were identified. Nearly 70 proteins were found to be differentially expressed when benzoate was used as carbon source. Based on the protein identity and degradation products generated from benzoate it is found that ortho pathway is operational in Serratia sp. DS001. Expression profile of the soluble proteins associated with shift in carbon source was mapped. The study also elucidates degradation pathway of benzoate in Serratia sp. DS001 by correlating the proteomics data with the catabolites of benzoate.

  6. Resolution capacity of geophysical monitoring regarding permafrost degradation induced by hydrological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, Benjamin; Hilbich, Christin; Delaloye, Reynald; Hauck, Christian

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical methods are often used to characterize and monitor the subsurface composition of permafrost. The resolution capacity of standard methods, i.e. electrical resistivity tomography and refraction seismic tomography, depends not only on static parameters such as measurement geometry, but also on the temporal variability in the contrast of the geophysical target variables (electrical resistivity and P-wave velocity). Our study analyses the resolution capacity of electrical resistivity tomography and refraction seismic tomography for typical processes in the context of permafrost degradation using synthetic and field data sets of mountain permafrost terrain. In addition, we tested the resolution capacity of a petrophysically based quantitative combination of both methods, the so-called 4-phase model, and through this analysed the expected changes in water and ice content upon permafrost thaw. The results from the synthetic data experiments suggest a higher sensitivity regarding an increase in water content compared to a decrease in ice content. A potentially larger uncertainty originates from the individual geophysical methods than from the combined evaluation with the 4-phase model. In the latter, a loss of ground ice can be detected quite reliably, whereas artefacts occur in the case of increased horizontal or vertical water flow. Analysis of field data from a well-investigated rock glacier in the Swiss Alps successfully visualized the seasonal ice loss in summer and the complex spatially variable ice, water and air content changes in an interannual comparison.

  7. Resolution capacity of geophysical monitoring regarding permafrost degradation induced by hydrological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mewes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical methods are often used to characterize and monitor the subsurface composition of permafrost. The resolution capacity of standard methods, i.e. electrical resistivity tomography and refraction seismic tomography, depends not only on static parameters such as measurement geometry, but also on the temporal variability in the contrast of the geophysical target variables (electrical resistivity and P-wave velocity. Our study analyses the resolution capacity of electrical resistivity tomography and refraction seismic tomography for typical processes in the context of permafrost degradation using synthetic and field data sets of mountain permafrost terrain. In addition, we tested the resolution capacity of a petrophysically based quantitative combination of both methods, the so-called 4-phase model, and through this analysed the expected changes in water and ice content upon permafrost thaw. The results from the synthetic data experiments suggest a higher sensitivity regarding an increase in water content compared to a decrease in ice content. A potentially larger uncertainty originates from the individual geophysical methods than from the combined evaluation with the 4-phase model. In the latter, a loss of ground ice can be detected quite reliably, whereas artefacts occur in the case of increased horizontal or vertical water flow. Analysis of field data from a well-investigated rock glacier in the Swiss Alps successfully visualized the seasonal ice loss in summer and the complex spatially variable ice, water and air content changes in an interannual comparison.

  8. Benzoate transport in Pseudomonas putida CSV86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Alpa; Purohit, Hemant; Phale, Prashant S

    2017-07-03

    Pseudomonas putida strain CSV86 metabolizes variety of aromatic compounds as the sole carbon source. Genome analysis revealed the presence of genes encoding putative transporters for benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, phenylacetate, p-hydroxyphenylacetate and vanillate. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that benzoate transport and metabolism genes are clustered at the ben locus as benK-catA-benE-benF. Protein topology prediction suggests that BenK (aromatic acid-H+ symporter of major facilitator superfamily) has 12 transmembrane α-helices with the conserved motif LADRXGRKX in loop 2, while BenE (benzoate-H+ symporter protein) has 11 predicted transmembrane α-helices. benF and catA encode benzoate specific porin, OprD and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, respectively. Biochemical studies suggest that benzoate was transported by an inducible and active process. Inhibition (90%-100%) in the presence of dinitrophenol suggests that the energy for the transport process is derived from the proton motive force. The maximum rate of benzoate transport was 484 pmole min-1 mg-1 cells with an affinity constant, Kmof 4.5 μM. Transcriptional analysis of the benzoate and glucose-grown cells showed inducible expression of benF, benK and benE, suggesting that besides outer membrane porin, both inner membrane transporters probably contribute for the benzoate transport in P. putida strain CSV86. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Preparation and physicochemical characteristics of polylactide microspheres of emamectin benzoate by modified solvent evaporation/extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao Fei; Chen, Peng Hao; Zhang, Fei; Yang, Yan Fang; Liu, De Kun; Wu, Gang

    2013-12-18

    Emamectin benzoate is highly effective against insect pests and widely used in the world. However, its biological activity is limited because of high resistance of target insects and rapid degradation speed in fields. Preparation and physicochemical characterization of degradable microcapsules of emamectin benzoate were studied by modified solvent evaporation/extraction method using polylactide (PLA) as wall material. The influence of different compositions of the solvent in internal organic phase and external aqueous phase on diameter, span, pesticide loading, and entrapment rate of the microspheres was investigated. The results indicated that the process of solvent extraction and the formation of the microcapsules would be accelerated by adding water-miscible organic solvents such as ethyl ether, acetone, ethyl acetate, or n-butanol into internal organic phase and external aqueous phase. Accelerated formation of the microcapsules would result in entrapment rates of emamectin benzoate increased to as high as 97%. In addition, by adding ethanol into the external aqueous phase, diameters would reduce to 6.28 μm, whereas the loading efficiency of emamectin benzoate did not increase. The PLA microspheres prepared under optimum conditions were smoother and more spherical. The degradation rate in PLA microspheres of emamectin benzoate on the 10th day was 4.29 ± 0.74%, whereas the degradation rates of emamectin benzoate in methanol solution and solid technical material were 46.3 ± 2.11 and 22.7 ± 1.51%, respectively. The PLA skeleton had combined with emamectin benzoate in an amorphous or molecular state by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) determination. The results indicated that PLA microspheres of emamectin benzoate with high entrapment rate, loading efficiency, and physicochemical characteristics could be obtained by adding water-miscible organic solvents into the internal organic phase and external aqueous phase.

  10. Bifidobacterial inulin-type fructan degradation capacity determines cross-feeding interactions between bifidobacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, Frédéric; Weckx, Stefan; De Vuyst, Luc

    2016-08-16

    Prebiotic inulin-type fructans (ITF) display a bifidogenic and butyrogenic effect. Four bifidobacterial strains (Bifidobacterium breve Yakult, Bifidobacterium adolescentis LMG 10734, Bifidobacterium angulatum LMG 11039(T), and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum LMG 11047), displaying different ITF degradation capacities, were each grown in cocultivation with Faecalibacterium prausnitzii DSM 17677(T), an ITF-degrading butyrate-producing colon bacterium, as to unravel their cross-feeding interactions. These coculture fermentations were performed in a medium for colon bacteria, whether or not including acetate (necessary for the growth of F. prausnitzii DSM 17677(T) and whether or not provided through cross-feeding), supplemented with oligofructose or inulin as the sole energy source. Bifidobacterium breve Yakult did not degrade oligofructose, resulting in the production of high concentrations of butyrate by F. prausnitzii DSM 17677(T) through oligofructose degradation. The degradation of oligofructose by B. adolescentis LMG 10734 and of oligofructose and inulin by B. angulatum LMG 11039(T) and B. longum LMG 11047 resulted in the production of acetate, which was cross-fed to F. prausnitzii DSM 17677(T), enabling the latter strain to degrade oligofructose and inulin. Slow preferential degradation of the short chain length fractions of oligofructose (intracellularly) by B. adolescentis LMG 10734 enabled substantial oligofructose degradation by F. prausnitzii DSM 17677(T). However, fast non-preferential degradation of all chain length fractions of oligofructose (extracellularly) and efficient degradation of the short chain length fractions of inulin by B. angulatum LMG 11039(T) and B. longum LMG 11047 made it impossible for F. prausnitzii DSM 17677(T) to compete for the available substrate. These results indicate that cross-feeding interactions between bifidobacteria and acetate-depending, butyrate-producing colon bacteria can be either a pure commensal or beneficial

  11. Stability, Antioxidant Capacity and Degradation Kinetics of Pelargonidin-3-glucoside Exposed to Ultrasound Power at Low Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Jianxia Sun; Zhouxiong Mei; Yajuan Tang; Lijun Ding; Guichuan Jiang; Chi Zhang; Aidong Sun; Weibin Bai

    2016-01-01

    As an alternative preservation method to thermal treatment, ultrasound is a novel non-thermal processing technology that can significantly avoid undesirable nutritional changes. However, recently literature indicated that anthocyanin degradation occurred when high amplitude ultrasound was applied to juice. This work mainly studied the effect of ultrasound on the stability and antioxidant capacity of pelargonidin-3-glucoside (Pg-3-glu) and the correlation between anthocyanin degradation and •O...

  12. Thermal degradation of {alpha}- and {beta}-PbO{sub 2} and its relationship to capacity loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitas, R.; Zerroual, L.; Chelali, N.; Djellouli, B. [Univ. Ferhat ABBAS, Setif (Algeria). Inst. de Chimie Industrielle

    2000-01-01

    The thermal degradation of {alpha} and {beta} PbO{sub 2} and its relationship to capacity loss was studied using galvanostatic discharge and voltamperometry. The results clearly demonstrate the dramatic effect of the thermal treatment of the capacity of the PAM. The variation of proton diffusion with temperature was determined for both {alpha}- and {beta}-PbO{sub 2}. The two forms of PbO{sub 2} exhibit different behaviour with regard to water loss. (orig.)

  13. Interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijo, J.; Yonetani, I.

    1982-03-01

    The interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate was investigated by PMR spectroscopy. The interaction of theobromine with pentadeuterated benzoic acid (benzoic acid-d5) was examined in the same manner but to a lesser degree. Chemical shifts of theobromine protons were determined as a function of sodium benzoate concentration in deuterium oxide at 30 and 15 degrees. Signals of both methyl groups of theobromine underwent significant upfield shifts when sodium benzoate was added to a theobromine solution. This fact suggests that a complex is formed by vertical stacking or plane-to-plane stacking. The same results were obtained for benzoic acid-d5.

  14. Whole Genome and Global Gene Expression Analyses of the Model Mushroom Flammulina velutipes Reveal a High Capacity for Lignocellulose Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Jin; Baek, Jeong Hun; Lee, Seonwook; Kim, Changhoon; Rhee, Hwanseok; Kim, Hyungtae; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Park, Hae-Ran; Yoon, Dae-Eun; Nam, Jae-Young; Kim, Hong-Il; Kim, Jong-Guk; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kang, Hee-Wan; Cho, Jae-Yong; Song, Eun-Sung; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yoo, Young-Bok; Lee, Chang-Soo; Lee, Byoung-Moo; Kong, Won-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Flammulina velutipes is a fungus with health and medicinal benefits that has been used for consumption and cultivation in East Asia. F. velutipes is also known to degrade lignocellulose and produce ethanol. The overlapping interests of mushroom production and wood bioconversion make F. velutipes an attractive new model for fungal wood related studies. Here, we present the complete sequence of the F. velutipes genome. This is the first sequenced genome for a commercially produced edible mushroom that also degrades wood. The 35.6-Mb genome contained 12,218 predicted protein-encoding genes and 287 tRNA genes assembled into 11 scaffolds corresponding with the 11 chromosomes of strain KACC42780. The 88.4-kb mitochondrial genome contained 35 genes. Well-developed wood degrading machinery with strong potential for lignin degradation (69 auxiliary activities, formerly FOLymes) and carbohydrate degradation (392 CAZymes), along with 58 alcohol dehydrogenase genes were highly expressed in the mycelium, demonstrating the potential application of this organism to bioethanol production. Thus, the newly uncovered wood degrading capacity and sequential nature of this process in F. velutipes, offer interesting possibilities for more detailed studies on either lignin or (hemi-) cellulose degradation in complex wood substrates. The mutual interest in wood degradation by the mushroom industry and (ligno-)cellulose biomass related industries further increase the significance of F. velutipes as a new model. PMID:24714189

  15. The experimental scavenging capacity and the degradation potential of the mixture of carotenoid and vitamin E, vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyet, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Khoa, Tran Anh; Quan, Vu Thi Hong; Chinh, Vuong Ngoc; Phung, Le Thi Kim

    2017-09-01

    The antioxidant capacity of Gac oil can be enhanced by the presence of these other active antioxidants such as vitamin E, vitamin C. Since many of these natural antioxidants are consumed together in foods, the potential for scavenging capacity is high in the human diet. The aim of this study was to determine what concentrations and combinations of antioxidants among Gac oil, vitamin E, vitamin C are capable of producing high scavenging capacity. The fact has resulted in detailed studies of antioxidation capacity of carotenoid of and vitamin. In addition, the antioxidant capacity and degradation potential of the combined mixture of carotenoid and vitamin E, vitamin C were discussed in view of their antioxidant properties as beneficial species in preventing various diseases.

  16. Characterization of the biodegradation, bioremediation and detoxification capacity of a bacterial consortium able to degrade the fungicide thiabendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruchon, Chiara; Pantoleon, Anastasios; Veroutis, Dimitrios; Gallego-Blanco, Sara; Martin-Laurent, F; Liadaki, Kalliopi; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2017-12-01

    Thiabendazole (TBZ) is a persistent fungicide used in the post-harvest treatment of fruits. Its application results in the production of contaminated effluents which should be treated before their environmental discharge. In the absence of efficient treatment methods in place, biological systems based on microbial inocula with specialized degrading capacities against TBZ could be a feasible treatment approach. Only recently the first bacterial consortium able to rapidly transform TBZ was isolated. This study aimed to characterize its biodegradation, bioremediation and detoxification potential. The capacity of the consortium to mineralize 14 C-benzyl-ring labelled TBZ was initially assessed. Subsequent tests evaluated its degradation capacity under various conditions (range of pH, temperatures and TBZ concentration levels) and relevant practical scenarios (simultaneous presence of other postharvest compounds) and its bioaugmentation potential in soils contaminated with increasing TBZ levels. Finally cytotoxicity assays explored its detoxification potential. The consortium effectively mineralized the benzoyl ring of the benzimidazole moiety of TBZ and degraded spillage level concentrations of the fungicide in aqueous cultures (750 mg L -1 ) and in soil (500 mg kg -1 ). It maintained its high degradation capacity in a wide range of pH (4.5-7.5) and temperatures (15-37 °C) and in the presence of other pesticides (ortho-phenylphenol and diphenylamine). Toxicity assays using the human liver cancer cell line HepG2 showed a progressive decrease in cytotoxicity, concomitantly with the biodegradation of TBZ, pointing to a detoxification process. Overall, the bacterial consortium showed high potential for future implementation in bioremediation and biodepuration applications.

  17. Stability, Antioxidant Capacity and Degradation Kinetics of Pelargonidin-3-glucoside Exposed to Ultrasound Power at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxia Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative preservation method to thermal treatment, ultrasound is a novel non-thermal processing technology that can significantly avoid undesirable nutritional changes. However, recently literature indicated that anthocyanin degradation occurred when high amplitude ultrasound was applied to juice. This work mainly studied the effect of ultrasound on the stability and antioxidant capacity of pelargonidin-3-glucoside (Pg-3-glu and the correlation between anthocyanin degradation and •OH generation in a simulated system. Results indicated that the spectral intensities of Pg-3-glu decreased with increasing ultrasound power (200–500 W and treatment time (0–60 min. The degradation trend was consistent with first-order reaction kinetics (R2 > 0.9100. Further study showed that there was a good linear correlation between Pg-3-glu degradation and •OH production (R2 = 0.8790, which indicated the important role of •OH in the degradation of anthocyanin during ultrasound exposure. Moreover, a decrease in the antioxidant activity of solution(s containing Pg-3-glu as evaluated by the DPPH and FRAP methods was observed after ultrasound treatment.

  18. Stability, Antioxidant Capacity and Degradation Kinetics of Pelargonidin-3-glucoside Exposed to Ultrasound Power at Low Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianxia; Mei, Zhouxiong; Tang, Yajuan; Ding, Lijun; Jiang, Guichuan; Zhang, Chi; Sun, Aidong; Bai, Weibin

    2016-08-24

    As an alternative preservation method to thermal treatment, ultrasound is a novel non-thermal processing technology that can significantly avoid undesirable nutritional changes. However, recently literature indicated that anthocyanin degradation occurred when high amplitude ultrasound was applied to juice. This work mainly studied the effect of ultrasound on the stability and antioxidant capacity of pelargonidin-3-glucoside (Pg-3-glu) and the correlation between anthocyanin degradation and •OH generation in a simulated system. Results indicated that the spectral intensities of Pg-3-glu decreased with increasing ultrasound power (200-500 W) and treatment time (0-60 min). The degradation trend was consistent with first-order reaction kinetics (R² > 0.9100). Further study showed that there was a good linear correlation between Pg-3-glu degradation and •OH production (R² = 0.8790), which indicated the important role of •OH in the degradation of anthocyanin during ultrasound exposure. Moreover, a decrease in the antioxidant activity of solution(s) containing Pg-3-glu as evaluated by the DPPH and FRAP methods was observed after ultrasound treatment.

  19. Subtractive hybridization and random arbitrarily primed PCR analyses of a benzoate-assimilating bacterium, Desulfotignum balticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habe, Hiroshi; Kobuna, Akinori; Hosoda, Akifumi; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki; Omori, Toshio; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2008-05-01

    Subtractive hybridization (SH) and random arbitrarily primed PCR (RAP-PCR) were used to detect genes involved in anaerobic benzoate degradation by Desulfotignum balticum. Through SH, we obtained 121 DNA sequences specific for D. balticum but not for D. phosphitoxidans (a non-benzoate-assimilating species). Furthermore, RAP-PCR analysis showed that a 651-bp DNA fragment, having 55% homology with the solute-binding protein of the ABC transporter system in Methanosarcina barkeri, was expressed when D. balticum was grown on benzoate, but not on pyruvate. By shotgun sequencing of the fosmid clone (38,071 bp) containing the DNA fragment, 33 open reading frames (ORFs) and two incomplete ORFs were annotated, and several genes within this region corresponded to the DNA fragments obtained by SH. An 11.3-kb gene cluster (ORF10-17) revealed through reverse transcription-PCR showed homology with the ABC transporter system and TonB-dependent receptors, both of which are presumably involved in the uptake of siderophore/heme/vitamin B(12), and was expressed in response to growth on benzoate.

  20. Isolation of a diphenylamine-degrading bacterium and characterization of its metabolic capacities, bioremediation and bioaugmentation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruchon, Chiara; Batianis, Christos; Zouborlis, Stelios; Papadopoulou, Evangelia S; Ntougias, Spyridon; Vasileiadis, Sotirios; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2015-12-01

    The antioxidant diphenylamine (DPA) is used in fruit-packaging plants for the control of the physiological disorder apple scald. Its use results in the production of DPA-contaminated wastewater which should be treated before finally discharged. Biological treatment systems using tailored-made microbial inocula with specific catabolic activities comprise an appealing and sustainable solution. This study aimed to isolate DPA-degrading bacteria, identify the metabolic pathway of DPA and evaluate their potential for future implementation in bioremediation and biodepuration applications. A Pseudomonas putida strain named DPA1 able to rapidly degrade and utilize DPA as the sole C and N source was enriched from a DPA-contaminated soil. The isolated strain degraded spillage-level concentrations of DPA in liquid culture (2000 mg L(-1)) and in contaminated soil (1000 mg kg(-1)) and metabolized DPA via the transient formation of aniline and catechol. Further evidence for the bioremediation and biodepuration potential of the P. putida strain DPA1 was provided by its capacity to degrade the post-harvest fungicide ortho-phenylphenol (OPP), concurrently used by the fruit-packaging plants, although at slower rates and DPA in a wide range of pH (4.5-9) and temperatures (15-37 °C). These findings revealed the high potential of the P. putida strain DPA1 for use in future soil bioremediation strategies and/or as start-up inocula in wastewater biodepuration systems.

  1. Selection of bacteria with hydrocarbon degrading capacity isolated from Colombian Caribbean sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaez Florez, Silvia; Gomez, Martha L; Martinez Maria M

    2008-01-01

    Thirty one bacterial isolations in minimal salts supplemented medium with hydrocarbons (ACPM or crude oil) as sole carbon source were isolated from sediment samples from the Colombian Caribbean. Bacterial strains underwent selection tests in different concentrations of hydrocarbons; 11 tolerant crude oil and ACPM strains in a range of 1-8%v/v were chosen. A mixed bacterial culture was created and assessed its ability to degrade hydrocarbons in a laboratory-scale test, with a concentration of 2% v/v of ACPM over a period of 21 days. Measurements of biomass in Colony Forming Units (CFU)/mL were used to develop the growth curve of the mixed culture. Hydrocarbons remotion was measured by mass chromatography. The mixed culture was able to degrade the 68.6% of aliphatic hydrocarbons in preference of long chain n- alkenes (C12- C31), reaching a maximum growth of 3.13 x 10 9 UFC / mL. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons was not evidenced under the observation time. Nine of the eleven strains were identified using the biochemical systems BBL and API 50 CHB/E; they belonged to the genus Klebsiella, Chromobacterium, Flavimonas, Enterobacter,Pseudomonas, and Bacillus. The evaluated strains have enzymatic potential to degrade hydrocarbons and it is necessary to characterize them at molecular level in order to develop and effective consortium for field application

  2. Comparative analysis of fungal genomes reveals different plant cell wall degrading capacity in fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Fungi produce a variety of carbohydrate activity enzymes (CAZymes) for the degradation of plant polysaccharide materials to facilitate infection and/or gain nutrition. Identifying and comparing CAZymes from fungi with different nutritional modes or infection mechanisms may provide information for better understanding of their life styles and infection models. To date, over hundreds of fungal genomes are publicly available. However, a systematic comparative analysis of fungal CAZymes across the entire fungal kingdom has not been reported. Results In this study, we systemically identified glycoside hydrolases (GHs), polysaccharide lyases (PLs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs), and glycosyltransferases (GTs) as well as carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) in the predicted proteomes of 103 representative fungi from Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. Comparative analysis of these CAZymes that play major roles in plant polysaccharide degradation revealed that fungi exhibit tremendous diversity in the number and variety of CAZymes. Among them, some families of GHs and CEs are the most prevalent CAZymes that are distributed in all of the fungi analyzed. Importantly, cellulases of some GH families are present in fungi that are not known to have cellulose-degrading ability. In addition, our results also showed that in general, plant pathogenic fungi have the highest number of CAZymes. Biotrophic fungi tend to have fewer CAZymes than necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungi. Pathogens of dicots often contain more pectinases than fungi infecting monocots. Interestingly, besides yeasts, many saprophytic fungi that are highly active in degrading plant biomass contain fewer CAZymes than plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, analysis of the gene expression profile of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum revealed that most of the CAZyme genes related to cell wall degradation were up-regulated during plant infection. Phylogenetic analysis also

  3. Capacity of model biobeds to retain and degrade mecoprop and isoproturon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Vibeke V; Helweg, Arne; Spliid, Niels Henrik; Felding, Gitte; Stenvang, Lars

    2003-10-01

    Biobeds are used to increase the adsorption and degradation of pesticide spillage on sites used for mixing and loading and for cleaning of sprayers. The adsorption and the rate of degradation of 14C-labelled isoproturon and mecoprop (MCPP) at concentrations from 0.0005 to 25 000 mgkg(-1) were determined in biobed soil. Further leaching of the two herbicides was determined in a model biobed with a surface area of 2 m2. The biobed material showed enhanced ability to adsorb the two herbicides. Kd was 5.2 litre kg(-1) for isoproturon and 1.6 litre kg(-1) for MCPP in biobed material, which is higher than in natural soil. In different experiments with natural soil, Kd ranges from 0.07 to 0.6 litrekg(-1) for MCPP and from 1.5 to 4.6 litre kg(-1) for isoproturon in soils with varying organic carbon content. Degradation of MCPP was rapid at concentrations from 0.0005 to 500 mg kg(-1), delayed at 5000 mg kg(-1), and very slow at 25 000 mg kg(-1). For isoproturon, the relative degradation was most rapid at the lowest concentration and decreasing with increasing concentrations. After 120 days, between 55% and 8% 14C was evolved as 14CO2 at concentrations between 0.0005 and 25 000 mg kg(-1). The rate of evolution of 14CO2 indicated that degradation rates at low concentrations were of first-order and at higher concentrations of zero-order. Leaching of MCPP and isoproturon was determined in a newly established model biobed during a 2-year period. About 13% of applied MCPP and 1.4% of applied isoproturon leached out during the winter following the first autumn application (worst-case scenario). Leaching was completely prevented when the biobed had a well-developed grass cover and was covered during the winter.

  4. Consideration of time-evolving capacity distributions and improved degradation models for seismic fragility assessment of aging highway bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Jayadipta; Sood, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to develop seismic fragility curves for deteriorating highway bridges by uniquely accounting for realistic pitting corrosion deterioration and time-dependent capacity distributions for reinforced concrete columns under chloride attacks. The proposed framework offers distinct improvements over state-of-the-art procedures for fragility assessment of degrading bridges which typically assume simplified uniform corrosion deterioration model and pristine limit state capacities. Depending on the time in service life and deterioration mechanism, this study finds that capacity limit states for deteriorating bridge columns follow either lognormal distribution or generalized extreme value distributions (particularly for pitting corrosion). Impact of column degradation mechanism on seismic response and fragility of bridge components and system is assessed using nonlinear time history analysis of three-dimensional finite element bridge models reflecting the uncertainties across structural modeling parameters, deterioration parameters and ground motion. Comparisons are drawn between the proposed methodology and traditional approaches to develop aging bridge fragility curves. Results indicate considerable underestimations of system level fragility across different damage states using the traditional approach compared to the proposed realistic pitting model for chloride induced corrosion. Time-dependent predictive functions are provided to interpolate logistic regression coefficients for continuous seismic reliability evaluation along the service life with reasonable accuracy. - Highlights: • Realistic modeling of chloride induced corrosion deterioration in the form of pitting. • Time-evolving capacity distribution for aging bridge columns under chloride attacks. • Time-dependent seismic fragility estimation of highway bridges at component and system level. • Mathematical functions for continuous tracking of seismic fragility along service

  5. Correction: Comparative analysis of fungal genomes reveals different plant cell wall degrading capacity in fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The version of this article published in BMC Genomics 2013, 14: 274, contains 9 unpublished genomes (Botryobasidium botryosum, Gymnopus luxurians, Hypholoma sublateritium, Jaapia argillacea, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Conidiobolus coronatus, Laccaria amethystina, Paxillus involutus, and P. rubicundulus) downloaded from JGI website. In this correction, we removed these genomes after discussion with editors and data producers whom we should have contacted before downloading these genomes. Removing these data did not alter the principle results and conclusions of our original work. The relevant Figures 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6; and Table 1 have been revised. Additional files 1, 3, 4, and 5 were also revised. We would like to apologize for any confusion or inconvenience this may have caused. Background Fungi produce a variety of carbohydrate activity enzymes (CAZymes) for the degradation of plant polysaccharide materials to facilitate infection and/or gain nutrition. Identifying and comparing CAZymes from fungi with different nutritional modes or infection mechanisms may provide information for better understanding of their life styles and infection models. To date, over hundreds of fungal genomes are publicly available. However, a systematic comparative analysis of fungal CAZymes across the entire fungal kingdom has not been reported. Results In this study, we systemically identified glycoside hydrolases (GHs), polysaccharide lyases (PLs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs), and glycosyltransferases (GTs) as well as carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) in the predicted proteomes of 94 representative fungi from Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. Comparative analysis of these CAZymes that play major roles in plant polysaccharide degradation revealed that fungi exhibit tremendous diversity in the number and variety of CAZymes. Among them, some families of GHs and CEs are the most prevalent CAZymes that are distributed in all of the fungi analyzed

  6. Comparative secretome analysis suggests low plant cell wall degrading capacity in Frankia symbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normand Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frankia sp. strains, the nitrogen-fixing facultative endosymbionts of actinorhizal plants, have long been proposed to secrete hydrolytic enzymes such as cellulases, pectinases, and proteases that may contribute to plant root penetration and formation of symbiotic root nodules. These or other secreted proteins might logically be involved in the as yet unknown molecular interactions between Frankia and their host plants. We compared the genome-based secretomes of three Frankia strains representing diverse host specificities. Signal peptide detection algorithms were used to predict the individual secretomes of each strain, and the set of secreted proteins shared among the strains, termed the core Frankia secretome. Proteins in the core secretome may be involved in the actinorhizal symbiosis. Results The Frankia genomes have conserved Sec (general secretory and Tat (twin arginine translocase secretion systems. The potential secretome of each Frankia strain comprised 4–5% of the total proteome, a lower percentage than that found in the genomes of other actinobacteria, legume endosymbionts, and plant pathogens. Hydrolytic enzymes made up only a small fraction of the total number of predicted secreted proteins in each strain. Surprisingly, polysaccharide-degrading enzymes were few in number, especially in strain CcI3, with more esterolytic, lipolytic and proteolytic enzymes having signal peptides. A total of 161 orthologous proteins belong to the core Frankia secretome. Of these, 52 also lack homologs in closely related actinobacteria, and are termed "Frankia-specific." The genes encoding these conserved secreted proteins are often clustered near secretion machinery genes. Conclusion The predicted secretomes of Frankia sp. are relatively small and include few hydrolases, which could reflect adaptation to a symbiotic lifestyle. There are no well-conserved secreted polysaccharide-degrading enzymes present in all three Frankia

  7. Capacity of ensilage of Jatropha curcas L. cake to degrade forbol esters

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, André Soares de; Schwambach, Thiago Ivan; Sinhorin, Adilson Paulo; Oliveira, Márcia Rodrigues Carvalho; Alessi, Karine Claudia; Oliveira Filho, Francisco Antônio de; Pina, Douglas dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of the ensilage of Jatropha curcas L. expeller cake to reduce the phorbol esters and its effect on fermentative losses, by adding soluble carbohydrates or microbial inoculants. The design was completely randomized with four replications in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, with three sources of soluble carbohydrates (SC, control, 50 g sucrose/kg or 50 g crude glycerin/kg as fed) and two doses of microbial inoculants (MI, 0 or 5 × 10(5) ufc...

  8. A practical method for measuring the ion exchange capacity decrease of hydroxide exchange membranes during intrinsic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuer, Klaus-Dieter; Jannasch, Patric

    2018-01-01

    In this work we present a practical thermogravimetric method for quantifying the IEC (ion exchange capacity) decrease of hydroxide exchange membranes (HEMs) during intrinsic degradation mainly occurring through nucleophilic attack of the anion exchanging group by hydroxide ions. The method involves measuring weight changes under controlled temperature and relative humidity. These conditions are close to these in a fuel cell, i.e. the measured degradation rate includes all effects originating from the polymeric structure, the consumption of hydroxide ions and the release of water. In particular, this approach involves no added solvents or base, thereby avoiding inaccuracies that may arise in other methods due to the presence of solvents (other than water) or co-ions (such as Na+ or K+). We demonstrate the method by characterizing the decomposition of membranes consisting of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) functionalized with trimethyl-pentyl-ammonium side chains. The decomposition rate is found to depend on temperature, relative humidity RH (controlling the hydration number λ) and the total water content (controlled by the actual IEC and RH).

  9. Mechanisms of tolerance and high degradation capacity of the herbicide mesotrione by Escherichia coli strain DH5-α.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz R Olchanheski

    Full Text Available The intensive use of agrochemicals has played an important role in increasing agricultural production. One of the impacts of agrochemical use has been changes in population structure of soil microbiota. The aim of this work was to analyze the adaptive strategies that bacteria use to overcome oxidative stress caused by mesotrione, which inhibits 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase. We also examined antioxidative stress systems, saturation changes of lipid membranes, and the capacity of bacteria to degrade mesotrione. Escherichia coli DH5-á was chosen as a non-environmental strain, which is already a model bacterium for studying metabolism and adaptation. The results showed that this bacterium was able to tolerate high doses of the herbicide (10× field rate, and completely degraded mesotrione after 3 h of exposure, as determined by a High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Growth rates in the presence of mesotrione were lower than in the control, prior to the period of degradation, showing toxic effects of this herbicide on bacterial cells. Changes in the saturation of the membrane lipids reduced the damage caused by reactive oxygen species and possibly hindered the entry of xenobiotics in the cell, while activating glutathione-S-transferase enzyme in the antioxidant system and in the metabolizing process of the herbicide. Considering that E. coli DH5-α is a non-environmental strain and it had no previous contact with mesotrione, the defense system found in this strain could be considered non-specific. This bacterium system response may be a general adaptation mechanism by which bacterial strains resist to damage from the presence of herbicides in agricultural soils.

  10. Capacity of ensilage of Jatropha curcas L. cake to degrade forbol esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Soares de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of the ensilage of Jatropha curcas L. expeller cake to reduce the phorbol esters and its effect on fermentative losses, by adding soluble carbohydrates or microbial inoculants. The design was completely randomized with four replications in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, with three sources of soluble carbohydrates (SC, control, 50 g sucrose/kg or 50 g crude glycerin/kg as fed and two doses of microbial inoculants (MI, 0 or 5 × 10(5 ufc Lactobacillus plantarum + 3.33 × 10(5 ufc Propionibacterium per g as fed. Twenty-four mini-silos (982 cm³ of polyvinyl chloride were created and opened after 60 days of fermentation at room temperature. The pre-hydrated Jatropha curcas L. cake (282 g of water/kg contained 0.424 mg of phorbol esters/g of dry matter. Ensiling reduced the phorbol esters in 47.4%, on average, regardless of the SC or MI. There was no interaction effect between SC and MI on effluent, gases or total dry matter losses. However, both losses were increased when SC were added, and it was higher with glycerin that than sucrose. The addition of MI reduced all fermentation losses. The process of ensiling, although partially to reduce the phorbol esters of pre-hydrated Jatropha curcas L. cake, is not indicated as a biodestoxification procedure.

  11. Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344, a cyanide-degrading bacterium with by-product (polyhydroxyalkanoates) formation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso Cobos, Isabel; Ibáñez García, María Isabel; de la Peña Moreno, Fernando; Sáez Melero, Lara Paloma; Luque-Almagro, Víctor Manuel; Castillo Rodríguez, Francisco; Roldán Ruiz, María Dolores; Prieto Jiménez, María Auxiliadora; Moreno Vivián, Conrado

    2015-06-10

    Cyanide is one of the most toxic chemicals produced by anthropogenic activities like mining and jewelry industries, which generate wastewater residues with high concentrations of this compound. Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 is a model microorganism to be used in detoxification of industrial wastewaters containing not only free cyanide (CN(-)) but also cyano-derivatives, such as cyanate, nitriles and metal-cyanide complexes. Previous in silico analyses suggested the existence of genes putatively involved in metabolism of short chain length (scl-) and medium chain length (mcl-) polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) located in three different clusters in the genome of this bacterium. PHAs are polyesters considered as an alternative of petroleum-based plastics. Strategies to optimize the bioremediation process in terms of reducing the cost of the production medium are required. In this work, a biological treatment of the jewelry industry cyanide-rich wastewater coupled to PHAs production as by-product has been considered. The functionality of the pha genes from P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 has been demonstrated. Mutant strains defective in each proposed PHA synthases coding genes (Mpha(-), deleted in putative mcl-PHA synthases; Spha(-), deleted in the putative scl-PHA synthase) were generated. The accumulation and monomer composition of scl- or mcl-PHAs in wild type and mutant strains were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The production of PHAs as by-product while degrading cyanide from the jewelry industry wastewater was analyzed in batch reactor in each strain. The wild type and the mutant strains grew at similar rates when using octanoate as the carbon source and cyanide as the sole nitrogen source. When cyanide was depleted from the medium, both scl-PHAs and mcl-PHAs were detected in the wild-type strain, whereas scl-PHAs or mcl-PHAs were accumulated in Mpha(-) and Spha(-), respectively. The scl-PHAs were identified as homopolymers of 3

  12. An Investigation of the Effect of Graphite Degradation on the Irreversible Capacity in Lithium-ion Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Marcinek, Marek; Beer, Leanne; Kerr, John B.; Kostecki, Robert

    2008-03-03

    The effect of surface structural damage on graphitic anodes, commonly observed in tested Li-ion cells, was investigated. Similar surface structural disorder was artificially induced in Mag-10 synthetic graphite anodes using argon-ion sputtering. Raman microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) measurements confirmed that Ar-ion sputtered Mag-10 electrodes display similar degree of surface degradation as the anodes from tested Li-ion cells. Artificially modified Mag-10 anodes showed double the irreversible charge capacity during the first formation cycle, compared to fresh un-altered anodes. Impedance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy on surface modified graphite anodes indicated the formation of a thicker and slightly more resistive SEI layer. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis of solvent extracts from the electrodes detected the presence of new compounds with M{sub w} on the order of 1600 g mol{sup -1} for the surface modified electrode with no evidence of elevated M{sub w} species for the unmodified electrode. The structural disorder induced in the graphite during long-term cycling maybe responsible for the slow and continuous SEI layer reformation, and consequently, the loss of reversible capacity due to the shift of lithium inventory in cycled Li-ion cells.

  13. Emamectin benzoate: new insecticide against Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanigliulo, A; Sacchetti, M

    2008-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate is a new insecticide of Syngenta Crop Protection, with a new mechanism of action and a strong activity against Lepidoptera as well as with and a high selectivity on useful organisms. This molecule acts if swallowed and has some contact action. It penetrates leaf tissues (translaminar activity) and forms a reservoir within the leaf. The mechanism of action is unique in the panorama of insecticides. In facts, it inhibits muscle contraction, causing a continuous flow of chlorine ions in the GABA and H-Glutamate receptor sites. During 2006 and 2007, experimentation was performed by the Bioagritest test facility, according to EPPO guidelines and Principles of Good Experimental Practice (GEP), aiming at establishing the biological efficacy and the selectivity of Emamectin benzoate on industry tomato against Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidoe). The study was performed in Tursi-Policoro (Matera), southern Italy. Experimental design consisted in random blocks, in 4 repetitions. A dosage of 1.5 Kg/ha of the formulate was compared with two commercial formulates: Spinosad 0.2 kg/ha (Laser, Dow Agrosciences Italia) and Indoxacarb 0.125 kg/ha (Steward EC insecticide, Dupont). Three foliage applications were applied every 8 days. The severity of damage induced by H. armigera was evaluated on fruits. Eventual phytotoxic effects were also evaluated. Climatic conditions were optimal for Lepidoptera development, so that the percentage of fruits attacked in 2007 at the first scouting was 68.28%. Emamectin benzoate has shown, in two years of testing, a high control of H. armigera if compared with the standards Indoxacarb and Spinosad. No effect of phytotoxicity was noticed on fruits.

  14. in Binary Liquid Mixtures of Ethyl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Babu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity is measured at 2MHz frequency in the binary mixtures of Ethyl Benzoate with 1-Propanol, 1-Butanol, 1-Pentanol and theoretical values of ultrasonic velocity have been evaluated at 303K using Nomoto's relation, Impedance relation, Ideal mixture relation, Junjie's method and free length theory. Theoretical values are compared with the experimental values and the validity of the theories is checked by applying the chi-square test for goodness of fit and by calculating the average percentage error (APE. A good agreement has been found between experimental and Nomoto’s ultrasonic velocity.

  15. Dissipation and residues of emamectin benzoate in cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuaigang; Zhang, Fengzu; Wang, Lei; Pan, Canping

    2012-09-01

    Emamectin benzoate residue dynamics and final residues in supervised field trials at GAP conditions were studied. An HPLC-MS analytical method for the determination of emamectin benzoate in cabbage and soil was developed. The recoveries of emamectin benzoate on cabbage and soil were observed from 71% to 102% at fortification levels of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg. The reported limit of quantification (LOQ) was found to be 0.01 mg/kg. The dissipation experiments showed the half-lives (T(1/2)) of emamectin benzoate was around 1 days. At pre-harvest intervals (PHI) of 7 and 12 days, emamectin benzoate residue was observed to be below the LOQ.

  16. Inhibition of Sodium Benzoate on Stainless Steel in Tropical Seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seoh, S. Y.; Senin, H. B.; Nik, W. N. Wan; Amin, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    The inhibition of sodium benzoate for stainless steel controlling corrosion was studied in seawater at room temperature. Three sets of sample have been immersed in seawater containing sodium benzoate with the concentrations of 0.3M, 0.6M and 1.0M respectively. One set of sample has been immersed in seawater without adding any sodium benzoate. It was found that the highest corrosion rate was observed for the stainless steel with no inhibitor was added to the seawater. As the concentration of sodium benzoate being increased, the corrosion rate is decreases. Results show that by the addition of 1.0M of sodium benzoate in seawater samples, it giving ≥ 90% efficiencies

  17. Photodegradation of emamectin benzoate in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, M.; Chukwudebe, A.C.; Wrzesinski, C.; Allen, L.R.S.; Luffer-Atlas, D.; Arison, B.H.

    1998-01-01

    The half-life of [ 14 C]4'-deoxy-4'-(epi-methylamino)avermectin B1a (MAB1a) benzoate (1 ppm) photodegradation in buffer (pH 7), natural pond water, and sensitized buffer (1% acetone in pH 7 buffer) determined at Three Bridges, NJ (latitude approximately 40 degrees N) during the fall season under natural sunlight was 22, 7, and 1 days, respectively. The half-life of [ 14 C]MAB1a benzoate (10-12 ppm) photodegradation in buffer (pH 7) containing 1% (v/v) acetonitrile, ethanol, or acetone as cosolvent under continuous exposure with a xenon lamp was 64.5, 8.5, or 0.5 days, respectively. The photoisomer 8,9-Z-MAB1a, 8a-hydroxy-MAB1a, and unknown polar residues were found in light-exposed samples of MAB1a in buffer and natural pond water. In light-exposed sensitized buffer samples, 8a-oxo-MAB1a and MAB1a-10,11-14,15-diepoxide were additional products. Very polar residues found in the organic and aqueous phases after extraction increased with time, and their formation followed the order sensitized buffer natural pond water buffer. (author)

  18. Determination of Synthetic Food Colors, Caffeine, Sodium Benzoate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of Synthetic Food Colors, Caffeine, Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate in Sports Drinks. Fatemeh Zamani Mazdeh, Zeinab Moradi, Ghazaleh Moghaddam, Zhila Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Farideh Esmaeili Aftabdari, Parnaz Badaei, Mannan Hajimahmoodi ...

  19. Resistance Inheritance of Plutellaxylostella Population to Residual of Emamectin Benzoat

    OpenAIRE

    Udi Tarwotjo; Rully Rahardian

    2017-01-01

    Excessive use of insecticides drives the increasing ability of pests to become resistant. The objectives of this research were to study the susceptibility and the resistance inheritance of the eleven population of P. xylostella to emamectin benzoate. The leaf-dip bioassay was applied to determine the sensitivity of P. xylostella to emamectin benzoate. The offspring of backcrossed F2 were tested whether the resistance was controlled by monogenic. The results showed that the LC50 of the Selo po...

  20. Dissipation, transfer and safety evaluation of emamectin benzoate in tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Luo, Fengjian; Zhang, Xinzhong; Jiang, Yaping; Lou, Zhengyun; Chen, Zongmao

    2016-07-01

    The dissipation and residue of emamectin benzoate in tea leaves and the residue transfer from tea leaves to tea brew were investigated by modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass (UPLC-MS/MS). The average recoveries ranged 85.3-101.3% with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 15%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.005mgkg(-1) in tea leaves and 0.0004mgL(-1) in brew. Emamectin benzoate dissipated rapidly in tea with half-life (t1/2) of 1.0-1.3days. The terminal residues of emamectin benzoate were less than 0.062mgkg(-1). The leaching rate of emamectin benzoate from freshly-made tea to brew was emamectin benzoate at the recommended dosage was negligible to humans depending on risk quotient (RQ) value, that was lower than 1 significantly. This study could provide guidance for the safe use of emamectin benzoate and serve as a reference for the establishment of maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Identification of the electron transfer flavoprotein as an upregulated enzyme in the benzoate utilization of Desulfotignum balticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habe, Hiroshi; Kobuna, Akinori; Hosoda, Akifumi; Kosaka, Tomoyuki; Endoh, Takayuki; Tamura, Hiroto; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki; Omori, Toshio; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2009-07-01

    Desulfotignum balticum utilizes benzoate coupled to sulfate reduction. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) analysis was conducted to detect proteins that increased more after growth on benzoate than on butyrate. A comparison of proteins on 2D gels showed that at least six proteins were expressed. The N-terminal sequences of three proteins exhibited significant identities with the alpha and beta subunits of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) from anaerobic aromatic-degraders. By sequence analysis of the fosmid clone insert (37,590 bp) containing the genes encoding the ETF subunits, we identified three genes, whose deduced amino acid sequences showed 58%, 74%, and 62% identity with those of Gmet_2267 (Fe-S oxidoreductase), Gmet_2266 (ETF beta subunit), and Gmet_2265 (ETF alpha subunit) respectively, which exist within the 300-kb genomic island of aromatic-degradation genes from Geobacter metallireducens GS-15. The genes encoding ETF subunits found in this study were upregulated in benzoate utilization.

  2. [Biodistribution and Postmortem Redistribution of Emamectin Benzoate in Intoxicated Mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei-wei; Lin, Yu-cai; Lu, Yan-xu

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the lethal blood level, the target organs and tissues, the toxicant storage depots and the postmortem redistribution in mice died of emamectin benzoate poisoning. The mice model of emamectin benzoate poisoning was established via intragastric injection. The main poisoning symptoms and the clinical death times of mice were observed and recorded dynamically in the acute poisoning group as well as the sub-acute poisoning death group. The pathological and histomorphological changes of organs and tissues were observed after poisoning death. The biodistribution and postmortem redistribution of emamectin benzoate in the organs and tissues of mice were assayed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 0h, 24h, 48h and 72h after death. The lethal blood concentrations and the concentrations of emamectin benzoate were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at different time points after death. The symptoms of nervous and respiratory system were observed within 15-30 min after intragastric injection. The average time of death was (45.8 ± 7.9) min in the acute poisoning group and (8.0 ± 1.4) d in the sub-acute poisoning group, respectively. The range of acute lethal blood level was 447.164 0-524.463 5 mg/L. The pathological changes of the organs and tissues were observed via light microscope and immunofluorescence microscope. The changes of emamectin benzoate content in the blood, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and brain of poisoning mice showed regularity within 72 h after death (P emamectin benzoate poisoning include heart, liver, kidney, lung, brain and contact position (stomach). The toxicant storage depots are kidney and liver. There is emamectin benzoate postmortem redistribution in mice.

  3. Inulin-type fructan degradation capacity of Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa butyrate-producing colon bacteria and their associated metabolic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, F; De Vuyst, L

    2017-05-30

    Four selected butyrate-producing colon bacterial strains belonging to Clostridium cluster IV (Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum DSM 23266 T and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii DSM 17677 T ) and XIVa (Eubacterium hallii DSM 17630 and Eubacterium rectale CIP 105953 T ) were studied as to their capacity to degrade inulin-type fructans and concomitant metabolite production. Cultivation of these strains was performed in bottles and fermentors containing a modified medium for colon bacteria, including acetate, supplemented with either fructose, oligofructose, or inulin as the sole energy source. Inulin-type fructan degradation was not a general characteristic among these strains. B. pullicaecorum DSM 23266 T and E. hallii DSM 17630 could only ferment fructose and did not degrade oligofructose or inulin. E. rectale CIP 105953 T and F. prausnitzii DSM 17677 T fermented fructose and could degrade both oligofructose and inulin. All chain length fractions of oligofructose were degraded simultaneously (both strains) and both long and short chain length fractions of inulin were degraded either simultaneously (E. rectale CIP 105953 T ) or consecutively (F. prausnitzii DSM 17677 T ), indicating an extracellular polymer degradation mechanism. B. pullicaecorum DSM 23266 T and E. hallii DSM 17630 produced high concentrations of butyrate, CO 2 , and H 2 from fructose. E. rectale CIP 105953 T produced lactate, butyrate, CO 2 , and H 2 , from fructose, oligofructose, and inulin, whereas F. prausnitzii DSM 17677 T produced butyrate, formate, CO 2 , and traces of lactate from fructose, oligofructose, and inulin. Based on carbon recovery and theoretical metabolite production calculations, an adapted stoichiometrically balanced metabolic pathway for butyrate, formate, lactate, CO 2 , and H 2 production by members of both Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa butyrate-producing bacteria was constructed.

  4. Toxicities of emamectin benzoate homologues and photodegradates to Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentine, Joseph A; Jansson, Richard K; Starner, Van R; Halliday, W Ross

    2002-12-01

    The toxicity of a number of emamectin benzoate homologues and photodegradates to five species of Lepidoptera was investigated using diet and foliar bioassays. The emamectin benzoate homologues B1a and B1b were equally toxic in the diet and foliar assays to Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), Heliothis virescens (F.), Tricoplusia ni (Hübner), and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), within each of these species. Plutella xylostella (L.) was the most sensitive species to emamectin benzoate. The AB1a photodegradate of emamectin benzoate was as toxic as the parent compound in the diet assay. However, in the foliage assay AB1a was 4.4-fold less toxic to S. exigua than the parent compound. The MFB1a photodegradate of emamectin benzoate was as toxic as the parent compound to P. xylostella, and 3.1 to 6.2 times as toxic as the parent compound to the other species in the diet assay. The order of toxicity of the photodegradates were AB1a > MFB1a > FAB1a > 8,9-Z-MAB1a > PAB1a.

  5. Caffeine Sodium Benzoate for Electroconvulsive Therapy Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozymski, Kevin M; Potter, Teresa G; Venkatachalam, Vasu; Pandurangi, Ananda K; Crouse, Ericka L

    2018-05-15

    Because of an ongoing manufacturer shortage of injectable caffeine sodium benzoate (CSB), patients at our health system were given CSB compounded in-house to increase seizure response during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Therefore, we aimed to evaluate its effectiveness and safety as an ECT augmentation agent. Medical records of patients who received compounded CSB at Virginia Commonwealth University Health System were reviewed to identify adults receiving it as part of an index ECT treatment course between June 2012 and December 2016. The primary outcome was change in electroencephalogram seizure duration from pre-caffeine session to initial caffeine session. Data were also collected on demographics, motor seizure duration, maximum heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and concurrent medication use for these sessions and the last caffeine session. Seven-one patients were included in the study, predominantly white females with a mean age of 58.6 years. The most common indication for ECT was major depressive disorder resistant to pharmacotherapy (71.8%), followed by catatonia associated with another mental disorder (19.7%). Electroencephalogram seizure duration increased by 24.1 seconds on average with first CSB use (P < 0.0001), allowing 24 more patients overall to achieve goal of at least 30 seconds (P < 0.0001). No clinically significant changes in maximum heart rate or mean arterial pressure were observed, nor did any patients require an abortive agent for prolonged seizure. Five patients (7%) discontinued CSB prematurely: 4 related to adverse effects and 1 secondary to ineffectiveness. We confirm results of prior studies of the utility of CSB and add that compounded CSB is effective for ECT augmentation, maintaining effectiveness throughout the index course with minimal safety concerns.

  6. Determination of emamectin benzoate in medicated fish feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farer, L J; Hayes, J; Rosen, J; Knight, P

    1999-01-01

    A method was developed to quantitate emamectin benzoate in fish feed at levels between 5 and 15 ppm. The active ingredient is extracted from 20 g medicated feed into aqueous-methanolic solvent by overnight shaking. A solid-phase extraction procedure using a 2 g C18 cartridge is then used to concentrate the active residue and remove interfering matrix components. The extracted drug and internal standard are eluted from the cartridge, evaporated to dryness, and reconstituted in methanol. A control feed sample and fortified control working standard are simultaneously prepared. Remaining interferences and sample analysis are further separated on a gradient liquid chromatographic system. Recovery of emamectin benzoate from fortified feeds ranged from 97 to 100%, with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 1.2%. Determination of emamectin benzoate in medicated feeds resulted in CVs ranging from 2.3 to 4.2% and recoveries of 88 to 98% of label claim.

  7. Benzoate Allergy in Children--From Foods to Personal Hygiene Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Hill, Hannah; Lucero, Hanna; Nedorost, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Benzoate allergy may be an overlooked allergen in children and one that may be of increasing importance with its increasing role as a preservative in pediatric personal hygiene formulations. The cases herein report an association with cola and benzoate allergy and discusses the implications of replacement of formaldehyde by benzoates in personal hygiene products. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Benzoate-Induced High-Nuclearity Silver Thiolate Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan-Min; Liu, Wei; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Shu-Ao; Li, Yan-An; Yu, Fei; Zhao, Quan-Qin; Wang, Xing-Po; Tung, Chen-Ho; Sun, Di

    2018-04-03

    Compared with the well-known anion-templated effects in shaping silver thiolate clusters, the influence from the organic ligands in the outer shell is still poorly understood. Herein, three new benzoate-functionalized high-nuclearity silver(I) thiolate clusters are isolated and characterized for the first time in the presence of diverse anion templates such as S 2- , α-[Mo 5 O 18 ] 6- , and MoO 4 2- . Single-crystal X-ray analysis reveals that the nuclearities of the three silver clusters (SD/Ag28, SD/Ag29, SD/Ag30) vary from 32 to 38 to 78 with co-capped tBuS - and benzoate ligands on the surface. SD/Ag28 is a turtle-like cluster comprising a Ag 29 shell caging a Ag 3 S 3 trigon in the center, whereas SD/Ag29 is a prolate Ag 38 sphere templated by the α-[Mo 5 O 18 ] 6- anion. Upon changing from benzoate to methoxyl-substituted benzoate, SD/Ag30 is isolated as a very complicated core-shell spherical cluster composed of a Ag 57 shell and a vase-like Ag 21 S 13 core. Four MoO 4 2- anions are arranged in a supertetrahedron and located in the interstice between the core and shell. Introduction of the bulky benzoate changes elaborately the nuclearity and arrangements of silver polygons on the shell of silver clusters, which is exemplified by comparing SD/Ag28 and a known similar silver thiolate cluster. The three new clusters emit luminescence in the near-infrared (NIR) region and show different thermochromic luminescence properties. This work presents a flexible approach to synthetic studies of high-nuclearity silver clusters decorated by different benzoates, and structural modulations are also achieved. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The translational repressor Crc controls the Pseudomonas putida benzoate and alkane catabolic pathways using a multi-tier regulation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Arranz, Sofía; Moreno, Renata; Rojo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Metabolically versatile bacteria usually perceive aromatic compounds and hydrocarbons as non-preferred carbon sources, and their assimilation is inhibited if more preferable substrates are available. This is achieved via catabolite repression. In Pseudomonas putida, the expression of the genes allowing the assimilation of benzoate and n-alkanes is strongly inhibited by catabolite repression, a process controlled by the translational repressor Crc. Crc binds to and inhibits the translation of benR and alkS mRNAs, which encode the transcriptional activators that induce the expression of the benzoate and alkane degradation genes respectively. However, sequences similar to those recognized by Crc in benR and alkS mRNAs exist as well in the translation initiation regions of the mRNA of several structural genes of the benzoate and alkane pathways, which suggests that Crc may also regulate their translation. The present results show that some of these sites are functional, and that Crc inhibits the induction of both pathways by limiting not only the translation of their transcriptional activators, but also that of genes coding for the first enzyme in each pathway. Crc may also inhibit the translation of a gene involved in benzoate uptake. This multi-tier approach probably ensures the rapid regulation of pathway genes, minimizing the assimilation of non-preferred substrates when better options are available. A survey of possible Crc sites in the mRNAs of genes associated with other catabolic pathways suggested that targeting substrate uptake, pathway induction and/or pathway enzymes may be a common strategy to control the assimilation of non-preferred compounds. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Changes induced by UV radiation in the presence of sodium benzoate in films formulated with polyvinyl alcohol and carboxymethyl cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarruel, S. [Faculty of Exact Sciences, UNLP (Argentina); Giannuzzi, L.; Rivero, S. [Center for Research and Development in Food Cryotechnology (CCT-CONICET La Plata), 47 and 116 (Argentina); Pinotti, A., E-mail: acaimpronta@hotmail.com [Center for Research and Development in Food Cryotechnology (CCT-CONICET La Plata), 47 and 116 (Argentina); Faculty of Engineering, UNLP, La Plata 1900 (Argentina)

    2015-11-01

    This work was focused on: i) developing single and blend films based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) studying their properties, ii) analyzing the interactions between CMC and PVOH and their modifications UV-induced in the presence of sodium benzoate (SB), and iii) evaluating the antimicrobial capacity of blend films containing SB with and without UV treatment. Once the blend films with SB were exposed to UV radiation, they exhibited lower moisture content as well as a greater elongation at break and rougher surfaces compared to those without treatment. Considering oxygen barrier properties, the low values obtained would allow their application as packaging with selective oxygen permeability. Moreover, the characteristics of the amorphous phase of the matrix prevailed with a rearrangement of the structure of the polymer chain, causing a decrease of the crystallinity degree. These results were supported by X-rays and DSC analysis. FT-IR spectra reflected some degree of polymer–polymer interaction at a molecular level in the amorphous regions. The incorporation of sodium benzoate combined with UV treatment in blend films was positive from the microbial point of view because of the growth inhibition of a wide spectrum of microorganisms. From a physicochemical perspective, the UV treatment of films also changed their morphology rendering them more insoluble in water, turning the functionalized blend films into a potential material to be applied as food packaging. - Highlights: • CMC:PVOH blend films were developed with the addition of sodium benzoate (SB). • Exposition to UV radiation was carried out with sodium benzoate as photoinitiator. • Blend films were exposed to UV radiation to modify their surface morphology. • Low O{sub 2} permeability of UV treated blends allow them to be used as selective packaging. • Efficacy of SB as an antimicrobial agent was examined with and without UV radiation.

  11. Changes induced by UV radiation in the presence of sodium benzoate in films formulated with polyvinyl alcohol and carboxymethyl cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarruel, S.; Giannuzzi, L.; Rivero, S.; Pinotti, A.

    2015-01-01

    This work was focused on: i) developing single and blend films based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) studying their properties, ii) analyzing the interactions between CMC and PVOH and their modifications UV-induced in the presence of sodium benzoate (SB), and iii) evaluating the antimicrobial capacity of blend films containing SB with and without UV treatment. Once the blend films with SB were exposed to UV radiation, they exhibited lower moisture content as well as a greater elongation at break and rougher surfaces compared to those without treatment. Considering oxygen barrier properties, the low values obtained would allow their application as packaging with selective oxygen permeability. Moreover, the characteristics of the amorphous phase of the matrix prevailed with a rearrangement of the structure of the polymer chain, causing a decrease of the crystallinity degree. These results were supported by X-rays and DSC analysis. FT-IR spectra reflected some degree of polymer–polymer interaction at a molecular level in the amorphous regions. The incorporation of sodium benzoate combined with UV treatment in blend films was positive from the microbial point of view because of the growth inhibition of a wide spectrum of microorganisms. From a physicochemical perspective, the UV treatment of films also changed their morphology rendering them more insoluble in water, turning the functionalized blend films into a potential material to be applied as food packaging. - Highlights: • CMC:PVOH blend films were developed with the addition of sodium benzoate (SB). • Exposition to UV radiation was carried out with sodium benzoate as photoinitiator. • Blend films were exposed to UV radiation to modify their surface morphology. • Low O 2 permeability of UV treated blends allow them to be used as selective packaging. • Efficacy of SB as an antimicrobial agent was examined with and without UV radiation

  12. Resistance Inheritance of Plutellaxylostella Population to Residual of Emamectin Benzoat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udi Tarwotjo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Excessive use of insecticides drives the increasing ability of pests to become resistant. The objectives of this research were to study the susceptibility and the resistance inheritance of the eleven population of P. xylostella to emamectin benzoate. The leaf-dip bioassay was applied to determine the sensitivity of P. xylostella to emamectin benzoate. The offspring of backcrossed F2 were tested whether the resistance was controlled by monogenic. The results showed that the LC50 of the Selo population was 53.42 ppb, and the Puasan population was 212.13 ppb. The genetic analysis showed that the backcrosseddegree of dominance (D was less than 1. It was indicated that the P. xylostella resistance to emamectin benzoate was recessive. The value of LC50 of the backcrossed F1♀ x ♂S (177.99 ppb and its reciprocals x ♀R (F1 (201.69 ppb were not significantly different with the value of LC50 resistance population. This suggests that the nature of P. xylostella resistance to emamectin benzoate was controlled by monogenic.The result of the study would be beneficial for developing strategy to maintain susceptible population using refugee plant during lack of their host.

  13. The long N-terminus of the human monocarboxylate transporter 8 is a target of ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation which regulates protein expression and oligomerization capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanziger, Denise; Schmidt, Mathias; Fischer, Jana; Kleinau, Gunnar; Braun, Doreen; Schweizer, Ulrich; Moeller, Lars Christian; Biebermann, Heike; Fuehrer, Dagmar

    2016-10-15

    Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) equilibrates thyroid hormones between the extra- and the intracellular sides. MCT8 exists either with a short or a long N-terminus, but potential functional differences between both variants are yet not known. We, therefore, generated MCT8 constructs which are different in N-terminal length: MCT8(1-613), MCT8(25-613), MCT8(49-613) and MCT8(75-613). The M75G substitution prevents translation of MCT8(75-613) and ensures expression of full-length MCT8 protein. The K56G substitution was made to prevent ubiquitinylation. Cell-surface expression, localization and proteasomal degradation were investigated using C-terminally GFP-tagged MCT8 constructs (HEK293 and MDCK1 cells) and oligomerization capacity was determined using N-terminally HA- and C-terminally FLAG-tagged MCT8 constructs (COS7 cells). MCT8(1-613)-GFP showed a lower protein expression than the shorter MCT8(75-613)-GFP protein. The proteasome inhibitor lactacystin increased MCT8(1-613)-GFP protein amount, suggesting proteasomal degradation of MCT8 with the long N-terminus. Ubiquitin conjugation of MCT8(1-613)-GFP was found by immuno-precipitation. A diminished ubiquitin conjugation caused by K56G substitution resulted in increased MCT8(1-613)-GFP protein expression. Sandwich ELISA was performed to investigate if the bands at higher molecular weight observed in Western blot analysis are due to MCT8 oligomerization, which was indeed shown. Our data imply a role of the long N-terminus of MCT8 as target of ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation affecting MCT8 amount and subsequently oligomerization capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synergistic Processing of Biphenyl and Benzoate: Carbon Flow Through the Bacterial Community in Polychlorinated-Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Uhlik, Ondrej; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2016-02-01

    Aerobic mineralization of PCBs, which are toxic and persistent organic pollutants, involves the upper (biphenyl, BP) and lower (benzoate, BZ) degradation pathways. The activity of different members of the soil microbial community in performing one or both pathways, and their synergistic interactions during PCB biodegradation, are not well understood. This study investigates BP and BZ biodegradation and subsequent carbon flow through the microbial community in PCB-contaminated soil. DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify the bacterial guilds involved in utilizing 13C-biphenyl (unchlorinated analogue of PCBs) and/or 13C-benzoate (product/intermediate of BP degradation and analogue of chlorobenzoates). By performing SIP with two substrates in parallel, we reveal microbes performing the upper (BP) and/or lower (BZ) degradation pathways, and heterotrophic bacteria involved indirectly in processing carbon derived from these substrates (i.e. through crossfeeding). Substrate mineralization rates and shifts in relative abundance of labeled taxa suggest that BP and BZ biotransformations were performed by microorganisms with different growth strategies: BZ-associated bacteria were fast growing, potentially copiotrophic organisms, while microbes that transform BP were oligotrophic, slower growing, organisms. Our findings provide novel insight into the functional interactions of soil bacteria active in processing biphenyl and related aromatic compounds in soil, revealing how carbon flows through a bacterial community.

  15. Phenotype fingerprinting suggests the involvement of single-genotype consortia in degradation of aromatic compounds by Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V Karpinets

    Full Text Available Anaerobic degradation of complex organic compounds by microorganisms is crucial for development of innovative biotechnologies for bioethanol production and for efficient degradation of environmental pollutants. In natural environments, the degradation is usually accomplished by syntrophic consortia comprised of different bacterial species. This strategy allows consortium organisms to reduce efforts required for maintenance of the redox homeostasis at each syntrophic level. Cellular mechanisms that maintain the redox homeostasis during the degradation of aromatic compounds by one organism are not fully understood. Here we present a hypothesis that the metabolically versatile phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris forms its own syntrophic consortia, when it grows anaerobically on p-coumarate or benzoate as a sole carbon source. We have revealed the consortia from large-scale measurements of mRNA and protein expressions under p-coumarate, benzoate and succinate degrading conditions using a novel computational approach referred as phenotype fingerprinting. In this approach, marker genes for known R. palustris phenotypes are employed to determine the relative expression levels of genes and proteins in aromatics versus non-aromatics degrading condition. Subpopulations of the consortia are inferred from the expression of phenotypes and known metabolic modes of the R. palustris growth. We find that p-coumarate degrading conditions may lead to at least three R. palustris subpopulations utilizing p-coumarate, benzoate, and CO2 and H2. Benzoate degrading conditions may also produce at least three subpopulations utilizing benzoate, CO2 and H2, and N2 and formate. Communication among syntrophs and inter-syntrophic dynamics in each consortium are indicated by up-regulation of transporters and genes involved in the curli formation and chemotaxis. The N2-fixing subpopulation in the benzoate degrading consortium has preferential activation of the

  16. Bacterial carbohydrate-degrading capacity in foal faeces: changes from birth to pre-weaning and the impact of maternal supplementation with fermented feed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubladier, Céline; Julliand, Véronique; Danel, Justine; Philippeau, Christelle

    2013-09-28

    The present study aimed at (1) describing age-related changes in faecal bacterial functional groups involved in carbohydrate degradation and in their activities in foals (n 10) from birth (day (d) 0) to 6 months (d180) and (2) investigating the effect of maternal supplementation (five mares per treatment) from d - 45 to d60 with fermented feed products on response trends over time of the foal bacterial carbohydratedegrading capacity. Maternal supplementation with fermented feed products stimulated foal growth from d0 to d60 and had an impact on the establishment of some digestive bacterial groups and their activities in foals from d0 to d5 but not in the longer term. Irrespective of the maternal treatment, total bacteria, total anaerobic, lactate-utilising and amylolytic bacteria were established immediately after birth (Panaerobes and lactate utilisers were established rapidly between d0 and d2 (P=0·021 and 0·066, respectively) and the increase in the percentage of propionate occurred earlier (P=0·013). Maternal supplementation had no effect on the establishment of fibrolytic bacteria and their activity. Cellulolytic bacteria and Fibrobacter succinogenes first appeared at d2 and d5, and increased progressively, reaching stable values at d30 and d60, respectively. From the second week of life, the increase in the molar percentage of acetate and the ratio (acetate + butyrate):propionate (P<0·05) suggested that fibrolytic activity had begun. From d60, only minor changes in bacterial composition and activities occurred, showing that the bacterial carbohydrate-degrading capacity was established at 2 months of age.

  17. Incorporated Woodchips as a Novel Intervention to Support Plant Growth through Increased Water Holding Capacity and Nutrient Retention in Sandy Degraded Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, E.; Schneider, R.; Walter, T.

    2017-12-01

    According to the World Wildlife Federation's most recent Plow Print report 53 million acres of temperate, water limited, grasslands across the Great Plains have been converted to agriculture since 2009. This conversion very often begins the process of soil degradation which can lead to desertification and the necessity to convert more land to agriculture. The most common solution to this problem is improved crop efficiency to reduce conversion of grasslands to agriculture while still producing enough food for us all. We suggest that while that may be the beginning of the solution, degraded soils need to be rehabilitated and brought back into production to adequately provide food crops for the increasing population of the globe. Incorporated woodchips can be used to improve the soils' water holding capacity and nutrient (N and P) retention. In a previous study we observed an increase in the gravimetric water content and a decrease in soluble N and P losses when fertilizers were applied in liquid form in soil columns with incorporated woodchips (see attached figure). In this study we examine the availability of the retained water and nutrients to grasses to determine the extent to which this intervention might be used to reestablish plant growth in degraded sandy soils. We also begin examining the quantity of woodchips necessary to retain sufficient water and nutrients to sustain the growth of grasses over the course of a growing season. A laboratory soil column study is currently underway to examine these questions; the results of this study will be presented at the Fall Meeting.

  18. Stability indicating method development and validation of assay method for the estimation of rizatriptan benzoate in tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar K. Gadewar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive, precise and specific high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the determination of rizatriptan in rizatriptan benzoate tablet. The separation was carried out by using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile: pH 3.4 phosphate buffer in ratio of 20:80. The column used was Zorbax SB CN 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ with a flow rate of 1 ml/min using UV detection at 225 nm. The retention time of rizatriptan and benzoic acid was found to be 4.751 and 8.348 min respectively. A forced degradation study of rizatriptan benzoate in its tablet form was conducted under the condition of hydrolysis, oxidation, thermal and photolysis. Rizatriptan was found to be stable in basic buffer while in acidic buffer was found to be degraded (water bath at 60 °C for 15 min. The detector response of rizatriptan is directly proportional to concentration ranging from 30% to 160% of test concentration i.e. 15.032 to 80.172 mcg/ml. Results of analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies (mean recovery = 99.44. The result of the study showed that the proposed method is simple, rapid, precise and accurate, which is useful for the routine determination of rizatriptan in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  19. Impact of cell wall-degrading enzymes on water-holding capacity and solubility of dietary fibre in rye and wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Karin; Nordlund, Emilia; Tornberg, Eva; Eliasson, Ann-Charlotte; Buchert, Johanna

    2013-03-15

    Rye and wheat bran were treated with several xylanases and endoglucanases, and the effects on physicochemical properties such as solubility, viscosity, water-holding capacity and particle size as well as the chemical composition of the soluble and insoluble fractions of the bran were studied. A large number of enzymes with well-defined activities were used. This enabled a comparison between enzymes of different origins and with different activities as well as a comparison between the effects of the enzymes on rye and wheat bran. The xylanases derived from Bacillus subtilis were the most effective in solubilising dietary fibre from wheat and rye bran. There was a tendency for a higher degree of degradation of the soluble or solubilised dietary fibre in rye bran than in wheat bran when treated with most of the enzymes. None of the enzymes increased the water-holding capacity of the bran or the viscosity of the aqueous phase. The content of insoluble material decreased as the dietary fibre was solubilised by the enzymes. The amount of material that may form a network to retain water in the system was thereby decreased. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Synthesis and comparative antibacterial studies of some benzylidene monosaccharide benzoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Matin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Some 4,6-O-benzylidene protected 2,3-di-O-benzoates of methyl a-D-glucopyranoside and methyl a-D-mannopyranoside were prepared. All the compounds (1-7 were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity study against ten human pathogenic bacteria. The study revealed that the benzoylated mannopyranosides (5-7 are more prone towards antibacterial functionalities than that of the glucopyranosides (2-3.

  1. Comparative Effects of Water, Acid and Sodium Benzoate as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative effects of water, sulphuric acid and sodium benzoate as additives on the micelle-catalyzed aquation reactions of the complexes:Fe(Me2Phen)3 2+ and FE(Me4Phen) were studied in acetone using Triton X-100 (TX-100), as the surfactant-catalyst. FE(Me4Phen)2+ equates faster than FE(Me2Phen)2+ in the ...

  2. Distribution of emamectin benzoate in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevatdal, S; Magnusson, A; Ingebrigtsen, K; Haldorsen, R; Horsberg, T E

    2005-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the content of emamectin in blood, mucus and muscle following field administration of the recommended dose, and correlation with sea lice infection on the same fish (elimination study). The tissue distribution of tritiated emamectin benzoate after a single oral dose in Atlantic salmon was also investigated by means of whole-body autoradiography and scintillation counting (distribution study). In the elimination study, concentrations of emamectin benzoate reached maximum levels of 128, 105 and 68 ng/g (p.p.b.) for blood, mucus and muscle respectively, on day 7, the last day of administration. From day 7, the concentration in the blood declined until concentration was less than the limit of detection on day 77. The concentration was higher in mucus compared with plasma (P emamectin benzoate decreased gradually from the end of treatment (day 7) to day 70 with half-lives of 9.2, 10.0 and 11.3 days in muscle, plasma and mucus respectively. The distribution study demonstrated a high quantity of radioactivity in mucous membranes (gastrointestinal tract, gills) throughout the observation period (56 days). Activity was high in the epiphysis, hypophysis and olfactory rosette throughout the study. The highest activity was observed in the bile, indicating this to be an important route for excretion. The distribution study confirmed the results from the elimination study with respect to concentrations in blood, skin mucous and muscle.

  3. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL BENZOATE- UTILIZING Serratia marcescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIUS SUWANTO

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new benzoate-utilizing strain, Serratia marcescens DS-8, isolated from the environment was characterized. The strain was enterobacilli, Gram negative, mesophilic, non ha lophilic, and aerobic bacterium that showed motile ovale-rod shaped cells. The isolate produced extracellular chitinase, protease, and prodigiosin (a red pigment pr oduced by several Serratia strains yielding bright red or pink colonies. A physiological assay using Microbact* test showed that the strain was closely related to Klebsiella ozaenae (49.85% and Serratia liquefaciens (24.42%, respectively. However, 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicated that the strain was closely related to S. marcescens DSM 30121 with similarity level of 98%. DS-8 strain was able to synthesize its own vitamins. Optimum growth in benzoate was obtained at pH between 7-8.5 and NaCl concentration of 1- 1.5% (w/v. The isolate could grow in benzoate-containing medium up to 10 mM. Other carbon sources that could support the growth of DS-8 were casamino acid, glutamate, glucose, acetate, potato star ch, and ethanol.

  4. Persistence and risk assessment of emamectin benzoate residues on okra fruits and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyot, Gagan; Mandal, Kousik; Chahil, G S; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-08-01

    Emamectin benzoate, a synthetic derivative of abamectin, is found effective against fruit borer and jassid in okra crops. The present studies were carried out to study the dissipation pattern of emamectin benzoate on okra and to suggest a suitable waiting period for the safety of consumers. Following three applications of emamectin benzoate (Proclaim 5 SG) at 68.1 and 136.2 g a.i. ha-1, the average initial deposits of emamectin benzoate were observed to be 0.22 and 0.42mg kg-1, respectively. These residues dissipated below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.05 mg kg-1 after 5 days at both the dosages. Soil samples collected after 15 days did not reveal the presence of emamectin benzoate at LOQ of 0.05 mg kg-1. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) of emamectin benzoate is 0.0005 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, which means an adult of 55 kg weight can safely tolerate an intake of 27.50 microg emamectin benzoate. Assuming an average consumption of 80 g okra fruit and multiplying it by average and maximum residues observed on 0 day at recommended dosage, the intake of emamectin benzoate comes out to be about 20 Itg and these values are quite safe in comparison to its ADI. These studies, therefore, suggest that the use of emamectin benzoate at the minimum effective dosages do not seem to pose any hazards to the consumers if a waiting period of 1 day is observed.

  5. [Resistance risk and resistance stability of Frankliniella occidentalis to imidacloprid, emamectin benzoate, and phoxim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Yin; Yu, Yi; Liu, Yong-Jie; Ma, Jing-Yu

    2012-12-01

    In order to effectively control the damage of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), Phaseolus vuglaris was dipped with imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate, respectively to select the resistance populations of F. occidentalis from its susceptible population, and the resistance inheritance and resistance risk were analyzed with the resistance reality heredity. After 32, 32, and 24 generations' selection, the F. occidentalis populations obtained 13.8-fold, 29.4-fold and 39.0-fold resistance to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate, respectively. The resistance reality heritability to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate was 0.112, 0.166, and 0.259, respectively. The resistance development rate to emamectin benzoate was the fastest, followed by to phoxim, and to imidacloprid. The higher the resistance levels of the selected populations, the lower the differences between the larva and adult susceptibility to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate. Stopping selection for 12 continuous generations, the resistance level of the selected resistance populations to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate had definite decline, but it was difficult to regain the original susceptibility. F. occidentalis had a greater potential to gain high level resistance to imidacloprid, phoxim, and emamectin benzoate. Compared with the resistance of F. occidentalis to phoxim and emamectin benzoate, the resistance to imidacloprid increased slower and decreased faster, and thus, imidacloprid was more appropriate to control F. occidentalis in practice.

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Emamectin Benzoate Solid Nanodispersion

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Dongsheng; Cui, Bo; Wang, Chunxin; Zhao, Xiang; Zeng, Zhanghua; Wang, Yan; Sun, Changjiao; Liu, Guoqiang; Cui, Haixin

    2017-01-01

    The solid nanodispersion of 15% emamectin benzoate was prepared by the method of solidifying nanoemulsion. The mean particle size and polydispersity index of the solid nanodispersions were 96.6±1.7 nm and 0.352±0.041, respectively. The high zeta potential value of 31.3±0.5 mV and stable crystalline state of the nanoparticles suggested the excellent physical and chemical stabilities. The contact angle and retention compared with microemulsions and water dispersible granules on rice, cabbage, a...

  7. Preparation and Evaluation of Emamectin Benzoate Solid Microemulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Feng; Bo Cui; Dongsheng Yang; Chunxin Wang; Zhanghua Zeng; Yan Wang; Changjiao Sun; Xiang Zhao; Haixin Cui

    2016-01-01

    The solid microemulsions of emamectin benzoate with the same content of surfactants were prepared by a self-emulsifying method. Emulsifier 600# and emulsifier 700# (3/2, w/w) screened from eleven kinds of commonly used surfactants displayed great emulsifying properties. The redispersed solution of the solid microemulsion presented aqueous microemulsion characteristic. The mean particle size and polydispersity index were 10.34 ± 0.10 nm and 0.283 ± 0.013, respectively. The solid microemulsion ...

  8. Lean production of taste improved lipidic sodium benzoate formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, C; Pein, M; Breitkreutz, J

    2014-10-01

    Sodium benzoate is a highly soluble orphan drug with unpleasant taste and high daily dose. The aim of this study was to develop a child appropriate, individually dosable, and taste masked dosage form utilizing lipids in melt granulation process and tableting. A saliva resistant coated lipid granule produced by extrusion served as reference product. Low melting hard fat was found to be appropriate as lipid binder in high-shear granulation. The resulting granules were compressed to minitablets without addition of other excipients. Compression to 2mm minitablets decreased the dissolved API amount within the first 2 min of dissolution from 33% to 23%. The Euclidean distances, calculated from electronic tongue measurements, were reduced, indicating an improved taste. The reference product showed a lag time in dissolution, which is desirable for taste masking. Although a lag time was not achieved for the lipidic minitablets, drug release in various food materials was reduced to 2%, assuming a suitable taste masking for oral sodium benzoate administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Poly(styrene-co-N-methacryloyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester)-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as sorbents for the analysis of sodium benzoate in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shilei; Li, Nan; Qi, Li; Wang, Minglin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, poly(styrene-co-N-methacryloyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester)-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were constructed and used as magnetic solid-phase extraction sorbents for analysis of food preservatives in beverages. To prepare the poly(amino acid)-based sorbents, N-methacryloyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester, and styrene served as the functional monomers and modified onto the magnetic nanoparticles via free radical polymerization. Interestingly, compared with propylparaben and potassium sorbate, the proposed poly(amino acid)-based sorbents showed a good selectivity to sodium benzoate. The adsorption capacity of the sorbents to sodium benzoate was 6.08 ± 0.31 mg/g. Moreover, the fast adsorption equilibrium could be reached within 5 min. Further, the resultant poly(amino acid)-based sorbents were applied in the analysis of sodium benzoate in real beverage samples. The results proved that the proposed magnetic solid-phase extraction sorbents have a great potential for the analysis of preservatives in food samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A Comparison between Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Incremental Capacity-Differential Voltage as Li-ion Diagnostic Techniques to Identify and Quantify the Effects of Degradation Modes within Battery Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Fernández, Carlos; Uddin, Kotub; Chouchelamane, Gael H.; Widanage, W. Dhammika; Marco, James

    2017-08-01

    Degradation of Lithium-ion batteries is a complex process that is caused by a variety of mechanisms. For simplicity, ageing mechanisms are often grouped into three degradation modes (DMs): conductivity loss (CL), loss of active material (LAM) and loss of lithium inventory (LLI). State of Health (SoH) is typically the parameter used by the Battery Management System (BMS) to quantify battery degradation based on the decrease in capacity and the increase in resistance. However, the definition of SoH within a BMS does not currently include an indication of the underlying DMs causing the degradation. Previous studies have analysed the effects of the DMs using incremental capacity and differential voltage (IC-DV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The aim of this study is to compare IC-DV and EIS on the same data set to evaluate if both techniques provide similar insights into the causes of battery degradation. For an experimental case of parallelized cells aged differently, the effects due to LAM and LLI were found to be the most pertinent, outlining that both techniques are correlated. This approach can be further implemented within a BMS to quantify the causes of battery ageing which would support battery lifetime control strategies and future battery designs.

  11. Effect of Emamectin Benzoate on Root-Knot Nematodes and Tomato Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xingkai; Liu, Xiumei; Wang, Hongyan; Ji, Xiaoxue; Wang, Kaiyun; Wei, Min; Qiao, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is an obligate, sedentary endoparasite of more than 3000 plant species, that causes heavy economic losses and limit the development of protected agriculture of China. As a biological pesticide, emamectin benzoate has effectively prevented lepidopteran pests; however, its efficacy to control M. incognita remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was to test soil application of emamectin benzoate for management of M. incognita in laboratory, greenhouse and field trials. Laboratory results showed that emamectin benzoate exhibited high toxicity to M. incognita, with LC50 and LC90 values 3.59 and 18.20 mg L(-1), respectively. In greenhouse tests, emamectin benzoate soil application offered good efficacy against M. incognita while maintaining excellent plant growth. In field trials, emamectin benzoate provided control efficacy against M. incognita and resulted in increased tomato yields. Compared with the untreated control, there was a 36.5% to 81.3% yield increase obtained from all treatments and the highest yield was received from the highest rate of emamectin benzoate. The results confirmed that emamectin benzoate has enormous potential for the control of M. incognita in tomato production in China.

  12. Effect of Emamectin Benzoate on Root-Knot Nematodes and Tomato Yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingkai Cheng

    Full Text Available Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita is an obligate, sedentary endoparasite of more than 3000 plant species, that causes heavy economic losses and limit the development of protected agriculture of China. As a biological pesticide, emamectin benzoate has effectively prevented lepidopteran pests; however, its efficacy to control M. incognita remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was to test soil application of emamectin benzoate for management of M. incognita in laboratory, greenhouse and field trials. Laboratory results showed that emamectin benzoate exhibited high toxicity to M. incognita, with LC50 and LC90 values 3.59 and 18.20 mg L(-1, respectively. In greenhouse tests, emamectin benzoate soil application offered good efficacy against M. incognita while maintaining excellent plant growth. In field trials, emamectin benzoate provided control efficacy against M. incognita and resulted in increased tomato yields. Compared with the untreated control, there was a 36.5% to 81.3% yield increase obtained from all treatments and the highest yield was received from the highest rate of emamectin benzoate. The results confirmed that emamectin benzoate has enormous potential for the control of M. incognita in tomato production in China.

  13. Alkaline earth layered benzoates as reusable heterogeneous catalysts for the methyl esterification of benzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swamy Arêa Maruyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of layered barium, calcium and strontium benzoates and evaluates the potential of these materials as catalysts in the synthesis of methyl benzoate. The methyl esterification of benzoic acid was investigated, where the effects of temperature, alcohol:acid molar ratio and amount of catalyst were evaluated. Ester conversions of 65 to 70% were achieved for all the catalysts under the best reaction conditions. The possibility of recycling these metallic benzoates was also demonstrated, evidenced by unaltered catalytic activity for three consecutive reaction cycles.

  14. A field efficacy evaluation of emamectin benzoate for the control of sea lice on Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R; MacPhee, D; Katz, T; Endris, R

    2000-08-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of emamectin benzoate, 0.2% aquaculture premix, against sea lice on Atlantic salmon in eastern Canada. Salmon pens received either emamectin benzoate, orally, in feed at 50 micrograms/kg body weight/day for 7 consecutive days, or the same diet with no added medication. The site veterinarian had the option of administering a bath treatment with azamethiphos to any pen in the trial. The mean number of lice per fish was lower (P emamectin benzoate was palatable and highly effective for control of sea lice on salmon.

  15. 2-Oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konan René Kambo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C16H10O4, the dihedral angle between the coumarin ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.015 Å and the benzoate group is 83.58 (9°, which compares to a value of 81.8° obtained from a DFT calculation at the B3LYP/6–311 G(d,p level. In the crystal, C—O...π and C—H...π interactions and aromatic π–π [Cg...Cg = 3.7214 (14 and 3.7059 (14 Å] stacking generate a three-dimensional network.

  16. Preparation and Evaluation of Emamectin Benzoate Solid Microemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid microemulsions of emamectin benzoate with the same content of surfactants were prepared by a self-emulsifying method. Emulsifier 600# and emulsifier 700# (3/2, w/w screened from eleven kinds of commonly used surfactants displayed great emulsifying properties. The redispersed solution of the solid microemulsion presented aqueous microemulsion characteristic. The mean particle size and polydispersity index were 10.34 ± 0.10 nm and 0.283 ± 0.013, respectively. The solid microemulsion showed excellent storage stability and the bioassay compared with water dispersible granules against diamondback moths provided a proof of its improved biological activities. This formulation could significantly reduce surfactants and is perspective in plant protection for improving bioavailability and environmental friendliness.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Emamectin Benzoate Solid Nanodispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsheng Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid nanodispersion of 15% emamectin benzoate was prepared by the method of solidifying nanoemulsion. The mean particle size and polydispersity index of the solid nanodispersions were 96.6±1.7 nm and 0.352±0.041, respectively. The high zeta potential value of 31.3±0.5 mV and stable crystalline state of the nanoparticles suggested the excellent physical and chemical stabilities. The contact angle and retention compared with microemulsions and water dispersible granules on rice, cabbage, and cucumber leaves indicated its improved wettability and adhesion properties. The bioassay compared with microemulsions and water dispersible granules against diamondback moths and green peach aphids provided an evidence of its enhanced biological activity. This formulation composition could avoid organic solvents and obviously reduce surfactants. It is perspective in raising bioavailability and reducing residual pollution of pesticides and further improving agricultural production and environmental safety.

  18. Methyl 4-[N-(5-bromopyrimidin-2-ylcarbamoyl]benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ling Hu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H10BrN3O3, the pyrimidine and benzene rings are twisted with an interplanar angle of 58.4 (1°. The secondary amide group adopts a cis conformation with an H—N—C—O torsion angle of 14.8 (1°. In the crystal, molecules are connected into inversion dimers via pairs of N—H...N hydrogen bonds, generating an R22(8 motif. The dimers are further connected through a C—Br...O interaction [3.136 (1 Å and 169.31 (1°] into a chain along [110]. Weak C—H...N hydrogen bonds between the methyl benzoate groups and pyrimidine rings are also observed in the crystal structure.

  19. Environmental Fate of Emamectin Benzoate After Tree Micro Injection of Horse Chestnut Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic an...

  20. Cross-resistance and Inheritance of Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Wunan; Huang, Jianlei; Guan, Fang; Wu, Yidong; Yang, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a worldwide pest of many crops. Chemical insecticides are heavily used for its control in China, and serious resistance has been evolved in the field to a variety of insecticides including emamectin benzoate. Through repeated backcrossing to a susceptible strain (WH-S) and selection with emamectin benzoate, the trait conferring resistance to emamectin benzoate in a field-collected population of S. exigua (moderately resistant to emamectin benzoate and strongly resistant to pyrethroids and indoxacarb) was introgressed into WH-S to generate a near-isogenic resistant strain (WH-EB). Compared with WH-S, the WH-EB strain developed a 1,110-fold resistance to emamectin benzoate and a high level of cross-resistance to abamectin (202-fold), with low levels of cross-resistance to cypermethrin (10-fold) and chlorfluazuron (7-fold), but no cross-resistance to representatives of another six different classes of insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, indoxacarb, spinosad, tebufenozide, and chlorpyrifos). Resistance to emamectin benzoate in WH-EB was autosomal, incompletely dominant, and polygenic. Limited cross-resistance in WH-EB indicates that emamectin benzoate can be rotated with other classes of insecticides to which it does not show cross-resistance to delay the evolution of resistance in S. exigua. The incompletely dominant nature of resistance in S. exigua may explain the rapid evolution of resistance to emamectin benzoate in the field, and careful deployment of this chemical within a resistance management program should be considered. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effect of Emamectin Benzoate on Root-Knot Nematodes and Tomato Yield

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Xingkai; Liu, Xiumei; Wang, Hongyan; Ji, Xiaoxue; Wang, Kaiyun; Wei, Min; Qiao, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is an obligate, sedentary endoparasite of more than 3000 plant species, that causes heavy economic losses and limit the development of protected agriculture of China. As a biological pesticide, emamectin benzoate has effectively prevented lepidopteran pests; however, its efficacy to control M. incognita remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was to test soil application of emamectin benzoate for management of M. incognita in labor...

  2. Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA; Olusegun Olusoji SOREMEKUN; Olakunle Wasiu SUBAIR; Atinuke OLADOYE

    2008-01-01

    The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5) were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel i...

  3. Review article: cinnamon- and benzoate-free diet as a primary treatment for orofacial granulomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, H E; Escudier, M P; Patel, P; Challacombe, S J; Sanderson, J D; Lomer, M C E

    2011-10-01

    Orofacial granulomatosis is a rare chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease of the lips, face and mouth. The aetiology remains unclear but may involve an allergic component. Improvements have been reported with cinnamon- and benzoate-free diets. To explore the prevalence of compound and food sensitivity and examine the dietary treatments used in orofacial granulomatosis. A comprehensive literature search was carried out and relevant studies from January 1933 to January 2010 were identified using the electronic database search engines; AGRIS 1991-2008, AMED 1985-2008, British Nursing and Index archive 1985-2008, EMBASE 1980-2008, evidence based medicine review databases (e.g. Cochrane DSR), International Pharmaceutical and Medline 1950-2008. Common sensitivities identified, predominantly through patch testing, were to benzoic acid (36%) food additives (33%), perfumes and flavourings (28%), cinnamaldehyde (27%), cinnamon (17%), benzoates (17%) and chocolate (11%). The cinnamon- and benzoate-free diet has been shown to provide benefit in 54-78% of patients with 23% requiring no adjunctive therapies. A negative or positive patch test result to cinnamaldehyde, and benzoates did not predict dietary outcome. The most concentrated source of benzoate exposure is from food preservatives. Use of liquid enteral formulas can offer a further dietary therapy, particularly in children with orofacial granulomatosis. Management of orofacial granulomatosis is challenging but cinnamon- and benzoate-free diets appear to have a definite role to play. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Toxicity and residual efficacy of chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, and emamectin benzoate to obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sial, Ashfaq A; Brunner, Jay F

    2010-08-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the residual toxicity of spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate to obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Larvae were exposed to apple (Malus spp.) foliage collected at different intervals after an airblast sprayer application at the manufacturer-recommended field rate and half the field rate. A mortality of 100% was recorded at field rate applications of spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate through 59, 38, and 10 d after treatment (DAT), respectively. Significantly less foliage was consumed by C. rosaceana larvae surviving in the emamectin, chlorantraniliprole, and spinetoram treatments compared with those exposed to untreated foliage. Third-instar C. rosaceana exposed to fresh residues on terminal foliage showed 100% mortality after 5-d exposure to spinetoram residues and after 10-d exposure to chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate. The effects of larval movement from foliage with fresh residues was examined by transferring neonate larvae from foliage treated with spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, or emamectin benzoate to untreated foliage after various exposure intervals. An exposure of 1, 3, and 6 d was required for spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate to cause 100% mortality at the field rate, respectively. The higher the concentration of chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate, the less exposure time was necessary to cause high levels of mortality in C. rosaceana neonates. Our results indicate that these novel insecticides are highly toxic to C. rosaceana larvae. Implications of these results for C. rosaceana management programs are discussed.

  5. Increased fitness and realized heritability in emamectin benzoate-resistant Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Pathan, Attaullah Khan; Razaq, Muhammad

    2013-10-01

    The common green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea is a key biological control agent employed in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for managing various insect pests. A field collected population of C. carnea was selected for emamectin benzoate resistance in the laboratory and fitness costs and realized heritability were investigated. After five generations of selection with emamectin benzoate, C. carnea developed a 318-fold resistance to the insecticide. The resistant population had a relative fitness of 1.49, with substantially higher emergence rate of healthy adults, fecundity and hatchability and shorter larval duration, pupal duration, and development time compared to the susceptible population. Mean population growth rates; such as the intrinsic rate of natural population increase and biotic potential were higher for the emamectin benzoate selected population compared to the susceptible population. The realized heritability (h(2)) value of emamectin benzoate resistance was 0.34 in emamectin benzoate selected population of C. carnea. Chrysoperla species which show resistance to insecticides makes them compatible with those IPM systems where emamectin benzoate is employed.

  6. Isolation, identification and diesel-oil biodegradation capacities of indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading strains of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans and Acinetobacter baumannii from tarball at Terengganu beach, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkem, Bruno Martins; Halimoon, Normala; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Johari, Wan Lufti Wan; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Medipally, Srikanth Reddy; Kannan, Narayanan

    2016-06-15

    In this study, we isolated two indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from tarball found in Rhu Sepuluh beach, Terengganu, Malaysia. These bacteria were identified based on their physiological characteristic and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and they showed 99% similarity with Cellulosimicrobium cellulans DSM 43879 and Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606 respectively. Their hydrocarbon-degrading capabilities were tested using diesel-oil as sole carbon source. Results analysed using GC-MS, showed diesel-oil alkanes were degraded an average 64.4% by C. cellulans and 58.1% by A. baumannii with medium optical density reaching 0.967 (C. cellulans) and 1.515 (A. baumannii) in minimal salt media at 32°C for 10days. Individual diesel-oil alkanes were degraded between 10%-95.4% by C. cellulans and 0.2%-95.9% by A. baumannii. Both strains utilized diesel-oil for growth. The study suggests both strains are part of indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in tarball with potential for bioremediation of oil-polluted marine environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Floral Fragrance, Methyl Benzoate, is An Efficient Green Pesticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Zhang, Aijun

    2017-02-01

    Over-reliance on synthetic pesticides in insect pest control has caused widespread public and scientific concerns for human health and the environment, especially since many insect pests have already developed resistances to conventional pesticides and Bt products. For this reason, there is a considerable interest in development of alternative control methods for insect pest management. Based on laboratory studies, we report that methyl benzoate (MB), a naturally-occurring compound in many plants, may possess toxicity against various stages of a variety of insect pests, including the brown marmorated stinkbug, Halyomorpha halys, diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, as well as the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii. Based on our laboratory toxicity data, MB was at least 5 to 20 times more toxic than the conventional pyrethroid (β-cyfluthrin), sulfur & pyrethrin mixture, and some organic commercial products available on the market against H. halys, P. xylostella, and M. sexta, eggs. Because MB is considered an environment-friendly, it has great potential to be used as an alternative tool to synthetic pesticide for insect pest management in crop production, thereby, reducing threats to natural ecosystems and human health caused by over-application of conventional synthetic pesticides.

  8. Transcriptomic responses to emamectin benzoate in Pacific and Atlantic Canada salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis with differing levels of drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Ben J G; Poley, Jordan D; Igboeli, Okechukwu O; Jantzen, Johanna R; Fast, Mark D; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2015-02-01

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis are an ecologically and economically important parasite of wild and farmed salmon. In Scotland, Norway, and Eastern Canada, L. salmonis have developed resistance to emamectin benzoate (EMB), one of the few parasiticides available for salmon lice. Drug resistance mechanisms can be complex, potentially differing among populations and involving multiple genes with additive effects (i.e., polygenic resistance). Indicators of resistance development may enable early detection and countermeasures to avoid the spread of resistance. Here, we collect sensitive Pacific L. salmonis and sensitive and resistant Atlantic L. salmonis from salmon farms, propagate in laboratory (F1), expose to EMB in bioassays, and evaluate either baseline (Atlantic only) or induced transcriptomic differences between populations. In all populations, induced responses were minor and a cellular stress response was not identified. Pacific lice did not upregulate any genes in response to EMB, but downregulated degradative enzymes and transport proteins at 50 ppb EMB. Baseline differences between sensitive and now resistant Atlantic lice were much greater than responses to exposures. All resistant lice overexpressed degradative enzymes, and resistant males, the most resistant group, overexpressed collagenases to the greatest extent. These results indicate an accumulation of baseline expression differences related to resistance.

  9. Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5 were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide in the presence of sodium benzoate/sodium sulphite inhibitive mixtures range 0.322mmpy to 1.1269mmpy across the three volumetric ratios considered. The 15ml5ml sodium benzoatesodium sulphite mixture had the best average corrosion rate of 0.5123mmpy.The corrosion rate followed reducing pattern after the first 200 hours of immersion. The average corrosion rate in the sodium benzoate / sodium sulphite mixture is less than the rate in sodium sulphite and the mixture is only effective after long time exposure.It is concluded that adding sodium benzoate to sodium sulphite in the volumetric ratio 155ml improves the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on the corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide environment.

  10. Improvement of aqueous solubility and rectal absorption of 6-mercaptopurine by addition of sodium benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeichi, Y; Kimura, T

    1994-10-01

    The solubility of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) in water increased as the concentration of sodium benzoate or sodium hippurate in the solution increased. The solubility of 6-MP in 20% (w/v) sodium benzoate or sodium hippurate solution was about 6-fold larger than that of 6-MP alone. The stability constant of the soluble complex of 6-MP with sodium benzoate was estimated to be 2-8 M-1 from (1) phase-solubility study and (2) analysis of chemical shifts observed in 1H-NMR. Partition of 6-MP from the saturated solution to n-octanol was also greatly increased by the addition of sodium benzoate or sodium hippurate, the degree being less in the latter. Administration of 6-MP with 20% (w/v) sodium benzoate to rat rectum resulted in enhanced absorption and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve was comparable to that obtained by intravenous administration (bioavailability = 100%), while the bioavailability after intrarectal administration of 6-MP with 20% (w/v) sodium hippurate was only 9%. The reason for the difference was discussed.

  11. Microbial communities inhabiting oil-contaminated soils from two major oilfields in Northern China: Implications for active petroleum-degrading capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weimin; Dong, Yiran; Gao, Pin; Fu, Meiyan; Ta, Kaiwen; Li, Jiwei

    2015-06-01

    Although oilfields harbor a wide diversity of microorganisms with various metabolic potentials, our current knowledge about oil-degrading bacteria is limited because the vast majority of oil-degrading bacteria remain uncultured. In the present study, microbial communities in nine oil-contaminated soils collected from Daqing and Changqing, two of the largest oil fields in China, were characterized through highthroughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Bacteria related to the phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were dominant in four and three samples, respectively. At the genus level, Alkanindiges, Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, and Rhodococcus were frequently detected in nine soil samples. Many of the dominant genera were phylogenetically related to the known oil-degrading species. The correlation between physiochemical parameters within the microbial communities was also investigated. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that soil moisture, nitrate, TOC, and pH had an important impact in shaping the microbial communities of the hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. This study provided an in-depth analysis of microbial communities in oilcontaminated soil and useful information for future bioremediation of oil contamination.

  12. Dissipation and residues of emamectin benzoate study in paddy under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghui; Chen, Weitao; Li, Mengyi; Han, Lijun

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this experiment was not only to provide a simple residue analytical method to evaluate the safe application rate of Emamectin Benzoate for paddy crops but also to give a suitable recommended dosage in paddy crops. Paddy samples were detected using HPLC-MS/MS. The half-lives of emamectin benzoate in paddy plants, water and soil were 2.04-8.66 days, 2.89-4.95 days and 3.65-5.78 days with a dissipation rate of 90% over 7 days after application, respectively. Low residues and short half-life suggested that Emamectin Benzoate could be safely used in paddy crops with the suitable dosage and application.

  13. Study of o-125I-benzoate excretion mechanisms in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, R.; Laznicek, M.; Kvetina, J.; Laznickova, A.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of the mechanisms of renal clearance of o- 125 I-benzoate in the rabbit based on the inhibition of the secretory transport by probenecid showed that o- 125 I-benzoate was eliminated in the kidneys not only by glomerular filtration but also by tubular secretion. The total amount of the drug excreted in the urine was affected by tubular resorption (apparently by the process of passive diffusion), which exceeded tubular secretion. A comparison of the chromatograms of the plasma and the urine before and after the competitive inhibition of the tubular active transport by probenecid revealed a higher amount of o- 125 I-benzoylglucuronide in the urine in the case of inhibition. The results suggest that the kidneys participated in the total biotransformation of o- 125 I-benzoate. The excretion of the original drug and metabolites in the bile contributed less than 1% to the total clearance in rabbits. (author). 3 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  14. Dissipation kinetics of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron residues in cabbage grown under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bizhang; Zhao, Qing; Hu, Jiye

    2015-12-01

    Residue analysis of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron in cabbage matrices and soil was developed using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile (v/v) or 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile/water (5:1, v/v) and cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction. Mean recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) in all samples ranged 87.8-100.0 % and 3.6-12.6% for emamectin benzoate and 87.8-104.8 % and 6.2-11.5% for lufenuron, respectively. The validated method was used to evaluate the dissipation rate of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron in cabbage and soil as well as the residual levels in harvested cabbage and soil at different preharvest intervals (PHI). The half-lives of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron were 1.08-2.70 and 1.74-5.04 days in cabbage, and 1.42-4.01 and 0.94-6.18 days in soil, respectively. The terminal residues were below the China maximum residue limits (MRLs) at 3 days for emamectin benzoate (0.1 mg kg(-1)) and European Union MRLs at 5 days for lufenuron (0.5 mg kg(-1)), which suggested that 5 days could be recommended as the PHI for the commercial formulation of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron application in the Chinese cabbage field.

  15. A field efficacy evaluation of emamectin benzoate for the control of sea lice on Atlantic salmon.

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, R; MacPhee, D; Katz, T; Endris, R

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of emamectin benzoate, 0.2% aquaculture premix, against sea lice on Atlantic salmon in eastern Canada. Salmon pens received either emamectin benzoate, orally, in feed at 50 micrograms/kg body weight/day for 7 consecutive days, or the same diet with no added medication. The site veterinarian had the option of administering a bath treatment with azamethiphos to any pen in the trial. The mean number of lice per fish was lower (P < 0.05) in the experimental group...

  16. Synthesis and 125I labeling of N-succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhenfeng; Wang Yongxian; Zhou Wei; Wang Lihua; Xia Jiaoyun; Yin Duanzhi

    2005-01-01

    N-succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate (ATE) and N-succinimidyl-3-iodo-benzoate (SIB) is synthesized. The structures of ATE and SIB are confirmed with 1 HNMR, MS and IR. The yields of ATE and SIB are 45.4% and 71.4%, respectively. ATE is labeled with 125 I. The labeling field is 93.0% and radiochemical purity is over 98.0%. The synthesis and the labeling of ATE have a important value for indirect label of radiopharmaceuticals. (authors)

  17. Acquisition of the ability for Rhodopseudomonas palustris to degrade chlorinated benzoic acids as the sole carbon source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oda, Y; de Vries, YP; Forney, LJ; Gottschal, JC

    2001-01-01

    Three strains of Rhodopseudomonas palustris were isolated from phototrophic enrichment cultures containing 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA) and benzoate (BA). These new strains as well as several previously described strains of R. palustris were tested in this study and shown to degrade 3-CBA if grown in

  18. Survival after treatment with phenylacetate and benzoate for urea-cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Gregory M; Berry, Susan A; Berry, Gerard T; Rhead, William J; Brusilow, Saul W; Hamosh, Ada

    2007-05-31

    The combination of intravenous sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate has been shown to lower plasma ammonium levels and improve survival in small cohorts of patients with historically lethal urea-cycle enzyme defects. We report the results of a 25-year, open-label, uncontrolled study of sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate therapy (Ammonul, Ucyclyd Pharma) in 299 patients with urea-cycle disorders in whom there were 1181 episodes of acute hyperammonemia. Overall survival was 84% (250 of 299 patients). Ninety-six percent of the patients survived episodes of hyperammonemia (1132 of 1181 episodes). Patients over 30 days of age were more likely than neonates to survive an episode (98% vs. 73%, Purea-cycle disorder and treatment with both sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate, in conjunction with other therapies, such as intravenous arginine hydrochloride and the provision of adequate calories to prevent catabolism, effectively lower plasma ammonium levels and result in survival in the majority of patients. Hemodialysis may also be needed to control hyperammonemia, especially in neonates and older patients who do not have a response to intravenous sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate. Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  19. Bacteria and Acidic Drainage from Coal Refuse: Inhibition by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Benzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, Patrick R.; Apel, William A.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulfur coal refuse resulted in the inhibition of iron-and sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria and in the decrease of acidic drainage from the refuse, suggesting that acid drainage can be abated in the field by inhibiting iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

  20. [Determination of emamectin benzoate residue in vegetables by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wu, Yinliang; Hu, Jiye; Wang, Hongwei; Pan, Canping; Liu, Fengmao

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of emamectin benzoate residue in cabbage and mushroom using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The sample was extracted with ethyl acetate. Further cleanup was performed on a propylsulfonic acid solid phase extraction cartridge, followed by the derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride in the presence of N-methylimidazole. The amount of derivatized emamectin benzoate was determined by fluorescence detector after separation by HPLC. The detection limit was 0.10 microg/kg for cabbage and mushroom samples. The recoveries of emamectin benzoate in cabbage and mushroom samples were 78.6%-84.9%. The inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) and intra-day RSD were 2.7%-6.0% and 3.1%-8.9%, respectively, at the fortified levels of 1.0-20.0 microg/kg. The calibration curve of emamectin benzoate in vegetables at the concentration range of 0.002 mg/L to 0.10 mg/L was linear (r = 0.9999).

  1. Dissipation and residue behavior of emamectin benzoate on apple and cabbage field application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Pengyue; Zhang, Fengzu; Li, Yanjie; Du, Fengpei; Pan, Canping

    2012-04-01

    A LC-ESI-MS/MS method with QuEChERS for analysis of emamectin benzoate in cabbage, apple and soil was established. At fortification levels of 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg in cabbage, apple and soil, it was shown that recoveries ranged from 75.9 to 97.0 percent with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.4-19.0 percent. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.001 mg/kg for cabbage, apple and soil. The dissipation half-lives of emamectin benzoate in cabbage, apple and soil were 1.34-1.72 day, 2.75-3.09 day and 1.89-4.89 day, respectively. The final residues of emamectin benzoate ranged from 0.001 to 0.052 mg/kg in cabbages, 0.003 to 0.090 mg/kg in apples and 0.001 to 0.089 mg/kg in soils, respectively. Therefore, it would be unlikely to cause health problems if emamectin benzoate was applied according to the use pattern suggested by the manufactures on the label. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Photodegradation of emamectin benzoate and its influence on efficacy against the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamectin benzoate is a novel insecticide with characteristics of translaminar movement into plant leaf tissue. The compound was derived from the avermectin family and improved with thermal stability, greater water solubility, and a broader spectrum of insecticidal activity than avermectin. To deter...

  3. Effect of sodium benzoate on the growth and enzyme activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... This study has indicted the efficacy of sodium benzoate as an antimicrobial ... may have led to physiological, homeostatic and metabolic distortion. Further ... Efiuvwevwere BJO, Efi EU (1999). ... Nutrition. 3: 300-303. Ogiehor IS, Nwafor OE (2004). Associated microbiological, biochemical ... Annals Nat. Sci.

  4. Isolation of novel para-pentyl phenyl benzoate from Mondia whitei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The structure of the compound was elucidated as para pentyl phenyl benzoate. The neuropharmacological evaluation of the compound indicated significant (p<0.05) depression of the central nervous system. The binding characteristics of the compound to gamma amino butyric acid A receptors appears to be more ...

  5. Benzoate-induced stress enhances xylitol yield in aerobic fed-batch culture of Candida mogii TISTR 5892.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannawilai, Siwaporn; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote; Chisti, Yusuf

    2015-01-20

    Production of the natural sweetener xylitol from xylose via the yeast Candida mogii TISTR 5892 was compared with and without the growth inhibitor sodium benzoate in the culture medium. Sodium benzoate proved to be an uncompetitive inhibitor in relatively poorly oxygenated shake flask aerobic cultures. In a better controlled aerobic environment of a bioreactor, the role of sodium benzoate could equally well be described as competitive, uncompetitive or noncompetitive inhibitor of growth. In intermittent fed-batch fermentations under highly aerobic conditions, the presence of sodium benzoate at 0.15gL(-1) clearly enhanced the xylitol titer relative to the control culture without the sodium benzoate. The final xylitol concentration and the average xylitol yield on xylose were nearly 50gL(-1) and 0.57gg(-1), respectively, in the presence of sodium benzoate. Both these values were substantially higher than reported for the same fermentation under microaerobic conditions. Therefore, a fed-batch aerobic fermentation in the presence of sodium benzoate is promising for xylitol production using C. mogii. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Emamectin benzoate (Affirm). a modern insecticide for the control of lepidoptera larvae on fruits, grapes and vegetables crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, R; Correia, R; Thomas, C; Decaudin, B; Cisneros, J; Lopez, A

    2010-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate (Affirm) is a novel insecticide with potent efficacy against many specie of lepidoptera which are damaging fruits and leaves of agricultural crops. The active ingredient belongs to the naturally derived chemical group of avermectine, causing paralysis of lepidoptera larvae due to the activation of chloride channel at nerves level. Affirm is acting mainly through ingestion, due to its mode of action and fast activity, it is effective at very low rates and on all instars stages. It has been developed for the use on pomefruits, stonefruits, grapes and a broda range of vegetables crops at a rate range of 1.5 to 3 g ai/100L. The product shows translaminar activity and rapid degradation on leaf surface; therefore the active ingredient breaks down in a very short time to sublethal doses for most beneficials organisms living on the vegetation. The short rentry time, generally 24 hours for beneficials and impollinators, makes Affirm compatible for IPM programme in orchards and greenhouses. Also the residue profile is very favourable, leading to a very low maximum residue level and short preharvest interval in all edible crops.

  7. Benzoates intakes from non-alcoholic beverages in Brazil, Canada, Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika; Lau, Annette; Darch, Maryse; Roberts, Ashley

    2017-09-01

    Food consumption data from national dietary surveys were combined with brand-specific-use levels reported by beverage manufacturers to calculate the exposure to benzoic acid and its salts (INS Nos 210-213) from non-alcoholic beverages in Brazil, Canada, Mexico and the United States. These four jurisdictions were identified as having some of the most prevalent use of benzoates in beverages globally. Use levels were weighted according to the brand's market volume share in the respective countries. Benzoates were reported to be used primarily in 'water-based flavoured drinks' (Codex General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA) category 14.1.4). As such, the assessments focused only on intakes from these beverage types. Two different models were established to determine exposure: probabilistic (representing non-brand loyal consumers) and distributional (representing brand-loyal consumers). All reported-use levels were incorporated into both models, including those above the Codex interim maximum benzoate use level (250 mg kg -1 ). The exception to this was in the brand-loyal models for consumers of regular carbonated soft drinks (brand loyal category) which used (1) the interim maximum use level for beverages with a pH ≤ 3.5 and (2) all reported use levels for beverages pH > 3.5 (up to 438 mg kg -1 ). The estimated exposure levels using both models were significantly lower than the ADI established for benzoates at the mean level of intake (4-40% ADI) and lower than - or at the ADI only for toddlers/children - at the 95th percentile (23-110% ADI). The results rendered in the models do not indicate a safety concern in these jurisdictions, and as such provide support for maintaining the current Codex interim maximum benzoate level of 250 mg kg -1 in water-based beverages.

  8. Pathogenic LRRK2 mutations, through increased kinase activity, produce enlarged lysosomes with reduced degradative capacity and increase ATP13A2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Anastasia G; Aghamohammadzadeh, Soheil; Samaroo, Harry; Chen, Yi; Mou, Kewa; Needle, Elie; Hirst, Warren D

    2015-11-01

    Lysosomal dysfunction plays a central role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Several genes linked to genetic forms of PD, including leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), functionally converge on the lysosomal system. While mutations in LRRK2 are commonly associated with autosomal-dominant PD, the physiological and pathological functions of this kinase remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that LRRK2 regulates lysosome size, number and function in astrocytes, which endogenously express high levels of LRRK2. Expression of LRRK2 G2019S, the most common pathological mutation, produces enlarged lysosomes and diminishes the lysosomal capacity of these cells. Enlarged lysosomes appears to be a common phenotype associated with pathogenic LRRK2 mutations, as we also observed this effect in cells expressing other LRRK2 mutations; R1441C or Y1699C. The lysosomal defects associated with these mutations are dependent on both the catalytic activity of the kinase and autophosphorylation of LRRK2 at serine 1292. Further, we demonstrate that blocking LRRK2's kinase activity, with the potent and selective inhibitor PF-06447475, rescues the observed defects in lysosomal morphology and function. The present study also establishes that G2019S mutation leads to a reduction in lysosomal pH and increased expression of the lysosomal ATPase ATP13A2, a gene linked to a parkinsonian syndrome (Kufor-Rakeb syndrome), in brain samples from mouse and human LRRK2 G2019S carriers. Together, these results demonstrate that PD-associated LRRK2 mutations perturb lysosome function in a kinase-dependent manner, highlighting the therapeutic promise of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors in the treatment of PD. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Efficacy of emamectin benzoate in the control of Argulus coregoni (Crustacea: Branchiura) on rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakalahti, T; Lankinen, Y; Valtonen, E T

    2004-09-08

    Efficacy of in-feed treatment with emamectin benzoate (Slice) for the control of ectoparasitic Argulus coregoni on rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was tested under laboratory and field conditions. In both experiments fish were fed with fish feed to deliver a therapeutic dose of 0 (control) or 50 microg emamectin benzoate kg(-1) d(-1) (treatment) for a period of 7 d. After 3 d of challenge with A. coregoni in the laboratory, the infestation level in treated fish was lower than that observed in the controls (p 20. The prevalence of A. coregoni remained emamectin benzoate concentration in fish remained at a level high enough to kill A. coregoni over a period of 9 wk. Emamectin benzoate was very effective in the control of A. coregoni infesting trout.

  10. Flow-injection chemiluminescent determination of estrogen benzoate using the tris(1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II)-permanganate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Cao, Wei; Qiao, Shuang; Liu, Wenwen; Yang, Jinghe

    2011-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) detection for the determination of estrogen benzoate, using the reaction of tris(1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II)-Na(2)SO(3)-permanganate, is described. This method is based on the CL reaction of estrogen benzoate (EB) with acidic potassium permanganate and tris(1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II). The CL intensity is greatly enhanced when Na(2)SO(3) is added. After optimization of the different experimental parameters, a calibration graph for estrogen benzoate is linear in the range 0.05-10 µg/mL. The 3 s limit of detection is 0.024 µg/mL and the relative standard deviation was 1.3% for 1.0 µg/mL estrogen benzoate (n = 11). This proposed method was successfully applied to commercial injection samples and emulsion cosmetics. The mechanism of CL reaction was also studied. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Investigation on the adsorption characteristics of sodium benzoate and taurine on gold nanoparticle film by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naveen; Thomas, S.; Tokas, R. B.; Kshirsagar, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies of sodium benzoate and taurine adsorbed on gold nanoparticle (AuNp) film on silanised glass slides have been studied by attenuated total reflection technique (ATR). The surface morphology of the AuNp films has been measured by Atomic Force Microscopy. The ATR spectra of sodium benzoate and taurine deposited on AuNp film are compared with ATR spectra of their powdered bulk samples. A new red-shifted band appeared along with the symmetric and asymmetric stretches of carboxylate group of sodium benzoate leading to a broadening of the above peaks. Similar behavior is also seen in the case of symmetric and asymmetric stretches of sulphonate group of taurine. The results indicate presence of both chemisorbed and physisorbed layers of both sodium benzoate and taurine on the AuNp film with bottom layer chemically bound to AuNp through carboxylate and sulphonate groups respectively.

  12. Identification of genes and pathways related to phenol degradation in metagenomic libraries from petroleum refinery wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia C Silva

    Full Text Available Two fosmid libraries, totaling 13,200 clones, were obtained from bioreactor sludge of petroleum refinery wastewater treatment system. The library screening based on PCR and biological activity assays revealed more than 400 positive clones for phenol degradation. From these, 100 clones were randomly selected for pyrosequencing in order to evaluate the genetic potential of the microorganisms present in wastewater treatment plant for biodegradation, focusing mainly on novel genes and pathways of phenol and aromatic compound degradation. The sequence analysis of selected clones yielded 129,635 reads at an estimated 17-fold coverage. The phylogenetic analysis showed Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales as the most abundant orders among the selected fosmid clones. The MG-RAST analysis revealed a broad metabolic profile with important functions for wastewater treatment, including metabolism of aromatic compounds, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus. The predicted 2,276 proteins included phenol hydroxylases and cathecol 2,3- dioxygenases, involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds, such as phenol, byphenol, benzoate and phenylpropanoid. The sequencing of one fosmid insert of 33 kb unraveled the gene that permitted the host, Escherichia coli EPI300, to grow in the presence of aromatic compounds. Additionally, the comparison of the whole fosmid sequence against bacterial genomes deposited in GenBank showed that about 90% of sequence showed no identity to known sequences of Proteobacteria deposited in the NCBI database. This study surveyed the functional potential of fosmid clones for aromatic compound degradation and contributed to our knowledge of the biodegradative capacity and pathways of microbial assemblages present in refinery wastewater treatment system.

  13. Comparison study of two procedures for the determination of emamectin benzoate in medicated fish feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farer, Leslie J; Hayes, John M

    2005-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the determination of emamectin benzoate in fish feed. The method uses a wet extraction, cleanup by solid-phase extraction, and quantitation and separation by liquid chromatography (LC). In this paper, we compare the performance of this method with that of a previously reported LC assay for the determination of emamectin benzoate in fish feed. Although similar to the previous method, the new procedure uses a different sample pretreatment, wet extraction, and quantitation method. The performance of the new method was compared with that of the previously reported method by analyses of 22 medicated feed samples from various commercial sources. A comparison of the results presented here reveals slightly lower assay values obtained with the new method. Although a paired sample t-test indicates the difference in results is significant, this difference is within the method precision of either procedure.

  14. Fries rearrangement of naphthyl benzoates; Ansoku kosan naphthyl no fries ten`i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, J.; Haraguchi, Y.; Iwaki, T.; Yamana, Sasaki, H. [Tottori University, Tottori (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-10

    When 1-naphthyl benzoate (1{alpha}) was boiled with anhydrous aluminum chloride (AlCl3) in chlorobenzene, 2-benzoyl-l-naphthol(2) and 4-benzoyl-l-naphthol(3) were obtained as the rearrangement products. A product 1-benzoyl-2-naphthol (4) was given from 2-naphthyl benzoate (1{beta}) under the same reaction conditions. It seems that 2 and 3 are formed via intramolecular pathway from 1{alpha}. Other ester 1{beta} may proceed via both inter- and intramolecular pathways to give 4. Retro-Fries rearrangement of 2 and 3 to 1{alpha} took place in the presence of AlCl3 in boiling chlorobenzene. The compound 4 `however` was almost recovered the reaction of 4 with AlCl3 in chlorobenzene at refluxed temperature. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. In vitro effects of sodium benzoate on the activities of aspartate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro effects of varying concentrations sodium benzoate on the activities of aspartate (E.C. 2.6.1.1) and alanine (E.C. 2.6.1.2) aminotransferases (AST and ALT, respectively) and alkaline phosphatase (E.C. 3.1.3.1; abbreviated as ALP) from human erythrocytes of different genotypes (HbAA, HbAS and HbSS) were ...

  16. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    OpenAIRE

    K?se, Melis; Canda, Ebru; Kagnici, Mehtap; U?ar, Sema Kalkan; ?oker, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreo...

  17. Bacteria and Acidic Drainage from Coal Refuse: Inhibition by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Benzoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Patrick R.; Apel, William A.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulfur coal refuse resulted in the inhibition of iron-and sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria and in the decrease of acidic drainage from the refuse, suggesting that acid drainage can be abated in the field by inhibiting iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:16346347

  18. Synthesis, characterization, and controlled release anticorrosion behavior of benzoate intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Zhang, Dun, E-mail: zhangdun@qdio.ac.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of Corrosion Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: The benzoate anion released from Zn-Al LDHs provides a more effective long-term protection against corrosion of Q235 carbon steel in 3.5% NaCl solution. Highlights: {yields} A benzoate anion corrosion inhibitor intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) has been assembled by coprecipitation method. {yields} The kinetic simulation indicates that the ion-exchange one is responsible for the release process and the diffusion through particle is the rate limiting step. {yields} A significant reduction of the corrosion rate is observed when the LDH nanohybrid is present in the corrosive media. -- Abstract: Corrosion inhibitor-inorganic clay composite including benzoate anion intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are assembled by coprecipitation. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum analyses indicate that the benzoate anion is successfully intercalated into the LDH interlayer and the benzene planes are vertically bilayer-positioned as a quasi-guest ion-pair form in the gallery space. Kinetic simulation for the release data, XRD and FT-IR analyses of samples recovered from the release medium indicate that ion-exchange is responsible for the release process and diffusion through the particle is also indicated to be the rate-limiting step. The anticorrosion capabilities of LDHs loaded with corrosion inhibitor toward Q235 carbon steel are analyzed by polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. Significant reduction of corrosion rate is observed when the LDH nanohybrid is present in the corrosive medium. This hybrid material may potentially be applied as a nanocontainer in self-healing coatings.

  19. Baseline Susceptibility of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Indoxacarb, Emamectin Benzoate, and Chlorantraniliprole in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Lisa J

    2015-02-01

    Baseline susceptibility of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) to emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, and indoxacarb was determined in feeding assays on insecticide-incorporated artificial diet in the laboratory. The intraspecific variation of H. armigera was established from field populations collected between September 2012 and March 2013, primarily from commercial farms across eastern Australia. Emamectin benzoate had the highest toxicity with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 0.01 µg/ml diet (n=20 strains). The LC50 for chlorantraniliprole was 0.03 µg/ml diet (n=21 strains), while indoxacarb had the lowest relative toxicity with an average LC50 of 0.3 µg/ml diet (n=22 strains). Variation in susceptibility amongst field strains was 2.3-fold for emamectin benzoate and 2.9-fold for chlorantraniliprole and indoxacarb. Discriminating concentrations of 0.2, 1, and 12 µg of insecticide per milliliter of diet for emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, and indoxacarb, respectively, were calculated from toxicological data from field H. armigera strains as a first step in resistance management of these classes of insecticide in Australia. The low intraspecific tolerance, high slope values, and goodness-of-fit to a probit binomial model obtained in this study suggest that a feeding assay using diet incorporated insecticide is an effective laboratory method for measuring the dose-responses of these classes of insecticides in H. armigera. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Cytological and cytochemical effects of sodium benzoate and gamma irradiation on human peripheral lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, N.A.F.

    1981-01-01

    In vitro studies of human peripheral lymphocytes were conducted to elucidate and compare the effects of a suspected chemical clastogen, sodium benzoate, widely used in the food industry as an antimicrobial food additive, to that of a well-known physical mutagen, gamma rays. Blood from ten normal donors, five males and five females, was collected and treated with various doses of the two agents independently and in combination during G 0 or G 1 phase. Induction of structural chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and unscheduled DNA synthesis were used as parameters to monitor the effects of the two agents. Sodium benzoate at the same concentrations used in the food industry (0.05% and 0.10%) caused inhibition of mitosis and induced chromatid-type aberrations (gaps and breaks). The frequency of aberrations increased as the concentration of sodium benzoate increased. No increase in SCEs over the control level was observed as either concentration tested. The relative amount of DNA damage inflicted in the treated lymphocytes estimated as 3 H-tritiated thymidine incorporation (unscheduled DNA synthesis) was highly significant. In contrast, blood irradiated with 300, 600, or 900 rad 60 Co gamma rays produced chromatid and chromosome aberrations in cultured lymphocytes, dicentrics being the most frequent exchange event. The aberration yield was found to be dose-dependent and to fit the quadratic model. Unscheduled DNA synthesis as measured by lymphocyte 3 H-TdR incorporation following gamma irradiation was highly significantly increased with the largest uptake occurring during the first hour of incubation. The combined treatment of gamma irradiation plus 0.05% sodium benzoate did not increase the aberration frequencies over the independent irradiation treatments and had no effect on SCEs frequencies

  1. Modelling the effects of lactic acid, sodium benzoate and temperature on the growth of Candida maltosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valík, Ľ; Ačai, P; Liptáková, D

    2017-11-01

    The growth of the oxidatively imperfect yeast Candida maltosa Komagata, Nakase et Katsuya was studied experimentally and modelled mathematically in relation to sodium benzoate and lactic acid concentrations at different temperatures. Application of gamma models for the growth rate resulted in determination of cardinal temperature parameters for the growth environment containing lactic acid or sodium benzoate (T min  = 0·7/1·3°C, T max  = 45·3/45·0°C, T opt  = 36·1/37·0°C, μ opt  = 0·88/0·96 h -1 ) as well as the maximal lactic acid concentration for growth (1·9%) or sodium benzoate (1397 mg kg -1 ). Based on the model, the times to reach the density of C. maltosa at the level of 10 5  CFU per ml can be determined at each combination of storage temperature and preservative concentration. The approach used in this study can broaden knowledge of the microbiological quality of fermented milk products during storage as well as the preservation efficacy of mayonnaise dressing for storage and consumption. The strain of Candida maltosaYP1 was originally isolated from air filters that ensured clean air overpressure in yoghurt fermentation tanks. Its growth in contaminated yoghurts manifested outwardly through surface growth, assimilation lactic acid and slight production of carbon dioxide. This was the opportunity to model the effects of lactic acid and sodium benzoate on growth and predict its behaviour in foods. The approach used in this study provides knowledge about microbiological quality development during storage of the fermented milk products as well as some preserved foods for storage and consumption. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Presence of benzoate type toxins in Gymnodinium catenatum Graham isolated from the Mexican Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillos-Guzmán, J; Vale, P; Band-Schmidt, C

    2011-05-01

    Benzoate type toxins have been described as an important component of Gymnodinium catenatum cells. In this paper we study these toxins in a G. catenatum strain isolated from the Mexican coast. A partition of the toxins was done by solid-phase extraction on a COOH cartridge and detected by HPLC coupled to fluorescence after pre-column periodate oxidation. Two groups of the hydrophobic analogues of saxitoxin were identified: those containing a sulphate group in the benzoate moiety instead of a hydroxyl group like GC1/2 or GC3 and the hydroxy-benzoate analogues, with a sulphate group at the eleventh position of the STX core present or absent (GCs-GTX and GCs-STX analogues, respectively). These toxins are more abundant, in a relative basis, when comparing with a G. catenatum toxin content isolated from Portugal. This is the first report of the presence of these toxins in a Mexican strain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis, structure and some properties of a manganese(II) benzoate containing diimine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Pranajit; Roy, Subhadip; Sarkar, Sanjoy; Chowdhury, Shubhamoy; Purkayastha, R. N. Dutta; Raghavaiah, Pallepogu; McArdle, Patrick; Deb, Lokesh; Devi, Sarangthem Indira

    2015-12-01

    A new monomeric manganese(II) benzoate complex containing nitrogen donor 2,2‧-bipyridine, [Mn(OBz)2(bipy)(H2O)] (OBz = benzoate, bipy = 2,2‧-bipyridine) has been synthesized from aqueous methanol medium and characterized by analytical, spectroscopic and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The compound exhibits moderate to appreciable antimicrobial activity. The complex crystallizes in space group P21/n. Mn(II) atom is ligated by two N atoms of bipyridine, three O atoms from a monodentate and a bidentate benzoate ligand and a water molecule forming distorted octahedral structure. The coordinated water molecule forms intramolecular hydrogen bonds and links the monomer molecules into hydrogen bonded dimer. The hydrogen bonded dimers are involved in intermolecular C-H···O and π-π stacking interactions. Density functional theory (DFT) computation was carried out to compute the frequencies of relevant vibrational modes and electronic properties, the results are in compliance with the experimentally obtained structural and spectral data.

  4. Neurodevelopmental Outcome and Treatment Efficacy of Benzoate and Dextromethorphan in Siblings with Attenuated Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjoraker, Kendra J; Swanson, Michael A; Coughlin, Curtis R; Christodoulou, John; Tan, Ee S; Fergeson, Mark; Dyack, Sarah; Ahmad, Ayesha; Friederich, Marisa W; Spector, Elaine B; Creadon-Swindell, Geralyn; Hodge, M Antoinette; Gaughan, Sommer; Burns, Casey; Van Hove, Johan L K

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of sodium benzoate and dextromethorphan treatment on patients with the attenuated form of nonketotic hyperglycinemia. Families were recruited with 2 siblings both affected with attenuated nonketotic hyperglycinemia. Genetic mutations were expressed to identify residual activity. The outcome on developmental progress and seizures was compared between the first child diagnosed and treated late with the second child diagnosed at birth and treated aggressively from the newborn period using dextromethorphan and benzoate at dosing sufficient to normalize plasma glycine levels. Both siblings were evaluated with similar standardized neurodevelopmental measures. In each sibling set, the second sibling treated from the neonatal period achieved earlier and more developmental milestones, and had a higher developmental quotient. In 3 of the 4 sibling pairs, the younger sibling had no seizures whereas the first child had a seizure disorder. The adaptive behavior subdomains of socialization and daily living skills improved more than motor skills and communication. Early treatment with dextromethorphan and sodium benzoate sufficient to normalize plasma glycine levels is effective at improving outcome if used in children with attenuated disease with mutations providing residual activity and when started from the neonatal period. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploiting members of the BAHD acyltransferase family to synthesize multiple hydroxycinnamate and benzoate conjugates in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudes, Aymerick [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mouille, Maxence [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, David S. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Benites, Veronica T. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); San Francisco State Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States); Wang, George [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Roux, Lucien [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Tsai, Yi-Lin [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Baidoo, Edward E. K. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chiu, Tsan-Yu [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heazlewood, Joshua L. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); The Univ. of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Scheller, Henrik V. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Keasling, Jay D. [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Technical Univ. of Denmark, Horsholm (Denmark); Deutsch, Samuel [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Loqué, Dominique [Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-11-21

    BAHD acyltransferases, named after the first four biochemically characterized enzymes of the group, are plant-specific enzymes that catalyze the transfer of coenzyme A-activated donors onto various acceptor molecules. They are responsible for the synthesis in plants of a myriad of secondary metabolites, some of which are beneficial for humans either as therapeutics or as specialty chemicals such as flavors and fragrances. The production of pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and commodity chemicals using engineered microbes is an alternative, green route to energy-intensive chemical syntheses that consume petroleum-based precursors. However, identification of appropriate enzymes and validation of their functional expression in heterologous hosts is a prerequisite for the design and implementation of metabolic pathways in microbes for the synthesis of such target chemicals. As a result, for the synthesis of valuable metabolites in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we selected BAHD acyltransferases based on their preferred donor and acceptor substrates. In particular, BAHDs that use hydroxycinnamoyl-CoAs and/or benzoyl-CoA as donors were targeted because a large number of molecules beneficial to humans belong to this family of hydroxycinnamate and benzoate conjugates. The selected BAHD coding sequences were synthesized and cloned individually on a vector containing the Arabidopsis gene At4CL5, which encodes a promiscuous 4-coumarate:CoA ligase active on hydroxycinnamates and benzoates. The various S. cerevisiae strains obtained for co-expression of At4CL5 with the different BAHDs effectively produced a wide array of valuable hydroxycinnamate and benzoate conjugates upon addition of adequate combinations of donors and acceptor molecules. In particular, we report here for the first time the production in yeast of rosmarinic acid and its derivatives, quinate hydroxycinnamate esters such as chlorogenic acid, and glycerol hydroxycinnamate esters

  6. Lack of Effect of Sodium Benzoate at Reported Clinical Therapeutic Concentration on d-Alanine Metabolism in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiolek, Michael; Tierney, Brendan; Steyn, Stefanus J; DeVivo, Michael

    2018-06-19

    Cognitive decline and psychosis have been hypothesized to be mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction. Consistent with this hypothesis, chronic treatment with d-alanine, a coagonist at the glycine site of the NMDAR, leads to an improvement of positive and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenic patients. d-alanine is oxidized by d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO); thus, an inhibitor of DAAO would be expected to enhance d-alanine levels and likewise lead to desirable clinical outcomes. Sodium benzoate, on the basis of d-amino acid inhibition, was observed to display beneficial clinical effects in schizophrenic and Alzheimer's patients. However, in the clinical pilot studies using sodium benzoate, d-amino acids were not quantified to verify that sodium benzoate's efficacy was mediated through DAAO inhibition. In this study, d-alanine content was monitored in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of dogs treated with daily injections of d-alanine (30 mg/kg) alone and in combination with sodium benzoate (30 mg/kg) for seven consecutive days. We reasoned that the cerebral spinal fluid d-alanine quantity is reflective of the brain d-alanine levels and it would increase as a consequence of DAAO inhibition with sodium benzoate. We found that d-alanine treatment lead to maximal concentration of 7.51 μM CSF d-alanine level; however, coadministration of sodium benzoate and d-alanine did not change CSF d-alanine level beyond that of d-alanine treatment alone. As a consequence, we conclude that clinical efficacy associated with chronic administration of sodium benzoate in schizophrenic and Alzheimer's patients is likely not mediated through inhibition of DAAO.

  7. Consecutive emamectin benzoate and deltamethrin treatments affect the expressions and activities of detoxification enzymes in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcamo, Juan Guillermo; Aguilar, Marcelo N; Carreño, Constanza F; Vera, Tamara; Arias-Darraz, Luis; Figueroa, Jaime E; Romero, Alex P; Alvarez, Marco; Yañez, Alejandro J

    2017-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) subjected to three consecutive, alternating treatments with emamectin benzoate (EMB) and deltamethrin (DM) during outbreaks of Caligus rogercresseyi in a farm located in southern Chile (Hornopiren, Chiloé), were studied to determine the effects of these treatments on the protein and enzymatic activity levels of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in different tissues. Consecutive and alternating EMB/DM treatments resulted in a 10-fold increase and 3-fold decrease of CYP1A protein levels in the intestine and gills, respectively. Notably, CYP1A activity levels decreased in most of the analyzed tissues. FMO protein and activity levels markedly increased in the kidney and the intestine. GST was up-regulated in all tissues, either as protein or enzyme activity. When comparing consecutive EMB/DM treatments against previous studies of EMB treatment alone, CYP1A activity levels were similarly diminished, except in muscle. Likewise, FMO activity levels were increased in most of the analyzed tissues, particularly in the muscle, kidney, and intestine. The increases observed for GST were essentially unchanged between consecutive EMB/DM and EMB only treatments. These results indicate that consecutive EMB/DM treatments in rainbow trout induce the expression and activity of FMO and GST enzymes and decrease CYP1A activity. These altered activities of detoxification enzymes could generate imbalances in metabolic processes, synthesis, degradation of hormones and complications associated with drug interactions. It is especially important when analyzing possible effects of consecutive antiparasitic treatments on withholding periods and salmon farming yields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of anabolic agents on protein synthesis and degradation in muscle cells grown in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, R.A.; Thorpe, S.D.; Byers, F.M.; Schelling, G.T.; Gunn, J.M.

    Muscle cell culture (L/sub 6/) studies were conducted to determine whether anabolic agents have a direct effect on the muscle cell. The effect of zeranol, testosterone propionate, estradiol benzoate, progesterone, dexamethasone and anabolic agent-dexamethasone combinations on protein synthesis and degradation were measured. Myoblast and myotube cultures were pretreated with 1 ..mu..M compounds for 12, 24 and 48 h before a 6-h synthesis or degradation measuring period. Protein synthesis was determined as cpm of (/sup 3/H) leucine incorporated per mg cell protein. Protein degradation was measured by a pulse-chase procedure using (/sup 3/H) leucine and expressed as the percentage labeled protein degraded in 6 h. Progesterone slightly increased protein synthesis in myoblast cultures. Testosterone propionate had no effect on synthesis. Protein synthesis was decreased by estradiol benzoate in myotube cultures. Protein degradation was not altered appreciably by anabolic agents. Protein synthesis was initially inhibited in myotubes by dexamethasone, but increased in myoblasts and myotubes in the extended incubation time. Dexamethasone also consistently increased protein degradation, but this required several hours to be expressed. Anabolic agents did not interfere with dexamethasone-induced increases in protein synthesis and degradation. The magnitude of response and sensitivity were similar for both the myoblast and the more fully differentiated myotube for all compounds tested. These results indicate that anabolic agents at the 1 ..mu..M level do not have a direct anabolic effect on muscle or alter glucocorticoid-induced catabolic response in muscle.

  9. Influence of anabolic agents on protein synthesis and degradation in muscle cells grown in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, R.A.; Thorpe, S.D.; Byers, F.M.; Schelling, G.T.; Gunn, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Muscle cell culture (L 6 ) studies were conducted to determine whether anabolic agents have a direct effect on the muscle cell. The effect of zeranol, testosterone propionate, estradiol benzoate, progesterone, dexamethasone and anabolic agent-dexamethasone combinations on protein synthesis and degradation were measured. Myoblast and myotube cultures were pretreated with 1 μM compounds for 12, 24 and 48 h before a 6-h synthesis or degradation measuring period. Protein synthesis was determined as cpm of [ 3 H] leucine incorporated per mg cell protein. Protein degradation was measured by a pulse-chase procedure using [ 3 H] leucine and expressed as the percentage labeled protein degraded in 6 h. Progesterone slightly increased protein synthesis in myoblast cultures. Testosterone propionate had no effect on synthesis. Protein synthesis was decreased by estradiol benzoate in myotube cultures. Protein degradation was not altered appreciably by anabolic agents. Protein synthesis was initially inhibited in myotubes by dexamethasone, but increased in myoblasts and myotubes in the extended incubation time. Dexamethasone also consistently increased protein degradation, but this required several hours to be expressed. Anabolic agents did not interfere with dexamethasone-induced increases in protein synthesis and degradation. The magnitude of response and sensitivity were similar for both the myoblast and the more fully differentiated myotube for all compounds tested. These results indicate that anabolic agents at the 1 μM level do not have a direct anabolic effect on muscle or alter glucocorticoid-induced catabolic response in muscle

  10. Toxicity of emamectin benzoate to Cydia pomonella (L.) and Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): laboratory and field tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Anfora, Gianfranco; Angeli, Gino; Civolani, Stefano; Schmidt, Silvia; Pasqualini, Edison

    2009-03-01

    Emamectin benzoate is a novel macrocyclic lactone insecticide derived from naturally occurring avermectin molecules isolated by fermentation from the soil microorganism Streptomyces avermitilis Kim & Goodfellow. The present study aims to evaluate the toxicity of emamectin benzoate to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, C. molesta (Busck), under laboratory and semi-field conditions. Dose response bioassays showed that emamectin benzoate had a high level of intrinsic toxicity to early-stage larvae of both species, and that contact activity might contribute significantly to mortality. In the semi-field trials, residual toxicity lasted for more than 1 week. Ovicidal activity was recorded only for C. pomonella (approximately 30%), irrespective of the concentrations tested. Field trials confirmed the efficacy of emamectin benzoate on codling moth when applied at 7 day intervals. Fruit damage, both from the first and second generations, was comparable with that on treatment with chlorpyrifos-ethyl, used as a chemical reference. Emamectin benzoate may be considered a valuable tool for the control of codling moth as a component of an IPM programme. Its collective advantages are: high efficacy, lack of cross-resistance with currently used products, control of secondary pests such as oriental fruit moth and selective toxicity that spares beneficials. 2008 Society of Chemical Industry

  11. Degradation of Phenol via Phenylphosphate and Carboxylation to 4-Hydroxybenzoate by a Newly Isolated Strain of the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfobacterium anilini▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Young-Beom; Chae, Jong-Chan; Zylstra, Gerben J.; Häggblom, Max M.

    2009-01-01

    A sulfate-reducing phenol-degrading bacterium, strain AK1, was isolated from a 2-bromophenol-utilizing sulfidogenic estuarine sediment enrichment culture. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and DNA homology, strain AK1 is most closely related to Desulfobacterium anilini strain Ani1 (= DSM 4660T). In addition to phenol, this organism degrades a variety of other aromatic compounds, including benzoate, 2-hydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, 2-aminob...

  12. Secondary. cap alpha. -deuterium kinetic isotope effects in solvolyses of ferrocenylmethyl acetate and benzoate in ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutic, D. (Univ. of Zagreb, Yugoslavia); Asperger, S.; Borcic, S.

    1982-12-17

    Secondary ..cap alpha..-deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIE) in solvolyses of ferrocenyldideuteriomethyl acetate and benzoate were determined in 96% (v/v) ethanol, at 25/sup 0/C, as k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.24 and 1.26, respectively. The KIEs were also determined in the presence of 0.1 mol dm/sup -3/ lithium perchlorate: the k/sub H//k/ sub D/ values were 1.23 and 1.22 for acetate and benzoate complexes, respectively. The maximum KIE for the C-O bond cleavage of a primary substrate is as large as, or larger than, that of secondary derivatives, which is estimated to be 1.23 per deuterium. The measured KIE of about 12% per D therefore represents a strongly reduced effect relative to its maximum. The solvolyses exhibit ''a special salt effect''. This effect indicates the presence of solvent-separated ion pairs and the return to tight pairs. As the maximum KIE is expected in solvolyses involving transformation of one type of ion pair into another, the strongly reduced ..cap alpha..-D KIE supports the structure involving direct participation of electrons that in the ground state are localized at the iron atom. The alkyl-oxygen cleavage is accompanied by 10-15% acyl-oxygen cleavage.

  13. Benzoate-driven dehalogenation of chlorinated ethenes in microbial cultures from a contaminated aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunge, M.; Kleikemper, J.; Miniaci, C.; Duc, L.; Muusse, M.G.; Zeyer, J. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, Soil Biology; Hause, G. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Biocenter

    2007-10-15

    Microbial dehalogenation of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) was studied in cultures from a continuous stirred tank reactor initially inoculated with aquifer material from a PCE-contaminated site. Cultures amended with hydrogen and acetate readily dechlorinated PCE and cis-DCE; however, this transformation was incomplete and resulted in the accumulation of chlorinated intermediates and only small amounts of ethene within 60 days of incubation. Conversely, microbial PCE and cis-DCE dechlorination in cultures with benzoate and acetate resulted in the complete transformation to ethene within 30 days. Community fingerprinting by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed the predominance of phylotypes closely affiliated with Desulfitobacterium, Dehalococcoides, and Syntrophus species. The Dehalococcoides culture VZ, obtained from small whitish colonies in cis-DCE dechlorinating agarose cultures, revealed an irregular cell diameter between 200 and 500 nm, and a spherical or biconcave disk-shaped morphology. These organisms were identified as responsible for the dechlorination of cis-DCE to ethene in the PCE-dechlorinating consortia, operating together with the Desulfitobacterium as PCE-to-cis-DCE dehalogenating bacterium and with a Syntrophus species as potential hydrogen-producing partner in cultures with benzoate. (orig.)

  14. Development and preventative effect against pine wilt disease of a novel liquid formulation of emamectin benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshio; Kawazu, Kazuyoshi

    2003-03-01

    Injection of the poorly water-soluble emamectin benzoate (EB) into pine trunks required the development of an efficient liquid formulation. For injection into big trees in forests a good rate of injection and a high active content were required. Tests on the viscosity and EB-solubilizing ability of 14 various solubilizers in diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DGMBE) led to the selection of Sorpol SM-100PM as the solubilizer of the formulation. Relationships between the solubilizing ability and amounts of Sorpol SM-100PM and DGMBE relative to that of EB, and between the concentration of the latter and the viscosity or the injection rate of the formulation led to a novel 40 g litre(-1) emamectin benzoate formulation (Shot Wan Liquid Formulation), which was composed of EB (40), Sorpol SM-100PM (120), DGMBE (160) and distilled water (50 g litre(-1)) in methanol. Injection of this formulation at a dose of 10 g EB per unit volume of pine tree prevented over 90% of the trees from wilting caused by pine wood nematode, and this preventative effect continued for 3 years. Neither discolouration of the leaves nor injury around the injection hole on the trees was observed after injection of the formulation.

  15. Monitoring of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) resistance to spinosad, indoxacarb, and emamectin benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J Z; Collins, H L; Li, Y X; Mau, R F L; Thompson, G D; Hertlein, M; Andaloro, J T; Boykin, R; Shelton, A M

    2006-02-01

    Six to nine populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), were collected annually from fields of crucifer vegetables in the United States and Mexico from 2001 to 2004 for baseline susceptibility tests and resistance monitoring to spinosad, indoxacarb, and emamectin benzoate. A discriminating concentration for resistance monitoring to indoxacarb and emamectin benzoate was determined based on baseline data in 2001 and was used in the diagnostic assay for each population in 2002-2004 together with a discriminating concentration for spinosad determined previously. Most populations were susceptible to all three insecticides, but a population from Hawaii in 2003 showed high levels of resistance to indoxacarb. Instances of resistance to spinosad occurred in Hawaii (2000), Georgia (2001), and California (2002) as a consequence of a few years of extensive applications in each region. The collaborative monitoring program between university and industry scientists we discuss in this article has provided useful information to both parties as well as growers who use the products. These studies provide a baseline for developing a more effective resistance management program for diamondback moth.

  16. Moessbauer studies of {sup 151}Eu in europium oxalate, europium bissalen ammonium and europium benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynter, C. I., E-mail: wynterc@ncc.edu [Nassau Community College, Department of Chemistry (United States); Ryan, D. H. [McGill University, Centre for the Physics Materials, Department of Physics (Canada); Taneja, S. P. [Maharshi Dayanand University, Department of Physics (India); May, L. [Catholic University of America, Department of Chemistry (United States); Oliver, F. W. [Morgan State University, Department of Physics (United States); Brown, D. E. [Northern Illinois University, Department of Physics (United States); Iwunzie, M. [Morgan State University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2005-11-15

    Although a number of europium water insoluble chelates have been prepared for several decades, the covalent nature of these compounds has never been established in any quantitative fashion. Shifts in the I.R. bands and conductivity measurements of these salts were hitherto used to qualitatively compare their molecular nature. In this communique we have used temperature coefficients of {sup 151}Eu Moessbauer spectra to determine the Debye temperatures ({theta}{sub D}) of three europium chelates: namely europium oxalate, europium bissalen ammonium (recently reported) and europium benzoate and compared their {theta}{sub D} with the measured {theta}{sub D} of the known ionic EuF{sub 3}. Additionally, the mean square amplitude (benzoate with a {theta}{sub D} of (105 {+-} 5 K).

  17. Syntrophorhabdus aromaticivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., the first cultured anaerobe capable of degrading phenol to acetate in obligate syntrophic associations with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yan-Ling; Hanada, Satoshi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki; Kamagata, Yoichi; Sekiguchi, Yuji

    2008-04-01

    Phenol degradation under methanogenic conditions has long been studied, but the anaerobes responsible for the degradation reaction are still largely unknown. An anaerobe, designated strain UI(T), was isolated in a pure syntrophic culture. This isolate is the first tangible, obligately anaerobic, syntrophic substrate-degrading organism capable of oxidizing phenol in association with an H(2)-scavenging methanogen partner. Besides phenol, it could metabolize p-cresol, 4-hydroxybenzoate, isophthalate, and benzoate. During the degradation of phenol, a small amount of 4-hydroxybenzoate (a maximum of 4 microM) and benzoate (a maximum of 11 microM) were formed as transient intermediates. When 4-hydroxybenzoate was used as the substrate, phenol (maximum, 20 microM) and benzoate (maximum, 92 microM) were detected as intermediates, which were then further degraded to acetate and methane by the coculture. No substrates were found to support the fermentative growth of strain UI(T) in pure culture, although 88 different substrates were tested for growth. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain UI(T) belongs to an uncultured clone cluster (group TA) at the family (or order) level in the class Deltaproteobacteria. Syntrophorhabdus aromaticivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed for strain UI(T), and the novel family Syntrophorhabdaceae fam. nov. is described. Peripheral 16S rRNA gene sequences in the databases indicated that the proposed new family Syntrophorhabdaceae is largely represented by abundant bacteria within anaerobic ecosystems mainly decomposing aromatic compounds.

  18. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findikakis, A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore

  19. Anaerobic degradation of benzene by marine sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musat, Florin; Wilkes, Heinz; Musat, Niculina; Kuypers, Marcel; Widdel, Friedrich

    2010-05-01

    Benzene, the archetypal aromatic hydrocarbon is a common constituent of crude oil and oil-refined products. As such, it can enter the biosphere through natural oil seeps or as a consequence of exploitation of fossil fuel reservoirs. Benzene is chemically very stable, due to the stabilizing aromatic electron system and to the lack of functional groups. Although the anaerobic degradation of benzene has been reported under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions, the microorganisms involved and the initial biochemical steps of degradation remain insufficiently understood. Using marine sediment from a Mediterranean lagoon a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with benzene as the sole organic substrate was obtained. Application of 16S rRNA gene-based methods showed that the enrichment was dominated (more than 85% of total cells) by a distinct phylotype affiliated with a clade of Deltaproteobacteria that include degraders of other aromatic hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, ethylbenzene and m-xylene. Using benzoate as a soluble substrate in agar dilution series, several pure cultures closely related to Desulfotignum spp. and Desulfosarcina spp. were isolated. None of these strains was able to utilize benzene as a substrate and hybridizations with specific oligonucleotide probes showed that they accounted for as much as 6% of the total cells. Incubations with 13C-labeled benzene followed by Halogen in situ Hybridization - Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (HISH-SIMS) analysis showed that cells of the dominant phylotype were highly enriched in 13C, while the accompanying bacteria had little or no 13C incorporation. These results demonstrate that the dominant phylotype was indeed the apparent benzene degrader. Dense-cell suspensions of the enrichment culture did not show metabolic activity toward added phenol or toluene, suggesting that benzene degradation did not proceed through anaerobic hydroxylation or methylation. Instead, benzoate was identified in

  20. Optimization of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as host for the production of cis, cis-muconate from benzoate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duuren, van J.B.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as host for the production of cis, cis-muconate

    from benzoate P. putida KT2440 was used as biocatalyst given its versatile and energetically robust metabolism.

    Therefore, a mutant was generated and a process developed based on which a

  1. Dissipation kinetics and effect of different decontamination techniques on the residues of emamectin benzoate and spinosad in cowpea pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasree, V; Bai, Hebsy; Mathew, Thomas Biju; George, Thomas; Xavier, George; Kumar, N Pratheesh; Visalkumar, S

    2014-07-01

    Dissipation and decontamination of the semisynthetic macrolide emamectin benzoate and the natural insecticide spinosad on cowpea pods were studied following field application at single and double doses of 11.0 and 22 and 73 and 146 g ai ha(-1), respectively. Residues of these naturalytes were estimated using LC-MS/MS. The initial deposit of 0.073 and 0.153 mg kg(-1) of emamectin benzoate dissipated below quantitation level on the fifth and seventh day at single and double dosage, respectively. For spinosad, the initial deposits of 0.94 and 1.90 mg kg(-1) reached below quantitation level on the 7th day and 15th day at single and double dosage, respectively. The half-life of emamectin benzoate and spinosad was 1.13-1.49 and 1.05-1.39 days with the calculated safe waiting period of 2.99-6.12 and 1.09-3.25 days, respectively, for single and double dosage. Processing of the harvestable pods with different decontamination techniques resulted in 33.82 to 100 % removal 2 h after the application of emamectin benzoate and 100 % removal 3 days after spraying, while the removal was 42.05 to 87.46 % 2 h after the application of spinosad and 38.05 to 68.08 % 3 days after application.

  2. Distribution and persistence of emamectin benzoate at efficacious concentrations in pine tissues after injection of a liquid formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshio; Kawazu, Kazuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    In an earlier paper the authors reported the creation of a novel emamectin benzoate 40 g litre(-1) liquid formulation (Shot Wan Liquid Formulation). The injection of this formulation exerted a preventative effect against the pine wilt disease caused by the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Buhrer) Nickle, and this effect lasted for at least 3 years. The present study was carried out to show experimentally that the marked effect of this formulation was due to the presence and persistence in pine tissues of sufficient amounts of emamectin benzoate to inhibit nematode propagation. A cleanup procedure prior to quantitative analysis of emamectin benzoate by fluorescence HPLC was devised. The presence of the compound in concentrations sufficient to inhibit nematode propagation in the shoots of current growth and its persistence for 3 years explained the marked preventative effect. Non-distribution of emamectin benzoate in some parts of the lower trunk suggested that the formulation should be injected at several points for large trees in order to distribute the compound uniformly to lower branches.

  3. Magnetic ordering of quasi-1 D S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet Cu benzoate at sub-mK temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaki, Y.; Masutomi, R.; Kubota, M.; Ishimoto, H.; Asano, T.; Ajiro, Y.

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the AC susceptibility of quasi-1D S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet Cu benzoate at temperatures down to 0.2 mK. A sharp susceptibility peak is observed at 0.8 mK under an earth field. This fact indicates a 3D ordering of linear chains coupled by a weak magnetic interaction between chains

  4. Use of emanation thermal analysis and evolved gas analysis in thermal study of zinc(II) benzoate complex compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Findoráková, L.; Györyová, K.; Večerníková, Eva; Balek, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 3 (2009), s. 765-769 ISSN 1388-6150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : zinc(II) benzoate * caffeine * urea * thermogravimetry Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.587, year: 2009

  5. Polarographic reduction of Yb/sup +3/ benzoate and salicylate complexes in aqueous-nonaqueous mixtures at D. M. E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zutshi, K; Gupta, K C [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1977-01-01

    The reduction of Yb/sup +3/ and Yb/sup +3/-benzoate and salicylate complexes was studied polarographically at constant ionic strength at 25 +- 0.02/sup 0/C in aqueous-nonaqueous mixtures. The reduction was found to be diffusion-controlled, but the electrode process was irreversible in all cases. The kinetic parameters were determined by Koutecky's method.

  6. USE OF BENZOATE TO ESTABLISH REACTIVE BUFFER ZONES FOR ENHANCED ATTENUATION OF BTX MIGRATION: AQUIFER COLUMN EXPERIMENTS (R823420)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flow-through aquifer columns were used to evaluate the efficacy of using benzoate as a biostimulatory substrate to enhance the aerobic biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and o-xylene (BTX), fed continuously at low concentra tions (about 0.2 mg/L each). When used as a cosubstr...

  7. Effect of emamectin benzoate on mortality, proboscis extension, gustation and reproduction of the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Juan D; Latheef, M A; Hoffmann, W C

    2010-01-01

    Newly emerged corn earworm adults, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) require a carbohydrate source from plant or other exudates and nectars for dispersal and reproduction. Adults actively seek and forage at feeding sites upon eclosion in the habitat of the larval host plant or during dispersal to, or colonization of, a suitable reproductive habitat. This nocturnal behavior of H. zea has potential for exploitation as a pest management strategy for suppression using an adult feeding approach. This approach entails the use of a feeding attractant and stimulant in combination with a toxicant that when ingested by the adult will either reduce fecundity/fertility at sub-lethal dosages or kill the adult. The intent of this study was to assess reproductive inhibition and toxicity of emamectin benzoate on H. zea when ingested by the adults when mixed in ppm active ingredient (wt:vol) with 2.5 M sucrose as a feeding stimulant. Because the mixture has to be ingested to function, the effect of emamectin benzoate was also evaluated at sub-lethal and lethal concentrations on proboscis extension and gustatory response of H. zea in the laboratory. Feral males captured in sex pheromone-baited traps in the field were used for toxicity evaluations because they were readily available and were more representative of the field populations than laboratory-reared adults. Laboratory-reared female moths were used for reproduction effects because it is very difficult to collect newly emerged feral females from the field. Emamectin benzoate was highly toxic to feral H. zea males with LC(50) values (95% CL) being 0.718 (0.532-0.878), 0.525 (0.316-0.751), and 0.182 (0.06-0.294) ppm for 24, 48 and 72 h responses, respectively. Sub-lethal concentrations of emamectin benzoate did not significantly reduce proboscis extension response of feral males and gustatory response of female H. zea. Sublethal concentrations of emamectin benzoate significantly reduced percent larval hatch of

  8. Ecosystemic approaches to land degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigdefabregas, J.; Barrio, G. del; Hill, J.

    2009-07-01

    Land degradation is recognized as the main outcome of desertification. However available procedures for its assessment are still unsatisfactory because are often too costly for surveying large areas and rely on specific components of the degradation process without being able to integrate them in a unique process. One of the objectives of De Survey project is designing and implementing operational procedures for desertification surveillance, including land degradation. A strategic report was compiled and reproduced here for selecting the most appropriate approaches to the project conditions. The report focuses on using attributes of ecosystem maturity as a natural way to integrate the different drivers of land degradation in simple indices. The review surveys different families of attributes concerned with water and energy fluxes through the ecosystem, its capacity to sustain biomass and net primary productivity, and its capacity to structure the space. Finally, some conclusions are presented about the choice criteria of the different approaches in the framne of operational applications. (Author) 20 refs.

  9. Ecosystemic approaches to land degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigdefabregas, J.; Barrio, G. del; Hill, J.

    2009-01-01

    Land degradation is recognized as the main outcome of desertification. However available procedures for its assessment are still unsatisfactory because are often too costly for surveying large areas and rely on specific components of the degradation process without being able to integrate them in a unique process. One of the objectives of De Survey project is designing and implementing operational procedures for desertification surveillance, including land degradation. A strategic report was compiled and reproduced here for selecting the most appropriate approaches to the project conditions. The report focuses on using attributes of ecosystem maturity as a natural way to integrate the different drivers of land degradation in simple indices. The review surveys different families of attributes concerned with water and energy fluxes through the ecosystem, its capacity to sustain biomass and net primary productivity, and its capacity to structure the space. Finally, some conclusions are presented about the choice criteria of the different approaches in the framne of operational applications. (Author) 20 refs.

  10. Proteogenomic Characterization of Monocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation Pathways in the Aniline-Degrading Bacterium Burkholderia sp. K24.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yeop Lee

    Full Text Available Burkholderia sp. K24, formerly known as Acinetobacter lwoffii K24, is a soil bacterium capable of utilizing aniline as its sole carbon and nitrogen source. Genomic sequence analysis revealed that this bacterium possesses putative gene clusters for biodegradation of various monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs, including benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX, as well as aniline. We verified the proposed MAH biodegradation pathways by dioxygenase activity assays, RT-PCR, and LC/MS-based quantitative proteomic analyses. This proteogenomic approach revealed four independent degradation pathways, all converging into the citric acid cycle. Aniline and p-hydroxybenzoate degradation pathways converged into the β-ketoadipate pathway. Benzoate and toluene were degraded through the benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway. The xylene isomers, i.e., o-, m-, and p-xylene, were degraded via the extradiol cleavage pathways. Salicylate was degraded through the gentisate degradation pathway. Our results show that Burkholderia sp. K24 possesses versatile biodegradation pathways, which may be employed for efficient bioremediation of aniline and BTX.

  11. Proteogenomic Characterization of Monocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation Pathways in the Aniline-Degrading Bacterium Burkholderia sp. K24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sung Ho; Choi, Chi-Won; Yi, Yoon-Sun; Kim, Jonghyun; Chung, Young-Ho; Park, Edmond Changkyun; Kim, Seung Il

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia sp. K24, formerly known as Acinetobacter lwoffii K24, is a soil bacterium capable of utilizing aniline as its sole carbon and nitrogen source. Genomic sequence analysis revealed that this bacterium possesses putative gene clusters for biodegradation of various monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), including benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX), as well as aniline. We verified the proposed MAH biodegradation pathways by dioxygenase activity assays, RT-PCR, and LC/MS-based quantitative proteomic analyses. This proteogenomic approach revealed four independent degradation pathways, all converging into the citric acid cycle. Aniline and p-hydroxybenzoate degradation pathways converged into the β-ketoadipate pathway. Benzoate and toluene were degraded through the benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway. The xylene isomers, i.e., o-, m-, and p-xylene, were degraded via the extradiol cleavage pathways. Salicylate was degraded through the gentisate degradation pathway. Our results show that Burkholderia sp. K24 possesses versatile biodegradation pathways, which may be employed for efficient bioremediation of aniline and BTX. PMID:27124467

  12. A novel 3α-p-Nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate and two new triterpenoids from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Reiko; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nakasuji, Saori; Ue, Yasuhiro; Shuto, Daisuke; Igarashi, Keishi; Okada, Rina; Yamada, Takeshi

    2013-06-26

    Three novel multiflorane-type triterpenoids, 3α-p-nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (1), 3α-acetoxymultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (2), and 3α-acetoxymultiflora-5(6):7:9(11)-triene-29-benzoate (3), along with two known related compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L). Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HREIMS. Triterpenoids possessing a nitro group were not isolated previously.

  13. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station......Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  14. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Köse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment’s efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.

  15. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Melis; Canda, Ebru; Kagnici, Mehtap; Uçar, Sema Kalkan; Çoker, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment's efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.

  16. Analysis of preference for carbon source utilization among three strains of aromatic compounds degrading Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karishma, M; Trivedi, Vikas D; Choudhary, Alpa; Mhatre, Akanksha; Kambli, Pranita; Desai, Jinal; Phale, Prashant S

    2015-10-01

    Soil isolates Pseudomonas putida CSV86, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PP4 and Pseudomonas sp. C5pp degrade naphthalene, phthalate isomers and carbaryl, respectively. Strain CSV86 displayed a diauxic growth pattern on phenylpropanoid compounds (veratraldehyde, ferulic acid, vanillin or vanillic acid) plus glucose with a distinct second lag-phase. The glucose concentration in the medium remained constant with higher cell respiration rates on aromatics and maximum protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase activity in the first log-phase, which gradually decreased in the second log-phase with concomitant depletion of the glucose. In strains PP4 and C5pp, growth profile and metabolic studies suggest that glucose is utilized in the first log-phase with the repression of utilization of aromatics (phthalate or carbaryl). All three strains utilize benzoate via the catechol 'ortho' ring-cleavage pathway. On benzoate plus glucose, strain CSV86 showed preference for benzoate over glucose in contrast to strains PP4 and C5pp. Additionally, organic acids like succinate were preferred over aromatics in strains PP4 and C5pp, whereas strain CSV86 co-metabolizes them. Preferential utilization of aromatics over glucose and co-metabolism of organic acids and aromatics are found to be unique properties of P. putida CSV86 as compared with strains PP4 and C5pp and this property of strain CSV86 can be exploited for effective bioremediation. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved.

  17. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  18. Optimization of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as host for the production of cis, cis-muconate from benzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Duuren, van, J.B.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as host for the production of cis, cis-muconate from benzoate P. putida KT2440 was used as biocatalyst given its versatile and energetically robust metabolism. Therefore, a mutant was generated and a process developed based on which a life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed. Additionally, the growth related parameters were experimentally obtained to constrain the metabolic model iJP815 further. The mutant Pseudomonas putida KT2440-JD1 was deri...

  19. A fixed-dose approach to conducting emamectin benzoate tolerance assessments on field-collected sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, S K; Westcott, J D; Elmoslemany, A; Hammell, K L; Revie, C W

    2013-03-01

    In New Brunswick, Canada, the sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, poses an on-going management challenge to the health and productivity of commercially cultured Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. While the in-feed medication, emamectin benzoate (SLICE® ; Merck), has been highly effective for many years, evidence of increased tolerance has been observed in the field since late 2008. Although bioassays on motile stages are a common tool to monitor sea lice sensitivity to emamectin benzoate in field-collected sea lice, they require the collection of large numbers of sea lice due to inherent natural variability in the gender and stage response to chemotherapeutants. In addition, sensitive instruments such as EC(50) analysis may be unnecessarily complex to characterize susceptibility subsequent to a significant observed decline in efficacy. This study proposes an adaptation of the traditional, dose-response format bioassay to a fixed-dose method. Analysis of 657 bioassays on preadult and adult stages of sea lice over the period 2008-2011 indicated a population of sea lice in New Brunswick with varying degrees of susceptibility to emamectin benzoate. A seasonal and spatial effect was observed in the robustness of genders and stages of sea lice, which suggest that mixing different genders and stages of lice within a single bioassay may result in pertinent information being overlooked. Poor survival of adult female lice in bioassays, particularly during May/June, indicates it may be prudent to consider excluding this stage from bioassays conducted at certain times of the year. This work demonstrates that fixed-dose bioassays can be a valuable technique in detecting reduced sensitivity in sea lice populations with varying degrees of susceptibility to emamectin benzoate treatments. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Synthesis of [18F]-N-succinimidyl 4-fluoromethyl benzoate and its protein labeling property in detection of malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilian, A.R; Afarideh, H.; Shafiee, A.; Rafii, H.; Najafi, R.

    1998-01-01

    [ 18 F]-N-succinimidyl 4-fluoromethyl benzoate (9) is prepared through a one-step hot reaction and a four-step cold reaction. After optimizing the reaction conditions, more simple methods are suggested to be used in order to prepare substance (9). Finally, the labeled molecule is purified via an easier way in comparison to the published methods. HPLC procedure is replaced with a hand-made gel filtration column and is utilized in satisfactorily

  1. Determination of Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate in “Doogh” Samples in Post Market Surveillance in Iran 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Akbari-adergani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate are two major chemical preservatives which are used in Doogh (Iranian traditional dairy drink. In this study, a total of 27 commercial brands of highly consumed of Doogh samples were analyzed. The means and standard deviation for concentration of these preservatives based on HPLC results for analysis of benzoate and sorbate were 195·9 (SD 1·8 and 328·8 (SD 2·1 mg.Kg-1 respectively. The minimum and maximum of benzoate content in various brands were 18.3 and 2345.1 mg.Kg-1 and for sorbate were not detected and 4961.3 mg.Kg-1 respectively. The study revealed that there was not significant difference in preservative concentration in the samples that belonged to various dates. However, a few samples had a high preservative concentration, which could be a risk factor for human health, especially when their intake was being occurred by various foodstuffs simultaneously.

  2. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for residue analysis of the insecticide emamectin benzoate in agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Mika; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Uchigashima, Mikiko; Kono, Takeshi; Takemoto, Toshihide; Fujita, Masahiro; Saka, Machiko; Iwasa, Seiji; Ito, Shigekazu; Miyake, Shiro

    2009-01-28

    A direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dc-ELISA) for the analysis of emamectin residues in agricultural products was developed using a prepared mouse monoclonal antibody. The working range was 0.3-3.0 ng/mL, and the 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) was 1.0 ng/mL. The assay was sufficiently sensitive for analysis of the maximum residue limits in agricultural products in Japan (>0.1 microg/g). Emamectin residues contain the following metabolites: the 4''-epi-amino analogue, the 4''-epi-(N-formyl)amino analogue, the 4''-epi-(N-formyl-N-methyl)amino analogue, and the 8,9-Z isomer. The dc-ELISA reacted with these compounds at ratios of 113, 55, 38, and 9.1% of the IC(50) value of emamectin benzoate. Seven kinds of vegetables were spiked with emamectin benzoate at concentrations of 15-300 ng/g, and the recoveries were 91-117% in the dc-ELISA. The dc-ELISA results agreed reasonably well with results obtained by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using spiked samples and actual (incurred) samples. The results indicate that the dc-ELISA was useful for the analysis of emamectin benzoate residues in agricultural products.

  3. High-level of resistance to spinosad, emamectin benzoate and carbosulfan in populations of Thrips tabaci collected in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Galina; Abo-Moch, Fauzi; Gafni, Guy; Ben-Yakir, David; Ghanim, Murad

    2013-02-01

    The onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, is a major pest of several crop plants in the genus Allium, such as onions, garlic and chives. In Israel, these crops are grown in open fields and in protected housing. This thrips is usually controlled by the application of chemical insecticides. In recent years, spinosad, emamectin benzoate and carbosulfan have been the major insecticides used for the control of the onion thrips. In the last 4 years, growers of chives and green onion from several regions of Israel have reported a significant decrease in the efficacy of insecticides used to control the onion thrips. The susceptibility of 14 populations of the onion thrips, collected mainly from chives between the years 2007 and 2011, to spinosad, emamectin benzoate and carbosulfan was tested using a laboratory bioassay. The majority of the populations showed significant levels of resistance to at least one of the insecticides. LC(50) values calculated for two of the studied populations showed that the resistance factor for spinosad compared with the susceptible population is 21 393, for carbosulfan 54 and for emamectin benzoate 36. Only two populations, collected from organic farms, were susceptible to the insecticides tested. This is the first report of a high resistance level to spinosad, the major insecticide used to control the onion thrips. Resistance cases to spinosad were associated with failures to control the pest. Populations resistant to spinosad also had partial or complete resistance to other insecticides used for controlling the onion thrips. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Efficacy of vinegar, sorbitol and sodium benzoate in mitigation of Salmonella contamination in betel leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Asmaul Husna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to mitigate Salmonella from betel leaf in Mymensingh. A total of 35 betel leaf samples were collected from 2 baroujes and 5 local markets in Mymensingh. The samples were sub-divided into two groups: (i phosphate buffer solution (PBS washed, and (ii grinded sample. There was control and treated (with 1.5% vinegar, sorbitol, and sodium benzoate sub-groups in both groups. Mitigation of Salmonella was determined by comparing Total Viable Count (TVC and Total Salmonella Count (TSAC of control with treated groups. No bacterial growth was observed in the betel leaf samples collected directly from barouj level. At market level, when grinded, there was no growth of bacteria in Plate Count Agar (PCA and Salmonella- Shigella (SS or Xylose Lysine De-oxy-chocolate (XLD in both treated and untreated groups. But when the PBS washed samples were used, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL of betel leaf ranged from 5.16±0.82 to 5.96±1.11, whereas the TSAC value ranged from 4.87±0.58 to 5.56±1.00 for untreated group. In vinegar, there was no growth, but when treated with sorbitol, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 5.00±0.54 to 5.66±1.09, and TSAC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 4.28±0.71 to 4.78±0.64. When treated with sodium benzoate, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 5.06±0.53 to 5.75±1.02, and TSAC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 4.34±0.79 to 4.92±0.64. Data of this study indicates that all the three chemicals were effective in terms of reducing bacterial load but vinegar (1.5% was found to be the most effective against Salmonella as well as some other bacteria when treated for 10 min.

  5. Development of a water-soluble preparation of emamectin benzoate and its preventative effect against the wilting of pot-grown pine trees inoculated with the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, K; Soejima, T; Suzuki, T; Kawazu, K

    2001-05-01

    Water-soluble preparations have been investigated to develop a trunk injection agent based on the poorly water-soluble anti-nematode emamectin benzoate. Following tests on the phytotoxicity of some solvents and solubilizers and demonstration of the ability of some solubilizers to dissolve emamectin benzoate in water, acetone + methanol was selected as the solvent and Polysorbate 80 as the solubilizer. This water-soluble preparation of emamectin benzoate prevented the wilting of pot-grown 4-year-old trees of the Japanese black pine, Pinus thunbergii, artificially inoculated with the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, at a dose of 20 g emamectin benzoate per cubic metre of pine tree.

  6. Determination of Benzoate Level in Canned Pickles and Pickled Cucumbers in Food Producing Factories in Markazi Province and those that their Products were Sold in Arak City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Delavar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anecdotal information has suggested that sodium benzoate is used with more than permissible doses during production steps of food products especially pickles and pickled cucumbers in food producing factories in Markazi province and other food producing factories . The present study was done to evaluate factual concentration of sodium benzoate in these products. Methods: In this study, 8 samples from canned pickled cucumbers and 10 samples from canned pickles were randomly gathered from food production factories in Markazi province between March and September 2010. Also, 25 samples from canned pickled cucumbers and 15 samples from canned pickles and 7 samples of bulk cargo pickled cucumbers were collected from the other provinces in Arak city. Sodium benzoate level was determined in the samples using UV-VIS spectrophotometry method. The determined values were analyzed by N-par test using SPSS software version 16.0. Results: Sodium benzoate level was near zero in the samples of canned pickles and pickled cucumbers from producing factories. This was 200-400 PPM in 7 samples from bulk cargo pickled cucumbers which was higher than permissible dose. There was not a statistically significant difference between mean benzoate level of canned pickles and pickled cucumbers produced in Markazi providence factories and other food factories. Benzoate level was significantly higher than permissible dose in bulk cargo pickled cucumbers. Conclusion: Food products from production factories do not have higher than permissible level of sodium benzoate; however, this is higher in bulk cargo pickled cucumbers. Hence, stricter control on bulk cargo pickled cucumber products is recommended.

  7. Evaluations of emamectin benzoate and propiconazole for protecting individual Pinus contorta from mortality attributed to colonization by Dendroctonus ponderosae and associated fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettig, Christopher J; Munson, A Steven; Grosman, Donald M; Bush, Parshall B

    2014-05-01

    Protection of conifers from bark beetle colonization typically involves applications of liquid formulations of contact insecticides to the tree bole. An evaluation was made of the efficacy of bole injections of emamectin benzoate alone and combined with the fungicide propiconazole for protecting individual lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud., from mortality attributed to colonization by mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and progression of associated blue stain fungi. Injections of emamectin benzoate applied in mid-June did not provide adequate levels of tree protection; however, injections of emamectin benzoate + propiconazole applied at the same time were effective for two field seasons. Injections of emamectin benzoate and emamectin benzoate + propiconazole in mid-September provided tree protection the following field season, but unfortunately efficacy could not be determined during a second field season owing to insufficient levels of tree mortality observed in the untreated control, indicative of low D. ponderosae populations. Previous evaluations of emamectin benzoate for protecting P. contorta from mortality attributed to D. ponderosae have failed to demonstrate efficacy, which was later attributed to inadequate distribution of emamectin benzoate following injections applied several weeks before D. ponderosae colonization. The present data indicate that injections of emamectin benzoate applied in late summer or early fall will provide adequate levels of tree protection the following summer, and that, when emamectin benzoate is combined with propiconazole, tree protection is afforded the year that injections are implemented. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Exerting Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, J Michael; Phillips, Carolyn A

    2017-05-01

    Patient safety has been at the forefront of nursing research since the release of the Institute of Medicine's report estimating the number of preventable adverse events in hospital settings; yet no research to date has incorporated the perspectives of bedside nurses using classical grounded theory (CGT) methodology. This CGT study explored the perceptions of bedside registered nurses regarding patient safety in adult acute care hospitals. Data analysis used three techniques unique to CGT-the constant comparative method, coding, and memoing-to explore the values, realities, and beliefs of bedside nurses about patient safety. The analysis resulted in a substantive theory, Exerting Capacity, which explained how bedside nurses balance the demands of keeping their patients safe. Exerting Capacity has implications for health care organization leaders, nursing leaders, and bedside nurses; it also has indications for future research into the concept of patient safety.

  9. High secondary [alpha]-deuterium kinetic isotope effect in the acetolysis and formolysis of dideuterioferrocenylmethyl benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, S. (Research Center of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Zagreb (Croatia)); Kukric, Z.; Sutic, D. (Sarajevo Univ. (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics); Saunders, W.H. Jr. (Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-02-01

    Acetolysis and formolysis of dideuterioferrocenylmethyl benzoate exhibit large secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effects and an abnormal temperature dependence. In the presence of LiClO[sub 4], which prevents the reversion from solvent-separated to contact ion-pairs, K[sub H]/K[sub D] at 25 [sup o]C amount to 1.53 [+-] 0.02 (acetolysis) and 1.48 [+-] 0.03 (formolysis). In the presence of LiClO[sub 4] the ratios of Arrhenius pre-exponential factors, A[sub H]/A[sub D], are significantly less than unity and amount to 0.49 [+-] 0.01 (acetolysis) and 0.38 [+-] 0.04 (formolysis). In the absence of LiClO[sub 4] the A[sub H]/A[sub D] ratios are much smaller (0.02 both in acetolysis and formolysis). We suggest that these surprisingly low values result from a change in rate-determining step over the temperature range, from formation of the solvent-separated ion-pair at low temperatures to reaction of the dissociated carbocation with solvent at the highest temperatures. Whether tunnelling plays any role in these solvolyses is discussed. (Author).

  10. Environmental friendly anodizing of AZ91D magnesium alloy in alkaline borate-benzoate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yan [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Chemistry, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui 741000 (China); Wei Zhongling [Magnesium Technology Co., Ltd., Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jiaxing 314051 (China); Yang Fuwei [Department of Chemistry, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui 741000 (China); Zhang Zhao, E-mail: eaglezzy@zjuem.zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Key Laboratory for Light Alloy Materials Technology, Jiaxing 314051 (China)

    2011-06-02

    Highlights: > Environmental friendly PEO technology for AZ91 magnesium alloy is developed. > NaBz is used as new additive and it is low-cost and environmental friendly. > The effect of NaBz additive on the properties of the anodized film was studied. > Anodized film with excellent corrosion resistance is obtained. > The forming mechanism of anodized film in the presence of NaBz is approached. - Abstract: A kind of environmental friendly anodizing routine for AZ91D magnesium alloy, based on an alkaline borate-sodium benzoate electrolyte (NaBz) was studied. The effect of NaBz on the properties of the anodized film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results showed that the anodizing process, surface morphology, thickness, phase structure and corrosion resistance of the anodized film were strongly dependent on the concentration of NaBz. In the presence of adequate NaBz, a thick, compact and smoothing anodized film with excellent corrosion resistance was produced. Moreover, the forming mechanism of the anodized film in the presence of NaBz additive was also approached, which was a suppression of arc discharge process by the adsorption of Bz{sup -} on the surface of magnesium alloy substrate.

  11. Relationship between dose of emamectin benzoate and molting response of ovigerous American lobsters (Homarus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddy, S L; Merritt, V A; Hamilton-Gibson, M N; Aiken, D E; Burridge, L E

    2007-05-01

    A widely-prescribed treatment to control sea lice on cultured salmon is the administration of feed medicated with SLICE (active ingredient emamectin benzoate (EMB)). High doses of EMB can disrupt the molt cycle of ovigerous American lobsters, causing them to enter proecdysis prematurely and lose their attached eggs when the shell is cast. To determine the dose response to EMB, lobsters were forced to ingest doses that ranged from 0.05 to 0.39 microg g(-1). A significant proportion of lobsters given doses of 0.39 and 0.22 microg g(-1) (37% and 23%, respectively) molted prematurely, almost a year earlier than the control group. All the lobsters in the 0.05 and 0.12 microg g(-1) groups molted at the normal time and the mean time of molt was similar to that of the control group. Thus, the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) and lowest-observed-effect level (LOEL) of EMB on the molt cycle were 0.12 and 0.22 microg EMB g(-1) lobster, respectively. To acquire the LOEL, a 500-g lobster would have to consume 22 g of salmon feed medicated with SLICE at a level of 5 microg EMB g(-1) feed.

  12. Potential genotoxic and cytotoxicity of emamectin benzoate in human normal liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Zhao, Xinyu; Qin, Xiaosong

    2017-10-10

    Pesticide residue inducing cancer-related health problems draw people more attention recently. Emamectin benzoate (EMB) has been widely used in agriculture around the world based on its specificity targets. Although potential risk and the molecular mechanism of EMB toxicity to human liver has not been well-characterized. Unlike well-reported toxicity upon central nervous system, potential genotoxic and cytotoxicity of EMB in human liver cell was ignored and very limited. In this study, we identify genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of EMB to human normal liver cells (QSG7701 cell line) in vitro . We demonstrate that EMB inhibited the viability of QSG7701 cells and induced the DNA damage. Established assays of cytotoxicity were performed to characterize the mechanism of EMB toxicity on QSG7701 cells. Typical chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation indicated the apoptosis of QSG7701 cells induced by EMB. And the intracellular biochemical results demonstrated that EMB-enhanced apoptosis of QSG7701 cells concurrent with generated ROS, a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the cytochrome-c release, up regulate the Bax/Bcl-2 and the activation of caspase-9/-3. Our results of EMB induces the death of QSG7701 cells maybe via mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathways would contribute to promote the awareness of EMB as an extensive used pesticide to human being effects and reveal the underlying mechanisms of potential genotoxic.

  13. Determination of emamectin benzoate in medicated fish feed: a multisite study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farer, Leslie J

    2005-01-01

    A new method was developed for the quantitation of emamectin benzoate in medicated fish feed at levels between 1 and 30 ppm. The new procedure, based on a previously reported assay, consists of a wet methanolic extraction of ground feed, followed by solid-phase extraction and injection onto a gradient liquid chromatographic system. A multisite study involving 3 laboratories (the developing laboratory and 2 independent laboratories) was performed to evaluate precision, recovery, linearity, and sensitivity. Mean recove;ries for triplicate analyses at 3 levels, performed by 2 analysts per laboratory, were between 89 and 97%, with coefficients of variation ranging from 1.6 to 8.6%. Coefficients of determination (r2) obtained from the plotted data were > or =0.993. The precision of the method, determined from 6 replicate preparations from the same batch of medicated feed assayed in 3 separate trials per laboratory, was between 0.6 and 5.8%. The quantitation limit was established at 0.5 ppm. Specificity and robustness studies were performed by the developing laboratory.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of emamectin-benzoate slow-release microspheres with different surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Anqi; Wang, Chunxin; Cui, Bo; Sun, Changjiao; Zhao, Xiang; Zeng, Zhanghua; Shen, Yue; Gao, Fei; Liu, Guoqiang; Cui, Haixin

    2017-10-06

    Pesticide slow-release formulations provide a way to increase the efficiency of active components by reducing the amount of pesticide that needs to be applied. Slow-release formulations also increase the stability and prolong the control effect of photosensitive pesticides. Surfactants are an indispensable part of pesticide formulations, and the choice of surfactant can strongly affect formulation performance. In this study, emamectin-benzoate (EMB) slow-release microspheres were prepared by the microemulsion polymerization method. We explored the effect of different surfactants on the particle size and dispersity of EMB in slow-release microspheres. The results indicated that the samples had uniform spherical shapes with an average diameter of 320.5 ±5.24 nm and good dispersity in the optimal formulation with the polymeric stabilizer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and composite non-ionic surfactant polyoxyethylene castor oil (EL-40). The optimal EMB pesticide slow-release microspheres had excellent anti-photolysis performance, stability, controlled release properties, and good leaf distribution. These results demonstrated that EMB slow-release microspheres are an attractive candidate for improving pesticide efficacy and prolonging the control effect of EMB in the environment.

  15. Environmental friendly anodizing of AZ91D magnesium alloy in alkaline borate-benzoate electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Wei Zhongling; Yang Fuwei; Zhang Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Environmental friendly PEO technology for AZ91 magnesium alloy is developed. → NaBz is used as new additive and it is low-cost and environmental friendly. → The effect of NaBz additive on the properties of the anodized film was studied. → Anodized film with excellent corrosion resistance is obtained. → The forming mechanism of anodized film in the presence of NaBz is approached. - Abstract: A kind of environmental friendly anodizing routine for AZ91D magnesium alloy, based on an alkaline borate-sodium benzoate electrolyte (NaBz) was studied. The effect of NaBz on the properties of the anodized film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results showed that the anodizing process, surface morphology, thickness, phase structure and corrosion resistance of the anodized film were strongly dependent on the concentration of NaBz. In the presence of adequate NaBz, a thick, compact and smoothing anodized film with excellent corrosion resistance was produced. Moreover, the forming mechanism of the anodized film in the presence of NaBz additive was also approached, which was a suppression of arc discharge process by the adsorption of Bz - on the surface of magnesium alloy substrate.

  16. Sodium benzoate induced developmental defects, oxidative stress and anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Himanshu; Purushothaman, Srinithi; Pullaguri, Narasimha; Bhargava, Yogesh; Bhargava, Anamika

    2018-05-28

    Sodium benzoate (SB) is a common food preservative. Its FDA described safety limit is 1000 ppm. Lately, increased use of SB has prompted investigations regarding its effects on biological systems. Data regarding toxicity of SB is divergent and controversial with studies reporting both harmful and beneficial effects. Therefore, we did a systematic dose dependent toxicity study of SB using zebrafish vertebrate animal model. We also investigated oxidative stress and anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish larva treated with SB. Our results indicate that SB induced developmental (delayed hatching), morphological (pericardial edema, yolk sac edema and tail bending), biochemical (oxidative stress) and behavioural (anxiety-like behaviour) abnormalities in developing zebrafish larva. LC 50 of SB induced toxicity was approximately 400 ppm after 48 h of SB exposure. Our study strongly supports its harmful effects on vertebrates at increasing doses. Thus, we suggest caution in the excessive use of this preservative in processed and convenience foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Indirect radioiodination of human IgG with N-succinimidyl-3-iodo[125I] benzoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhenfeng; Wang Yongxian; Dong Mo; Zhou Wei; Xia Jiaoyun; Yin Duanzhi; Li Linfa

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an acylation method for the radioiodination of monoclonal antibodies that could decrease the loss of radioiodine in vivo. Preparation of N- succinimidyl-3-iodobenzoate(S 125 IB) from the organoth precursor, N-succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-bu- tylstannyl)benzoate(ATE) proceeds in more than 95% labelling yield, when the mass of ATE and NCS are respectively 25-100 μg and 10-20 μg, and the volume of PBS is 10-20 μL, and reaction time is 5 min. IgG is labeled using S 125 IB in up to 75% conjugation efficiency and with well retained immunoreactivity to sheep anti-human IgG. Hepama-1 is also labeled using S 125 IB in more than 75% conjugation efficiency. Paired-label biodistribution studies in normal mice demonstrate that thyroid uptake(a monitor of dehalogenation) of Hepama-1 labeled by S 125 IB method is up to 87.9 times lower than that of Hepama-1 labeled with Iodogen. This result suggests that S 125 IB offers significant advantages for labeling proteins, antibodies over other conventional methods for protein radioiodination. (authors)

  18. Monitoring benzene formation from benzoate in model systems by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, Eugenio; Biasioli, Franco; Carlin, Silvia; Märk, Tilmann D.; Gasperi, Flavia

    2008-08-01

    The presence of benzene in food and in particular in soft drinks has been reported in several studies and should be considered in fundamental investigations about formation of this carcinogen compound as well as in quality control. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) has been used here for rapid, direct quantification of benzene and to monitor its formation in model systems related to the use of benzoate, a common preservative, in presence of ascorbic acid: a widespread situation that yields benzene in, e.g., soft drinks and fruit juices. Firstly, we demonstrate here that PTR-MS allows a rapid determination of benzene that is in quantitative agreement with independent solid phase micro-extraction/gas chromatography (SPME/GC) analysis. Secondly, as a case study, the effect of different sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose) on benzene formation is investigated indicating that they inhibit its formation and that this effect is enhanced for reducing sugars. The sugar-induced inhibition of benzene formation depends on several parameters (type and concentration of sugar, temperature, time) but can be more than 80% in situations that can be expected in the storage of commercial soft drinks. This is consistent with the reported observations of higher benzene concentrations in sugar-free soft drinks.

  19. Biosynthesis and emission of insect-induced methyl salicylate and methyl benzoate from rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Nan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guan, Ju [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ferrer, Jean-Luc [Universite Joseph Fourier, France; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Chern, Mawsheng [University of California, Davis; Ronald, Pamela [University of California, Davis; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Chen, Feng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Two benzenoid esters, methyl salicylate (MeSA) and methyl benzoate (MeBA), were detected from insect-damaged rice plants. By correlating metabolite production with gene expression analysis, five candidate genes encoding putative carboxyl methyltransferases were identified. Enzymatic assays with Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant proteins demonstrated that only one of the five candidates, OsBSMT1, has salicylic acid (SA) methyltransferase (SAMT) and benzoic acid (BA) methyltransferase (BAMT) activities for producing MeSA and MeBA, respectively. Whereas OsBSMT1 is phylogenetically relatively distant from dicot SAMTs, the three-dimensional structure of OsBSMT1, which was determined using homology-based structural modeling, is highly similar to those of characterized SAMTs. Analyses of OsBSMT1 expression in wild-type rice plants under various stress conditions indicate that the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating the production and emission of MeSA in rice. Further analysis using transgenic rice plants overexpressing NH1, a key component of the SA signaling pathway in rice, suggests that the SA signaling pathway also plays an important role in governing OsBSMT1 expression and emission of its products, probably through a crosstalk with the JA signaling pathway. The role of the volatile products of OsBSMT1, MeSA and MeBA, in rice defense against insect herbivory is discussed.

  20. Biosynthesis and emission of insect-induced methyl salicylate and methyl benzoate from rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Guan, Ju; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Engle, Nancy; Chern, Mawsheng; Ronald, Pamela; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Chen, Feng

    2010-04-01

    Two benzenoid esters, methyl salicylate (MeSA) and methyl benzoate (MeBA), were detected from insect-damaged rice plants. By correlating metabolite production with gene expression analysis, five candidate genes encoding putative carboxyl methyltransferases were identified. Enzymatic assays with Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant proteins demonstrated that only one of the five candidates, OsBSMT1, has salicylic acid (SA) methyltransferase (SAMT) and benzoic acid (BA) methyltransferase (BAMT) activities for producing MeSA and MeBA, respectively. Whereas OsBSMT1 is phylogenetically relatively distant from dicot SAMTs, the three-dimensional structure of OsBSMT1, which was determined using homology-based structural modeling, is highly similar to those of characterized SAMTs. Analyses of OsBSMT1 expression in wild-type rice plants under various stress conditions indicate that the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating the production and emission of MeSA in rice. Further analysis using transgenic rice plants overexpressing NH1, a key component of the SA signaling pathway in rice, suggests that the SA signaling pathway also plays an important role in governing OsBSMT1 expression and emission of its products, probably through a crosstalk with the JA signaling pathway. The role of the volatile products of OsBSMT1, MeSA and MeBA, in rice defense against insect herbivory is discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Capacity Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Brian; Mallick, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Outcomes & Recommendations: • Significant increase needed in the nuclear workforce both to replace soon-to-retire current generation and to staff large numbers of new units planned • Key message, was the importance of an integrated approach to workforce development. • IAEA and other International Organisations were asked to continue to work on Knowledge Management, Networks and E&T activities • IAEA requested to conduct Global Survey of HR needs – survey initiated but only 50% of operating countries (30% of capacity) took part, so results inconclusive

  2. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lipoxygenase and Cyclo-Oxygenase Inhibitors in Inflammation-Induced Human Fetal Glia Cells and the Aβ Degradation Capacity of Human Fetal Astrocytes in an Ex vivo Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rea Pihlaja

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation is a common phenomenon present in the background of multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD. The arachidonic acid pathway overproduces proinflammatory eicosanoids during these states and glial cells in the brain gradually lose their vital functions of protecting and supporting neurons. In this study, the role of different key enzymes of the eicosanoid pathway mediating inflammatory responses was examined in vitro and ex vivo using human fetal glial cells. Astrocytes and microglia were exposed to proinflammatory agents i.e., cytokines interleukin 1-β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. ELISA assays were used to examine the effects of inhibitors of key enzymes in the eicosanoid pathway. Inhibitors for 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX and cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2 in both cell types and 5-, 12-, and 15-LOX-inhibitor in astrocytes reduced significantly IL-6 secretion, compared to exposed glial cells without inhibitors. The cytokine antibody array showed that especially treatments with 5, -12, and -15 LOX inhibitor in astrocytes, 5-LOX inhibitor in microglia and COX-2 inhibitor in both glial cell types significantly reduced the expression of multiple proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, human fetal astrocytes and microglia were cultured on top of AD-affected and control human brain sections for 30 h. According to the immunochemical evaluation of the level of total Aβ, astrocytes were very efficient at degrading Aβ from AD-affected brain sections ex vivo; simultaneously added enzyme inhibitors did not increase their Aβ degradation capabilities. Microglia were not able to reduce the level of total Aβ during the 30 h incubation time.

  3. PLASMID-ENCODED PHTHALATE CATABOLIC PATHWAY IN ARTHROBACTER KEYSERI 12B: BIOTRANSFORMATIONS OF 2-SUBSTITUTED BENZOATES AND THEIR USE IN CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PHTHALATE CATABOLISM GENES AND GENE PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several 2-substituted benzoates (including 2-trifluoromethyl-, 2-chloro-, 2-bromo-, 2-iodo-, 2-nitro-, 2-methoxy-, and 2-acetyl-benzoates) were converted by phthalate-grown Arthrobacter keyseri 12B to the corresponding 2-substituted 3,4-dihydroxybenzoates (protocatechuates)...

  4. Ameliorative effect of vitamin C against hepatotoxicity induced by emamectin benzoate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaldoun Oularbi, H; Richeval, C; Lebaili, N; Zerrouki-Daoudi, N; Baha, M; Djennas, N; Allorge, D

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, we aimed to assess the potential protective effect of ascorbic acid (AA) against emamectin benzoate (EMB)-induced hepatotoxicity. For this purpose, biochemical, histopathological and analytical investigations were performed. Male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups, that is, a control group, an EMB group given 10 mg EMB/kg body weight (BW) by gavage and an EMB + AA group given 10 mg EMB/kg BW and vitamin C intraperitoneally (200 mg/kg). The duration of the treatment was 28 days and the duration of the study was 42 days. There was a statistically significant increase of all hepatic biomarkers, that is, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities, and glycemia, in EMB-treated group when compared with the control group. Light microscopic observations revealed variable signs of hepatotoxicity in the EMB group, which were represented by alteration of normal hepatic architecture, inflammatory cell infiltration, hepatocellular steatosis and foci of necrosis at 28 and 42 days post-treatment. However, co-treatment with vitamin C reduced EMB-related liver toxicity and diminished the abnormal biochemical and architectural damage. Emamectin B1a and B1b residues were detectable in all plasma samples of treated rats at 14, 21 and 28 days of treatment. The drug liver tissue concentration was significantly lower in EMB + AA group compared with EMB group at 28 and 42 days. In conclusion, the findings of the present study clearly indicate a significant protective action of vitamin C against EMB hepatotoxicity.

  5. Intragastric infusion of denatonium benzoate attenuates interdigestive gastric motility and hunger scores in healthy female volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, Eveline; Janssen, Pieter; Corsetti, Maura; Biesiekierski, Jessica; Masuy, Imke; Rotondo, Alessandra; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Background: Denatonium benzoate (DB) has been shown to influence ongoing ingestive behavior and gut peptide secretion. Objective: We studied how the intragastric administration of DB affects interdigestive motility, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, hunger and satiety ratings, and food intake in healthy volunteers. Design: Lingual bitter taste sensitivity was tested with the use of 6 concentrations of DB in 65 subjects. A placebo or 1 μmol DB/kg was given intragastrically to assess its effect on fasting gastrointestinal motility and hunger ratings, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, satiety, and caloric intake. Results: Women ( n = 39) were more sensitive toward a lingual bitter stimulus ( P = 0.005) than men ( n = 26). In women ( n = 10), intragastric DB switched the origin of phase III contractions from the stomach to the duodenum ( P = 0.001) and decreased hunger ratings ( P = 0.04). These effects were not observed in men ( n = 10). In women ( n = 12), motilin ( P = 0.04) plasma concentrations decreased after intragastric DB administration, whereas total and octanoylated ghrelin were not affected. The intragastric administration of DB decreased hunger ( P = 0.008) and increased satiety ratings ( P = 0.01) after a meal (500 kcal) in 13 women without affecting gastric emptying in 6 women. Caloric intake tended to decrease after DB administration compared with the placebo (mean ± SEM: 720 ± 58 compared with 796 ± 45 kcal; P = 0.08) in 20 women. Conclusions: Intragastric DB administration decreases both antral motility and hunger ratings during the fasting state, possibly because of a decrease in motilin release. Moreover, DB decreases hunger and increases satiety ratings after a meal and shows potential for decreasing caloric intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02759926. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Thielavin B methyl ester: a cytotoxic benzoate trimer from an unidentified fungus (MSX 55526) from the Order Sordariales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Sloan; Ehrmann, Brandie M; Adcock, Audrey F; Kroll, David J; Wani, Mansukh C; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2011-11-02

    As part of our ongoing investigation of filamentous fungi for anticancer leads, an active fungal extract was identified from the Mycosynthetix library (MSX 55526; from the Order Sordariales). Bioactivity-directed fractionation yielded the known ergosterol peroxide (2) and 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,9(11),22-trien-3β-ol(3), and a new benzoate trimer, termed thielavin B methyl ester (1). The structure elucidation of 1 was facilitated by the use of HRMS coupled to an APPI (atmospheric pressure photoionization) source. Compound 1 proved to be moderately active against a panel of three cancer cell lines.

  7. Tolerance and Efficacy of Emamectin Benzoate and Ivermectin for the Treatment of Pseudocapillaria tomentosa in Laboratory Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    OpenAIRE

    Collymore, Chereen; Watral, Virginia; White, Julie R.; Colvin, Michael E.; Rasmussen, Skye; Tolwani, Ravi J.; Kent, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Tolerance of adult zebrafish and efficacy of emamectin benzoate and ivermectin in eliminating Pseudocapillaria tomentosa infection were evaluated. In the tolerance study, behavioral changes, fecundity, histopathology, and mortality were evaluated for in-feed administration of emamectin (0.05, 0.10, and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg). All doses of emamectin were well tolerated. Ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg administration resulted in mild behavioral changes and a transient decrease i...

  8. Commercial trials using emamectin benzoate to control sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis infestations in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J; Sutherland, I H; Sommerville, C; Richards, R H; Varma, K J

    2000-06-19

    Two trials were conducted at commercial salmon farms to evaluate the efficacy of emamectin benzoate (Slice, 0.2% aquaculture pre-mix, Schering-Plough Animal Health) as a treatment for sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer) and Caligus elongatus Nordmann infestations in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. Trials were carried out in 15 m2 commercial sea pens, at temperatures of 5.5 to 7.5 degrees C and 10.8 to 13.8 degrees C. Each pen was stocked with 14,000 to 17,500 fish with mean weights of 0.44 to 0.74 and 1.33 to 1.83 kg. Fish were naturally infested with sea lice at the start of each trial. At Day -1, samples of 10 or 15 fish were taken from each pen to determine pre-treatment numbers of lice. Emamectin benzoate was administered in feed, to 4 replicate pens, at a dose of 50 micrograms kg-1 biomass d-1 for 7 consecutive days (Days 0 to 6). Sea lice were counted again, between Days 7 and 77, and comparisons made with untreated control fish. Despite adverse weather conditions, wide variations in fish weights and exposure to new infestations, treatment was effective against chalimus and motile stages of L. salmonis. In the autumn trial, efficacy at Day 27 was 89%, and lice numbers remained lower on treated fish than on control fish 64 d from the start of treatment. In the winter trial, reductions in lice numbers at low temperatures were slower but good efficacy was achieved by Day 35. Although control fish had to be treated with hydrogen peroxide at Day 21, fish treated only with emamectin benzoate on Days 0 to 6 still had 89% fewer lice than control fish at Day 35. There were very few C. elongatus present, but at the end of both trials numbers were lower on treated fish. No adverse effects were associated with treatment of fish with emamectin benzoate.

  9. Crystal structure of 3-({[(morpholin-4-yl)carbono-thio-yl]sulfan-yl}acet-yl)phenyl benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambekar, Sachin P; Mahesh Kumar, K; Shirahatti, Arun Kumar M; Kotresh, O; Anil Kumar, G N

    2014-11-01

    In the title compound, C20H19NO4S2, the morpholine ring adopts the expected chair conformation. The central phenyl ring makes dihedral angles of 67.97 (4) and 7.74 (3)°, respectively, with the benzoate phenyl ring and the morpholine mean plane. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag chains along the b-axis direction. C-H⋯π inter-actions link centrosymmetrically related mol-ecules, reinforcing the three-dimensional structure.

  10. Field trials in Norway with SLICE (0.2% emamectin benzoate) for the oral treatment of sea lice infestation in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstad, A; Colquhoun, D J; Nordmo, R; Sutherland, I H; Simmons, R

    2002-06-21

    Four commercial salmon farms on the West coast of Norway were recruited to a programme of field trials in which the efficacy of SLICE (0.2% emamectin benzoate; Schering-Plough Animal Health) was compared with a commercially available product, EKTOBANN (teflubenzuron 2 g kg(-1); Skretting A/S) in treating natural sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis infections in Atlantic salmon Salmo salmar L. At each test site, 3 fish pens were treated with each product. In total, nearly 1.2 million first-year-class fish were included in the trial, of which approximately 561,000 received emamectin benzoate at a dosage of 50 microg kg(-1) body wt d(-1), while approximately 610,000 received teflubenzuron at a dosage of 10 mg kg(-1) body wt d(-1). Medicated feed was provided at 0.5% body wt d(-1) over 7 consecutive days. Feed containing emamectin benzoate was generally well accepted by the fish and no problems were encountered in feeding the medicated diet at the desired dose. Lice numbers were counted 2 d before and 1, 7, 14 and 21 d after commencement of treatment. While treatment with both substances rapidly reduced lice numbers, pens treated with emamectin benzoate were found to harbour significantly fewer lice 14 and 21 d post-treatment. Twenty-one days following treatment with emamectin benzoate the lice abundance was reduced on average by 94%. Limited sampling outside the main study period indicated that emamectin benzoate protects against sea-lice infestation over longer periods.

  11. Add-on treatment of benzoate for schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of D-amino acid oxidase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Ching-Hua; Green, Michael F; Hellemann, Gerhard; Huang, Chih-Chia; Chen, Po-Wei; Tun, Rene; Chang, Yue-Cung; Tsai, Guochuan E

    2013-12-01

    In addition to dopaminergic hyperactivity, hypofunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) has an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Enhancing NMDAR-mediated neurotransmission is considered a novel treatment approach. To date, several trials on adjuvant NMDA-enhancing agents have revealed beneficial, but limited, efficacy for positive and negative symptoms and cognition. Another method to enhance NMDA function is to raise the levels of d-amino acids by blocking their metabolism. Sodium benzoate is a d-amino acid oxidase inhibitor. To examine the clinical and cognitive efficacy and safety of add-on treatment of sodium benzoate for schizophrenia. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 2 major medical centers in Taiwan composed of 52 patients with chronic schizophrenia who had been stabilized with antipsychotic medications for 3 months or longer. Six weeks of add-on treatment of 1 g/d of sodium benzoate or placebo. The primary outcome measure was the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score. Clinical efficacy and adverse effects were assessed biweekly. Cognitive functions were measured before and after the add-on treatment. Benzoate produced a 21% improvement in PANSS total score and large effect sizes (range, 1.16-1.69) in the PANSS total and subscales, Scales for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms-20 items, Global Assessment of Function, Quality of Life Scale and Clinical Global Impression and improvement in the neurocognition subtests as recommended by the National Institute of Mental Health's Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia initiative, including the domains of processing speed and visual learning. Benzoate was well tolerated without significant adverse effects. Benzoate adjunctive therapy significantly improved a variety of symptom domains and neurocognition in patients with chronic schizophrenia. The preliminary results show promise for d-amino acid oxidase

  12. Characterization of a distonic isomer C6H5C+(OH)OCH2 of methyl benzoate radical cation by associative ion-molecule reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechamps, Noémie; Flammang, Robert; Gerbaux, Pascal; Nam, Pham-Cam; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2006-03-01

    The C6H5C+(OH)OCH2 radical cation, formally a distonic isomer of ionized methyl benzoate, has been prepared by dissociative ionization of neopentyl benzoate, as earlier suggested by Audier et al. [H.E. Audier, A. Milliet, G. Sozzi, S. Hammerum, Org. Mass. Spectrom. 25 (1990) 44]. Its distonic character has now been firmly established by its high reactivity towards neutral methyl isocyanide (ionized methylene transfer) producing N-methyl ketenimine ions. Other mass spectrometric experiments and ab initio quantum chemical calculations also concur with each other pointing toward the existence of a stable distonic radical cation.

  13. The Effect of Emamectin Benzoate in the Control of Lernanthropus kroyeri (van Beneden, 1851) (Lernanthropidae) Infestations in Cultured Sea Bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    TOKŞEN, Erol; ÇAĞIRGAN, Haşmet; TANRIKUL, Tansel T.; SAYGI, Hülya

    2006-01-01

    Five different dose groups were formed to evaluate the efficacy of emamectin benzoate as a treatment for Lernanthropus kroyeri (van Beneden, 1851) infestation in cultured sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (L.). Emamectin benzoate was administered in-feed at doses of 0 (control), 10, 25, 50, and 100 µg kg-1 biomass day-1 for 7 consecutive days. Parasites were counted on days 7, 14, and 21, and comparisons were made to untreated control fish. Seawater temperature was 16-16.5 °C. Treatment with ema...

  14. Anaerobic Microbial Degradation of Hydrocarbons: From Enzymatic Reactions to the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabus, Ralf; Boll, Matthias; Heider, Johann; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Buckel, Wolfgang; Einsle, Oliver; Ermler, Ulrich; Golding, Bernard T; Gunsalus, Robert P; Kroneck, Peter M H; Krüger, Martin; Lueders, Tillmann; Martins, Berta M; Musat, Florin; Richnow, Hans H; Schink, Bernhard; Seifert, Jana; Szaleniec, Maciej; Treude, Tina; Ullmann, G Matthias; Vogt, Carsten; von Bergen, Martin; Wilkes, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are abundant in anoxic environments and pose biochemical challenges to their anaerobic degradation by microorganisms. Within the framework of the Priority Program 1319, investigations funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft on the anaerobic microbial degradation of hydrocarbons ranged from isolation and enrichment of hitherto unknown hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microorganisms, discovery of novel reactions, detailed studies of enzyme mechanisms and structures to process-oriented in situ studies. Selected highlights from this program are collected in this synopsis, with more detailed information provided by theme-focused reviews of the special topic issue on 'Anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons' [this issue, pp. 1-244]. The interdisciplinary character of the program, involving microbiologists, biochemists, organic chemists and environmental scientists, is best exemplified by the studies on alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases. Here, research topics ranged from in-depth mechanistic studies of archetypical toluene-activating benzylsuccinate synthase, substrate-specific phylogenetic clustering of alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases (toluene plus xylenes, p-cymene, p-cresol, 2-methylnaphthalene, n-alkanes), stereochemical and co-metabolic insights into n-alkane-activating (methylalkyl)succinate synthases to the discovery of bacterial groups previously unknown to possess alkyl-/arylalkylsuccinate synthases by means of functional gene markers and in situ field studies enabled by state-of-the-art stable isotope probing and fractionation approaches. Other topics are Mo-cofactor-dependent dehydrogenases performing O2-independent hydroxylation of hydrocarbons and alkyl side chains (ethylbenzene, p-cymene, cholesterol, n-hexadecane), degradation of p-alkylated benzoates and toluenes, glycyl radical-bearing 4-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase, novel types of carboxylation reactions (for acetophenone, acetone, and potentially also benzene and

  15. Effects of insecticides chlorpyrifos, emamectin benzoate and fipronil on Spodoptera litura might be mediated by OBPs and CSPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X; Jiang, Y; Zhang, L; Cai, Y

    2017-12-04

    Spodoptera litura is a widespread polyphagous insect pest that can develop resistance and cross-resistance to insecticides, making it difficult to control. Insecticide exposure has previously been linked with induction of specific olfactory-related proteins, including some chemosensory proteins (CSPs) and odorant-binding proteins (OPBs), which may disrupt detection of environmental factors and reduce fitness. However, functional evidence supporting insecticide and OBPs/CSPs mediation remains unknown. Here we fed male S. litura moths with sucrose water containing one of three insecticides, chlorpyrifos, emamectin benzoate or fipronil, and used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and RNAi to investigate OBPs and CSPs expression and their correlations with survival. Chlorpyrifos and emamectin benzoate increased expression of 78% of OBPs, plus 63 and 56% of CSP genes, respectively, indicating a major impact on these gene families. RNAi knockdown of SlituCSP18, followed by feeding with chlorpyrifos or fipronil, decreased survival rates of male moths significantly compared with controls. Survival rate also decreased significantly with the downregulation of SlituOBP9 followed by feeding with chlorpyrifos. Thus, although these three insecticides had different effects on OBP and CSP gene expression, we hypothesize that SlituOBPs and SlituCSPs might mediate their effects by increasing their expression levels to improve survival. Moreover, the differential response of S. litura male moths to the three insecticides indicated the potential specificity of chlorpyrifos affect SlituCSP18 and SlituOBP9 expression.

  16. Comparative metagenomic analysis of PAH degradation in soil by a mixed microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, German; Taylor, Todd D; Absalón, Angel E; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2016-11-15

    In this study, we used a taxonomic and functional metagenomic approach to analyze some of the effects (e.g. displacement, permanence, disappearance) produced between native microbiota and a previously constructed Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading microbial consortium during the bioremediation process of a soil polluted with PAHs. Bioaugmentation with a fungal-bacterial consortium and biostimulation of native microbiota using corn stover as texturizer produced appreciable changes in the microbial diversity of polluted soils, shifting native microbial communities in favor of degrading specific populations. Functional metagenomics showed changes in gene abundance suggesting a bias towards aromatic hydrocarbon and intermediary degradation pathways, which greatly favored PAH mineralization. In contrast, pathways favoring the formation of toxic intermediates such as cytochrome P450-mediated reactions were found to be significantly reduced in bioaugmented soils. PAH biodegradation in soil using the microbial consortium was faster and reached higher degradation values (84% after 30 d) as a result of an increased co-metabolic degradation when compared with other mixed microbial consortia. The main differences between inoculated and non-inoculated soils were observed in aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases, laccase, protocatechuate, salicylate and benzoate-degrading enzyme genes. Based on our results, we propose that several concurrent metabolic pathways are taking place in soils during PAH degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Degradation of phenol via phenylphosphate and carboxylation to 4-hydroxybenzoate by a newly isolated strain of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfobacterium anilini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Young-Beom; Chae, Jong-Chan; Zylstra, Gerben J; Häggblom, Max M

    2009-07-01

    A sulfate-reducing phenol-degrading bacterium, strain AK1, was isolated from a 2-bromophenol-utilizing sulfidogenic estuarine sediment enrichment culture. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and DNA homology, strain AK1 is most closely related to Desulfobacterium anilini strain Ani1 (= DSM 4660(T)). In addition to phenol, this organism degrades a variety of other aromatic compounds, including benzoate, 2-hydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, 2-aminobenzoate, 2-fluorophenol, and 2-fluorobenzoate, but it does not degrade aniline, 3-hydroxybenzoate, 4-cyanophenol, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate, monohalogenated phenols, or monohalogenated benzoates. Growth with sulfate as an electron acceptor occurred with acetate and pyruvate but not with citrate, propionate, butyrate, lactate, glucose, or succinate. Strain AK1 is able to use sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate as electron acceptors. A putative phenylphosphate synthase gene responsible for anaerobic phenol degradation was identified in strain AK1. In phenol-grown cultures inducible expression of the ppsA gene was verified by reverse transcriptase PCR, and 4-hydroxybenzoate was detected as an intermediate. These results suggest that the pathway for anaerobic degradation of phenol in D. anilini strain AK1 proceeds via phosphorylation of phenol to phenylphosphate, followed by carboxylation to 4-hydroxybenzoate. The details concerning such reaction pathways in sulfidogenic bacteria have not been characterized previously.

  18. The modulatory effect of estradiol benzoate on superoxide dismutase activity in the developing rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejic S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of copper,zinc (CuZn- and manganese (Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD to exogenous estradiol benzoate (EB was investigated in Wistar rats during postnatal brain development. Enzyme activities were measured in samples prepared from brains of rats of both sexes and various ages between 0 and 75 days, treated sc with 0.5 µg EB/100 g body weight in 0.1 ml olive oil/100 g body weight, 48 and 24 h before sacrifice. In females, EB treatment stimulated MnSOD activity on days 0 (66.1%, 8 (72.7% and 15 (81.7%. In males, the stimulatory effect of EB on MnSOD activity on day 0 (113.6% disappeared on day 8 and on days 15 and 45 it became inhibitory (40.3 and 30.5%, respectively. EB had no effect on the other age groups. The stimulatory effect of EB on CuZnSOD activity in newborn females (51.8% changed to an inhibitory effect on day 8 (38.4% and disappeared by day 45 when inhibition was detected again (48.7%. In males, the inhibitory effect on this enzyme was observed on days 0 (45.0% and 15 (28.9%, and then disappeared until day 60 when a stimulatory effect was observed (38.4%. EB treatment had no effect on the other age groups. The sensitivity of MnSOD to estradiol differed significantly between sexes during the neonatal and prepubertal period, whereas it followed a similar pattern thereafter. The sensitivity of CuZnSOD to estradiol differed significantly between sexes during most of the study period. Regression analysis showed that the sensitivity of MnSOD to this estrogen tended to decrease similarly in both sexes, whereas the sensitivity of CuZnSOD showed a significantly different opposite tendency in female and male rats. These are the first reports indicating hormonal modulation of antioxidant enzyme activities related to the developmental process.

  19. Evaluation of estradiol benzoate as a pre-treatment for oocyte recovery in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilu Constantino Max

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the number of follicles, oocytes and the recovery rate in sheep submitted to the one-shot protocol with or without ovarian priming with estradiol benzoate (EB. Pluriparous non-lactating sheep (n=33 with an average age of five years (range 4-6 and a body condition score of 3.0±0.3 were divided into three groups. The one-shot group (n=10 was treated with a subcutaneous implant containing 1.5 mg of norgestomet from D0 to D10. The animals in this group were administered 0.04 mg of D-cloprostenol, 200 IU of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and 300 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on D8. Animals in the EB group (n=11 received the same treatment as one-shot plus the administration of 0.6 mg of EB on D0. In the untreated group (n=12, the animals received no hormone stimulation. The collection of the oocytes was performed by laparotomy 36 h after the administration of gonadotropins (D10. Oocytes were searched and classified based on morphology. An increase was observed (p<0.05 in the number of follicles aspirated in the one-shot vs. the EB and untreated groups (16.3±5.6 vs. 9.5±2.4 and 12.1±4.1, respectively. The average number of oocytes and the recovery rate were higher (p<0.05 in the one-shot and EB groups compared to the untreated group, resulting in 14.2±9.0 and 87.1% (142/163, 11.0±6.2 and 91.4% (122/134 vs. 6.8±3.5 and 71.9% (82/114, respectively. It was concluded that the EB did not improve efficiency in the oneshot protocol, but was significantly better than in untreated animals

  20. The Science of Battery Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; McCarty, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Sugar, Joshua Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Talin, Alec A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Harris, Charles Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Hayden, Carl C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Hudak, Nicholas S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Research and Development; Leung, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanostructure Physics; McDaniel, Anthony H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Hydrogen and Combustion Technology; Tenney, Craig M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Chemical and Biological Systems; Zavadil, Kevin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Lab.

    2015-01-01

    This report documents work that was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, Science of Battery Degradation. The focus of this work was on the creation of new experimental and theoretical approaches to understand atomistic mechanisms of degradation in battery electrodes that result in loss of electrical energy storage capacity. Several unique approaches were developed during the course of the project, including the invention of a technique based on ultramicrotoming to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery electrodes, the creation of in-situ liquid cells to observe electrochemical reactions in real-time using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and STXM, the creation of an in-situ optical cell utilizing Raman spectroscopy and the application of the cell for analyzing redox flow batteries, the invention of an approach for performing ab initio simulation of electrochemical reactions under potential control and its application for the study of electrolyte degradation, and the development of an electrochemical entropy technique combined with x-ray based structural measurements for understanding origins of battery degradation. These approaches led to a number of scientific discoveries. Using STXM we learned that lithium iron phosphate battery cathodes display unexpected behavior during lithiation wherein lithium transport is controlled by nucleation of a lithiated phase, leading to high heterogeneity in lithium content at each particle and a surprising invariance of local current density with the overall electrode charging current. We discovered using in-situ transmission electron microscopy that there is a size limit to lithiation of silicon anode particles above which particle fracture controls electrode degradation. From electrochemical entropy measurements, we discovered that entropy

  1. The Efficacy of Emamectin Benzoate against Infestations of Lepeophtheirus salmonis on Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L) in Scotland, 2002–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Fiona; Baillie, Mark; Gettinby, George; Revie, Crawford W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Infestations of the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, commonly referred to as sea lice, represent a major challenge to commercial salmon aquaculture. Dependence on a limited number of theraputants to control such infestations has led to concerns of reduced sensitivity in some sea lice populations. This study investigates trends in the efficacy of the in-feed treatment emamectin benzoate in Scotland, the active ingredient most widely used across all salmon producing regions. Methodology/Principal Findings Study data were drawn from over 50 commercial Atlantic salmon farms on the west coast of Scotland between 2002 and 2006. An epi-informatics approach was adopted whereby available farm records, descriptive epidemiological summaries and statistical linear modelling methods were used to identify factors that significantly affect sea lice abundance following treatment with emamectin benzoate (SLICE®, Schering Plough Animal Health). The results show that although sea lice infestations are reduced following the application of emamectin benzoate, not all treatments are effective. Specifically there is evidence of variation across geographical regions and a reduction in efficacy over time. Conclusions/Significance Reduced sensitivity and potential resistance to currently available medicines are constant threats to maintaining control of sea lice populations on Atlantic salmon farms. There is a need for on-going monitoring of emamectin benzoate treatment efficacy together with reasons for any apparent reduction in performance. In addition, strategic rotation of medicines should be encouraged and empirical evidence for the benefit of such strategies more fully evaluated. PMID:18253496

  2. The efficacy of emamectin benzoate against infestations of Lepeophtheirus salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L in Scotland, 2002-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Lees

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infestations of the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, commonly referred to as sea lice, represent a major challenge to commercial salmon aquaculture. Dependence on a limited number of theraputants to control such infestations has led to concerns of reduced sensitivity in some sea lice populations. This study investigates trends in the efficacy of the in-feed treatment emamectin benzoate in Scotland, the active ingredient most widely used across all salmon producing regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Study data were drawn from over 50 commercial Atlantic salmon farms on the west coast of Scotland between 2002 and 2006. An epi-informatics approach was adopted whereby available farm records, descriptive epidemiological summaries and statistical linear modelling methods were used to identify factors that significantly affect sea lice abundance following treatment with emamectin benzoate (SLICE(R, Schering Plough Animal Health. The results show that although sea lice infestations are reduced following the application of emamectin benzoate, not all treatments are effective. Specifically there is evidence of variation across geographical regions and a reduction in efficacy over time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Reduced sensitivity and potential resistance to currently available medicines are constant threats to maintaining control of sea lice populations on Atlantic salmon farms. There is a need for on-going monitoring of emamectin benzoate treatment efficacy together with reasons for any apparent reduction in performance. In addition, strategic rotation of medicines should be encouraged and empirical evidence for the benefit of such strategies more fully evaluated.

  3. The efficacy of emamectin benzoate against infestations of Lepeophtheirus salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) in Scotland, 2002-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Fiona; Baillie, Mark; Gettinby, George; Revie, Crawford W

    2008-02-06

    Infestations of the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, commonly referred to as sea lice, represent a major challenge to commercial salmon aquaculture. Dependence on a limited number of theraputants to control such infestations has led to concerns of reduced sensitivity in some sea lice populations. This study investigates trends in the efficacy of the in-feed treatment emamectin benzoate in Scotland, the active ingredient most widely used across all salmon producing regions. Study data were drawn from over 50 commercial Atlantic salmon farms on the west coast of Scotland between 2002 and 2006. An epi-informatics approach was adopted whereby available farm records, descriptive epidemiological summaries and statistical linear modelling methods were used to identify factors that significantly affect sea lice abundance following treatment with emamectin benzoate (SLICE(R), Schering Plough Animal Health). The results show that although sea lice infestations are reduced following the application of emamectin benzoate, not all treatments are effective. Specifically there is evidence of variation across geographical regions and a reduction in efficacy over time. Reduced sensitivity and potential resistance to currently available medicines are constant threats to maintaining control of sea lice populations on Atlantic salmon farms. There is a need for on-going monitoring of emamectin benzoate treatment efficacy together with reasons for any apparent reduction in performance. In addition, strategic rotation of medicines should be encouraged and empirical evidence for the benefit of such strategies more fully evaluated.

  4. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activities of Transition Metal Complexes of methyl 2-(((E)-(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene)amino)benzoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, M.; Rehman, S.

    2016-01-01

    New metal complexes with Schiff base ligand methyl 2-(((E)-(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene)amino)benzoate, were synthesized and characterized. Elemental analyses, EI-MS, 1H and 13C(1H)-NMR were used for ligand characterization whereas elemental analyses, EI-MS, IR and UV-Visible spectroscopic techniques were used for the transition metal compounds. All these analyses reveal the bis arrangement of the ligand around the metal centres. The compounds were studied for their antimicrobial activities against different pathogenic microbial species. It was found that the Schiff base ligand was completely inactive in comparison to the transition metal compounds. It was also observed that nickel based metal complex shown good results against Candida albican (25 mm) and zinc based metal complex against Agrobacterium tumefaciens (16 mm). (author)

  5. Di-μ-iodido-bis(iodido{methyl 4-[(pyridin-2-ylmethylideneamino]benzoate-κ2N,N′}cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar S. Basu Baul

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The complete binuclear molecule of the title compound, [Cd2I4(C14H12N2O22], is generated by the application of a centre of inversion. The Cd—I bond lengths of the central core are close and uniformly longer than the exocyclic Cd—I bond. The coordination sphere of the CdII atom is completed by two N atoms of a chelating methyl 4-[(pyridin-2-ylmethylideneamino]benzoate ligand, and is based on a square pyramid with the terminal I atom in the apical position. The three-dimensional crystal packing is stabilized by C—H...O and C—H...π interactions, each involving the pyridine ring.

  6. Evaluation of emamectin benzoate for the control of experimentally induced infestations of Argulus sp. in goldfish and koi carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Shari K; Hill, Jeffrey E; Watson, Craig A; Yanong, Roy P E; Endris, Richard

    2011-03-01

    The effect of 0.2% emamectin benzoate (SLICE; Intervet/ Schering-Plough Animal Health, Roseland, New Jersey) administered in top-dressed, pelleted commercial fish feed was evaluated for control of freshwater Argulus sp. in goldfish Carassius auratus and koi carp, a variant of common carp Cyprinus carpio, in freshwater aquaria at 24-25 degrees C. Sixteen individually housed goldfish were each exposed to 37 Argulus. The number of fish lice attached to each fish at the start of the experiment was not determined; however, the total number of motile fish lice in each aquarium (on fish and in the water) was determined at the start and end of each experiment. Eight goldfish were fed the control diet (0 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) and eight were fed the medicated diet (50 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) for seven consecutive days. After treatment, fish louse infestation in controls was 20.5 +/- 1.5 (mean +/- SE) lice per fish. No Argulus were found on fish in the treated group. In a separate experiment, 10 individually housed koi were each exposed to 128 Argulus. Five koi were fed the control diet and five were fed a low-dose medicated diet (5 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) for 7 d. After treatment, fish louse infestation among the controls was 14.6 +/- 3.8 lice per koi. No Argulus were found on koi in the treated group. Hence, a 7-d regimen of oral emamectin benzoate controlled experimental infestation of Argulus when administered to goldfish at 50 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1) and to koi at 5 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1).

  7. Tissue distribution, metabolism, and residue depletion study in Atlantic salmon following oral administration of [3H]emamectin benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Kang, Heasook; Bova, Alice; Crouch, Louis S; Wislocki, Peter G; Robinson, Robert A; Wu, Jinn

    2004-04-07

    Atlantic salmon (approximately 1.3 kg) maintained in tanks of seawater at 5 +/- 1 degrees C were dosed with [3H]emamectin B1 benzoate in feed at a nominal rate of 50 microg of emamectin benzoate/kg/day for 7 consecutive days. Tissues, blood, and bile were collected from 10 fish each at 3 and 12 h and at 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 days post final dose. Feces were collected daily from the tanks beginning just prior to dosing to 90 days post final dose. The total radioactive residues (TRR) of the daily feces samples during dosing were 0.25 ppm maximal, and >97% of the TRR in pooled feces covering the dosing period was emamectin B1a. Feces TRR then rapidly declined to approximately 0.05 ppm by 1 day post final dose. The ranges of mean TRR for tissues over the 90 days post dose period were as follows: kidney, 1.4-3 ppm; liver, 1.0-2.3 ppm; skin, 0.04-0.09 ppm; muscle, 0.02-0.06 ppm; and bone, emamectin B1a (81-100% TRR) and desmethylemamectin B1a (0-17% TRR) with N-formylemamectin B1a seen in trace amounts (emamectin residues was emamectin B1a. The emamectin B1a level was quantified in individual samples of skin and muscle using HPLC-fluorometry and was below 85 ppb in all samples analyzed (3 h to 30 days post dose).

  8. Characterization and degradation potential of diesel-degrading bacterial strains for application in bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balseiro-Romero, María; Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Kidd, Petra S; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Weyens, Nele; Monterroso, Carmen; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2017-10-03

    Bioremediation of polluted soils is a promising technique with low environmental impact, which uses soil organisms to degrade soil contaminants. In this study, 19 bacterial strains isolated from a diesel-contaminated soil were screened for their diesel-degrading potential, biosurfactant (BS) production, and biofilm formation abilities, all desirable characteristics when selecting strains for re-inoculation into hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Diesel-degradation rates were determined in vitro in minimal medium with diesel as the sole carbon source. The capacity to degrade diesel range organics (DROs) of strains SPG23 (Arthobacter sp.) and PF1 (Acinetobacter oleivorans) reached 17-26% of total DROs after 10 days, and 90% for strain GK2 (Acinetobacter calcoaceticus). The amount and rate of alkane degradation decreased significantly with increasing carbon number for strains SPG23 and PF1. Strain GK2, which produced BSs and biofilms, exhibited a greater extent, and faster rate of alkane degradation compared to SPG23 and PF1. Based on the outcomes of degradation experiments, in addition to BS production, biofilm formation capacities, and previous genome characterizations, strain GK2 is a promising candidate for microbial-assisted phytoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils. These results are of particular interest to select suitable strains for bioremediation, not only presenting high diesel-degradation rates, but also other characteristics which could improve rhizosphere colonization.

  9. Anaerobic degradation of 2-aminobenzoic acid (anthranilic acid) via benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and cyclohex-1-enecarboxyl-CoA in a denitrifying bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmeyer, C; Koch, J; Fuchs, G

    1992-06-01

    The enzymes catalyzing the initial reactions in the anaerobic degradation of 2-aminobenzoic acid (anthranilic acid) were studied with a denitrifying Pseudomonas sp. anaerobically grown with 2-aminobenzoate and nitrate as the sole carbon and energy sources. Cells grown on 2-aminobenzoate are simultaneously adapted to growth with benzoate, whereas cells grown on benzoate degrade 2-aminobenzoate several times less efficiently than benzoate. Evidence for a new reductive pathway of aromatic metabolism and for four enzymes catalyzing the initial steps is presented. The organism contains 2-aminobenzoate-coenzyme A ligase (2-aminobenzoate-CoA ligase), which forms 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA. 2-Aminobenzoyl-CoA is then reductively deaminated to benzoyl-CoA by an oxygen-sensitive enzyme, 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA reductase (deaminating), which requires a low potential reductant [Ti(III)]. The specific activity is 15 nmol of 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA reduced min-1 mg-1 of protein at an optimal pH of 7. The two enzymes are induced by the substrate under anaerobic conditions only. Benzoyl-CoA is further converted in vitro by reduction with Ti(III) to six products; the same products are formed when benzoyl-CoA or 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA is incubated under reducing conditions. Two of them were identified preliminarily. One product is cyclohex-1-enecarboxyl-CoA, the other is trans-2-hydroxycyclohexane-carboxyl-CoA. The complex transformation of benzoyl-CoA is ascribed to at least two enzymes, benzoyl-CoA reductase (aromatic ring reducing) and cyclohex-1-enecarboxyl-CoA hydratase. The reduction of benzoyl-CoA to alicyclic compounds is catalyzed by extracts from cells grown anaerobically on either 2-aminobenzoate or benzoate at almost the same rate (10 to 15 nmol min-1 mg-1 of protein). In contrast, extracts from cells grown anaerobically on acetate or grown aerobically on benzoate or 2-aminobenzoate are inactive. This suggests a sequential induction of the enzymes.

  10. Substrate Shift Reveals Roles for Members of Bacterial Consortia in Degradation of Plant Cell Wall Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Camila; Fan, Huan; Currie, Cameron R

    2018-01-01

    Deconstructing the intricate matrix of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin poses a major challenge in biofuel production. In diverse environments in nature, some microbial communities, are able to overcome plant biomass recalcitrance. Identifying key degraders of each component of plant cell wall can help improve biological degradation of plant feedstock. Here, we sequenced the metagenome of lignocellulose-adapted microbial consortia sub-cultured on xylan and alkali lignin media. We observed a drastic shift on community composition after sub-culturing, independently of the original consortia. Proteobacteria relative abundance increased after growth in alkali lignin medium, while Bacteroidetes abundance increased after growth in xylan medium. At the genus level, Pseudomonas was more abundant in the communities growing on alkali lignin, Sphingobacterium in the communities growing on xylan and Cellulomonas abundance was the highest in the original microbial consortia. We also observed functional convergence of microbial communities after incubation in alkali lignin, due to an enrichment of genes involved in benzoate degradation and catechol ortho-cleavage pathways. Our results represent an important step toward the elucidation of key members of microbial communities on lignocellulose degradation and may aide the design of novel lignocellulolytic microbial consortia that are able to efficiently degrade plant cell wall polymers.

  11. Substrate Shift Reveals Roles for Members of Bacterial Consortia in Degradation of Plant Cell Wall Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Carlos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Deconstructing the intricate matrix of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin poses a major challenge in biofuel production. In diverse environments in nature, some microbial communities, are able to overcome plant biomass recalcitrance. Identifying key degraders of each component of plant cell wall can help improve biological degradation of plant feedstock. Here, we sequenced the metagenome of lignocellulose-adapted microbial consortia sub-cultured on xylan and alkali lignin media. We observed a drastic shift on community composition after sub-culturing, independently of the original consortia. Proteobacteria relative abundance increased after growth in alkali lignin medium, while Bacteroidetes abundance increased after growth in xylan medium. At the genus level, Pseudomonas was more abundant in the communities growing on alkali lignin, Sphingobacterium in the communities growing on xylan and Cellulomonas abundance was the highest in the original microbial consortia. We also observed functional convergence of microbial communities after incubation in alkali lignin, due to an enrichment of genes involved in benzoate degradation and catechol ortho-cleavage pathways. Our results represent an important step toward the elucidation of key members of microbial communities on lignocellulose degradation and may aide the design of novel lignocellulolytic microbial consortia that are able to efficiently degrade plant cell wall polymers.

  12. Capacity Analysis of Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Gumel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The next generation wireless networks experienced a great development with emergence of wireless mesh networks (WMNs, which can be regarded as a realistic solution that provides wireless broadband access. The limited available bandwidth makes capacity analysis of the network very essential. While the network offers broadband wireless access to community and enterprise users, the problems that limit the network capacity must be addressed to exploit the optimum network performance. The wireless mesh network capacity analysis shows that the throughput of each mesh node degrades in order of l/n with increasing number of nodes (n in a linear topology. The degradation is found to be higher in a fully mesh network as a result of increase in interference and MAC layer contention in the network.

  13. Effects of vegetation's degradation on carbon stock, morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess the capacity of mangroves soils to stock carbon and how degradation can influence its various properties. Transect method was performed. So, two transects of 100 m length and 10 m wide were established according to the degradation level. Total of 18 Soil samples were taken to be ...

  14. Effects of vegetation's degradation on carbon stock, morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ndema

    This study was conducted to assess the capacity of mangroves soils to stock carbon and how degradation can influence its various properties. Transect method was performed. So, two transects of. 100 m length and 10 m wide were established according to the degradation level. Total of 18 Soil samples were taken to be ...

  15. Optimization of chloroxylenol degradation by Aspergillus niger using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chloroxylenol is a very toxic phenolic derivative and it represents potential hazard towards human health and to the environment. Aspergillus niger, local isolate, is an efficient fungus to degrade 99.72% of 2 mg/L of chloroxylenol after 7 days of fermentation. It also has a high capacity to degrade 91.83% of higher ...

  16. N-succinimidyl 4-methyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate: synthesis and potential utility for the radioiodination of monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, P.K.; Garg, S.; Zalutsky, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    N-Succinimidyl 4-methyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate (MATE) was synthesized in two steps from 4-methyl-3-iodobenzoic acid. Radioiododestannylation of MATE proceeded more slowly than N-succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate (ATE), but for reaction periods of 10 min, identical yields were obtained. Paired-label biodistribution studies were performed in mice with an intact monoclonal antibody and an F(ab') 2 fragment labeled using MATE, ATE and Iodogen. Thyroid uptake with MATE was low, comparable to that seen with ATE, and considerably lower than that observed when the Iodogen method was used. With the F(ab') 2 fragment, kidney uptake using MATE was 8-fold higher than that observed when either the ATE or Iodogen methods were used. (Author)

  17. Influence of flavone extract from cultivated saussurea on learning and memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease A comparison with estradiol benzoate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiqiang Chen; Shuiming Gong; Yan Li; Ming Li; Zemin Yang; Lirong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The present study established a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, and investigated the effects of treatment with flavone extract from artificially cultivated saussurea. A positive control group was treated with estradiol benzoate, and learning and memory ability were examined in the 8-arm radial maze. The learning and recognition ability of mice with Alzheimer's disease treated with flavone extract was significantly improved and the number of hippocampal neurons was significantly increased in the flavone-treated and positive control groups compared with the model group. The results indicate that flavone extract from artificially cultivated saussurea can improve learning and memory deficits in mice with Alzheimer's disease, exerting effects similar to those of estradiol benzoate.

  18. Adjunctive sarcosine plus benzoate improved cognitive function in chronic schizophrenia patients with constant clinical symptoms: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yuan; Liang, Sun-Yuan; Chang, Yue-Cune; Ting, Shuo-Yen; Kao, Ching-Ling; Wu, Yu-Hsin; Tsai, Guochuan E; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Objectives Hypofunction of NMDA receptor is implicated in the pathophysiology, particularly cognitive impairment, of schizophrenia. Sarcosine, a glycine transporter I (GlyT-1) inhibitor, and sodium benzoate, a d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) inhibitor, can both enhance NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission. We proposed simultaneously inhibiting DAAO and GlyT-1 may be more effective than inhibition of either in improving the cognitive and global functioning of schizophrenia patients. Methods This study compared add-on sarcosine (2 g/day) plus benzoate (1 g/day) vs. sarcosine (2 g/day) for the clinical symptoms, as well as the cognitive and global functioning, of chronic schizophrenia patients in a 12-week, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale every 3 weeks. Seven cognitive domains, recommended by the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia Committee, were measured at weeks 0 and 12. Results Adjunctive sarcosine plus benzoate, but not sarcosine alone, improved the cognitive and global functioning of patients with schizophrenia, even when their clinical symptoms had not improved. Conclusions This finding suggests N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-enhancement therapy can improve the cognitive function of patients with schizophrenia, further indicating this pro-cognitive effect can be primary without improvement in clinical symptoms.

  19. Evaluation of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) control provided by emamectin benzoate and two neonicotinoid insecticides, one and two seasons after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Anulewicz, Andrea C; Lewis, Phillip; Cappaert, David

    2011-10-01

    Effective methods are needed to protect ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) from emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive buprestid that has killed millions of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. We randomly assigned 175 ash trees (11.5-48.1 cm in diameter) in 25 blocks located in three study sites in Michigan to one of seven insecticide treatments in May 2007. Treatments included 1) trunk-injected emamectin benzoate; 2) trunk-injected imidacloprid; 3) basal trunk spray of dinotefuran with or 4) without Pentra-Bark, an agricultural surfactant; 5) basal trunk spray of imidacloprid with or 6) without Pentra-Bark; or (7) control. Foliar insecticide residues (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and toxicity of leaves to adult A. planipennis (4-d bioassays) were quantified at 3-4-wk intervals posttreatment. Seven blocks of trees were felled and sampled in fall 2007 to quantify A. planipennis larval density. Half of the remaining blocks were retreated in spring 2008. Bioassays and residue analyses were repeated in summer 2008, and then all trees were sampled to assess larval density in winter. Foliage from emamectin benzoate-treated trees was highly toxic to adult A. planipennis, and larval density was emamectin benzoate for > or = 2 yr may reduce costs or logistical issues associated with treatment.

  20. Detection of emamectin benzoate tolerance emergence in different life stages of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P G; Hammell, K L; Gettinby, G; Revie, C W

    2013-03-01

    Emamectin benzoate has been used to treat sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Recent evidence suggests a reduction in effectiveness in some locations. A major challenge in the detection of tolerance emergence can be the typically low proportion of resistant individuals in a population during the early phases. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for determining differences in temporal development of tolerance between sea lice life stages and to explore how these differences might be used to improve the monitoring of treatment effectiveness in a clinical setting. This study examined two data sets based on records of sea lice abundance following emamectin benzoate treatments from the west coast of Scotland (2002-2006) and from New Brunswick, Canada (2004-2008). Life stages were categorized into two groups (adult females and the remaining mobile stages) to examine the trends in mean abundance and treatment effectiveness. Differences in emamectin benzoate effectiveness were found between the two groups by year and location, suggesting that an important part of monitoring drug resistance development in aquatic ectoparasites may be the need to focus on key life stages. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Effectiveness of emamectin benzoate for treatment of Lepeophtheirus salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patti G; Hammell, K Larry; Dohoo, Ian R; Revie, Crawford W

    2012-12-03

    Emamectin benzoate (an avermectin chemotherapeutant administered to fish as an in-feed treatment) has been used to treat infestations of sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada, since 1999. This retrospective study examined the effectiveness of 114 emamectin benzoate treatment episodes from 2004 to 2008 across 54 farms. Study objectives were to establish whether changes in the effectiveness of emamectin benzoate were present for this period, examine factors associated with treatment outcome, and determine variables that influenced differences in L. salmonis abundance after treatment. The analysis was carried out in 2 parts: first, trends in treatment effectiveness and L. salmonis abundance were explored, and second, statistical modelling (linear and logistic regression) was used to examine the effects of multiple variables on post-treatment abundance and treatment outcome. Post-treatment sea lice abundance increased in the later years examined. Mean abundance differed between locations in the Bay of Fundy, and higher numbers were found at farms closer to the mainland and lower levels were found in the areas around Grand Manan Island. Treatment effectiveness varied by geographical region and decreased over time. There was an increased risk for unsuccessful treatments in 2008, and treatments applied during autumn months were more likely to be ineffective than those applied during summer months.

  2. Degradation of microbial polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P

    2004-08-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), one of the largest groups of thermoplastic polyesters are receiving much attention as biodegradable substitutes for non-degradable plastics. Poly(D-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is the most ubiquitous and most intensively studied PHA. Microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various PHB-degrading microorganisms and PHB depolymerases have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. Distributions of PHB-degrading microorganisms, factors affecting the biodegradability of PHB, and microbial and enzymatic degradation of PHB are discussed in this review. We also propose an application of a new isolated, thermophilic PHB-degrading microorganism, Streptomyces strain MG, for producing pure monomers of PHA and useful chemicals, including D-3-hydroxycarboxylic acids such as D-3-hydroxybutyric acid, by enzymatic degradation of PHB.

  3. de Vries liquid crystals based on a chiral 5-phenylpyrimidine benzoate core with a tri- and tetra-carbosilane backbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenilayam, S. P.; Rodriguez-Lojo, D.; Agra-Kooijman, D. M.; Vij, J. K.; Panov, V. P.; Panov, A.; Fisch, M. R.; Kumar, Satyendra; Stevenson, P. J.

    2018-02-01

    New chiral de Vries smectic liquid-crystalline compounds are designed, synthesized, and investigated for perspective applications in defect-free bistable surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid-crystal displays. In these compounds, a 5-phenyl-pyrimidine benzoate core is terminated on one side by a tri- or tetra-carbosilane group linked through an alkoxy group and an alkyl spacer and on the opposite side terminated by a chiral 2-octanol group. The stereogenic center contains either a methyl or perfluoromethyl functional group. These compounds exhibit Iso-Sm A*-Sm C*-Sm X -Cr phases under cooling from the isotropic state. Measurements of the temperature-dependent smectic layer spacing by x-ray diffraction experiments combined with the measured apparent optical tilt angle and the birefringence reveal that Sm A* phase in these compounds is of the de Vries type. In addition, the chiral compound with a tetra-carbosilane backbone, DR277, exhibits good de Vries properties with the Sm C* phase exhibited over a wide temperature range. By varying the carbosilane end group, the de Vries properties are enhanced, that is, the layer shrinkage of ˜1.9 % for the tri-carbosilane DR276 is reduced to ˜0.9 % for tetra-carbosilane DR277 at 10°C below Sm A* to Sm C* transition temperature, TAC. For DR277, the reduction factor R ≈0.22 for T =(TAC-10 )°C is reasonably low and the apparent optical tilt angle θapp=35.1°, hence this compound is a "good de Vries smectic" LC. Therefore, synthesis of the chiral mesogen with an even higher number of carbosilane groups may lead to a further reduction or even zero-layer shrinkage exhibited at TAC with Sm C* phase extending over a wide temperature range close to the room temperature for perspective suitability in device applications. Our results for 5-phenyl-pyrimidine benzoate core-based compounds support a recently drawn conclusion by Schubert et al. [J. Mater. Chem. C 4, 8483 (2016), 10.1039/C6TC03120J] from a different compound, namely

  4. MONITORING RESISTENSI POPULASI Plutella xylostella, L TERHADAP RESIDU EMAMEKTIN BENZOAT DI SENTRA PRODUKSI TANAMAN KUBIS PROPINSI JAWA TENGAH (Monitoring the Resistance of Plutella xylostella, L Population against Emamektin Benzoate Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udi Tarwotjo

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this research to know the susceptible of P. xylostella population against emamectin benzoate insecticide, to monitor the resistance development of  P. xylostella against insecticides by determine of a diagnostic concentration, to determine the resistance mechanism of P. xylostella population. P. xylostella  was collected from central of Java areas from August 2011 up to September 2012.  The data from bioassay test was analized using Probit analysis to obtain LC50 value. The suseptibility test of the insect resulted show that Puasan population (Ngablak FR value was 3.97 and it was higher than  the Selo population (Cepogo. The concentration of 2443.99 ppb as selected diagnostic consentration. The test result of diagnostic concentration validation indicated that the value of calculated c2 of all the tested population was lower than the value of c2table. Therefore the diagnostic concentration of 2443.99 ppb can be used monitoring device of susceptible P, xylostella population. The resistance mechanism of the P. xylostella to the insecticide resulted from the increase in the detoxification rate in the insect body by MFO enzyme, but non-specific esterase enzyme activity did not reflect the esterase activity.

  5. Fate of benzoate paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins from Gymnodinium catenatum in shellfish and fish detected by pre-column oxidation and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Paulo

    2008-05-09

    Several cultured strains of Gymnodinium catenatum isolated worldwide have been shown to produce important proportions of the recently discovered benzoate paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins GC1 through GC3. These toxins pose a new challenge for the HPLC analysis of shellfish predating during blooms of this microalga because due to their hydrophobicity are retained along the C18 solid-phase extraction step employed to eliminate interferences. The production of GC toxins was confirmed in a clone of G.catenatum isolated from the Portuguese Northwest coast during the winter bloom of 2005, in addition to a clone from 1989 reported previously by other authors. The major peroxide oxidation products of GC1+2 and GC3 were, respectively, dcGTX2+3 and dcSTX. The search of benzoate analogues in bivalves contaminated during the winter 2005 bloom showed these analogues constituted a minor component of the N(1)-H containing toxins, as selectively detected by peroxide oxidation. While in G.catenatum GC1-3 were the major components after C1+2 and B1, in bivalves dcGTX2+3 and dcSTX were the major components after C1+2 and B1. Similar conclusions were later extended to more shellfish species naturally contaminated during the autumn bloom of 2007. In the gut content of sardines GC toxins were present, while in crabs predating upon shellfish, these were absent. A generalised conversion of GC toxins into decarbamoyl analogues was confirmed by in vitro incubations of bivalve's digestive glands with semi-purified GC toxins. This is the first report of widespread carbamoylase activity in shellfish, exclusively targeted at benzoate PSP analogues and that is heat-inactivated. Despite the high proportion of benzoate analogues produced by G.catenatum, analyses of bivalves contaminated with PSP toxins seem to be simplified due to the important conversion of benzoate into decarbamoyl analogues that occurs in bivalves. These last analogues are detected by common HPLC methods used for food

  6. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 2-Hydroxy-3-[(2-aryloxyethylamino]propyl 4-[(Alkoxycarbonylamino]benzoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Tengler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of twenty substituted 2-hydroxy-3-[(2-aryloxyethylamino]propyl 4-[(alkoxycarbonylamino]benzoates were prepared and characterized. As similar compounds have been described as potential antimycobacterials, primary in vitro screening of the synthesized carbamates was also performed against two mycobacterial species. 2-Hydroxy-3-[2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethylamino]-propyl 4-(butoxycarbonylaminobenzoate hydrochloride, 2-hydroxy-3-[2-(4-methoxyphenoxyethylamino]-propyl 4-(butoxycarbonylaminobenzoate hydrochloride, and 2-hydroxy-3-[2-(2-methoxyphenoxyethylamino]-propyl 4-(butoxycarbonylaminobenzoate hydrochloride showed higher activity against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. intracellulare than the standards ciprofloxacin, isoniazid, or pyrazinamide. Cytotoxicity assay of effective compounds was performed using the human monocytic leukaemia THP-1 cell line. Compounds with predicted amphiphilic properties were also tested for their effects on the rate of photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts. All butyl derivatives significantly stimulated the rate of PET, indicating that the compounds can induce conformational changes in thylakoid membranes resulting in an increase of their permeability and so causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from electron transport.

  7. Simplified RP-HPLC method for multi-residue analysis of abamectin, emamectin benzoate and ivermectin in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianchuan; Gong, Shu; Wang, Xiaorong; Wu, Yinxing; Zhao, Li

    2011-01-01

    A rapid, reliable and sensitive reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection (RP-FLD-HPLC) was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of the abamectin (ABA), emamectin (EMA) benzoate and ivermectin (IVM) residues in rice. After extraction with acetonitrile/water (2 : 1) with sonication, the avermectin (AVMs) residues were directly derivatised by N-methylimidazole (N-NMIM) and trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) and then analysed on RP-FLD-HPLC. A good linear relationship (r(2 )> 0.99) was obtained for three AVMs ranging from 0.01 to 5 microg ml(-1), i.e. 0.01-5.0 microg g(-1) in rice matrix. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were between 0.001 and 0.002 microg g(-1) and between 0.004 and 0.006 microg g(-1), respectively. Recoveries were from 81.9% to 105.4% and precision less than 12.4%. The proposed method was successfully applied to routine analysis of the AVMs residues in rice.

  8. Evaluation of emamectin benzoate and substance EX against salmon lice in sea-ranched Atlantic salmon smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilbrei, Ove Tommy; Espedal, Per Gunnar; Nilsen, Frank; Garcia, Enrique Perez; Glover, Kevin A

    2015-04-08

    Experimental releases of Atlantic salmon smolts treated with emamectin benzoate (EB) against salmon lice have previously been used to estimate the significance of salmon lice on the survival of migrating smolts. In recent years, the salmon louse has developed reduced sensitivity to EB, which may influence the results of such release experiments. We therefore tested the use of 2 anti-lice drugs: EB was administered to salmon smolts in high doses by intra-peritoneal injection and the prophylactic substance EX (SubEX) was administered by bathing. A third, untreated control group was also established. Salmon were challenged with copepodids of 2 strains of salmon lice (1 EB-sensitive strain and 1 with reduced EB-sensitivity) in mixed-group experimental tanks. At 31 d post-challenge, the numbers of pre-adult lice on treated fish were around 20% compared with the control fish, with minor or no differences between the 2 treatments and lice strains. Both treatments therefore appeared to give the smolts a high degree of protection against infestation of copepodids of salmon lice. However, significantly lower growth of the EB-treatment group indicates that bathing the fish in SubEX is less stressful for smolts than intra-peritoneal injection of EB.

  9. Induction and transmission of tolerance to the synthetic pesticide emamectin benzoate in field and laboratory populations of diamondback moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Baker, G; Powis, K J; Roush, R T; Schmidt, O

    2010-08-01

    Field surveys of pest insect pest populations in agroecosystems reveal low but significant levels of tolerance to synthetic and biological pesticides but fail to uncover resistance alleles in test crosses. To study the potential of inducible mechanisms to generate tolerance to synthetic pesticides, we performed baseline susceptibility studies in field and laboratory populations of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), to commercial formulations of emamectin benzoate. Pesticide exposure in the field caused elevated levels of tolerance, which decreased in field-collected populations after maintaining insects with pesticide-free diet in the laboratory. Because no significant resistance alleles were identified in back-crossed individuals, the observed increase in tolerance was probably not based on preexisting recessive resistance mechanisms in the population. Instead, the genetic analysis after five and 12 generations is compatible with a transient up-regulation of an immune and metabolic status in tolerant insects that can be transmitted to offspring by a maternal effect. Although the epigenetic effects contributed to incremental increases in tolerance in the first five generations, other resistance mechanisms that are transmitted genetically predominate after 12 generations of increased exposure to the pesticide.

  10. Detection on emamectin benzoate-induced apoptosis and DNA damage in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf-9 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiwei; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Chao; Zong, Mimi; Huang, Qingchun; Tao, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate (EMB), an important macrocyclic lactone insecticide that belongs to the avermectin family and possesses excellent potency in controlling pests, is non-carcinogenic and non-mutagenic conducted in rats and mice, but EMB-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in arthropod insect have been seldom reported yet. In the present paper, we quantified the cytotoxicity of EMB through the detections on cell viability, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf-9 cells in vitro. The results showed that EMB caused a concentration- and time-dependent reduction on the viability of Sf-9 cells, and the median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were 3.34μM at 72h of exposure. The dual acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining showed that exposure to EMB induced a significant time- and concentration-dependent increase on cell apoptosis. The alkaline comet assay revealed that EMB induced significant increases on single-strand DNA breaks, and the percentage of γH2AX-positive cells represented a time- and concentration-dependent formation of DNA double-strand breaks in Sf-9 cells. Interestingly, the similar cytotoxic actions of EMB also went for the human cancerous HeLa cells as a control cell group. Data demonstrated the potential cytotoxic effect of EMB on Sf-9 cells that was significantly greater than the effect of hydrogen peroxide at the same concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate: Cross-Resistance Patterns and Fitness Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, M B S; Shad, S A

    2016-06-01

    Cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a sucking pest of worldwide importance causing huge losses by feeding upon cotton in various parts of the world. Because of the importance of this pest, this research was carried out to select emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis in the laboratory to study cross-resistance, stability, realized heritability, and fitness cost of emamectin resistance. After selection from third generation (G3) to G6, P. solenopsis developed very high emamectin resistance (159.24-fold) when compared to a susceptible unselected population (Unsel pop). Population selected to emamectin benzoate conferred moderate (45.81-fold), low (14.06-fold), and no cross-resistance with abamectin, cypermethrin, and profenofos, respectively compared to the Unsel pop. A significant decline in emamectin resistance was observed in the resistant population when not exposed to emamectin from G7 to G13. The estimated realized heritability (h (2)) for emamectin resistance was 0.84. A high fitness cost was associated with emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis. Results of this study may be helpful in devising insecticide resistance management strategies for P. solenopsis.

  12. Tolerance and efficacy of emamectin benzoate and ivermectin for the treatment of Pseudocapillaria tomentosa in laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collymore, Chereen; Watral, Virginia; White, Julie R; Colvin, Michael E; Rasmussen, Skye; Tolwani, Ravi J; Kent, Michael L

    2014-10-01

    Tolerance of adult zebrafish and efficacy of emamectin benzoate and ivermectin in eliminating Pseudocapillaria tomentosa infection were evaluated. In the tolerance study, behavioral changes, fecundity, histopathology, and mortality were evaluated for in-feed administration of emamectin (0.05, 0.10, and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg). All doses of emamectin were well tolerated. Ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg administration resulted in mild behavioral changes and a transient decrease in fecundity. Ivermectin 0.10 mg/kg administration resulted in severe behavioral changes and some mortality. In the efficacy study, emamectin (0.05 and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 mg/kg) were evaluated for their efficacy in eliminating P. tomentosa infection. Emamectin reduced parasite burden in infected zebrafish, and ivermectin eliminated intestinal nematode infections. Despite a small margin of safety, ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg was effective at eliminating P. tomentosa infection in adult zebrafish. Higher doses or a longer course of treatment may be needed for complete elimination of P. tomentosa infection using emamectin. In this study, we propose two possible treatments for intestinal nematode infections in zebrafish.

  13. Short-Term Effects of the Anti-sea Lice Therapeutant Emamectin Benzoate on Clam Worms (Nereis virens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBriarty, G J; Kidd, K A; Burridge, L E

    2018-05-01

    The polychaete Nereis virens occurs commonly in marine sediments, is widely distributed, and is a popular bait species, as well as a potential replacement for wild-caught fish in commercial fish feed preparations. It is being considered as a potential co-extractive species for culture in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture operations. However, it is not known whether pesticides or drugs used to treat sea lice on farmed salmon, such as emamectin benzoate (EB), would adversely affect cultured or wild worms, because these compounds may persist in the environment. To determine the potential effects of EB to N. virens, bioassays were performed wherein worms were exposed in sand for 30 days to a concentration of 400 µg/kg dw (nominal). While no treatment-related mortality occurred, significant decreases in worm mass and marked behavioral changes (lack of burrowing) were observed in EB-treated sand compared with controls. These lab-based observations suggest a potential hazard to worms at sites where EB treatments have occurred.

  14. Structural and vibrational spectroscopic studies on charge transfer and ionic hydrogen bonding interactions of melaminium benzoate dihydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagathara, N.; Marchewka, M. K.; Drozd, M.; Gunasekaran, S.; Rajakumar, P. R.; Anbalagan, G.

    2015-06-01

    Single crystals of melaminium benzoate dihydrate (MBDH) have been grown from aqueous solution by the slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature. Crystalline nature of the grown crystal has been confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction studies. The optimized geometry, frequency and intensity of the vibrational bands of MBDH were obtained by the Hartree-Fock and density functional theory using B3LYP/cam-B3LYP with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The harmonic vibrational frequencies were calculated and the scaled values have been compared with the experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectral values. The obtained vibrational wavenumbers and optimized geometric parameters are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. UV-Visible spectrum was recorded in the region 200-400 nm and the electronic properties, HOMO-LUMO energies and other related electronic parameters are calculated. The isotropic chemical shifts computed by 1H and 13C NMR analysis also show good agreement with experimental observation. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis has been performed on MBDH compound to analyze the stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization. Molecular electrostatic potential surface (MEP) has also been performed by DFT/cam-B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Differential scanning calorimetric measurements performed on the powder sample indicate the phase transition point approximately at 368 and 358 K for heating and cooling, respectively.

  15. Purification and crystallization of a putative transcriptional regulator of the benzoate oxidation pathway in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Adrienne M.; Bains, Jasleen; Boulanger, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction and preliminary phasing of the putative transcriptional regulator Bxe-C0898 from B. xenovorans LB400 are reported. Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 harbours two paralogous copies of the recently discovered benzoate oxidation (box) pathway. While both copies are functional, the paralogues are differentially regulated and flanked by putative transcriptional regulators from distinct families. The putative LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) adjacent to the megaplasmid-encoded box enzymes, Bxe-C0898, has been produced recombinantly in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Gel-filtration studies show that Bxe-C0898 is a tetramer in solution, consistent with previously characterized LTTRs. Bxe-C0898 crystallized with four molecules in the asymmetric unit of the P4 3 2 1 2/P4 1 2 1 2 unit cell with a solvent content of 61.19%, as indicated by processing of the X-ray diffraction data. DNA-protection assays are currently under way in order to identify potential operator regions for this LTTR and to define its role in regulation of the box pathway

  16. Hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization and gene expression of alkane degradation genes by endophytic Enterobacter ludwigii strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, Sohail; Afzal, Muhammad; Reichenauer, Thomas G.; Brady, Carrie L.; Sessitsch, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The genus Enterobacter comprises a range of beneficial plant-associated bacteria showing plant growth promotion. Enterobacter ludwigii belongs to the Enterobacter cloacae complex and has been reported to include human pathogens but also plant-associated strains with plant beneficial capacities. To assess the role of Enterobacter endophytes in hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization, abundance and expression of CYP153 genes in different plant compartments, three plant species (Italian ryegrass, birdsfoot trefoil and alfalfa) were grown in sterile soil spiked with 1% diesel and inoculated with three endophytic E. ludwigii strains. Results showed that all strains were capable of hydrocarbon degradation and efficiently colonized the rhizosphere and plant interior. Two strains, ISI10-3 and BRI10-9, showed highest degradation rates of diesel fuel up to 68% and performed best in combination with Italian ryegrass and alfalfa. All strains expressed the CYP153 gene in all plant compartments, indicating an active role in degradation of diesel in association with plants. - Highlights: → E. ludwigii strains efficiently colonized plants in a non-sterile soil environment. → E. ludwigii strains efficiently expressed alkane degradation genes in plants. → E. ludwigii efficiently degraded alkane contaminations and promoted plant growth. → E. ludwigii interacted more effectively with Italian ryegrass than with other plants. → Degradation activity varied with plant and microbial genotype as well as with time. - Enterobacter ludwigii strains belonging to the E. cloacae complex are able to efficiently degrade alkanes when associated with plants and to promote plant growth.

  17. Hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization and gene expression of alkane degradation genes by endophytic Enterobacter ludwigii strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousaf, Sohail [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Afzal, Muhammad [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad (Pakistan); Reichenauer, Thomas G. [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Environmental Resources and Technologies Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Brady, Carrie L. [Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Sessitsch, Angela, E-mail: angela.sessitsch@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2011-10-15

    The genus Enterobacter comprises a range of beneficial plant-associated bacteria showing plant growth promotion. Enterobacter ludwigii belongs to the Enterobacter cloacae complex and has been reported to include human pathogens but also plant-associated strains with plant beneficial capacities. To assess the role of Enterobacter endophytes in hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization, abundance and expression of CYP153 genes in different plant compartments, three plant species (Italian ryegrass, birdsfoot trefoil and alfalfa) were grown in sterile soil spiked with 1% diesel and inoculated with three endophytic E. ludwigii strains. Results showed that all strains were capable of hydrocarbon degradation and efficiently colonized the rhizosphere and plant interior. Two strains, ISI10-3 and BRI10-9, showed highest degradation rates of diesel fuel up to 68% and performed best in combination with Italian ryegrass and alfalfa. All strains expressed the CYP153 gene in all plant compartments, indicating an active role in degradation of diesel in association with plants. - Highlights: > E. ludwigii strains efficiently colonized plants in a non-sterile soil environment. > E. ludwigii strains efficiently expressed alkane degradation genes in plants. > E. ludwigii efficiently degraded alkane contaminations and promoted plant growth. > E. ludwigii interacted more effectively with Italian ryegrass than with other plants. > Degradation activity varied with plant and microbial genotype as well as with time. - Enterobacter ludwigii strains belonging to the E. cloacae complex are able to efficiently degrade alkanes when associated with plants and to promote plant growth.

  18. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  19. A novel mechanochemical method for reconstructing the moisture-degraded HKUST-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuejiao; Li, Hao; Li, Yujie; Xu, Feng; Xiao, Jing; Xia, Qibin; Li, Yingwei; Li, Zhong

    2015-07-11

    A novel mechanochemical method was proposed to reconstruct quickly moisture-degraded HKUST-1. The degraded HKUST-1 can be restored within minutes. The reconstructed samples were characterized, and confirmed to have 95% surface area and 92% benzene capacity of the fresh HKUST-1. It is a simple and effective strategy for degraded MOF reconstruction.

  20. Air capacity for Sydney

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Like most large cities, Sydney has an airport problem. Demand is increasing faster than supply, and additional capacity will be needed if costly rationing, and delays, are to be avoided. However, compared to many cities, the problems facing Sydney are modest. At the moment, demand is only just exceeding capacity. There is a good chance that the available capacity will be rationed efficiently. Options for expanding capacity are being evaluated well. There may be problems in the future- poor op...

  1. Responsibility and Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    That responsible moral agency presupposes certain mental capacities, constitutes a widely accepted view among theorists. Moreover, it is often assumed that degrees in the development of the relevant capacities co-vary with degrees of responsibility. In this article it is argued that, the move from...... the view that responsibility requires certain mental capacities to the position that degrees of responsibility co-vary with degrees of the development of the mental capacities, is premature....

  2. Diazotrophic Bacterial Community of Degraded Pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tiago Correia Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasture degradation can cause changes in diazotrophic bacterial communities. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the culturable and total diazotrophic bacterial community, associated with regions of the rhizosphere and roots of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. pastures in different stages of degradation. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil were collected from slightly, partially, and highly degraded pastures. McCrady’s table was used to obtain the Most Probable Number (MPN of bacteria per gram of sample, in order to determine population density and calculate the Shannon-Weaver diversity index. The diversity of total diazotrophic bacterial community was determined by the technique of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE of the nifH gene, while the diversity of the culturable diazotrophic bacteria was determined by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (BOX-PCR technique. The increase in the degradation stage of the B. decumbens Stapf. pasture did not reduce the population density of the cultivated diazotrophic bacterial community, suggesting that the degradation at any degree of severity was highly harmful to the bacteria. The structure of the total diazotrophic bacterial community associated with B. decumbens Stapf. was altered by the pasture degradation stage, suggesting a high adaptive capacity of the bacteria to altered environments.

  3. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  4. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-11-01

    The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main sensitivity factors for the payment capacity at sample level, the establishment of general benchmarks for the payment capacity (as no such benchmarks currently exist in the Romanian literature and the identification of the mechanisms through which the variation of different factors impacts the payment capacity.

  5. Genomic and microarray analysis of aromatics degradation in Geobacter metallireducens and comparison to a Geobacter isolate from a contaminated field site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jizhong

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Groundwater and subsurface environments contaminated with aromatic compounds can be remediated in situ by Geobacter species that couple oxidation of these compounds to reduction of Fe(III-oxides. Geobacter metallireducens metabolizes many aromatic compounds, but the enzymes involved are not well known. Results The complete G. metallireducens genome contained a 300 kb island predicted to encode enzymes for the degradation of phenol, p-cresol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoate, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, and benzoate. Toluene degradation genes were encoded in a separate region. None of these genes was found in closely related species that cannot degrade aromatic compounds. Abundant transposons and phage-like genes in the island suggest mobility, but nucleotide composition and lack of synteny with other species do not suggest a recent transfer. The inferred degradation pathways are similar to those in species that anaerobically oxidize aromatic compounds with nitrate as an electron acceptor. In these pathways the aromatic compounds are converted to benzoyl-CoA and then to 3-hydroxypimelyl-CoA. However, in G. metallireducens there were no genes for the energetically-expensive dearomatizing enzyme. Whole-genome changes in transcript levels were identified in cells oxidizing benzoate. These supported the predicted pathway, identified induced fatty-acid oxidation genes, and identified an apparent shift in the TCA cycle to a putative ATP-yielding succinyl-CoA synthase. Paralogs to several genes in the pathway were also induced, as were several putative molybdo-proteins. Comparison of the aromatics degradation pathway genes to the genome of an isolate from a contaminated field site showed very similar content, and suggested this strain degrades many of the same compounds. This strain also lacked a classical dearomatizing enzyme, but contained two copies of an eight-gene cluster encoding redox proteins that was 30-fold

  6. Degradations and Rearrangement Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianbo

    This section deals with recent reports concerning degradation and rearrangement reactions of free sugars as well as some glycosides. The transformations are classified in chemical and enzymatic ways. In addition, the Maillard reaction will be discussed as an example of degradation and rearrangement transformation and its application in current research in the fields of chemistry and biology.

  7. Effects of age on long term memory for degraded speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Thiel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior research suggests that acoustical degradation impacts encoding of items into memory, especially in elderly subjects. We here aimed to investigate whether acoustically degraded items, that are initially encoded into memory, are more prone to forgetting as a function of age. Young and old participants were tested with a vocoded and unvocoded serial list learning task involving immediate and delayed free recall. We found that degraded auditory input increased forgetting of previously encoded items, especially in older participants. We further found that working memory capacity predicted forgetting of degraded information in young participants. In old participants, verbal IQ was the most important predictor for forgetting acoustically degraded information. Our data provide evidence that acoustically degraded information, even if encoded, is especially vulnerable to forgetting in old age.

  8. Pharmacokinetics and transcriptional effects of the anti-salmon lice drug emamectin benzoate in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsvik, Pål A; Lie, Kai K; Mykkeltvedt, Eva; Samuelsen, Ole B; Petersen, Kjell; Stavrum, Anne-Kristin; Lunestad, Bjørn T

    2008-09-11

    Emamectin benzoate (EB) is a dominating pharmaceutical drug used for the treatment and control of infections by sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Fish with an initial mean weight of 132 g were experimentally medicated by a standard seven-day EB treatment, and the concentrations of drug in liver, muscle and skin were examined. To investigate how EB affects Atlantic salmon transcription in liver, tissues were assessed by microarray and qPCR at 7, 14 and 35 days after the initiation of medication. The pharmacokinetic examination revealed highest EB concentrations in all three tissues at day 14, seven days after the end of the medication period. Only modest effects were seen on the transcriptional levels in liver, with small fold-change alterations in transcription throughout the experimental period. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) indicated that EB treatment induced oxidative stress at day 7 and inflammation at day 14. The qPCR examinations showed that medication by EB significantly increased the transcription of both HSP70 and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in liver during a period of 35 days, compared to un-treated fish, possibly via activation of enzymes involved in phase II conjugation of metabolism in the liver. This study has shown that a standard seven-day EB treatment has only a modest effect on the transcription of genes in liver of Atlantic salmon. Based on GSEA, the medication seems to have produced a temporary oxidative stress response that might have affected protein stability and folding, followed by a secondary inflammatory response.

  9. Optimization and field use of a bioassay to monitor sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis sensitivity to emamectin benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Jillian D; Stryhn, Henrik; Burka, John F; Hammell, K Larry

    2008-04-01

    A bioassay for sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis sensitivity towards emamectin benzoate (EMB) was validated for field use. A probit regression model with natural responsiveness was used for the number of affected (moribund or dead) sea lice in bioassays involving different concentrations of EMB. Bioassay optimization included an evaluation of the inter-rater reliability of sea lice responsiveness to EMB and an evaluation of gender-related differences in susceptibility. Adoption of a set of bioassay response criteria improved the concordance (evaluated using the concordance correlation coefficient) between raters' assessments and the model estimation of EC50 values (the 'effective concentration' leading to a response of 50% of the lice not prone to natural response). An evaluation of gender-related differences in EMB susceptibility indicated that preadult stage female sea lice exhibited a significantly larger sensitivity towards EMB in 12 of 19 bioassays compared to preadult males. In order to evaluate sea lice sensitivity to EMB in eastern Canada, the intensive salmon farming area in the Bay of Fundy in southwestern New Brunswick was divided into 4 distinct regions based on industry health management practices and hydrographics. A total of 38 bioassays were completed from 2002 to 2005 using populations of preadult stage sea lice collected from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar farms within the 4 described regions. There was no significant overall effect of region or year on EC50 values; however, analysis of variance indicated a significant effect of time of year on EC50 values in 2002 and a potential effect in 2004 to 2005. Although the range of EC50 values obtained in this 3 yr study did not appear sufficient to affect current clinical success in the control of sea lice, the results suggest a seasonal- or temperature-associated variation in sensitivity to EMB. This will need to be considered if changes in EMB efficacy occur in the future.

  10. Knockout of a P-glycoprotein gene increases susceptibility to abamectin and emamectin benzoate in Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Y-Y; Huang, J-L; Wang, J; Feng, Y; Han, T-T; Wu, Y-D; Yang, Y-H

    2018-02-01

    P-glycoprotein [P-gp or the ATP-binding cassette transporter B1 (ABCB1)] is an important participant in multidrug resistance of cancer cells, yet the precise function of this arthropod transporter is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of P-gp for susceptibility to insecticides in the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) gene-editing technology. We cloned an open reading frame (ORF) encoding the S. exigua P-gp protein (SeP-gp) predicted to display structural characteristics common to P-gp and other insect ABCB1 transporters. A knockout line with a frame shift deletion of four nucleotides in the SeP-gp ORF was established using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing system to test its potential role in determining susceptibility to chemical insecticides or insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Results from comparative bioassays demonstrate that knockout of SeP-gp significantly increases susceptibility of S. exigua by around threefold to abamectin and emamectin benzoate (EB), but not to spinosad, chlorfenapyr, beta-cypermethrin, carbosulfan indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos, phoxim, diafenthiuron, chlorfluazuron, chlorantraniliprole or two Bt toxins (Cry1Ca and Cry1Fa). Our data support an important role for SeP-gp in susceptibility of S. exigua to abamectin and EB and imply that overexpression of SeP-gp may contribute to abamectin and EB resistance in S. exigua. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  11. Emamectin benzoate induces ROS-mediated DNA damage and apoptosis in Trichoplusia Tn5B1-4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Shaorong; Yun, Xinming; Rao, Wenbing; Xiao, Ciying; Xu, Zhikang; Lang, Jialin; Huang, Qingchun

    2017-08-01

    Emamectin benzoate (EMB), a novel macrocyclic lactone insecticide, possesses high efficacy and beneficial selective toxicity in agriculture, but so far the EMB-induced cytotoxic action in arthropod insect remains unclear. The present studies were carried out to characterize the property of EMB on the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated DNA damage and apoptosis in Trichoplusia Tn5B1-4 cell model. Following the exposure to EMB at 2.5, 5, 10 or 15 μM, the cells changed to be round, suspended and aggregated, and the decline of cell proliferating ability and cell viability was positively related with the exposure time. Median inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) of EMB on cell viability was 3.72 μM during 72 h exposure. Apoptosis was induced in 29.8% (24 h) and 39.5% (48 h) of the cells by EMB at 15 μM, showing chromatin condensation in nuclei. The content of ROS in the cells increased rapidly as the concentration of EMB increased, and the pre-incubation of the cells with vitamin E significantly reduced the ROS accumulation. In the treatment of 15 μM EMB, the migrated cell nucleus with DNA strand breaks appeared a teardrop, pear-shaped, or large fan-like tail, and 63.1% of γH2AX-positive cells contained more than four foci, accompanying with high expression level of caspase-3 in time-dependent manner, which consequently led to cell apoptotic death. These evidences in ROS-mediated DNA damage and cell apoptosis induced by EMB may be helpful for deep understanding the cytotoxic action of EMB based on cell model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sodium benzoate, a food preservative, affects the functional and activation status of splenocytes at non cytotoxic dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ashish; Kumar, Arvind; Das, Mukul; Tripathi, Anurag

    2016-02-01

    Sodium benzoate (SB) is a widely used food preservative due to its bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties. The acceptable daily intake of SB is 5 mg/kg-bw, however, it has been found to be used in the food commodities at relatively high levels (2119 mg/kg). Earlier studies on SB have shown its immunosuppressive properties, but comprehensive immunotoxicity data is lacking. Our studies have shown that SB was non cytotoxic in splenocytes up to 1000 μg/ml for 72 h, however at 2500 μg/ml it was found to be cytotoxic. Thus, 1000 μg/ml dose of SB was chosen for the subsequent experiments. SB significantly suppresses the proliferation of Con A and LPS stimulated splenocytes at 72 h, while allogenic response of T cells was significantly decreased after 96 h. SB did not affect the relative expression of CD3e or CD4 molecules following 72 h exposure, however, it downregulated the relative expression of CD8 co-receptor. Further, exposure of splenocytes to SB for 72 h led to reduced expression of CD28 and CD95, which play a vital role in T cell activation. SB also suppresses the relative expression of CD19, CD40 and CD95 receptors on B cells after 72 h. In addition to the functional responses, SB lowered the expression of IL4, IL6, IFNγ and IL17 cytokines in Con A stimulated splenocytes; and IL6, IFNγ and TNFα in LPS stimulated splenocytes following 48 h of exposure. Taken together, the present study is suggestive of the immunomodulatory potential of SB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. DNA methylome changes by estradiol benzoate and bisphenol A links early-life environmental exposures to prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Ana; Zhang, Xiang; Cheung, Yuk-Yin; Tang, Wan-Yee; Chen, Jing; Ye, Shu-Hua; Medvedovic, Mario; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Prins, Gail S; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2016-09-01

    Developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), 17β-estradiol-3-benzoate (EB) and bisphenol A (BPA), increases susceptibility to prostate cancer (PCa) in rodent models. Here, we used the methylated-CpG island recovery assay (MIRA)-assisted genomic tiling and CpG island arrays to identify treatment-associated methylome changes in the postnatal day (PND)90 dorsal prostate tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats neonatally (PND1, 3, and 5) treated with 25 µg/pup or 2,500 µg EB/kg body weight (BW) or 0.1 µg BPA/pup or 10 µg BPA/kg BW. We identified 111 EB-associated and 86 BPA-associated genes, with 20 in common, that have significant differentially methylated regions. Pathway analysis revealed cancer as the top common disease pathway. Bisulfite sequencing validated the differential methylation patterns observed by array analysis in 15 identified candidate genes. The methylation status of 7 (Pitx3, Wnt10b, Paqr4, Sox2, Chst14, Tpd52, Creb3l4) of these 15 genes exhibited an inverse correlation with gene expression in tissue samples. Cell-based assays, using 5-aza-cytidine-treated normal (NbE-1) and cancerous (AIT) rat prostate cells, added evidence of DNA methylation-mediated gene expression of 6 genes (exception: Paqr4). Functional connectivity of these genes was linked to embryonic stem cell pluripotency. Furthermore, clustering analyses using the dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed that expression of this set of 7 genes was associated with recurrence-free survival of PCa patients. In conclusion, our study reveals that gene-specific promoter methylation changes, resulting from early-life EDC exposure in the rat, may serve as predictive epigenetic biomarkers of PCa recurrence, and raises the possibility that such exposure may impact human disease.

  14. Intermittent degradation and schizotypy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Roché

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent degradation refers to transient detrimental disruptions in task performance. This phenomenon has been repeatedly observed in the performance data of patients with schizophrenia. Whether intermittent degradation is a feature of the liability for schizophrenia (i.e., schizotypy is an open question. Further, the specificity of intermittent degradation to schizotypy has yet to be investigated. To address these questions, 92 undergraduate participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing schizotypy and psychological state variables (e.g., anxiety, depression, and their reaction times were recorded as they did so. Intermittent degradation was defined as the number of times a subject’s reaction time for questionnaire items met or exceeded three standard deviations from his or her mean reaction time after controlling for each item’s information processing load. Intermittent degradation scores were correlated with questionnaire scores. Our results indicate that intermittent degradation is associated with total scores on measures of positive and disorganized schizotypy, but unrelated to total scores on measures of negative schizotypy and psychological state variables. Intermittent degradation is interpreted as potentially derivative of schizotypy and a candidate endophenotypic marker worthy of continued research.

  15. The reproductive performance of dairy cows with anovulatory anoestrus that were injected with either gonadotrophin-releasing hormone or oestradiol benzoate as part of a re-treatment process after insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V.E. Segwagwe

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment compared the reproductive performance of synchronised anoestrous dairy cows that were treated initially with a combination of progesterone and oestradiol benzoate and then with either gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH or oestradiol benzoate to resynchronise returns to service. It was hypothesised that injecting anoestrous dairy cows with GnRH 12-15 days after insemination and coinciding with the time of insertion of a controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing (CIDR device would increase conception rates to the preceding 1st insemination compared with oestradiol benzoate treated cows; both GnRH and oestradiol benzoate would resynchronising the returns to service of those cows that did not conceive to the preceding insemination. Groups of cows in 11 herds were presented for a veterinary examination after they had not been seen in oestrus postpartum. Those cows diagnosed with anovulatory anoestrus (n = 1112 by manual rectal palpation and / or ultrasonography were enrolled in the trial. Each enrolled cow was injected with 2mg oestradiol benzoate i.m. on Day -10, (where Day 0 was the 1st day of the planned insemination concurrently with vaginal insertion of a CIDR device. The device inserted was withdrawn on Day -2 and then each cow injected i.m. with 1 mg of oestradiol benzoate on Day -1 unless it was in oestrus. Observation for oestrus preceded each insemination. Every cow that had been inseminated on Days -1,0,1 or 2 was presented for treatment for resynchrony on Day 14 (n=891. They were divided into 2 groups; those with an even number were each injected i.m. with 250 µg of a GnRH agonist (Treatment group n = 477; each of the cows with an odd number injected i.m. with 1mg of oestradiol benzoate (control group, n = 414. Each GnRH or oestradiol benzoate injection preceded reinsertion of a CIDR device previously inserted from Days -10 to -2. It was withdrawn on Day 22, 24 hours before injecting 1mg oestradiol benzoate

  16. Simultaneous enhancement of phenolic compound degradations by Acinetobacter strain V2 via a step-wise continuous acclimation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Johnson; Sharma, Vikas; Milase, Ridwaan; Mbhense, Ntuthuko

    2016-06-01

    Phenol degradation enhancement of Acinetobacter strain V2 by a step-wise continuous acclimation process was investigated. At the end of 8 months, three stable adapted strains, designated as R, G, and Y, were developed with the sub-lethal concentration of phenol at 800, 1100, and 1400 mg/L, respectively, from 400 mg/L of V2 parent strain. All strains degraded phenol at their sub-lethal level within 24 h, their growth rate increased as the acclimation process continued and retained their degradation properties even after storing at -80 °C for more than 3 years. All adapted strains appeared coccoid with an ungranulated surface under electron microscope compared to typical rod-shaped parental strain V2 . The adapted Y strain also possessed superior degradation ability against aniline, benzoate, and toluene. This study demonstrated the use of long term acclimation process to develop efficient and better pollutant degrading bacterial strains with potentials in industrial and environmental bioremediation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Phylogenetic and functional diversity of metagenomic libraries of phenol degrading sludge from petroleum refinery wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cynthia C; Hayden, Helen; Sawbridge, Tim; Mele, Pauline; Kruger, Ricardo H; Rodrigues, Marili Vn; Costa, Gustavo Gl; Vidal, Ramon O; Sousa, Maíra P; Torres, Ana Paula R; Santiago, Vânia Mj; Oliveira, Valéria M

    2012-03-27

    In petrochemical refinery wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), different concentrations of pollutant compounds are received daily in the influent stream, including significant amounts of phenolic compounds, creating propitious conditions for the development of particular microorganisms that can rapidly adapt to such environment. In the present work, the microbial sludge from a refinery WWTP was enriched for phenol, cloned into fosmid vectors and pyrosequenced. The fosmid libraries yielded 13,200 clones and a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of the sequence data set revealed a complex and diverse bacterial community in the phenol degrading sludge. The phylogenetic analyses using MEGAN in combination with RDP classifier showed a massive predominance of Proteobacteria, represented mostly by the genera Diaphorobacter, Pseudomonas, Thauera and Comamonas. The functional classification of phenol degrading sludge sequence data set generated by MG-RAST showed the wide metabolic diversity of the microbial sludge, with a high percentage of genes involved in the aerobic and anaerobic degradation of phenol and derivatives. In addition, genes related to the metabolism of many other organic and xenobiotic compounds, such as toluene, biphenyl, naphthalene and benzoate, were found. Results gathered herein demonstrated that the phenol degrading sludge has complex phylogenetic and functional diversities, showing the potential of such community to degrade several pollutant compounds. This microbiota is likely to represent a rich resource of versatile and unknown enzymes which may be exploited for biotechnological processes such as bioremediation.

  18. Crystal structure of 3-({[(morpholin-4-yl)carbono­thio­yl]sulfan­yl}acet­yl)phenyl benzoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambekar, Sachin P.; Mahesh Kumar, K.; Shirahatti, Arun Kumar M.; Kotresh, O.; Anil Kumar, G. N.

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C20H19NO4S2, the morpholine ring adopts the expected chair conformation. The central phenyl ring makes dihedral angles of 67.97 (4) and 7.74 (3)°, respectively, with the benzoate phenyl ring and the morpholine mean plane. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag chains along the b-axis direction. C—H⋯π inter­actions link centrosymmetrically related mol­ecules, reinforcing the three-dimensional structure. PMID:25484757

  19. Capacity planning and management

    OpenAIRE

    Boydell, Briony

    2011-01-01

    After reading this chapter you should be able to: • Define and measure capacity and appreciate the factors that influence it. • Assess the difficulties of matching capacity to demand. • Evaluate and apply the different strategies for matching capacity with demand in the short, medium and long term. • Analyse the impact of constraints and bottlenecks on a process and consider the Theory of Constraints. • Outline the different strategies available for both manufacturing and service operations. ...

  20. Cooperation in carbon source degradation shapes spatial self-organization of microbial consortia on hydrated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecon, Robin; Or, Dani

    2017-03-06

    Mounting evidence suggests that natural microbial communities exhibit a high level of spatial organization at the micrometric scale that facilitate ecological interactions and support biogeochemical cycles. Microbial patterns are difficult to study definitively in natural environments due to complex biodiversity, observability and variable physicochemical factors. Here, we examine how trophic dependencies give rise to self-organized spatial patterns of a well-defined bacterial consortium grown on hydrated surfaces. The model consortium consisted of two Pseudomonas putida mutant strains that can fully degrade the aromatic hydrocarbon toluene. We demonstrated that obligate cooperation in toluene degradation (cooperative mutualism) favored convergence of 1:1 partner ratio and strong intermixing at the microscale (10-100 μm). In contrast, competition for benzoate, a compound degraded independently by both strains, led to distinct segregation patterns. Emergence of a persistent spatial pattern has been predicted for surface attached microbial activity in liquid films that mediate diffusive exchanges while permitting limited cell movement (colony expansion). This study of a simple microbial consortium offers mechanistic glimpses into the rules governing the assembly and functioning of complex sessile communities, and points to general principles of spatial organization with potential applications for natural and engineered microbial systems.

  1. Kinetic study of adsorption and degradation of aniline, benzoic acid, phenol, and diuron in soil suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, T.H.; Lavy, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the effects of low temperature and accelerated soil-solution contact on soil adsorption of labile organic chemicals. The authors measured the kinetics of adsorption and degradation of 14 C-aniline, 14 C-benzoic acid, 14 C-phenol, and 14 C-diuron in the solution phase at 3 and 22 0 C. In the initial stages of reactions, the adsorption of all four chemicals was instantaneous at both temperatures under accelerated soil and solution mixing. A steady state was observed after the onset of equilibrium for the adsorption reaction for all compounds within 10 to 30 min. Its length varied according to the expected order of susceptibility to microbial degradation, i.e., diuron > aniline > phenol ≥ benzoate. It was apparent that the steady-state period without or in combination with low temperature could be advantageously used to obtain adsorption measurements in microbially active systems. A mechanistic sorption-catalyzed degradation model was evaluated to uncouple mathematically these processes. The model described satisfactorily the disappearance of labile chemicals in soil suspensions. Numerical analysis allowed the concurrent determination of adsorption, desorption, and biodegradation rate coefficients

  2. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  3. How do polymers degrade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Suping

    2011-03-01

    Materials derived from agricultural products such as cellulose, starch, polylactide, etc. are more sustainable and environmentally benign than those derived from petroleum. However, applications of these polymers are limited by their processing properties, chemical and thermal stabilities. For example, polyethylene terephthalate fabrics last for many years under normal use conditions, but polylactide fabrics cannot due to chemical degradation. There are two primary mechanisms through which these polymers degrade: via hydrolysis and via oxidation. Both of these two mechanisms are related to combined factors such as monomer chemistry, chain configuration, chain mobility, crystallinity, and permeation to water and oxygen, and product geometry. In this talk, we will discuss how these materials degrade and how the degradation depends on these factors under application conditions. Both experimental studies and mathematical modeling will be presented.

  4. Purex diluent degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallent, O.K.; Mailen, J.C.; Pannell, K.D.

    1984-02-01

    The chemical degradation of normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) diluents both in the pure state and mixed with 30% tributyl phosphate (TBP) was investigated in a series of experiments. The results show that degradation of NPH in the TBP-NPH-HNO 3 system is consistent with the active chemical agent being a radical-like nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) molecule, not HNO 3 as such. Spectrophotometric, gas chromatographic, mass spectrographic, and titrimetric methods were used to identify the degradation products, which included alkane nitro and nitrate compounds, alcohols, unsaturated alcohols, nitro alcohols, nitro alkenes, ketones, and carboxylic acids. The degradation rate was found to increase with increases in the HNO 3 concentration and the temperature. The rate was decreased by argon sparging to remove NO 2 and by the addition of butanol, which probably acts as a NO 2 scavenger. 13 references, 11 figures

  5. Degradation of chlorpyrifos in tropical rice soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhasis; Adhya, Tapan K

    2015-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos [O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) phosphorothioate] is used worldwide as an agricultural insecticide against a broad spectrum of insect pests of economically important crops including rice, and soil application to control termites. The insecticide mostly undergoes hydrolysis to diethyl thiophosphoric acid (DETP) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), and negligible amounts of other intermediate products. In a laboratory-cum-greenhouse study, chlorpyrifos, applied at a rate of 10 mg kg(-1) soil to five tropical rice soils of wide physico-chemical variability, degraded with a half-life ranging from 27.07 to 3.82 days. TCP was the major metabolite under both non-flooded and flooded conditions. Chlorpyrifos degradation had significant negative relationship with electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), clay and sand contents of the soils under non-flooded conditions. Results indicate that degradation of chlorpyrifos was accelerated with increase in its application frequency, across the representative rice soils. Management regimes including moisture content and presence or absence of rice plants also influenced the process. Biotic factors also play an important role in the degradation of chlorpyrifos as demonstrated by its convincing degradation in mineral salts medium inoculated with non-sterile soil suspension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Individual differneces in degraded speech perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Kathy M.

    One of the lasting concerns in audiology is the unexplained individual differences in speech perception performance even for individuals with similar audiograms. One proposal is that there are cognitive/perceptual individual differences underlying this vulnerability and that these differences are present in normal hearing (NH) individuals but do not reveal themselves in studies that use clear speech produced in quiet (because of a ceiling effect). However, previous studies have failed to uncover cognitive/perceptual variables that explain much of the variance in NH performance on more challenging degraded speech tasks. This lack of strong correlations may be due to either examining the wrong measures (e.g., working memory capacity) or to there being no reliable differences in degraded speech performance in NH listeners (i.e., variability in performance is due to measurement noise). The proposed project has 3 aims; the first, is to establish whether there are reliable individual differences in degraded speech performance for NH listeners that are sustained both across degradation types (speech in noise, compressed speech, noise-vocoded speech) and across multiple testing sessions. The second aim is to establish whether there are reliable differences in NH listeners' ability to adapt their phonetic categories based on short-term statistics both across tasks and across sessions; and finally, to determine whether performance on degraded speech perception tasks are correlated with performance on phonetic adaptability tasks, thus establishing a possible explanatory variable for individual differences in speech perception for NH and hearing impaired listeners.

  7. Bacteria and lignin degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Hongli YUAN; Jinshui YANG

    2009-01-01

    Lignin is both the most abundant aromatic (phenolic) polymer and the second most abundant raw material.It is degraded and modified by bacteria in the natural world,and bacteria seem to play a leading role in decomposing lignin in aquatic ecosystems.Lignin-degrading bacteria approach the polymer by mechanisms such as tunneling,erosion,and cavitation.With the advantages of immense environmental adaptability and biochemical versatility,bacteria deserve to be studied for their ligninolytic potential.

  8. Prospects for OPEC capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelman, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    OPEC capacity is not exogenous, but responds to demand. Price increases have not been caused by capacity shortages. OPEC nations find it hard to set aside even very small portions of their revenues for oil investment, despite its extreme profitability. Foreign investors face high risks. Production sharing makes their after-tax return even more unstable. (author)

  9. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil Adger, W.; Vincent, K.

    2005-01-01

    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. (authors)

  10. Study of benzoate, propionate, and sorbate salts as mould spoilage inhibitors on intermediate moisture bakery products of low pH (4.5-5.5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynot, M E; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V; Marín, S

    2005-05-25

    A hurdle technology approach has been applied to control common mold species causing spoilage of intermediate moisture bakery products (Eurotium spp., Aspergillus spp., and Penicillium corylophilum), growing on a fermented bakery product analogue (FBPA). The factors studied included a combination of different levels of weak acid preservatives (potassium sorbate, calcium propionate, and sodium benzoate; 0-0.3%), pH (4.5-5.5), and water activity (a(w); 0.80-0.90). Potassium sorbate was found to be the most effective in preventing fungal spoilage of this kind of products at the maximum concentration tested (0.3%) regardless of a(w). The same concentration of calcium propionate and sodium benzoate was effective only at low a(w) levels. On the other hand, potassium sorbate activity was slightly reduced at pH 5.5, the 0.3% being only effective at 0.80 a(w). These findings indicate that potassium sorbate may be a suitable preserving agent to inhibit deterioration of a FBPA of slightly acidic pH (near 4.5) by xerophilic fungi. Further studies have to be done in order to adjust the minimal inhibitory concentration necessary to obtain a product with the required shelf life.

  11. Establishment and maintenance of donkey-in-mule pregnancy after embryo transfer in a non-cycling mule treated with oestradiol benzoate and long-acting progesterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottrel, M.; Fortes, T.; Ortiz, I.; Hidalgo, M.; Dorado, J.

    2017-07-01

    Female mules are considered as infertile; however, they could be used as recipients in interspecific embryo transfer. This study reports for the first time how it is possible to obtain the birth of a live Andalusian donkey foal after transfer a donkey embryo to a non-cycling mule. Two non-cycling mules were used as recipients, oestradiol benzoate was administered when donors showed oestrus and long-acting progesterone after ovulation. The mules also received long-acting progesterone every 7 days until 120 days of gestation. One embryo was collected from the two donor jennies and transferred to one of the mules after 5 days of progesterone treatment. Pregnancy was established and maintained after embryo transfer. The pregnant mule carried to term and delivered a live donkey foal after 375 days of pregnancy. In conclusion, non-cycling mules treated with oestradiol benzoate and long-acting progesterone can be successfully used as recipients of donkey embryos, which open new ways for the conservation of endangered donkey species.

  12. Fixation of chiral smectic liquid crystal (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate using UV curing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afrizal,, E-mail: rizalunj04@yahoo.com; Nurdelima,; Umeir [Faculty of Mathemathics and Natural Science, University of State Jakarta, Jakarta (Indonesia); Hikam, Muhammad; Soegiyono, Bambang [Department of Materials Science, University of Indonesia, Depok (Indonesia); Riswoko, Asep [Center for Material Technology, BPPT, Jl. MH.Thamrin 8 Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Chiral Smectic Liquid Crystal (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate has been synthesized using method of steglich esterification at room temperature. The mesomorphic behavior of chiral smectic at 55°C that showed schlieren texture in POM analysis. Fixation of structure chiral smectic liquid crystal by means of photopolymerization of monomer (S)-(+)-4-(2-methyl-1-butyloyloxy)phenyl 4-[1-(propenoyloxy) butiloxy] benzoate under UV irradiation which called UV curing techniques. The curing process using UV 3 lamps 100 volt at 60°C for an hour. The product of photopolymerization could be seen by analysis of FTIR spectra both monomer and polymer. FTIR spectra of monomer, two peaks for ester carbonyl and C-C double bond groups appeared at 1729.09 cm-1and 3123.46 cm{sup −1}. After UV curing process, peak for the carbonyl group at 1729.09 cm{sup −1} decreased and a new peak at 1160.21 cm{sup −1} appeared due to the carbonyl group attached to a C-C bond group and then peak at 3123.46 cm{sup −1} for C-C double bond group was disappeared.

  13. Establishment and maintenance of donkey-in-mule pregnancy after embryo transfer in a non-cycling mule treated with oestradiol benzoate and long-acting progesterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottrel, M.; Fortes, T.; Ortiz, I.; Hidalgo, M.; Dorado, J.

    2017-01-01

    Female mules are considered as infertile; however, they could be used as recipients in interspecific embryo transfer. This study reports for the first time how it is possible to obtain the birth of a live Andalusian donkey foal after transfer a donkey embryo to a non-cycling mule. Two non-cycling mules were used as recipients, oestradiol benzoate was administered when donors showed oestrus and long-acting progesterone after ovulation. The mules also received long-acting progesterone every 7 days until 120 days of gestation. One embryo was collected from the two donor jennies and transferred to one of the mules after 5 days of progesterone treatment. Pregnancy was established and maintained after embryo transfer. The pregnant mule carried to term and delivered a live donkey foal after 375 days of pregnancy. In conclusion, non-cycling mules treated with oestradiol benzoate and long-acting progesterone can be successfully used as recipients of donkey embryos, which open new ways for the conservation of endangered donkey species.

  14. Capacity Decline and Characteristics Changes of Lithium-ion Cells with Large Capacity during Trickle Charge at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Toshio

    Large-scale 40-Ah Li-ion cells have been developed for use in industrial applications. To contribute to techniques for ascertaining the state of these cells and detecting deterioration during actual use, we produce a cell whose capacity is reduced by trickle charging at high temperature, and we determine the relationship between the cell's properties such as its capacity and charging/discharging characteristics when the capacity is reduced. When the capacity of a Li-ion cell is reduced, the discharge voltage also decreases. We show that the residual capacity is well correlated to the discharge voltage and to the duration of continuous discharge before reaching a fixed end-voltage. We also show that the constant-current constant-voltage charging characteristics are maintained even when the capacity is degraded, and that the constant-current charging time and discharge voltage are closely related to the residual capacity. We confirm that the reaction coefficient of the capacity degradation formula can be calculated from the capacity change characteristics at multiple temperatures, and that an 8°C change in temperature causes the lifetime to decrease by half.

  15. Protective Effects of Sodium (±-5-Bromo-2-(α-Hydroxypentyl Benzoate in a Rodent Model of Global Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to explore the protective effects of sodium (±-5-bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl benzoate (brand name: brozopine, BZP in a rat model of global cerebral ischemia. The rat model was established using a modified Winocur’s method; close postoperative observation was conducted at all times. Neurological function was detected through prehensile traction and beam-walking test. BZP reduced mortality and prolonged the survival time of rats with global cerebral ischemia, within 24 h. There was a decreased survival rate (60% in the Model group, while the survival rate of the BZP (3 and 12 mg/kg remarkably increased the survival rate (to 80 and 90%, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the Model group (survival time: 18.50 h, the administration of BZP (0.75, 3, and 12 mg/kg prolonged the survival time (to 20.38, 21.85, and 23.90 h, respectively, particularly in BZP 12 mg/kg group (P < 0.05. Additionally, the BZP (12 mg/kg group exhibited an improvement in their motor function (P < 0.05. The BZP groups (0.75, 3, and 12 mg/kg displayed significantly reduced necrosis and the percentage of apoptotic cells (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively. Compared with Model group, BZP (0.75, 3, and 12 mg/kg increased the NeuN optical density values (P < 0.01. Rats with global ischemia had a high expression of Cyt-c, caspase-3, and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio compared with sham group (P < 0.01. BZP (0.75, 3, and 12 mg/kg, however, reduced the expression of Cyt-c, caspase-3, and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01. There was low expression of p-Akt and PI3K in Model group, compared with the sham group (P < 0.01. Meanwhile, BZP (0.75, 3, and 12 mg/kg increased the expression of p-Akt and PI3K in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01. We also found the expression of Cyt-c, caspase-3, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, PI3K, p-Akt, and comprehensive score were directly related. In conclusion, BZP had therapeutic potential and prevented

  16. Oestradiol-17β plasma concentrations after intramuscular injection of oestradiol benzoate or oestradiol cypionate in llamas (Lama glama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aba Marcelo A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Llamas (Lama glama are induced ovulators and the process of ovulation depends on dominant follicular size. In addition, a close relationship between behavioural estrus and ovulation is not registered in llamas. Therefore, the exogenous control of follicular development with hormones aims to predict the optimal time to mate. Oestradiol-17β (E2 and its esters are currently used in domestic species, including camelids, in synchronization treatments. But, in llamas, there is no reports regarding the appropriate dosages to be used and most protocols have been designed by extrapolation from those recommended for other ruminants. The aim of the present study was to characterize plasma E2 concentrations in intact female llamas following a single intramuscular (i.m. injection of two oestradiol esters: oestradiol benzoate (EB and oestradiol cypionate (ECP. Methods Twelve non pregnant and non lactating sexually mature llamas were i.m. injected on day 0 with 2.5 mg of EB (EB group, n = 6 or ECP (ECP group, n = 6. Blood samples were collected immediately before injection, at 1, 6, 12, 24 h after treatment and then daily until day 14 post injection. Changes in hormone concentrations with time were analyzed in each group by analysis of variance (ANOVA using a repeated measures (within-SS design. Plasma E2 concentrations and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC values were compared between groups by ANOVA. In all cases a Least-Significant Difference test (LSD was used to determine differences between means. Hormonal and AUC data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. Results Peak plasma E2 concentrations were achieved earlier and were higher in EB group than in ECP group. Thereafter, E2 returned to physiological concentrations earlier in EB group (day 5 than in ECP group (day 9. Although plasma E2 profiles differed over time among groups there were no differences between them on AUC values. Conclusions The i.m. injection of a single dose

  17. Oestradiol-17β plasma concentrations after intramuscular injection of oestradiol benzoate or oestradiol cypionate in llamas (Lama glama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Llamas (Lama glama) are induced ovulators and the process of ovulation depends on dominant follicular size. In addition, a close relationship between behavioural estrus and ovulation is not registered in llamas. Therefore, the exogenous control of follicular development with hormones aims to predict the optimal time to mate. Oestradiol-17β (E2) and its esters are currently used in domestic species, including camelids, in synchronization treatments. But, in llamas, there is no reports regarding the appropriate dosages to be used and most protocols have been designed by extrapolation from those recommended for other ruminants. The aim of the present study was to characterize plasma E2 concentrations in intact female llamas following a single intramuscular (i.m.) injection of two oestradiol esters: oestradiol benzoate (EB) and oestradiol cypionate (ECP). Methods Twelve non pregnant and non lactating sexually mature llamas were i.m. injected on day 0 with 2.5 mg of EB (EB group, n = 6) or ECP (ECP group, n = 6). Blood samples were collected immediately before injection, at 1, 6, 12, 24 h after treatment and then daily until day 14 post injection. Changes in hormone concentrations with time were analyzed in each group by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using a repeated measures (within-SS) design. Plasma E2 concentrations and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values were compared between groups by ANOVA. In all cases a Least-Significant Difference test (LSD) was used to determine differences between means. Hormonal and AUC data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. Results Peak plasma E2 concentrations were achieved earlier and were higher in EB group than in ECP group. Thereafter, E2 returned to physiological concentrations earlier in EB group (day 5) than in ECP group (day 9). Although plasma E2 profiles differed over time among groups there were no differences between them on AUC values. Conclusions The i.m. injection of a single dose of both

  18. Effects of estradiol benzoate on 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activities in female rat anterior pituitary gland, liver and thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbôa P.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on the possible effects of estrogen on the activity of 5'-deiodinase (5'-ID, an enzyme responsible for the generation of T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. In the present study, anterior pituitary sonicates or hepatic and thyroid microsomes from ovariectomized (OVX rats treated or not with estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.7 or 14 µg/100 g body weight, sc, for 10 days were assayed for type I 5'-ID (5'-ID-I and type II 5'-ID (5'-ID-II, only in pituitary activities. The 5'-ID activity was evaluated by the release of 125I from deiodinated 125I rT3, using specific assay conditions for type I or type II. Serum TSH and free T3 and free T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. OVX alone induced a reduction in pituitary 5'-ID-I (control = 723.7 ± 67.9 vs OVX = 413.9 ± 26.9; P<0.05, while the EB-treated OVX group showed activity similar to that of the normal group. Thyroid 5'-ID-I showed the same pattern of changes, but these changes were not statistically significant. Pituitary and hepatic 5'-ID-II did not show major alterations. The treatment with the higher EB dose (14 µg, contrary to the results obtained with the lower dose, had no effect on the reduced pituitary 5'-ID-I of OVX rats. However, it induced an important increment of 5'-ID-I in the thyroid gland (0.8 times higher than that of the normal group: control = 131.9 ± 23.7 vs ovx + EB 14 µg = 248.0 ± 31.2; P<0.05, which is associated with increased serum TSH (0.6-fold vs OVX, P<0.05 but normal serum free T3 and free T4. The data suggest that estrogen is a physiological stimulator of anterior pituitary 5'-ID-I and a potent stimulator of the thyroid enzyme when employed at high doses

  19. Effects of the vertically transmitted microsporidian Facilispora margolisi and the parasiticide emamectin benzoate on salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, Jordan D; Sutherland, Ben J G; Fast, Mark D; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2017-08-17

    Microsporidia are highly specialized, parasitic fungi that infect a wide range of eukaryotic hosts from all major taxa. Infections cause a variety of damaging effects on host physiology from increased stress to death. The microsporidian Facilispora margolisi infects the Pacific salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis oncorhynchi), an economically and ecologically important ectoparasitic copepod that can impact wild and cultured salmonids. Vertical transmission of F. margolisi was demonstrated by using PCR and in situ hybridization to identify and localize microsporidia in female L. salmonis and their offspring. Spores and developmental structures of F. margolisi were identified in 77% of F 1 generation copepods derived from infected females while offspring from uninfected females all tested negative for the microsporidia. The transcriptomic response of the salmon louse to F. margolisi was profiled at both the copepodid larval stage and the pre-adult stage using microarray technology. Infected copepodids differentially expressed 577 transcripts related to stress, ATP generation and structural components of muscle and cuticle. The infection also impacted the response of the copepodid to the parasiticide emamectin benzoate (EMB) at a low dose of 1.0 ppb for 24 h. A set of 48 transcripts putatively involved in feeding and host immunomodulation were up to 8-fold underexpressed in the F. margolisi infected copepodids treated with EMB compared with controls or either stressor alone. Additionally, these infected lice treated with EMB also overexpressed 101 transcripts involved in stress resistance and signalling compared to the other groups. In contrast, infected pre-adult lice did not display a stress response, suggesting a decrease in microsporidian virulence associated with lice maturity. Furthermore, copepodid infectivity and moulting was not affected by the microsporidian infection. This study demonstrated that F. margolisi is transmitted vertically between salmon

  20. Drift Degradation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Kicker

    2004-01-01

    Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal stress. (3) The DRKBA

  1. Drift Degradation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Kicker

    2004-09-16

    Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal

  2. OPEC future capacity expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrea, I.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined OPEC future capacity expansions including highlights from 2000-2004 from the supply perspective and actions by OPEC; OPEC spare capacity in 2005/2006; medium-term capacity expansion and investments; long-term scenarios, challenges and opportunities; and upstream policies in member countries. Highlights from the supply perspective included worst than expected non-OPEC supply response; non-OPEC supply affected by a number of accidents and strikes; geopolitical tensions; and higher than expected demand for OPEC crude. OPEC's actions included closer relationship with other producers and consumers; capacity expansions in 2004 and 2005/2006; and OPEC kept the market well supplied with crude in 2004. The presentation also provided data using graphical charts on OPEC net capacity additions until 2005/2006; OPEC production versus spare capacity from 2003 to 2005; OPEC production and capacity to 2010; and change in required OPEC production from 2005-2020. Medium term expansion to 2010 includes over 60 projects. Medium-term risks such as project execution, financing, costs, demand, reserves, depletion, integration of Iraq, and geopolitical tensions were also discussed. The presentation concluded that in the long term, large uncertainties remain; the peak of world supply is not imminent; and continued and enhanced cooperation is essential to market stability. tabs., figs

  3. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...... Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  4. Developments in polymer degradation - 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassie, N.

    1987-01-01

    A selection of topics which are representative of the continually expanding area of polymer degradation is presented. The aspects emphasised include the products of degradation of specific polymers, degradation by high energy radiation and mechanical forces, fire retardant studies and the special role of small radicals in degradation processes. (author)

  5. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  6. Endocytic collagen degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Daniel H.; Jürgensen, Henrik J.; Ingvarsen, Signe Ziir

    2012-01-01

    it crucially important to understand both the collagen synthesis and turnover mechanisms in this condition. Here we show that the endocytic collagen receptor, uPARAP/Endo180, is a major determinant in governing the balance between collagen deposition and degradation. Cirrhotic human livers displayed a marked...... up-regulation of uPARAP/Endo180 in activated fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells located close to the collagen deposits. In a hepatic stellate cell line, uPARAP/Endo180 was shown to be active in, and required for, the uptake and intracellular degradation of collagen. To evaluate the functional...... groups of mice clearly revealed a fibrosis protective role of uPARAP/Endo180. This effect appeared to directly reflect the activity of the collagen receptor, since no compensatory events were noted when comparing the mRNA expression profiles of the two groups of mice in an array system focused on matrix-degrading...

  7. Degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, David A; Martin, Jonathan W; De Silva, Amila O

    2004-01-01

    Human and animal tissues collected in urban and remote global locations contain persistent and bioaccumulative perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). The source of PFCAs was previously unknown. Here we present smog chamber studies that indicate fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) can degrade...... in the atmosphere to yield a homologous series of PFCAs. Atmospheric degradation of FTOHs is likely to contribute to the widespread dissemination of PFCAs. After their bioaccumulation potential is accounted for, the pattern of PFCAs yielded from FTOHs could account for the distinct contamination profile of PFCAs....... The significance of the gas-phase peroxy radical cross reactions that produce PFCAs has not been recognized previously. Such reactions are expected to occur during the atmospheric degradation of all polyfluorinated materials, necessitating a reexamination of the environmental fate and impact of this important...

  8. Motor degradation prediction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor's duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures

  9. Ecosystem degradation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental and ecosystem studies have assumed greater relevance in the last decade of the twentieth century than even before. The urban settlements are becoming over-crowded and industries are increasingly polluting the air, water and sound in our larger metropolises. Degradation of different types of ecosystem are discussed in this book, Ecosystem Degradation in India. The book has been divided into seven chapters: Introduction, Coastal and Delta Ecosystem, River Basin Ecosystem, Mountain Ecosystem, Forest Ecosystem, Urban Ecosystem and the last chapter deals with the Environmental Problems and Planning. In the introduction the environmental and ecosystem degradation problems in India is highlighted as a whole while in other chapters mostly case studies by experts who know their respective terrain very intimately are included. The case study papers cover most part of India and deal with local problems, stretching from east coast to west coast and from Kashmir to Kanyakumari. (author)

  10. PWR degraded core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1982-04-01

    A review is presented of the various phenomena involved in degraded core accidents and the ensuing transport of fission products from the fuel to the primary circuit and the containment. The dominant accident sequences found in the PWR risk studies published to date are briefly described. Then chapters deal with the following topics: the condition and behaviour of water reactor fuel during normal operation and at the commencement of degraded core accidents; the generation of hydrogen from the Zircaloy-steam and the steel-steam reactions; the way in which the core deforms and finally melts following loss of coolant; debris relocation analysis; containment integrity; fission product behaviour during a degraded core accident. (U.K.)

  11. Evaluating Capacity Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    She also had the dubious pleasure of checking and correcting the text numerous ... Has your organization received training or other types of support for capacity ...... processors, and consumer groups in its research and development work.

  12. HPLC and LC-MS/MS methods for determination of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in food and beverages: performances of local accredited laboratories via proficiency tests in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gören, Ahmet C; Bilsel, Gökhan; Şimşek, Adnan; Bilsel, Mine; Akçadağ, Fatma; Topal, Kevser; Ozgen, Hasan

    2015-05-15

    High Performance Liquid Chromatography LC-UV and LC-MS/MS methods were developed and validated for quantitative analyses of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in foods and beverages. HPLC-UV and LC-MS/MS methods were compared for quantitative analyses of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in a representative ketchup sample. Optimisation of the methods enabled the chromatographic separation of the analytes in less than 4 min. A correlation coefficient of 0.999 was achieved over the measured calibration range for both compounds and methods (HPLC and LC-MS/MS). The uncertainty values of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate were found as 0.199 and 0.150 mg/L by HPLC and 0.072 and 0.044 mg/L by LC-MS/MS, respectively. Proficiency testing performance of Turkish accredited laboratories between the years 2005 and 2013 was evaluated and reported herein. The aim of the proficiency testing scheme was to evaluate the performance of the laboratories, analysing benzoate and sorbate in tomato ketchup. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antifoam degradation testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Newell, D. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL)

    2015-08-20

    This report describes the results of testing to quantify the degradation products resulting from the dilution and storage of Antifoam 747. Antifoam degradation is of concern to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) due to flammable decomposition products in the vapor phase of the Chemical Process Cell vessels, as well as the collection of flammable and organic species in the offgas condensate. The discovery that hexamethyldisiloxane is formed from the antifoam decomposition was the basis for a Potential Inadequacy in the Safety Analysis declaration by the DWPF.

  14. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. These can generally be classified as: Mechanical; Hydraulic; Tribological; Chemical; and Other (including those associated with the pump driver). Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump

  15. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  16. Intergranular Cracking as a Major Cause of Long-Term Capacity Fading of Layered Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Wolf, Mark; Karki, Khim; Yu, Young-Sang; Stach, Eric A; Cabana, Jordi; Chapman, Karena W; Chupas, Peter J

    2017-06-14

    Capacity fading has limited commercial layered Li-ion battery electrodes to NCA) electrode change after capacity fade following months of slow charge-discharge. The changes in the reactions that underpin energy storage after long-term cycling directly correlate to the capacity loss; heterogeneous reaction kinetics observed during extended cycles quantitatively account for the capacity loss. This reaction heterogeneity is ultimately attributed to intergranular fracturing that degrades the connectivity of subsurface grains within the polycrystalline NCA aggregate.

  17. Biological degradation of plastics: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aamer Ali; Hasan, Fariha; Hameed, Abdul; Ahmed, Safia

    2008-01-01

    Lack of degradability and the closing of landfill sites as well as growing water and land pollution problems have led to concern about plastics. With the excessive use of plastics and increasing pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years. Awareness of the waste problem and its impact on the environment has awakened new interest in the area of degradable polymers. The interest in environmental issues is growing and there are increasing demands to develop material which do not burden the environment significantly. Biodegradation is necessary for water-soluble or water-immiscible polymers because they eventually enter streams which can neither be recycled nor incinerated. It is important to consider the microbial degradation of natural and synthetic polymers in order to understand what is necessary for biodegradation and the mechanisms involved. This requires understanding of the interactions between materials and microorganisms and the biochemical changes involved. Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. This paper reviews the current research on the biodegradation of biodegradable and also the conventional synthetic plastics and also use of various techniques for the analysis of degradation in vitro.

  18. Drift Degradation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-01-01

    The outputs from the drift degradation analysis support scientific analyses, models, and design calculations, including the following: (1) Abstraction of Drift Seepage; (2) Seismic Consequence Abstraction; (3) Structural Stability of a Drip Shield Under Quasi-Static Pressure; and (4) Drip Shield Structural Response to Rock Fall. This report has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The drift degradation analysis includes the development and validation of rockfall models that approximate phenomenon associated with various components of rock mass behavior anticipated within the repository horizon. Two drift degradation rockfall models have been developed: the rockfall model for nonlithophysal rock and the rockfall model for lithophysal rock. These models reflect the two distinct types of tuffaceous rock at Yucca Mountain. The output of this modeling and analysis activity documents the expected drift deterioration for drifts constructed in accordance with the repository layout configuration (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172801])

  19. Bacterial Degradation of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær

    could potentially improve bioremediation of BAM. An important prerequisite for bioaugmentation is the potential to produce the degrader strain at large quantities within reasonable time. The aim of manuscript II, was to optimize the growth medium for Aminobacter MSH1 and to elucidate optimal growth...

  20. Radiation degradation of silk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Kazushige; Kamiishi, Youichi [Textile Research Institute of Gunma, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Takeshita, Hidefumi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Silk fibroin powder was prepared from irradiated silk fibroin fiber by means of only physical treatment. Silk fibroin fiber irradiated with an accelerated electron beam in the dose range of 250 - 1000 kGy was pulverized by using a ball mill. Unirradiated silk fibroin fiber was not pulverized at all. But the more irradiation was increased, the more the conversion efficiency from fiber to powder was increased. The conversion efficiency of silk fibroin fiber irradiated 1000 kGy in oxygen was 94%. Silk fibroin powder shows remarkable solubility, which dissolved 57% into water of ambient temperature. It is a very interesting phenomenon that silk fibroin which did not treat with chemicals gets solubility only being pulverized. In order to study mechanism of solubilization of silk fibroin powder, amino acid component of soluble part of silk fibroin powder was analyzed. The more irradiation dose up, the more glycine or alanine degraded, but degradation fraction reached bounds about 50%. Other amino acids were degraded only 20% even at the maximum. To consider crystal construction of silk fibroin, it is suggested that irradiation on silk fibroin fiber selectively degrades glycine and alanine in amorphous region, which makes it possible to pulverize and to dissolve silk fibroin powder. (author)

  1. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented

  2. Detection of pump degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

  3. Degradation of low-density polyethylene in the presence of water and deuterium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedgwick, R.D.; Al-Sultan, Y.Y.; Abushihada, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    The degradation of low-density polyethylene in the presence of water as the degradative agent was studied at a temperature of 450 0 C and a pressure greater than 160 atm. The experimental work was conducted in an autoclave of 333-mL capacity. The results indicate the presence of paraffins, olefines, dienes, and aromatics in the degradation products. The occurrence of aromatics in the products demonstrates the importance of this degradation procedure for obtaining these valuable materials. The present work (Part 1) is believed to be the first publication to discuss the production of aromatics from polyethylenes degradation

  4. Capacity analysis of wireless mesh networks | Gumel | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... number of nodes (n) in a linear topology. The degradation is found to be higher in a fully mesh network as a result of increase in interference and MAC layer contention in the network. Key words: Wireless mesh network (WMN), Adhoc network, Network capacity analysis, Bottleneck collision domain, Medium access control ...

  5. Experimental study of key parameters investigation in turnout crossing degradation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Markine, V.L.; Shevtsov, I.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    The continuous increasing demand of public transportation capacity requires the railway network operating in tight schedule. The high transporting volumes not only aggravate the degradation of railway infrastructure but also shorten the time for maintenance. Well-arranged infrastructure maintenance

  6. A 200K SNP chip reveals a novel Pacific salmon louse genotype linked to differential efficacy of emamectin benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, Amber M; Leong, Jong S; Rondeau, Eric B; Mueller, Anita; Despins, Cody A; Minkley, David R; Kent, Matthew P; Lien, Sigbjørn; Boyce, Brad; Morrison, Diane; Fast, Mark D; Norman, Joseph D; Danzmann, Roy G; Koop, Ben F

    2018-04-16

    Antiparasitic drugs such as emamectin benzoate (EMB) are relied upon to reduce the parasite load, particularly of the sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis, on farmed salmon. The decline in EMB treatment efficacy for this purpose is an important issue for salmon producers around the world, and particularly for those in the Atlantic Ocean where widespread EMB tolerance in sea lice is recognized as a significant problem. Salmon farms in the Northeast Pacific Ocean have not historically experienced the same issues with treatment efficacy, possibly due to the relatively large population of endemic salmonid hosts that serve to both redistribute surviving lice and dilute populations potentially under selection by introducing naïve lice to farms. Frequent migration of lice among farmed and wild hosts should limit the effect of farm-specific selection pressures on changes to the overall allele frequencies of sea lice in the Pacific Ocean. A previous study using microsatellites examined L. salmonis oncorhynchi from 10 Pacific locations from wild and farmed hosts and found no population structure. Recently however, a farm population of sea lice was detected where EMB bioassay exposure tolerance was abnormally elevated. In response, we have developed a Pacific louse draft genome that complements the previously-released Atlantic louse sequence. These genomes were combined with whole-genome re-sequencing data to design a highly sensitive 201,279 marker SNP array applicable for both subspecies (90,827 validated Pacific loci; 153,569 validated Atlantic loci). Notably, kmer spectrum analysis of the re-sequenced samples indicated that Pacific lice exhibit a large within-individual heterozygosity rate (average of 1 in every 72 bases) that is markedly higher than that of Atlantic individuals (1 in every 173 bases). The SNP chip was used to produce a high-density map for Atlantic sea louse linkage group 5 that was previously shown to be associated with EMB tolerance in Atlantic lice

  7. Reforesting degraded lands may not restore hydrological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-12-01

    By the 1980s, forest lands in the Himalayas in central Nepal had become severely degraded as people cleared land for pastures. This led to lowered soil infiltration capacities, resulting in increased surface runoff, soil erosion, and flooding during the rainy season.

  8. Syndromes of dryland degradation in southern Africa | Scholes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dryland degradation (in other words, desertification) is defined for the purposes of this paper as a persistent decrease in the capacity of an arid or semiarid ecosystem to supply a range of services, including (but not restricted to) forage, fuel, timber, crops, fresh water, wild-harvested foods, biodiversity habitat and tourism ...

  9. Capacity Maximizing Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

  10. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  11. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity......, and measurements are highly reliable. As the method is theoretically founded, it also has high validity. TVA-based assessment has recently been used to investigate a broad range of neuropsychological and neurological conditions. We present the method, including the experimental paradigm and practical guidelines...... to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...

  12. Value for railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.

    2012-01-01

    to analyze the efficiency of operators in transforming inputs of allocated capacity of infrastructure and franchise payments into valuable passenger service outputs while avoiding delays. By addressing operational and economic aspects of capacity utilization simultaneously, the paper deviates from existing...... DEA work on the economic efficiency of railways by considering a new combination of input-output that also incorporates quality of service. The constant and variable returns to scale models are applied to the case study of franchised passenger operators in Great Britain. The follow-up Tobit regression...

  13. The crystal structure of zwitterionic 2-{[(4-iminiumyl-3-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridin-1-ylmethyl]carbamoyl}benzoate hemihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Chidan Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C15H15N3O3·0.5H2O, comprises two 2-{[(4-iminiumyl-3-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridin-1-ylmethyl]carbamoyl}benzoate zwitterions (A and B and a water molecule. The dihedral angles between the pyridine and phenyl rings in the zwitterions are 53.69 (10 and 73.56 (11° in A and B, respectively. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...O, O—H...O, C—H...O and C—H...π(ring hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network. The crystal structure also features π–π interactions involving the centroids of the pyridine and phenyl rings [centroid–centroid distances = 3.5618 (12 Å in A and 3.8182 (14 Å in B].

  14. High-efficiency astatination of antibodies using N-iodosuccinimide as the oxidising agent in labelling of N-succinimidyl 3-(trimethylstannyl)benzoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindegren, S.; Andersson, H.; Baeck, T.; Jacobsson, L.; Karlsson, B.; Skarnemark, G.

    2001-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies C215, reactive with colorectal carcinomas, and MOv18, reactive with most of the ovarian carcinomas, were radiohalogenated with [ 211 At]astatine. The radiohalogen was conjugate coupled to antibodies via the intermediate labelling reagent N-succinimidyl-3-(trimethylstannyl)benzoate (m-MeATE) in a two-step, single-pot reaction. Optimisation of the labelling of the reagent was achieved using N-iodosuccinimide, NIS, as the oxidising agent. The yields ranged from 69-95% in the labelling of 0.1-1.0 nmole of the m-MeATE precursor. Subsequent conjugation to antibodies resulted in yields of 58±7%. In vitro binding to tumour cells showed that the immunoreactivity of both antibodies was retained after astatine labelling

  15. Measurement of oxytetracycline and emamectin benzoate in freshwater sediments downstream of land based aquaculture facilities in the Atlantic Region of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William; Greenwood, Lyndsay

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of oxytetracycline (OTC) and emamectin benzoate (EB) in sediments located near the effluent outfall from four freshwater aquaculture facilities in Atlantic Canada. While two facilities had no detectable concentrations of EB or OTC, two facilities had detectable concentrations of one or both of these chemicals. Concentrations ranged from <0.05-18 mg/kg to <0.01-2.5 mg/kg for OTC and EB respectively. Although these values could not be compared with freshwater toxicant values, some of the concentrations of EB and OTC detected were higher than LC(50) values calculated for marine invertebrates. OTC concentrations measured in this study are also of a magnitude which has been known to produce resistant bacteria.

  16. Extraction of lanthanides ions (III) from aqueous solution by sodium salt of the N(4-amino-benzoate)-propyl-silica gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retamero, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    The silica gel 60 of specific superficial area 486 m 2 .g -1 was modified chemically with the ligand 4-amino benzoate of sodium in water-ethanol environment (l:L). The adsorptions of metallic ions were from water solutions at approximately 2 x 10 -3 M of chloride of Pr(III), Nd(III), Eu(III) and Ho(III). In these experiments we could see that the system gets the equilibrium of adsorption rapidly and that the pH of the environment has a great influence on the process of adsorption, being that the number of metal mols adsorpted in the matrix varied between 10,00 and 17,00 x 10 -5 mols. g -1 with a pH of approximately 5 for all the lanthanides, where the adsorption curves reach equilibrium. (author)

  17. Excess parameters for binary mixtures of ethyl benzoate with 1-propanol, 1-butanol and 1-pentanol at T=303, 308, 313, 318, and 323 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreehari Sastry, S.; Babu, Shaik; Vishwam, T.; Parvateesam, K.; Sie Tiong, Ha.

    2013-01-01

    Various thermo–acoustic parameters, such as excess isentropic compressibility (K s E ), excess molar volume (V E ), excess free length (L f E ), excess Gibb's free energy (ΔG *E ), and excess Enthalpy (H E ), have been calculated from the experimentally determined data of density, viscosity and speed of sound for the binary mixtures of ethyl benzoate+1-propanol, or +1-butanol, or +1-pentanol over the entire range of composition at different temperatures (303, 308, 313, 318 and 323 K). The excess functions have been fitted to the Redlich–Kister type polynomial equation. The deviations for excess thermo–acoustic parameters have been explained on the basis of the intermolecular interactions present in these binary mixtures

  18. Excess parameters for binary mixtures of ethyl benzoate with 1-propanol, 1-butanol and 1-pentanol at T=303, 308, 313, 318, and 323 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreehari Sastry, S., E-mail: sreeharisastry@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Andhra Pradesh 522 510 (India); Babu, Shaik, E-mail: babu.computers@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Andhra Pradesh 522 510 (India); Vishwam, T., E-mail: vishwam@gitam.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, Gitam University, Hyderabad Campus, Andhra Pradesh 502 239 (India); Parvateesam, K., E-mail: kps27031966@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Andhra Pradesh 522 510 (India); Sie Tiong, Ha., E-mail: hast@utar.edu.my [Faculty of Science, Department of Chemical Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak (Malaysia)

    2013-07-01

    Various thermo–acoustic parameters, such as excess isentropic compressibility (K{sub s}{sup E}), excess molar volume (V{sup E}), excess free length (L{sub f}{sup E}), excess Gibb's free energy (ΔG{sup *E}), and excess Enthalpy (H{sup E}), have been calculated from the experimentally determined data of density, viscosity and speed of sound for the binary mixtures of ethyl benzoate+1-propanol, or +1-butanol, or +1-pentanol over the entire range of composition at different temperatures (303, 308, 313, 318 and 323 K). The excess functions have been fitted to the Redlich–Kister type polynomial equation. The deviations for excess thermo–acoustic parameters have been explained on the basis of the intermolecular interactions present in these binary mixtures.

  19. Effect of sodium benzoate on DNA breakage, micronucleus formation and mitotic index in peripheral blood of pregnant rats and their newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetin Saatci

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate (SB is one of the most widely used additives in food products in the world. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of three different concentrations of SB on the DNA breakage in liver cells and on the micronuclei formation and the mitotic index in lymphocytes of pregnant rats and their fetuses, as well as to evaluate the effects of SB on the fetus development. The results showed that general genomic injuries were present in almost all the liver cell samples obtained from the SB group compared with the control (non-treated group. This indicates that SB usage may cause DNA damage and increase micronuclei formation. We recommend that pregnant women should avoid consuming foodstuffs containing SB as an additive.

  20. Growth, spectral, optical, laser damage threshold and DFT investigations on 2-amino 4-methyl pyridinium 4-methoxy benzoate (2A4MP4MB): A potential organic third order nonlinear optical material for optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, M.; Karthick, S.; Thirupugalmani, K.; Babu, B.; Vinitha, G.

    2018-05-01

    In present investigation, single crystals of organic charge transfer complex, 2-amino-4-methyl pyridinium-4-methoxy benzoate (2A4MP4MB) was grown by controlled slow evaporation solution growth technique using methanol as a solvent at room temperature. Single crystal XRD analysis confirmed the crystal system and lattice parameters of 2A4MP4MB. The crystalline nature, presence of various vibrational modes and other chemical bonds in the compound have been recognized and confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic techniques respectively. The presence of various proton and carbon positions in title compound was confirmed using 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies. The wide optical operating window and cut-off wavelength were identified and band gap value of the title compound was calculated using UV-vis-NIR study. The specific heat capacity (cp) values of the title compound, 1.712 J g-1·K-1 at 300 K and 13.6 J g-1 K-1 at 433 K (melting point) were measured using Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetric studies (MDSC). From Z-scan study, nonlinear refractive index (n2), nonlinear absorption (β) and third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ(3)) values were determined. The self-defocusing effect and saturable absorption behavior of the material were utilized to exhibit the optical limiting action at λ = 532 nm by employing the same continuous wave (cw) Nd: YAG laser source. The laser damage threshold (LDT) study of title compound was carried out using Nd: YAG laser of 532 nm wavelength. The Vickers' micro hardness test was carried out at room temperature and obtained results were investigated using classical Meyer's law. In addition, DFT calculations were carried out for the first time for this compound. These characterization studies performed on the title compound planned to probe the valuable and safe region of optical, thermal and mechanical properties to improve efficacy of 2A4MP4MB single crystals in optoelectronic device

  1. TALSPEAK Solvent Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh R. Martin; Bruce J. Mincher

    2009-09-01

    Understanding the radiolytic degradation behavior of organic molecules involved in new or existing schemes for the recycle of used nuclear fuels is of significant interest for sustaining a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Here we have conducted several lines of investigation to begin understanding the effects of radiolysis on the aqueous phase of the TALSPEAK process for the separation of the trivalent lanthanides from the trivalent actinides. Using the 60-Co irradiator at the INL, we have begun to quantify the effects of radiation on the aqueous phase complexants used in this separation technique, and how this will affect the actinide lanthanide separation factor. In addition we have started to develop methodologies for stable product identification, a key element in determining the degradation pathways. We have also introduced a methodology to investigate the effects of alpha radiolysis that has previously received limited attention.

  2. Kinetic Study on Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions of 4-Chloro-2-nitrophenyl X-Substituted-benzoates with Cyclic Secondary Amines: Effect of Substituent X on Reactivity and Reaction Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong Hoon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Han, Young Joon [Sejong Science High School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Minyoung; Um, Ikhwan [Ewha Woman' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Second-order rate constants (k{sub N}) have been measured spectrophotometrically for the reactions of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl X-substituted-benzoates (1a-1h) with a series of cyclic secondary amines in 80 mol % H{sub 2}O/20 mol % DMSO at 25.0 ± 0.1 .deg. C. The Hammett plot for the reactions of 1a-1h with piperidine consists of two intersecting straight lines, while the Yukawa-Tsuno plot exhibits an excellent linear correlation with ρ{sub X} = 1.25 and r = 0.58, indicating that the nonlinear Hammett plot is not due to a change in the rate-determining step (RDS) but is caused by ground-state stabilization through resonance interactions for substrates possessing an electron-withdrawing group in the benzoyl moiety. The Brφnsted-type plot for the reactions of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl benzoate (1d) with a series of cyclic secondary amines curves downward with β{sub 2} = 0.85, β{sub 1} = 0.24, and pK{sub a}{sup o} = 10.5, implying that a change in RDS occurs from the k{sub 2} step to the k{sub 1} process as the pK{sub a} of the conjugate acid of the amine exceeds 10.5. Dissection of k{sub N} into the microscopic rate constants k{sub 1} and k{sub 2}/k{sub -1} ratio associated with the reaction of 1d reveals that k{sub 2} is dependent on the amine basicity, which is contrary to generally held views.

  3. The Use of F2 Screening for Detection of Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate, Chlorantraniliprole, and Indoxacarb in Australian Populations of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, L J; Drynan, L J; Walker, P W

    2017-04-01

    The ability to effectively detect changes in susceptibility to insecticides is an integral component of resistance management strategies and is highly dependent upon precision of methods deployed. Between 2013 and 2016, F2 screens were performed for detection of resistance alleles in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) to emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, and indoxacarb in major cropping regions of eastern Australia. Resistance to emamectin benzoate was not detected. There were low but detectable levels of survival at discriminating concentrations of chlorantraniliprole and indoxacarb. Alleles conferring an advantage to chlorantraniliprole were present at a frequency of 0.0027 (95% CI 0.0012-0.0064; n = 1,817). Alleles conferring an advantage to indoxacarb were present at a frequency of 0.027 (95% CI 0.020-0.035; n = 1,863). Complementation tests for allelism in six of seven positive indoxacarb tests indicated that resistance was due to alleles present at the same locus. The majority (88%) of lines that tested positive for indoxacarb resistance deviated from a model of recessive inheritance. Pheromone-caught male moths contributed significantly greater numbers of F2 lines compared with moths derived from field-collected eggs or larvae. There was no difference in the detectability of indoxacarb resistance in F2 lines from pheromone-caught moths compared with moths derived from immature stages collected from the field and reared to adult under laboratory conditions. Therefore, we recommend the use of pheromone traps for sourcing insects for F2 screening as a more cost- and time-efficient alternative to traditional methods of sampling. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Rapidly Degradable Pyrotechnic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    material system (structural polymer and degradation agent ) for producing a high strength, non-corroding, highly inert, environmentally safe, extended...polymer sites in the active enzyme center differs dramatically between alkyl and aromatic polyesters. More specifically, as the degree of backbone...capped and centrifuged at 3,000 g. This procedure was repeated twice. To the remaining biomass pellet 15 mL of 1 mg/mL solution of N-ethyl-N- nitrosourea

  5. Radiation degradation of chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norzita Yacob; Maznah Mahmud; Norhashidah Talip; Kamarudin Bahari; Kamaruddin Hashim; Khairul Zaman Dahlan

    2010-01-01

    In order to obtain an oligo chitosan, degradation of chitosan s were carried out in solid state and liquid state. The effects of an irradiation on the molecular weight and viscosity of the chitosan were investigated using Ubbelohde Capillary Viscometer and Brookfield Viscometer respectively. The molecular weight and viscosity of the chitosan s were decreased with an increase in the irradiation dose. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, the molecular weight of chitosan can be further decreased. (author)

  6. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous spectral vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition: advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed

  7. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.

    1995-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous special vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Pump head and flow rate are also monitored, per code requirements. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition; advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed

  8. The gut microbiota of insecticide-resistant insects houses insecticide-degrading bacteria: A potential source for biotechnological exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    de Almeida, Luis Gustavo; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Trigo, Jos? Roberto; Omoto, Celso; C?nsoli, Fernando Luis

    2017-01-01

    The exploration of new niches for microorganisms capable of degrading recalcitrant molecules is still required. We hypothesized the gut microbiota associated with insect-resistant lines carry pesticide degrading bacteria, and predicted they carry bacteria selected to degrade pesticides they were resistant to. We isolated and accessed the pesticide-degrading capacity of gut bacteria from the gut of fifth instars of Spodoptera frugiperda strains resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, ch...

  9. Capacity retention in hydrogen storage alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anani, A.; Visintin, A.; Srinivasan, S.; Appleby, A. J.; Reilly, J. J.; Johnson, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Results of our examination of the properties of several candidate materials for hydrogen storage electrodes and their relation to the decrease in H-storage capacity upon open-circuit storage over time are reported. In some of the alloy samples examined to date, only about 10 percent of the hydrogen capacity was lost upon storage for 20 days, while in others, this number was as high as 30 percent for the same period of time. This loss in capacity is attributed to two separate mechanisms: (1) hydrogen desorbed from the electrode due to pressure differences between the cell and the electrode sample; and (2) chemical and/or electrochemical degradation of the alloy electrode upon exposure to the cell environment. The former process is a direct consequence of the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the hydride alloy phase and the partial pressure of hydrogen in the hydride phase in equilibrium with that in the electrolyte environment, while the latter is related to the stability of the alloy phase in the cell environment. Comparison of the equilibrium gas-phase dissociation pressures of these alloys indicate that reversible loss of hydrogen capacity is higher in alloys with P(eqm) greater than 1 atm than in those with P(eqm) less than 1 atm.

  10. WEATHERABILITY OF ENHANCED DEGRADABLE PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objective of this study was to assess the performance and the asociated variability of several selected enhanced degradable plastic materials under a variety of different exposure conditions. Other objectives were to identify the major products formed during degradation ...

  11. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus Strain T7A ATCC 39115, a Lignin-Degrading Actinomycete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Jennifer R. [Brown University; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wei, Chia-Lin [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Szeto, Ernest [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Sello, Jason K. [Brown University

    2013-01-01

    We announce the availability of the genome sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus strain T7A ATCC 39115, a plant biomass- degrading actinomycete. This bacterium is of special interest because of its capacity to degrade lignin, an underutilized compo- nent of plants in the context of bioenergy. It has a full complement of genes for plant biomass catabolism.

  12. Evaluation of railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    capacity consumptions. This paper describes the UIC 406 method and how it is expounded in Denmark. The paper describes the importance of choosing the right length of the line sections examined and how line sections with multiple track sections are examined. Furthermore, the possibility of using idle...

  13. Markets and Institutional Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2010-01-01

    Adequate explanations concerning the introduction of production and consumption of organic food in Denmark imply the necessity to engage a certain understanding of markets. Markets should subsequently not be seen as entities nor places but as complex relations between human actors. Further......, the establishment, maintenance and development of markets are depending on the capacity of the actors to enter into continuous and enhancing interplay....

  14. Photochemical and microbial degradation technologies to remove toxic chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, F.; Katayama, A.

    1992-01-01

    An effort was made to apply photochemical degradation technology on biodegradation processes to increase the bioremediation potential of microbial actions. For this purpose, we have chosen Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a wood decaying white-rot fungus and a variety of chlorinated pesticides and aromatics as study materials. By using UV-irradiation and benomyl (a commonly used fungicide) as selection methods, a strain of UV-resistant P. chrysosporium was developed. This strain was found to be capable of rapidly degrading these chlorinated chemicals when they were incubated in N-deficient medium which received 1 hr/day of UV-irradiation. UV-irradiation either at 300 or 254 nm showed the beneficial effect of speeding up the rate of degradation on most of test chemicals with the exception of toxaphene and HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane). By adding fresh glucose to the medium it was possible to maintain high degradation capacity for several weeks

  15. Photochemical and microbial degradation technologies to remove toxic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, F.; Katayama, A.

    1992-07-01

    An effort was made to apply photochemical degradation technology on biodegradation processes to increase the bioremediation potential of microbial actions. For this purpose, we have chosen Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a wood decaying white-rot fungus and a variety of chlorinated pesticides and aromatics as study materials. By using UV-irradiation and benomyl (a commonly used fungicide) as selection methods, a strain of UV-resistant P. chrysosporium was developed. This strain was found to be capable of rapidly degrading these chlorinated chemicals when they were incubated in N-deficient medium which received 1 hr/day of UV-irradiation. UV-irradiation either at 300 or 254 nm showed the beneficial effect of speeding up the rate of degradation on most of test chemicals with the exception of toxaphene and HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane). By adding fresh glucose to the medium it was possible to maintain high degradation capacity for several weeks.

  16. Statistical modeling for degradation data

    CERN Document Server

    Lio, Yuhlong; Ng, Hon; Tsai, Tzong-Ru

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the statistical aspects of the analysis of degradation data. In recent years, degradation data analysis has come to play an increasingly important role in different disciplines such as reliability, public health sciences, and finance. For example, information on products’ reliability can be obtained by analyzing degradation data. In addition, statistical modeling and inference techniques have been developed on the basis of different degradation measures. The book brings together experts engaged in statistical modeling and inference, presenting and discussing important recent advances in degradation data analysis and related applications. The topics covered are timely and have considerable potential to impact both statistics and reliability engineering.

  17. An Operational Framework for Defining and Monitoring Forest Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Thompson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest degradation is broadly defined as a reduction in the capacity of a forest to produce ecosystem services such as carbon storage and wood products as a result of anthropogenic and environmental changes. The main causes of degradation include unsustainable logging, agriculture, invasive species, fire, fuelwood gathering, and livestock grazing. Forest degradation is widespread and has become an important consideration in global policy processes that deal with biodiversity, climate change, and forest management. There is, however, no generally recognized way to identify a degraded forest because perceptions of forest degradation vary depending on the cause, the particular goods or services of interest, and the temporal and spatial scales considered. Here, we suggest that there are types of forest degradation that produce a continuum of decline in provision of ecosystem services, from those in primary forests through various forms of managed forests to deforestation. Forest degradation must be measured against a desired baseline condition, and the types of degradation can be represented using five criteria that relate to the drivers of degradation, loss of ecosystem services and sustainable management, including: productivity, biodiversity, unusual disturbances, protective functions, and carbon storage. These criteria are not meant to be equivalent and some might be considered more important than others, depending on the local forest management objectives. We propose a minimum subset of seven indicators for the five criteria that should be assessed to determine forest degradation under a sustainable ecosystem management regime. The indicators can be remotely sensed (although improving calibration requires ground work and aggregated from stand to management unit or landscape levels and ultimately to sub-national and national scales.

  18. Neuronal discrimination capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yingchun; Williams, Peter; Feng Jianfeng; Liu Feng

    2003-01-01

    We explore neuronal mechanisms of discriminating between masked signals. It is found that when the correlation between input signals is zero, the output signals are separable if and only if input signals are separable. With positively (negatively) correlated signals, the output signals are separable (mixed) even when input signals are mixed (separable). Exact values of discrimination capacity are obtained for two most interesting cases: the exactly balanced inhibitory and excitatory input case and the uncorrelated input case. Interestingly, the discrimination capacity obtained in these cases is independent of model parameters, input distribution and is universal. Our results also suggest a functional role of inhibitory inputs and correlated inputs or, more generally, the large variability of efferent spike trains observed in in vivo experiments: the larger the variability of efferent spike trains, the easier it is to discriminate between masked input signals

  19. Seismic capacity of switchgear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a component fragility program sponsored by the USNRC, BNL has collected existing information on the seismic capacity of switchgear assemblies from major manufacturers. Existing seismic test data for both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been evaluated and the generic results are presented in this paper. The failure modes are identified and the corresponding generic lower bound capacity levels are established. The test response spectra have been used as a measure of the test vibration input. The results indicate that relays chatter at a very low input level at the base of the switchgear cabinet. This change of state of devices including relays have been observed. Breaker tripping occurs at a higher vibration level. Although the structural failure of internal elements have been noticed, the overall switchgear cabinet structure withstands a high vibration level. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Neuronal discrimination capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Yingchun [Department of Mathematics, Hunan Normal University 410081, Changsha (China); COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Williams, Peter; Feng Jianfeng [COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Liu Feng [COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Nanjing University (China)

    2003-12-19

    We explore neuronal mechanisms of discriminating between masked signals. It is found that when the correlation between input signals is zero, the output signals are separable if and only if input signals are separable. With positively (negatively) correlated signals, the output signals are separable (mixed) even when input signals are mixed (separable). Exact values of discrimination capacity are obtained for two most interesting cases: the exactly balanced inhibitory and excitatory input case and the uncorrelated input case. Interestingly, the discrimination capacity obtained in these cases is independent of model parameters, input distribution and is universal. Our results also suggest a functional role of inhibitory inputs and correlated inputs or, more generally, the large variability of efferent spike trains observed in in vivo experiments: the larger the variability of efferent spike trains, the easier it is to discriminate between masked input signals.

  1. Monitoring of Gasoline-ethanol Degradation In Undisturbed Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österreicher-Cunha, P.; Nunes, C. M. F.; Vargas, E. A.; Guimarães, J. R. D.; Costa, A.

    Environmental contamination problems are greatly emphasised nowadays because of the direct threat they represent for human health. Traditional remediation methods fre- quently present low efficiency and high costs; therefore, biological treatment is being considered as an accessible and efficient alternative for soil and water remediation. Bioventing, commonly used to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon spills, stimulates the degradation capacity of indigenous microorganisms by providing better subsur- face oxygenation. In Brazil, gasoline and ethanol are mixed (78:22 v/v); some authors indicate that despite gasoline high degradability, its degradation in subsurface is hin- dered by the presence of much more rapidly degrading ethanol. Contaminant distribu- tion and degradation in the subsurface can be monitored by several physical, chemical and microbiological methodologies. This study aims to evaluate and follow the degra- dation of a gasoline-ethanol mixture in a residual undisturbed tropical soil from Rio de Janeiro. Bioventing was used to enhance microbial degradation. Shifts in bacte- rial culturable populations due to contamination and treatment effects were followed by conventional microbiology methods. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measure- ments, which consist of the emission of electro-magnetic waves into the soil, yield a visualisation of contaminant degradation because of changes in soil conductivity due to microbial action on the pollutants. Chemical analyses will measure contaminant residue in soil. Our results disclosed contamination impact as well as bioventing stim- ulation on soil culturable heterotrophic bacterial populations. This multidisciplinary approach allows for a wider evaluation of processes occurring in soil.

  2. Radiation degradation of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.; Arnold, G.; Baer, M.; Langguth, H.; Gey, M.; Huebert, S.

    1985-01-01

    The application of straw and other cellulose polymers as feedstuff for ruminants is limited by its low digestibility. During recent decades it was attempted to increase the digestibility of straw by several chemical and physical methods. In this work some results of the degradation of gamma and electron treated wheat straw are reported. Complex methods of treatment are taken into consideration. In vitro-experiments with radiation treated straw show that the digestibility can be increased from 20% up to about 80%. A high pressure liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the hydrolysates. The contents of certain species of carbohydrates in the hydrolysates in dependence on the applied dose are given. (author)

  3. Chemical degradation of pentachlorophenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S.S.; Shukla, A.; Chandrasekharaiah, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    Industry produces a large volume of hazardous wastes containing pentachlorophenol, a U.S. EPA priority hazardous organic material. The environmentally safe disposal of these PCP-contaminated wastes is a serious problem for the waste management authorities as the current treatment processes are unsatisfactory. In this paper, the results of a feasibility study of chemical degradation and/or solidification methods for PCP-containing wastes. The photochemical decomposition of the PCP in a microemulsion or in micellar media obtained with the help of SDS or CTAB show the greatest promise

  4. Radiation degradation of polymethacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of radiation on polymers have been studied for many years. When polymers are subjected to ultraviolet light or ionizing radiation, chain scission and crosslinking are possible. The radiation degradations of several methacrylate type polymers were investigated. The primary polymer studied was polymethacrylamide (PMAAm). Ultraviolet irradiated PMAAm yielded a five line ESR spectrum with 22 gauss splitting which is believed to arise from a polymeric radical ending with a methacrylamide unit. The results obtained indicate that polymethacrylamide is a polymer which undergoes main chain cleavage upon irradiation. As such this polymer may have potential applicability as a positive resist for fabrication of microelectronic devices

  5. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-01-01

    The current study focuses on the sensitivity of the corporate payment capacity. Through the nature of the subject, the research is based on simulating variations of the forecasted cash-flows of the companies included in the sample. The study employs 391 forecasted yearly cash-flows statements collected from 50 companies from Timis County (Romania), as well as the detailed hypotheses of the forecasts. The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main se...

  6. Options on capacity imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Since the start of this year, the Dutch energy company Nuon has been using a computer system to formulate real-time responses to national capacity imbalances in the electricity supply market. The work earns Nuon a fixed fee from TenneT (Dutch Transmission System Operator) and ensures a more stable imbalance price for everyone. The key to success has been the decision to start the project from scratch [nl

  7. CSTI High Capacity Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed

  8. Competence building capacity shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather conditions after

  9. Aggregate stability and soil degradation in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.

    2004-01-01

    Aggregate stability is a measure of the structural stability of soils. Factors that influence aggregate stability are important in evaluating the ease with which soils erode by water and/or wind, the potential of soils to crust and/or seal, soil permeability, quasi-steady state infiltration rates and seedling emergence and in predicting the capacity of soils to sustain long-term crop production. Aggregate stability of soils can be measured by the wet-sieving or raindrop techniques. A reduction in soil aggregate stability implies an increase in soil degradation. Hence aggregate stability and soil degradation are interwoven. The measures used can either be preventive or remedial. Preventive practices minimize the chances of soil degradation occurring or the magnitude or severity of the damage when the degradation manifests. These include in Nigeria, (i) manuring and mulching, (ii) planted fallows and cover crops, (iii) sustainable farming systems, (iv) adequate rotations, (v) home gardens or compound farms, (vi) alley cropping and related agro forestry systems, and (vii) chemical fertilizers which are mainly remedial measures. Because of alterations in soil properties that affect particular land uses, soils may degrade for one crop (maize rather sorghum). As long as some land use is possible soil degradation is not always an absolute concept. Decline in agricultural productivity should be evaluated in terms of inputs such as fertilizer use, water management and tillage methods. We can alleviate some types of soil degradation by use of micronutrients, inorganic fertilizers and organic residues. Soil that responds to management practices cannot be said to be degraded. Since crop growth depends on weather, degraded soils may be more sensitive to harsh weather (e.g. drought, temperature) than undegraded soils. A soil is degraded if its productivity falls below the economic threshold even under favourable weather conditions or with judicious inputs. All human

  10. Degradation of contrasting pesticides by white rot fungi and its relationship with ligninolytic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bending, Gary D; Friloux, Maxime; Walker, Allan

    2002-06-18

    The capacity of nine species of white rot fungus from a variety of basidiomycete orders to degrade contrasting mono-aromatic pesticides was investigated. There was no relationship between degradation of the dye Poly R-478, a presumptive test for ligninolytic potential, and degradation of the highly available pesticides diuron, metalaxyl, atrazine or terbuthylazine in liquid culture. However, there were significant positive correlations between the rates of degradation of the different pesticides. Greatest degradation of all the pesticides was achieved by Coriolus versicolor, Hypholoma fasciculare and Stereum hirsutum. After 42 days, maximum degradation of diuron, atrazine and terbuthylazine was above 86%, but for metalaxyl less than 44%. When grown in the organic matrix of an on-farm "biobed" pesticide remediation system, relative degradation rates of the highly available pesticides by C. versicolor, H. fasciculare and S. hirsutum showed some differences to those in liquid culture. While H. fasciculare and C. versicolor were able to degrade about a third of the poorly available compound chlorpyrifos in biobed matrix after 42 days, S. hirsutum, which was the most effective degrader of the available pesticides, showed little capacity to degrade the compound.

  11. Dominant petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the Archipelago Sea in South-West Finland (Baltic Sea) belong to different taxonomic groups than hydrocarbon degraders in the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunamo, Anna; Riemann, Lasse; Leskinen, Piia; Jørgensen, Kirsten S

    2013-07-15

    The natural petroleum hydrocarbon degrading capacity of the Archipelago Sea water in S-W Finland was studied in a microcosm experiment. Pristine and previously oil exposed sites were examined. Bacterial community fingerprinting was performed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and samples from selected microcosms were sequenced. The abundance of PAH degradation genes was measured by quantitative PCR. Bacterial communities in diesel exposed microcosms diverged from control microcosms during the experiment. Gram positive PAH degradation genes dominated at both sites in situ, whereas gram negative PAH degrading genes became enriched in diesel microcosms. The dominant bacterial groups after a 14 days of diesel exposure were different depending on the sampling site, belonging to the class Actinobacteria (32%) at a pristine site and Betaproteobacteria (52%) at a previously oil exposed site. The hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the Baltic Sea differ from those in the oceans, where most hydrocarbon degraders belong to Gammaproteobacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Capacity of Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessels with Prestressing Loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, JEFFREY A.

    2001-01-01

    Reduced prestressing and degradation of prestressing tendons in concrete containment vessels were investigated using finite element analysis of a typical prestressed containment vessel. The containment was analyzed during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) with varying levels of prestress loss and with reduced tendon area. It was found that when selected hoop prestressing tendons were completely removed (as if broken) or when the area of selected hoop tendons was reduced, there was a significant impact on the ultimate capacity of the containment vessel. However, when selected hoop prestressing tendons remained, but with complete loss of prestressing, the predicted ultimate capacity was not significantly affected for this specific loss of coolant accident. Concrete cracking occurred at much lower levels for all cases. For cases where selected vertical tendons were analyzed with reduced prestressing or degradation of the tendons, there also was not a significant impact on the ultimate load carrying capacity for the specific accident analyzed. For other loading scenarios (such as seismic loading) the loss of hoop prestressing with the tendons remaining could be more significant on the ultimate capacity of the containment vessel than found for the accident analyzed. A combination of loss of prestressing and degradation of the vertical tendons could also be more critical during other loading scenarios

  13. Degradable polyphosphazene/poly(alpha-hydroxyester) blends: degradation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Archel M A; Allcock, Harry R; Katti, Dhirendra S; Laurencin, Cato T

    2002-04-01

    Biomaterials based on the polymers of lactic acid and glycolic acid and their copolymers are used or studied extensively as implantable devices for drug delivery, tissue engineering and other biomedical applications. Although these polymers have shown good biocompatibility, concerns have been raised regarding their acidic degradation products, which have important implications for long-term implantable systems. Therefore, we have designed a novel biodegradable polyphosphazene/poly(alpha-hydroxyester) blend whose degradation products are less acidic than those of the poly(alpha-hydroxyester) alone. In this study, the degradation characteristics of a blend of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (50:50 PLAGA) and poly[(50% ethyl glycinato)(50% p-methylphenoxy) phosphazene] (PPHOS-EG50) were qualitatively and quantitatively determined with comparisons made to the parent polymers. Circular matrices (14mm diameter) of the PLAGA, PPHOS-EG50 and PLAGA-PPHOS-EG50 blend were degraded in non-buffered solutions (pH 7.4). The degraded polymers were characterized for percentage mass loss and molecular weight and the degradation medium was characterized for acid released in non-buffered solutions. The amounts of neutralizing base necessary to bring about neutral pH were measured for each polymer or polymer blend during degradation. The poly(phosphazene)/poly(lactide-co-glycolide) blend required significantly less neutralizing base in order to bring about neutral solution pH during the degradation period studied. The results indicated that the blend degraded at a rate intermediate to that of the parent polymers and that the degradation products of the polyphosphazene neutralized the acidic degradation products of PLAGA. Thus, results from these in vitro degradation studies suggest that the PLAGA-PPHOS-EG50 blend may provide a viable improvement to biomaterials based on acid-releasing organic polymers.

  14. 1992 Annual Capacity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR Part 961) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to issue an Annual Capacity Report (ACR) for planning purposes. This report is the fifth in the series published by DOE. In May 1993, DOE published the 1992 Acceptance Priority Ranking (APR) that established the order in which DOE will allocate projected acceptance capacity. As required by the Standard Contract, the acceptance priority ranking is based on the date the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) was permanently discharged, with the owners of the oldest SNF, on an industry-wide basis, given the highest priority. The 1992 ACR applies the projected waste acceptance rates in Table 2.1 to the 1992 APR, resulting in individual allocations for the owners and generators of the SNF. These allocations are listed in detail in the Appendix, and summarized in Table 3.1. The projected waste acceptance rates for SNF presented in Table 2.1 are nominal and assume a site for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility will be obtained; the facility will initiate operations in 1998; and the statutory linkages between the MRS facility and the repository set forth in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), will be modified. During the first ten years following projected commencement of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operation, the total quantity of SNF that could be accepted is projected to be 8,200 metric tons of uranium (MTU). This is consistent with the storage capacity licensing conditions imposed on an MRS facility by the NWPA. The annual acceptance rates provide an approximation of the system throughput and are subject to change as the program progresses

  15. Quantum reading capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario. (paper)

  16. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  17. Radiation degradation of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Arnold, G.; Baer, M.; Gey, M.; Hubert, S.; Langguth, H.

    1984-01-01

    The application of straw and other cellulose polymers as feedstuff for ruminants is limited by its low digestibility. During recent decades it was attempted to increase the digestibility of straw by several chemical and physical methods. In this work some results of the degradation of gamma and electron treated wheat straw are reported. Complex methods of treatment (e.g. radiation influence and influence of lyes) are taken into consideration. In vitro-experiments with radiation treated straw show that the digestibility can be increased from 20% up to about 80%. A high pressure liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the hydrolysates. The contents of certain species of carbohydrates in the hydrolysates in dependence on the applied dose are given

  18. Exploring bacterial lignin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Margaret E; Chang, Michelle C Y

    2014-04-01

    Plant biomass represents a renewable carbon feedstock that could potentially be used to replace a significant level of petroleum-derived chemicals. One major challenge in its utilization is that the majority of this carbon is trapped in the recalcitrant structural polymers of the plant cell wall. Deconstruction of lignin is a key step in the processing of biomass to useful monomers but remains challenging. Microbial systems can provide molecular information on lignin depolymerization as they have evolved to break lignin down using metalloenzyme-dependent radical pathways. Both fungi and bacteria have been observed to metabolize lignin; however, their differential reactivity with this substrate indicates that they may utilize different chemical strategies for its breakdown. This review will discuss recent advances in studying bacterial lignin degradation as an approach to exploring greater diversity in the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Soil degradation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper diagnoses the issues involved behind the current state, usage, interactions and linkages in the soils in Pakistan. The condition of soils is deteriorating due to developmental and environmental factors such as soil degradation, water pollution, fauna degeneration etc. Issues, problems and constraints faced in the management and usage of soils are diagnosed at different levels in the ecosystems predominant in Pakistan. The research questions propose effective solutions, types of instruments, methods or processes to resolve the issues within the various areas or ecosystems in the most sustainable and effective manner [23]. Biological solutions and methods can be applied at the sub-system level by private individuals or communities at a lower cost, and at a more localized level than engineering methods. Engineering methods may be suited for interventions at a system level rather than at a sub-system level; but even at this level they will be complementary with biological methods. (author)

  20. Degraded Crater Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 3 May 2002) The Science The eastern rim of this unnamed crater in Southern Arabia Terra is very degraded (beaten up). This indicates that this crater is very ancient and has been subjected to erosion and subsequent bombardment from other impactors such as asteroids and comets. One of these later (younger) craters is seen in the upper right of this image superimposed upon the older crater rim material. Note that this smaller younger crater rim is sharper and more intact than the older crater rim. This region is also mantled with a blanket of dust. This dust mantle causes the underlying topography to take on a more subdued appearance. The Story When you think of Arabia, you probably think of hot deserts and a lot of profitable oil reserves. On Mars, however, Southern Arabia Terra is a cold place of cratered terrain. This almost frothy-looking image is the badly battered edge of an ancient crater, which has suffered both erosion and bombardment from asteroids, comets, or other impacting bodies over the long course of its existence. A blanket of dust has also settled over the region, which gives the otherwise rugged landscape a soft and more subdued appearance. The small, round crater (upper left) seems almost gemlike in its setting against the larger crater ring. But this companionship is no easy romance. Whatever formed the small crater clearly whammed into the larger crater rim at some point, obliterating part of its edge. You can tell the small crater was formed after the first and more devastating impact, because it is laid over the other larger crater. How much younger is the small one? Well, its rim is also much sharper and more intact, which gives a sense that it is probably far more youthful than the very degraded, ancient crater.

  1. Trichloroethylene degradation by two independent aromatic-degrading pathways in Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134.

    OpenAIRE

    Harker, A R; Kim, Y

    1990-01-01

    The bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134(pJP4) degrades trichloroethylene (TCE) by a chromosomal phenol-dependent pathway and by the plasmid-encoded 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid pathway. The two pathways were independent and exhibited different rates of removal and capacities for quantity of TCE removed. The phenol-dependent pathway was more rapid (0.2 versus 0.06 nmol of TCE removed per min per mg of protein) and consumed all detectable TCE. The 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-dependent p...

  2. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  3. Quantum-capacity-approaching codes for the detected-jump channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassl, Markus; Wei Zhaohui; Ji Zhengfeng; Zeng Bei

    2010-01-01

    The quantum-channel capacity gives the ultimate limit for the rate at which quantum data can be reliably transmitted through a noisy quantum channel. Degradable quantum channels are among the few channels whose quantum capacities are known. Given the quantum capacity of a degradable channel, it remains challenging to find a practical coding scheme which approaches capacity. Here we discuss code designs for the detected-jump channel, a degradable channel with practical relevance describing the physics of spontaneous decay of atoms with detected photon emission. We show that this channel can be used to simulate a binary classical channel with both erasures and bit flips. The capacity of the simulated classical channel gives a lower bound on the quantum capacity of the detected-jump channel. When the jump probability is small, it almost equals the quantum capacity. Hence using a classical capacity-approaching code for the simulated classical channel yields a quantum code which approaches the quantum capacity of the detected-jump channel.

  4. Ordered bulk degradation via autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Jörn; Kristensen, Anders Riis; Andersen, Jens S

    2008-01-01

    During amino acid starvation, cells undergo macroautophagy which is regarded as an unspecific bulk degradation process. Lately, more and more organelle-specific autophagy subtypes such as reticulophagy, mitophagy and ribophagy have been described and it could be shown, depending on the experimental...... at proteasomal and lysosomal degradation ample cross-talk between the two degradation pathways became evident. Degradation via autophagy appeared to be ordered and regulated at the protein complex/organelle level. This raises several important questions such as: can macroautophagy itself be specific and what...

  5. Degradation of thiram in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghu, K.; Murthy, N.B.K.; Kumarsamy, R.

    1975-01-01

    Determination of the residual 35 S labelled tetramethylthiuram disulfide showed that the fungicide persisted longer in sterilized than in unsterilized soil, while the chloroform extractable radioactivity decreased, the water extractable radioactivity increased with increase in time. However, in sterilized soil the water extractable radioactivity remained more or less constant. Degradation of the fungicide was further demonstrated by the release of C 35 S 2 from soil treated with labelled thiram. Dimethylamine was found to be one of the degradation products. A bacterium isolated from thiram-enriched soil could degrade the fungicide in shake culture. The degradation pathways of thiram in sterilized and unsterilized soils are discussed. (author)

  6. In vitro degradation of ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, G; Rivas, A

    1976-12-01

    The cytoplasmic ribosomes from Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris are found to be of two types taking into consideration their stability "in vitro". In the group of unstable ribosomes the large subunit is degraded. The other group apparently does not suffer any degradation under the conditions described. However the RNAs extracted from both types of ribosomes are degraded during sucrose density gradients. The degradation of the largest RNA species has been reported previously, but no comment has been made about the stability of the ribosome itself.

  7. The radiation degradation of polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Hollain, G.

    1977-04-01

    Polypropylene is used extensively in the manufacture of disposable medical devices because of its superior properties. Unfortunately this polymer does not lend itself well to radiation sterilization, undergoing serious degradation which affects the mechanical properties of the polymer. In this paper the effects of radiation on the mechanical and physical properties of polypropylene are discussed. A programme of research to minimize the radiation degradation of this polymer through the addition of crosslinking agents to counteract the radiation degradation is proposed. It is furthermore proposed that a process of annealing of the irradiated polymer be investigated in order to minimize the post-irradiation degradation of the polypropylene [af

  8. Radiation Degradation of some Commercial Dyes in Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessouki, A.M.; Abdel-Aal, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    The degradation Kinetic due to irradiation of aqueous solutions of some commercial dyes, (Reactive Blue Brilliant, Reactive Yellow and Basic Blue 9 Dye (Methylene Blue 2 B), was studied. Factors affecting radiolysis of the dye such as dye concentration, irradiation dose, dose rate and ph of the solutions were studied. The effects of different additives such as nitrogen oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite on the degradation process were investigated. The effect of irradiation dose on the different dye solutions at various concentrations, showed that the Reactive Yellow G. was very sensitive to gamma radiation. The effect of the ph of the dye solutions proved to very according type of the dye. Synergistic treatment of the dye solutions by irradiation and conventional method showed that saturation of the dye solutions with nitrogen did not enhance the radiation degradation of the dyes, while addition of oxygen resulted in a remarkable enhancement of the degradation of the dyes. Also, the addition of sodium hypochlorite (5%) and the oxidation by hydrogen peroxide resulted in more radiation degradation, Also, adsorption of the dyes onto Ga and some ion exchangers showed that Ga has the highest adsorption capacity. Radiation degradation of the toxic dye pollutants and their removal from wastewater down to concentrations not exceeding the maximum permissible concentration (Mpc) according to international standards, proved to be better than conventional methods of purification alone

  9. 1990s: High Capacity Backbones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. 1990s: High Capacity Backbones. Backbone capacities increased from 2.5 Gb/s to 100s of Gb/s during the 1990's. Wavelength division multiplexing with 160 waves of 10 Gb/s was commercially available. Several high-capacity backbones built in the US and Europe.

  10. Competitive Capacity Investment under Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Li (Xishu); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob); M.B.M. de Koster (René); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a long-term capacity investment problem in a competitive market under demand uncertainty. Two firms move sequentially in the competition and a firm’s capacity decision interacts with the other firm’s current and future capacity. Throughout the investment race, a firm can

  11. Integrated capacity and inventory decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, N.P.; Flapper, S.D.P.; Tan, T.; Jeunet, J.; Klatte, D.; Lüthi, H.-J.; Schmedders, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the simultaneous acquisition of capacity and material in a situation with uncertain demand, with non-zero lead-times for the supply of both material and capacity. Although there is a lot of literature on the time-phased acquisition of capacity and material, most of this

  12. Landfill Construction and Capacity Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cerda, E.

    2003-01-01

    We study the optimal capacity and lifetime of landfills taking into account their sequential nature.Such an optimal capacity is characterized by the so-called Optimal Capacity Condition.Particular versions of this condition are obtained for two alternative settings: first, if all the landfills are

  13. Capacity Ten-Seven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-04

    The study was initiated to assemble UK solar experts who would define the parameters for the design of solar cell process plant with a capacity of about 10MWp per annum and establish the optimum substrate size, cell configuration and junction structure and show that these characteristics are suited to high volume low cost production. The study focused on proven materials and techniques rather than on innovative materials and processes. Peak production should deliver panels at a cost of less than $1 per peak watt. The study was reported under the headings of fundamental studies, front contact deposition, semiconductor deposition, rear contact deposition, cell isolation and initial design study. Since much of the work is commercially sensitive, not all findings are divulged in the report. The work, which achieved all its targets, was carried out by ICP Solar Technologies UK Ltd under contract to the DTI.

  14. Immunomodulating capacity of kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinderola, Celso G; Duarte, Jairo; Thangavel, Deepa; Perdigón, Gabriela; Farnworth, Edward; Matar, Chantal

    2005-05-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk produced by the action of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and acetic acid bacteria, trapped in a complex matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. Beyond its inherent high nutritional value as a source of proteins and calcium, kefir has a long tradition of being regarded as good for health in countries where it is a staple in the diet. However, published human or animal feeding trials to substantiate this view are not numerous. The aim of this work was to determine the immunomodulating capacity of kefir on the intestinal mucosal immune response in mice and to demonstrate the importance of dose and cell viability on this response. BALB/c mice were fed with commercial kefir ad libitum (diluted 1/10, 1/50, 1/100 or 1/200) or pasteurized kefir (diluted 1/6, 1/10, 1/50, 1/100) for 2, 5 or 7 consecutive days. At the end of each feeding period, the bacterial translocation assay was performed in the liver. Small intestine structure was studied by haematoxilin-eosin staining and light microscopy. The number of IgA+ and IgG+ cells was also determined. For the functional doses chosen, cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) were determined. Kefir and pasteurized kefir were able to modulate the mucosal immune system in a dose-dependent manner. Kefir was administred 10-times more diluted than pasteurized kefir, but it induced an immunomodulation of similar magnitude, indicating the importance of cell viabilty. The results suggest that a Th1 response was controlled by Th2 cytokines induced by kefir feeding. Pasteurized kefir would induce both Th2 and Th1 responses. This is the first study in vivo regarding the mechanisms involved in the immunomodulating capacity of the oral administration of kefir containing viable or heat-inactivated bacteria at different doses.

  15. Aminoalcohols and benzoates-friends or foes? Tuning nuclearity of Cu(ii) complexes, studies of their structures, magnetism, and catecholase-like activities as well as performing DFT and TDDFT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sama, Farasha; Dhara, Ashish Kumar; Akhtar, Muhammad Nadeem; Chen, Yan-Cong; Tong, Ming-Liang; Ansari, Istikhar A; Raizada, Mukul; Ahmad, Musheer; Shahid, M; Siddiqi, Zafar A

    2017-08-14

    Herein, the coordination chemistry of a series of Cu(ii) complexes of various aminoalcohol and benzoate ligands was explored. The pH-dependent reactions of copper(ii) salts with propanolamine (Hpa), N-methyl diethanolamine (H 2 mdea), triethanolamine (H 3 tea), and n butyl-diethanolamine (H 2 budea) were carried out in the presence of various benzoates (benzoic acid, 2-hydroxy benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, 3-methoxy benzoic acid, and 4-methoxy benzoic acid). The resulting complexes [Cu 2 (pa) 2 (benzoate) 2 ] (1), [Cu 2 (pa) 2 (3-methoxybenzoate) 2 ] (2), [Cu 2 (pa) 2 (4-methoxybenzoate) 2 ] (3), [Cu 2 (H 2 tea) 2 (benzoate) 2 ]·2H 2 O (4), [Cu 2 (H 2 tea) 2 (2-hydroxybenzoate) 2 ]·2H 2 O (5), [Cu 2 (H 3 tea) 2 (4-hydroxybenzoate) 2 ][Cu(Htea) 2 ]·2H 2 O (6), [Cu(H 2 mdea) 2 ][benzoate] 2 (7), [Cu(H 2 mdea) 2 ][4-methoxybenzoate] 2 (8), [Cu(H 2 bdea) 2 ][2-hydroxybenzoate] 2 (9), [Cu 2 (benzoate) 4 (benzoic acid) 2 ] (10), [Cu 2 (4-methoxybenzoate) 4 (CH 3 CN) 2 ]·4CH 3 CN (11) and [Cu 3 (H 2 tea) 2 (benzoate) 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ] (12) were formed as mono-, di- or trinuclear entities depending upon the pH conditions of the reaction. The complexes were characterized employing spectral, magnetic, single-crystal X-ray and DFT/TDDFT studies. 7 and 8 exhibited emission peaks at 510 and 460 nm, respectively, in the solid-state photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The temperature variable magnetic properties of 1-12 revealed the presence of antiferromagnetic (in 1-3 and 7-11) or ferromagnetic interactions (in 4-6 and 12) with Curie constants C = 0.24 (7), 0.28 (8) or 0.35 cm 3 K mol -1 (9) and Weiss constants θ = -0.34 (7), -0.32 (8) or -0.40 (9) K for the mononuclear complexes. The dinuclear complexes demonstrated J values of -89.2(2) (1), -71.1(3) (2), -59.6(1) (3), 98(1) (4), 79.1(2) (5), -85.4(2) (10) and -89.5(2) (11) cm -1 . Strong ferromagnetic interactions were observed in the case of 6 (J = 172(3) cm -1 and zJ' = 2.3(2) cm -1 ), which were comparable with those

  16. Insights into the degradation of human elastin by matrilysin-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinz, Andrea; Taddese, Samuel; Sippl, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Human matrilysin-1 (MMP-7) is one of the most potent elastases besides macrophage elastase in the family of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). It has been reported to provide macrophages with the highest elastinolytic capacity and plays key roles in diseases such as emphysema and cancer. Describin...... into the degradation of human elastin by MMP-7 and may aid in the development of approaches to treat elastin-degrading diseases.......Human matrilysin-1 (MMP-7) is one of the most potent elastases besides macrophage elastase in the family of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). It has been reported to provide macrophages with the highest elastinolytic capacity and plays key roles in diseases such as emphysema and cancer. Describing...... the enzymatic turnover of matrix components helps to understand the molecular basis of disease processes. Hence, in this work, the cleavage behavior of MMP-7 with respect to its natural substrate human elastin was investigated using mass spectrometric (MS) techniques and molecular modeling. Elastin peptides...

  17. Effect of Abiotic Factors on Degradation of Imidacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Bibhab; Adak, Totan; Patil, Naveen K B; Pandi, G Guru P; Gowda, G Basana; Yadav, Manoj Kumar; Mohapatra, S D; Rath, P C; Munda, Sushmita; Jena, Mayabini

    2017-10-01

    The role of soil moisture, light and pH on imidacloprid dissipation was investigated. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based method was developed to quantify imidacloprid present in soil with a recovery of more than 82%. Rate of dissipation of imidacloprid from soil was faster in submerged condition compared to field capacity and air dried condition. Imidacloprid dissipated non-significantly between sterile and non-sterile soils, but at field capacity, the dissipation was faster in non-sterile soil compared to sterile soil after 60 days of incubation. Similarly, under submergence, the dissipation of imidacloprid was 66.2% and 79.8% of the initial in sterile and non-sterile soils, respectively. Imidacloprid was rather stable in acidic and neutral water but was prone to photo-degradation. Therefore, imidacloprid degradation will be faster under direct sunlight and at higher soil moisture.

  18. Polycarbonate radiolytic degradation and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, E.S. de

    1994-01-01

    Polycarbonate Durolon, useful for medical supplies fabrication, is submitted to gamma radiation for sterilization purposes. Scissions in main chain occur, in carbonyl groups, producing molecular degradations and yellowness. The radiolytic stabilization is obtained through additive to the polymer. In this work some degradation and stabilization aspects are presented. (L.C.J.A.). 7 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Degradation of copepod fecal pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise K.; Iversen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    amount of fecal pellets. The total degradation rate of pellets by the natural plankton community of Oresund followed the phytoplankton biomass, with maximum degradation rate during the spring bloom (2.5 +/- 0.49 d(-1)) and minimum (0.52 +/- 0.14 d(-1)) during late winter. Total pellet removal rate ranged...

  20. Degradable polymers for tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijkhuizen-Radersma, Riemke; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.; Zhang, Zheng; Grijpma, Dirk W.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter elaborates the degradable polymers for tissue engineering and their required scaffold material in tissue engineering. It recognizes the examples of degradable polymers broadly used in tissue engineering. Tissue engineering is the persuasion of the body to heal itself through the

  1. MOSFET Degradation Under RF Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasse, G.T.; Kuper, F.G.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2008-01-01

    We report on the degradation of MOS transistors under RF stress. Hot-carrier degradation, negative-bias temperature instability, and gate dielectric breakdown are investigated. The findings are compared to established voltage- and field-driven models. The experimental results indicate that the

  2. Simultaneous LC-MS/MS determination of phenylbutyrate, phenylacetate benzoate and their corresponding metabolites phenylacetylglutamine and hippurate in blood and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laryea, Maurice D; Herebian, Diran; Meissner, Thomas; Mayatepek, Ertan

    2010-12-01

    Inborn errors of urea metabolism result in hyperammonemia. Treatment of urea cycle disorders can effectively lower plasma ammonium levels and results in survival in the majority of patients. Available medications for treating urea cycle disorders include sodium benzoate (BA), sodium phenylacetate (PAA), and sodium phenylbutyrate (PBA) and are given to provide alternate routes for disposition of waste nitrogen excretion. In this study, we develop and validate a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of benzoic acid, phenylacetic acid, phenylbutyric acid, phenylacetylglutamine, and hippuric acid in plasma and urine from children with inborn errors of urea synthesis. Plasma extracts and diluted urine samples were injected on a reverse-phase column and identified and quantified by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in negative ion mode. Deuterated analogues served as internal standards. Analysis time was 7 min. Assay precision, accuracy, and linearity and sample stability were determined using enriched samples. Quantification limits of the method were 100 ng/ml (0.3-0.8 μmol/L) for all analytes, and recoveries were >90%. Inter- and intraday relative standard deviations were <10%. Our newly developed LC-MS/MS represents a robust, sensitive, and rapid method that allows simultaneous determination of the five compounds in plasma and urine.

  3. LC/MS study of the UV filter hexyl 2-[4-(diethylamino)-2-hydroxybenzoyl]-benzoate (DHHB) aquatic chlorination with sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbović, G; Trebše, P; Dolenc, D; Lebedev, A T; Sarakha, M

    2013-11-01

    The fate of modern personal care products in the environment is becoming a matter of increasing concern because of the growing production and assortment of these compounds. More and more chemicals of this class are treated as emerging contaminants. Transformation of commercially available products in the environment may result in the formation of a wide array of their metabolites. Personal care products in swimming pools and in drinking water reservoirs may undergo oxidation or chlorination. There is much data on the formation of more toxic metabolites from original low toxicity commercial products. Therefore, reliable identification of all possible transformation products and a thorough study of their physicochemical and biological properties are of high priority. The present study deals with the identification of the products of the aquatic chlorination of the hexyl 2-[4-(diethylamino)-2-hydroxybenzoyl]-benzoate ultraviolet filter. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) and HPLC/MS/MS with accurate mass measurements were used for this purpose. As a result, three chlorinated transformation products were identified. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Food additives: Sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, azorubine, and tartrazine modify the expression of NFκB, GADD45α, and MAPK8 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, B; Pónusz, R; Gerencsér, G; Budán, F; Gyöngyi, Z; Tibold, A; Hegyi, D; Kiss, I; Koller, Á; Varjas, T

    2016-09-01

    It has been reported that some of the food additives may cause sensitization, inflammation of tissues, and potentially risk factors in the development of several chronic diseases. Thus, we hypothesized that expressions of common inflammatory molecules - known to be involved in the development of various inflammatory conditions and cancers - are affected by these food additives. We investigated the effects of commonly used food preservatives and artificial food colorants based on the expressions of NFκB, GADD45α, and MAPK8 (JNK1) from the tissues of liver. RNA was isolated based on Trizol protocol and the activation levels were compared between the treated and the control groups. Tartrazine alone could elicit effects on the expressions of NFκB (p = 0.013) and MAPK8 (p = 0.022). Azorubine also resulted in apoptosis according to MAPK8 expression (p = 0.009). Preservatives were anti-apoptotic in high dose. Sodium benzoate (from low to high doses) dose-dependently silenced MAPK8 expression (p = 0.004 to p = 0.002). Addition of the two preservatives together elicited significantly greater expression of MAPK8 at half-fold dose (p = 0.002) and at fivefold dose (p = 0.008). This study suggests that some of the food preservatives and colorants can contribute to the activation of inflammatory pathways.

  5. Crystal structures of (E-4-[1-(2-carbamothioylhydrazinylideneethyl]phenyl acetate and (E-4-[1-(2-carbamothioylhydrazinylideneethyl]phenyl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compounds, C11H13N3O2S, (I, and C16H15N3O2S, (II, the thiosemicarbazone group adopts an extended conformation. The acetate ester (I crystallizes with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. In the benzoate ester (II, the planes of the two aryl rings are inclined to one another by 46.70 (7°. In both compounds, there is a short intramolecular N—H...N contact present, forming an S(5 ring motif. In the crystals of both compounds, molecules are linked via pairs of N—H...S hydrogen bonds, forming dimers with R22(8 ring motifs. The dimers are linked by N—H...S and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming slabs parallel to (01-1. In (I, there are N—H...π and C—H...π interactions present within the slabs, while in (II, there are only N—H...π interactions present.

  6. Apoptosis of leukemia K562 and Molt-4 cells induced by emamectin benzoate involving mitochondrial membrane potential loss and intracellular Ca2+ modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Xinming; Rao, Wenbing; Xiao, Ciying; Huang, Qingchun

    2017-06-01

    Leukemia threatens millions of people's health and lives, and the pesticide-induced leukemia has been increasingly concerned because of the etiologic exposure. In this paper, cytotoxic effect of emamectin benzoate (EMB), an excellent natural-product insecticide, was evaluated through monitoring cell viability, cell apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) in leukemia K562 and Molt-4 cells. Following the exposure to EMB, cell viability was decreased and positive apoptosis of K562 and Molt-4 cells was increased in a concentration- and time- dependent fashion. In the treatment of 10μM EMB, apoptotic cells accounted for 93.0% to K562 cells and 98.9% to Molt-4 cells based on the control, meanwhile, 63.47% of K562 cells and 81.15% of Molt-4 cells exhibited late apoptotic and necrotic features with damaged cytoplasmic membrane. 48h exposure to 10μM EMB increased significantly the great number of cells with mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss, and the elevation of [Ca 2+ ] i level was peaked and persisted within 70s in K562 cells whilst 50s in Molt-4 cells. Moreover, a stronger cytotoxicity of EMB was further observed than that of imatinib. The results authenticate the efficacious effect of EMB as a potential anti-leukemia agent and an inconsistency with regard to insecticide-induced leukemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An evaluation of the duration of efficacy of emamectin benzoate in the control of Caligus curtus Müller infestations in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamre, L A; Lunestad, B T; Hannisdal, R; Samuelsen, O B

    2011-06-01

    The duration of efficacy of emamectin benzoate in the control of Caligus curtus infestations in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., was studied following an administration of 50 μg kg⁻¹ for seven consecutive days. No lice were found on medicated fish when challenged 1 week (challenge 1) or 5 weeks (challenge 2) following termination of medication, whereas the mean abundance of lice among the unmedicated fish was 17.9 and 19.3 lice per fish in challenge 1 and 2, respectively. Muscle concentrations of 19.5 ± 8.2 ng g⁻¹ and 3.4 ± 0.9 ng g⁻¹, respectively, and skin concentrations of 23.1 ± 10.8 and 4.2 ± 1.0 ng g⁻¹, respectively, were found 27 and 55 days following the termination of medication. Tissue concentrations and the duration of efficacy indicate a dosing regime for emamectin in cod, similar to the regime used for Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. A single-dose pharmacokinetic study of emamectin benzoate in cod, Gadus morhua L., held in sea water at 9 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsen, O B

    2010-02-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of the antiparasitic agent emamectin benzoate was studied in plasma after intravenous (i.v.) injection and in plasma, muscle and skin following oral (p.o.) administration to cod, Gadus morhua, held in sea water at 9 degrees C and weighing 100-200 g. Following i.v. injection, the plasma drug concentration-time profile showed two distinct phases. The plasma distribution half-life (t(1/2)alpha) was estimated as 2.5 h, the elimination half-life (t(1/2)beta) as 216 h, the total body clearance (Cl(T)) as 0.0059 L kg(-1) h(-1) and mean residence time (MRT) as 385 h. The volume of distribution at steady state, V(d(ss)), was calculated to be 1.839 L kg(-1). Following p.o. administration the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) was 15 ng mL(-1), the time to peak plasma concentration (T(max)) was 89 h and t(1/2)beta was 180 h. The highest concentration in muscle (21 ng g(-1)) was measured after 7 days and t(1/2)beta was calculated to be 247 h. For skin, a peak concentration of 28 ng g(-1) at 3 days was observed and a t(1/2)beta of 235 h was determined. The bioavailability following p.o. administration was calculated to be 38%.

  9. Immunostimulation of Salmo salar L., and its effect on Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer) P-glycoprotein mRNA expression following subsequent emamectin benzoate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igboeli, O O; Purcell, S L; Wotton, H; Poley, J; Burka, J F; Fast, M D

    2013-03-01

    Control of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, relies heavily on chemotherapeutants. However, reduced efficacy of many treatments and need for integrated sea lice management plans require innovative strategies. Resistance to emamectin benzoate (EMB), a major sea lice parasiticide, has been linked with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression. We hypothesized that host immunostimulation would complement EMB treatment outcome. Lepeophtheirus salmonis-infected Atlantic salmon were fed immunostimulatory or control feeds. Sea lice were collected for 24-h EMB bioassays 1 and 2 weeks prior to commencement of EMB treatment of the fish. Two weeks after cessation of immunostimulant-treated feed, EMB was administered at 150 μg kg(-1) fish biomass for 7 days. The bioassay revealed stage, gender and immunostimulant-related differences in EMB EC(50) . Sea lice attached to salmon with a history of immunostimulation exhibited significantly greater survival than those on control feeds, despite similar levels of EMB in host tissues. Lepeophtheirus salmonis from salmon with a history of immunostimulation also exhibited higher P-gp mRNA expression as well as greater survivability compared to controls. Administration of immunostimulants prior to EMB treatment caused increased expression of P-gp mRNA which could have consequently caused decreased efficacy of the parasiticide. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Efficacy of emamectin benzoate against sea lice infestations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.: evaluation in the absence of an untreated contemporary control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, L; Ellis, S; Robinson, T; Marenghi, F; Endris, R

    2006-10-01

    The efficacy of emamectin benzoate (SLICE) against sea lice infestations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., is typically assessed using untreated fish, or fish treated with alternative therapeutants, as controls. The State of Maine, USA, is currently under active management for the OIE-notifiable pathogen, infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV); consequently, neither control group is feasible in this region. Untreated salmon risk extensive damage from the ectoparasites, and threaten to increase vector-borne exposure or susceptibility of farms to ISAV; and the only treatment presently available in Maine is SLICE. However, because sea lice infestations are unlikely to resolve spontaneously, and response to treatment occurs within weeks, use of a pretreatment baseline is a reasonable alternative for confirmatory studies. We evaluated SLICE efficacy on Atlantic salmon farms in Cobscook Bay 2002-2005, in the absence of untreated controls, using pretreatment lice loads as a reference for calculation. Maximum efficacy ranged from 68% to 100% reduction from initial levels. Time-to-maximum efficacy ranged from 1 to 8 weeks after treatment initiation. Efficacy duration, measured between first reduction and first progressive rise in counts, ranged from 4 to 16 weeks.

  11. Sea lice population and sex differences in P-glycoprotein expression and emamectin benzoate resistance on salmon farms in the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igboeli, Okechukwu O; Burka, John F; Fast, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Parasitic sea lice are a major challenge for salmon aquaculture. This is especially due to the recent development of resistance to emamectin benzoate (EMB) in the parasite. We investigated: (1) whether EMB treatment success in Grand Manan, Bay of Fundy, NB, Canada can be explained through EMB bioassay and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mRNA expression studies; (2) if other populations of sea lice not under EMB selective pressure possess similar EMB sensitivity as Grand Manan sea lice populations; and (3) the heritability of EMB resistance in Lepeophtheirus salmonis. EMB bioassay results indicated population, species, sex and temporal differences in EMB EC50 values. RT-qPCR analyses revealed population and sex differences in P-gp mRNA levels, correlating with the bioassay results. Laboratory-reared sea lice maintained their EMB sensitivity status up to the F3 generation. Caligus elongatus, collected from Grand Manan showed more than twofold lower EMB EC50 values compared with L. salmonis collected from the same site. Concurrent exposure to EMB and verapamil yielded no increase in C. elongatus sensitivity to the parasiticide. Sea lice bioassay and P-gp mRNA studies can be used to track EMB resistance and sex differences in EMB sensitivity and P-gp mRNA levels exist in the parasite. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. An electrochemical sensor for rizatriptan benzoate determination using Fe3O4 nanoparticle/multiwall carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrode in real samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Maleki, Somayeh; Heidari, Mozhgan; Afkhami, Abbas

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor for determination of rizatriptan benzoate (RZB) was proposed. A glassy carbon electrode was modified with nanocomposite of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4/MWCNTs/GCE). The results obtained clearly show that the combination of MWCNTs and Fe3O4 nanoparticles definitely improves the sensitivity of modified electrode to RZB determination. The morphology and electroanalytical performance of the fabricated sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), square wave voltammetry (SWV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Also, the effect of experimental and instrumental parameters on the sensor response was evaluated. The square wave voltammetric response of the electrode to RZB was linear in the range 0.5-100.0 μmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.09 μmol L(-1) under the optimum conditions. The investigated method showed good stability, reproducibility and repeatability. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for real life samples of blood serum and RZB determination in pharmaceutical. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Moessbauer spectroscopic study on valence-detrapping and trapping of mixed-valence trinuclear iron (III, III, II) fluorine-substitute benzoate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Y.; Onaka, S.; Ogiso, R.; Takayama, T.; Takahashi, M.; Nakamoto, T.

    2012-01-01

    Four mixed-valence trinuclear iron(III, III, II) fluorine-substituted benzoate complexes were synthesized; Fe 3 O(C 6 F 5 COO) 6 (C 5 H 5 N) 3 ·CH 2 Cl 2 (1), Fe 3 O(C 6 F 5 COO) 6 (C 5 H 5 N) 3 (2), Fe 3 O(2H-C 6 F 4 COO) 6 (C 5 H 5 N) 3 (3), and Fe 3 O(4H-C 6 F 4 COO) 6 (C 5 H 5 N) 3 (4). By means of 57 Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy, valence-detrapping and trapping phenomena have been investigated for the four mixed-valence complexes. The valence state of three iron ions is trapped at lower temperatures while it is fully detrapped at higher temperatures for 1. Valence detrapping is not observed for 2, 3, and 4 even at room temperature, although Moessbauer spectra for 3 and 4 show a complicated temperature dependence. (author)

  14. Electrostatic settling of catalyst particles in hydrogenation of methyl benzoate. Denkai chinkoho ni yoru ansokukosan mechiru suisoka hannoeki kara no shokubai ryushi bunri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, K. (Japan Energy Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Central Research Lab.)

    1994-03-01

    As benzyl alcohol (BA), which is one of the simplest alcohol having aromatic ring, has been used widely for the fields related to soap, perfume and chemicals industry, its usage has not always been so much because of its expensiveness. Authors developed previously a new process technique to produce cheaper and higher purity BA not through chlorination process using toluene as its raw materials. The BA can be obtained by hydrogenating methyl benzoate (MB) at a dispersion babble tower using cupper-chromium type powder catalyst in mixed solvent of methanol and toluene. The catalyst becomes much fine particles after the reaction. In this study, it is examined to separate MB hydrogenation reaction solution obtained by electrostatic settling into solid and liquid phases as an aim to improve the BA production process. Rate of electrostatic settling does not depend upon solid concentration, slurry forming conditions, electrode materials, specific resistance of slurry layer and others, but is in proportion to electric field intensity. Furthermore, process of the electrostatic settling is expressed by an equation. 9 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Designs for degraded Trbovlje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naja Marot

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As an introduction, two degraded urban areas are presented. The first, planning unit seven, is situated in the southeastern part of Trbovlje town. The other, called Speke, lies to the south of Liverpool. The basis for the concept and context of urban renewal model are given by comparison between the newest Slovene and British spatial planning legislation, analyses of the Design management plan Nasipi and Supplementary Planning Document Edge Lane West, and review of different approaches to local communities’ involvement. Based on all the thus far collected data, a questionnaire about quality of living, knowledge of planning system and area perception was produced. Initially, it was used in a pilot residential area Žabjek, and afterwards, a shortened version was carried out in units lying in other parts of the town. Other stakeholders also expressed their ideas about how to develop planning unit seven. Speke Garston as another example of successful urban renewal is given. In conclusion guidelines for method and context development of urban renewal are given for planning unit seven, with emphasis on the Žabjek estate.

  16. Avoiding The Inevitable? Capacity Loss From Reservoir Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Randle, Timothy J.; Collins, Kent L.

    2013-01-01

    The inexorable loss of capacity of the nation's reservoirs—sooner or later threatening water supplies for municipal, agricultural, and industrial uses—is but one of a number of deleterious effects wrought by sediment deposition. Trapped sediments can also damage or bury dam outlets, water intakes, and related infrastructure. Downstream effects of sediment capture and retention by reservoirs can include channel and habitat degradation and biotic alterations.

  17. Radiation demineralised bone enhanced osteoinductive capacity after transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, G.O.; Al-Assaf, S.; Williams, P.A.; Plessis, A. du; Yim, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Using a mediating alkyne gas during the radiation treatment prevents the degradation of natural and synthetic polysaccharides and proteins. The product has higher viscosity and is more elastic than the original material and, therefore, gives enhanced functionality. Protein, within demineralised bone, too can be modified to give enhanced osteoinductive capacity after transplantation. Thus new functionalities can be achieved from the new products produced in food and medical products

  18. What factors influence mitigative capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Harald; Baumert, Kevin; Blanchard, Odile; Burch, Sarah; Robinson, John

    2007-01-01

    This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

  19. Lysosomal degradation of membrane lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolter, Thomas; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2010-05-03

    The constitutive degradation of membrane components takes place in the acidic compartments of a cell, the endosomes and lysosomes. Sites of lipid degradation are intralysosomal membranes that are formed in endosomes, where the lipid composition is adjusted for degradation. Cholesterol is sorted out of the inner membranes, their content in bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate increases, and, most likely, sphingomyelin is degraded to ceramide. Together with endosomal and lysosomal lipid-binding proteins, the Niemann-Pick disease, type C2-protein, the GM2-activator, and the saposins sap-A, -B, -C, and -D, a suitable membrane lipid composition is required for degradation of complex lipids by hydrolytic enzymes. Copyright 2009 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Radio-capacity of ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kultakhmedov, Yu.; Kultakhmedova-Vyshnyakova, V.

    1997-01-01

    This paper consider a universal approach to ecosystems of different types, based on representation of their radio-capacity. The concept of ecosystem includes reproduction of components (bio-productivity) and conditions such as maintaining of environment quality. Radio-capacity in the case of radionuclide pollution appears in accumulation and redistribution of radionuclides in the ecosystem. As a result the radionuclides are redistributed and buried in soil or lake bottom sediments. Estimation models for the radio-capacity of water and terrestrial ecosystems are represented. The calculations of the radio-capacity factor of water ecosystems are performed, and the high radio-capacity of a freshwater reservoir (F=0.6-0.8) and extremely high radio-capacity of a reservoir cascade (F c =0.99) is shown material from the Dnieper's cascade reservoirs. The methods of radio-capacity estimation of agroecosystems, wood and marine ecosystems are developed. (authors)

  1. Increased degradation rate of nitrososureas in media containing carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidegård, Janeric; Grönquist, Lena; Tuvesson, Helen; Gunnarsson, Per-Olov

    2009-01-01

    The stability of two nitrosoureas, tauromustine and lomustine, has been investigated in different media and buffers. All media tested, except Leibovitz's L-15 medium, significantly increased the degradation rate of the investigated nitrosoureas at pH 7.4. Sodium bicarbonate seems to be the cause of the observed increase of the degradation rate, since it provides the main buffering capacity of all the media except for Leibovitz's L-15 medium, which is based on phosphate buffer. Other ingredients in the media, such as amino acids, vitamins, and inorganic salts, or the ionic strength of a buffer, did not have any major effect on the degradation rate of the nitrosoureas. These results suggest that media containing carbonated buffer should be avoided when the anti-tumor effect of nitrosoureas is to be investigated in different cell cultures.

  2. Degradation of organic pollutants by methane grown microbial consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselsoe, Martin; Boysen, Susanne; Iversen, Niels; Jørgensen, Lars; Murrell, J Colin; McDonald, Ian; Radajewski, Stefan; Thestrup, Helle; Roslev, Peter

    2005-10-01

    Microbial consortia were enriched from various environmental samples with methane as the sole carbon and energy source. Selected consortia that showed a capacity for co-oxidation of naphthalene were screened for their ability to degrade methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE), phthalic acid esters (PAE), benzene, xylene and toluene (BTX). MTBE was not removed within 24 h by any of the consortia examined. One consortium enriched from activated sludge ("AAE-A2"), degraded PAE, including (butyl-benzyl)phthalate (BBP), and di-(butyl)phthalate (DBP). PAE have not previously been described as substrates for methanotrophic consortia. The apparent Km and Vmax for DBP degradation by AAE-A2 at 20 degrees C was 3.1 +/- 1.2 mg l(-1) and 8.7 +/- 1.1 mg DBP (g protein x h)(-1), respectively. AAE-A2 also showed fast degradation of BTX (230 +/- 30 nmol benzene (mg protein x h)(-1) at 20 degrees C). Additionally, AAE-A2 degraded benzene continuously for 2 weeks. In contrast, a pure culture of the methanotroph Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b ceased benzene degradation after only 2 days. Experiments with methane mono-oxygenase inhibitors or competitive substrates suggested that BTX degradation was carried out by methane-oxidizing bacteria in the consortium, whereas the degradation of PAE was carried out by non-methanotrophic bacteria co-existing with methanotrophs. The composition of the consortium (AAE-A2) based on polar lipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles showed dominance of type II methanotrophs (83-92% of biomass). Phylogeny based on a 16S-rRNA gene clone library revealed that the dominating methanotrophs belonged to Methylosinus/Methylocystis spp. and that members of at least 4 different non-methanotrophic genera were present (Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Janthinobacterium and Rubivivax).

  3. Capacity building for HIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gulis PhD

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: To integrate health impact assessment (HIA into existing decision-making processes requires not only methods and procedures but also well-trained experts, aware policy makers and appropriate institutions. Capacity building is the assistance which is provided to entities, which have a need to develop a certain skill or competence, or for general upgrading of performance ability. If a new technique is planned to be introduced there is a need for capacity building with no respect to levels (local, regional, national, international or sectors (health, environment, finance, social care, education, etc.. As such, HIA is a new technique for most of the new Member States and accession countries of the European Union.

    Methods: To equip individuals with the understanding and skills needed to launch a HIA or be aware of the availability of this methodology and to access information, knowledge and training, we focused on the organization of workshops in participating countries. The workshops served also as pilot events to test a “curriculum” for HIA; a set of basic topics and presentations had been developed to be tested during workshops. In spite of classical in-class workshops we aimed to organize e-learning events as a way to over come the “busyness” problem of decision makers.

    Results: Throughout March – October 2006 we organized and ran 7 workshops in Denmark, Turkey, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria, Slovak Republic and Hungary. Participants came from the public health sector (141, non-public health decision makers (113 and public health students (100. A concise curriculum was developed and tested during these workshops. Participants developed a basic understanding of HIA, skills to develop and use their own screening tools as well as scoping.Within the workshop in Denmark we tested an online, real-time Internet based training method; participants highly welcomed this

  4. ANAEROBIC DEGRADATION OF HALOGENATED BENZOIC-ACIDS BY PHOTOHETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERWOUDE, BJ; DEBOER, M; VANDERPUT, NMJ; VANDERGELD, FM; PRINS, RA; GOTTSCHAL, JC

    1994-01-01

    From light-exposed enrichment cultures containing benzoate and a mixture of chlorobenzoates, a pure culture was obtained able to grow with 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA) or 3-bromobenzoate (3-BrBA) as the sole growth substrate anaerobically in the light. The thus isolated organism is a photoheterotroph,

  5. Drift Degradation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwayne C. Kicker

    2001-09-28

    A statistical description of the probable block sizes formed by fractures around the emplacement drifts has been developed for each of the lithologic units of the repository host horizon. A range of drift orientations with the drift azimuth varied in 15{sup o} increments has been considered in the static analysis. For the quasi-static seismic analysis, and the time-dependent and thermal effects analysis, two drift orientations have been considered: a drift azimuth of 105{sup o} and the current emplacement drift azimuth of 75{sup o}. The change in drift profile resulting from progressive deterioration of the emplacement drifts has been assessed both with and without backfill. Drift profiles have been determined for four different time increments, including static (i.e., upon excavation), 200 years, 2,000 years, and 10,000 years. The effect of seismic events on rock fall has been analyzed. Block size distributions and drift profiles have been determined for three seismic levels, including a 1,000-year event, a 5,000-year event, and a 10,000-year event. Data developed in this modeling and analysis activity have been entered into the TDMS (DTN: MO0109RDDAAMRR.003). The following conclusions have resulted from this drift degradation analysis: (1) The available fracture data are suitable for supporting a detailed key block analysis of the repository host horizon rock mass. The available data from the north-south Main Drift and the east-west Cross Drift provide a sufficient representative fracture sample of the repository emplacement drift horizon. However, the Tptpln fracture data are only available from a relatively small section of the Cross Drift, resulting in a smaller fracture sample size compared to the other lithologic units. This results in a lower degree of confidence that the key block data based on the Tptpln data set is actually representative of the overall Tptpln key block population. (2) The seismic effect on the rock fall size distribution for all events

  6. Cloning, Characterization and Analysis of cat and ben Genes from the Phenol Degrading Halophilic Bacterium Halomonas organivorans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Maria de Lourdes; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Piubeli, Francine; Frias, Luciana; García, María Teresa; Mellado, Encarnación

    2011-01-01

    Background Extensive use of phenolic compounds in industry has resulted in the generation of saline wastewaters that produce significant environmental contamination; however, little information is available on the degradation of phenolic compounds in saline conditions. Halomonas organivorans G-16.1 (CECT 5995T) is a moderately halophilic bacterium that we isolated in a previous work from saline environments of South Spain by enrichment for growth in different pollutants, including phenolic compounds. PCR amplification with degenerate primers revealed the presence of genes encoding ring-cleaving enzymes of the β-ketoadipate pathway for aromatic catabolism in H. organivorans. Findings The gene cluster catRBCA, involved in catechol degradation, was isolated from H. organivorans. The genes catA, catB, catC and the divergently transcribed catR code for catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (1,2-CTD), cis,cis-muconate cycloisomerase, muconolactone delta-isomerase and a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, respectively. The benzoate catabolic genes (benA and benB) are located flanking the cat genes. The expression of cat and ben genes by phenol and benzoic acid was shown by RT-PCR analysis. The induction of catA gene by phenol and benzoic acid was also probed by the measurement of 1,2-CTD activity in H. organivorans growth in presence of these inducers. 16S rRNA and catA gene-based phylogenies were established among different degrading bacteria showing no phylogenetic correlation between both genes. Conclusions/Significance In this work, we isolated and determined the sequence of a gene cluster from a moderately halophilic bacterium encoding ortho-pathway genes involved in the catabolic metabolism of phenol and analyzed the gene organization, constituting the first report characterizing catabolic genes involved in the degradation of phenol in moderate halophiles, providing an ideal model system to investigate the potential use of this group of extremophiles in the decontamination of

  7. Integrated flexible capacity and inventory management under flexible capacity uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Paç, Mehmet Fazıl

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. In a manufacturing environment with volatile demand, inventory management can be coupled with dynamic capacity adjustments for handling the fluctuations more effectively. In this study we consider the integrated management of inventory and flexible capacity management under seasonal stochastic demand and uncertain labor supply. The capacity planning problem is investigated from the workforce planning perspective. We consider a manufactu...

  8. Poverty, population and environmental degradation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozelle, S; Huang, J; Zhang, L

    1997-06-01

    This article examines the relationship between poverty, population, and environmental degradation in China. Environmental conditions include water pollution, deforestation, destruction of grasslands, soil erosion, and salinization. The authors review China's success in controlling environmental degradation through leadership, environmental policies, and institutional capacity. Findings suggest that environmental progress is best achieved indirectly by poverty alleviation, market integration, and population control. Government policies were not very effective. Degradation occurs due to limited financial resources, poorly trained personnel, and political factors. Control of water pollution was instituted since the 1980s. The levels of pollutants have been reduced, but the type of pollutant determines the seriousness of impact. Water pollution is due to industrial wastes, agricultural run-off, and soil erosion. Since the 1970s, reforestation targets have not been met. Technical extension and monitoring of planting is not available in most areas, and private, profit seeking interests control acreage. Grassland destruction is due to deforestation, agricultural expansion, and overgrazing. Independent regional authorities have successfully managed pasture programs. Erosion is the most serious in Loess Plateau, the Red Soils area, the Northeast China Plain, and the Northwest Grasslands, which comprise 70% of total land area. In 1990, erosion control was practiced in 39% of eroded land area. Salinization has remained fairly constant. Environmental controls (direct regulation, planned recovery, and state-mandated technological improvements) are uneven. The main tool for environmental management is the State Environmental Protection Commission and its executive unit, SEPA. Problems stem from vague laws, lack of means of enforcement, lack of coordination of laws, and lack of standards, schedules, and other provisions in ordinances.

  9. Intrinsic immunogenicity of rapidly-degradable polymers evolves during degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andorko, James I; Hess, Krystina L; Pineault, Kevin G; Jewell, Christopher M

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies reveal many biomaterial vaccine carriers are able to activate immunostimulatory pathways, even in the absence of other immune signals. How the changing properties of polymers during biodegradation impact this intrinsic immunogenicity is not well studied, yet this information could contribute to rational design of degradable vaccine carriers that help direct immune response. We use degradable poly(beta-amino esters) (PBAEs) to explore intrinsic immunogenicity as a function of the degree of polymer degradation and polymer form (e.g., soluble, particles). PBAE particles condensed by electrostatic interaction to mimic a common vaccine approach strongly activate dendritic cells, drive antigen presentation, and enhance T cell proliferation in the presence of antigen. Polymer molecular weight strongly influences these effects, with maximum stimulation at short degradation times--corresponding to high molecular weight--and waning levels as degradation continues. In contrast, free polymer is immunologically inert. In mice, PBAE particles increase the numbers and activation state of cells in lymph nodes. Mechanistic studies reveal that this evolving immunogenicity occurs as the physicochemical properties and concentration of particles change during polymer degradation. This work confirms the immunological profile of degradable, synthetic polymers can evolve over time and creates an opportunity to leverage this feature in new vaccines. Degradable polymers are increasingly important in vaccination, but how the inherent immunogenicity of polymers changes during degradation is poorly understood. Using common rapidly-degradable vaccine carriers, we show that the activation of immune cells--even in the absence of other adjuvants--depends on polymer form (e.g., free, particulate) and the extent of degradation. These changing characteristics alter the physicochemical properties (e.g., charge, size, molecular weight) of polymer particles, driving changes in

  10. Degradation of atrazine and isoproturon in surface and sub-surface soil materials undergoing different moisture and aeration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Salah; Wood, Martin

    2005-02-01

    The influence of different moisture and aeration conditions on the degradation of atrazine and isoproturon was investigated in environmental samples aseptically collected from surface and sub-surface zones of agricultural land. The materials were maintained at two moisture contents corresponding to just above field capacity or 90% of field capacity. Another two groups of samples were adjusted with water to above field capacity, and, at zero time, exposed to drying-rewetting cycles. Atrazine was more persistent (t(1/2) = 22-35 days) than isoproturon (t(1/2) = 5-17 days) in samples maintained at constant moisture conditions. The rate of degradation for both herbicides was higher in samples maintained at a moisture content of 90% of field capacity than in samples with higher moisture contents. The reduction in moisture content in samples undergoing desiccation from above field capacity to much lower than field capacity enhanced the degradation of isoproturon (t(1/2) = 9-12 days) but reduced the rate of atrazine degradation (t(1/2) = 23-35 days). This demonstrates the variability between different micro-organisms in their susceptibility to desiccation. Under anaerobic conditions generated in anaerobic jars, atrazine degraded much more rapidly than isoproturon in materials taken from three soil profiles (0-250 cm depth). It is suggested that some specific micro-organisms are able to survive and degrade herbicide under severe conditions of desiccation. Copyright (c) 2005 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Operationalizing measurement of forest degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dons, Klaus; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    . In Tanzania, charcoal production is considered a major cause of forest degradation, but is challenging to quantify due to sub-canopy biomass loss, remote production sites and illegal trade. We studied two charcoal production sites in dry Miombo woodland representing open woodland conditions near human......Quantification of forest degradation in monitoring and reporting as well as in historic baselines is among the most challenging tasks in national REDD+ strategies. However, a recently introduced option is to base monitoring systems on subnational conditions such as prevalent degradation activities...

  12. Available transmission capacity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škokljev Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective power system operation requires the analysis of vast amounts of information. Power market activities expose power transmission networks to high-level power transactions that threaten normal, secure operation of the power system. When there are service requests for a specific sink/source pair in a transmission system, the transmission system operator (TSO must allocate the available transfer capacity (ATC. It is common that ATC has a single numerical value. Additionally, the ATC must be calculated for the base case configuration of the system, while generation dispatch and topology remain unchanged during the calculation. Posting ATC on the internet should benefit prospective users by aiding them in formulating their requests. However, a single numerical value of ATC offers little for prospect for analysis, planning, what-if combinations, etc. A symbolic approach to the power flow problem (DC power flow and ATC offers a numerical computation at the very end, whilst the calculation beforehand is performed by using symbols for the general topology of the electrical network. Qualitative analysis of the ATC using only qualitative values, such as increase, decrease or no change, offers some new insights into ATC evaluation, multiple transactions evaluation, value of counter-flows and their impact etc. Symbolic analysis in this paper is performed after the execution of the linear, symbolic DC power flow. As control variables, the mathematical model comprises linear security constraints, ATC, PTDFs and transactions. The aim is to perform an ATC sensitivity study on a five nodes/seven lines transmission network, used for zonal market activities tests. A relatively complicated environment with twenty possible bilateral transactions is observed.

  13. Degradation Behaviour of Gamma Irradiated Poly(Acrylic Acid)-graft-Chitosan Superabsorbent Hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ria Barleany, Dhena; Ilhami, Alpin; Yusuf Yudanto, Dea; Erizal

    2018-03-01

    A series of superabsorbent hydrogels were prepared from chitosan and partially neutralized acrylic acid at room temperature by gamma irradiation technique. The effect of irradiation and chitosan addition to the degradation behaviour of polymer were investigated. The gel content, swelling capacity, Equillibrium Degree of Swelling (EDS), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) study were also performed. Natural degradation in soil and thermal degradation by using of TGA analysis were observed. The variation of chitosan compositions were 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 g and the total irradiation doses were 5, 10, 15, and 20 kGy. The highest water capacity of 583.3 g water/g dry hydrogel was resulted from 5 kGy total irradiation dose and 0,5 g addition of chitosan. From the thermal degradation evaluation by using of TGA analysis showed that irradiation dose did not give a significant influence to the degradation rate. The rate of thermal degradation was ranged between 2.42 to 2.55 mg/min. In the natural test of degradation behaviour by using of soil medium, the hydrogel product with chitosan addition was found to have better degradability compared with the poly(acrylic acid) polymer without chitosan.

  14. Degradation and mineralization of 2-chloro-, 3-chloro- and 4-chlorobiphenyl by a newly characterized natural bacterial strain isolated from an electrical transformer fluid-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilori, Matthew O; Robinson, Gary K; Adebusoye, Sunday A

    2008-01-01

    A bacterium classified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain IR08 by phenotypic typing coupled with 16S rRNA gene analysis was isolated from a soil contaminated with electrical transformer fluid for over sixty years using Aroclor 1221 as an enrichment substrate. The substrate utilization profiles revealed that IR08 could grow on all three monochlorobiphenyls (CBs), 2,4'- and 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl as well as 2-chlorobenzoate (2-CBA), 3-CBA, 4-CBA, and 2,3-dichlorobenzoate. Unusually, growth was poorly sustained on biphenyl and benzoate. In growth experiments, IR08 degraded all CBs (0.27 mmol/L) in less than 96 h with concomitant stoichiometric release of inorganic chloride and growth yields were 2-3 times higher than those observed on biphenyl. In contrast to most of the chlorobiphenyl-degrading strains described in the literature, which are reported to form CBA, no metabolite was identified in the culture broth by HPLC analysis. When co-incubated with respective CBs and biphenyl, strain IR08 preferentially utilized the chlorinated analogues in less than 96 h while it took another 264 h before 90% of the initially supplied biphenyl could be degraded. The promotion of co-metabolic transformation of halogenated substrates by the inclusion of their non-halogenated derivatives may not therefore, result in universal benefits.

  15. Capacity competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crampes, Claude; Creti, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The article analyzed a two-stage game where capacity constrained electricity generators first choose how much capacity they make available and then compete in a uniform-rice auction. It is studied how capacity withholding can be used strategically to enforce market power and how uniform auctions in the price game change the results of capacity constrained competition models. The uniform auction procedure gives strong incentives to capacity restriction. At equilibrium, however, power shortage never occurs. Though auctions in electricity markets have already been studied by several economists, yet an important feature of spot trading is the capacity availability decision. In fact, for technical reasons, such as equipment maintenance or failures, the installed capacity may not work at maximum operating level and the spot market rules oblige generators to announce which plants they are willing to use and simultaneously their offer prices. Beside technical reasons, the so-called 'capacity declarations' also offer a strategic instrument for firms: by restricting capacity, operators can benefit from scarcity rents. Assessing whether generators withhold capacity is an intriguing issue for real electricity markets, though proving it is a difficult task. Several theoretical papers show that generators are able to keep wholesale prices high as compared to their generation costs. In our model, a generator is not obliged to declare all installed capacity as available, but decides on the amount of MW of electricity that is available. Hence the available capacity is an endogenous variable while the installed one is exogenous. The distinction between installed capacities and 'available' capacities allows to explain clearly whether generators exert market power by declaring unavailable some production units. Although we find multiple sub game perfect equilibria that cannot be eliminated by Pareto-dominance, all the outcomes are characterized by market price at the highest

  16. Algorithmic complexity of quantum capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskouei, Samad Khabbazi; Mancini, Stefano

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the notion of quantum capacity from the perspective of algorithmic (descriptive) complexity. To this end, we resort to the concept of semi-computability in order to describe quantum states and quantum channel maps. We introduce algorithmic entropies (like algorithmic quantum coherent information) and derive relevant properties for them. Then we show that quantum capacity based on semi-computable concept equals the entropy rate of algorithmic coherent information, which in turn equals the standard quantum capacity. Thanks to this, we finally prove that the quantum capacity, for a given semi-computable channel, is limit computable.

  17. Dementia, Decision Making, and Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, R Ryan; Dickerson, Bradford C

    After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Assess the neuropsychological literature on decision making and the medical and legal assessment of capacity in patients with dementia• Identify the limitations of integrating findings from decision-making research into capacity assessments for patients with dementia ABSTRACT: Medical and legal professionals face the challenge of assessing capacity and competency to make medical, legal, and financial decisions in dementia patients with impaired decision making. While such assessments have classically focused on the capacity for complex reasoning and executive functions, research in decision making has revealed that motivational and metacognitive processes are also important. We first briefly review the neuropsychological literature on decision making and on the medical and legal assessment of capacity. Next, we discuss the limitations of integrating findings from decision-making research into capacity assessments, including the group-to-individual inference problem, the unclear role of neuroimaging in capacity assessments, and the lack of capacity measures that integrate important facets of decision making. Finally, we present several case examples where we attempt to demonstrate the potential benefits and important limitations of using decision-making research to aid in capacity determinations.

  18. Integrated capacity and inventory management with capacity acquisition lead times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mincsovics, G.Z.; Tan, T.; Alp, O.

    2009-01-01

    We model a make-to-stock production system that utilizes permanent and contingent capacity to meet non-stationary stochastic demand, where a constant lead time is associated with the acquisition of contingent capacity. We determine the structure of the optimal solution concerning both the

  19. Capacity Measurement with the UIC 406 Capacity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Schittenhelm, Bernd; Kaas, Anders H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the fast and effective UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. It is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different capacity consumptions. Therefore, this article describes how the methodology is expounded...

  20. Chitin Degradation In Marine Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Sara; Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chitin is the most abundant polymer in the marine environment and the second most abundant in nature. Chitin does not accumulate on the ocean floor, because of microbial breakdown. Chitin degrading bacteria could have potential in the utilization of chitin as a renewable carbon...... and nitrogen source in the fermentation industry.Methods: Here, whole genome sequenced marine bacteria were screened for chitin degradation using phenotypic and in silico analyses.Results: The in silico analyses revealed the presence of three to nine chitinases in each strain, however the number of chitinases...... chitin regulatory system.Conclusions: This study has provided insight into the ecology of chitin degradation in marine bacteria. It also served as a basis for choosing a more efficient chitin degrading production strain e.g. for the use of chitin waste for large-scale fermentations....

  1. Predicting degradability of organic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finizio, A; Vighi, M [Milan Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Entomologia Agraria

    1992-05-01

    Degradability, particularly biodegradability, is one of the most important factors governing the persistence of pollutants in the environment and consequently influencing their behavior and toxicity in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The need for reliable persistence data in order to assess the environmental fate and hazard of chemicals by means of predictive approaches, is evident. Biodegradability tests are requested by the EEC directive on new chemicals. Neverthless, degradation tests are not easy to carry out and data on existing chemicals are very scarce. Therefore, assessing the fate of chemicals in the environment from the simple study of their structure would be a useful tool. Rates of degradation are a function of the rates of a series of processes. Correlation between degradation rates and structural parameters are will be facilitated if one of the processes is rate determining. This review is a survey of studies dealing with relationships between structure and biodegradation of organic chemicals, to identify the value and limitations of this approach.

  2. Degradation of tetraethyllead in leaded gasoline contaminated and uncontaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, L.; Jing, W.; Thomas, J.; Mulroy, P.

    1995-01-01

    For over 50 years, since its introduction in 1923 by General Motors, tetraethyllead (TEL) was the major antiknock agent used in leaded gasoline. Since the middle of 1970, use of leaded gasoline in automobiles was gradually phased out. The main objective of this study is to determine the degradation rates and metabolites of TEL in gasoline contaminated and uncontaminated soils. TEL in uncontaminated soils disappeared rapidly. Ionic triethyllead (TREL) was the major organolead metabolite in these soils, with ionic diethyllead (DEL) being the minor product. Nonsterile soils, but not autoclaved soils, had limited capacity to mineralize 14 C-TEL to 14 CO 2 , H 2 0, and Pb 2+ . Unlike TEL in uncontaminated soils, petroleum hydrocarbons protected TEL in leaded gasoline contaminated soils from being degraded. Both disappearance and mineralization rates of TEL in leaded gasoline contaminated soils decreased with the increase in gasoline concentration. It appears that TEL in leaded gasoline contaminated soils is relatively stable until the level of petroleum hydrocarbons falls below a critical value. TEL is then rapidly degraded. Hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms may be involved, to some extent, in the degradation of TEL

  3. Diuron degradation by bacteria from soil of sugarcane crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassia C. Egea

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of microorganisms from soil impacted by xenobiotic chemicals and exposing them in the laboratory to the contaminant can provide important information about their response to the contaminants. The purpose of this study was to isolate bacteria from soil with historical application of herbicides and to evaluate their potential to degrade diuron. The isolation media contained either glucose or diuron as carbon source. A total of 400 bacteria were isolated, with 68% being Gram-positive and 32% Gram-negative. Most isolates showed potential to degrade between 10 and 30% diuron after five days of cultivation; however Stenotrophomonas acidophila TD4.7 and Bacillus cereus TD4.31 were able to degrade 87% and 68%, respectively. The degradation of diuron resulted in the formation of the metabolites DCPMU, DCPU, DCA, 3,4-CAC, 4-CA, 4-CAC and aniline. Based on these results it was proposed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa TD2.3, Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila TD4.7, B. cereus TD4.31 and Alcaligenes faecalis TG 4.48, act on 3,4-DCA and 4-CA by alkylation and dealkylation while Micrococcus luteus and Achromobacter sp follow dehalogenation directly to aniline. Growth on aniline as sole carbon source demonstrates the capacity of strains to open the aromatic ring. In conclusion, the results show that the role of microorganisms in the degradation of xenobiotics in the environment depends on their own metabolism and also on their synergistic interactions.

  4. Selection of the Mutants with High Hydroquinone Degradation Ability of Serratia Marcesscen by Plasma Mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Risheng; You Qidong; He Weijing; Zhu Huixia

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an efficient way by plasma induced mutation was applied to improve the hydroquinone degradation capacity of Serratia marcescens AB 90027 (SM27). The results showed that combined with the selection of hydroquinone tolerance, the mutant with high hydroquinone degradation ability induced by plasma could be achieved. The best dose for plasma mutation was 15 s, which showed a 47.0% higher positive mutation ratio. Besides, the aimed mutant was markedly different from the parent strain (SM27) in colonial traits while cultivated on Kings media. Finally, the hydroquinone degradation ratio reached 70.5% using the induced mutant strain with 1500 mg/L hydroquinone (HQ) after 15 days of cultivation as the selective conditions; however, it was only 46.7% for SM27. The improvement of the degradation capacity by the induced mutant with a high concentration of HQ selection was attributed to its faster growth and higher hydroquinone tolerance compared with that of the parent strain.

  5. Carrying capacity: the tradition and policy implications of limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Deane Abernethy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Within just the last few centuries, science and technology have enlarged human capabilities and population size until humans now take, for their own use, nearly half of the Earth's net terrestrial primary production. An ethical perspective suggests that potentials to alter, or further increase, humanity's use of global resources should be scrutinized through the lenses of self-interested foresightedness and respect for non-human life. Without overtly invoking ethics, studies of the carrying capacity achieve just this objective. Carrying capacity is an ecological concept that expresses the relationship between a population and the natural environment on which it depends for ongoing sustenance. Carrying capacity assumes limits on the number of individuals that can be supported at a given level of consumption without degrading the environment and, therefore, reducing future carrying capacity. That is, carrying capacity addresses long-term sustainability. Worldviews differ in the importance accorded to the carrying capacity concept. This paper addresses three worldviews - ecological, romantic, and entrepreneurial - and explores the ethics and the policy implications of their contrasting perspectives.

  6. Working session 1: Tubing degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharshafdjian, G.; Turluer, G.

    1997-01-01

    A general introductory overview of the purpose of the group and the general subject area of SG tubing degradation was given by the facilitator. The purpose of the session was described as to open-quotes develop conclusions and proposals on regulatory and technical needs required to deal with the issues of SG tubing degradation.close quotes Types, locations and characteristics of tubing degradation in steam generators were briefly reviewed. The well-known synergistic effects of materials, environment, and stress and strain/strain rate, subsequently referred to by the acronym open-quotes MESSclose quotes by some of the group members, were noted. The element of time (i.e., evolution of these variables with time) was emphasized. It was also suggested that the group might want to consider the related topics of inspection capabilities, operational variables, degradation remedies, and validity of test data, and some background information in these areas was provided. The presentation given by Peter Millet during the Plenary Session was reviewed; Specifically, the chemical aspects and the degradation from the secondary side of the steam generator were noted. The main issues discussed during the October 1995 EPRI meeting on secondary side corrosion were reported, and a listing of the potential SG tube degradations was provided and discussed

  7. Abiotic degradation of plastic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles-López, Y. G.; Gutiérrez-Mayen, A. M.; Velasco-Pérez, M.; Beltrán-Villavicencio, M.; Vázquez-Morillas, A.; Cano-Blanco, M.

    2017-01-01

    Degradable plastics have been promoted as an option to mitigate the environmental impacts of plastic waste. However, there is no certainty about its degradability under different environmental conditions. The effect of accelerated weathering (AW), natural weathering (NW) and thermal oxidation (TO) on different plastics (high density polyethylene, HDPE; oxodegradable high density polyethylene, HDPE-oxo; compostable plastic, Ecovio ® metalized polypropylene, PP; and oxodegradable metalized polypropylene, PP-oxo) was studied. Plastics films were exposed to AW per 110 hours; to NW per 90 days; and to TO per 30 days. Plastic films exposed to AW and NW showed a general loss on mechanical properties. The highest reduction in elongation at break on AW occurred to HDPE-oxo (from 400.4% to 20.9%) and was higher than 90% for HDPE, HDPE-oxo, Ecovio ® and PP-oxo in NW. No substantial evidence of degradation was found on plastics exposed to TO. Oxo-plastics showed higher degradation rates than their conventional counterparts, and the compostable plastic was resistant to degradation in the studied abiotic conditions. This study shows that degradation of plastics in real life conditions will vary depending in both, their composition and the environment.

  8. Biological degradation of chernozems under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Naydyonova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the changes in the state of microbial cenosis of Ukraine’s chernozems under irrigation. Considerable part of Ukraine’s chernozems is located in the areas where humidification is insufficient and unstable. Irrigation is a soil-reclamation measure for chernozems of Ukrainian Forest-steppe and Steppe which enables getting the assured yield, especially vegetable and fodder crops. At the same time, irrigation is a powerful anthropogenic factor that affects the soil, causes a significant transformation of many of its properties and regimes including biological ones. Often these changes are negative. The purpose of our investigation was to identify changes in the state of microbial cenoses of chernozem soils under irrigation which depend on such factors as the quality of irrigation water, the duration and intensity of irrigation, the initial properties of soil, the structure of crop rotation, usage of fertilizing systems and agroameliorative techniques. We identified direction and evaluated a degree of changes in biological properties of chernozems under influence of irrigation in different agro-irrigational and soil-climatic conditions. In the long-term stationary field experiments we identified the following biological indices of irrigated soils and their non-irrigated analogues: a number of microorganisms which belong to main ecological-trophic groups, activity of soil enzymes (dehydrogenase, invertase, phenol oxidase, soil phytotoxic activity, cellulose destroying capacity of soil, indices of oligotrophy and mineralization, summary biological index (SBI and index of biological degradation (BDI. Results of researches showed that irrigation unbalanced the soil ecosystem and stipulated the forming of microbial cenosis with new parameters. Long-term intensive irrigation of typical chernozem (Kharkiv Region with fresh water under condition of 4-fields vegetable crop rotation led to the degradation changes of its microbial cenosis such as

  9. Food additives such as sodium sulphite, sodium benzoate and curcumin inhibit leptin release in lipopolysaccharide-treated murine adipocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardi, Christian; Jenny, Marcel; Tschoner, Alexander; Ueberall, Florian; Patsch, Josef; Pedrini, Michael; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2012-03-01

    Obesity leads to the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways, resulting in a state of low-grade inflammation. Recently, several studies have shown that the exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could initiate and maintain a chronic state of low-grade inflammation in obese people. As the daily intake of food additives has increased substantially, the aim of the present study was to investigate a potential influence of food additives on the release of leptin, IL-6 and nitrite in the presence of LPS in murine adipocytes. Leptin, IL-6 and nitrite concentrations were analysed in the supernatants of murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes after co-incubation with LPS and the food preservatives, sodium sulphite (SS), sodium benzoate (SB) and the spice and colourant, curcumin, for 24 h. In addition, the kinetics of leptin secretion was analysed. A significant and dose-dependent decrease in leptin was observed after incubating the cells with SB and curcumin for 12 and 24 h, whereas SS decreased leptin concentrations after 24 h of treatment. Moreover, SS increased, while curcumin decreased LPS-stimulated secretion of IL-6, whereas SB had no such effect. None of the compounds that were investigated influenced nitrite production. The food additives SS, SB and curcumin affect the leptin release after co-incubation with LPS from cultured adipocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Decreased leptin release during the consumption of nutrition-derived food additives could decrease the amount of circulating leptin to which the central nervous system is exposed and may therefore contribute to an obesogenic environment.

  10. Evidence for changes in the transcription levels of two putative P-glycoprotein genes in sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) in response to emamectin benzoate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, Nicholas D; Burka, John F; Kibenge, Frederick S B

    2007-05-01

    Overexpression of P-glycoproteins (Pgps) is assumed to be a principal mechanism of resistance of nematodes and arthropods to macrocyclic lactones. Quantitative RT-PCR (Q-RT-PCR) was used to demonstrate changes in transcription levels of two putative P-glycoprotein genes, designated here as SL0525 and SL-Pgp1, in sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) following exposure to emamectin benzoate (EMB). Pre-adult L. salmonis were challenged in an EMB bioassay for 24h and gene expression was studied from lice surviving EMB concentrations of 0, 10, and 30ppb. Gene expression was measured using Q-RT-PCR with elongation factor 1 (eEF1alpha) as an internal reference gene. The results show that both target genes, SL0525 and SL-Pgp1, had significantly increased levels of expression with exposure to 10ppb EMB (p=0.11 and p=0.17, respectively) whereas the group exposed to 30ppb was on the verge of being significant (p=0.053) only in the expression of SL-Pgp1. Gene expression for SL0525 and SL-Pgp1 were increased over five-fold at 10ppb EMB. Therefore, the upregulation of these target genes may offer protection by increasing Pgp expression when lice are exposed to EMB. Our optimized Q-RT-PCR can be used to determine if over-expression of these genes could be the basis for development of resistance in sea lice and thus allow suitable alternative chemotherapeutic options to be assessed.

  11. A common-garden experiment to quantify evolutionary processes in copepods: the case of emamectin benzoate resistance in the parasitic sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungfeldt, Lina Eva Robin; Espedal, Per Gunnar; Nilsen, Frank; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Glover, Kevin Alan

    2014-05-19

    The development of pesticide resistance represents a global challenge to food production. Specifically for the Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry, parasitic sea lice and their developing resistance to delousing chemicals is challenging production. In this study, seventeen full sibling families, established from three strains of Lepeophtheirus salmonis displaying differing backgrounds in emamectin benzoate (EB) tolerance were produced and quantitatively compared under a common-garden experimental design. Lice surviving to the preadult stage were then exposed to EB and finally identified through the application of DNA parentage testing. With the exception of two families (19 and 29%), survival from the infectious copepod to preadult stage was very similar among families (40-50%). In contrast, very large differences in survival following EB exposure were observed among the families (7.9-74%). Family survival post EB exposure was consistent with the EB tolerance characteristics of the strains from which they were established and no negative effect on infection success were detected in association with increased EB tolerance. Two of the lice families that displayed reduced sensitivity to EB were established from a commercial farm that had previously used this chemical. This demonstrates that resistant alleles were present on this farm even though the farm had not reported treatment failure. To our knowledge, this represents the first study where families of any multi-cellular parasite have been established and compared in performance under communal rearing conditions in a common-garden experiment. The system performed in a predictable manner and permitted, for the first time, elucidation of quantitative traits among sea lice families. While this experiment concentrated on, and provided a unique insight into EB sensitivity among lice families, the experimental design represents a novel methodology to experimentally address both resistance development and other

  12. Biological effects of the anti-parasitic chemotherapeutant emamectin benzoate on a non-target crustacean, the spot prawn (Pandalus platyceros Brandt, 1851) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Ikonomou, Michael G; Buday, Craig; Jordan, Jameson; Rehaume, Vicki; Cabecinha, Melissa; Dubetz, Cory; Chamberlain, Jon; Pittroff, Sabrina; Vallée, Kurtis; van Aggelen, Graham; Helbing, Caren C

    2012-02-01

    The potential impact of commercial salmon aquaculture along the coast of British Columbia on the health of non-target marine wildlife is of growing concern. In the current initiative, the biological effects on gene expression within spot prawn (Pandalus platyceros) exposed to the sea lice controlling agent, emamectin benzoate (EB; 0.1-4.8 mg/kg sediment), were investigated. A mean sediment/water partitioning coefficient (K(p)) was determined to be 21.81 and significant levels of EB were detected in the tail muscle tissue in all exposed animals. Animals selected for the experiment did not have eggs and were of similar weight. Significant mortality was observed within 8 days of EB treatment at concentrations between 0.1 and 0.8 mg/kg and there was no effect of EB on molting. Twelve spot prawn cDNA sequences were isolated from the tail muscle either by directed cloning or subtractive hybridization of control versus EB exposed tissues. Three of the transcripts most affected by EB exposure matched sequences encoding the 60S ribosomal protein L22, spliceosome RNA helicase WM6/UAP56, and the intracellular signal mediator histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 suggesting that translation, transcription regulation, and apoptosis pathways were impacted. The mRNA encoding the molting enzyme, β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, was not affected by EB treatment. However, the expression of this transcript was extremely variable making it unsuitable for effects assessment. The results suggest that short-term exposure to EB can impact biological processes within this non-target crustacean. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Biological effects of the anti-parasitic chemotherapeutant emamectin benzoate on a non-target crustacean, the spot prawn (Pandalus platyceros Brandt, 1851) under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Ikonomou, Michael G.; Buday, Craig; Jordan, Jameson; Rehaume, Vicki; Cabecinha, Melissa; Dubetz, Cory; Chamberlain, Jon; Pittroff, Sabrina; Vallée, Kurtis; Aggelen, Graham van; Helbing, Caren C.

    2012-01-01

    The potential impact of commercial salmon aquaculture along the coast of British Columbia on the health of non-target marine wildlife is of growing concern. In the current initiative, the biological effects on gene expression within spot prawn (Pandalus platyceros) exposed to the sea lice controlling agent, emamectin benzoate (EB; 0.1–4.8 mg/kg sediment), were investigated. A mean sediment/water partitioning coefficient (K p ) was determined to be 21.81 and significant levels of EB were detected in the tail muscle tissue in all exposed animals. Animals selected for the experiment did not have eggs and were of similar weight. Significant mortality was observed within 8 days of EB treatment at concentrations between 0.1 and 0.8 mg/kg and there was no effect of EB on molting. Twelve spot prawn cDNA sequences were isolated from the tail muscle either by directed cloning or subtractive hybridization of control versus EB exposed tissues. Three of the transcripts most affected by EB exposure matched sequences encoding the 60S ribosomal protein L22, spliceosome RNA helicase WM6/UAP56, and the intracellular signal mediator histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 suggesting that translation, transcription regulation, and apoptosis pathways were impacted. The mRNA encoding the molting enzyme, β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, was not affected by EB treatment. However, the expression of this transcript was extremely variable making it unsuitable for effects assessment. The results suggest that short-term exposure to EB can impact biological processes within this non-target crustacean.

  14. Toxic effects of sub-chronic exposure of male albino rats to emamectin benzoate and possible ameliorative role of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, El-Sayed A; Galal, Azza A A

    2015-05-01

    Emamectin benzoate (EB) is an avermectin insecticide used extensively in pest control on vegetable and field crops. Few studies have been done for evaluating adverse effects of EB. In the current study, we evaluated the toxic effects of EB on male rats and the possible ameliorative role of fennel essential oil (FEO). Thirty two male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. All groups were treated orally with distilled water (control group), 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW (FEO group), 2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (EB group), and 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW+2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (FEO+EB group) for 28 days. The obtained results showed that EB treatment resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, body weight gain, RBC count, Hb concentration, % PCV, MCV and MCHC. Moreover, EB significantly decreased total leukocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet count but significantly increased granulocyte count. EB markedly decreased total protein, albumin, globulin, IgG and IgM concentrations with a significant increase in TNF-α secretion. EB had a negative impact on the liver as it significantly increased ALT, ALP, and MDA, while decreasing SOD activity. Regarding to the histopathological examination, EB treatment induced coagulative necrosis and blood vessels congestion of the liver in treated rats. Furthermore, it resulted in depletion and necrosis of the white pulp of the spleen in treated rats. The co-administration of FEO with EB, however, improved the majority of parameters studied, suggesting that FEO is an important substance in decreasing toxic effects of EB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biological effects of the anti-parasitic chemotherapeutant emamectin benzoate on a non-target crustacean, the spot prawn (Pandalus platyceros Brandt, 1851) under laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhoen, Nik [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Stn CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Ikonomou, Michael G. [Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 9860 West Saanich Road, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, BC, V8L 4B2 (Canada); Buday, Craig [Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC, V7H 1V2 (Canada); Jordan, Jameson; Rehaume, Vicki; Cabecinha, Melissa [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Stn CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Dubetz, Cory; Chamberlain, Jon [Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 9860 West Saanich Road, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, BC, V8L 4B2 (Canada); Pittroff, Sabrina; Vallee, Kurtis [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Stn CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Aggelen, Graham van [Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC, V7H 1V2 (Canada); Helbing, Caren C., E-mail: chelbing@uvic.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Stn CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    The potential impact of commercial salmon aquaculture along the coast of British Columbia on the health of non-target marine wildlife is of growing concern. In the current initiative, the biological effects on gene expression within spot prawn (Pandalus platyceros) exposed to the sea lice controlling agent, emamectin benzoate (EB; 0.1-4.8 mg/kg sediment), were investigated. A mean sediment/water partitioning coefficient (K{sub p}) was determined to be 21.81 and significant levels of EB were detected in the tail muscle tissue in all exposed animals. Animals selected for the experiment did not have eggs and were of similar weight. Significant mortality was observed within 8 days of EB treatment at concentrations between 0.1 and 0.8 mg/kg and there was no effect of EB on molting. Twelve spot prawn cDNA sequences were isolated from the tail muscle either by directed cloning or subtractive hybridization of control versus EB exposed tissues. Three of the transcripts most affected by EB exposure matched sequences encoding the 60S ribosomal protein L22, spliceosome RNA helicase WM6/UAP56, and the intracellular signal mediator histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 suggesting that translation, transcription regulation, and apoptosis pathways were impacted. The mRNA encoding the molting enzyme, {beta}-N-acetylglucosaminidase, was not affected by EB treatment. However, the expression of this transcript was extremely variable making it unsuitable for effects assessment. The results suggest that short-term exposure to EB can impact biological processes within this non-target crustacean.

  16. Relationships between the conception rate of estrus synchronization using estradiol benzoate and CIDR (progesterone) and other parameters in holstein lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hiroshi; Kotani, Satoko; Kohiruimaki, Masayuki; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Ohnami, Yoji

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between conception rate and other parameters before estrus synchronization with a Controlled Internal Drug Release Device (CIDR) and estradiol benzoate (EB). In the estrus synchronization program, animals were injected with 2 mg EB and then received a CIDR. Seven days later, the CIDR was removed and the animals were given an injection of Prostaglandin F(2alpha). Twenty-four hours later, they received an injection of 1 mg EB, and they were artificially inseminated 24 h after that. This program was applied to 258 Holstein cows in Tohoku-machi (Aomori, Japan). Blood was collected at the beginning of the program, and the conception rate was determined about 40 days after insemination. The relationships among conception rate, blood biochemical values, age, body condition score and days in milk were statistically analyzed to determine better conditions for cow conception. The conception rate of the cows in the high progesterone group (more than 1 ng/ml, P(4)+) was significantly higher than that of the low progesterone group (less than 1 ng/ml, P(4)-; 47.9% vs. 28.6% Pconception group than in the non-conception group, and the same tendency was seen in the P(4)+ groups. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin (Alb), and total cholesterol (TChol) were significantly higher in the conception group compared with the non-conception group, but no with P(4) was observed. We concluded that 1) the conception rate of the P(4)- group was remarkably low, that 2) the low conception rate and low P(4) level was related to a low PL level and that 3) BUN, Alb and TChol were higher in the conception group, although no relation with P(4) was found.

  17. 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance of methyl-substituted acetophenones and methyl benzoates: steric hindrance and inhibited conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budesínský, Milos; Kulhánek, Jirí; Böhm, Stanislav; Cigler, Petr; Exner, Otto

    2004-10-01

    The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of 14 methyl-substituted acetophenones and 14 methyl-substituted methyl benzoates were assigned and interpreted with respect to the conformation of the C(ar)-C(O) bond. The substituent effects are proportional in the two series and can be divided into polar and steric: each has different effects on the 13C SCS of the individual atoms. In the case of C atoms C(O), C(1) and CH3(CO), the steric effects were quantitatively separated by comparing SCS in the ortho and para positions. The steric effects are proportional for the individual C atoms and also to steric effects estimated from other physical quantities. However, they do not depend simply on the angle of torsion phi of the functional group as anticipated hitherto. A better description distinguishes two classes of compounds: sterically not hindered or slightly hindered planar molecules and strongly sterically hindered, markedly non-planar. In order to confirm this reasoning without empirical correlations, the J(C,C) coupling constants were measured for three acetophenone derivatives labeled with 13C in the acetyl methyl group. The constants confirm unambiguously the conformation of 2-methylacetophenone; their zero values are in accord with the conformation of 2,6-dimethylacetophenone. The zero values in the unsubstituted acetophenone are at variance with previous erroneous report but all J(C,C) values are in accord with calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p)//B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Potassium 2-(1-hydroxypentyl-benzoate attenuates neuronal apoptosis in neuron–astrocyte co-culture system through neurotrophy and neuroinflammation pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Potassium 2-(1-hydroxypentyl-benzoate (d,l-PHPB, a new drug candidate for ischemic stroke at the phase II clinic trial, has been shown to protect neurons by inhibiting oxidative injury and reducing neuron apoptosis in previous studies. But the mechanisms of d,l-PHPB remain to be studied. In this study, a neuron–astrocytes co-culture system was used to elucidate the roles of astrocytes in neuroprotection of d,l-PHPB under oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R condition. Our data showed that d,l-PHPB reduced neuronal apoptosis in mono-culture system and this effect was enhanced in neuron–astrocyte co-culture system under the OGD/R condition. Meanwhile, d,l-PHPB obviously increased the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and nerve growth factor (NGF, which were mainly secreted from astrocytes, in the co-culture system after OGD/R. The PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling pathways as well as the p-TRKA/B receptors were involved in the process. In addition, the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β secreted from astrocytes after OGD/R were markedly reduced after d,l-PHPB treatment, which was mainly due to the suppression of phosphorylated p38. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the neuroprotective effects of d,l-PHPB were improved by astrocytes, mainly mediated by increasing the release of BDNF/NGF and attenuating inflammatory cytokines.

  19. Continuous degradation of trichloroethylene by Xanthobacter sp. strain Py2 during growth on propene.

    OpenAIRE

    Reij, M W; Kieboom, J; de Bont, J A; Hartmans, S

    1995-01-01

    Propene-grown Xanthobacter sp. strain Py2 cells can degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), but the transformation capacity of such cells was limited and depended on both the TCE concentration and the biomass concentration. Toxic metabolites presumably accumulated extracellularly, because the fermentation of glucose by yeast cells was inhibited by TCE degradation products formed by strain Py2. The affinity of the propene monooxygenase for TCE was low, and this allowed strain Py2 to grow on propene i...

  20. An electrochemical sensor for rizatriptan benzoate determination using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle/multiwall carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrode in real samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh, E-mail: madrakian@basu.ac.ir; Maleki, Somayeh; Heidari, Mozhgan; Afkhami, Abbas

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor for determination of rizatriptan benzoate (RZB) was proposed. A glassy carbon electrode was modified with nanocomposite of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNTs/GCE). The results obtained clearly show that the combination of MWCNTs and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles definitely improves the sensitivity of modified electrode to RZB determination. The morphology and electroanalytical performance of the fabricated sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), square wave voltammetry (SWV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Also, the effect of experimental and instrumental parameters on the sensor response was evaluated. The square wave voltammetric response of the electrode to RZB was linear in the range 0.5–100.0 μmol L{sup −1} with a detection limit of 0.09 μmol L{sup −1} under the optimum conditions. The investigated method showed good stability, reproducibility and repeatability. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for real life samples of blood serum and RZB determination in pharmaceutical. - Highlights: • Simple and sensitive Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNTs/GCE for rizatriptan benzoate determination • The surface morphology of nanocomposite was characterized by SEM and EDS. • Rizatriptan benzoate was measured at 0.09 μmol L{sup −1} with good sensitivity and selectivity. • The electrode has been successfully applied in serum and pharmaceutical samples. • The nanocomposite had excellent electrocatalytic activity and biocompatibility.

  1. Installed capacity in New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation discussed capacity issues related to the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO). The NYISO's market volume was approximately $11 billion in 2005, and it was responsible for providing 32,075 MW of electricity at peak load to its users. Regulatory uncertainty is currently discouraging investment in new generating resources. All load serving entities are required to contract for sufficient capacity in order to meet their capacity obligations. Market participants currently determine capacity and energy revenues. The NYISO market allows suppliers to recover variable costs for providing ancillary services, and the economic value of the revenue source governs decisions made in the wholesale electricity market. The installed capacity market was designed as a spot auction deficiency auction. Phased-in demand curves are used to modify the installed capacity market's design. A sloped demand curve mechanism is used to value capacity above the minimum requirement for both reliability and competition. Participation in the day-ahead market enhances competition and exerts downward pressure on energy and ancillary service market prices. It was concluded that the market structures and design features of the installed capacity markets recognize the need for system reliability in addition to encouraging robust competition and recognizing energy price caps and regulatory oversights. tabs., figs

  2. Concrete Operations and Attentional Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Michael; Lindenberger, Ulman

    1989-01-01

    To test predictions regarding the attentional capacity requirements of Piaget's stage of concrete operations, a battery of concrete operational tasks and two measures of attentional capacity were administered to 120 first-, second-, and third-graders. Findings concern class inclusion, transitivity of length and weight, and multiplication of…

  3. Fiscal Capacity Equalisation in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allers, Maarten A.; Ishemoi, Lewis J.

    2010-01-01

    Fiscal equalisation aims at enabling decentralised governments to supply similar services at similar tax rates. In order to equalise fiscal disparities, differences in both fiscal capacities and in fiscal needs have to be measured. This paper focuses on the measurement of fiscal capacity in a

  4. Capacity Building in Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I

    2004-01-01

    Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within...... infrastructures for implementing land policies in a sustainable way. Where a project is established to create land administration infrastructures in developing or transition countries, it is critical that capacity building is a mainstream component, not as an add-on, which is often the case. In fact such projects...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves.    The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....

  5. Characterization of a Pyrethroid-Degrading Pseudomonas fulva Strain P31 and Biochemical Degradation Pathway of D-Phenothrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available D-phenothrin is one of the most popular pyrethroid insecticides for its broad spectrum and high insecticidal activity. However, continuous use of D-phenothrin has resulted in serious environmental contamination and raised public concern about its impact on human health. Biodegradation of D-phenothrin has never been investigated and its metabolic behaviors remain unknown. Here, a novel bacterial strain P31 was isolated from active sludge, which completely degraded (100% D-phenothrin at 50 mg⋅L-1 in 72 h. Based on the morphology, 16S rRNA gene and Biolog tests, the strain was identified as Pseudomonas fulva. Biodegradation conditions were optimized as 29.5°C and pH 7.3 by utilizing response surface methodology. Strain P31 depicted high tolerance and strong D-phenothrin degradation ability through hydrolysis pathway. Strain P31 degraded D-phenothrin at inhibition constant (Ki of 482.1673 mg⋅L-1 and maximum specific degradation constant (qmax of 0.0455 h-1 whereas critical inhibitor concentration remained as 41.1189 mg⋅L-1. The 3-Phenoxybenzaldehyde and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic butyl dacyl ester were identified as the major intermediate metabolites of D-phenothrin degradation pathway through high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bioaugmentation of D-phenothrin-contaminated soils with strain P31 dramatically enhanced its degradation, and over 75% of D-phenothrin was removed from soils within 10 days. Moreover, the strain illustrated a remarkable capacity to degrade other synthetic pyrethroids, including permethrin, cyhalothrin, β-cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenpropathrin, and bifenthrin, exhibiting great potential in bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated environment.

  6. Interference and memory capacity limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Szabó, Szilárd

    2017-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is thought to have a fixed and limited capacity. However, the origins of these capacity limitations are debated, and generally attributed to active, attentional processes. Here, we show that the existence of interference among items in memory mathematically guarantees fixed and limited capacity limits under very general conditions, irrespective of any processing assumptions. Assuming that interference (a) increases with the number of interfering items and (b) brings memory performance to chance levels for large numbers of interfering items, capacity limits are a simple function of the relative influence of memorization and interference. In contrast, we show that time-based memory limitations do not lead to fixed memory capacity limitations that are independent of the timing properties of an experiment. We show that interference can mimic both slot-like and continuous resource-like memory limitations, suggesting that these types of memory performance might not be as different as commonly believed. We speculate that slot-like WM limitations might arise from crowding-like phenomena in memory when participants have to retrieve items. Further, based on earlier research on parallel attention and enumeration, we suggest that crowding-like phenomena might be a common reason for the 3 major cognitive capacity limitations. As suggested by Miller (1956) and Cowan (2001), these capacity limitations might arise because of a common reason, even though they likely rely on distinct processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Degradation of shape memory effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermeer, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    An important parameter for deciding whether or not a SME alloy is suitable for practical applications is the magnitude of the strain reversal accompanying martensite reversion. This research is concerned with elucidating metallurgical factors that cause degradation of this heat-activated recovery strain, E/sub R/. After explaining what is meant by degradation, two manifestations of degradation recently identified in near-monotectoid uranium-niobium alloys are described. The first was associated with the onset of plastic deformation of the martensite beyond the reversible strain limit, E/sub L/; a reduction of E/sub R/ from 5.25% at 8% total strain, i.e. E/sub L/, to 2.9% at 12% total strain was observed. A second type of degradation depended strongly on the heating rate during reversion; the E/sub R/ for an imposed strain of 6.95% was reduced from a value of 5.25% to 1.3% when the heating rate was decreased from 40 0 /sec to 0.05 0 /sec. Degradation was attributed to a change in the transformation path and the interjection of time-dependent, low temperature aging reactions

  8. Large capacity temporary visual memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Potter, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Visual working memory (WM) capacity is thought to be limited to three or four items. However, many cognitive activities seem to require larger temporary memory stores. Here, we provide evidence for a temporary memory store with much larger capacity than past WM capacity estimates. Further, based on previous WM research, we show that a single factor — proactive interference — is sufficient to bring capacity estimates down to the range of previous WM capacity estimates. Participants saw a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of 5 to 21 pictures of familiar objects or words presented at rates of 4/s or 8/s, respectively, and thus too fast for strategies such as rehearsal. Recognition memory was tested with a single probe item. When new items were used on all trials, no fixed memory capacities were observed, with estimates of up to 9.1 retained pictures for 21-item lists, and up to 30.0 retained pictures for 100-item lists, and no clear upper bound to how many items could be retained. Further, memory items were not stored in a temporally stable form of memory, but decayed almost completely after a few minutes. In contrast, when, as in most WM experiments, a small set of items was reused across all trials, thus creating proactive interference among items, capacity remained in the range reported in previous WM experiments. These results show that humans have a large-capacity temporary memory store in the absence of proactive interference, and raise the question of whether temporary memory in everyday cognitive processing is severely limited as in WM experiments, or has the much larger capacity found in the present experiments. PMID:23937181

  9. Influence of Environmental Stressors on the Physiology of Pollutant Degrading Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Nanna Bygvraa

    of model degrader bacteria to nutrient- and oxidative stress, two highly relevant stress scenarios in natural environments, and at evaluating the impact of these environmental stress conditions on catabolic gene expression. The results suggest that environmental bacteria, here represented by the toluene...... biodegradative or catabolic performance. To date, details concerning the physiology of degrader microorganisms and their ability to express the relevant catabolic genes in the context of a complex and stressful environment have yet to be elucidated. In order to fully exploit the catabolic potential of degrader......- and xylene degrading bacterium Pseudomonas putida mt-2 and the phenoxy acid herbicide degrading bacterium Cupriavidus pinatubonensis JMP134, have a high defense capacity towards archetypical environmental stressors. However, the results also showed that induction of a stress defense may have a cost in regard...

  10. Removal Capacities of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs by a Newly Isolated Strain from Oilfield Produced Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Bin Qi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH-degrading strain Q8 was isolated from oilfield produced water. According to the analysis of a biochemical test, 16S rRNA gene, house-keeping genes and DNA–DNA hybridization, strain Q8 was assigned to a novel species of the genus Gordonia. The strain could not only grow in mineral salt medium (MM and utilize naphthalene and pyrene as its sole carbon source, but also degraded mixed naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene. The degradation ratio of these four PAHs reached 100%, 95.4%, 73.8% and 53.4% respectively after being degraded by Q8 for seven days. A comparative experiment found that the PAHs degradation efficiency of Q8 is higher than that of Gordonia alkaliphila and Gordonia paraffinivorans, which have the capacities to remove PAHs. Fourier transform infrared spectra, saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS analysis of crude oil degraded by Q8 were also studied. The results showed that Q8 could utilize n-alkanes and PAHs in crude oil. The relative proportions of the naphthalene series, phenanthrene series, thiophene series, fluorene series, chrysene series, C21-triaromatic steroid, pyrene, and benz(apyrene were reduced after being degraded by Q8. Gordonia sp. nov. Q8 had the capacity to remediate water and soil environments contaminated by PAHs or crude oil, and provided a feasible way for the bioremediation of PAHs and oil pollution.

  11. Magnesium degradation influenced by buffering salts in concentrations typical of in vitro and in vivo models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Feyerabend, Frank; Mihailova, Boriana; Heidrich, Stefanie; Bismayer, Ulrich; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have considerable potential for orthopedic applications. During the degradation process the interface between material and tissue is continuously changing. Moreover, too fast or uncontrolled degradation is detrimental for the outcome in vivo. Therefore in vitro setups utilizing physiological conditions are promising for the material/degradation analysis prior to animal experiments. The aim of this study is to elucidate the influence of inorganic salts contributing to the blood buffering capacity on degradation. Extruded pure magnesium samples were immersed under cell culture conditions for 3 and 10 days. Hank's balanced salt solution without calcium and magnesium (HBSS) plus 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS) was used as the basic immersion medium. Additionally, different inorganic salts were added with respect to concentration in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, in vitro model) and human plasma (in vivo model) to form 12 different immersion media. Influences on the surrounding environment were observed by measuring pH and osmolality. The degradation interface was analyzed by electron-induced X-ray emission (EIXE) spectroscopy, including chemical-element mappings and electron microprobe analysis, as well as Fourier transform infrared reflection micro-spectroscopy (FTIR). - Highlights: • Influence of blood buffering salts on magnesium degradation was studied. • CaCl_2 reduced the degradation rate by Ca–PO_4 layer formation. • MgSO_4 influenced the morphology of the degradation interface. • NaHCO_3 induced the formation of MgCO_3 as a degradation product

  12. Capacity-achieving CPM schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Perotti, Alberto; Tarable, Alberto; Benedetto, Sergio; Montorsi, Guido

    2008-01-01

    The pragmatic approach to coded continuous-phase modulation (CPM) is proposed as a capacity-achieving low-complexity alternative to the serially-concatenated CPM (SC-CPM) coding scheme. In this paper, we first perform a selection of the best spectrally-efficient CPM modulations to be embedded into SC-CPM schemes. Then, we consider the pragmatic capacity (a.k.a. BICM capacity) of CPM modulations and optimize it through a careful design of the mapping between input bits and CPM waveforms. The s...

  13. Scavenging capacity of medicinal plants against free radical-induced cellular damage by radiation and photoactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadkar, Shalaka [Ruia College, Mumbai (India); Mohan, H [Chemistry Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Kamat, J P [Radiation Biology and Health Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2004-01-01

    The scavenging capacity of medicinal plants. Andrographis paniculata (Ap) and Swertia chirata (Sc) was examined against cellular damage, induced by radiation and photo-activation in sub-cellular membranes. The results demonstrated significant radical scavenging capacity of the extracts. The rate constants as evaluated by deoxyribose degradation studies and the pulse radiolysis studies carried in presence of ABTS radical well supported the antioxidant properties of the extracts. (author)

  14. A quantitative method for determining spatial discriminative capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Robert G

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The traditional two-point discrimination (TPD test, a widely used tactile spatial acuity measure, has been criticized as being imprecise because it is based on subjective criteria and involves a number of non-spatial cues. The results of a recent study showed that as two stimuli were delivered simultaneously, vibrotactile amplitude discrimination became worse when the two stimuli were positioned relatively close together and was significantly degraded when the probes were within a subject's two-point limen. The impairment of amplitude discrimination with decreasing inter-probe distance suggested that the metric of amplitude discrimination could possibly provide a means of objective and quantitative measurement of spatial discrimination capacity. Methods A two alternative forced-choice (2AFC tracking procedure was used to assess a subject's ability to discriminate the amplitude difference between two stimuli positioned at near-adjacent skin sites. Two 25 Hz flutter stimuli, identical except for a constant difference in amplitude, were delivered simultaneously to the hand dorsum. The stimuli were initially spaced 30 mm apart, and the inter-stimulus distance was modified on a trial-by-trial basis based on the subject's performance of discriminating the stimulus with higher intensity. The experiment was repeated via sequential, rather than simultaneous, delivery of the same vibrotactile stimuli. Results Results obtained from this study showed that the performance of the amplitude discrimination task was significantly degraded when the stimuli were delivered simultaneously and were near a subject's two-point limen. In contrast, subjects were able to correctly discriminate between the amplitudes of the two stimuli when they were sequentially delivered at all inter-probe distances (including those within the two-point limen, and improved when an adapting stimulus was delivered prior to simultaneously delivered stimuli. Conclusion

  15. Purification of degraded TBP solvent using macroreticular anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartha, P.K.S.; Kutty, P.V.E.; Janaradanan, C.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with a suitable diluent is commonly used for solvent extraction in Purex process for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuels. This solvent gets degraded due to various factors, the main degradation product being dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP). A solvent cleanup step is generally incorporated in the process for removing the degradation products from the used solvent. A liquid-liquid cleanup system using sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide solution is routinely used. Considering certain advantages, like the possibility of loading the resin almost to saturation capacity and the subsequent disposal of the spent resin by incineration and the feasibility of adopting it to the process, a liquid-solid system has been tried as an alternate method, employing various available macroreticular anion exchange resins in OH - form for the sorption of HDBP from TBP. After standardizing the various conditions for the satisfactory removal of HDBP from TBP using synthetic mixtures, resins were tested with process solvent in batch contacts. The parameters studied were (1) capacity of different resins for HDBP sorption (2) influence of acidity, uranium and HDBP on the sorption behaviour of the latter (3) removal of fission products from the solvent by the resin and (4) regeneration and recycling of the resin. (author). 2 figs., 13 tabs., 17 refs

  16. Monitoring the degradation of partly decomposable plastic foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rétháti Gabriella

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We have monitored the behaviour of different polyethylene foils including virgin medium density polyethylene (MDPE, MDPE containing pro-oxydative additives (238, 242 and MDPE with pro-oxydative additives and thermoplastic starch (297 in the soil for a period of one year. A foil based on a blend of polyester and polylactic acid (BASF Ecovio served as degradable control. The experiment was carried out by weekly measurements of conductivity and capacity of the soil, since the setup was analogous to a condenser, of which the insulating layer was the foil itself. The twelve replications allowed monthly sampling; the specimen taken out from the soil each month were tested visually for thickness, mechanical properties, morphological and structural changes, and molecular mass. Based on the obtained capacity values, we found that among the polyethylene foils, the one that contained thermoplastic starch extenuated the most. This foil had the greatest decrease in tensile strength and elongation at break due to the presence of thermoplastic starch. The starch can completely degrade in the soil; thus, the foil had cracks and pores. The polyethylene foils that contained pro-oxydant additives showed smaller external change compared to the virgin foil, since there was no available UV radiation and oxygen for their degradation. The smallest change occurred in the virgin polyethylene foil. Among the five examined samples, the commercially available BASF foil showed the largest extenuation and external change, and it deteriorated the most in the soil.

  17. Clad Degradation - FEPs Screening Arguments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Siegmann

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the screening of the cladding degradation features, events, and processes (FEPs) for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF). This report also addresses the effect of some FEPs on both the cladding and the CSNF, DSNF, and HLW waste forms where it was considered appropriate to address the effects on both materials together. This report summarizes the work of others to screen clad degradation FEPs in a manner consistent with, and used in, the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This document was prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of LA'' (BSC 2004a [DIRS 167796])

  18. Radiation degradation of silk protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pewlong, W.; Sudatis, B.; Takeshita, Hidefumi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Silk fibroin fiber from the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori was irradiated using an electron beam accelerator to investigate the application of the radiation degradation technique as a means to solubilize fibroin. The irradiation caused a significant degradation of the fiber. The tensile strength of fibroin fiber irradiated up to 2500 kGy decreased rapidly with increasing dose. The presence of oxygen in the irradiation atmosphere enhanced degradation of the tensile strength. The solubilization of irradiated fibroin fiber was evaluated using the following three kinds of solutions: a calcium chloride solution(CaCl 2 /C 2 H 5 OH/H 2 O=1:2:8 in mole ratio), a hydrochloric acid (0.5 N) and a distilled water. Dissolution of fibroin fiber into these solutions was significantly enhanced by irradiation. Especially, an appreciable amount of water soluble proteins was extracted by a distilled water. (author)

  19. Radiation degradation of silk protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pewlong, W; Sudatis, B [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand); Takeshita, Hidefumi; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Silk fibroin fiber from the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori was irradiated using an electron beam accelerator to investigate the application of the radiation degradation technique as a means to solubilize fibroin. The irradiation caused a significant degradation of the fiber. The tensile strength of fibroin fiber irradiated up to 2500 kGy decreased rapidly with increasing dose. The presence of oxygen in the irradiation atmosphere enhanced degradation of the tensile strength. The solubilization of irradiated fibroin fiber was evaluated using the following three kinds of solutions: a calcium chloride solution(CaCl{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH/H{sub 2}O=1:2:8 in mole ratio), a hydrochloric acid (0.5 N) and a distilled water. Dissolution of fibroin fiber into these solutions was significantly enhanced by irradiation. Especially, an appreciable amount of water soluble proteins was extracted by a distilled water. (author)

  20. World nuclear power plant capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide, there were 249 power reactors in operation at the end of 1980, with a net electrical capacity of about 142 GW. In Canada the ten reactors in operation had a combined capacity of about 5.5 GW. Another 14 under construction will produce an additional 9.9 GW. Four Canadian reactors were in the world's top ten in terms of capacity factor in 1980, and six were in the top ten in terms of lifetime performance. Data tabulated for the Canadian reactors are: location, power, operator, date of first power. For the rest of the world, a table gives the number of reactors of each type and their capacity. (N.D.H.)

  1. Microbial degradation of sulfentrazone in a Brazilian rhodic hapludox soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila O. Martinez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfentrazone is amongst the most widely used herbicides for treating the main crops in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, but few studies are available on the biotransformation of this compound in Brazilian soils. Soil samples of Rhodic Hapludox soil were supplemented with sulfentrazone (0.7 µg active ingredient (a.i. g-1 soil and maintained at 27ºC. The soil moisture content was corrected to 30, 70 or 100 % water holding capacity (WHC and maintained constant until the end of the experimental period. Herbicide-free soil samples were used as controls. Another experiment was carried out using soil samples maintained at a constant moisture content of 70% WHC, supplemented or otherwise with the herbicide, and submitted to different temperatures of 15, 30 and 40º C. In both experiments, aliquots were removed after various incubation periods for the quantitative analysis of sulfentrazone residues by gas chromatography. Herbicide-degrading microorganisms were isolated and identified. After 120 days a significant effect on herbicide degradation was observed for the factor of temperature, degradation being higher at 30 and 40º C. A half-life of 91.6 days was estimated at 27º C and 70 % WHC. The soil moisture content did not significantly affect sulfentrazone degradation and the microorganisms identified as potential sulfentrazone degraders were Nocardia brasiliensis and Penicillium sp. The present study enhanced the prospects for future studies on the bio-prospecting for microbial populations related to the degradation of sulfentrazone, and may also contribute to the development of strategies for the bioremediation of sulfentrazone-polluted soils.

  2. Building a capacity building manual

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clinton, DD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizations 2010 Building a capacity building manual Daniel D. Clinton, Jr., P.E., F.NSPE Chair, WFEO Capacity Building Committee Dr Andrew Cleland, FIPENZ, Chief Executive, IPENZ, NZ Eng David Botha, FSAICE, Executive Director, SAICE, SA Dawit... 2010 Tertiary level University curricula Coaches and mentors Facilities EXCeeD Remuneration of Academics Experiential training Outreach to Students Students chapters Young members forum World Federation of Engineering Organizations 2010 Post...

  3. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-01-01

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  4. Alternative solvent-based methyl benzoate vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of benzimidazole fungicides in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaladchaiyakit, Yanawath; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2014-11-01

    Vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using methyl benzoate as an alternative extraction solvent for extracting and preconcentrating three benzimidazole fungicides (i.e., carbendazim, thiabendazole, and fluberidazole) in environmental water samples before high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis has been developed. The selected microextraction conditions were 250 μL of methyl benzoate containing 300 μL of ethanol, 1.0% w/v sodium acetate, and vortex agitation speed of 2100 rpm for 30 s. Under optimum conditions, preconcentration factors were 14.5-39.0 for the target fungicides. Limits of detection were obtained in the range of 0.01-0.05 μg/L. The proposed method was then applied to surface water samples and the recovery evaluations at three spiked concentration levels of 5, 30, and 50 μg/L were obtained in the range of 77.4-110.9% with the relative standard deviation water samples. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-06

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. Salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) showing varying emamectin benzoate susceptibilities differ in neuronal acetylcholine receptor and GABA-gated chloride channel mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen N; Bron, James E; Taggart, John B; Ireland, Jacqueline H; Bekaert, Michaël; Burgess, Stewart Tg; Skuce, Philip J; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Gharbi, Karim; Sturm, Armin

    2013-06-18

    Caligid copepods, also called sea lice, are fish ectoparasites, some species of which cause significant problems in the mariculture of salmon, where the annual cost of infection is in excess of €300 million globally. At present, caligid control on farms is mainly achieved using medicinal treatments. However, the continued use of a restricted number of medicine actives potentially favours the development of drug resistance. Here, we report transcriptional changes in a laboratory strain of the caligid Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) that is moderately (~7-fold) resistant to the avermectin compound emamectin benzoate (EMB), a component of the anti-salmon louse agent SLICE® (Merck Animal Health). Suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) was used to enrich transcripts differentially expressed between EMB-resistant (PT) and drug-susceptible (S) laboratory strains of L. salmonis. SSH libraries were subjected to 454 sequencing. Further L. salmonis transcript sequences were available as expressed sequence tags (EST) from GenBank. Contiguous sequences were generated from both SSH and EST sequences and annotated. Transcriptional responses in PT and S salmon lice were investigated using custom 15 K oligonucleotide microarrays designed using the above sequence resources. In the absence of EMB exposure, 359 targets differed in transcript abundance between the two strains, these genes being enriched for functions such as calcium ion binding, chitin metabolism and muscle structure. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel (GABA-Cl) and neuronal acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits showed significantly lower transcript levels in PT lice compared to S lice. Using RT-qPCR, the decrease in mRNA levels was estimated at ~1.4-fold for GABA-Cl and ~2.8-fold for nAChR. Salmon lice from the PT strain showed few transcriptional responses following acute exposure (1 or 3 h) to 200 μg L-1 of EMB, a drug concentration tolerated by PT lice, but toxic for S lice

  7. Efficiency of fixed-time artificial insemination using a progesterone device combined with GnRH or estradiol benzoate in Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Antônio Pelissari Poncio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available he use of estrogens in artificial insemination protocols for cattle is the least expensive and most efficient method currently available. However, the trend to prohibit the use of estrogens for this purpose has made it necessary to find alternatives that replace estrogens without compromising the reproductive performance of the animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate conception rates in Bos indicus beef heifers treated with a progesterone device (P4 combined with GnRH or an estradiol ester. On day 0, pubertal Nellore heifers (n = 100 received an intravaginal device containing 1 g P4 and were randomly divided into two groups. The GnRH group (n = 49 received an intramuscular injection of 100 µg GnRH, while the E2 group (n = 51 received 2 mg estradiol benzoate (EB. The P4 device was removed after 5 (GnRH group or 8 days (E2 group, followed by an injection of 125 µg of the PGF2α, analog cloprostenol. On that occasion, the E2 group received an additional injection of 300 IU eCG. Twenty-four hours later, the GnRH group received a second injection of 125 µg cloprostenol, while the E2 group received 1 mg EB. The heifers were inseminated 72 (GnRH group or 54 hours (E2 group after removal of the P4 device. At the time of insemination, the GnRH group received additionally an injection of 100 µg GnRH. Estrus was monitored during the period of cloprostenol injection until the time of artificial insemination and pregnancy was diagnosed 40 days after insemination by transrectal ultrasonography. The data were analyzed by Fisher’s exact test. The pregnancy rate was 38.8% and 31.4% in the GnRH and E2 groups, respectively (P>0.05. The ovarian condition of the heifers (estrus or anestrus tended to influence (P=0.07 pregnancy rates in the GnRH group, but not in the E2 group. At the time of artificial insemination, 33.3% of heifers in the GnRH group showed signs of estrus versus 88.2% in the E2 group (P<0.05. However, the time of estrus

  8. An evaluation of the effectiveness of a chemical additive based on sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and sodium nitrite on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Limin; Smith, Megan L; Benjamim da Silva, Erica; Windle, Michelle C; da Silva, Thiago C; Polukis, Stephanie A

    2018-04-11

    We evaluated the effectiveness of an additive comprising sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and sodium nitrite (SSL) as active ingredients for its ability to improve the aerobic stability of corn silages made in North America. In experiment 1, treatment with SSL (1.5 and 2.0 L/t) on whole-plant corn (WPC) was compared with treatment with an additive containing buffered propionic acid and citric acid (BPA; 2 L/t) on corn harvested at 32 and 38% DM and ensiled for 120 d. Silage treated with BPA was higher in ammonia-N and propionic acid relative to other treatments. Treatments with all of the additives had numerically, but not statistically, fewer yeasts compared with untreated silage. Both application rates of SSL resulted in lower concentrations of ethanol compared with untreated and BPA silages. Treatment with BPA improved the aerobic stability of silages compared with untreated silage, but the effect from SSL was markedly greater. In experiment 2, WPC was untreated or treated with 2 or 3 L of SSL/t or a microbial inoculant containing Enterococcus faecium M74, Lactobacillus plantarum CH6072, and Lactobacillus buchneri LN1819 (final total lactic acid bacteria application rate of 150,000 cfu/g of fresh forage). Silages were air stressed for 24 h at 28 and 42 d of storage and ensiled for 49 d before opening. Inoculation had no effect on acid end products, ethanol, number of yeasts, or aerobic stability compared with other treatments. Treatment with SSL decreased the amount of ethanol, had no effect on number of yeasts, and improved aerobic stability in a dose-dependent manner compared with other treatments. In experiment 3, WPC was untreated or treated with 2 L of SSL/t and ensiled for 5, 15, and 30 d. Treatment with SSL resulted in silage with fewer yeasts and lower concentrations of ethanol after all times of ensiling compared with untreated silage. In addition, SSL improved aerobic stability after each period of ensiling, but the effect was more at 15 and 30 d

  9. Benzoate Acid-Dependent Lattice Dimension of Co-MOFs and MOF-Derived CoS2@CNTs with Tunable Pore Diameters for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Kang-Yu; Liu, Yi-Chen; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Yu, Cheng-Yan; Yue, Man-Li; Li, Zuo-Xi

    2017-06-05

    Herein three novel cobalt metal-organic frameworks (Co-MOFs) with similar ingredients, [Co(bib)(o-bdc)] ∞ (1), [Co 2 (bib) 2 (m-bdc) 2 ] ∞ (2), and {[Co(bib)(p-bdc)(H 2 O)](H 2 O) 0.5 } ∞ (3), have been synthesized from the reaction of cobalt nitrate with 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)benzene (bib) and structure-related aromatic acids (1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid = o-bdc, 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid = m-bdc, and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid = p-bdc) by the solvothermal method. It is aimed to perform systematic research on the relationship among the conformation of benzoate acid, lattice dimension of Co-MOF, and pore diameter of MOF-derived carbon composite. Through the precursor strategy, Co-MOFs 1-3 have been utilized to synthesize porous cobalt@carbon nanotube composites (Co@CNTs). After the in situ gas-sulfurization, secondary composites CoS 2 @CNTs were successfully obtained, which kept similar morphologies of corresponding Co@CNTs without destroying previous highly dispersed structures. Co-MOFs and two series of composites (Co@CNTs and CoS 2 @CNTs) have been well characterized. Topology and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analyses elucidate that the bdc 2- ion could control the pore diameters of MOF-derived carbon composites by adjusting the lattice dimension of Co-MOFs. The systematic studies on electrochemical properties demonstrate that (p)-CoS 2 @CNT possesses hierarchical morphology, moderate specific surface area, proper pore diameter distribution, and high graphitization, which lead to remarkable specific capacitances (839 F g -1 at 5 mV s -1 and 825 F g -1 at 0.5 A g -1 ) in 2 M potassium hydroxide solution. In addition, the (p)-CoS 2 @CNT electrode exhibits good electrochemical stability and still retains 82.9% of initial specific capacitance at the current density of 1 A g -1 after 5000 cycles.

  10. Preclinical pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and plasma protein binding of sodium (±-5-bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl benzoate (BZP, an innovative potent anti-ischemic stroke agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sodium (±-5-bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl benzoate (BZP is a potential cardiovascular drug and exerts potent neuroprotective effect against transient and long-term ischemic stroke in rats. BZP could convert into 3-butyl-6-bromo-1(3H-isobenzofuranone (Br-NBP in vitro and in vivo. However, the pharmacokinetic profiles of BZP and Br-NBP still have not been evaluated. For the purpose of investigating the pharmacokinetic profiles, tissue distribution and plasma protein binding of BZP and Br-NBP, a rapid, sensitive and specific method based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS has been developed for determination of BZP and Br-NBP in biological samples. The results indicated that BZP and Br-NBP showed a short elimination half-life, and pharmacokinetic profile in rats (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg; i.v. and beagle dogs (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg; i.v.gtt were obtained after single dosing of BZP. After multiple dosing of BZP, there was no significant accumulation of BZP and Br-NBP in the plasma of rats and beagle dogs. Following i.v. single dose (6 mg/kg to rats, BZP and Br-NBP were distributed rapidly into all tissues examined, with the highest concentrations of BZP and Br-NBP in lung and kidney, respectively. The brain distribution of Br-NBP in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO rats was more than in normal rats (P<0.05. The plasma protein binding degree of BZP at three concentrations (8000, 20000 and 80000 ng/mL from rat, beagle dog and human plasma were 98.1~98.7%, 88.9~92.7% and 74.8%~83.7% respectively. In conclusion, both BZP and Br-NBP showed short half-life, good dose-linear pharmacokinetic profile, wide tissue distribution and different degree protein binding to various species plasma. This was the first preclinical pharmacokinetic investigation of BZP and Br-NBP in both rats and beagle dogs, which provided vital guidance for further preclinical research and the subsequent clinical trials.

  11. Ovarian dynamics in response to two modified intravaginal progesterone releasing device and oestradiol benzoate based ovulation synchronisation protocols designed for use in Brahman heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S A A; Atkinson, P C; Satake, N; Boe-Hansen, G; McGowan, M R

    2014-07-01

    The objective was to investigate the ovarian response of Brahman heifers to two modified ovulation synchronisation protocols developed to increase the proportion of normal synchronous ovulations. Experiment 1 characterised the growth of the ovulatory follicle in heifers (n=19) treated with an intravaginal progesterone releasing device (IPRD) and oestradiol benzoate (ODB), to determine the optimal time to induce ovulation. Using the findings from Experiment 1, Experiment 2 investigated the effect of reducing the duration of IPRD insertion and increasing the interval from IPRD removal to ODB treatment (modified protocol 1 - OPO-6; n=20), and omitting ODB treatment at the time of IPRD insertion (modified protocol 2 - PO-6; n=20). An IPRD (0.78 g progesterone) was inserted at Day 0 (OPO-8) or Day 2 (OPO-6 and PO-6) and all heifers also received 1 mg ODB i.m. Day 8: IPRD removed + 500 μg cloprostenol i.m. At 24 h (OPO-8) and 36 h (OPO-6 and PO-6) post IPRD removal: 1 mg ODB i.m. Fixed-time AI (FTAI) occurred at 54 h for OPO-8 and 72 h for OPO-6 and PO-6, post IPRD removal. After IPRD treatment all OPO-6 and OPO-8 heifers initiated a new follicular wave whereas 25% of PO-6 heifers failed. Diameter of the dominant follicle was larger at FTAI in the PO-6 (11.34 ± 0.50 mm) compared to the OPO-8 protocol (9.74 ± 0.51 mm; P<0.05), but similar to the OPO-6 protocol (10.52 ± 0.51 mm). Proportion of ovulations occurring 12 h prior and 24 h post FTAI was similar for the PO-6 (80%) and OPO-6 (75%) protocols but numerically lower in the OPO-8 heifers (60%). The apparent improvement in ovarian response in heifers treated with the modified protocols needs to be confirmed in larger field studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by two strains of Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwinyi, Obinna C; Ajayi, Oluseyi O; Amund, Olukayode O

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to isolate competent polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons degraders that can utilize polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of former industrial sites at McDoel Switchyard in Bloomington, Indiana. Using conventional enrichment method based on soil slurry, we isolated, screened and purified two bacterial species strains PB1 and PB2. Applying the ribotyping technique using the 16S rRNA gene analysis, the strains were assigned to the genus Pseudomonas (Pseudomonas plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2). Both isolates showed promising metabolic capacity on pyrene sprayed MS agar plates during the preliminary investigations. Using time course studies in the liquid cultures at calculated concentrations 123, 64, 97 and 94ppm for naphthalene, chrysene, fluroanthene and pyrene, P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 showed partial utilization of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Naphthalene was degraded between 26% and 40%, chrysene 14% and 16%, fluroanthene 5% and 7%; pyrene 8% and 13% by P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 respectively. Based on their growth profile, we developed a model R(2)=1 to predict the degradation rate of slow polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-degraders where all the necessary parameters are constant. From this investigation, we confirm that the former industrial site soil microbial communities may be explored for the biorestoration of the industrial site. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  13. Proteasomal and lysosomal protein degradation and heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejun; Robbins, Jeffrey

    2014-06-01

    In the cell, the proteasome and lysosomes represent the most important proteolytic machineries, responsible for the protein degradation in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy, respectively. Both the UPS and autophagy are essential to protein quality and quantity control. Alterations in cardiac proteasomal and lysosomal degradation are remarkably associated with most heart disease in humans and are implicated in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure. Studies carried out in animal models and in cell culture have begun to establish both sufficiency and, in some cases, the necessity of proteasomal functional insufficiency or lysosomal insufficiency as a major pathogenic factor in the heart. This review article highlights some recent advances in the research into proteasome and lysosome protein degradation in relation to cardiac pathology and examines the emerging evidence for enhancing degradative capacities of the proteasome and/or lysosome as a new therapeutic strategy for heart disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Protein Quality Control, the Ubiquitin Proteasome System, and Autophagy". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fungal bio-degradation of 14C-parathion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, G. A.; Abo-El Seoud, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    1 4 'C-parathion (670 Bq) was applied to mineral salt medium (MSM) to examine and evaluate its biodegradation by some fungi. The studied isolates were Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporim and trichoderma viride. The inoculated media were incubated at 30 o C for periods of 2, 4, 6 and 8 days. Ta each interval, mycelia were separated from nutrient solution and extracted for its radioactivity. However, non extractable compounds were liberated by combustion. Quantitative and qualitative analysis were carried out for the radioactive compound in mycelia l extracts and residues as well as the fungal culture filtrate. Balance sheet for total recovered radioactive compounds was concluded 1 4 'C-parathion metabolism was expressed as original compound, polar metabolite, non polar metabolites and non extractable residues and then degradation rate was calculated. araesults indicated that there was continuous penetration for the radioactivity into mycelia tissues and the maximum, accumulation was recorded by Fusarium Oxysporium. The fungi under investigation showed considerable variations regarding their capacity to degrade the radioactive pesticide. Trichoderma viride exhibited the maximum capability to catabolism the the 1 4C -parathion as it exerted the maximum degradation rate. Fusarium and Alternate alter nata showed less degradation rates for the 1 4C - pesticide under investigation. (Author)

  15. Degradation of materials and passivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, W.

    1997-01-01

    Demanding for a reduction in materials degradation is a serious problem all over the world. Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) is, among others, a very valuable tool to follow many degradation processes. Evidently, Fe is the most important Moessbauer element considering the overall presence of iron in everyday life. MS may contribute to our knowledge about nearly all fields of materials degradation, chemical, mechanical, thermal, irradiative, etc. Following some general lines, corrosion is considered in particular. MS is applicable to investigate the bulk of materials as well as their surface layers with an information depth of ca. 250 nm. In general, it has to be applied as a surface sensitive method in combination with other relevant methods in order to get a detailed insight into ongoing processes. Some examples have been selected to elucidate the application of MS in this field. Another class of examples concerns attempts to prevent corrosion, i.e., the application of coatings and transforming chemicals. A very effective and most natural way to reduce corrosion is the passivation of materials. The effect of passive layers and their destruction by environmental influences are discussed using results of MS and related methods. It is outlined that passivity is not restricted to chemically treated metals but can be considered as a general concept for preventing different kinds of materials from degradation. (orig.)

  16. Land degradation and property regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul M. Beaumont; Robert T. Walker

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between property regimes and land degradation outcomes, in the context of peasant agriculture. We consider explicitly whether private property provides for superior soil resource conservation, as compared to common property and open access. To assess this we implement optimization algorithms on a supercomputer to address resource...

  17. Degradation of CIGS solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Large scale commercial introduction of CIGS photovoltaics (PV) requires modules with low costs, high efficiencies and long and predictable lifetimes. Unfortunately,knowledge about the lifetime of CIGS PV is limited, which is reflected in the results of field studies: degradation rates varying from

  18. The Degradation of a Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Galina Fedorouna

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that the process of national degradation is a real danger and concern of all Russian society. Discusses environmental concerns, such as water, soil, and air pollution; falling birth rates; aging of the population; crime; and decline in moral values. Concludes that it is imperative for all citizens to stop and reverse these trends. (CFR)

  19. Polymeric Materials - introduction and degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    1999-01-01

    These notes support the polymer part of the courses 91742 and 91762 (Materials and Corrosion/degradation of materials) taught in IFAKthey contain a short introduction on group contribution methods for estimating properties of polymers, polymer thermodynamics, viscoelasticity models as well...

  20. Abiotic degradation of antibiotic ionophores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Pernille; Bak, Søren A; Björklund, Erland

    2013-01-01

    Hydrolytic and photolytic degradation were investigated for the ionophore antibiotics lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, and narasin. The hydrolysis study was carried out by dissolving the ionophores in solutions of pH 4, 7, and 9, followed by incubation at three temperatures of 6, 22, and 28 °C f...... because they absorb light of environmentally irrelevant wavelengths....