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Sample records for benzoapyrene

  1. Free radicals of benzo(a)pyrene and derivatives.

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, P D

    1985-01-01

    The evidence for biological involvement, the spectroscopic properties (especially EPR), and the reactions, of free radicals derived from benzo(a)pyrene and its methylated, hydroxylated, and fluorinated derivatives are reviewed.

  2. Peroxidatic oxidation of benzo(a)pyrene and prostaglandin biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arachidonic acid dependent oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene to a mixture of 3,6-, 1,6-, and 6,12-quinones has been studied by using enzyme preparations from sheep seminal vesicles. Maximal oxidation is observed at 100 μM benzo[a]pyrene and 150 μM arachiodinic acid. The arachidonic acid dependent oxidation is peroxidatic and utilizes prostaglandin G2 (PGG2), generated in situ from arachidonate, as the hydroperoxide substrate. 15-Hydroperoxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoic acid is equivalent to PGG2 as a hydroperoxide substrate, but hydrogen peroxide, cumene hydroperoxide, and tert-butyl hydroperoxide are much poorer substrates. Arachidonic acid dependent benzo[a]pyrene oxidation by microsomal and solubilized enzyme preparations is markedly stimulated by a variety of hemes and heme proteins. This is not due to the previously reported heme stimulation of prostaglandin biosynthesis [Yoshimoto, A., Ito, H., and Tomita, K. (1970) J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 68, 487-499]. Instead, the hemes function directly as peroxidases utilizing fatty acids hydroperoxides as substrates. The incubation of PGG2 with commercial methemoglobin in the absence of any other protein gives rise to significant benzo[a]pyrene oxidation to quinones. The widespread occurrence of heme proteins in animal tissue suggests that the peroxidatic oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene will be significant in any tissue that makes appreciable concentrations of fatty acid hydroperoxides

  3. Interindividual variation in binding of benzo[a]pyrene to DNA in cultured human Bronchi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, C.C.; Autrup, Herman; Connor, R.;

    1976-01-01

    The binding of benzo[a]pyrene to DNA in cultured human bronchus was measured in specimens from 37 patients. The binding values ranged from 2 to 151 picomoles of benzo[a]pyrene per milligram of DNA with an overall mean +/- standard error of 34.2 +/- 5.2. This 75-fold interindividual variation in t...

  4. A screen for Benzo(apyrene in Fish Samples From Crude Oil Polluted Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Anyakora

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that exposure to Benzo(apyrene increases the risk of cancer. In this study several fish samples from Niger the Delta region of Nigeria were screened for the presence of Benzo(apyrene. The study was carried out using Gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometry detector. Benzo(apyrenes in the samples were identified through both retention time match with authentic standards and simultaneous maximization of several major ions from GC/MS data. Perylene-d12 was used as the internal standard for quantitation. Concentration of benzo(apyrene in the samples ranged from 1.47 to 10.53 µg/kg which is more than WHO recommended maximum allowable concentration. Therefore this study concludes that the population is at an elevated risk of cancer of occurrence.

  5. BENZO(A)PYRENE CONCENTRATIONS IN SOMATIC AND GONAD TISSUES OF BAY MUSSELS, 'MYTILUS EDULIS'

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purposes of the present study were to measure benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in the somatic and gonadal tissues of mytilus edulis and determine whether or not variations in those two tissue compartments could be related to seasonal fluctuations.

  6. Toxicokinetic of benzo[a]pyrene and fipronil in female green frogs (Pelophylax kl. esculentus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general consensus that an increased logKow led to an increase in xenobiotic uptake and bioaccumulation is accepted. In this study we compared the toxicokinetics of two chemically different xenobiotics, i.e. benzo[a]pyrene and fipronil in female green frogs. Surprisingly, the uptake rates and the bioconcentration factors (BCF) of the two contaminants were not predicted by their logKow. The uptake rates obtained were of the same order of magnitude for the two contaminants and the BCFs measured for fipronil were about 3-fold higher than those obtained for benzo[a]pyrene. Fipronil appeared to be more recalcitrant than benzo[a]pyrene to detoxification processes leading to the accumulation of sulfone-fipronil especially in the ovaries. This phenomenon may explain reproductive influence of this contaminant described in other studies. Detoxification processes, including metabolism and the excretion of pollutants, are of importance when considering their persistence in aquatic organisms and trying to quantify their risks. Highlights: ► The uptake of benzo[a]pyrene is 1.5–3 times higher than for fipronil. ► Fipronil was more recalcitrant than benzo[a]pyrene to detoxification processes. ► This lead to increased-bioaccumulation factors except in excretion organs. ► Amphibians can be used as biomonitors for persistent pollutants. - Fipronil is more recalcitrant than benzo[a]pyrene to detoxification processes in frog.

  7. Persistence of urinary excretion products of benzo(a)pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persistence of DNA-adducts has been observed in a variety of experimental circumstances and has been suggested as one potential mechanism for explaining the long-term delay before expression of proliferative disease. In this concept, a stable DNA-adduct, which is a remnant of a prior exposure in a nondividing cell, would not express the genotoxic effect until the cells were stimulated to divide, and thus explain the long-term delay in expression of cancer. An alternative view of the observation of persistent DNA-adducts, described in this communication, is the continuing replenishment of DNA adducts by formation and turnover of these adducts from exposure to a constant supply of the ultimate carcinogenic species derived from a prior exposure. It is of interest to note that virtually all experiments where ''persistent'' adducts have been observed have been high dose exposures. During the course of experiments designed to develop improved methods for detection of DNA adducts and related derivatives derived from polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), we observed that there was a continuous excretion of urinary derivatives of the injected benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) beyond the initial burst of detoxification. This report describes the time dependent distribution of those derivatives in blood, urine, feces, and at the site of injection. 11 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  8. [Benzo(a)pyrene contamination of vegetable oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedra, Małgorzata; Starski, Andrzej; Gawarska, Halina; Sawilska-Rautenstrauch, Dorota

    2008-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) analysis was carried out with glass chromatographic column with alumina followed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrofluorometric detection. B(a)P level in 40 vegetable oils were as follow: from 0.11 to 0.38 microg/kg in olive; from 0.92 to 3.74 microg/kg in rape seed oils; from 0.11 to 2.25 microg/kg in sunflower oils and from 0.33 to 1.26 microg/kg in soya oils. In another investigated oils: arachide (peanut) corn, safflower, linen, hempen, sesame, pumpkin seeds, grape seeds---values from 0.10 to 1.44 microg/kg and 3.83 microg/kg in sea buckthorn oil were detected. B(a)P concentration in 4 from 40 investigated oils exceed the 2 ppb limit proposed by the European Commission. Heating of sample of oils: olive, rape, soya, linen, corn, sesame, peanut, in temp. 240 degrees C for 30 min. has not influence on decreased of B(a)P level. PMID:18807910

  9. Benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxides as intermediates in nucleic acid binding in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinstein, I.B.; Jeffrey, A.M.; Jennette, K.W.; Blobstein, S.H.; Harvey, R.G.; Harris, C.; Autrup, Herman; Kasai, H.; Nakanishi, K.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence has been obtained that a specific isomer of a diol epoxide derivative of benzo(a)pyrene, (+/-)-7 beta,8alpha-dihydroxy-9alpha, 10alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene, is an intermediate in the binding of benzo(a)pyrene to RNA in cultured bovine bronchial mucosa. An adduct is...

  10. Topological, functional, and dynamic properties of the protein interaction networks rewired by benzo(a)pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ba, Qian [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Li, Junyang; Huang, Chao [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Wu, Yongning, E-mail: wuyongning@cfsa.net.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: huiwang@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-03-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene is a common environmental and foodborne pollutant that has been identified as a human carcinogen. Although the carcinogenicity of benzo(a)pyrene has been extensively reported, its precise molecular mechanisms and the influence on system-level protein networks are not well understood. To investigate the system-level influence of benzo(a)pyrene on protein interactions and regulatory networks, a benzo(a)pyrene-rewired protein interaction network was constructed based on 769 key proteins derived from more than 500 literature reports. The protein interaction network rewired by benzo(a)pyrene was a scale-free, highly-connected biological system. Ten modules were identified, and 25 signaling pathways were enriched, most of which belong to the human diseases category, especially cancer and infectious disease. In addition, two lung-specific and two liver-specific pathways were identified. Three pathways were specific in short and medium-term networks (< 48 h), and five pathways were enriched only in the medium-term network (6 h–48 h). Finally, the expression of linker genes in the network was validated by Western blotting. These findings establish the overall, tissue- and time-specific benzo(a)pyrene-rewired protein interaction networks and provide insights into the biological effects and molecular mechanisms of action of benzo(a)pyrene. - Highlights: • Benzo(a)pyrene induced scale-free, highly-connected protein interaction networks. • 25 signaling pathways were enriched through modular analysis. • Tissue- and time-specific pathways were identified.

  11. Topological, functional, and dynamic properties of the protein interaction networks rewired by benzo(a)pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzo(a)pyrene is a common environmental and foodborne pollutant that has been identified as a human carcinogen. Although the carcinogenicity of benzo(a)pyrene has been extensively reported, its precise molecular mechanisms and the influence on system-level protein networks are not well understood. To investigate the system-level influence of benzo(a)pyrene on protein interactions and regulatory networks, a benzo(a)pyrene-rewired protein interaction network was constructed based on 769 key proteins derived from more than 500 literature reports. The protein interaction network rewired by benzo(a)pyrene was a scale-free, highly-connected biological system. Ten modules were identified, and 25 signaling pathways were enriched, most of which belong to the human diseases category, especially cancer and infectious disease. In addition, two lung-specific and two liver-specific pathways were identified. Three pathways were specific in short and medium-term networks (< 48 h), and five pathways were enriched only in the medium-term network (6 h–48 h). Finally, the expression of linker genes in the network was validated by Western blotting. These findings establish the overall, tissue- and time-specific benzo(a)pyrene-rewired protein interaction networks and provide insights into the biological effects and molecular mechanisms of action of benzo(a)pyrene. - Highlights: • Benzo(a)pyrene induced scale-free, highly-connected protein interaction networks. • 25 signaling pathways were enriched through modular analysis. • Tissue- and time-specific pathways were identified

  12. Preferential Formation of Benzo[a]pyrene Adducts at Lung Cancer Mutational Hotspots in P53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denissenko, Mikhail F.; Pao, Annie; Tang, Moon-Shong; Pfeifer, Gerd P.

    1996-10-01

    Cigarette smoke carcinogens such as benzo[a]pyrene are implicated in the development of lung cancer. The distribution of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE) adducts along exons of the P53 gene in BPDE-treated HeLa cells and bronchial epithelial cells was mapped at nucleotide resolution. Strong and selective adduct formation occurred at guanine positions in codons 157, 248, and 273. These same positions are the major mutational hotspots in human lung cancers. Thus, targeted adduct formation rather than phenotypic selection appears to shape the P53 mutational spectrum in lung cancer. These results provide a direct etiological link between a defined chemical carcinogen and human cancer.

  13. Dietary effects on the uptake of benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavric, B; Klassen, R

    1994-08-01

    It has been established that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), or more specifically benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), either by inhalation through cigarette smoking or by contact through occupational exposure of the lungs or skin, can result in cancerous lesions. It appears that the general population consumes more B[a]P from food than from smoking. Despite this, epidemiological studies have not implicated B[a]P from foods as a causative factor in some human cancers. This lack of an epidemiological correlation between cancer incidence and intake of dietary PAHs/B[a]P could be due to some 'protective' or 'detoxification' mechanism. Despite the abundance of literature regarding the food content of B[a]P, there are few data concerning its uptake from foods. In the present study we investigated the intestinal absorption of B[a]P from foods using bile duct cannulated rats and radioactive B[a]P. [14C]B[a]P was first added to solvents such as water, corn oil, liquid paraffin or 50% ethanol, which were the administered by gavage to rats fed diets with or without added carbon. Additionally, food polyphenols such as quercetin and chlorogenic acid were also tested for their effect on the absorption of B[a]P. The results indicated that the excretion of B[a]P in the bile was reduced by water, carbon, quercetin and chlorogenic acid but was potentiated by corn oil. To complement the in vivo studies, some in vitro tests to investigate the efficiency of B[a]P extraction from different foods using water or oil as solvents were also performed. These tests indicated that extraction of B[a]P from foods was affected by the solvent. It is postulated that reduced solubility, physical adsorption and the formation of chemical adducts between B[a]P and some food ingredients, play a sporadic, although still not well determined, role in reducing the absorption of B[a]P from the gut. The results of these studies suggest that B[a]P absorption from the intestinal tract is markedly

  14. Mechanism-based inactivation of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase by aryl acetylenes and aryl olefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of aryl acetylenes and aryl olefins have been examined as substrates and inhibitors of cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxgenases in liver microsomes from 5,6-benzoflavone or phenobarbital pretreated rats. 1-Ethynylpyrene, 3-ethynylperylene, 2-ethynylfluorene, methyl 1-pyrenyl acetylene, cis- and trans-1-(2-bromovinyl)pyrene, and 1-allylpyrene serve as mechanism-based irreversible inactivators (suicide inhibitors) of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase, while 1-vinylpyrene and phenyl 1-pyrenyl acetylene do not cause a detectable suicide inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase. The mechanism-based loss of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase caused by the aryl acetylenes is not accompanied by a corresponding loss of the P-450 content of the microsomes (suicide destruction). The suicide inhibition by these aryl acetylenes therefore does not involve covalent binding to the heme moiety of the monooxygenase. Nevertheless, in the presence of NADPH, 3H-labeled 1-ethynylpyrene becomes covalently attached to the cytochrome P-450 protein; the measured stoichiometry of binding is one 1-ethynylpyrene per P-450 heme unit. The authors conclude that the inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase produced by 1-ethynylpyrene may be related to the mechanism of suicide inhibition of P-450 activity by chloramphenicol rather than the mechanism of suicide destruction of P-450 previously described for acetylene and propyne

  15. Cultured mouse embryos metabolize benzo[a]pyrene during early gestation: genetic differences detectable by sister chromatid exchange.

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, S M; Perry, P E; Meneses, J. (Julio); Nebert, D W; Pedersen, R A

    1980-01-01

    Mouse embryos explanted at 7 1/2 or 8 1/2 days of gestation were cultured in medium containing benzo[a]pyrene and supplemented with 5-bromodeoxyuridine to allow detection of sister chromatid exchanges. The murine Ah locus regulates the inducible metabolism of polycyclic hydrocarbons such as benzo[a]pyrene. A high frequency of sister chromatid exchange was induced by benzo[a]pyrene in embryos from three Ah-"responsive" inbred strains (BALB/cDub, C3H/AnfCum, and C57BL/6N); there was little or n...

  16. Flow cytometric measurement of the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene by mouse liver cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in individual cells was monitored by flow cytometry. The measurements are based on the alterations that occur in the fluorescence emission spectrum of benzo[a]pyrene when it is converted to various metabolites. Using present instrumentation the technique could easily detect 1x106 molecules per cells of benzo[a]pyrene and 1x107 molecules per cell of the diol epoxide. The analysis of C3H IOT 1/2 mouse fibroblasts growing in culture indicated that there was heterogeneity in the conversion of the parent compound into diol epoxide derivatives suggesting that some variation in sensitivity to transformation by benzo[a]pyrene may be due to differences in cellular metabolism. The technique allows sensitive detection of metabolites in viable cells, and provides a new approach to the study of factors that influence both metabolism and transformation. (orig.)

  17. Electrochemical detection of benzo(a)pyrene and related DNA damage using DNA/hemin/nafion–graphene biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A novel electrochemical biosensor, DNA/hemin/nafion–graphene/GCE, was constructed to quantitatively study the DNA damage induced by the metabolite of benzo(a)pyrene in the presence of H2O2. - Highlights: • Construction of a novel DNA/hemin/nafion-graphene/GCE biosensor. • DNA damage induced by the benzo(a)pyrene metabolite was detected. • DPV analysis of benzo(a)pyrene provided a quantitative estimate of DNA damage. • Hemin/H2O2 system could mimic the cytochrome P450 to metabolize benzo(a)pyrene. - Abstract: A novel electrochemical biosensor, DNA/hemin/nafion–graphene/GCE, was constructed for the analysis of the benzo(a)pyrene PAH, which can produce DNA damage induced by a benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) enzyme-catalytic product. This biosensor was assembled layer-by-layer, and was characterized with the use of cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and atomic force microscopy. Ultimately, it was demonstrated that the hemin/nafion–graphene/GCE was a viable platform for the immobilization of DNA. This DNA biosensor was treated separately in benzo(a)pyrene, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and in their mixture, respectively, and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis showed that an oxidation peak was apparent after the electrode was immersed in H2O2. Such experiments indicated that in the presence of H2O2, hemin could mimic cytochrome P450 to metabolize benzo(a)pyrene, and a voltammogram of its metabolite was recorded. The DNA damage induced by this metabolite was also detected by electrochemical impedance and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Finally, a novel, indirect DPV analytical method for BaP in aqueous solution was developed based on the linear metabolite versus BaP concentration plot; this method provided a new, indirect, quantitative estimate of DNA damage

  18. Separation of water-soluble metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene formed by cultured human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1979-01-01

    A method has been developed to separate conjugated metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene into three major fractions: sulfate esters, glucuronides and glutathione conjugates. In cultured human colon, formation of sulfate esters and glutathione conjugates is the major conjugation pathway, while formation of...... glucuronides accounts for only 6 per cent of the water-soluble metabolites. Hydrolysis of the sulfate esters with arylsulfatase and the glucuronides with β-glucuronidase released metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene that were extractable with organic solvent. Separation of these metabolites by high-pressure liquid...... chromatography indicated that trans-4,5-dihydro-4,5-dihydroxybenzo[a]pyrene,7,8,9, 10-tetrahydro-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydroxybenzo[a]pyrene and trans-9, 10-dihydro-9, 10-dihydroxybenzo[a]pyrene were the major substrates for UDP-glucuronic acid transferase, while trans-7,8-dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo[a]pyrene and 9...

  19. Benzo(a)pyrene activation and detoxification by human pulmonary alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparisons of pulmonary alveolar macrophages and circulating lymphocytes from five smokers and five nonsmokers for their ability to metabolize benzo(a)pyrene as determined by high pressure liquid chromatography were carried out. Utilizing this approach, further investigation of activation and detoxification by several human cell types could provide the basis for more precise and comprehensive studies of carcinogen and drug metabolism in the human lung, and for a better assessment of cancer risk in selected populations

  20. Benzo(a)pyrene diolepoxide-DNA adducts detected by synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry.

    OpenAIRE

    Vahakangas, K.; Trivers, G; Rowe, M.; Harris, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    Using benzo(a)pyrene (BP) as a model carcinogen we are currently applying a fluorescence technique to detect the very low levels of carcinogen-DNA adducts in human populations due to environmental exposure. In synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry for detection of BP-diol epoxide-DNA, excitation and emission wavelengths are scanned simultaneously with a fixed wavelength difference (delta lambda) of 34 nm. Compared to conventional fluorescence methods only one peak emerges because excitat...

  1. Bacillus subtilis is a Potential Degrader of Pyrene and Benzo[a]pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette Ekunwe

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs are a group of compounds that pose many health threats to human and animal life. They occur in nature as a result of incomplete combustion of organic matter, as well as from many anthropogenic sources including cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust. PAHs have been reported to cause liver damage, red blood cell damage and a variety of cancers. Because of this, methods to reduce the amount of PAHs in the environment are continuously being sought. The purpose of this study was to find soil bacteria capable of degrading high molecular weight PAHs, such as pyrene (Pyr and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, which contain more than three benzene rings and so persist in the environment. Bacillus subtilis, identified by fatty acid methyl ester (FAME analysis, was isolated from PAH contaminated soil. Because it grew in the presence of 33μg/ml each of pyrene, 1-AP and 1-HP, its biodegradation capabilities were assessed. It was found that after a four-day incubation period at 30oC in 20μg/ml pyrene or benzo[a]pyrene, B. subtilis was able to transform approximately 40% and 50% pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively. This is the first report implicating B. subtilis in PAH degradation. Whether or not the intermediates resulting from the transformation are more toxic than their parent compounds, and whether B. subtilis is capable of mineralizing pyrene or benzo[a]pyrene to carbon dioxide and water, remains to be evaluated.

  2. Benzo(a)pyrene inhibits the role of the bioturbator Tubifex tubifex in river sediment biogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermillod-Blondin, F; Foulquier, A; Gilbert, F; Navel, S; Montuelle, B; Bellvert, F; Comte, G; Grossi, V; Fourel, F; Lecuyer, C; Simon, L

    2013-04-15

    The interactions between invertebrates and micro-organisms living in streambed sediments often play key roles in the regulation of nutrient and organic matter fluxes in aquatic ecosystems. However, benthic sediments also constitute a privileged compartment for the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants such as PAHs or PCBs that may affect the diversity, abundance and activity of benthic organisms. The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of sediment contamination with the PAH benzo(a)pyrene on the interaction between micro-organisms and the tubificid worm, Tubifex tubifex, which has been recognized as a major bioturbator in freshwater sediments. Sedimentary microcosms (slow filtration columns) contaminated or not with benzo(a)pyrene (3 tested concentrations: 0, 1 and 5 mg kg(-1)) at the sediment surface were incubated under laboratory conditions in the presence (100 individuals) or absence of T. tubifex. Although the surface sediment contaminations with 1 mg kg(-1) and 5 mg kg(-1) of benzo(a)pyrene did not affect tubificid worm survival, these contaminations significantly influenced the role played by T. tubifex in biogeochemical processes. Indeed, tubificid worms stimulated aerobic respiration, denitrification, dehydrogenase and hydrolytic activities of micro-organisms in uncontaminated sediments whereas such effects were inhibited in sediments polluted with benzo(a)pyrene. This inhibition was due to contaminant-induced changes in bioturbation (and especially bio-irrigation) activities of worms and their resulting effects on microbial processes. This study reveals the importance of sublethal concentrations of a contaminant on ecological processes in river sediments through affecting bioturbator-microbe interactions. Since they affect microbial processes involved in water purification processes, such impacts of sublethal concentrations of pollutants should be more often considered in ecosystem health assessment. PMID:23500821

  3. Metabolic activation and DNA binding of benzo(a)pyrene in cultured human bronchus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1977-01-01

    predominant metabolite formed by human bronchus from the (-)-trans-7,8-diol is found by high-pressure liquid chromatographic analysis to be the diol-epoxide r-7,t-8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahy-drobenzo(a)pyrene. The results suggest that this diol-epoxide is the major benzo(a)pyrene metabolite bound...

  4. Determination of the level of benzo[a]pyrene in fatty foods and food supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Wielen-Hustinx, Jacqueline Claire Agnes; Jansen, John; Martena, Martijn J.; De Groot, Henk; In T Veld, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A routine method was developed for the quantification of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in edible oils and food supplements. BaP is often taken as an indicator of the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The method consists of on-line LC-clean up followed by injection to an HPLC-system connected with fluorescence detection. The method has good performance characteristics and gave good results in proficiency tests. From 2002 to 2004 about 1350 samples, oils and food supp...

  5. The Cigarette Smoke Carcinogen Benzo[a]pyrene Enhances Human Papillomavirus Synthesis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Samina; Conway, Michael J; Chen, Horng-Shen; Meyers, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that cigarette smoke carcinogens are cofactors which synergize with human papillomavirus (HPV) to increase the risk of cervical cancer progression. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a major carcinogen in cigarette smoke, is detected in the cervical mucus and may interact with HPV. Exposure of cervical cells to high concentrations of BaP resulted in a 10-fold increase in HPV type 31 (HPV31) viral titers, whereas treatment with low concentrations of BaP resulted in an increa...

  6. Electrochemical detection of benzo(a)pyrene and related DNA damage using DNA/hemin/nafion–graphene biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Yongnian, E-mail: ynni@ncu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang, Pingping; Song, Haiyan [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Lin, Xiaoyun [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Kokot, Serge, E-mail: s.kokot@qut.edu.au [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4001 (Australia)

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel electrochemical biosensor, DNA/hemin/nafion–graphene/GCE, was constructed to quantitatively study the DNA damage induced by the metabolite of benzo(a)pyrene in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Construction of a novel DNA/hemin/nafion-graphene/GCE biosensor. • DNA damage induced by the benzo(a)pyrene metabolite was detected. • DPV analysis of benzo(a)pyrene provided a quantitative estimate of DNA damage. • Hemin/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system could mimic the cytochrome P450 to metabolize benzo(a)pyrene. - Abstract: A novel electrochemical biosensor, DNA/hemin/nafion–graphene/GCE, was constructed for the analysis of the benzo(a)pyrene PAH, which can produce DNA damage induced by a benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) enzyme-catalytic product. This biosensor was assembled layer-by-layer, and was characterized with the use of cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and atomic force microscopy. Ultimately, it was demonstrated that the hemin/nafion–graphene/GCE was a viable platform for the immobilization of DNA. This DNA biosensor was treated separately in benzo(a)pyrene, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and in their mixture, respectively, and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis showed that an oxidation peak was apparent after the electrode was immersed in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Such experiments indicated that in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, hemin could mimic cytochrome P450 to metabolize benzo(a)pyrene, and a voltammogram of its metabolite was recorded. The DNA damage induced by this metabolite was also detected by electrochemical impedance and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Finally, a novel, indirect DPV analytical method for BaP in aqueous solution was developed based on the linear metabolite versus BaP concentration plot; this method provided a new, indirect, quantitative estimate of DNA damage.

  7. GC-MS/MS analysis of benzo(a)pyrene by ion trap tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mass spectrometry using an ion trap tandem mass spectrometer has been investigated to find optimum conditions for the analysis of benzo(a)pyrene (3,4-benzpyrene). The applicability to a real soil sample was also investigated to verify the usefulness of the MS/MS (or collision induced dissociation, CID) analysis. The optimum CID condition was 1.5 and 0.45 for the RF excitation voltage and the q value, respectively. For comparison, CID and EI were applied to the analysis of a soil sample. CID analysis was more sensitive than EI analysis of the soil sample. The limit of detection (LOD) of benzo(a)pyrene was 3.18 ng mL-1 and 0.85 ng mL-1 for EI and MS/MS analysis, respectively. The precision at the soil sample for EI and CID showed relative standard deviations of 6.1% and 4.1%, respectively, and the concentrations were 168 μg kg-1 and 162 μg kg-1, respectively

  8. Uptake of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene in melanin-containing tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, A.; Larsson, B.S. [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Div. of Toxicology, Uppsala (Sweden); Tjaelve, H. [The Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-08-01

    It is widely accepted that UV exposure is the main etiological factor for malignant melanoma. Epidemiologic studies, however, have indicated that also chemical carcinogens may be a risk factor for the disease. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene represent an important class of carcinogenic chemicals. It is known that 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene can induce melanotic tumours in various animal species, and human melanocytes in culture have been found to be capable of metabolizing benzo(a)pyrene to its proximate carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-diol. In the present study the disposition of {sup 14}C- and {sup 3}H-7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and {sup 14}C-benzo(a)pyrene was studied in pigmented and albino mice and Syrian golden hamsters by whole-body autoradiography. The results showed pronounced retention of label in the melanin-containing structures of the eyes and the hair follicles in the pigmented animals. The labelling of the corresponding structures in the albino animals was low. Additional experiments showed that 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene as well as some of their metabolites are bound to melanin in vitro. The specific localization of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in pigmented tissues due to melanin affinity, combined with bioactivating capacity of melanocytes, suggest that these substances may play a role in the induction of malignant melanoma. (au).

  9. MUTAGENICITY OF BENZO(A)PYRENE METABOLITES GENERATED ON THE ISOLATED PERFUSED LUNG FOLLOWING PARTICULATE EXPOSURE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The isolated perfused rabbit lung (IPL) is being used to study the effects of particulate exposure on the pulmonary metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Pasturealla-free New Zealand white rabbits were treated intraperitoneally with BaP prior to kill. The isolated lungs were then a...

  10. Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of 14C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% 14CO2 when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. - Bacterial benzo[a]pyrene cometabolism, a plant-microbe interaction affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phytoremediation was demonstrated with Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 that utilized plant root extracts and exudates as primary substrates

  11. Effects of Benzo[a]pyrene on DNA Damage and Histological alterations in Gonad of Scallop Chlamys farreri

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Jing, Miao; Lu-Qing, Pan; Jing, Liu; Lin, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Effects of Benzo[a]pyrene on DNA Damage and Histological alterations in Gonad of Scallop Chlamys farreri correspondence: Corresponding author. (Lu-qing, Pan) (Lu-qing, Pan) The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China - No. 5--> , Yushan Road--> , Qingdao--> - CHINA (Jing-jing, Miao) The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Ocean University ...

  12. METABOLISM AND DNA (DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID) BINDING OF BENZO(A)PYRENE IN CULTURED HUMAN BLADDER AND BRONCHUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) was examined in ex-plant cultures of human bladder and bronchus. Three-day cultures were exposed to radiolabeled BP for 24 h, and the metabolism was determined by analysis of the level of binding of reactive metabolites to DNA, and by the rel...

  13. Evaluation of adjuvants for a candidate conjugate vaccine against benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, Mario T; Farinelle, Sophie; Willième, Stéphanie; Muller, Claude P

    2011-01-01

    We have recently developed an experimental vaccine based on benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) conjugated to tetanus toxoid as a carrier protein. In combination with Freund adjuvant, this vaccine induces high levels of B[a]P-specific antibodies to protect against detrimental effects of this carcinogen. Here we evaluate this conjugate vaccine by replacing Freund adjuvant by adjuvants that are potentially compatible with their use in humans. We showed that all adjuvants tested induced specific antibodies against B[a]P and 7,8-diol-B[a]P, its carcinogenic metabolite. The best antibody levels were obtained with Quil A, MF-59 and Alum. Biological activity in terms of enhanced retention of B[a]P was confirmed in mice immunised with Quil A, Montanide, Alum and MF-59. Our findings demonstrate that a vaccination against B[a]P is feasible in combination with adjuvants licensed in humans. PMID:21245662

  14. Asbestos-catalyzed oxidation of benzo(a)pyrene by superoxide-peroxidized microsomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbestos and benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] are ubiquitous in our environment and both are recognized as causal factors for cancer in man and animals. In vitro studies showed a synergism in morphological transformation of mammalian cells treated with asbestos and B(a)P. It has been shown that asbestos can mediate lipid peroxidation and that iron cations might be involved in the catalytic activity of asbestos fibers. A previous study of B(a)P metabolism by microsomes showed that peroxidative conditions change the balance between activation and deactivation of B(a)P and demonstrated that catalytically active iron can play a role in this process. The present investigation examines the effect of asbestos on oxidation of B(a)P by superoxide - peroxidized microsomes in vitro

  15. Liquid chromatographic determination of benzo(a)pyrene in total particulate matter of cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkins, B.A.; Jenkins, R.A.; Griest, W.H.; Reagan, R.R.; Holladay, S.K.

    1985-09-01

    The benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) delivery of reference and commercially available tobacco cigarettes, as well as reference and placebo marijuana cigarettes, is determined using a sequential liquid chromatographic/liquid chromatographic procedure. The total particulate matter of sample cigarette smoke is collected using a Cambridge filter pad, which is ultrasonically extracted with acetone. The resulting extract is filtered, then fractionated using semipreparative-scale normal phase liquid chromatography (LC). Quantitative determination is achieved using analytical-scale reverse phase LC equipped with a fluorescence detector. The method is precise (+/- 10-15% relative standard deviation) and yields 85% or better BaP recovery at the ng/cig. level. A single pad may be analyzed in 8 person-hours, while a more typical lot of 12 pads (6 pads each for 2 cigarette brands) may be analyzed in 10 person-days.

  16. Chlorophyll catalyse the photo-transformation of carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lijuan; Lai, Xueying; Chen, Baowei; Lin, Li; Fang, Ling; Tam, Nora F. Y.; Luan, Tiangang

    2015-08-01

    Algal blooms cause great damage to water quality and aquaculture. However, this study showed that dead algal cells and chlorophyll could accelerate the photo-transformation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a ubiquitous and persistent pollutant with potently mutagenic and carcinogenic toxicities, under visible light irradiation. Chlorophyll was found to be the major active substance in dead algal cells, and generated a high level of singlet oxygen to catalyse the photo-transformation of BaP. According to various BaP metabolites formed, the degradation mechanism was proposed as that chlorophyll in dead algal cells photo-oxidized BaP to quinones via photocatalytic generation of singlet oxygen. The results provided a good insight into the role of chlorophyll in the photo-transformation of organic contaminants and could be a possible remediation strategy of organic pollutants in natural environment.

  17. Investigation on the Protective Effects of Cranberry Against the DNA Damage Induced by Benzo[a]pyrene

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-González, José A.; Jaime Esquivel-Soto; César Esquivel-Chirino; Teresa Sumaya-Martínez; Tomas Fregoso-Aguilar; Jorge Mendoza-Pérez; José Gutiérrez-Salinas; Manuel Sánchez-Gutiérrez; Clara Zúñiga Pérez; Jeannett A. Izquierdo-Vega; Gloria Solano-Solano; Carmen Valadez-Vega; Sonia Fragoso-Antonio; Eduardo Madrigal-Santillán

    2012-01-01

    There are few reports that demonstrate the antigenotoxic potential of cranberries. Although the types of berry fruits consumed worldwide are many, this paper focuses on cranberries that are commonly consumed in Mexico (Vaccinium macrocarpon species). The purpose of the present study is to determine whether cranberry ethanolic extract (CEE) can prevent the DNA damage produced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) using an in vivo mouse peripheral blood micronucleus assay. The experimental groups were orga...

  18. Seasonal trends of benzo(a)pyrene in suspended particulate matter in urban areas of Belgrade, Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Snežana Matić-Besarabić; Ljiljana Adjanski-Spasić; Milena Jovašević-Stojanović; Anka Cvetković; Dragan A. Marković

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified to be one of the major toxic air pollutants in urban environment. PAHs are mostly formed during incomplete combustion or pyrolysis of organic material. According to Serbian National Legislation, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentration in total suspended particles (TSP) in ambient air in the Belgrade metropolitan area has been determined in the last ten years, as a part of a local air pollution monitoring program performed by the Public Health...

  19. Determination of benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzopyrenes in a Chinese coal fly ash certified reference material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masala, Silvia; Bergvall, Christoffer; Westerholm, Roger

    2012-08-15

    Air pollution from coal combustion is of great concern in China because coal is the country's principal source of energy and it has been estimated that coal combustion is one of the main sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions in the nation. This study reports the concentrations of 15 PAHs including benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene in a coal fly ash certified reference material (CRM) from China. To the best of our knowledge, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene concentrations in coal fly ash particles have not previously been reported. Benzo[a]pyrene is the only one of the studied hydrocarbons whose concentration in the coal fly ash CRM had previously been certified. The concentration of this species measured in this present work was twice the certified value. This is probably because of the exhaustive accelerated solvent extraction method employed. Consecutive extractions indicated an extraction recovery in excess of 95% for benzo[a]pyrene. For the other determined PAHs, repeat extractions indicated recoveries above 90%. PMID:22728296

  20. Benzo[a]pyrene and Benzo[k]fluoranthene in some processed fish and fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Olatunde S; Fatoki, Olalekan S; Opeolu, Beatrice O; Ximba, Bhekumusa J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the concentration levels of the probable carcinogenic PAH fractions, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and benzo[k]fluoranthrene (BkF) in fillets of some processed fish species were investigated. Fish species comprising Merluccius poli (hake), Tyrsites atun (snoek), Seriola lalandi (yellow-tail) and Brama brama (angel fish) were bought in fish shops at Gordon's Bay, Western Cape, South Africa. The fish were gutted, filleted and prepared for edibility by frying, grilling and boiling. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted from each homogenized fish sample, cleaned-up using solid phase extraction (SPE), and analysed for the PAH fractions, BaP and BkF using a Gas Chromatograph coupled with a Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID). The sum of the two PAHs (∑2PAH) i.e., BaP and BkF ranged between 0.56 and 1.46 µg/kg, in all boiled, grilled and fried fish species. The fried fish extracts showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) abundance of ∑2PAH, than grilled and boiled fish. Dietary safety and PAHs toxicity was also discussed. PMID:25607603

  1. Benzo[a]pyrene and Benzo[k]fluoranthene in Some Processed Fish and Fish Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde S. Olatunji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the concentration levels of the probable carcinogenic PAH fractions, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP and benzo[k]fluoranthrene (BkF in fillets of some processed fish species were investigated. Fish species comprising Merluccius poli (hake, Tyrsites atun (snoek, Seriola lalandi (yellow-tail and Brama brama (angel fish were bought in fish shops at Gordon’s Bay, Western Cape, South Africa. The fish were gutted, filleted and prepared for edibility by frying, grilling and boiling. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted from each homogenized fish sample, cleaned-up using solid phase extraction (SPE, and analysed for the PAH fractions, BaP and BkF using a Gas Chromatograph coupled with a Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID. The sum of the two PAHs (∑2PAH i.e., BaP and BkF ranged between 0.56 and 1.46 µg/kg, in all boiled, grilled and fried fish species. The fried fish extracts showed significantly higher (p < 0.05 abundance of ∑2PAH, than grilled and boiled fish. Dietary safety and PAHs toxicity was also discussed.

  2. Effect of heavy metals on the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honey, S.A.; Yuan, Zhi-Xin; Kumar, S.; Sikka, H.C. [State Univ. of New York College, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In order to investigate the interaction of heavy metals and PAHs, we have examined the effect of methylmercuric chloride and cadmium chloride on the oxidative metabolism by rats of benzo(a)pyrene [BaP], a model carcinogenic PAR Treatment of male rats with 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg methylmercury (ip) reduced the rate of metabolism of BaP by liver microsomes by 38.7 and 62.2%, respectively. Cadmium was more potent than methylmercury, decreasing the rate of metabolism of BaP by 28.4, 52.2, and 69.7% by liver microsomes of rats treated with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/kg of cadmium, respectively. The liver microsomes from animals treated with methylmercury or cadmium produced a greater proportion of BP-phenols and a lower portion of BP-diols than did the microsomes from untreated animals, suggesting that both metals also inhibit the activity of epoxide hydrase. Neither methylmercury nor cadmium had an effect on the proportion of BP-quinones formed by liver microsomes. Treatment of rats with methylmercury or cadmium did not inhibit the metabolism of BaP by liver microsomes from animals treated with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) prior to metal administration, suggesting that 3-MC treatment protects against the effect of methylmercury or cadmium on the oxidative metabolism of BaP.

  3. Illegitimate recombination induced by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplex DNA oligomer constructs (32 base pairs) were paired that contained a single benzo[a]pyrene (BP) adduct at a specific deoxyadenosine or deoxyguanosine site in either one or both strands. These constructs were inserted into M13 replicative form viral DNA, and the DNA from progeny virus generated by transfection of Escherichia coli was examined by sequence analysis at the site of oligomer insertion. With nonalkylated constructs, and with constructs containing only one BP adduct, no sequence alterations were found in progeny viral DNAs. With constructs containing two BP adducts, one in each strand and closely spaced, some progeny DNAs showed the original oligomer sequence, whereas others exhibited large deletions and illegitimate (non-homologous) recombination, both of which removed the damage construct. Increasing the distance between BP adducts in the construct reduced the frequency of recombinant events. These sequence alterations occurred in both recA+ and recA- host cells. The authors speculate that the closely spaced adducts in opposite construct strands cause a rare distortion in DNA structure, which activates the recombinant machinery, and that mutagenic and carcinogenic agents other than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may cause similar DNA distortions, which induce illegitimate recombination

  4. Mutagenicity of algal metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene for Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism and growth effects of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were studied using a freshwater green alga, Selenastrum capricornutum. Algal cultures were incubated under gold light with BaP added at concentrations of 40, 160, 400, and 1200 μg/liter for the periods of 1-4 days. The metabolites and BaP were identified and quantified from ethyl acetate extracts of both algal cells and incubation medium. The ethyl acetate extracts were evaluated for genotoxicity using a micro-volume Salmonella typhimurium forward mutation assay with resistance to 8-azaguanine for selection. This assay detected the presence of small quantities of BaP and was particularly sensitive to the mutagenicity of BaP diols. Of those extracts prepared from algae and medium from cultures exposed to 400 μg BaP/liter (10 μg/25 ml culture), only algal cell extracts from one day's growth were mutagenic. In cultures exposed to 1200 μg BaP/liter (30 μg/25 ml culture), mutagenic materials were produced or persisted in both algae and media throughout the 4-day incubation. The observed mutagenic response can be attributed in part to the presence of unmetabolized BaP or to BaP diols

  5. Effects of benzo(a)pyrene exposure on the antioxidant enzyme activity of scallop Chlamys farreri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Luqing; REN Jiayun; ZHENG Debin

    2009-01-01

    Scallop Chlamys farreri was exposed to different concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) (0.5 μg/L, 1.0 μg/L, 10.0 μg/L and 50.0 μg/L) for 30 days in seawater. The 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was significantly induced, and increased with the increasing BaP concentration. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities increased in short time at low concentration of BaP, and was significantly depressed at high concentrations. Scallop gill was more sensitive to BaP than the digestive gland, and the digestive gland was the main tissue to deal with oxyradicals. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased with the exposure time and there was a positive correlation (concentration-effect) between the MDA content and the concentration of BaP. The biomarkers determined in this experiment had important roles in detoxification, and showed great potential as biomarkers for oxidative stress. Controlled laboratory experiments designed to simulate field exposure scenarios are particularly useful in ascertaining biomarkers suitable for use with complex contaminant mixtures in the marine environment.

  6. Skin tumor-initiating activities of the twelve isomeric phenols of benzo(a)pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The skin tumor-initiating activities of the 12 isomeric phenols of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) were determined in mice by use of a two-stage system of tumorigenesis. 11-Hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene was moderately active, whereas 2-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene and BP were strong tumor initiators when applied topically to CD-1 mice and followed by twice-weekly applications of the promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. 1-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, 7-, 8-, 9-, 10-, and 12-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene had less than 5% of the tumor-initiating activity of BP when the data were expressed as papillomas per mouse. After 30 weeks of promotion, the number of papillomas per mouse was 8.4, 8.5, and 2.8, respectively, for the animals treated with BP, 2-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene, and 11-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene. A 5-week latency period before the appearance of the first tumor was observed after the application of either 2-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene or BP, whereas a slightly longer latency period of 7 weeks was observed following application of 11-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene. The time required for 50% of the animals to develop tumors was 13 weeks for animals treated with BP and 15 weeks for animals treated with 2- or 11-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene

  7. Induction and inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene metabolism in human epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of different growth conditions and various cytochrome P-450 inducers and inhibitors were examined on the benzo(a)pyrene (BP) metabolism of human skin cells in vitro. First, three different populations of neonatal foreskin fibroblasts were treated with 0.98 μM [G-3H]-BP at 9.6 Ci/mmole for 24 hours and the organic-extractable metabolites in the extracellular, the cytoplasmic, and the nuclear fractions were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Confluent cultures (contact-inhibited cells), which were nontransformable, metabolized BP to a much greater extent than the transformable populations, randomly-proliferating cultures (cells in logarithmic growth) and synchronized cultures (cells treated in S phase). The major extracellular BP metabolites detected were the 9,10-diol, the 7,8-diol, and the phenols, including all four tetrols observed only in the confluent cells. From this data, the state of confluency (i.e. the model for the in vivo state of skin cells) induced enzymes which catalyze primarily the detoxification pathways leading to the formation of metabolites which are readily excreted whereas cells which are actively dividing or synchronized induced the formation of metabolites from activation pathways that led to transformation. Next, the effects of four inducers (3-methylcholanthrene (3-MCA), phenobarbital (PB), isosafrole, and Arochlor 1254) and an inhibitor (butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)) on the BP metabolism of human epidermal keratinocytes were evaluated

  8. Seasonal trends of benzo(apyrene in suspended particulate matter in urban areas of Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Matić-Besarabić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were identified to be one of the major toxic air pollutants in urban environment. PAHs are mostly formed during incomplete combustion or pyrolysis of organic material. According to Serbian National Legislation, benzo(apyrene (BaP concentration in total suspended particles (TSP in ambient air in the Belgrade metropolitan area has been determined in the last ten years, as a part of a local air pollution monitoring program performed by the Public Health Institute of Belgrade and funded by Belgrade’s Municipality. Air samples for analysis of BaP in suspended particleshave been collected (as 24 h sample once per month at selected onitoring sites within the municipal air quality monitoring network. At the beginning, according to National Regulation, all samples were taken as total suspended particles (TSP. Since mid-2008, the procedure of sampling methodology was harmonized with EU requirements and solid fraction PM10 has been collected and analyzed using GC/MS. In this study, we have analyzed results of TSP collected between 2005 and 2008. Looking through the results obtained during the period of a whole year, it can be noticed that concentrations of BaP were much higher during winter season at almost all measuring sites.

  9. Can biomonitors effectively detect airborne benzo[a]pyrene? An evaluation approach using modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratola, Nuno; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Biomonitoring data available on levels of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in pine needles from the Iberian Peninsula were used to estimate air concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and, at the same time, fuelled the comparison with chemistry transport model representations. Simulations with the modelling system WRF+EMEP+CHIMERE were validated against data from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) air sampling network. Modelled atmospheric concentrations were used as a consistent reference in order to compare the performance of vegetation-to-air estimating methods. A spatial and temporal resolution of 9 km and 1 h was implemented. The field-based database relied on a pine needles sampling scheme comprising 33 sites in Portugal and 37 sites in Spain complemented with the BaP measurements available from the EMEP sites. The ability of pine needles to act as biomonitoring markers for the atmospheric concentrations of BaP was estimated by converting the levels obtained in pine needles into air concentrations by six different approaches, one of them presenting realistic concentrations when compared to the modelled atmospheric values. The justification for this study is that the gaps still exist in the knowledge of the life cycles of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), particularly the partition processes between air and vegetation. The strategy followed in this work allows for the effective estimation by the model of concentrations in air and vegetation and of the best approaches to estimate atmospheric levels from values found in vegetation.

  10. Synthesis of modified potato starches for aqueous solubilization of benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsarte, Isabelle; Danjou, Pierre-Edouard; Veignie, Etienne; Rafin, Catherine

    2016-06-25

    For soil rehabilitation, the surfactant-enhanced remediation has emerged as a promising technology. For this purpose, starch derivatives were difunctionalized by 1,4-butane sultone (BS) and 2-octen-1-ylsuccinic anhydride (OSA). Eight distinct products were obtained under different synthesis conditions. The chemical structural characteristics were investigated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The compounds were evaluated for their apparent aqueous solubility and their ability to increase the solubility of a hydrophobic pollutant such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), used as a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon model. In comparison with native starch, the best obtained compound increased starch apparent aqueous solubility by a factor of 10 (up to 3.50g/L) and also stimulated 77-fold BaP aqueous solubilization (up to 232.97μg/L) underlining its very high surfactant property. In this study, the right balance between hydrophobic character (octenyl succinate group (OS) grafted) of starch derivatives and starch apparent aqueous solubility (BS grafted) was highlighted. PMID:27083796

  11. Deep sequencing-based transcriptome profiling analysis of Chlamys farreri exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuefeng; Pan, Luqing; Hu, Fengxiao; Jin, Qian; Liu, Tong

    2014-11-10

    Whole-genome transcriptome measurements are pivotal for characterizing molecular mechanisms of chemicals and predicting toxic classes, such as genotoxicity and carcinogenicity, from in vitro and in vivo assays. We analyzed the dynamic defense transcriptome responsive to Chlamys farreri upon exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) using a digital gene expression (DGE) approach. Following exposure, 251 and 177 genes were up-regulated, and 142 and 300 genes were down-regulated at 3 days post-exposure and 10 days post-exposure, respectively. The differentially expressed genes were related to toxicological response, oxidative stress and the metabolism of proteins and fats. Of these genes, most genes up-regulated at the early stage of exposure tended to be constantly down-regulated at the later stage whereas the landscape of the up- or down-regulated genes differed significantly at the two time points investigated. Functional enrichment analyses show that RNA-seq yields more insight into the biological mechanisms related to the toxic effects caused by BaP, i.e., two to fivefold more affected pathways and biological processes. Besides, we observed a change in the expression of ten genes which are important and differentially-expressed detoxification-related genes, and this was subsequently confirmed via quantitative real-time PCR. Our results provide evidence that RNA-seq is a powerful tool for toxicology and is capable of generating novel and valuable information at the transcriptome level for characterizing deleterious effects caused by BaP. PMID:25194896

  12. Effect of ageing on benzo[a]pyrene extractability in contrasting soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • In vitro assessment of B[a]P in contaminated soils using 4 different methods. • An exponential kinetic model fits well with the extractability data. • Fitting parameter and 14C residue correlates with key soil properties. • Fractionation of B[a]P was obtained based on extractability by extractants. - Abstract: Changes in benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) extractability over 160 days ageing in four contrasting soils varying in organic matter content and clay mineralogy were investigated using dichloromethane: acetone 1:1 (DCM/Ace), 60 mM hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solution, 1-butanol (BuOH) and Milli-Q water. The B[a]P extractability by the four methods decreased with ageing and a first-order exponential model could be used to describe the kinetics of release. Correlation of the kinetic rate constant with major soil properties showed a significant effect of clay and sand contents and pore volume fraction (<6 nm) on sequestration of the desorbable fraction (by HPCD) and the water-extractable fraction. Analysis of 14C-B[a]P in soils after ageing showed a limited loss of B[a]P via degradation. Fractionation of B[a]P pools associated with the soil matrix was analysed according to extractability of B[a]P by the different extraction methods. A summary of the different fractions is proposed for the illustration of the effect of ageing on different B[a]P-bound fractions in soils. This study provides a better understanding of the B[a]P ageing process associated with different fractions and also emphasises the extraction capacity of the different methods employed

  13. Effect of the Apulia air quality plan on PM10 and benzo(apyrene exceedances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Trizio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, several exceedances of PM10 and benzo(apyrene limit values exceedances were recorded in Taranto, a city in southern Italy included in so-called areas at high risk of environmental crisis because of the presence of a heavy industrial district including the largest steel factory in Europe. A study of these critical pollution events showed a close correlation with the wind coming from the industrial site to the adjacent urban area. During 2011, at monitoring sites closes to the industrial area, at least the 65% of PM10 exceedances were related to wind day conditions (characterized by at least 3 consecutive hours of wind coming from 270-360±2deg with an associated speed higher than 7 m/s. For this reason, in 2012 an integrated environmental permit and a regional air quality plan were enacted to reduce pollutant emissions from industrial plants. A study of PM10 levels registered during windy days was performed during critical episodes of pollution highlighting that the difference between windy days and no windy days’ concentrations reduces from 2012 to 2014 in industrial site. False negative events (verified ex-post by observed meteorological data not identified by the forecast model - did not show a significant influence on PM concentration: PM10 values were comparable and sometimes lower than windy days levels. It is reasonable that the new scenario with a relevant reduction emissions form Ilva plant reduced the pollutants contribution from industrial area, contributing to PM10 levels decrease, also in false negative events.

  14. Effect of ageing on benzo[a]pyrene extractability in contrasting soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Luchun [CERAR-Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation and Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: Ravi.Naidu@newcastle.edu.au [CERAR-Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation and Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Liu, Yanju; Palanisami, Thavamani; Dong, Zhaomin; Mallavarapu, Megharaj [CERAR-Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation and Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Semple, Kirk T. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • In vitro assessment of B[a]P in contaminated soils using 4 different methods. • An exponential kinetic model fits well with the extractability data. • Fitting parameter and {sup 14}C residue correlates with key soil properties. • Fractionation of B[a]P was obtained based on extractability by extractants. - Abstract: Changes in benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) extractability over 160 days ageing in four contrasting soils varying in organic matter content and clay mineralogy were investigated using dichloromethane: acetone 1:1 (DCM/Ace), 60 mM hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solution, 1-butanol (BuOH) and Milli-Q water. The B[a]P extractability by the four methods decreased with ageing and a first-order exponential model could be used to describe the kinetics of release. Correlation of the kinetic rate constant with major soil properties showed a significant effect of clay and sand contents and pore volume fraction (<6 nm) on sequestration of the desorbable fraction (by HPCD) and the water-extractable fraction. Analysis of {sup 14}C-B[a]P in soils after ageing showed a limited loss of B[a]P via degradation. Fractionation of B[a]P pools associated with the soil matrix was analysed according to extractability of B[a]P by the different extraction methods. A summary of the different fractions is proposed for the illustration of the effect of ageing on different B[a]P-bound fractions in soils. This study provides a better understanding of the B[a]P ageing process associated with different fractions and also emphasises the extraction capacity of the different methods employed.

  15. Alterations of rat liver mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and calcium uptake by benzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report that oxidative phosphorylation and Ca2+ uptake processes are enhanced in liver mitochondria isolated from benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-treated rats. The carcinogen did not affect either the respiratory control index or the Ca2+ control ratio. B[a]P treatment increased the oxidation rate of several substrates that donate electrons at the level of all three coupling sites, either the ADP- or Ca2+-stimulated rates or those observed after ADP or Ca2+ exhaustion. However, the efficiency of energy coupling was maintained because both ADP/O and Ca2+/site ratios remained unchanged. The electron flow through NADH-oxidase, NADH-duroquinone reductase, NADH-juglone reductase, NADH-cytochrome c reductase, succinate-cytochrome c reductase, and cytochrome c oxidase was enhanced by B[a]P; however, succinate dehydrogenase activity was not affected. All these effects depended on the time post B[a]P administration, with a greater increase close to 48 h after administration of the carcinogen. The contents of cytochromes b, c1, and a + a3 from liver mitochondria, especially those isolated 48 h after B[a]P, were also significantly increased, although cytochrome c levels was just lightly increased 24 h after B[a]P treatment. These results suggest that B[a]P treatment stimulates mitochondrial respiration by increasing the level of several components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This may reflect mitochondrial adaptation to the cellular energy requirements of cell division in the neoplastic transformation process

  16. Loss of VHL in RCC reduces repair and alters cellular response to benzo[a]pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MartenSchults

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL tumor suppressor gene occur in the majority of sporadic renal-cell carcinomas (RCC. Loss of VHL function is associated with stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIFα. We and others demonstrated that there is a two-way interaction between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, which is an important mediator in the metabolic activation and detoxification of carcinogens, and the HIF1-pathway leading to an increased genetic instability when both pathways are simultaneously activated. The aim of this study was to investigate how environmental carcinogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, which can be metabolically activated to BaP-7,8-diOH-9,10-epoxide (BPDE play a role in the etiology of renal-cell carcinomas (RCC. We exposed VHL deficient RCC4 cells, in which HIFα is stabilized regardless of oxygen tension, to 0.1µM BaP for 18 hours. The mutagenic BPDE-DNA adduct levels were increased in HIFα stabilized cells. Using qRT-PCR, we demonstrated that absence of VHL significantly induced the mRNA levels of AhR downstream target CYP1A1. Furthermore, HPLC analysis indicated that loss of VHL increased the concentration of BaP-7,8-dihydroxydiol, the pre-cursor metabolite of BPDE. Interestingly, the capacity to repair BPDE-DNA adducts in the HIFα stabilized RCC4 cells, was markedly reduced. Taken together, these data indicate that loss of VHL affects BaP-mediated genotoxic responses in renal-cell carcinoma and decreases repair capacity.

  17. Gene-specific repair of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide DNA damage in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gene-specific preferential repair of UV damage has been well documented in a variety of organisms. Less is known about many other types of critical DNA lesions, the data available being not numerous and contradictory. To date, the majority of observations with UV were obtained by using T4 endonuclease V system. Recent report questions the applicability of UvrABC nuclease incision method for detecting gene-specific repair. This has stimulated our search for simple and sensitive approach based on a different principle. We have employed the idea of detection by the Southern hybridization of restriction cleavage inhibition at rare sites and developed a method for the analysis of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (anti-BPDE) DNA damage in human H-ras proto-oncogene. Damage-dependent induction of individual facultative bands resulting from cleavage inhibition was observed in in vitro modified (4-50 adducts/103kb) p220-ras plasmid DNA digested with EcoRI/NotI, Xhol/Xbal/PstI, and SstI/XbaI/Pst/I. In vivo lesion formation and removal was monitored at several PstI sites distributed along the 6.4 kb single copy ras sequence. Rapid gene-specific repair was seen in primary culture of normal human fibroblasts and in SV40 transformed GM00637 cells. Surprisingly, SV40 transformed XP12BE (complementation group A) GM4429 fibroblasts also repaired anti-BPDE DNA damage at comparable levels. All investigated sites within ras sequence were repaired faster than the genome overall. The results show the utility of the above approach for fine mapping of anti-BPDE DNA lesions. Data suggests that the xeroderma pigmentosum (group A) fibroblasts have a capacity of removing these bulky adducts at least from the active genes

  18. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt) is required for tumor initiation by benzo[a]pyrene

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Shengli; Yoon, Diana Y.; Hodge-Bell, Kimberly C.; Bebenek, Ilona G.; Whitekus, Michael J.; Zhang, Ruixue; Cochran, Alistair J.; Huerta-Yepez, Sara; Yim, Sun-Hee; Gonzalez, Frank J; Jaiswal, Anil K.; Hankinson, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a ligand for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr). After binding ligand, Ahr dimerizes with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt) protein, and the dimer upregulates the transcription of Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1 and other enzymes involved in the metabolic activation of B[a]P. Arnt null mice die in utero. Mice in which Arnt deletion occurs constitutively in the epidermis die perinatally. In the current study, mice were developed in which the Arnt gene could be...

  19. Degradation of benzo[a]pyrene in an experimentally contaminated paddy soil by vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Luo, Y M; Song, J; Wu, L H; Christie, P

    2006-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of growing vetiver grass on the biodegradation of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) under glasshouse conditions. Plant biomass, microbial biomass C and degradation of B[a]P were determined. B[a]P disappeared faster in the plant treatments than in unplanted controls. Disappearance of B[a]P was accompanied by an increase in soil microbial biomass C. Vetiver grass may promote the biodegradation of B[a]P under flooded conditions by plant roots by stimulating the microbial biomass. Microbial biomass was the main factor affecting dissipation of B[a]P under flooded conditions. PMID:16528581

  20. Electrochemiluminescent Arrays for Cytochrome P450-Activated Genotoxicity Screening. DNA Damage from Benzo[a]pyrene Metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Hvastkovs, Eli G.; So, Minjeong; Krishnan, Sadagopan; Bajrami, Besnik; Tarun, Maricar; Jansson, Ingela; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.

    2007-01-01

    Arrays suitable for genotoxicity screening are reported that generate metabolites from cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) in thin-film spots. Array spots containing DNA, various human cyt P450s, and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) generating metallopolymer [Ru(bpy)2PVP10]2+ were exposed to H2O2 to activate the enzymes. ECL from all spots was visualized simultaneously using a CCD camera. Using benzo[a]pyrene as a test substrate, enzyme activity for producing DNA damage in the arrays was found in th...

  1. The genotoxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene and methamidophos on black porgy evaluated by comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rixian; Hong, Huasheng; Wang, Xinhong; Wang, Kejian; Wang, Chunguang

    2005-12-01

    In this study, two common pollutants (benzo[a]pyrene and methamidophos) in marine environment were tested by comet assay for their inducement of in vivo genotoxic effect to the blood cells of black porgy ( Acanthopagrus schlegeli). The fish was exposed to 2 μg/L of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and methamidophos, and their mixture. The assay was performed on whole blood at 2 h, 5 h, 24 h and 96 h exposure intervals. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed in each treatment with the pollutants. Additive effect of BaP and methamidophos was also found in the experiment. However, the decrease ratios of DNA damage for 5 h and 96 h exposure interals compared with 2 h and 24 h exposure ones, respectively, were noticed. This phenomenon may be explained by the function of repairing process via enzyme cytochrome P450 in the animal. Evidence of the genotoxicity of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on marine fish are discussed in this paper.

  2. Determination of Benzo(a)pyrene in Malaysian commercialized coffee powder using solid phase extraction and gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roasting is a critical process in coffee production as it enables the development of flavor and aroma. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a non desirable product of incomplete combustion at temperatures between 300 and 600 degree Celsius and may be produced during roasting step. In this study, selected samples of roasted coffee powder were analysed for BaP. Extraction of BaP was achieved using C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) prior to analysis by gas chromatography. Calibration curve prepared with concentrations ranged between 3 - 50 ppm showed good linearity with r = 0.999. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.25 ppm and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.85 ppm. Recovery of BaP obtained from spiked sample (3 ppm) was 88.7 % with RSD (n=3) of 5.4 %. Benzo[a]pyrene was detected in all samples, at level ranging from 0.14 to 0.62 ppb. (author)

  3. The genotoxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene and methamidophos on black porgy evaluated by comet assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In this study, two common pollutants (benzo[a]pyrene and methamidophos) in marine environment were tested by comet assay for their inducement of in vivo genotoxic effect to the blood cells of black porgy (Acanthopagrus schlegeli). The fish was exposed to 2 μg/L of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and methamidophos, and their mixture. The assay was performed on whole blood at 2 h, 5 h, 24 h and 96 h exposure intervals. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed in each treatment with the pollutants. Additive effect of BaP and methamidophos was also found in the experiment. However, the decrease ratios of DNA damage for 5 h and 96 h exposure interals compared with 2 h and 24 h exposure ones, respectively, were noticed. This phenomenon may be explained by the function of repairing process via enzyme cytochrome P450 in the animal. Evidence of the genotoxicity of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on marine fish are discussed in this paper.

  4. A common carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene causes neuronal death in mouse via microglial activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallol Dutta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P belongs to a class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that serve as micropollutants in the environment. B[a]P has been reported as a probable carcinogen in humans. Exposure to B[a]P can take place by ingestion of contaminated (especially grilled, roasted or smoked food or water, or inhalation of polluted air. There are reports available that also suggests neurotoxicity as a result of B[a]P exposure, but the exact mechanism of action is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using neuroblastoma cell line and primary cortical neuron culture, we demonstrated that B[a]P has no direct neurotoxic effect. We utilized both in vivo and in vitro systems to demonstrate that B[a]P causes microglial activation. Using microglial cell line and primary microglial culture, we showed for the first time that B[a]P administration results in elevation of reactive oxygen species within the microglia thereby causing depression of antioxidant protein levels; enhanced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, that results in increased production of NO from the cells. Synthesis and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines were also elevated within the microglia, possibly via the p38MAP kinase pathway. All these factors contributed to bystander death of neurons, in vitro. When administered to animals, B[a]P was found to cause microglial activation and astrogliosis in the brain with subsequent increase in proinflammatory cytokine levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Contrary to earlier published reports we found that B[a]P has no direct neurotoxic activity. However, it kills neurons in a bystander mechanism by activating the immune cells of the brain viz the microglia. For the first time, we have provided conclusive evidence regarding the mechanism by which the micropollutant B[a]P may actually cause damage to the central nervous system. In today's perspective, where rising pollution levels globally are a matter of grave concern, our

  5. Influence of cell cycle on responses of MCF-7 cells to benzo[a]pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giddings Ian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP is a widespread environmental genotoxic carcinogen that damages DNA by forming adducts. This damage along with activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR induces complex transcriptional responses in cells. To investigate whether human cells are more susceptible to BaP in a particular phase of the cell cycle, synchronised breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells were exposed to BaP. Cell cycle progression was analysed by flow cytometry, DNA adduct formation was assessed by 32P-postlabeling analysis, microarrays of 44K human genome-wide oligos and RT-PCR were used to detect gene expression (mRNA changes and Western blotting was performed to determine the expression of some proteins, including cytochrome P450 (CYP 1A1 and CYP1B1, which are involved in BaP metabolism. Results Following BaP exposure, cells evaded G1 arrest and accumulated in S-phase. Higher levels of DNA damage occurred in S- and G2/M- compared with G0/G1-enriched cultures. Genes that were found to have altered expression included those involved in xenobiotic metabolism, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation and DNA repair. Gene ontology and pathway analysis showed the involvement of various signalling pathways in response to BaP exposure, such as the Catenin/Wnt pathway in G1, the ERK pathway in G1 and S, the Nrf2 pathway in S and G2/M and the Akt pathway in G2/M. An important finding was that higher levels of DNA damage in S- and G2/M-enriched cultures correlated with higher levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA and proteins. Moreover, exposure of synchronised MCF-7 cells to BaP-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE, the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of BaP, did not result in significant changes in DNA adduct levels at different phases of the cell cycle. Conclusions This study characterised the complex gene response to BaP in MCF-7 cells and revealed a strong correlation between the varying efficiency of BaP metabolism and DNA damage in different phases of the cell

  6. In vitro investigations of α-amylase mediated hydrolysis of cyclodextrins in the presence of ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, or benzo[a]pyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Ludmilla Lumholdt; Holm, R.; Jørgensen, E. B.;

    2012-01-01

    -γ-cyclodextrins have different biopharmaceutical behaviours than the other evaluated cyclodextrins. The rate of degradation was affected by the addition of the inclusion complex forming additives flurbiprofen, ibuprofen and benzo[a]pyrene. This effect between the degradation dynamics and the included additives was...

  7. Metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene and identification of the major benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adducts in cultured human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1978-01-01

    The metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene in cultured human colon has been investigated. Nontumorous colonie tissue was collected at the time of either surgery or "immediate autopsy" from patients with or without colonic cancer. After 24 hr in culture the expiants were exposed to [3H]benzo(a)pyrene for an...... can metabolize benzo(a)pyrene by pathways similar to those found in human bronchus and in cells of experimental animals....... acid increased the binding levels of benzo(a)pyrene to DNA. An increased level of frans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydrobenzo(a)pyrene in the culture media was also observed when expiants were coincubated with either taurodeoxycholic acid or lithocholic acid. These results indicate that cultured human colon......The metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene in cultured human colon has been investigated. Nontumorous colonie tissue was collected at the time of either surgery or "immediate autopsy" from patients with or without colonic cancer. After 24 hr in culture the expiants were exposed to [3H]benzo(a)pyrene for...

  8. Benzo[a]pyrene contamination in Rostov Region of Russian Federation: A 10-year retrospective of soil monitoring under the effect of long-term technogenic pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Sushkova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work was to study the main tendencies in the accumulation and distribution of benzo[a]pyrene in soils of the affected zone of the Novocherkassk regional power plant. Studies were conducted on the soils of monitoring plots subjected to Novocherkassk regional power plant emissions. Monitoring plots were established at different distances from the Novocherkassk regional power plant (1.0–20.0 km. Regularities in the accumulation and distribution of benzo[a]pyrene in chernozemic, meadow-chernozemic, and alluvial soils under the effect of aerotechnogenic emissions from the Novocherkassk regional power plant have been revealed on the basis of long-term monitoring studies (from 2002 to 2011. The tendencies in the distribution and accumulation of BaP in the studied soils coincided during the 10 years of monitoring studies. It has been found the 5-km zone to the northwest from the power station, which coincides with the predominant wind direction, is most subjected to contamination by benzo[a]pyrene, with the maximum accumulation at a distance of about 1.6 km from the source. Dynamics of pollutant accumulation in soils depends on number of Novocherkassk regional power plant emissions. The content of benzo[a]pyrene in the soil is an indicator of the technogenic load impact on the areas, for which the combustion products of hydrocarbon fuel are the major pollutants. A gradual decrease of the pollutant content in the soils was revealed during the period from 2002 to 2011. It explained by the significant decrease in the volume of pollutant emissions from the plant and the self-purification capacity of soils and mechanisms of benzo[a]pyrene degradation.

  9. Benzo(a)pyrene accumulation in soils of technogenic emission zone by subcritical water extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushkova, Svetlana; Minkina, Tatiana; Kizilkaya, Ridvan; Mandzhieva, Saglara; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Bauer, Tatiana; Gulser, Coskun

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of research is the assessment of main marker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) content in soils of emission zone of the power complex plant in soils with use of ecologically clean and effective subcritical water extraction method. Studies were conducted on the soils of monitoring plots subjected to Novocherkassk Power Plant emissions from burning coal. In 2000, monitoring plots were established at different distances from the NPS (1.0-20.0 km). Soil samples for the determination of soil properties and the contents of BaP were taken from a depth of 0-20 cm. The soil cover in the region under study consisted of ordinary chernozems, meadow-chernozemic soils, and alluvial meadow soils. This soil revealed the following physical and chemical properties: Corg-3.1-5.0%, pH-7.3-7.6, ECE-31.2-47.6 mmol(+)/100g; CaCO3-0.2-1.0%, the content of physical clay - 51-67% and clay - 3-37%. BaP extraction from soils was carried out by a subcritical water extraction method. Subcritical water extraction of BaP from soil samples was conducted in a specially developed extraction cartridge made of stainless steel and equipped with screw-on caps at both ends. It was also equipped with a manometer that included a valve for pressure release to maintain an internal pressure of 100 atm. The extraction cartridge containing a sample and water was placed into an oven connected to a temperature regulator under temperature 250oC and pressure 60 atm. The BaP concentration in the acetonitrile extract was determined by HPLC. The efficiency of BaP extraction from soil was determined using a matrix spike. The main accumulation of pollutant in 20 cm layer of soils is noted directly in affected zone on the plots situated at 1.2, 1.6, 5.0, 8.0 km from emission source in the direction of prevailing winds. The maximum quantity of a pollutant was founded in the soil of the plot located mostly close to a source of pollution in the direction of prevailing winds

  10. Electrochemiluminescent Arrays for Cytochrome P450-Activated Genotoxicity Screening. DNA Damage from Benzo[a]pyrene Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvastkovs, Eli G.; So, Minjeong; Krishnan, Sadagopan; Bajrami, Besnik; Tarun, Maricar; Jansson, Ingela; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.

    2007-01-01

    Arrays suitable for genotoxicity screening are reported that generate metabolites from cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) in thin-film spots. Array spots containing DNA, various human cyt P450s, and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) generating metallopolymer [Ru(bpy)2PVP10]2+ were exposed to H2O2 to activate the enzymes. ECL from all spots was visualized simultaneously using a CCD camera. Using benzo[a]pyrene as a test substrate, enzyme activity for producing DNA damage in the arrays was found in the order CYP1B1 > CYP1A2 > CYP1A1 > CYP2E1 > myoglobin, the same as the order of their metabolic activity. Thus, these arrays estimate the relative propensity of different enzymes to produce genotoxic metabolites. This is the first demonstration of ECL arrays for high-throughput in vitro genotoxicity screening. PMID:17261025

  11. EROD activity and genotoxicity in the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri exposed to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Rocha, Arthur José; Gomes, Vicente; Rocha Passos, Maria José de Arruda Campos; Hasue, Fabio Matsu; Alves Santos, Thaís Cruz; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Taniguchi, Satie; Van Ngan, Phan

    2012-11-01

    Seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri is a marine species that lives in shallow waters of coastal environments, often impacted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) pollution. In the present study, seabob shrimp were exposed for 96 h to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) at the nominal concentrations of 100, 200, 400 and 800 microg-L(-1). Animals of the control groups were exposed either to clean water or to the BaP-carrier (DMSO). At the end of the exposures, muscle tissues were sampled for BaP uptake assessment and hepatopancreas and hemolymph for EROD enzyme activity and hemocytes DNA damage, respectively. EROD activity and DNA damage increased significantly as a function of BaP exposure concentrations. Significant correlations between BaP uptake and both EROD activity and DNA damage suggest that they can be used as suitable tools for integrated levels of study on the biomarkers of PAH exposure. PMID:22974795

  12. Myeloperoxidase - 463A variant reduces benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide DNA adducts in skin of coal tar treated patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, M.; Godschalk, R.; Alexandrov, K.; Cascorbi, I.; Kriek, E.; Ostertag, J.; Van Schooten, F.J.; Bartsch, H. [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Div. of Toxicology & Cancer Risk Factors

    2001-07-01

    The skin of atopic dermatitis patients provides an excellent model to study the role of inflammation in benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) activation, since these individuals are often topically treated with ointments containing high concentrations of BaP. The authors determined, by HPLC with fluorescence detection, the BaP diol epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adduct levels in human skin after topical treatment with coal tar and their modulation by the -453G into A myeloperoxidase (MPO) polymorphism, which reduces MPO mRNA expression. The data show for the first time: (i) the in vivo formation of BPDE-DNA adducts in human skin treated with coal tar; (ii) that the MPO-463AA/AG genotype reduced BPDE-DNA adduct levels in human skin.

  13. Antioxidant responses to benzo[a]pyrene and Aroclor 1254 exposure in the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis (L.), was exposed to two concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (0.3 μg l-1; 3 μg l-1) and two concentrations of Aroclor 1254 (0.5 μg l-1; 5 μg l-1). In addition, a mixture of the contaminants was used (0.3 μg l-1 B[a]P+0.5 μg l-1 Aroclor 1254; 3 μg l-1 B[a]P+5 μg l-1 Aroclor 1254). All concentrations were nominal. A suite of enzymes [glutathione S transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR)], glutathione (GSH) level and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the mussel gill and hepatopancreas were monitored over 18 days. CAT and GSH in gill tissue were positively correlated with concentration of Aroclor 1254. Activity of hepatic GST and SOD was significantly related to body burden of Aroclor 1254. LPO, GR and GPx in gill and hepatopancreas and hepatic GST were positively correlated with B[a]P concentration. The results indicate the importance of using biomarkers specific to the type of contaminant(s) that are likely to be present. Controlled laboratory experiments, such as this study, are useful in ascertaining biomarkers suitable for use with complex contaminant mixtures in the marine environment. - Benzo[a]pyrene and Aroclor 1254 separately and in combination caused specific induction in a number of antioxidant parameters in the gill and hepatopancreas of green-lipped mussels

  14. Analysis of Benzo[a]pyrene in Vegetable Oils Using Molecularly Imprinted Solid Phase Extraction (MISPE) Coupled with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Pschenitza; Rudolf Hackenberg; Reinhard Niessner; Dietmar Knopp

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a molecularly imprinted polymer-based solid phase extraction (MISPE) method coupled with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determination of the PAH benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in vegetable oils. Different molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared using non-covalent 4-vinylpyridine/divinylbenzene co-polymerization at different ratios and dichloromethane as porogen. Imprinting was done with a template mixture of phenanthrene and pyrene ...

  15. Benzo[a]pyrene metabolites: formation in rat liver cell-culture lines, binding to macromolecules, and mutagenesis in V79 hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzo[a]pyrene was metabolized in liver cell lines derived from BD-IV and BD-VI rats which included several chemically-transformed lines (IAR-6-1; IAR-19; IAR-28), one spontaneous transformant (IAR-27) as well as one nonmalignant line (IAR-20). Cultures were treated with tritiated benzo[a]pyrene over a 5-day period. The cells and medium were extracted with ethyl acetate and the distribution between organic-soluble and water-soluble metabolites determined. Organic-soluble metabolites consisting of dihydrodiols, phenols and quinones were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and macromolecular binding of BP to each cell line was measured over a 24-h period. Comparisons between binding and overall metabolism were not directly proportional in these liver cell lines. However, there was a positive correlation for benzo[a]pyrene mutagenesis in the V-79 hamster cell assay with 8-azaguanine as a marker when the cell lines with the highest (IAR-20) and lowest (IAR-27) metabolic competence were used as activating cell layers

  16. Enhanced oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene by crude enzyme extracts produced during interspecific fungal interaction of Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linbo Qian; Baoliang Chen

    2012-01-01

    The effects of interspecific fungal interactions between Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium on laccase activity and enzymatic oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated.A deadlock between the two mycelia rather than replacement of one fungus by another was observed on an agar medium.The laccase activity in crude enzyme extracts from interaction zones reached a maximum after a 5-day incubation,which was significantly higher than that from regions of T.versicolor or P.chrysosporium alone.The enhanced induction of laccase activity lasted longer in half nutrition than in normal nutrition.A higher potential to oxidize benzo[a]pyrene by a crude enzyme preparation extracted from the interaction zones was demonstrated.After a 48 hr incubation period,the oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene by crude enzyme extracts from interaction zones reached 26.2%,while only 9.5% of benzo[a]pyrene was oxidized by crude extracts from T.versicolor.The oxidation was promoted by the co-oxidant 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate diammonium salt (ABTS).These findings indicate that the application of co-culturing of white-rot fungi in bioremediation is a potential ameliorating technique for the restoration of PAH-contaminated soil.

  17. An investigation of endocrine disrupting effects and toxic mechanisms modulated by benzo[a]pyrene in female scallop Chlamys farreri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Shuangmei; Pan, Luqing, E-mail: panlq@ouc.edu.cn; Sun, Xiaohua

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •B[a]P disturbed progesterone, 17β-estradiol and testosterone production in scallop. •B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD expression after a 10-day exposure. •B[a]P of lower dose elevated AHR-CYP1A expression but high dose B[a]P inhibited them. •ER and vitellogenin transcription was consistent with AHR after B[a]P exposure. •B[a]P exposure induced relatively developmental delay and impairment of ovary. -- Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and explore the underlying mechanisms in mollusks. In this study, sexually mature female Chlamys farreri were exposed to benzo[a]pyrene for 10 days at four different concentrations as 0, 0.025, 0.5 and 10 μg/L. Sex steroids were identified and quantified by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) method and results showed that exposure to B[a]P exerts great suppression on 17β-estradiol, testosterone production and disrupts progesterone levels in ovary. Transcription of genes were detected and measured by real-time RT-PCR. It showed that at day 10 B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that they could be potential targets of B[a]P that disrupt steroidogenic machinery. Moreover, 0.025 μg/L B[a]P activated transcription of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), CYP1A1 and estrogen receptor (ER), while 10 μg/L B[a]P suppressed all of them. The consistency of their responses to B[a]P exposure implies that AHR action may be involved in invertebrate CYP regulation and ER transcription despite of unknown mechanisms. Additionally, B[a]P exposure could induce ovarian impairment and developmental delay in C. farreri. Overall, sensitivity of C. farreri to endocrine disruption and toxicity suggests that C. farreri is a suitable species for study of endocrine-disrupting effects in marine invertebrates. This study will form a

  18. Investigation on the Protective Effects of Cranberry Against the DNA Damage Induced by Benzo[a]pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Morales-González

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There are few reports that demonstrate the antigenotoxic potential of cranberries. Although the types of berry fruits consumed worldwide are many, this paper focuses on cranberries that are commonly consumed in Mexico (Vaccinium macrocarpon species. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether cranberry ethanolic extract (CEE can prevent the DNA damage produced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P using an in vivo mouse peripheral blood micronucleus assay. The experimental groups were organized as follows: a negative control group (without treatment, a positive group treated with B[a]P (200 mg/kg, a group administered with 800 mg/kg of CEE, and three groups treated with B[a]P and CEE (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg respectively. The CEE and benzo[a]pyrene were administered orally for a week, on a daily basis. During this period the body weight, the feed intake, and the determination of antigenotoxic potential were quantified. At the end of this period, we continued with the same determinations for one week more (recovery period but anymore administration of the substances. The animals treated with B[a]P showed a weight increase after the first week of administration. The same phenomenon was observed in the lots combined with B[a]P and CEE (low and medium doses. The dose of 800 mg/kg of CEE showed similar values to the control group at the end of the treatment period. In the second part of the assay, when the substances were not administered, these experimental groups regained their normal weight. The dose of CEE (800 mg/kg was not genotoxic nor cytotoxic. On the contrary, the B[a]P increases the frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes (MNNE and reduces the rate of polychromatic erythrocytes (PE at the end of the treatment period. With respect to the combined lots, a significant decrease in the MN rate was observed from the sixth to the eighth day of treatment with the two high doses applied; the highest protection (60% was obtained with

  19. Punicalagin and Ellagic Acid Demonstrate Antimutagenic Activity and Inhibition of Benzo[a]pyrene Induced DNA Adducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zahin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Punicalagin (PC is an ellagitannin found in the fruit peel of Punica granatum. We have demonstrated antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of Punica granatum and showed that PC and ellagic acid (EA are its major constituents. In this study, we demonstrate the antimutagenic potential, inhibition of BP-induced DNA damage, and antiproliferative activity of PC and EA. Incubation of BP with rat liver microsomes, appropriate cofactors, and DNA in the presence of vehicle or PC and EA showed significant inhibition of the resultant DNA adducts, with essentially complete inhibition (97% at 40 μM by PC and 77% inhibition by EA. Antimutagenicity was tested by Ames test. PC and EA dose-dependently and markedly antagonized the effect of tested mutagens, sodium azide, methyl methanesulfonate, benzo[a]pyrene, and 2-aminoflourine, with maximum inhibition of mutagenicity up to 90 percent. Almost all the doses tested (50–500 μM exhibited significant antimutagenicity. A profound antiproliferative effect on human lung cancer cells was also shown with PC and EA. Together, our data show that PC and EA are pomegranate bioactives responsible for inhibition of BP-induced DNA adducts and strong antimutagenic, antiproliferative activities. However, these compounds are to be evaluated in suitable animal model to assess their therapeutic efficacy against cancer.

  20. Modulatory effects of catechin hydrate against genotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis induced by benzo(a)pyrene in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Ayaz; Ali, Rashid; Ali, Nemat; Hasan, Syed Kazim; Bernwal, Preeti; Afzal, Shekh Mohammad; Vafa, Abul; Sultana, Sarwat

    2016-06-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P], a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) is a strong mutagen and potent carcinogen. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of catechin hydrate against B(a)P induced genotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and to explore its underlying molecular mechanisms in the lungs of Swiss albino mice. Administration of B(a)P (125 mg/kg b. wt., p. o.) increased the activities of toxicity markers such as LPO, LDH and B(a)P metabolizing enzymes [NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CYPOR) and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH)] with subsequent decrease in the activities of tissue anti-oxidant armory (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, GST, QR and GSH). It also caused DNA damage and activation of apoptotic and inflammatory pathway by upregulation of TNF-α, IL-6, NF-kB, COX-2, p53, bax, caspase-3 and down regulating Bcl-2. However, pre-treatment with catechin at a dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg significantly decreased LDH, LPO, B(a)P metabolizing enzymes and increased anti-oxidant armory as well as regulated apoptosis and inflammation in lungs. Histological results also supported the protective effects of catechin. The findings of the present studies suggested that catechin as an effective natural product attenuates B(a)P induced lung toxicity. PMID:27020533

  1. Effects of benzo(a)pyrene on the skeletal development of Sebastiscus marmoratus embryos and the molecular mechanism involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants, which have been known to be carcinogenic and teratogenic. However, the skeletal development toxicity of PAHs and the mechanism involved remain unclear. In fishes, the neurocranial and craniofacial skeleton develop as cartilage. The signaling molecules of hedgehog (Hh) family play crucial roles in regulating skeletal development. In the present study, rockfish (Sebastiscus marmoratus) embryos were exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) for 7 days at environmental levels (0.05, 0.5 and 5 nmol/L) which resulted in craniofacial skeleton deformities. BaP exposure reduced the cell proliferation activity in the craniofacial skeleton as detected by quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. The expression of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), rather than Indian hedgehog (Ihh), was down-regulated in the craniofacial skeleton in the 0.5 and 5 nmol/L groups. Consistent with the Shh results, the expression of Ptch1 and Gli2 was decreased by BaP exposure and BMP4 was presented on changes in the 0.5 and 5 nmol/L groups. These results suggested that BaP could impair the expression and function of Shh signaling pathway, perturbing the proliferation of chondrocytes and so disturbing craniofacial skeletal development.

  2. Synergism of aromatic amines and benzo[a]pyrene in induction of Ah receptor-dependent genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borza, Alexandra; Plöttner, Sabine; Wolf, Alexander; Behm, Claudia; Selinski, Silvia; Hengstler, Jan G; Roos, Peter H; Bolt, Hermann M; Kuhlmann, Jürgen; Föllmann, Wolfram

    2008-12-01

    Aromatic amines have been shown to cause bladder cancer. However, epithelial cells of the urinary bladder, cells of origin of bladder cancer, may be exposed to numerous substances besides aromatic amines. In the present study, we analysed possible interactions between the aromatic amines 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) as well as 2-naphthylamine (2-NA) and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). For this purpose we incubated primary porcine urinary bladder epithelial cells (PUBEC) with concentrations of 1 to 50 microM 4-ABP with and without co-exposure to B[a]P. As expected B[a]P increased mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), whereas 4-ABP had no effect. However, when co-exposed 4-ABP enhanced the induction of CYP1A1 by B[a]P. This result was confirmed by Western blot analysis of CYP1A1 protein expression. A similar effect as for CYP1A1 was also observed for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 (UGT1). Next, we studied co-exposures of 2-NA and B[a]P. Similar as for 4-ABP also 2-NA enhanced B[a]P-mediated induction of CYP1A1. Our results demonstrate that some aromatic amines may enhance the influence of B[a]P on Ah receptor-dependent genes. PMID:18989657

  3. Tissue-specific antioxidant responses in pale chub (Zacco platypus) exposed to copper and benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo-Keun; Park, June-Woo; Lim, Eun-Suk; Lee, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Jungkon; Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Sang-Woo; Choi, Kyungho; Jung, Jinho

    2014-05-01

    In this study, antioxidant responses including lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were evaluated in the liver, gill and muscle tissues of pale chub (Zacco platypus) exposed to copper (Cu) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Cu exposure induced significant antioxidant responses in Z. platypus, particularly in the liver, whereas BaP exposure had a negligible effect. Following Cu exposure, both SOD and CAT activity increased in a concentration-dependent manner, showing significant correlations with malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as a measure of LPO (r = 0.646 and 0.663, respectively). SOD, CAT and GST mRNA levels were also enhanced following Cu exposure, except at 20 μg L(-1), although significant correlations with antioxidant enzyme activities were not found. The results of this study suggest that combined information on SOD and CAT activities together with LPO levels in the liver could be a useful indicator for assessing oxidative stress in freshwater fish. PMID:24477393

  4. Alterations in the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene in syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells pretreated with phenolic antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strniste, G.F.; Okinaka, R.T.; Chen, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Inhibition of chemical- or raddiation-induced neoplasia has been observed in animals whose diets were supplemented with antioxidants commonly used as food additives. Inhibition of the carcinogenicity of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) or of 7,12-dimenthylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) - in rats has been achieved by the addition of the phenolic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) to the diet. Our data suggest that in SHE cells antioxidants inhibit the overall metabolism of BaP to its various oxidized moieties including 7,8-diol- and 7,8,9,10-tetrol-BaP. A plausible explanation for our results with SHE cells is that the antioxidants interact directly with AHH, thus inhibiting AHH metabolic capacity. From analysis of nuclear material from SHE cells (+- antioxidants) incubated for 36 hours with BaP at 1 ..mu..g/ml, it is calculated that 4.6, 2.4 and 2.9 pmol BaP are bound to the DNA isolated from 10/sup 7/ nuclei of control, BHA-(20 ..mu..g/ml) and p-MP-(10 ..mu..g/ml) treated cultures, respectively.

  5. Effects of benzo(a)pyrene on the skeletal development of Sebastiscus marmoratus embryos and the molecular mechanism involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Chengyong [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Subtropical Wetland Ecosystem Research, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Zuo Zhenghong [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Subtropical Wetland Ecosystem Research, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Shi Xiao; Li Ruixia; Chen Donglei; Huang Xin; Chen Yixin [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Subtropical Wetland Ecosystem Research, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Wang Chonggang, E-mail: cgwang@xmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Subtropical Wetland Ecosystem Research, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)

    2011-01-25

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants, which have been known to be carcinogenic and teratogenic. However, the skeletal development toxicity of PAHs and the mechanism involved remain unclear. In fishes, the neurocranial and craniofacial skeleton develop as cartilage. The signaling molecules of hedgehog (Hh) family play crucial roles in regulating skeletal development. In the present study, rockfish (Sebastiscus marmoratus) embryos were exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) for 7 days at environmental levels (0.05, 0.5 and 5 nmol/L) which resulted in craniofacial skeleton deformities. BaP exposure reduced the cell proliferation activity in the craniofacial skeleton as detected by quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. The expression of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), rather than Indian hedgehog (Ihh), was down-regulated in the craniofacial skeleton in the 0.5 and 5 nmol/L groups. Consistent with the Shh results, the expression of Ptch1 and Gli2 was decreased by BaP exposure and BMP4 was presented on changes in the 0.5 and 5 nmol/L groups. These results suggested that BaP could impair the expression and function of Shh signaling pathway, perturbing the proliferation of chondrocytes and so disturbing craniofacial skeletal development.

  6. Protective effect of curcumin and chlorophyllin against DNA mutation induced by cyclophosphamide or benzo[a]pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, M.A.; Elbehairy, A.M.; Ghoneim, M.A.; Amer, H.A. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt). Biochemistry Dept. and Biotechnology Center

    2007-03-15

    The current study was carried out to evaluate the potency of curcumin and chlorophyllin as natural antioxidants to reduce the oxidative stress markers induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) and benzo[a]pyrene [B(a)P] which were used as free radical inducers. For this purpose, 126 male albino rats were used. The animals were assigned into 4 main groups: negative control group; oxidant-treated group (subdivided into two subgroups: cyclophosphamide- treated group and benzo[a]pyrene-treated group); curcumin-treated group; and chlorophyllin-treated group. Liver samples were collected after two days post the oxidant inoculation and at the end of the experimental period (10 weeks). These samples were examined for determination of liver microsomal malondialdehyde (MDA), DNA fragmentation, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentration. Both CP and B(a)P caused increments in DNA fragmentation percentages, liver microsomal MDA, concentration of 8-OHdG and induced point mutation. Treatment of rats with either curcumin or chlorophyllin revealed lower DNA fragmentation percentages, liver microsomal MDA concentration, concentration of 8-OHdG and prevented induction of mutations, i. e., reversed the oxidative stress induced by CP and B(a)P and proved that they were capable of protecting rats against the oxidative damage evoked by these oxidants. (orig.)

  7. Can we use modelling methodologies to assess airborne benzo[a]pyrene from biomonitors? A comprehensive evaluation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ratola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring data available on levels of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in pine needles from the Iberian Peninsula was used to estimate air concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP and, at the same time, fuelled the comparison with chemistry transport model representations. Simulations with the modelling system WRF + CHIMERE were validated against data from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP air sampling network and using modelled atmospheric concentrations as a consistent reference in order to compare the performance of vegetation-to-air estimating methods. A spatial and temporal resolution of 9 km and 1 h was implemented. The field-based database relied on a pine needles sampling scheme comprising 33 sites in Portugal and 37 sites in Spain complemented with the BaP measurements available from the EMEP sites. The ability of pine needles to act as biomonitoring markers for the atmospheric concentrations of BaP was estimated converting the levels obtained in pine needles into air concentrations by six different approaches, one of them presenting realistic concentrations when compared to the modelled atmospheric values. The justification for this study is the gaps still existing in the knowledge of the life cycles of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs, particularly the partition processes between air and vegetation. The strategy followed in this work allows the definition of the transport patterns (e.g. dispersion established by the model for atmospheric concentrations and the estimated values in vegetation.

  8. Metabolism and macromolecular binding of benzo(a)pyrene and its noncarcinogenic isomer benzo(e)pyrene in cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkirk, J.K.; MacLeod, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) is thought to result from the metabolic formation of a highly reactive intermediate, 7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-oxy-B(a)P which subsequently interacts with cellular macromolecules to produce neoplasia. Evidence has been presented implicating similar bay-region diol-epoxides as the ultimate carcinogenic forms of benz(a)anthracene, 7-methyl-benz(a)anthracene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and chrysene. Benzo(e)pyrene (B(e)P), on the other hand, is relatively inert when tested for carcinogenicity on mouse skin and rat trachea and when tested for mutagenicity in a mammalian system. This B(e)P molecule contains two (equivalent) bay regions and quantum mechanical model calculations suggest that 9,10-dihydrodiol-11,12-oxy-B(e)P can easily form a reactive bay-region-adjacent carbonium ion. In order to explain the noncarcinogenicity of B(e)P in the context of the bay region theory, we have studied the metabolism of B(e)P by rat liver microsomes and by cultured hamster embryo fibroblasts. In both systems, the major metabolic pathways involve the K-region of B(e)P, with little or no attack on the isolated benzo ring. These results suggest that the lack of carcinogenicity of B(e)P may reflect its preferred mode of interaction with the cellular metabolic machinery.

  9. Coassimilation of dietary fat and benzo(a)pyrene in the small intestine: an absorption model using the killifish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, R.D.; Carey, M.C.; Patton, J.S.

    1985-04-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BP) was dissolved in dietary fat and fed in a single dose to killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Fluorescence microscopic examinations of small intestinal content and frozen sections of whole small intestine revealed that during fat digestion BP was codispersed in liquid crystalline product phases produced during lipolysis and then coabsorbed with dietary lipid followed by its reappearance in intracellular fat droplets. During the time that the absorbed fat remained in the enterocytes, BP fluorescence was initially concentrated in the intracellular fat droplets and then spread throughout the cytosol of the enterocytes. Tissue analyses showed that BP was rapidly metabolized in the intestine and transported to the gallbladder. These studies show that separation of a dissolved hydrophobic carcinogen from dietary fat occurs primarily after the fat has been digested, dispersed, absorbed, and reassembled in the enterocyte. The inability of the enterocyte to discriminate between dietary fat and dissolved carcinogenic compounds may be a partial explanation of the observed link between high fat diets and the incidence of some cancers. In vertebrates, the intestine and not the liver, appears to be the major site of metabolism of dietary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  10. Enhancement of the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene by arecoline through suppression of DNA repair in HEp-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J L; Lu, H H; Lu, Y N; Hung, P S; Lin, Y J; Lin, C C; Yang, C C; Wong, T Y; Lu, S Y; Lin, C S

    2016-06-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer lists the principal component of betel quid (BQ), the areca nut, and that of cigarette smoke, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), as Group 1 carcinogens. Epidemiological studies have shown that coexposure of BQ and cigarette smoke markedly increases the risk of cancer. We previously demonstrated that arecoline, the most abundant alkaloid in the areca nut, inhibits nucleotide excision repair through the repression of p53 activity. To investigate the combined potency of arecoline and BaP in carcinogenesis, we treated human epithelial HEp-2 cells with subcytotoxic doses of arecoline and BaP, alone or in combination, and examined the effects on DNA damage and repair. When exposed for 24h, BaP enhanced DNA repair and p53 transactivation activity. However, these enhancements were suppressed through concurrent treatment of the cells with arecoline. Using a Comet assay, we found that extended exposure to arecoline and BaP caused moderate-to-severe DNA damage in 60% of the cells. Expression of the XPD helicase was transcriptionally suppressed by 1week of treatment with BaP. Our studies have revealed potential targets in the DNA repair pathway that are affected by BQ and tobacco components, as well as the effect of these components on carcinogenesis. PMID:26891812

  11. Can we use modelling methodologies to assess airborne benzo[a]pyrene from biomonitors? A comprehensive evaluation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratola, N.; Jiménez-Guerrero, P.

    2015-09-01

    Biomonitoring data available on levels of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in pine needles from the Iberian Peninsula was used to estimate air concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and, at the same time, fuelled the comparison with chemistry transport model representations. Simulations with the modelling system WRF + CHIMERE were validated against data from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) air sampling network and using modelled atmospheric concentrations as a consistent reference in order to compare the performance of vegetation-to-air estimating methods. A spatial and temporal resolution of 9 km and 1 h was implemented. The field-based database relied on a pine needles sampling scheme comprising 33 sites in Portugal and 37 sites in Spain complemented with the BaP measurements available from the EMEP sites. The ability of pine needles to act as biomonitoring markers for the atmospheric concentrations of BaP was estimated converting the levels obtained in pine needles into air concentrations by six different approaches, one of them presenting realistic concentrations when compared to the modelled atmospheric values. The justification for this study is the gaps still existing in the knowledge of the life cycles of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), particularly the partition processes between air and vegetation. The strategy followed in this work allows the definition of the transport patterns (e.g. dispersion) established by the model for atmospheric concentrations and the estimated values in vegetation.

  12. Metabolic and immune impairments induced by the endocrine disruptors benzo[a]pyrene and triclosan in Xenopus tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnault, Christophe; Willison, John; Veyrenc, Sylvie; Airieau, Antinéa; Méresse, Patrick; Fortier, Marlène; Fournier, Michel; Brousseau, Pauline; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    Despite numerous studies suggesting that amphibians are highly sensitive to cumulative anthropogenic stresses, the role played by endocrine disruptors (EDs) in the decline of amphibian populations remains unclear. EDs have been extensively studied in adult amphibians for their capacity to disturb reproduction by interfering with the sexual hormone axis. Here, we studied the in vivo responses of Xenopus tropicalis males exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of each ED, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and triclosan (TCS) alone (10 μg L(-1)) or a mixture of the two (10 μg L(-1) each) over a 24 h exposure period by following the modulation of the transcription of key genes involved in metabolic, sexual and immunity processes and the cellular changes in liver, spleen and testis. BaP, TCS and the mixture of the two all induced a marked metabolic disorder in the liver highlighted by insulin resistance-like and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-like phenotypes together with hepatotoxicity due to the impairment of lipid metabolism. For TCS and the mixture, these metabolic disorders were concomitant with modulation of innate immunity. These results confirmed that in addition to the reproductive effects induced by EDs in amphibians, metabolic disorders and immune system disruption should also be considered. PMID:27153234

  13. Quantitative determination of benzo[a]pyrene in foodstuffs using benzo[a]pyrene[G-3H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for quantitative determination of nano gram level of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in foodstuffs using tritiated BP(3H-BP) was described. Extracts from foodstuffs, having been added a certain amount of 3H-BP, were fractionated by column chromatography on Florisil, and thinlayer chromatography on acetylated cellulose. Concentration and radio activity of BP in the final fraction were determined by fluorescence spectrometry and liquid scintillation. Recovery ratio of each experiment was obtained by comparing the radio activities of added 3H-BP and separated BP. Concentration of BP in the sample analyzed was calculated from the amount of isolated BP and the recovery ratio in each experiment. A quantitative limit of BP by this method was 0.2 ppb when 50 g of sample was used. By this method, contents of BO in each sample of Tenpura oil, salad oil, flour, and polished rice were determined as 0.6, 0.2, 0.1 and < 0.1 ppb on average, respectively. (auth.)

  14. Transcriptional profiling of the mouse hippocampus supports an NMDAR‐mediated neurotoxic mode of action for benzo[a]pyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepelev, Nikolai L.; Long, Alexandra S.; Bowers, Wayne J.; Gagné, Rémi; Williams, Andrew; Kuo, Byron; Phillips, David H.; Arlt, Volker M.; White, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a genotoxic carcinogen and a neurotoxicant. The neurotoxicity of BaP is proposed to arise from either genotoxicity leading to neuronal cell death, or perturbed expression of N‐methyl‐d‐aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits. To explore these hypotheses, we profiled hippocampal gene expression of adult male Muta™Mouse administered 0, 1, 35, or 70 mg BaP/kg bw per day by oral gavage for 3 days. Transcriptional profiles were examined by RNA‐sequencing (RNA‐seq), DNA microarrays, and real‐time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR). BaP‐DNA adducts in the cerebellum were quantified by 32P‐post‐labeling to measure genotoxicity. RNA‐seq revealed altered expression of 0, 260, and 219 genes (P‐value Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:350–363, 2016. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis © 2016 Environmental Mutagen Society. PMID:27195522

  15. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis on the toxicological effects of Benzo[a]pyrene in pearl oyster Pinctada martensii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Song, Qinqin; Diao, Xiaoping; Zhou, Hailong

    2016-06-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is one of the typical toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are widely present in marine environment. BaP has diverse toxic effects, including teratogenic, carcinogenic, mutagenic effects and so on, in various organisms. In this work, we focused on the differential proteomic and metabolomic responses in the digestive gland of pearl oyster Pinctada martensii exposed to two doses of BaP (1 and 10μg/L). Metabolic responses revealed that the high dose of BaP (10μg/L) mainly caused disturbances in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism in the digestive gland. Proteomic responses indicated that both doses of BaP induced disturbances in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, cell injury, oxidative stress and signal transduction based on the differential proteomic biomarkers. Overall, these results demonstrated a number of potential biomarkers that were characterized by an integrated proteomic and metabolomic approach and provided a useful insight into the toxicological effects on pearl oyster P. martensii. PMID:26999675

  16. Stabilization of membrane bound ATPases and lipid peroxidation by carotenoids from Chlorococcum humicola in Benzo(a)pyrene induced toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhagavathy S; Sumathi P

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the alteration of the membrane potential and the effect of carotenoid extracts from Chlorococcum humicola (C. humicola) on membrane bound ATPases and lipid peroxidation. Methods: The total carotenoids were extracted from C. humicola. Four groups of Swiss albino mice were treated as control, Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P], total carotenoids, B(a)P +total carotenoids respectively for a period of 60 days. Membrane lipid peroxidation and ATPases (Total ATPases, Ca2+- ATPases, Mg2+ - ATPases, Na+K+ - ATPase) were determined in lung, liver and erythrocyte samples. Results: The activity of total ATPase was found to be significantly increased in the B(a)P treated liver and lung tissue. Erythrocyte membrane also showed higher ATPase activity which was significantly reverted on total carotenoid treatment. Conclusions:It can be concluded that the changes in membrane potential favour the functional deterioration of physiological system. The overall findings demonstrates that the animals post treated with carotenoid extract from C. humicola may maintains the alterations in membrane bound ATPase and lipid peroxidation in tissues against the carcinogenic chemical and hence aid in establishing the membrane potential action. Therefore C. humicola can be further extended to exploits its possible application for various health benefits as neutraceuticals and food additives.

  17. Integrative assessment of biomarker responses in pale chub (Zacco platypus) exposed to copper and benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo-Keun; Lee, Sung-Kyu; Choi, Kyungho; Jung, Jinho

    2013-06-01

    Multi-level biomarker responses (molecular/biochemical and histological/physiological levels) were studied to assess the sublethal toxicities of copper (Cu: 1.25, 5, and 20μg/L) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP: 0.5, 5, and 50μg/L) induced in the freshwater pale chub Zacco platypus. Except for the kidney tissues when exposed to 20μg Cu/L, no significant differences were observed at the histological or physiological levels among the treatment groups. However, various molecular and biochemical responses were observed in Z. platypus, and these responses primarily depended on exposure time. Upon Cu exposure, both DNA single-strand breaks (COMET) and metallothionein (MT) concentration significantly increased after 4 days, whereas there were no significant changes after 14 days of exposure. Both 4 and 14 days of BaP exposure induced significant increases in COMET and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, but there was no significant difference between them. Additionally, both Cu and BaP induced acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity only after 14 days of exposure. The current findings demonstrate that the differences in the responses of MT and EROD are associated with each chemical's particular mode of action. Biomarker responses at the molecular and biochemical levels were quantized in terms of the integrated biomarker response (IBR) index to compare the toxicities of Cu and BaP. The IBR values were well correlated with the concentrations of Cu and BaP, and the correlations were enhanced at 4 days of exposure (r(2)=0.849 and 0.945, respectively) compared with 14 days (r(2)=0. 412 and 0.634, respectively). These results suggest that the IBR index may be a useful tool for the integrative quantification of the molecular and biochemical biomarker responses in a short-term exposure to Cu and BaP. PMID:23478165

  18. Specificity in interaction of benzo[a]pyrene with nuclear macromolecules: implication of derivatives of two dihydrodiols in protein binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydro-B[a]P, and 9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydro-B[a]P are metabolized by hamster embryo cells to derivatives that bind to nuclear macromolecules. The selectivity for different classes of macromolecules varies depending on the compound analyzed. The ratio of DNA specific activity to protein specific activity (pmol bound/mg of macromolecules) is high (1.51) for 7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydro-B[a]P, extremely low (0.03) for 9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydro-B[a]P, and intermediate (0.26) for B[a]P. Histones H3 and H2A are the major targets of 7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydro-B[a]P; a protein(s) with a mobility similar to that of histone H1 is heavily labeled by 9,10 dihydroxy-9,10-dihydro-B[a]P, with minor labeling of other (nonhistone) bands. The labeling pattern seen with B[a]P is a combination of the patterns seen with the two dihydrodiol metabolites studied. Analysis of the ethyl acetate-soluble metabolites suggests that hamster embryo cells produce 9,10-dihydroxy-7,8-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-B[a]P from 9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydro-B[a]P and raise the possibility that this vicinal diol epoxide is an intermediate in the binding of 9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydro-B[a]P to nuclear proteins. The differences seen suggest that factors other than the intrinsic chemical reactivity of the epoxide group are extremely important in the ineraction of potential ultimate carcinogens with biological systems

  19. Toxicogenomic outcomes predictive of forestomach carcinogenesis following exposure to benzo(a)pyrene: Relevance to human cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, Sarah, E-mail: Sarah.Labib@hc-sc.gc.ca; Guo, Charles H., E-mail: Charles.Guo@hc-sc.gc.ca; Williams, Andrew, E-mail: Andrew.Williams@hc-sc.gc.ca; Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: Carole.Yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca; White, Paul A., E-mail: Paul.White@hc-sc.gc.ca; Halappanavar, Sabina, E-mail: Sabina.Halappanavar@hc-sc.gc.ca

    2013-12-01

    Forestomach tumors are observed in mice exposed to environmental carcinogens. However, the relevance of this data to humans is controversial because humans lack a forestomach. We hypothesize that an understanding of early molecular changes after exposure to a carcinogen in the forestomach will provide mode-of-action information to evaluate the applicability of forestomach cancers to human cancer risk assessment. In the present study we exposed mice to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), an environmental carcinogen commonly associated with tumors of the rodent forestomach. Toxicogenomic tools were used to profile gene expression response in the forestomach. Adult Muta™Mouse males were orally exposed to 25, 50, and 75 mg BaP/kg-body-weight/day for 28 consecutive days. The forestomach was collected three days post-exposure. DNA microarrays, real-time RT-qPCR arrays, and protein analyses were employed to characterize responses in the forestomach. Microarray results showed altered expression of 414 genes across all treatment groups (± 1.5 fold; false discovery rate adjusted P ≤ 0.05). Significant downregulation of genes associated with phase II xenobiotic metabolism and increased expression of genes implicated in antigen processing and presentation, immune response, chemotaxis, and keratinocyte differentiation were observed in treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. A systematic comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the forestomach from the present study to differentially expressed genes identified in human diseases including human gastrointestinal tract cancers using the NextBio Human Disease Atlas showed significant commonalities between the two models. Our results provide molecular evidence supporting the use of the mouse forestomach model to evaluate chemically-induced gastrointestinal carcinogenesis in humans. - Highlights: • Benzo(a)pyrene-mediated transcriptomic response in the forestomach was examined. • The immunoproteosome subunits and MHC class I

  20. Benzo[a]pyrene induces intercellular adhesion molecule-1 through a caveolae and aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxicologic and epidemiologic studies have linked benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) exposure with cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of action leading to these diseases have not been fully understood. One key step in the development of atherosclerosis is vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is characterized by increased adhesiveness. To determine if B[a]P could lead to increased endothelial adhesiveness, the effects of B[a]P on human endothelial cell intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression was investigated. B[a]P was able to increase ICAM-1 protein only after pretreatment with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist β-naphthoflavone (β-NF). Knockdown of AhR by siRNA or treatment with AhR antagonist α-naphthoflavone (α-NF) eliminated the induction of ICAM-1 from B[a]P, confirming the necessity of AhR in this process. Likewise, B[a]P only increased monocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium when cells were pretreated with β-NF. Experiments were done to define a signaling mechanism. B[a]P increased phosphorylation of MEK and p38-MAPK, and inhibitors to these proteins blunted the ICAM-1 induction. B[a]P was also able to increase AP-1 DNA binding and phosphorylation of cJun. Phosphorylation of cJun was disrupted by MEK and p38-MAPK inhibitors linking the signaling cascade. Finally, the importance of membrane microdomains, caveolae, was demonstrated by knockdown of the structural protein caveolin-1. Disruption of caveolae eliminated the B[a]P-induced ICAM-1 expression. These data suggest a possible pro-inflammatory mechanism of action of B[a]P involving caveolae, leading to increased vascular endothelial adhesiveness, and this inflammation may be a critical step in the development of B[a]P-induced atherosclerosis

  1. Chronic exposure to low benzo[a]pyrene level causes neurodegenerative disease-like syndromes in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dongxu; Wu, Meifang; Wang, Chonggang; Wang, Yuanchuan; Zuo, Zhenghong

    2015-10-01

    Previous epidemiological and animal studies report that exposure to environmental pollutant exposure links to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a neurotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, has been increasingly released into the environment during recent decades. So far, the role of BaP on the development of neurodegenerative diseases remaind unclear. This study aimed to determine whether chronic exposure to low dose BaP would cause neurodegenerative disease-like syndromes in zebrafish (Danio rerio). We exposed zebrafish, from early embryogenesis to adults, to environmentally relevant concentrations of BaP for 230 days. Our results indicated that BaP decreased the brain weight to body weight ratio, locomotor activity and cognitive ability; induced the loss of dopaminergic neurons; and resulted in neurodegeneration. In addition, obvious cell apoptosis in the brain was found. Furthermore, the neurotransmitter levels of dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, the mRNA levels of the genes encoding dopamine transporter, Parkinson protein 7, phosphatase and tensin-induced putative kinase 1, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1, leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine kinase 2, amyloid precursor protein b, presenilin 1 and presenilin 2 were significantly down-regulated by BaP exposure. These findings suggest that chronic exposure to low dose BaP could cause the behavioral, neuropathological, neurochemical, and genetic features of neurodegenerative diseases. This study provides clues that BaP may constitute an important environmental risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases in humans. PMID:26349946

  2. Influence of sulfur dioxide on metabolism and distribution of benzo[a]pyrene in isolated perfused rabbit lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isolated perfused lung (IPL) preparation was used to investigate the effects of SO2 (1 to 2 ppM) on the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a ubiquitous potent carcinogen that has been associated with the increased incidence of human brochiogenic carcinoma in occupational and urban populations. [14C]BaP, with and without crude air particulate (CAP), was administered intracheally to the IPL in conjunction with SO2 or after pretreatment of the whole animal with SO2. Metabolites were isolated from serial blood samples up to 3 h after the administration of [14C]BaP to the IPL. Metabolites were also isolated from lung tissue, washout fluid, macrophage, and trachea and bronchi at the end of the perfusion at 180 min. Patterns of BaP metabolites were determined by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid scintillation counting. SO2 given in conjunction with BaP on the IPL or given to the whole animal followed by BaP on the IPL, in comparison with BaP only on the IPL, resulted in a twofold increase in the total rate of appearance of metabolites of BaP in the blood with changes in the metabolic pattern. SO2 given in conjunction with BaP and CAP on the IPL, in comparison with BaP plus SO2 on the IPL, resulted in a threefold decrease in the total rate of appearance of metabolites of BaP in the blood with changes in the metabolic pattern

  3. Metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene by aortic subcellular fractions in the setting of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, A; Prins, P A; Perati, P R; Rekhadevi, P V; Sampson, U K

    2016-01-01

    As exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; a family of environmental toxicants) have been implicated in cardiovascular diseases, the ability of the aortic tissue to process these toxicants is important from the standpoint of abdominal aortic aneurysms and atherosclerosis. Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), a representative PAH compound is released into the environment from automobile exhausts, industrial emissions, and considerable intake of B(a)P is also expected in people who are smokers and barbecued red meat eaters. Therefore, knowledge of B(a)P metabolism in the cardiovascular system will be of importance in the management of vascular disorders. Toward this end, subcellular fractions (nuclear, cytosolic, mitochondrial, and microsomal) were isolated from the aortic tissues of Apo E mice that received a 5 mg/kg/week of B(a)P for 42 days and 0.71 mg/kg/day for 60 days. The fractions were incubated with 1 and 3 μM B(a)P. Post incubation, samples were extracted with ethyl acetate and analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC. Microsomal B(a)P metabolism was greater than the rest of the fractions. The B(a)P metabolite levels generated by all the subcellular fractions showed a B(a)P exposure concentration-dependent increase for both the weekly and daily B(a)P treatment categories. The preponderance of B(a)P metabolites such as 7,8-dihydrodiol, 3,6-, and 6,12-dione metabolites are interesting due to their reported involvement in B(a)P-induced toxicity through oxidative stress. PMID:26530167

  4. Effect of benzo[a]pyrene on detoxification and the activity of antioxidant enzymes of marine microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Miao, Jingjing; Li, Yun; Pan, Luqing

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on the detoxification and antioxidant systems of two microalgae, Isochrysis zhanjiangensis and Platymonas subcordiformis. In our study, these two algae were exposed to BaP for 4 days at three different concentrations including 0.5 μg L-1 (low), 3 μg L-1 (mid) and 18 μg L-1 (high). The activity of detoxification enzymes, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased in P. subcordiformis in all BaP-treated groups. In I. zhanjiangensis, the activity of these two enzymes increased at the beginning of exposure, and then decreased in the groups treated with mid- and high BaP. The activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased in I. zhanjiangensis in all BaP-treated groups, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no significant change was observed in P. subcordiformis. The activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) increased in I. zhanjiangensis and P. subcordiformis in all BaPtreated groups. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in Isochrysis zhanjiangensis increased first, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no change occurred in P. subcordiformis. These results demonstrated that BaP significantly influenced the activity of detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes in microalgae. The metabolic related enzymes (EROD, GST and CAT) may serve as sensitive biomarkers of measuring the contamination level of BaP in marine water.

  5. Exposure of sea bream (Sparus aurata) to toxic concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene: possible human health effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zena, R; Speciale, A; Calabrò, C; Calò, M; Palombieri, D; Saija, A; Cimino, F; Trombetta, D; Lo Cascio, P

    2015-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can accumulate in the food chain, due to their lipophilic properties. Fish can accumulate contaminants including PAHs and frequent consumption of such contaminated fish can pose risk to human health. The aim of this study was to clarify if acute exposure of sea bream (Sparus aurata, a fish species of great economic importance in the Atlantic and Mediterranean areas) to a PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), at a dose that can induce CYP1A and pathological changes in fish gills, liver and muscle, can induce accumulation in muscle. We investigated the cytotoxic effects (as changes in cell viability, DNA laddering and glutathione content) of in vitro exposure of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to organic extracts obtained from muscle of sea breams previously exposed via water to B[a]P (2mg/l, for 12, 24 and 72 h). At this level of exposure, B[a]P caused morphological changes, inflammatory response and CYP1A induction not only in sea bream gills and liver but also in muscle; furthermore, in fish muscle we observed a substantial B[a]P accumulation, which may be associated with the increased CYP1A activity in liver and especially in muscle. However, when PBMCs were exposed to organic extracts obtained from sea bream muscle contaminated with B[a]P, a toxic, although modest effect was revealed, consisting in a significant decrease in cell glutathione levels without alterations in cell viability and DNA laddering. This suggests that consumption of sea breams from B[a]P contaminated waters might represent a risk for human health. PMID:26232038

  6. Toxicogenomic outcomes predictive of forestomach carcinogenesis following exposure to benzo(a)pyrene: Relevance to human cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forestomach tumors are observed in mice exposed to environmental carcinogens. However, the relevance of this data to humans is controversial because humans lack a forestomach. We hypothesize that an understanding of early molecular changes after exposure to a carcinogen in the forestomach will provide mode-of-action information to evaluate the applicability of forestomach cancers to human cancer risk assessment. In the present study we exposed mice to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), an environmental carcinogen commonly associated with tumors of the rodent forestomach. Toxicogenomic tools were used to profile gene expression response in the forestomach. Adult Muta™Mouse males were orally exposed to 25, 50, and 75 mg BaP/kg-body-weight/day for 28 consecutive days. The forestomach was collected three days post-exposure. DNA microarrays, real-time RT-qPCR arrays, and protein analyses were employed to characterize responses in the forestomach. Microarray results showed altered expression of 414 genes across all treatment groups (± 1.5 fold; false discovery rate adjusted P ≤ 0.05). Significant downregulation of genes associated with phase II xenobiotic metabolism and increased expression of genes implicated in antigen processing and presentation, immune response, chemotaxis, and keratinocyte differentiation were observed in treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. A systematic comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the forestomach from the present study to differentially expressed genes identified in human diseases including human gastrointestinal tract cancers using the NextBio Human Disease Atlas showed significant commonalities between the two models. Our results provide molecular evidence supporting the use of the mouse forestomach model to evaluate chemically-induced gastrointestinal carcinogenesis in humans. - Highlights: • Benzo(a)pyrene-mediated transcriptomic response in the forestomach was examined. • The immunoproteosome subunits and MHC class I

  7. Transcriptomics responses in marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana exposed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel N Carvalho

    Full Text Available Diatoms are unicellular, photosynthetic, eukaryotic algae with a ubiquitous distribution in water environments and they play an important role in the carbon cycle. Molecular or morphological changes in these species under ecological stress conditions are expected to serve as early indicators of toxicity and can point to a global impact on the entire ecosystem. Thalassiosira pseudonana, a marine diatom and the first with a fully sequenced genome has been selected as an aquatic model organism for ecotoxicological studies using molecular tools. A customized DNA microarray containing probes for the available gene sequences has been developed and tested to analyze the effects of a common pollutant, benzo(apyrene (BaP, at a sub-lethal concentration. This approach in diatoms has helped to elucidate pathway/metabolic processes involved in the mode of action of this pollutant, including lipid metabolism, silicon metabolism and stress response. A dose-response of BaP on diatoms has been made and the effect of this compound on the expression of selected genes was assessed by quantitative real time-PCR. Up-regulation of the long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase and the anti-apoptotic transmembrane Bax inhibitor, as well as down-regulation of silicon transporter 1 and a heat shock factor was confirmed at lower concentrations of BaP, but not the heat-shock protein 20. The study has allowed the identification of molecular biomarkers to BaP to be later on integrated into environmental monitoring for water quality assessment.

  8. Reduction of benzo[a]pyrene with acid-activated magnesium metal in ethanol: A possible application for environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► In this study we examine the use of Mg-ethanol for the partial reduction of PAHs at room temperature. ► The reduction of B[a]P occurred after the activation of Mg with acetic acid. ► This reducing system transformed 94% of B[a]P and produce six hydrogenated derivatives in 24 h. ► This technique can be a cheap alternative to current PAH remediation and hydrogenation methods. - Abstract: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a well-known threat to the environment. Substances such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils and sediments can have severe and long-term effects on human and environmental health. There is an urgent need for the development of safe technologies for their effective degradation. Here we present a new technique using ball-milled magnesium powder and ethanol solvent as a convenient electron transfer/proton source for the partial reduction of PAHs under ambient conditions. The rates of degradation were determined while evaluating the influences of acetic acid and type of ball-milled magnesium added to the reaction mixture. The results of these triplicate studies indicate that with the use of acetic acid as an activator and ball-milled magnesium carbon (Mg/C), this reducing system (Mg–EtOH) is able to achieve a 94% conversion of 250 μg/mL of toxic benzo[a]pyrene into a mixture of less toxic and partially hydrogenated polycyclic compounds within 24 h. This methodology can be used as a combined process involving ethanol washing followed by reduction reaction and it can also be considered as an easy handling and efficient alternative process to the catalytic hydrogenation of PAHs.

  9. Biomarker responses in persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus exposed to benzo-a-pyrene and beta-naphthoflavone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimzadeh Katayoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotransformation enzymes of xenobiotics (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, cytochrome P4501A1 content and glutathione-S-transferase were investigated in the liver of Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus after a 96-hour exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, premutagenic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP and beta-naphthoflavone (BNF. The fish were injected 10 mg/kg wet-body weight in corn oil for 96 hours every days. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD and glutathione s-transferase activity (GST were measured in the fish liver. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1 content was estimated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The response appeared as early as 12 hours post exposure. A time-dependent response was observed in the EROD activity, being significantly higher at 48 hours post exposure to 10 mg/kg of BaP. The greatest induction occurred in the fish treated with 10 mg/kg BaP, in which a 32.1- fold increase in EROD activity was observed. Results showed that EROD activity in A. persicus is significantly increased by BaP and BNF treatments. Both chemicals showed higher values of EROD activity compared to the liver CYP1A content. There was a rise in glutathione-S-transferase activity in fish exposed to BNF, but no increase was observed in fish treated with BaP. The results showed that hepatic CYP1A expression in terms of induction of EROD activity might be suited as a biomarker of organic contamination in aquatic environments and led to lower sensitivity of the second phase in the detoxification enzyme.

  10. The arbuscular mycorrhizal Rhizophagus irregularis activates storage lipid biosynthesis to cope with the benzo[a]pyrene oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonne, Maryline; Fontaine, Joël; Debiane, Djouher; Laruelle, Frédéric; Grandmougin-Ferjani, Anne; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa

    2014-01-01

    The phytoremediation assisted by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could constitute an ecological and economic method to restore polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) polluted soils. Unfortunately, little is known about the PAH impact on the beneficial symbiotic AMF. Using radiolabelling experiments, our work aims to understand how benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a representative of high molecular weight PAH, acts on the AMF lipid metabolism. Our results showed decreases in the sterol precursors as well as in total phospholipid quantities, in link with the [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation decreases in these lipids. Interestingly, a concomitant increase of [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation by 29.5% into phosphatidylcholine with its content decrease in Rhizophagus irregularis extraradical mycelium was observed, suggesting a membrane regeneration. A second concomitant increase (estimated to 69%) of [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation into triacylglycerols (TAG) with the content decrease was also observed. This suggests a fungal TAG biosynthesis activation probably to offset the decrease in storage lipid content when the fungus was grown under B[a]P pollution. In addition, our findings showed that lipase activity was induced by more than 3 fold in the presence of B[a]P in comparison to the control indicating that the drop in TAG content could be a consequence of their active degradation. Taken together, our data suggest the involvement of the fungal TAG metabolism to cope B[a]P toxicity through two means: (i) by providing carbon skeletons and energy necessary for membrane regeneration and/or for B[a]P translocation and degradation as well as (ii) by activating the phosphatidic acid and hexose metabolisms which may be involved in cellular stress defence. PMID:24246754

  11. Induction of micronuclei by X radiation and various chemical agents in red blood cells of Pleurodeles waltl. Uptake, release and excretion of one of them: benzo(a)pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the study is concerned with the effects of X radiation and of various substances dissolved in the breeding water (carbaryl, N-nitrosocarbaryl, benzo(a)pyrene, formol, cafeine, colchicine...) on the formation of micronuclei in red blood cells of Pleurodele larvae. The curves of the dose-effect relationships and of the kinetics of micronuclei formation are established for X radiation and benzo(a)pyrene. In the second part, a scintigraphic study concerning benzo(a)pyrene uptake, release and excretion by larvae, is presented. This study enables the dose-effect curve and the kinetics of micronuclei formation for this substance, to be interpreted. This study must allow the development of a cytogenetic test for the detection of radiomimetic substances in aqueous medium. Pleurodele is proposed as a new animal for the study of genetic toxicology

  12. Mikrosomale Biotransformation von Benzo[ghi]perylen, einem mutagenen polyaromatischen Kohlenwasserstoff ohne das Strukturelement der Bay-Region des kanzerogenen Benzo[a]pyrens

    OpenAIRE

    Grupe, Stefanie

    2005-01-01

    Kanzerogene polyaromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAKs), wie Benzo[a]pyren, besitzen eine Bay-Region mit ortho-kondensiertem Benzoring. Dadurch ist die enzymatische Bildung von Bay-Region-Dihydrodiolepoxiden (Oxiranylring in der sterisch abgeschirmten Molekülbucht) möglich, die als ultimal kanzerogene Metaboliten der PAKs gelten. Diese lösen durch DNA-Modifikation Primärläsionen aus, die, sofern sie nicht enzymatisch repariert werden, bei der DNA-Replikation Fehler verursachen (Mu-tationen). De...

  13. Detection of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-DNA adducts in peripheral blood lymphocytes and antibodies to the adducts in serum from coke oven workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, C. C.; Vahakangas, K.; Newman, M J; Trivers, G E; Shamsuddin, A; Sinopoli, N; Mann, D L; Wright, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    Coke oven workers are exposed to high levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and are at increased risk of lung cancer. Since B[a]P is enzymatically activated to 7 beta,8 alpha-dihydroxy(9 alpha, 10 alpha)epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (B[a]PDE) that forms adducts with DNA, the presence of these adducts was measured in DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes by synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry and enzyme radioimmunoassay. App...

  14. Immunogenicity of a Promiscuous T Cell Epitope Peptide Based Conjugate Vaccine against Benzo[a]pyrene: Redirecting Antibodies to the Hapten

    OpenAIRE

    Schellenberger, Mario T; Grova, Nathalie; Farinelle, Sophie; Willième, Stéphanie; Revets, Dominique; Muller, Claude P.

    2012-01-01

    The prototype polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is an environmental pollutant and food contaminant of epidemiological importance. To protect against adverse effects of this ubiquitous carcinogen, we developed an immunoprophylactic strategy based on a B[a]P-protein conjugate vaccine to induce B[a]P specific antibodies (Grova et al., Vaccine. 2009;27:4142–51). Here, we investigated in mice the efficacy of B[a]P-peptide conjugates based on promiscuous T cell epitopes (TCE) i...

  15. Mechanism of the inhibition of mutagenicity of a benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide by riboflavin 5'-phosphate.

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, A.W.; Sayer, J M; Newmark, H L; Yagi, H.; Michaud, D P; Jerina, D M; Conney, A H

    1982-01-01

    Riboflavin 5'-phosphate (flavin mononucleotide; FMN) inhibits the mutagenicity of (+/-)-7 beta, 8 alpha-dihydroxy-9 alpha, 10 alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P diol epoxide), the only known ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of benzo[a]pyrene. Coincubation of 10, 25, and 50 nmol of FMN with strain TA100 of histidine-dependent Salmonella typhimurium inhibits the mutagenicity of 0.05 nmol of the diol epoxide by 50, 70, and 90%, respectively. Ribose 5-phosphate and riboflavin sh...

  16. Role of diaxial versus diequatorial hydroxyl groups in the tumorigenic activity of a benzo[a]pyrene bay-region diol epoxide.

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, R L; Wood, A.W.; Conney, A H; Yagi, H.; Sayer, J M; Thakker, D R; Jerina, D M; Levin, W

    1987-01-01

    Tumorigenic activities of the (7R,8S,9S,10R)-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro derivatives of benzo[a]pyrene [(+)-B[a]P diol epoxide-2] and 6-fluorobenzo[a]pyrene (6-FB[a]P diol epoxide-2) were evaluated in newborn CD-1 mice. A total dose of 14 nmol of either diol epoxide was administered to preweanling mice, and tumorigenic activity was determined when the mice were 32 to 36 weeks old. At the termination of the study, 13% of solvent-treated control mice had developed lung tumors w...

  17. DNA polymerase eta participates in the mutagenic bypass of adducts induced by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alden C Klarer

    Full Text Available Y-family DNA-polymerases have larger active sites that can accommodate bulky DNA adducts allowing them to bypass these lesions during replication. One member, polymerase eta (pol eta, is specialized for the bypass of UV-induced thymidine-thymidine dimers, correctly inserting two adenines. Loss of pol eta function is the molecular basis for xeroderma pigmentosum (XP variant where the accumulation of mutations results in a dramatic increase in UV-induced skin cancers. Less is known about the role of pol eta in the bypass of other DNA adducts. A commonly encountered DNA adduct is that caused by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE, the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of the environmental chemical benzo[a]pyrene. Here, treatment of pol eta-deficient fibroblasts from humans and mice with BPDE resulted in a significant decrease in Hprt gene mutations. These studies in mammalian cells support a number of in vitro reports that purified pol eta has error-prone activity on plasmids with site-directed BPDE adducts. Sequencing the Hprt gene from this work shows that the majority of mutations are G>T transversions. These data suggest that pol eta has error-prone activity when bypassing BPDE-adducts. Understanding the basis of environmental carcinogen-derived mutations may enable prevention strategies to reduce such mutations with the intent to reduce the number of environmentally relevant cancers.

  18. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduces DNA damage induced by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide and cigarette smoke condensate in human mucosa tissue cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Philipp; Reiter, Maximilian; Kleinsasser, Norbert; Matthias, Christoph; Harréus, Ulrich

    2009-06-01

    Although epidemiological studies indicate cancer preventive effects of diets rich in fruit and vegetables, large clinical intervention studies conducted to evaluate dietary supplementation with micronutrients, mostly vitamins, showed disappointing results in large parts. In contrast, there is encouraging epidemiologic data indicating great chemopreventive potential of a large group of phytochemicals, namely polyphenols. This study shows the DNA protective effect epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a tea catechin, and one of the best-studied substances within this group, on carcinogen-induced DNA fragmentation in upper aerodigestive tract cells. Cell cultures from fresh oropharyngeal mucosa biopsies were preincubated with epigallocatechin-3-gallate in different concentrations before DNA damage was introduced with the metabolically activated carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide or cigarette smoke condensate. Effects on resulting DNA fragmentation were measured using the alkaline single-cell microgel electrophoresis (comet assay). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate significantly reduced benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide-induced DNA damage by up to 51% (Pculture model. PMID:19491610

  19. Determination of benzo[a]pyrene in cigarette mainstream smoke by using mid-infrared spectroscopy associated with a novel chemometric algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zou, Hong-Yan; Shi, Pei; Yang, Qin; Tang, Li-Juan; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Wu, Hai-Long; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Determination of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in cigarette smoke can be very important for the tobacco quality control and the assessment of its harm to human health. In this study, mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) coupled to chemometric algorithm (DPSO-WPT-PLS), which was based on the wavelet packet transform (WPT), discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm (DPSO) and partial least squares regression (PLS), was used to quantify harmful ingredient benzo[a]pyrene in the cigarette mainstream smoke with promising result. Furthermore, the proposed method provided better performance compared to several other chemometric models, i.e., PLS, radial basis function-based PLS (RBF-PLS), PLS with stepwise regression variable selection (Stepwise-PLS) as well as WPT-PLS with informative wavelet coefficients selected by correlation coefficient test (rtest-WPT-PLS). It can be expected that the proposed strategy could become a new effective, rapid quantitative analysis technique in analyzing the harmful ingredient BaP in cigarette mainstream smoke. PMID:26703252

  20. Benzo(a)pyrene oxidation, conjugation and disposition in the isolated perfused rabbit lung: role of the glutathione S-transferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, L M; Plummer, J L; Smith, B R; Bend, J R

    1979-10-01

    The isolated perfused rabbit lung metabolised 7--11 % of 20 mumol of [14C]-benzo(a)pyrene added in the perfusion medium in 1 h. The major metabolite formed was 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene, both free (30--40 % of the total metabolites) and conjugated (4 % of total metabolites). Quinones comprised 15 % of the total and metabolism at the 9, 10 position accounted for a further 10 %. Forty per cent of the water-soluble metabolites was chromatographically identical to the glutathione conjugate of benzo(a)pyrene 4,5-oxide. Sulphate and glucuronide conjugates were formed in small but detectable amounts, principally from phenols, but also from dihydrodiols. After 1 h the more water-soluble conjugates had diffused from the lung into the perfusion medium, but the majority (60--90 %) of the metabolic products were still concentrated within the lung. The lung's limited ability to conjugate its major metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene with sulphuric or glucuronic acid, coupled with slow elimination of the products formed, particularly dihydrodiols may contribute to the susceptibility of this organ to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:522517

  1. Benzo[a]pyrene and glycine N-methyltransferse Interactions: Gene expression profiles of the liver detoxification pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is one of many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that have been identified as major risk factors for developing various cancers. We previously demonstrated that the liver cancer susceptibility gene glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is capable of binding with BaP and protecting cells from BaP-7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide-DNA adduct formation. In this study, we used a cytotoxicity assay to demonstrate that the higher expression level of GNMT, the lower cytotoxicity occurred in the cells treated with BaP. In addition, a cDNA microarray containing 7,597 human genes was used to examine gene expression patterns in BaP-treated HepG2 (a liver cancer cell line that expresses very low levels of GNMT) and SCG2-1-1 (a stable HepG2 clone that expresses high levels of GNMT) cells. The results showed that among 6,018 readable HepG2 genes, 359 (6.0%) were up-regulated more than 1.5-fold and 768 (12.8%) were down-regulated. Overexpression of GNMT in SCG2-1-1 cells resulted in the down-regulation of genes related to the detoxification, kinase/phosphatase pathways, and oncogenes. Furthermore, real-time PCR was used to validate microarray data from 21 genes belonging to the detoxification pathway. Combining both microarray and real-time PCR data, the results showed that among 89 detoxification pathway genes analyzed, 22 (24.7%) were up-regulated and 6 (6.7%) were down-regulated in BaP-treated HepG2 cells, while in the BaP-treated SCG2-1-1 cells, 12 (13.5%) were up-regulated and 26 (29.2%) were down-regulated (P < 0.001). Therefore, GNMT sequesters BaP, diminishes BaP's effects to the liver detoxification pathway and prevents subsequent cytotoxicity

  2. Determinação de benzo(apireno em pescados Determination of benzo(apyrene in fish products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Azeredo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, peixes, camarões, mexilhões e carnes de siri frescos e processados, comercializados na região metropolitana de Campinas (SP, foram analisados quanto à presença de benzo(apireno (B(aP. A metodologia utilizada envolveu extração com n-hexano, limpeza em Sep-Pak sílica plus e determinação por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência com Detector de Fluorescência. A presença de B(aP foi detectada em todas as amostras analisadas (n=35, em quantidades variando na faixa de 0,03 a 4,54 µg/kg. Os maiores níveis de contaminação foram encontrados em produtos defumados (níveis médios=2,5 µg/kg e mexilhões (níveis médios=2,4 µg/kg. Considerando-se o potencial carcinogênico desse contaminante e a importância desse grupo de alimentos na dieta, um programa de monitoramento deve ser iniciado para identificar e controlar a fonte de contaminação de pescados por B(aP.In the present study samples of fresh and processed fish, shrimp, mussels and crab meat commercialized in the metropolitan area of Campinas (SP, Brazil were analysed for benzo(apyrene (B(aP. The methodology involved extraction with n-hexane, clean-up on Sep-Pak silica plus and determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with a Fluorescence Detector. B(aP was detected in all samples analysed (n=35 at levels ranging from to 0.03 a 4.54 µg/kg. The highest content of B(aP was found in smoked products (mean level=2.5 µg/kg and mussels (mean level=2.4 µg/kg. In view of the carcinogenic potential of this widely distributed contaminant and the importance of seafood in the daily diet of fisherman communities, a monitoring program should be initiated to identify and control the source of contamination of seafood by B(aP.

  3. Effects of a cocarcinogen, ferric oxide, on the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in the isolated perfused lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isolated perfused New Zealand rabbit lung preparation was used to investigate the effects of a cocarcinogen, ferric oxide (Fe2O3), on the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a ubiquitous potent carcinogen that has been associated with the increased incidence of human bronchiogenic carcinoma in occupational and urban settings. [14C]-BaP was administered intratracheally to an isolated perfused lung (IPL) preparation with and without Fe2O3 after intraperitoneal pretreatment of the whole animal with BaP or intratracheal pretreatment of the whole animal with Fe2O3 and/or BaP. BaP and its metabolites were isolated from serial blood samples up to 180 min after administration of [14C]BaP to the IPL. BaP and its metabolites were also isolated from lung tissue, washout fluid, macrophage, and trachea bronchi at the end of the perfusion at 180 min. Patterns of BaP metabolites were determined by chromatographic techniques and liquid scintillation counting. Fe2O3 pretreatment to the whole animal or administration of Fe2O3 to the IPL altered BaP metabolism by the perfused lung. Fe2O3 pretreatment to the whole animal resulted in an increase in the total rate of appearance of metabolites of BaP in the blood, while Fe2O3 administration to the IPL resulted in a decrease in the total rate of appearance of BaP metabolites in the blood and inhibited the effect of pretreatment. These data suggest that pulmonary exposure to a known cocarcinogen, Fe2O3, in the presence of BaP results in increased production of dihydrodiols of BaP, which may be further metabolized to the ultimate carcinogenic form(s) of BaP. Therefore, Fe2O3 can enhance the metabolic activation of BaP by the lung, as well as act as a carrier for penetration and retention of BaP in the lung. 49 references, 6 tables

  4. Impact of benzo(a)pyrene, Cu and their mixture on the proteomic response of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria, V.L., E-mail: vmaria@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Gomes, T., E-mail: tcgomes@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Barreira, L., E-mail: lbarreir@ualg.pt [CCMAR, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Bebianno, M.J., E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Distinct protein expression profiles dependent of BaP and Cu accumulation, metabolism and chemical interactions in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. •Processes that involve adhesion and motility, cytoskeleton and cell structure, stress response, transcription regulation and energy metabolism are common mechanisms. •Traditional (ATP synthase, GST, HSP and actin) and novel biomarkers for BaP (ZFP), Cu (chitin synthase) and mixture (MVP) exposures identified in mussels. -- Abstract: In natural waters, chemical interactions between mixtures of contaminants can result in potential synergistic and/or antagonic effects in aquatic animals. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and copper (Cu) are two widespread environmental contaminants with known toxicity towards mussels Mytilus spp. The effects of the individual and the interaction of BaP and Cu exposures were assessed in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis using proteomic analysis. Mussels were exposed to BaP [10 μg L{sup −1} (0.396 μM)], and Cu [10 μg L{sup −1} (0.16 μM)], as well as to their binary mixture (mixture) for a period of 7 days. Proteomic analysis showed different protein expression profiles associated to each selected contaminant condition. A non-additive combined effect was observed in mixture in terms of new and suppressed proteins. Proteins more drastically altered (new, suppressed and 2-fold differentially expressed) were excised and analyzed by mass spectrometry, and eighteen putatively identified. Protein identification demonstrated the different accumulation, metabolism and chemical interactions of BaP, Cu and their mixture, resulting in different modes of action. Proteins associated with adhesion and motility (catchin, twitchin and twitchin-like protein), cytoskeleton and cell structure (α-tubulin and actin), stress response (heat shock cognate 71, heat shock protein 70, putative C1q domain containing protein), transcription regulation (zinc-finger BED domain-containing and nuclear

  5. Impact of benzo(a)pyrene, Cu and their mixture on the proteomic response of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Distinct protein expression profiles dependent of BaP and Cu accumulation, metabolism and chemical interactions in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. •Processes that involve adhesion and motility, cytoskeleton and cell structure, stress response, transcription regulation and energy metabolism are common mechanisms. •Traditional (ATP synthase, GST, HSP and actin) and novel biomarkers for BaP (ZFP), Cu (chitin synthase) and mixture (MVP) exposures identified in mussels. -- Abstract: In natural waters, chemical interactions between mixtures of contaminants can result in potential synergistic and/or antagonic effects in aquatic animals. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and copper (Cu) are two widespread environmental contaminants with known toxicity towards mussels Mytilus spp. The effects of the individual and the interaction of BaP and Cu exposures were assessed in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis using proteomic analysis. Mussels were exposed to BaP [10 μg L−1 (0.396 μM)], and Cu [10 μg L−1 (0.16 μM)], as well as to their binary mixture (mixture) for a period of 7 days. Proteomic analysis showed different protein expression profiles associated to each selected contaminant condition. A non-additive combined effect was observed in mixture in terms of new and suppressed proteins. Proteins more drastically altered (new, suppressed and 2-fold differentially expressed) were excised and analyzed by mass spectrometry, and eighteen putatively identified. Protein identification demonstrated the different accumulation, metabolism and chemical interactions of BaP, Cu and their mixture, resulting in different modes of action. Proteins associated with adhesion and motility (catchin, twitchin and twitchin-like protein), cytoskeleton and cell structure (α-tubulin and actin), stress response (heat shock cognate 71, heat shock protein 70, putative C1q domain containing protein), transcription regulation (zinc-finger BED domain-containing and nuclear receptor

  6. 3H thymidine an indicator of benzo(a)pyrene induced lung carcinogenesis: role of quercetin and curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Lung cancer is responsible for most of the cancer related deaths and calls for new approaches to control the menace. In the present study chemopreventive efficacy of curcumin and quercetin was investigated against benzo(a)pyrene (BP) induced lung carcinogenesis. The mice were segregated into five groups which included normal control, BP treated, BP+curcumin treated, BP+quercetin treated and BP+curcumin+quercetin treated groups. The morphological and histological analyses of tumor nodules confirmed lung carcinogenesis, after 22 weeks of single i.p. injection of BP at a dose of 100 mg/Kg body weight to mice. Tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity were observed to be 88% and 1.75, respectively in the BP treated mice. A statistically significant increase in the uptake of 3H thymidine indicative of increased DNA synthesis which in turn is the marker of uncontrolled cancer cell proliferation, was observed in the lung slices of BP treated mice. Further, BP treatment resulted in marked disruption in the histoarchitecture of lungs. Nuclei were enlarged, thickening of epithelium was seen. Structure-less masses of cells were visible all over. Nuclear pleomorphism and decreased cytoplasmic contents were also observed in BP treated mice. Squamous epithelial metaplasia, severe epithelial thickening and alveolar vocuolizations in distal airways indicative of lung carcinogensis were also observed in the BP treated mice. Supplementation with curcumin alone resulted in a significant decrease in the tumor incidence as well as tumor multicity which were observed to be 77% and 1.42 respectively. Also, quercetin significantly decreased tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity to 70% and 1.28 respectively. However, upon combined supplementation with phytochemicals, an appreciable decrease in the tumor incidence and multiplicity was observed which was found to be 60% and 1.00 respectively. Further, Supplementation with curcumin alone to BP treated mice resulted in statistically

  7. Zinc finger proteins and other transcription regulators as response proteins in benzo[a]pyrene exposed cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteomic analysis, which combines two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS), is an important approach to screen proteins responsive to specific stimuli. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a prototype of polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs), is a potent procarcinogen generated from the combustion of fossil fuel and cigarette smoke. To further probe the molecular mechanism of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, and to find potential molecular markers involved in cellular responses to B[a]P exposure, we performed proteomic analysis of whole cellular proteins in human amnion epithelial cells after B[a]P-treatment. Image visualization and statistical analysis indicated that more than 40 proteins showed significant changes following B[a]P-treatment (P<0.05). Among them, 20 proteins existed only in the control groups, while six were only present in B[a]P-treated cells. In addition, the expression of 10 proteins increased whereas 11 decreased after B[a]P-treatment. These proteins were subjected to in-gel tryptic digestion followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis. Using peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) to search the nrNCBI database, we identified 22 proteins. Most of these proteins have unknown functions and have not been previously connected to a response to B[a]P exposure. To further annotate the characteristics of these proteins, GOblet analysis was carried out and results indicated that they were involved in multiple biological processes including regulation of transcription, cell proliferation, cell aging and other processes. However, expression changes were noted in a number of transcription regulators, including eight zinc finger proteins as well as SNF2L1 (SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 1), which is closely linked to the chromatin remodeling process. These data may provide new clues to further understand the implication of

  8. BENZO[A]PYRENE AND ITS K-REGION DIOL INDUCE DNA DAMAGE IN C3H10T1/2C18 CELLS AS MEASURED BY THE ALKALINE SINGLE CELL GEL (COMET) ASSAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    160. Benzo[a]pyrene and its K-region diol induce DNA damage in C3HlOTl/2Cl8 cells as measured by the alkaline single cell gel (Comet) assay In a continuing series of studies on the genotoxicity ofK-region dihydrodiols of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, we have repo...

  9. THE EFFECT OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL ON DNA ADDUCT FORMATION IN C57B1/6 TRP53 +/+ AND C57B16 TRP53 -/- MICE EXPOSED TO BENZO[A]PYRENE MAY BE ASSOCIATED WITH P53 FUNCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractPrevious studies have shown that pentachlorophenol (PCP) has both potentiative and antagonistic effects on the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). It has been suggested that these effects are due to inhibition and/or induction of enzymes involved in the biotr...

  10. Mutations Induced by Benzo[a]pyrene and Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in lacI Transgenic B6C3F1 Mouse Lung Result from Stable DNA Adducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) are carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that are each capable of forming a variety of covalent adducts with DNA. Some of the DNA adducts formed by these PAHs have been demonstrated to spontaneously depurina...

  11. Pulmonary gene and microRNA expression changes in mice exposed to benzo(a)pyrene by oral gavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → The study examines pulmonary response in mice exposed to BaP by oral gavage. → We examined pulmonary gene and miRNA expression changes and measured DNA adducts. → We compare the mechanisms of action that operate in lungs relative to the liver. → We show differences in biological pathways activated in lungs versus the liver. → We suggest that liver miRNAs are less sensitive to perturbations than lung miRNAs. -- Abstract: Exposure to the environmental mutagen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) alters the expression of AHR-responsive genes as well as genes involved in other pathways. We recently reported that exposure of adult mice to BaP resulted in a robust transcriptome response in the liver, but this was accompanied by a complete lack of change in microRNA (miRNA) expression. Since BaP exposure does not result in hepatocarcinogenicity, but does cause lung cancer, in the present study we examine the pulmonary mRNA and miRNA responses to BaP in the same mice. Adult male B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 150 and 300 mg/kg BaP by oral gavage for three consecutive days and sacrificed 4 h after the last exposure. Serum clinical chemistry was performed for both the doses to assess the general toxicity of BaP; a modest decrease in serum inorganic phosphorous was observed at both the doses. A small decrease in serum glucose following 150 mg/kg and alkaline phosphatase following 300 mg/kg BaP was observed. BaP-DNA adduct levels in whole lung and liver tissues were assessed by 32P postlabelling and similar dose dependent increases were observed for lung and liver. Using DNA microarrays, pulmonary mRNA and miRNA expressions were analysed. Over 1000 genes were statistically differentially expressed (p < 0.05). The perturbed pathways included oxidative stress, xenobiotic metabolism, cell proliferation, cell cycle, B and T-cell receptor signalling and primary immunodeficiency signalling pathways. Analysis of miRNA profiles revealed downregulation of miR-150, miR-142-5p, mi

  12. Cytochrome P450 system expression and DNA adduct formation in the liver of Zacco platypus following waterborne benzo(a)pyrene exposure: implications for biomarker determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wuk; Kim, Yong Hwa; Yoon, Seokjoo; Lee, Sung Kyu

    2014-09-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that causes mutations and tumor formation. Zacco platypus is a sentinel species that is suitable for monitoring aquatic environments. We studied cytochrome P450 system (CYP system) expression and DNA adduct formation in the liver of Z. platypus following waterborne exposure to BaP. The results showed both dose and time dependency. The significant induction levels of CYP system mRNA and protein reached maximums at 2 days and 14 days, respectively, and hepatosomatic index was maximally induced at 4 days during 14 days BaP exposure. DNA adduct formation was significantly induced compared to corresponding controls (t-test, p platypus is a useful species for assessing the risk of waterborne BaP exposure. PMID:23192953

  13. Bioavailability of benzo(a)pyrene and dehydroabietic acid from a few lake waters containing varying dissolved organic carbon concentrations to Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in natural waters consists of a great variety of organic molecules. Some of these molecules have been identified but most of them cannot be identified. This unidentified group of heterogeneous organic macromolecules is considered as humic substances. The role of humic substances in water chemistry and in aquatic toxicology is receiving increasing attention. The effects of DOC on the bioavailability of organic pollutants have been demonstrated in several studies. A decreased bioavailability has been demonstrated in most cases. Both the quantity and the quality of DOC are suggested determinants of this apparent ecotoxicological buffer of inland waters worldwide. In this study, the authors measured the bioaccumulation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) in Daphnia magna using a wide range of naturally occurring DOC levels. Another objective was to associate the reduced bioavailability with the chemical characteristics of water and DOC

  14. Asbestos and benzo[a]pyrene act synergistically to induce squamous metaplasia and incorporation of [3H]thymidine in hamster tracheal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When exposed to either crocidolite asbestos (single 1-h exposure to 0.4 mg/ml medium) or the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (less than or equal to 2.5 micrograms/ml medium, 1x weekly for 4 weeks), the epithelium of hamster tracheal explants exhibits insignificant amounts of squamous metaplasia, an atypical lesion, in comparison to amounts observed in untreated tissues. Incorporation of [3H]thymidine, an indication of DNA synthesis by epithelial cells, likewise is unchanged. However, the extent of squamous metaplasia and numbers of labeled basal and suprabasal cells are increased substantially when BaP and asbestos are added in combination. These results suggest an important mechanism of co-carcinogenesis involving chemical and physical carcinogens and support epidemiologic observations documenting an increased risk of bronchogenic carcinoma in asbestos workers who smoke

  15. Phosphatase activity in commercial spleen exonuclease decreases the recovery of benzo[a]pyrene and N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine DNA adducts by 32P-postlabeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, S P; Laws, G M; Selden, J R; Nichols, W W

    1994-05-15

    Spleen exonuclease, which degrades nucleic acids into single 3'-nucleotides, is used in the detection of DNA adducts by 32P-postlabeling. Contamination of the exonuclease with phosphatase activity can reduce the recovery of benzo[a]pyrene and N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine DNA adducts by 32P-postlabeling. Four preparations of spleen exonuclease containing varying levels of phosphatase activity (2-naphthylamine DNA adducts. Surprisingly, recovery of these DNA adducts was nearly 10 times greater using nuclease P1 than when using 1-butanol extraction for adduct enrichment, since arylamine DNA adducts have previously been reported to be poorly detected by 32P-postlabeling after nuclease P1 treatment. Our data indicate that the hydrolysis of DNA by spleen exonuclease may be an important source of variability in both qualitative and quantitative analysis of adducts by 32P-postlabeling. PMID:8059938

  16. Treatment of a Human Papillomavirus Type 31b-Positive Cell Line with Benzo[a]Pyrene Increases Viral Titer through Activation of the Erk1/2 Signaling Pathway▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bowser, Brian S; Alam, Samina; Meyers, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have implicated cigarette smoking as a cofactor in the progression to cervical cancer. Tobacco-associated hydrocarbons have been found in cervical mucus, suggesting a possible interaction with human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected cells. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a major component of cigarette smoke condensate that has received significant attention due to its ability to induce carcinogenesis. We have previously demonstrated by ...

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: Comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4 nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by 32P post‐labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH‐dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p < 0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and phase 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs). -- Highlights: ► Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), 3 PAH mixtures, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were compared. ► DBC and 2 PAH mixtures were more potent than Relative Potency Factor estimates. ► Transcriptome profiles 12 hours post initiation were analyzed by microarray. ► Principle components analysis of alterations revealed treatment-based clustering. ► DBC gave a unique pattern of

  18. Benzo(a)pyrene inhibits migration and invasion of extravillous trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells via activation of the ERK and JNK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyuan; Wang, Yingxiong; Shen, Cha; He, Junlin; Liu, Xueqing; Ding, Yubin; Gao, Rufei; Chen, Xuemei

    2016-07-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that is a serious threat to human health. Numerous studies have shown that BaP causes adverse effects in pregnancy, but the mechanism remains unclear. The moderate invasion of trophoblast cells into the endometrium is an important factor during successful embryo implantation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of BaP on the invasion and migration of trophoblast cells. HTR-8/SVneo cells were treated with different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 μM) of BaP. The invasion and migration of HTR-8/SVneo cells were observed after BaP treatment. The protein levels related to migration and invasion was detected by Western blot. The results confirmed that BaP inhibits the migration and invasion of extravillous trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells. Further investigations indicated that the protein levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and E-cadherin in HTR-8/SVneo cells were changed by BaP treatment. Moreover, the data demonstrated that BaP activated the MAPK signaling pathway. Pretreatment with specific inhibitors of MAPK rescued BaP-induced change in the migration and invasion of HTR-8/SVneo cells. Taken together, our results indicated that BaP inhibits invasion and the migration of HTR-8/SVneo cells, which might cause a failure in early pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26359795

  19. MicroRNA Responses to the Genotoxic Carcinogens Aflatoxin B1 and Benzo[a]pyrene in Human HepaRG Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, April K; Tryndyak, Volodymyr; Beland, Frederick A; Pogribny, Igor P

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in toxicogenomics present an opportunity to develop new in vitro testing methodologies to identify human carcinogens. We have investigated microRNA expression responses to the treatment of human liver HepaRG cells with the human genotoxic carcinogens aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and the structurally similar compounds aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) and benzo[e]pyrene (B[e]P) that exhibit minimal carcinogenic potential. We demonstrate that treatment of HepaRG cells with AFB1 or B[a]P resulted in specific changes in the expression of miRNAs as compared with their non-carcinogenic analogues, particularly in a marked over-expression of miR-410. An additional novel finding is the dose- and time-dependent inhibition of miR-122 in AFB1-treated HepaRG cells. Mechanistically, the AFB1-induced down-regulation of miR-122 was attributed to inhibition of the HNF4A/miR-122 regulatory pathway. These results demonstrate that HepaRG cells can be used to investigate miRNA responses to xenobiotic exposure, and illustrate the existence of early non-genotoxic events, in addition to a well-established genotoxic mode of action changes, in the mechanism of AFB1 and B[a]P carcinogenicity. PMID:26609139

  20. Ontogenetic variation in rat liver, lung and kidney monooxygenase induction by low doses of benzo(A)pyrene and cigarette-smoke condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Cantfort, J.; Gielen, J.E.

    1981-12-01

    The specific lung-AHH induction, which we previously observed after the inhalation of cigarette smoke, is not due to the route followed by the inhaled smoke, for the same phenomenon occurs after i.p. injection of either cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) or benzo(a)pyrene in low doses. In this respect lung AHH behaves completely differently from the liver and kidney enzyme, in which organs, basal AHH activity (which is low in the foetus) increases rapidly after birth to reach the adult level 2 months later, and is only inducible by CSC and low doses of BP in unweaned rats. In the lung, the basal AHH activity (low in the foetus) increases abruptly at birth, peaks in 5-day-old rats and then decreases slightly. Contrary to enzyme activity in other tissues, lung AHH cannot be induced in unweaned young animals. The enzyme subsequently becomes sensitive to inducing agents and is highly inducible in 90-day-old rats. Similar behaviour occurs in 2 other enzymes linked to cytochrome P1450: ethoxycoumarin deethylase and ethoxyresorufin deethylase. The results could be related to the particular susceptibility of the lung to develop cancer after the inhalation of cigarette smoke.

  1. Differences in the covalent binding of benzo(a)pyrene, safrole, 1'-hydroxysafrole, and 4-aminobiphenyl to DNA of pregnant and non-pregnant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of pregnancy on the covalent binding of several carcinogens to DNA were investigated in mice. Non-pregnant or timed-pregnant (18th day of gestation) ICR mice of similar age were treated with benzo(a)pyrene (BP, 200 μmol/kg), safrole (600 μmol/kg), 1'-hydroxysafrole (400 μmol/kg), 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP, 800 μmol/kg) or trioctanoin (4 ml/kg) per os. Tissue DNA adduct levels at 24 h after carcinogen treatment were analyzed via a 32P-postabeling assay. Pregnancy lowered the binding of the ultimate carcinogenic metalolite of BP, 7β, 8α-dihydroxy-9, 10α-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene (BPDE I), to liver and lung DNA by 29-41%, but not the binding of other metabolites. The binding of safrole and its proximate carcinogen, 1'-hydroxysafrole, to liver and kidney DNA was increased 2.3-3.5 fold. Pregnancy decreased the binding of 4-ABP to liver DNA by approx. 18% but increased its binding to kidney DNA by 67%. The results suggest that exposure to some genotoxic compounds especially those requiring conjugation reactions for metabolic activation, may be more hazardous during pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state (author)

  2. Preliminary evidence of the role of hydrogen peroxide in the degradation of benzo[a]pyrene by a non-white rot fungus Fusarium solani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veignie, Etienne; Rafin, Catherine; Woisel, Patrice; Cazier, Fabrice

    2004-05-01

    In order to study the enzymatic mechanisms involved in the successive steps of BaP degradation by a Deuteromycete fungus Fusarium solani, we developed an indirect approach by using inhibitors of enzymes. We used either specific inhibitors of peroxidases (i.e. salicylhydroxamic acid) and of cytochrome P-450 (i.e. piperonyl butoxyde) or inhibitors of both enzymes (i.e. potassium cyanide). Surprisingly, no expected decrease of BaP degradation was observed with most inhibitors tested. On the contrary, more BaP was degraded. Only butylated hydroxytoluene, which acts as a free radical scavenger, inhibited BaP degradation. The inhibition of these enzymes, which use H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as a cosubstrat, might have resulted in an increase of hydrogen peroxide availability in the fungal cultures. This enhancement could induce formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which might be the agents that initiate benzo[a]pyrene oxidation. This study proposed a hypothetic alternative metabolic pathway involved in PAH metabolism by Fusarium solani. - An alternative metabolic pathway was demonstrated.

  3. Humic acid-bonded silica as a novel sorbent for solid-phase extraction of benzo[a]pyrene in edible oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent, humic acid-bonded silica (HAS), was prepared. Humic acids (HAs) were grafted onto silica matrices via an amide linkage between humyl chloride and the amido terminus of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTS)-silica gel. The resulting material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, elemental analysis, and nitrogen adsorption analysis. This sorbent exhibits an excellent adsorption capacity for some electron-abundant analytes owing to its peculiar structure. In this paper, we choose benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in oil as a probe to validate the adsorption capacity of the material. Thus a fast, cheap and simple SPE method with humic acid-bonded silica cartridge for edible oil clean-up, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection was established. The effects of experimental variables, such as washing and elution solvents, and the amount of sorbents have been studied. The recoveries of BaP in edible oils spiked at 0.2-100 μg kg-1 were in the range of 78.8-102.7% with relative standard deviations ranging between 1.3 and 9.3%; the limit of detection was -0.06 μg kg-1

  4. The combined toxicity of dibutyl phthalate and benzo(a)pyrene on the reproductive system of male Sprague Dawley rats in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuemei [Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); An Hui; Ao Lin; Sun Lei; Liu Wenbin; Zhou Ziyuan [Department of Hygenic Toxicology, College of Military Preventive Medicine, Key Lab of Medical Protection for Electromagnetic Radiation, Ministry of Education of China, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Wang Yingxiong, E-mail: wyx61221@yahoo.com.cn [Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Cao Jia, E-mail: caojia1962@126.com [Department of Hygenic Toxicology, College of Military Preventive Medicine, Key Lab of Medical Protection for Electromagnetic Radiation, Ministry of Education of China, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Our previous studies revealed more than 100 pollutants, most of which were endocrine disruptors (EDs) in two Chinese rivers, the Jialing and the Yangtze near Chongqing. Most EDs, such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), are known to act individually as reproductive toxicants. However, little is known about the combined toxicity of DBP and BaP. In the current study, male Sprague Dawley rats were subchronically exposed to single doses of DBP (250 mg/kg), single doses of BaP (5 mg/kg) and combined doses of DBP and BaP. Significant adverse effects were observed on the reproductive system, including decreased sperm count, increased production of abnormal sperm, changes in serum testosterone levels and irregular arrangements of the seminiferous epithelium. Biochemical analyses showed that the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased after exposure to these EDs. Therefore, our data suggest that exposure to DBP and BaP, in either separate or combined doses, can affect the reproductive system of male rats adversely via oxidative stress-related mechanisms. No significant additive effect was observed after combined exposure. These results indicate that exposure to mixtures of EDs have unexpected and elusive effects. Our findings provide preliminary but important data for assessing water safety in China.

  5. Measurement of human CYP1A2 induction by inhalation exposure to benzo(a)pyrene based on in vivo isotope breath method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoli; Shen, Guofeng; Yang, Hongbiao; Lambert, George; Wei, Fusheng; Zhang, Junfeng Jim

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is an enzyme involved in the metabolic activation of certain carcinogens, and inducible by toxic substrates. To date, few studies have investigated in vivo CYP1A2 induction in humans and its relationship to polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) like benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Non-smoking healthy male coke-oven workers (n = 30) were recruited as 'exposure' group, and non-smoking healthy office workers in the same city (n = 10) were selected as 'control' group, to test whether high inhalation exposure to PAHs can induce CYP1A2 activity in human livers. Significantly higher inhalation exposure of PAHs were found among the exposure group compared to the control. Inhalation BaP exposure concentration in the exposure group was more than 30 times higher than the control group (p < 0.001). However, the exposure group did not exhale significant higher levels of (13)CO2/(12)CO2 in breath samples (p = 0.81), and no significant relationship was found between the inhaled BaP concentration and the (13)CO2/(12)CO2 ratio (p = 0.91). A significant association was found between the (13)CO2/(12)CO2 exhalation and dietary BaP intake level. Hepatic CYP1A2 activity/induction level was not effected by inhaled BaP but was altered by ingestion of BaP. PMID:26552516

  6. Oral exposure to environmental pollutant benzo[a]pyrene impacts the intestinal epithelium and induces gut microbial shifts in murine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribière, Céline; Peyret, Pierre; Parisot, Nicolas; Darcha, Claude; Déchelotte, Pierre J.; Barnich, Nicolas; Peyretaillade, Eric; Boucher, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota dysbiosis are associated with a wide range of human diseases, including inflammatory bowel diseases. The physiopathology of these diseases has multifactorial aetiology in which environmental factors, particularly pollution could play a crucial role. Among the different pollutants listed, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are subject to increased monitoring due to their wide distribution and high toxicity on Humans. Here, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to investigate the impact of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, most toxic PAH) oral exposure on the faecal and intestinal mucosa-associated bacteria in C57BL/6 mice. Intestinal inflammation was also evaluated by histological observations. BaP oral exposure significantly altered the composition and the abundance of the gut microbiota and led to moderate inflammation in ileal and colonic mucosa. More severe lesions were observed in ileal segment. Shifts in gut microbiota associated with moderate inflammatory signs in intestinal mucosa would suggest the establishment of a pro-inflammatory intestinal environment following BaP oral exposure. Therefore, under conditions of genetic susceptibility and in association with other environmental factors, exposure to this pollutant could trigger and/or accelerate the development of inflammatory pathologies. PMID:27503127

  7. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on an aquatic ecosystem: acute toxicity and community-level toxic impact tests of benzo[a]pyrene using lake zooplankton community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Sakamoto, Masaki; Nagata, Takamaru; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Miyabara, Yuichi; Hanazato, Takayuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kim, Jun-Woo; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon

    2013-02-01

    We estimated acute toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) using two cladoceran species, Ceriodaphnia reticulata and Daphnia magna, and also analyzed its impact on zooplankton community throughout an exposure experiment using small-scale mesocosms. LC(50) of B[a]P for C. reticulata and D. magna was 4.3 and 4.7 µg/l, respectively. However, individuals fed with Chlorella showed higher LC(50), 6.1 µg/l for C. reticulata and 8.0 µg/l for D. magna. In the exposure experiment, we examined the impact of B[a]P on zooplankton community using conceivable concentrations in the environment (5 and 10 µg/l) using typical zooplankton community in eutrophicated systems. Despite the residence time of B[a]P in the water column was short as recovery pattern was different among cladocerans and rotifers. Consequently, B[a]P showed insecticide-like impacts, suppressing cladoceran populations and inducing the dominance of rotifers particularly under high concentration (10 µg/l). Results have suggested that, even such short duration of B[a]P in the water body can have impact on zooplankton abundance and community structure. Since B[a]P easily precipitate to the bottom and rapidly disappears from the water body, careful monitoring and further assessment of the potential toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are necessary. PMID:23358147

  8. Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced neurotoxicity in female mice actively immunized with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, Mario T; Grova, Nathalie; Farinelle, Sophie; Willième, Stéphanie; Schroeder, Henri; Muller, Claude P

    2013-09-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also neurotoxic for mammalian species. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, female Balb/c mice immunized with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid (B[a]P-DT) conjugate vaccine were sub-acutely exposed to 2mg/kg B[a]P and behavioral performances were monitored in tests related to learning and memory, anxiety and motor coordination. mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor (NR1, 2A and 2B subunits) involved in the above behavioral functions was measured in 5 brain regions. B[a]P induced NMDA1 expression in three (hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum) of five brain regions investigated, and modulated NMDA2 in two of the five brain regions (frontal cortex and cerebellum). Each one of these B[a]P-effects was reversed in mice that were immunized against this PAH, with measurable consequences on behavior such as anxiety, short term learning and memory. Thus active immunization against B[a]P with a B[a]P-DT conjugate vaccine had a protective effect and attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects even of high concentrations of B[a]P. PMID:23684556

  9. In vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption of benzo[a]pyrene from petroleum crude-fortified soil in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern regarding dermal exposure to soils contaminated with potentially toxic materials such as dioxins, pesticides, heavy metals, polynuclear aromatics (PNA) and petroleum products containing PNA, has prompted government and private sectors to examine and formulate dermal risk assessment methodologies for contaminated soils. In the absence of experimentally determined percutaneous absorption values, many risk assessment schemes substitute available animal toxicology data on the pure contaminant, estimate dermal penetration of pure contaminant based on physicochemical models or, in the extreme, assume 100% bioavailability of the contaminant from soil. Risk assessment based on these approaches is likely to result in an overestimate of dermal bioavailability of contaminants from soil, particularly for the water insoluble lipophilic compounds found in petroleum products. The authors have performed dermal bioavailability studies on a variety of lipophilic materials and special emphasis has been placed on the development and implementation of a modified in vitro technique for evaluating the percutaneous absorption of PNA and PNA mixtures. In the present paper, they apply the modified in vitro technique to evaluate the percutaneous absorption of [3H-labelled] benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in petroleum crude oil sorbed on soil and compare the results with those for the percutaneous absorption of BaP from crude oil alone. Results of the in vitro experiments are compared with findings from parallel in vivo experiments

  10. Degradation of 14C labelled Benzo[a]pyrene by a PAH-adapted mixed bacterial culture in the presence of an alkylpolyglycoside-surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biodegradation of the five ring PAH benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is assumed to be limited by the low water solubility of this compound. A mixed culture of microorganisms - isolated from a PAH-contaminated soil - was able to degrade 14C labelled BaP in mineral medium by co-metabolism with phenanthrene, fluoranthene, anthracene and pyrene as sources of carbon and energy. The mineralisation of these compounds to low levels resulted in an inhibition of the degradation of BaP. After the new addition of the four PAH compounds to the culture medium the mineralisation of BaP started again. A non-ionic surfactant of the alkylpolyglycoside type (Plantacare 2000 UP) increased the concentration of BaP in the culture medium because of solubilization. At high Plantacare concentrations, the degradation of BaP was completely inhibited above the critical micelle concentration (cms). The degradation of the three and four ring PAHs was also inhibited. If the surfactant was metabolised to concentrations below the cmc, an increase of mineralisation of BaP could occur up to 24% in 384 days. (orig.)

  11. High Conservation in Transcriptomic and Proteomic Response of White Sturgeon to Equipotent Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, PCB 77, and Benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Jon A; Tang, Song; Peng, Hui; Eisner, Bryanna K; Sun, Jianxian; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve; Hecker, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Adverse effects associated with exposure to dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are mediated primarily through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). However, little is known about the cascades of events that link activation of the AHR to apical adverse effects. Therefore, this study used high-throughput, next-generation molecular tools to investigate similarities and differences in whole transcriptome and whole proteome responses to equipotent concentrations of three agonists of the AHR, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, PCB 77, and benzo[a]pyrene, in livers of a nonmodel fish, the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). A total of 926 and 658 unique transcripts were up- and down-regulated, respectively, by one or more of the three chemicals. Of the transcripts shared by responses to all three chemicals, 85% of up-regulated transcripts and 75% of down-regulated transcripts had the same magnitude of response. A total of 290 and 110 unique proteins were up- and down-regulated, respectively, by one or more of the three chemicals. Of the proteins shared by responses to all three chemicals, 70% of up-regulated proteins and 48% of down-regulated proteins had the same magnitude of response. Among treatments there was 68% similarity between the global transcriptome and global proteome. Pathway analysis revealed that perturbed physiological processes were indistinguishable between equipotent concentrations of the three chemicals. The results of this study contribute toward more completely describing adverse outcome pathways associated with activation of the AHR. PMID:27070345

  12. Analysis of benzo[a]pyrene in vegetable oils using molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) coupled with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pschenitza, Michael; Hackenberg, Rudolf; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a molecularly imprinted polymer-based solid phase extraction (MISPE) method coupled with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determination of the PAH benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in vegetable oils. Different molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared using non-covalent 4-vinylpyridine/divinylbenzene co-polymerization at different ratios and dichloromethane as porogen. Imprinting was done with a template mixture of phenanthrene and pyrene yielding a broad-specific polymer for PAHs with a maximum binding capacity (Q) of ~32 μg B[a]P per 50 mg of polymer. The vegetable oil/n-hexane mixture (1:1, (v/v)) was pre-extracted with acetonitrile, the solvent evaporated, the residue reconstituted in n-hexane and subjected to MISPE. The successive washing with n-hexane and isopropanol revealed most suitable to remove lipid matrix constituents. After elution of bound PAHs from MISPE column with dichloromethane, the solvent was evaporated, the residue reconstituted with dimethyl sulfoxide and diluted 100-fold with methanol/water (10:90, (v/v)) for analysis of B[a]P equivalents with an ELISA. The B[a]P recovery rates in spiked vegetable oil samples of different fatty acid composition were determined between 63% and 114%. The presence of multiple PAHs in the oil sample, because of MIP selectivity and cross-reactivity of the ELISA, could yield overestimated B[a]P values. PMID:24887045

  13. Analysis of Benzo[a]pyrene in Vegetable Oils Using Molecularly Imprinted Solid Phase Extraction (MISPE Coupled with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pschenitza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a molecularly imprinted polymer-based solid phase extraction (MISPE method coupled with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for determination of the PAH benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P in vegetable oils. Different molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs were prepared using non-covalent 4-vinylpyridine/divinylbenzene co-polymerization at different ratios and dichloromethane as porogen. Imprinting was done with a template mixture of phenanthrene and pyrene yielding a broad-specific polymer for PAHs with a maximum binding capacity (Q of ~32 μg B[a]P per 50 mg of polymer. The vegetable oil/n-hexane mixture (1:1, (v/v was pre-extracted with acetonitrile, the solvent evaporated, the residue reconstituted in n-hexane and subjected to MISPE. The successive washing with n-hexane and isopropanol revealed most suitable to remove lipid matrix constituents. After elution of bound PAHs from MISPE column with dichloromethane, the solvent was evaporated, the residue reconstituted with dimethyl sulfoxide and diluted 100-fold with methanol/water (10:90, (v/v for analysis of B[a]P equivalents with an ELISA. The B[a]P recovery rates in spiked vegetable oil samples of different fatty acid composition were determined between 63% and 114%. The presence of multiple PAHs in the oil sample, because of MIP selectivity and cross-reactivity of the ELISA, could yield overestimated B[a]P values.

  14. Particle-Associated Ambient Benzo[a]pyrene and Levels of Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene in a Non-occupationally Exposed Population of Adults and Children in Lanzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yunjiang; Wang, Qiong; Li, Liangzhong; Liu, Zien; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Yanping; Lin, Haipeng; Xiang, Mingdeng; Li, Hui; Lin, Bigui

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in ambient air from different areas in Lanzhou city in northwest of China, and its metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in the urine of resident children and adults were determined by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that the atmospheric environmental concentration of B[a]P varied significantly from one part of the city to another with levels of 150 ng/m(3) in the industrial area of Xigu and 73.8 ng/m(3) in the agricultural area of Yuzhong. The geometric mean urinary 1-OHP concentration was 0.42 µmol/mol-creatinine, with a range of means between 0.067 and 2.05 for the various population sub-groups. The non-occupationally exposed populations' age, gender and area of residence were the major factors that influenced urinary 1-OHP levels. The health risks of B[a]P for adults and children in Xigu and for children in Yuzhong exceeded the acceptable level (1 × 10(-4)) of the US Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:26841792

  15. Assessment of Industry-Induced Urban Human Health Risks Related to Benzo[a]pyrene based on a Multimedia Fugacity Model: Case Study of Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyu Xu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of organic pollutants emitted from industries have accumulated and caused serious human health risks, especially in urban areas with rapid industrialization. This paper focused on the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP from industrial effluent and gaseous emissions, and established a multi-pathway exposure model based on a Level IV multimedia fugacity model to analyze the human health risks in a city that has undergone rapid industrialization. In this study, GIS tools combined with land-use data was introduced to analyze smaller spatial scales so as to enhance the spatial resolution of the results. An uncertainty analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation was also conducted to illustrate the rationale of the probabilistic assessment mode rather than deterministic assessment. Finally, the results of the case study in Nanjing, China indicated the annual average human cancer risk induced by local industrial emissions during 2002–2008 (lowest at 1.99´10–6 in 2008 and highest at 3.34´10–6 in 2004, which was lower than the USEPA prescriptive level (1´10–6–1´10–4 but cannot be neglected in the long term. The study results could not only instruct the BaP health risk management but also help future health risk prediction and control.

  16. Molecular cloning and differential expression patterns of sigma and omega glutathione S-transferases from Venerupis philippinarum to heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linbao; Wu, Huifeng; Liu, Xiaoli; Chen, Leilei; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Jianmin; You, Liping

    2012-05-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a class of enzymes that facilitate the detoxification of xenobiotics, and also play important roles in antioxidant defense. We identified two glutathione S-transferase isoforms (VpGSTS, sigma GST; VpGSTO, omega GST) from Venerupis philippinarum by RACE approaches. The open reading frames of VpGSTS and VpGSTO were of 612 bp and 729 bp, encoding 203 and 242 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 22.88 and 27.94 kDa, respectively. The expression profiles of VpGSTS and VpGSTO responded to heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) exposure were investigated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The expression of VpGSTS and VpGSTO were both rapidly up-regulated, however, they showed differential expression patterns to different toxicants. Cd displayed stronger induction of VpGSTS expression with an approximately 12-fold increase than that of VpGSTO with a maximum 6.4-fold rise. Cu exposure resulted in similar expression patterns for both VpGSTS and VpGSTO. For B[a]P exposure, the maximum induction of VpGSTO was approximately two times higher than that of VpGSTS. Altogether, these findings implied the involvement of VpGSTS and VpGSTO in host antioxidant responses, and highlighted their potential as a biomarker to Cd and B[a]P exposure.

  17. Mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P-450 dependent benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase activity by acetylenic and olefinic polycyclic arylhydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of aryl acetylenes and aryl olefins have been examined as substrates and inhibitors of cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxygenases in liver microsomes from 5,6-benzoflavone or phenobarbital pretreated rats. 1-Ethynylpyrene (EP), 3-ethynylperylene (EPL), cis- and trans-1-(2-bromo-vinyl)pyrene (c-BVP and t-BVP), and 1-allylpyrene (AP) serve as mechanism-based irreversible inactivators (suicide inhibitors) of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) hydroxylase, while 1-vinyl-pyrene (VP) and phenyl 1-pyrenyl acetylene (PPA) do not cause a detectable suicide inhibition of the BP hydroxylase. The mechanism-based loss of BP hydroxylase activity caused by the aryl acetylenes is not accompanied by a corresponding loss of the P-450 content of the microsomes. In the presence of NADPH, 3H-labeled EP covalently attached to P-450 isozymes with a measured stoichiometry of one mole of EP per mole of the P-450 heme. The results of the effects of these aryl derivatives in the mammalian cell-mediated mutagenesis assay and toxicity assay show that none of the compounds examined nor any of the their metabolites produced in the incubation system are cytotoxic to V79 cells

  18. Preliminary evidence of the role of hydrogen peroxide in the degradation of benzo[a]pyrene by a non-white rot fungus Fusarium solani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the enzymatic mechanisms involved in the successive steps of BaP degradation by a Deuteromycete fungus Fusarium solani, we developed an indirect approach by using inhibitors of enzymes. We used either specific inhibitors of peroxidases (i.e. salicylhydroxamic acid) and of cytochrome P-450 (i.e. piperonyl butoxyde) or inhibitors of both enzymes (i.e. potassium cyanide). Surprisingly, no expected decrease of BaP degradation was observed with most inhibitors tested. On the contrary, more BaP was degraded. Only butylated hydroxytoluene, which acts as a free radical scavenger, inhibited BaP degradation. The inhibition of these enzymes, which use H2O2 as a cosubstrat, might have resulted in an increase of hydrogen peroxide availability in the fungal cultures. This enhancement could induce formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which might be the agents that initiate benzo[a]pyrene oxidation. This study proposed a hypothetic alternative metabolic pathway involved in PAH metabolism by Fusarium solani. - An alternative metabolic pathway was demonstrated

  19. Alterations in benzo(A)pyrene metabolism and in vivo binding to hepatic DNA in rats red diets containing menhaden oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, A.E.; Dharwadkar, S.

    1987-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids of the omega-6 type have been shown to support the mixed function oxidases (MFO) responsible for carcinogen activation and to promote tumorigenesis in laboratory animals. The omega-3 fatty acids contained in menhaden oil (MO) have been shown to enhance MFO activity and increase the binding of Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) metabolites to calf thymus DNA in an in vitro microsomal system. Rats fed two levels of MO (0.5% and 20%) for 11 days received a single i.p. dose of (/sup 3/H)B(a)P (5 m Ci/kg) dissolved in DMSO. At selected time intervals thereafter rats were killed, blood withdrawn, livers removed and DNA extracted. Hepatic microsomes were recovered from control rats on each diet at the time of B(a)P administration to assess MFO activities. Binding of B(a)P to DNA was higher in rats fed the 20% MO diet suggesting an increased rate of B(a)P activation. Blood levels of B(a)P were elevated at 16 and 24 hours post B(a)P, however no differences in urine concentrations were observed. Elevations in concentration of cytochrome P-450, ethoxycoumarin dealkylase, and glutathione S-transferase suggest that omega-3 fatty acids of menhaden fish oil support MFO related reactions not unlike the omega-6 fatty acids.

  20. Serum Level of Antibody against Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA Adducts in People Dermally Exposed to PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Borska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some specific antibodies indicate the presence of antigenic structures on DNA (DNA adducts that can play an important role in the process of mutagenesis and/or carcinogenesis. They indicate the presence of increased genotoxic potential (hazard prior to the formation of disease (primary prevention. The present study was focused on the serum level of benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA adducts antibodies (anti-BPDE-DNA in psoriatic patients (n=55 dermally exposed to different levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The general goal of the study was to contribute to better understanding of the value of the assumed biomarker (anti-BPDE-DNA for evaluation of the organism's answer to genotoxic exposure to PAHs. Elevated level of exposure to PAHs resulted in the increased level of anti-BPDE-DNA. However, almost all levels of anti-BPDE-DNA ranged within the field of low values. Both variants of GT (CCT-3% and CCT-5% induced higher expression of anti-BPDE-DNA in the group of nonsmokers. Significant relations between the level of anti-BPDE-DNA and PASI score, total duration of the therapy, or time of UVR exposure were not found. Further studies are needed to reduce interpretation uncertainty of this promising bioindicator.

  1. Thesis Abstract Study of biochemical changes in blood and various organs of Phrynops geoffroanus (Schweigger, 1812) (Testudines: Chelidae) collected in contaminated environment or exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M I A; Silva, T L; Almeida, E A

    2016-01-01

    The aquatic organisms are often exposed to a wide variety of chemicals, whose individual components are likely to produce different responses within the organisms and/or interact producing additive, synergistic or antagonistic toxic effects. Most of these substances are potentially cytotoxic, genotoxic or carcinogenic, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The Phrynops geoffroanus species ("Geoffroy's side-necked turtle", Schweigger, 1812) is widely distributed in tropical and temperate areas of South America. This species is commonly found in impacted areas, and polluted rivers that cross the urban area and receive domestic and industrial wastewater effluents. In these environments, freshwater turtles are exposed to ecological pressures that threaten their conservation and can influence the animal life habits and physiological conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biochemical changes in various organs (liver, heart, lung, pancreas, brain, small and large intestines) of P. geoffroanus from contaminated environment by human activities (sewage and industrial wastewater effluents) (Step 1) or exposed to benzo[a]pyrene, a PAHs model compound, for 7 days (Step 2). For this, we analyzed the responses of systems related to phases I and II of xenobiotics biotransformation, main antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, indicative of oxidative stress, as biomarkers for biomonitoring of pollutants impact. Furthermore, we have assessed the gamma glutamyl transferase enzymatic activity and DNA fragmentation by comet assay, in P. geoffroanus blood exposed to benzo[a]pyrene, in order to identify hepatic changes and genotoxicity according to the tested doses of this compound. The first step of this study analysis revealed an important influence of contamination by domestic and industrial wastewater effluents in free-living freshwater turtles that presented a series of changes in biomarkers analyzed. We observed higher MDA

  2. 14C glucose uptake and turnover, a biomarker in benzo(a)pyrene induced lung carcinogenesis: role of curcumin and resveratrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of the present study was to explore the synergistic potential of curcumin and resveratrol in modulation of glucose metabolism by studying 14C glucose uptake, turnover in the lung slices and ultra-histoarchitectural changes during benzo(a)pyrene (BP) induced lung carcinogenesis in mice. The mice were segregated into five treatment groups which included group I (normal control), group II (BP treated), group III (BP+curcumin treated), group IV (BP+resveratrol treated) and group V (BP+curcumin+resveratrol treated). Animals in Group II were given a single intraperitoneal injection of Benzo(a)pyrene in corn oil at a dose level of 100mg/Kg body weight. Group III animals were given curcumin orally in drinking water at a dose level of 60 mg /Kg/ body weight, thrice a week. Animals in Group IV were given resveratrol orally at a dose level of 5.7 microgram/ml drinking water, thrice a week. Animals in group V were given a combined treatment of curcumin and resveratrol in a similar manner as was given to group III and group IV animals, respectively. All the animals had free access to the diet and water and the treatments continued for a total duration of 22 weeks. The morphological and ultra-histoachitectural analyses confirmed lung carcinogenesis, in the BP treated mice. Tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity were observed to be 88% and 1.75 respectively in the BP treated mice. A statistically significant increase in the uptake of 14C glucose was observed in the lung slices of BP treated mice. Further, radiorespirometric analyses of 14C turnover also showed a significant increase in the lung slices of BP treated mice. The ultra-histoarchitecture of the BP treated mice revealed disruption in cellular integrity along with nuclear deformation. Mitochondria were swollen and cytoplasm appeared granular along with extensive vacuolization. Further, spaces between the endothelium, epithelium and basement membrane indicative of lung injury and edema were observed in

  3. Xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D expression in H1299 lung cancer cells following benzo[a]pyrene exposure as well as in head and neck cancer patients.

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    Lin, Chang-Shen; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lee, Ka-Wo; Chen, Tzu-Fen; Lin, Yuan-Jen; Huang, Jau-Ling

    2016-01-01

    DNA repair genes play critical roles in response to carcinogen-induced and anticancer therapy-induced DNA damage. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), the most carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is classified as a group 1 carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the effects of BaP on DNA repair activity and expression of DNA repair genes in vitro and (2) examine the role of xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D (XPD) mRNA expression in human head and neck cancers. Host cell reactivation assay showed that BaP inhibited nucleotide excision repair in H1299 lung cancer cells. DNA repair through the non-homologous end-joining pathway was not affected by BaP. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot demonstrated that XPD was downregulated by BaP treatment. BaP exposure did not apparently affect expression of another 11 DNA repair genes. BaP treatment increased the DNA damage marker γ-H2AX and ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity, supporting an impairment of DNA repair in BaP-treated cells. XPD expression was also examined by quantitative RT-PCR in 68 head and neck cancers, and a lower XPD mRNA level was found in smokers' cancer specimens. Importantly, reduced XPD expression was correlated with patient 5-year overall survival rate (35 vs. 56%) and was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio: 2.27). Data demonstrated that XPD downregulation was correlated with BaP exposure and human head and neck cancer survival. PMID:26731659

  4. Neonatal Benzo[a]pyrene Exposure Induces Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage Causing Neurobehavioural Changes during the Early Adolescence Period in Rats.

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    Patel, Bhupesh; Das, Saroj Kumar; Patri, Manorama

    2016-01-01

    Humans are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by ingestion of contaminated food and water. Prenatal exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) like PAHs through the placental barrier and neonatal exposure by breast milk and the environment may affect early brain development. In the present study, single intracisternal administration of B[a]P (0.2 and 2.0 µg/kg body weight) to male Wistar rat pups at postnatal day 5 (PND5) was carried out to study its specific effect on neonatal brain development and its consequences at PND30. B[a]P administration showed a significant increase in exploratory and anxiolytic-like behaviour with elevated hippocampal lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation at PND30. Further, DNA damage was estimated in vitro (Neuro2a and C6 cell lines) by the comet assay, and oxidative DNA damage of hippocampal sections was measured in vivo following exposure to B[a]P. DNA strand breaks (single and double) significantly increased due to B[a]P at PND30 in hippocampal neurons and increased the nuclear tail moment in Neuro2a cells. Hippocampal 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine production was significantly elevated showing expression of more TUNEL-positive cells in both doses of B[a]P. Histological studies also revealed a significant reduction in mean area and perimeter of hippocampal neurons in rats treated with B[a]P 2.0 μg/kg, when compared to naïve and control rats. B[a]P significantly increased anxiolytic-like behaviour and oxidative DNA damage in the hippocampus causing apoptosis that may lead to neurodegeneration in adolescence. The findings of the present study address the potential role of B[a]P in inducing oxidative stress-mediated neurodegeneration in the hippocampus through oxidative DNA damage in the early adolescence period of rats. PMID:27271523

  5. Modulation of Benzo[a]pyrene induced immunotoxicity in mice actively immunized with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also toxic for mammalian immune cells. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, we have immunized mice with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine. We showed that high levels of antibodies against B[a]P and its metabolites modulate the redistribution of these PAHs in the blood. After immunization, increased levels of B[a]P and its metabolites were recovered in the blood. B[a]P significantly suppressed the proliferative response of both T and B cells after a sub-acute administration, an effect that was completely reversed by vaccination. In immunized mice also the immunotoxic effect of B[a]P on IFN-γ, IL-12, TNF-α production and the reduced B cell activation was restored. Finally, our results showed that specific antibodies inhibited the induction of Cyp1a1 by B[a]P in lymphocytes and Cyp1b1 in the liver, enzymes that are known to convert the procarcinogen B[a]P to the ultimate DNA-adduct forming metabolite, a major risk factor of chemical carcinogenesis. Thus, we demonstrate that vaccination with a B[a]P conjugate vaccine based on a carrier protein used in licensed human vaccines reduces immunotoxicity and possibly other detrimental effects associated with B[a]P.

  6. In vitro Study on Role of Hsp70 Expression in DNA Damage of Human Embryonic Lung Cells Exposed to Benzo[a]pyrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YA-JUAN GAO; CHENG-FENG XIAO; SHENG CHEN; RUI-BO WANG; HAN-ZHEN HE; ROBERT M TANGUAY; TANG-CHUN WU

    2004-01-01

    Objective Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, is a potent procarcinogen and mutagen that can elicit tumors, leading to malignancy. Heat shock proteins (Hsp) have been shown to protect cells against damages caused by various stresses including exposure to numerous chemicals. Whether Hsps, or more specifically Hsp70, are involved in repair of B[a]P-induced DNA damage is currently unknown. Methods We assessed the potential role of the inducible form of Hsp70 in B[a]P-induced DNA damage of human embryonic lung (HEL) cells using immunoblot and the comet assay (i.e., the single cell gel electrophoresis assay). Results Exposure to B[a]P induced a dose-dependent decrease in the level of Hsp70, but a dose-dependent increase in DNA damage both in untreated (control) HEL cells and in cells preconditioned by a heat treatment. Heat preconditioning prior to B[a]P exposure potentiated the effect of B[a]P at a low dose (10 (mol/L), but appeared to be protective at higher doses. There was a negative correlation between Hsp70 level and DNA damage in the non-preheated as well as in the preconditioned cells. Conclusion These data suggest that exposure of HEL cells to B[a]P may induce a dose-dependent reduction in the levels of the inducible Hsp70. The detailed mechanisms for the reduction of Hsp70 levels by B[a]P and the role of Hsp70 in DNA damage under different concentrations of B[a]P remains to be determined.

  7. Benzo(a)pyrenediolepoxide-hemoglobin adducts and 3-hydroxy-benzo(a)pyrene urinary excretion profiles in rats subchronically exposed to benzo(a)pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, M; Viau, C

    1995-01-01

    The time profiles of benzo(a)pyrenediolepoxide (BaPDE)-hemoglobin (Hb) adduct formation and 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (3-OHBaP) urinary excretion were studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to daily benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) intraperitoneal doses of 1.25, 6.25, and 31.25 mumol/kg administered Tuesday to Friday for 4 consecutive weeks. Blood was withdrawn weekly, on Tuesdays, prior to dosing. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected on Mondays (following 72 h without treatment) and Thursdays. Analytes were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/fluorescence. Exposure to BaP resulted in the accumulation of BaPDE-Hb adducts, reaching an average of 1.2 +/- 0.3, 8.3 +/- 1.9, and 38.2 +/- 6.1 pmol/g Hb for the 1.25, 6.25, and 31.25 mumol/kg per day doses after 4 weeks of treatment. The expected saw tooth excretion profile of 3-OHBaP was observed, with peaks on Thursdays and troughs on Mondays, and showed a progressive rise on both Mondays and Thursdays. Increase in Monday values with time suggested a possible increase in BaP body burden during exposure. To verify this aspect further, the urinary excretion kinetic of 3-OHBaP following acute intraperitoneal dosing (31.25 mumol/kg) was determined. Urine samples were collected at frequent timed intervals for up to 164 h post-dosing. Two-step elimination was observed, the second step having a half-life of 25 h, presumably linked to the slow release of BaP accumulated in fatty tissues upon repeated treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8534197

  8. Disturbance of Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3, Ki-67 and C-myc expression in acute and subchronic exposure to benzo(a)pyrene in cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meili; Li, Yongfei; Ji, Xiaoying; Xue, Xiaochang; Chen, Lan; Feng, Guodong; Zhang, Huqin; Wang, Huichun; Shah, Walayat; Hou, Zhanwu; Kong, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoking is an important cofactor or an independent risk factor for the development of cervical cancer. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is one of the most potent tobacco smoke carcinogens in tobacco smoke. BaP induced DNA damage and over expression in p53 cervical tissue of mice as demonstrated in our previous study. Here we present the findings of exposure to BaP on the expression of Bcl-2, C-myc, Ki-67, Caspase-3 and Bax genes in mouse cervix. Acute intraperitoneal administration of BaP (12.5, 25, 50, 100mg/kg body weight) to ICR female mice induced a significant increase in Bcl-2, C-myc, Ki-67 mRNA and protein level till 72h except in Bcl-2 at 24h with 12.5, 25, 50mg/kg as well as at 48h with 12.5mg/kg body weight post treatment. A significant increase was also seen in Caspase-3 and Bax mRNA and protein level with peak level at 24h and gradual decrease till 72h, however, the expression of caspase-3 increased while that of Bax decreased with increasing dose of Bap after 24h. In sub chronic intraperitoneal and oral gavage administration of BaP (2.5, 5, 10mg/kg body weight), similar significant increase was observed for all the examined genes as compared to the control and vehicle groups, however the expression of Bax decreased in a dose dependent manner. The findings of this study will help in further understanding the molecular mechanism of BaP induced carcinogenesis of cervical cancer. PMID:26709117

  9. Sensitivity analysis of biodiesel blends on Benzo[a]pyrene and main emissions using MOVES: A case study in Temuco, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino-Cortés, Ernesto; Díaz-Robles, Luis A; Cubillos, Francisco; Fu, Joshua S; Vergara-Fernández, Alberto

    2015-12-15

    Temuco is one of the most highly wood-smoke polluted cities in Chile; however, the diesel mobile sources are growing very fast in the past 10 years and so far very few studies have been done. The main goal of this research was to develop a 2013 emission inventory of criteria pollutants and Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and to evaluate the use of six biodiesel blends of 0%, 1%, 4%, 8%, 12%, and 20% by volume of fuel in diesel motors from the vehicle fleet within the mentioned areas using the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES). Input parameters for the base year 2005 were estimated to implement and adapt the model in Chile, while results of NOx, PM10, PM2.5, NH3, CO2 equivalent and SO2 were compared with the Chilean Emission Inventory estimated by the model "Methodology for the Calculation of Vehicle Emissions." The 2013 emissions reduced with respect to 2005, in the majority of the contaminants analyzed, despite the 47% increase in the annual miles traveled. Using biodiesel blends, an emission reduction was estimated at up to 15% in particulate matter, BaP, and CO for the year 2013, as well as an increment of 2% in NOx emissions, attributed to low sulfur content (50 ppm) in the diesel and the antiquity of the vehicle fleet. The results obtained gave evidence of the influence of the biodiesel use in the pollutant emissions to improve the Chilean air quality, as well as providing a strategy for this air quality management. PMID:26282769

  10. Subchronic oral administration of Benzo[a]pyrene impairs motor and cognitive behavior and modulates S100B levels and MAPKs in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Erica Santos; Biasibetti, Regina; Costa, Ana Paula; Lunardi, Paula; Schunck, Rebeca Vargas Antunes; Becker, Gabriela Curbeti; Arbo, Marcelo Dutra; Dallegrave, Eliane; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto; Saldiva, Paulo H Nascimento; Garcia, Solange Cristina; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Leal, Mirna Bainy

    2014-04-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is an environmental contaminant produced during incomplete combustion of organic material that is well known as a mutagenic and carcinogenic toxin. There are few studies addressing the molecular and cellular basis of behavioural alterations related to BaP exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of subchronic oral administration of BaP on behavioral and neurochemical parameters. Wistar male rats received BaP (2 mg/kg) or corn oil (control), once a day for 28 days (n = 12/group). Spontaneous locomotor activity and short- and long-term memories were evaluated. Glial fibrillary acid protein and S100B content in the hippocampus, serum and CSF were measured using ELISA and total and phosphorylated forms of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) named extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, p38(MAPK) and c-Jun amino-terminal kinases 1 and 2, in the hippocampus, were evaluated by western blotting. BaP induced a significant increase on locomotor activity and a decrease in short-term memory. S100B content was increased significantly in cerebrospinal fluid. BaP induced a decrease on ERK2 phosphorylation in the hippocampus. Thus, BaP subchronic treatment induces an astroglial response and impairs both motor and cognitive behavior, with parallel inhibition of ERK2, a signaling enzyme involved in the hippocampal neuroplasticity. All these effects suggest that BaP neurotoxicity is a concern for environmental pollution. PMID:24584819

  11. Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced immunotoxicity in mice actively immunized with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, Mario T; Grova, Nathalie; Willième, Stéphanie; Farinelle, Sophie; Prodhomme, Emmanuel J F; Muller, Claude P

    2009-10-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also toxic for mammalian immune cells. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, we have immunized mice with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine. We showed that high levels of antibodies against B[a]P and its metabolites modulate the redistribution of these PAHs in the blood. After immunization, increased levels of B[a]P and its metabolites were recovered in the blood. B[a]P significantly suppressed the proliferative response of both T and B cells after a sub-acute administration, an effect that was completely reversed by vaccination. In immunized mice also the immunotoxic effect of B[a]P on IFN-gamma, IL-12, TNF-alpha production and the reduced B cell activation was restored. Finally, our results showed that specific antibodies inhibited the induction of Cyp1a1 by B[a]P in lymphocytes and Cyp1b1 in the liver, enzymes that are known to convert the procarcinogen B[a]P to the ultimate DNA-adduct forming metabolite, a major risk factor of chemical carcinogenesis. Thus, we demonstrate that vaccination with a B[a]P conjugate vaccine based on a carrier protein used in licensed human vaccines reduces immunotoxicity and possibly other detrimental effects associated with B[a]P. PMID:19573549

  12. Effects of benzo[a]pyrene on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a creosote-contaminated and reference site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Dawoon; Cho, Youngeun [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Collins, Leonard B.; Swenberg, James A. [Center for Environmental Health and Susceptibility, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Di Giulio, Richard T., E-mail: richd@duke.edu [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2009-10-19

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a known genotoxicant that affects both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (mtDNA, nDNA). Here, we examined mtDNA and nDNA damage in the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a highly contaminated Superfund site (Elizabeth River, VA, USA) and from a reference site (King's Creek, VA, USA) that were dosed with 10 mg/kg BaP. Using the long amplicon quantitative PCR technique, we observed similar increases in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage in King's Creek fish treated with BaP. Killifish from the Elizabeth River showed high levels of basal nDNA and mtDNA damage compared to fish from the reference site, but the level of damage induced due to BaP treatment was much lower in Elizabeth River killifish compared to King's Creek fish. Laboratory-reared offspring from both populations showed increased BaP-induced damage in mtDNA, relative to nDNA. Similar to the adult experiment, the Elizabeth River larvae had higher levels of basal DNA damage than those from the reference site, but were less impacted by BaP exposure. Measurements of oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-deoxyguanine by LC-MS/MS) showed no differences among treatment groups, suggesting that the majority of DNA damage is from covalent binding of BaP metabolites to DNA. This study shows for the first time that mitochondria can be an important target of BaP toxicity in fish, indicating that BaP exposures could have important energetic consequences. Results also suggest that multi-generational exposures in the wild may lead to adaptations that dampen DNA damage arising from BaP exposure.

  13. Modulation of 17β-estradiol induced estrogenic responses in male goldfish (Carassius auratus) by benzo[a]pyrene and ketoconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhenhua; Lu, Guanghua; Ye, Qiuxia; Liu, Jianchao

    2016-05-01

    The aquatic environment is challenged with complex mixtures of chemicals that may interact biochemically with each other in non-target aquatic organisms through a combination of actions, resulting in unpredictable mixture toxicity. This study focuses on the interactive effects of chemicals, including benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and ketoconazole (KCZ), on 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced estrogenic responses in male goldfish (Carassius auratus). The possible interactions between BaP or KCZ and E2 were investigated on the expression of cytochromeP4501A (CYP1A, biotransformation enzyme) and on its corresponding catalytic activity 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD activity), as well as on the expression of CYP19 (steroidogenic enzyme) and E2 bioaccumulation in liver. Exposure to E2 caused a significant increase in estrogenic responses corresponding with the E2 bioaccumulation. When comparing results to the E2 exposure group, co-exposure to BaP resulted in an increase in the cyp1a mRNA expression and its corresponding EROD activity and a marked decrease in the E2 bioaccumulation, but the expression of aromatase was not altered. Conversely, co-treatment with KCZ significantly suppressed the E2-modulated expression of metabolism and synthesis enzymes, which were accompanied by an increase in the E2 bioaccumulation. These data suggest that the modulation of E2-induced estrogenic responses by BaP and KCZ were correlated to the alterations of E2 bioaccumulation in goldfish, leading to a combination of changes in the capacity of biotransformation and steroidogenesis. The complex interactions between chemicals with different modes of actions highlight the need for caution in determining the safety of combined pollution in the aquatic environment. PMID:26825522

  14. Metabolic enzyme activities, metabolism-related genes expression and bioaccumulation in juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xianyun; Pan, Luqing; Wang, Lin

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on metabolic detoxification system and bioaccumulation of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. In this study, juvenile white shrimp L. vannamei were exposed for 21 days at four different concentrations of 0, 0.03, 0.3 and 3μg/L. Detoxification enzyme activities of phase I (aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), epoxide hydrolase (EH)) and phase II (glutathione-S-transferase (GST), sulfotransferase (SULT), uridine diphosphate glucuronyl transferase (UGT)) were determined, and results showed that all the detoxification enzyme activities increased in a dose-dependent manner except for the low BaP exposure. Transcription of genes was detected and measured by real-time RT-PCR. It showed that at day six BaP increased cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, GST, SULT visa aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that they could be potential targets of BaP that disrupt the detoxification system. The consistency of their responses to BaP exposure implies that AhR action may be involved in invertebrate CYP regulation. Additionally, BaP bioaccumulation increased rapidly first and showed an incoming plateau. Besides, the enzyme activities and bioaccumulation in the hepatopancreas were higher than those in the gills. These results will not only provide information on BaP metabolic mechanism for this species, but also scientific data for pollution monitoring. PMID:24636950

  15. Fullerene inhibits benzo(a)pyrene Efflux from Cyprinus carpio hepatocytes by affecting cell membrane fluidity and P-glycoprotein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiqing; Hu, Xialin; Wang, Rui; Yuan, Jin; Yin, Daqiang

    2016-05-01

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) can protect cells by pumping out toxic compounds, and has been found widely expressed in fish tissues. Here, we illustrate the P-gp efflux ability for benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the hepatocytes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after exposing to fullerene aqueous suspension (nC60). The results revealed that nC60 increased the membrane fluidity by decreasing the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids, and increased the cholesterol contents. These findings, combined with 10-38% and 70-75% down-regulation of P-gp mRNA and protein respectively, suggested that nC60 caused inhibition on P-gp efflux transport system. Therefore, we further investigated the cellular efflux ability for BaP. Results showed unequivocally that nC60 is a potent P-gp inhibitor. The retaining BaP amounts after efflux were elevated by 1.7-2.8 fold during the 10 day exposure. Meanwhile, 5mg/L humic acid (one of the important fractions of natural organic matter, which is ubiquitous in aquatic environment) alleviated the nC60 damage to hepatocytes in terms of oxidative damage, cholesterol increment, and P-gp content reduction; and finally attenuated the suppressed P-gp efflux ability. Collectively, this study provides the first evidence of nC60 toxicity to P-gp functionality in fish and illustrates the possible mechanism of the suppressed P-gp efflux ability for BaP. PMID:26918948

  16. Benzo(apireno em óleos de milho produzidos e comercializados no Brasil Benzo(apyrene in corn oils produced and commercialized in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cecilia de F. TOLEDO

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Óleos de milho de diferentes marcas, produzidos e comercializados no Brasil, foram analisados quanto à presença de benzo(apireno (B(aP. A metodologia utilizada envolveu extração com ciclohexano, purificação em coluna de silica gel e determinação por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detector de fluorescência. Todas amostras analisadas mostraram-se contaminadas por B(aP e os níveis determinados variaram entre as diferentes marcas analisadas e entre diferentes lotes de mesma marca, dentro da faixa de 0,85 a 25,17 µg/kg. Entre 49 amostras analisadas no período de dois anos, apenas uma apresentou nível de contaminação por B(aP abaixo do limite referencial de 1 µg/kg.Corn oils from different brands produced and commercialized in Brazil, were analysed for benzo(apyrene B(aP. The methodology involved extraction with cyclohexane, clean-up on silica gel and determination by high performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector All samples analysed showed contamination by B(aP and the levels found varied widely among brands and within different batches of the same brand, in the range of 0.85 to 25.17 µg/kg. One out 49 samples analysed in the period of 2 years presented an amount of B(aP below the referencial limit of 1 µg/kg.

  17. Chemopreventive potential of Triphala (a composite Indian drug) on Benzo(a)pyrene induced forestomach tumorigenesis in murine tumor model system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is probably the first report on cancer chemopreventive potential of Triphala, a combination of fruit powder of three different plants namely Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis. Triphala is a popular formulation of the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Our findings have shown that Triphala in diet has significantly reduced the benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] induced forestomach papillomagenesis in mice. In the short term treatment groups, the tumor incidences were lowered to 77.77% by both doses of Triphala mixed diet. In the case of long-term treatment the tumor incidences were reduced to 66.66% and 62.50% respectively by 2.5% and 5% triphala containing diet. Tumor burden was 7.27±1.16 in the B(a)P treated control group, whereas it reduced to 3.00±0.82 (p<0.005) by 2.5% dose and 2.33 +/- 1.03 (p<0.001) by 5% dose of Triphala. In long-term studies the tumor burden was reduced to 2.17±0.75 (p<0.001) and 2.00±0.71 (p<0.001) by 2.5% and 5% diet of Triphala, respectively. It was important to observe that Triphala was more effective in reducing tumor incidences compared to its individual constituents. Triphala also significantly increased the antioxidant status of animals which might have contributed to the chemoprevention. It was inferred that the concomitant use of multiple agents seemed to have a high degree of chemoprevention potential

  18. Neonatal exposure to benzo[a]pyrene induces oxidative stress causing altered hippocampal cytomorphometry and behavior during early adolescence period of male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhupesh; Das, Saroj Kumar; Das, Swagatika; Das, Lipsa; Patri, Manorama

    2016-05-01

    Environmental neurotoxicants like benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) have been well documented regarding their potential to induce oxidative stress. However, neonatal exposure to B[a]P and its subsequent effect on anti-oxidant defence system and hippocampal cytomorphometry leading to behavioral changes have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the effect of acute exposure of B[a]P on five days old male Wistar pups administered with single dose of B[a]P (0.2 μg/kg BW) through intracisternal mode. Control group was administered with vehicle i.e., DMSO and a separate group of rats without any treatment was taken as naive group. Behavioral analysis showed anxiolytic-like behavior with significant increase in time spent in open arm in elevated plus maze. Further, significant reduction in fall off time during rotarod test showing B[a]P induced locomotor hyperactivity and impaired motor co-ordination in adolescent rats. B[a]P induced behavioral changes were further associated with altered anti-oxidant defence system involving significant reduction in the total ATPase, Na(+) K(+) ATPase, Mg(2+) ATPase, GR and GPx activity with a significant elevation in the activity of catalase and GST as compared to naive and control groups. Cytomorphometry of hippocampus showed that the number of neurons and glia in B[a]P treated group were significantly reduced as compared to naive and control. Subsequent observation showed that the area and perimeter of hippocampus, hippocampal neurons and neuronal nucleus were significantly reduced in B[a]P treated group as compared to naive and control. The findings of the present study suggest that the alteration in hippocampal cytomorphometry and neuronal population associated with impaired antioxidant signaling and mood in B[a]P treated group could be an outcome of neuromorphological alteration leading to pyknotic cell death or impaired differential migration of neurons during early postnatal brain development. PMID:26946409

  19. Comparative metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene by human keratinocytes infected with high-risk human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 as episomal or integrated genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Trushin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV is a critical factor in the development of cervical cancer. Smoking is an additional risk factor. Tobacco smoke carcinogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P, and their cytochrome P450-related metabolites are present in significantly higher levels in the cervical mucus of women smokers than in nonsmokers. We determined the metabolism and P450 expression of B[a]P-treated human keratinocytes infected with HPV-16 or -18. Materials and Methods: Monolayer cultures of uninfected primary human foreskin keratinocytes, human vaginal and cervical keratinocytes carrying episomal genomes of HPV-16 and -18, respectively, and invasive cervical carcinoma cell lines carrying either HPV-16 or -18 genomes integrated into the host DNA, were incubated with 0.1 μM [3H]B[a]P. The resulting oxidative metabolites were analyzed and quantified by radioflow high-performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, all cell lines were incubated with unlabeled 0.1 μM B[a]P for Western blot analysis of cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1. Results: Significant enhancement in levels of both detoxification and activation metabolites was found in incubations with all types of HPV-infected cells compared with control incubations (P < 0.05. The highest capacity to metabolize B[a]P was observed with cells containing integrated HPV-18 genomes. Induction of cytochrome 1B1 was observed in HPV-16 and -18 integrated, and in HPV-16 episomal cell types. Conclusions: Both viral genotype and genomic status in the host cell affect B[a]P metabolism and cytochrome P450 1B1 expression. An increase of DNA-damaging metabolites might result from exposure of HPV-infected women to cigarette smoke carcinogens.

  20. Effect of partial hepatectomy on the mutant frequency of benzo(a)pyrene in the liver of C57BL/6 transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Big Blue reg-sign transgenic mouse is an in vivo mutation system which permits the study of the role of pharmacodynamic parameters on mutation frequency following xenobiotic exposure. We have studied the effects of cellular proliferation on the frequency of mutations arising in the liver of male C57B1/6 Big Blue reg-sign mice by subjecting the mice to partial hepatectomy following treatment with benzo(a)pyrene (BP). The contribution of cellular proliferation to the induction of mutations and, in turn, to the observed mutant frequency (MF) can be assessed by evaluating the MF in tissues from treated and control animals before and after hepatectomy. Mice (3) were injected with 50 mg/kg of BP in corn oil on three consecutive days, followed by hepatectomy on the fourth day. Three days later (i.e. seven days following the initial BP injection), the animals were sacrificed and the MF in the liver was compared to the MF observed in the same mouse before hepatectomy. Controls were injected with corn oil without BP and were subjected to partial hepatectomy at the same time as the treatment group. The spontaneous MF was not significantly different before (2.3x10-5) and after (1.7x10-5) hepatectomy. Among the BP-treated animals, the MF was 5.7x10-5 and from BP treated mice was 6.1x10-5 suggesting that some lacI mutants arise in E. coli following infection. These data support the notion that turnover of hepatocytes can influence th MF elicited by BP and that bulky adducts remaining in mouse genomic DNA may be packaged and fixed as mutations in E. coli resulting in an increased frequency of sectored mutant plaques

  1. Molecular cloning and differential expression patterns of sigma and omega glutathione S-transferases from Venerupis philippinarum to heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Linbao; WU Huifeng; LIU Xiaoli; CHEN Leilei; WANG Qing; ZHAO Jianmin; YOU Liping

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a class of enzymes that facilitate the detoxification of xenobiotics,and also play important roles in antioxidant defense.We identified two glutathione S-transferase isoforms (VpGSTS,sigma GST; VpGSTO,omega GST) from Venerupis philippinarum by RACE approaches.The open reading frames of VpGSTS and VpGSTO were of 612 bp and 729 bp,encoding 203 and 242 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 22.88 and 27.94 kDa,respectively.The expression profiles of VpGSTS and VpGSTO responded to heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) cxposure were investigated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR.The expression of VpGSTS and VpGSTO were both rapidly up-regulated,however,they showed differential expression patterns to different toxicants.Cd displayed stronger induction of VpGSTS expression with an approximately 12-fold increase than that of VpGSTO with a maximum 6.4-fold rise.Cu exposure resulted in similar expression patterns for both VpGSTS and VpGSTO For B[a]P exposure,the maximum induction of VpGSTO was approximately two times higher than that of VpGSTS.Altogether,these findings implied the involvement of VpGSTS and VpGSTO in host antioxidant responses,and highlighted their potential as a biomarker to Cd and B[a]P exposure.

  2. Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced neurotoxicity in female mice actively immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid conjugate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also neurotoxic for mammalian species. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, female Balb/c mice immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid (B[a]P–DT) conjugate vaccine were sub-acutely exposed to 2 mg/kg B[a]P and behavioral performances were monitored in tests related to learning and memory, anxiety and motor coordination. mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor (NR1, 2A and 2B subunits) involved in the above behavioral functions was measured in 5 brain regions. B[a]P induced NMDA1 expression in three (hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum) of five brain regions investigated, and modulated NMDA2 in two of the five brain regions (frontal cortex and cerebellum). Each one of these B[a]P-effects was reversed in mice that were immunized against this PAH, with measurable consequences on behavior such as anxiety, short term learning and memory. Thus active immunization against B[a]P with a B[a]P–DT conjugate vaccine had a protective effect and attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects even of high concentrations of B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P-antibodies attenuated B[a]P induced NMDA expression in several brain regions. • B[a]P had measurable consequences on anxiety, short term learning and memory. • B[a]P immunization attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects of B[a]P. • Vaccination may also provide some protection against chemical carcinogenesis

  3. Effects of benzo[a]pyrene on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a creosote-contaminated and reference site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a known genotoxicant that affects both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (mtDNA, nDNA). Here, we examined mtDNA and nDNA damage in the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a highly contaminated Superfund site (Elizabeth River, VA, USA) and from a reference site (King's Creek, VA, USA) that were dosed with 10 mg/kg BaP. Using the long amplicon quantitative PCR technique, we observed similar increases in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage in King's Creek fish treated with BaP. Killifish from the Elizabeth River showed high levels of basal nDNA and mtDNA damage compared to fish from the reference site, but the level of damage induced due to BaP treatment was much lower in Elizabeth River killifish compared to King's Creek fish. Laboratory-reared offspring from both populations showed increased BaP-induced damage in mtDNA, relative to nDNA. Similar to the adult experiment, the Elizabeth River larvae had higher levels of basal DNA damage than those from the reference site, but were less impacted by BaP exposure. Measurements of oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-deoxyguanine by LC-MS/MS) showed no differences among treatment groups, suggesting that the majority of DNA damage is from covalent binding of BaP metabolites to DNA. This study shows for the first time that mitochondria can be an important target of BaP toxicity in fish, indicating that BaP exposures could have important energetic consequences. Results also suggest that multi-generational exposures in the wild may lead to adaptations that dampen DNA damage arising from BaP exposure.

  4. The ERCC2/XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism affects DNA repair of benzo[a]pyrene induced damage, tested in an in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Sha; Cui, Su; Lu, Xiaobo; Guan, Yangyang; Li, Dandan; Liu, Qiufang; Cai, Yuan; Jin, Cuihong; Yang, Jinghua; Wu, Shengwen; van der Straaten, Tahar

    2016-08-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an important defense mechanism of the body to exogenous carcinogens and mutagens, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Genetic polymorphisms in ERCC2/XPD, a critical element in NER, are thought to be associated with individual's cancer susceptibility. Although ERCC2/XPD Lys751Gln (rs13181) is the most studied polymorphism, the impact of this polymorphism on DNA repair capacity to carcinogen remains unclear. In the present study, cDNA clones carrying different genotypes of ERCC2/XPD (Lys751Gln) were introduced into an ERCC2/XPD deficient cell line (UV5) in a well-controlled biological system. After B[a]P treatment, cell growth inhibition rates and DNA damage levels in all cells were detected respectively. As expected, we found that the DNA repair capacity in UV5 cells was restored to levels similar to wildtype parent AA8 cells upon introduction of the cDNA clone of ERCC2/XPD (Lys751). Interestingly, after B[a]P treatment, transfected cells expressing variant ERCC2/XPD (751Gln) showed an enhanced cellular sensitivity and a diminished DNA repair capacity. The wildtype genotype AA (Lys) was found to be associated with a higher DNA repair capacity as compared to its polymorphic genotype CC (Gln). These data indicate that ERCC2/XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism affects DNA repair capacity after exposure to environmental carcinogens such as B[a]P in this well-controlled in vitro system and could act as a biomarker to increase the predictive value to develop cancer. PMID:27139774

  5. Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced neurotoxicity in female mice actively immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid conjugate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellenberger, Mario T.; Grova, Nathalie; Farinelle, Sophie; Willième, Stéphanie [Institute of Immunology, Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé/Laboratoire National de Santé, 20A rue Auguste Lumière, L-1950 Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Schroeder, Henri [University of Nancy, URAFPA, INRA UC340, F-54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Muller, Claude P., E-mail: claude.muller@crp-sante.lu [Institute of Immunology, Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé/Laboratoire National de Santé, 20A rue Auguste Lumière, L-1950 Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2013-09-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also neurotoxic for mammalian species. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, female Balb/c mice immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid (B[a]P–DT) conjugate vaccine were sub-acutely exposed to 2 mg/kg B[a]P and behavioral performances were monitored in tests related to learning and memory, anxiety and motor coordination. mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor (NR1, 2A and 2B subunits) involved in the above behavioral functions was measured in 5 brain regions. B[a]P induced NMDA1 expression in three (hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum) of five brain regions investigated, and modulated NMDA2 in two of the five brain regions (frontal cortex and cerebellum). Each one of these B[a]P-effects was reversed in mice that were immunized against this PAH, with measurable consequences on behavior such as anxiety, short term learning and memory. Thus active immunization against B[a]P with a B[a]P–DT conjugate vaccine had a protective effect and attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects even of high concentrations of B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P-antibodies attenuated B[a]P induced NMDA expression in several brain regions. • B[a]P had measurable consequences on anxiety, short term learning and memory. • B[a]P immunization attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects of B[a]P. • Vaccination may also provide some protection against chemical carcinogenesis.

  6. Seasonal variation of benzo(a)pyrene in the Spanish airborne PM10. Multivariate linear regression model applied to estimate BaP concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentrations in ambient air is very important from an environmental point of view especially with the introduction of the Directive 2004/107/EC and due to the carcinogenic character of this pollutant. A sampling campaign of particulate matter less or equal than 10 microns (PM10) carried out during 2008-2009 in four locations of Spain was collected to determine experimentally BaP concentrations by gas chromatography mass-spectrometry mass-spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). Multivariate linear regression models (MLRM) were used to predict BaP air concentrations in two sampling places, taking PM10 and meteorological variables as possible predictors. The model obtained with data from two sampling sites (all sites model) (R2 = 0.817, PRESS/SSY = 0.183) included the significant variables like PM10, temperature, solar radiation and wind speed and was internally and externally validated. The first validation was performed by cross validation and the last one by BaP concentrations from previous campaigns carried out in Zaragoza from 2001-2004. The proposed model constitutes a first approximation to estimate BaP concentrations in urban atmospheres with very good internal prediction (QCV2=0.813, PRESS/SSY = 0.187) and with the maximal external prediction for the 2001-2002 campaign (Qext2=0.679 and PRESS/SSY = 0.321) versus the 2001-2004 campaign (Qext2=0.551, PRESS/SSY = 0.449).

  7. Uncertainty evaluation for the quantification of low masses of benzo[a]pyrene: Comparison between the Law of Propagation of Uncertainty and the Monte Carlo method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sega, Michela; Pennecchi, Francesca; Rinaldi, Sarah; Rolle, Francesca

    2016-05-12

    A proper evaluation of the uncertainty associated to the quantification of micropollutants in the environment, like Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), is crucial for the reliability of the measurement results. The present work describes a comparison between the uncertainty evaluation carried out according to the GUM uncertainty framework and the Monte Carlo (MC) method. This comparison was carried out starting from real data sets obtained from the quantification of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), spiked on filters commonly used for airborne particulate matter sampling. BaP was chosen as target analyte as it is listed in the current European legislation as marker of the carcinogenic risk for the whole class of PAHs. MC method, being useful for nonlinear models and when the resulting output distribution for the measurand is non-symmetric, can particularly fit the cases in which the results of intrinsically positive quantities are very small and the lower limit of a desired coverage interval, obtained according to the GUM uncertainty framework, can be dramatically close to zero, if not even negative. In the case under study, it was observed that the two approaches for the uncertainty evaluation provide different results for BaP masses in samples containing different masses of the analyte, MC method giving larger coverage intervals. In addition, in cases of analyte masses close to zero, the GUM uncertainty framework would give even negative lower limit of uncertainty coverage interval for the measurand, an unphysical result which is avoided when using MC method. MC simulations, indeed, can be configured in a way that only positive values are generated thus obtaining a coverage interval for the measurand that is always positive. PMID:27114218

  8. Response of detoxification gene mRNA expression and selection of molecular biomarkers in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum exposed to benzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) has a high carcinogenic potential. B[a]P concentrations and molecular biomarkers (mRNA expressions of Pgp, AhR, CYP4, CYP414A1, GST-pi, GST-S2, Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD) were assayed in gills and digestive glands of the clam Ruditapes philippinarum exposed to 0.03, 0.3 and 3 μg/L B[a]P for 21 days and then exposed to natural seawater for 15 days. Results showed that B[a]P was rapidly accumulated in and then eliminated from tissues of the clams. All gene mRNA expressions in the treated groups were induced significantly with the exception of CYP414A1 and Cu/Zn-SOD in the 0.03 μg/L B[a]P group. According to correlation analysis, mRNA expressions of AhR, GST-pi and Mn-SOD in gills and GST-pi in digestive glands had good correlations with B[a]P concentrations and could be used as molecular biomarkers of B[a]P exposure. This study investigated the molecular response of the genes mentioned above and selected useful molecular biomarkers for B[a]P pollution monitoring. - Highlights: • We measured B[a]P contents and mRNA expressions of eight different kinds of genes. • More B[a]P accumulated in digestive glands than in gills. • Most gene mRNA expressions in the treated groups were induced significantly. • AhR, GST-pi and Mn-SOD mRNA expressions in gills could be used as useful biomarkers. • GST-pi mRNA expression in digestive glands could be used as a useful biomarker. - mRNA expressions of AhR, GST-pi and Mn-SOD in gills and GST-pi in digestive glands of the clams are useful molecular biomarkers of B[a]P exposure

  9. Immunogenicity of a promiscuous T cell epitope peptide based conjugate vaccine against benzo[a]pyrene: redirecting antibodies to the hapten.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario T Schellenberger

    Full Text Available The prototype polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P is an environmental pollutant and food contaminant of epidemiological importance. To protect against adverse effects of this ubiquitous carcinogen, we developed an immunoprophylactic strategy based on a B[a]P-protein conjugate vaccine to induce B[a]P specific antibodies (Grova et al., Vaccine. 2009;27:4142-51. Here, we investigated in mice the efficacy of B[a]P-peptide conjugates based on promiscuous T cell epitopes (TCE into further improve this approach. We showed that B[a]P-peptide conjugates induced very different levels of hapten-specific antibodies with variable functional efficacy, depending on the carrier. In some cases peptide carriers induced a more efficient antibody response against B[a]P than tetanus toxoid as a protein carrier, with the capacity to sequester more B[a]P in the blood. Reducing the carrier size to a single TCE can dramatically shift the antibody bias from the carrier to the B[a]P. Conjugates based on the TCE FIGITEL induced the best anti-hapten response and no antibodies against the carrier peptide. Some peptide conjugates increased the selectivity of the antibodies for the activated metabolite 7,8-diol-B[a]P and B[a]P by one or two orders of magnitude. The antibody efficacy was also demonstrated in their ability to sequester B[a]P in the blood and modulate its faecal excretion (15-56%. We further showed that pre-existing immunity to the carrier from which the TCE was derived did not reduce the immunogenicity of the peptide conjugate. In conclusion, we showed that a vaccination against B[a]P using promiscuous TCEs of tetanus toxin as carriers is feasible even in case of a pre-existing immunity to the toxoid and that some TCE epitopes dramatically redirect the antibody response to the hapten. Further studies to demonstrate a long-term protection of an immunoprophylactic immunisation against B[a]P are warranted.

  10. Immunogenicity of a promiscuous T cell epitope peptide based conjugate vaccine against benzo[a]pyrene: redirecting antibodies to the hapten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, Mario T; Grova, Nathalie; Farinelle, Sophie; Willième, Stéphanie; Revets, Dominique; Muller, Claude P

    2012-01-01

    The prototype polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is an environmental pollutant and food contaminant of epidemiological importance. To protect against adverse effects of this ubiquitous carcinogen, we developed an immunoprophylactic strategy based on a B[a]P-protein conjugate vaccine to induce B[a]P specific antibodies (Grova et al., Vaccine. 2009;27:4142-51). Here, we investigated in mice the efficacy of B[a]P-peptide conjugates based on promiscuous T cell epitopes (TCE) into further improve this approach. We showed that B[a]P-peptide conjugates induced very different levels of hapten-specific antibodies with variable functional efficacy, depending on the carrier. In some cases peptide carriers induced a more efficient antibody response against B[a]P than tetanus toxoid as a protein carrier, with the capacity to sequester more B[a]P in the blood. Reducing the carrier size to a single TCE can dramatically shift the antibody bias from the carrier to the B[a]P. Conjugates based on the TCE FIGITEL induced the best anti-hapten response and no antibodies against the carrier peptide. Some peptide conjugates increased the selectivity of the antibodies for the activated metabolite 7,8-diol-B[a]P and B[a]P by one or two orders of magnitude. The antibody efficacy was also demonstrated in their ability to sequester B[a]P in the blood and modulate its faecal excretion (15-56%). We further showed that pre-existing immunity to the carrier from which the TCE was derived did not reduce the immunogenicity of the peptide conjugate. In conclusion, we showed that a vaccination against B[a]P using promiscuous TCEs of tetanus toxin as carriers is feasible even in case of a pre-existing immunity to the toxoid and that some TCE epitopes dramatically redirect the antibody response to the hapten. Further studies to demonstrate a long-term protection of an immunoprophylactic immunisation against B[a]P are warranted. PMID:22666501

  11. Effects of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and benzo[a]pyrene on modulating vitellogenin expression in primary culture of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yong; C. K. C. Wong; XU Ying; M. H. Wong

    2004-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) is the precursor of yolk protein. Its expression and secretion are estrogen-regulated and are crucial for oocyte maturation. An in vitro xenoestrogen screening model was established by measuring Vtg induction in cultured primary hepatocytes from crucian carp. Vtg production was detected by biotin-avidin sandwich ELISA method while Vtg and cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) mRNA induction were measured by semi- quantitative PCR-primer dropping technique. Vtg and Vtg mRNA were dose-dependently induced by diethylstilbestrol (DES, 0.2-200 ng/mL) in hepatocytes of crucian carp. Co-treatment of the DES-induced hepatocytes with either 2,3,7,8-TCDD (TCDD, 0.1-4 pg/mL) or benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P, 5-1000 ng/mL) resulted in a reduction of Vtg production and an increment of CYP1A1 mRNA expression both in a dose dependent manner, indicating the anti-estro-genic effects of the compounds. However, at lower tested concentrations, TCDD (0.1, 0.2 pg/mL), B[a]P (5 ng/mL) seemed to have a potentiating effect on Vtg expression and secretion, although by their own these compounds had no observable estrogenic effect on Vtg induction. Tamoxifen (a selective estrogen receptor modulators, 1 nmol/L-1 μmol/L), and β-naphtho-flavone (β-NF, an aryl hydrocarbon receptor inducing compounds, 2.5-1000 ng/mL) also were employed to study the possible interactions in DES-induced Vtg expression. In co-treatment of the DES-induced hepatocytes with β-NF or tamoxifen, the decrease in Vtg production did parallel induction of CYP1A1 for β-NF, but tamoxifen inhibited Vtg induction did not parallel induced CYP1A1 expression in all test concentrations. On the contrary, it was found that in co-treatment of the TCDD-induced hepatocytes with DES, TCDD induced CYP1A1 mRNA production was inhibited by DES also. These results implicated a possible cross talk between estrogen receptor- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathways in the hepatocytes.

  12. The impact of TiO2 nanoparticles on uptake and toxicity of benzo(a)pyrene in the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, J; Bergum, S; Nilsen, E W; Olsen, A J; Salaberria, I; Ciesielski, T M; Bączek, T; Konieczna, L; Salvenmoser, W; Jenssen, B M

    2015-04-01

    Nanoparticles are emerging contaminants of concern. Knowledge on their environmental impacts is scarce, especially on their interactive effects with other contaminants. In this study we investigated effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NP) on the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and determined their influence on the bioavailability and toxicity of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), a carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Blue mussels were exposed to either TiO2NP (0.2 and 2.0 mg L(-1)) or B(a)P (20 μg L(-1)) and to the respective combinations of these two compounds. Aqueous contaminant concentrations, the uptake of Ti and B(a)P into mussel soft tissue, effects on oxidative stress and chromosomal damage were analyzed. The uncoated TiO2NP agglomerated rapidly in the seawater. The presence of TiO2NP significantly reduced the bioavailability of B(a)P, shown by lowered B(a)P concentrations in exposure tanks and in mussel tissue. The activities of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were impacted by the various exposure regimes, indicating oxidative stress in the contaminant exposure groups. While SOD activity was increased only in the 0.2TiO2NP exposure group, CAT activity was enhanced in both combined exposure groups. The GPx activity was increased only in the groups exposed to the two single compounds. In hemocytes, increased chromosomal damage was detected in mussels exposed to the single compounds, which was further increased after exposure to the combination of compounds. In this study we show that the presence of TiO2NP in the exposure system reduced B(a)P uptake in blue mussels. However, since most biomarker responses did not decrease despite of the lower B(a)P uptake in combined exposures, the results suggest that TiO2NP can act as additional stressor, or potentially alters B(a)P toxicity by activation. PMID:25574974

  13. DNA adducts, benzo(a)pyrene monooxygenase activity, and lysosomal membrane stability in Mytilus galloprovincialis from different areas in Taranto coastal waters (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of environmental pollution at different stations along the Taranto coastline (Ionian Sea, Puglia, Italy) using several biomarkers of exposure and the effect on mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected in October 2001 and October 2002. Five sampling sites were compared with a 'cleaner' reference site in the Aeronautics Area. In this study we also investigated the differences between adduct levels in gills and digestive gland. This Taranto area is the most significant industrial settlement on the Ionian Sea known to be contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, heavy metals, etc. Exposure to PAHs was evaluated by measuring DNA adduct levels and benzo(a)pyrene monooxygenase activity (B(a)PMO); DNA adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabeling with nuclease P1 enhancement in both gills and digestive glands to evaluate differences between DNA adduct levels in the two tissues. B(a)PMO was assayed in the microsomal fraction of the digestive glands as a result of the high expression of P450-metabolizing enzymes in this tissue. Lysosomal membrane stability, a potential biomarker of anthropogenic stress, was also evaluated in the digestive glands of mussels, by measuring the latent activity of β-N-acetylhexosaminidase. Induction of DNA adducts was evident in both tissues, although the results revealed large tissue differences in DNA adduct formation. In fact, gills showed higher DNA adduct levels than did digestive gland. No significant differences were found in DNA adduct levels over time, with both tissues providing similar results in both years. DNA adduct levels were correlated with B(a)PMO activity in digestive gland in both years (r=0.60 in 2001; r=0.73 in 2002). Increases were observed in B(a)PMO activity and DNA adduct levels at different stations; no statistical difference was observed in B(a)PMO activity over the two monitoring campaigns. The membrane labilization period

  14. Sources for PM air pollution in the Po Plain, Italy: I. Critical comparison of methods for estimating biomass burning contributions to benzo(a)pyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belis, C. A.; Cancelinha, J.; Duane, M.; Forcina, V.; Pedroni, V.; Passarella, R.; Tanet, G.; Douglas, K.; Piazzalunga, A.; Bolzacchini, E.; Sangiorgi, G.; Perrone, M.-G.; Ferrero, L.; Fermo, P.; Larsen, B. R.

    2011-12-01

    Particle-bound benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) constitutes an air pollution problem in many areas of Europe and has been linked to biomass burning (BB). The present study, conducted in 2007 and 2009 at ten stations in the North Italian Po Plain and Valtelline Valley, examines four methods for the quantification of BB contributions to particle-bound B(a)P using data for 61 predictor compounds in more than 700 ambient PM 10 and PM 2.5 samples. The study was carried out during the heating season - a period of the year with minimal volatilization and atmospheric degradation of B(a)P, which favour source apportionment by receptor modelling. The lowest estimates of the source contribution (SCE) from BB were obtained with the levoglucosan tracer method and multi-linear regression analysis of daily variations in B(a)P concentrations using levoglucosan as the main predictor in combination with a few other predictors including gaseous pollutants and meteorological data. The standard uncertainty of these methods was driven by the uncertainty in the BB emission factor for levoglucosan and mounted to 90% (1 σ). Positive matrix factorization (PMF), using only PAH congeners as predictors, did not produce factors interpretable as emission sources. However, PMF utilizing a broad range of predictor compounds afforded five factors with compositions similar to emission sources. The yielded B(a)P SCEs for BB agreed well with results of chemical mass balance modelling (CMB). Both receptor models gave good predictions (p) of the observed (o) B(a)P concentrations (PMF: p/o = 89 ± 9%, CMB: p/o = 114 ± 17%) with lower uncertainties than the tracer methods (CMB 60%; PMF 54%; 1 σ). The average BB SCEs (mean ± 95% confidence interval) from these models were: 1.0 ± 0.4 ng m -3 at a kerbside in Milan, 1.0 ± 0.2 ng m -3 at six urban background stations in the Po Plain, 0.7 ± 0.3 ng m -3 at two rural background stations in the Po Plain, and 2.1 ± 1.1 ng m -3 at an urban background station in the

  15. Inhibition of aryl hydrocarbon receptor transactivation and DNA adduct formation by CYP1 isoform-selective metabolic deactivation of benzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polyaromatic hydrocarbon produced by the combustion of cigarettes and coke ovens, is a known procarcinogen. BaP activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and induces the expression of a battery of genes, including CYP1A1, which metabolize BaP to toxic compounds. The possible role of CYP1 enzymes in mediating BaP detoxification or metabolic activation remains to be elucidated. In this study, we assessed the effects of CYP1 enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1) on BaP-induced AhR transactivation and DNA adduct formation in HEK293 cells and HepG2 cells. Transfection of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, but not CYP1A2, suppressed BaP-induced activation of AhR. Expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, but not CYP1B1, inhibited DNA adduct formation in BaP-treated HepG2 cells. These results indicate that CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 play a role in deactivation of BaP on AhR and that CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 are involved in BaP detoxification by suppressing DNA adduct formation. BaP treatment did not induce DNA adduct formation in HEK293 cells, even after transfection of CYP1 enzymes, suggesting that expression of CYP1 enzymes is not sufficient for DNA adduct formation. Lower expression of epoxide hydrolase and higher expression of glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) and GSTM1/M2 were observed in HEK293 cells compared with HepG2 cells. Dynamic expression of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 along with expression of other enzymes such as epoxide hydrolase and phase II enzymes may determine the detoxification or metabolic activation of BaP

  16. Effects of light on the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of benzo(a)pyrene and an oil refinery effluent in the newt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, M.; l`Haridon, J. [Universite Paul-Sabatier, Toulouse (France)

    1994-12-31

    The genotoxicity and/or toxicity of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were evaluated under different lighting conditions in larvae and embryos of the newt Pleurodeles waltl. Visible light alone, UVA alone, or BaP alone had no toxic effects on the larvae. Conversely, toxic effects were observed in animals exposed to BaP + daylight, or BaP + UVA. The genotoxicity of BaP (50 ppb) was halved by its previous exposure to UVA, and was abolished at the lowest concentration (12.5 ppb). In other experiments, the larvae were exposed alternatively to BaP or Irr BaP (18 hours in dark) and UVA (6 hr in water), every day for 8 days. All animals that had accumulated non-irradiated BaP (50 ppb) showed signs of severe toxicity, and 90% died before the end of the test. On the other hand, irradiated BaP (50 ppb) was a 4-fold less toxic and half as genotoxic as non-irradiated BaP. In addition, exposure of the animals to UVA alone for 4 days prior to treatment with BaP did not affect the genotoxicity or toxicity of this hydrocarbon. In the dark, the embryotoxicity of BaP was markedly attenuated by the presence of the jelly coats. Although UVA alone did not affect growth of the embryos, the toxicity of BaP was enhanced by the combined action of the two agents together or in succession (BaP + UVA or BaP then UVA). Larvae were treated with an oil refinery effluent (EF). At 125 ml/l, EF was not found to be genotoxic in the dark. However, in animals exposed to both EF and UVA, there was a progressive increase in level of micronucleated erythrocytes with increasing duration of daily exposure to UVA. Moreover, the genotoxic potential of irradiated EF + UVA was systematically below that of non-irradiated EF + UVA for all durations of exposure to ultraviolet light. Irradiation of this type of effluent might help reduce its harmful effects on aquatic species. Our results also suggest that metabolic activation is not necessary for hydrocarbons to induce toxic effects. 51 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  17. Induction and recovery of morphofunctional changes in the intestine of juvenile carnivorous fish (Epinephelus coioides) upon exposure to foodborne benzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sublethal toxicity of dietary benzo[a]pyrene, B[a]P, on fish growth and intestinal morphofunctional changes [as measured by epithelial turnover, cell proliferation, hyperplasia, de novo crypt formation and protein absorption efficiency (i.e. expression of proton/peptide co-transporter, PepT-1, on the mucosal brush border)] were studied for the carnivorous orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Juvenile fish were force-fed daily with pellets containing environmentally realistic concentrations of B[a]P (dissolved in corn oil) at 0.25 μg/g body weight (low-dose) and 12.5 μg/g body weight (high-dose) for 4 weeks, followed by a control diet for a further 4 weeks to assess recovery. Although growth inhibition was observed in fish treated with high-dose B[a]P during the exposure period, no mortality was observed throughout the 8-week experiment. Significant hyperplasia of basal enterocytes of mucosal folds was detected shortly after 3-day exposure to the high-dose B[a]P. Moreover, a faster epithelial turnover was measured in the high-dose B[a]P exposed fish at exposure week 1, which was followed by an increase of basal cell proliferation and a reduction of PepT-1 expression at exposure week 2. The formation of de novo crypts, resemblance to the cancer predisposition syndrome 'juvenile polyposis', was significantly higher in the intestine of high-dose treated fish as compared to the control at exposure week 2 and onwards. Abnormal cytoplasmic extrusions were frequently observed in mucosal folds of high-dose fish at exposure week 4. In the low-dose treatment group, only the expression of PepT-1 was significantly reduced at exposure week 2 and an early adaptive response was observed at exposure week 4. Despite all these intestinal disturbances were reversible in fish upon the abatement to dietary B[a]P (within 1-4 weeks), environmental realistic levels of foodborne B[a]P could induce sublethal toxicity to E. coioides, and probably impose potential risk to the

  18. Studies on the analysis of benzo(a)pyrene and its metabolites in biological samples by using high performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence detection and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical method the determination of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and its hydroxylated metabolites, 1-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (1-OHBaP), 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (3-OHBaP), benzo(a)pyrene-4,5-dihydrodial(4,5-diolBaP) and benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol (7,8-diolBaP), in rat urine and plasma has been developed by HPLC/FLD and GC/MS. The derivatization with alkyl iodide was employed to improve the resolution and the detection of two mono hydroxylated metabolites, 1-OHBaP and 3-OHBaP, in LC and GC. BaP and its four metabolites in spiked urine were successfully separated by gradient elution on reverse phase ODS C18 column (4.6 mm I.D., 100 mm length, particle size 5μm) using a binary mixture of MeOH/H2O (85/15, v/v) as mobile phase after ethylation at 90 .deg. C for 10 min. The extraction recoveries of BaP and its metabolites in spiked samples with liquid-liquid extraction, which was better than solid phase extraction, were in the range of 90.3-101.6% in n-hexane for urine and 95.7-106.3% in acetone for plasma, respectively. The calibration curves has shown good linearity with the correlation coefficients (R2) varying from 0.992 to 1.000 for urine and from 0.996 to 1.000 for plasma, respectively. The detection limits of all analytes were obtained in the range of 0.01-0.1 ng/mL for urine and 0.1-0.4ng/mL for plasma, respectively. The metabolites of BaP were excreted as mono hydroxy and dihydrodiol forms after intraperitoneal infection of 20 mg/kg of BaP to rats. The total amounts of BaP and four metabolites excreted in dosed rat urine were 3.79 ng over the 0 - 96 hr period from administration and the excretional recovery was less than 0.065% of the injection amounts of BaP. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of BaP and its hydroxylated metabolites in rat urine and plasma for the pharmacokinetic studies

  19. The role of hRev7, the accessory subunit of hPolζ, in translesion synthesis past DNA damage induced by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Veronica M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA polymerase zeta (Polζ is a specialized DNA polymerase that, unlike classical replicative polymerases, is capable of replicating past DNA lesions, i.e. of performing translesion synthesis (TLS. The catalytic subunit of hPolζ, hRev3, has been shown to play a critical role in DNA damage-induced mutagenesis in human cells, but less is known about the role of hRev7, the accessory subunit of hPolζ, in such mutagenesis. To address this question, we recently generated human fibroblasts with very significantly reduced levels of hRev7 protein and demonstrated that hRev7 is required to protect cells from ultraviolet(254 nm (UV radiation-induced cytotoxicity and mutagenesis (McNally et al., DNA Repair 7 (2008 597-604. The goal of the present study was to determine whether hRev7 is similarly involved in the tolerance of DNA damage induced by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE, the reactive form of the widespread environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene. Methods To determine whether hRev7 also plays a role in protecting human cells from the cytotoxicity and mutagenesis induced by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE, cell strains with reduced hRev7 were compared to their parental strain and a vector control strain for the effect of BPDE on cell survival, induction of mutations, and the ability to progress through the cell cycle. Results The results show that cell strains with reduced hRev7 are more sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of BPDE than the control strains, and progress through S-phase at a slower rate than the control cells following BPDE treatment, indicating that hRev7, and likely hPolζ, is required for efficient bypass of BPDE-induced DNA lesions. However, neither the frequency nor kinds of mutations induced by BPDE in cells with reduced hRev7 differ significantly from those induced in the control strains, suggesting that hPolζ is not essential for inserting nucleotides opposite BPDE-induced DNA damage. Conclusions Taken

  20. Tissue differences, dose-response relationship and persistence of DNA adducts in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) exposed to benzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltic Sea blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were experimentally exposed to the genotoxic model substance benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) to study DNA adduct formation. The specific aims were (a) to examine where in the mussels the DNA adducts were formed, in gills or digestive gland; (b) to study the dose-response relationship between B[a]P exposure and DNA adduct formation; and (c) to examine the persistence of the formed adducts. A Scope for growth (SFG) study was also run to compare physiological responses of the mussels with the degree of DNA adduct formation. In an initial dose-response experiment, the mussels were exposed to 0, 5, 50, and 100 μg/l of tritium labelled B[a]P under semi-static conditions for 4 days, and thereafter the bioaccumulation of B[a]P and DNA adduct formation in different tissues was determined using liquid scintillation counting and 32P-postlabelling analysis, respectively. In a following exposure-depuration experiment, mussels were exposed to 17 μg/l of radiolabelled B[a]P under semi-static conditions for 6 days. B[a]P accumulation and DNA adduct formation were determined during the exposure, and B[a]P elimination and persistence of DNA adducts were studied during 28 days of depuration in uncontaminated water. The results revealed large tissue differences in DNA adduct formation. DNA adduct levels were not elevated in the digestive gland of the mussels at any exposure concentration (0-100 μg/l), even though the highest B[a]P tissue concentrations were found in the digestive gland (1.0±0.1 mg B[a]P/g tissue dry wt at 100 μg/l, mean±SE, n=12). DNA adducts were on the other hand formed in the gills, with the highest levels found in mussels exposed to 50 and 100 μg B[a]P/l, and a dose dependent increase in adduct levels (from 1.6 to 5.9 nmol adducts/mol nucleotides) from 0 to 50 μg B[a]P/l. In gills, DNA adduct levels increased with time during the 6-day exposure period in the exposure-depuration experiment, and then persisted for at least 2

  1. Induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 isozymes, benzo(a)pyrene metabolism and DNA binding following exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon residues generated during repeated fish fried oil in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study the effect of repeated fish fried oil (RFFO) and its extract (RFFE) on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes, benzo(a)pyrene (BP) metabolism and DNA adduct formation was undertaken. HPLC analysis of RFFO showed the presence of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. CYP in microsomes from control and RFFO-treated animals showed a peak at 450 nm; however, a shift of 2 nm in the SORET region along with significant induction was observed in microsomes prepared from 3-methylcholanthrene (MC)- and RFFE-treated animals. Activities of hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, methoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and erythromycin-N-demethylase were found to be significantly (P 3H]-BP to calf thymus DNA. The overall results suggest that exposure to RFFE may induce hepatic CYP isozymes thereby producing enhanced reactive metabolites with a potential to bind with DNA that may result in cancer

  2. Comparison of determining benzo(a)pyrene in vegetable oil by two methods%植物油中苯并(a)芘的检测方法比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马素换; 汪学德; 刘兵戈

    2014-01-01

    比较高效液相色谱法和气相色谱-质谱联用法测定植物油中苯并(a)芘含量。结果表明,两种方法均采用中性氧化铝固相萃取柱净化油样,平均回收率均大于75%,相对标准偏差均小于8%,检出限分别为0.12μg / kg 和0.40μg / kg,均能满足测定要求。相对来说,高效液相色谱法前处理简便,峰形基线平稳,检出限低,回收率高,更适于植物油中苯并(a)芘含量的测定。%The determinations of benzo(a)pyrene in vegetable oil by high performance liquid chromatog-raphy( HPLC) and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry ( GC - MS) were compared. The results showed that the commercial neutral alumina solid - phase extraction column was employed to purify oil sample by two methods. The average recovery rates and relative standard deviations of two methods were all above 75% and below 8% respectively, and the limits of detection of two methods were 0. 12 μg / kg and 0. 40 μg / kg respectively, which could satisfy the measurement requirements. Relatively, HPLC method had the items of simple pretreatment, smooth baseline of peaks, low limit of detection and high recovery rate, which was more suitable for the determination of benzo(a)pyrene content of vegetable oil.

  3. Gene expression of heat shock protein 70, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor α as tools to identify immunotoxic effects on Xenopus laevis: A dose–response study with benzo[a]pyrene and its degradation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) results in an alteration of immune function in mammals and fish, and the analysis of cytokine mRNA levels has been suggested for predicting the immunomodulatory potential of chemicals. To obtain evidence of the innate immune responses to B[a]P in Xenopus laevis, the present study monitored the mRNA expression of interleukin 1-β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in a laboratorial exposure. Tadpoles exposed to 8.36, 14.64, 89.06 and 309.47 μg/L of B[a]P,were used for detecting hsp70, IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA induction. A dose–response increase in the expression of hsp70 and IL-1β mRNA was found. The results of this study confirmed the use of hsp70 and IL-1β, but not TNF-α, as sensitive indicators of immunotoxic effect of B[a]P in X. laevis. Further research would be required for the validation of these endpoints. - Highlights: ► We study innate immune responses to benzo[a]pyrene in Xenopus laevis. ► mRNA expression of three typical proinflammatory proteins was monitored. ► Heat shock protein 70 mRNA induction showed a concentration/response/time relationship. ► Interleukin 1-β also showed a clear concentration/response relationship. ► Interleukin 1-β and heat shock protein 70 are useful indicators of immunotoxic effects. - The present study analyzed the use of cytokine mRNA levels as an earlier tool for predicting immunotoxicological risks to Xenopus laevis in a dose–response pattern.

  4. Modulation of the mutagenic effect of benzo[a]pyrene and bleomycin by isoflavone extracts in a rat hepatoma cell line
    Modulação do efeito mutagênico do benzo[a]pireno e bleomicina por extratos de isoflavonas em células de hepatoma de roedor

    OpenAIRE

    Mário Sérgio Mantovani; Juliana Cristina Marcarini; Marcela Stefanini Tsuboy; Mendes Josiane; Lúcia Regina Ribeiro; Clara Beatriz Hoffman-Campo

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies show that the intake of foods rich in isoflavones (phytoestrogens), such as soybeans, confers protection against various types of cancer, what increases the scientific and popular interest on these compounds. In the present study, phytoestrogens extracts from soybeans were tested for genotoxic potential and modulatory effects on benzo[a]pyrene and bleomycin. Two phytoestrogens were evaluated in vitro, phytoestrogen “A” was supplied by EMBRAPA-Soja, Londrina – PR, and phy...

  5. Risk analysis of processing methods on benzo(a)pyrene contamination in oil-tea camellia seed oil%加工方式对油茶籽油苯并(a)芘污染的风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚萍; 费学谦; 王开良; 姚小华; 罗凡

    2013-01-01

    根据苯并(a)芘的性质,研究了不同加工方式对油茶籽油苯并(a)芘污染的影响,并提出了控制措施.结果表明,正常压榨的油茶籽油不存在苯并(a)芘污染的风险;油茶籽炒焦容易导致油中苯并(a)芘含量上升;相对于压榨工艺,溶剂浸出工艺制取的油茶籽油苯并(a)芘超标的风险更大,其中浸出溶剂的选择是苯并(a)芘超标与否的关键因素;精炼过程可以有效去除油茶籽油中的苯并(a)芘.避免炒焦和带壳压榨、选用合格的浸出溶剂是控制油茶籽油苯并(a)芘污染的关键.%According to benzo(a)pyrene's properties, the influences of different processing methods on the risk of benzo ( a) pyrene contamination in oil - tea camellia seed oil were studied, and control measures were proposed. The results showed that the oil - tea camellia seed oil extracted by traditional pressing didn't have benzo(a)pyrene contamination risk;excessive frying usually caused high content of benzo(a) pyrene in the oil; compared with pressing process, solvent extraction brought more risk of benzo (a) pyrene in the oil and the selection of solvent was a key factor;refining process could remove benzo (a) pyrene in oil - tea camellia seed oil. In order to prevent benzo( a) pyrene exceeding national standard,excessive frying and in -shell pressing should be avoided and qualified solvent should be selected.

  6. Enhancement of plasma α-fetoprotein, as measured by sandwich-type radioimmunoassay, and induction of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive hepatic cell foci in rats fed benzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male Fischer rats were fed semipurified diets containing 0, 1, 100, and 1000 ppM benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) for 6 or 13 wk. Plasma samples were assayed for α-fetoprotein (AFP) by a new sandwich-type radioimmunoassay (RIA) utilizing a special controlled porous-glass solid phase. This procedure is described in detail. Significant AFP elevation (p less than or equal to 0.01) was observed in the highest BaP treatment group after 5 wk of treatment. The 1 and 100 ppM BaP groups exhibited no AFP elevation throughout the study. Liver sections from the 1000 ppM groups had discrete γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-positive foci 10 to 20 cells in diameter by the sixth wk. GGT-positive foci were not evident in liver sections from the other treatment groups. Thus a high level of dietary BaP appears to rapidly alter rat liver cells, indicating hepatic neoplasia

  7. Enhanced thyroid hormone breakdown in hepatocytes by mutual induction of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) and arylhydrocarbon receptor by benzo[a]pyrene and phenobarbital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xenobiotics may interfere with the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid endocrine axis by inducing enzymes that inactivate thyroid hormones and thereby reduce the metabolic rate. This induction results from an activation of xeno-sensing nuclear receptors. The current study shows that benzo[a]pyrene, a frequent contaminant of processed food and activator of the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activated the promoter and induced the transcription of the nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) in rat hepatocytes. Likewise, phenobarbital induced the AhR transcription. This mutual induction of the nuclear receptors enhanced the phenobarbital-dependent induction of the prototypic CAR target gene Cyp2b1 as well as the AhR-dependent induction of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. In both cases, the induction by the combination of both xenobiotics was more than the sum of the induction by either substance alone. By inducing the AhR, phenobarbital enhanced the benzo[a]pyrene-dependent reduction of thyroid hormone half-life and the benzo[a]pyrene-dependent increase in the rate of thyroid hormone glucuronide formation in hepatocyte cultures. CAR ligands might thus augment the endocrine disrupting potential of AhR activators by an induction of the AhR

  8. Antimutagenic activity of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale Sapindales, Anacardiaceae fresh juice and processed juice (cajuína against methyl methanesulfonate, 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide and benzo[a]pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amelia Melo-Cavalcante

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cashew apple juice (CAJ, produced from the native Brazilian cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale, and has been reported to have antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor, antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. Both the fresh unprocessed juice and the processed juice (cajuína in Portuguese has been shown to consist of a complex mixture containing high concentrations of anacardic and ascorbic acids plus several carotenoids, phenolic compounds and metals. We assessed both types of juice for their antimutagenic properties against the direct mutagens methyl methanesulfonate (MMS and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO and the indirect mutagen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP using pre-treatment, co-treatment and post-treatment assays with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA102, and TA97a. In pre-treatment experiments with strains TA100 and TA102 the fresh juice showed high antimutagenic activity against MMS but, conversely, co-treatment with both juices enhanced MMS mutagenicity and there was an indication of toxicity in the post-treatment regime. In pre-, co-, and post-treatments with TA97a as test strain, antimutagenic effects were also observed against 4-NQO and BaP. These results suggest that both fresh and processed CAJ can protect the cells against mutagenesis induced by direct and indirect mutagens.

  9. Benzo(a)pyrene induces oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines, expression of nuclear factor-kappa B and deregulation of wnt/beta-catenin signaling in colons of BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Babajide O; Adedara, Isaac A; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of colonic toxicity has been epidemiologically linked to the consumption of foods contaminated with benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P). The present study investigated the effects of B[a]P on biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation and wnt-signaling in colon of BALB/c mice following exposure to 62.5, 125 and 250 mg/kg of B[a]P for 7 days by oral gavage. Exposure to B[a]P significantly decreased the colonic antioxidant enzymes activities and glutathione level with concomitant significant increase in myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation levels. Colon histopathology results showed treatment-related lesions characterized by atrophy, mucosal ulceration and gland erosion in the B[a]P-treated mice. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that B[a]P treatment increased the protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B, pro-inflammatory cytokines namely tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1β, as well as cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the mice colon. Altered canonical wnt-signaling was confirmed by strong diaminobenzidine staining for p38 mitogen activated protein kinase, β-catenin expression and absence of adenomatous polyposis coli following B[a]P administration. The present data highlight that exposure to B[a]P induces colon injury via induction of oxidative and nitrosative stress, inflammatory biomarkers and dsyregulation wnt/β-catenin signaling, thus confirming the role of B[a]P in the pathogenesis of colonic toxicity. PMID:27338711

  10. Induction of benzo[a]pyrene Mono-oxygenase in liver cell culture by the photochemical generation of active oxygen species. Evidence for the involvement of singlet oxygen and the formation of a stable inducing intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, A J

    1976-07-15

    1. The photochemical generation of excited states of oxygen in liver cell culture by the mild ilumination of culture medium containing riboflavin, results in stimulation of benzo[a]pyrene 3-mono-oxygenase, a cytochrome P-450-linked mono-oxygenase. 2. The same large increase in mono-oxygenase activity was found when medium containing riboflavin was illuminated in the absence of cells and then stored in the dark for 24h before contact with the cells. From this it may be inferred that stimulation is due to the formation of a stable inducer in the culture medium. Further experiments indicate that the stable inducer is due to the photo-oxidation of an amino acid. 3. Evidence that singlet oxygen is responsible for initiating the stimulation of the mono-oxygenase is based on the use of molecules that scavenge particular active oxygen species. Of all the scavengers tested, only those that scavenge single oxygen inhibited the stimulation. 4. A hypothesis is developed to relate the stimulation of the mono-oxygenase by singlet oxygen in cultured cells to the regulation of the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system in vivo. It is suggested that single oxygen generation within cells may be a common factor linking the many structurally diverse inducers of the enzyme system. PMID:962887

  11. The role of repair protein Rad51 in synergistic cytotoxicity and mutagenicity induced by epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor (Gefitinib, IressaR) and benzo[a]pyrene in human lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rad51 protein is essential for homologous recombination repair of DNA damage, and is over-expressed in chemo- or radioresistant carcinomas. The polycyclic hydrocarbon carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) affects MAPKs transduction pathways. Gefitinib (IressaR, ZD1839) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor that blocks growth factor-mediated cell proliferation and ERK1/2 activation. We hypothesized that gefitinib enhances B[a]P-mediated cytotoxicity by decreasing ERK1/2 activation. Exposure of human lung cancer cells to gefitinib decreased B[a]P-elicited ERK1/2 activation and induced Rad51 protein expression. Gefitinib and B[a]P co-treatment decreased Rad51 protein stability by triggering degradation via a 26S proteasome-dependent pathway. Expression of constitutive active MKK1/2 vectors (MKK1/2-CA) rescues the decreased ERK1/2 activity, and restores Rad51 protein level and stability under gefitinib and B[a]P co-treatment. Gefitinib enhances B[a]P-induced growth inhibition, cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. Co-treatment with gefitinib and B[a]P can further inhibit cell growth significantly after depletion of endogenous Rad51 by siRad51 RNA transfection. Enhancement of ERK1/2 activation by MKK1-CA expression decrease B[a]P- and gefitinib-induced cytotoxicity, and B[a]P-induced mutagenicity. Rad51 protein protects lung cancer cells from synergistic cytotoxic and mutagenic effects induced by gefitinib and B[a]P. Suppression of Rad51 protein expression may be a novel lung cancer therapeutic modality to overcome drug resistance to gefitinib

  12. Induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 by benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene in T-47D human breast cancer cells: Roles of PAH interactions and PAH metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and cytochromes P450 (CYP) are complex; PAHs are enzyme inducers, substrates, and inhibitors. In T-47D breast cancer cells, exposure to 0.1 to 1 μM benzo(k)fluoranthene (BKF) induced CYP1A1/1B1-catalyzed 17β-estradiol (E2) metabolism, whereas BKF levels greater than 1 μM inhibited E2 metabolism. Time course studies showed that induction of CYP1-catalyzed E2 metabolism persisted after the disappearance of BKF or co-exposed benzo(a)pyrene, suggesting that BKF metabolites retaining Ah receptor agonist activity were responsible for prolonged CYP1 induction. BKF metabolites were shown, through the use of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and CYP1A1-promoter-luciferase reporter assays to induce CYP1A1/1B1 in T-47D cells. Metabolites formed by oxidation at the C-2/C-3 region of BKF had potencies for CYP1 induction exceeding those of BKF, whereas C-8/C-9 oxidative metabolites were somewhat less potent than BKF. The activities of expressed human CYP1A1 and 1B1 with BKF as substrate were investigated by use of HPLC with fluorescence detection, and by GC/MS. The results showed that both enzymes efficiently catalyzed the formation of 3-, 8-, and 9-OHBKF from BKF. These studies indicate that the inductive effects of PAH metabolites as potent CYP1 inducers are likely to be additional important factors in PAH-CYP interactions that affect metabolism and bioactivation of other PAHs, ultimately modulating PAH toxicity and carcinogenicity

  13. Cytochrome P450-dependent binding of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in murine heart, lung, and liver endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizette Granberg, A.; Brunstroem, B.; Brandt, I. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Toxicology

    2000-12-01

    Autoradiography was used to investigate the cellular sites of irreversible binding of {sup 3}H-labelled 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in mice. Autoradiograms obtained from solvent-extracted tape-sections revealed an even distribution of DMBA- and B[a]P-derived radioactivity in control mice lacking sites of selective binding in the tissues. In mice pretreated with a cytochrome P4501A (CYPIA) inducer, {beta}-naphthoflavone (BNF) or 3,3',4,4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), a noticeable accumulation of bound radioactivity was observed in the pulmonary alveolar region. Increased labelling was also observed in heart tissue of induced mice. As demonstrated by microautoradiography of tissues from CYP1A-induced mice treated with {sup 3}H-DMBA or {sup 3}H-B[a]P in vivo, irreversible binding in lung tissue was present in endothelial cells of arteries and veins, in the alveolar septal walls, and in type 2 pneumocytes. In heart tissue, binding was confined to endothelial cells of arteries, capillaries and veins. In liver, binding was found in the hepatocytes as well as in endothelial cells of the portal veins, whereas no binding was seen in endothelial cells of the sinusoids, central veins, or arteries. These findings were confirmed in vitro using {sup 3}H-DMBA-exposed precision-cut slices, indicating that reactive intermediates of DMBA and B(a)P were formed in situ. The addition of the CYP1A inhibitor ellipticine abolished binding in the target endothelial cells. Increased endothelial binding in the lungs and liver of CYP1A-induced mice was concomitant with increased 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and DMBA hydroxylase activity. In heart, endothelial binding was positively correlated with EROD, but not with DMBA hydroxylase. The results suggest that endothelial cells may be targets for CYP-dependent activation of such toxicants as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Consequently, the possibility that chemically induced

  14. Sustained induction of cytochrome P4501A1 in human hepatoma cells by co-exposure to benzo[a]pyrene and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole underlies the synergistic effects on DNA adduct formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To gain a deeper insight into the potential interactions between individual aromatic hydrocarbons in a mixture, several benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) binary mixtures were studied. The biological activity of the binary mixtures was investigated in the HepG2 and WB-F344 liver cell lines and the Chinese hamster V79 cell line that stably expresses the human cytochrome P4501A1 (hCYP1A1). In the V79 cells, binary mixtures, in contrast to individual carcinogens, caused a significant decrease in the levels of micronuclei, DNA adducts and gene mutations, but not in cell survival. Similarly, a lower frequency of micronuclei and levels of DNA adducts were found in rat liver WB-F344 cells treated with a binary mixture, regardless of the exposure time. The observed antagonism between B[a]P and DBC may be due to an inhibition of Cyp1a1 expression because cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC showed a decrease in Cyp1a1 mRNA levels. In human liver HepG2 cells exposed to binary mixtures for 2 h, a reduction in micronuclei frequency was also found. However, after a 24 h treatment, synergism between B[a]P and DBC was determined based on DNA adduct formation. Accordingly, the up-regulation of CYP1A1 expression was detected in HepG2 cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC. Our results show significant differences in the response of human and rat cells to B[a]P:DBC mixtures and stress the need to use multiple experimental systems when evaluating the potential risk of environmental pollutants. Our data also indicate that an increased expression of CYP1A1 results in a synergistic effect of B[a]P and DBC in human cells. As humans are exposed to a plethora of noxious chemicals, our results have important implications for human carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • B[a]P:DBC mixtures were less genotoxic in V79MZh1A1 cells than B[a]P and DBC alone. • An antagonism between B[a]P and DBC was determined in rat liver WB-F344 cells. • The inhibition of CYP1a1 expression by B[a]P:DBC mixture

  15. Benzo[a]pyrene affects Jurkat T cells in the activated state via the antioxidant response element dependent Nrf2 pathway leading to decreased IL-2 secretion and redirecting glutamine metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Rockstroh, Maxie; Wagner, Juliane [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Baumann, Sven [Department of Metabolomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Schorsch, Katrin [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Trump, Saskia; Lehmann, Irina [Department of Environmental Immunology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Bergen, Martin von [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Environmental Immunology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark); Tomm, Janina M., E-mail: Janina.tomm@ufz.de [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    There is a clear evidence that environmental pollutants, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), can have detrimental effects on the immune system, whereas the underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. Jurkat T cells share many properties with native T lymphocytes and therefore are an appropriate model to analyze the effects of environmental pollutants on T cells and their activation. Since environmental compounds frequently occur at low, not acute toxic concentrations, we analyzed the effects of two subtoxic concentrations, 50 nM and 5 μM, on non- and activated cells. B[a]P interferes directly with the stimulation process as proven by an altered IL-2 secretion. Furthermore, B[a]P exposure results in significant proteomic changes as shown by DIGE analysis. Pathway analysis revealed an involvement of the AhR independent Nrf2 pathway in the altered processes observed in unstimulated and stimulated cells. A participation of the Nrf2 pathway in the change of IL-2 secretion was confirmed by exposing cells to the Nrf2 activator tBHQ. tBHQ and 5 μM B[a]P caused similar alterations of IL-2 secretion and glutamine/glutamate metabolism. Moreover, the proteome changes in unstimulated cells point towards a modified regulation of the cytoskeleton and cellular stress response, which was proven by western blotting. Additionally, there is a strong evidence for alterations in metabolic pathways caused by B[a]P exposure in stimulated cells. Especially the glutamine/glutamate metabolism was indicated by proteome pathway analysis and validated by metabolite measurements. The detrimental effects were slightly enhanced in stimulated cells, suggesting that stimulated cells are more vulnerable to the environmental pollutant model compound B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P affects the proteome of Jurkat T cells also at low concentrations. • Exposure to B[a]P (50 nM, 5 μM) did not change Jurkat T cell viability. • Both B[a]P concentrations altered the IL-2 secretion of stimulated cells.

  16. In vivo flow cytometric Pig-a and micronucleus assays: highly sensitive discrimination of the carcinogen/noncarcinogen pair benzo(a)pyrene and pyrene using acute and repeated-dose designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, Dorothea K; Phonethepswath, Souk; Avlasevich, Svetlana L; Mereness, Jared; Bryce, Steven M; Bemis, Jeffrey C; Weller, Pamela; Bell, Sara; Gleason, Carol; Custer, Laura L; MacGregor, James T; Dertinger, Stephen D

    2012-07-01

    Combining multiple genetic toxicology endpoints into a single in vivo study, and/or integrating one or more genotoxicity assays into general toxicology studies, is attractive because it reduces animal use and enables comprehensive comparative analysis using toxicity, metabolism, and pharmacokinetic information from the same animal. This laboratory has developed flow cytometric scoring techniques for monitoring two blood-based genotoxicity endpoints-micronucleated reticulocyte frequency and gene mutation at the Pig-a locus-thereby making combination and integration studies practical. The ability to effectively monitor these endpoints in short-term and repeated dosing schedules was investigated with the carcinogen/noncarcinogen pair benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and pyrene (Pyr). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated via oral gavage for 3 or 28 consecutive days with several dose levels of Pyr, including maximum tolerated doses. BP exposure was administered by the same route but at one dose level, 250 or 125 mg/kg/day for 3-day and 28-day studies, respectively. Serial blood samples were collected up to Day 45, and were analyzed for Pig-a mutation with a dual labeling method (SYTO 13 in combination with anti-CD59-PE) that facilitated mutant cell frequency measurements in both total erythrocytes and the reticulocyte subpopulation. A mutant cell enrichment step based on immunomagnetic column separation was used to increase the statistical power of the assay. BP induced robust mutant reticulocyte responses by Day 15, and elevated frequencies persisted until study termination. Mutant erythrocyte responses lagged mutant reticulocyte responses, with peak incidences observed on Day 30 of the 3-day study (43-fold increase) and on Day 42 of the 28-day study (171-fold increase). No mutagenic effects were apparent for Pyr. Blood samples collected on Day 4, and Day 29 for the 28-day study, were evaluated for micronucleated reticulocyte frequency. Significant increases in micronucleus

  17. Benzo[a]pyrene affects Jurkat T cells in the activated state via the antioxidant response element dependent Nrf2 pathway leading to decreased IL-2 secretion and redirecting glutamine metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a clear evidence that environmental pollutants, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), can have detrimental effects on the immune system, whereas the underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. Jurkat T cells share many properties with native T lymphocytes and therefore are an appropriate model to analyze the effects of environmental pollutants on T cells and their activation. Since environmental compounds frequently occur at low, not acute toxic concentrations, we analyzed the effects of two subtoxic concentrations, 50 nM and 5 μM, on non- and activated cells. B[a]P interferes directly with the stimulation process as proven by an altered IL-2 secretion. Furthermore, B[a]P exposure results in significant proteomic changes as shown by DIGE analysis. Pathway analysis revealed an involvement of the AhR independent Nrf2 pathway in the altered processes observed in unstimulated and stimulated cells. A participation of the Nrf2 pathway in the change of IL-2 secretion was confirmed by exposing cells to the Nrf2 activator tBHQ. tBHQ and 5 μM B[a]P caused similar alterations of IL-2 secretion and glutamine/glutamate metabolism. Moreover, the proteome changes in unstimulated cells point towards a modified regulation of the cytoskeleton and cellular stress response, which was proven by western blotting. Additionally, there is a strong evidence for alterations in metabolic pathways caused by B[a]P exposure in stimulated cells. Especially the glutamine/glutamate metabolism was indicated by proteome pathway analysis and validated by metabolite measurements. The detrimental effects were slightly enhanced in stimulated cells, suggesting that stimulated cells are more vulnerable to the environmental pollutant model compound B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P affects the proteome of Jurkat T cells also at low concentrations. • Exposure to B[a]P (50 nM, 5 μM) did not change Jurkat T cell viability. • Both B[a]P concentrations altered the IL-2 secretion of stimulated cells.

  18. Sustained induction of cytochrome P4501A1 in human hepatoma cells by co-exposure to benzo[a]pyrene and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole underlies the synergistic effects on DNA adduct formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gábelová, Alena, E-mail: alena.gabelova@savba.sk [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Poláková, Veronika [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Prochazka, Gabriela [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Kretová, Miroslava; Poloncová, Katarína; Regendová, Eva; Luciaková, Katarína [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Segerbäck, Dan [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    To gain a deeper insight into the potential interactions between individual aromatic hydrocarbons in a mixture, several benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) binary mixtures were studied. The biological activity of the binary mixtures was investigated in the HepG2 and WB-F344 liver cell lines and the Chinese hamster V79 cell line that stably expresses the human cytochrome P4501A1 (hCYP1A1). In the V79 cells, binary mixtures, in contrast to individual carcinogens, caused a significant decrease in the levels of micronuclei, DNA adducts and gene mutations, but not in cell survival. Similarly, a lower frequency of micronuclei and levels of DNA adducts were found in rat liver WB-F344 cells treated with a binary mixture, regardless of the exposure time. The observed antagonism between B[a]P and DBC may be due to an inhibition of Cyp1a1 expression because cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC showed a decrease in Cyp1a1 mRNA levels. In human liver HepG2 cells exposed to binary mixtures for 2 h, a reduction in micronuclei frequency was also found. However, after a 24 h treatment, synergism between B[a]P and DBC was determined based on DNA adduct formation. Accordingly, the up-regulation of CYP1A1 expression was detected in HepG2 cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC. Our results show significant differences in the response of human and rat cells to B[a]P:DBC mixtures and stress the need to use multiple experimental systems when evaluating the potential risk of environmental pollutants. Our data also indicate that an increased expression of CYP1A1 results in a synergistic effect of B[a]P and DBC in human cells. As humans are exposed to a plethora of noxious chemicals, our results have important implications for human carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • B[a]P:DBC mixtures were less genotoxic in V79MZh1A1 cells than B[a]P and DBC alone. • An antagonism between B[a]P and DBC was determined in rat liver WB-F344 cells. • The inhibition of CYP1a1 expression by B[a]P:DBC mixture

  19. Modulation of the mutagenic effect of benzo[a]pyrene and bleomycin by isoflavone extracts in a rat hepatoma cell line Modulação do efeito mutagênico do benzo[a]pireno e bleomicina por extratos de isoflavonas em células de hepatoma de roedor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sérgio Mantovani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies show that the intake of foods rich in isoflavones (phytoestrogens, such as soybeans, confers protection against various types of cancer, what increases the scientific and popular interest on these compounds. In the present study, phytoestrogens extracts from soybeans were tested for genotoxic potential and modulatory effects on benzo[a]pyrene and bleomycin. Two phytoestrogens were evaluated in vitro, phytoestrogen “A” was supplied by EMBRAPA-Soja, Londrina – PR, and phytoestrogen “B” was purchased in a local drug store. The methods used were the comet assay (genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity and micronucleus test with cytokinesis block (mutagenicity in rat hepatoma cells (HTC cell. The isoflavones were tested at three concentrations pre-established by the MTT cytotoxicity assay. Both isoflavone extracts showed no genotoxic effects in the comet assay, but showed induction of micronucleus. In the evaluation of the phytoestrogens for a modulatory effect, both phytoestrogens extracts showed antigenotoxicity in the comet assay.Estudos epidemiológicos mostram que a ingestão de alimentos ricos em isoflavonas (fitoestrógenos, como a soja, confere proteção contra vários tipos de câncer, o que aumenta o interesse científico e popular sobre esses compostos. No presente estudo, os fitoestrógenos de extrato de soja foram testados quanto aos efeitos genotóxicos e modulador de benzo [a] pireno e bleomicina. Dois fitoestrogênios foram avaliados in vitro, o fitoestrógenos “A” foi fornecido pela Embrapa-Soja, Londrina - PR, e o fitoestrógenos “B” foi comprado em uma farmácia de manipulação local. Os métodos utilizados foram o teste do Cometa (genotoxicidade e antigenotoxicidade e teste do Micronúcleo com Bloqueio Citocinese (mutagenicidade em células de hepatoma de rato (HTC celulares. As isoflavonas foram testadas em três concentrações pré-estabelecidas pelo ensaio de citotoxidade MTT. Ambos os

  20. Modeling airborne benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zalel, A.; Yuval, M.; Švecová, Vlasta; Šrám, Radim; Bartoňová, A.; Broday, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 101, JAN (2015), s. 166-176. ISSN 1352-2310 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : PAHs * B[a]P * Multivariate linear regression * Classification trees * Air pollution monitoring Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 3.281, year: 2014

  1. Entwicklung von Anreicherungs- und Detektionsmethoden umweltrelevanter Analyten (Viren in Trinkwasser;adsorbiertes Benzo[a]pyren)

    OpenAIRE

    Rieger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, eine Ultrakonzentrierungsanlage zu entwickeln, die einen quantitativen Nachweis von Viren in 30.000-L-Trinkwasserproben ermöglicht. Das entwickelte Anreicherungssystem besteht aus einem drei-stufigen Prozess. Zwei Crossflow-Ultrafiltrations-Anreicherungsschritte sowie eine monolithische Affinitätsfiltration ermöglichen es 30.000 L Trinkwasser innerhalb von 20 h auf ein finales Volumen von 1 mL anzureichern. Dieses Eluat kann direkt in quantitative Nachweis...

  2. Determination of benzo(apyrene content in PM10 using regression methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Gębicki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an attempt of application of multidimensional linear regression to estimation of an empirical model describing the factors influencing on B(aP content in suspended dust PM10 in Olsztyn and Elbląg city regions between 2010 and 2013. During this period annual average concentration of B(aP in PM10 exceeded the admissible level 1.5-3 times. Conducted investigations confirm that the reasons of B(aP concentration increase are low-efficiency individual home heat stations or low-temperature heat sources, which are responsible for so-called low emission during heating period. Dependences between the following quantities were analysed: concentration of PM10 dust in air, air temperature, wind velocity, air humidity. A measure of model fitting to actual B(aP concentration in PM10 was the coefficient of determination of the model. Application of multidimensional linear regression yielded the equations characterized by high values of the coefficient of determination of the model, especially during heating season. This parameter ranged from 0.54 to 0.80 during the analyzed period.

  3. Repair of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation and benzo[a]pyrene in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effects of DNA-damaging agents are codetermined by the structural characteristics of the lesions, the quality and extent of the local distortion of DNA and chromatin structure, and the mode(s) of damage processing used by a given type of cell. Persistent damage (i.e., damage that is not removed before it is reached by DNA replication) may be mostly responsible for mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. To understand the effects of environmental physical and chemical DNA-damaging agents on human health, the mechanisms of damage processing used by human cells have to be elucidated. We report our studies of the excision of gamma-ray products of the 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine type (t0/sub 2//sup γ/) in normal human fibroblasts and in fibroblasts from patients with the hereditary diseases Fanconi's anemia (FA) and ataxia telangiectasia (AT). Both diseases are characterized by chromosomal instability and increased susceptibility for the development of cancer. Formation and repair of DNA-benzo[a]pyrene adducts were studied in baby hamster kidney cells, secondary mouse embryo cells, and human lymphoma. The relative persistence of DNA-B[a]P may explain the high mutagenicity of the 7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene metabolites in rodent cells that has been observed by several investigators

  4. Comparative in vitro metabolism and activation of benzo(a)pyrene from two species of catfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploch, S.A.; Di Giulio, R.T. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Cytochrome P4501A activity as measured by hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase EROD in isolated microsomes is consistently found to be 10 to 20 fold higher in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctuatus) than in a closely related species of catfish, the brown bullhead (Ameriurus nebulosus). To measure more directly the ability of these two species to activate a model PAH, microsomes and hepatocytes isolated from naphthoflavone induced channel catfish (CC) and brown bullhead (BB) were incubated with [{sup 3}H]- or [{sup 14}C]benzo(a)pyrene (BP) to compare metabolite formation and binding to DNA and protein. Microsomes from channel catfish produce 4-fold higher levels of BP metabolites (hexane non-extractable) than brown bullhead (253.0, 9.0 vs 58.8, 14.9 pmole/mg, protein/min). Binding of microsome activated BP to salmon sperm DNA demonstrated a similar 5-fold difference between the two species. Using isolated hepatocytes, the two species demonstrated less pronounced, but consistent differences in metabolite formation (29.85, 2.2 vs 20.1, 0.96 pmole/10{sup 6}, cells/min, CC vs BB), DNA binding and total protein binding (13.2, 2.53 vs 10.57, 1.72 pmole BP/mg, protein/min, CC vs BB). Surprisingly, these preliminary data suggest that induced CC liver activate a model PAH carcinogen more quickly and produce higher levels of stable adducts than a cancer prone species (brown bullhead). Other aspects of BP activation, detoxification and genotoxicity in these two species may contribute to species` susceptibility to carcinogenesis.

  5. Tumor initiating and promoting activities of various benzo(a)pyrene metabolites in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaga, T J; Bracken, W M; Viaje, A; Berry, D L; Fischer, S M; Miller, D R; Levin, W; Conney, A H; Yagi, H; Jerina, D M

    1977-01-01

    The skin tumor-initiating activities of the twelve isomeric phenols of BP revealed that 2-OHBP was as potent as BP while 11-OHBP was moderately active and the others were weak or inactive. However, 2-OHBP has not been shown to be formed from BP in the skin or any other tissue. The (-)-trans-7,8-diol of BP skin was found to be more active as a skin tumor initiator than BP suggesting that it is a proximal carcinogen. The data on carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and metabolism suggest that BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide is the ultimate carcinogenic form of BP. The skin tumor-initiating activities of the various BP metabolites correlate very well with their complete carcinogenic in mouse skin except for BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide. It was found to have skin tumor initiating activity but not complete carcinogenic activity. However, BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide was found to be a very potent complete carcinogen in newborn mice. It is possible that BP-7..beta.., 8..cap alpha..-diol-9..cap alpha.., 10..cap alpha..-epoxide is only a tumor initiator in which a promoting stimulus must be supplied for carcinogenic activity. A natural tumor promoting stimulus may be present in the newborn mouse. There is also a good correlation between the skin tumor initiating activities of the various BP metabolites and their mutagenic activity in the V79 mammalian cell mediated mutagenesis system.

  6. Toxic Effects of Methylated Benzo[a]pyrenes in Rat Liver Stem-Like Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trilecová, L.; Krčková, S.; Marvanová, S.; Pěnčíková, K.; Krčmář, P.; Neča, J.; Hulínková, P.; Pálková, L.; Ciganek, M.; Milcová, Alena; Topinka, Jan; Vondráček, Jan; Machala, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2011), s. 866-876. ISSN 0893-228X Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/08/1590 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : Ah receptor * DNA adducts * WB F344 cells Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.779, year: 2011

  7. BENZO(A)PYRENE DIOL EPOXIDE I BINDS TO DNA AT REPLICATION FORKS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution in replication forks of DNA lesions caused by the treatment of S phase calls with benzo(a)pyrene-diol-epoxide-1 (BPDE-1) was studied in synchronized C3H10T1/2 cells. Sites of carcinogen modification of DNA were identified by polyclonal rabbit antibodies that were...

  8. Metabolism of nasally instilled benzo(a)pyrene and dihydrosafrole in dogs and monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petridou-Fischer, J.; Whaley, S.; Dahl, A.

    1987-05-01

    Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases are found in the nasal cavities of a variety of species and could play an important role in the metabolism of inhaled airborne xenobiotics. The object of this study was to examine the metabolism of /sup 14/C-benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and /sup 3/H-dihydrosafrole (DHS) deposited at the ethmoid and maxillary turbinate regions in Beagle dogs and Cynomolgus monkeys. While the animals were anesthetized, either compound was instilled at 10 minute intervals for 2 hours through catheters positioned at each region. Cotton swab samples of mucus from the nasopharynx were collected at 30 minute intervals during instillation. Metabolites in mucus were identified using high pressure liquid chromatography. Results showed that both regions in both species were capable of metabolizing BaP and DHS. BaP metabolites identified in the mucus were dihydrodiols, quinones, phenols, and tetrols. DHS metabolites were 2-methoxy-4-propyl-phenol, 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-1-(1-hydroxypropyl)benzene. Radioactivity was found in urine and feces of animals treated with either compound, and was detected in the blood of animals treated with DHS. No differences were noted for the nasal metabolism between the two species. This study indicated that not only the nasal tissues, but also the alimentary tract, may be exposed to metabolites of inhaled xenobiotics carried by the mucus.

  9. Benzo(a)pyrene inhibits the role of the bioturbator Tubifex tubifex in river sediment biogeochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; Foulquier, Arnaud; Gilbert, Franck; Navel, Simon; Montuelle, Bernard; Bellvert, Floriant; Comte, Gilles; Grossi, Vincent; Fourel, François; Lecuyer, Christophe; Simon, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between invertebrates and micro-organisms living in streambed sediments often play key roles in the regulation of nutrient and organic matter fluxes in aquatic ecosystems. However, benthic sedi- ments also constitute a privileged compartment for the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants such as PAHs or PCBs that may affect the diversity, abundance and activity of benthic organisms. The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of sediment contamination with t...

  10. Effect of various chemicals on the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene by cultured rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1977-01-01

    hydroxylase (AHH) activity and binding levels of BP to macromolecules were higher in the descending colon when compared to other segments. The major metabolites of BP, extractable with ethylacetate, were quinones, tetrols, 7,8-diol and a peak containing 9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrobenzo(a)pyrene and 7......,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8-dihydrobenzo(a)pyrene. The binding levels of BP to DNA and protein in the explant was lowered by co-incubation with 7,8-benzoflavone (7,8-BF) (3.6 and 18.0 micron), a known inhibitor of AHH, and with disulfiram (100 micron), an anti-oxidant. The absence of vitamin A in the media also resulted...

  11. Reduced-glutathione concentrations in Boleophthalmus pectinirostris tissues exposed to benzo(a)pyrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The concentrations of reduced-glutathione (GSH) in liver and ovary of Boleophthalmus pectinirostris are quantified. The concentrations of GSH in the ovary are much higher than that of GSH in the liver(nearly 3 times of the liver). The study also investigates the changes of GSH contents in the two organs while the fishes were exposed to benzo(a)pyrene(BaP) at concentrations of 0, 0.05, 0.2 and 0.5mg/L respectively for up to a week. The concentrations of GSH in the liver of BaP-exposed fish increased significantly with dose, whereas the oncentrations of GSH in the ovary decreased significantly compared to controls. The results suggested that both the liver and the ovary are the primary organ in BaP metabolism, and that the changes of GSH levels may represent an adaptive response or toxic effect to BaP exposure.

  12. Characteristics of copper removal and ion release during copper biosorption by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in presence of benzo[a]pyrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田云; 叶锦韶; 尹华; 彭辉; 李取生; 白洁琼; 谢丹平

    2013-01-01

    The ability of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was demonstrated to selectively remove Cu2+from Cu(NO3)2 solution under the circumstance that 1 mg/L benzo[a]pyrene(BaP) was either present or not. The removal ratios of 2 and 10 mg/L Cu2+by 0.25 g/L biosorbent are up to 80% and 49% at 10 min, respectively. The biosorption includes ion exchange, NO3 reduction, ion release, and cell oxidation by Cu2+. BaP does not significantly affect Cu2+removal and ion release. Although 2 mg/L Cu2+increases the release of PO4 3, K+, NH4 +and Ca2+, 10 mg/L Cu2+has strong oxidation on cell, and then decreases NO3 reduction and hinders the release of K+, NH4 +and Ca2+. Exogenous cations inhibit the Cu2+biosorption, while additional anions increase the removal ratios of 10 mg/L Cu2+from 52% to 88%.

  13. COMPARATIVE METABOLISM AND EXCRETION OF BENZO(A)PYRENE IN 2 SPECIES OF ICTALURID CATFISH. (R827101)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. Pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of soil-adsorbed benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of BaP administered orally as the pure chemical or as BaP adsorbed on solid particulates. Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with BaP mixed with 14C-BaP in solution (1.0 μmol BaP/kg, 25 μCi/kg) or the equivalent dose adsorbed onto a clay-based soil, a sand-based soil or rodent food. Venous blood samples were collected at predetermined times for 168 hrs and excreta collected at 24-hr intervals. After 168 hrs, animals were euthanized and tissues collected for analysis. Pharmacokinetic evaluation was based upon two-compartment modeling of the blood concentration data. In all groups, greater than 50% of the dose was recovered in the feces within 48 hrs, whereas only 2-5% of the dose was excreted in the urine after 48 hrs. Total recovery in the excreta ranged from 62-80% of the dose. At study termination, BaP was detected only in the liver, kidneys and adrenal glands. For each tissue, the BaP concentration was greatest in the BaP alone group, followed successively by the sand-, food- and clay-adsorbed BaP groups. Within each group, the kidneys and adrenal glands contained the highest and lowest tissue concentration of BaP, respectively. In general, the elimination half-life, time to maximum blood concentration, and rate constants for absorption and distribution were similar between groups. However, the bioavailability of BaP was markedly less in groups administered BaP adsorbed onto a solid matrix (63, 54 and 34% of the BaP alone group in rats administered sand-, food- and clay-adsorbed BaP, respectively). These results demonstrate that adsorption onto various solid matrices decreased the relative bioavailability of BaP, but produced no other marked effect upon the general pharmacokinetic behavior of orally administered BaP

  15. Carcinogenicity of airborne fine particulate benzo(a)pyrene: an appraisal of the evidence and the need for control.

    OpenAIRE

    PERERA, F.

    1981-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene(BaP) originating from fossil fuel and other organic combustion processes is largely adsorbed on fine particulate and hence is a widespread atmospheric pollutant. Available emissions and air quality data are based on the total weight of particulate matter without reference to size and give little information on trends and concentrations of fine particulate BaP. Greater reliance on coal, synfuels and diesel fuel for energy production and transportation will significantly increase...

  16. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha potentiates genotoxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene in liver progenitor cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Umannová, Lenka; Machala, M.; Kozubík, Alois; Topinka, Jan; Nováková, Zuzana; Milcová, Alena; Vondráček, Jan

    Bratislava, 2007. P1. [Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Prevention. 22.10.2007-24.10.2007, Bratislava] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/05/0595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : tumor necrosis factor-alpha * xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes * PAH Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  17. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha potentiates genotoxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene in liver progenitor cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Umannová, Lenka; Machala, M.

    Liptovský Ján, 2007. s. 78. ISBN 978-80-969688-5-5. [XXIV. Xenobiochemické sympózium. 22.05.2007-24.05.2007, Liptovský Ján] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/05/0595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : environmental pollutant * proinflammatory cytokine * DNA addukt Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  18. Effects of environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene in human androgen-dependent prostate adenocarcinoma cell line LNcaP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marvanová, S.; Hrubá, E.; Krčmář, P.; Nováková, Zuzana; Milcová, Alena; Topinka, Jan; Souček, Karel; Vondráček, Jan; Machala, M.

    Bratislava, 2007. s. 9-10. [Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Prevention. 22.10.2007-24.10.2007, Bratislava] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA310/07/0961 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : genotoxicity * apoptosis * DNA adducts Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  19. CHARACTERIZATION AND QUANTITATION OF BENZO[A]PYRENE DNA ADDUCTS BY SOLID-MATRIX LUMINESCENCE. (R824100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. Phthalic acid and benzo[a]pyrene in soil-plant-water systems amended with contaminated sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougin, C.; Dappozze, F.; Brault, A.;

    2006-01-01

    than 30% after 90 days in the situation of direct soil contamination, amendment with contaminated digested or composted sludge. It is reduced to 10% in the presence of the raw sludge. In that case, the values of phospholipidic fatty acids and dehydrogenase activity are the highest. By contrast, benzo...

  1. Development of basal and induced aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase activity in the chicken embryo in ovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J W; Denison, M S; Bloom, S E

    1983-06-01

    The development of the hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase system was studied to determine the basal level of embryonic enzyme activity and the inducibility of this system throughout growth and differentiation. Chicken embryo livers were assayed for basal and inducible hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHHase; designated elsewhere as AHH) activity from the first appearance of the liver as a discrete organ at 5 days of incubation (DI) through day 10 after hatching. In addition, whole-embryo and viscera preparations were assayed at 3 and 4 DI. Basal AHHase activity was equal to or greater than adult levels from 3 DI through hatching in all preparations (approximately 0.3-0.5 nmol/min per mg). A 3-fold increase in basal activity above adult values occurred at hatching. The onset of inducibility in chicken embryo liver between 5 and 6 DI was concomitant with hepatocyte differentiation. A developmental profile of 24-hr 3,4,3', 4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl-induced AHHase activity showed 15- to 30-fold induction over controls from 7 DI through day 10 after hatching, with a maximum of 15 nmol/min per mg at 14 DI and day 1 after hatching, a specific activity greater than 50% greater than maximal induction in the adult. Embryonic AHHase activity was also induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 3-methylcholanthrene, beta-naphthoflavone, and sodium phenobarbital. Induction kinetics throughout embryonic development were similar to those reported for the adult chicken and other animals. These findings demonstrate development of a mixed-function oxidase system in very early embryogenesis and then in the liver as it differentiates. Liver AHHase activity is inducible throughout development and perinatally but such activity is under strict developmental regulation. The chicken embryo has adult levels of AHHase activity which would be sufficient to achieve metabolic activation of promutagens/carcinogens before and after hepatocyte differentiation. PMID:6407011

  2. Development of basal and induced aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase activity in the chicken embryo in ovo.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, J. W.; Denison, M. S.; Bloom, S E

    1983-01-01

    The development of the hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase system was studied to determine the basal level of embryonic enzyme activity and the inducibility of this system throughout growth and differentiation. Chicken embryo livers were assayed for basal and inducible hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHHase; designated elsewhere as AHH) activity from the first appearance of the liver as a discrete organ at 5 days of incubation (DI) through day 10 after hatching. In addition, whole...

  3. VISUALIZATION OF TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND METABOLISM OF BENZO[A]PYRENE IN EARLY EMBRYONIC MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish early life stages are highly sensitive to exposure to persistent bioaccumulative toxicants (PBTs). The factors that contribute to this are unknown, but may include the distribution of PBTs to sensitive tissues during critical stages of development. Multiphoton laser scannin...

  4. Prostaglandins and their precursors can modify genetic damage-induced by gamma-radiation and benzo(a)pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were performed to study the effect of various prostaglandins (PGs) and their precursors, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and arachidonic acid (AA) on gamma-radiation and benzo (a) pyrene (BP)-induced genetic damage to the bone marrow cells of mice, using the sensitive micronucleus (MN) test. Thromboxane B2 prostaglandin E1 and GLA completely prevented BP-induced and reduced to a great degree radiation-induced genetic damage, where as PGE2, PGF2 alpha and AA were without any effect. Since GLA and AA are widely distributed in the cell membranes, and as PGs can be formed virtually in response to any type of stimulus, it is likely that GLA and PGE1 may function as endogenous anti-mutagenic chemicals

  5. Gene expression profiles and genetic damage in benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide-exposed TK6 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microarray analysis is a powerful tool to identify the biological effects of drugs or chemicals on cellular gene expression. In this study, we compare the relationships between traditional measures of genetic toxicology and mutagen-induced alterations in gene expression profiles. TK6 cells were incubated with 0.01, 0.1, or 1.0 μM ±anti-benzo(a)pyrene-trans-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) for 4 h and then cultured for an additional 20 h. Aliquots of the exposed cells were removed at 4 and 24 h in order to quantify DNA adduct levels by 32P post-labeling and measure cell viability by cloning efficiency and flow cytometry. Gene expression profiles were developed by extracting total RNA from the control and exposed cells at 4 and 24 h, labeling with Cy3 or Cy5 and hybridizing to a human 350 gene array. Mutant frequencies in the Thymidine Kinase and Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyl Transferase genes were also determined. The 10α-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-7α,8β,9β-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a) pyrene (dG-N2-BPDE) adduct increased as a function of dose and was the only adduct identified. A dose-related decrease in cell viability was evident at 24 h, but not at 4 h. Cell death occurred by apoptosis. At 4 h, analysis of the gene expression profiles revealed that Glutathione Peroxidase and Gadd45 were consistently upregulated (greater than 1.5-fold and significantly (P<0.001) greater than the control in two experiments) in response to 1.0 μM BPDE exposure. Fifteen genes were consistently down-regulated (less than 0.67-fold and significantly (P<0.001) lower than the control in two experiments) at 4 h in cultures exposed to 1.0 μM BPDE. Genes with altered expression at 4 h included genes important in the progression of the cell-cycle and those that inhibit apoptosis. At 24 h post-exposure, 16 genes, involved in cell-cycle control, detoxification, and apoptosis were consistently upregulated; 10 genes were repressed in cultures exposed to the high dose of BPDE. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed the differential expression of selected genes. These data suggest that changes in gene expression will help to identify effects of drugs and chemicals on molecular pathways in cells, and will provide useful information about the molecular responses associated with DNA damage. Of the endpoints evaluated, DNA adduct formation was the most sensitive indicator of DNA damage. DNA adduct formation was clearly evident at low doses, but the number of genes with significantly altered expression (P<0.001) was minimal. Alterations in gene expression were more robust at doses associated with cellular toxicity and induction of mutations.

  6. Endocrine disruptive actions of inhaled benzo(a)pyrene on ovarian function and fetal survival in fisher F-344 adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibong, Anthony E; Ramesh, Aramandla; Inyang, Frank; Niaz, Mohammad S; Hood, Darryl B; Kopsombut, Prapaporn

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of inhaled BaP on female reproductive function. Rats were exposed to 50, or 75 or 100 μg BaP/m(3), 4 h a day for 14 days via inhalation. Plasma E(2), P(4), LH and FSH concentrations were determined. Ovarian BaP metabolism and aryl hydrocarbon hydrolase (AHH) activity at proestrus were determined and fertility evaluations were conducted. Ovulation rate and number of pups/litter were reduced in rats exposed to 100 μg BaP/m(3) compared with other treatment and control groups. Plasma concentrations of E(2), and LH were significantly reduced at proestrus in BaP-exposed versus those of controls whereas those of P(4) were significantly reduced at diestrus I. The activity of AHH in ovarian and liver tissues and concentrations of BaP 7,8-diol and BaP 3,6-dione metabolites increased in an exposure concentration-dependent manner. These data suggest that exposure of rats to BaP prior to mating contributes to reduced ovarian function and fetal survival. PMID:23059060

  7. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTIVE ACTIONS OF INHALED BENZO(a)PYRENE ON OVARIAN FUNCTION AND FETAL SURVIVAL IN FISHER F-344 ADULT RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Archibong, Anthony E.; Ramesh, Aramandla; Inyang, Frank; Niaz, Mohammad S.; Hood, Darryl B.; Kopsombut, Prapaporn

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of inhaled BaP on female reproductive function. Rats were exposed to 50, or 75 or 100 μg BaP/m3, four hours a day for 14 days via inhalation. Plasma E2, P4, LH and FSH concentrations were determined. Ovarian BaP metabolism and aryl hydrocarbon hydrolase (AHH) activity at proestrus were determined and fertility evaluations were conducted. Ovulation rate and number of pups/litter were reduced in rats exposed to 100 μg BaP/m3 compared with other treatment and cont...

  8. Gene expression profiling in Caco-2 human colon cells exposed to TCDD, benzo[a]pyrene, and natural Ah receptor agonists from cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waard, de W.J.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Baykus, H.; Talsma, E.F.; Punt, A.; Kok, de T.M.C.M.; Schooten, van F.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits are reported to possess health-beneficial properties, but also have been shown to contain natural aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (NAhRAs). Binding to the AhR is widely assumed to activate the main pathway by which dioxins, like 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodi

  9. 苯并(a)芘对热休克因子1的影响%Effects of Benzo(a)pyrene on Heat Shock Factor 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨进波; 徐谦; 蒋长征; 柯磊; 何启强; 白云; 贺涵贞; 胡丙长; 邬堂春

    2004-01-01

    [目的]研究苯并(a)芘(benzo(a)pyrene,BaP)对热休克因子1(heat shookfactor 1,HSF1)的影响.[方法]离体原代培养猪主动脉内皮细胞,以不同浓度的BaP(0、0.1、0.5、1、5、10μmol/L)染毒24 h,分别以Westem-blot法和凝胶阻滞电泳(electrophorefic mobility shift assay,EMSA)法检测各浓度组细胞HSF1表达及HSF1与热休克元件(heat shock element,HSE)结合水平的变化.[结果]低、中浓度(0.1~1 μmol/L)的BaP对HSF1总表达量基本无影响,胞质和胞核HSF1表达量与阴性对照组相比没有明显改变(P>0.05),但随BaP浓度的升高,HSF1有向胞核转移的趋势;而高浓度(5、10μmol/L)的BaP会导致胞浆和胞核HSF1均降低(P<0.05).低、中浓度(0.1~1 μmol/L)BaP作用下,HSF1-HSE结合水平基本不变或略有上升,高浓度(5、10μmol/L)的BaP使HSF1-HSE结合水平明显降低.[结论]BaP作用时,内皮细胞HSF1表达水平与分布、HSF1-HSE结合能力的改变可能是BaP导致热休克蛋白(heat shook protein 70,HSP70)表达降低原因之一;但BaP作用下,内皮细胞HSF1表达水平与分布、HSF1-HSE结合能力的改变与HSP70表达改变并不完全一致,提示研究HSF1与HSE结合之后的改变对进一步揭示BaP致HSP70的基因表达降低的原因有着重要意义.

  10. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha potentiates genotoxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene in rat liver epithelial cells through upregulation of cytochrome P450 1B1 expression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Umannová, Lenka; Machala, M.; Topinka, Jan; Nováková, Zuzana; Milcová, Alena; Kozubík, Alois; Vondráček, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 640, 1-2 (2008), s. 162-169. ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/05/0595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : TNF-alpha * BaP * CYP1B1 Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.198, year: 2008

  11. Influence of immunization with non-genotoxic PAH-KLH conjugates on the resistance of organisms exposed to benzo(a)pyrene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černohorská, H.; Klimešová, Š.; Lepša, L.; Jinoch, P.; Milcová, Alena; Schmuczerová, Jana; Topinka, Jan; Lábaj, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 742, 1-2 (2012), s. 2-10. ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : anti-PAH antibodies * DNA adducts * ELISA Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.220, year: 2012

  12. Biodegradation of benzo[a]pyrene in soil by Mucor sp. SF06 and Bacillus sp. SB02 co-immobilized on vermiculite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Dan; LI Pei-jun; FRANK Stagnitti; XIONG Xian-zhe

    2006-01-01

    Two indigenous microorganisms, Bacillus sp. SB02 and Mucor sp. SF06, capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were co-immobilized on vermiculite by physical adsorption and used to degrade benzo[a] pyrane (BaP). The characteristics of BaP degradation by both free and co-immobilized microorganism were then investigated and compared. The removal rate using the immobilized bacterial-ftmgal mixed consortium was higher than that of the freely mobile mixed consortium. 95.3% of BaP was degraded using the co-immobilized system within 42 d, which was remarkably higher than the removal rate of that by the free strains. The optimal amount of inoculated co-immobilized system for BaP degradation was 2%. The immobilized bacterial-ftmgal mixed consortium also showed better water stability than the free strains. Kinetics of BaP biodegradation by co-immobilized SF06 and SB02 were also studied. The results demonstrated that BaP degradation could be well described by a zero-order reaction rate equation when the initial BaP concentration was in the range of 10-200 mg/kg. The scanning electronic microscope (SEM) analysis showed that the co-immobilized microstructure was suitable for the growth of SF06 and SB02. The mass transmission process of co-immobilized system in soil is discussed. The results demonstrate the potential for employing the bacterial-fungal mixed consortium,co-immobilized on vermiculite, for in situ bioremediation of BaP.

  13. The effect of dietary lipid composition on the intestinal uptake and tissue distribution of benzo[a]pyrene and phenanthrene in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, Stefan; Bakke, Marit J; Vos, Joëlle; Rasinger, Josef D; Ingebrigtsen, Kristian; Grung, Merete; Ruus, Anders; Flik, Gert; Klaren, Peter H M; Berntssen, Marc H G

    2016-01-01

    Uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) across the intestine is suggested to occur in association with dietary lipids. Partial replacement of fish ingredients by vegetable ingredients in aquafeeds has led to increased levels of PAHs in marine farmed fish. We therefore investigated, intestinal uptake, tissue distribution and PAH metabolism after a single dose of (14)C-benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) or (14)C-phenanthrene (PHE) given to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) acclimatized to a fish oil or vegetable oil based diet. Both BaP and PHE were absorbed along the intestine. Fish oil based feed increased BaP concentration in the pyloric caeca and that of PHE in the proximal intestine. In contrast, vegetable oil increased BaP concentrations in the distal intestine. Extraction of whole body autoradiograms removed PHE-associated radiolabeling almost completely from the intestinal mucosa, but not BaP-associated radiolabeling, indicating the presence of BaP metabolites bound to cellular macromolecules. This observation correlates with the increased cyp1a expression in the proximal intestine, distal intestine and liver in the BaP exposed group. Furthermore, BaP-induced cyp1a expression was higher in the distal intestine of salmon fed fish oil compared to the vegetable oil fed group. PHE had no significant effect on cyp1a expression in any of these tissues. We conclude that dietary lipid composition affects intestinal PAH uptake. Fish oil based feed increased intestinal PAH concentrations probably due to an enhanced solubility in micelles composed of fish oil fatty acids. Increased BaP accumulation in the distal intestine of vegetable oil fed fish seems to be associated with a reduced Cyp1a-mediated BaP metabolism. PMID:26972757

  14. Metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in cultured human bronchus and pancreatic duct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1977-01-01

    patients with lung cancer were also compared with those from patients without lung cancer. The profiles were similar except for an observed higher percentage of organic solvent-extractable metabolites formed by bronchi from the noncancer patients that eluted from the column as a single peak. This peak...

  15. Rapid and sensitive determination of benzo[a]pyrene in black ginseng using fluorescence detector and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-jeong; Kim, Hye-jin; Son, Byeong-cheol; Jo, Dong-keun; Cho, Byung-lim

    2013-05-01

    Black ginseng is produced by steaming a ginseng root followed by drying repeatedly 9 times during the process and it is changed to be black color, so it is known that a black ginseng has more contents of saponins than red ginseng. However a fake black ginseng which is produced to be black color at high temperature in a short period of time generate carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene(BaP) through the process. In this year, maximum residue level(MRL) for BaP was established to 2 ug/kg in black ginseng and more sensitive method was developed to quantitatively analyze the BaP by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupling with florescence detector and tandem mass spectrometry (atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-MS/MS). Chromatographic separation was performed on a Supelcosil™ LC-PAH column (3 μm, 3 mm x 50 mm). Mobile phase A was water and mobile phase B was acetonitrile. BaP was exactly separated from other 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which have been selected as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Linearity of detection was in the range of 0.2~20 μg/kg and limit of detection (LOD) for BaP was lower than 0.1 μg/kg, limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.2 μg/kg. The recovery of Bap was 92.54%+/-6.3% in black ginseng.

  16. Proteomic analysis of MCF-7 cells treated with benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, coal tar extract, and diesel exhaust extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooven, L.A.; Baird, W.M. [Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. for Zoology

    2008-07-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) DNA adducts have been associated with carcinogenesis, which is accompanied by multiple alterations in gene expression. We used two-dimensional electrophoresis to distinguish protein expression changes induced in MCF-7 cells by individual PAH (B(a)P and DB(a,l)P) and PAH mixtures (coal tar extract (SRM 1597) and diesel exhaust extract (SRM 1975)). Spots of interest were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. Our results have shown alterations in the expression of heat-shock proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, DNA associated proteins, and glycolytic and mitochondrial proteins. The proteins that were universally altered in expression were actin cytoplasmic 1, tubulin alpha and myosin light chain alkali, cyclophilin B, and heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein B1 (a protein involved in access to telomerase and mRNA maturation). Additional proteins with altered expression include histone H{sub 2}A.1, heat-shock protein 70-2, galectin-3, nucleoside diphosphate kinase, ATP synthase, and electron transfer flavoprotein. While sharing similarities, each PAH treatment exhibited a unique proteomic fingerprint.

  17. Oxidative DNA damage following in vivo exposure to Benzo(a)pyrene in the testis, lung and liver of wild type and Ogg1-deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In the industrial communities of today there is reason for concern for the reproductive health of the male, due to decreasing sperm quality and increased incidences of testicular cancer. Norway and Denmark have the highest incidence rates of testicular cancer in the world. There has traditionally been more focus on the maternal contribution for infertility and defects on the offspring compared to the paternal contribution. The genetic constitution of the offspring depends on the integrity of ...

  18. BENZO(A)PYRENE AND X-RAYS INDUCE REVERSIONS OF THE PINK-EYED UNSTABLE MUTATION IN THE RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM OF MICE. (R825359)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. hREV3 is essential for error-prone translesion synthesis past UV or benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-induced DNA lesions in human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In S. cerevisiae, the REV3 gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of polymerase zeta, is involved in translesion synthesis and required for the production of mutations induced by ultraviolet radiation (UV) photoproducts and other DNA fork-blocking lesions, and for the majority of spontaneous mutations. To determine whether hREV3, the human homolog of yeast REV3, is similarly involved in error-prone translesion synthesis past UV photoproducts and other lesions that block DNA replication, an hREV3 antisense construct under the control of the TetP promoter was transfected into an infinite life span human fibroblast cell strain that expresses a high level of tTAk, the activator of that promoter. Three transfectant strains expressing high levels of hREV3 antisense RNA were identified and compared with their parental cell strain for sensitivity to the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of UV. The three hREV3 antisense-expressing cell strains were not more sensitive than the parental strain to the cytotoxic effect of UV, but the frequency of mutants induced by UV in their HPRT gene was significantly reduced, i.e. to 14% that of the parent. Two of these hREV3 antisense-expressing cell strains were compared with the parental strain for sensitivity to (±)-7β,8α-dihydroxy-9α,10α-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE). They were not more sensitive than the parent strain to the cytotoxic effect of BPDE, but the frequency of mutants induced was significantly reduced, i.e. in one strain, to 17% that of the parent, and in the other, to 24%. DNA sequencing showed that the kinds of mutations induced by BPDE in the parental and the derivative strains did not differ and were similar to those found previously with finite life span human fibroblasts. The data strongly support the hypothesis that hRev3 plays a critical role in the induction of mutations by UV or BPDE. Because the level of hRev3 protein in human fibroblasts is below the level of antibody detection, it was not possible to demonstrate that the decrease in mutagenesis reflected decreased hRev3 protein. However, the conclusion is supported by the fact that in a similar study with a strain expressing a high level of antisense hREV1, a very similar result was obtained, i.e. UV or BPDE mutagenesis was virtually eliminated.

  20. Inhibition of beta-catenin signalling promotes DNA damage elicited by benzo[a]pyrene in a model of human colon cancer cells via CYP1 deregulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kabátková, Markéta; Zapletal, Ondřej; Tylichová, Zuzana; Neca, J.; Machala, M.; Milcová, Alena; Topinka, Jan; Kozubík, Alois; Vondráček, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 4 (2015), s. 565-576. ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-09766S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : ARYL-HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR * POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS * COLORECTAL- CANCER Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.793, year: 2014

  1. Inflammatory mediators accelerate metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in rat alveolar type II cells: the role of enhanced cytochrome P450 1B1 expression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmerdová, Lenka; Neča, J.; Svobodová, J.; Topinka, Jan; Schmuczerová, Jana; Kubík, A.; Machala, M.; Vondráček, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 314, č. 1 (2013), s. 30-38. ISSN 0300-483X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/11/0142 Grant ostatní: GA MZe(CZ) MZE0002716202; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/1227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : inflammation * CYP1B1 * polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.745, year: 2013

  2. REVERSED-PHASE CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION OF BENZO[A]PYRENE METABOLITES WITH BETA-CYCLODEXTRIN AS A MOBILE PHASE ADDITIVE. (R824100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. THE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION OF METABOLITES OF BENZO[A]PYRENE WITH GAMMA-CYCLODEXTRIN AS A MOBILE PHASE ADDITIVE. (R824100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. Suppression of keratinocyte differentiation in SCC-9 human squamous carcinoma cells by benzo(a)pyrene, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and hydroxyurea

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, RH; Rong, X.

    1988-01-01

    In the human squamous carcinoma cell line SCC-9, the expression of two markers of keratinocyte differentiation, involucrin and transglutaminase, was greatly stimulated when growing cultures reached confluence. However, the two markers differed temporally in their induction, with transglutaminase reaching maximal levels shortly after confluence and involucrin a week later. If replication was arrested with hydroxyurea prior to confluence, transglutaminase induction occurred within several days ...

  5. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF WHOLE ANIMAL EXPOSURE TO ACID MISTS AND PARTICULATES ON THE PULMONARY METABOLISM OF BENZO(A)PYRENE IN THE ISOLATED PERFUSED LUNG MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer represents the highest single cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. Epidemiological and experimental evidence indicates that the interplay of multiple environmental factors is responsible for the induction of lung cancer. Man is exposed to a complex mixture of potentiall...

  6. Benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide suppresses retinoic acid receptor-β2 expression by recruiting DNA (cytosine-5--methyltransferase 3A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xiao-Chun

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tobacco smoke is an important risk factor for various human cancers, including esophageal cancer. How benzo [a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE, a carcinogen present in tobacco smoke as well as in environmental pollution, induces esophageal carcinogenesis has yet to be defined. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism responsible for BPDE-suppressed expression of retinoic acid receptor-beta2 (RAR-β2 in esophageal cancer cells. We treated esophageal cancer cells with BPDE before performing methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP to find that BPDE induced methylation of the RAR-β2 gene promoter. We then performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays to find that BPDE recruited genes of the methylation machinery into the RAR-β2 gene promoter. We found that BPDE recruited DNA (cytosine-5--methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3A, but not beta (DNMT3B, in a time-dependent manner to methylate the RAR-β2 gene promoter, which we confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis of the reduced RAR-β2 expression in these BPDE-treated esophageal cancer cell lines. However, BPDE did not significantly change DNMT3A expression, but it slightly reduced DNMT3B expression. DNA methylase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza and DNMT3A small hairpin RNA (shRNA vector antagonized the effects of BPDE on RAR-β2 expressions. Transient transfection of the DNMT3A shRNA vector also antagonized BPDE's effects on expression of RAR-β2, c-Jun, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, suggesting a possible therapeutic effect. The results of this study form the link between the esophageal cancer risk factor BPDE and the reduced RAR-β2 expression.

  7. Subnormal expression of cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in progeny disposed toward a high incidence of tumors after in utero exposure to benzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregnant mice were exposed to 150 μg benzol[a]pyrene (BaP) per gram of body weight during fetogenesis (d 11-17 of gestation) and the progeny were assayed for humoral and cell mediated immune responses at different time intervals after birth. Immature offspring (1-4 wk) were severely suppressed in their ability to produce antibody (plaque-) forming cells (PFC) against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and in the ability of their lymphocytes to undergo a mixed lymphocyte response (MLR). Lymphocytes from these progeny showed a moderate to weak capacity to inhabit production of colony-forming units (CFU) in host spleens following transfer with semiallogeneic bone marrow (BM) cells into lethally x-irradiated recipients syngeneic to the BM (in vivo graft-versus-host response, GVHR). A severe and sustained suppression in the MLR and the PFC response occurred from the fifth month up to 18 mo. The in vivo GVHR, also subnormal later in life, was not as severely suppressed as the other two parameters. Tumor incidence in the BP-exposed progeny was 8- to 10-fold higher than in those encountering corn oil alone from 18 to 24 mo of age. These data show that in utero exposure to the chemical carcinogen BaP alters development of components needed for establishing competent hemoral and cell-mediated functions of the immune apparatus and leads to severe and sustained postnatal suppression of the defense mechanism. The immunodeficiency exhibited, particularly in the T-cell compartment (MLR, GVHR), before and during the increase in tumor frequency, may provide a favorable environment for the growth of nascent neoplasms induced by BaP. 30 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  8. Preferential binding of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide to the linker DNA of human foreskin fibroblasts in S phase in the presence of benzamide.

    OpenAIRE

    Kurian, P.; Jeffrey, A M; Milo, G E

    1985-01-01

    Addition of benzamide (BZ) at the onset of S phase inhibited expression of the neoplastic phenotype in human foreskin fibroblasts treated in vitro with (+/-)-7 alpha,8 beta-dihydroxy-9 beta,10 beta-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P diol epoxide) in early S phase. Analysis of the specific B[a]P diol epoxide-DNA adducts revealed that ca. 65% of the total adducts in BZ and non-BZ carcinogen-treated cells was the B[a]P diol epoxide-deoxyguanine adduct. Limited micrococcal nuclease di...

  9. The roles of diol epoxide and o-quinone pathways in mouse lung tumorigenesis induced by benzo(a)pyrene: relevance to human lung carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is sufficient epidemiological evidence supported by experimental data that some PAH-containing complex environmental mixtures pose risks to human health by increasing lung cancer incidence. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has determined that human respirator...

  10. Comparison of epoxide and free-radical mechanisms for activation of benzo[a]pyrene by Sprague-Dawley rat liver microsomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coincubation of [6-3H]benzo[a]pyrene ([6-3H]BP) and [14C]BP with SD rat liver microsomes produced metabolic profiles that showed that the C-6 of BP was not affected by formation of 4,5-dihydro-4,5-dihydroxy-BP, 7,8-dihydro-7,8-dihydroxy-BP, and 9,10-dihydro-9,10-dihydroxy-BP nor the 3- and 9-phenols of BP. Complete retention of tritium at C-6, except in the three quinones, confirmed the radical-cation model for formation of the 6-oxo-radical followed by oxidation to quinone. Epoxide formation at the carcinogenically active regions of BP appeared to biochemically isolate from 6-position activation and suggested that the microsomal epoxide pathway is unrelated to the radicalcation scheme. These molar ratios derived from double-label experiments reinforced the current literature that indicates the epoxide mechanism as the major pathway toward carcinogenic forms of BP

  11. Preferential binding of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide to linker DNA of human foreskin fibroblasts in S phase in the presence of benzamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addition of benzamide (BZ) at the onset of S phase inhibited expression of the neoplastic phenotype of human foreskin fibroblasts treated in vitro with (+/-)-7α,8β-dihydroxy-9β,10β-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P diol epoxide) in early S phase. Analysis of the specific B[a]P diol epoxide-DNA adducts revealed that ca. 65% of the total adducts in BZ and non-BZ carcinogen-treated cells was the B[a]P diol epoxide-deoxyguanine adduct. Limited micrococcal nuclease digestion of the early S phase nuclei from cells treated with B[a]P diol epoxide indicated that the carcinogen binds equally to linker and core DNA. However, when the cells were predominantly in S phase, in the presence of BZ, there was ca. three times more binding of B[a]P diol epoxide to the linker DNA compared to the core region. These data indicate that pretreatment of the cells with BZ at the onset of S phase established a preferential binding pattern in the linker DNA similar to that observed in the cells treated with B[a]P diol epoxide in G1 arrest

  12. BENZO[A]PYRENE AND BENZO[C]PHENANTHRENE: THE EFFECT OF STRUCTURE ON THE BINDING OF WATER MOLECULES TO THE DIOL EPOXIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACTThe interaction with water of the diol epoxides (DEs) of both a planar and a non-planar PAH have been examined using molecular dynamics. To determine probable water locations around the DE for later use in the study of DE protonation, molecular dynamics simulations u...

  13. In vivo DNA/RNA adduction of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnitz, A.R.; O' Connor, J.M. (New York University Medical Center, NY (United States))

    1992-07-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout were exposed via two intramuscular injections to either 14C-DMBA for 24 hr or 14C-BaP for 48 hr, after which the livers were removed for DNA extraction and analysis. In the fish exposed to 14C-BaP, 0.2 ng was bound to the DNA, representing 0.5% of the total liver PAH-derived radioactivity and 2.38% of the administered dose. Liver DNA and RNA were found to contain 0.5% of the administered dose, respectively. Liver analysis of rainbow trout exposed to 14C-DMBA demonstrated that 0.4 ng and 0.3 ng were bound to the DNA and RNA, respectively. This represents 1.0% and 0.6% of the liver DMBA burden, respectively. The DNA adduct concentrations formed were comparable to both in vitro and in vivo experiments with both mammals and fishes, indicating that relatively small, environmentally realistic' doses of PAH have the ability to bind significantly to critical cellular macromolecules of young fish in vivo.

  14. BENZO[a]PYRENE METABOLITES EXAGGERATE DNA OXIDATIVE DAMAGE UPON THE INVOLVEMENT OF FREE RADICALS%苯并[a]比代谢产物在自由基参与下加速DNA的氧化损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗云敬; GAO Da-yuan; WEI Hua-chen

    2003-01-01

    @@ Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),which constitute a major class of environmental pollu tants are posing a threat to human health. Benzopyrene,an index of PAH levels omnipresent in the everyday environment ,becomes toxic only when being metabolically and/or photo-activated,i. e. ,in the pres ence of UV light. Free radicals such as superoxide anions ('O2),hydrogen peroxide (H2O2),hydroxyl radicals ('OH) and singlet oxygen (1O2) are involved in carcinogenesis. Wei CE etc[1] studied the effects of different scavengers of active oxygen species (superoxide dismutase,catalase,mannitol and dimethyfu ran) on promoting B[a]P mutagenicity. Bryla P ete[2] investigated the roles of several ROS scavengers in the oxidation and binding of B[a]P to calf thymus DNA using the 32p-postlabeling assay.

  15. USE OF SUBCRITICAL WATER FOR THE CONTENT ASSESSMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN SOILS OF THE INFLUENCE ZONE OF POWER COMPLEX COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushkova S. N.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The research of the territory adjacent to Novocherkassk state district power station, for the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (on an example of benzo(apyrene is presented. The benzo(apyrene content in soils has been determined with a method of subcritical water extraction. The content of benzo(apyrene in soils of the territory adjacent to Novocherkassk state district power station has been estimated. It is shown, that contents of benzo(apyrene excess over maximum permissible concentration in soils of five-kilometer zone around the companies

  16. 77 FR 41784 - Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Announcement of Availability of Literature Searches...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... AGENCY Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Announcement of Availability of Literature Searches for... literature search for benzo(a)pyrene; request for information. SUMMARY: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing the availability of a literature search for benzo(a)pyrene (CASRN 50-...

  17. 苯并(a)芘作用下的人支气管上皮细胞DNA损伤与XPF、XPG和ERCC1蛋白表达的关系%Association of DNA Damage and Expression of XPF,XPG and ERCC1 in 16HBE Exposed to Benzo[a]pyrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑾; 刘晓勇; 牛丕业; 邹云锋; 宫智勇; 袁晶; 邬堂春

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨苯并(a)芘(Benzo[a]pyrene,B[a]P)作用下人支气管上皮细胞(16HBE)DNA损伤与着色性干皮病F、G蛋白[Xeroderma pigmentosum group F,G(XPF,XPG)]和切除修复交叉互补蛋白1(Excision repair cross-complementing 1,ERCC1)表达的关系.方法 用B[a]P(0,1,2,4,8,16,32,64μmol/L)染毒16HBE细胞24h,用噻唑蓝(Methylthiazoletetrazolium,MTT)法检测B[a]P对细胞的毒作用.用Comet实验检测细胞DNA损伤并以Olive尾矩值(Olive Tail Moments,OTM)评价DNA损伤程度.用Western-blot检测XPF、XPG和ERCC1蛋白的表达水平.结果 B[a]P浓度大于4μmol/L的各组细胞活性均显著性降低(P<0.05).各染毒组细胞DNA损伤程度则明显增高(P<0.05).在不同浓度B[a]P染毒细胞中目的 蛋白的表达量有差异.在1 μmol/L和2μmol/L B[a]P组细胞XPF、XPG表达增高,且2 μmol/L组XPG水平与对照组相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),但随染毒剂量增大(32,64 μmol/L),XPF和XPG表达量明显降低(P<0.05).ERCC1表达随染毒剂量的增高而逐渐增加,在16μmol/L达到峰值,随后逐步下降.回归分析显示XPF、XPG和ERCC1的表达与OTM值之间决定系数分别为0.691、0.745和0.642.结论 B[a]P引起的XPF、XPG和ERCC1蛋白表达水平的变化与DNA损伤之间存在密切关系.

  18. Effects of different concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene on antioxidant enzymes in gastropod abalone,Haliotis diversicolor%不同浓度苯并(a)芘对杂色鲍抗氧化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁; 林智勇; 王克坚

    2014-01-01

    为阐释不同浓度苯并(a)芘[B(a)P]对杂色鲍(Haliotis diversicolor)的毒性效应,以0.02、0.04和0.08 mg/dm33个质量浓度的B(a)P对杂色鲍进行水体暴露胁迫,7d后检测肌肉、外套膜、鳃、性腺、肾和肝胰腺的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(GST)和谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GPx)活性及还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)含量.结果显示:0.02 mg/dm3的B(a)P暴露对杂色鲍抗氧化系统的影响不明显,而0.04、0.08 mg/dm3的B(a)P则显著抑制了SOD、CAT和GPx酶活性以及GSH含量,同时对GST酶活性具有显著的诱导作用;实验还发现,不同组织抗氧化酶活性对B(a)P胁迫的敏感性响应存在较大差异,其中鳃、肾脏和肝胰腺的敏感性响应明显高于肌肉和外套膜.上述结果表明,苯并(a)芘暴露对杂色鲍抗氧化酶活性的影响具有明显的剂量-效应关系及组织差异性,杂色鲍的鳃、肾脏或者肝胰腺的抗氧化酶响应多环芳香烃胁迫的更敏感,可作为B(a)P污染的生物标志物.%To reveal the ecotoxicological effects of benzo(a)pyrene[B(a)P]on gastropod abalone,Haliotis diversi-color,the effects of different concentrations of B(a)P (0.02,0.04 and 0.08 mg/dm3 )were studied on antioxidant defense system of H.diversicolor.The results showed that the antioxidant enzymes activities showed little difference for the animals exposed to 0.02 mg/dm3 B(a)P compared with the control.In 0.04 mg/dm3 and 0.08 mg/dm3 groups,the activities of SOD,CAT,GPx and the contents of GSH were significant inhibited by B(a)P exposure, while the GST activities were significantly induced.The activities of antioxidant enzymes were also significantly dif-ferent among the tissues,suggesting the exist of remarkable different physiological functions and responses to B(a)P content.In summary,the antioxidant enzymes activities of exposure to B(a)P exhibit an effects of concen-tration-dependent and are tissue specified in H.diversicolor and the antioxidant enzymes system of the gills,kidney and hepatopancreas are more sensitive.Thus it can be used as pollution biomarkers for PAHs stress.

  19. Magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes as a solid phase extraction adsorbent for the determination of benzo(a)pyrene in cooking oil by gaschromatography-mass spectrometry%磁性多壁碳纳米管固相萃取-气相色谱质谱联用快速测定食用油中的苯并[a]芘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冰; 肖维毅; 尧珍玉; 衣志民; 徐兰兰; 闫洪喜; 何雪峰

    2015-01-01

    This paper is related to a method that magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Fe3O4/MWCNTs) were used as solid-phase extraction adsorbents for the determination of benzo (a) pyrene (BaP) in cooking oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized,such as extraction time and variety, dosage and desorption time of desorption solvent. The best conditions of sample treatment were as follows:extraction time is set to 5 min,and ultrasonic desorption time is set to 3 min using 4 mL methylbenzene as desorption solvent. Under the above conditions, the extraction efficiency was ranging from 95.3% to 100.5% with relative standard deviation less than 3%. The limit of detection (S/N=3) for BaP was 0.15μg/L. This method was used for analyzing the cooking oil and no BaP detected. The standard recovery rate was between 77.2% and 89.1% for 6 spiked samples and the relative standard deviation was between 1.1% and 6.0%. It was sensitive when the detection limit (S/N=3) was between 0.19μg/L and 0.29μg/L. This method is simple and fast, accurate and sensitive,and capable of handling large amounts of samples.%建立以磁性多壁碳纳米管(Fe3O4/MWCNTs)作为磁固相萃取吸附剂,气相色谱-质谱联用检测食用油中苯并[a]芘(BaP)的方法。实验优化萃取时间、洗脱溶剂的种类和用量、洗脱时间等影响萃取效率的主要参数。最佳样品处理条件为:萃取时间5 min、4 mL甲苯作为洗脱剂超声洗脱3 min。在最佳条件下,该方法具有较高的准确性和灵敏度,其回收率为95.3%~100.5%,检出限(3倍信噪比)为0.15μg/L。检测市售食用油中的BaP时,实际样品加标回收率为77.2%~89.1%,相对标准偏差为1.1%~6.0%,检出限为0.19%~0.29μg/L,该方法操作简便、耗时短、有毒试剂用量少、准确灵敏。

  20. Determination of the Benzo(a)pyrene level in cooking oil by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography%固相萃取-高效液相色谱法分析食用油中的苯并芘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨燕; 付亚群; 吴晓萌; 姜青青; 邵丽华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector for the determination of the benzo( a) pyrene(B( a) P) level in the cooking oil. Methods The difference of B(a)P content in edible oil in Jinan market was investigated by the SHIMADZU shim-pack VP-ODS (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm) column. The mobile phase was methanol-water(90:10, V/V ), and the flow rate was 1. 0 mL/min. The samples were treated by the non-bonded silica solid phase extraction(SPE) column, and then detected at the 285 nm excitation wavelength and 406nm emission wavelength. Results The lowest limit of determination was 0. 039 μg/kg (S/N =3). The recovery rate was 85. 8% -90.7% , and the intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations were 2. 9% 4.1% and 3.7%-5.3%. Conclusion This method is high sensitive, good selective and quantitative accurate, which is suitable for the B(a)P determination in the cooking oil.%目的 建立一种高效液相色谱-荧光检测器检测食用油中苯并芘的方法.方法 对济南市场上食用油中苯并芘含量进行调查分析,采用SHIMADZU shim-pack VP-ODS (250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm)色谱柱,以甲醇:水(90∶10,V/V)为流动相,流速为1.0 mL/min,样品使用无键合硅胶固相萃取柱处理后,在激发波长285 nm、发射波长406 nm处进行检测.结果 方法的最低检出限(S/N=3)为0.039μg/kg,样品的加标回收率为85.8% ~ 90.7%,日内精密度为2.9% ~4.1%,日间精密度为3.7%~5.3%.结论 该方法灵敏度高,选择性好,定量准确,适用于食用油中苯并芘的检测.

  1. Analysis of biomarkers in a Czech population exposed to heavy air pollution. Part II. Chromosomal aberrations and oxidative stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner Jr., P.; Rössnerová, A.; Špátová, M.; Beskid, O.; Uhlířová, Kateřina; Líbalová, H.; Solanský, I.; Topinka, J.; Šrám, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2013), s. 97-106. ISSN 0267-8357 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : air pollution * benzo[a]pyrene * benzene Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.497, year: 2013

  2. Oxidation of PAHs in water solutions by ultraviolet radiation combined with hydrogen peroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Olejnik; Jacek S. Miller; Stanisław Ledakowicz

    1999-01-01

    The destruction of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene and fluorene in aqueous solution using advanced oxidation process H2O2/UV was investigated. The influence of pH, initial hydrogen peroxide and radical scavenger concentrations on the reaction rate was studied. The oxidation reactions most rapidly run in neutral and acidic solution at optimal hydrogen peroxide concentration (ca. 0.01 M). The degradation of benzo[a]pyrene and chrysene follows radical reac...

  3. Metabolism of [3H]benzo[a]pyrene by cultured human bronchus and cultured human pulmonary alveolar macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of [3H]benzo[a]pyrene by cultured human bronchial epithelium and pulmonary alveolar macrophages was studied. Explants of bronchus were prepared and pulmonary alveolar macrophages were isolated from peripheral lung by trypsinization and by differential adhesion to plastic tissue culture dishes. After 7 days in culture the bronchus explant and the macrophages were exposed to [3H]benzo[a]pyrene, and the binding to cellular macromolecules was studied. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity was determined by the release of tritiated water into the culture medium from metabolized [3H]benzo[a]pyrene. Variation in the binding level of benzo[a]pyrene to DNA and to protein in macrophages from different individuals showed 9- and 33-fold interindividual variation, respectively. In the macrophages, both binding of benzo[a]pyrene to macromolecules and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity were dependent on the length of time in culture and length of exposure to benzo[a]pyrene. Pretreatment of the macrophages with benz[α]anthracene increased both binding level of benzo[a]pyrene and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity. When coincubated with benzo[a]pyrene, cycloheximide, 7,8-benzoflavone, or actinomycin D reduced both level of binding and activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase. When macrophage cultures were maintained at pO2 greater than atmospheric air, an increase in binding level and enzyme activity was found. The major metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene formed by macrophages were 7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene, 9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene (16 to 39%) and two distinct peaks containing unidentified polar metabolites. A negative correction between binding of benzo[a]pyrene to protein and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase exists in pulmonary macrophages, but no correlation between data from bronchus and macrophages was found

  4. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna;

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However......, both benzo[a]pyrene and PAH4 concentrations were more than ten times lower for coffee beans than for tea leaves. Highest levels were found for PAH4 of solid instant coffee (5.1 μg/kg). Data were used to calculate the exposure of benzo[a]pyrene (15%) and sum of PAH4 (10%) from tea and coffee...

  5. Flow cytometric measurement of the metabolism of benzo [a] pyrene by mouse liver cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in individual cells was monitored by flow cytometry. The measurements are based on the alterations that occur in the fluorescence emission spectrum of benzo[a]pyrene when it is converted to various metabolities. Using present instrumentation the technique could easily detect 1 x 10/sup 6/ molecules per cells of benzo [a]pyrene and 1 x 10/sup 7/ molecules per cell of the diol epoxide. The analysis of C3H IOT 1/2 mouse fibroblasts growing in culture indicated that there was heterogeneity in the conversion of the parent compound into diol epoxide derivative suggesting that some variation in sensitivity to transformation by benzo[a]pyrene may be due to differences in cellular metabolism

  6. Binding of polycyclic and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to specific fractions of rat lung chromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH) to rat lung nuclei was investigated. Following carcinogen exposure, nuclei were fractionated into active chromatin, nuclear matrix, low salt, and high salt fractions. Preferential binding to active chromatin and nuclear matrix fractions was observed for benzo(a)pyrene (BP), 6-nitro benzo(a)pyrene, 1,6-dinitropyrene (1,6-DNP), and 1-nitropyrene. Incubation of nuclei with BP, benzo(a)pyrene diolepoxide (BPDE), and 1,6-DNP showed that the selective binding was dependent upon the concentration of chemical with less selectivity at higher concentrations. This study shows that NPAH should be considered as another class of compounds that may exert their biological effects by binding to selected regions of chromatin that are involved in DNA replication and translation. (author)

  7. Percutaneous absorption of [14C]DDT and [14C]benzo[a]pyrene from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to determine percutaneous absorption of DDT and benzo[a]pyrene in vitro and in vivo from soil into and through skin. Soil (Yolo County 65-California-57-8; 26% sand, 26% clay, 48% silt) was passed through 10-, 20-, and 48-mesh sieves. Soil then retained by 80-mesh was mixed with [14C]-labeled chemical at 10 ppm. Acetone solutions at 10 ppm were prepared for comparative analysis. Human cadaver skin was dermatomed to 500 microns and used in glass diffusion cells with human plasma as the receptor fluid (3 ml/hr flow rate) for a 24-hr skin application time. With acetone vehicle, DDT (18.1 +/- 13.4%) readily penetrated into human skin. Significantly less DDT (1.0 +/- 0.7%) penetrated into human skin from soil. DDT would not partition from human skin into human plasma in the receptor phase (less than 0.1%). With acetone vehicle, benzo[a]pyrene (23.7 +/- 9.7%) readily penetrated into human skin. Significantly less benzo[a]pyrene (1.4 +/- 0.9%) penetrated into human skin from soil. Benzo[a]pyrene would not partition from human skin into human plasma in the receptor phase (less than 0.1%). Substantivity (skin retention) was investigated by applying 14C-labeled chemical to human skin in vitro for only 25 min. After soap and water wash, 16.7 +/- 13.2% of DDT applied in acetone remained absorbed to skin. With soil only 0.25 +/- 0.11% of DDT remained absorbed to skin. After soap and water wash 5.1 +/- 2.1% of benzo[a]pyrene applied in acetone remained absorbed to skin. With soil only 0.14 +/- 0.13% of benzo[a]pyrene remained absorbed to skin

  8. PAH in tea and coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna; Højgård, Arne

    2013-01-01

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee beans and ready-to-drink preparations. Compared to other food matrices (e.g. fish), the analytical methods were challenged by the hot water extracts.Preparation of tea includes roasting and drying o...

  9. Ambient air concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, E.M. [Landesanstalt fuer Umweltschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been measured in most of the German states. The measurements were carried out under different seasonal conditions and at locations with differing air quality. Benzo(a)pyrene was widely used as an indicator substance for heating systems and industrial firing systems. Coronene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene were used as indicator substances for motor traffic.

  10. 40 CFR 421.26 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Subcategory § 421.26 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7, any new... comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards for new sources. The mass of... pounds) of cryolite recovered Benzo(a)pyrene 1.181 0.547 Cyanide 157.600 70.060 Nickel 80.570...

  11. Nonhomologous DNA end joining and chromosome aberrations in human embryonic lung fibroblasts treated with environmental pollutants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Beskid, Olena; Tabashidze, Nana; Líbalová, Helena; Uhlířová, Kateřina; Topinka, Jan; Šrám, Radim

    763-764, MAY-JUN 2014 (2014), s. 28-38. ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/11/0084 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : benzo[a]pyrene * chromosome aberrations * double-strand DNA breaks Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.680, year: 2014

  12. Annual Danish Informative Inventory Report to UNECE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth;

    for the years 1980-2008, (2) NOX, CO, NMVOC and NH3 for the years 1985-2008, (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM10, PM2.5 for the years 2000-2008, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2008, (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo...

  13. Annual Danish Emissions Inventory Report to UNECE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Nielsen, M.; Winther, M.;

    for the years 1980-2002, (2) NOX, CO, NMVOC and NH3 for the years 1985-2002; (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM10, PM2.5 for the years 2000-2002, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2002, and (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo...

  14. Annual Danish Informative Inventory Report to UNECE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth;

    2012-01-01

    for the years 1980-2010, (2) NOX, CO, NMVOC and NH3 for the years 1985-2010, (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM10, PM2.5 for the years 2000-2010, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2010, (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo...

  15. Annual Danish Informative Iventory Report to UNECE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth;

    ) SOX for the years 1980-2007, (2) NOX, CO, NMVOC and NH3 for the years 1985-2007, (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM10, PM2.5 for the years 2000-2007, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2007, (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo...

  16. Modeling the exposure of children and adults via diet to chemicals in the environment with crop-specific models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legind, Charlotte Nielsen; Trapp, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    from their background concentrations in soil and air. Calculated daily intakes of benzo(a)pyrene and 2,3,7,8-TCDD are in good agreement with measured results from diet studies. The major source of both compounds in human diet is deposition from air. Inhalation of air and ingestion of soil play a minor...

  17. DIFFERENCES IN DETECTION OF DNA ADDUCTS IN THE 32P-POSTLABELING ASSAY AFTER EITHER 1-BUTANOL EXTRACTION OR NUCLEASE P1 TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of nuclease Pl treatment and 1-butanol extraction to increase the sensitivity of the 32P-postlabe1ling assay for DNA adducts have been compared. lthough similar results were obtained with the two methods for standard adducts formed with benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide I, nucl...

  18. Structures of benzo(a)pyrene-nucleic acid adducts formed in human and bovine bronchial explants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1977-01-01

    PUBLICATION by Sims et al. of evidence that the 7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-oxide of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) is a metabolic intermediate in the covalent binding of this ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon to DNA in hamster embryo cells1 was followed by many related publications2. Grover et al. 3 also...

  19. Rapid quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) soil extracts by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) was directly applied to rapidly quantify selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs: benzo[a]pyrene and pyrene) in aqueous hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) soil extract solutions from a variety of aged contaminated soils containing four different PAHs. The method was optimized and validated. The results show that SFS can be used to analyse benzo[a]pyrene and pyrene in HPCD based soil extracts with high sensitivity and selectivity. The linear calibration ranges were 4.0 x 10-6-1.0 x 10-3 mM for benzo[a]pyrene and 6.0 x 10-6-1.2 x 10-3 mM for pyrene in 10 mM HPCD aqueous solution alone. The detection limits according to the error propagation theory for benzo[a]pyrene and pyrene were 3.9 x 10-6 and 5.4 x 10-6 mM, respectively. A good agreement between SFS and HPLC was reached for both determinations of PAHs in HPCD alone and in soil HPCD extracts. Hence, SFS is a potential means to simplify the present non-exhaustive hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD)-based extraction technique for the evaluation of PAH bioavailability in soil. - SFS can be used to rapidly quantify selected PAHs in soil extracts and to simplify the non-exhaustive HPCD-based extraction technique for the evaluation of PAH bioavailability

  20. COMPARISON OF THE LUNG ADENOMA RESPONSE IN STRAIN A/J MICE AFTER INTRAPERITONEAL AND ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF CARCINOGENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was undertaken to compare the ability of a series of compounds from different chemical classes to induce lung tumors in strain A/J mice after either ip or po administration. 3-Methylcholanthrene, benzo(a)pyrene, urethan, diethylnitrosamine, ethylnitrosourea, and dimeth...

  1. Micronuclei levels in mothers and their newborns from regions with different types of air pollution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössnerová, Andrea; Špátová, Milada; Pastorková, Anna; Tabashidze, Nana; Veleminský Jr., M.; Balascak, I.; Solanský, I.; Šrám, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 715, 1-2 (2011), s. 72-78. ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : automated image analysis * benzo[a]pyrene * micronuclei Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.850, year: 2011

  2. Human hair follicles, a convenient tissue for genetic studies on carcinogen metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basal levels of benzo(a)pyrene metabolism were measured in hair follicles of seven monozygotic twins, eight dizygotic twins and ten pairs of unrelated individuals. Organic soluble metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography, visualised by autoradiography and quantified by scanning of the films. Activity was expressed as pmol 7,8- and 9,10-dihydrodiol metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene per μg DNA per hour. Intra-twin differences in benzo(a)pyrene metabolism for monozygotic twins were smaller than for dizygotic twins and intra-pair differences for dizygotic twins were smaller than for pairs of unrelated individuals. The results clearly suggest that individual differences in benzo(a)pyrene metabolism in hair follicles are partly genetically determined. Thus, hair follicles my be used for investigations on the suggested relations between genetic predisposition to carcinogen-induced cancer and individual differences in carcinogen metabolism. The relevance of these findings to research into the induction of neoplasms by carcinogens in epithelial tissues is discussed. (author)

  3. Phytotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to willow trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, R.S.; Trapp, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    The toxicity of PAH to willow trees (Salix alba, S. viminalis, S. viminalisx;schwerinii) was investigated. Willow cuttings were grown in PAH-saturated hydroponic solution (naphthalene NAP, phenanthrene PHEN and benzo(a)pyrene BaP). Toxicity was related to aqueous solubility and was highest for NAP...

  4. Eisenia fetida increased removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of phenanthrene, anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene added at three different concentrations was investigated with or without earthworms (Eisenia fetida) within 11 weeks. Average anthracene removal by the autochthonous micro-organisms was 23%, 77% for phenanthrene and 13% for benzo(a)pyrene, while it was 51% for anthracene, 47% for benzo(a)pyrene and 100% for phenanthrene in soil with earthworms. At 50 and 100 mg phenanthrene kg-1 E. fetida survival was 91% and 83%, but at 150 mg kg-1 all died within 15 days. Survival of E. fetida in soil amended with anthracene ≤1000 mg kg-1 and benzo(a)pyrene ≤150 mg kg-1 was higher than 80% and without weight loss compared to the untreated soil. Only small amounts of PAHs were detected in the earthworms. It was concluded that E. fetida has the potential to remove large amounts of PAHs from soil, but more work is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved. - Addition of earthworms, Eisenia fetida, accelara removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

  5. OXIDATION OF PERSISTANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene t...

  6. EFEK IMUNOMODULATOR EKSTRAK AIR CINCAU HITAM (Mesona palustris BL TERHADAP KARSINOGENESIS MENCIT [Immunomodulatory Effects of Water Extracts of Black Cincau (Mesona palustris BL on Carcinogenesis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Dewanti W.1*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Janggelan or black cincau (Mesona palustris BL is commonly consumed as dessert and also used as herbal remedy in the folk medicine. This study aimed to test the potency of water extract of black cincau in inhibiting fibrosarcoma cancer induced by benzo(apyrene. Mice used in this study were divided into 6 groups. Solution of benzo(apyrene 0.3% was given during two days for five times to induce cancer. Water extract of black cincau at concentration of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg BW was given daily for 2 weeks before initiation (induction of benzo(apyrene during the initiation and until 4 weeks after initiation. The IFN-γ was observed with IFN-y ELISA Kit immunosurveillance parameters while the CD8+, NK cells and macrophages were observed with a flow cytometer. Cancer incidence was observed by palpation every week until 10 weeks after benzo(apyrene last induction. The results showed that a high dose of water extract of black cincau (1000 mg/kg BW increased IFN-γ expression and immunosurveillance of CD8+, NK cells and macrophages of the mice. The treatment also increased cell apoptosis and reduced the cancer incidence in mice by 57%.

  7. Photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils under a climate change base scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquès, Montse; Mari, Montse; Audí-Miró, Carme; Sierra, Jordi; Soler, Albert; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2016-04-01

    The photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two typical Mediterranean soils, either coarse- or fine-textured, was here investigated. Soil samples, spiked with the 16 US EPA priority PAHs, were incubated in a climate chamber at stable conditions of temperature (20 °C) and light (9.6 W m(-2)) for 28 days, simulating a climate change base scenario. PAH concentrations in soils were analyzed throughout the experiment, and correlated with data obtained by means of Microtox(®) ecotoxicity test. Photodegradation was found to be dependent on exposure time, molecular weight of each hydrocarbon, and soil texture. Fine-textured soil was able to enhance sorption, being PAHs more photodegraded than in coarse-textured soil. According to the EC50 values reported by Microtox(®), a higher detoxification was observed in fine-textured soil, being correlated with the outcomes of the analytical study. Significant photodegradation rates were detected for a number of PAHs, namely phenanthrene, anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, and indeno(123-cd)pyrene. Benzo(a)pyrene, commonly used as an indicator for PAH pollution, was completely removed after 7 days of light exposure. In addition to the PAH chemical analysis and the ecotoxicity tests, a hydrogen isotope analysis of benzo(a)pyrene was also carried out. The degradation of this specific compound was associated to a high enrichment in (2)H, obtaining a maximum δ(2)H isotopic shift of +232‰. This strong isotopic effect observed in benzo(a)pyrene suggests that compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) may be a powerful tool to monitor in situ degradation of PAHs. Moreover, hydrogen isotopes of benzo(a)pyrene evidenced a degradation process of unknown origin occurring in the darkness. PMID:26841292

  8. Pulmonary retention of (14C)benzo(a)pyrene in rats as influenced by the amount instilled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the pulmonary retention to benzo(a)pyrene after inhalation have shown that clearance is biphasic, with one component clearing with a half-time 1 day and another with a half-time 1 day. In the work reported here we demonstrated that the amount of benzo(a)pyrene instilled in the lungs can affect the rate at which the benso(a)pyrene is cleared into the blood. Fischer-344 rats were given 16, 90 or 6400 ng (14C)benazo(a)pyrene/rat by intratracheal instillation. Rats were sacrified at various times up to 7 days after instillation. Individual lung lobes and trachea were removed, digested, and analyzed, by liquid scintillation spectrometry. At 24 h after instillation the amount of 14C covalently bound to lung macromolecules was determined in some rats. Benzo(a)pyrene equivalents remaining in the lungs was expressed as a percentage of the instilled dose as a function of time. A two-component negative exponential function was fit to the data. With increasing dose (16-6400 ng/rat), an increasing percent (89-99.76%) was cleared with a half-time 1 day and decreasing percent (11.3-0.24%) was cleared with a half-time 1 day, suggesting that the mechanism by which the slower clearance occurred had been saturated at higher doses. A 24 h after instillation, from 1 to 2 pmol of (14C)benzo(a)pyrene equivalents/lung were covalently bound to lung macromolecules. There was no difference in the amount of covalently bound 14C over the range of instillation doses used, suggesting that a small amount of benzo(a)pyrene equivalents was bound in the lungs regardless of the amount instilled. These results suggested that linear extrapolation from high dose studies to environmental concentrations might underestimate lung burdens of benzo(a)pyrene. (author)

  9. Effect of Methomyl on the Phenobarbital and Benzo [a] Pyrene Induced Hepatic Microsomal Mixed Function Oxidase System in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna A. Patil1, Arun J. Patil1*, Ajit V. Sontakke1, Satish D. Kalme2 and Sanjay P. Govindwar3

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Methomyl (Lannate is a pesticide widely used to control of insects in grape gardens. Methomyl treatment induces significant alteration in mixed function oxidase system. The present work was designed to study the inhibitory effect of methomyl on different forms of cytochrome P450 induced by phenobarbital (CYP 2B1, 2B2 and 3A and benzo[a]pyrene induced (CYP 1A1. Adult male rats were divided into 8 groups of 6 animals each. Microsomes were isolated by calcium precipitation. The levels of electron transport components, CYP 450, cytochrome b5, and cytochrome c-reductase were determined using extinction coefficients. Activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes were assayed. Inducers like phenobarbital, benzo[a]pyrene, showed significant induction of mixed function oxidase in rat. The methomyl treatment (4mg/kg of inducer-(Phenobarbital, benzop [a] pyrene pretreated rat caused a significant decrease in electron transport components and activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes when compared with treatment of inducer alone. Induction of mixed function oxidase enzymes due to phenobarbital was also altered by the pretreatment of methomyl. Benzo[a]pyrene treatment of methomyl pretreated rats showed significant decreased levels of electron transport components and drug metabolizing enzymes as compared to benzo[a]pyrene treatment alone. These results indicate that the susceptibility of phenobarbital and benzo[a]pyrene induced cytochrome P450 isoform (CYP 2B1, 2B2, 3A; and CYP 1A1 to methomyl and also affected in the induction pattern of some of the inducers with respect to CYP 450 isoforms.

  10. Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs Present in Smoked Fish from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M.N. Palm

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH in smoked Scomba japonicus sampled from some Ghanaian markets. By way of preparation, smoked fish comes into contact with smoke or extremely high temperature which are potential sources of PAH generation. Levels of 20 individual PAHs including acenaphthene, acenaphtyelene, anthanthrene, anthracene, benz(aanthracene, benzo(apyrene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(epyrene, benzo(ghiperylene, benzo(jfluoranthene, benzo(kfluoranthene, chrysene, cyclopenta(cdpyrene, dibenzo(ahanthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, indeno(1, 2, 3-cdpyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene were determined in 34 smoked fish samples using gas chromatographic techniques with flame ionization detector. Benzo(apyrene, which is one of the very few PAHs for which a legal limit exists in different types of food matrices inaddition to other high molecular weight PAHs suspected to be carcinogens, were detected in most samples.

  11. Photoinduced electron transfer and fluorescence mechanisms in covalently linked polynuclear aromatic-nucleotide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geacintov, Nicholas E.; Mao, Bing; France, Luisa L.; Zhao, Rushen; Chen, Junxin; Liu, Tong M.; Ya, Nai-Qi; Margulis, Leonid A.; Sutherland, John C.

    1992-04-01

    The fluorescence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-nucleic acid complexes is quenched by photoinduced electron transfer mechanisms in aqueous solutions at ambient temperatures. These effects are illustrated with the biologically important compound benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), a mutagenic and carcinogenic metabolite of the environmental pollutant benzo[a]pyrene, which forms covalent mutagenic lesions with 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) residues in DNA. The dependence of the fluorescence yield and fluorescence decay times of the covalent model adduct (+)-trans- BPDE-N2-dG as a function of temperature and methanol/water composition are described. Because of the sensitivity of the fluorescence of the pyrenyl residue to the polarity of the microenvironment, the magnitude of the fluorescence yield can be used to distinguish between highly hydrophobic (e.g., intercalation) and other more solvent-exposed BPDE- nucleic acid binding sites.

  12. Filtration d’une huile dopée avec quatre hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP sur des plaques garnies en charbon actif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidani Marion

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Powdered activated carbon is used in oils and fats refining to bleach and purify vegetable oils and fish oils. Actually, this powder makes it possible to detoxify crude fish oils and to eliminate contaminants like PAH, dioxin and PCB. Nevertheless, the powdered activated carbon used is painful because it is pulverulent. Nowadays, producers advise filtration plates filled with this powder. The aim of this study is to check the efficiency of such plates in the PAH elimination and verify the respect of the new 2011 regulation (2 μg/kg for benzo(apyrene, 10 μg/kg for the sum of benzo(apyrene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo (aanthracene and chrysene.

  13. Tissue damage and nutritional factors in experimental respiratory tract (Co-)carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Reuzel, P G; Feron, V.J.; Spit, B J; Beems, R. B.; Kroes, R.

    1983-01-01

    Cofactors involved in respiratory tract carcinogenesis were studied in Syrian golden hamsters or in rats using benzo(a)pyrene as the carcinogenic agent. These factors included severe tissue damage induced by electro-coagulation, glass fibers administered by intratracheal instillation, acetaldehyde as irritant vapor, food restriction, and nutrients such as vitamin A and saturated and unsaturated fats. In addition, the effects of a combined exposure to four different major gaseous cigarette smo...

  14. Simulation of aerosol substance transfer in the atmospheric boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhenin, A. A.; Raputa, V. F.; Shlychkov, V. Ð. ń.

    2014-11-01

    A model for the reconstruction of the surface concentration of a heavy non-homogeneous substance transfered in the atmosphere is proposed. The model is used to simulate the snow surface contamination by benzo(a)pyren in the vicinity of Power Station-3 in the city of Barnaul. The effects of wind rotation in the atmospheric boundary layer on the field of long-term aerosol substance are assessed.

  15. Immobilization of Leachable Toxic Soil Pollutants by Using Oxidative Enzymes †

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon, Michael J. R.; Bartha, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Screening of leachable toxic chemicals in a horseradish peroxidase-H2O2 immobilization system established that immobilization was promising for most phenolic pollutants but not for benzoic acid, 2,6-dinitrocresol, or dibutyl phthalate. The treatment did not mobilize inherently nonmobile pollutants such as anilines and benzo[a]pyrene. In a separate study, an extracellular laccase in the culture filtrate of Geotrichum candidum was selected from five fungal enzymes evaluated as a cost-effective ...

  16. The role of Nrf2 in the protection against infl ammation and innate immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Atsushi; Itoh, Ken

    2007-01-01

    NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates the coordinate induction of phase 2 detoxifying and antioxidantenzymes in response to xenobiotics and oxidative stress via antioxidant responsive element. Nrf2 knockout mice arehighly susceptible to the acute toxicity generated by acetaminophen, butylated hydroxytoluene or hyperoxia and tocarcinogenesis induced by benzo[a]pyrene. Recently, it becomes increasingly evident that Nrf2 also plays essential rolesin the protection against infl ammation. Nrf2 r...

  17. Benzo(a)pyrene-albumin adducts in humans exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an industrial area of Poland.

    OpenAIRE

    Kure, E H; Andreassen, A; Ovrebø, S; Grzybowska, E; Fiala, Z; Strózyk, M; Chorazy, M; Haugen, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The interaction of benzo(a)pyrene with serum albumin was measured in an attempt to identify the actual exposure and to evaluate albumin adduct measurements as biomarkers for exposure monitoring. METHODS: Benzo(a)pyrene-diol-epoxide (BPDE)-albumin adducts were measured by competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in plasma of coke oven plant workers from three plants and from people living in a highly industrialised area of Silesia in Poland. Due to the high air concent...

  18. Meat intake, cooking-related mutagens and risk of colorectal adenoma in a sigmoidoscopy-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Gunter, M J; Probst-Hensch, N M; Cortessis, V K; Kulldorff, M.; Haile, R W; R Sinha

    2005-01-01

    Reported habits of red meat consumption, particularly red meat that has been cooked to the degree termed 'well-done', is a positive risk factor for colorectal cancer. Under high, pyrolytic temperatures, heterocyclic amines (HCA) and benzo[a]pyrene (BP) molecules can form inside and on the surface of red meat, respectively. These compounds are precursors that are metabolically converted to compounds known to act as mutagens and carcinogens in animal models, yet their role in human colorectal c...

  19. Fate of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was performed on the persistence of selected polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in soil. Two incubation studies were performed. In the first, a mixture of eight PAH's were added to unacclimated soil at levels of 5 and 50 mg/kg and the concentrations were monitored with time. In the second, C14-labelled benzo(a)pyrene or anthracene was added to soil incubated in biometer flasks. Microbial degradation, physical and chemical degradation, volatilization and binding were assessed as mechanisms affecting benzo(a)pyrene and anthracene in soil. The disappearance of PAH's appeared to be related to molecular weight, water solubility, volatility and adsorptivity to soil. The loss during this initial period approximated first order kinetics, in some cases following a lag period. The remaining 2-6% of the added PAH's, however, was lost at a much reduced rate. With the 50 mg/kg level of application, reduced rates of disappearance in later stages resulted in levels five to ten times the background concentration which persisted throughout the 400 days. Degradation of phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene at the 5 mg/kg application rate, however, resulted in concentrations close to background levels within 400 days. Either a model other than first order or a combination of two models was required to adequately describe the loss of 99% of the added PAH's. The mechanisms leading to a decrease in PAH concentration, identified through the use of C14 labelling, were predominantly volatilization and adsorption to soil solids for anthracene and adsorption to soil solids for benzo(a)pyrene. Microbial transformation of benzo(a)pyrene was minimal. 17 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish barbecued meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Meinert, Lene;

    2015-01-01

    for the detection of 24 PAHs in barbecued meat. In total, 203 commercially barbecued meat samples (beef, pork, chicken, salmon and lamb) and 15 samples barbecued during controlled time and heat conditions were included. The sum of PAH4 (benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene and benzo......[b]fluoranthene) was highest for a pork tenderloin (195 μg/kg) and lowest for chicken breast (0.1 μg/kg) and controlled barbecued meat (...

  1. Lagos lagoon sediment organic extracts and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induce embryotoxic, teratogenic and genotoxic effects in Danio rerio (zebrafish) embryos:Toxic effects of Lagos lagoon sediment extracts in Danio rerio embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Sogbanmu, Temitope; Nagy, Eszter; Phillips, David Hunter; Arlt, Volker Manfred; Otitoloju, Adebayo; Bury, Nicolas Richard

    2016-01-01

    An expansion of anthropogenic activity around Lagos lagoon, Nigeria has raised concerns over increasing contaminants entering the lagoon’s ecosystem. The embryotoxicity, teratogenicity and genotoxicity of sediment organic extracts from four sampling zones around Lagos lagoon, Ilaje, Iddo, Atlas Cove and Apapa, as well as the dominant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) identified in water measured during the wet season (naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene and a mixture of th...

  2. Evaluation of the health risk resulting from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coal-tar shampoo

    OpenAIRE

    Mennes WC; Veen MP van; Kroese ED; Speijers GJA; ACT; LEO; LBO

    1996-01-01

    Omdat verscheidene PAK, waaronder benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) worden beschouwd als carcinogene stoffen, zijn er vraagtekens gesteld bij de veiligheid van deze producten. Een schatting van de externe dermale blootstelling aan BaP is afgeleid door toepassing van een mathematisch model. Deze schatting was het uitgangspunt in een beoordeling van het additionele risico op huidtumoren. Er werden risicoschattingen afgeleid voor twee verschillende contacttijden en voor twee perioden waarover de shampoo word...

  3. Report on the inter-laboratory comparison organised by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons for the validation of a method for quantifying the four EU marker PAHs in Food

    OpenAIRE

    LERDA Donata; LOPEZ SANCHEZ Patricia; Szilagyi, Szilard; Wenzl, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The European Union Reference Laboratory for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (EU-RL PAHs), operated by the Institute for Reference Materials and Methods (IRMM) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC), organised a method validation study by inter-laboratory comparison (ILC-MVS) for evaluating the effectiveness of a method based for the determination of the four marker PAHs (benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and chrysene in different food commodities within the scope of Commis...

  4. Overview of tumor promotion in animals

    OpenAIRE

    Slaga, T J

    1983-01-01

    Our present understanding of two-stage carcinogenesis encompasses almost four decades of research. Evidence for chemical promotion or cocarcinogenesis was first provided by Berenblum, who reported that a regimen of croton oil (weak or noncarcinogenic) applied alternately with small doses of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) to mouse skin induced a larger number of tumors than BP alone. Subsequently, Moltram found that a single subcarcinogenic dose of BP followed by multiple applications of croton oil could...

  5. Monitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements with botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market

    OpenAIRE

    Martena, Martijn J.; Grutters, Michiel; De Groot, Henk; Konings, Erik; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified 8 priority PAH (PAH8) or 4 of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of PAH in food. The current study aims to determine benzo[a]pyrene and other EFSA priority PAH in different categories of food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients. In 20...

  6. Laser-based fiberoptic immunosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a brief overview of the development and application of fiber-optic antibody-based fluoroimmunosensors (FIS) for measuring environmental pollutants and related biomarkers of human exposure and health effects. The FIS combines the excellent specificity of the antigen/antibody reaction, the high sensitivity of laser excitation, and the versatility of fiber-optics technology. Various types of FIS devices were also used to detect toxic chemicals (such as benzo-a-pyrene) and related DNA adducts

  7. Degradation and mineralization of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by defined fungal-bacterial cocultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liquid media and soil by bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VUN 10,010 and bacterial consortium VUN 10,009) and a fungus (Penicillium janthinellum VUO 10,201) that were isolated from separate creosote- and manufactured-gas plant-contaminated soils. The bacteria could use pyrene as their sole carbon and energy source in a basal salts medium (BSM) and mineralized significant amounts of benzo[a]pyrene cometabolically when pyrene was also present in BSM. P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 could not utilize any high-molecular-weight PAH as sole carbon and energy source but could partially degrade these if cultured in a nutrient broth. Although small amounts of chrysene, benz[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were degraded by axenic cultures of these isolates in BSM containing a single PAH, such conditions did not support significant microbial growth or PAH mineralization. However, significant degradation of, and microbial growth on, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, each as a single PAH in BSM, occurred when P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 and either bacterial consortium VUN 10,009 or S. maltophilia VUN 10,010 were combined in the one culture, i.e., fungal-bacterial cocultures: 25% of the benzo[a]pyrene was mineralized to CO2 by these cocultures over 49 days, accompanied by transient accumulation and disappearance of intermediates detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Inoculation of fungal-bacterial cocultures into PAH-contaminated soil resulted in significantly improved degradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene mineralization, and reduction in the mutagenicity of organic soil extracts, compared with the indigenous microbes and soil amended with only axenic inocula

  8. Plant antimutagenic agents, 3. Coumarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, M E; Wani, M C; Manikumar, G; Hughes, T J; Taylor, H; McGivney, R; Warner, J

    1988-01-01

    Several coumarins were isolated from crude plant extracts by means of an antimutagenic assay procedure. These coumarins included psoralen from Psoralea corylifolia and imperatorin and osthol from Selinum monniere. Studies of structure-activity relationships of these and several other available coumarins were carried out with four mutagens. All of the coumarins were nontoxic and in particular showed high activity in the inhibition of the mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene. PMID:3069958

  9. An epidemiological study of lung cancer in Xuan Wei County, China: current progress. Case-control study on lung cancer and cooking fuel.

    OpenAIRE

    He, X Z; Chen, W; Liu, Z. Y.; Chapman, R S

    1991-01-01

    In Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, lung cancer mortality rates are among China's highest in males and females. Previous studies have shown a strong association of lung cancer mortality with air pollution from "smoky" coal combustion. In the present quantitative risk assessment of indoor air pollution study, the result strongly shows an obvious on-site exposure-response relationship between benzo[a]pyrene concentration in indoor air and lung cancer mortality and strongly supports the hypothe...

  10. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  11. Quantitative assessment of exposure and risk for three carcinogenics in long-standing pollution sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project attempts a quantitative assessment of risks for three carcinogenics that are common in sites of long-standing pollution. Benzo(a)pyrene stands for the group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, cadmium for heavy metals, and benzene for volatile aromatic compounds. The report discusses the general fundamentals of exposure and risk assessment. The exposure model is described in detail and applied to the three test substances. (orig./MG)

  12. Increased sensitivity for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in human DNA samples by dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluoroimmunoassay (DELFIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoket, B; Doty, W A; Vincze, I; Strickland, P T; Ferri, G M; Assennato, G; Poirier, M C

    1993-01-01

    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the most frequently used immunoassay for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in human tissues, has been modified to achieve approximately a 6-fold increase in sensitivity. The new assay, a competitive dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluoroimmunoassay (DELFIA) has utilized the same rabbit antiserum as the ELISA, antiserum elicited against DNA modified with benzo[a]pyrene. However, the alkaline phosphatase conjugate has been replaced with a biotin-europium-labeled streptavidin signal amplification system, and the release of europium into the solution forms a highly fluorescent chelate complex that is measured by time-resolved fluorometry. The DELFIA has achieved a 5- to 6-fold increase in sensitivity for measurement of DNA samples modified in vitro with benzo[a]pyrene, for cultured cells exposed to radiolabeled benzo[a]pyrene, and for human samples from occupationally exposed workers. The assay has been validated by comparison of adduct levels determined by DELFIA, ELISA, and radioactivity in DNA from mouse keratinocytes exposed to radiolabeled benzo[a]pyrene. Human lymphocyte DNA samples from 104 Hungarian aluminum plant workers were assayed by ELISA and compared to blood cell DNA samples from 69 Italian coke oven workers assayed by DELFIA. The standard curves demonstrated that the limit of detection of 4.0 adducts in 10(8) nucleotides for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts by ELISA, using 35 micrograms of DNA/microtiter plate well, has been decreased to 1.3 adducts in 10(8) nucleotides by DELFIA, using 20 micrograms of DNA/microtiter well. If 35 micrograms of DNA were used in the DELFIA, the calculated detection limit would be 0.7 adducts in 10(8) nucleotides.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8348058

  13. Antigenotoxicity of Dietary Coconut Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Lim-Sylianco; A.P. Guevara; L. Sylianco-Wu

    1992-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline induced formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes indicating that these substances are genotoxic to bone marrow cells of the experimental mice.Genotoxicity of these substances to germ cells was also observed when low fertility index and high percentage dead implants were induced in experimental mice.When each genotoxin was administered to mice fed with diets containing 18 % coconut oil for 23 days, the f...

  14. 40 CFR 421.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart shall achieve... 0.005 0.002 Antimony .263 .117 Nickel .075 .050 Aluminum .831 .369 Fluoride 8.092 3.591 (b) Subpart... Benzo(a)pyrene 0.007 0.003 Antimony .403 .180 Nickel .115 .077 Aluminum 1.277 .566 Fluoride 12.440...

  15. Effect of experimental pancreatic growth on the content of xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes in the pancreas.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J. (Jeff); Barrowman, J A

    1987-01-01

    The concentration in pancreatic tissue and the total pancreatic content of three xenobiotic metabolising enzymes has been determined in two models of experimental pancreatic growth namely, cholecystokinin-octapeptide injections and soy flour feeding. No significant change in pancreatic concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase or glucuronyl transferase was detected. In both models of pancreatic growth, however, the concentration of glutathione-S-transferase was significantly reduced. It is...

  16. Arsenite-induced ROS/RNS generation causes zinc loss and inhibits the activity of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Feng; Zhou, Xixi; Liu, Wenlan; Sun, Xi; Chen, Chen; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu, Ke Jian

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic enhances genotoxicity of other carcinogenic agents such as ultraviolet radiation and benzo[a]pyrene. Recent reports suggest that inhibition of DNA repair is an important aspect of arsenic co-carcinogenesis, and DNA repair proteins such as poly (ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 are direct molecular targets of arsenic. Although arsenic has been shown to generate reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), little is known about the role of arsenic-induced ROS/RNS in the mechanism underlyi...

  17. Production of thymine glycols in DNA by radiation and chemical carcinogens as detected by a monoclonal antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Leadon, S A

    1987-01-01

    In order to understand the role in carcinogenesis of damage indirectly induced by chemical carcinogens, it is important to identify the primary DNA lesions. We have measured the formation and repair of one type of DNA modification, 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine (thymine glycol), following exposure of cultured human cells to the carcinogens N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine or benzo(a)pyrene. The efficiency of production of thymine glycols in DNA by these carcinogens was compared to that by ionizing rad...

  18. Cytochrome b(5) and epoxide hydrolase contribute to benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct formation catalyzed by cytochrome P450 1A1 under low NADPH:P450 oxidoreductase conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stiborová, M.; Moserová, M.; Černá, V.; Indra, R.; Dračínský, Martin; Šulc, M.; Henderson, C. J.; Wolf, C. R.; Schmeiser, H. H.; Phillips, D. H.; Frei, E.; Arlt, V. M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 318, Apr 6 (2014), s. 1-12. ISSN 0300-483X Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/10/0356 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : benzo[a]pyrene * cytochrome P450 1A1 * NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase * epoxide hydrolase * cytochrome b(5) Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.621, year: 2014

  19. Valpromide inhibits human epoxide hydrolase.

    OpenAIRE

    Pacifici, G. M.; Franchi, M; Bencini, C; Rane, A

    1986-01-01

    The effect of antipileptic drug valpromide (VPM) on the activity of epoxide hydrolase was studied in human adult and foetal liver, kidneys, lungs, intestine and in placenta. The activity of the epoxide hydrolase was measured with both styrene oxide and benzo(a)pyrene-4,5-oxide as substrates. VPM inhibited the epoxide hydrolase obtained from all organs studied. The degree of inhibition was independent of the substrate used. A lowering of the epoxide hydrolase activity by 50% was observed when ...

  20. Investigating unmetabolized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in adolescents' urine as biomarkers of environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Craemer, Sam; Croes, Kim; van Larebeke, Nicolas; Sioen, Isabelle; Schoeters, Greet; Loots, Ilse; Nawrot, Tim; Nelen, Vera; Campo, Laura; Fustinoni, Silvia; Baeyens, Willy

    2016-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of interest to human biomonitoring studies due to their carcinogenic potential. Traditionally metabolites of these compounds, like 1-hydroxypyrene, are monitored in urine, but recent methods allow the determination of the parent compounds in urine, which give additional information regarding sources and toxicity of PAHs. In order to assess the feasibility of incorporating these methods in a human biomonitoring study, the 16 USEPA parent PAHs were determined in 20 urine samples. These samples were obtained from 10 boys and 10 girls aged 14-16 years, participating in the third Flemish Environment and Health Study (Flanders, Belgium). Of these 16 parent PAHs, nine could be determined in more than 95% of the samples and three (including benzo(a)pyrene) in more than 50%. Several correlations were found between different PAHs, but not between pyrene and its metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene. Diagnostic PAH ratios in urine and air samples pointed towards combustion sources and are in line with the ratios in environmental samples. Benzo(a)pyrene, naphthalene and fluorene have the highest carcinogenic potential in our cohort, when using toxic equivalency factors. Some associations between PAH congeners and determinants of exposure were found, while fluorene and acenaphthylene were positively associated with thyroid hormone levels and benzo(a)pyrene showed a positive correlation with DNA damage by comet assay. These results confirm that parent PAHs in urine are useful as biomarkers of exposure in biomonitoring studies. PMID:27105152

  1. [Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the working environment during aluminum production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeźnicki, S; Przybylski, H

    1996-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) belong to a group od chemicals responsible, to a great extent, for the contamination of the industrial and ambient air. A number of industrial processes such as coke production, coal tar processing, production of electric energy and certain rubber goods as well as metallurgy, especially aluminium metallurgy with its anodes made of coal tar pitch are the major sources of PAH emission. An attempt was made to determine PAH concentrations at selected workposts at an aluminium production plant. Breathing zone air samples were collected by individual dosimetry. Coal tar pitch volatiles were determined by a gravimetric method and individual PAHs by HPLC. The presence of naphtalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, triphenylene, benzo/a/anthracene, chrysene, benzo/a/pyrene, benzo/b/fluorenthene, benzo/k/fluoranthene, benzo/a/pyrene, dibenzo/a,h/anthracene, benzo/g,h,i/perylene and indeno/1,2,3-c,d/pyrene was identified at all investigated workposts. The highest concentrations of benzo/a/pyrene and coal tar pitch volatiles were found at workposts of crane operators which is due to the character of the work performed. The replacement of "wet" anode material by the "dry" one should contribute to improving of the working conditions. PMID:8834591

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Italian preserved food products in oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannino, Anna

    2016-06-01

    A method based on gas chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry was used to assess levels of 16 EU priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 48 preserved food products in oil including foods such as vegetables in oil, fish in oil and oil-based sauces obtained from the Italian market. The benzo[a]pyrene concentrations ranged from <0.04 to 0.40 µg kg(-1), and 72.9% of the samples showed detectable levels of this compound. The highest contamination level was observed for chrysene with three additional PAHs (benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[c]fluorene) giving mean values higher than the mean value for benzo[a]pyrene. Chrysene was detected in all the samples at concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 1.80 µg kg(-1) (median 0.31 µg kg(-1)). The contamination expressed as PAH4 (sum of benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(b)fluoranthene), for which the maximum tolerable limit has been set by Commission Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011, varied between 0.10 and 2.94 µg kg(-1). PMID:26886159

  3. Environmental contaminants in oil field produced waters discharged into wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 866-acre Loch Katrine wetland complex in Park County, Wyoming provides habitat for many species of aquatic birds. The complex is sustained primarily by oil field produced waters. This study was designed to determine if constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into Custer Lake and to Loch Katrine pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota collected from the complex during 1992. Arsenic, boron, radium-226 and zinc were elevated in some matrices. The presence of radium-226 in aquatic vegetation suggests that this radionuclide is available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations in water from the produced water discharge exceeded the maximum 10 mg/l permitted by the WDEQ (1990). Total aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments were highest at the produced water discharge, 6.376 μg/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 μg/g. The higher levels of hydrocarbons found at Custer Lake, compared to Loch Katrine, may be explained by Custer Lake's closer proximity to the discharge. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in bile from gadwalls collected at Loch Katrine but was detected in bile from northern shovelers collected at Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. The presence of benzo(a)pyrene in the shovelers indicates exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons storage by Fusarium solani in intracellular lipid vesicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdin, Anthony [Laboratoire de Mycologie/Phytopathologie/Environnement, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 17 avenue Bleriot, BP 699, 62228 Calais Cedex (France); Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa [Laboratoire de Mycologie/Phytopathologie/Environnement, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 17 avenue Bleriot, BP 699, 62228 Calais Cedex (France)]. E-mail: lounes@univ-littoral.fr; Newsam, Ray [Department of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NJ (United Kingdom); Robinson, Gary [Department of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NJ (United Kingdom); Durand, Roger [Laboratoire de Mycologie/Phytopathologie/Environnement, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 17 avenue Bleriot, BP 699, 62228 Calais Cedex (France)

    2005-01-01

    Accumulation and elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in the fungus Fusarium solani. When the fungus was grown on a synthetic medium containing benzo[a]pyrene, hyphae of F. solani contained numerous lipid vesicles which could be stained by the lipid-specific dyes: Sudan III and Rhodamine B. The fluorescence produced by Rhodamine B and PAH benzo[a]pyrene were at the same locations in the fungal hyphae, indicating that F. solani stored PAH in pre-existing lipid vesicles. A passive temperature-independent process is involved in the benzo[a]pyrene uptake and storage. Sodium azide, a cytochrome c oxidation inhibitor, and the two cytoskeleton inhibitors colchicine and cytochalasin did not prevent the transport and accumulation of PAH in lipid vesicles of F. solani hyphae. F. solani degraded a large range of PAHs at different rates. PAH intracellular storage in lipid vesicles was not necessarily accompanied by degradation and was common to numerous other fungi. - Fungi can store PAHs intracellularly in lipid vesicles independently of their PAH degradation abilities.

  5. A double isotope dilution method for assaying of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a double isotope dilution method for analysis of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) phenanthrene, fluor-anthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene in cigarette smoke particulates. The first isotope dilution used deuterated analogues of the first three PAH as internal standards. The second isotope dilution, for benzo[a]pyrene, used the tritiated analogue as an internal standard. The PAH were isolated from extracts of cigarette smoke particulates using a two-step procedure based on selective extraction from aqueous dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) followed by chromatography on silica gel extraction columns. After isolation, aliquots of the samples were analyzed for phenanthrene, pyrene, and fluoranthene by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). Separate aliquots of the samples were analyzed for benzo[a]pyrene by high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection followed by liquid scintillation spectrometry. PAH levels from cigarette smoke condensates collected from different exposure modes were compared; no exposure-related differences were found. (author)

  6. Effect of deficient ERCC2/XPD gene on the repair of DNA damage induced by benzo[a]pyrene%ERCC2/XPD基因缺失对苯并[a]芘所致DNA损伤修复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖莎; 刘秋芳; 徐韬钧; 关阳阳; 靳翠红; 李丹丹; 逯晓波

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨核苷酸切除修复交叉互补基因2 (excision repair cross complementation group 2/Xeroderma pigmentosum D,ERCC2/XPD)在苯并[a]芘所诱导的细胞DNA损伤与修复过程中的作用.方法:应用中国仓鼠卵巢细胞系CHO野生型AA8和ERCC2表达缺失型UV5作为细胞对照模型,MTT法比较两种细胞经苯并[a]芘处理后细胞抑制率的差别;彗星试验和Rad51免疫荧光试验检测不同浓度苯并[a]芘处理及修复24 h后细胞DNA损伤修复的情况.结果:与野生型AA8细胞相比,UV5细胞对苯并[a]芘所致损伤更加敏感,细胞存活率降低(P<0.05).彗星试验和Rad51免疫荧光试验结果显示,UV5细胞由于缺失ERCC2/XPD基因,修复苯并[a]芘所致DNA损伤能力降低(P<0.05).结论:ERCC2/XPD蛋白在核苷酸切除修复中发挥解旋作用,对苯并[a]芘所致DNA损伤修复至关重要.%OBJECTIVE: To investigate ERCC2/XPD (excision repair cross complementation group 2/Xeroderma pigmentosum D) function in the repair of DNA damage induced by benzo[a]pyrene. METHODS: China hamster ovary (CHO) cell line including wild type AA8 and ERCC2/XPD defective mutant UV5, was set up as a cell contrast model. DNA damage levels at different time points after benzo[a]pyrene treatment were evaluated by MTT cell inhibition assay, modified comet assay and Rad51 immunofluorescence test. RESULTS: UV5 was more sensitive to benzo[a]pyrene when compared with AA8. The DNA damage caused by benzo[a]pyrene was repaired by AA8 but not by UV5. CONCLUSION: ERCC2/XPD, as an important helicase in nucleotide excision repair, could play a critical role in repairing DNA damage induced by benzo[a]pyrene.

  7. Assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in police in Florence, Italy, through personal air sampling and biological monitoring of the urinary metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perico, A; Gottardi, M; Boddi, V; Bavazzano, P; Lanciotti, E

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in workers exposed to exhaust gas from cars, and they assessed the efficiency of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as an indicator of exposure to pyrene and PAHs. The authors selected 2 groups of police who worked in 2 areas in the city of Florence: 1 group was highly exposed to high-density traffic emissions during the winter and summer of 1997, and the 2nd group experienced low exposure to traffic emissions during the same period. Ambient monitoring was achieved with personal sampling of airborne PAHs during each workshift. Eight hydrocarbons were used as indicators of pollution caused by PAHs (e.g., pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene). Biological monitoring was performed through dosing of 1-hydroxypyrene (pyrene metabolite) in urine samples taken at the end of each workshift. The ambient monitoring revealed that PAH concentrations were influenced by both season of sampling and varying intensities of traffic in the different areas. The median concentration of benzo[a]pyrene in winter was twice as high in the high-density traffic area as in the low-density traffic area (i.e., 4.1 ng/m3 versus 1.8 ng/m3). In summer, the high-density traffic area experienced benzo[a]pyrene concentrations that were 6 times higher than in the low-density traffic area (i.e., 1.2 ng/m3 versus 0.2 ng/m3). Benzo[a]pyrene was also correlated highly (r(s) = .92, p traffic area and 120.5 ng/gm creatinine in the low-density traffic area). An analysis of the general data revealed that 1-hydroxypyrene was, to some degree, related to pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, and airborne total PAHs, whereas analysis of separate data for the area and the season revealed an emergence of a closer correlation during the winter in the high-traffic area. Therefore, 1 -hydroxypyrene can be considered a good biological indicator of exposure to airborne PAHs in the urban environment, especially in winter

  8. Kinetics of Syrian hamster cells during x-irradiation enhancement of transformation in vitro by chemical carcinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The x-irradiation of cultured Syrian hamster cells followed by exposure to a chemical carcinogen after seeding for colony formation results in an enhancement of transformation ordinarily associated with the chemical. Maximum enhancement occurred when 48 hr separated the two treatments and when 250 R was used. With different concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene (0.1-5 μg/ml medium) a similar factor of enhancement was obtained with 250 R, which averaged 8.35, implying that the irradiation pretreatment caused a constant multiplying factor. These results are consistent with the interpretation that transformation occurs through interactions in keeping with a one-hit hypothesis. The transitory effect of irradiation and the lack of transformation with irradiation alone argues against the selection of a special radiation-sensitive cell. At the time of maximum enhancement (48 hr), the cell cycles of irradiated and nonirradiated cells do not differ. The addition of benzo(a)pyrene to irradiated cells does not alter the number of cells capable of synthesizing DNA or the flow of cells from G1 to S. The number of cells accumulated in mitosis also does not appear to differ between irradiated and nonirradiated cultures treated with 2.5 μg benzo(a)pyrene. Chromosome aberrations or alterations in ploidy cannot account for the significant increase in enhancement observed at 48 hr postirradiation; however, twice as many cells with chromosome or chromatid gaps were found at 48 hr as compared to either 24 or 72 hr postirradiation

  9. Constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into the Loch Katrine wetland complex, Park County, Wyoming, and their bioconcentration in the aquatic bird food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota from the Loch Katrine wetlands at Park County, WY in 1992. This study was designed to determine if produced waters pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. The radium-226 concentration recorded at the Sidney Battery Discharge in July, 93.7 pCi/l, exceeded WY DEQ's 60 pCi/l standard for the protection of aquatic life. Water quality acute criteria were exceeded for arsenic, Custer Lake, July, and for zinc, Sidney Battery discharge, April. Radium-226 concentrations in sediments from Custer Lake and Sidney Battery Discharge exceeded the 3 pCi/g background for Oregon Basin soils. The radium-226 concentration in aquatic vegetation, Custer Lake, 29.5 pCi/g, greatly exceeded the 2.9 pCi/g average concentration found in plants growing in uranium mill tailings in South Dakota. Radium-226 in aquatic vegetation may be available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations, Sidney Battery Discharge, exceeded the 10 mg/l standard of WY DEQ. Sediment hydrocarbon concentrations were highest at Sidney Battery Discharge, 6.376 μg/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 μg/g. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in gadwalls from Loch Katrine but was detected in northern shovelers from Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in shovelers is indicative of exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons

  10. Supplementary measurements for air monitoring under NOVANA - Benzene and PAH; Supplerende maalinger til luftovervaagning under NOVANA - benzen og PAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellermann, T.; Klenoe Noejgaard, J.; Bossi, R.

    2011-10-15

    The report presents results from a project carried out for the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The aim of the project was to carry out several measuring campaigns in order to be able to better assess the monitoring needs for PAH and benzene in relation to EU's air quality directives. The results show that the mean concentrations of benzene are almost at the same level in Denmark's four largest cities, and that the concentrations are both below the threshold value (5mug/m3) as well as below the lower assessment threshold (2mug/m3). The report presents a method for objectively estimation the benzene concentration based on measurements of CO. The method can be applied to fulfil the monitoring need for benzene in those zones where no measurements of benzene are made. Measurements of PAH, especially benzo(a)pyrene, have been made during 12 months in the period 2010-2011 in an area with many wood burning furnaces are used (the town Jyllinge). The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in Jyllinge is almost three times higher than in the street H.C. Andersens Boulevard in Copenhagen. The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in Jylllinge are 0,6 ng/m3, which corresponds to the upper assessment threshold (0,6 ng/m3) and is 40% below the measuring value (1 ng/m3). On this basis, there is a need for re-evaluating the monitoring of PAH in the sub-programme for air under NOVANA. Measurements of PM{sub 10} showed that the levels in the towns Jyllinge, Lille Valby/Risoe and at the H.C. Oersted Institute in Copenhagen are all at about 20-22 mug/m3. (LN)

  11. Lagdo Dam Flood Disaster of 2012: An Assessment of the Concentrations, Sources, and Risks of PAHs in Floodplain Soils of the Lower Reaches of River Niger, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesi, Godswill O; Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A; Emuh, Fidelis N; Nwajei, Godwin E

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of the USEPA 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils of the floodplain of the lower reaches of River Niger, Nigeria, were investigated following the Lagdo Dam flood disaster of 2012. The aim was to provide information on the extent of contamination, sources, and risks of PAHs in these soils. The concentrations of Σ16 PAHs in the floodplain soils ranged from 812 to 10,700 μg kg. The benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) toxic equivalence and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) factors were used to evaluate the risk of human exposure to PAHs in these soils. The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenic equivalence (BaP) and benzo(a)pyrene mutagenic equivalence (BaP) ranged from not detected to 4090 μg kg and not detected to 4150 μg kg, respectively. The total ILCR for children and adults was calculated as the summation of the individual risks through the three routes of exposure, (ingestion, dermal, and inhalation of vapor or dust). The values obtained indicate that there are 6450 and 4480 chances in one million equally exposed persons to develop the risk of cancer for children and adults, respectively, which were higher than the USEPA acceptable guideline value of one cancer case in one million (10) equally exposed persons. The PAHs source evaluation, using the diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis (PCA), indicated that the major sources of PAHs in these soils were fossil fuel combustion, gas flaring, wood combustion, traffic emissions, and input from petroleum. PMID:26828186

  12. Interference by toxic metal ions with DNA repair processes and cell cycle control: molecular mechanisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwig, A.; Asmuss, M; Ehleben, I; Herzer, U; Kostelac, D; Pelzer, A; Schwerdtle, T.; Bürkle, A

    2002-01-01

    Nickel, cadmium, cobalt, and arsenic compounds are well-known carcinogens to humans and experimental animals. Even though their DNA-damaging potentials are rather weak, they interfere with the nucleotide and base excision repair at low, noncytotoxic concentrations. For example, both water-soluble Ni(II) and particulate black NiO greatly reduced the repair of DNA adducts induced by benzo[a]pyrene, an important environmental pollutant. Furthermore, Ni(II), As(III), and Co(II) interfered with ce...

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1984 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felton, D.L. (ed.)

    1985-02-01

    Research progress is reported in the following areas: (1) evaluation of possible health effects among nuclear workers; (2) dose-effect relationship studies of carcinogenesis from both nuclear materials and complex mixtures; (3) microbial mutagenesis studies with 6-aminochrysene and benzo(a)pyrene in coal-derived complex mixtures; and (4) a variety of studies relating to noncarcinogenic and nonmutagenic endpoints, including teratology, perinatal studies and studies to determine absorption, metabolism, and doses to critical tissues and organs of coal-derived mixtures and radionuclides. Items have been individually abstracted for the data base. (ACR)

  14. The application of the comet assay to assess the genotoxicity of environmental pollutants in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Imanikia, Soudabeh; Galea, Francesca; Nagy, Eszter; Phillips, David H.; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R; Arlt, Volker M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a protocol for cell dissociation from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) to assess the genotoxicity of the environmental pollutant benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) using the alkaline version of the single cell electrophoresis assay (comet assay). BaP genotoxicity was assessed in C. elegans (wild-type [WT]; N2, Bristol) after 48 h exposure (0 to 40 μM). Induction of comets by BaP was concentration-dependent up to 20 μM; comet % tail DNA was ∼30% at 20 μM BaP and...

  15. Evaluation of the SOS chromotest for the detection of antimutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SOS chromotest was applied for the detection of antimutagens. To raise SOS induction, the bacteria were treated with the mutagens, UV, 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide (4NQO), N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine (MNNG), or benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]p). The inhibitory effects of L-ascorbic acid, glutathione, vanillin,5-fluorouracil (5-FU), 5-chlorouracil (5-CU), cobaltous chloride, sodium selenite and sodium arsenite, which are known as antimutagens, were investigated with their addition either simultaneously or post treatment time. In became clear that the SOS chromotest was very useful for the detection of antimutagens

  16. Humoral immunosuppression in men exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related carcinogens in polluted environments.

    OpenAIRE

    Szczeklik, A; Szczeklik, J; Galuszka, Z; Musial, J; Kolarzyk, E; Targosz, D

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated humoral immunity by measuring IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE concentrations in 274 male workers in an iron foundry in Cracow, Poland. There were two groups: 199 coke oven workers and 76 cold-rolling mill workers. The groups were similar with respect to age, length of work (average 15 years), and smoking habits. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), assessed by personal and area monitoring, ranged from 0.2 to 50 micrograms/m3 benzo[a]pyrene in coke plant workers and was of ...

  17. Evaluation of biomarkers in plasma, blood, and urine samples from coke oven workers: significance of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    OpenAIRE

    Ovrebø, S; Haugen, A; Farmer, P B; Anderson, D.(California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA)

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the significance of two biomarkers; antibody to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts and concentration of hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts in samples from a well studied group of coke oven workers. As a measure of exposure we have used 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. METHODS--Urine and blood samples were collected from coke oven workers and a control group. Samples from coke oven plant workers were collected in January and June. 1-Hydroxypyrene was measured in urine by ...

  18. Occurrence of Nitro-PAH in the Atmosphere in a Rural Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom; Seitz, B.; Ramdahl, T.

    1984-01-01

    -(a)pyrene have been identied in samples of airborne particulate matter. Furthermore, 8-nitrofluoranthene has been tentatively identified. The amounts of mononitro-PAH are one to two orders of magnitude lower than the most common carcinogenic PAH, as e.g. benzo(a)pyrene. Filter effects have been studied, 9......By means of gas chromatography with nitrogen sensitive detection and negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection 7 mononitro-PAH, 9-nitroanthracene, x-nitro-4,5-methylene-phenanthrene, 3-nitrofluoranthene, 1- and 2-nitropyrene, 10-nitrobenz(a)anthracene and 6-nitrobenzo...

  19. MicroRNAs in inflammation and response to injuries induced by environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate basic biological processes by posttranscriptional suppression of their target genes. Altered miRNA expression may lead to widespread gene expression changes and has been implicated in pathophysiological processes such as cancer and inflammation. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge about the role of miRNAs in inflammation and in the response to environmental agents and pollutants, such as cigarette smoke, ethanol, carcinogenic chemicals such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dioxin, and UV radiation.

  20. Base substitution mutations induced by metabolically activated aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, P L; Eisenstadt, E; Miller, J H

    1983-05-01

    We have determined the base substitutions generated by metabolically activated aflatoxin B1 in the lacI gene of a uvrB- strain of Escherichia coli. By monitoring over 70 different nonsense mutation sites, we show that activated aflatoxin B1 specifically induced GxC leads to TxA transversions. One possible pathway leading to this base change involves depurination at guanine residues. We consider this mechanism of mutagenesis in the light of our other findings that the carcinogens benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide and N-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene also specifically induce GxC leads to TxA transversions. PMID:6405385

  1. Base substitution mutations induced by metabolically activated aflatoxin B1.

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, P. L.; Eisenstadt, E; Miller, J H

    1983-01-01

    We have determined the base substitutions generated by metabolically activated aflatoxin B1 in the lacI gene of a uvrB- strain of Escherichia coli. By monitoring over 70 different nonsense mutation sites, we show that activated aflatoxin B1 specifically induced GxC leads to TxA transversions. One possible pathway leading to this base change involves depurination at guanine residues. We consider this mechanism of mutagenesis in the light of our other findings that the carcinogens benzo[a]pyren...

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1984 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research progress is reported in the following areas: (1) evaluation of possible health effects among nuclear workers; (2) dose-effect relationship studies of carcinogenesis from both nuclear materials and complex mixtures; (3) microbial mutagenesis studies with 6-aminochrysene and benzo[a]pyrene in coal-derived complex mixtures; and (4) a variety of studies relating to noncarcinogenic and nonmutagenic endpoints, including teratology, perinatal studies and studies to determine absorption, metabolism, and doses to critical tissues and organs of coal-derived mixtures and radionuclides. Items have been individually abstracted for the data base

  3. Keratin expression in chemically induced mouse lung adenomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Gunning, W T; Goldblatt, P. J.; Stoner, G D

    1992-01-01

    Chemically induced mouse lung tumors exhibit distinctive growth patterns, characterized by an alveolar or solid appearance, a papillary appearance, or a combination of the two. Lung tumors induced in strain A/J mice by either benzo(a)pyrene (BP) or by N-nitrosoethylurea (ENU) were examined for expression of low- and high-molecular-weight cytokeratins. Simple cytokeratins (low molecular weight) were found in all epithelial cells of the normal mouse lung and in all tumor types, whereas higher-m...

  4. Environmental carcinogens in human target tissues in culture: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have accumulated more experimental evidences that demonstrated the comparative approaches with human cells will allow us to predict human risk with good accuracy following exposure to toxic chemicals. We also synthesized several carcinogenic DNA adducts, i.e., the major benzo[a]pyrene DNA adduct, 06-methyldeoxyguanosine, 7-methyl- deoxyguanosine and 2-methyl-deoxyguanosine to be used as standards for quantitating DNA adduct formation in carcinogen exposed cells. A simple synthetic method was developed for preparation of the major B[a]p DNA adduct with yields better than those reported. The main accomplishments related to the originally stated objectives are summarized. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION IN BREAST MILK: PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mercogliano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, mainly formed by anthropogenic activities, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Due to environmental contamination and their chemical properties they migrate through the human food chain, and can be transferred from mother to infant via breastfeeding. The presence of PAHs in breast milk collected from 16 lactating women living in urban and rural areas of Campania (Italy was investigated. Results showed the presence of 14 hydrocabons. Carcinogenic benzo(apyrene and potential carcinogenic dibenzo(ahanthracene were found at concentrations rancing from 0.3 to 37.6 μg/kg and from 0.5 to 47.0, respectively.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons levels evaluation in urban area after October 23rd 1998 promulgation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the result concerning the air quality evaluation in an urban centre in the hinterland of Milan., with an high population density and an intense road traffic, relatively to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentration levels. The data, referred to the annual season, indicate that, near high traffic road, the above compounds are always present in the concentration level analytically detectable and that the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene is 2.7 ng/m3. The reported study is an useful instruments both for a road town planning, in order to people disease prevention, and for monitoring the evolution of PAH concentration levels in the future

  7. Benzo pyrene-induced DNA adducts and gene expression profiles in target and non-target organs for carcinogenesis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Jie; Brewer, Daniel S; Arlt, Volker M.; Colin S. Cooper; Phillips, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene expression changes induced by carcinogens may identify differences in molecular function between target and non-target organs. Target organs for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) carcinogenicity in mice (lung, spleen and forestomach) and three non-target organs (liver, colon and glandular stomach) were investigated for DNA adducts by 32P-postlabelling, for gene expression changes by cDNA microarray and for miRNA expression changes by miRNA microarray after exposure of animals to BaP. Resul...

  8. Mechanism for Clastogenic Activity of Naphthalene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Bruce A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-24

    Naphthalene incubations form DNA adducts in vitro in a dose dependent manner in both mouse and rat tissues. Rodent tissue incubations with naphthalene indicate that naphthalene forms as many DNA adducts as Benzo(a)pyrene, a known DNA binding carcinogen. The mouse airway has the greatest number of DNA adducts, corresponding to the higher metabolic activation of naphthalene in this location. Both rat tissues, the rat olfactory (tumor target) and the airways (non-tumor target), have similar levels of NA-DNA adducts, indicating that short term measures of initial adduct formation do not directly correlate with sites of tumor formation in the NTP bioassays.

  9. Contamination of agricultural lands by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Tver region, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhidkin, Andrey; Koshovskii, Timur; Gennadiev, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    It is important to study sources and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the agriculture soils within areas without intensive contaminations. Our studied object was soil and snow cover in the taiga zone (Tver region, Russia). A total of 52 surface (0-30 cm) and 31 subsurface (30-50 cm) soil samples, and 13 snow samples were collected in 35 soil pits, located in forest, crop and layland soils. Studied concentrations of the following 11 individual compounds: two-ring compounds (diphenyl and naphthalene homologues); three-ring compounds (fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene); four-ring compounds (chrysene, pyrene, tetraphene); five-ring compounds (perylene, benzo[a]pyrene); and six-ring compounds (benzo[ghi]perylene). Analyses made by specrtofluorometry method at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. The total concentrations of all PAHs in soil samples ranged from 9 to 770 ng*g‑1 with a median of 96 ng*g‑1. The sum of high molecular weight PAHs was significantly lower than the sum of low molecular weight PAHs in the studied soils. The phenanthrene concentration was highest and ranged from 1.2 to 720 ng*g‑1 (medium 72 ng*g‑1). Compared PAHs reserves in snow cover (μg*m-2) with the reserves in topsoil layer (μg*m-2 in the upper 30 cm). Low molecular weight PAHs (fluorene, phenanthrene, diphenyl, naphthalene) reserves in snow was less than 20% from the reserves in the soil surface layer. High molecular weight PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, perylene, pyrene and tetraphene) reserves in snow was about 50-70% from the reserves in soil surface layer. High molecular weight PAHs (benzo[ghi]perylene and anthracene) reserves in snow was more than in topsoil. PAHs vertical distribution in soil profiles was statistically examined. The total concentration of all PAHs decreased with depth in all studied forest soils. In the arable soils was no significant trend in domination of PAHs total concentrations in the plowing and subsoil layers. The ratio of

  10. Natural products as a source of potential cancer chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, J M; Baird, W M; Chang, C J

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in the chemistry of novel bioactive natural products are reported. This research is directed to the exploration of plants with confirmed activity in bioassays designed to detect potential cancer chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agents. Structural work and chemical studies are reported for several cytotoxic agents from the plants Annona densicoma, Annona reticulata, Claopodium crispifolium, Polytrichum obioense, and Psorospermum febrifugum. Studies are also reported based on development of a mammalian cell culture benzo[a]pyrene metabolism assay for the detection of potential anticarcinogenic agents from natural products. In this study a number of isoflavonoids and flavonoids with antimutagenic activity have been discovered. PMID:2189947

  11. Analysis of biomarkers in a Czech population exposed to heavy air pollution. Part II. Chromosomal aberrations and oxidative stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Špátová, Milada; Beskid, Olena; Uhlířová, Kateřina; Líbalová, Helena; Solanský, I.; Topinka, Jan; Šrám, Radim

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2013), s. 97-106. ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08; GA MŠk 2B08005; GA ČR GAP503/11/0084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : air pollution * benzo[a]pyrene * benzene Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.497, year: 2013

  12. Preliminary investigation of the organic chemical emissions from green sand pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwin, C.H.; Scott, W.D.; James, R.H.

    1976-12-01

    Condensable effluents from the thermal decomposition of a typical green sand foundry mold were investigated for the presence of emissions that could present health hazards in a foundry atmosphere. The benzene-soluble fraction extracted from the condensate was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Over 200 compounds were observed on the chromatograms and benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene and perylene were identified. The concentrations of these materials were not determined, but their presence in foundry atmospheres presents an area of potential concern for health welfare.

  13. Biomarkers of exposure and effect – interpretation for human risk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Binková, B.; Beskid, Olena; Milcová, Alena; Rössner, P.; Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Solanský, I.; Topinka, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2011), s. 161-167. ISSN 1873-9318 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08 Grant ostatní: FP6(XE) SSPE-CT-2005-044232 project ENVIRISK; FP6(XE) 18385-2 project INTARESE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : personal monitoring * benzo[a]pyrene * carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  14. Effect of Methomyl on the Phenobarbital and Benzo [a] Pyrene Induced Hepatic Microsomal Mixed Function Oxidase System in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jyotsna A. Patil1, Arun J. Patil1*, Ajit V. Sontakke1, Satish D. Kalme2 and Sanjay P. Govindwar3

    2011-01-01

    Methomyl (Lannate) is a pesticide widely used to control of insects in grape gardens. Methomyl treatment induces significant alteration in mixed function oxidase system. The present work was designed to study the inhibitory effect of methomyl on different forms of cytochrome P450 induced by phenobarbital (CYP 2B1, 2B2 and 3A) and benzo[a]pyrene induced (CYP 1A1). Adult male rats were divided into 8 groups of 6 animals each. Microsomes were isolated by calcium precipitation. The levels of elec...

  15. Development of Immunological Methods for the Detection of Micropollutants in Fresh Water Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Hübner, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The work focussed on the production of highly affine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against benzo[a]pyrene, diclofenac and microcystin-LR. The mAbs were used for the microarray-based detection of the emerging pollutants in water samples by using an indirect competitive ELISA in an automated flow-through device. The surface coating of the microarray chips was analyzed and optimized in order to enable the parallel measurements of the different micropollutants. Im Rahmen der Arbeit wurden hoch-...

  16. Mechanism for Clastogenic Activity of Naphthalene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Bruce A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-29

    Naphthalene incubations form DNA adducts in vitro in a dose dependent manner in both mouse and rat tissues. Rodent tissue incubations with naphthalene indicate that naphthalene forms as many DNA adducts as Benzo(a)pyrene, a known DNA binding carcinogen. The mouse airway has the greatest number of DNA adducts, corresponding to the higher metabolic activation of naphthalene in this location. Both rat tissues, the rat olfactory (tumor target) and the airways (non-tumor target), have similar levels of NA-DNA adducts, indicating that short term measures of initial adduct formation do not directly correlate with sites of tumor formation in the NTP bioassays.

  17. Biodegradation of [(sup14)C]Benzo[a]pyrene Added in Crude Oil to Uncontaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaly, R.; Bartha, R.; Fogel, S; Findlay, M

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the possible cometabolic biodegradation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), crude oil spiked with [7-(sup14)C]BaP and unlabeled BaP was added to soil with no known pollution history, to give 34 g of oil and 67 mg of BaP/kg of dry soil. The oil-soil mixture was amended with mineral nutrients and incubated in an airtight container with continuous forced aeration. Total CO(inf2) and (sup14)CO(inf2) in the off-gas were trapped and quantified. Soil samples were Soxhlet extracted with dichlorom...

  18. Linking biochemical perturbations in tissues of the African catfish to the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Ovia River, Niger Delta region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum hydrocarbons including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a pollution issue in the Niger Delta region due to oil industry activities. PAHs were measured in the water column of the Ovia River with concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1055.6 ng L−1. Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy detected alterations in tissues of the African catfish (Heterobranchus bidorsalis) from the region showed varying degrees of statistically significant (P < 0.0001, P < 0.001, P < 0.05) changes to absorption band areas and shifts in centroid positions of peaks. Alteration patterns were similar to those induced by benzo[a]pyrene in MCF-7 cells. These findings have potential health implications for resident local communities as H. bidorsalis constitutes a key nutritional source. The study provides supporting evidence for the sensitivity of infrared spectroscopy in environmental studies and supports their potential application in biomonitoring. - Highlights: • PAHs measured in the water column of the Ovia River (Nigeria). • ATR-FTIR spectroscopy detects alterations in tissues of the African catfish (Heterobranchus bidorsalis). • Spectral alteration similar to those induced by benzo[a]pyrene in MCF-7 cells. • Alterations in tissues of African catfish (H. bidorsalis) a function of exposure to waterborne PAHs. • Vibrational spectroscopy techniques detect minimal changes induced by environmental exposures. - Spatial and temporal analyses by biospectroscopy techniques of African catfish (Heterobranchus bidorsalis) tissues suggest that detected alterations can reflect fluctuating exposures to PAHs

  19. Biomonitoring of airborne inorganic and organic pollutants by means of pine tree barks. I. Temporal and spatial variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) bark samples were collected at two field sites (Neuglobsow, Roesa) and in different years between 1987 and 1996 in the east of Germany. The barks were analyzed with respect to the following inorganic and organic substances: Al, As, B, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, NH4+, Ni, NO3-, PO43-, Pb, Sr, SO42-, Ti, V, W, Zr, Zn, benzo(a)pyrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, a-hexachlorocyclohexane (a-HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). In addition to bark samples from the site Roesa, 53 test sites were investigated in the Nature Park Duebener Heide. Here, the analysis of the barks aimed at discovering spatial patterns of the above-mentioned substances. Since 1991, most of the determined substances (e.g. sulfate, nitrate, calcium, lead, benzo(a)pyrene, a-HCH) show decreased concentration values in bark samples from both sites. Temporal variations reflect substantial infra-structural changes in eastern Germany, especially at Roesa and in the industrial region around the cities Leipzig, Halle, and Bitterfeld. Moreover, nitrate concentrations in barks are increasing since 1995. The trend can be explained with increased nitrogen emissions from motor traffic and livestock farms. Spatial patterns of sulphate and ammonia reflect inputs from power plants and agriculture in pine stands of the Nature Park Duebener Heide. The results show that barks of pine trees can be used as biomonitoring tools to indicate and characterize depositions of airborne organic and inorganic pollutants. (author)

  20. Interactions among contaminants and nutritional lipids during mobilization by digestive fluids of marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voparil, Ian M; Mayer, Lawrence M; Place, Allen R

    2003-07-15

    Coastal sediments contain complex mixtures of hydrophobic compounds including organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and biogenic compounds such as cholesterol and phospholipids. Within the guts of benthic invertebrates, these mixtures are subjected to digestive, chemical conditions that can be rich in surfactants and proteinaceous material. Using in vitro incubations as proxy for digestive exposure, we studied the solubilization of binary mixtures of nutritional and contaminant lipids into artificial seawater and six marine invertebrate gut fluids (Molpadia intermedia, Cucumaria frondosa, Arenicola marina, Arenicola brasiliensis, Parastichopus californicus, and Nereis virens). For animals with surfactant micelles or high protein concentrations, solubilization interactions were frequent. For example, in Arenicola marina gut fluid, benzo(a)pyrene enhanced the solubilization of hexadecane (491% of the compound alone) and palmitic acid (130%) but hindered cholesterol (83%). Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations increased in gut fluids in the presence of cholesterol (137% of BaP alone), phenanthrene (154%), lecithin (140%), and hexadecanol (232%). In A. marina gut fluid, dilution with seawater indicated that these enhancements occur only when micelles are present. Sediment-water partitioning models, used to predict the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic chemicals, do not account for such interactions between solubilizates (compounds solubilized in micelles). However, for animals exposed via a digestive tract containing micelles or high protein concentrations, digestive bioavailability and perhaps bioaccumulation are likely influenced by these interactions. PMID:12901659

  1. Benzo[a]pyrene-enhanced mutagenesis by man-made mineral fibres in the lung of lamda-lacI transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topinka, J; Loli, P; Hurbáková, M; Kováciková, Z; Volkovová, K; Wolff, T; Oesterle, D; Kyrtopoulos, S A; Georgiadis, P

    2006-03-20

    In an attempt to examine the interaction of man-made mineral fibres with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), homozygous X-lacI transgenic F344 rats were intratracheally treated with rock (stone) wool RWI and glass wool MMVF 10 fibres together with B[a]P. To analyze the induction of gene mutations by fibres and B[a]P in lung, single doses of 1 and 2 mg fibres/animal or multiple doses of 2 mg fibres/animal were administered weekly on 4 consecutive weeks (total dose 8 mg/animal). B[a]P (10 mg/animal) was administered either simultaneously with fibres (for single dose treatment with fibres) or together with the last fiber treatment (for multiple dose treatment with fibres). Animals were scarified 4 weeks after the last treatment. Benzo[a]pyrene administered simultaneously with RW1 fibres exhibited a strong synergistic effect on mutagenicity, the observed mutant frequency (MF) being more than three-fold higher than the net sum of the MF induced after separate administration of both agents. Our data suggest that DNA adducts induced by simultaneous B[a]P and fiber treatment lead to a strong increase in mutatant frequencies. PMID:16375931

  2. Lagos lagoon sediment organic extracts and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induce embryotoxic, teratogenic and genotoxic effects in Danio rerio (zebrafish) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogbanmu, Temitope O; Nagy, Eszter; Phillips, David H; Arlt, Volker M; Otitoloju, Adebayo A; Bury, Nic R

    2016-07-01

    An expansion of anthropogenic activity around Lagos lagoon, Nigeria, has raised concerns over increasing contaminants entering the lagoon's ecosystem. The embryotoxicity, teratogenicity and genotoxicity of sediment organic extracts from four sampling zones around Lagos lagoon, Ilaje, Iddo, Atlas Cove and Apapa, as well as the dominant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) identified in water measured during the wet season (naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene and a mixture of these), were assessed with Danio rerio embryos. Embryos were exposed to varying concentrations of toxicants from 0-72 h post-fertilization (hpf). Embryotoxicity at 72 hpf showed a dose-dependent increase in mortality upon exposure to extracts from all zones, except Atlas Cove. Similarly, higher levels of teratogenic effects, such as increased oedema, and haemorrhage and developmental abnormalities resulted from exposure to extracts from Ilaje, Iddo and Apapa zones. Treatment with single PAHs revealed that significant levels of detrimental effects were obtained only for phenanthrene. The modified comet assay revealed that the oxidative damage to DNA was generally low (<12 %) overall for all sediment extracts, but was significantly elevated with Ilaje and Iddo sediment extracts when compared with solvent controls. Oxidative damage was observed with the single PAHs, phenanthrene and benzo[a]pyrene, as well as with the PAH mixture. This study highlights that Lagos lagoon sediment extracts have teratogenic, embryotoxic and genotoxic properties, which are likely due to the high molecular weight PAHs present in the extracts, some of which are known or are suspected human carcinogens. PMID:27068906

  3. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with a magnetic sorbent composed of alginate, magnetite nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes a magnetic composite sorbent for the extraction of traces of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water samples. The composite was prepared by caging Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) and MWCNTs into calcium alginate beads. The large surface area of the MWCNTs and their π-interactions with the aromatic rings of PAHs obviously facilitate strong adsorption. The hydrophilicity of the calcium alginate cage, in turn, enhances the dispersibility of the sorbent in the water sample. Finally, the use of magnetic NPs facilitates a simple and fast separation of the sorbent. The composite sorbent was successfully applied to the extraction of PAHs from (spiked) water samples. PAHs were quantified by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Under optimized experimental conditions, the calibration plot is linear in the range of 5 to 50 μg∙L−1 for benzo[a]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene, and 10 to 50 μg∙L−1 for benzo[b]fluoranthene. Other figures of merit include a limit of detection of 5 ng∙L−1 for benzo[a]anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene, and of 10 ng∙L−1 for benzo[b]fluoranthene, recoveries ranging from 92.0 to 97.7 %, and relative standard deviations of <5 %. The method has several attractive features including an easily prepared and eco-friendly sorbent, a convenient and fast extraction procedure, and a high extraction efficiency. (author)

  4. Carcinogenic effects of MGP-7 and B(a)P on the Hamster Cheek Pouch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon, J.L.; Conti, C.J.; Goldstein, L.S.; DiGiovanni, J.; Gimenez-Conti, I.B. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX (United States). Dept. of Carcinogenesis

    2009-10-15

    This study was performed to examine the carcinogenic effects of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and manufactured gas plant (MGP) residues on the hamster cheek pouch (HCP). Syrian hamsters were treated topically with a suspension of 2%, 10%, or 20% B(a)P or 50% or 100% MGP-7 (a mixture of residues from 7 MGP sites) in mineral oil for eight (short-term study) and sixteen, twenty, twenty-eight, and thirty-two weeks (long-term study). The short-term study showed that B(a)P induced p53 protein accumulation, indicative of genotoxic damage, as well as increased cell proliferation, hyperplasia, and inflammation, which is usually associated with promotional activity. In contrast, the MGP-7 presented only marginal p53 accumulation and induction of BrdU incorporation. In the long-term experiments, animals treated with 2% and 10% of B(a)P continued to show p53 protein accumulation as well as hyperplasia and increased cell proliferation and inflammation. By thirty weeks, all the animals treated with B(a)P had a 100% incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Animals treated with 50% and 100% MGP-7 showed only weak hyperplasia and a low proliferation rate and accumulation of p53 protein through thirty-two weeks. Benzo(a)pyrene was highly carcinogenic when used at adequate doses. Manufactured gas plant residue, however, was not carcinogenic in this model.

  5. Unsubstituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in extracts of coal fly ash from the fly ash test cell in Montour, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) was used to identify and to quantify trace amounts of selected, unsubstituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) present in extracts of coal fly ash from the solid waste disposal test cell at Montour, Pennsylvania. Isotope dilution experiments using deuterated analogs of polyaromatic hydrocarbons demonstrated that the concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene and anthracene were lower than 1 ng/g of fly ash. Isotope dilution experiments demonstrated that benzo[a]pyrene could be detected at concentrations as high as 1 ng/g when an isotopic carrier was used at a concentration of 125 ng/g in the analytical method. Maximum concentrations of fluorene, fluoranthene, pyrene and chrysene were conservatively estimated to be 3 ng/g of fly ash, using a 95 percent confidence interval based on analytical precision of ±1 ng/g of fly ash. Concentrations of phenanthrene were found to range from 6 to 38 ng/g of fly ash with a mean concentration of 14 ng/g of fly ash. Two sources of phenanthrene were speculated: incomplete combustion of phenanthrene in the coal furnace and addition of phenanthrene to the fly ash after collection by electrostatic precipitators

  6. Distribution, sources, and risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surface sediments from 28 lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanying; Tao, Yuqiang; Yao, Shuchun; Xue, Bin

    2016-03-01

    As the largest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emission country, China is suffering from severe PAHs pollution. Twenty-eight lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River region (MLYR), where numerous lakes are located in and play very important roles in the development of the local economy and society, were selected to investigate the levels and sources of the PAHs in this region and the related influence factors. Concentrations of the 16 PAHs (∑PAHs) in the sediments ranged from 221.0 to 2418.8 ng g(-1) (dry weight). The mean ∑PAHs was higher in the lower reaches than in the middle reaches. ∑PAHs in the sediments was positively correlated with the local gross domestic product (GDP), which implies that GDP was the key factor to affect the PAHs level in the sediments of study area. According to the composition of 16 PAHs, the 28 lakes were grouped into 3 clusters. Major PAHs sources for the three types of lakes were significantly different, which were biomass combustion, coal combustion, and vehicle/coal source, respectively. The total toxic benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (TEQ(carc)) of the carcinogenic PAHs in the sediments varied from 12.9 to 472.9 ng TEQ(carc) g(-1). Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene (DaA) were the two main contributors to total TEQ(carc). PMID:26541148

  7. Highly selective detection of oil spill polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using molecularly imprinted polymers for marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupadam, Reddithota J; Nesterov, Evgueni E; Spivak, David A

    2014-06-15

    Im*plications due to oil spills on marine ecosystems have created a great interest toward developing more efficient and selective materials for oil spill toxins detection and remediation. This research paper highlights the application of highly efficient molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) adsorbents based on a newly developed functional crosslinker (N,O-bismethacryloyl ethanolamine, NOBE) for detection of highly toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater. The binding capacity of MIP for oil spill toxin pyrene is 35 mg/g as compared to the value of 3.65 mg/g obtained using a non-imprinted polymer (NIP). The selectivity of all three high molecular weight PAHs (pyrene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene) on the NOBE-MIP shows an excellent selective binding with only 5.5% and 7% cross-reactivity for chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively. Not only is this particularly significant because the rebinding solvent is water, which is known to promote non-selective hydrophobic interactions; the binding remains comparable under salt-water conditions. These selective and high capacity adsorbents will find wide application in industrial and marine water monitoring/remediation. PMID:24759433

  8. SEQUESTERING AGENTS FOR ACTIVE CAPS - REMEDIATION OF METALS AND ORGANICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A; Michael Paller, M; Danny D. Reible, D; Xingmao Ma, X; Ioana G. Petrisor, I

    2007-05-10

    This research evaluated organoclays, zeolites, phosphates, and a biopolymer as sequestering agents for inorganic and organic contaminants. Batch experiments were conducted to identify amendments and mixtures of amendments for metal and organic contaminants removal and retention. Contaminant removal was evaluated by calculating partitioning coefficients. Metal retention was evaluated by desorption studies in which residue from the removal studies was extracted with 1 M MgCl{sub 2} solution. The results indicated that phosphate amendments, some organoclays, and the biopolymer, chitosan, were very effective sequestering agents for metals in fresh and salt water. Organoclays were very effective sorbents for phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Partitioning coefficients for the organoclays were 3000-3500 ml g{sup -1} for benzo(a)pyrene, 400-450 ml g{sup -1} for pyrene, and 50-70 ml g{sup -1} for phenanthrene. Remediation of sites with a mixture of contaminants is more difficult than sites with a single contaminant because metals and organic contaminants have different fate and transport mechanisms in sediment and water. Mixtures of amendments (e.g., organoclay and rock phosphate) have high potential for remediating both organic and inorganic contaminants under a broad range of environmental conditions, and have promise as components in active caps for sediment remediation.

  9. Passive dosing versus solvent spiking for controlling and maintaining hydrophobic organic compound exposure in the Microtox® assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kilian E C; Jeong, Yoonah; Kim, Jongwoon

    2015-11-01

    Microbial toxicity bioassays such as the Microtox® test are ubiquitously applied to measure the toxicity of chemicals and environmental samples. In many ways their operation is conducive to the testing of organic chemicals. They are of short duration, use glass cuvettes and take place at reduced temperatures in medium lacking sorbing components. All of these are expected to reduce sorptive and volatile losses, but particularly for hydrophobic organics the role of such losses in determining the bioassay response remains unclear. This study determined the response of the Microtox® test when using solvent spiking compared to passive dosing for introducing the model hydrophobic compounds acenaphthene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene. Compared to solvent spiking, the apparent sensitivity of the Microtox® test with passive dosing was 3.4 and 12.4 times higher for acenaphthene and phenanthrene, respectively. Furthermore, fluoranthene only gave a consistent response with passive dosing. Benzo(a)pyrene did not result in a response with either spiking or passive dosing even at aqueous solubility. Such differences in the apparent sensitivity of the Microtox® test can be traced back to the precise definition of the dissolved exposure concentrations and the buffering of losses with passive dosing. This highlights the importance of exposure control even in simple and short-term microbial bioassays such as the Microtox® test. PMID:26117202

  10. Astaxanthin can alter CYP1A-dependent activities via two different mechanisms: induction of protein expression and inhibition of NADPH P450 reductase dependent electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Marumi; Darwish, Wageh S; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Miki, Wataru; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2011-06-01

    Astaxanthin (Ax), a xanthophyll carotenoid, is reported to induce cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A-dependent activity. CYP1A is one of the most important enzymes participating in phase I metabolism for chemicals, and it can activate various mutagens. To investigate the effect of Ax on the metabolic activation of a typical promutagen, benzo[a]pyrene by CYP1A, we orally administrated Ax-containing oil (100 mg Ax/kg body weight/day for 3 days) to male Wistar rats. In the treated rat liver, expression of CYP1A1 mRNA, protein, and its activity were significantly increased (5.5-, 8.5-, and 2.5-fold, respectively). In contrast, the activities of phase II enzymes (glutathione S-transferase and glucuronosyl-transferase) were not modulated by Ax-containing oil. As a consequence, the mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene was more enhanced in Ax-treated rats, compared with controls in the Ames assay. On the other hand, NADPH P450 reductase activity was decreased in liver microsomes from the treated group. This result suggests the possibility that Ax inhibits the electron supply necessary for CYP catalytic activities and decreases CYP1A activity indirectly. In conclusion, Ax-containing oil intake can alter CYP1A-dependent activities through two different mechanisms: (1) induction of CYP1A1 mRNA, protein expression, and activity; and (2) inhibition of the electron supply for the enzyme. PMID:21414371

  11. Toxicological effect of single contaminants and contaminant mixtures associated with plant ingredients in novel salmon feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søfteland, Liv; Kirwan, Jennifer A; Hori, Tiago S F; Størseth, Trond R; Sommer, Ulf; Berntssen, Marc H G; Viant, Mark R; Rise, Matthew L; Waagbø, Rune; Torstensen, Bente E; Booman, Marije; Olsvik, Pål A

    2014-11-01

    Increasing use of plant feed ingredients may introduce contaminants not previously associated with farming of salmonids, such as pesticides and PAHs from environmental sources or from thermal processing of oil seeds. To screen for interaction effects of contaminants newly introduced in salmon feeds, Atlantic salmon primary hepatocytes were used. The xCELLigence cytotoxicity system was used to select optimal dosages of the PAHs benzo(a)pyrene and phenanthrene, the pesticides chlorpyrifos and endosulfan, and combinations of these. NMR and MS metabolic profiling and microarray transcriptomic profiling was used to identify novel biomarkers. Lipidomic and transcriptomic profiling suggested perturbation of lipid metabolism, as well as endocrine disruption. The pesticides gave the strongest responses, despite having less effect on cell viability than the PAHs. Only weak molecular responses were detected in PAH-exposed hepatocytes. Chlorpyrifos suppressed the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. Endosulfan affected steroid hormone synthesis, while benzo(a)pyrene disturbed vitamin D3 metabolism. The primary mixture effect was additive, although at high concentrations the pesticides acted in a synergistic fashion to decrease cell viability and down-regulate CYP3A and FABP4 transcription. This work highlights the usefulness of 'omics techniques and multivariate data analysis to investigate interactions within mixtures of contaminants with different modes of action. PMID:25193261

  12. Impacts of UV radiation and photomodification on the toxicity of PAHs to the higher plant Lemna gibba (duckweed)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be enhanced by both biotic and abiotic processes. This is exemplified by light, which, by virtue of the extensive π-orbital systems of PAHs, can be a major factor in PAH toxicity. Light activation of PAHs is known to occur via photosensitization reactions (generation of singlet oxygen and superoxide) and potentially by photomodification of the chemicals (photooxidation and/or photolysis) to more toxic species. To examine the modes of PAH action in the light and determine if the photomodified compounds are hazardous, we investigated the photoinduced toxicity of anthracene, phenanthrene and benzo[a]pyrene to the aquatic higher plant Lemna gibba (a duckweed). Toxicity end points were inhibition of growth and extent of chlorosis. Light did indeed activate the phytotoxicity of PAHs, with UV radiation more effective than visible light. Dose-response curves based on chemical concentration and light intensity revealed the order of phytotoxic strength to be anthracene > phenanthrene > benzo[a]pyrene. To explore whether photomodified PAHs were contributing to toxicity, the chemicals were irradiated before toxicity testing. The rates of photomodification of the three PAHs were rapid (half-lives in hours), and the relative velocities were coincident with the order of toxic strength. Furthermore, the photomodified PAHs were more hazardous to Lemna than the intact compounds. Because interpretations of the potential impacts of PAHs in the environment are based mostly on measurements of the structurally intact chemicals, the severity of PAH hazards is possibly underestimated

  13. The effectiveness of chemical carcinogens to induce atherosclerosis in the white carneau pigeon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency of atherosclerotic lesions of the abdominal aorta has been reported to increase significantly in chickens exposed to benzo(a)pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a,h)anthracene. The present studies were performed to determine in another experimental model frequently used in atherosclerotic studies (i.e. White Carneau Pigeons) whether these and other chemical carcinogens enhance atherosclerosis. The induction and enhancement of atherosclerotic lesions were observed in pigeons treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a,h)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene and 3-methylcholanthrene. The number and size of plaques in the aorta were frequently greater in pigeons treated with the higher concentrations (i.e. 100 mg/kg) of these 3 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Benzo(e)pyrene and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol were ineffective in the induction or enhancement of atherosclerosis in the pigeons. The results of the present and previous studies suggest that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (excluding benzo(e)pyrene) may be the only potential atherogens in avian atherosclerosis. This relationship may be associated with how these hydrocarbons are transported in the plasma (i.e. by lipoproteins) as demonstrated by the present distribution studies (author)

  14. Isolation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-degrading Mycobacterium spp. and the degradation in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jun; Lin, Xiangui; Zhang, Jing; Li, Xuanzhen

    2010-11-15

    The goal of this study was to isolate PAHs degraders that can utilize PAHs associated with soil particulates and investigate the biodegradation of PAHs on agar plate, in liquid culture and soil. Two Mycobacterium strains (NJS-1 and NJS-P) were isolated from PAHs-contaminated farmland soil using enrichment based on soil slurry. The isolates could degrade five test PAHs including pyrene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene on plate, but showed different effects in liquid culture, especially for fluoranthene. Isolate NJS-1 was capable of utilizing benzo[a]pyrene as a sole carbon and energy source, and an enhanced degradation was observed when pyrene was supplied as cometabolic substrate. Reintroduction of the isolates into sterile contaminated soil resulted in a significant removal of aged pyrene and fluoranthene (over 40%) in 2-months incubation. In pyrene-spiked soil, the degradation of pyrene and fluoranthene increased to 90% and 50%, respectively. Comparing PAHs degradation on plate, in liquid culture and soil, we can conclude that there was corresponding degradation in different test systems. In addition, the degradation of aged PAHs in soil suggested the potential application of two isolates in further bioremediation. PMID:20724073

  15. Evaluation of antigenotoxic effects of carotenoids from green algae Chlorococcum humicola using human lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhagavathy S; Sumathi P

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To identify the available phytochemicals and carotenoids in the selected green algae and evaluate the potential genotoxic/antigenotoxic effect using lymphocytes. Methods:Organic solvent extracts of Chlorococcum humicola (C. humicola) were used for the phytochemical analysis. The available carotenoids were assessed by HPLC, and LC-MS analysis. The genotoxicity was induced by the benzo(a)pyrene in the lymphocyte culture, the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of algal carotenoids with and without genotoxic inducer were evaluated by chromosomal aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus assay (MN). Results: The results of the analysis showed that the algae were rich in carotenoids and fatty acids. In the total carotenoids lutein,β-carotene and α-carotene were found to be present in higher concentration. The frequency of CA and SCE increased by benzo(a)pyrene were significantly decreased by the carotenoids (P<0.05 for CA, P<0.001 for SCE). The MN frequencies of the cells were significantly decreased by the treatment with carotenoids when compared with the positive controls (P<0.05). Conclusions:The findings of the present study demonstrate that, the green algae C. humicola is a rich source of bioactive compounds especially carotenoids which effectively fight against environmental genotoxic agents, the carotenoids itself is not a genotoxic substance and should be further considered for its beneficial effects.

  16. CHANGES THE CONCENTRATION OF SELECTED PAHs IN URBAN SOILS FERTILIZED WITH MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Wydro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze changes in the content of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in urban soils fertilized with municipal sewage sludge. The factors in the experiment were three lawns along the main roads in Bialystok (in Popieluszki, Hetmanska and Raginisa Strs., doses of sewage sludge (0 – control; 75 and 150 Mg/ha and two years of study (2011 and 2012. The studied parameters were monitored at the end of the growing season (in October 2011 and 2012 by determining fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene in soil samples. Furthermore, the dehydrogenase activity, the pH and organic carbon content of the soil were determined. Obtained content of studied PAHs in the urban soil does not exceed those contained in the Regulation of the Minister of the Environment of September 9th, 2002 on soil quality standards and ground quality standards. The concentration of pyrene and chrysene differed significantly depending on the time of sampling and the localization. It has been shown that fertilization of soil sewage sludge revealed reduction of pyrene concentration in soil. Among 5 tested PAHs compounds, benzo[a]pyrene was the most dominant compound both in samples collected in 2011 and 2012 (28 and 27% respectively.

  17. Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smithgall, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Carcinogenic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by microsomal monoxygenases proceeds through trans-dihydrodiol metabolites to diol-epoxide ultimate carcinogens. This thesis directly investigated the role of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, a cytosolic NAD(P)-linked oxidoreductase, in the detoxification of polycyclic aromatic trans-dihydrodiols. A wide variety of non-K-region trans-dihydrodiols were synthesized and shown to be substrates for the homogeneous rat liver dehydrogenase, including several potent proximate carcinogens derived from 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, 5-methylchrysene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Since microsomal activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is highly stereospecific, the stereochemical course of enzymatic trans-dihydrodiol oxidation was monitored using circular dichroism spectropolarimetry. The major product formed from the dehydrogenase-catalyzed oxidation of the trans-1,2-dihydrodiol of naphthalene was characterized using UV, IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy, and appears to be 4-hydroxy-1,2-naphthoquinone. Mass spectral analysis suggests that an analogous hydroxylated o-quinone is formed as the major product of benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation of trans-dihydrodiols was shown to be potently inhibited by all of the major classes of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Enhancement of trans-dihydrodiol proximate carcinogen oxidation may protect against possible adverse effects of the aspirin-like drugs, and help maintain the balance between activation and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  18. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Savannah River Site (USDOE), Motor Shops Seepage Basin (716-A), Aiken, SC, June 26, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Motor Shops Seepage Basin (716-A) (MSSB) is listed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(u) solid waste management unit/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) unit in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (FFA 1993) for the Savannah River Site (SRS), in Aiken, South Carolina. The selected alternative was developed in accordance with CERCLA, as amended, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The selected remedy for MSSB is No Action. Investigation of this operable unit was performed to determine if hazardous substances had been released to the environment. The Baseline Risk Assessment indicated that there were no significant releases to the environment. Therefore, it appears that either there were no significant discharges of hazardous materials to the seepage basin or natural remediation processes (i.e., bioremediation) have reduced the levels of hazardous materials to the extent that they no longer pose risk to human health or the environment. The Baseline Risk Assessment considered both the future residential and future industrial land use scenarios. Benzo(a)pyrene was the only preliminary constituent of concern (human health) detected in the soil at MSSB. Benzo(a)pyrene was detected only in the top foot of soil at levels which give risk values greater than 1 x 16-6 (but less than 1 x 10-4) for the future adult/child resident. Further uncertainty analysis indicated that benzo(a)pyrene should not be considered a constituent of concern for the MSSB due to: (1) low frequency of detection; (2) unit history that strongly suggests it came from an adjacent source; and (3) conservative methodology was utilized in the risk assessment. No ecological or contaminant migration constituents of concern were identified at this unit. Therefore, No Action is the appropriate remedy and a five year ROD review will not be required. The South

  19. Gas-particle concentration, distribution, and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a traffic area of Giza, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Salwa Kamal; Khoder, M I

    2012-06-01

    Atmospheric particulate and gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) samples were collected from an urban area in Dokki (Giza) during the summer of 2007 and the winter of 2007-2008. The average concentrations of PAHs were 1,429.74 ng/m(3) in the particulate phase, 2,912.56 ng/m(3) in the gaseous phase, and 4,342.30 ng/m(3) in the particulate + gaseous phases during the period of study. Dokki has high level concentrations of PAH compounds compared with many polluted cities in the world. The concentrations of PAH compounds in the particulate and gaseous phases were higher in the winter and lower in the summer. Total concentrations of PAHs in the particulate phase and gaseous phase were 22.58% and 77.42% in summer and 36.97% and 63.03% in winter of the total (particulate + gaseous) concentrations of PAHs, respectively. The gaseous/particulate ratios of PAHs concentration were 3.43 in summer and 1.71 in winter. Significant negative correlation coefficients were found between the ambient temperature and concentrations of the total PAHs in the particulate and gaseous phases. The distribution of individual PAHs and different categories of PAHs based on aromatic ring number in the particulate and gaseous phases during the summer and winter were nearly similar, indicating similar emission sources of PAHs in both two seasons. Benzo(b)fluoranthene in the particulate phase and naphthalene in the gaseous phase were the most abundant compounds. Diagnostic concentration ratios of PAH compounds indicate that these compounds are emitted mainly from pyrogenic sources, mainly local vehicular exhaust emissions. Health risks associated with the inhalation of individual PAHs in particulate and gaseous phases were assessed on the basis of its benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentration. Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene in the particulate phase and benzo(a)pyrene and benzo(a)anthracene in the gaseous phase were the greatest contributors to the total health risks. The

  20. 1-Hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of PAH exposure in the marine polychaete Nereis diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tairova, Zhanna; Giessing, Anders; Hansen, Rikke;

    2009-01-01

    /F), synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). The 5FS measurements of 1-hydroxypyrene were validated by the more sensitive method HPLC/F. The positive correlation between total PAHs and 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in the polychaete tissues...... observed in experiments, suggests the feasibility of 1-hydroxypyrene as a suitable biomarker for total PAH exposure assessment. Furthermore, the possibility of employment of the simple and rapid SFS method instead of HPLC/F for biomarker analysis has been confirmed by the positive and significant...... PAHs phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[k]flouranthene. After five days of exposure the concentrations of parent PAHs and 1-hydroxypyrene were identified using three different analytical methods, high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC...

  1. Annual Danish informative inventory report to UNECE. Emission inventories from the base year of the protocols to year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Nielsen, Malene.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Fauser, P.; Plejdrup, M.S.; Albrektsen, R.; Hjelgaard, K.

    2010-03-15

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SOX for the years 1980-2008, (2) NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC and NH{sub 3} for the years 1985-2008, (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} for the years 2000-2008, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2008, (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3- cd)pyrene for the years 1990-2008 and (6) Dioxin and HCB. Further, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory. (author)

  2. Annual Danish informative inventory report to UNECE. Emission inventories from the base year of the protocols to year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Nielsen, Malene; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Fauser, P.; Plejdrup, M.S.; Albrektsen, R.; Hjelgaard, K.; Bruun, H.G.

    2011-04-15

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2011. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SO{sub x} for the years 1980-2009, (2) NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC and NH{sub 3} for the years 1985-2009, (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} for the years 2000-2009, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2009, (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene for the years 1990-2009 and (6) Dioxin and HCB. Further, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory. (Author)

  3. Black tattoos protect against UVR-induced skin cancer in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Catharina M; Sepehri, Mitra; Serup, Jørgen;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black tattoos may involve risk of cancer owing to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in inks. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces skin cancer. The combination of UVR and black tattoo may therefore potentially be very problematic, but has not been previously...... studied. METHODS: Immunocompetent C3.Cg/TifBomTac mice (n = 99) were tattooed on the back with Starbrite Tribal Black(™) . This ink has a high content of the carcinogen BaP. Half of the mice were irradiated with three standard erythema doses UVR thrice weekly. Time to induction of first, second and third...... squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was measured. Controls were 'tattooed' without ink. RESULTS: All irradiated mice developed SCCs while no malignant tumours were found in the nonirradiated group. In the tattooed and irradiated group, the development of the first, second and third SCC was significantly delayed...

  4. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Olenycz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(aanthracene, chrysene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(kfluoranthene, benzo(apyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene, dibenz(a,hanthracene, benzo(g,h,iperylene at 17 sampling sites to assess their relative bioavailabilities in coastal waters around Europe. Because of the temporal differences in PCBs and PAHs concentrations, data were adjusted using Seasonal Variation Coefficients (SVC before making large-scale spatial comparisons. The highest concentrations of PCBs were found near estuaries of large rivers flowing through urban areas and industrial regions. Elevated bioavailabilities of PAHs occurred in the vicinity of large harbors, urban areas, and regions affected by petroleum pollution as well as in some remote locations, which indicated long-range atmospheric deposition.

  5. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity relating to fish in wastewaters discharged from the Vilnius treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosylienė, M Z; Kazlauskienė, N; Baršienė, J; Andreikėnaitė, L; Milukaitė, A; Taujanskis, E

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity and genotoxicity of untreated raw (RWW) and treated wastewaters (TWW) samples from Vilnius wastewater treatment plant was assessed using fish (rainbow trout) at different stages of development. The survival of larvae and fish exposed to RWW in short-term and longterm tests reduced, whereas gill ventilation frequency, heart rate and relative body mass increase of larvae decreased significantly. The long-term exposure of fish to TWW induced significant decreases in white blood cell count and significant increases in micronuclei in blood of treated Oncorhynchus mykiss. The physical, chemical analysis of oil products (C₁₄-C₂₈), benzo(a)pyrene, suspended solids, and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Hg) in RWW demonstrated that the concentrations of xenobiotics and some heavy metals did not exceed their Maximum Permissible Concentrations in the sewerage system and concentrations of substances in TWW corresponded to their criteria for effluents discharged into receiving waters. PMID:20729589

  6. Benzo(a)pyrene-induced cytochrome p4501A expression of four freshwater fishes (Oryzias latipes, Danio rerio, Cyprinus carpio, and Zacco platypus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wuk; Yoon, Hong-Gil; Lee, Sung Kyu

    2015-05-01

    Oryzias latipes, Danio rerio, Cyprinus carpio, and Zacco platypus are useful indicator species for CYP1A biomarker studies; however, comparative studies have not been performed. To compare susceptibility, dose- and time-dependent CYP1A induction at the mRNA and protein levels in response to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) exposure was analyzed. At the mRNA level, a statistically significant difference was found among the four species; however, such was not observed at the protein level. C. carpio showed the highest CYP1A induction level and the steepest slope in the dose-response curve. To assess susceptibility, the difference in CYP1A mRNA induction among species must be considered, and C. carpio was the most sensitive species of the four evaluated in terms of CYP1A expression. PMID:25863331

  7. Genetic effects of benzene and radiation in ICR and X/Gf mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X/Gf mice (a tumor-resistant strain) were compared with ICR mice (moderately tumor-sensitive) for their sensitivity to chromosomal damage caused by benzene, cyclophosphamide (CP), benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and radiation. There was no difference between strains in the level of micronucleus formation caused by BP, CP or radiation. Although X/Gf mice metabolized somewhat less of the dose of benzene per weight than ICR mice, and had somewhat higher levels of genetic damage, it is not known whether X/Gf mice would be measurably more resistant to benzene carcinogenicity. Short-term genotoxicity tests are used as indicators of initiation, therefore, equal sensitivity to a set of standard clastogens suggests that tumor resistance in X/Gf mice is a function of later stages of carcinogenesis. (author)

  8. Predicting bioavailability of PAHs in field-contaminated soils by passive sampling with triolein embedded cellulose acetate membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triolein embedded cellulose acetate membrane (TECAM) was used for passive sampling of the fraction of naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in 18 field-contaminated soils. The sampling process of PAHs by TECAM fitted well with a first-order kinetics model and PAHs reached 95% of equilibrium in TECAM within 20 h. Concentrations of PAHs in TECAM (CTECAM) correlated well with the concentrations in soils (r2 = 0.693-0.962, p TECAM and the partition coefficient between TECAM and water (KTECAM-w). After lipid normalization nearly 1:1 relationships were observed between PAH concentrations in TECAMs and earthworms exposed to the soils (r2 = 0.591-0.824, n = 18, p < 0.01). These results suggest that TECAM can be a useful tool to predict bioavailability of PAHs in field-contaminated soils. - Triolein embedded cellulose acetate membranes can be a useful tool to predict bioavailability of PAHs in field-contaminated soils

  9. Détection de contaminants dans les huiles végétales : bilan à fin 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacoste Florence

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research of contaminants is part of multiple controls conducted by fat and oil industry to verify the conformity of products placed on the market in relation to regulations as for instance the commission regulation EC no 1881/2006 setting maximum levels for some contaminants in food as lead, some mycotoxins, dioxins, polychlorobiphenyls, benzo[a]pyrene. In the absence of regulation, the detection of contaminants must be addressed in partnership with authorities according to the toxicity of molecules. The controls are not confined to environmental contaminants. They also include compounds that can be formed during the production process of vegetable oils such as esters of 3-monochloropropanediol. This article focuses on recent research analytical development more particularly on those related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, mineral oils, phthalates and esters of 3-monochloropropanediol.

  10. Dose-response relationships of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure and oxidative damage to DNA and lipid in coke oven workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Dan; Zhang, Wangzhen; Deng, Qifei; Zhang, Xiao; Huang, Kun; Guan, Lei; Hu, Die; Wu, Tangchun; Guo, Huan

    2013-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to induce reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, but the dose-response relationships between exposure to PAHs and oxidative stress levels have not been established. In this study, we recruited 1333 male coke oven workers, monitored the levels of environmental PAHs, and measured internal PAH exposure biomarkers including 12 urinary PAH metabolites and plasma benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydotetrol-albumin (BPDE-Alb) adducts, as well as the two oxidative biomarkers urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-iso-PGF2α). We found that the total concentration of urinary PAH metabolites and plasma BPDE-Alb adducts were both significantly associated with increased 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α in both smokers and nonsmokers (all p coke oven workers. PMID:23745771

  11. Qualitative TLC determination of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sugar-beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BILJANA D. SKRBIC

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of polycyclic or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were investigated in sugar-beet from a local sugar factory in the district of Vojvodina. The sugar-beet was cultivated on areas near roads with intensive traffic. The procedure for the preparation and determination of these compounds included saponification of the sample, several liquid–liquid extraction systems and a silica gel column clean-up. The purified sample solution was analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC on silica gel with cyclohexane as the developing solvent. Benzo(bfluoranthene and benzo(aanthracene and/or benzo(apyrene were detected at concentrations greater than the allowed limits in food.

  12. Determination of sensitivity limit in quantative analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Gc-ms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Nikola J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The limit of detection (LOD and the limit of quantitation (LOQ for 16 individual PAHs from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA list (naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphtene, fluorene, phenanthrene antrachene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(aanthracene, chrysene benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(kfluoranthene, benzo(apyrene, dibenzo(a,h anthracene, benzo(g,h,iperylene and indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene were determined by Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Determination was performed by SCAN (digital linear scanning and SIM (selected ion monitoring techniques preceded by the optimization of the experimental factors. The limit of detection obtained by the SCAN technique was in the range of 0.179 – 15.236 ng, and the quantitation limit in the range of 1.017 – 50.788 ng. SIM technique enabled LOD and LOQ in the range of 0.036 – 13.886 pg and 0.119 – 46.287 pg respectively.

  13. Extraction of Eleven Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kanchanamayoon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons namely; naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[ghi]perylene were extracted simultaneously by solid phase and analysis by gas chromatograph. The LC-18 solid phase showed good recoveries for extraction of 11 PAHs by using 3 mL of the mixture of (1:1:1 dichloromethane: cyclohexane: hexane as eluent, the percentage recoveries were in the ranges of 84.31-97.38 with the standard deviation of 1.56-5.36. The detection limits for solid phase extraction were in the ranges of 0.06-0.55 ppm. Application for analysis of water samples were done by this technique. The concentration of PAHs in water samples were found slightly varied from the location. The advantages of solid phase are solvent consumption, reuse in several times and pre-concentration.

  14. The Coagulant Type Influence on Removal Efficiency of 5- and 6-Ring Pahs During Water Coagulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowacka Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results on investigation of the removal efficiency of selected 5- and 6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[j]fluoranthene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene from water during coagulation and sedimentation process. Two pre-hydrolyzed aluminum coagulants: PAX XL 19H and FLOKOR 105V were chosen for research. Process was carried out at optimum process parameters: rapid-mixing - 3 min at the rotational speed of 200 rpm, slow mixing - 10 min at 30 rpm, sedimentation - 60 min. The removal effectiveness was dependant on coagulant type and its composition. Better results in the removal of 5-and 6-ring PAHs were obtained after application of FLOKOR 105V (lower aluminum content than after using PAX XL 19H.

  15. Differences in detection of DNA adducts in the 32P-postlabelling assay after either 1-butanol extraction or nuclease Pl treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclease P1 treatment and 1-butanol extraction to increase the sensitivity of the 32P-postlabelling assay for DNA adducts have been compared. Although similar results were obtained with the two methods for standard adducts formed with benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide I, nuclease P1 treatment resulted in a significant reduction in detection of major adducts 1-amino-6-nitropyrene, 1-amino-8-nitropyrene, 2-aminofluorene, 2-naphthylamine and 4-aminobiphenyl modified DNAs, but not following the 32P-postlabelling analysis of 2-acetylaminofluorene modified DNA. These results suggest that at least initially, both modications of the 32P-postlabelling assay should be used for the detection of unknown adducts or for adducts derived from nitro-aromatics and aromatic amines

  16. Percutaneous absorption from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Rosa Marie; Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas R; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Some natural sites, as a result of contaminants emitted into the air and subsequently deposited in soil or accidental industrial release, have high levels of organic and non-organic chemicals in soil. In occupational and recreation settings, these could be potential sources of percutaneous exposure to humans. When investigating percutaneous absorption from soil - in vitro or vivo - soil load, particle size, layering, soil "age" time, along with the methods of performing the experiment and analyzing the results must be taken into consideration. Skin absorption from soil is generally reduced compared with uptake from water/acetone. However, the absorption of some compounds, e.g., pentachlorophenol, chlorodane and PCB 1254, are similar. Lipophilic compounds like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, benzo[A]pyrene, and metals have the tendency to form reservoirs in skin. Thus, one should take caution in interpreting results directly from in vitro studies for risk assessment; in vivo validations are often required for the most relevant risk assessment. PMID:25205703

  17. Content comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in traditionally smoked freshwater fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pietrzak-Fiećko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the content of chosen PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene in meat of different freshwater fish species that were traditionally (directly smoked. The survey covered 16 freshwater fish samples of four species: rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, carp (Cyprinus carpio, vendace (Coregonus albula and eel (Anguilla anguilla. Average content of sum of four PAHs in meat of trout, carp, vendace and eel was: 2.73, 8.23, 6.45 and 3.65 µg/kg of meat, respectively. Maximum levels of chosen PAHs in meat of examined fish species were not exceeded by any of the samples. Conducted studies confirmed that meat of traditionally smoked trout, carp, vendace and eel is safe in terms of content of the analysed PAHs.

  18. Investigation of a Nanophotonic Sensor with Electrode Modified by Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Sushko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on optical sensors, namely nanophotonic ones intended for liquid media contained polynuclear aromatics assay. Developed by us nanophotonic sensor includes optically transparent working electrode modified by quantum-dimensional structures such as spherical semiconductor quantum dots (QDs. Monomolecular layer of QDs is plotted onto the electrode by Langmuir-Blodgett technology. Particular attention is paid to the processes of assay in nanophotonic sensor. As an analyte we used polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH such as benzo[a]pyrene (BP, which is known for its carcinogenic properties. The developed nanophotonic sensor can be used in ecology for organic carcinogens detection in water objects of environment as well as for biomedical, physical chemical assays and some others.

  19. Contribution of vehicular traffic and industrial facilities to PM10 concentrations in a suburban area of Caserta (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovino, Pasquale; Canzano, Silvana; Leone, Vincenzo; Berto, Chiara; Salvestrini, Stefano; Capasso, Sante

    2014-12-01

    PM10 levels have been recorded in the suburban area of Caserta (Italy) from February to October 2012. The daily limit was exceeded in 13 % of the determinations, with no significant difference between weekdays and weekends. Benzo[a]pyrene concentrations were in the range 0.01-0.46 ng/m(3), thus, never exceeding the National Standard. The B(a)P-eq was 0.20 ng/m(3). PM10 peaks were associated with wind from east-northeast. The same was observed for Ca concentrations, whereas no relation with wind direction was observed for organic pollutants. The results point to a local limestone quarry and cement factory as the likely major source of PM10 pollution in the area investigated. PMID:24136577

  20. Modulation of carcinogen bioavailability by immunisation with benzo[a]pyrene-conjugate vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grova, Nathalie; Prodhomme, Emmanuel J F; Schellenberger, Mario T; Farinelle, Sophie; Muller, Claude P

    2009-06-24

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) conjugate vaccines based on ovalbumin, tetanus toxoid and diphtheria toxoid (DT) as carrier proteins were developed to investigate the effect of specific antibodies on the bioavailability of this ubiquitous carcinogen and its metabolites. After metabolic activation of this prototype carcinogen, B[a]P forms DNA adducts which initiate chemical carcinogenesis. B[a]P-DT conjugate induced the most robust immune response. The antibodies reacted not only with B[a]P but also with the proximate carcinogen 7,8-diol-B[a]P. Antibodies modulated the bioavailability of B[a]P and its metabolic activation in a dose-dependent manner by sequestration in the blood. Our results showed that this immune prophylactic strategy influences the pharmacokinetic of B[a]P and further studies to investigate their effects on chemical carcinogenesis are warranted. PMID:19406187

  1. Optimization of Large Volume Injection for Improved Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Mussels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Ghorbani, Faranak

    2008-01-01

    mussel samples. Samples were extracted with Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) followed by two semi-automatic clean-up steps; gel permeation chromatography (GPC) on S-X3 and solid phase extraction (SPE) on pre-packed silica columns, prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. In......-MS detection of anthracene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and dibenzo[a,e]pyrene. The optimization of PTV-LVI for GC-MS analysis included the choice of liner, solvent venting, splitless time, split flow and initial inlet temperature for injection of 25 L standard solution and spiked...

  2. Preliminary interlaboratory comparison of the ex vivo dual human placental perfusion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myllynen, Päivi; Mathiesen, Line; Weimer, Marc;

    2010-01-01

    )pyridine) and IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline] has been/will be published separately. For this project, a comparative re-analysis was done, by curve fitting the data and calculating two endpoints: AUC(120), defined as the area under the curve between time 0 and time 120min and as t(0.5), defined as...... the time when the fetal to maternal concentration ratio is expected to be 0.5. The transport of the compounds from maternal to fetal circulation across the perfused placenta could be ranked in the order of antipyrine>IQ>PhIP in terms of both t(0.5) and AUC(120) by both partners. For benzo(a)pyrene the...... curve fitting failed. These prevalidation results give confidence for harmonization of the placental perfusion system to be used as one of the test methods in a panel for reproductive toxicology to model placental transfer in humans....

  3. ENVIROMENTAL HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION IN RICOTTA AND MOZZARELLA DI BUFALA CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Cortesi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, mainly formed by anthropogenic activities, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Due to environmental contamination and their chemical properties they migrate through the human food chain. Aim of this study was the evaluation of PAHs in ricotta and mozzarella di bufala cheese, produced by milk of buffalo collected in three farms, located in a high contaminated area in Campania because of a waste treatment plant and illegal waste incineration. 11 PAHs were identified both in milk and dairy products. Carcinogenic hydrocarbon benzo(apyrene were found in a range including 0.42- 12.96 μg/kg and dibenzo(ahanthracene 0.21-10.08 μg/kg. Anthracene showed higher concentrations than the other PAHs (45.23-436.85 μg/kg.

  4. Induction of active melanocytes in mouse skin by carcinogens: a new method for detection of skin carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, K; Inui, N; Takeuchi, T

    1981-01-01

    Application of potent skin carcinogens, such as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, 3-methylcholanthrene, benzo[a]pyrene and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, induced numerous dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa)-positive cells in the interfollicular epidermis of C57BL/6 mice in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Chrysene, a weak skin carcinogen, and croton oil, a tumor promoter, also induced 3--4 times more dopa-positive cells than acetone. Liver carcinogens, such as 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene and N-2-acetylaminofluorene, and non-carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene and pyrene, did not induce increase in these cells. These results indicate that increase in the number of dopa-positive cells after application of chemicals is well correlated with the abilities of these compounds to induce skin carcinogenesis and suppress sebaceous glands. PMID:7273337

  5. Characterization of tumorigenicity and radio-sensitivity markers by an ex vivo approach. In vivo identification of p53 dependent radio-sensitivity markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a detailed discussion of the relationship between cancer and genetic instability, of the structure, activation mechanisms, activity and biological functions of the p53 protein, a presentation of p53 mutants, and a recall of the effects of ionizing radiations, the author reports a biology research during which he investigated a cell model established from rat embryo lungs treated with Benzo[a]pyrene and made of tumoral lines muted by the p53 gene. He tried to identify markers which could report differences of tumorigenicity and radio-sensitivity observed in these different lines. He also tried to characterize radio-sensitivity molecular markers dependent on the p53 gene in a context of normal cells

  6. Annual Danish Informative Inventory Report to UNECE. Emission inventories from the base year of the protocols to year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M. (and others)

    2012-05-15

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2012. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SO{sub X} for the years 1980-2010 (2) NO{sub X} CO NMVOC and NH{sub 3} for the years 1985-2010 (3) Particulate matter: TSP PM{sub 10} PM{sub 2.5} for the years 2000-2010 (L) Heavy Metals: Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se and Zn for the years 1990-2010 (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene benzo(b)fluoranthene benzo(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1 2 3-cd)pyrene PCDD/F and HCB for the years 1990-2010. Further the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory. (Author)

  7. A review of ethyl carbamate and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination risk in cachaça and other Brazilian sugarcane spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riachi, L G; Santos, A; Moreira, R F A; De Maria, C A B

    2014-04-15

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been identified in Brazilian sugarcane spirits. Contamination sources are: sugarcane burn before harvest and petroleum derivatives. PAHs concentration in spirits produced from burned cane was about 2-3 times higher than those from unburned cane. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is present at less than 1%, and therefore is not a representative marker of cachaça contamination by PAHs. Ethyl carbamate (EC) is produced during both fermentation and distillation. During distillation, cupric ions may catalyse the conversion of cyanide to EC. In discontinuous distillation, the use of the heart fraction for bottling cachaça considerably decreases its concentration. In the continuous process, in which there is no separation of distillate, it is highly recommended to couple cooling devices and reflux systems to the distillation column. Consumers are at a greater risk of EC exposure from cachaça than from any other spirit. PMID:24295690

  8. Characteristics of attached radon-222 daughters under both laboratory and underground uranium-mine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.O.; Cooper, J.A.; Langford, J.C.; Petersen, M.R.

    1981-09-01

    The organic, inorganic, and radiological characteristics of airborne aerosols have been measured as a function of particle size in controlled atmosphere test chambers and operating uranium mines. Concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in two mines ranged from 26 to 57 ng/m/sup 3/ of air. The carbon chain length of adsorbed n-alkanes was correlated with particle size. Normal mining activities produced an ore dust aerosol with mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) greater than 2 ..mu..m. The elements Na, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Fe, and U exhibited elemental ratios similar to bulk ore and had comparable MMAD's. The S, Zn, and Pb were higher in aerosols than bulk ore and were associated with smaller MMAD particulates. Radon daughter particle size distributions were influenced by the kinds of particulates generated in mining activity.

  9. Characteristics of attached radon-222 daughters under both laboratory and underground uranium-mine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organic, inorganic, and radiological characteristics of airborne aerosols have been measured as a function of particle size in controlled atmosphere test chambers and operating uranium mines. Concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in two mines ranged from 26 to 57 ng/m3 of air. The carbon chain length of adsorbed n-alkanes was correlated with particle size. Normal mining activities produced an ore dust aerosol with mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) greater than 2 μm. The elements Na, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Fe, and U exhibited elemental ratios similar to bulk ore and had comparable MMAD's. The S, Zn, and Pb were higher in aerosols than bulk ore and were associated with smaller MMAD particulates. Radon daughter particle size distributions were influenced by the kinds of particulates generated in mining activity

  10. Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and identification of the major aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts formed in cultured human bronchus and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1979-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 and benzo(a)pyrene were activated by both cultured human bronchus and human colon as measured by binding to cellular DNA and protein. The binding of aflatoxin B1 to DNA was dose dependent, and the level of binding was higher in cultured human bronchus than it was in the colon. When...... found in these two peaks, and the ratio of radioactivity between the peaks was nearly 1. In colonic DNA, the ratio between Structures 1 and 11 was approximately 2. These observations add aflatoxin B1 to the list of chemical procarcinogens metabolized by cultured human tissues and in which the carcinogen-DNA...... adducts are similar to the adducts formed in animal tissue susceptible to the carcinogenic action of aflatoxin B1....

  11. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seafoods from Lake Timsah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Gamal A

    2002-03-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrpcarvons (PAHs) in some seafoods caught from Lake Timsah were determined. The tested samples were tilapia fish (Oreochromis aureus), crabs (Portuns pelagicus), bivalves (Venerupis decussata), clams (Strombus tricornis) and gastropods (Munes Sp.). Where these seafoods are locally and favorite consumed foods in the area around the lake (Ismailia governorate). Results showed that crabs contained significantly higher concentrations of both total and carcinogenic PAHs ranging from 1318.6 to 3767.4 and 1230.3 to 3442.2 microg kg(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, clams contained significantly lower levels with mean value of 28.4 microg kg(-1) for total and 24.4 microg kg(-1) for carcinogenic PAHs. The most frequently detected PAHs in the tested samples were indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene followed by benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and benzo(b)fluoranthene which are characterized as carcinogenic compounds. PMID:11970818

  12. Biosensors and other medical and environmental probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, K.B.

    1996-12-31

    The author presents a overview of work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory directed toward the development of biosensors which can be used to monitor for an array of medical and environmental effects. The article describes the variety of problems which have been addressed by development of such sensors, and the range of staff who have been actively involved in this effort. The first such sensor developed at ORNL was an optical fiber whose end was treated with an antibody which would react with the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Section titles from the article provide an idea of the breadth of applications addressed: medical telesensors; microcantilevers; detecting cancer and health abnormalities; bioreporters; miniaturized devices; biosensors and DNA analysis; lipids in bacteria and human fingerprints; and anthropometry.

  13. Induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis in suspensions of rat hepatocytes by an environmental toxicant, 3,3'4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, M T; Kreamer, B L

    1979-04-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis was induced by 3,3'4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB)) in freshly isolated suspensions of rat hepatocytes. A dose-dependent response was demonstrated. Hepatocellular DNA was obtained after the chloroform-isoamyl alchohol-phenol extraction of the isolated nuclei. The induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis was measured by the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine in the presence of hydroxyurea as determined by the scintillation counting assay. DNA repair data obtained in this study on benzo[a]pyrene and methyl methanesulfonate are comparable to a previous report using primary cultures of hepatocytes and cesium chloride gradients. Hence, the present method offers promise as a rapid and sensitive screen for chemical carcinogens. PMID:436117

  14. Development and certification of a coal fly ash certified reference material for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X; Xu, X; Cui, W; Xi, Z

    2001-08-01

    The development and certification of a coal fly ash certified reference material (CRM) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is described; this is the first natural matrix CRM for organic environmental analysis in China. The homogeneity and stability of this material have been tested by HPLC. The concentrations of several PAH were determined by use of two independent, different methods--solvent extraction-HPLC analysis with UV detection coupled with fluorescence detection (FLD) and solvent extraction, isolation with a silica column, and GC analysis with flame ionization detection (FID). Five certified values were determined: phenanthrene 7.1 +/- 2.6 microg g(-1), anthracene 2.0 +/- 0.8 microg g(-1), fluoranthene 7.4 +/- 1.9 microg g(-1), pyrene 7 +/- 2 microg g(-1), and benzo[a]pyrene 1.3 +/- 0.3 microg g(-1). Reference values for several other PAH are also suggested. PMID:11583083

  15. Polystyrene influence on the structural and thermal pitches properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finqueneisel, G. [Univ. de Metz, Dept. Chimie, Saint-Avold (France); Zimny, T. [Univ. de Metz, Dept. Chimie, Saint-Avold (France); Heintz, O. [Univ. de Metz, Dept. Chimie, Saint-Avold (France); Bertau, R. [H.G.D. SA, Forbach (France); Weber, J.V. [Univ. de Metz, Dept. Chimie, Saint-Avold (France)

    1996-06-01

    Polystyrene (Mn{approx}240 000) is used to prepare doped pitches. Firstly, PS is dissolved in coal tar and the obtained mixtures are studied by several techniques (chromatography, spectroscopy and thermogravimetry) to follow the influence of PS addition. Then, the PS-tar mixtures are distilled and the resulting pitches are characterized by the same methods. During pitch preparation, the PS is depolymerzied and is recovered in the light fractions as substitued monoaromatics (about 90% of wt). The radicals issued from PS induce the oligomerization of some molecules leading to an increase of the residues at high temperature. About 10% in weight of PS are incorporated in doped pitches as substituents. Finally, other pitch properties (viscosity, Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) concentration) are slightly modified. (orig.)

  16. Diagnosis of soils polluted by aromatic hydrocarbons; Diagnostic de sols pollues par des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP) a l'aide de la spectrophotometrie UV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crone, M.

    2000-01-28

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were produced by many pyrolytic or combustion processes. They were found in soils, often in high concentrations. Remediation of industrial sites contaminated by PAHs requires an initial diagnosis of the pollution. In this perspective, an analytical procedure based on UV spectrophotometry was developed and validated with about 80 soil samples. Different exploitation methods of the samples UV spectra enable to develop simple and rapid characterisation tools. A PAH UV index is proposed for the estimation of global PAH concentration. A more accurate exploitation of the spectra gives an indication on the presence or the absence of some individual PAH like benzo[a]pyrene. A maturity index based on a two wavelength approach constitutes an indicator of the potential evolution of soil contamination in natural conditions. Laboratory methodology was adapted to field analyses and a test kit was designed for this purpose. The test duration is 20 minutes. (author)

  17. Mechanisms of mutagenesis and DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research deals with mechanisms of excision repair in Escherichia coli exposed to chemicals or ultraviolet (uv) radiation. During the past year attention has been focused on the incision proteins that initiate removal of pyrimidine dimers, benzo[a]pyrene adducts, and other bulky lesions from DNA. The product of the E. Coli uvrD gene was isolated and shown to be important in mediating closure of single strand DNA breaks promoted by the incision complex coded for by the uvrA, uvrB, and uvrC gene products. This suggests that the uvrD gene product (now known to be a helicase) is necessary either for dislodging the incision complex from the nicked DNA or for preparing a DNA primer-template configuration suitable for proper repair resynthesis

  18. City air pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other mutagens: occurrence, sources and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Larsen, J.C.;

    1996-01-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mutagens and other air pollutants was investigated in a busy street in central Copenhagen and in a park area adjacent to the street. The winter concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 4.4+/-1.2 ng/m(3) in the street air and 1.4+/-0.6 ng/m(3) in...... the city park. The atmospheric concentrations of PAH decreased in the order of: street > city background air similar to suburbs > village > open land. The traffic contribution of PAH to street air was estimated to be 90% on working days and 60% during weekends and its contribution to city background...... air was estimated to be 40%. Four different approaches to evaluate the health effects are discussed. The direct effect of PAH air pollution, and other mutagens, is considered to be a maximum of five lung cancer cases each year out of one million people....

  19. Cell-mediated mutagenesis and cell transformation of mammalian cells by chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a cell-mediated mutagenesis assay in which cells with the appropriate markers for mutagenesis are co-cultivated with either lethally irradiated rodent embryonic cells that can metabolize carcinogenic hydrocarbons or with primary rat liver cells that can metabolize chemicals carcinogenic to the liver. During co-cultivation, the reactive metabolites of the procarcinogen appear to be transmitted to the mutable cells and induce mutations in them. Assays of this type make it possible to demonstrate a relationship between carcinogenic potency of the chemicals and their ability to induce mutations in mammalian cells. In addition, by simultaneously comparing the frequencies of transformation and mutation induced in normal diploid hamster cells by benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and one of its metabolites, it is possible to estimate the genetic target size for cell transformation in vitro

  20. Mutation of Chinese hamster cells by near-UV activation of promutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tissue-culture assay for mutagenesis and cytotoxicity incorporating near ultraviolet (NUV) light activation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) has been developed. Cultures of Chinese hamster cells (line CHO) growing in suspension culture were inoculated with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) or shale-oil retort-water and exposed to light from a high-pressure mercury lamp fitted with a Corning NUV bandpass filter. This light source both permitted activation of PAH and the shale-oil water and precluded detectable damage to DNA. Neither the PAH nor the NUV alone had any effect on cell survival or mutation frequencies but the chemicals plus NUV were extremely effective in producing mutations to 6-thioguanine resistance (hgprt gene). (orig.)

  1. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing X. Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms.

  2. Validation of an analytical methodology for the quantitative analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine sediment samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Yordad Companioni Damas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a validation of an analytical procedure for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine sediment samples. The proposed protocol is able to measure n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in samples at concentrations as low as 30 ng/g, with a precision better than 15% for most of analytes. The extraction efficiency of fortified sediments varied from 65.1 to 105.6% and 59.7 to 97.8%, for n-alkanes and PAH in the ranges: C16 - C32 and fluoranthene - benzo(apyrene, respectively. The analytical protocol was applied to determine petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments collected from a marine coastal zone.

  3. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in cereal breakfast products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemniak, Artur; Chrachol, Lucyna

    2008-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants formed by incomplete combustion (pyrolysis) of several organic materials. PAHs occur as complex mixtures, never as individual components. They are chemically stable and highly lipophilic in nature and occur as contaminants in different food categories: vegetables, fruit, cereals, oils and fats, especially barbecued and smoked food. The present study was carried out to determine 16 PAHs in cereal products: musli, corn, oats and barley flakes, and crunchy. The analytical procedure was based on alkaline digestion, extraction with n-hexane and cleaned up in a florisil cartridge. Chromatographic separation was performed using gas chromatography (HP 6890) coupled to mass spectrometry (HP 5973). The levels of PAHs in most samples were generally low and excepting one sample of bred varied between 4.2 to 169 microg/kg. Benzo[a]pyrene, was detected in all samples, at level 0.02 microg/kg to 16 microg/kg. PMID:19143427

  4. Potential Hazards in Smoke-Flavored Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Hong; JIANG Jie; LI Donghua

    2008-01-01

    Smoking is widely used in fish processing for the color and flavor. Smoke flavorings have evolved as a successful alter- native to traditional smoking. The hazards of the fish products treated by liquid-smoking process are discussed in this review. The smoke flavoring is one important ingredient in the smoke-flavored fish. This paper gives the definition of smoke flavorings and the hazard of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residue in the smoke flavorings on the market. It gives also an assessment of chemical hazards such as carcinogenic PAHs, especially Benzo-[a]pyrene, as well as biological hazards such as Listeria monocyto- genes, Clostridium botulinum, histamine and parasites in smoke-flavored fish. The limitations in regulations or standards are dis- cussed. Smoke flavored fish have lower content of PAHs as compared with the traditional smoking techniques if the PAHs residue in smoke flavorings is controlled by regulations or standards.

  5. Annual Danish informative inventory report to UNECE. Emission inventories from the base year of the protocols to year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Nielsen, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Fauser, P.; Plejdrup, M.S.; Albrektsen, R.; Hjelgaard, K.

    2009-04-15

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2009. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SO{sub X} for the years 1980-2007, (2) NO{sub X}, CO, NMVOC and NH{sub 3} for the years 1985-2007, (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} for the years 2000-2007, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2007, (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene for the years 1990-2007 and (6) Dioxin and HCB. Further, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory. (au)

  6. Annual Danish emission inventory report o UNECE. Inventories from the base year of the protocols to year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, Morten; Hjort Mikkensen, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Fauser, P.

    2006-12-15

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2006. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SO{sub x} for the years 1980-2004, (2) NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC and NH{sub 3} for the years 1985-2004; (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} for the years 2000-2004, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2004, and (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene for the years 1990-2004. Further, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory. (au)

  7. Annual Danish emission inventory report to UNECE. Inventories from the base year of the protocols to year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll Illerup, J.; Nielsen, O.-K.; Winther, M.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Nielsen, Malene; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Fauser, P.; Tranekjaer Jensen, M.; Gundorph Bruun, H.

    2007-07-01

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2007. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SO{sub x} for the years 1980-2005, (2) NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC and NH{sub 3} for the years 1985-2005; (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} for the years 2000-2005, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2005, and (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene for the years 1990-2005. Further, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory. (au)

  8. Annual Danish emission inventory report to UNECE. Inventories from the base year of the protocols to year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Nielsen, Malene; Winther, Morten; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Fauser, P.; Nielsen, O.K.

    2005-12-15

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2005. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SO{sub x} for the years 1980-2003, (2) NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC and NH{sub 3} for the years 1985-2003; (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM10, PM2.5 for the years 2000-2003, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2003, and(5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene for the years 1990-2003. Further, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory. (au)

  9. Annual Danish emissions inventory report to UNECE. Inventory 1990 - 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Nielsen, M.; Winther, M.; Hjort Mikkelsen, M.; Lyck, E.; Hoffmann, L.; Fauser, P.

    2004-05-01

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2004. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SOx for the years 1980-2002, (2) NOx, CO, NMVOC and NH{sub 3} for the years 1985-2002; (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM10, PM2.5 for the years 2000-2002, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2002, and (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene for the years 1990-2002. Furthermore, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory. (au)

  10. Annual Danish emission inventory report to UNECE. Inventories from the base year of the protocols to year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Nielsen, Malene; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Fauser, P.; Tranekjaer Jensen, M.; Plejdrup, M.S.; Boll Illerup, J.

    2008-06-15

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2008. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SO{sub X} for the years 1980-2006, (2) NO{sub X}, CO, NMVOC and NH{sub 3} for the years 1985-2006; (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} for the years 2000-2006, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2006, and (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene for the years 1990-2006. Further, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory. (au)

  11. Experimental verifications on chemical carcinogenesis, a bifunctional alkylation between DNA interstrands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It is evidenced by the filter elution method that two carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, two carcinogenic metal salts, beryllium chloride and cadmium chloride, four carcinogenic aromatic amines, 2-aminofluorene, β-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine, can all induce DNA interstrand and DNA-protein cross-link in L1210 culture. However, under the same condition, the corresponding non-carcinogenic compounds, including benzo[k]fluorancene, anthracene, magnesium chloride, zinc chloride, a -naphthylamine, 2-aminobiphenyl and m-toluidine, cannot produce any cross-link adducts. All these results are consistent with the di-region theory that carcinogens are bio-bifunctional alkylation agents. This method can also be used to discriminate carcinogens and non-carcinogens.

  12. Differences in detection of DNA adducts in the 32P-postlabelling assay after either 1-butanol extraction or nuclease P1 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J E; Jackson, M A; George, M H; Lewtas, J; Robertson, I G

    1989-04-01

    The use of nuclease P1 treatment and 1-butanol extraction to increase the sensitivity of the 32P-postlabelling assay for DNA adducts have been compared. Although similar results were obtained with the two methods for standard adducts formed with benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide I (BPDE-I), nuclease P1 treatment resulted in a significant reduction in detection of major adducts from 1-amino-6-nitropyrene (1-amino-6-NP), 1-amino-8-nitropyrene (1-amino-8-NP), 2-aminofluorene (2-AF), 2-naphthylamine (2-NA) and 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) modified DNAs, but not following the 32P-postlabelling analysis of 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) modified DNA. These results suggest that, at least initially, both modifications of the 32P-postlabelling assay should be used for the detection of unknown adducts or for adducts derived from nitroaromatics and aromatic amines. PMID:2540901

  13. Differential effects of chronic alcohol administration to rats on the activation of aromatic amines to mutagens in the Ames test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, C M; Ioannides, C

    1986-05-01

    Male Wistar albino rats were maintained on alcohol-containing liquid diets for 4 weeks. Hepatic post-mitochondrial preparations derived from these animals were more efficient than control in activating 4-aminobiphenyl and 2-aminofluorene to mutagens in the Ames test. The alcohol-induced enhancement in mutagenicity was not inhibited by dimethylsulphoxide indicating that the generation of hydroxyl radicals is not involved. The activation of 2-naphthylamine was not affected by the treatment with alcohol but the mutagenicities of 2-aminoanthracene, benzo[a]pyrene and 3-methylcholanthrene were inhibited. The same treatment markedly increased hepatic microsomal aniline p-hydroxylase and ethoxyresorufin O-de-ethylase activities and to a lesser extent benzphetamine N-demethylase and microsomal levels of total cytochromes P-450. It is concluded that chronic alcohol administration to rats modulates the metabolic activation of pre-carcinogens to their reactive intermediates presumably by causing the redistribution of cytochrome P-450 isozymes. PMID:3009048

  14. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Metro Manila air particulate by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of analytical procedures for the determination of PAHs in air particulates is described. The optimized methodology consisted of the following: Samples were extracted by Soxhlet for 16 hours with cylclohexane, followed by concentration of the extract under reduced pressure in a rotary evaporator. Clean-up was done by passing the extract through a Seppak silica cartridge and eluting with chloroform. Analysis was performed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The analytes determined were anthracene, fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene,dibenz(a,h)anthracence, and benzo(g,h,i) perylene. Detection limits were lowest for benzo(a)pyrene with maximum value of 1 ng/m3. Sixty one (61) samples from selected Metro Manila stations were analyzed. Total PAHs ranged from 1.74- 10.43 ng/m3. (author)

  15. Application of Fenton's reagent as a pretreatment step in biological degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, R.L.; Gauger, W.K.; Srivastava, V.J.

    1990-01-01

    Fenton's reagent (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Fe{sup ++}) has been used for chemical oxidation of numerous organic compounds in water treatment schemes. In this study, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) applied Fenton's treatment to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH-contaminated soils. Fenton's treatment was very reactive with PAHs, causing rapid modification of the parental compounds to oxidized products and complete degradation to CO{sub 2}. This treatment was more effective on chemically reactive PAHs, such as benzo(a)pyrene and phenanthrene. Important parameters and conditions for Fenton's treatment of PAHs in solution and soil matrices have been identified. As much as 99% of the PAHs on soil matrices can be removed by treatment with Fenton's reagent. 28 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  16. The iron component of particulate matter is antiapoptotic: A clue to the development of lung cancer after exposure to atmospheric pollutants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovera-Leroux, Melanie; Crobeddu, Belinda; Kassis, Nadim; Petit, Patrice X; Janel, Nathalie; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Andreau, Karine

    2015-11-01

    The classification of outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic for humans strengthens the increasing concern about particulate matter (PM). We previously demonstrated that PM exposure produces an antiapoptotic effect resulting from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and water-soluble components. In this study, we investigated transition metallic compounds, particularly iron, in order to decipher their underlying molecular mechanisms that prevent apoptosis. Human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed for 4 h to different PM samples with established antiapoptotic effect (e.g. PM-AW) or not (e.g. PM-VS) or to their metallic components (Fe, Mn, Zn and Al) before apoptosis induction by the calcium ionophore A23187 or Staurosporine. PM-AW, Fe, Mn and Al significantly reduced induced apoptosis. The antiapoptotic effect of Fe was enhanced by benzo(a)pyrene, a typical PAH compound, but was totally reversed by the iron chelator, deferiprone. Furthermore, particles and iron triggered cellular ROS generation and prevented the depletion in glutathione levels observed during A23187-induced apoptosis. In contrast to benzo(a)pyrene, PM-AW and Fe rapidly activated NRF2, subsequently upregulated several target genes (HO1, NQO1 and GPX1) and modulated some genes which control cell death (BCL2, BAX and p53). The key role of the NRF2 pathway in the antiapoptotic effect mediated by Fe and PM was demonstrated using siRNA technology. Our results suggest that the iron component participates in the antiapoptotic effect of PM by activating a NRF2-dependent antioxidant process. As resisting to cell death is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells, these findings provide additional clues for understanding the development of lung cancer after atmospheric pollution exposure. PMID:26419736

  17. The Anticancer Role of Capsaicin in Experimentallyinduced Lung Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandi Anandakumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Capsaicin (CAP is the chief pungent principle found in the hot red peppers and the chili peppers that have long been used as spices, food additives and drugs. This study investigated the anticancer potential of CAP through its ability to modify extracellular matrix components and proteases during mice lung carcinogenesis. Methods: Swiss albino mice were treated with benzo(a pyrene (50 mg/kg body weight dissolved in olive oil orally twice a week for four successive weeks to induce lung cancer at the end of 14th week. CAP was administrated (10 mg/kg body weight dissolved in olive oil intraperitoneally. Extracellular matrix components were assayed; Masson’s trichome staining of lung tissues was performed. Western blot analyses of matrix metalloproteases 2 and 9 were also carried out. Results: In comparison with the control animals, animals in which benzo(apyrene had induced lung cancer showed significant increases in extracellular matrix components such as collagen (hydroxy proline, elastin, uronic acid and hexosamine and in glycosaminoglycans such as hyaluronate, chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate and dermatan sulfate. The above alterations in extracellular matrix components were effectively counteracted in benzo(apyrene along with CAP supplemented animals when compared to benzo(a pyrene alone supplemented animals. The results of Masson’s trichome staining for collagen and of, immunoblotting analyses of matrix metalloproteases 2 and 9 further supported the biochemical findings. Conclusion: The apparent potential of CAP in modulating extracellular matrix components and proteases suggests that CAP plays a chemomodulatory and anti- cancer role working against experimentally induced lung carcinogenesis.

  18. Immunotoxic effects of oil sands-derived naphthenic acids to rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naphthenic acids are the major organic constituents in waters impacted by oil sands. To investigate their immunotoxicity, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were injected with naphthenic acids extracted from aged oil sands tailings water. In two experiments, rainbow trout were injected intraperitoneally with 0, 10, or 100 mg/kg of naphthenic acids, and sampled after 5 or 21 d. Half of the fish from the 21 d exposure were co-exposed to inactivated Aeromonas salmonicida (A.s.) to induce an immune response. A positive control experiment was conducted using an intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg of benzo[a]pyrene, a known immune suppressing compound. T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, thrombocytes, and myeloid cells were counted in blood and lymphatic tissue using flow cytometry. In the 5 d exposure, there was a reduction in blood leucocytes and spleen thrombocytes at the 100 mg/kg dose. However, at 21 d, leucocyte populations showed no effects of exposure with the exception that spleen thrombocyte populations increase at the 100 mg/kg dose. In the 21 d exposure, B- and T-lymphocytes in blood showed a significant Dose × A.s. interaction, indicating stimulated blood cell proliferation due to naphthenic acids alone as well as due to A.s. Naphthenic acid injections did not result in elevated bile fluorescent metabolites or elevated hepatic EROD activity. In contrast to naphthenic acids exposures, as similar dose of benzo[a]pyrene caused a significant decrease in B- and T-lymphocyte absolute counts in blood and relative B-lymphocyte counts in spleen. Results suggest that the naphthenic acids may act via a generally toxic mechanism rather than by specific toxic effects on immune cells.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from rural household biomass burning in a typical Chinese village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HaiLin; ZHUANG YaHui; HAO ZhengPing; CAO MeiQiu; ZHONG JinXian; WANG XiaoKe; NGUYEN Thi Kim Oanh

    2008-01-01

    Biomass energy sources are still popular in the rural areas of developing countries for cooking and space heating. Since the incomplete combustion of agricultural residues in home-made ranges might lead to both outdoor and indoor air pollution and cause potential health threat to the rural population,we monitored the ambient levels of 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at a typical rural site. Ambient particulate PAH samples (PM2.5 and PM10) were taken during both cooking and non-cooking periods. Source emission monitoring was also conducted for both improved and traditional cooking stoves used in the area. Ambient PAHs had a significant increase during the cooking periods and varied from 72.1 to 554.4 ng/m3. The highest total PAH levels were found during the supper cooking time,in which five- and six-ring species accounted for a large proportion. The observed PAH levels during cooking periods at this rural site were even higher than those in urban areas. A good correlation was found between the benzo[a]pyrene level and the total PAH concentration (r=0.98),making benzo[a]pyrene a potential molecular marker for PAH pollution in the rural areas,where biomass burning is typical. The profiles of the particulate PAHs in both ambient air and source emissions showed a high proportion of high molecular-mass PAHs. In addition,emission factors of 16 PAHs from an improved household stove were found to be significantly lower than those from traditional stoves used in China and in other Asian countries.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from rural household biomass burning in a typical Chinese village

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NGUYEN; Thi; Kim; Oanh

    2008-01-01

    Biomass energy sources are still popular in the rural areas of developing countries for cooking and space heating. Since the incomplete combustion of agricultural residues in home-made ranges might lead to both outdoor and indoor air pollution and cause potential health threat to the rural population, we monitored the ambient levels of 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at a typical rural site. Ambient particulate PAH samples (PM2.5 and PM10) were taken during both cooking and non-cooking periods. Source emission monitoring was also conducted for both improved and tra- ditional cooking stoves used in the area. Ambient PAHs had a significant increase during the cooking periods and varied from 72.1 to 554.4 ng/m3. The highest total PAH levels were found during the supper cooking time, in which five- and six-ring species accounted for a large proportion. The observed PAH levels during cooking periods at this rural site were even higher than those in urban areas. A good correlation was found between the benzo[a]pyrene level and the total PAH concentration (r=0.98), making benzo[a]pyrene a potential molecular marker for PAH pollution in the rural areas, where bio- mass burning is typical. The profiles of the particulate PAHs in both ambient air and source emissions showed a high proportion of high molecular-mass PAHs. In addition, emission factors of 16 PAHs from an improved household stove were found to be significantly lower than those from traditional stoves used in China and in other Asian countries.

  1. Persistent activation of DNA damage signaling in response to complex mixtures of PAHs in air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in air particulate matter (PM) and have been associated with many adverse human health effects including cancer and respiratory disease. However, due to their complexity, the risk of exposure to mixtures is difficult to estimate. In the present study the effects of binary mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and complex mixtures of PAHs in urban air PM extracts on DNA damage signaling was investigated. Applying a statistical model to the data we observed a more than additive response for binary mixtures of BP and DBP on activation of DNA damage signaling. Persistent activation of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) was observed at significantly lower BP equivalent concentrations in air PM extracts than BP alone. Activation of DNA damage signaling was also more persistent in air PM fractions containing PAHs with more than four aromatic rings suggesting larger PAHs contribute a greater risk to human health. Altogether our data suggests that human health risk assessment based on additivity such as toxicity equivalency factor scales may significantly underestimate the risk of exposure to complex mixtures of PAHs. The data confirms our previous findings with PAH-contaminated soil (Niziolek-Kierecka et al., 2012) and suggests a possible role for Chk1 Ser317 phosphorylation as a biological marker for future analyses of complex mixtures of PAHs. -- Highlights: ► Benzo[a]pyrene (BP), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and air PM PAH extracts were compared. ► Binary mixture of BP and DBP induced a more than additive DNA damage response. ► Air PM PAH extracts were more potent than toxicity equivalency factor estimates. ► Larger PAHs (> 4 rings) contribute more to the genotoxicity of PAHs in air PM. ► Chk1 is a sensitive marker for persistent activation of DNA damage signaling from PAH mixtures.

  2. The multi-functional roles of GNMT in toxicology and cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Chia-Hung; Lin, Yu-Ting [AIDS Prevention and Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, Shih-Pai, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Heng-Li [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shih-Yin [Genetic Center, Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur, E-mail: arthur@ym.edu.tw [AIDS Prevention and Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, Shih-Pai, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2013-01-01

    Although glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) has been discovered for five decades, its function was not elucidated until recently. In this review, we discuss the multiple roles of GNMT in toxicology and cancer. Besides catalyzing the production of methylglycine (sarcosine) in one carbon metabolism pathway, GNMT was found to be able to bind a number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inhibit DNA adducts formation. Moreover, GNMT exerts protective effects against the cytotoxicity and carcinogenicity of benzo(a)pyrene and aflatoxin B{sub 1} in vitro and in vivo. Occupational study showed that workers who had genotypes with higher GNMT promoter activity may have lower content of oxidative damaged DNA products in their urine. In terms of cancer, recent studies using GNMT knockout mouse models demonstrated that GNMT deficiency has high penetrance in inducing the development of steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In terms of the mechanism, besides dysregulation of epigenetic modification, insights have been provided by recent identification of two novel proteins interacting with GNMT-DEPTOR and NPC2. These studies suggest that GNMT not only is involved in mTOR signaling pathway, but also plays an important role in the intracellular trafficking of cholesterol. The implication of these findings to the preventive medicine and translational research will be discussed. -- Highlights: ► We discuss the critical roles of GNMT in toxicology and cancer biology. ► GNMT binds benzo(a)pyrene and aflatoxin and inhibits their DNA adduct formation. ► GNMT deficiency is related to liver tumorigenesis both in mice and human. ► GNMT deficiency results in epigenetic dysregulation and metabolic diseases. ► GNMT is involved in mTOR pathway and intracellular trafficking of cholesterol.

  3. Mutagenic and antimutagenic assessment of methanol leaf extract of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) using in vitro and in vivo genetic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboro, Akeem; Mohamed, Kamaruzaman Bin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Ying, Tang Hui; Maidin, Siti Marina

    2012-10-01

    The role of diets in causing cancers necessitates the ongoing search for natural antimutagens of promising anticancer therapeutics. This study determined the potential anticancer efficacy of the leaf extract of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.). Methanol leaf extract of M. fragrans (Houtt.) alone was screened for mutagenicity in the bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) test, using the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain, the Allium cepa, and the mouse in vivo bone marrow micronucleus tests. The antimutagenicity of this extract against benzo[a]pyrene- and cyclophosphamide-induced mutations was evaluated. An antioxidant test on the extract was performed with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, using butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as the standards, whereas its phytochemicals were elucidated by following the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry protocol. In S. typhimurium (TA100), the mutagenicity ratio at 200,500 and 1,000 µg/well was >2. Cell division in the A. cepa root tips and mouse bone marrow was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inhibited at 2,000 and 4,000 mg/kg, whereas the observed chromosomal aberrations and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes were non-dose-related and were insignificantly (P ≥ 0.05) different from the negative control. Inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene- and cyclophosphamide-induced mutagenicity by this extract was above 40%. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the extract in the antioxidant test was lower than that of BHA and BHT. Phytochemical compounds, possessing antioxidant activity, may be responsible for the observed effects, suggesting a strong antimutagenic activity of the MeOH leaf extract of M. fragrans, a necessary characteristic of a promising anticancer agent. PMID:22149219

  4. Immunotoxic effects of oil sands-derived naphthenic acids to rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, Gillian Z.; Hogan, Natacha S. [Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PEI (Canada); Koellner, Bernd [Friedrich Loeffler Institute, Federal Research Institute of Animal Health, Institute of Immunology, Greifswald (Germany); Thorpe, Karen L.; Phalen, Laura J. [Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PEI (Canada); Wagner, Brian D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown (Canada); Heuvel, Michael R. van den, E-mail: mheuvel@upei.ca [Canadian Rivers Institute, Department of Biology, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PEI (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    Naphthenic acids are the major organic constituents in waters impacted by oil sands. To investigate their immunotoxicity, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were injected with naphthenic acids extracted from aged oil sands tailings water. In two experiments, rainbow trout were injected intraperitoneally with 0, 10, or 100 mg/kg of naphthenic acids, and sampled after 5 or 21 d. Half of the fish from the 21 d exposure were co-exposed to inactivated Aeromonas salmonicida (A.s.) to induce an immune response. A positive control experiment was conducted using an intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg of benzo[a]pyrene, a known immune suppressing compound. T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, thrombocytes, and myeloid cells were counted in blood and lymphatic tissue using flow cytometry. In the 5 d exposure, there was a reduction in blood leucocytes and spleen thrombocytes at the 100 mg/kg dose. However, at 21 d, leucocyte populations showed no effects of exposure with the exception that spleen thrombocyte populations increase at the 100 mg/kg dose. In the 21 d exposure, B- and T-lymphocytes in blood showed a significant Dose Multiplication-Sign A.s. interaction, indicating stimulated blood cell proliferation due to naphthenic acids alone as well as due to A.s. Naphthenic acid injections did not result in elevated bile fluorescent metabolites or elevated hepatic EROD activity. In contrast to naphthenic acids exposures, as similar dose of benzo[a]pyrene caused a significant decrease in B- and T-lymphocyte absolute counts in blood and relative B-lymphocyte counts in spleen. Results suggest that the naphthenic acids may act via a generally toxic mechanism rather than by specific toxic effects on immune cells.

  5. Screening and degrading characteristics and community structure of a high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium from contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Run Sun; Jinghua Jin; Guangdong Sun; Ying Liu; Zhipei Liu

    2010-01-01

    Inoculation with efficient microbes had been proved to be the most important way for the bioremediation of polluted environments.For the treatment of abandoned site of Beijing Coking Chemical Plant contaminated with high level of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs),a bacterial consortium capable of degrading HMW-PAHs,designated 1-18-1,was enriched and screened from HMW-PAHs contaminated soil.Its degrading ability was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC),and the community structure was investigated by construction and analyses of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries (A,B and F) at different transfers.The results indicated that 1-18-1 was able to utilize pyrene,fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene as sole carbon and energy source for growth.The degradation rate of pyrene and fluoranthene reached 82.8% and 96.2% after incubation for 8 days at 30℃,respectively;while the degradation rate of benzo[a]pyrene was only 65.1% after incubation for 28 days at 30℃.Totally,108,100 and 100 valid clones were randomly selected and sequenced from the libraries A,B,and E Phylogenetic analyses showed that all the clones could be divided into 5 groups,Bacteroidetes,α-Proteobacteria,Actinobacteria,β-Proteobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria.Sequence similarity analyses showed total 39 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the libraries.The predominant bacterial groups were α-Proteobacteria (19 OTUs,48.7%),γ-Proteobacteria (9 OTUs,23.1%) and β-Protcobacteria (8 OTUs,20.5%).During the transfer process,the proportions of α-Proteobacteria and β-Proteobacteria increased greatly (from 47% to 93%),while γ-Proteobacteria decreased from 32% (library A) to 6% (library F);and Bacteroidetes group disappeared in libraries B and F.

  6. Risk Assessment for Children Exposed to Beach Sands Impacted by Oil Spill Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Black

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to changes in the drilling industry, oil spills are impacting large expanses of coastlines, thereby increasing the potential for people to come in contact with oil spill chemicals. The objective of this manuscript was to evaluate the health risk to children who potentially contact beach sands impacted by oil spill chemicals from the Deepwater Horizon disaster. To identify chemicals of concern, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s monitoring data collected during and immediately after the spill were evaluated. This dataset was supplemented with measurements from beach sands and tar balls collected five years after the spill. Of interest is that metals in the sediments were observed at similar levels between the two sampling periods; some differences were observed for metals levels in tar balls. Although PAHs were not observed five years later, there is evidence of weathered-oil oxidative by-products. Comparing chemical concentration data to baseline soil risk levels, three metals (As, Ba, and V and four PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were found to exceed guideline levels prompting a risk assessment. For acute or sub-chronic exposures, hazard quotients, computed by estimating average expected contact behavior, showed no adverse potential health effects. For cancer, computations using 95% upper confidence limits for contaminant concentrations showed extremely low increased risk in the 10−6 range for oral and dermal exposure from arsenic in sediments and from dermal exposure from benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene in weathered oil. Overall, results suggest that health risks are extremely low, given the limitations of available data. Limitations of this study are associated with the lack of toxicological data for dispersants and oil-spill degradation products. We also recommend studies to collect quantitative information about children’s beach play habits, which are

  7. PAH determination based on a rapid and novel gas purge-microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) technique in road dust of Shanghai, China: Characterization, source apportionment, and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Yang, Yi; Liu, Min; Yu, Yingpeng; Zhou, John L; Li, Donghao

    2016-07-01

    A novel cleanup technique termed as gas purge-microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) was evaluated and applied for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) determination in road dust samples. A total of 68 road dust samples covering almost the entire Shanghai area were analyzed for 16 priority PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the total PAH concentrations over the investigated sites ranged from 1.04μg/g to 134.02μg/g dw with an average of 13.84μg/g. High-molecular-weight compounds (4-6 rings PAHs) were significantly dominant in the total mass of PAHs, and accounted for 77.85% to 93.62%. Diagnostic ratio analysis showed that the road dust PAHs were mainly from the mixture of petroleum and biomass/coal combustions. Principal component analysis in conjunction with multiple linear regression indicated that the two major origins of road dust PAHs were vehicular emissions and biomass/fossil fuel combustions, which contributed 66.7% and 18.8% to the total road dust PAH burden, respectively. The concentration of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) varied from 0.16μg/g to 24.47μg/g. The six highly carcinogenic PAH species (benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene) accounted for 98.57% of the total BaPeq concentration. Thus, the toxicity of PAHs in road dust was highly associated with high-molecular-weight compounds. PMID:27037890

  8. Elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from smoked sausages by migration into polyethylene packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semanová, Jana; Skláršová, Božena; Šimon, Peter; Šimko, Peter

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this work was a study of interactions between a smoked meat product and plastic packaging to find a possibility of elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from smoked sausages by migration into the packaging. Smoked meat sausages were packed into o-polyamide/low density polyethylene laminated film and content of four PAH was determined at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min by HPLC. During this time, total PAH4 content decreased from 30.1 to 5.7 μg/kg, benzo[a]anthracene decreased from 11.5 to 2.1 μg/kg, chrysene from 9.4 to 1.9 μg/kg, benzo[b]fluoranthene from 5.3 to 0.6 μg/kg and benzo[a]pyrene from 3.9 to 1.1 μg/kg while PAH4 content in non-packed sausages remained at a constant level. So, while sausages did not meet European safety limits set for PAH4 content of 12 μg/kg and 2 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene before packaging, these limits were met at the end of the experiment. This decrease was brought about by migration of PAH4 from sausages into low density polyethylene packaging bulk and the measure of decrease can be predicted by a kinetic equation, making it possible to calculate PAH content equal to any time of experiment as well as the time of interaction necessary to fulfil EU legislative limits. PMID:26868540

  9. Real-world automotive particulate matter and PAH emission factors and profile concentrations: Results from an urban tunnel experiment in Naples, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, A.; Chianese, E.; Monaco, D.; Costagliola, M. A.; Perretta, G.; Prati, M. V.; Agrillo, G.; Esposito, A.; Gasbarra, D.; Shindler, L.; Brusasca, G.; Nanni, A.; Pozzi, C.; Magliulo, V.

    2016-09-01

    On-road particulate matter (PM) mass was measured during a sampling campaign in March of 2015 in the '4 giornate' tunnel in Naples, Italy. Two sets of samples were collected at both sides of the tunnel, each set representing the daily cycle at a 1 h time resolution. Distance-based - mass per kilometer - and fuel-based - mass per burned fuel - emission factors (EFs) were calculated using mass concentrations, traffic flow rates and wind speed as a function of fleet composition. Also, chemical analyses were performed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Due to the high traffic volume, particle mass concentration at the tunnel exit was always significantly elevated relative to entrance concentration; depending on the hour of the day, PM10 concentration ranged between 300 μg/m3, during the early afternoon, and 600 μg/m3 during rush hours at the tunnel exit. Correspondingly, PAHs achieved concentrations as high as 1450 ng/m3, and benzo(a)pyrene, a surely carcinogenic compound, achieved concentrations as high as 69 ng/m3, raising serious concerns in relation to population exposure close to this urban tunnel. Distance-based and fuel-based emission factors for CO2, PM10 and PAHs were estimated, but while the EF for CO2 was within the range of expected values, the present study found much higher EFs for particulate matter and PAHs. According to the national official statistics from ISPRA (the Italian Institute for the Protection and Research on Environment), derived from the COPERT database, we expected an EF for particulate matter of about 55 mg/km, but the EF estimated from measurements taken at both sides of the tunnel was about four times higher than that expected; also, benzo(a)pyrene achieved an average EF of 2.7 μg/km, about three times higher than that expected from the ISPRA database.

  10. Potential of vetiver (vetiveria zizanioides l.) grass in removing selected pahs from diesel contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytoremediation has been renowned as an encouraging technology for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils, little is known about how plant species behave during the process of PAH phytoremediation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) plant in PAH phytoremediation and extraction potential of Vetiveria zizanioides for selected PAHs from the diesel contaminated soil. The field soil samples were spiked with varying concentrations (0.5% and 1%) of diesel and used for pot experiment which was conducted in greenhouse. Vetiver grass was used as experimental plant. Physico-chemical analysis of soil was performed before and after the experiment. Concentration of selected PAHs i.e. phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene in soil was determined using HPLC. Plant parameters such as root/shoot length and dry mass were compared after harvest. Concentrations of PAHs were also determined in plant material and in soils after harvesting. Result showed that initial concentration of phenanthrene was significantly different from final concentration in treatments in which soil was spiked with diesel. Initial and final concentration of pyrene in soil was also significantly different from each other in two treatments in which soil was spiked with 1% diesel. Pyrene concentration was significantly different in roots and shoots of plants while benzo(a)pyrene concentration in treatments in which soil was spiked with diesel was also significantly different from roots and shoots. Phenanthrene was less extracted by the plant in all the treatments and it was present in higher concentration in soil as compared to plant. Our results indicate that vetiver grass has effectively removed PAHs from soil consequently a significantly higher root and shoot uptake of PAHs was observed than control treatments. Study concludes Vetiveria zizanioides as potentially promising plant specie for the removal

  11. Occurrence and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives in a rural Chinese home through biomass fuelled cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration and composition of PAHs emitted from biomass cooking fuel were characterized in a rural non-smoking household in northern China. Twenty-two parent PAHs (pPAHs), 12 nitro-PAHs (nPAHs), and 4 oxy-PAHs (oPAHs) were measured in the kitchen, bedroom, and outdoors during both summer and winter. The most severe contamination occurred in the kitchen in the winter, where the daily mean concentrations of pPAHs, nPAHs, and oPAHs were 7500 ± 4100, 38 ± 29, and 8400 ± 9200 ng/m3, respectively. Our results suggest that the nPAHs were largely from secondary formation in ambient air while oPAHs were either from primary emission of biomass burning or secondary formation from pPAHs in the kitchen. The daily mean benzo(a)pyrene equivalent exposure concentration was as high as 200 ± 160 ng/m3 in the winter for the housewife who did the cooking compared to 59 ± 37 ng/m3 for the control group that did not cook. - Highlights: ► Very high levels of parent PAHs, nitro-PAHs, and oxy-PAHs were detected in a rural non-smoking household in northern China. ► The PAHs measured in the bedroom air were primarily from the kitchen in the winter and from ambient air in the summer. ► The nPAHs were largely from secondary formation in ambient air, while oPAHs were either from primary emission of biomass burning or secondary formation. ► The daily mean benzo(a)pyrene equivalent exposure concentration was as high as 200 ± 160 ng/m3 in the winter for the cooking housewife. - Rural residents, particularly housewives that cook, are exposed to very high PAH, including nitro and oxygenated-PAH, concentrations in indoor air.

  12. Renoprotection of Kolaviron against benzo (A) pyrene-induced renal toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedara, Isaac A; Daramola, Yetunde M; Dagunduro, Joshua O; Aiyegbusi, Motunrayo A; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2015-04-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon generally formed from incomplete combustion of organic matter, reportedly causes renal injury and elicits a nephropathic response. The present study investigated the modulatory effect of Kolaviron, an isolated bioflavonoid from the seed of Garcinia kola, on renal toxicity induced by B[a]P in Wistar rats. Benzo[a]pyrene was administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg alone or in combination with Kolaviron at 100 and 200 mg/kg for 15 d. Administration of B[a]P alone resulted in significant increase in plasma levels of urea and creatinine in the treated rats. Moreover, B[a]P exposure significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) as well as glutathione (GSH) level in the kidneys of treated rats. Conversely, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were markedly elevated in kidneys of B[a]P-treated rats compared with control. Further, B[a]P exposure significantly decreased the circulatory concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3) and T3/T4 ratio without affecting thyroxine (T4) in the treated rats. Light microscopy revealed tubular lumen with numerous protein casts in kidneys of rats exposed to B[a]P alone. Kolaviron co-treatment significantly improved the renal antioxidant status, thyroid gland function and restored the renal histology, thus demonstrating the protective effect of Kolaviron in B[a]P-treated rats. Dietary inclusion of Kolaviron could exert protective effects against renal toxicity resulting from B[a]P exposure. PMID:25613738

  13. Change of the benzene [a] pyrene in the edible oil during the cooking process%食用油烹饪过程中苯并[ a]芘含量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金文娟; 程鹏; 胡志雄; 齐玉堂; 谢明; 张维农

    2012-01-01

      With the food safety being concerned , benzene [a] pyrene pollution in the edible oil has become the focus all over the world.This paper simulated the family cooking condition , which mainly investigated the effect of temperature and salt on formation og benzene [a] pyren in the oil.Four cooking oils were used as experimental subject such as extra original olive oil , hot-pressed tea seed oil, cold-pressed tea oil and extracted soybean oil . Detect the benzo[a]pyrene in four kinds of edible oil under the three different conditions of unheating ,heating, heating and salting by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography method ,so that the higher frying oil temperature,the higher benzo[a]pyrene content,and salt increase to some extent of benzo [a]pyrene content.%  随着社会对食品安全的关注,食用油中苯并[a]芘的污染已成为世界各国关注的焦点。通过模拟家庭烹饪条件,主要考察温度和食盐对油脂中苯并[a]芘形成的影响。采用反相高效液相色谱法检测四种不同食用油在未加热、加热、加盐加热三种条件下油样中苯并[a]芘含量。从而得知,煎炸油温越高,苯并[a]芘的含量越高,食盐亦会在一定程度上增加苯并[a]芘的含量。

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 274: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2006-09-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 274, Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 274 is comprised of five corrective action sites (CASs): (1) CAS 03-02-01, WX-6 ETS Building Septic System; (2) CAS 06-02-01, Cesspool; (3) CAS 09-01-01, Spill Site; (4) CAS 09-05-01, Leaching Pit; and (5) CAS 20-05-01, Septic System. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the closure of CAU 274 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from November 14 through December 17, 2005 as set forth in the CAU 274 Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If contaminants of concern are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 274 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. No analytes were detected at concentrations exceeding the FALs. No COCs have been released to the soil at CAU 274, and corrective action is not required. Therefore, the DQO data needs were met, and it was determined that no corrective action based on risk to human receptors is necessary for the site. All FALs were calculated using the industrial site worker scenario except for benzo(a)pyrene, which was

  15. Opposing seasonal trends for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and PM10: Health risk and sources in southwest Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Muñoz, Omar; Bazán-Torija, S.; Villa-Ferreira, S. A.; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Bravo-Cabrera, José Luis; Munive-Colín, Zenaida; Hernández-Mena, Leonel; Saldarriaga-Noreña, H.; Murillo-Tovar, M. A.

    2013-03-01

    This study reports the measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particles ≤ 10 μm (PM10) during four years. Seasonal variation was observed for PM10 and PAH in southwest Mexico City, with major mass concentrations during the dry season (November-April). A non linear decreasing trend of PM10 was observed during this period, while a linear increase (in the four years) was obtained for benzo[a]pyrene (88 pg m- 3), phenanthrene (29 pg m- 3), fluoranthene (88 pg m- 3), and benzo[ghi]perylene (438 pg m- 3). Coronene also showed an increasing trend but it was nonlinear. This suggests that air control strategies implemented by the government contributed to maintaining PM10 under the 24 h maximum limit and resulted in a decreasing trend during this period. However, these strategies did not result in controlling some organic constituents with mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties as it is the case of benzo[a]pyrene. The annual average of this PAH exceeded the UK recommendation. It was estimated a median (10th-90th) lifetime health risk of 7.6 (3.4-17.2) additional cases of cancer per 10 million people in this zone exists and the health risk of PAH is almost three times greater in dry seasons than it is in rainy seasons. Specific humidity, temperature and wind speed acted as cleaners for PM10 and PAH from the atmosphere. PAH diagnostic ratios and correlation and principal component analyses suggest incomplete combustion from gasoline and diesel engines as the main contributor to PAH found in southwest Mexico City, where factor 1 grouped all PAH emitted from gasoline engines during first three years. During last year, factor 1 only grouped PAH markers of diesel engines. This suggests a change of emission amounts between gasoline and diesel combustion sources or a contribution of other source(s) which changed the PAH profiles. During four years retene was always separated from factors which grouped the rest of PAH, due to its wood combustion

  16. Multiplex competitive microbead-based flow cytometric immunoassay using quantum dot fluorescent labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► First time, duplex competitive bead-based flow cytometric immunoassay was developed using ODs. ► Antibody-coated QD detection probes and antigen-immobilized microspheres were synthesized. ► The two model target analytes were low molecular weight compounds of microbial and chemical origin. ► The determination of different water types was possible after simple filtration of samples. - Abstract: In answer to the ever-increasing need to perform the simultaneous analysis of environmental hazards, microcarrier-based multiplex technologies show great promise. Further integration with biofunctionalized quantum dots (QDs) creates new opportunities to extend the capabilities of multicolor flow cytometry with their unique fluorescence properties. Here, we have developed a competitive microbead-based flow cytometric immunoassay using QDs fluorescent labels for simultaneous detection of two analytes, bringing the benefits of sensitive, rapid and easy-of-manipulation analytical tool for environmental contaminants. As model target compounds, the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compound benzo[a]pyrene were selected. The assay was carried out in two steps: the competitive immunological reaction of multiple targets using their exclusive sensing elements of QD/antibody detection probes and antigen-coated microsphere, and the subsequent flow cytometric analysis. The fluorescence of the QD-encoded microsphere was thus found to be inversely proportional to target analyte concentration. Under optimized conditions, the proposed assay performed well within 30 min for the identification and quantitative analysis of the two environmental contaminants. For microcystin-LR and benzo[a]pyrene, dose–response curves with IC50 values of 5 μg L−1 and 1.1 μg L−1 and dynamic ranges of 0.52–30 μg L−1 and 0.13–10 μg L−1 were obtained, respectively. Recovery was 92.6–106.5% for 5 types of water samples like bottled

  17. Regional-scale simulation of transport and transformations of semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in East Asia: diurnal variations investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Qing; Lammel, Gerhard; Cheng, Yafang

    2015-04-01

    Semi-volatile PAHs are major pollutants of urban air, mostly regionally transported and reaching remote environments[1]. Some semi-volatile PAHs are carcinogenic. About 22% of global PAHs emissions are in China. The transport and sinks (atmospheric reactions, deposition) of semi-volatile PAHs in East Asia are studied using a modified version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF/Chem [2]). For this purpose, PAHs' gas and particulate phase chemical reactions and dry and wet deposition processes are included. We use emissions of 2008 [3] which include technical combustion processes (coal, oil, gas, waste and biomass) and open fires and apply diurnal time functions as those of black carbon. The model was run for phenanthrene (3-ring PAH, p = 1.5×10-2 Pa at 298 K) and benzo(a)pyrene (5-ring PAH, p = 7×10-7 Pa) for July 2013 with hourly output and 27 km horizontal grid spacing. The comparison of model predicted phenanthrene concentrations with measurements at a rural site near Beijing (own data, unpublished) validates the model's ability to simulate diurnal variations of gaseous PAHs. The model's performance is better in simulating day time than night time gaseous PAHs. The concentrations of PAHs had experienced significant diurnal variations in rural and remote areas of China. Elevated concentration levels of 40-60 ng m-3 for phenanthrene and 1-10 ng m-3 for benzo(a)pyrene are predicted in Shanxi, Guizhou, the North China Plain, the Sichuan Basin and Chongqing metropolitan areas due to the high emission densities at those locations. References [1] Keyte, I.J., Harrison, R.M., and Lammel, G., 2013: Chemical reactivity and long-range transport potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - a review, Chem. Soc. Rev., 42, 9333-9391. [2] Grell, G.A, Peckham, S.E, Schmitz, R, McKeen, S.A, Frost, G, Skamarock, W.C, and Eder, B., 2005: Fully coupled online chemistry within the WRF model, Atmos. Environ., 39, 6957-6975. [3] Shen, H. Z

  18. Cardiac toxicity of 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is differentially dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 isoform during zebrafish development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incardona, John P., E-mail: john.incardona@noaa.gov; Linbo, Tiffany L.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.

    2011-12-15

    Petroleum-derived compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), commonly occur as complex mixtures in the environment. Recent studies using the zebrafish experimental model have shown that PAHs are toxic to the embryonic cardiovascular system, and that the severity and nature of this developmental cardiotoxicity varies by individual PAH. In the present study we characterize the toxicity of the relatively higher molecular weight 5-ring PAHs benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benzo[e]pyrene (BeP), and benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF). While all three compounds target the cardiovascular system, the underlying role of the ligand-activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR2) and the tissue-specific induction of the cytochrome p450 metabolic pathway (CYP1A) were distinct for each. BaP exposure (40 {mu}M) produced AHR2-dependent bradycardia, pericardial edema, and myocardial CYP1A immunofluorescence. By contrast, BkF exposure (4-40 {mu}M) caused more severe pericardial edema, looping defects, and erythrocyte regurgitation through the atrioventricular valve that were AHR2-independent (i.e., absent myocardial or endocardial CYP1A induction). Lastly, exposure to BeP (40 {mu}M) yielded a low level of CYP1A+ signal in the vascular endothelium of the head and trunk, without evident toxic effects on cardiac function or morphogenesis. Combined with earlier work on 3- and 4-ring PAHs, our findings provide a more complete picture of how individual PAHs may drive the cardiotoxicity of mixtures in which they predominate. This will improve toxic injury assessments and risk assessments for wild fish populations that spawn in habitats altered by overlapping petroleum-related human impacts such as oil spills, urban stormwater runoff, or sediments contaminated by legacy industrial activities. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PAH compounds with 5 rings in different arrangements caused differential tissue-specific patterns of CYP1A induction in zebrafish embryos. Black

  19. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-08-01

    Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 are located in Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) (Figure 1). The site is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428 and includes Corrective Action Sites 03-05-002-SW01 (Septic Waste System 1 [SWS 1]), and 03-05-002-SW05 (Septic Waste System 5 [SWS 5]). The site history for the CAU is provided in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999). SWS 1 consists of two leachfields and associated septic tanks. SWS 1 received effluent from both sanitary and industrial sources from various buildings in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). SWS 5 is comprised of one leachfield and outfall with an associated septic tank. SWS 5 received effluent from sources in Building 03-50 in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). Both systems were active until 1990 when a consolidated sewer system was installed. The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 3 SWS 1 and 5. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during May and June 1999. Samples of the tank contents, leachfield soil, and soil under the tanks and pipes were collected. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Additional sampling was done in May 2000, the results of which are presented in this plan. Soil sample results indicated that two constituents of concern were detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs). Total arsenic was detected at a concentration of 68.7 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). The arsenic was found under the center distribution line at the proximal end of the SWS 5 Leachfield (Figure 3). Total benzo(a)pyrene was detected at a concentration of 480 micrograms per kilogram ({micro}g/kg). The benzo(a)pyrene was found in the soil under the

  20. The levels and composition of persistent organic pollutants in alluvial agriculture soils affected by flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewska-Kordybach, Barbara; Smreczak, Bozena; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka

    2013-12-01

    The concentrations and composition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in alluvial soils subjected to heavy flooding in a rural region of Poland. Soil samples (n = 30) were collected from the upper soil layer from a 70-km(2) area. Chemical determinations included basic physicochemical properties and the contents of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 16 compounds). The median concentrations of Σ7PCB (PCB28 + PCB52 + PCB101 + PCB118 + PCB138 + PCB153 + PCB180), Σ3HCH (α-HCH + β-HCH + γ-HCH) and Σ3pp'(DDT + DDE + DDD) were 1.60 ± 1.03, 0.22 ± 0.13 and 25.18 ± 82.70 μg kg(-1), respectively. The median concentrations of the most abundant PAHs, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene were 50 ± 37, 38 ± 27, 29 ± 30, 45 ± 36 and 24 ± 22 μg kg(-1), respectively. Compared with elsewhere in the world, the overall level of contamination with POPs was low and similar to the levels in agricultural soils from neighbouring countries, except for benzo[a]pyrene and DDT. There was no evidence that flooding affected the levels of POPs in the studied soils. The patterns observed for PAHs and PCBs indicate that atmospheric deposition is the most important long-term source of these contaminants. DDTs were the dominant organochlorine pesticides (up to 99%), and the contribution of the parent pp' isomer was up to 50 % of the ΣDDT, which indicates the advantage of aged contamination. A high pp'DDE/pp'DDD ratio suggests the prevalence of aerobic transformations of parent DDT. Dominance of the γ isomer in the HCHs implies historical use of lindane in the area. The effect of soil properties on the POP concentrations was rather weak, although statistically significant links with the content of the <0.02-mm fraction, Ctotal or Ntotal were observed for some individual compounds in the PCB group. PMID:23877573

  1. Extraction and Analysis of PAHs in Surface Soils Near Freeways in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, I.

    2004-12-01

    Large urban areas such as Los Angeles are characterized by high levels of motor vehicle traffic. A by-product of this traffic is the emission of a group of compounds known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are a global-scale persistent environmental hazard, many of which are considered to be carcinogenic. This study investigated the prevalence of 16 PAHs in surface soils near major Los Angeles highways. The first phase of the study was the development of a methodology for efficiently extracting PAHs from soil. Preliminary findings suggested that the most efficient extraction method using an accelerated solvent extractor employed a mixture of acetone and hexane and a static extraction time of 5 minutes (completed in 2 cycles). Extraction efficiency was measured by spiking clean sand with a known amount of a PAH standard and extracting and analyzing the sand. The addition of an extra static cycle produced a significant increase in extraction efficiency. For example, utilization of 2 static cycles recovered 99.6% of the spiked phenanthrene compared to a 44% efficiency for the 1 cycle run. Preliminary results from a field sampling campaign indicated that significant concentrations of PAHs are deposited onto and accumulate in surface soils. Specifically, we found 12.13 μ g/kg of anthracene, 15.82 μ g/kg of benzo(a)pyrene, 23.42 μ g/kg of phenanthrene, and 23.43 μ g/kg of pyrene in surface soils, including soils from a public park. These results indicate that background levels of PAHs in soils may pose a significant health risk to humans. For example, the California preliminary remediation goal for benzo(a)pyrene in residential soils is 62 μ g/kg, slightly greater than our reported background values. A more detailed field sampling campaign will be pursued to elucidate the role of different environmental variables (i.e., time of day, sun intensity, traffic congestion, etc.), on the accumulation of PAHs in soils.

  2. Effect of land use activities on PAH contamination in urban soils of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ud Din, Ikhtiar; Rashid, Audil; Mahmood, Tariq; Khalid, Azeem

    2013-10-01

    Urbanization can increase the vulnerability of soils to various types of contamination. Increased contamination of urban soils with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) could relate to increased number of petrol pump stations and mechanical workshops-a phenomenon that needs to be constantly monitored. This study was undertaken to explore the soil PAH levels in Rawalpindi and Islamabad urban areas in relation to land use activities. Composite soil samples from petrol pump stations and mechanical workshops (n = 32) areas were evaluated for five PAHs--naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene-and compared with control area locations with minimum petroleum-related activity (n = 16). Surface samples up to 3 cm depth were collected and extraction of analytes was carried out using n-hexane and dichloromethane. Prior to running the samples, standards (100 μg ml(-1)) were run on HPLC to optimize signal to noise ratio using acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.25 ml/min at 40 °C. Significant differences between petrol pump stations and mechanical workshop areas were observed for individual PAH as well as with control area soil samples. Naphthalene was found to be the most abundant PAH in soil, ranging from 2.47 to 24.36 mg kg(-1). Correlation between the benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) level in soil and the total PAH concentration (r = 0.82, P oil found at mechanical workshops, whereas the latter could be mostly attributed to vehicular emission at petrol pumps. The results indicate that PAH contamination in urban areas of Rawalpindi and Islamabad has direct relevance with land use for petroleum activity. We conclude that in order to reduce the soil PAH exposure in urban environment, petrol pumps and mechanical workshops must be shifted to less densely populated areas because of their role as important point sources for PAH emission. PMID:23595691

  3. Exposure of children to air pollution in the industrial zone of Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugica-Alvarez, Violeta; Quintanilla-Vega, Betsabé; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Alvarado-Cruz, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    An air quality monitoring in three schools located in the most important industrial zone at the Northeast of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) was conducted in order to determine the exposure of children to toxics contained in PM10. Particles were analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organic and elemental carbon by ICP-AES, GC-MS and TOT (Sunset lab) respectively. Average concentration of PM10 was 108.4±11.6 μg/m3. Most abundant metals were Fe, Zn and Pb with concentrations ranged by 1.1-5.4 μg/m3, 0.3-2 μg/m3, and 0.18-0.63 μg/m3 respectively; the sum of the seventeen PAHs varied from 1.4 to 3.3 ng/m3 where most abundant PAH were indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The sum of the seven carcinogenic PAH contributed in average with the 48% of the total mixture. Carcinogenic potential of PAH were obtained using toxic equivalent factors determined by Nisbet and La Goy which varied from 0.3 to 0.6 ng/ m3 of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BAPeq), this value is lower than the standard proposed for the European Community of 1 ng/ m3, but higher than the standard from the United Kingdom of 0.25 ng/ m3. Principal component analysis for source apportionment showed that vehicular and industrial emissions are the main sources of PM in the zone. In general, the concentrations of particles as well as concentration of metals and PAHs are lower than concentrations measured six year before, showing that the established measures have improved the air quality. Nevertheless these PM10 concentrations exceeded frequently the Mexican Standard and children are especially susceptible due to the higher risk to develop diseases if the exposure occurs at early age.

  4. Reduced nucleotide excision repair and GSTM1-null genotypes influence anti-B(a)PDE-DNA adduct levels in mononuclear white blood cells of highly PAH-exposed coke oven workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofia Pavanello; Alessandra Pulliero; Ewa Siwinska; Danuta Mielzynska; Erminio Clonfero [University of Padova, Padova (Italy). Occupational Health Section, Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health

    2005-07-01

    It is important to identify the potential genetic-susceptible factors that are able to modulate individual responses to exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the present study we evaluated the influence of four polymorphisms of nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes and that of glutathione S-transferase {mu}1 (GSTM1-active or -null) on benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide (B(a)PDE)-DNA adduct levels from the lympho-monocyte fraction (LMF) of highly PAH benzo(a)pyrene -exposed Polish coke oven workers with individual urinary post-shift excretion of 1-pyrenol exceeding the proposed biological exposure index. The bulky {+-}-r-7,t-8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene (anti-B(a)PDE)-DNA adduct levels were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence analysis and genotypes by polymerase chain reaction. We found that workers with the low DNA repair capacity of XPC-PAT+/+ and XPA-A23A genotypes had increased anti-B(a)PDE-DNA adduct levels, DNA adducts were also raised in workers without GSTM1 activity. Workers with unfavourable XPC-PAT+/+ and XPA-A23A NER genotypes, alone or combined with GSTM1-null genotype were in the tertile with the highest adduct level. The increase in anti-B(a)PDE-DNA adduct levels was related in a multiple linear regression analysis to PAH exposure lack of GSTM1 activity and to low DNA repair capacity of the XPC-PAT+/+ genotype. The influence of the XPA-A23A genotype was not evident in this statistical analysis, and no associations with XPD polymorphisms, dietary habits or tobacco smoking were found. The modulation of anti-B(a)PDE-DNA adducts in the LMF by GSTM1-null and some low-activity NER genotypes may be considered as a potential genetic susceptibility factor capable of modulating individual responses to PAH genotoxic exposure and the consequent risk of cancer in coke oven workers.

  5. Soil pollution in day-care centers and playgrounds in Norway: national action plan for mapping and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottesen, Rolf Tore; Alexander, Jan; Langedal, Marianne; Haugland, Toril; Høygaard, Erik

    2008-12-01

    Systematic geochemical mapping based on sampling and analysis of surface soils (0-2 cm) has been carried out in several Norwegian cities. The soils in the oldest parts of the cities are contaminated with metals (especially Pb) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Due to the fact that children are often in contact with surface soil, it was realized that special focus had to be directed towards soils in day-care centers and playgrounds. The first mapping and remedy program was initiated in Trondheim in 1996. Here, the importance of copper-chromium-arsenic (CCA)-pressure-impregnated wood in playing equipment as a pollution source for soils was documented, and a process was started with the aim to ban this product. Soils from day-care centers in the inner city of Bergen were polluted to a degree that required remediation in 45% out of 87 centers, mainly due to high concentrations of Pb and benzo(a)pyrene. In Oslo, 38% of 700 day-care centers needed remediation due to soil pollution by Pb, BaP, Cd, Hg, Ni and PCB. Removal of CCA-impregnated wood was necessary in more than half of the day-care centers The Norwegian parliament has decided to investigate all outdoor playing areas in day-care centers, playgrounds and schoolyards in Norway, starting in 2007 with day-care centers in the ten largest cities and five most important industrial areas. The Norwegian Institute of Public Health has developed quality criteria for soils in day-care centers and playgrounds for As, Cd, Cr(6+), Hg, Ni, Pb, zinc, PAH(sum16), benzo(a)pyrene, and PCB(sum7). The Geological Survey of Norway has developed guidance for mapping of soil pollution (sampling, chemical analysis and reporting) in day-care centers. Especially the sampling strategy has been developed in the period 1996-2007, and the preferred sampling strategy is to collect at least 10 samples of surface soil (0-2 cm) from (1) "original soil" on the site, (2) artificial man-made "hills", and (3) soils used for growing vegetables

  6. Probing cytotoxicity of nanoparticles and organic compounds using scanning proton microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong Yongpeng [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Shenzhen University, Nanhai Avenue 3688, Shenzhen 518060 (China)], E-mail: yongpengt@yahoo.com.cn; Li Changming [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637457 (Singapore); Liang Feng [Institute Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen Jianmin [Shenzhen Municipal Hospital for Chronic Disease Control and Prevention, Guangdong 518020 (China); Zhang Hong; Liu Guoqing; Sun Huibin [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Shenzhen University, Nanhai Avenue 3688, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Luong, John H.T. [Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council Canada, Montreal, Quebec, H4P 2R2 (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    Scanning proton microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy have been used to probe the cytotoxicity effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), ethidium bromide (EB) and nanoparticles (ZnO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2}) on a T lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cell line. The increased calcium ion (from CaCl{sub 2}) in the culture medium stimulated the accumulation of BaP and EB inside the cell, leading to cell death. ZnO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, however, showed a protective effect against these two organic compounds. Such inorganic nanoparticles complexed with BaP or EB which became less toxic to the cell. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles as an insoluble particle model scavenged by macrophage were investigated in rats. They were scavenged out of the lung tissue about 48 h after infection. This result suggest that some insoluble inorganic nanoparticles of PM (particulate matters) showed protective effects on organic toxins induced acute toxic effects as they can be scavenged by macrophage cells. Whereas, some inorganic ions such as calcium ion in PM may help environmental organic toxins to penetrate cell membrane and induce higher toxic effect.

  7. Public health assessment for Ralph Gray Trucking Company (A/K/A Westminster Tract No. 2633), Westminster, Orange County, California, region 9. CERCLIS No. CAD981995947. Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-18

    The Ralph D. Gray Trucking site consists of 73 homes in west Orange County, California. Records suggest that oil refinery wastes were originally deposited there in the 1930s and then were redeposited in three locations during housing development in the late 1950s. The buried oil refinery waste are located in the backyards of approximately 29 residences. Seeps of tar-like material have surfaced in some of the yards. Chemical analysis of the waste material has shown that it contains volatile aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes; polyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like benzo(a)pyrene, phenanthrene, and chrysene; thiophene derivatives, which include smelly, sulfur-containing compounds; some trace metals like arsenic and chromium; and high levels of sulfate. The preliminary public health assessment identifies two potential exposure pathways of health concern at the Ralph D. Gray Trucking site. Residents may be exposed to waste contaminants from eating vegetables or fruits grown in their yards. The most likely contaminants to assimilate into vegetation are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chromium, arsenic, and lead, but no actual chemical analyses have been conducted of any fruits and vegetables. Site residents, especially children, may incidentally/accidentally ingest or have skin contact with the waste material or with contaminated surface soil and thus be exposed to a number of contaminants.

  8. The persistence, transport and health effects of regional ultrafine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Nicholas James

    Due to the multitude of health studies that have shown the ability of ultrafine particles (UFPs, DP pollutants. UFPs are commonly detected near busy roadways and other high-temperature combustion sources in the form of heavy metals (copper, lead, zinc, iron) and toxic organics (benzo{a}pyrene, coronene). Studies of UFPs during the 1970s expressed a nucleic propensity for coagulation and growth. Because many of the UFPs studied were generated from heavy-duty diesel engines operating with ≥0.3 wt % sulfur, the resulting sulfur-containing UFPs were hydrophilic and water vapor readily condensed on the generated nuclei. Due to their increased size, UFPs tend to settle out of air streams quickly; thus, limiting their impact regime to near-roadway influence and labeling them as local pollutants. By using highly size- and time-resolved impactors with TeflonRTM ultrafine after-filters (targeting DP California's central valley have shown low levels of UFPs in a regional background. For cities in constrictive topography and meteorology (such as Bakersfield, Fresno and Los Angeles), winter inversions and stagnant weather can saturate the region with ultrafine heavy metals and carcinogenic organics, similar to the disasters during the middle of the last century.

  9. Air toxic emissions from burning of biomass globally-preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emissions of trace gases, particles, and air toxic substances in the smoke plumes from biomass fires are of importance to global climate change. The potential impact of the air toxic emissions on the human population of specific regions globally is another major concern. The toxic materials are produced in high concentrations in areas of heavy biomass burning, e.g., Amazon Basin and Central/southern Africa. We provide new estimates of air toxics based on the combustion efficiency (percent of total carbon released as CO2) for fires burning in different ecosystems on a global basis. Estimates of total biomass consumed on a global basis range from 2 to 10 Pg (1 petagram = 1015g) per year. We apply emission factors for various air toxics (g of emission released per kg of fuel consumed) to the estimate of global biomass consumption of 6.4 Pg per year. The principal air toxics analyzed in this paper include: Total particulate matter, CO, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, toluene, o-xylene, m, p-xylene, benzo[a]pyrene, and polycyclic organic material. The total emissions calculated for these materials on a yearly global basis are: 75, 362, 4.9, 1.5, 1.5, 2.1, 2.1, 0.3, 0.6, 0.001, 0.026, Tg (1 teragram = 1012g) per year, respectively. Biomass burning in the United States contributes less than 3% to the total global emissions

  10. Investigation into the formation of PAHs in foods prepared in the home to determine the effects of frying, grilling, barbecuing, toasting and roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Martin; Holland, Joe; Dowding, Alan; Petch, Steve R G; White, Shaun; Fernandes, Alwyn; Mortimer, David

    2015-04-01

    The effects of frying, grilling, barbecuing, toasting and roasting on the formation of 27 different PAHs in foods were investigated. A total of 256 samples from in-house cooking experiments were produced. There was little evidence of PAH formation during the grilling, frying, roasting and toasting experiments. Comparison with the raw materials used in the experiments showed little or no increase in PAH concentrations for all of the sample types, regardless of distances from the heat source, cooking mediums and intensity of cooking conditions. Barbecuing with charcoal plus wood chips however resulted in the formation of benzo[a]pyrene in most foods; for beef burgers only, barbecuing over charcoal (without the use of wood chips) gave the highest levels. In general PAH levels increased when the food was barbequed closer to the heat source. For sausages cooked over briquettes, and for beef burgers, beef and salmon cooked over charcoal, the concentration of PAHs was lower when the food was closer to the heat source. Cooking time may result in a moderate increase of PAHs in some foods, although concentrations in beef burgers appeared to fall when cooking time was extended by 50-100%. PMID:25633345

  11. Characterizing priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in particulate matter from diesel and palm oil-based biodiesel B15 combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Nestor Y.; Milquez, Harvey Andrés; Sarmiento, Hugo

    2011-11-01

    A set of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated with particulate matter (PM), emitted by a diesel engine fueled with petroleum diesel and a 15%-vol. palm oil methyl ester blend with diesel (B15), were determined. PM was filtered from a sample of the exhaust gas with the engine running at a steady speed and under no load. PAH were extracted from the filters using the Soxhlet technique, with dichloromethane as solvent. The extracts were then analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector (FID). No significant difference was found between PM mass collected when fueled with diesel and B15. Ten of the 16 PAH concentrations were not reduced by adding biodiesel: Benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, chrysene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, naphthalene and phenanthrene. The acenaphthene, acenaphthylene and anthracene concentrations were 45%-80% higher when using diesel, whereas those for benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene and pyrene were 30%-72% higher when using the B15 blend. Even though the 16 priority-PAH cumulative concentration increased when using the B15 blend, the total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration was not different for both fuels.

  12. Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, C. K.; Schüpfer, P.; Boiteux, P.

    2009-02-01

    Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of μg.g-1 or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

  13. Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, C K; Schuepfer, P; Boiteux, P, E-mail: chuynh@hospvd.c [Institute for Work and Health, rue du Bugnon 21, CH-1005 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-02-01

    Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of mug.g{sup -1} or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

  14. Development of redox-labeled electrochemical immunoassay for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with controlled surface modification and catalytic voltammetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ming-Yuan; Wen, Shou-Dong; Yang, Xi-Qiang; Guo, Liang-Hong

    2009-05-15

    A redox-labeled direct competitive electrochemical immunoassay for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was developed. A ruthenium tris(bipyridine)-pyrenebutyric acid conjugate was synthesized as the redox-labeled tracer. Its recognition by an anti-PAH monoclonal antibody was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance. In the immunoassay, the antibody was immobilized on (3-glycidoxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane (GPTMS)-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. The assay was quantified by measuring the electro-catalytic current of the redox label in an oxalate-containing electrolyte which served as a sacrificial electron donor to amplify the current signal. Formation of GPTMS film on ITO and subsequent antibody immobilization were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemistry. Using a ruthenium tris(bipyridine)-conjugated IgG (IgG-Ru) as the surface-bound redox probe, the highest electrochemical signal was obtained on GPTMS electrodes with 1 h modification. Under the optimized conditions for ITO modification, antibody immobilization and tracer concentration, competition curves for benzo[a]pyrene and pyrenebutyric acid were obtained with a detection limit of 2.4 and 10 ng mL(-1), respectively. The redox-labeled electrochemical immunoassay with signal amplification mechanism offers a potential analytical method for the simultaneous detection of multiple environmental organic pollutants on antibody biochips. PMID:19321333

  15. Identification of carcinogens in cooking oil fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, T A; Wu, P F; Ko, Y C

    1999-07-01

    According to earlier studies, fumes from cooking oils were found to be genotoxic in several short-term tests such as the Ames test, sister chromatid exchange, and SOS chromotest. Fume samples from six different commercial cooking oils (safflower, olive, coconut, mustard, vegetable, and corn) frequently used in Taiwan were collected. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were extracted from the air samples and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography and confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Extracts of fumes from safflower oil, vegetable oil, and corn oil contained benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBahA), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbFA), and benzo[a]anthracene (BaA). Concentrations of BaP, DbahA, BbFA, and BaA were 2.1, 2.8, 1.8, and 2.5 microg/m3 in fumes from safflower oil; 2.7, 3.2, 2.6, and 2.1 microg/m3 in vegetable oil; and 2.6, 2.4, 2.0, and 1.9 microg/m3 in corn oil, respectively. The authors constructed models to study the efficacy of table-edged fume extractors used commonly by Taiwanese restaurants. Concentrations of BaP were significantly decreased when the fume extractor was working (Pextractors near cooking pots. PMID:10361022

  16. Treatment of tunnel wash waters - experiments with organic sorbent materials. Part I: Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nonpolar oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARUCH AdamM; ROSETH Roger

    2008-01-01

    Tunnel wash waters characterize all waters that run off after washing procedures of tunnels are performed. These waters represent a wide spectrum of organic and inorganic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and toxic metals. Removal of such contaminants from water runoff was investigated using laboratory tests after washing procedure was performed on two road tunnels in eastern Norway (Hanekleiv and Bragernes). Due to diverse character of both, treatment media and treated wash waters, the whole investigation was divided into two separate laboratory experiments. The treatment efficiencies were established based on the levels of concentrations and reductions of the measured contaminants in the effluents released from the tested media. In the first part of the article, the contents of nonpolar oil (NPO), 16 individual PAHs, and total PAHs (∑PAH16) are described. This part revealed that the combination of two organic sorbent materials provided the highest treatment efficiency for wash waters released from the road tunnel and from electrostatic filters. The greatest reduction levels reached 97.6% for NPO, 97.2% for benzo[a]pyrene, and 96.5% for the total PAHs. In the second part of the article, the concentrations and the removal rates of toxic metals are reported

  17. Comprehensive analysis of PM10 in Belgrade urban area on the basis of long-term measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojić, A; Stojić, S Stanišić; Reljin, I; Čabarkapa, M; Šoštarić, A; Perišić, M; Mijić, Z

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of potential emission sources and transport pathways on annual and seasonal PM10 loadings in an urban area of Belgrade (Serbia). The analyzed dataset comprised PM10 mass concentrations for the period 2003-2015, as well as their chemical composition (organic/elemental carbon, benzo[a]pyrene, As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cl(-), Na(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), K(+), NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), and NH4 (+)), meteorological parameters, and concentrations of inorganic gaseous pollutants and soot for the period 2011-2015. The combination of different methods, such as source apportionment (Unmix), ensemble learning method (random forest), and multifractal and inverse multifractal analysis, was utilized in order to obtain a detailed description of the PM10 origin and spatio-temporal distribution and to determine their relationship with other pollutants and meteorological parameters. The contribution of long-range and regional transport was estimated by means of trajectory sector analysis, whereas the hybrid receptor models were applied to identify potential areas of concern. PMID:26888527

  18. Biopiles for remediation of petroleum-contaminated soils: a Polish case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas of Poland demonstrated bioremediation techniques for the clean up of acidic petroleum sludge impacted soils at an oil refinery in southern Poland. The waste was composed of high molecular weight paraffinic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Benzo(a)pyrene and BTEX compounds were identified as the contaminants of concern. Approximately 3,300 m3 of contaminated soil (TPH ∼ 30,000 ppm) was targeted for treatment. A biopile design which employed a combination of passive and active aeration in conjunction with nutrient and surfactant application was used to increase the biodegradation of the contaminants of concern. Over the 20 month project, more than 81% (120 metric tons) of petroleum hydrocarbons were biodegraded. Despite the fact the material treated was highly weathered and very acidic, biodegradation rates of 121 mg/kg soil/day in the actively aerated side (82 mg/kg soil/day in the passive side) were achieved in this biopile. Microbial counts and dehydrogenase measurements gave the best correlation with the biodegradation rates. Costs were competitive or significantly lower when compared with other ex situ treatment processes. (author)

  19. Mechanisms of interaction of radiation with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combustion of fossil fuels gives rise to airborne particulates containing deposits of mutagenic and carcinogenic polynuclear aromatic (PNA) compounds. Part 1, results of detailed studies on the mechanisms of photoionization and photoemission of electrons from solid pyrene and nitropyrene derivatives, are described. A new time-resolved picosecond double-pulse laser technique is described for studying the mechanisms of photoemission in organic solids. Reactions of PNA radical cations at organic solid/aqueous electrolyte interfaces, are described in Part 2. The mechanisms of reactions of mutagenic metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene with nucleic acids is discussed in Part 3; it is shown that photoinduced electron transfer occurs from the nucleic acids to the PNA moieties giving rise to short-lived exciplexes with significant charge-transfer character. A new project on the effects of ionizing radiation (electrons, neutrons and gammas) on deoxyoligonucleotides of defined base sequence using high resolution gel electrophoresis is described in Part 4 of this report. 102 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Occupational risk factors for bladder cancer: results from a case-control study in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemiatycki, J; Dewar, R; Nadon, L; Gérin, M

    1994-12-15

    A population-based case-control study of the associations between various cancers and occupational exposures was carried out in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Between 1979 and 1986, 484 persons with pathologically confirmed cases of bladder cancer and 1,879 controls with cancers at other sites were interviewed, as was a series of 533 population controls. The job histories of these subjects were evaluated by a team of chemist/hygienists for evidence of exposure to a list of 294 workplace chemicals, and information on relevant non-occupational confounders was obtained. On the basis of results of preliminary analyses and literature review, 19 occupations, 11 industries, and 23 substances were selected for in-depth multivariate analysis. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to estimate the odds ratio between each of these occupational circumstances and bladder cancer. There was weak evidence that the following substances may be risk factors for bladder cancer: natural gas combustion products, aromatic amines, cadmium compounds, photographic products, acrylic fibers, polyethylene, titanium dioxide, and chlorine. Among the substances evaluated which showed no evidence of an association were benzo(a)pyrene, leather dust, and formaldehyde. Several occupations and industries were associated with bladder cancer, including motor vehicle drivers and textile dyers. PMID:7998589