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Sample records for benzoapyrene induces similar

  1. Exposure to low dose benzo[a]pyrene during early life stages causes symptoms similar to cardiac hypertrophy in adult zebrafish.

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    Huang, Lixing; Gao, Dongxu; Zhang, Youyu; Wang, Chonggang; Zuo, Zhenghong

    2014-07-15

    Growing evidence indicates that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can lead to cardiac hypertrophy and recent research indicates that exposure to low dose crude oil during early embryonic development may lead to impacts on heart health at later life stages. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exposure during early life stages to low dose benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), as a high-ring PAH, would lead to cardiac hypertrophy at later life stages. Zebrafish were exposed to low dose BaP until 96 hpf, then transferred to clean water and maintained for a year before histological and molecular biological analysis. Our results showed that exposure to low level BaP during early life stages increased heart weight to body weight ratios and deposited collagen in the heart of adult zebrafish. ANP, BNP and c-Myc were also induced in the heart of adult zebrafish by BaP. These results proved that low level BaP exposure during early life stages caused symptoms similar to cardiac hypertrophy in adult zebrafish. Our results displayed an elevated expression of CdC42, RhoA, p-ERK1, 2 and Rac1. Therefore, the mechanism of the cardiac hypertrophy caused by BaP exposure during early life stages may be through inducing the expression of CdC42, RhoA and Rac1, together with activating ERK1, 2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dose-dependent inhibitory effect of melatonin on carcinogenesis induced by benzo[a]pyrene in mice.

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    Vesnushkin, G M; Plotnikova, N A; Semenchenko, A I; Anisimov, V N

    2006-12-01

    Three-month-old Swiss-derived SHR mice were subcutaneously injected with 2 mg of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) dissolved in 0.1 ml of olive oil. After the injections of the carcinogen two groups of mice were given melatonin with night drinking water at the doses of 2 mg/l or 20 mg/l and one group of mice was not treated with melatonin and served as a PB-control. At the 28th week after the carcinogen administration the experiment was stopped and animals were sacrificed. The results show that melatonin treatment inhibits BP-induced carcinogenesis, decreases the incidence of subcutaneous sarcomas, increases their latency and survival of mice. The malone dialdehyde (MDA) level in the serum of BP-induced tumor-bearing mice was increased by 2.6 times (p melatonina on malignancies of mesenchymal origin. Lower dose of melatonin appeared to be more effective in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and tumorigenesis induced by chemical carcinogen than a higher one.

  3. Enhancement of antitumor effect of paclitaxel in combination with immunomodulatory Withania somnifera on benzo(a)pyrene induced experimental lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilnathan, Palaniyandi; Padmavathi, Radhakrishnan; Banu, Syed Mumtaz; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal

    2006-02-25

    The current experimental work deals with the immunomodulatory studies on the extract of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal root powder against benzo(a)pyrene induced lung cancer in male Swiss albino mice. In our previous study, we reported the antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effect of W. somnifera (L.) Dunal along with paclitaxel. Immune dysfunction has been found to be associated with cancer and chemotherapy. Benzo(a)pyrene induced cancer animals were treated with 400mg/kg bodyweight of W. somnifera (L.) Dunal extract for 30 days significantly alters the levels of immunocompetent cells, immune complexes and immunoglobulins. Based on the data, the carcinogen as well as the paclitaxel affects the immune system, the toxic side effects on the immune system is more reversible and more controllable by W. somnifera (L.) Dunal. These results concluded the immunomodulatory activity of W. somnifera (L.) Dunal extract, which is a known immunomodulator in indigenous medicine.

  4. Benzo[a]pyrene Induces Autophagic and Pyroptotic Death Simultaneously in HL-7702 Human Normal Liver Cells.

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    Yuan, Li; Liu, Junyi; Deng, Hong; Gao, Chunxia

    2017-11-08

    As a common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compound, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is readily produced in processing of oil and fatty foods. It is not only a strong carcinogen but also a substance with strong immunotoxicity and reproduction toxicity. Autophagy and pyroptosis are two types of programmed cell death. Whether or not BaP damages body tissues via autophagy or pyroptosis remains unknown. The present study investigated the effects of BaP on autophagy and pyroptosis in HL-7702 cells. The results showed that BaP induced cell death in HL-7702 cells enhanced the intracellular levels of ROS and arrested the cell cycle at the S phase. Additionally, BaP resulted in cell death through autophagy and pyroptosis. Compared with the BaP group, the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA significantly (p < 0.01) inhibited the release of LDH by 70.53% ± 0.46 and NO by 50.36% ± 0.80, the increase of electrical conductivity by 12.08% ± 0.55, and the expressions of pyroptotic marker proteins (Caspase-1, Cox-2, IL-1β, IL-18). The pyroptosis inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CM also notably (p < 0.01) blocked BaP-induced autophagic cell death characterized by the increase of autophagic vacuoles and overexpression of Beclin-1 and LC3-II. In conclusion, BaP led to injury by inducing autophagy and pyroptosis simultaneously, the two of which coexisted and promoted each other in HL-7702 cells.

  5. 3H thymidine an indicator of benzo(a)pyrene induced lung carcinogenesis: role of quercetin and curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Parveen; Malhotra, A.; Dhawan, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Lung cancer is responsible for most of the cancer related deaths and calls for new approaches to control the menace. In the present study chemopreventive efficacy of curcumin and quercetin was investigated against benzo(a)pyrene (BP) induced lung carcinogenesis. The mice were segregated into five groups which included normal control, BP treated, BP+curcumin treated, BP+quercetin treated and BP+curcumin+quercetin treated groups. The morphological and histological analyses of tumor nodules confirmed lung carcinogenesis, after 22 weeks of single i.p. injection of BP at a dose of 100 mg/Kg body weight to mice. Tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity were observed to be 88% and 1.75, respectively in the BP treated mice. A statistically significant increase in the uptake of 3 H thymidine indicative of increased DNA synthesis which in turn is the marker of uncontrolled cancer cell proliferation, was observed in the lung slices of BP treated mice. Further, BP treatment resulted in marked disruption in the histoarchitecture of lungs. Nuclei were enlarged, thickening of epithelium was seen. Structure-less masses of cells were visible all over. Nuclear pleomorphism and decreased cytoplasmic contents were also observed in BP treated mice. Squamous epithelial metaplasia, severe epithelial thickening and alveolar vocuolizations in distal airways indicative of lung carcinogensis were also observed in the BP treated mice. Supplementation with curcumin alone resulted in a significant decrease in the tumor incidence as well as tumor multicity which were observed to be 77% and 1.42 respectively. Also, quercetin significantly decreased tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity to 70% and 1.28 respectively. However, upon combined supplementation with phytochemicals, an appreciable decrease in the tumor incidence and multiplicity was observed which was found to be 60% and 1.00 respectively. Further, Supplementation with curcumin alone to BP treated mice resulted in statistically

  6. DNA polymerase eta participates in the mutagenic bypass of adducts induced by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide in mammalian cells.

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    Alden C Klarer

    Full Text Available Y-family DNA-polymerases have larger active sites that can accommodate bulky DNA adducts allowing them to bypass these lesions during replication. One member, polymerase eta (pol eta, is specialized for the bypass of UV-induced thymidine-thymidine dimers, correctly inserting two adenines. Loss of pol eta function is the molecular basis for xeroderma pigmentosum (XP variant where the accumulation of mutations results in a dramatic increase in UV-induced skin cancers. Less is known about the role of pol eta in the bypass of other DNA adducts. A commonly encountered DNA adduct is that caused by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE, the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of the environmental chemical benzo[a]pyrene. Here, treatment of pol eta-deficient fibroblasts from humans and mice with BPDE resulted in a significant decrease in Hprt gene mutations. These studies in mammalian cells support a number of in vitro reports that purified pol eta has error-prone activity on plasmids with site-directed BPDE adducts. Sequencing the Hprt gene from this work shows that the majority of mutations are G>T transversions. These data suggest that pol eta has error-prone activity when bypassing BPDE-adducts. Understanding the basis of environmental carcinogen-derived mutations may enable prevention strategies to reduce such mutations with the intent to reduce the number of environmentally relevant cancers.

  7. 14C glucose uptake and turnover, a biomarker in benzo(a)pyrene induced lung carcinogenesis: role of curcumin and resveratrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, Anshoo; Nair, P.; Dhawan, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the present study was to explore the synergistic potential of curcumin and resveratrol in modulation of glucose metabolism by studying 14 C glucose uptake, turnover in the lung slices and ultra-histoarchitectural changes during benzo(a)pyrene (BP) induced lung carcinogenesis in mice. The mice were segregated into five treatment groups which included group I (normal control), group II (BP treated), group III (BP+curcumin treated), group IV (BP+resveratrol treated) and group V (BP+curcumin+resveratrol treated). Animals in Group II were given a single intraperitoneal injection of Benzo(a)pyrene in corn oil at a dose level of 100mg/Kg body weight. Group III animals were given curcumin orally in drinking water at a dose level of 60 mg /Kg/ body weight, thrice a week. Animals in Group IV were given resveratrol orally at a dose level of 5.7 microgram/ml drinking water, thrice a week. Animals in group V were given a combined treatment of curcumin and resveratrol in a similar manner as was given to group III and group IV animals, respectively. All the animals had free access to the diet and water and the treatments continued for a total duration of 22 weeks. The morphological and ultra-histoachitectural analyses confirmed lung carcinogenesis, in the BP treated mice. Tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity were observed to be 88% and 1.75 respectively in the BP treated mice. A statistically significant increase in the uptake of 14 C glucose was observed in the lung slices of BP treated mice. Further, radiorespirometric analyses of 14 C turnover also showed a significant increase in the lung slices of BP treated mice. The ultra-histoarchitecture of the BP treated mice revealed disruption in cellular integrity along with nuclear deformation. Mitochondria were swollen and cytoplasm appeared granular along with extensive vacuolization. Further, spaces between the endothelium, epithelium and basement membrane indicative of lung injury and edema were observed

  8. Potassium cyanate-induced modification of toxic and mutagenic effects of gamma-radiation and benzo(A)-pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serebryanyj, A.M.; Sal'nikova, L.E.; Bakhitova, L.M.; Pashin, Yu.V.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1989-01-01

    In experiments with CHO-AT3-2 cell culture, a study was made of the effect of potassium cyanate (KNCO) on the effect of gamma-radiation and benzo(a)pyrene (BP) by the following tests: cell viability, induction of cells with micronuclei and fragmentated nuclei and mutations by thymidinekinase (TK) and Na + /K + -ATPase loci. Some tests have revealed the increase in the effect of gamma-radiation and BP produced by potassium cyanate. It is suggested that sensitizing effects are related to repair system inhibition and/or changes in the cell chromatin structure produced by KNCO

  9. Instability of expanded simple tandem repeats is induced in cell culture by a variety of agents: N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea, benzo(a)pyrene, etoposide and okadaic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyzos, Aris; Parfett, Craig; Healy, Caroline; Douglas, George R.; Yauk, Carole L.

    2006-01-01

    Expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) sequences have proven useful biomarkers to detect genotoxicity in vivo. Their high sensitivity has been used to assess environmentally relevant doses of mutagens such as ionizing radiation, DNA alkylating agents and airborne particulate pollution, for germline mutations in mouse assays. The mutagenic response involves size alteration of these ESTR loci induced by agents causing a variety of cellular damage. The mechanistic aspects of this induced instability remain unclear and have not been studied in detail. Mechanistic knowledge is important to help understand the relevance of increased ESTR mutation frequencies. In this study, we applied a murine cell culture system to examine induced response to four agents exhibiting different modes of toxic action including: N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (ENU), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), okadaic acid and etoposide at slightly sub-toxic levels. We used single-molecule-polymerase chain reaction (SM-PCR) to assess the relative mutant frequency after 4-week chemical treatments at the Ms6-hm ESTR sequence of cultured C3H/10T1/2 cells (a mouse embryonic cell line). Increased mutation was observed with both 0.64 mM ENU (1.95-fold increase, P < 0.0001), 1 μM benzo(a)pyrene (1.87-fold increase, P = 0.0006) and 3 nM etoposide (1.89-fold increase, P = 0.0003). The putative ESTR mutagen okadaic acid (1.27-fold increase, P = 0.2289), administered at 0.5 nM, did not affect the C3H/10T1/2 Ms6-hm locus. Therefore, agents inducing small and bulky adducts, and indirectly causing strand breaks through inhibition of topoisomerase, caused similar induction of instability at an ESTR locus at matched toxicities. As size spectra for induced mutations were identical, the data indicate that although these chemicals exhibit distinct modes of action, a similar indirect process is influencing ESTR instability. In contrast, a potent tumour promoter that is a kinase inhibitor does not contribute to induced ESTR instability in cell

  10. Benzo(a)pyrene induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human choriocarcinoma cancer cells through reactive oxygen species-induced endoplasmic reticulum-stress pathway.

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    Kim, Soo-Min; Lee, Hae-Miru; Hwang, Kyung-A; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2017-09-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) contains over 60 well established carcinogens. In this study, we examined the effects of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), a main CS component, on the viability and apoptosis of JEG-3 and BeWo human choriocarcinoma cancer cell lines. An MTT assay confirmed that B(a)P decreased the cell viability of JEG-3 and BeWo cells in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Western blot (WB) assay revealed that protein expression of cyclin D and cyclin E decreased, while protein expression of p21 and p27 was increased in response to B(a)P treatment for 48 h. The changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in JEG-3 and BeWo cells exposed to B(a)P were also measured by a dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) assay, which revealed that ROS levels increased in response to B(a)P treatment for 48 h. WB assay also confirmed that each B(a)P treatment of JEG-3 and BeWo cells for 4 h promoted the expression of phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha protein (p-eIF2α) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), which are known to be involved in ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER-stress) related apoptosis. Overall, the protein expression of Bax (a pro-apoptosis marker) increased, while the expression of Bcl-xl (an anti-apoptotic marker) decreased and the number of apoptotic cells increased in response to B(a)P treatment for 48 h. Taken together, these results suggest that B(a)P has the potential to induce apoptosis of JEG-3 and BeWo human choriocarcinoma cancer cells by increasing the ROS level and simultaneously activating ER-stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of dietary fat type on benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] biotransformation in a B(a)P-induced mouse model of colon cancer.

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    Diggs, Deacqunita L; Myers, Jeremy N; Banks, Leah D; Niaz, Mohammad S; Hood, Darryl B; Roberts, L Jackson; Ramesh, Aramandla

    2013-12-01

    In the US alone, around 60,000 lives/year are lost due to colon cancer. Diet and environment have been implicated in the development of sporadic colon tumors. The objective of this study was to determine how dietary fat potentiates the development of colon tumors through altered B(a)P biotransformation, using the Adenomatous polyposis coli with Multiple intestinal neoplasia mouse model. Benzo(a)pyrene was administered to mice through tricaprylin, and unsaturated (USF; peanut oil) and saturated (SF; coconut oil) fats at doses of 50 and 100 μg/kg via oral gavage over a 60-day period. Blood, colon, and liver were collected at the end of exposure period. The expression of B(a)P biotransformation enzymes [cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1, CYP1B1 and glutathione-S-transferase] in liver and colon were assayed at the level of protein, mRNA and activities. Plasma and tissue samples were analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography for B(a)P metabolites. Additionally, DNA isolated from colon and liver tissues was analyzed for B(a)P-induced DNA adducts by the (32)P-postlabeling method using a thin-layer chromatography system. Benzo(a)pyrene exposure through dietary fat altered its metabolic fate in a dose-dependent manner, with 100 μg/kg dose group registering an elevated expression of B(a)P biotransformation enzymes, and greater concentration of B(a)P metabolites, compared to the 50 μg/kg dose group (Pbiotransformation enzymes and extensive metabolism of this toxicant. As a consequence, B(a)P metabolites were generated to a greater extent in colon and liver, whose concentrations also registered a dose-dependent increase. These metabolites were found to bind with DNA and form B(a)P-DNA adducts, which may have contributed to colon tumors in a subchronic exposure regimen. © 2013.

  12. Dimensionality Reduction Using Similarity-Induced Embeddings.

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    Passalis, Nikolaos; Tefas, Anastasios

    2017-08-08

    The vast majority of dimensionality reduction (DR) techniques rely on the second-order statistics to define their optimization objective. Even though this provides adequate results in most cases, it comes with several shortcomings. The methods require carefully designed regularizers and they are usually prone to outliers. In this paper, a new DR framework that can directly model the target distribution using the notion of similarity instead of distance is introduced. The proposed framework, called similarity embedding framework (SEF), can overcome the aforementioned limitations and provides a conceptually simpler way to express optimization targets similar to existing DR techniques. Deriving a new DR technique using the SEF becomes simply a matter of choosing an appropriate target similarity matrix. A variety of classical tasks, such as performing supervised DR and providing out-of-sample extensions, as well as, new novel techniques, such as providing fast linear embeddings for complex techniques, are demonstrated in this paper using the proposed framework. Six data sets from a diverse range of domains are used to evaluate the proposed method and it is demonstrated that it can outperform many existing DR techniques.

  13. Dimensionality Reduction using Similarity-induced Embeddings

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    Passalis, Nikolaos; Tefas, Anastasios

    2017-01-01

    The vast majority of Dimensionality Reduction (DR) techniques rely on second-order statistics to define their optimization objective. Even though this provides adequate results in most cases, it comes with several shortcomings. The methods require carefully designed regularizers and they are usually prone to outliers. In this work, a new DR framework, that can directly model the target distribution using the notion of similarity instead of distance, is introduced. The proposed framework, call...

  14. Ras oncogene and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (hif-1α) expression in the Amazon fish Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818) exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.

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    da Silva, Grazyelle Sebrenski; Fé, Luciana Mara Lopes; da Silva, Maria de Nazaré Paula; Val, Vera Maria Fonseca de Almeida e

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a petroleum derivative capable of inducing cancer in human and animals. In this work, under laboratory conditions, we analyzed the responses of Colossoma macropomum to B[a]P acute exposure through intraperitoneal injection of four different B[a]P concentrations (4, 8, 16 and 32 μmol/kg) or corn oil (control group). We analyzed expression of the ras oncogene and the Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (hif-1α) gene using quantitative real-time PCR. Additionally, liver histopathological changes and genotoxic effects were evaluated through the comet assay. Ras oncogene was overexpressed in fish exposed to 4, 8 of 16 μmol/kg B[a]P, showing 4.96, 7.10 and 6.78-fold increases, respectively. Overexpression also occurred in hif-1α in fish injected with 4 and 8 μmol/kg B[a]P, showing 8.82 and 4.64-fold increases, respectively. Histopathological damage in fish liver was classified as irreparable in fish exposed to 8, 16 and 32 μmol/kg μM B[a]P. The genotoxic damage increased in fish injected with 8 and 16 μmol/kg in comparison with the control group. Acute exposure of B[a]P was capable to interrupt the expression of ras oncogene and hif-1α, and increase DNA breaks due to tissue damage. PMID:28486571

  15. Ras oncogene and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (hif-1α expression in the Amazon fish Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818 exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.

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    Grazyelle Sebrenski da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P is a petroleum derivative capable of inducing cancer in human and animals. In this work, under laboratory conditions, we analyzed the responses of Colossoma macropomum to B[a]P acute exposure through intraperitoneal injection of four different B[a]P concentrations (4, 8, 16 and 32 μmol/kg or corn oil (control group. We analyzed expression of the ras oncogene and the Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (hif-1α gene using quantitative real-time PCR. Additionally, liver histopathological changes and genotoxic effects were evaluated through the comet assay. Ras oncogene was overexpressed in fish exposed to 4, 8 of 16 μmol/kg B[a]P, showing 4.96, 7.10 and 6.78-fold increases, respectively. Overexpression also occurred in hif-1α in fish injected with 4 and 8 μmol/kg B[a]P, showing 8.82 and 4.64-fold increases, respectively. Histopathological damage in fish liver was classified as irreparable in fish exposed to 8, 16 and 32 μmol/kg μM B[a]P. The genotoxic damage increased in fish injected with 8 and 16 μmol/kg in comparison with the control group. Acute exposure of B[a]P was capable to interrupt the expression of ras oncogene and hif-1α, and increase DNA breaks due to tissue damage.

  16. Ras oncogene and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (hif-1α) expression in the Amazon fish Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818) exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Grazyelle Sebrenski da; Fé, Luciana Mara Lopes; Silva, Maria de Nazaré Paula da; Val, Vera Maria Fonseca de Almeida E

    2017-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a petroleum derivative capable of inducing cancer in human and animals. In this work, under laboratory conditions, we analyzed the responses of Colossoma macropomum to B[a]P acute exposure through intraperitoneal injection of four different B[a]P concentrations (4, 8, 16 and 32 μmol/kg) or corn oil (control group). We analyzed expression of the ras oncogene and the Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (hif-1α) gene using quantitative real-time PCR. Additionally, liver histopathological changes and genotoxic effects were evaluated through the comet assay. Ras oncogene was overexpressed in fish exposed to 4, 8 of 16 μmol/kg B[a]P, showing 4.96, 7.10 and 6.78-fold increases, respectively. Overexpression also occurred in hif-1α in fish injected with 4 and 8 μmol/kg B[a]P, showing 8.82 and 4.64-fold increases, respectively. Histopathological damage in fish liver was classified as irreparable in fish exposed to 8, 16 and 32 μmol/kg μM B[a]P. The genotoxic damage increased in fish injected with 8 and 16 μmol/kg in comparison with the control group. Acute exposure of B[a]P was capable to interrupt the expression of ras oncogene and hif-1α, and increase DNA breaks due to tissue damage.

  17. Assessment of Industry-Induced Urban Human Health Risks Related to Benzo[a]pyrene based on a Multimedia Fugacity Model: Case Study of Nanjing, China

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    Linyu Xu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of organic pollutants emitted from industries have accumulated and caused serious human health risks, especially in urban areas with rapid industrialization. This paper focused on the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP from industrial effluent and gaseous emissions, and established a multi-pathway exposure model based on a Level IV multimedia fugacity model to analyze the human health risks in a city that has undergone rapid industrialization. In this study, GIS tools combined with land-use data was introduced to analyze smaller spatial scales so as to enhance the spatial resolution of the results. An uncertainty analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation was also conducted to illustrate the rationale of the probabilistic assessment mode rather than deterministic assessment. Finally, the results of the case study in Nanjing, China indicated the annual average human cancer risk induced by local industrial emissions during 2002–2008 (lowest at 1.99´10–6 in 2008 and highest at 3.34´10–6 in 2004, which was lower than the USEPA prescriptive level (1´10–6–1´10–4 but cannot be neglected in the long term. The study results could not only instruct the BaP health risk management but also help future health risk prediction and control.

  18. Chronic Administration of Benzo(apyrene Induces Memory Impairment and Anxiety-Like Behavior and Increases of NR2B DNA Methylation.

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    Wenping Zhang

    Full Text Available Recently, an increasing number of human and animal studies have reported that exposure to benzo(apyrene (BaP induces neurological abnormalities and is also associated with adverse effects, such as tumor formation, immunosuppression, teratogenicity, and hormonal disorders. However, the exact mechanisms underlying BaP-induced impairment of neurological function remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the regulating mechanisms underlying the impact of chronic BaP exposure on neurobehavioral performance.C57BL mice received either BaP in different doses (1.0, 2.5, 6.25 mg/kg or olive oil twice a week for 90 days. Memory and emotional behaviors were evaluated using Y-maze and open-field tests, respectively. Furthermore, levels of mRNA expression were measured by using qPCR, and DNA methylation of NMDA receptor 2B subunit (NR2B was examined using bisulfate pyrosequencing in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.Compared to controls, mice that received BaP (2.5, 6.25 mg/kg showed deficits in short-term memory and an anxiety-like behavior. These behavioral alterations were associated with a down-regulation of the NR2B gene and a concomitant increase in the level of DNA methylation in the NR2B promoter in the two brain regions.Chronic BaP exposure induces an increase in DNA methylation in the NR2B gene promoter and down-regulates NR2B expression, which may contribute to its neurotoxic effects on behavioral performance. The results suggest that NR2B vulnerability represents a target for environmental toxicants in the brain.

  19. Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced neurotoxicity in female mice actively immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid conjugate

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    Schellenberger, Mario T.; Grova, Nathalie; Farinelle, Sophie; Willième, Stéphanie [Institute of Immunology, Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé/Laboratoire National de Santé, 20A rue Auguste Lumière, L-1950 Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Schroeder, Henri [University of Nancy, URAFPA, INRA UC340, F-54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Muller, Claude P., E-mail: claude.muller@crp-sante.lu [Institute of Immunology, Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé/Laboratoire National de Santé, 20A rue Auguste Lumière, L-1950 Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2013-09-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also neurotoxic for mammalian species. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, female Balb/c mice immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid (B[a]P–DT) conjugate vaccine were sub-acutely exposed to 2 mg/kg B[a]P and behavioral performances were monitored in tests related to learning and memory, anxiety and motor coordination. mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor (NR1, 2A and 2B subunits) involved in the above behavioral functions was measured in 5 brain regions. B[a]P induced NMDA1 expression in three (hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum) of five brain regions investigated, and modulated NMDA2 in two of the five brain regions (frontal cortex and cerebellum). Each one of these B[a]P-effects was reversed in mice that were immunized against this PAH, with measurable consequences on behavior such as anxiety, short term learning and memory. Thus active immunization against B[a]P with a B[a]P–DT conjugate vaccine had a protective effect and attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects even of high concentrations of B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P-antibodies attenuated B[a]P induced NMDA expression in several brain regions. • B[a]P had measurable consequences on anxiety, short term learning and memory. • B[a]P immunization attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects of B[a]P. • Vaccination may also provide some protection against chemical carcinogenesis.

  20. Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced neurotoxicity in female mice actively immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid conjugate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellenberger, Mario T.; Grova, Nathalie; Farinelle, Sophie; Willième, Stéphanie; Schroeder, Henri; Muller, Claude P.

    2013-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also neurotoxic for mammalian species. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, female Balb/c mice immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid (B[a]P–DT) conjugate vaccine were sub-acutely exposed to 2 mg/kg B[a]P and behavioral performances were monitored in tests related to learning and memory, anxiety and motor coordination. mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor (NR1, 2A and 2B subunits) involved in the above behavioral functions was measured in 5 brain regions. B[a]P induced NMDA1 expression in three (hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum) of five brain regions investigated, and modulated NMDA2 in two of the five brain regions (frontal cortex and cerebellum). Each one of these B[a]P-effects was reversed in mice that were immunized against this PAH, with measurable consequences on behavior such as anxiety, short term learning and memory. Thus active immunization against B[a]P with a B[a]P–DT conjugate vaccine had a protective effect and attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects even of high concentrations of B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P-antibodies attenuated B[a]P induced NMDA expression in several brain regions. • B[a]P had measurable consequences on anxiety, short term learning and memory. • B[a]P immunization attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects of B[a]P. • Vaccination may also provide some protection against chemical carcinogenesis

  1. Prostaglandins and their precursors can modify genetic damage-induced by gamma-radiation and benzo(a)pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, U.N.; Ramadevi, G.; Rao, K.P.; Rao, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the effect of various prostaglandins (PGs) and their precursors, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and arachidonic acid (AA) on gamma-radiation and benzo (a) pyrene (BP)-induced genetic damage to the bone marrow cells of mice, using the sensitive micronucleus (MN) test. Thromboxane B2 prostaglandin E1 and GLA completely prevented BP-induced and reduced to a great degree radiation-induced genetic damage, where as PGE2, PGF2 alpha and AA were without any effect. Since GLA and AA are widely distributed in the cell membranes, and as PGs can be formed virtually in response to any type of stimulus, it is likely that GLA and PGE1 may function as endogenous anti-mutagenic chemicals

  2. Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentz, Jeremy A.; Alvarez, Pedro J.J.; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2005-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of 14 C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% 14 CO 2 when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. - Bacterial benzo[a]pyrene cometabolism, a plant-microbe interaction affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phytoremediation was demonstrated with Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 that utilized plant root extracts and exudates as primary substrates

  3. Graphemes Sharing Phonetic Features Tend to Induce Similar Synesthetic Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Yeseul; Shin, Ji-Young; Kim, Chai-Youn

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with grapheme-color synesthesia experience idiosyncratic colors when viewing achromatic letters or digits. Despite large individual differences in grapheme-color association, synesthetes tend to associate graphemes sharing a perceptual feature with similar synesthetic colors. Sound has been suggested as one such feature. In the present study, we investigated whether graphemes of which representative phonemes have similar phonetic features tend to be associated with analogous synesthetic colors. We tested five Korean multilingual synesthetes on a color-matching task using graphemes from Korean, English, and Japanese orthography. We then compared the similarity of synesthetic colors induced by those characters sharing a phonetic feature. Results showed that graphemes associated with the same phonetic feature tend to induce synesthetic color in both within- and cross-script analyses. Moreover, this tendency was consistent for graphemes that are not transliterable into each other as well as graphemes that are. These results suggest that it is the perceptual—i.e., phonetic—properties associated with graphemes, not just conceptual associations such as transliteration, that determine synesthetic color. PMID:28348537

  4. Benzo(a)pyrene metabolism, DNA-binding and UV-induced repair of DNA damage in cultured skin fibroblasts from a patient with unilateral multiple basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don, P.S.C.; Mukhtar, H.; Das, M.; Berger, N.A.; Bickers, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene (BP), and its subsequent binding to DNA, and the repair of UV-induced DNA damage were studied in fibroblasts cultured from the skin of a 61-year-old male who had multiple basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (>100) on his left upper trunk. Results suggest that BP metabolism and repair of DNA are altered in tumor-bearing site (TSB) cells and that patients with this type of metabolic profile may be at higher risk of the development of cutaneous neoplasms. It is also possible that fibroblasts from tumour bearing skin undergo some as yet unexplained alteration in carcinogen metabolism as a consequence of the induction of neoplasia. (author)

  5. Direct evidence for the critical role of NFAT3 in benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide-induced cell transformation through mediation of inflammatory cytokine TNF induction in mouse epidermal Cl41 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Weiming; Hu, Yu; Li, Jingxia; Ding, Min; Lu, Yongju; Zhang, Dongyun; Yan, Yan; Song, Lun; Qu, Qingshan; Desai, Dhimant; Amin, Shantu; Huang, Chuanshu

    2007-10-01

    Nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT)-3 is a member of the transcription factor NFAT family, which has been demonstrated to be responsible for the up-regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the immune system. Our most recent studies have also shown that TNF is able to induce cell transformation in mouse epidermal Cl41 cells by induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. To provide direct evidence for NFAT3 in the environmental carcinogen-caused carcinogenic effect, (+/-)-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (B[a]PDE), an ultimate environmental carcinogen metabolized from benzo[a]pyrene, was utilized. We found that exposure of Cl41 cells to B[a]PDE was able to induce cell transformation in Cl41 cells, while specific knock-down of NFAT3 resulted in the dramatic inhibition of this cell transformation. The tumorigenicity of B[a]PDE-caused transformed cells was confirmed in nude mice, whereas the tumor formation of B[a]PDE-treated NFAT3 small interference RNA (siRNA) knock-down cells was significantly reduced. Further studies showed that the role of NFAT3 in B[a]PDE-caused cell transformation was mediated by up-regulation of its downstream targeted gene TNF. This conclusion was based on the findings that inhibition of NFAT3 activation by either FK506 or NFAT3 siRNA dramatically down-regulated the TNF induction upon B[a]PDE exposure, and that knock-down of TNF by its specific siRNA also led to abrogation of B[a]PDE-induced cell transformation in Cl41 cells and their tumorigenicity in nude mice. Collectively, these results provide direct evidence for the important role of NFAT3 activation in B[a]PDE-induced cell transformation by up-regulation of TNF expression in mouse epidermal Cl41 cells, further suggesting that B[a]PDE may exert its tumor promotion effect on skin carcinogenesis, at least partially, by inducing TNF expression.

  6. hREV3 is essential for error-prone translesion synthesis past UV or benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-induced DNA lesions in human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ziqiang; Zhang Hong; McManus, Terrence P.; McCormick, J. Justin; Lawrence, Christopher W.; Maher, Veronica M.

    2002-01-01

    In S. cerevisiae, the REV3 gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of polymerase zeta, is involved in translesion synthesis and required for the production of mutations induced by ultraviolet radiation (UV) photoproducts and other DNA fork-blocking lesions, and for the majority of spontaneous mutations. To determine whether hREV3, the human homolog of yeast REV3, is similarly involved in error-prone translesion synthesis past UV photoproducts and other lesions that block DNA replication, an hREV3 antisense construct under the control of the TetP promoter was transfected into an infinite life span human fibroblast cell strain that expresses a high level of tTAk, the activator of that promoter. Three transfectant strains expressing high levels of hREV3 antisense RNA were identified and compared with their parental cell strain for sensitivity to the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of UV. The three hREV3 antisense-expressing cell strains were not more sensitive than the parental strain to the cytotoxic effect of UV, but the frequency of mutants induced by UV in their HPRT gene was significantly reduced, i.e. to 14% that of the parent. Two of these hREV3 antisense-expressing cell strains were compared with the parental strain for sensitivity to (±)-7β,8α-dihydroxy-9α,10α-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE). They were not more sensitive than the parent strain to the cytotoxic effect of BPDE, but the frequency of mutants induced was significantly reduced, i.e. in one strain, to 17% that of the parent, and in the other, to 24%. DNA sequencing showed that the kinds of mutations induced by BPDE in the parental and the derivative strains did not differ and were similar to those found previously with finite life span human fibroblasts. The data strongly support the hypothesis that hRev3 plays a critical role in the induction of mutations by UV or BPDE. Because the level of hRev3 protein in human fibroblasts is below the level of antibody detection, it was not

  7. Modulation of Benzo[a]pyrene induced immunotoxicity in mice actively immunized with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellenberger, Mario T.; Grova, Nathalie; Willieme, Stephanie; Farinelle, Sophie; Prodhomme, Emmanuel J.F.; Muller, Claude P.

    2009-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also toxic for mammalian immune cells. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, we have immunized mice with a B[a]P-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine. We showed that high levels of antibodies against B[a]P and its metabolites modulate the redistribution of these PAHs in the blood. After immunization, increased levels of B[a]P and its metabolites were recovered in the blood. B[a]P significantly suppressed the proliferative response of both T and B cells after a sub-acute administration, an effect that was completely reversed by vaccination. In immunized mice also the immunotoxic effect of B[a]P on IFN-γ, IL-12, TNF-α production and the reduced B cell activation was restored. Finally, our results showed that specific antibodies inhibited the induction of Cyp1a1 by B[a]P in lymphocytes and Cyp1b1 in the liver, enzymes that are known to convert the procarcinogen B[a]P to the ultimate DNA-adduct forming metabolite, a major risk factor of chemical carcinogenesis. Thus, we demonstrate that vaccination with a B[a]P conjugate vaccine based on a carrier protein used in licensed human vaccines reduces immunotoxicity and possibly other detrimental effects associated with B[a]P.

  8. Phosphorylation of the α-subunit of the eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2α) alleviates benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaoling; Jiang, Hongjuan; Fan, Yanfeng; Huang, Xiaobin; Shen, Jing; Qi, Hongyan; Li, Qian; Lu, Xiangyun; Shao, Jimin

    2011-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) is a carcinogen causing bulky-adduct DNA damage and inducing extensive cell responses regulating cell cycle, cell survival and apoptosis. However, the mechanism of cellular responses to BPDE exposure is not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated the involvement of the phosphorylation of the α-subunit of the eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2α) in the cellular response to BPDE exposure and addressed the role of eIF2α phosphorylation in the regulation of the cellular stress. Phosphorylation of eIF2α was induced in a normal human FL amnion epithelial cell line, and the expression of ATF4, a conserved downstream transcriptional factor of eIF2α phosphorylation, was up-regulated after BPDE exposure; however, the four known primary kinases for eIF2α phosphorylation (GCN2, HRI, PKR, and PERK) were not found activated. While BPDE induced severe cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and decreased cell viability in FL cells, salubrinal, a selective inhibitor of eIF2α dephosphorylation, maintained the eIF2α phosphorylation and attenuated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and promoted cell survival. The findings reveal that when BPDE causes cellular damages, it induces eIF2α phosphorylation as well, which produces a pro-survival and anti-apoptotic effect to alleviate the cellular damages. Thus, the present study proposes a new cellular defensive mechanism during the environmental mutagen and carcinogen attack. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding the role of 3-O-Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid in conditions of oxidative-stress mediated hepatic dysfunction during benzo(a)pyrene induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Singh, Gurpreet; Bhardwaj, Priti; Dhatwalia, Sunil Kumar; Dhawan, D K

    2017-11-01

    The present study was planned to see whether 3-O-Acetyl-11- keto-β-boswellic acid has any protective effects against benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induced toxicity or not. In vitro studies show concentration dependent linear association of radical scavenging activity of AK which is comparable to ascorbic acid taken as reference compound. For in vivo studies, the animals were divided randomly into five groups which included a) normal control, b) vehicle treated (olive oil), c) BaP treated, d) AK treated and e) AK + BaP (combined treated). BaP was administered at a dose of 50mg/kg in olive oil twice a week orally for 4 weeks and AK (50mg/kg) was given in olive oil thrice a week for 4 weeks before and after BaP exposure. BaP treated animals showed a significant increase (p < 0.001) in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyl contents (PCC) in hepatic tissue. Further, a significant increase (p < 0.001) in the liver marker enzymes as well as citrulline and nitric oxide levels in the hepatic tissue was also observed. Interestingly, AK when supplemented to BaP treated animals ameliorated the above said biochemical indices appreciately. The histopathological observations also showed appreciable improvement when BaP treated animals were supplemented with AK, thus emphasing the protective potential of AK. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mutations Induced by Benzo[a]pyrene and Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in lacI Transgenic B6C3F1 Mouse Lung Result from Stable DNA Adducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) are carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that are each capable of forming a variety of covalent adducts with DNA. Some of the DNA adducts formed by these PAHs have been demonstrated to spontaneously depurina...

  11. Exposure of rats to exogenous endocrine disruptors 17alpha-ethinylestradiol and benzo(a)pyrene and an estrogenic hormone estradiol induces expression of cytochromes P450 involved in their metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borek-Dohalska, Lucie; Klusonova, Zuzana; Holecova, Jana; Martinkova, Marketa; Barta, Frantisek; Dracinska, Helena; Cajthaml, Tomas; Stiborova, Marie

    2016-12-18

    The term "endocrine disruptor" (ED) is used for compounds that mimic or antagonize the effects of endogenous hormones. Synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and a human carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are assigned as exogenous endocrine disruptors and an estrogenic hormone estradiol is a natural endogenous disruptor. Here, the potency of these three disruptors administered to rats individually and in combination to induce expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes involved in their own metabolism (CYP1A1, 2C and 3A) in vivo was investigated. Changes in CYP protein expression after exposure of rats to BaP, EE2 or estradiol were analyzed by Western blotting. Using the HPLC method, CYP1A1, 2C and 3A specific activities in hepatic microsomes isolated from exposed rats were analyzed. Whereas exposure to BaP induces expression of CYP1A1 protein and its marker activity (Sudan I oxidation) in liver, kidney and lung of rats, no significant induction of this CYP and its enzyme activity was produced by EE2 and estradiol. Treatment of BaP in combination with EE2 and/or estradiol decreased the BaP-mediated CYP1A1 induction in liver of exposed rats. BaP also induces CYP2C11 protein in rat liver and kidney, but does not increase its enzyme activity measured as testosterone 16α-hydroxylation. The enzyme activity of another enzyme of the 2C subfamily, CYP2C6, diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation, is even decreased by BaP. The CYP2C11 protein expression and/or its activity are also increased in liver of rats treated with EE2 and estradiol, but its expression is significantly decreased in lung. The CYP2C6 activity is also elevated by treatment of rats with EE2 and estradiol administered individually as well as in their combination. Whereas only a slight increase in CYP3A protein expression was found by BaP in rat liver, its enzyme activity, testosterone 6β-hydroxyalation, increased significantly in this organ. In contrast, no effect or even a decrease in CYP3A expression and its

  12. Topological, functional, and dynamic properties of the protein interaction networks rewired by benzo(a)pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ba, Qian [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Li, Junyang; Huang, Chao [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Wu, Yongning, E-mail: wuyongning@cfsa.net.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: huiwang@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-03-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene is a common environmental and foodborne pollutant that has been identified as a human carcinogen. Although the carcinogenicity of benzo(a)pyrene has been extensively reported, its precise molecular mechanisms and the influence on system-level protein networks are not well understood. To investigate the system-level influence of benzo(a)pyrene on protein interactions and regulatory networks, a benzo(a)pyrene-rewired protein interaction network was constructed based on 769 key proteins derived from more than 500 literature reports. The protein interaction network rewired by benzo(a)pyrene was a scale-free, highly-connected biological system. Ten modules were identified, and 25 signaling pathways were enriched, most of which belong to the human diseases category, especially cancer and infectious disease. In addition, two lung-specific and two liver-specific pathways were identified. Three pathways were specific in short and medium-term networks (< 48 h), and five pathways were enriched only in the medium-term network (6 h–48 h). Finally, the expression of linker genes in the network was validated by Western blotting. These findings establish the overall, tissue- and time-specific benzo(a)pyrene-rewired protein interaction networks and provide insights into the biological effects and molecular mechanisms of action of benzo(a)pyrene. - Highlights: • Benzo(a)pyrene induced scale-free, highly-connected protein interaction networks. • 25 signaling pathways were enriched through modular analysis. • Tissue- and time-specific pathways were identified.

  13. Investigation of biological destruction of benzo[a]pyrene andpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of biochar in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunev, R. V.; Smirnova, E. V.; Sharipova, A. R.; Gilmutdinova, I. M.; Giniyatullin, K. G.

    2018-01-01

    The biological decomposition of benzo[a]pyrene in the concentrations exceeding the MAC (maximum permissible concentration) level in soils by 2, 5 and 10 times was studied in laboratory conditions. The gray forest soil samples were contaminated with benzo[a]pyrene and incubated in optimum for bacterial growth soil moisture for 30 and 60 days. The residual amount of contaminant was monitored by HPLC after extraction with acetone-cyclohexane (2:1). Soil microbial activity was evaluated by measuring basal respiration (BR) and substrate-induced respiration (SID) rates of the soil by gas chromatography. The results of the experiment showed that in 60 days the amount of benzo[a]pyrene in contaminated soils decreased; however, this time was not enough for complete decomposition of pollutant. In this case, benzo[a]pyrene has a negative effect on the BR and SIR rates. Soil contamination affected the BR rate only at high doses (10 MPC), whereas the SIR was a more sensitive indicator of the toxic effect of the pollutant and significantly reacts already at concentrations at the level of 2 MPC. The combination of PAHs isolated from biochar has a strong negative effect on the values of BR and SIR.

  14. Benzo[a]pyrene treatment leads to changes in nuclear protein expression and alternative splicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Chunlan; Wu Wei [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Li Haiyan [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Huzhou Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Huzhou, Zhejiang 313000 (China); Zhang Guanglin [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Duerksen-Hughes, Penelope J. [Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States); Zhu Xinqiang, E-mail: zhuxq@zju.edu.cn [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Yang Jun, E-mail: gastate@zju.edu.cn [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Zhejiang-California International Nanosystems Institute, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China)

    2010-04-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a potent pro-carcinogen generated from the combustion of fossil fuel and cigarette smoke. Previously, using a proteomic approach, we have shown that BaP can induce changes in the expression of many cellular proteins, including transcription regulators. In the present study, using a similar approach, we examined the nuclear protein response to BaP in HeLa cells and found that BaP treatment caused expression changes in many nuclear proteins. Twenty-four of these proteins were successfully identified, several of which are involved in the alternative splicing of mRNA, DNA replication, recombination, and repair. The changed expression levels were further confirmed by immunoblot analysis using specific antibodies for two proteins, Lamin A and mitotic checkpoint protein Bub3. The nuclear localization of these two proteins was also confirmed by confocal microscopy. To determine whether alternative splicing was activated following BaP treatment, we examined Fas and CD44, two genes previously shown to be targets of alternative splicing in respond to DNA damage. While no significant activation of alternative splicing was observed for Fas, CD44 splicing variants were found after BaP treatment. Together, these data show that DNA damage induces dramatic changes in nuclear protein expression, and that alternative splicing might be involved in the cellular response to DNA damage.

  15. Antimutagenic activity of some naturally occurring compounds towards cigarette-smoke condensate and benzo(a)pyrene in the Salmonella/microsome assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwel, L.; van der Hoeven, J.C.

    1985-10-01

    Several compounds, occurring in food, were tested for antimutagenic activity towards cigarette-smoke condensate (CSC) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Antimutagenicity was determined in the Salmonella/microsome test, with tester strain TA98, in the presence of rat-liver homogenate. Dose-response curves did show reduction of CSC- and BaP-induced mutagenicity by ellagic acid, riboflavin and chlorophyllin. Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, although less distinct, also inhibited CSC- and BaP-induced mutagenicity. Ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, tocopherol acetate, chlorogenic acid and butyl hydroxyanisole did not have any influence on the mutagenicity of CSC and BaP. The similarity in results for cigarette-smoke condensate and for BaP indicates that a general mechanism may be involved in the inhibition of CSC- and BaP-induced mutagenicity.

  16. Electrochemical detection of benzo(a)pyrene and related DNA damage using DNA/hemin/nafion–graphene biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Yongnian, E-mail: ynni@ncu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang, Pingping; Song, Haiyan [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Lin, Xiaoyun [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Kokot, Serge, E-mail: s.kokot@qut.edu.au [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4001 (Australia)

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel electrochemical biosensor, DNA/hemin/nafion–graphene/GCE, was constructed to quantitatively study the DNA damage induced by the metabolite of benzo(a)pyrene in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Construction of a novel DNA/hemin/nafion-graphene/GCE biosensor. • DNA damage induced by the benzo(a)pyrene metabolite was detected. • DPV analysis of benzo(a)pyrene provided a quantitative estimate of DNA damage. • Hemin/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system could mimic the cytochrome P450 to metabolize benzo(a)pyrene. - Abstract: A novel electrochemical biosensor, DNA/hemin/nafion–graphene/GCE, was constructed for the analysis of the benzo(a)pyrene PAH, which can produce DNA damage induced by a benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) enzyme-catalytic product. This biosensor was assembled layer-by-layer, and was characterized with the use of cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and atomic force microscopy. Ultimately, it was demonstrated that the hemin/nafion–graphene/GCE was a viable platform for the immobilization of DNA. This DNA biosensor was treated separately in benzo(a)pyrene, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and in their mixture, respectively, and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis showed that an oxidation peak was apparent after the electrode was immersed in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Such experiments indicated that in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, hemin could mimic cytochrome P450 to metabolize benzo(a)pyrene, and a voltammogram of its metabolite was recorded. The DNA damage induced by this metabolite was also detected by electrochemical impedance and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Finally, a novel, indirect DPV analytical method for BaP in aqueous solution was developed based on the linear metabolite versus BaP concentration plot; this method provided a new, indirect, quantitative estimate of DNA damage.

  17. Conditions modifying development of tumors in mice at various sites by benzo(a)pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesselinovitch, S.D.; Kyriazis, A.P.; Mihailovich, N.; Rao, K.V.N.

    1975-11-01

    The modifying roles of age, sex, and strain of mice on the incidence, multiplicity, and spectrum of tumors induced by benzo(a)pyrene were investigated. The first-generation (F/sub 1/) hybrids of C57BL/6J x C3HeB/FeJ and C3HeB/FeJ x A/J mice of both sexes were given single i.p. injections (75 or 150 ..mu..g/g) of benzo(a)pyrene at 1, 15, or 42 days of age. Experimental animals were allowed to live their life-spans, while animals in control groups were killed at 52, 90, 142, or 170 weeks of age. Animals treated with benzo(a)pyrene died, in general, by the 100th week of age due to development of liver, lung, stomach, and lymphoreticular tumors. Few of the control animals died during that same observational period. The age of mice at the time of exposure to the carcinogen modified development of tumors at all the sites. The sex of animals influenced the development of liver and lymphoreticular tumors. The C3HeB/FeJ x A/J F/sub 1/ hybrids developed lung tumors more readily than did the C57BL/6J x C3HeB/FeJ F/sub 1/ mice, which had significantly more liver tumors and neoplasms of the lymphoreticular system than the former strain. No strain difference was observed in regard to tumors at other sites. Higher doses of benzo(a)pyrene were more effective in inducing lung, liver, and stomach tumors. In addition, 5 cases of pancreatic ductal adenoma and adenocarcinoma were observed in carcinogen-treated mice.

  18. Alterations to proteome and tissue recovery responses in fish liver caused by a short-term combination treatment with cadmium and benzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, P.M.; Chicano-Galvez, E.; Lopez Barea, J.; DelValls, T.A.; Costa, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    The livers of soles (Solea senegalensis) injected with subacute doses of cadmium (Cd), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), or their combination, were screened for alterations to cytosolic protein expression patterns, complemented by cytological and histological analyses. Cadmium and B[a]P, but not combined, induced hepatocyte apoptosis and Kupfer cell hyperplasia. Proteomics, however, suggested that apoptosis was triggered through distinct pathways. Cadmium and B[a]P caused upregulation of different anti-oxidative enzymes (peroxiredoxin and glutathione peroxidase, respectively) although co-exposure impaired induction. Similarly, apoptosis was inhibited by co-exposure, to which may have contributed a synergistic upregulation of tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor, β-actin and a lipid transport protein. The regulation factors of nine out of eleven identified proteins of different types revealed antagonistic or synergistic effects between Cd and B[a]P at the prospected doses after 24 h of exposure. The results indicate that co-exposure to Cd and B[a]P may enhance toxicity by impairing specific responses and not through cumulative damage. - The interaction between cadmium and benzo[a]pyrene impairs specific responses to toxicity and tissue repair mechanisms.

  19. Plant defenses against parasitic plants show similarities to those induced by herbivores and pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, Justin B; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2010-08-01

    Herbivores and pathogens come quickly to mind when one thinks of the biotic challenges faced by plants. Important but less appreciated enemies are parasitic plants, which can have important consequences for the fitness and survival of their hosts. Our knowledge of plant perception, signaling, and response to herbivores and pathogens has expanded rapidly in recent years, but information is generally lacking for parasitic species. In a recent paper we reported that some of the same defense responses induced by herbivores and pathogens--notably increases in jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and a hypersensitive-like response (HLR)--also occur in tomato plants upon attack by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona (field dodder). Parasitism induced a distinct pattern of JA and SA accumulation, and growth trials using genetically-altered tomato hosts suggested that both JA and SA govern effective defenses against the parasite, though the extent of the response varied with host plant age. Here we discuss similarities between the induced responses we observed in response to Cuscuta parasitism to those previously described for herbivores and pathogens and present new data showing that trichomes should be added to the list of plant defenses that act against multiple enemies and across Kingdoms.

  20. Uptake of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene in melanin-containing tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, A.; Larsson, B.S. [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Div. of Toxicology, Uppsala (Sweden); Tjaelve, H. [The Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-08-01

    It is widely accepted that UV exposure is the main etiological factor for malignant melanoma. Epidemiologic studies, however, have indicated that also chemical carcinogens may be a risk factor for the disease. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene represent an important class of carcinogenic chemicals. It is known that 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene can induce melanotic tumours in various animal species, and human melanocytes in culture have been found to be capable of metabolizing benzo(a)pyrene to its proximate carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-diol. In the present study the disposition of {sup 14}C- and {sup 3}H-7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and {sup 14}C-benzo(a)pyrene was studied in pigmented and albino mice and Syrian golden hamsters by whole-body autoradiography. The results showed pronounced retention of label in the melanin-containing structures of the eyes and the hair follicles in the pigmented animals. The labelling of the corresponding structures in the albino animals was low. Additional experiments showed that 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene as well as some of their metabolites are bound to melanin in vitro. The specific localization of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in pigmented tissues due to melanin affinity, combined with bioactivating capacity of melanocytes, suggest that these substances may play a role in the induction of malignant melanoma. (au).

  1. Biodentine and mineral trioxide aggregate induce similar cellular responses in a fibroblast cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral Nuñez, Camila M; Bosomworth, Helen J; Field, Claire; Whitworth, John M; Valentine, Ruth A

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cell viability and messenger RNA expression of interleukin (IL)-1α and IL-6 in 3T3 fibroblast cells when in direct contact with Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur de Fossés, France) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Biodentine and MTA were coated onto coverslips and allowed to set. An uncoated coverslip and one coated with GC Fuji IX (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) were used as controls. Coverslips were cultured with 3T3 fibroblast cells. Cell viability was assessed quantitatively using AlamarBlue dye (Serotec, Oxford, UK) after 3, 6, 24, and 72 hours. Morphologic cell changes of 3T3 cells in contact with BD and MTA were observed by scanning electron microscopy, and cytokine expression was assessed at the messenger RNA level by semiquantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction after 3 and 24 hours of direct contact with the materials. Cells in contact with Biodentine and MTA showed similar viability to untreated control cells at all time points, with the exception of 6 hours when viability was decreased with both treatments. Examination by scanning electron microscopy revealed cells adhering to most of the Biodentine surface after 24 hours. However, for MTA samples, significantly fewer cells were observed. The messenger RNA expression of IL-1α and IL-6 by cells in contact with Biodentine was similar to cells in contact with MTA. Biodentine and MTA showed similar cytotoxicity and induced a similar pattern of cytokine expression. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Primary EBV infection induces an expression profile distinct from other viruses but similar to hemophagocytic syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha K Dunmire

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV causes infectious mononucleosis and establishes lifelong infection associated with cancer and autoimmune disease. To better understand immunity to EBV, we performed a prospective study of natural infection in healthy humans. Transcriptome analysis defined a striking and reproducible expression profile during acute infection but no lasting gene changes were apparent during latent infection. Comparing the EBV response profile to multiple other acute viral infections, including influenza A (influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, human rhinovirus (HRV, attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV, and Dengue fever virus (DENV, revealed similarity only to DENV. The signature shared by EBV and DENV was also present in patients with hemophagocytic syndromes, suggesting these two viruses cause uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Interestingly, while EBV induced a strong type I interferon response, a subset of interferon induced genes, including MX1, HERC5, and OAS1, were not upregulated, suggesting a mechanism by which viral antagonism of immunity results in a profound inflammatory response. These data provide an important first description of the response to a natural herpesvirus infection in humans.

  3. Immunization of mice with LRP4 induces myasthenia similar to MuSK-associated myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shuuichi; Motohashi, Norio; Takashima, Rumi; Kishi, Masahiko; Nishimune, Hiroshi; Shigemoto, Kazuhiro

    2017-11-01

    Since the first report of experimental animal models of myasthenia gravis (MG) with autoantibodies against low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4), there have not been any major reports replicating the pathogenicity of anti-LRP4 antibodies (Abs). Recent clinical studies have cast doubt on the specificity and pathogenicity of anti-LRP4 antibodies for MG, highlighting the need for further research. In this study, we purified antigens corresponding to the extracellular region of human LRP4 stably expressed with chaperones in 293 cells and used these antigens to immunize female A/J mice. Immunization with LRP4 protein caused mice to develop myasthenia having similar electrophysiological and histological features as are observed in MG patients with circulating Abs against muscle-specific kinase (MuSK). Our results clearly demonstrate that active immunization of mice with LRP4 proteins causes myasthenia similar to the MG induced by anti-MuSK Abs. Further experimental and clinical studies are required to prove the pathogenicity of anti-LRP4 Abs in MG patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of Benzo[a]pyrene (External ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Benzo[a]pyrene was released for external peer review in September 2014. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the benzo[a]pyrene assessment and released a final report of their review in April 2016. Information regarding the peer review can be found at the SAB's website. EPA is undertaking an update of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The outcome of this project is an updated Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for BaP that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  5. Intermittent and continuous high-intensity exercise training induce similar acute but different chronic muscle adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Andrew J R; Percival, Michael E; Tricarico, Steven; Little, Jonathan P; Cermak, Naomi; Gillen, Jenna B; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-05-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) performed in an 'all-out' manner (e.g. repeated Wingate tests) is a time-efficient strategy to induce skeletal muscle remodelling towards a more oxidative phenotype. A fundamental question that remains unclear, however, is whether the intermittent or 'pulsed' nature of the stimulus is critical to the adaptive response. In study 1, we examined whether the activation of signalling cascades linked to mitochondrial biogenesis was dependent on the manner in which an acute high-intensity exercise stimulus was applied. Subjects performed either four 30 s Wingate tests interspersed with 4 min of rest (INT) or a bout of continuous exercise (CONT) that was matched for total work (67 ± 7 kJ) and which required ∼4 min to complete as fast as possible. Both protocols elicited similar increases in markers of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, as well as Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) mRNA expression (main effects for time, P ≤ 0.05). In study 2, we determined whether 6 weeks of the CONT protocol (3 days per week) would increase skeletal muscle mitochondrial content to a similar extent to what we have previously reported after 6 weeks of INT. Despite similar acute signalling responses to the CONT and INT protocols, training with CONT did not increase the maximal activity or protein content of a range of mitochondrial markers. However, peak oxygen uptake was higher after CONT training (from 45.7 ± 5.4 to 48.3 ± 6.5 ml kg(-1) min(-1); P < 0.05) and 250 kJ time trial performance was improved (from 26:32 ± 4:48 to 23:55 ± 4:16 min:s; P < 0.001) in our recreationally active participants. We conclude that the intermittent nature of the stimulus is important for maximizing skeletal muscle adaptations to low-volume, all-out HIIT. Despite the lack of skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations

  6. Effect of dietary factors on mutagenesis, metabolism, and binding to DNA of benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring plant phenol, at concentrations of 5 to 50 μg/plate, inhibited rate liver S9 protein dependent benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-induced mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 by 30-81% and B[a]P 7,8-dihydrodiol (DHD)-induced mutagenesis by 29 to 75%. EA did not significantly affect the metabolism of B[a]P or B[a]P 7,8-DHD as determined by high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the organosoluble fraction and by the quantification of water-soluble conjugates. At these concentrations EA inhibited the covalent binding of [ 3 H] B[a]P and [ 3 H] B[a]P 7,8-DHD metabolites to calf thymus DNA by 5 to 42% and 27 to 64%, respectively. Formation of benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide:deoxyguanosine (BPDE:dG) adducts was inhibited by 13 to 56% for B[a]P for B[a]P and 11 to 38% for B[a]P 7,8-DHD. These results suggest that the antimutagenic effect of EA and its inhibition of B[a]P and B[a]P 7,8-DHD metabolite-binding to DNA is not due to the inhibition of S9-mediated metabolism of these compounds. The inhibitory effect may be by previously described scavenging mechanism or by a DNA-affinity binding mechanism that prevents BPDE:DNA adduct formation

  7. Bax-induced cell death in tobacco is similar to the hypersensitive response

    OpenAIRE

    Lacomme, Christophe; Santa Cruz, Simon

    1999-01-01

    Bax, a death-promoting member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, triggered cell death when expressed in plants from a tobacco mosaic virus vector. Analysis of Bax deletion mutants demonstrated a requirement for the BH1 and BH3 domains in promoting rapid cell death, whereas deletion of the carboxyl-terminal transmembrane domain completely abolished the lethality of Bax in plants. The phenotype of cell death induced by Bax closely resembled the hypersensitive response induced by wild-type tobacco...

  8. Ventilator-induced Lung Injury : Similarity and Differences between Children and Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneyber, Martin C.J.; Zhang, Haibo; Slutsky, Arthur S.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that mechanical ventilation can injure the lung, producing an entity known as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). There are various forms of VILI, including volutrauma (i.e., injury caused by overdistending the lung), atelectrauma (injury due to repeated opening/closing of

  9. Dynamics Of A Laser-Induced Plume Self-Similar Expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennaceur-Doumaz, D.; Djebli, M.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of a laser ablation plume during the first stage of its expansion, just after the termination of the laser pulse is modeled. First, we suppose the laser fluence range low enough to consider a neutral vapor. The expansion of the evaporated material is described by one-component fluid and one-dimensional Euler equations. The vapor is assumed to follow an ideal gas flow. For high energetic ions, the charge separation can be neglected and the hydrodynamics equations can be solved using self-similar formulation. The obtained ordinary differential equations are solved numerically. Secondly, the effect of ionization is investigated when the evaporated gas temperature is sufficiently high. In this case, Saha equation is included in the formulation of the model. We find a self-similar solution for a finite value of the similarity variable which depends on the laser ablation parameters.

  10. TBI-Induced Formation of Toxic Tau and Its Biochemical Similarities to Tau in AD Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Distribution Unlimited The views , opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an...official Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB...electrophysiological impairments. Specifically we will test the hypothesis that 1) blast-induced TBI leads to the production of a toxic form of tau that contributes

  11. Inflammasome priming is similar for francisella species that differentially induce inflammasome activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G Ghonime

    Full Text Available Inflammasome activation is a two-step process where step one, priming, prepares the inflammasome for its subsequent activation, by step two. Classically step one can be induced by LPS priming followed by step two, high dose ATP. Furthermore, when IL-18 processing is used as the inflammasome readout, priming occurs before new protein synthesis. In this context, how intracellular pathogens such as Francisella activate the inflammasome is incompletely understood, particularly regarding the relative importance of priming versus activation steps. To better understand these events we compared Francisella strains that differ in virulence and ability to induce inflammasome activation for their relative effects on step one vs. step two. When using the rapid priming model, i.e., 30 min priming by live or heat killed Francisella strains (step 1, followed by ATP (step 2, we found no difference in IL-18 release, p20 caspase-1 release and ASC oligomerization between Francisella strains (F. novicida, F. holarctica -LVS and F. tularensis Schu S4. This priming is fast, independent of bacteria viability, internalization and phagosome escape, but requires TLR2-mediated ERK phosphorylation. In contrast to their efficient priming capacity, Francisella strains LVS and Schu S4 were impaired in inflammasome triggering compared to F. novicida. Thus, observed differences in inflammasome activation by F. novicida, LVS and Schu S4 depend not on differences in priming but rather on their propensity to trigger the primed inflammasome.

  12. Two genes with similarity to bacterial response regulators are rapidly and specifically induced by cytokinin in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstatter, I.; Kieber, J. J.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Cytokinins are central regulators of plant growth and development, but little is known about their mode of action. By using differential display, we identified a gene, IBC6 (for induced by cytokinin), from etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings, that is induced rapidly by cytokinin. The steady state level of IBC6 mRNA was elevated within 10 min by the exogenous application of cytokinin, and this induction did not require de novo protein synthesis. IBC6 was not induced by other plant hormones or by light. A second Arabidopsis gene with a sequence highly similar to IBC6 was identified. This IBC7 gene also was induced by cytokinin, although with somewhat slower kinetics and to a lesser extent. The pattern of expression of the two genes was similar, with higher expression in leaves, rachises, and flowers and lower transcript levels in roots and siliques. Sequence analysis revealed that IBC6 and IBC7 are similar to the receiver domain of bacterial two-component response regulators. This homology, coupled with previously published work on the CKI1 histidine kinase homolog, suggests that these proteins may play a role in early cytokinin signaling.

  13. Similarities between exercise-induced hypoalgesia and conditioned pain modulation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vægter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Pain inhibitory mechanisms are often assessed by paradigms of exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) and conditioned pain modulation (CPM). In this study it was hypothesised that the spatial and temporal manifestations of EIH and CPM were comparable. Eighty healthy subjects (40 females), between 18......-65 years participated in this randomized repeated-measures crossover trial with data collection on two different days. CPM was assessed by two different cold pressor tests (hand,foot). EIH was assessed through two intensities of aerobic bicycling exercises and two intensities of isometric muscle...... tests and after all of the exercise conditions, except low intensity bicycling. EIH after bicycling was increased in women compared to men. CPM and the EIH response after isometric exercises were comparable in men and women and not affected by age. The EIH response was larger in the exercising body part...

  14. Low-load bench press and push-up induce similar muscle hypertrophy and strength gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Naoki; Nakazato, Koichi

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effect of push-up training with a similar load of to 40% of 1- repetition maximumal (1RM) bench press on muscle hypertrophy and strength gain in men. Eighteen male participants (age, 20.2 ± 0.73 years, range: 19-22 years, height: 169.8 ± 4.4 cm, weight: 64.5 ± 4.7 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: bench press at 40%1RM (bench-press group, n = 9) or push-ups with position adjusted (e.g. kneeling) to the same load of bench-press 40%1RM (push-up group, n = 9), performed twice per week for 8 weeks. Muscle thickness at three sites (biceps, triceps, and pectoralis major), bench-press 1RM, maximum repetition at 40%1RM, and power output (medicine ball throw) were measured before and after the training period. Significant increases in 1RM and muscle thickness (triceps and pectoralis major) were observed in bench-press group (1RM, from 60.0 ± 12.1 kg to 65.0 ± 12.1 kg, p muscle endurance capacity changed in either group. Push-up exercise with similar load to 40%1RM bench press is comparably effective for muscle hypertrophy and strength gain over an 8-week training period.

  15. Electroencephalogram Similarity Analysis Using Temporal and Spectral Dynamics Analysis for Propofol and Desflurane Induced Unconsciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Important information about the state dynamics of the brain during anesthesia is unraveled by Electroencephalogram (EEG approaches. Patterns that are observed through EEG related to neural circuit mechanism under different molecular targets dependent anesthetics have recently attracted much attention. Propofol, a Gamma-amino butyric acid, is known with evidently increasing alpha oscillation. Desflurane shares the same receptor action and should be similar to propofol. To explore their dynamics, EEG under routine surgery level anesthetic depth is analyzed using multitaper spectral method from two groups: propofol (n = 28 and desflurane (n = 23. The time-varying spectrum comparison was undertaken to characterize their properties. Results show that both of the agents are dominated by slow and alpha waves. Especially, for increased alpha band feature, propofol unconsciousness shows maximum power at about 10 Hz (mean ± SD; frequency: 10.2 ± 1.4 Hz; peak power, −14.0 ± 1.6 dB, while it is approximate about 8 Hz (mean ± SD; frequency: 8.3 ± 1.3 Hz; peak power, −13.8 ± 1.6 dB for desflurane with significantly lower frequency-resolved spectra for this band. In addition, the mean power of propofol is much higher from alpha to gamma band, including slow oscillation than that of desflurane. The patterns might give us an EEG biomarker for specific anesthetic. This study suggests that both of the anesthetics exhibit similar spectral dynamics, which could provide insight into some common neural circuit mechanism. However, differences between them also indicate their uniqueness where relevant.

  16. Early TBI-induced cytokine alterations are similarly detected by two distinct methods of multiplex assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib eMukherjee

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Annually, more than a million persons experience traumatic brain injury (TBI in the US and a substantial proportion of this population develop debilitating neurological disorders, such as, paralysis, cognitive deficits and epilepsy. Despite the long-standing knowledge of the risks associated with TBI, no effective biomarkers or interventions exist. Recent evidence suggests a role for inflammatory modulators in TBI-induced neurological impairments. Current technological advances allow for the simultaneous analysis of the precise spatial and temporal expression patterns of numerous proteins in single samples which ultimately can lead to the development of novel treatments. Thus, the present study examined 23 different cytokines, including chemokines, in the ipsi and contralateral cerebral cortex of rats at 24 hours after a Fluid Percussion Injury (FPI. Furthermore, the estimation of cytokines were performed in a newly developed multiplex assay instrument, MAGPIX (Luminex Corp and compared with an established instrument, Bio-Plex (Bio-Rad, in order to validate the newly developed instrument. The results show numerous inflammatory changes in the ipsi and contralateral side after FPI that were consistently reported by both technologies.

  17. Acute alcohol-induced pancreatic injury is similar with intravenous and intragastric routes of alcohol administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lutz; Dieckmann, Ralf; Hackert, Thilo; Gebhard, Martha-Maria; Werner, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Five percent of alcoholics develop an acute pancreatitis (AP). The mechanism leading to pancreatic injury is not yet understood. Microcirculatory disorders seem to play a pivotal role. The objective of this study was to compare alcoholic pancreatic injury in response to intravenous and intragastric routes of alcohol administration. Alcohol was applied in rats intravenously (IV) or gastric via a surgical implanted feeding tube (IG). Serum alcohol concentration was maintained between 1.5‰ and 2.5‰. Four subgroups (n = 6/group) were examined in the IV/IG arm and compared with healthy controls. Pancreatic microcirculation, enzyme levels, and morphological damage were assessed after 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours. Microcirculatory analysis showed significantly disturbed pancreatic perfusion and increased adherent leukocytes in IV and IG animals. In IV and IG groups, serum amylase was increased without morphological signs of AP compared with healthy controls. Alcohol application does not induce AP in rodents, but impairs pancreatic microcirculation irrespectively of the application route. Intravenous application is commonly used and shows no disadvantages compared with the physiological intragastric application form. Therefore, the intravenous route offers a valid model, which mimics the physiological process for further studies of the influence of acute alcohol intoxication on the pancreas.

  18. A 3D fish liver model for aquatic toxicology: Morphological changes and Cyp1a induction in PLHC-1 microtissues after repeated benzo(a)pyrene exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, April L; Messier, Norma J; Vaslet, Charles A; Kane, Agnes B

    2017-05-01

    To identify the potential environmental impacts of aquatic pollutants, rapid and sensitive screening tools are needed to assess adaptive and toxic responses. This study characterizes a novel fish liver microtissue model, produced with the cell line PLHC-1, as an in vitro aquatic toxicity testing platform. These 3D microtissues remain viable and stable throughout the 8-day testing period and relative to 2D monolayers, show increased basal expression of the xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 1A (Cyp1a). To evaluate pulsed, low-dose exposures at environmentally relevant concentrations, microtissue responsiveness to the model toxicant benzo(a)pyrene was assessed after single and repeated exposures for determination of both immediate and persistent effects. Significant induction of Cyp1a gene and protein expression was detected after a single 24h exposure to as little as 1nM benzo(a)pyrene, and after a 24h recovery period, Cyp1a expression declined in a dose-dependent manner. However, cell death continued to increase during the recovery period and alterations in microtissue architecture occurred at higher concentrations. To evaluate a pulsed or repeated exposure scenario, microtissues were exposed to benzo(a)pyrene, allowed to recover, then exposed a second time for 24h. Following pre-exposure to benzo(a)pyrene, cyp1a expression remained equally inducible and the pattern and level of Cyp1a protein response to a second exposure were comparable. However, pre-exposure to 1μM or 5μM of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in increased cell death, greater disruption of microtissue architecture, and alterations in cell morphology. Together, this study demonstrates the capabilities of this PLHC-1 microtissue model for sensitive assessment of liver toxicants over time and following single and repeated exposures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Toxicogenomic outcomes predictive of forestomach carcinogenesis following exposure to benzo(a)pyrene: Relevance to human cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, Sarah, E-mail: Sarah.Labib@hc-sc.gc.ca; Guo, Charles H., E-mail: Charles.Guo@hc-sc.gc.ca; Williams, Andrew, E-mail: Andrew.Williams@hc-sc.gc.ca; Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: Carole.Yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca; White, Paul A., E-mail: Paul.White@hc-sc.gc.ca; Halappanavar, Sabina, E-mail: Sabina.Halappanavar@hc-sc.gc.ca

    2013-12-01

    Forestomach tumors are observed in mice exposed to environmental carcinogens. However, the relevance of this data to humans is controversial because humans lack a forestomach. We hypothesize that an understanding of early molecular changes after exposure to a carcinogen in the forestomach will provide mode-of-action information to evaluate the applicability of forestomach cancers to human cancer risk assessment. In the present study we exposed mice to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), an environmental carcinogen commonly associated with tumors of the rodent forestomach. Toxicogenomic tools were used to profile gene expression response in the forestomach. Adult Muta™Mouse males were orally exposed to 25, 50, and 75 mg BaP/kg-body-weight/day for 28 consecutive days. The forestomach was collected three days post-exposure. DNA microarrays, real-time RT-qPCR arrays, and protein analyses were employed to characterize responses in the forestomach. Microarray results showed altered expression of 414 genes across all treatment groups (± 1.5 fold; false discovery rate adjusted P ≤ 0.05). Significant downregulation of genes associated with phase II xenobiotic metabolism and increased expression of genes implicated in antigen processing and presentation, immune response, chemotaxis, and keratinocyte differentiation were observed in treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. A systematic comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the forestomach from the present study to differentially expressed genes identified in human diseases including human gastrointestinal tract cancers using the NextBio Human Disease Atlas showed significant commonalities between the two models. Our results provide molecular evidence supporting the use of the mouse forestomach model to evaluate chemically-induced gastrointestinal carcinogenesis in humans. - Highlights: • Benzo(a)pyrene-mediated transcriptomic response in the forestomach was examined. • The immunoproteosome subunits and MHC class I

  20. Deep brain stimulation in rats: different targets induce similar antidepressant-like effects but influence different circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamani, Clement; Amorim, Beatriz O; Wheeler, Anne L; Diwan, Mustansir; Driesslein, Klaus; Covolan, Luciene; Butson, Christopher R; Nobrega, José N

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies in patients with treatment-resistant depression have shown similar results with the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subcallosal cingulate gyrus (SCG), ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) and nucleus accumbens (Acb). As these brain regions are interconnected, one hypothesis is that by stimulating these targets one would just be influencing different relays in the same circuitry. We investigate behavioral, immediate early gene expression, and functional connectivity changes in rats given DBS in homologous regions, namely the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), white matter fibers of the frontal region (WMF) and nucleus accumbens. We found that DBS delivered to the vmPFC, Acb but not WMF induced significant antidepressant-like effects in the FST (31%, 44%, and 17% reduction in immobility compared to controls). Despite these findings, stimulation applied to these three targets induced distinct patterns of regional activity and functional connectivity. While animals given vmPFC DBS had increased cortical zif268 expression, changes after Acb stimulation were primarily observed in subcortical structures. In animals receiving WMF DBS, both cortical and subcortical structures at a distance from the target were influenced by stimulation. In regard to functional connectivity, DBS in all targets decreased intercorrelations among cortical areas. This is in contrast to the clear differences observed in subcortical connectivity, which was reduced after vmPFC DBS but increased in rats receiving Acb or WMF stimulation. In conclusion, results from our study suggest that, despite similar antidepressant-like effects, stimulation of the vmPFC, WMF and Acb induces distinct changes in regional brain activity and functional connectivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Controlled Cortical Impact and Craniotomy Induce Strikingly Similar Profiles of Inflammatory Gene Expression, but with Distinct Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagraoui, Mouna; Latoche, Joseph R.; Cartwright, Natalia G.; Sukumar, Gauthaman; Dalgard, Clifton L.; Schaefer, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    An immediate consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the induction of an inflammatory response. Mounting data suggest that inflammation is a major contributor to TBI-induced brain damage. However, much remains unknown regarding the induction and regulation of the inflammatory response to TBI. In this study we compared the TBI-induced inflammatory response to severe parenchymal injury (controlled cortical impact) vs. mild brain injury (craniotomy) over a 21-day period. Our data show that both severe and mild brain injury induce a qualitatively similar inflammatory response, involving highly overlapping sets of effector molecules. However, kinetic analysis revealed that the inflammatory response to mild brain injury is of much shorter duration than the response to severe TBI. Specifically, the inflammatory response to severe brain injury persists for at least 21 days, whereas the response to mild brain injury returns to near baseline values within 10 days post-injury. Our data therefore imply that the development of accurate diagnostic tests of TBI severity that are based on imaging or biomarker analysis of the inflammatory response may require repeated measures over at least a 10-day period, post-injury. PMID:23118733

  2. Acute illness-induced behavioral alterations are similar to those observed during withdrawal from acute alcohol exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Laura; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.; Buck, Hollin M.; Deak, Terrence

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to an immunogen results in a constellation of behavioral changes collectively referred to as “sickness behaviors,” with alterations in cytokine expression previously shown to contribute to this sickness response. Since behaviors observed during ethanol withdrawal are strikingly similar to sickness behaviors, we hypothesized that behavioral manifestations of ethanol withdrawal might be an expression of sickness behaviors induced by ethanol-related changes in peripheral and/or central cytokine expression. Accordingly, behaviors exhibited during a modified social investigation test were first characterized in male rats following an acute injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg). Subsequently, behavioral changes after either a high (4-g/kg; Experiment 2) or low dose (0.5 g/kg; Experiment 3) of ethanol were also examined in the same social investigation test, as well as in the forced-swim test (FST; Experiment 4). Results from these experiments demonstrated similar reductions in both exploration and social investigatory behavior during acute illness and ethanol withdrawal, while a seemingly paradoxical decrease in immobility was observed in the FST during acute ethanol withdrawal. In follow-up studies, neither indomethacin (Experiment 5) nor interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Experiment 6) pre-exposure reversed the ethanol withdrawal-induced behavioral changes observed in this social investigation test. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that the behavioral sequelae of acute illness and ethanol withdrawal are similar in nature, while antagonist studies suggest that these behavioral alterations are not reversed by blockade of IL-1 receptors or inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Though a direct mechanistic link between cytokines and the expression of acute ethanol withdrawal-related behaviors has yet to be found, future studies examining the involvement of brain cytokines as potential mediators of ethanol effects are greatly needed. PMID

  3. Double-stranded RNA induces similar pulmonary dysfunction to respiratory syncytial virus in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeffner, Famke; Traylor, Zachary P; Yu, Erin N Z; Davis, Ian C

    2011-07-01

    Both respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A virus induce nucleotide/P2Y purinergic receptor-mediated impairment of alveolar fluid clearance (AFC), which contributes to formation of lung edema. Although genetically dissimilar, both viruses generate double-stranded RNA replication intermediates, which act as Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 ligands. We hypothesized that double-stranded RNA/TLR-3 signaling underlies nucleotide-mediated inhibition of amiloride-sensitive AFC in both infections. We found that addition of the synthetic double-stranded RNA analog poly-inosinic-cytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] (500 ng/ml) to the AFC instillate resulted in nucleotide/P2Y purinergic receptor-mediated inhibition of amiloride-sensitive AFC in BALB/c mice but had no effect on cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR)-mediated Cl(-) transport. Poly(I:C) also induced acute keratinocyte cytokine-mediated AFC insensitivity to stimulation by the β-adrenergic agonist terbutaline. Inhibitory effects of poly(I:C) on AFC were absent in TLR-3(-/-) mice and were not replicated by addition to the AFC instillate of ligands for other TLRs except TLR-2. Intranasal poly(I:C) administration (250 μg/mouse) similarly induced nucleotide-dependent AFC inhibition 2-3 days later, together with increased lung water content and neutrophilic inflammation. Intranasal treatment of BALB/c mice with poly(I:C) did not induce airway hyperresponsiveness at day 2 but did result in insensitivity to airway bronchodilation by β-adrenergic agonists. These findings suggest that viral double-stranded RNA replication intermediates induce nucleotide-mediated impairment of amiloride-sensitive AFC in both infections, together with β-adrenergic agonist insensitivity. Both of these effects also occur in RSV infection. However, double-stranded RNA replication intermediates do not appear to be sufficient to induce either adenosine-mediated, CFTR-dependent Cl(-) secretion in the lung or severe, lethal hypoxemia, both

  4. Bystander Effects Induced by Medium From Irradiated Cells: Similar Transcriptome Responses in Irradiated and Bystander K562 Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herok, Robert; Konopacka, Maria; Polanska, Joanna; Swierniak, Andrzej; Rogolinski, Jacek; Jaksik, Roman; Hancock, Ronald; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Cells exposed to ionizing radiation release factors that induce deoxyribonucleic acid damage, chromosomal instability, apoptosis, and changes in the proliferation rate of neighboring unexposed cells, phenomena known as bystander effects. This work analyzes and compares changes in global transcript levels induced by direct irradiation and by bystander effects in K562 (human erythroleukemia) cells. Methods and Materials: Cells were X-irradiated with 4 Gy or transferred into culture medium collected from cells 1 h after irradiation (irradiation-conditioned medium). Global transcript profiles were assessed after 36 h of growth by use of Affymetrix microarrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) and the kinetics of change of selected transcripts by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The level of the majority (72%) of transcripts changed similarly (increase, decrease, or no change) in cells grown in irradiation-conditioned medium or irradiated, whereas only 0.6% showed an opposite response. Transcript level changes in bystander and irradiated cells were significantly different from those in untreated cells grown for the same amount of time and were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for selected genes. Signaling pathways in which the highest number of transcripts changed in both conditions were found in the following groups: neuroactive ligand-receptor, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Janus Kinase-Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK-STAT) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) In control cells more transcripts were downregulated than in irradiated and bystander cells with transcription factors YBX1 and STAT5B, heat shock protein HSPA1A, and ribonucleic acid helicase DDX3X as examples. Conclusions: The transcriptomes of cells grown in medium from X-irradiated cells or directly irradiated show very similar changes. Signals released by irradiated cells may cause

  5. Additive-induced aggregate changes of two structurally similar dyes in aqueous solutions: A comparative photophysical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanadzadeh Gilani, A.; Poormohammadi-Ahandani, Z.; Kian, R.

    2018-01-01

    Absorption and emission spectral characteristics of the two structurally similar phenothiazine dyes, azure B and toluidine blue, in aqueous solutions of the two sets of molecular additives (ureas and monosaccharides) were studied as a function of the dye and additive concentrations. The absorption spectra of the dyes were also studied in pure tetramethylurea with an aprotic nature. The spectral data were analyzed using DECOM Program. The dimer structure of the interacting molecules in these dyes was discussed using the exciton model. The urea class of additives was found to act as water structure-breakers over the range of studied concentration. The carbohydrate additives were found to act as water structure-breakers at low concentrations. However, the water structure breaking process may be disfavored by the additive-additive interactions at higher concentrations. It can be concluded that at low additive concentrations, the main driving force for breaking the dye association is water-additive interaction, which disrupts the water hydrogen bonds induced by the additives. However, at the high additive concentrations, the different phenomena including additive-additive and additive-dye interactions can change the structure, strength, and aggregative properties of the dyes. Finally, the urea in water induces noticeably fluorescence quenching in emission spectra of both the dyes.

  6. Lycopene and tomato powder supplementation similarly inhibit high-fat diet induced obesity, inflammatory response, and associated metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenni, Soumia; Hammou, Habib; Astier, Julien; Bonnet, Lauriane; Karkeni, Esma; Couturier, Charlène; Tourniaire, Franck; Landrier, Jean-François

    2017-09-01

    Several studies have linked the high intake of lycopene or tomatoes products with lower risk for metabolic diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and to compare the effect of lycopene and tomato powder on obesity-associated disorders. Male C57BL/J6 mice were assigned into four groups to receive: control diet (CD), high fat diet (HFD), high fat diet supplemented with lycopene or with tomato powder (TP) for 12 weeks. In HFD condition, lycopene and TP supplementation significantly reduced adiposity index, organ, and relative organ weights, serum triglycerides, free fatty acids, 8-iso-prostaglandin GF2α and improved glucose homeostasis, but did not affect total body weight. Lycopene and TP supplementation prevented HFD-induced hepatosteatosis and hypertrophy of adipocytes. Lycopene and TP decreased HFD-induced proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in the liver and in the epididymal adipose tissue. The anti-inflammatory effect of lycopene and TP was related to a reduction in the phosphorylation levels of IκB, and p65, and resulted in a decrease of inflammatory proteins in adipose tissue. These results suggest that lycopene or TP supplementation display similar beneficial health effects that could be particularly relevant in the context of nutritional approaches to fight obesity-associated pathologies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Cross-taxa similarities in affect-induced changes of vocal behavior and voice in arboreal monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasson, Alban; Remeuf, Kevin; Rossard, Arnaud; Zimmermann, Elke

    2012-01-01

    Measuring the affective state of an individual across species with comparable non-invasive methods is a current challenge in animal communication research. This study aims to explore to which extent affect intensity is conveyed in the vocal behaviours of three nonhuman primate species (Campbell's monkeys, De Brazza's monkeys, red-capped mangabeys), which vary in body size, ecological niche and social system. Similarly in the three species, we experimentally induced a change in captive social groups' affect by locking all group members together in their outside enclosure. The two experimental conditions which varied in affect intensity consisted in imposing a pre-reunion 90 mn-separation by splitting up the respective group into two subgroups (High affect condition) or not (Low affect condition). We measured call rates as well as voice features at the time of reunion in both conditions. The three studied species reacted in a very similar way. Across species, call rates changed significantly between the behaviourally defined states. Furthermore, contact call duration and, to some extent, voice pitch increased. Our results suggest, for the first time in arboreal Old World monkeys, that affect intensity is conveyed reliably in vocal behaviour and specific acoustic characteristics of voice, irrespective of body size and ecological niche differences between species. Cross-taxa similarities in acoustic cues of affect intensity point to phylogenetic constraints and inheritance from a common ancestor, whereas variations in vocal behaviour and affect intensity-related acoustic cues between species may be an adaptation to specific social requirements and depend on social systems. Our findings as well as a comparison with published works on acoustic communication in other vertebrate groups support the hypothesis that affect intensity in human voice originates from precursors already found deep inside the vertebrate phylogeny.

  8. Cross-taxa similarities in affect-induced changes of vocal behavior and voice in arboreal monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Lemasson

    Full Text Available Measuring the affective state of an individual across species with comparable non-invasive methods is a current challenge in animal communication research. This study aims to explore to which extent affect intensity is conveyed in the vocal behaviours of three nonhuman primate species (Campbell's monkeys, De Brazza's monkeys, red-capped mangabeys, which vary in body size, ecological niche and social system. Similarly in the three species, we experimentally induced a change in captive social groups' affect by locking all group members together in their outside enclosure. The two experimental conditions which varied in affect intensity consisted in imposing a pre-reunion 90 mn-separation by splitting up the respective group into two subgroups (High affect condition or not (Low affect condition. We measured call rates as well as voice features at the time of reunion in both conditions. The three studied species reacted in a very similar way. Across species, call rates changed significantly between the behaviourally defined states. Furthermore, contact call duration and, to some extent, voice pitch increased. Our results suggest, for the first time in arboreal Old World monkeys, that affect intensity is conveyed reliably in vocal behaviour and specific acoustic characteristics of voice, irrespective of body size and ecological niche differences between species. Cross-taxa similarities in acoustic cues of affect intensity point to phylogenetic constraints and inheritance from a common ancestor, whereas variations in vocal behaviour and affect intensity-related acoustic cues between species may be an adaptation to specific social requirements and depend on social systems. Our findings as well as a comparison with published works on acoustic communication in other vertebrate groups support the hypothesis that affect intensity in human voice originates from precursors already found deep inside the vertebrate phylogeny.

  9. Effects of benzo[a]pyrene on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a creosote-contaminated and reference site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Dawoon; Cho, Youngeun; Collins, Leonard B.; Swenberg, James A.; Di Giulio, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a known genotoxicant that affects both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (mtDNA, nDNA). Here, we examined mtDNA and nDNA damage in the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a highly contaminated Superfund site (Elizabeth River, VA, USA) and from a reference site (King's Creek, VA, USA) that were dosed with 10 mg/kg BaP. Using the long amplicon quantitative PCR technique, we observed similar increases in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage in King's Creek fish treated with BaP. Killifish from the Elizabeth River showed high levels of basal nDNA and mtDNA damage compared to fish from the reference site, but the level of damage induced due to BaP treatment was much lower in Elizabeth River killifish compared to King's Creek fish. Laboratory-reared offspring from both populations showed increased BaP-induced damage in mtDNA, relative to nDNA. Similar to the adult experiment, the Elizabeth River larvae had higher levels of basal DNA damage than those from the reference site, but were less impacted by BaP exposure. Measurements of oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-deoxyguanine by LC-MS/MS) showed no differences among treatment groups, suggesting that the majority of DNA damage is from covalent binding of BaP metabolites to DNA. This study shows for the first time that mitochondria can be an important target of BaP toxicity in fish, indicating that BaP exposures could have important energetic consequences. Results also suggest that multi-generational exposures in the wild may lead to adaptations that dampen DNA damage arising from BaP exposure.

  10. Effects of benzo[a]pyrene on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a creosote-contaminated and reference site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dawoon; Cho, Youngeun; Collins, Leonard B; Swenberg, James A; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2009-10-19

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a known genotoxicant that affects both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (mtDNA, nDNA). Here, we examined mtDNA and nDNA damage in the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a highly contaminated Superfund site (Elizabeth River, VA, USA) and from a reference site (King's Creek, VA, USA) that were dosed with 10 mg/kg BaP. Using the long amplicon quantitative PCR technique, we observed similar increases in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage in King's Creek fish treated with BaP. Killifish from the Elizabeth River showed high levels of basal nDNA and mtDNA damage compared to fish from the reference site, but the level of damage induced due to BaP treatment was much lower in Elizabeth River killifish compared to King's Creek fish. Laboratory-reared offspring from both populations showed increased BaP-induced damage in mtDNA, relative to nDNA. Similar to the adult experiment, the Elizabeth River larvae had higher levels of basal DNA damage than those from the reference site, but were less impacted by BaP exposure. Measurements of oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-deoxyguanine by LC-MS/MS) showed no differences among treatment groups, suggesting that the majority of DNA damage is from covalent binding of BaP metabolites to DNA. This study shows for the first time that mitochondria can be an important target of BaP toxicity in fish, indicating that BaP exposures could have important energetic consequences. Results also suggest that multi-generational exposures in the wild may lead to adaptations that dampen DNA damage arising from BaP exposure.

  11. Disturbance of Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3, Ki-67 and C-myc expression in acute and subchronic exposure to benzo(a)pyrene in cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meili; Li, Yongfei; Ji, Xiaoying; Xue, Xiaochang; Chen, Lan; Feng, Guodong; Zhang, Huqin; Wang, Huichun; Shah, Walayat; Hou, Zhanwu; Kong, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoking is an important cofactor or an independent risk factor for the development of cervical cancer. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is one of the most potent tobacco smoke carcinogens in tobacco smoke. BaP induced DNA damage and over expression in p53 cervical tissue of mice as demonstrated in our previous study. Here we present the findings of exposure to BaP on the expression of Bcl-2, C-myc, Ki-67, Caspase-3 and Bax genes in mouse cervix. Acute intraperitoneal administration of BaP (12.5, 25, 50, 100mg/kg body weight) to ICR female mice induced a significant increase in Bcl-2, C-myc, Ki-67 mRNA and protein level till 72h except in Bcl-2 at 24h with 12.5, 25, 50mg/kg as well as at 48h with 12.5mg/kg body weight post treatment. A significant increase was also seen in Caspase-3 and Bax mRNA and protein level with peak level at 24h and gradual decrease till 72h, however, the expression of caspase-3 increased while that of Bax decreased with increasing dose of Bap after 24h. In sub chronic intraperitoneal and oral gavage administration of BaP (2.5, 5, 10mg/kg body weight), similar significant increase was observed for all the examined genes as compared to the control and vehicle groups, however the expression of Bax decreased in a dose dependent manner. The findings of this study will help in further understanding the molecular mechanism of BaP induced carcinogenesis of cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxicokinetic of benzo[a]pyrene and fipronil in female green frogs (Pelophylax kl. esculentus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Stéphane; Worms, Isabelle A.M.; Veyrenc, Sylvie; Portier, Julien; Maitre, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A general consensus that an increased logK ow led to an increase in xenobiotic uptake and bioaccumulation is accepted. In this study we compared the toxicokinetics of two chemically different xenobiotics, i.e. benzo[a]pyrene and fipronil in female green frogs. Surprisingly, the uptake rates and the bioconcentration factors (BCF) of the two contaminants were not predicted by their logK ow . The uptake rates obtained were of the same order of magnitude for the two contaminants and the BCFs measured for fipronil were about 3-fold higher than those obtained for benzo[a]pyrene. Fipronil appeared to be more recalcitrant than benzo[a]pyrene to detoxification processes leading to the accumulation of sulfone-fipronil especially in the ovaries. This phenomenon may explain reproductive influence of this contaminant described in other studies. Detoxification processes, including metabolism and the excretion of pollutants, are of importance when considering their persistence in aquatic organisms and trying to quantify their risks. Highlights: ► The uptake of benzo[a]pyrene is 1.5–3 times higher than for fipronil. ► Fipronil was more recalcitrant than benzo[a]pyrene to detoxification processes. ► This lead to increased-bioaccumulation factors except in excretion organs. ► Amphibians can be used as biomonitors for persistent pollutants. - Fipronil is more recalcitrant than benzo[a]pyrene to detoxification processes in frog.

  13. 8-week Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction induces brain changes similar to traditional long-term meditation practice - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotink, Rinske A; Meijboom, Rozanna; Vernooij, Meike W; Smits, Marion; Hunink, M G Myriam

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the current study was to systematically review the evidence of the effect of secular mindfulness techniques on function and structure of the brain. Based on areas known from traditional meditation neuroimaging results, we aimed to explore a neuronal explanation of the stress-reducing effects of the 8-week Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) program. We assessed the effect of MBSR and MBCT (N=11, all MBSR), components of the programs (N=15), and dispositional mindfulness (N=4) on brain function and/or structure as assessed by (functional) magnetic resonance imaging. 21 fMRI studies and seven MRI studies were included (two studies performed both). The prefrontal cortex, the cingulate cortex, the insula and the hippocampus showed increased activity, connectivity and volume in stressed, anxious and healthy participants. Additionally, the amygdala showed decreased functional activity, improved functional connectivity with the prefrontal cortex, and earlier deactivation after exposure to emotional stimuli. Demonstrable functional and structural changes in the prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, insula and hippocampus are similar to changes described in studies on traditional meditation practice. In addition, MBSR led to changes in the amygdala consistent with improved emotion regulation. These findings indicate that MBSR-induced emotional and behavioral changes are related to functional and structural changes in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pilates and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Methods Induce Similar Strength Gains but Different Neuromuscular Adaptations in Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira de Carvalho, Fabiana; de Andrade Mesquita, Laiana Sepúlveda; Pereira, Rafael; Neto, Osmar Pinto; Amaro Zangaro, Renato

    2017-01-01

    Background/Study Context: The aging process is associated with a decline in muscle mass, strength, and conditioning. Two training methods that may be useful to improve muscle function are Pilates and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). Thus, the present study aimed to compare the influence of training programs using Pilates and PNF methods with elderly women. Sixty healthy elderly women were randomly divided into three groups: Pilates group, PNF group, and control group. Pilates and PNF groups underwent 1-month training programs with Pilates and PNF methods, respectively. The control group received no intervention during the 1 month. The maximal isometric force levels from knee extension and flexion, as well as the electromyography (EMG) signals from quadriceps and biceps femoris, were recorded before and after the 1-month intervention period. A two-way analysis of variance revealed that the Pilates and PNF methods induced similar strength gains from knee flexors and extensors, but Pilates exhibited greater low-gamma drive (i.e., oscillations in 30-60 Hz) in the EMG power spectrum after the training period. These results support use of both Pilates and PNF methods to enhance lower limb muscle strength in older groups, which is very important for gait, postural stability, and performance of daily life activities.

  15. Rejoining kinetics of G1-PCC breaks induced by different heavy-ion beams with a similar LET value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruoka, Chizuru; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Anzai, Kazunori; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Masao

    2010-08-14

    In previous studies we have shown that the linear energy transfer (LET)-relative biological effectiveness (RBE) curves were affected by LET and ion species [1,2]. In this paper we have examined the difference in the repair kinetics of G1-prematurely condensed chromosome breaks in normal human fibroblasts following irradiation with different heavy-ion beams of similar LET values. Normal human fibroblasts were irradiated with about 110 keV/microm of carbon (135 MeV/n), neon (400 MeV/n) and silicon ions (490 MeV/n), and the doses of carbon (3.25 Gy), neon (2.94+/-0.01 Gy) and silicon (2.31 Gy) were chosen to produce approximately the same number of initially measured G1-premature chromosome condensation (PCC) breaks (about 37 excess fragments per cell). The number of G1-PCC breaks was counted as excess fragments of prematurely condensed chromosomes using the PCC technique in the G1/G0 phase. The fractions of residual G1-PCC breaks after 24 h post-irradiation and half time, which is the time point where 50% of initially measured G1-PCC breaks are rejoined (t1/2), of the slow components of rejoining in carbon- and neon-ion irradiated cells were different from those of silicon-ion irradiated cells. However, no difference was observed in the half time of the fast components of rejoining in each ion beam. The results suggest that the difference in the fractions of residual G1-PCC breaks after 24 h post-irradiation reflect the result of the slow repair process for induced G1-PCC breaks, and that the repair process is dependent on the ion species, not the LET values. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of benzo(a)pyrene exposure on the antioxidant enzyme activity of scallop Chlamys farreri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Luqing; Ren, Jiayun; Zheng, Debin

    2009-02-01

    Scallop Chlamys farreri was exposed to different concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) (0.5 μg/L, 1.0 μg/L, 10.0 μg/L and 50.0 μg/L) for 30 days in seawater. The 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was significantly induced, and increased with the increasing BaP concentration. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities increased in short time at low concentration of BaP, and was significantly depressed at high concentrations. Scallop gill was more sensitive to BaP than the digestive gland, and the digestive gland was the main tissue to deal with oxyradicals. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased with the exposure time and there was a positive correlation (concentration-effect) between the MDA content and the concentration of BaP. The biomarkers determined in this experiment had important roles in detoxification, and showed great potential as biomarkers for oxidative stress. Controlled laboratory experiments designed to simulate field exposure scenarios are particularly useful in ascertaining biomarkers suitable for use with complex contaminant mixtures in the marine environment.

  17. Effects of Benzoapyrene on migration and invasion of lung cancer cells functioning by TNF-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangqiang; Zhou, Yongchun; Ye, Lianhua; Li, Guangjian; Chen, Xiaobo; Yang, Kaiyun; Huang, Qiubo; Zeng, Yujie; Chen, Ying; Huang, Yunchao

    2018-01-18

    In this study, we attempted to find out the underlying mechanism of Benzoapyrene and metastasis of lung cancer cells. We also did experiments to testify the connection between BaP and its potential target, TNF-α. Cell median lethal dose (IC 50 ) of both cells was measured by crystal violet method. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot were employed to detect the expression of TNF-α. Wound healing assay and transwell assay were utilized to testify the impacts of BaP and TNF-α on the metastasis of lung cancer cells. Cell death rate was elevated with the increase of BaP concentration. BaP increased the number of metastatic cells of lung cancer. The expressions of TNF-α pathway-associated protein (TNF-α, NF-kB (P65), Caspase3 and Caspase8) were enhanced by overexpressed BaP. TNF-α shRNA suppressed the positive effects of BaP on migration and invasion of lung cancer cells. Our study validated the positive effects of BaP on the metastasis of lung cancer cells. We also revealed the instrumental role of TNF-α in helping the development of lung cancer cells induced by BaP. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Alterations in endo-lysosomal function induce similar hepatic lipid profiles in rodent models of drug-induced phospholipidosis and Sandhoff disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecommandeur, Emmanuelle; Baker, David; Cox, Timothy M; Nicholls, Andrew W; Griffin, Julian L

    2017-07-01

    Drug-induced phospholipidosis (DIPL) is characterized by an increase in the phospholipid content of the cell and the accumulation of drugs and lipids inside the lysosomes of affected tissues, including in the liver. Although of uncertain pathological significance for patients, the condition remains a major impediment for the clinical development of new drugs. Human Sandhoff disease (SD) is caused by inherited defects of the β subunit of lysosomal β-hexosaminidases (Hex) A and B, leading to a large array of symptoms, including neurodegeneration and ultimately death by the age of 4 in its most common form. The substrates of Hex A and B, gangliosides GM2 and GA2, accumulate inside the lysosomes of the CNS and in peripheral organs. Given that both DIPL and SD are associated with lysosomes and lipid metabolism in general, we measured the hepatic lipid profiles in rodent models of these two conditions using untargeted LC/MS to examine potential commonalities. Both model systems shared a number of perturbed lipid pathways, notably those involving metabolism of cholesteryl esters, lysophosphatidylcholines, bis(monoacylglycero)phosphates, and ceramides. We report here profound alterations in lipid metabolism in the SD liver. In addition, DIPL induced a wide range of lipid changes not previously observed in the liver, highlighting similarities with those detected in the model of SD and raising concerns that these lipid changes may be associated with underlying pathology associated with lysosomal storage disorders. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Mouth-Level Intake of Benzo[a]pyrene from Reduced Nicotine Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan S. Ding

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is a known source of exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, especially benzo[a]pyrene (BaP. Exposure to BaP in cigarette smoke is influenced by how a person smokes and factors, such as tobacco blend. To determine whether sustained use of reduced-nicotine cigarettes is associated with changes in exposure to nicotine and BaP, levels of BaP in spent cigarette filter butts were correlated with levels of BaP in cigarette smoke to estimate mouth-level intake (MLI of BaP for 72 daily smokers given three progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes. Urinary cotinine, a marker of nicotine exposure, and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP, a marker of PAH exposure, were measured throughout the study. Median daily BaP MLI and urine cotinine decreased in a similar manner as smokers switched to progressively lower nicotine cigarettes, despite relatively constant daily cigarette consumption. 1-HOP levels were less responsive to the use of reduced nicotine content cigarettes. We demonstrate that spent cigarette filter butt analysis is a promising tool to estimate MLI of harmful chemicals on a per cigarette or per-day basis, which partially addresses the concerns of the temporal influence of smoking behavior or differences in cigarette design on exposure.

  20. The distribution of benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts in mammalian chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, P L; Brookes, P

    1981-11-11

    This paper describes the distribution of DNA-lesions generated by the potent carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BP) or its ultimate metabolic derivative 7 alpha, 8 8 beta, di-hydroxy-9 beta, 10 beta-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene (BPDE) within mammalian chromatin using the enzymic probe micrococcal nuclease. We have shown that the progress of the nuclease on naked DNA is unaffected by the presence of the hydrocarbon lesion at moderate extents of digestion. Digestion of nuclei isolated from murine erythroleukaemic cells immediately following BPDE treatment, and analysis of micrococcal nuclease resistant DNA by TCA precipitation, hydroxyapatite chromatography and gel electrophoresis demonstrates a non-random distribution of lesions. Approximately three times more binding occurs on the linker DNA regions between nucleosome cores than on the nucleosome core DNA itself. A similar result was obtained with BPDE treated primary mouse embryo cells; however nuclei isolated from these cells after prolonged treatment with BP (to allow metabolic activation) showed no such preferential binding. Post-treatment incubation of BPDE-treated cells shows that this difference can be accounted for by the loss of preferential localisation with time.

  1. Transformations of C3H 10T1/2 cells by Benzo(a)pyrene and subsequent attempts at suppression of transformed foci by untransformed cells and Vitamin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.L.; Gemmell, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The mouse embryo cell line (C3H 10T1/2 CL8) has been shown here, in agreement with findings by others, to be transformed by benzo(a)pyrene (BP). Transformation studies were carried out at two different concentrations (0.25 μg BP/ml and 2.5 μg BP/ml) and two different cell densities (200 and 1000 cells/60 mm dish). Transformation frequencies per surviving cell were found to be greatest when the higher concentration of BP was used with the lower cell density. A comparison of these results with earlier alpha-irradiation experiments demonstrated the greater effectiveness of BP as a transforming agent in this cell system, although the foci produced by the two agents were morphologically similar. Attempts made to eliminate the expression of BP transformed foci by two different techniques were unsuccessful, although one of these had previously been shown to be effective with cells transformed by alpha particle irradiation. The two systems tested were treatment with retinyl acetate, a common nutritional form of Vitamin A and the previously successful technique - growth of transformed cells with large numbers of untransformed cells. The differences between the BP-induced transformations and those induced by alpha particle irradiation may result from intrinsic differences in the mechanism of action of the two carcinogenic agents, differences in the number of cell generations between the induction of the transformed foci and the subsequent treatment of the cells, or genetic differences between different foci

  2. Organophosphorus pesticides enhance the genotoxicity of benzo(a)pyrene by modulating its metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hreljac, Irena; Filipic, Metka

    2009-12-01

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are widely used as pesticides. They act primarily as neurotoxins, but there is increasing evidence for secondary mechanisms of their toxicity. We have shown that the model OPs, methyl parathion (PT) and methyl paraoxon (PO), are genotoxic. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a widespread environmental genotoxin found in cigarette smoke, polluted air and grilled food. As people are constantly exposed to low concentrations of BaP and also to OPs, the aim of this study was to determine possible synergistic effects of PT and PO on BaP-induced genotoxicity. In the bacterial reverse mutation assay, PT and PO increased the number of BaP-induced mutations. The comet assay with human hepatoma HepG2 cells showed that BaP-induced DNA strand breaks were increased by PT but slightly decreased by PO. Using the acellular comet assay with UVC-induced DNA strand breaks, we observed a decrease in DNA migration, indicating that OPs cause cross-linking, thus interfering with comet assay results. In HepG2 cells the two OPs induced micronuclei formation at very low doses (0.01 microg/ml) and together with BaP, a more than additive increase of micronuclei was observed, confirming their co-genotoxic effect. We demonstrated for the first time that PT and PO modulate the metabolic activation of BaP. Addition of PT or PO increased aldo-keto reductase (AKR1C1/2) levels in the presence of BaP, while cytochrome 1A (CYP1A) mRNA expression and activity were decreased. Further, specific inhibition of CYP1A had no effect on BaP or OP+BaP-induced micronuclei, whereas inhibition of AKR1C dramatically decreased the number of micronuclei induced by BaP or OP+BaP. Based on these results we propose that co-genotoxicity results from OPs mediated modulation of BaP metabolism, favouring the induction of AKR1C enzymes known to catalyse the formation of DNA reactive BaP o-quinones and the production of reactive oxygen species.

  3. Loss of VHL in RCC reduces repair and alters cellular response to benzo[a]pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten eSchults

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL tumor suppressor gene occur in the majority of sporadic renal-cell carcinomas (RCC. Loss of VHL function is associated with stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIFα. We and others demonstrated that there is a two-way interaction between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, which is an important mediator in the metabolic activation and detoxification of carcinogens, and the HIF1-pathway leading to an increased genetic instability when both pathways are simultaneously activated. The aim of this study was to investigate how environmental carcinogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, which can be metabolically activated to BaP-7,8-diOH-9,10-epoxide (BPDE play a role in the etiology of renal-cell carcinomas (RCC. We exposed VHL deficient RCC4 cells, in which HIFα is stabilized regardless of oxygen tension, to 0.1µM BaP for 18 hours. The mutagenic BPDE-DNA adduct levels were increased in HIFα stabilized cells. Using qRT-PCR, we demonstrated that absence of VHL significantly induced the mRNA levels of AhR downstream target CYP1A1. Furthermore, HPLC analysis indicated that loss of VHL increased the concentration of BaP-7,8-dihydroxydiol, the pre-cursor metabolite of BPDE. Interestingly, the capacity to repair BPDE-DNA adducts in the HIFα stabilized RCC4 cells, was markedly reduced. Taken together, these data indicate that loss of VHL affects BaP-mediated genotoxic responses in renal-cell carcinoma and decreases repair capacity.

  4. Benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxides as intermediates in nucleic acid binding in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinstein, I.B.; Jeffrey, A.M.; Jennette, K.W.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence has been obtained that a specific isomer of a diol epoxide derivative of benzo(a)pyrene, (+/-)-7 beta,8alpha-dihydroxy-9alpha, 10alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene, is an intermediate in the binding of benzo(a)pyrene to RNA in cultured bovine bronchial mucosa. An adduct is for...

  5. Dietary cadmium and benzo(a)pyrene increased intestinal metallothionein expression in the fish Fundulus heteroclitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesijadi, Guritno; Rezvankhah, Saeid; Perez-Matus, Alejandro; Mitelberg, A.; Torruellas, K.; Van Veld, P. A.

    2008-10-17

    To test the effect of dietary exposure to cadmium and benzo(a)pyrene on induction of metallothionein mRNA in the Fundulus heteroclitus, fish were individually fed a pelletized gel food containing cadmium, benzo(a)pyrene, or a combination of the two over a period of seven days, then analyzed for relative levels of metallothionein mRNA in the intestine, liver, and gill using real-time RT-qPCR. An initial experiment with only cadmium exposure showed an apparent 10-fold induction in the intestine, but no induction in liver or gill. Ingestion of contaminated pellets varied in individual fish, and because it was possible to monitor individual ingestion rates with our method, individual cadmium doses were estimated from the amount of ingested cadmium. When the levels of metallothionein mRNA were related to the dose to each fish, a linear dose-response relationship was observed for the intestine, but not the other organs, which showed no induction. In a second experiment, dose was controlled by placing the entire daily cadmium dose into a single contaminated pellet that was fed first (thereby, effectively controlling the effect of variable ingestion rates), and the interaction between cadmium and benzo(a)pyrene was also investigated. The intestine was again the primary organ for metallothionein induction by cadmium, with a 20-fold increase in metallothionein mRNA over control levels. When benzo(a)pyrene was administered together with cadmium, induction of metallothionein was potentiated by the presence of benzo(a)pyrene, with the main effect seen in the intestine, where already high levels of induction by cadmium alone increased by 1.74-fold when benzo(a)pyrene was present.

  6. Effects of benzo(a)pyrene exposure on the ATPase activity and calcium concentration in the hippocampus of neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Chen, Chengzhi; Cheng, Shuqun; Cao, Xianqing; Tu, Baijie

    2017-03-30

    To investigate whether postnatal benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) exposure caused the impairments on the process of neurodevelopment and the alteration in the calcium medium in the neonatal rats. Eighty neonatal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (untreated control group, vehicle group, 0.02 mg/kg, 0.2 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg B(a)P-exposed group). Rats were treated with B(a)P by the intragastric administration from postnatal day (PND) 4 to 25. Morris water maze (MWM) was employed to observe the spatial memory of rats. The activity of calcium adenosine triphosphatase (Ca2+-ATPase), sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+-K+-ATPase) and calcium-magnesium adenosine triphosphatase (Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase) in the hippocampus were detected by commercial kits. Fura-2 pentakis(acetoxymethyl) (Fura-2/AM) probe and reactive oxygen species (ROS) reagent kit were used for measuring the concentration of Ca2+ and ROS in the hippocampus synapse, respectively. Rats exposed to B(a)P resulted in the deficits in the spatial memory manifested by the increased escape latency and decreased number of crossing platform and time spent in target quadrant in comparison with the control groups. Benzo(a)pyrene exposure caused the significant decrease in the ATPase activity in the hippocampus and caused Ca2+ overload in the synaptic, besides, the ROS concentration increased significantly which may further induce neurobehavioral impairment of the neonatal rats. Our findings suggest that postnatal B(a)P exposure may cause the neurobehavioral impairments in the neonatal rats, which were mediated by the decreased ATPase activity and elevated Ca2+ concentration. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(2):203-211. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  7. Metabolic activation and DNA binding of benzo(a)pyrene in cultured human bronchus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Shen K.; Gelboin, Harry V.; Trump, Benjamin F.

    1977-01-01

    Human bronchus is one target site for the carcinogenic action of tobacco smoke, which contains chemical carcinogens, including benzo(a)pyrene. Human bronchi were obtained from surgery or “immediate” autopsy and then cultured in a chemically defined medium. The cultured bronchi were exposed....... The predominant metabolite formed by human bronchus from the (-)-trans-7,8-diol is found by high-pressure liquid chromatographic analysis to be the diol-epoxide r-7,t-8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahy-drobenzo(a)pyrene. The results suggest that this diol-epoxide is the major benzo(a)pyrene metabolite bound...

  8. Ceramide-enriched LDL induces cytokine release through TLR4 and CD14 in monocytes. Similarities with electronegative LDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch, Montserrat; Sánchez-Quesada, Jose Luis; Ordóñez-Llanos, Jordi; Benítez, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    In vitro ceramide-enriched LDL (CER-LDL) reproduces most of the properties of electronegative LDL (LDL(-)), a heterogeneous subfraction of LDL found in plasma. LDL(-) comprises several modifications of LDL and has an increased content in ceramide (CER). It promotes cytokine release in monocytes through CD14 and TLR4. CER-LDL also induces cytokine release in these cells but the mechanism is unknown. To evaluate TLR4 and CD14 as the putative receptors involved in cytokine release induced by CER-LDL. CER-LDL was obtained by incubating native LDL with CER-enriched liposomes. CER content in CER-LDL was assessed by thin layer chromatography of lipid extracts. CER-LDL and LDL(-) were incubated for 20 h with human monocytes in the presence or absence of a TLR4 signaling inhibitor. Both LDLs were also incubated with two human monocytic cell lines, normal and THP1 overexpressing CD14 (THP1-CD14) cells. The release of IL-6, IL-10 and MCP-1 was evaluated by ELISA in culture medium. The release of IL-6, IL-10 and MCP-1 induced by CER-LDL in monocytes was inhibited by VIPER (90% inhibition), a specific TLR4 inhibitor. The cytokine release induced by CER-LDL was negligible in THP1, cells presenting a very low CD14 expression. In contrast, the induction of cytokine release in THP1-CD14 was high and dependent on the CER content in LDL. CER-LDL induces IL-6, IL-10 and MCP-1 release through the activation of CD14 and TLR4 in monocytes, reproducing the behavior of LDL(-). The increased content of CER in LDL(-) is then related to the inflammatory action of LDL(-). Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. General relativistic self-similar waves that induce an anomalous acceleration into the standard model of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Smoller, Joel

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the Einstein equations in Standard Schwarzschild Coordinates close to form a system of three ordinary differential equations for a family of spherically symmetric, self-similar expansion waves, and the critical ($k=0$) Friedmann universe associated with the pure radiation phase of the Standard Model of Cosmology (FRW), is embedded as a single point in this family. Removing a scaling law and imposing regularity at the center, we prove that the family reduces to an implicitly defined one parameter family of distinct spacetimes determined by the value of a new {\\it acceleration parameter} $a$, such that $a=1$ corresponds to FRW. We prove that all self-similar spacetimes in the family are distinct from the non-critical $k\

  10. Human Hepatocyte-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: MYC Expression, Similarities to Human Germ Cell Tumors, and Safety Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Unzu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC are a most promising approach to the development of a hepatocyte transplantable mass sufficient to induce long-term correction of inherited liver metabolic diseases, thus avoiding liver transplantation. Their intrinsic self-renewal ability and potential to differentiate into any of the three germ layers identify iPSC as the most promising cell-based therapeutics, but also as drivers of tumor development. Teratoma development currently represents the gold standard to assess iPSC pluripotency. We analyzed the tumorigenic potential of iPSC generated from human hepatocytes (HEP-iPSC and compared their immunohistochemical profiles to that of tumors developed from fibroblast and hematopoietic stem cell-derived iPSC. HEP-iPSC generated tumors significantly presented more malignant morphological features than reprogrammed fibroblasts or CD34+ iPSC. Moreover, the protooncogene myc showed the strongest expression in HEP-iPSC, compared to only faint expression in the other cell subsets. Random integration of transgenes and the use of potent protooncogenes such as myc might be a risk factor for malignant tumor development if hepatocytes are used for reprogramming. Nonviral vector delivery systems or reprogramming of cells obtained from less invasive harvesting methods would represent interesting options for future developments in stem cell-based approaches for liver metabolic diseases.

  11. Low- and high-volume strength training induces similar neuromuscular improvements in muscle quality in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaelli, Regis; Botton, Cíntia E; Wilhelm, Eurico N; Bottaro, Martim; Lacerda, Fabiano; Gaya, Anelise; Moraes, Kelly; Peruzzolo, Amanda; Brown, Lee E; Pinto, Ronei Silveira

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of low- and high-volume strength training on strength, muscle activation and muscle thickness (MT) of the lower- and upper-body, and on muscle quality (MQ) of the lower-body in older women. Twenty apparently healthy elderly women were randomly assigned into two groups: low-volume (LV, n=11) and high-volume (HV, n=9). The LV group performed one-set of each exercise, while the HV group performed three-sets of each exercise, twice weekly for 13 weeks. MQ was measured by echo intensity obtained by ultrasonography (MQEI), strength per unit of muscle mass (MQST), and strength per unit of muscle mass adjusted with an allometric scale (MQAS). Following training, there was a significant increase (p≤0.001) in knee extension 1-RM (31.8±20.5% for LV and 38.3±7.3% for HV) and in elbow flexion 1-RM (25.1±9.5% for LV and 26.6±8.9% for HV) and in isometric maximal strength of the lower-body (p≤0.05) and upper-body (p≤0.001), with no difference between groups. The maximal electromyographic activation for both groups increased significantly (p≤0.05) in the vastus medialis and biceps brachii, with no difference between groups. All MT measurements of the lower- and upper-body increased similarly in both groups (p≤0.001). Similar improvements were also observed in MQEI (p≤0.01), MQST, and MQAS (p≤0.001) for both groups. These results demonstrate that low- and high-volume strength training promote similar increases in neuromuscular adaptations of the lower- and upper-body, and in MQ of the lower-body in elderly women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ketamine-induced apoptosis in the mouse cerebral cortex follows similar characteristic of physiological apoptosis and can be regulated by neuronal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Shen, Feng-Yan; Zou, Rong; Zheng, Jing-Jing; Yu, Xiang; Wang, Ying-Wei

    2017-06-17

    The effects of general anesthetics on inducing neuronal apoptosis during early brain development are well-documented. However, since physiological apoptosis also occurs during this developmental window, it is important to determine whether anesthesia-induced apoptosis targets the same cell population as physiological apoptosis or different cell types altogether. To provide an adequate plane of surgery, ketamine was co-administered with dexmedetomidine. The apoptotic neurons in the mouse primary somatosensory cortex (S1) were quantitated by immunohistochemistry. To explore the effect of neural activity on ketamine-induced apoptosis, the approaches of Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) and an environmental enrichment (EE) were performed. Ketamine-induced apoptosis in S1 is most prominent at postnatal days 5 and 7 (P5 - P7), and becomes insignificant by P12. Physiological and ketamine-induced apoptosis follow similar developmental patterns, mostly comprised of layer V pyramidal neurons at P5 and shifting to mostly layer II to IV GABAergic neurons by P9. Changes in neuronal activity induced by the DREADD system bidirectionally regulated the pattern of ketamine-induced apoptosis, with reduced activity inducing increased apoptosis and shifting the lamination pattern to a more immature form. Importantly, rearing mice in an EE significantly reduced the magnitude of ketamine-induced apoptosis and shifted its developmental pattern to a more mature form. Together, these results demonstrate that lamination pattern and cell-type dependent vulnerability to ketamine-induced apoptosis follow the physiological apoptosis pattern and are age- and activity-dependent. Naturally elevating neuronal activity is a possible method for reducing the adverse effects of general anesthesia.

  13. Gender-specific cold responses induce a similar body-cooling rate but different neuroendocrine and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Skurvydas, Albertas; Vitkauskienė, Astra; Brazaitis, Marius

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether there are any gender differences in body-heating strategies during cold stress and whether the immune and neuroendocrine responses to physiological stress differ between men and women. Thirty-two participants (18 men and 14 women) were exposed to acute cold stress by immersion to the manubrium level in 14 °C water. The cold stress continued until rectal temperature (TRE) reached 35.5 °C or for a maximum of 170 min. The responses to cold stress of various indicators of body temperature, insulation, metabolism, shivering, stress, and endocrine and immune function were compared between men and women. During cold stress, TRE and muscle and mean skin temperatures decreased in all subjects (Pcold strain did not differ between men and women, but men exhibited larger changes in the indicators of neuroendocrine (epinephrine level) and in immune (tumor necrosis factor-α level) responses (both Pcold stress, whereas women exhibited a greater insulative response. Despite the similar experience of cold strain in men and women, the neuroendocrine and immune responses were larger in men. Contrary to our expectations, the cooling rate was similar in men and women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Separation of water-soluble metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene formed by cultured human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman

    1979-01-01

    of glucuronides accounts for only 6 per cent of the water-soluble metabolites. Hydrolysis of the sulfate esters with arylsulfatase and the glucuronides with β-glucuronidase released metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene that were extractable with organic solvent. Separation of these metabolites by high-pressure liquid...

  15. Mechanism-based inactivation of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase by aryl acetylenes and aryl olefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, L.S.; Lu, J.Y.L.; Alworth, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    A series of aryl acetylenes and aryl olefins have been examined as substrates and inhibitors of cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxgenases in liver microsomes from 5,6-benzoflavone or phenobarbital pretreated rats. 1-Ethynylpyrene, 3-ethynylperylene, 2-ethynylfluorene, methyl 1-pyrenyl acetylene, cis- and trans-1-(2-bromovinyl)pyrene, and 1-allylpyrene serve as mechanism-based irreversible inactivators (suicide inhibitors) of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase, while 1-vinylpyrene and phenyl 1-pyrenyl acetylene do not cause a detectable suicide inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase. The mechanism-based loss of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase caused by the aryl acetylenes is not accompanied by a corresponding loss of the P-450 content of the microsomes (suicide destruction). The suicide inhibition by these aryl acetylenes therefore does not involve covalent binding to the heme moiety of the monooxygenase. Nevertheless, in the presence of NADPH, 3 H-labeled 1-ethynylpyrene becomes covalently attached to the cytochrome P-450 protein; the measured stoichiometry of binding is one 1-ethynylpyrene per P-450 heme unit. The authors conclude that the inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase produced by 1-ethynylpyrene may be related to the mechanism of suicide inhibition of P-450 activity by chloramphenicol rather than the mechanism of suicide destruction of P-450 previously described for acetylene and propyne

  16. Solubility of Benzo[a]pyrene and Organic Matter of Soil in Subcritical Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Sushkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic subcritical water extraction method of benzo[a]pyrene from soils is under consideration. The optimum conditions for benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soil are described including the soil treatment by subcritical water at 250 °C and 100 atm for 30 min. The effectiveness of developed method was determined using the matrix spiking recovery technique. A comparative analysis was made to evaluate the results of benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soils using the subcritical water and organic solvents. The advantages of the subcritical water extraction involve the use of ecologically friendly solvent, a shorter time for the analysis and a higher amount of benzo[a]pyrene extracted from soil (96 %. The influence of subcritical water extraction on soil properties was measured the investigation of the processes occurring within soil under the influence the high temperature and pressure. Under appropriate conditions of the experiment there is the destruction of the soil organic matter while the composition of the soil mineral fraction remains practically unchanged.

  17. Effect of various chemicals on the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene by cultured rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Harris, Curtis C.; Fugaro, Steven

    1977-01-01

    The effect of various co- and anti-carcinogens of colon carcinogenesis on the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in cultured rat colon is reported. Rat colon enzymatically converted BP into metabolites which bind to cellular macromolecules i.e., DNA and protein. Activity of aryl hydrocarbon...

  18. High-dose bee venom exposure induces similar tolerogenic B-cell responses in allergic patients and healthy beekeepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonpiyathad, T; Meyer, N; Moniuszko, M; Sokolowska, M; Eljaszewicz, A; Wirz, O F; Tomasiak-Lozowska, M M; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, A; Ruxrungtham, K; van de Veen, W

    2017-03-01

    The involvement of B cells in allergen tolerance induction remains largely unexplored. This study investigates the role of B cells in this process, by comparing B-cell responses in allergic patients before and during allergen immunotherapy (AIT) and naturally exposed healthy beekeepers before and during the beekeeping season. Circulating B cells were characterized by flow cytometry. Phospholipase A2 (PLA)-specific B cells were identified using dual-color staining with fluorescently labeled PLA. Expression of regulatory B-cell-associated surface markers, interleukin-10, chemokine receptors, and immunoglobulin heavy-chain isotypes, was measured. Specific and total IgG1, IgG4, IgA, and IgE from plasma as well as culture supernatants of PLA-specific cells were measured by ELISA. Strikingly, similar responses were observed in allergic patients and beekeepers after venom exposure. Both groups showed increased frequencies of plasmablasts, PLA-specific memory B cells, and IL-10-secreting CD73 - CD25 + CD71 + B R 1 cells. Phospholipase A2-specific IgG4-switched memory B cells expanded after bee venom exposure. Interestingly, PLA-specific B cells showed increased CCR5 expression after high-dose allergen exposure while CXCR4, CXCR5, CCR6, and CCR7 expression remained unaffected. This study provides the first detailed characterization of allergen-specific B cells before and after bee venom tolerance induction. The observed B-cell responses in both venom immunotherapy-treated patients and naturally exposed beekeepers suggest a similar functional immunoregulatory role for B cells in allergen tolerance in both groups. These findings can be investigated in other AIT models to determine their potential as biomarkers of early and successful AIT responses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Induced Neurocysticercosis in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta Produces Clinical Signs and Lesions Similar to Natural Disease in Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans. The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited. The monkeys may prove useful for the purpose due to their behavior and cognitive responses mimicking man. In this study, neurocysticercosis was induced in two rhesus monkeys each with 12,000 and 6,000 eggs, whereas three monkeys were given placebo. The monkeys given higher dose developed hyperexcitability, epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, digital cramps at 10 DPI, and finally paralysis of limbs, followed by death on 67 DPI, whereas the monkeys given lower dose showed delayed and milder clinical signs. On necropsy, all the infected monkeys showed numerous cysticerci in the brain. Histopathologically, heavily infected monkeys revealed liquefactive necrosis and formation of irregular cystic cavities lined by atrophied parenchymal septa with remnants of neuropil of the cerebrum. In contrast, the monkeys infected with lower dose showed formation of typical foreign body granulomas characterized by central liquefaction surrounded by chronic inflammatory response. It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof.

  20. Glittre-ADL Multiple Tasks Induce Similar Dynamic Hyperinflation With Different Metabolic and Ventilatory Demands in Patients With COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulart, Aline Almeida; Munari, Anelise Bauer; Tressoldi, Caroline; Dos Santos, Karoliny; Karloh, Manuela; Mayer, Anamaria Fleig

    2017-11-01

    This cross-sectional study compared the physiological responses and dynamic hyperinflation (DH) of the Glittre-ADL test (TGlittre) and its specific tasks in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Thirty patients with COPD performed the TGlittre. The individual tasks included stand up and sit down (TSS); climb up and down stairs (TSTAIRS); walk on a flat surface (TWALK); and move objects onto and off a shelf (TSHELF). While performing these tasks, the physiological responses were evaluated and inspiratory capacity measured before and immediately after the tests. All physiological variables and inspiratory capacity were different at the end of the TGlittre and its tasks compared with baseline (P .05), which were the tasks with the greatest physiological requirement, whereas the TSS represented the lowest metabolic, cardiovascular, and ventilatory demands among TGlittre's tasks. DH did not differ significantly among TGlittre's tasks. TWALK and TSHELF were the tasks that resulted in greater physiological overload, whereas TSS induced the lowest metabolic and ventilatory demands. Despite this, DH did not differ among the TGlittre's tasks in patients with COPD.

  1. Repeated Warm Water Immersion Induces Similar Cerebrovascular Adaptations to 8 Weeks of Moderate-Intensity Exercise Training in Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, T G; Cable, N T; Miller, G D; Sprung, V S; Low, D A; Jones, H

    2016-09-01

    Exercise training has the potential to enhance cerebrovascular function. Warm water immersion has recently been shown to enhance vascular function including the cerebrovascular response to heating. We suggest that passive heating can be used alternatively to exercise. Our aim was to compare the effects of exercise with warm-water immersion training on cerebrovascular and thermoregulatory function. 18 females (25±5 y) performed 8 weeks of cycling (70% HRmax) or warm water immersion (42°C) for 30 min 3 times per week. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and peak cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) were measured prior to and following both interventions. A passive heat stress was employed to obtain temperature thresholds (Tb) and sensitivities for sweat rate (SR) and cutaneous vasodilation (CVC). Middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) was measured throughout. FMD and VO2peak improved following both interventions (pheating (p<0.001 and <0.001, respectively) following both interventions. SR occurred at a lower Tb following both interventions and SR sensitivity also increased, with a larger increase at the chest (p<0.001) following water immersion. CVC occurred at a lower Tb (p<0.001) following both interventions. Warm water immersion elicits similar cerebrovascular, conduit, and thermoregulatory adaptations compared to a period of moderate-intensity exercise training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Active muscle regeneration following eccentric contraction-induced injury is similar between healthy young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, Thomas W; MacNeil, R Gavin; Clough, Launa G; Dirain, Marvin; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Pahor, Marco; Manini, Todd M; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2014-06-01

    Repair of skeletal muscle after injury is a key aspect of maintaining proper musculoskeletal function. Studies have suggested that regenerative processes, including myogenesis and angiogenesis, are impaired during advanced age, but evidence from humans is limited. This study aimed to compare active muscle regeneration between healthy young and older adults. We evaluated changes in clinical, biochemical, and immunohistochemical indices of muscle regeneration at precisely 2 (T2) and 7 (T3) days following acute muscle injury. Men and women, aged 18-30 and ≥70 years, matched for gender and body mass index, performed 150 unilateral, eccentric contractions of the plantar flexors at 110% of one repetition maximum. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance, adjusted for gender, habitual physical activity, and baseline level of the outcome. A total of 30 young (n = 15; 22.5 ± 3.7 yr) and older (n = 15; 75.8 ± 5.0 yr) adults completed the study. Following muscle injury, force production declined 16% and 14% in young and older adults, respectively, by T2 and in each group, returned to 93% of baseline strength by T3. Despite modest differences in the pattern of response, postinjury changes in intramuscular concentrations of myogenic growth factors and number of myonuclear (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole+ and paired box 7+) cells were largely similar between groups. Likewise, postinjury changes in serum and intramuscular indices of inflammation (e.g., TNF-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and angiogenesis (e.g., VEGF and kinase insert domain receptor) did not differ significantly between groups. These findings suggest that declines in physical activity and increased co-morbidity may contribute to age-related impairments in active muscle regeneration rather than aging per se. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  3. An investigation of endocrine disrupting effects and toxic mechanisms modulated by benzo[a]pyrene in female scallop Chlamys farreri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Shuangmei; Pan, Luqing, E-mail: panlq@ouc.edu.cn; Sun, Xiaohua

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •B[a]P disturbed progesterone, 17β-estradiol and testosterone production in scallop. •B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD expression after a 10-day exposure. •B[a]P of lower dose elevated AHR-CYP1A expression but high dose B[a]P inhibited them. •ER and vitellogenin transcription was consistent with AHR after B[a]P exposure. •B[a]P exposure induced relatively developmental delay and impairment of ovary. -- Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and explore the underlying mechanisms in mollusks. In this study, sexually mature female Chlamys farreri were exposed to benzo[a]pyrene for 10 days at four different concentrations as 0, 0.025, 0.5 and 10 μg/L. Sex steroids were identified and quantified by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) method and results showed that exposure to B[a]P exerts great suppression on 17β-estradiol, testosterone production and disrupts progesterone levels in ovary. Transcription of genes were detected and measured by real-time RT-PCR. It showed that at day 10 B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that they could be potential targets of B[a]P that disrupt steroidogenic machinery. Moreover, 0.025 μg/L B[a]P activated transcription of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), CYP1A1 and estrogen receptor (ER), while 10 μg/L B[a]P suppressed all of them. The consistency of their responses to B[a]P exposure implies that AHR action may be involved in invertebrate CYP regulation and ER transcription despite of unknown mechanisms. Additionally, B[a]P exposure could induce ovarian impairment and developmental delay in C. farreri. Overall, sensitivity of C. farreri to endocrine disruption and toxicity suggests that C. farreri is a suitable species for study of endocrine-disrupting effects in marine invertebrates. This study will form a

  4. An investigation of endocrine disrupting effects and toxic mechanisms modulated by benzo[a]pyrene in female scallop Chlamys farreri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Shuangmei; Pan, Luqing; Sun, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •B[a]P disturbed progesterone, 17β-estradiol and testosterone production in scallop. •B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD expression after a 10-day exposure. •B[a]P of lower dose elevated AHR-CYP1A expression but high dose B[a]P inhibited them. •ER and vitellogenin transcription was consistent with AHR after B[a]P exposure. •B[a]P exposure induced relatively developmental delay and impairment of ovary. -- Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and explore the underlying mechanisms in mollusks. In this study, sexually mature female Chlamys farreri were exposed to benzo[a]pyrene for 10 days at four different concentrations as 0, 0.025, 0.5 and 10 μg/L. Sex steroids were identified and quantified by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) method and results showed that exposure to B[a]P exerts great suppression on 17β-estradiol, testosterone production and disrupts progesterone levels in ovary. Transcription of genes were detected and measured by real-time RT-PCR. It showed that at day 10 B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that they could be potential targets of B[a]P that disrupt steroidogenic machinery. Moreover, 0.025 μg/L B[a]P activated transcription of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), CYP1A1 and estrogen receptor (ER), while 10 μg/L B[a]P suppressed all of them. The consistency of their responses to B[a]P exposure implies that AHR action may be involved in invertebrate CYP regulation and ER transcription despite of unknown mechanisms. Additionally, B[a]P exposure could induce ovarian impairment and developmental delay in C. farreri. Overall, sensitivity of C. farreri to endocrine disruption and toxicity suggests that C. farreri is a suitable species for study of endocrine-disrupting effects in marine invertebrates. This study will form a

  5. A single dose of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine promotes HAV-specific memory cellular response similar to that induced by a natural infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgaço, Juliana Gil; Morgado, Lucas Nóbrega; Santiago, Marta Almeida; Oliveira, Jaqueline Mendes de; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Hasselmann, Bárbara; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Pinto, Marcelo Alves; Vitral, Claudia Lamarca

    2015-07-31

    Based on current studies on the effects of single dose vaccines on antibody production, Latin American countries have adopted a single dose vaccine program. However, no data are available on the activation of cellular response to a single dose of hepatitis A. Our study investigated the functional reactivity of the memory cell phenotype after hepatitis A virus (HAV) stimulation through administration of the first or second dose of HAV vaccine and compared the response to that of a baseline group to an initial natural infection. Proliferation assays showed that the first vaccine dose induced HAV-specific cellular response; this response was similar to that induced by a second dose or an initial natural infection. Thus, from the first dose to the second dose, increase in the frequencies of classical memory B cells, TCD8 cells, and central memory TCD4 and TCD8 cells were observed. Regarding cytokine production, increased IL-6, IL-10, TNF, and IFNγ levels were observed after vaccination. Our findings suggest that a single dose of HAV vaccine promotes HAV-specific memory cell response similar to that induced by a natural infection. The HAV-specific T cell immunity induced by primary vaccination persisted independently of the protective plasma antibody level. In addition, our results suggest that a single dose immunization system could serve as an alternative strategy for the prevention of hepatitis A in developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Overexpression of Catalase Enhances Benzo(a)pyrene Detoxification in Endothelial Microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Yang, Hong; Ramesh, Aramandla; Goodwin, J Shawn; Okoro, Emmanuel U; Guo, ZhongMao

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that overexpression of catalase upregulated xenobiotic- metabolizing enzyme (XME) expression and diminished benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) intermediate accumulation in mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs). Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the most active organelle involved in BaP metabolism. To examine the involvement of ER in catalase-induced BaP detoxification, we compared the level and distribution of XMEs, and the profile of BaP intermediates in the microsomes of wild-type and catalase transgenic endothelial cells. Our data showed that endothelial microsomes were enriched in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, CYP1B1 and epoxide hydrolase 1 (EH1), and contained considerable levels of quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase-pi (GSTP). Treatment of wild-type MAECs with 1μM BaP for 2 h increased the expression of microsomal CYP1A1, 1B1 and NQO1 by ~300, 64 and 116%, respectively. However, the same treatment did not significantly alter the expression of EH1 and GSTP. Overexpression of catalase did not significantly increase EH1, but upregulated BaP-induced expression of microsomal CYP1A1, 1B1, NQO1 and GSTP in the following order: 1A1>NQO1>GSTP>1B1. Overexpression of catalase did not alter the distribution of each of these enzymes in the microsomes. In contrast to our previous report showing lower level of BaP phenols versus BaP diols/diones in the whole-cell, this report demonstrated that the sum of microsomal BaP phenolic metabolites were ~60% greater than that of the BaP diols/diones after exposure of microsomes to BaP. Overexpression of catalase reduced the concentrations of microsomal BaP phenols and diols/diones by ~45 and 95%, respectively. This process enhanced the ratio of BaP phenol versus diol/dione metabolites in a potent manner. Taken together, upregulation of phase II XMEs and CYP1 proteins, but not EH1 in the ER might be the mechanism by which overexpression of catalase reduces the levels of all the BaP metabolites, and

  7. Flow cytometric measurement of the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene by mouse liver cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, J.C.; Wade, C.G.; Dougherty, K.K.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in individual cells was monitored by flow cytometry. The measurements are based on the alterations that occur in the fluorescence emission spectrum of benzo[a]pyrene when it is converted to various metabolites. Using present instrumentation the technique could easily detect 1x10 6 molecules per cells of benzo[a]pyrene and 1x10 7 molecules per cell of the diol epoxide. The analysis of C3H IOT 1/2 mouse fibroblasts growing in culture indicated that there was heterogeneity in the conversion of the parent compound into diol epoxide derivatives suggesting that some variation in sensitivity to transformation by benzo[a]pyrene may be due to differences in cellular metabolism. The technique allows sensitive detection of metabolites in viable cells, and provides a new approach to the study of factors that influence both metabolism and transformation. (orig.)

  8. Calorie Restriction-induced Weight Loss and Exercise Have Differential Effects on Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria Despite Similar Effects on Insulin Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshikova, Elizaveta V; Ritov, Vladimir B; Dube, John J; Amati, Francesca; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Toledo, Frederico G S; Coen, Paul M; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2017-12-12

    Skeletal muscle insulin resistance and reduced mitochondrial capacity have both been reported to be affected by aging. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of calorie restriction-induced weight loss and exercise on insulin resistance, skeletal muscle mitochondrial content, and mitochondrial enzyme activities in older overweight to obese individuals. Insulin-stimulated rates of glucose disposal (Rd) were determined using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp before and after completing 16 weeks of either calorie restriction to induce weight loss (N = 7) or moderate exercise (N = 10). Mitochondrial volume density, mitochondria membrane content (cardiolipin), and activities of electron transport chain (rotenone-sensitive NADH-oxidase), tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (citrate synthase) and β-oxidation pathway (β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase; β-HAD) were measured in percutaneous biopsies of the vastus lateralis before and after the interventions. Rd improved similarly (18.2% ± 9.0%, p weight loss and exercise. Moderate exercise significantly increased mitochondrial volume density (14.5% ± 2.0%, p calorie restriction-induced weight loss did not affect mitochondrial content, NADH-oxidase or β-HAD, yet increased citrate synthase activity (44.1% ± 21.1%, p ≤ .04). Exercise (increase) or weight loss (decrease) induced a remodeling of cardiolipin with a small (2%-3%), but significant change in the relative content of tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin. Exercise increases both mitochondria content and mitochondrial electron transport chain and fatty acid oxidation enzyme activities within skeletal muscle, while calorie restriction-induced weight loss did not, despite similar improvements in insulin sensitivity in overweight older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Similar to spironolactone, oxymatrine is protective in aldosterone-induced cardiomyocyte injury via inhibition of calpain and apoptosis-inducing factor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Xiao

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that oxymatrine (OMT possesses variously pharmacological properties, especially on the cardiovascular system. We previously demonstrated that activated calpain/apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF-mediated pathway was the key molecular mechanism in aldosterone (ALD induces cardiomyocytes apoptosis. In the present study, we extended the experimentation by investigating the effect of OMT on cardiomyocytes exposed to ALD, as compared to spironolactone (Spiro, a classical ALD receptor antagonist. Cardiomyocytes were pre-incubated with OMT, Spiro or vehicle for 1 h, and then, cardiomyocytes were exposed to ALD 24 h. The cell injury was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH leakage ratio. Apoptosis was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL assay, annexin V/PI staining, and relative caspase-3 activity assay. Furthermore, expression of pro-apoptotic proteins including truncated Bid (tBid, calpain and AIF were evaluated by western blot analysis. ALD stimulation increased cardiomyocytes apoptosis, caspase-3 activity and protein expression of calpain, tBid and AIF in the cytosol (p<0.05. Pre-incubated with cardiomyocytes injury and increased caspase-3 activity were significantly attenuated (p<0.05. Furthermore, OMT suppressed ALD-induced high expression of calpain and AIF. And these effects of OMT could be comparable to Spiro. These findings indicated that OMT might be a potential cardioprotective-agent against excessive ALD-induced cardiotoxicity, at least in part, mediated through inhibition of calpain/AIF signaling.

  10. Cytochrome P450 system expression and DNA adduct formation in the liver of Zacco platypus following waterborne benzo(a)pyrene exposure: implications for biomarker determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wuk; Kim, Yong Hwa; Yoon, Seokjoo; Lee, Sung Kyu

    2014-09-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that causes mutations and tumor formation. Zacco platypus is a sentinel species that is suitable for monitoring aquatic environments. We studied cytochrome P450 system (CYP system) expression and DNA adduct formation in the liver of Z. platypus following waterborne exposure to BaP. The results showed both dose and time dependency. The significant induction levels of CYP system mRNA and protein reached maximums at 2 days and 14 days, respectively, and hepatosomatic index was maximally induced at 4 days during 14 days BaP exposure. DNA adduct formation was significantly induced compared to corresponding controls (t-test, p platypus is a useful species for assessing the risk of waterborne BaP exposure. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  11. Modeling the fate of benzo[a]pyrene in the wastewater-irrigated areas of Tianjin with a fugacity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X L; Tao, S; Xu, F L; Dawson, R W; Cao, J; Li, B G; Fang, J Y

    2002-01-01

    A Level III fugacity model was applied to characterize the transfer processes and environmental fate of benzo[a]pyrene in wastewater-irrigated areas of Tianjin, China. The physical-chemical properties and transfer parameters of benzo[a]pyrene were used in the model and the concentration distribution of benzo[a]pyrene in sediment, soil, water, air, fish, and crop compartments, as well as transfer fluxes across the compartments, were then derived under steady-state assumptions. The calculated results were compared with monitoring data for air, soil, water, and sediment collected from the literature. The results indicate that there was generally good agreement and the differences were within an order of magnitude for air, soil, and sediment. The concentration of benzo[a]pyrene in the ambient air in the area was very low with a majority present sorbed to aerosol. In the water compartment, approximately 70% of benzo[a]pyrene dissolved in water phase. Relatively high concentrations of the compound were found in the soil and sediment, with the soil serving as the dominant sink in the area. Benzo[a]pyrene, with a slow metabolic rate, was found to accumulate in fish in the area.

  12. Nine μg intradermal influenza vaccine and 15 μg intramuscular influenza vaccine induce similar cellular and humoral immune responses in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nougarede, Nolwenn; Bisceglia, Hélène; Rozières, Aurore; Goujon, Catherine; Boudet, Florence; Laurent, Philippe; Vanbervliet, Beatrice; Rodet, Karen; Hennino, Ana; Nicolas, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Intanza® 9 μg (Sanofi Pasteur), a trivalent split-virion vaccine administered by intradermal (ID) injection, was approved in Europe in 2009 for the prevention of seasonal influenza in adults 18 to 59 years. Here, we examined the immune responses induced in adults by the ID 9 μg vaccine and the standard trivalent intramuscular (IM) vaccine (Vaxigrip® 15 μg, Sanofi Pasteur). This trial was a randomized, controlled, single-center, open-label study in healthy adults 18 to 40 years of age during the 2007/8 influenza season. Subjects received a single vaccination with the ID 9 μg (n=38) or IM 15 μg (n=42) vaccine. Serum, saliva, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected up to 180 days post-vaccination. Geometric mean hemagglutination inhibition titers, seroprotection rates, seroconversion rates, and pre-vaccination-to-post-vaccination ratios of geometric mean hemagglutination inhibition titers did not differ between the two vaccines. Compared with pre-vaccination, the vaccines induced similar increases in vaccine-specific circulating B cells at day 7 but did not induce significant increases in vaccine-specific memory B cells at day 180. Cell-mediated immunity to all three vaccine strains, measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, was high at baseline and not increased by either vaccine. Neither vaccine induced a mucosal immune response. These results show that the humoral and cellular immune responses to the ID 9 μg vaccine are similar to those to the standard IM 15 μg vaccine.

  13. Influence of cell cycle on responses of MCF-7 cells to benzo[a]pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giddings Ian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP is a widespread environmental genotoxic carcinogen that damages DNA by forming adducts. This damage along with activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR induces complex transcriptional responses in cells. To investigate whether human cells are more susceptible to BaP in a particular phase of the cell cycle, synchronised breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells were exposed to BaP. Cell cycle progression was analysed by flow cytometry, DNA adduct formation was assessed by 32P-postlabeling analysis, microarrays of 44K human genome-wide oligos and RT-PCR were used to detect gene expression (mRNA changes and Western blotting was performed to determine the expression of some proteins, including cytochrome P450 (CYP 1A1 and CYP1B1, which are involved in BaP metabolism. Results Following BaP exposure, cells evaded G1 arrest and accumulated in S-phase. Higher levels of DNA damage occurred in S- and G2/M- compared with G0/G1-enriched cultures. Genes that were found to have altered expression included those involved in xenobiotic metabolism, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation and DNA repair. Gene ontology and pathway analysis showed the involvement of various signalling pathways in response to BaP exposure, such as the Catenin/Wnt pathway in G1, the ERK pathway in G1 and S, the Nrf2 pathway in S and G2/M and the Akt pathway in G2/M. An important finding was that higher levels of DNA damage in S- and G2/M-enriched cultures correlated with higher levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA and proteins. Moreover, exposure of synchronised MCF-7 cells to BaP-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE, the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of BaP, did not result in significant changes in DNA adduct levels at different phases of the cell cycle. Conclusions This study characterised the complex gene response to BaP in MCF-7 cells and revealed a strong correlation between the varying efficiency of BaP metabolism and DNA damage in different phases of the cell

  14. A common carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene causes neuronal death in mouse via microglial activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallol Dutta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P belongs to a class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that serve as micropollutants in the environment. B[a]P has been reported as a probable carcinogen in humans. Exposure to B[a]P can take place by ingestion of contaminated (especially grilled, roasted or smoked food or water, or inhalation of polluted air. There are reports available that also suggests neurotoxicity as a result of B[a]P exposure, but the exact mechanism of action is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using neuroblastoma cell line and primary cortical neuron culture, we demonstrated that B[a]P has no direct neurotoxic effect. We utilized both in vivo and in vitro systems to demonstrate that B[a]P causes microglial activation. Using microglial cell line and primary microglial culture, we showed for the first time that B[a]P administration results in elevation of reactive oxygen species within the microglia thereby causing depression of antioxidant protein levels; enhanced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, that results in increased production of NO from the cells. Synthesis and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines were also elevated within the microglia, possibly via the p38MAP kinase pathway. All these factors contributed to bystander death of neurons, in vitro. When administered to animals, B[a]P was found to cause microglial activation and astrogliosis in the brain with subsequent increase in proinflammatory cytokine levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Contrary to earlier published reports we found that B[a]P has no direct neurotoxic activity. However, it kills neurons in a bystander mechanism by activating the immune cells of the brain viz the microglia. For the first time, we have provided conclusive evidence regarding the mechanism by which the micropollutant B[a]P may actually cause damage to the central nervous system. In today's perspective, where rising pollution levels globally are a matter of grave concern, our

  15. Benzo[a]Pyrene: biodegradation by different Trametes versicolor Morphology and enzymatic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, L.; Xavier Gabarrell, X.; Vicent, T.

    2009-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a persistent organic pollutant included in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons group (PAH), is of environmental concern due to its known carcinogenicity and bioaccumulation potential. Because of its toxic properties, it is included in the european community (EC) and United States Environmental Agency (EPA) priority pollutant list resulting in a much more strict regulation and complex tasks to be accomplished for remediation of PAH contaminated environments. (Author)

  16. Benzo[a]Pyrene: biodegradation by different Trametes versicolor Morphology and enzymatic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, L.; Xavier Gabarrell, X.; Vicent, T.

    2009-07-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a persistent organic pollutant included in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons group (PAH), is of environmental concern due to its known carcinogenicity and bioaccumulation potential. Because of its toxic properties, it is included in the european community (EC) and United States Environmental Agency (EPA) priority pollutant list resulting in a much more strict regulation and complex tasks to be accomplished for remediation of PAH contaminated environments. (Author)

  17. Benzo(a)pyrene activation and detoxification by human pulmonary alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, M.V.; McLemore, T.L.; Martin, R.R.; Marshall, M.H.; Wray, N.P.; Busbee, D.L.; Cantrell, E.T.; Arnott, M.S.; Griffin, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    Comparisons of pulmonary alveolar macrophages and circulating lymphocytes from five smokers and five nonsmokers for their ability to metabolize benzo(a)pyrene as determined by high pressure liquid chromatography were carried out. Utilizing this approach, further investigation of activation and detoxification by several human cell types could provide the basis for more precise and comprehensive studies of carcinogen and drug metabolism in the human lung, and for a better assessment of cancer risk in selected populations

  18. Alterations in the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells pretreated with phenolic antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strniste, G.F.; Okinaka, R.T.; Chen, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Inhibition of chemical- or radiation-induced neoplasia has been observed in animals whose diets were supplemented with antioxidants commonly used as food additives. Inhibition of the carcinogenicity of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) or of 7,12-dimenthylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) - in rats has been achieved by the addition of the phenolic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) to the diet. Our data suggest that in SHE cells antioxidants inhibit the overall metabolism of BaP to its various oxidized moieties including 7,8-diol- and 7,8,9,10-tetrol-BaP. A plausible explanation for our results with SHE cells is that the antioxidants interact directly with AHH, thus inhibiting AHH metabolic capacity. From analysis of nuclear material from SHE cells (+- antioxidants) incubated for 36 hours with BaP at 1 μg/ml, it is calculated that 4.6, 2.4 and 2.9 pmol BaP are bound to the DNA isolated from 10 7 nuclei of control, BHA-(20 μg/ml) and p-MP-(10 μg/ml) treated cultures, respectively

  19. Tumors and DNA adducts in mice exposed to benzo(a)pyrene and coal tars: implications for risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.S.; Weyand, E.H.; Safe, S.; Steinberg, M.; Culp, S.J.; Gaylor, D.W.; Beland, F.A.; Rodriguez, L.V. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Current methods to estimate the quantitative cancer risk of complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as coal tar assume that overall potency can be derived from knowledge of the concentration of a few carcinogenic components such as benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P). Genotoxic damage, such as DNA adducts, is thought to be an essential aspect of PAH-induced tumorigenesis and could be a biomarker for exposure useful for estimating risk. However, the role of B(a)P and the relationship of adduct formation in tumorigenesis have not been tested rigorously in models appropriate for human health risk assessment. This paper compares tumor induction and adduct formation by B(a)P and coal tars in several experimental protocols, including one broadly accepted and used by regulators. It was found that B(a)P content did not account for tumor incidences after exposure to coal tars. DNA adducts were found in both tumors and tumor-free tissue and tumor outcomes were not predicted by either quantitation of total DNA adducts or by the DNA adduct formed by B(a)P. These data suggest that risk assessments based on B(a)P content may not predict accurately risk to human health posed by environmental PAH.

  20. Alterations in the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene in syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells pretreated with phenolic antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strniste, G.F.; Okinaka, R.T.; Chen, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Inhibition of chemical- or raddiation-induced neoplasia has been observed in animals whose diets were supplemented with antioxidants commonly used as food additives. Inhibition of the carcinogenicity of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) or of 7,12-dimenthylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) - in rats has been achieved by the addition of the phenolic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) to the diet. Our data suggest that in SHE cells antioxidants inhibit the overall metabolism of BaP to its various oxidized moieties including 7,8-diol- and 7,8,9,10-tetrol-BaP. A plausible explanation for our results with SHE cells is that the antioxidants interact directly with AHH, thus inhibiting AHH metabolic capacity. From analysis of nuclear material from SHE cells (+- antioxidants) incubated for 36 hours with BaP at 1 ..mu..g/ml, it is calculated that 4.6, 2.4 and 2.9 pmol BaP are bound to the DNA isolated from 10/sup 7/ nuclei of control, BHA-(20 ..mu..g/ml) and p-MP-(10 ..mu..g/ml) treated cultures, respectively.

  1. Association between mutation spectra and stable and unstable DNA adduct profiles in Salmonella for benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMarini, David M., E-mail: demarini.david@epa.gov [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hanley, Nancy M.; Warren, Sarah H.; Adams, Linda D.; King, Leon C. [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Highlights: {yields} Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) induces stable DNA adducts and mutations primarily at guanine. {yields} Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) induces them primarily at adenine. {yields} BP induces abasic sites, but DBP does not in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. {yields} Stable DNA adducts alone appear to account for the mutation spectrum of DBP. {yields} Stable DNA adducts and possibly abasic sites account for the mutation spectrum of BP. - Abstract: Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) are two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that exhibit distinctly different mutagenicity and carcinogenicity profiles. Although some studies show that these PAHs produce unstable DNA adducts, conflicting data and arguments have been presented regarding the relative roles of these unstable adducts versus stable adducts, as well as oxidative damage, in the mutagenesis and tumor-mutation spectra of these PAHs. However, no study has determined the mutation spectra along with the stable and unstable DNA adducts in the same system with both PAHs. Thus, we determined the mutagenic potencies and mutation spectra of BP and DBP in strains TA98, TA100 and TA104 of Salmonella, and we also measured the levels of abasic sites (aldehydic-site assay) and characterized the stable DNA adducts ({sup 32}P-postlabeling/HPLC) induced by these PAHs in TA104. Our results for the mutation spectra and site specificity of stable adducts were consistent with those from other systems, showing that DBP was more mutagenic than BP in TA98 and TA100. The mutation spectra of DBP and BP were significantly different in TA98 and TA104, with 24% of the mutations induced by BP in TA98 being complex frameshifts, whereas DBP produced hardly any of these mutations. In TA104, BP produced primarily GC to TA transversions, whereas DBP produced primarily AT to TA transversions. The majority (96%) of stable adducts induced by BP were at guanine, whereas the majority (80%) induced by DBP were at adenine

  2. Rates of clinically apparent heparin-induced thrombocytopenia for unfractionated heparin vs. low molecular weight heparin in non-surgical patients are low and similar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerber Jonathan

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the growing use of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH for the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE, it is important to provide an evidence-based comparison with unfractionated heparin (UFH concerning rates of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT. Such comparisons are essential in clinical decision-making and cost-modeling. In this paper we review data regarding non-surgical (medical patients. We conclude that the lack of uniform evaluation and standardized testing for HIT in the current literature precludes making a reliable estimate of the relative risk of HIT in UFH vs. LMWH in either the treatment or prevention of VTE in non-surgical patients. However, current data suggest that the risk of thrombocytopenia and HIT is low and similar for non-surgical patients who receive either LMWH or UFH.

  3. Metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in cultured human bronchus and pancreatic duct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Curtis C.; Autrup, Herman; Stoner, Gary

    1977-01-01

    The metabolism of two carcinogenic polynuclear aro matic hydrocarbons, benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, was studied in expiants of human pancreatic duct and bronchus cultured in a chemically defined medium. In cultured human bronchial mucosa, activity of aryl hydrocarbon...... patients with lung cancer were also compared with those from patients without lung cancer. The profiles were similar except for an observed higher percentage of organic solvent-extractable metabolites formed by bronchi from the noncancer patients that eluted from the column as a single peak. This peak...... patients studied. Human pancreatic duct and bronchus have the capacity to activate polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons into metabolic intermediates that bind to DMA and, presumably, into ultimate carcinogens....

  4. Transplacental arsenic plus postnatal 12-O-teradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate exposures associated with hepatocarcinogenesis induce similar aberrant gene expression patterns in male and female mouse liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jie; Xie Yaxiong; Merrick, B. Alex; Shen Jun; Ducharme, Danica M.K.; Collins, Jennifer; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Logsdon, Daniel; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Our prior work shows that in utero arsenic exposure alone is a complete transplacental carcinogen, producing hepatocellular carcinoma in adult male offspring but not in females. In a follow-up study to potentially promote arsenic-initiated tumors, mice were exposed to arsenic (85 ppm) from gestation day 8 to 18 and then exposed to 12-O-teradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a well-known tumor promoter after weaning. The dermal application of TPA (2 μg/0.1 ml acetone, twice/week for 21 weeks) after transplacental arsenic did not further increase arsenic-induced liver tumor formation in adult males but significantly increased liver tumor formation in adult females. Thus, for comparison, liver tumors and normal liver samples taken from adult male and female mice at necropsy were analyzed for aberrant gene/protein expression by microarray, real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Arsenic/TPA treatment resulted in increased expression of α-fetoprotein, k-ras, c-myc, estrogen receptor-α, cyclin D1, cdk2na, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, cytokeratin-8, cytokeratin-18, glutathione S-transferases and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in liver and liver tumors from both male and female mice. Arsenic/TPA also decreased the expression of BRCA1, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, CYP7B1, CYP2F2 and insulin-like growth factor-1 in normal and cancerous livers. Alterations in these gene products were associated with arsenic/TPA-induced liver tumors, regardless of sex. Thus, transplacental arsenic plus postnatal TPA exposure induced similar aberrant gene expression patterns in male and female mouse liver, which are persistent and potentially important to the mechanism of arsenic initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis

  5. Chronic exposure to low benzo[a]pyrene level causes neurodegenerative disease-like syndromes in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dongxu; Wu, Meifang; Wang, Chonggang; Wang, Yuanchuan; Zuo, Zhenghong

    2015-10-01

    Previous epidemiological and animal studies report that exposure to environmental pollutant exposure links to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a neurotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, has been increasingly released into the environment during recent decades. So far, the role of BaP on the development of neurodegenerative diseases remaind unclear. This study aimed to determine whether chronic exposure to low dose BaP would cause neurodegenerative disease-like syndromes in zebrafish (Danio rerio). We exposed zebrafish, from early embryogenesis to adults, to environmentally relevant concentrations of BaP for 230 days. Our results indicated that BaP decreased the brain weight to body weight ratio, locomotor activity and cognitive ability; induced the loss of dopaminergic neurons; and resulted in neurodegeneration. In addition, obvious cell apoptosis in the brain was found. Furthermore, the neurotransmitter levels of dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, the mRNA levels of the genes encoding dopamine transporter, Parkinson protein 7, phosphatase and tensin-induced putative kinase 1, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1, leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine kinase 2, amyloid precursor protein b, presenilin 1 and presenilin 2 were significantly down-regulated by BaP exposure. These findings suggest that chronic exposure to low dose BaP could cause the behavioral, neuropathological, neurochemical, and genetic features of neurodegenerative diseases. This study provides clues that BaP may constitute an important environmental risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cancer risk estimation for mixtures of coal tars and benzo(a)pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaylor, D.W.; Culp, S.J.; Goldstein, L.S.; Beland, F.A.

    2000-02-01

    Two-year chronic bioassays were conducted by using B6C3F1 female mice fed several concentrations of two different mixtures of coal tars from manufactured gas waste sites or benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The purpose of the study was to obtain estimates of cancer potency of coal tar mixtures, by using conventional regulatory methods, for use in manufactured gas waste site remediation. A secondary purpose was to investigate the validity of using the concentration of a single potent carcinogen, in this case benzo(a)pyrene, to estimate the relative risk for a coal tar mixture. The study has shown that BaP dominates the cancer risk when its concentration is greater than 6,300 ppm in the coal tar mixture. In this case the most sensitive tissue site is the forestomach. Using low-dose linear extrapolation, the lifetime cancer risk for humans is estimated to be: Risk < 1.03 x 10{sup {minus}4} (ppm coal tar in total diet) + 240 x 10{sup {minus}4} (ppm BaP in total diet), based on forestomach tumors. If the BaP concentration in the coal tar mixture is less than 6,300 ppm, the more likely case, then lung tumors provide the largest estimated upper limit of risk, Risk < 2.55 x 10{sup {minus}4} (ppm coal tar in total diet), with no contribution of BaP to lung tumors. The upper limit of the cancer potency (slope factor) for lifetime oral exposure to benzo(a)pyrene is 1.2 x 10{sup {minus}3} per {micro}g per kg body weight per day from this Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) study compared with the current value of 7.3 x 10{sup {minus}3} per {micro}g per kg body weight per day listed in the US EPA Integrated Risk Information System.

  7. The distribution of benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts in mammalian chromatin.

    OpenAIRE

    Jack, P L; Brookes, P

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the distribution of DNA-lesions generated by the potent carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene (BP) or its ultimate metabolic derivative 7 alpha, 8 8 beta, di-hydroxy-9 beta, 10 beta-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene (BPDE) within mammalian chromatin using the enzymic probe micrococcal nuclease. We have shown that the progress of the nuclease on naked DNA is unaffected by the presence of the hydrocarbon lesion at moderate extents of digestion. Digestion of nuclei isolated from m...

  8. The paralogous genes RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 and SIMILAR TO RCD ONE1 have partially redundant functions during Arabidopsis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teotia, Sachin; Lamb, Rebecca S

    2009-09-01

    RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 (RCD1) and SIMILAR TO RCD ONE1 (SRO1) are the only two proteins encoded in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome containing both a putative poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase catalytic domain and a WWE protein-protein interaction domain, although similar proteins have been found in other eukaryotes. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases mediate the attachment of ADP-ribose units from donor NAD(+) molecules to target proteins and have been implicated in a number of processes, including DNA repair, apoptosis, transcription, and chromatin remodeling. We have isolated mutants in both RCD1 and SRO1, rcd1-3 and sro1-1, respectively. rcd1-3 plants display phenotypic defects as reported for previously isolated alleles, most notably reduced stature. In addition, rcd1-3 mutants display a number of additional developmental defects in root architecture and maintenance of reproductive development. While single mutant sro1-1 plants are relatively normal, loss of a single dose of SRO1 in the rcd1-3 background increases the severity of several developmental defects, implying that these genes do share some functions. However, rcd1-3 and sro1-1 mutants behave differently in several developmental events and abiotic stress responses, suggesting that they also have distinct functions. Remarkably, rcd1-3; sro1-1 double mutants display severe defects in embryogenesis and postembryonic development. This study shows that RCD1 and SRO1 are at least partially redundant and that they are essential genes for plant development.

  9. Amiodarone Induces Overexpression of Similar to Versican b to Repress the EGFR/Gsk3b/Snail Signaling Axis during Cardiac Valve Formation of Zebrafish Embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chieh Lee

    Full Text Available Although Amiodarone, a class III antiarrhythmic drug, inhibits zebrafish cardiac valve formation, the detailed molecular pathway is still unclear. Here, we proved that Amiodarone acts as an upstream regulator, stimulating similar to versican b (s-vcanb overexpression at zebrafish embryonic heart and promoting cdh-5 overexpression by inhibiting snail1b at atrioventricular canal (AVC, thus blocking invagination of endocardial cells and, as a result, preventing the formation of cardiac valves. A closer investigation showed that an intricate set of signaling events ultimately caused the up-regulation of cdh5. In particular, we investigated the role of EGFR signaling and the activity of Gsk3b. It was found that knockdown of EGFR signaling resulted in phenotypes similar to those of Amiodarone-treated embryos. Since the reduced phosphorylation of EGFR was rescued by knockdown of s-vcanb, it was concluded that the inhibition of EGFR activity by Amiodarone is s-vcanb-dependent. Moreover, the activity of Gsk3b, a downstream effector of EGFR, was greatly increased in both Amiodarone-treated embryos and EGFR-inhibited embryos. Therefore, it was concluded that reduced EGFR signaling induced by Amiodarone treatment results in the inhibition of Snail functions through increased Gsk3b activity, which, in turn, reduces snail1b expression, leading to the up-regulation the cdh5 at the AVC, finally resulting in defective formation of valves. This signaling cascade implicates the EGFR/Gsk3b/Snail axis as the molecular basis for the inhibition of cardiac valve formation by Amiodarone.

  10. Heterogeneous hCG and hMG commercial preparations result in different intracellular signalling but induce a similar long-term progesterone response in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccetti, Laura; Klett, Danièle; Ayoub, Mohammed Akli; Boulo, Thomas; Pignatti, Elisa; Tagliavini, Simonetta; Varani, Manuela; Trenti, Tommaso; Nicoli, Alessia; Capodanno, Francesco; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Reiter, Eric; Simoni, Manuela; Casarini, Livio

    2017-10-01

    Are four urinary hCG/menotropin (hMG) and one recombinant preparation characterized by different molecular features and do they mediate specific intracellular signaling and steroidogenesis? hCG and hMG preparations have heterogeneous compositions and mediate preparation-specific cell signaling and early steroidogenesis, although similar progesterone plateau levels are achieved in 24 h-treated human primary granulosa cells in vitro. hCG is the pregnancy hormone marketed as a drug for ARTs to induce final oocyte maturation and ovulation, and to support FSH action. Several hCG formulations are commercially available, differing in source, purification methods and biochemical composition. Commercial hCG preparations for ART or research purposes were compared in vitro. The different preparations were quantified by immunoassay with calibration against the hCG standard (Fifth IS; NIBSC 07/364). Immunoreactivity patterns, isoelectric points and oligosaccharide contents of hCGs were evaluated using reducing and non-reducing Western blotting, capillary isoelectric-focusing immunoassay and lectin-ELISA, respectively. Functional studies were performed in order to evaluate intracellular and total cAMP, progesterone production and β-arrestin 2 recruitment by ELISA and BRET, in both human primary granulosa lutein cells (hGLC) and luteinizing hormone (LH)/hCG receptor (LHCGR)-transfected HEK293 cells, stimulated by increasing hormone concentrations. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-test or Mann-Whitney's U-test as appropriate. Heterogeneous profiles were found among preparations, revealing specific molecular weight patterns (20-75 KDa range), isoelectric points (4.0-9.0 pI range) and lectin binding (P hCG/hMG preparations is provided in International Units (IU) by in-vivo bioassay and calibration against an International Standard, although it is an unsuitable unit of measure for in-vitro studies. The re-calibration against recombinant h

  11. In vitro metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol and dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-11,12 diol in rodent and human hepatic microsomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jordan N.; Mehinagic, Denis; Nag, Subhasree; Crowell, Susan R.; Corley, Richard A.

    2017-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are contaminants that are ubiquitously found in the environment, produced through combustion of organic matter or petrochemicals, and many of which are procarcinogens. The prototypic PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and the highly carcinogenic dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) are metabolically activated by isoforms of the P450 enzyme superfamily producing benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol (B[a]P diol), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-11,12 diol (DBC diol). Each of these diols can be further metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes to highly reactive diol-epoxide metabolites that readily react with DNA or by phase II conjugation facilitating excretion. To complement prior in vitro metabolism studies with parent B[a]P and DBC, both phase I metabolism and phase II glucuronidation of B[a]P diol and DBC diol were measured in hepatic microsomes from female B6129SF1/J mice, male Sprague-Dawley rats, and female humans. Metabolic parameters, including intrinsic clearance and Michaelis-Menten kinetics were calculated from substrate depletion data. Mice and rats demonstrated similar B[a]P diol phase I metabolic rates. Compared to rodents, human phase I metabolism of B[a]P diol demonstrated lower overall metabolic capacity, lower intrinsic clearance at higher substrate concentrations (>0.14 µM), and higher intrinsic clearance at lower substrate concentrations (<0.07 µM). Rates of DBC diol metabolism did not saturate in mice or humans and were highest overall in mice. Higher affinity constants and lower capacities were observed for DBC diol glucuronidation compared to B[a]P diol glucuronidation; however, intrinsic clearance values for these compounds were consistent within each species. Kinetic parameters reported here will be used to extend physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to include the disposition of B[a]P and DBC metabolites in animal models and humans to support future human health risk assessments.

  12. Allospecific CD8 T suppressor cells induced by multiple MLC stimulation or priming in the presence of ILT3.Fc have similar gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Xu, Zheng; Chang, Chris; Ho, Sophey; Liu, Zhuoru; Vlad, George; Cortesini, Raffaello; Clynes, Raphael A; Luo, Yun; Suciu-Foca, Nicole

    2014-02-01

    Alloantigen specific CD8 T suppressor cells can be generated in vitro either by multiple stimulations of CD3 T cells with allogeneic APC or by single stimulation in primary MLC containing recombinant ILT3.Fc protein. The aim of the present study was to determine whether multiple MLC stimulation induced in CD8(+) CD28(-) T suppressor cells molecular changes that are similar to those observed in CD8 T suppressor cells from primary MLC containing ILT3.Fc protein. Our study demonstrates that the characteristic signatures of CD8 T suppressor cells, generated by either of these methods are the same consisting of up-regulation of the BCL6 transcriptional repressor and down-regulation of inflammatory microRNAs, miR-21, miR-30b, miR-146a, and miR-155 expression. In conclusion microRNAs which are increased under inflammatory conditions in activated CD4 and CD8 T cells with helper or cytotoxic function show low levels of expression in CD8 T cells which have acquired antigen-specific suppressor activity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. ANTIBODIES TO BENZO[A]PYRENE, ESTRADIOL AND PROGESTERONE IN THE POSTMENOPAUSAL BREAST CANCER WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Glushkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of women who are at high risk of developing breast cancer plays a key role in chemoprevention of breast cancer selective estrogen receptor modulators. purpose: To study specific immune responses to chemical carcinogens and sex steroid hormones associated with breast cancer in postmenopausal women. material and methods. Serum IgA-antibodies specific to benzo[a]pyrene, estradiol and progesterone were studied in 203 non-smoking healthy women and 469 non-smoking breast cancer patients (125 with ER– and 344 with ER+ using semi-quantitative enzyme immunoassay. results. The low levels of all three antibodies were revealed in 53.2 % of healthy donors, in 47.2 % of breast cancer patients with ER– and in 40.7 % of patients with ER+. The high levels of all three antibodies were found in 12.3 %, 18.4 % and 26.5 % of cases, respectively. In the studied groups, the levels of antibodies to estradiol and progesterone were correlated with the levels of antibodies to benzo[a]pyrene (rs=0.54–0.7, p<0.0001. Conclusion. Immunoassay of antibodies to exogenous and endogenous antigens could be useful for determining risk of developing ER+ breast cancer and preventing administration of tamoxifen and others selective modulators of estrogen receptors. Active immunization against exogenous chemical carcinogens could increase the levels of antibodies to endogenous steroids, thus stimulating breast cancer.

  14. Insight into the transgenerational effect of benzo[a]pyrene on bone formation in a teleost fish (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Frauke; Peterson, Drew R; Witten, P Eckhard; Guo, Bao-Sheng; Shanthanagouda, Adamane H; Ye, Rui R; Zhang, Ge; Au, Doris W T

    2015-12-01

    Recent cross-generational studies in teleost fish have raised the awareness that high levels of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) could affect skeletal integrity in the directly exposed F0 and their F1-F2. However, no further details were provided about the causes for abnormalities on the molecular and cellular level and the persistence of such sub-organismal impairments at the transgenerational scale (beyond F2). Adult Oryzias latipes were exposed to 1μg/L BaP for 21days. The F1-F3 were examined for skeletal deformities, histopathological alterations of vertebral bodies and differential expression of key genes of bone metabolism. Significant increase of dorsal-ventral vertebral compression was evident in ancestrally exposed larvae. Histopathological analysis revealed abnormal loss of notochord sheath, a lack of notochord epithelial integrity, reduced bone tissue and decreased osteoblast abundance. A significant downregulation of ATF4 and/or osterix and a high biological variability of COL10, coupled with a significant deregulation of SOX9a/b in the F1-F3 suggest that ancestral BaP exposure most likely perturbed chordoblasts, chondroblast and osteoblast differentiation, resulting in defective notochord sheath repair and rendering the vertebral column more vulnerable to compression. The present findings provide novel molecular and cellular insights into BaP-induced transgenerational bone impairment in the unexposed F3. From the ecological risk assessment perspective, BaP needs to be regarded as a transgenerational skeletal toxicant, which exerts a far-reaching impact on fish survival and fitness. Given that basic mechanisms of cartilage/bone formation are conserved between medaka and mammals, the results may also shed light on the potential transgenerational effect of BaP on the genesis of skeletal diseases in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora, Causal Agents of Black Pod Rot, Induce Similar Plant Defense Responses Late during Infection of Susceptible Cacao Pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S.; Shao, Jonathan; Lary, David J.; Strem, Mary D.; Meinhardt, Lyndel W.; Bailey, Bryan A.

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) cause black pod rot of Theobroma cacao L. (cacao). Of these two clade 4 species, Pmeg is more virulent and is displacing Ppal in many cacao production areas in Africa. Symptoms and species specific sporangia production were compared when the two species were co-inoculated onto pod pieces in staggered 24 h time intervals. Pmeg sporangia were predominantly recovered from pod pieces with unwounded surfaces even when inoculated 24 h after Ppal. On wounded surfaces, sporangia of Ppal were predominantly recovered if the two species were simultaneously applied or Ppal was applied first but not if Pmeg was applied first. Pmeg demonstrated an advantage over Ppal when infecting un-wounded surfaces while Ppal had the advantage when infecting wounded surfaces. RNA-Seq was carried out on RNA isolated from control and Pmeg and Ppal infected pod pieces 3 days post inoculation to assess their abilities to alter/suppress cacao defense. Expression of 4,482 and 5,264 cacao genes was altered after Pmeg and Ppal infection, respectively, with most genes responding to both species. Neural network self-organizing map analyses separated the cacao RNA-Seq gene expression profiles into 24 classes, 6 of which were largely induced in response to infection. Using KEGG analysis, subsets of genes composing interrelated pathways leading to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, ethylene and jasmonic acid biosynthesis and action, plant defense signal transduction, and endocytosis showed induction in response to infection. A large subset of genes encoding putative Pr-proteins also showed differential expression in response to infection. A subset of 36 cacao genes was used to validate the RNA-Seq expression data and compare infection induced gene expression patterns in leaves and wounded and unwounded pod husks. Expression patterns between RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR were generally reproducible. The level and timing of altered gene expression was

  16. Toxicity evaluation of benzo[a]pyrene on the polychaete Perinereis nuntia using subtractive cDNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Senlin; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Bin; Yu, Xingguang; Lin, Kangli; Bian, Mei; Liu, Zhenghua; Huang, Hao; Yu, Weiwei

    2011-10-01

    To gain insight into the toxic effects of the carcinogenic PAH benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on the typical marine benthic polychaete Perinereis nuntia, we amplified and sequenced genes by creating subtractive cDNA libraries between worms exposed to BaP and solvent control. We assigned functions to the identified sequences and further analyzed the transcriptional profile changes of a set of 50 selected potential marker genes using quantitative real time PCR. A total of 2422 new high quality ESTs (GenBank accession number GT629654-GT632075) were obtained in the P. nuntia subtracted cDNA libraries, and assembled into 1594 unique sequences. Blastx results showed 700 of the unique sequences shared high similarity with existing genes in the GenBank nr database. Functional annotation of these enriched gene segments suggested that P. nuntia shows a wide range of toxicological responses to BaP. Comparison of the transcriptional profiles of the 50 potential marker genes in worms exposed to BaP and the control suggested that BaP significantly changed the expression of genes involved in xenobiotics metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) elimination, DNA repair, apoptosis, cell division cycle, neurodegeneration, neurotransmitter metabolism and carcinogenesis. It also shows that there are significant correlations between these potential marker genes. The results support the prediction that the polychaete P. nuntia also has a set of tumor-related genes, while other responses influenced by BaP involve detoxification, antioxidation, DNA repair and apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. IgE and allergen-specific immunotherapy-induced IgG4recognize similar epitopes of Bet v 1, the major allergen of birch pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, N; von Loetzen, C S; Subbarayal, B; Möbs, C; Vogel, L; Hoffmann, A; Fötisch, K; Koutsouridou, A; Randow, S; Völker, E; Seutter von Loetzen, A; Rösch, P; Vieths, S; Pfützner, W; Bohle, B; Schiller, D

    2017-05-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen generates Bet v 1-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G 4 which blocks IgE-mediated hypersensitivity mechanisms. Whether IgG 4 specific for Bet v 1a competes with IgE for identical epitopes or whether novel epitope specificities of IgG 4 antibodies are developed is under debate. We sought to analyze the epitope specificities of IgE and IgG 4 antibodies from sera of patients who received AIT. 15 sera of patients (13/15 received AIT) with Bet v 1a-specific IgE and IgG 4 were analyzed. The structural arrangements of recombinant (r)Bet v 1a and rBet v 1a _11x , modified in five potential epitopes, were analyzed by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. IgE binding to Bet v 1 was assessed by ELISA and mediator release assays. Competitive binding of monoclonal antibodies specific for Bet v 1a and serum IgE/IgG 4 to rBet v 1a and serum antibody binding to a non-allergenic Bet v 1-type model protein presenting an individual epitope for IgE was analyzed in ELISA and western blot. rBet v 1a _11x had a Bet v 1a - similar secondary and tertiary structure. Monomeric dispersion of rBet v 1a _11x was concentration and buffer-dependent. Up to 1500-fold increase in the EC 50 for IgE-mediated mediator release induced by rBet v 1a _11x was determined. The reduction of IgE and IgG 4 binding to rBet v 1a _11x was comparable in 67% (10/15) of sera. Bet v 1a-specific monoclonal antibodies inhibited binding of serum IgE and IgG 4 to 66.1% and 64.9%, respectively. Serum IgE and IgG 4 bound specifically to an individual epitope presented by our model protein in 33% (5/15) of sera. Patients receiving AIT develop Bet v 1a-specific IgG 4 which competes with IgE for partly identical or largely overlapping epitopes. The similarities of epitopes for IgE and IgG 4 might stimulate the development of epitope-specific diagnostics and therapeutics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Removal of pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene micropollutant from water via adsorption by green synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Saad S. M.; Abdel-Shafy, Hussein I.; Mansour, Mona S. M.

    2018-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water are classified as organic micropollutants, which are carcinogenic even in very low concentration (ppb). In this study the green synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were green synthesized at room temperature by using pomegranate peel extract. The green synthesized IONPs were used for adsorbing benzo(a)pyrene and pyrene (PAHs) from water. Factors affecting the adsorption were investigated. These factors are: nanoparticles dose, pH, temperature, and initial concentration of PAHs. The overall results showed that the maximum adsorption capacities of IONPs towards pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene were 2.8 and 0.029 mg g-1, respectively. The thermodynamic study indicated an exothermic adsorption process of pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene. The kinetic and isotherm studies were carried out. The obtained data revealed that the adsorption process follows a pseudo-second order mechanism and obeys Langmuir isotherm model. In addition, the IONPs proved to be a potential candidate for the adsorption of pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene even after five cycles of use and regeneration. The investigation was extended using semi-pilot plant to remove the studied PAHs from artificially contaminated water. The results showed that the IONPs was capable to remove the pyrene and benzo (a) pyrene at the rate of 98.5 and 99%, respectively. It also can be used as disinfectant.

  19. Phthalic acid and benzo[a]pyrene in soil-plant-water systems amended with contaminated sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougin, C.; Dappozze, F.; Brault, A.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the fate of C-14-labelled phthalic acid and benzo[a]pyrene applied to the soil by the way of contaminated sewage sludge in model ecosystems allowing the simultaneous assessment of physicochemical and biological descriptors. Here we show that the mineralisation of phthalic acid is highe...

  20. CLA isomer t10,c12 induce oxidation and apoptosis in 3t3 adipocyte cells in a similar effect as omega-3 linolenic acid and DHA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Meadus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Commercial conjugated linoleic acid (CLA dietary supplements contain an equal mixture of the C18:2 isomers, cis-9trans-11 and trans-10cis-12. Predominantly, CLA-c9t11 occurs naturally in meat and dairy products at ~ 0.5% of total fat , whereas CLA-t10c12 occurs at >0.1%. Recent studies show that CLA-c9t11 generally promotes lipid accumulation but CLA-t10c12 may inhibit lipid accumulation and may also promote inflammation. The omega-3 fatty acids α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA have also been observed to inhibit lipid accumulation and effect inflammation; therefore we examined the effects of the two main isomersof CLA and omega -3 fatty acids C18:3n-3 and DHA at the molecular levelto determine if they are causing similar oxidative stresses.Methods:Purified CLA-c9t11 and CLA-t10c12 were added to 3T3 cells induced into mature adipocyte cultures at 100uM concentrations and compared with 100uM C18:3n-3(α-linolenic acid and 50uM docosahexaenoic acid (DHA to observe their effect on growth, gene transcription and general oxidation. The results of multiple separate trials were averaged and compared for significance at levels of P< 0.05, using one way ANOVA and Student’s t-test.Results:C18:3n-3, DHA and CLA-t10c12inhibited 3T3 adipose cell growth and caused a significant increase in lipid hydro peroxide activity. CLA-t10c12 and c9t11 increased AFABP, FAS and ACOX1 mRNA gene expression but DHA and C18:3n-3decreased the same mRNAs. CLA-c9t11 but not the t10c12 stimulated adipoQ expression even though; CLA-c9t11 had only a slightly greater affinity for PPARγ than CLA-t10c12, according to TR-FRET assays. The expression of the xenobiotic metabolism genes, aldo-keto reduct as 1c1 (akr1c1, superoxide dismutase (SODand inflammation chemokine secretions of eotaxin (CCL11, Rantes (CCL5, MIG (CCL9 and MCP-1 were increased by DHA, C18:3n-3and CLA-t10c12 but not CLA-c9t11. This correlated with an increase in apoptosis factors

  1. Liquid chromatographic determination of benzo(a)pyrene in total particulate matter of cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkins, B.A.; Jenkins, R.A.; Griest, W.H.; Reagan, R.R.; Holladay, S.K.

    1985-09-01

    The benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) delivery of reference and commercially available tobacco cigarettes, as well as reference and placebo marijuana cigarettes, is determined using a sequential liquid chromatographic/liquid chromatographic procedure. The total particulate matter of sample cigarette smoke is collected using a Cambridge filter pad, which is ultrasonically extracted with acetone. The resulting extract is filtered, then fractionated using semipreparative-scale normal phase liquid chromatography (LC). Quantitative determination is achieved using analytical-scale reverse phase LC equipped with a fluorescence detector. The method is precise (+/- 10-15% relative standard deviation) and yields 85% or better BaP recovery at the ng/cig. level. A single pad may be analyzed in 8 person-hours, while a more typical lot of 12 pads (6 pads each for 2 cigarette brands) may be analyzed in 10 person-days.

  2. Chlorophyll catalyse the photo-transformation of carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lijuan; Lai, Xueying; Chen, Baowei; Lin, Li; Fang, Ling; Tam, Nora F. Y.; Luan, Tiangang

    2015-08-01

    Algal blooms cause great damage to water quality and aquaculture. However, this study showed that dead algal cells and chlorophyll could accelerate the photo-transformation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a ubiquitous and persistent pollutant with potently mutagenic and carcinogenic toxicities, under visible light irradiation. Chlorophyll was found to be the major active substance in dead algal cells, and generated a high level of singlet oxygen to catalyse the photo-transformation of BaP. According to various BaP metabolites formed, the degradation mechanism was proposed as that chlorophyll in dead algal cells photo-oxidized BaP to quinones via photocatalytic generation of singlet oxygen. The results provided a good insight into the role of chlorophyll in the photo-transformation of organic contaminants and could be a possible remediation strategy of organic pollutants in natural environment.

  3. Combined effects of inhaled plutonium oxide and benzo[a]pyrene on lung carcinogenesis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, H.; Masse, R.; Wahrendorf, J.; Lafuma, J.

    1986-01-01

    This study describes the effect of two intratracheal instillations (5 mg each) of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) on lung carcinogenesis in rats that had previously inhaled three levels of 239 PuO 2 . The BP does not modify survival in the high-level 239 PuO 2 -exposed rats, but markedly reduces survival in the two other groups. Median survival time with BP alone is shorter (666 days) than for the control group (838 days). Tumor incidence was increased by BP exposure, and the tumors were usually fatal, whereas tumors observed after 239 PuO 2 inhalation alone were usually not fatal. Statistical analysis of these data poses a problem because of the need to compare incidental and fatal tumors. 22 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Benzo[a]pyrene in urban environments of eastern Moscow: pollution levels and critical loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimov, Nikolay S.; Kosheleva, Natalia E.; Nikiforova, Elena M.; Vlasov, Dmitry V.

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are toxic compounds emitted from various anthropogenic sources. Understanding the BaP concentrations, dynamics and decomposition in soil is required to assess the critical loads of BaP in urban environments. This study is the first attempt to evaluate all major input and output components of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) balance and to calculate the permissible load on the urban environment in different land-use zones in the Eastern district of Moscow. BaP contamination of the snow cover in the Eastern district of Moscow was related to daily BaP fallout from the atmosphere. In 2010, the mean content of the pollutant in the snow dust was 1942 ng g-1, whereas the average intensity of its fallout was 7.13 ng m-2 per day. Across the territory, BaP winter fallout intensities varied from 0.3 to 1100 ng m-2 per day. The average BaP content in the surface (0-10 cm) soil horizons was 409 ng g-1, which is 83 times higher than the local background value and 20 times higher than the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) accepted in Russia. The variations in soil and snow BaP concentrations among different land-use zones were examined. A significant contribution of BaP from the atmosphere to urban soils was identified. Based on the measurements of BaP atmospheric fallout and BaP reserves in the soils, the critical loads of BaP for the land-use zones in the Eastern district were calculated for different values of degradation intensity and different exposure times. It was established that at an annual degradation intensity of 1-10 %, ecologically safe BaP levels in the soils of all land-use zones, excluding the agricultural zone, will only be reached after many decades or centuries.

  5. Vaccination of cattle with Danish and Pasteur strains of Mycobacterium bovis BCG induce different levels of IFNgamma post-vaccination, but induce similar levels of protection against bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedlock, D Neil; Denis, Michel; Vordermeier, H Martin; Hewinson, R Glyn; Buddle, Bryce M

    2007-07-15

    A number of studies have demonstrated significant protection of cattle against bovine tuberculosis following vaccination with the Pasteur strain of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmete-Guerin (BCG). However, it is unclear if other daughter strains of BCG are as effective, which is an important issue to resolve for a variety of regulatory compliance issues. This study compared the protective immune responses to bovine tuberculosis induced in cattle vaccinated with BCG Danish with those induced by BCG Pasteur. Groups of calves (n=10) were vaccinated with 10(6) colony forming units (CFU) BCG Pasteur prepared from a fresh liquid culture, 10(6) CFU BCG Danish prepared from a fresh liquid culture or 0.4 mg of reconstituted freeze-dried culture of BCG Danish. Another group (n=10) served as non-vaccinated controls. BCG Pasteur induced significantly higher and more sustained levels of bovine purified protein derivative (PPD)-specific gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in whole-blood cultures following vaccination compared to either fresh culture BCG Danish or freeze-dried BCG Danish. Vaccination with a fresh culture of BCG Pasteur, fresh culture BCG Danish and freeze-dried BCG Danish gave a significant enhancement in three, four and three pathological and microbiological parameters of protection, respectively, compared to the non-vaccinated group. These results demonstrate the Danish strain of BCG is a viable alternative to BCG Pasteur for vaccination of cattle as both strains had similar efficacy and there was little difference between freshly cultured and freeze-dried formulation of BCG Danish. The results also show that post-vaccination antigen-specific IFN-gamma levels in whole blood is not always a reliable indicator of protection against a subsequent virulent challenge.

  6. Short-term exposure to benzo[a]pyrene causes oxidative damage and affects haemolymph steroid levels in female crab Portunus trituberculatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Jianmin; Pan, Luqing

    2016-01-01

    Concern has increased regarding the adverse effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on reproduction. However, limited information is available on the effects of PAHs in crustacean. In order to determine whether benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) could cause reproductive toxicity on the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus, sexually mature female crabs were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of B[a]P (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 2.5 μg/L) for 10 days. B[a]P treatments resulted in high accumulation in ovary, and induced oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner on ovary of crab. Furthermore, the haemolymph estradiol (E 2 ) and testosterone (T) levels were significantly decreased. Histological investigation also revealed the reproductive toxicity caused by B[a]P. The results demonstrated that waterborne exposure to B[a]P caused oxidative damage and disrupted sex steroids in female crab P. trituberculatus, ultimately resulting in histological alternation. - Highlights: • Waterborne exposure to B[a]P resulted in high accumulation in crab ovary. • The haemolymph 17β-estradiol and testosterone levels were significantly decreased by B[a]P exposure. • B[a]P induced oxidative damage in crab ovary. • B[a]P exposure caused histopathological alterations in crab ovary. - B[a]P disrupted sex steroids, caused oxidative damage and histological alternation in female crab P. trituberculatus.

  7. Differences and similarities in development of corneal nerve damage and peripheral neuropathy and in diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric P; Coppey, Lawrence J; Kardon, Randy H; Yorek, Mark A

    2014-03-03

    Peripheral neuropathy has been shown to exist in prediabetic and diabetic patients and animal models. However, the development of peripheral neuropathy in prediabetes and posthyperglycemia is likely different. The purpose of this study was to examine the progression of peripheral neuropathy in diet-induced obese rats and high-fat-fed rats treated with a low dose of streptozotocin, a model for type 2 diabetes, using standard endpoints as well as corneal sensitivity and innervation. Diet-induced obese rats and high-fat/low-dose streptozotocin diabetic rats were used to examine standard peripheral neuropathy endpoints and innervation of the cornea and corneal epithelium using corneal and standard confocal microscopy, respectively, and corneal sensitivity using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer at three different time points. Obese rats and to a greater extent diabetic rats were insulin resistant. Obese and diabetic rats had developed sensory nerve deficits, but only diabetic rats had motor nerve dysfunction as determined by measuring nerve conduction velocity, thermal nociception, and intraepidermal nerve fiber density. In the cornea there was a decrease in corneal nerve fiber length, innervation of the corneal epithelium, and corneal sensitivity in both diet-induced obese and diabetic rats. These studies demonstrate that changes in corneal nerve innervation and sensitivity occur in both obese and type 2 diabetic rat models that are consistent with development of peripheral neuropathy. Examination of corneal nerve changes may be valuable endpoints for exploring potential treatments for peripheral neuropathy in both prediabetes with insulin resistance and diabetes.

  8. Organometallic Gold(III) Complexes Similar to Tetrahydroisoquinoline Induce ER-Stress-Mediated Apoptosis and Pro-Death Autophagy in A549 Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke-Bin; Wang, Feng-Yang; Tang, Xiao-Ming; Feng, Hai-Wen; Chen, Zhen-Feng; Liu, Yan-Cheng; Liu, You-Nian; Liang, Hong

    2018-04-26

    Agents inducing both apoptosis and autophagic death can be effective chemotherapeutic drugs. In our present work, we synthesized two organometallic gold(III) complexes harboring C^N ligands that structurally resemble tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ): Cyc-Au-1 (AuL 1 Cl 2 , L 1 = 3,4-dimethoxyphenethylamine) and Cyc-Au-2 (AuL 2 Cl 2 , L 2 = methylenedioxyphenethylamine). In screening their in vitro activity, we found both gold complexes exhibited lower toxicity, lower resistance factors, and better anticancer activity than those of cisplatin. The organometallic gold(III) complexes accumulate in mitochondria and induce elevated ROS and an ER stress response through mitochondrial dysfunction. These effects ultimately result in simultaneous apoptosis and autophagy. Importantly, compared to cisplatin, Cyc-Au-2 exhibits lower toxicity and better anticancer activity in a murine tumor model. To the best of our knowledge, Cyc-Au-2 is the first organometallic Au(III) compound that induces apoptosis and autophagic death. On the basis of our results, we believe Cyc-Au-2 to be a promising anticancer agent or lead compound for further anticancer drug development.

  9. Serum Level of Antibody against Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA Adducts in People Dermally Exposed to PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Borska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some specific antibodies indicate the presence of antigenic structures on DNA (DNA adducts that can play an important role in the process of mutagenesis and/or carcinogenesis. They indicate the presence of increased genotoxic potential (hazard prior to the formation of disease (primary prevention. The present study was focused on the serum level of benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA adducts antibodies (anti-BPDE-DNA in psoriatic patients (n=55 dermally exposed to different levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The general goal of the study was to contribute to better understanding of the value of the assumed biomarker (anti-BPDE-DNA for evaluation of the organism's answer to genotoxic exposure to PAHs. Elevated level of exposure to PAHs resulted in the increased level of anti-BPDE-DNA. However, almost all levels of anti-BPDE-DNA ranged within the field of low values. Both variants of GT (CCT-3% and CCT-5% induced higher expression of anti-BPDE-DNA in the group of nonsmokers. Significant relations between the level of anti-BPDE-DNA and PASI score, total duration of the therapy, or time of UVR exposure were not found. Further studies are needed to reduce interpretation uncertainty of this promising bioindicator.

  10. Changes of cytochrome P4501A mRNA expression and physiology responses in the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, exposed to benzo(a)pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C.Y.; An, K.W.; Shin, H.S.; An, M.I.; Jo, P.G. [Korean Maritime University, Pusan (Republic of Korea). Division of Marine Environmental and Bioscience

    2008-07-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is generated by the incomplete combustion of organic substances such as oil and coal, and is a widespread organic environmental contaminant in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. To determine the effects of BaP on organisms, we investigated its time- and dose-related effects on the levels of cytochrome P4501A (P4501A) mRNA in the liver and gills of the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) and measured the plasma glucose, cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. The full-length olive flounder P4501A cDNA consists of 1566 nucleotides and encodes a 521-amino-acid protein. In the liver and gills, the expression of P4501A mRNA was highest 6 h after exposure to both 10 and 30 gl{sup -1} BaP, and then decreased. In addition, the plasma parameters increased with exposure. These results suggest that P4501A plays an important role in the detoxification of BaP, which stressed the olive flounder. Therefore, these physiological parameters may be indicators of BaP-induced stress responses.

  11. Propranolol–induced Impairment of Contextual Fear Memory Reconsolidation in Rats: A Similar Effect on Weak and Strong Recent and Remote Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Taherian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous studies have demonstrated that the &beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol impairs fear memory reconsolidation in experimental animals. There are experimental parameters such as the age and the strength of memory that can interact with pharmacological manipulations of memory reconsolidation. In this study, we investigated the ability of the age and the strength of memory to influence the disrupting effects of propranolol on fear memory reconsolidation in rats. Methods: The rats were trained in a contextual fear conditioning using two (weak training or five (strong training footshocks (1mA. Propranolol (10mg/kg injection was immediately followed retrieval of either a one-day recent (weak or strong or 36-day remote (weak or strong contextual fear memories. Results: We found that propranolol induced a long-lasting impairment of subsequent expression of recent and remote memories with either weak or strong strength. We also found no memory recovery after a weak reminder shock. Furthermore, no significant differences were found on the amount of memory deficit induced by propranolol among memories with different age and strength. Discussion: Our data suggest that the efficacy of propranolol in impairing fear memory reconsolidation is not limited to the age or strength of the memory.

  12. Biodegradation of benzo(a)pyrene by two freshwater microalgae Selenastrum capricornutum and Scenedesmus acutus: a comparative study useful for bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Llasera, Martha Patricia; Olmos-Espejel, José de Jesús; Díaz-Flores, Gabriel; Montaño-Montiel, Adriana

    2016-02-01

    A comparative evaluation of the removal of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) by sorption and degradation by two microalgal species, Selenastrum capricornutum and Scenedesmus acutus was performed. The monitoring of the amount of BaP remaining in the liquid culture media and the biomass along with the appearance of three metabolites (4,5 dihydrodiol-BaP; 7,8-dihydrodiol-BaP; and 9,10 dihydrodiol-BaP) at short time periods (from 0.25 to 72 h) in cultures exposed to BaP was made by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence and UV detection. Complete removal of BaP was achieved by the two live microalgal species: S. capricornutum at 15 h of exposure (99%) and S. acutus at 72 h of exposure (95%). Sorption is an important phenomenon for BaP removal by S. capricornutum but biodegradation is the principal means of removing BaP in live cells. The formation of metabolites by S. capricornutum is rapid and seems to be proportional to the amount of the BaP added to cultures. In contrast, in these bioassays, most of the BaP removal of S. acutus is due to sorption rather than degradation. The appearance of metabolites in the cultures is very slow and at a low amount compared to cultures of S. capricornutum. The similarities and differences existing between the two microalgae are important for the establishment of the conditions for bioremediation.

  13. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Method to Quantify Benzo[a]Pyrene in Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karl A; Huang, Chorng B; Melvin, Matt S; Ballentine, Regina; Meruva, Naren K; Flora, Jason W

    2017-08-01

    The USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) established benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) as a harmful and potentially harmful constituent (HPHC) found in tobacco products. Tobacco manufacturers are required to report HPHC quantities to the FDA; however, there is currently no standardized method for determination of B[a]P in smokeless tobacco products (STPs). This work details a sensitive, selective and rapid method for the determination of B[a]P in STPs, cigarette filler and tobacco. Tobacco is extracted using methanol followed by solid-phase extraction and concentration prior to analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode. Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco reference products and 3R4F Kentucky reference cigarette filler were used for method validation. All method validation requirements were met including linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ), and stability. Calibration range of 0.5-125 ng mL-1 was achieved with the coefficient of determination (R2) greater than 0.995. The method LOQ and LOD were 0.729 and 0.216 ng/g, respectively. Using standardized methods for the measurement of HPHCs in tobacco products will reduce variability and ensure accurate data for regulatory reporting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Natural Porphyrins Accelerating the Phototransformation of Benzo[a]pyrene in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lijuan; Xiao, Zhengyu; Chen, Baowei; Cai, Fengshan; Fang, Ling; Lin, Li; Luan, Tiangang

    2018-02-21

    Phototransformation is one of the most important transformation pathways of organic contaminants in the water environment. However, how active compounds enable and accelerate the phototransformation of organic pollutants remains to be elucidated. In this study, the phototransformation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, the first class "human carcinogens") by various natural porphyrins under solar irradiation was investigated, including chlorophyll a, sodium copper chlorophyllin, hematin, cobalamin and pheophorbide a. Transformation efficiency of BaP varied considerably with chemical stabilities of the porphyrins. Porphyrins with a lower stability displayed higher BaP transformation efficiencies. BaP transformation had a significant positive correlation with the production of singlet oxygen. Identical phototransformation products of BaP were observed for all investigated porphyrins, and the main products were identified as BaP-quinones, including BaP-1,6-dione, BaP-3,6-dione and BaP-6,12-dione. The mechanism of natural porphyrins accelerating the BaP phototransformation in water was proposed to proceed via the photocatalytic generation of singlet oxygen resulting in the transformation of BaP to quinones.

  15. [Effects of subchronic benzo[a]pyrene exposure on hippocampal cholinergic system in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Wang, Xin; Li, Jin-yan; Liang, Hua-shan; Jiang, Yong; Chang, Shan-shan; Song, Yu-jing; Cheng, Li; Zheng, Jin-ping

    2013-02-01

    To observe the effects of subchronic benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) exposure on the neurobehavior and hippocampal acetylcholine (Ach) level, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and mRNA and protein expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subtype (nAChR α7) in rats, and to investigate the neurotoxic mechanism of B[a]P. Sixty healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into blank control group, solvent control group, and B [a]P exposure groups. Each rat in the exposure groups was intraperitoneally injected with B[a]P at 1.0, 2.5, or 6.25 mg/kg once every other day for 90 days. The learning and memory ability of the rats was examined by Morris water maze test and step-down test; the hippocampal Ach level was measured by alkaline hydroxylamine method; the AChE activity was measured by DNTB method; the mRNA and protein expression levels of hippocampal nAChR α7 were measured by quantitative PCR and Western blot. The 2.5 and 6.25 mg/kg B[a]P exposure groups showed significantly lower learning and memory abilities than the blank control group and solvent control group (P 0.05). The hippocampal Ach level was negatively correlated with the mean escape latency period and total distance travelled (r = -0.567, P memory ability in rats, which is related to the downregulation of hippocampal Ach level.

  16. Chemical sensing of Benzo[a]pyrene using Corchorus depressus fluorescent flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Wajiha; Rana, Nosheen Fatima; Riaz, Sundus; Ahmad, Nasir Mehmood; Hameed, Maryam; Naeem, Ayesha; Tahir, Rabbiya

    2018-04-01

    Plant phytochemicals, such as flavonoids are in use for the development of optical biosensor. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), is a pervasive environmental and dietary carcinogen. A fluorescent assay is developed using plant isolated flavonoid for the detection of B[a]P. High content saponins are excluded from the flavonoid-containing methanolic extract of Corchorus depressus by implying reduction of silver ions by saponins resulting in formation of silver nanoparticles. Isolated plant flavonoids are used to develop a spectrofluorometric assay for the detection of B[a]P. Decrease in the flavonoid fluorescence intensity by B[a]P is found to be based on both static and dynamic quenching. Specificity of the assay for B[a]P was tested for other carcinogens belonging to different classes of compounds. Flavonoids-mediated sensing can be implied for the development of new generation of nanoparticle-based biosensors that can be more sensitive and less susceptible to external factors, such as temperature and humidity.

  17. Seasonal trends of benzo(apyrene in suspended particulate matter in urban areas of Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Matić-Besarabić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were identified to be one of the major toxic air pollutants in urban environment. PAHs are mostly formed during incomplete combustion or pyrolysis of organic material. According to Serbian National Legislation, benzo(apyrene (BaP concentration in total suspended particles (TSP in ambient air in the Belgrade metropolitan area has been determined in the last ten years, as a part of a local air pollution monitoring program performed by the Public Health Institute of Belgrade and funded by Belgrade’s Municipality. Air samples for analysis of BaP in suspended particleshave been collected (as 24 h sample once per month at selected onitoring sites within the municipal air quality monitoring network. At the beginning, according to National Regulation, all samples were taken as total suspended particles (TSP. Since mid-2008, the procedure of sampling methodology was harmonized with EU requirements and solid fraction PM10 has been collected and analyzed using GC/MS. In this study, we have analyzed results of TSP collected between 2005 and 2008. Looking through the results obtained during the period of a whole year, it can be noticed that concentrations of BaP were much higher during winter season at almost all measuring sites.

  18. Transcriptional signatures of regulatory and toxic responses to benzo-[a]-pyrene exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schirmer Kristin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small molecule ligands often have multiple effects on the transcriptional program of a cell: they trigger a receptor specific response and additional, indirect responses ("side effects". Distinguishing those responses is important for understanding side effects of drugs and for elucidating molecular mechanisms of toxic chemicals. Results We explored this problem by exposing cells to the environmental contaminant benzo-[a]-pyrene (B[a]P. B[a]P exposure activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr and causes toxic stress resulting in transcriptional changes that are not regulated through Ahr. We sought to distinguish these two types of responses based on a time course of expression changes measured after B[a]P exposure. Using Random Forest machine learning we classified 81 primary Ahr responders and 1,308 genes regulated as side effects. Subsequent weighted clustering gave further insight into the connection between expression pattern, mode of regulation, and biological function. Finally, the accuracy of the predictions was supported through extensive experimental validation. Conclusion Using a combination of machine learning followed by extensive experimental validation, we have further expanded the known catalog of genes regulated by the environmentally sensitive transcription factor Ahr. More broadly, this study presents a strategy for distinguishing receptor-dependent responses and side effects based on expression time courses.

  19. Immunization with different PfAMA1 alleles in sequence induces clonal imprint humoral responses that are similar to responses induced by the same alleles as a vaccine cocktail in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Alan W

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibodies to key Plasmodium falciparum surface antigens have been shown to be important effectors that mediate clinical immunity to malaria. The cross-strain fraction of anti-malarial antibodies may however be required to achieve strain-transcending immunity. Such antibody responses against Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (PfAMA1, a vaccine target molecule that is expressed in both liver and blood stages of the parasite, can be elicited through immunization with a mixture of allelic variants of the parasite molecule. Cross-strain antibodies are most likely elicited against epitopes that are shared by the allelic antigens in the vaccine cocktail. Methods A standard competition ELISA was used to address whether the antibody response can be further focused on shared epitopes by exclusively boosting these common determinants through immunization of rabbits with different PfAMA1 alleles in sequence. The in vitro parasite growth inhibition assay was used to further evaluate the functional effects of the broadened antibody response that is characteristic of multi-allele vaccine strategies. Results A mixed antigen immunization protocol elicited humoral responses that were functionally similar to those elicited by a sequential immunization protocol (p > 0.05. Sequential exposure to the different PfAMA1 allelic variants induced immunological recall of responses to previous alleles and yielded functional cross-strain antibodies that would be capable of optimal growth inhibition of variant parasites at high enough concentrations. Conclusions These findings may have implications for the current understanding of the natural acquisition of clinical immunity to malaria as well as for rational vaccine design.

  20. inducible cytochrome P450 1A in Nile tilapia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Exposure of Japanese medaka. (Oryzias latipes) to benzo[a]pyrene suppresses immune function and host resistance against bacterial challenge. Aquat. Toxicol. 56: 289-. 301. Carlson EA, Li Y, Zelikoff JT (2004). Benzo[a]pyrene-induced immunotoxicity in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes): Relationship.

  1. Subcutaneous bortezomib in multiple myeloma patients induces similar therapeutic response rates as intravenous application but it does not reduce the incidence of peripheral neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Minarik

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous (SC application of bortezomib has been recently introduced as a new application route in multiple myeloma (MM patients. We performed an analysis to compare the outcomes of bortezomib-based therapy in multiple myeloma (MM patients treated using either intravenous (IV or subcutaneous (SC route of administration.During January 2012 through December 2013, we performed a retrospective analysis of 446 patients with MM treated with bortezomib-based regimens (either once weekly - 63% or twice weekly - 27% in both, the first line setting, and in relapse, with separate analysis of patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation. We assessed the response rates and toxicity profiles in both, IV and SC route of bortezomib administration.The response rates in both IV and SC arm were similar with overall response rate 71.7% vs 70.7%, complete remissions in 13.9% vs 8.6%, very good partial remissions in 30.8% vs 34.5% and partial remissions in 27% vs 27.6%. The most frequent grade ≥ 3 toxicities were anemia, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, with no significant differences between IV and SC group. There were no significant differences in the rate of peripheral neuropathy (PN. PN of any grade was present in 48% in the IV arm and in 41% in the SC arm. PN grade ≥ 2 was present in 20% vs 18% and PN grade ≥ 3 was present in 6% vs 4%.We conclude that subcutaneous application of bortezomib has similar therapeutic outcomes and toxicity profile as intravenous route of application. In our cohort there was no difference in the incidence of PN, suggesting that PN is dose dependent and might be reduced by lower intensity schemes rather than by the route of administration.

  2. Reverse translation of the rodent 5C-CPT reveals that the impaired attention of people with schizophrenia is similar to scopolamine-induced deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J W; Geyer, M A; Rissling, A J; Sharp, R F; Eyler, L T; Asgaard, G L; Light, G A

    2013-11-12

    Attentional dysfunction in schizophrenia (SZ) is a core deficit that contributes to multiple cognitive deficits and the resulting functional disability. However, developing procognitive therapeutics for neuropsychiatric disorders have been limited by a 'translational gap'--a lack of cognitive paradigms having cross-species translational validity and relevance. The present study was designed to perform an initial validation of the cross-species homology of the 5-choice Continuous Performance Test (5C-CPT) in healthy nonpsychiatric comparison subjects (NCS), SZ patients and mice under pharmacologic challenge. The 5C-CPT performance in SZ patients (n=20) was compared with age-matched NCS (n=23). The effects of the general muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine on mice (n=21) performing the 5C-CPT were also assessed. SZ subjects exhibited significantly impaired attention in the 5C-CPT, driven by reduced target detection over time and nonsignificantly increased impulsive responding. Similarly, scopolamine significantly impaired attention in mice, driven by reduced target detection and nonsignificantly increased impulsive responding. Scopolamine also negatively affected accuracy and speed of responding in mice, although these measures failed to differentiate SZ vs. NCS. Thus, mice treated with scopolamine exhibited similar impairments in vigilance as seen in SZ, although the differences between the behavioral profiles warrant further study. The availability of rodent and human versions of this paradigm provides an opportunity to: (1) investigate the neuroanatomic, neurochemical and genomic architecture of abnormalities in attention observed in clinical populations such as SZ; (2) develop and refine animal models of cognitive impairments; and (3) improve cross-species translational testing for the development of treatments for these impairments.

  3. Butyrate alters expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 and metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene via its histone deacetylase activity in colon epithelial cell models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapletal, Ondřej; Tylichová, Zuzana; Neča, Jiří; Kohoutek, Jiří; Machala, Miroslav; Milcová, Alena; Pokorná, Michaela; Topinka, Jan; Moyer, Mary Pat; Hofmanová, Jiřina; Kozubík, Alois; Vondráček, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced by fermentation of dietary fiber, is an important regulator of colonic epithelium homeostasis. In this study, we investigated the impact of this histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor on expression/activity of cytochrome P450 family 1 (CYP1) and on metabolism of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), in colon epithelial cells. Sodium butyrate (NaBt) strongly potentiated the BaP-induced expression of CYP1A1 in human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. It also co-stimulated the 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity induced by the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, a prototypical ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Up-regulation of CYP1A1 expression/activity corresponded with an enhanced metabolism of BaP and formation of covalent DNA adducts. NaBt significantly potentiated CYP1A1 induction and/or metabolic activation of BaP also in other human colon cell models, colon adenoma AA/C1 cells, colon carcinoma HT-29 cells, or in NCM460D cell line derived from normal colon mucosa. Our results suggest that the effects of NaBt were due to its impact on histone acetylation, because additional HDAC inhibitors (trichostatin A and suberanilohydroxamic acid) likewise increased both the induction of EROD activity and formation of covalent DNA adducts. NaBt-induced acetylation of histone H3 (at Lys14) and histone H4 (at Lys16), two histone modifications modulated during activation of CYP1A1 transcription, and it reduced binding of HDAC1 to the enhancer region of CYP1A1 gene. This in vitro study suggests that butyrate, through modulation of histone acetylation, may potentiate induction of CYP1A1 expression, which might in turn alter the metabolism of BaP within colon epithelial cells.

  4. Similar effects of two modified constraint-induced therapy protocols on motor impairment, motor function and quality of life in patients with chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Costa Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modified constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT protocols show motor function and real-world arm use improvement. Meanwhile it usually requires constant supervision by physiotherapists and is therefore more expensive than customary care. This study compared the preliminary efficacy of two modified CIMT protocols. A two-group randomized controlled trial with pre and post treatment measures and six months follow-up was conducted. Nineteen patients with chronic stroke received 10 treatment sessions distributed three to four times a week over 22 days. CIMT3h_direct group received 3 hours of CIMT supervised by a therapist (n=10 while CIMT1.5h_direct group had 1.5 hours of supervised CIMT+1.5 hours home exercises supervised by a caregiver (n=9. Outcome measures were the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, the Motor Activity Log, and the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale. The modified CIMT protocols were feasible and well tolerated. Improvements in motor function, real-world arm use and quality of life did not differ significantly between treated groups receiving either 3 or 1.5 hours mCIMT supervised by a therapist.

  5. Lead induces similar gene expression changes in brains of gestationally exposed adult mice and in neurons differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Sánchez-Martín

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental toxicants during embryonic life causes changes in the expression of developmental genes that may last for a lifetime and adversely affect the exposed individual. Developmental exposure to lead (Pb, an ubiquitous environmental contaminant, causes deficits in cognitive functions and IQ, behavioral effects, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Long-term effects observed after early life exposure to Pb include reduction of gray matter, alteration of myelin structure, and increment of criminal behavior in adults. Despite growing research interest, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the effects of lead in the central nervous system are still largely unknown. To study the molecular changes due to Pb exposure during neurodevelopment, we exposed mice to Pb in utero and examined the expression of neural markers, neurotrophins, transcription factors and glutamate-related genes in hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus at postnatal day 60. We found that hippocampus was the area where gene expression changes due to Pb exposure were more pronounced. To recapitulate gestational Pb exposure in vitro, we differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC into neurons and treated ESC-derived neurons with Pb for the length of the differentiation process. These neurons expressed the characteristic neuronal markers Tubb3, Syp, Gap43, Hud, Ngn1, Vglut1 (a marker of glutamatergic neurons, and all the glutamate receptor subunits, but not the glial marker Gafp. Importantly, several of the changes observed in Pb-exposed mouse brains in vivo were also observed in Pb-treated ESC-derived neurons, including those affecting expression of Ngn1, Bdnf exon IV, Grin1, Grin2D, Grik5, Gria4, and Grm6. We conclude that our ESC-derived model of toxicant exposure during neural differentiation promises to be a useful model to analyze mechanisms of neurotoxicity induced by Pb and other environmental agents.

  6. An attenuated EIAV vaccine strain induces significantly different immune responses from its pathogenic parental strain although with similar in vivo replication pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yue-Zhi; Shen, Rong-Xian; Zhu, Zhen-Ying; Deng, Xi-Lin; Cao, Xue-Zhi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Ma, Jian; Jiang, Cheng-Gang; Zhao, Li-Ping; Lv, Xiao-Ling; Shao, Yi-Ming; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2011-11-01

    The EIAV (equine infectious anemia virus) multi-species attenuated vaccine EIAV(DLV121) successfully prevented the spread of equine infectious anemia (EIA) in China in the 1970s and provided an excellent model for the study of protective immunity to lentiviruses. In this study, we compared immune responses induced by EIAV(DLV121) to immunity elicited by the virulent EIAV(LN40) strain and correlated immune responses to protection from infection. Horses were randomly grouped and inoculated with either EIAV(DLV121) (Vaccinees, Vac) or a sublethal dose of EIAV(LN40) (asymptomatic carriers, Car). Car horses became EIAV(LN40) carriers without disease symptoms. Two of the four Vac horses were protected against infection and the other two had delayed onset or reduced severity of EIA with a lethal EIAV(LN40) challenge 5.5 months post initial inoculation. In contrast, all three Car animals developed acute EIA and two succumbed to death. Specific humoral and cellular immune responses in both Vac and Car groups were evaluated for potential correlations with protection. These analyses revealed that although plasma viral loads remained between 10(3) and 10(5)copies/ml for both groups before EIAV(LN40) challenge, Vac-treated animals developed significantly higher levels of conformational dependent, Env-specific antibody, neutralizing antibody as well as significantly elevated CD4(+) T cell proliferation and IFN-γ-secreting CD8(+) T cells than those observed in EIAV(LN40) asymptomatic carriers. Further analysis of protected and unprotected cases in vaccinated horses identified that cellular response parameters and the reciprocal anti-p26-specific antibody titers closely correlated with protection against infection with the pathogenic EIAV(LN40). These data provide a better understanding of protective immunity to lentiviruses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The modified 2VO ischemia protocol causes cognitive impairment similar to that induced by the standard method, but with a better survival rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cechetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (2VO in the rat has been established as a valid experimental model to investigate the effects of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion on cognitive function and neurodegenerative processes. Our aim was to compare the cognitive and morphological outcomes following the standard 2VO procedure, in which there is concomitant artery ligation, with those of a modified protocol, with a 1-week interval between artery occlusions to avoid an abrupt reduction of cerebral blood flow, as assessed by animal performance in the water maze and damage extension to the hippocampus and striatum. Male Wistar rats (N = 47 aged 3 months were subjected to chronic hypoperfusion by permanent bilateral ligation of the common carotid arteries using either the standard or the modified protocol, with the right carotid being the first to be occluded. Three months after the surgical procedure, rat performance in the water maze was assessed to investigate long-term effects on spatial learning and memory and their brains were processed in order to estimate hippocampal volume and striatal area. Both groups of hypoperfused rats showed deficits in reference (F(8,172 = 7.0951, P < 0.00001 and working spatial memory [2nd (F(2,44 = 7.6884, P < 0.001, 3rd (F(2,44 = 21.481, P < 0.00001 and 4th trials (F(2,44 = 28.620, P < 0.0001]; however, no evidence of tissue atrophy was found in the brain structures studied. Despite similar behavioral and morphological outcomes, the rats submitted to the modified protocol showed a significant increase in survival rate, during the 3 months of the experiment (P < 0.02.

  8. Morphology transition of raft-model membrane induced by osmotic pressure: Formation of double-layered vesicle similar to an endo- and/or exocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onai, Teruaki; Hirai, Mitsuhiro

    2010-01-01

    The effect of osmotic pressure on the structure of large uni-lamellar vesicle (LUV) of the lipid mixtures of monosialoganglioside (G M1 )-cholesterol-dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) was studies by using wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) method. The molar ratios of the mixtures were 0.1/0.1/1, 0/0.1/1, and 0/0/1. The ternary lipid mixture is a model of lipid rafts. The value of osmotic pressure was varied from 0 to 4.16x10 5 N/m 2 by adding the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in the range from 0 to 25 % w/v. In the case of the mixtures without G M1 , the rise of the osmotic pressure just enhances the multi-lamellar stacking with deceasing the inter-lamellar spacing. On the other hand, the mixture containing G M1 shows the structural transition from a uni-lamellar vesicle to a double-layered vesicle (a liposome including a smaller one inside) by the rise of osmotic pressure. In this morphology transition the total surface area of the double-layered vesicle is mostly as same as that of the LUV at the initial state. The polar head region of G M1 is bulky and highly hydrophilic due to the oligosaccharide chain containing a sialic acid residue. Then, the present results suggest that the existence of G M1 in the outer-leaflet of the LUV is essentially important for such a double-layered vesicle formation. Alternatively, a phenomenon similar to an endo- and/or exocytosis in cells can be caused simply by a variation of osmotic pressure.

  9. Ancestral benzo[a]pyrene exposure affects bone integrity in F3 adult fish (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Frauke; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Zhang, Ge; Wan, Miles Teng; Guo, Baosheng; Peterson, Drew Ryan; Lee, Jae-Seong; Au, Doris Wai-Ting

    2017-02-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) at an environmentally relevant concentration (1μg/L) has previously been shown to affect bone development in a transgenerational manner in F3 medaka (Oryzias latipes) larvae (17dph). Here, we provide novel histomorphometric data demonstrating that the impaired bone formation at an early life stage is not recoverable and can result in a persistent transgenerational impairment of bone metabolism in F3 adult fish. A decrease in bone thickness and the occurrence of microcracks in ancestrally BaP-treated adult male fish (F3) were revealed by MicroCt measurement and histopathological analysis. The expression of twenty conserved bone miRNAs were screened in medaka and their relative expression (in the F3 ancestral BaP treatment vs the F3 control fish) were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Attempt was made to link bone miRNA expression with the potential target bone mRNA expression in medaka. Five functional pairs of mRNA/miRNA were identified (Osx/miR-214, Col2a1b/miR-29b, Runx2/miR-204, Sox9b/miR-199a-3p, APC/miR-27b). Unique knowledge of bone-related miRNA expression in medaka in response to ancestral BaP-exposure in the F3 generation is presented. From the ecological risk assessment perspective, BaP needs to be regarded as a transgenerational skeletal toxicant which exerts a far-reaching impact on fish survival and fitness. Given that the underlying mechanisms of cartilage/bone formation are conserved between medaka and mammals, the results may also shed light on the potential transgenerational effect of BaP on skeletal disorders in mammals/humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of the Apulia air quality plan on PM10 and benzo(apyrene exceedances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Trizio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, several exceedances of PM10 and benzo(apyrene limit values exceedances were recorded in Taranto, a city in southern Italy included in so-called areas at high risk of environmental crisis because of the presence of a heavy industrial district including the largest steel factory in Europe. A study of these critical pollution events showed a close correlation with the wind coming from the industrial site to the adjacent urban area. During 2011, at monitoring sites closes to the industrial area, at least the 65% of PM10 exceedances were related to wind day conditions (characterized by at least 3 consecutive hours of wind coming from 270-360±2deg with an associated speed higher than 7 m/s. For this reason, in 2012 an integrated environmental permit and a regional air quality plan were enacted to reduce pollutant emissions from industrial plants. A study of PM10 levels registered during windy days was performed during critical episodes of pollution highlighting that the difference between windy days and no windy days’ concentrations reduces from 2012 to 2014 in industrial site. False negative events (verified ex-post by observed meteorological data not identified by the forecast model - did not show a significant influence on PM concentration: PM10 values were comparable and sometimes lower than windy days levels. It is reasonable that the new scenario with a relevant reduction emissions form Ilva plant reduced the pollutants contribution from industrial area, contributing to PM10 levels decrease, also in false negative events.

  11. Proteomic analysis of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana upon exposure to benzo(apyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lettieri Teresa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are environmental pollutants ubiquitously distributed. They are generated by incomplete combustion of organic materials such as wood or fossil fuels. Due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic effects and to their wide distribution in the environment, these pollutants pose many concerns to researchers and regulators. In our laboratories we investigated the effect of benzo(apyrene (BaP exposure in the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, which has become an important model organism in aquatic toxicology studies. Results In order to investigate the mechanism of action of PAHs, we exposed the diatoms for 24 h to 36.45 μg/L of BaP which inhibits the growth by about 30%, and analysed the relative protein expression profile by a quantitative proteomics approach based on iTRAQ labels. The proteomics profile analysis showed that around 10% of the identified proteins were regulated and one fourth of them confirmed the gene expression changes seen by DNA microarray. Particularly interesting was the down regulation of the Silicon transporter 1 (SIT1, an enzyme that is responsible for the uptake of silicon from the media into the diatom cells. Regulation of SIT1 upon BaP treatment was also confirmed at the gene expression level. Conclusions The potential use of the regulated proteins found in this study as early indicators of environmental exposure to PAHs is discussed. In particular, SIT1 is considered a promising biomarker and SIT1 expression changes were confirmed also when the diatoms were exposed to field samples, e.g. marine surface sediments contaminated by PAHs.

  12. Assessment of sediment quality based on toxic equivalent benzo[a]Pyrene concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, T.L.; Lee, K.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) as an indicator and its thresholds for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in sediments. The indicator, based on toxicity and carcinogenic effects, was selected to assess the marine environment and changes in marine environmental quality (MEQ) in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia. It was shown that the bioavailability of B[a]P and other PAHs is greatly affected by the quality and quantity of dissolved organic matter and organic carbon content. Two coal coke facilities were constructed on the shore of Sydney Harbour in the 19th century. For many years, the coke-ovens discharged toxic liquid effluent through the Tar Ponds into the harbour, contaminating the ground and surface water with arsenic, lead and other toxins. It also led to the accumulation of PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls. A recent assessment of PAH contamination of Sydney Harbour has focused on the exposure of organisms to contaminants as well as the biological effects on the organisms. All samples collected from the South Arm of Sydney Harbour exceeded the upper threshold of established regulatory guidelines. Samples from the Northwest Arm were within regulatory limits, suggesting that industrial and municipal sources were the primary sources of pollution. PAH concentrations were used to identify sediments that exceed effects thresholds based on MEQ guidelines. The results were compared to actual observations of biological effects. Toxic equivalency factors were established for B[a]P and other PAHs in order to estimate cumulative exposure levels. The concentrations can be compared to regulatory sediment quality guidelines established in Canada and the United States for the protection of marine life. 34 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs

  13. Can biomonitors effectively detect airborne benzo[a]pyrene? An evaluation approach using modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ratola

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring data available on levels of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in pine needles from the Iberian Peninsula were used to estimate air concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP and, at the same time, fuelled the comparison with chemistry transport model representations. Simulations with the modelling system WRF+EMEP+CHIMERE were validated against data from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP air sampling network. Modelled atmospheric concentrations were used as a consistent reference in order to compare the performance of vegetation-to-air estimating methods. A spatial and temporal resolution of 9 km and 1 h was implemented. The field-based database relied on a pine needles sampling scheme comprising 33 sites in Portugal and 37 sites in Spain complemented with the BaP measurements available from the EMEP sites. The ability of pine needles to act as biomonitoring markers for the atmospheric concentrations of BaP was estimated by converting the levels obtained in pine needles into air concentrations by six different approaches, one of them presenting realistic concentrations when compared to the modelled atmospheric values. The justification for this study is that the gaps still exist in the knowledge of the life cycles of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs, particularly the partition processes between air and vegetation. The strategy followed in this work allows for the effective estimation by the model of concentrations in air and vegetation and of the best approaches to estimate atmospheric levels from values found in vegetation.

  14. Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) protects against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease caused by Western diet containing benzo[a]pyrene in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Shigeyuki; Nebert, Daniel W; Makishima, Makoto

    2018-03-01

    The Western diet contributes to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a prototypical environmental pollutant produced by combustion processes, is present in charcoal-grilled meat. Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) metabolizes BaP, resulting in either detoxication or metabolic activation in a context-dependent manner. To elucidate a role of CYP1A1-BaP in NAFLD pathogenesis, we compared the effects of a Western diet, with or without oral BaP treatment, on the development of NAFLD in Cyp1a1(-/-) mice versus wild-type mice. A Western diet plus BaP induced lipid-droplet accumulation in liver of Cyp1a1(-/-) mice, but not wild-type mice. The hepatic steatosis observed in Cyp1a1(-/-) mice was associated with increased cholesterol, triglyceride and bile acid levels. Cyp1a1(-/-) mice fed Western diet plus BaP had changes in expression of genes involved in bile acid and lipid metabolism, and showed no increase in Cyp1a2 expression but did exhibit enhanced Cyp1b1 mRNA expression, as well as hepatic inflammation. Enhanced BaP metabolic activation, oxidative stress and inflammation may exacerbate metabolic dysfunction in liver of Cyp1a1(-/-) mice. Thus, Western diet plus BaP induces NAFLD and hepatic inflammation in Cyp1a1(-/-) mice in comparison to wild-type mice, indicating a protective role of CYP1A1 against NAFLD pathogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Similarity transformations of MAPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Allan T.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of similar Markovian Arrival Processes (MAPs and show that the event stationary point processes related to two similar MAPs are stochastically equivalent. This holds true for the time stationary point processes too. We show that several well known stochastical equivalences as e.g. that between the H 2 renewal process and the Interrupted Poisson Process (IPP can be expressed by the similarity transformations of MAPs. In the appendix the valid region of similarity transformations for two-state MAPs is characterized.

  16. Similarity Measure of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Labriji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of identifying the similarity of graphs was considered as highly recommended research field in the Web semantic, artificial intelligence, the shape recognition and information research. One of the fundamental problems of graph databases is finding similar graphs to a graph query. Existing approaches dealing with this problem are usually based on the nodes and arcs of the two graphs, regardless of parental semantic links. For instance, a common connection is not identified as being part of the similarity of two graphs in cases like two graphs without common concepts, the measure of similarity based on the union of two graphs, or the one based on the notion of maximum common sub-graph (SCM, or the distance of edition of graphs. This leads to an inadequate situation in the context of information research. To overcome this problem, we suggest a new measure of similarity between graphs, based on the similarity measure of Wu and Palmer. We have shown that this new measure satisfies the properties of a measure of similarities and we applied this new measure on examples. The results show that our measure provides a run time with a gain of time compared to existing approaches. In addition, we compared the relevance of the similarity values obtained, it appears that this new graphs measure is advantageous and  offers a contribution to solving the problem mentioned above.

  17. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    In data science, there are important parameters that affect the accuracy of the algorithms used. Some of these parameters are: the type of data objects, the membership assignments, and distance or similarity functions. This paper discusses similarity functions as fundamental elements in membership...

  18. Similarity after Goodman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decock, L.B.; Douven, I.

    2011-01-01

    In a famous critique, Goodman dismissed similarity as a slippery and both philosophically and scientifically useless notion. We revisit his critique in the light of important recent work on similarity in psychology and cognitive science. Specifically, we use Tversky's influential set-theoretic

  19. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the

  20. Multiphoton spectral analysis of benzo[a]pyrene uptake and metabolism in a rat liver cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhoumi, Rola; Mouneimne, Youssef; Ramos, Ernesto; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Safe, Stephen; Parrish, Alan R.; Burghardt, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic analysis of the uptake and metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their metabolites within live cells in real time has the potential to provide novel insights into genotoxic and non-genotoxic mechanisms of cellular injury caused by PAHs. The present work, combining the use of metabolite spectra generated from metabolite standards using multiphoton spectral analysis and an 'advanced unmixing process', identifies and quantifies the uptake, partitioning, and metabolite formation of one of the most important PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, BaP) in viable cultured rat liver cells over a period of 24 h. The application of the advanced unmixing process resulted in the simultaneous identification of 8 metabolites in live cells at any single time. The accuracy of this unmixing process was verified using specific microsomal epoxide hydrolase inhibitors, glucuronidation and sulfation inhibitors as well as several mixtures of metabolite standards. Our findings prove that the two-photon microscopy imaging surpasses the conventional fluorescence imaging techniques and the unmixing process is a mathematical technique that seems applicable to the analysis of BaP metabolites in living cells especially for analysis of changes of the ultimate carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8-dihydrodiol-t-9,10-epoxide. Therefore, the combination of the two-photon acquisition with the unmixing process should provide important insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which BaP and other PAHs alter cellular homeostasis.

  1. Determination of Benzo(a)pyrene in Malaysian commercialized coffee powder using solid phase extraction and gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noraini Kasim; Rozita Osman; Norashikin Saim; Licaberth Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Roasting is a critical process in coffee production as it enables the development of flavor and aroma. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a non desirable product of incomplete combustion at temperatures between 300 and 600 degree Celsius and may be produced during roasting step. In this study, selected samples of roasted coffee powder were analysed for BaP. Extraction of BaP was achieved using C 18 solid phase extraction (SPE) prior to analysis by gas chromatography. Calibration curve prepared with concentrations ranged between 3 - 50 ppm showed good linearity with r = 0.999. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.25 ppm and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.85 ppm. Recovery of BaP obtained from spiked sample (3 ppm) was 88.7 % with RSD (n=3) of 5.4 %. Benzo[a]pyrene was detected in all samples, at level ranging from 0.14 to 0.62 ppb. (author)

  2. Fate and cometabolic degradation of benzo[a]pyrene by white-rot fungus Armillaria sp. F022.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadibarata, Tony; Kristanti, Risky Ayu

    2012-03-01

    Armillaria sp. F022, a white-rot fungus isolated from a tropical rain forest in Samarinda, Indonesia, was used to biodegrade benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Transformation of BaP, a 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), by Armillaria sp. F022, which uses BaP as a source of carbon and energy, was investigated. However, biodegradation of BaP has been limited because of its bioavailability and toxicity. Five cosubstrates were selected as cometabolic carbon and energy sources. The results showed that Armillaria sp. F022 used BaP with and without cosubstrates. A 2.5-fold increase in degradation efficiency was achieved after addition of glucose. Meanwhile, the use of glucose as a cosubstrate could significantly stimulate laccase production compared with other cosubstrates and not using any cosubstrate. The metabolic pathway was elucidated by identifying metabolites, conducting biotransformation studies, and monitoring enzyme activities in cell-free extracts. The degradation mechanism was determined through the identification of several metabolites: benzo[a]pyrene-1,6-quinone, 1-hydroxy-2-benzoic acid, and benzoic acid. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of benzo[a]pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at trace levels in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, J B; Pellizzari, E; Keever, J T; Ellis, L

    2000-01-01

    A sensitive and rugged gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method was developed for determining 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 4-g specimens of human lung, breast, and liver tissue. The method quantitation limit (MQL) was 0.01-0.02 ng/g for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and six other five- and six-ring PAHs. The MQL was higher for four-ring PAHs because of their presence at trace levels in method blanks. The average MQLs for pyrene and chrysene were 0.05 and 0.03 ng/g, respectively. The method was applied to 200 human tissue specimens (89 lung, 68 breast, and 43 liver) obtained from patients during surgery. Quality-control results demonstrated average recoveries of 80% or better from reagent controls spiked at the 0.2-ng level and average recoveries from tissue fortified at the 0.25-ng/g level of 66-95%. The precision of the method was determined from duplicate analyses of specimens (16-38% RSD) and from duplicate GC-MS analysis of tissue extracts (8-17%RSD). Benzo[a]pyrene was detected at measurable levels in 87% of the lung specimens. This method makes possible the measurement of ambient levels of PAHs in small samples of human tissue such as those obtained by biopsy.

  4. Effects of benzo[a]pyrene on growth, the antioxidant system, and DNA damage in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in 2 different soil types under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaochen; Xu, Li; Song, Jing; Jiao, Jiaguo; Liu, Manqiang; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin

    2015-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare the toxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and to screen for rapid and sensitive biomarkers that can be used to assess the environmental risks of BaP in earthworms in different natural soil types. The authors exposed Eisenia fetida to 2 types of soil (red soil and fluvo-aquic soil) spiked with different concentrations (0 mg kg(-1), 1 mg kg(-1), 10 mg kg(-1), 100 mg kg(-1), and 500 mg kg(-1)) of BaP for 7 d or 14 d. Benzo[a]pyrene-induced weight variation altered the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD]; catalase [CAT]; and guaiacol peroxidase [POD]) and changed the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, using the comet assay, the authors determined the DNA damage in earthworms. The results revealed that the comet assay was suitable for evaluating the genotoxicity of BaP in the soil, even at the lowest examined concentration. The MDA content was the least sensitive indicator of BaP toxicity. A 3-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine whether the soil type, exposure concentration, and duration affected the BaP toxicity. The antioxidant enzyme activities and the MDA content were shown to be significantly correlated with the exposure concentration. The percentage of weight variation (p earthworms is a simple and efficient means of assessing BaP genotoxicity in a terrestrial environment, and the effects of the soil type and exposure time on the other parameters that were investigated in E. fetida, which were used as responsive biomarkers, should be considered. © 2014 SETAC.

  5. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  6. Similarity or difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2013-01-01

    While the organizational structures and strategies of public organizations have attracted substantial research attention among public management scholars, little research has explored how these organizational core dimensions are interconnected and influenced by pressures for similarity. In this p......While the organizational structures and strategies of public organizations have attracted substantial research attention among public management scholars, little research has explored how these organizational core dimensions are interconnected and influenced by pressures for similarity....... In this paper I address this topic by exploring the relation between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in Danish municipalities. Different literatures suggest that organizations exist in concurrent pressures for being similar to and different from other organizations in their field...... of action. It is theorized that to meet this challenge organizations may substitute increased similarity on one core dimension for increased idiosyncrasy on another, but only after a certain level of isomorphism is reached. Results of quantitative analyses support this theory and show that an inverse U...

  7. Association between Mutation Spectra and Stable and Unstable DNA Adduct Profiles in Salmonella for Benzo[a]pyrene and Dibenzo[a.l]pyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) are two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that exhibit distinctly different mutagenicity and carcinogenicity profiles. Although some studies show that these PAHs produce unstable DNA adducts, conflicting data and arguments ha...

  8. Trace analysis of 3-hydroxy benzo[a]pyrene in urine for the biomonitoring of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariese, Freek; Hoornweg, Gerard P.; Van De Nesse, Ronald J.; Jukema-Leenstra, Swanette R.; Hofstraat, Johannes W.; Gooijer, Cees; Velthorst, Nel H.

    1994-01-01

    Determination of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) metabolites in urine can provide direct insight into recent exposure to BaP integrated from all uptake routes. In order to detect 3-OH BaP in human urine after exposure to BaP at the workplace, extremely sensitive methods need to be developed. In this paper, a

  9. Reduced cytochrome P4501A activity and recovery from oxidative stress during subchronic benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[e]pyrene treatment of rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Lawrence R.; Garzon, Claudia B.; Arkoosh, Mary; Collier, Tracy; Myers, Mark S.; Buzitis, Jon; Hahn, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) affinity, and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein and activity in polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced oxidative stress. In the 1-100 nM concentration range benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) but not benzo[e]pyrene (BeP) competitively displaced 2 nM [ 3 H]2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin from rainbow trout AHR2α. Based on appearance of fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile over 3, 7, 14, 28 or 50 days of feeding 3 μg of BaP or BeP/g fish/day, rainbow trout liver readily excreted these polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their metabolites at near steady state rates. CYP1A proteins catalyzed more than 98% of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in rainbow trout hepatic microsomes. EROD activity of hepatic microsomes initially increased and then decreased to control activities after 50 days of feeding both PAHs. Immunohistochemistry of liver confirmed CYP1A protein increased in fish fed both PAHs after 3 days and remained elevated for up to 28 days. Neither BaP nor BeP increased hepatic DNA adduct concentrations at any time up to 50 days of feeding these PAHs. Comet assays of blood cells demonstrated marked DNA damage after 14 days of feeding both PAHs that was not significant after 50 days. There was a strong positive correlation between hepatic EROD activity and DNA damage in blood cells over time for both PAHs. Neither CYP1A protein nor 3-nitrotyrosine (a biomarker for oxidative stress) immunostaining in trunk kidney were significantly altered by BaP or BeP after 3, 7, 14, or 28 days. There was no clear association between AHR2α affinity and BaP and BeP-induced oxidative stress. - Highlights: → No direct association between aryl hydrocarbon receptor affinity and polyaromatic hydrocarbon induced oxidative stress. → There was a strong correlation between cytochrome P4501A activity and oxidative stress as measured with the comet assay. → There was no correlation between cytochrome P4501A

  10. Incremental Similarity and Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Hedevang, Emil; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    This paper discusses the mathematical representation of an empirically observed phenomenon, referred to as Incremental Similarity. We discuss this feature from the viewpoint of stochastic processes and present a variety of non-trivial examples, including those that are of relevance for turbulence...

  11. Benzo(a)pyrene accumulation in soils of technogenic emission zone by subcritical water extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushkova, Svetlana; Minkina, Tatiana; Kizilkaya, Ridvan; Mandzhieva, Saglara; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Bauer, Tatiana; Gulser, Coskun

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of research is the assessment of main marker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) content in soils of emission zone of the power complex plant in soils with use of ecologically clean and effective subcritical water extraction method. Studies were conducted on the soils of monitoring plots subjected to Novocherkassk Power Plant emissions from burning coal. In 2000, monitoring plots were established at different distances from the NPS (1.0-20.0 km). Soil samples for the determination of soil properties and the contents of BaP were taken from a depth of 0-20 cm. The soil cover in the region under study consisted of ordinary chernozems, meadow-chernozemic soils, and alluvial meadow soils. This soil revealed the following physical and chemical properties: Corg-3.1-5.0%, pH-7.3-7.6, ECE-31.2-47.6 mmol(+)/100g; CaCO3-0.2-1.0%, the content of physical clay - 51-67% and clay - 3-37%. BaP extraction from soils was carried out by a subcritical water extraction method. Subcritical water extraction of BaP from soil samples was conducted in a specially developed extraction cartridge made of stainless steel and equipped with screw-on caps at both ends. It was also equipped with a manometer that included a valve for pressure release to maintain an internal pressure of 100 atm. The extraction cartridge containing a sample and water was placed into an oven connected to a temperature regulator under temperature 250oC and pressure 60 atm. The BaP concentration in the acetonitrile extract was determined by HPLC. The efficiency of BaP extraction from soil was determined using a matrix spike. The main accumulation of pollutant in 20 cm layer of soils is noted directly in affected zone on the plots situated at 1.2, 1.6, 5.0, 8.0 km from emission source in the direction of prevailing winds. The maximum quantity of a pollutant was founded in the soil of the plot located mostly close to a source of pollution in the direction of prevailing winds

  12. Similarity and denoising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitányi, Paul M B

    2013-02-13

    We can discover the effective similarity among pairs of finite objects and denoise a finite object using the Kolmogorov complexity of these objects. The drawback is that the Kolmogorov complexity is not computable. If we approximate it, using a good real-world compressor, then it turns out that on natural data the processes give adequate results in practice. The methodology is parameter-free, alignment-free and works on individual data. We illustrate both methods with examples.

  13. Myeloperoxidase - 463A variant reduces benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide DNA adducts in skin of coal tar treated patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, M.; Godschalk, R.; Alexandrov, K.; Cascorbi, I.; Kriek, E.; Ostertag, J.; Van Schooten, F.J.; Bartsch, H. [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Div. of Toxicology & Cancer Risk Factors

    2001-07-01

    The skin of atopic dermatitis patients provides an excellent model to study the role of inflammation in benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) activation, since these individuals are often topically treated with ointments containing high concentrations of BaP. The authors determined, by HPLC with fluorescence detection, the BaP diol epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adduct levels in human skin after topical treatment with coal tar and their modulation by the -453G into A myeloperoxidase (MPO) polymorphism, which reduces MPO mRNA expression. The data show for the first time: (i) the in vivo formation of BPDE-DNA adducts in human skin treated with coal tar; (ii) that the MPO-463AA/AG genotype reduced BPDE-DNA adduct levels in human skin.

  14. Electrochemiluminescent arrays for cytochrome P450-activated genotoxicity screening. DNA damage from benzo[a]pyrene metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvastkovs, Eli G; So, Minjeong; Krishnan, Sadagopan; Bajrami, Besnik; Tarun, Maricar; Jansson, Ingela; Schenkman, John B; Rusling, James F

    2007-03-01

    Arrays suitable for genotoxicity screening are reported that generate metabolites from cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) in thin-film spots. Array spots containing DNA, various human cyt P450s, and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) generating metallopolymer [Ru(bpy)2PVP10]2+ were exposed to H2O2 to activate the enzymes. ECL from all spots was visualized simultaneously using a CCD camera. Using benzo[a]pyrene as a test substrate, enzyme activity for producing DNA damage in the arrays was found in the order CYP1B1 > CYP1A2 > CYP1A1 > CYP2E1 > myoglobin, the same as the order of their metabolic activity. Thus, these arrays estimate the relative propensity of different enzymes to produce genotoxic metabolites. This is the first demonstration of ECL arrays for high-throughput in vitro genotoxicity screening.

  15. Preliminary physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[def,p]chrysene in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowell, Susan Ritger; Amin, Shantu G.; Anderson, Kim A.; Krishnegowda, Gowdahalli; Sharma, Arun K.; Soelberg, Jolen J.; Williams, David E.; Corley, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants generated as byproducts of natural and anthropogenic combustion processes. Despite significant public health concern, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling efforts for PAHs have so far been limited to naphthalene, plus simpler PK models for pyrene, nitropyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). The dearth of published models is due in part to the high lipophilicity, low volatility, and myriad metabolic pathways for PAHs, all of which present analytical and experimental challenges. Our research efforts have focused upon experimental approaches and initial development of PBPK models for the prototypic PAH, B[a]P, and the more potent, albeit less studied transplacental carcinogen, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC). For both compounds, model compartments included arterial and venous blood, flow limited lung, liver, richly perfused and poorly perfused tissues, diffusion limited fat, and a two compartment theoretical gut (for oral exposures). Hepatic and pulmonary metabolism was described for both compounds, as were fractional binding in blood and fecal clearance. Partition coefficients for parent PAH along with their diol and tetraol metabolites were estimated using published algorithms and verified experimentally for the hydroxylated metabolites. The preliminary PBPK models were able to describe many, but not all, of the available data sets, comprising multiple routes of exposure (oral, intravenous) and nominal doses spanning several orders of magnitude. Supported by Award Number P42 ES016465 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. -- Highlights: ► We present PBPK models for benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC). ► B[a]P model accurately predicts data from multiple sources over a wide dose range. ► DBC model was based on the B[a]P model as less chemical specific data is available. ► DBC model accurately predicted preliminary

  16. More Similar Than Different

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin

    2018-01-01

    What role do employee features play into the success of different personnel management practices for serving high performance? Using data from a randomized survey experiment among 5,982 individuals of all ages, this article examines how gender conditions the compliance effects of different...... incentive treatments—each relating to the basic content of distinct types of personnel management practices. The findings show that males and females are more similar than different in terms of the incentive treatments’ effects: Significant average effects are found for three out of five incentive...

  17. Probing for DNA damage with β-hairpins: Similarities in incision efficiencies of bulky DNA adducts by prokaryotic and human nucleotide excision repair systems in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Reeves, Dara; Kropachev, Konstantin; Cai, Yuqin; Ding, Shuang; Kolbanovskiy, Marina; Kolbanovskiy, Alexander; Bolton, Judith L.; Broyde, Suse; Van Houten, Bennett; Geacintov, Nicholas E.

    2011-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an important prokaryotic and eukaryotic defense mechanism that removes a large variety of structurally distinct lesions in cellular DNA. While the proteins involved are completely different, the mode of action of these two repair systems is similar, involving a cut-and-patch mechanism in which an oligonucleotide sequence containing the lesion is excised. The prokaryotic and eukaryotic NER damage-recognition factors have common structural features of β-hairpin intrusion between the two DNA strands at the site of the lesion. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that this common β-hairpin intrusion motif is mirrored in parallel NER incision efficiencies in the two systems. We have utilized human HeLa cell extracts and the prokaryotic UvrABC proteins to determine their relative NER incision efficiencies. We report here comparisons of relative NER efficiencies with a set of stereoisomeric DNA lesions derived from metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene and equine estrogens in different sequence contexts, utilizing 21 samples. We found a general qualitative trend towards similar relative NER incision efficiencies for ~ 65% of these substrates; the other cases deviate mostly by ~ 30% or less from a perfect correlation, although several more distant outliers are also evident. This resemblance is consistent with the hypothesis that lesion recognition through β-hairpin insertion, a common feature of the two systems, is facilitated by local thermodynamic destabilization induced by the lesions in both cases. In the case of the UvrABC system, varying the nature of the UvrC endonuclease, while maintaining the same UvrA/B proteins, can markedly affect the relative incision efficiencies. These observations suggest that, in addition to recognition involving the initial modified duplexes, downstream events involving UvrC can also play a role in distinguishing and processing different lesions in prokaryotic NER. PMID:21741328

  18. Metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene and identification of the major benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adducts in cultured human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Harris, Curtis C.; Trump, Benjamin F.

    1978-01-01

    was formed between benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide II and the 2-amino group of guanine. The major metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene extracted with ethyl acetate/acetone from the tissue culture media were (7,10/8,9)-tetrahydroxy-7,10,8,9-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene, trans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydrobenzo......% of the metabolites remained in the water phase after extraction with ethy(acetate/acetone. frans-7,8-Dihydroxy-7,8-dihydrobenzo(a)pyrene and quiñoneswere the major metabolites released when the water-soluble metabolites were treated with /3-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase. The binding levels of benzo...

  19. Enhanced oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene by crude enzyme extracts produced during interspecific fungal interaction of Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Linbo; Chen, Baoliang

    2012-01-01

    The effects of interspecific fungal interactions between Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium on laccase activity and enzymatic oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated. A deadlock between the two mycelia rather than replacement of one fungus by another was observed on an agar medium. The laccase activity in crude enzyme extracts from interaction zones reached a maximum after a 5-day incubation, which was significantly higher than that from regions of T. versicolor or P. chrysosporium alone. The enhanced induction of laccase activity lasted longer in half nutrition than in normal nutrition. A higher potential to oxidize benzo[a]pyrene by a crude enzyme preparation extracted from the interaction zones was demonstrated. After a 48 hr incubation period, the oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene by crude enzyme extracts from interaction zones reached 26.2%, while only 9.5% of benzo[a]pyrene was oxidized by crude extracts from T. versicolor. The oxidation was promoted by the co-oxidant 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate diammonium salt (ABTS). These findings indicate that the application of co-culturing of white-rot fungi in bioremediation is a potential ameliorating technique for the restoration of PAH-contaminated soil.

  20. [Expression of miR-21 and Its Acat1, Armcx1, and Pten Target Genes in Liver of Female Rats Treated with DDT and Benzo[a]pyrene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanyshev, M D; Ushakov, D S; Gulyaeva, L F

    2017-01-01

    MiR-21 is the most studied cancer-promoting oncomiR, which target numerous tumor suppressor genes associated with proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion. Here we have studied the synthesis of miR-21 and quantified the mRNA and protein levels for miR-21 potential target genes, i.e., Acat1, Armcx1, and Pten, in the livers of female Wistar rats after their treatment with either 1,1-trichloro-2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) or benzo[a]pyrene (BP). The most important finding appears to be the significant decrease in the miR-21 level the day after treatment with DDT with subsequent rebound. These changes are accompanied by an increase and subsequent drop in the levels of mRNAs and proteins of the Acat1, Armcx1, and Pten genes. These observations indicate the involvement of miR-21 in the posttranscriptional regulation of the Acat1, Armcx1, and Pten genes in response to xenobiotics. We hypothesize that the toxic effects of xenobiotics may be indirect and may manifest by inducing epigenetic changes, particularly through the regulation of miRNAs and their target genes.

  1. Antimutagenic activity of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale Sapindales, Anacardiaceae fresh juice and processed juice (cajuína against methyl methanesulfonate, 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide and benzo[a]pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amelia Melo-Cavalcante

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cashew apple juice (CAJ, produced from the native Brazilian cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale, and has been reported to have antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor, antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. Both the fresh unprocessed juice and the processed juice (cajuína in Portuguese has been shown to consist of a complex mixture containing high concentrations of anacardic and ascorbic acids plus several carotenoids, phenolic compounds and metals. We assessed both types of juice for their antimutagenic properties against the direct mutagens methyl methanesulfonate (MMS and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO and the indirect mutagen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP using pre-treatment, co-treatment and post-treatment assays with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA102, and TA97a. In pre-treatment experiments with strains TA100 and TA102 the fresh juice showed high antimutagenic activity against MMS but, conversely, co-treatment with both juices enhanced MMS mutagenicity and there was an indication of toxicity in the post-treatment regime. In pre-, co-, and post-treatments with TA97a as test strain, antimutagenic effects were also observed against 4-NQO and BaP. These results suggest that both fresh and processed CAJ can protect the cells against mutagenesis induced by direct and indirect mutagens.

  2. Protective effects of green tea polyphenols against benzo[a]pyrene-induced reproductive and trans-generational toxic effects in Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Chuankui; Wang, Yanli; Xiao, Zhengcao; Xiao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the protective effect of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-induced reproductive and trans-generational toxicity, Japanese Medaka was injected intraperitoneally with BaP alone and co-injected with both BaP and GTP of different concentrations, respectively.

  3. Molecular characterization of ABC transporters in marine ciliate, Euplotes crassus: Identification and response to cadmium and benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hokyun; Yim, Bora; Kim, Jisoo; Kim, Haeyeon; Lee, Young-Mi

    2017-11-30

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters participate in transporting various substances, including xenobiotics, in or out of cells. However, their genetic information and function in ciliates remain still unclear. In this study, we sequenced and characterized two ABC transporter genes (EcABCB and EcABCC), and investigated the effect of cadmium (Cd) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) on their function and gene expression, using efflux assay and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), respectively, in the marine ciliate, Euplotes crassus. Sequencing analysis and efflux assay showed that EcABCB and EcABCC are typical ABC transporters, possessing conserved function. Exposure to Cd (≥5mg/L) and B[a]P (≥50.5μg/L) enhanced accumulation of a substrate. A significant increase in the expression of EcABCB and EcABC mRNA was observed at lower concentration in response to Cd and B[a]P. Our findings indicate that Cd and B[a]P could inhibit the efflux function of ABC transporters, leading to cellular toxicity in the ciliate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prediction of benzo[a]pyrene content of smoked sausage using back-propagation artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Cai, Kezhou; Tu, Zehui; Nie, Wen; Ji, Tuo; Hu, Bing; Chen, Conggui; Jiang, Shaotong

    2017-11-29

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a potent mutagen and carcinogen, is reported to be present in processed meat products and, in particular, in smoked meat. However, few methods exist for predictive determination of the BaP content of smoked meats such as sausage. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) model based on the back-propagation (BP) algorithm was used to predict the BaP content of smoked sausage. The results showed that the BP network based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was the best suited for creating a nonlinear map between the input and output parameters. The optimal network structure was 3-7-1 and the learning rate was 0.6. This BP-ANN model allowed for accurate predictions, with the correlation coefficients (R) for the experimentally determined training, validation, test and global data sets being 0.94, 0.96, 0.95 and 0.95 respectively. The validation performance was 0.013, suggesting that the proposed BP-ANN may be used to predictively detect the BaP content of smoked meat products. An effective predictive model was constructed for estimation of the BaP content of smoked sausage using ANN modeling techniques, which shows potential to predict the BaP content in smoked sausage. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Can we use modelling methodologies to assess airborne benzo[a]pyrene from biomonitors? A comprehensive evaluation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratola, N.; Jiménez-Guerrero, P.

    2015-09-01

    Biomonitoring data available on levels of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in pine needles from the Iberian Peninsula was used to estimate air concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and, at the same time, fuelled the comparison with chemistry transport model representations. Simulations with the modelling system WRF + CHIMERE were validated against data from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) air sampling network and using modelled atmospheric concentrations as a consistent reference in order to compare the performance of vegetation-to-air estimating methods. A spatial and temporal resolution of 9 km and 1 h was implemented. The field-based database relied on a pine needles sampling scheme comprising 33 sites in Portugal and 37 sites in Spain complemented with the BaP measurements available from the EMEP sites. The ability of pine needles to act as biomonitoring markers for the atmospheric concentrations of BaP was estimated converting the levels obtained in pine needles into air concentrations by six different approaches, one of them presenting realistic concentrations when compared to the modelled atmospheric values. The justification for this study is the gaps still existing in the knowledge of the life cycles of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), particularly the partition processes between air and vegetation. The strategy followed in this work allows the definition of the transport patterns (e.g. dispersion) established by the model for atmospheric concentrations and the estimated values in vegetation.

  6. Screening of Lactobacillus strains for their ability to bind benzo(a)pyrene and the mechanism of the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongfei; Zhou, Fang; Qi, Yeqiong; Dziugan, Piotr; Bai, Fengling; Walczak, Piotr; Zhang, Bolin

    2013-09-01

    In order to investigate the binding ability of Lactobacillus strains to Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), 15 strains were analysed. L. plantarum CICC 22135 and L. pentosus CICC 23163 exhibited high efficiency in removing BaP from aqueous medium; the binding rates were 66.76% and 64.31%, respectively. This process was affected by temperature, incubation time and pH, and cell viability was not necessary for the binding ability. Additionally, both strains, especially strain CICC 23163 showed high specificity in binding BaP. The cell-BaP complexes were stable in aqueous medium. The mechanism of binding was investigated by examining the binding ability of different components of the microorganism cells. The results revealed that peptidoglycans played an important role in binding BaP and its structural integrity was required. Consequently, we proposed that the mechanism of this process was a physisorption and peptidoglycan was the main binding site. These two strains may be used for dietary detoxification in human diet and animal feed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Soil Aging on the Phytoremediation Potential of Zea mays in Chromium and Benzo[a]Pyrene Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbo, Chibuike

    2015-06-01

    This study compared the phytoremediation potential of Zea mays in soil either aged or freshly amended with chromium (Cr) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Z. mays showed increased shoot biomass in aged soils than in freshly spiked soils. The shoot biomass in contaminated soils increased by over 50% in aged soil when compared to freshly amended soils, and over 29% more Cr was accumulated in the shoot of Z. mays in aged soil than in freshly amended soil. Planting Z. mays in aged soil helped in the dissipation of more than 31% B[a]P than in freshly spiked soil, but in the absence of plants, there seemed to be no difference between the dissipation rates of B[a]P in freshly and aged co-contaminated soil. Z. mays seemed to enhance the simultaneous removal of Cr and B[a]P in aged soil than in freshly spiked soil and hence can be a good plant choice for phytoremediation of co-contaminated soils.

  8. Unmixing of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available techniques is complicated when considering very similar spectral signatures. Iron-bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals have similar spectral signatures. The study focuses on how could estimates of abundances of spectrally similar iron-bearing oxide...

  9. The impact of individual cytochrome P450 enzymes on oxidative metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in human livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Miroslav; Indra, Radek; Moserová, Michaela; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Frei, Eva; Arlt, Volker M; Stiborová, Marie

    2016-04-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a human carcinogen that covalently binds to DNA after metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. In this study human recombinant CYPs (CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2E1, 3A4, and 3A5) were expressed in Supersomes™ together with their reductases, NADPH:CYP oxidoreductase, epoxide hydrolase and cytochrome b5 , to investigate BaP metabolism. Human CYPs produced up to eight BaP metabolites. Among these, BaP-7,8-dihydrodiol and BaP-9-ol, which are intermediates in BaP-derived DNA adduct formation, were mainly formed by CYP1A1 and 1B1, and to a lesser extent by CYP2C19 and 3A4. BaP-3-ol, a metabolite that is a 'detoxified' product of BaP, was formed by most human CYPs tested, although CYP1A1 and 1B1 produced it the most efficiently. Based on the amounts of the individual BaP metabolites formed by these CYPs and their expression levels in human liver, we determined their contributions to BaP metabolite formation in this organ. Our results indicate that hepatic CYP1A1 and CYP2C19 are most important in the activation of BaP to BaP-7,8-dihydrodiol, whereas CYP2C19, 3A4, and 1A1 are the major enzymes contributing to the formation of BaP-9-ol. BaP-3-ol is predominantly formed by hepatic CYP3A4, while CYP1A1 and 2C19 are less active. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effect of benzo[a]pyrene on detoxification and the activity of antioxidant enzymes of marine microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Miao, Jingjing; Li, Yun; Pan, Luqing

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on the detoxification and antioxidant systems of two microalgae, Isochrysis zhanjiangensis and Platymonas subcordiformis. In our study, these two algae were exposed to BaP for 4 days at three different concentrations including 0.5 μg L-1 (low), 3 μg L-1 (mid) and 18 μg L-1 (high). The activity of detoxification enzymes, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased in P. subcordiformis in all BaP-treated groups. In I. zhanjiangensis, the activity of these two enzymes increased at the beginning of exposure, and then decreased in the groups treated with mid- and high BaP. The activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased in I. zhanjiangensis in all BaP-treated groups, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no significant change was observed in P. subcordiformis. The activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) increased in I. zhanjiangensis and P. subcordiformis in all BaPtreated groups. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in Isochrysis zhanjiangensis increased first, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no change occurred in P. subcordiformis. These results demonstrated that BaP significantly influenced the activity of detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes in microalgae. The metabolic related enzymes (EROD, GST and CAT) may serve as sensitive biomarkers of measuring the contamination level of BaP in marine water.

  11. Phytoremediation for co-contaminated soils of chromium and benzo[a]pyrene using Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbo, Chibuike; Batty, Lesley

    2014-02-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out to investigate the single effect of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) or chromium (Cr) and the joint effect of Cr-B[a]P on the growth of Zea mays, its uptake and accumulation of Cr, and the dissipation of B[a]P over 60 days. Results showed that single or joint contamination of Cr and B[a]P did not affect the plant growth relative to control treatments. However, the occurrence of B[a]P had an enhancing effect on the accumulation and translocation of Cr. The accumulation of Cr in shoot of plant significantly increased by ≥ 79 % in 50 mg kg(-1) Cr-B[a]P (1, 5, and 10 mg kg(-1)) treatments and by ≥ 86 % in 100 mg kg(-1) Cr-B[a]P (1, 5, and 10 mg kg(-1)) treatments relative to control treatments. The presence of plants did not enhance the dissipation of B[a]P in lower (1and 5 mg kg(-1)) B[a]P contaminated soils; however, over 60 days of planting Z. mays seemed to enhance the dissipation of B[a]P by over 60 % in 10 mg kg(-1) single contaminated soil and by 28 to 41 % in 10 mg kg(-1)B[a]P co-contaminated soil. This suggests that Z. mays might be a useful plant for the remediation of Cr-B[a]P co-contaminated soil.

  12. Dissipation of available benzo[a]pyrene in aging soil co-contaminated with cadmium and pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Xin-xin; Zhu, Zhi-qiang; Huang, Hua-gang; Li, Ting-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e

    2014-01-01

    A microcosm experiment was conducted to investigate the dissipation of available benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in soils co-contaminated with cadmium (Cd) and pyrene (PYR) during aging process. The available residue of BaP in soil was separated into desorbing and non-desorbing fractions. The desorbing fraction contributed more to the dissipation of available BaP than the non-desorbing fraction did. The concentration of bound-residue fraction of BaP was quite low across all treatments. Within the duration of this study (250 days), transformation of BaP from available fractions to bound-residue fraction was not observed. Microbial degradation was the dominant mechanism of the dissipation of available BaP in the soil. The dissipation of available BaP was significantly inhibited with the increment in Cd level in the soil. The addition of PYR (250 mg kg(-1)) remarkably promoted the dissipation of available BaP without reducing Cd availability in the soil. The calculated half-life of available BaP in the soil prolonged with the increment in Cd level; however, the addition of PYR shortened the half-life of available BaP by 13.1, 12.7, and 32.8% in 0.44, 2.56, and 22 mg Cd kg(-1) soils, respectively. These results demonstrated that the inhibiting effect of Cd and the promoting effect of PYR on the dissipation of available BaP were competitive. Therefore, this study shows that the bioremediation process of BaP can be more complicated in co-contaminated soils.

  13. Biomarker responses in persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus exposed to benzo-a-pyrene and beta-naphthoflavone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimzadeh Katayoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotransformation enzymes of xenobiotics (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, cytochrome P4501A1 content and glutathione-S-transferase were investigated in the liver of Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus after a 96-hour exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, premutagenic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP and beta-naphthoflavone (BNF. The fish were injected 10 mg/kg wet-body weight in corn oil for 96 hours every days. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD and glutathione s-transferase activity (GST were measured in the fish liver. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1 content was estimated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The response appeared as early as 12 hours post exposure. A time-dependent response was observed in the EROD activity, being significantly higher at 48 hours post exposure to 10 mg/kg of BaP. The greatest induction occurred in the fish treated with 10 mg/kg BaP, in which a 32.1- fold increase in EROD activity was observed. Results showed that EROD activity in A. persicus is significantly increased by BaP and BNF treatments. Both chemicals showed higher values of EROD activity compared to the liver CYP1A content. There was a rise in glutathione-S-transferase activity in fish exposed to BNF, but no increase was observed in fish treated with BaP. The results showed that hepatic CYP1A expression in terms of induction of EROD activity might be suited as a biomarker of organic contamination in aquatic environments and led to lower sensitivity of the second phase in the detoxification enzyme.

  14. Analysis of fish bile with HPLC — fluorescence to determine environmental exposure to benzo(a)pyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Eric P.; Baumann, Paul C.

    1989-01-01

    Brown bullhead from the Black River, Ohio, have a high incidence of liver neoplasia which is associated with elevated concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediment. We evaluated the use of biliary concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] equivalents as a means for determining PAH exposure. Bile was collected from 16 brown bullheads and 8 common carp taken from each of two Lake Erie tributaries in Ohio, the industrialized Black River and the non-industrialized Old Woman Creek. Hatchery bullhead (n = 8) were used to determine base levels of PAHs. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) — fluorescence technique was used to determine the concentration of B(a)P equivalents in the bile samples. The area of all peaks fluorescing at 380/430 nm was summed to give a single value for B(a)P equivalents in each sample. Concentrations of B(a)P equivalents generally reflected concentrations of PAH in sediment where fish were collected. Bile taken from Black River carp contained the highest concentration of B(a)P equivalents and was significantly different from all other groups. The value obtained for Black River bullhead was also high and was found to be significantly different from hatchery bullhead. B(a)P equivalents varied between carp and bullhead from the same habitat possibly because of differing food habits or metabolic pathways. However, our results indicate that relative levels of B(a)P equivalents in the bile of fish correspond well to B(a)P levels in sediment and may offer a means of determining environmental exposure of fish to the parent compound.

  15. Dose-related carcinogenic effects of water-borne benzo(a)pyrene on livers of two small fish species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, W.E.; Walker, W.W.; Overstreet, R.M.; Lytle, T.F.; Lytle, J.S.

    1988-12-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) administered by water-borne exposures caused dose-related carcinogenic effects in livers of two small fish species, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Medaka and guppies each were given two 6-h exposures. The first exposure was conducted on 6- to 10-day-old specimens. The second exposure was given 7 days later. The tests incorporated five treatment groups: (1) control, (2) carrier (dimethylformamide) control, (3) low BaP dose (not detectable--4 ppb), (4) intermediate BaP dose (about 8-47 ppb BaP), and (5) high BaP dose (200-270 ppb). Following the high-dose exposure, hepatocellular lesions classified as foci of cellular alteration (altered foci), adenomas, and hepatocellular carcinomas occurred in both species. In medaka, the lesions appeared to develop sequentially with the appearance of altered foci followed by adenomas and then hepatocellular carcinomas. Most lesions in guppies, however, were classified as altered foci although a few adenomas occurred in the early (24-week) sample and hepatocellular carcinomas occurred in the late (52-week) sample. When total lesions were combined, medaka had an 11% incidence at 24 weeks after the initial exposure and 36% incidence at 36 weeks. In guppies, 8% had liver lesions at 24 weeks, 19% at 36 weeks, and 20% at 52 weeks. A single extrahepatic neoplasm, a capillary hemangioma in a gill filament, occurred in a medaka from the 36-week high-dose sample. The results suggest that the medaka and guppy are capable of metabolizing water-borne BaP to carcinogenic metabolites which initiate hepatic tumor development.

  16. Organometallic nanoprobe to enhance optical response on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene immunoassay using SERS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dribek, Mohamed; Rinnert, Emmanuel; Colas, Florent; Crassous, Marie-Pierre; Thioune, Néné; David, Catalina; de la Chapelle, Marc; Compère, Chantal

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrated the use of a new organometallic nanoprobe for competitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) immunoassay devoted to the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in seawater. The nanoprobes are gold nanoparticles (GNPs) labeled by a Raman reporter, the 5,5'-dithiobis(succinimidyl-2-nitrobenzoate) (DSNB) and functionalized with monoclonal antibodies anti-BaP. The antibodies are bound with a high specificity to the analyte while the GNPs enhanced the Raman scattering of the DSNB. This type of immunoassay involved the grafting of BaP onto a sensing surface. Thus, NH 2 -terminated self-assembled monolayer is formed on the surface of gold substrate using cysteamine. Amines finally reacted with 6-formylbenzo[a]pyrene. So, this SERS detection involves four steps: (i) the nanoprobes are incubated with the sample; (ii) a drop of the mixture is then put onto the substrate; (iii) the surface is rinsed; and (iv) the surface is analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. To synthesize the nanoprobes, firstly, we prepared GNPs according to Frens' method. Then, GNPs were spontaneously labeled by the DSNB Raman reporter, thanks to a strong gold-sulfur interaction. Thereafter, BaP antibodies were cross-linked to the DSNB labeled GNPs by reaction of proteins primary amino groups with N-hydroxyl succinimide (NHS). Before use in SERS detection, their activity was controlled by surface plasmon resonance technique. The present method allows us to detect BaP at trace concentration (2 nmol/L). The results demonstrate that the proposed method has a great potential for application in the monitoring of seawater.

  17. Protective effects of Brussels sprouts towards B[a]P-induced DNA damage: a model study with the single-cell gel electrophpresis (SCGE)/Hep G2 assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laky, B.; Knasmuller, S.; Gminski, R.; Mersch-Sundermann, V.; Scharf, G.; Verkerk, R.; Freywald, C.; Uhl, M.; Kassie, F.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemoprotective effects of Brussels sprouts juice towards benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P)-induced DNA damage in the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)/Hep G2 test system. This assay combines the advantages of the SCGE assay with that of the use of

  18. A role for benzo[a]pyrene and Slug in invasive properties of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis: a potential molecular link between smoking and radiographic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaejoon; Jeong, Hyemin; Park, Eun-Jung; Hwang, Ji Won; Bae, Eun-Kyung; Ahn, Joong Kyong; Ahn, Kwang-Sung; Koh, Eun-Mi; Cha, Hoon-Suk

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the effects of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a major toxic component of cigarette smoke, on the expression of Slug and to determine the effect of B[a]P/Slug on the invasive properties of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). The expression of Slug was measured by real-time PCR following the stimulation of FLS with different concentrations of B[a]P or EGF. The phosphorylation of the key enzymes in the signaling pathway was analyzed by western blots. Inhibitors of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway were used to confirm the critical pathway for Slug expression. An in vitro cell invasion assay was performed using RA FLS treated with Slug cDNA, Slug small interference RNA, or control. Slug expression increased significantly following treatment with B[a]P or EGF in a dose-dependent manner. The stimulation of FLS with B[a]P or EGF induced the phosphorylation of Akt kinase, but not in ERK, JNK and p38. The Slug mRNA expression induced by B[a]P and EGF decreased significantly following the treatment with PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors. Slug overexpression using Slug cDNA upregulated the invasive function of FLS, and Slug depletion using siRNA showed the opposite effect compared with the control. In addition, the stimulation with B[a]P increased the invasive function of the control siRNA-treated FLS but not in the Slug siRNA-treated FLS. Our data showed that B[a]P regulates the invasive properties of RA FLS through Slug expression. This mechanism may provide a novel molecular link underlying the association between smoking and increased radiographic progression in RA. Copyright © 2013 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Induction of micronuclei by X radiation and various chemical agents in red blood cells of Pleurodeles waltl. Uptake, release and excretion of one of them: benzo(a)pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinfeld, S.

    1983-11-01

    The first part of the study is concerned with the effects of X radiation and of various substances dissolved in the breeding water (carbaryl, N-nitrosocarbaryl, benzo(a)pyrene, formol, cafeine, colchicine...) on the formation of micronuclei in red blood cells of Pleurodele larvae. The curves of the dose-effect relationships and of the kinetics of micronuclei formation are established for X radiation and benzo(a)pyrene. In the second part, a scintigraphic study concerning benzo(a)pyrene uptake, release and excretion by larvae, is presented. This study enables the dose-effect curve and the kinetics of micronuclei formation for this substance, to be interpreted. This study must allow the development of a cytogenetic test for the detection of radiomimetic substances in aqueous medium. Pleurodele is proposed as a new animal for the study of genetic toxicology [fr

  20. Similarity measures for protein ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of similarities and changes in protein conformation can provide important information regarding protein function and evolution. Many scores, including the commonly used root mean square deviation, have therefore been developed to quantify the similarities of different protein conformatio...

  1. Similarity measures for protein ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of similarities and changes in protein conformation can provide important information regarding protein function and evolution. Many scores, including the commonly used root mean square deviation, have therefore been developed to quantify the similarities of different protein conformations...

  2. Lung retention and metabolic fate of inhaled benzo(a)pyrene associated with diesel exhaust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.D.; Wolff, R.K.; Kanapilly, G.M.; McClellan, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of ultrafine, insoluble, carrier particles on the lung retention and metabolic fate of inhaled PAHs was investigated with a radiolabeled model PAH, [ 3 H]benzo(a)pyrene ( 3 H-BaP). Fischer-344 rats were exposed (30 min) by nose-only inhalation to 3 H-BaP adsorbed (approximately 0.1% by mass) onto diesel engine exhaust particles. The total mass concentration of these aerosols was 4-6 micrograms/liter of air with a mass median diameter of 0.14 micron. Lung clearance of the inhaled particle-associated 3 H radioactivity occurred in two phases. The initially rapid clearance of this inhaled radiolabel had a half-time of less than 1 hr. The second, long-term component of lung clearance had a half-time of 18 +/- 2 days and represented 50 +/- 2% of the 3 H radioactivity that had initially deposited in lungs. In contrast, previous inhalation studies with a pure 3 H-BaP aerosol showed that greater than 99% of the 3 H radioactivity deposited in lungs was cleared within 2 hr after exposure. By HPLC analysis, the majority of diesel soot-associated 3 H radioactivity retained in lungs was BaP (65-76%) with smaller amounts of BaP-phenol (13-17%) and BaP-quinone (5-18%) metabolites also being detected. No other metabolites of BaP were detected in lungs of exposed rats. Tissue distribution and excretion patterns of 3 H radioactivity were qualitatively similar to previous inhalation studies with 3 H-BaP coated Ga2O3 aerosols. These findings suggest that inhaled PAHs may be retained in lungs for a greater period of time when these compounds are associated with diesel engine exhaust particles. These results may have significant implications for the health risks that may be involved with human exposure to particle-associated organic pollutants

  3. Renewing the Respect for Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon eEdelman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemmingfrom its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problemat hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, bysurveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preservingassociative lookup and dimensionality reduction — critical components of many cognitive functions, aswell as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing familyof algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, andon the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-basedideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included inthe core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience.

  4. Semantic Similarity in Biomedical Ontologies

    OpenAIRE

    Pesquita, Catia; Faria, Daniel; Falc?o, Andr? O.; Lord, Phillip; Couto, Francisco M.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies hav...

  5. Adaptive upregulation of DNA repair genes following benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide protects against cell death at the expense of mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann, Markus; Boisseau, Catherine; Kitzinger, Rebekka; Berac, Christian; Allmann, Sebastian; Sommer, Tina; Aasland, Dorthe; Kaina, Bernd; Tomicic, Maja T

    2016-12-15

    A coordinated and faithful DNA damage response is of central importance for maintaining genomic integrity and survival. Here, we show that exposure of human cells to benzo(a)pyrene 9,10-diol-7,8-epoxide (BPDE), the active metabolite of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), which represents a most important carcinogen formed during food preparation at high temperature, smoking and by incomplete combustion processes, causes a prompt and sustained upregulation of the DNA repair genes DDB2, XPC, XPF, XPG and POLH. Induction of these repair factors on RNA and protein level enhanced the removal of BPDE adducts from DNA and protected cells against subsequent BPDE exposure. However, through the induction of POLH the mutation frequency in the surviving cells was enhanced. Activation of these adaptive DNA repair genes was also observed upon B(a)P treatment of MCF7 cells and in buccal cells of human volunteers after cigarette smoking. Our data provide a rational basis for an adaptive response to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which occurs however at the expense of mutations that may drive cancer formation. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. SYSTEM CONTROL OF SMOKING PROCESS AND MEASURING BENZO[A]PYRENE IN TRADITIONAL PRODUCTION OF BOSNIAN DRY CURED HAM (BOSANSKI PRŠUT BY IMPLEMENTING HACCP SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Toroman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As it is well known, traditional production of smoked meat products requires technological processes, which carry some food safety hazards (e.g. content of Benzo[a]pyrene. (B[a]P. “OMEGA COMERC Ltd.”, a member of the meat industry in Visoko region, has implemented food safety management system according to the recommendations from Codex Alimentarius CAC-RCP (9, recommended International Code of Practice - General Principles of Food Hygiene. By implementing HACCP system, the Company established adequate control measures in producing Bosnian dry cured ham (bosanski pršut on traditional way including the smoking process in the chambers. By doing this, they have created conditions to measure B[a]P content in the Bosnian dry cured ham and implement HACCP system without impairing traditional production and food safety of the final product.The aim of this study is to present the effect of the specific production process onto the meat smoking in order to preserve hygienic, nutritional and sensory values, and also to control B[a]P content in the final product.Key words: Bosnian dry cured ham, traditional production, smoking process, Benzo[a]pyrene, HACCP

  7. Similarity Learning of Manifold Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si-Bao; Ding, Chris H Q; Luo, Bin

    2015-09-01

    Without constructing adjacency graph for neighborhood, we propose a method to learn similarity among sample points of manifold in Laplacian embedding (LE) based on adding constraints of linear reconstruction and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator type minimization. Two algorithms and corresponding analyses are presented to learn similarity for mix-signed and nonnegative data respectively. The similarity learning method is further extended to kernel spaces. The experiments on both synthetic and real world benchmark data sets demonstrate that the proposed LE with new similarity has better visualization and achieves higher accuracy in classification.

  8. Identification of stable benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dione-DNA adducts in human lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng; Blair, Ian A; Penning, Trevor M

    2013-05-20

    Metabolic activation of the proximate carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-trans-dihydrodiol (B[a]P-7,8-trans-dihydrodiol) by aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) leads to B[a]P-7,8-dione that is both electrophilic and redox-active. B[a]P-7,8-dione generates reactive oxygen species resulting in oxidative DNA damage in human lung cells. However, information on the formation of stable B[a]P-7,8-dione-DNA adducts in these cells is lacking. We studied stable DNA adduct formation of B[a]P-7,8-dione in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, human bronchoalveolar H358 cells, and immortalized human bronchial epithelial HBEC-KT cells. After treatment with 2 μM B[a]P-7,8-dione, the cellular DNA was extracted from the cell pellets subjected to enzyme hydrolysis and subsequent analysis by LC-MS/MS. Several stable DNA adducts of B[a]P-7,8-dione were only detected in A549 and HBEC-KT cells. In A549 cells, the structures of stable B[a]P-7,8-dione-DNA adducts were identified as hydrated-B[a]P-7,8-dione-N(2)-2'-deoxyguanosine and hydrated-B[a]P-7,8-dione-N1-2'-deoxyguanosine. In HBEC-KT cells, the structures of stable B[a]P-7,8-dione-DNA adducts were identified as hydrated-B[a]P-7,8-dione-2'-deoxyadenosine, hydrated-B[a]P-7,8-dione-N1- or N3-2'-deoxyadenosine, and B[a]P-7,8-dione-N1- or N3-2'-deoxyadenosine. In each case, adduct structures were characterized by MS(n) spectra. Adduct structures were also compared to those synthesized from reactions of B[a]P-7,8-dione with either deoxyribonucleosides or salmon testis DNA in vitro but were found to be different.

  9. Development of a highly sensitive monoclonal antibody based ELISA for detection of benzo[a]pyrene in potable water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matschulat, Diana; Deng, Anping; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar

    2005-07-01

    In Europe, a limit value of 10 ng L(-1) was set by the European Commission for benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in water intended for human consumption (Council Directive 98/83/EC) and, therefore, sensitive and reliable methods are needed to evaluate its presence. We report here on the development of a highly sensitive indirect competitive ELISA for the detection of B[a]P in potable water. Fourteen monoclonal antibodies were generated in mice using novel B[a]P derivatives. The immunoassay with the least interference and the best sensitivity was optimized and characterized. As co-solvent, ten percent methanol (v/v) was determined as the optimum concentration for B[a]P solubilization for use with the developed ELISA. With the purified antibody (clone 22F12) the average IC50 for B[a]P and corresponding detection limit at a signal:noise (S/N) ratio of 3 was 65 ng L(-1) and 24 ng L(-1), respectively. From the 16 EPA-designated PAHs, only chrysene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene showed a cross-reactivity (CR) higher than 20%. No CR was observed for two- and three-ringed aromatics as well as dibenz[ah]anthracene and benzo[ghi]perylene. The effect of pH value (range 6.5-9.5), ionic strength (specific electric conductivity 1 microS cm(-1)-2.5 mS cm(-1)), and inorganic ions (sodium, copper, iron, aluminium, manganese, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and nitrite at maximum permissible levels according to the Council Directive) on both signal and sensitivity of the ELISA was studied. No significant influence of these parameters on the ELISA competition curve was found. We suggest that the optimized ELISA can be used to monitor potable water samples without previous extraction from the samples. The assay should facilitate the cleanup of B[a]P contaminated sites where B[a]P levels fall close to the limit value of the new drinking water directive.

  10. Impact of benzo(a)pyrene, Cu and their mixture on the proteomic response of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria, V.L., E-mail: vmaria@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Gomes, T., E-mail: tcgomes@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Barreira, L., E-mail: lbarreir@ualg.pt [CCMAR, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Bebianno, M.J., E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Distinct protein expression profiles dependent of BaP and Cu accumulation, metabolism and chemical interactions in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. •Processes that involve adhesion and motility, cytoskeleton and cell structure, stress response, transcription regulation and energy metabolism are common mechanisms. •Traditional (ATP synthase, GST, HSP and actin) and novel biomarkers for BaP (ZFP), Cu (chitin synthase) and mixture (MVP) exposures identified in mussels. -- Abstract: In natural waters, chemical interactions between mixtures of contaminants can result in potential synergistic and/or antagonic effects in aquatic animals. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and copper (Cu) are two widespread environmental contaminants with known toxicity towards mussels Mytilus spp. The effects of the individual and the interaction of BaP and Cu exposures were assessed in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis using proteomic analysis. Mussels were exposed to BaP [10 μg L{sup −1} (0.396 μM)], and Cu [10 μg L{sup −1} (0.16 μM)], as well as to their binary mixture (mixture) for a period of 7 days. Proteomic analysis showed different protein expression profiles associated to each selected contaminant condition. A non-additive combined effect was observed in mixture in terms of new and suppressed proteins. Proteins more drastically altered (new, suppressed and 2-fold differentially expressed) were excised and analyzed by mass spectrometry, and eighteen putatively identified. Protein identification demonstrated the different accumulation, metabolism and chemical interactions of BaP, Cu and their mixture, resulting in different modes of action. Proteins associated with adhesion and motility (catchin, twitchin and twitchin-like protein), cytoskeleton and cell structure (α-tubulin and actin), stress response (heat shock cognate 71, heat shock protein 70, putative C1q domain containing protein), transcription regulation (zinc-finger BED domain-containing and nuclear

  11. Molecular dosimetry of DNA adducts in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to benzo(a)pyrene by different routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, D.; Clarius, T.M.; Wright, A.S.; Watson, W.P.

    1994-01-01

    Farm raised rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed by various routes to benzo(a)pyrene (BP) as a representative carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Following exposure of fish to the chemical by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, 32 P-postlabelling studies indicated that non-feral trout were relatively resistant to the formation of BP-DNA adducts in liver. No adducts were detected in fish exposed to single doses (20 mg/kg) of BP. Multiple exposures (e.g. 2 x 25 mg/kg) were necessary in order for adducts to be detected, indicating that induction of the metabolising enzymes required for the bioactivation of BP is necessary. These studies provided reference information on DNA adducts for comparison with data from subsequent experiments at environmentally realistic low level exposures. Two types of low level aquatic exposure were carried out. The first procedure exposed fish for 30 days to a nominally constant low level (1.2 and 0.4 μg/l) of a homogeneous dispersion of BP in water, to simulate low level aquatic environmental exposures. Following 32 P-postlabelling analysis of the liver DNA of exposed fish, BP-DNA adducts were not detected. In the second procedure, fish were exposed to a constant low level of BP (ca. 0.5 μg/l) for 15 days then to a pulse (60 μg/l) which was allowed to naturally decline (to ca. 2 μg/l) during a further 15 days. Following this exposure, significant levels of BP-DNA adducts were detected in livers of trout. The effect of dietary exposures was investigated by feeding trout a diet containing either 58 μg or 288 μg BP per day for 6 days, equivalent to total doses of 43 mg/kg and 216 mg/kg. In both cases BP-DNA adducts were detected in livers of exposed fish. The results provide useful information on the types of exposures to PAHs which may pose a genotoxic risk to fish in the environment. (orig.)

  12. Comparative Effects of Ingested PVC Micro Particles With and Without Adsorbed Benzo(apyrene vs. Spiked Sediments on the Cellular and Sub Cellular Processes of the Benthic Organism Hediste diversicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Gomiero

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plastic micro litter represents an emerging contaminant as well as a multiple stress agent in aquatic environments. Microplastics are found even in the remote areas of the world. Together with their occurrence in all environmental compartments, there is a growing concern about their potential to adsorb pollutants co-occurring in the environment. At present, little is known about this source of exposure for aquatic organisms in the benthic environment. Exposure conditions were set up to mimick the contribution of microplastics through different exposure routes. Potential biological effects resulting from these exposures were investigated in the model organism Hediste diversicolor, an annelid worm. Cellular effects including alterations of immunological responses, lysosomal compartment changes, mitochondrial activity, oxyradical production and onset of genotoxicity were assessed in coelomocytes while temporary and permanent effects of oxidative stress were also performed at tissue level. In this study polyvinylchloride (PVC microparticles were shown to adsorb benzo(apyrene with a time and dose-dependent relationship. The elevated bioavailability of the model pollutant after ingestion induced a clear pattern of biological responses. Toxicity mainly targeted impairment of cellular functioning and genotoxicity in H. diversicolor coelomocytes, while permanent effects of oxidative stress were observed at tissue level. Coelomocytes responded fast and with a higher degree of sensitivity to the adverse stimuli. The results showed that microplastic particles in sediments may play a significant role as vectors for organic pollutants. The highest adverse responses were observed in those H. diversicolor exposed to sediments spiked with PVC particles pre-incubated with B[a]P when compared against sediments spiked with B[a]P and plastic microparticles separately.

  13. Baicalein, unlike 4-hydroxytamoxifen but similar to G15, suppresses 17β-estradiol-induced cell invasion, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and activation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Hong, Duan-Yang; Wang, Jing; Ling-Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Pan, Di; Xu, Yi-Ni; Tao, Ling; Luo, Hong; Shen, Xiang-Chun

    2017-08-01

    Estrogen performs an important role in the growth and development of breast cancer. There are at least three major receptors, including estrogen receptor (ER)α and β, and G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), which mediate the actions of estrogen through using transcriptional and rapid non-genomic signaling pathways. Flavonoids have been considered candidates for chemopreventive agents in breast cancer. Baicalein, the primary flavonoid derived from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been reported to exert an anti-estrogenic effect. In the present study, the effects of baicalein on 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced cell invasion, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression and activation were investigated. Furthermore, its effects were compared with that of the active form of the ER modulator tamoxifen 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT) and the GPR30 antagonist G15 in ERα- and GPR30-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The results demonstrated that OHT failed to prevent E2-induced cell invasion, upregulation and proteolytic activity of MMP-9. However, baicalein was able to significantly suppress these E2-induced effects. Furthermore, E2-stimulated invasion, and MMP-9 expression and activation were significantly attenuated following G15 treatment. In addition, baicalein significantly inhibited G-1, a specific GPR30 agonist, induced invasion, and reduced G-1 promoted expression and activity of MMP-9, consistent with effects of G15. The results of the present study suggest that baicalein is a therapeutic candidate for GPR30-positive breast cancer treatment, and besides ERα targeting the GPR30 receptor it may achieve additional therapeutic benefits in breast cancer.

  14. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  15. Towards personalized medicine: leveraging patient similarity and drug similarity analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHR) provides a comprehensive source for exploratory and predictive analytic to support clinical decision-making. In this paper, we investigate how to utilize EHR to tailor treatments to individual patients based on their likelihood to respond to a therapy. We construct a heterogeneous graph which includes two domains (patients and drugs) and encodes three relationships (patient similarity, drug similarity, and patient-drug prior associations). We describe a novel approach for performing a label propagation procedure to spread the label information representing the effectiveness of different drugs for different patients over this heterogeneous graph. The proposed method has been applied on a real-world EHR dataset to help identify personalized treatments for hypercholesterolemia. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and suggest that the combination of appropriate patient similarity and drug similarity analytics could lead to actionable insights for personalized medicine. Particularly, by leveraging drug similarity in combination with patient similarity, our method could perform well even on new or rarely used drugs for which there are few records of known past performance.

  16. Similar psychological distance reduces temporal discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunji; Schnall, Simone; White, Mathew P

    2013-08-01

    People often prefer inferior options in the present even when options in the future are more lucrative. Five studies investigated whether decision making could be improved by manipulating construal level and psychological distance. In Studies 1a, 1b, and 2, temporal discounting was reduced when future rewards (trips to Paris) were construed at a relatively concrete level, thus inducing a similar level of construal to present rewards. By contrast, Studies 3 and 4 reduced temporal discounting by making present financial rewards more psychologically distant via a social proximity manipulation, and thus linked to a similar high level of construal as future rewards. These results suggest that people prefer the more lucrative option when comparing two intertemporal choices that are construed on a similar level instead of on a different level. Thus, changes in construal level and mental representations can be used to promote more desirable choices in economic decision making.

  17. Semantic similarity in biomedical ontologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Pesquita

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies have been published in the last few years describing and evaluating diverse approaches. Semantic similarity has become a valuable tool for validating the results drawn from biomedical studies such as gene clustering, gene expression data analysis, prediction and validation of molecular interactions, and disease gene prioritization. We review semantic similarity measures applied to biomedical ontologies and propose their classification according to the strategies they employ: node-based versus edge-based and pairwise versus groupwise. We also present comparative assessment studies and discuss the implications of their results. We survey the existing implementations of semantic similarity measures, and we describe examples of applications to biomedical research. This will clarify how biomedical researchers can benefit from semantic similarity measures and help them choose the approach most suitable for their studies.Biomedical ontologies are evolving toward increased coverage, formality, and integration, and their use for annotation is increasingly becoming a focus of both effort by biomedical experts and application of automated annotation procedures to create corpora of higher quality and completeness than are currently available. Given that semantic similarity measures are directly dependent on these evolutions, we can expect to see them gaining more relevance and even becoming as essential as sequence similarity is today in biomedical research.

  18. Semantic similarity in biomedical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquita, Catia; Faria, Daniel; Falcão, André O; Lord, Phillip; Couto, Francisco M

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies have been published in the last few years describing and evaluating diverse approaches. Semantic similarity has become a valuable tool for validating the results drawn from biomedical studies such as gene clustering, gene expression data analysis, prediction and validation of molecular interactions, and disease gene prioritization. We review semantic similarity measures applied to biomedical ontologies and propose their classification according to the strategies they employ: node-based versus edge-based and pairwise versus groupwise. We also present comparative assessment studies and discuss the implications of their results. We survey the existing implementations of semantic similarity measures, and we describe examples of applications to biomedical research. This will clarify how biomedical researchers can benefit from semantic similarity measures and help them choose the approach most suitable for their studies.Biomedical ontologies are evolving toward increased coverage, formality, and integration, and their use for annotation is increasingly becoming a focus of both effort by biomedical experts and application of automated annotation procedures to create corpora of higher quality and completeness than are currently available. Given that semantic similarity measures are directly dependent on these evolutions, we can expect to see them gaining more relevance and even becoming as essential as sequence similarity is today in biomedical research.

  19. Method of similarity for cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espanet, L.; Tekatlian, A.; Barbier, D. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Gouin, H. [Aix-Marseille-3 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France). Laboratoire de Modelisation en Mecanique et Thermodynamique

    1998-07-01

    The knowledge of possible cavitation in subassembly nozzles of the fast reactor core implies the realization of a fluid dynamic model test. We propose a method of similarity based on the non-dimensionalization of the equation of motion for viscous capillarity fluid issued from the Cahn and Hilliard model. Taking into account the dissolved gas effect, a condition of compatibility is determined. This condition must be respected by the fluid in experiment, along with the scaling between the two similar flows. (author)

  20. Method of similarity for cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espanet, L.; Tekatlian, A.; Barbier, D.; Gouin, H.

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge of possible cavitation in subassembly nozzles of the fast reactor core implies the realization of a fluid dynamic model test. We propose a method of similarity based on the non-dimensionalization of the equation of motion for viscous capillarity fluid issued from the Cahn and Hilliard model. Taking into account the dissolved gas effect, a condition of compatibility is determined. This condition must be respected by the fluid in experiment, along with the scaling between the two similar flows. (author)

  1. Expression of P190 and P210 BCR/ABL1 in normal human CD34(+) cells induces similar gene expression profiles and results in a STAT5-dependent expansion of the erythroid lineage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järås, Marcus; Johnels, Petra; Agerstam, Helena

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The P190 and P210 BCR/ABL1 fusion genes are mainly associated with different types of hematologic malignancies, but it is presently unclear whether they are functionally different following expression in primitive human hematopoietic cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated...... and systematically compared the effects of retroviral P190 BCR/ABL1 and P210 BCR/ABL1 expression on cell proliferation, differentiation, and global gene expression in human CD34(+) cells from cord blood. RESULTS: Expression of either P190 BCR/ABL1 or P210 BCR/ABL1 resulted in expansion of erythroid cells...... and stimulated erythropoietin-independent burst-forming unit-erythroid colony formation. By using a lentiviral anti-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) short-hairpin RNA, we found that both P190 BCR/ABL1- and P210 BCR/ABL1-induced erythroid cell expansion were STAT5-dependent. Under...

  2. Inferring gene ontologies from pairwise similarity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael; Dutkowski, Janusz; Yu, Michael; Bafna, Vineet; Ideker, Trey

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: While the manually curated Gene Ontology (GO) is widely used, inferring a GO directly from -omics data is a compelling new problem. Recognizing that ontologies are a directed acyclic graph (DAG) of terms and hierarchical relations, algorithms are needed that: analyze a full matrix of gene–gene pairwise similarities from -omics data;infer true hierarchical structure in these data rather than enforcing hierarchy as a computational artifact; andrespect biological pleiotropy, by which a term in the hierarchy can relate to multiple higher level terms. Methods addressing these requirements are just beginning to emerge—none has been evaluated for GO inference. Methods: We consider two algorithms [Clique Extracted Ontology (CliXO), LocalFitness] that uniquely satisfy these requirements, compared with methods including standard clustering. CliXO is a new approach that finds maximal cliques in a network induced by progressive thresholding of a similarity matrix. We evaluate each method’s ability to reconstruct the GO biological process ontology from a similarity matrix based on (a) semantic similarities for GO itself or (b) three -omics datasets for yeast. Results: For task (a) using semantic similarity, CliXO accurately reconstructs GO (>99% precision, recall) and outperforms other approaches (Ontology) and better than LocalFitness or standard clustering (20–25% precision, recall). Conclusion: This study provides algorithmic foundation for building gene ontologies by capturing hierarchical and pleiotropic structure embedded in biomolecular data. Contact: tideker@ucsd.edu PMID:24932003

  3. Visualizing multiple word similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit-Kylar, Brent; Jones, Michael N

    2012-09-01

    Although many recent advances have taken place in corpus-based tools, the techniques used to guide exploration and evaluation of these systems have advanced little. Typically, the plausibility of a semantic space is explored by sampling the nearest neighbors to a target word and evaluating the neighborhood on the basis of the modeler's intuition. Tools for visualization of these large-scale similarity spaces are nearly nonexistent. We present a new open-source tool to plot and visualize semantic spaces, thereby allowing researchers to rapidly explore patterns in visual data that describe the statistical relations between words. Words are visualized as nodes, and word similarities are shown as directed edges of varying strengths. The "Word-2-Word" visualization environment allows for easy manipulation of graph data to test word similarity measures on their own or in comparisons between multiple similarity metrics. The system contains a large library of statistical relationship models, along with an interface to teach them from various language sources. The modularity of the visualization environment allows for quick insertion of new similarity measures so as to compare new corpus-based metrics against the current state of the art. The software is available at www.indiana.edu/~semantic/word2word/.

  4. Prenatal Exposure of Cypermethrin Induces Similar Alterations in Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Cytochrome P450s and Rate-Limiting Enzymes of Neurotransmitter Synthesis in Brain Regions of Rat Offsprings During Postnatal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anshuman; Mudawal, Anubha; Maurya, Pratibha; Jain, Rajeev; Nair, Saumya; Shukla, Rajendra K; Yadav, Sanjay; Singh, Dhirendra; Khanna, Vinay Kumar; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar; Mudiam, Mohana K R; Sethumadhavan, Rao; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Parmar, Devendra

    2016-08-01

    Oral administration of low doses of cypermethrin to pregnant Wistar rats led to a dose-dependent differences in the induction of xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450s (CYPs) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in brain regions isolated from the offsprings postnatally at 3 weeks that persisted up to adulthood. Similar alterations were observed in the expression of rate-limiting enzymes of neurotransmitter synthesis in brain regions of rat offsprings. These persistent changes were associated with alterations in circulating levels of growth hormone (GH), cognitive functions, and accumulation of cypermethrin and its metabolites in brain regions of exposed offsprings. Though molecular docking studies failed to identify similarities between the docked conformations of cypermethrin with CYPs and neurotransmitter receptors, in silico analysis identified regulatory sequences of CYPs in the promoter region of rate-limiting enzymes of neurotransmitter synthesis. Further, rechallenge of the prenatally exposed offsprings at adulthood with cypermethrin (p.o. 10 mg/kg × 6 days) led to a greater magnitude of alterations in the expression of CYPs and rate-limiting enzymes of neurotransmitter synthesis in different brain regions. These alterations were associated with a greater magnitude of decrease in the circulating levels of GH and cognitive functions in rechallenged offsprings. Our data has led us to suggest that due to the immaturity of CYPs in fetus or during early development, even the low-level exposure of cypermethrin may be sufficient to interact with the CYPs, which in turn affect the neurotransmission processes and may help in explaining the developmental neurotoxicity of cypermethrin.

  5. Similarities and Differences in Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Sun, Yan; Liang, Jie; Lu, Lin; Shi, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Similar symptomatology manifestations and high co-morbidity in substance and non-substance addictions suggest that there may be a common pathogenesis between them. Associated with impulse control and emotional processing, the monoamine neurotransmitter system genes are suggested to be related to both substance and non-substance addictions, such as dopamine (DA) system, 5-hydroxytryptamine/serotonin (5-HT) system, the endogenous opioid system and so on. Here we reviewed the similarities and differences in genetics between classic substance addiction and common types of non-substance addiction, e.g. pathological gambling, Internet addiction, binge-eating disorder etc. It is necessary to systematically compare genetic mechanisms of non-substance addiction and substance addiction, which could reveal similarities and differences of substance addiction and non-addictive substances essentially, enhance our understanding of addiction theory and improve clinical practice with research results.

  6. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  7. Identifying mechanistic similarities in drug responses

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, C.

    2012-05-15

    Motivation: In early drug development, it would be beneficial to be able to identify those dynamic patterns of gene response that indicate that drugs targeting a particular gene will be likely or not to elicit the desired response. One approach would be to quantitate the degree of similarity between the responses that cells show when exposed to drugs, so that consistencies in the regulation of cellular response processes that produce success or failure can be more readily identified.Results: We track drug response using fluorescent proteins as transcription activity reporters. Our basic assumption is that drugs inducing very similar alteration in transcriptional regulation will produce similar temporal trajectories on many of the reporter proteins and hence be identified as having similarities in their mechanisms of action (MOA). The main body of this work is devoted to characterizing similarity in temporal trajectories/signals. To do so, we must first identify the key points that determine mechanistic similarity between two drug responses. Directly comparing points on the two signals is unrealistic, as it cannot handle delays and speed variations on the time axis. Hence, to capture the similarities between reporter responses, we develop an alignment algorithm that is robust to noise, time delays and is able to find all the contiguous parts of signals centered about a core alignment (reflecting a core mechanism in drug response). Applying the proposed algorithm to a range of real drug experiments shows that the result agrees well with the prior drug MOA knowledge. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  8. Antigen-specific CD4 T cells are induced after intravesical BCG-instillation therapy in patients with bladder cancer and show similar cytokine profiles as in active tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Elsäßer

    Full Text Available Specific T cell immunity in patients with active tuberculosis is associated with a decrease in multifunctionality. However, it is unknown whether cytokine profiles differ in patients with primary infection and those with prior contact. We therefore used intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated live Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG in patients with urothelial carcinoma as a model to characterise the induction of systemic immunity towards purified protein derivate (PPD and to study whether cytokine profiles differ depending on pre-existing immunity. Eighteen patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer were recruited during the BCG-induction course. Fifty-four healthy individuals served as controls. Interferon (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-2 producing PPD-specific CD4 T cells were analysed longitudinally before each instillation using a rapid flow-cytometric whole blood immunoassay. Baseline levels of IFN-γ producing PPD-specific T cells were comparable to controls. T cells showed a 5-fold increase to 0.23% by week 2/3, and further increased 8-fold by week 4/5 (to 0.42%, p=0.0007. Systemic immunity was induced in all patients, although the increase was less pronounced in patients with pre-existing immunity. As in active TB, cytokine profiling during therapy revealed a lower percentage of multifunctional IFN-γ/IL-2 double-positive T cells compared to controls (60.2% vs. 71.9%, p=0.0003. Of note, when comparing patients with and without pre-existing immunity, cytokine profiles in patients with primary immunity were shifted towards IL-2 single producing T cells (p=0.02, whereas those in patients with pre-existing immunity were shifted towards IFN-γ single-positivity (p=0.01. In conclusion, systemic T cell responses were induced after BCG-therapy, and their kinetics and cytokine profile depended on pre-existing immunity. Decreased functionality is a typical feature of specific immunity in both patients with active tuberculosis and BCG

  9. Glove boxes and similar containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    According to the present invention a glove box or similar containment is provided with an exhaust system including a vortex amplifier venting into the system, the vortex amplifier also having its main inlet in fluid flow connection with the containment and a control inlet in fluid flow connection with the atmosphere outside the containment. (U.S.)

  10. Revisiting Inter-Genre Similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Gouyon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the idea of ``inter-genre similarity'' (IGS) for machine learning in general, and music genre recognition in particular. We show analytically that the probability of error for IGS is higher than naive Bayes classification with zero-one loss (NB). We show empirically that IGS does...

  11. Effect of Söderberg smelting technology, anode paste composition, and work shift on the relationship between benzo[a]pyrene and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Eric; Kelly, Peter; Farant, Jean-Pierre

    2005-02-01

    This follow-up study of Farant and Gariepy study investigates the relationship between benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in coal tar pitch volatiles in two types of Soderberg aluminum smelters-horizontal and vertical stud. The study confirms the strong relationships between B[a]P and total PAHs, and that B[a]P was a good indicator for other PAHs in this industry. The PAH profiles were consistent within each smelter, but the smelter technology used and the changes in the raw material formulation resulted in significantly different profiles. B[a]P toxic equivalency factors for emitted PAH mixtures were greater in the horizontal stud smelter than in the vertical stud smelter. Overall, this study illustrates the potential usefulness of B[a]P relative abundance ratios to simplify exposure assessment in the workplace and reduce associated costs.

  12. Active browsing using similarity pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jau-Yuen; Bouman, Charles A.; Dalton, John C.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a new approach to managing large image databases, which we call active browsing. Active browsing integrates relevance feedback into the browsing environment, so that users can modify the database's organization to suit the desired task. Our method is based on a similarity pyramid data structure, which hierarchically organizes the database, so that it can be efficiently browsed. At coarse levels, the similarity pyramid allows users to view the database as large clusters of similar images. Alternatively, users can 'zoom into' finer levels to view individual images. We discuss relevance feedback for the browsing process, and argue that it is fundamentally different from relevance feedback for more traditional search-by-query tasks. We propose two fundamental operations for active browsing: pruning and reorganization. Both of these operations depend on a user-defined relevance set, which represents the image or set of images desired by the user. We present statistical methods for accurately pruning the database, and we propose a new 'worm hole' distance metric for reorganizing the database, so that members of the relevance set are grouped together.

  13. Extraction and analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzo[a]pyrene metabolites in microalgae cultures by off-line/on-line methodology based on matrix solid-phase dispersion, solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos-Espejel, José J; García de Llasera, Martha P; Velasco-Cruz, Marisol

    2012-11-02

    This paper describes the development and validation of an analytical methodology to determine the presence of four PAHs: benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene in cultures of the green microalgae Selenastrum capricornutum. The metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), 4,5-dihydrodiol benzo[a]pyrene, 9,10-dihydrodiol benzo[a]pyrene, 3-hydroxy benzo[a]pyrene and 9-hydroxy benzo[a]pyrene were also included. The methodology consisted of three parts: (1) separation of liquid media from biomass samples by centrifugation of pure cultures, (2) off-line extraction of analytes from biomass by a miniaturized matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) method and from liquid media by a solid phase extraction (SPE) method and (3) on-line SPE preconcentration and analysis of the MSPD and SPE extracts, separately, by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD). The off-line/on-line (MSPD/SPE-HPLC-FD) method was validated over a concentration range of 20-200 pg mg(-1) obtaining good linearity (r(2)>0.9912) and precision values measured as relative standard deviation (RSD)line/on-line (SPE/SPE-HPLC-FD) method was validated over a concentration range of 5-120 pg mL(-1); r(2)>0.9913 and RSD<7.36%, recovery values were in the range of 38-74% and LODs ranged from 0.8 to 2.3 pg mL(-1). This methodology was applied to samples from cultures exposed to BaP at 5 ng mL(-1) with different exposure times (0.75, 1.5, 3, 6, 24 and 48 h). The analytical methodology was suitable for measuring the very low amounts of residual BaP and metabolites produced in bioassays. Results showed that some of the metabolites favored by the microalgae are the dihydrodiols. The microalgae cultures were able to decrease the BaP level in the liquid medium below the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) limit (<0.2 ng mL(-1)). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Seniority bosons from similarity transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, H.B.

    1986-01-01

    The requirement of associating in the boson space seniority with twice the number of non-s bosons defines a similarity transformation which re-expresses the Dyson pair boson images in terms of seniority bosons. In particular the fermion S-pair creation operator is mapped onto an operator which, unlike the pair boson image, does not change the number of non-s bosons. The original results of Otsuka, Arima and Iachello are recovered by this procedure while at the same time they are generalized to include g-bosons or even bosons with J>4 as well as any higher order boson terms. Furthermore the seniority boson images are valid for an arbitrary number of d- or g-bosons - a result which is not readily obtainable within the framework of the usual Marumori- or OAI-method

  15. DNA oxidation and DNA repair in gills of zebra mussels exposed to cadmium and benzo(a)pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Cécile; Vincent-Hubert, Françoise

    2015-11-01

    Freshwater bivalve molluscs are considered as effective indicators of environmental pollution. The comet assay allows the detection of DNA damage such as DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites. The main oxidative lesion, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), which is a pre-mutagenic lesion, can be detected by the comet assay coupled with the hOGG1 DNA repair enzyme. With this modified assay we recently observed that BaP induced 8-oxodG lesions and with the modified comet-Fpg assay we observed that Cd induced oxidative DNA damage. The aim of this study was to determine the stability of DNA lesions in Cd and BaP exposed zebra mussels using the comet-hOGG1 assay. Mussels were exposed for 24 h to these two chemicals and then placed in clean water for 6 days. We observed that BaP (7, 12 and 18 µg/L) induced an increase of DNA strand break levels as soon as 6 h of exposure and that the two highest concentrations of BaP induced a low level of hOGG1-sensitive sites. After 2 days of depuration, BaP induced DNA lesions returned to the basal level, indicating an effective DNA repair. Cd (3, 32 and 81 µg/L) induced an increase of the DNA strand break levels and a low level of hOGG1-sensitive sites. This study revealed that BaP-induced DNA lesions are repaired more efficiently than Cd-induced DNA lesions. As the level of hOGG1 sensitive sites was increased in Cd and BaP exposed mussels, it seems that these chemicals induce 8-oxo-dG.

  16. Mutagenic activation and detoxification of benzo[a]pyrene in vitro by hepatic cytochrome P450 1A1 and phase II enzymes in three meat-producing animals

    OpenAIRE

    Darwish, W.; Ikenaka, Y.; Eldaly, E.; Ishizuka, M.

    2010-01-01

    The mutagenic activation activity of hepatic microsomes from three meat-producing animals (cattle, deer and horses) was compared with those of rats as a reference species. In the Ames Salmonella typhimurium TA98 assay, the liver microsomes of all examined animals mutagenically activated benzo[a]pyrene, an ideal promutagens, in terms of production of histidine-independent revertant colonies. The microsomes of horses had the highest ability to produce revertant colonies of the examined animals...

  17. Inducing a measure of phonetic similarity from pronunciation variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, Martijn; Margaretha, Eliza; Nerbonne, John

    Structuralists famously observed that language is "un systeme oil tout se tient" (Meillet, 1903, p.407), insisting that the system of relations of linguistic units was more important than their concrete content. This study attempts to derive content from relations, in particular phonetic (acoustic)

  18. Sustained induction of cytochrome P4501A1 in human hepatoma cells by co-exposure to benzo[a]pyrene and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole underlies the synergistic effects on DNA adduct formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gábelová, Alena, E-mail: alena.gabelova@savba.sk [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Poláková, Veronika [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Prochazka, Gabriela [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Kretová, Miroslava; Poloncová, Katarína; Regendová, Eva; Luciaková, Katarína [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Segerbäck, Dan [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    To gain a deeper insight into the potential interactions between individual aromatic hydrocarbons in a mixture, several benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) binary mixtures were studied. The biological activity of the binary mixtures was investigated in the HepG2 and WB-F344 liver cell lines and the Chinese hamster V79 cell line that stably expresses the human cytochrome P4501A1 (hCYP1A1). In the V79 cells, binary mixtures, in contrast to individual carcinogens, caused a significant decrease in the levels of micronuclei, DNA adducts and gene mutations, but not in cell survival. Similarly, a lower frequency of micronuclei and levels of DNA adducts were found in rat liver WB-F344 cells treated with a binary mixture, regardless of the exposure time. The observed antagonism between B[a]P and DBC may be due to an inhibition of Cyp1a1 expression because cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC showed a decrease in Cyp1a1 mRNA levels. In human liver HepG2 cells exposed to binary mixtures for 2 h, a reduction in micronuclei frequency was also found. However, after a 24 h treatment, synergism between B[a]P and DBC was determined based on DNA adduct formation. Accordingly, the up-regulation of CYP1A1 expression was detected in HepG2 cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC. Our results show significant differences in the response of human and rat cells to B[a]P:DBC mixtures and stress the need to use multiple experimental systems when evaluating the potential risk of environmental pollutants. Our data also indicate that an increased expression of CYP1A1 results in a synergistic effect of B[a]P and DBC in human cells. As humans are exposed to a plethora of noxious chemicals, our results have important implications for human carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • B[a]P:DBC mixtures were less genotoxic in V79MZh1A1 cells than B[a]P and DBC alone. • An antagonism between B[a]P and DBC was determined in rat liver WB-F344 cells. • The inhibition of CYP1a1 expression by B[a]P:DBC mixture

  19. Benzo[a]pyrene affects Jurkat T cells in the activated state via the antioxidant response element dependent Nrf2 pathway leading to decreased IL-2 secretion and redirecting glutamine metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Rockstroh, Maxie; Wagner, Juliane [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Baumann, Sven [Department of Metabolomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Schorsch, Katrin [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Trump, Saskia; Lehmann, Irina [Department of Environmental Immunology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Bergen, Martin von [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Environmental Immunology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark); Tomm, Janina M., E-mail: Janina.tomm@ufz.de [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    There is a clear evidence that environmental pollutants, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), can have detrimental effects on the immune system, whereas the underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. Jurkat T cells share many properties with native T lymphocytes and therefore are an appropriate model to analyze the effects of environmental pollutants on T cells and their activation. Since environmental compounds frequently occur at low, not acute toxic concentrations, we analyzed the effects of two subtoxic concentrations, 50 nM and 5 μM, on non- and activated cells. B[a]P interferes directly with the stimulation process as proven by an altered IL-2 secretion. Furthermore, B[a]P exposure results in significant proteomic changes as shown by DIGE analysis. Pathway analysis revealed an involvement of the AhR independent Nrf2 pathway in the altered processes observed in unstimulated and stimulated cells. A participation of the Nrf2 pathway in the change of IL-2 secretion was confirmed by exposing cells to the Nrf2 activator tBHQ. tBHQ and 5 μM B[a]P caused similar alterations of IL-2 secretion and glutamine/glutamate metabolism. Moreover, the proteome changes in unstimulated cells point towards a modified regulation of the cytoskeleton and cellular stress response, which was proven by western blotting. Additionally, there is a strong evidence for alterations in metabolic pathways caused by B[a]P exposure in stimulated cells. Especially the glutamine/glutamate metabolism was indicated by proteome pathway analysis and validated by metabolite measurements. The detrimental effects were slightly enhanced in stimulated cells, suggesting that stimulated cells are more vulnerable to the environmental pollutant model compound B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P affects the proteome of Jurkat T cells also at low concentrations. • Exposure to B[a]P (50 nM, 5 μM) did not change Jurkat T cell viability. • Both B[a]P concentrations altered the IL-2 secretion of stimulated cells.

  20. Functional Categorization of Transcriptome in the Species Symphysodon aequifasciatus Pellegrin 1904 (Perciformes: Cichlidae) Exposed to Benzo[a]pyrene and Phenanthrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemgruber, Renato de Souza Pinto; Marshall, Nislanha Ana dos Anjos; Ghelfi, Andrea; Fagundes, Daniel Barros; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the transcriptome alterations, through cDNA libraries, associated with the combined effects of two PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene (0.5 µg/L) and phenanthrene (50 µg/L), present in crude oil, on specimens of Symphysodon aequifasciatus (discus fish) after 48 h of exposure. The cDNA libraries were constructed according to the SOLiD™ SAGE™ protocol for sequencing in the SOLiD v.3 Plus sequencer. The results were analyzed by bioinformatics and differentially expressed genes were categorized using the gene ontology program. The functional categories (terms) found in the gene ontology and the gene network generated using STRING software were used to predict the adverse effects of benzo[a]pyrene and phenanthrene in the liver. In the present study, 27,127 genes (compared to Danio rerio database) were identified. Considering only those genes with a p-value less than or equal to 0.05 and greater than or equal to two-fold change in expression across libraries, we found 804 genes, 438 down-regulated (54%) and 366 up-regulated (46%), in the experimental group compared to the control. Out of this total, 327 genes were successfully categorized, 174 down-regulated and 153 up-regulated, using gene ontology. Using String, the gene network was composed by 199 nodes, 124 of them resulting in 274 interactions. The results showed that even an acute exposure of 48 h caused metabolic change in response to environmental contaminants, resulting in changes of cell integrity, in oxidation-reduction processes, in the immune response and disturbances of intracellular signaling of discus fish. Also the gene network has showed no central interplay cluster, exhibiting instead interconnected clusters interactions and connected sub-networks. These findings highlight that even an acute sublethal exposure of PAHs can cause metabolism changes that may affect survival of discus. Our findings using SOLiD coupled with SAGE-method resulted in a powerful and reliable means for gene

  1. Metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene, N-nitrosomethylamine, and N-nitrosopyrrolidine and identification of the major carcinogen-DNA adducts formed in cultured human esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Curtis C.; Autrup, Herman; Stoner, Gary D.

    1979-01-01

    The wide variation in the world-wide incidence of esophageal carcinoma suggests that environmental agents including chemicals cause this cancer. Since the interaction between chemical procarcinogens and human esophagus has not been studied previously, we examined the metabolic fate of benzo......(a)pyrene (BP), N-nitrosodimethylamine (DMN), and A/-nitrosopyrrolidine in cultured nontumorous esophagus from two patients with and six patients without esophageal carcinoma. Esophageal explants were cultured in a chemically defined medium for 7 days prior to adding [3H]BP (1.5 JUM),[14C]DMN (100 /IM), or [14C......]Nnitrosopyrrolidine (100 /¿M)for 24 hr. Radioactivity was found bound to both mucosal protein (BP, DMN, and A/-nitrosopyrrolidine) and DMA (BP and DMN). The major carcinogen-DNA adducts were: (a) with BP, N2-[10/?-(7/?,8a,9a-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrenyl)]deoxyguanosine; and (fa) with DMN, 7-methylguanine...

  2. The use of mrp1-deficient (Danio rerio) zebrafish embryos to investigate the role of Mrp1 in the toxicity of cadmium chloride and benzo[a]pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Jingjing [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); Hu, Jia [School of Biology & Basic Medical Sciences, Medical College, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu (China); Chen, Mingli [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); Yin, Huancai [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Miao, Peng; Bai, Pengli [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China); Yin, Jian, E-mail: yinj@sibet.ac.cn [CAS Key Lab of Bio-Medical Diagnostics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215163 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Previous studies in our lab have revealed that both P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multi-resistance associated protein (Mrp) 1 played important roles in the detoxification of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in zebrafish embryos. This paper aims to extend this research by using mrp1-deficient model to illustrate the individual function of Mrp1. In this respect, CRISPR/Cas9 system was employed to generate a frameshift mutation in zebrafish mrp1 causing premature translational stops in Mrp1. Significant reduction on the efflux function of Mrps was found in mutant zebrafish embryos, which correlated well with the significantly enhanced accumulation and toxicity of cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) and benzo[a]pyrene (BαP), indicating the protective role of the corresponding protein. The different alteration on the accumulation and toxicity of Cd{sup 2+} and BαP could be attributed to the fact that Cd{sup 2+} and its metabolites were mainly excreted by Mrp1, while BαP was primarily pumped out by Pgp. More importantly, the compensation mechanism for the absence of Mrp1, including elevated glutathione (GSH) level and up-regulated expression of pgp and mrp2 were also found. Thus, mrp1-deficient zebrafish embryo could be a useful tool in the investigation of Mrp1 functions in the early life stages of aquatic organisms. However, compensation mechanism should be taken into consideration in the interpretation of results obtained with mrp1-deficient fish.

  3. Humic acid-bonded silica as a novel sorbent for solid-phase extraction of benzo[a]pyrene in edible oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Dan; Yu Qiongwei; Yin Hongrui; Feng Yuqi

    2007-01-01

    A novel solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent, humic acid-bonded silica (HAS), was prepared. Humic acids (HAs) were grafted onto silica matrices via an amide linkage between humyl chloride and the amido terminus of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTS)-silica gel. The resulting material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, elemental analysis, and nitrogen adsorption analysis. This sorbent exhibits an excellent adsorption capacity for some electron-abundant analytes owing to its peculiar structure. In this paper, we choose benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in oil as a probe to validate the adsorption capacity of the material. Thus a fast, cheap and simple SPE method with humic acid-bonded silica cartridge for edible oil clean-up, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection was established. The effects of experimental variables, such as washing and elution solvents, and the amount of sorbents have been studied. The recoveries of BaP in edible oils spiked at 0.2-100 μg kg -1 were in the range of 78.8-102.7% with relative standard deviations ranging between 1.3 and 9.3%; the limit of detection was -0.06 μg kg -1

  4. The combined toxicity of dibutyl phthalate and benzo(a)pyrene on the reproductive system of male Sprague Dawley rats in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuemei [Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); An Hui; Ao Lin; Sun Lei; Liu Wenbin; Zhou Ziyuan [Department of Hygenic Toxicology, College of Military Preventive Medicine, Key Lab of Medical Protection for Electromagnetic Radiation, Ministry of Education of China, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Wang Yingxiong, E-mail: wyx61221@yahoo.com.cn [Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Cao Jia, E-mail: caojia1962@126.com [Department of Hygenic Toxicology, College of Military Preventive Medicine, Key Lab of Medical Protection for Electromagnetic Radiation, Ministry of Education of China, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Our previous studies revealed more than 100 pollutants, most of which were endocrine disruptors (EDs) in two Chinese rivers, the Jialing and the Yangtze near Chongqing. Most EDs, such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), are known to act individually as reproductive toxicants. However, little is known about the combined toxicity of DBP and BaP. In the current study, male Sprague Dawley rats were subchronically exposed to single doses of DBP (250 mg/kg), single doses of BaP (5 mg/kg) and combined doses of DBP and BaP. Significant adverse effects were observed on the reproductive system, including decreased sperm count, increased production of abnormal sperm, changes in serum testosterone levels and irregular arrangements of the seminiferous epithelium. Biochemical analyses showed that the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased after exposure to these EDs. Therefore, our data suggest that exposure to DBP and BaP, in either separate or combined doses, can affect the reproductive system of male rats adversely via oxidative stress-related mechanisms. No significant additive effect was observed after combined exposure. These results indicate that exposure to mixtures of EDs have unexpected and elusive effects. Our findings provide preliminary but important data for assessing water safety in China.

  5. Cumulative effects of exposure to cyanobacteria bloom extracts and benzo[a]pyrene on antioxidant defence biomarkers in Gammarus oceanicus (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turja, Raisa; Guimarães, Laura; Nevala, Anna; Kankaanpää, Harri; Korpinen, Samuli; Lehtonen, Kari K

    2014-02-01

    The Baltic Sea suffers from extensive blooms of the toxic cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena that produces nodularin toxin (NOD). Additionally, intensification of oil transportation and related activities in the area increase the risk of oil spills. The current experiment was designed to mimic a situation where an oil spill occurs during a cyanobacterial bloom by exposing the amphipod Gammarus oceanicus to a NOD-rich cyanobacterial extract and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compound benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a common constituent of oil. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were examined after 48 and 96 h of exposure. Exposure to low and high levels of the NOD-rich extract produced a time-dependent activation of GST, GPx and SOD. CAT levels were elevated only by high NOD treatment. Also the toxicity of B[a]P was indicated by significantly elevated antioxidant response. In the combined exposures treatment-dependent additive increases in the activity of GPx and SOD were observed as well as inhibitory (antagonistic) effects on GST, CAT and GPx. Rapid concentration-dependent accumulation of NOD by G. oceanicus was observed. The addition of B[a]P reduced the accumulation of NOD and resulted in different biomarker response patterns compared to single exposures demonstrating the effects of mixture toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental Distributions of Benzo[a]pyrene in China: Current and Future Emission Reduction Scenarios Explored Using a Spatially Explicit Multimedia Fate Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Tao, Shu; Price, Oliver R; Shen, Huizhong; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    SESAMe v3.0, a spatially explicit multimedia fate model with 50 × 50 km(2) resolution, has been developed for China to predict environmental concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) using an atmospheric emission inventory for 2007. Model predictions are compared with environmental monitoring data obtained from an extensive review of the literature. The model performs well in predicting multimedia concentrations and distributions. Predicted concentrations are compared with guideline values; highest values with some exceedances occur mainly in the North China Plain, Mid Inner Mongolia, and parts of three northeast provinces, Xi'an, Shanghai, and south of Jiangsu province, East Sichuan Basin, middle of Guizhou and Guangzhou. Two potential future scenarios have been assessed using SESAMe v3.0 for 2030 as BaP emission is reduced by (1) technological improvement for coal consumption in energy production and industry sectors in Scenario 1 (Sc1) and (2) technological improvement and control of indoor biomass burning for cooking and indoor space heating and prohibition of open burning of biomass in 2030 in Scenario 2 (Sc2). Sc2 is more efficient in reducing the areas with exceedance of guideline values. Use of SESAMe v3.0 provides insights on future research needs and can inform decision making on options for source reduction.

  7. Mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P-450 dependent benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase activity by acetylenic and olefinic polycyclic arylhydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    A series of aryl acetylenes and aryl olefins have been examined as substrates and inhibitors of cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxygenases in liver microsomes from 5,6-benzoflavone or phenobarbital pretreated rats. 1-Ethynylpyrene (EP), 3-ethynylperylene (EPL), cis- and trans-1-(2-bromo-vinyl)pyrene (c-BVP and t-BVP), and 1-allylpyrene (AP) serve as mechanism-based irreversible inactivators (suicide inhibitors) of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) hydroxylase, while 1-vinyl-pyrene (VP) and phenyl 1-pyrenyl acetylene (PPA) do not cause a detectable suicide inhibition of the BP hydroxylase. The mechanism-based loss of BP hydroxylase activity caused by the aryl acetylenes is not accompanied by a corresponding loss of the P-450 content of the microsomes. In the presence of NADPH, 3 H-labeled EP covalently attached to P-450 isozymes with a measured stoichiometry of one mole of EP per mole of the P-450 heme. The results of the effects of these aryl derivatives in the mammalian cell-mediated mutagenesis assay and toxicity assay show that none of the compounds examined nor any of the their metabolites produced in the incubation system are cytotoxic to V79 cells

  8. Interaction of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide isomers with human serum albumin: Site specific characterisation of adducts and associated kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motwani, Hitesh V.; Westberg, Emelie; Törnqvist, Margareta

    2016-11-01

    Carcinogenicity of benzo[a]pyrene {B[a]P, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)} involves DNA-modification by B[a]P diol epoxide (BPDE) metabolites. Adducts to serum albumin (SA) are not repaired, unlike DNA adducts, and therefore considered advantageous in assessment of in vivo dose of BPDEs. In the present work, kinetic experiments were performed in relation to the dose (i.e. concentration over time) of different BPDE isomers, where human SA (hSA) was incubated with respective BPDEs under physiological conditions. A liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry methodology was employed for characterising respective BPDE-adducts at histidine and lysine. This strategy allowed to structurally distinguish between the adducts from racemic anti- and syn-BPDE and between (+)- and (-)-anti-BPDE, which has not been attained earlier. The adduct levels quantified by LC-UV and the estimated rate of disappearance of BPDEs in presence of hSA gave an insight into the reactivity of the diol epoxides towards the N-sites on SA. The structure specific method and dosimetry described in this work could be used for accurate estimation of in vivo dose of the BPDEs following exposure to B[a]P, primarily in dose response studies of genotoxicity, e.g. in mice, to aid in quantitative risk assessment of PAHs.

  9. Comparative evaluation of carcinogenesis risk in case of radiation effect and pollution of atmospheric air with coal ashes and benzo(a)pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, V.A.; Shandala, N.K.; Komleva, V.A.; Likhovajdo, N.V.; Shvetsov, A.I.

    1993-01-01

    Assessment of the risk of lung carcinogenesis under the effect of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and volatil coal ash in the atmospheric air was performed as well as comparison of this risk with the risk due to ionizing radiation effect from natural and technogenic sources. White mice were used as experimental animals. It was shown that BP was rather more carcinogenic than volatile coal ash. BP inhalation at a maximum permissible concentration level (0.1 μg/100 m 3 of air) corresponds to the equivalent risk of whole-body gamma exposure at bout 2 Sv. Coal ash inhalation at the concentration of 0.05 mg/m 3 corresponds to the same equivalent risk as for radiation dose 0.05 Sv. Conclusion is made that safety standards for coal ash and BP contents in the air do not remove carcinogenesis risk for the population. Whereas carcinogenesis risk due to irradiation at the level of radiation safety standards is considerably lower

  10. The use of mrp1-deficient (Danio rerio) zebrafish embryos to investigate the role of Mrp1 in the toxicity of cadmium chloride and benzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Jingjing; Hu, Jia; Chen, Mingli; Yin, Huancai; Miao, Peng; Bai, Pengli; Yin, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies in our lab have revealed that both P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multi-resistance associated protein (Mrp) 1 played important roles in the detoxification of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in zebrafish embryos. This paper aims to extend this research by using mrp1-deficient model to illustrate the individual function of Mrp1. In this respect, CRISPR/Cas9 system was employed to generate a frameshift mutation in zebrafish mrp1 causing premature translational stops in Mrp1. Significant reduction on the efflux function of Mrps was found in mutant zebrafish embryos, which correlated well with the significantly enhanced accumulation and toxicity of cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) and benzo[a]pyrene (BαP), indicating the protective role of the corresponding protein. The different alteration on the accumulation and toxicity of Cd 2+ and BαP could be attributed to the fact that Cd 2+ and its metabolites were mainly excreted by Mrp1, while BαP was primarily pumped out by Pgp. More importantly, the compensation mechanism for the absence of Mrp1, including elevated glutathione (GSH) level and up-regulated expression of pgp and mrp2 were also found. Thus, mrp1-deficient zebrafish embryo could be a useful tool in the investigation of Mrp1 functions in the early life stages of aquatic organisms. However, compensation mechanism should be taken into consideration in the interpretation of results obtained with mrp1-deficient fish.

  11. Partitioning of tetra- and pentabromo diphenyl ether and benzo[a]pyrene among water and dissolved and particulate organic carbon along a salinity gradient in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivikko, Miika; Sorsa, Karoliina; Kukkonen, Jussi V K; Akkanen, Jarkko; Kotiaho, Tapio; Vähätalo, Anssi V

    2010-11-01

    This study assessed the partitioning of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromo diphenyl ether (BDE-99) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) among water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC: 4.93-8.72 mg/L), and particulate organic carbon (POC: 191-462 µg/L) along the salinity gradient (0-5.5‰) of the Baltic Sea off the coast of Finland. Equilibrium dialysis and two solid-phase extraction techniques using polyoxymethylene polymer (POM) were used to determine partitioning coefficients. Experiments using artificial coastal water (ACW) with Nordic fulvic (FAs) and humic acids (HAs) were used to assess the effect of salinity (0 and 5.5‰) on the DOC-water partitioning of the model compounds. All three compounds bound more (2.2-3.8-fold) to the HAs than to the FAs. Increasing salinity from 0 to 5.5‰ decreased sorption to dissolved humic substances in the ACW and Baltic Sea water samples. Along the salinity gradient, the sorption of compounds to organic material decreased when the salinity increased. Particulate organic matter sorbed model compounds per unit of carbon more than dissolved organic matter. Along the studied salinity gradient, the freely dissolved portion increased from 10 to 29% to 52 to 80% in the coastal water samples, mainly because of the increasing salinity and changes in DOC and quality of POC. © 2010 SETAC.

  12. Being similar while judging right and wrong: The effects of personal and situational similarity on moral judgements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Emilia

    2017-07-20

    This study investigated the effects of similarity with the transgressor and the victim on the perceived immorality of the transgression. Participants read two stories describing a person that cheated on their partner and a police officer that mistreated somebody. In the first story we manipulated participants' personal similarity to the transgressor and in the second their personal similarity to the victim. In each story, participants' past situational similarity to the target character was assessed according to their previous experiences of being in the same position. Results show that both personal and past situational similarity to the transgressor determine less severe moral judgements, while personal and past situational similarity with the victim have the opposite effect. We also tested several potential mediators of these effects, derived from competing theoretical accounts of the influence of similarity on perceived responsibility. Empathy emerged as mediating most of the effects of similarity on moral judgements, except those induced by past situational similarity with the victim. The foreseen probability of being in a similar situation mediated only the effects of similarity to the transgressor, and not those of similarity to the victim. Overall, results highlight the complex mechanisms of the influences of similarity on moral judgements. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  13. Inequalities between similarities for numerical data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    Similarity measures are entities that can be used to quantify the similarity between two vectors with real numbers. We present inequalities between seven well known similarities. The inequalities are valid if the vectors contain non-negative real numbers.

  14. Influence of growth factors and medium composition on benzo[a]pyrene- and vitamin A-induced cell proliferation and differentiation in hamster tracheal epithelium in organ culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterbeek, A.P.M.; Ciotti, M.A.L.T.; Schoevers, E.J.; Roggeband, R.; Baan, R.A.; Feron, V.J.; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Tracheal organ cultures and isolated tracheal epithelial cells are frequently used to study effects of carcinogens and retinoids on both proliferation and differentiation of respiratory tract epithelial cells. For each of these in vitro models, optimal culture conditions have been established,

  15. Base damage, local sequence context and TP53 mutation hotspots: a molecular dynamics study of benzo[a]pyrene induced DNA distortion and mutability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Georgina E; Reed, Simon H; Brancale, Andrea; Lewis, Paul D

    2015-10-30

    The mutational pattern for the TP53 tumour suppressor gene in lung tumours differs to other cancer types by having a higher frequency of G:C>T:A transversions. The aetiology of this differing mutation pattern is still unknown. Benzo[a]pyrene,diol epoxide (BPDE) is a potent cigarette smoke carcinogen that forms guanine adducts at TP53 CpG mutation hotspot sites including codons 157, 158, 245, 248 and 273. We performed molecular modelling of BPDE-adducted TP53 duplex sequences to determine the degree of local distortion caused by adducts which could influence the ability of nucleotide excision repair. We show that BPDE adducted codon 157 has greater structural distortion than other TP53 G:C>T:A hotspot sites and that sequence context more distal to adjacent bases must influence local distortion. Using TP53 trinucleotide mutation signatures for lung cancer in smokers and non-smokers we further show that codons 157 and 273 have the highest mutation probability in smokers. Combining this information with adduct structural data we predict that G:C>T:A mutations at codon 157 in lung tumours of smokers are predominantly caused by BPDE. Our results provide insight into how different DNA sequence contexts show variability in DNA distortion at mutagen adduct sites that could compromise DNA repair at well characterized cancer related mutation hotspots. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. BENZO(A)PYRENE AND X-RAYS INDUCE REVERSIONS OF THE PINK-EYED UNSTABLE MUTATION IN THE RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM OF MICE. (R825359)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. Nanoporous Gold Films Prepared by a Combination of Sputtering and Dealloying for Trace Detection of Benzo[a]pyrene Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A wavelength-interrogated surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensor based on a nanoporous gold (NPG film has been fabricated for the sensitive detection of trace quantities of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP in water. The large-area uniform NPG film was prepared by a two-step process that includes sputtering deposition of a 60-nm-thick AuAg alloy film on a glass substrate and chemical dealloying of the alloy film in nitric acid. For SPR sensor applications, the NPG film plays the dual roles of analyte enrichment and supporting surface plasmon waves, which leads to sensitivity enhancement. In this work, the as-prepared NPG film was first modified with 1-dodecanethiol molecules to make the film hydrophobic so as to improve BaP enrichment from water via hydrophobic interactions. The SPR sensor with the hydrophobic NPG film enables one to detect BaP at concentrations as low as 1 nmol·L−1. In response to this concentration of BaP the sensor produced a resonance-wavelength shift of ΔλR = 2.22 nm. After the NPG film was functionalized with mouse monoclonal IgG1 that is the antibody against BaP, the sensor’s sensitivity was further improved and the BaP detection limit decreased further down to 5 pmol·L−1 (the corresponding ΔλR = 1.77 nm. In contrast, the conventional SPR sensor with an antibody-functionalized dense gold film can give a response of merely ΔλR = 0.9 nm for 100 pmol·L−1 BaP.

  18. Hydrodynamic modelling of the influence of stormwater and combined sewer overflows on receiving water quality: Benzo(a)pyrene and copper risks to recreational water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Karin; Bondelind, Mia; Karlsson, Anna; Karlsson, Dick; Sokolova, Ekaterina

    2018-02-01

    The risk from chemical substances in surface waters is often increased during wet weather, due to surface runoff, combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and erosion of contaminated land. There are strong incentives to improve the quality of surface waters affected by human activities, not only from ecotoxicity and ecosystem health perspectives, but also for drinking water and recreational purposes. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of urban stormwater discharges and CSOs on receiving water in the context of chemical health risks and recreational water quality. Transport of copper (Cu) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the Göta River (Sweden) was simulated using a hydrodynamic model. Within the 16 km modelled section, 35 CSO and 16 urban stormwater point discharges, as well as the effluent from a major wastewater treatment plant, were included. Pollutant concentrations in the river were simulated for two rain events and investigated at 13 suggested bathing sites. The simulations indicate that water quality guideline values for Cu are exceeded at several sites, and that stormwater discharges generally give rise to higher Cu and BaP concentrations than CSOs. Due to the location of point discharges and the river current inhibiting lateral mixing, the north shore of the river is better suited for bathing. Peak concentrations have a short duration; increased concentrations of the pollutants may however be present for several days after a rain event. Monitoring of river water quality indicates that simulated Cu and BaP concentrations are in the same order of magnitude as measured concentrations. It is concluded that hydrodynamic modelling is a useful tool for identifying suitable bathing sites in urban surface waters and areas of concern where mitigation measures should be implemented to improve water quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Seasonal variation of benzo(a)pyrene in the Spanish airborne PM10. Multivariate linear regression model applied to estimate BaP concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, M.S.; Lopez, J.M.; Mastral, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentrations in ambient air is very important from an environmental point of view especially with the introduction of the Directive 2004/107/EC and due to the carcinogenic character of this pollutant. A sampling campaign of particulate matter less or equal than 10 microns (PM10) carried out during 2008-2009 in four locations of Spain was collected to determine experimentally BaP concentrations by gas chromatography mass-spectrometry mass-spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). Multivariate linear regression models (MLRM) were used to predict BaP air concentrations in two sampling places, taking PM10 and meteorological variables as possible predictors. The model obtained with data from two sampling sites (all sites model) (R 2 = 0.817, PRESS/SSY = 0.183) included the significant variables like PM10, temperature, solar radiation and wind speed and was internally and externally validated. The first validation was performed by cross validation and the last one by BaP concentrations from previous campaigns carried out in Zaragoza from 2001-2004. The proposed model constitutes a first approximation to estimate BaP concentrations in urban atmospheres with very good internal prediction (Q CV 2 =0.813, PRESS/SSY = 0.187) and with the maximal external prediction for the 2001-2002 campaign (Q ext 2 =0.679 and PRESS/SSY = 0.321) versus the 2001-2004 campaign (Q ext 2 =0.551, PRESS/SSY = 0.449).

  20. Seasonal variation of benzo(a)pyrene in the Spanish airborne PM10. Multivariate linear regression model applied to estimate BaP concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callén, M S; López, J M; Mastral, A M

    2010-08-15

    The estimation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentrations in ambient air is very important from an environmental point of view especially with the introduction of the Directive 2004/107/EC and due to the carcinogenic character of this pollutant. A sampling campaign of particulate matter less or equal than 10 microns (PM10) carried out during 2008-2009 in four locations of Spain was collected to determine experimentally BaP concentrations by gas chromatography mass-spectrometry mass-spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). Multivariate linear regression models (MLRM) were used to predict BaP air concentrations in two sampling places, taking PM10 and meteorological variables as possible predictors. The model obtained with data from two sampling sites (all sites model) (R(2)=0.817, PRESS/SSY=0.183) included the significant variables like PM10, temperature, solar radiation and wind speed and was internally and externally validated. The first validation was performed by cross validation and the last one by BaP concentrations from previous campaigns carried out in Zaragoza from 2001-2004. The proposed model constitutes a first approximation to estimate BaP concentrations in urban atmospheres with very good internal prediction (Q(CV)(2)=0.813, PRESS/SSY=0.187) and with the maximal external prediction for the 2001-2002 campaign (Q(ext)(2)=0.679 and PRESS/SSY=0.321) versus the 2001-2004 campaign (Q(ext)(2)=0.551, PRESS/SSY=0.449). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of SSH and a macroarray to investigate altered gene expression in Mytilus edulis in response to exposure to benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M; Davies, I M; Moffat, C F; Craft, J A

    2006-07-01

    The lack of genomic resources for aquatic invertebrates restricts their use as sentinel species in coastal environments. It is known that where genomic data are not available, suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) can generate cDNA libraries representative of pollutant-responsive gene transcription in aquatic vertebrates. To assess whether the approach was equally suited to aquatic invertebrates, altered gene expression in digestive gland of the mussel, Mytilus edulis, in response to exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (1 mg/l) was investigated with SSH and a nylon macroarray. Screening of the subtracted libraries showed 112/250 up-regulated and 25/55 down-regulated clones were positive for differential expression and characterisation of these identified 87 with unique sequence suitable for array on a nylon membrane. The transcripts isolated were from a diverse range of genes involved in general stress, oxidative stress, cell adhesion, transcriptional and translational regulation, transport mechanisms, energy metabolism, cell metabolism, lipid metabolism, protein turnover and activation, lysosomal activity and 22 cryptic clones. Subsequent use of the clones in macroarray format to analyse expression of BaP-responsive genes (0 vs 4 day exposed) showed 0-100-fold increased levels of the forward-subtracted probes and between 0 and 0.1-fold down-regulation of the reverse-subtracted probes. Only 15% of the clones showed less than 2-fold change in expression. The gene ontology of the transcripts isolated demonstrates that BaP elicits a multitude of responses with a major feature being disruption of cellular redox status. The results indicate that the use of SSH and a macroarray is a robust method to discover novel pollutant-responsive genes in aquatic invertebrates.

  2. Transepithelial transfer of phenanthrene, but not of benzo[a]pyrene, is inhibited by fatty acids in the proximal intestine of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, Stefan; Sundh, Henrik; Pelgrim, Thamar N M; Rasinger, Josef D; van Daal, Lotte; Flik, Gert; Berntssen, Marc H G; Klaren, Peter H M

    2018-01-01

    The inclusion of vegetable oils in aquafeeds introduces contaminating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in salmonids. Since lipophilic PAHs solubilize in micelles composed of lipids, bile salts and fatty acids, dietary lipid composition can alter intestinal transepithelial PAH transfer. We studied the uptake of two PAHs, viz. benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (PHE), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) intestine. We also investigated the effects of two fatty acids, viz. fish oil-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and vegetable oil-derived oleic acid (18:1n-9) on intestinal uptake. Radiolabeled PAHs were solubilized in micelles composed of tritiated EPA and oleic acid, respectively, and administrated to intestinal segments mounted in Ussing chambers. In the absence of micelles, PHE accumulation was two times higher than BaP in the mucosal and serosal layers of proximal and distal intestine. Administration of PHE in micelles composed of oleic acid resulted in a 50% lower accumulation of PHE in the mucosal layers of the proximal intestine compared to EPA-composed micelles. Accumulation of EPA and oleic acid in the proximal intestinal mucosa correlated negatively with the transepithelial transfer of these fatty acids across the proximal intestinal epithelium. Transepithelial PHE transfer across the proximal intestine was reduced by 30% in co-exposure with EPA-composed micelles compared to 80% with oleic acid micelles. BaP was not transferred across the intestine. We conclude that the lipid composition of an aquafeed is an important determinant of PAH bioavailability. Therefore, lipid composition should be an important consideration in choosing vegetable oils as alternatives for fish oil in aquafeeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular Similarity Concepts for Informatics Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajorath, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of small molecule similarity is a central task in chemoinformatics and medicinal chemistry. A variety of molecular representations and metrics are applied to computationally evaluate and quantify molecular similarity. A critically important aspect of molecular similarity analysis in chemoinformatics and pharmaceutical research is that one is typically not interested in quantifying the degree of structural or chemical similarity between compounds per se, but rather in extrapolating from molecular similarity to property similarity. In other words, one assumes that there is a correlation between calculated similarity and specific properties of small molecules including, first and foremost, biological activities. Although similarity is a priori a subjective concept, and difficult to quantify, it must computationally be assessed in a formally consistent manner. Otherwise, there is little utility of similarity calculations. Consistent treatment requires approximations to be made and the consideration of alternative computational similarity concepts, as discussed herein.

  4. On different forms of self similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswathy, R.K.; Mathew, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Fractal geometry is mainly based on the idea of self-similar forms. To be self-similar, a shape must able to be divided into parts that are smaller copies, which are more or less similar to the whole. There are different forms of self similarity in nature and mathematics. In this paper, some of the topological properties of super self similar sets are discussed. It is proved that in a complete metric space with two or more elements, the set of all non super self similar sets are dense in the set of all non-empty compact sub sets. It is also proved that the product of self similar sets are super self similar in product metric spaces and that the super self similarity is preserved under isometry. A characterization of super self similar sets using contracting sub self similarity is also presented. Some relevant counterexamples are provided. The concepts of exact super and sub self similarity are introduced and a necessary and sufficient condition for a set to be exact super self similar in terms of condensation iterated function systems (Condensation IFS’s) is obtained. A method to generate exact sub self similar sets using condensation IFS’s and the denseness of exact super self similar sets are also discussed.

  5. Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and COPD: differences and similarities Share | Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities This article has been reviewed ... or you could have Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) , such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis. Because asthma ...

  6. Similarity based approximate reasoning: fuzzy control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raha, S.; Hossain, A.; Ghosh, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to similarity based approximate reasoning that elucidates the connection between similarity and existing approaches to inference in approximate reasoning methodology. A set of axioms is proposed to get a reasonable measure of similarity between two fuzzy sets. The

  7. Similarity Structure of Wave-Collapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rypdal, Kristoffer; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Thomsen, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Similarity transformations of the cubic Schrödinger equation (CSE) are investigated. The transformations are used to remove the explicit time variation in the CSE and reduce it to differential equations in the spatial variables only. Two different methods for similarity reduction are employed...... and the significance of similarity in the evolution of a collapsing wave packet is investigated. Numerical solutions in radial symmetry demonstrate that the similarity behaviour is local in space and time, and that some similarity solutions must be classified as improper solutions. The nature of the collapsing...

  8. Gene expression profiles and genetic damage in benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide-exposed TK6 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akerman, G.S.; Rosenzweig, B.A.; Domon, O.E.; McGarrity, L.J.; Blankenship, L.R.; Tsai, C.A.; Culp, S.J.; MacGregor, J.T.; Sistare, F.D.; Chen, J.J.; Morris, S.M

    2004-05-18

    Microarray analysis is a powerful tool to identify the biological effects of drugs or chemicals on cellular gene expression. In this study, we compare the relationships between traditional measures of genetic toxicology and mutagen-induced alterations in gene expression profiles. TK6 cells were incubated with 0.01, 0.1, or 1.0 {mu}M {+-}anti-benzo(a)pyrene-trans-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) for 4 h and then cultured for an additional 20 h. Aliquots of the exposed cells were removed at 4 and 24 h in order to quantify DNA adduct levels by {sup 32}P post-labeling and measure cell viability by cloning efficiency and flow cytometry. Gene expression profiles were developed by extracting total RNA from the control and exposed cells at 4 and 24 h, labeling with Cy3 or Cy5 and hybridizing to a human 350 gene array. Mutant frequencies in the Thymidine Kinase and Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyl Transferase genes were also determined. The 10{alpha}-(deoxyguanosin-N{sup 2}-yl)-7{alpha},8{beta},9{beta}-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-= tetrahydrobenzo(a) pyrene (dG-N{sup 2}-BPDE) adduct increased as a function of dose and was the only adduct identified. A dose-related decrease in cell viability was evident at 24 h, but not at 4 h. Cell death occurred by apoptosis. At 4 h, analysis of the gene expression profiles revealed that Glutathione Peroxidase and Gadd45 were consistently upregulated (greater than 1.5-fold and significantly (P<0.001) greater than the control in two experiments) in response to 1.0 {mu}M BPDE exposure. Fifteen genes were consistently down-regulated (less than 0.67-fold and significantly (P<0.001) lower than the control in two experiments) at 4 h in cultures exposed to 1.0 {mu}M BPDE. Genes with altered expression at 4 h included genes important in the progression of the cell-cycle and those that inhibit apoptosis. At 24 h post-exposure, 16 genes, involved in cell-cycle control, detoxification, and apoptosis were consistently upregulated; 10 genes were repressed in

  9. COMPUTATION OF IMAGE SIMILARITY WITH TIME SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Balamurugan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Searching for similar sequence in large database is an important task in temporal data mining. Similarity search is concerned with efficiently locating subsequences or whole sequences in large archives of sequences. It is useful in typical data mining applications and it can be easily extended to image retrieval. In this work, time series similarity analysis that involves dimensionality reduction and clustering is adapted on digital images to find similarity between them. The dimensionality reduced time series is represented as clusters by the use of K-Means clustering and the similarity distance between two images is found by finding the distance between the signatures of their clusters. To quantify the extent of similarity between two sequences, Earth Mover’s Distance (EMD is used. From the experiments on different sets of images, it is found that this technique is well suited for measuring the subjective similarity between two images.

  10. Ambient air levels and health risk assessment of benzo(a)pyrene in atmospheric particulate matter samples from low-polluted areas: application of an optimized microwave extraction and HPLC-FL methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Gala Morales, María; Holgado, Fernando Rueda; Marín, Ma Rosario Palomo; Blázquez, Lorenzo Calvo; Gil, Eduardo Pinilla

    2015-04-01

    A new methodology involving a simple and fast pretreatment of the samples by microwave-assisted extraction and concentration by N2 stream, followed by HPLC with fluorescence detection, was used for determining the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in atmospheric particulate matter (PM10 fraction). Obtained LOD, 1.0 × 10(-3) ng/m(3), was adequate for the analysis of benzo(a)pyrene in the samples, and BaP recovery from PAH in Fine Dust (PM10-like) certified reference material was nearly quantitative (86%). The validated procedure was applied for analyzing 115 PM10 samples collected at different sampling locations in the low-polluted area of Extremadura (Southwest Spain) during a monitoring campaign carried out in 2011-2012. BaP spatial variations and seasonal variability were investigated as well as the influence of meteorological conditions and different air pollutants concentrations. A normalized protocol for health risk assessment was applied to estimate lifetime cancer risk due to BaP inhalation in the sampling areas, finding that around eight inhabitants per million people may develop lung cancer due to the exposition to BaP in atmospheric particulates emitted by the investigated sources.

  11. Metabolic interactions between low doses of benzo[a]pyrene and tributyltin in arctic charr (salvelinus alpinus): a long-term in vivo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padros, Jaime; Pelletier, Emilien; Ribeiro, Ciro Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    We have previously reported that short-term, single exposure to a high dose of tributyltin (TBT), a widely used antifouling biocide, inhibited both the in vivo metabolism and metabolic activation of the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in fish; (BaP), in turn, stimulated TBT metabolism. Here, we provide further mechanistic evidence of mutual metabolic interactions between BaP and TBT in response to long-term, repeated exposures to low doses. Juvenile Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) received 10 separate ip injections (a single injection every 6 days) of BaP (3 mg/kg), TBT (0.3 mg/kg), or both in combination; control fish received corn oil vehicle only. Two days after the 2nd (Day 8), 6 th (Day 32), and 10th dose (Day 56), blood, bile, and liver samples were collected and analyzed for a suite of biomarkers. HPLC/fluorescence analysis indicated that TBT cotreatment inhibited the formation of (+)-anti-BaP diol-epoxide adducts with plasma albumin (53%, Day 8), hepatic DNA (27%, Day 32), or both albumin and globin (50 and 58%, Day 56) compared to BaP alone. This antagonistic interaction was associated with a time-dependent modulation (inhibition at Day 8, enhancement at Day 32) of both cytochrome P450 (P450)1A-mediated ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity and biliary BaP metabolite formation. TBT cotreatment also inhibited (39%) the BaP-mediated induction of hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity observed at Day 8. Treatment with TBT alone increased EROD activity (60%) at Day 32, but decreased both GST activity (70 and 37%) and glutathione content (24% and 16%) at Days 32 and 56, respectively. GC/MS analysis revealed that, at Day 56, BaP cotreatment increased (200%) the levels of biliary butyltin compounds, including mono- and dibutyltin metabolites. This potentiative interaction was associated with a protective effect of BaP cotreatment against the TBT-mediated decreases in GST activity and glutathione content. The

  12. Mutagenic Replication of N2-Deoxyguanosine Benzo[a]pyrene Adducts by Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase I and Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA Polymerase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, A S Prakasha; Krzeminski, Jacek; Amin, Shantu; Suo, Zucai; Spratt, Thomas E

    2017-05-15

    Benzo[a]pyrene, a potent human carcinogen, is metabolized in vivo to a diol epoxide that reacts with the N 2 -position of guanine to produce N 2 -BP-dG adducts. These adducts are mutagenic causing G to T transversions. These adducts block replicative polymerases but can be bypassed by the Y-family translesion synthesis polymerases. The mechanisms by which mutagenic bypass occurs is not well-known. We have evaluated base pairing structures using atomic substitution of the dNTP with two stereoisomers, 2'-deoxy-N-[(7R,8S,9R,10S)-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-7,8,9-trihydroxybenzo[a]pyren-10-yl]guanosine and 2'-deoxy-N-[(7S,8R,9S,10R)-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-7,8,9-trihydroxybenzo[a]pyren-10-yl]guanosine. We have examined the kinetics of incorporation of 1-deaza-dATP, 7-deaza-dATP, 2'-deoxyinosine triphosphate, and 7-deaza-dGTP, analogues of dATP and dGTP in which single atoms are changed. Changes in rate will occur if that atom provided a critical interaction in the transition state of the reaction. We examined two polymerases, Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (Kf) and Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4), as models of a high fidelity and TLS polymerase, respectively. We found that with Kf, substitution of the nitrogens on the Watson-Crick face of the dNTPs resulted in decreased rate of reactions. This result is consistent with a Hoogsteen base pair in which the template N 2 -BP-dG flipped from the anti to syn conformation. With Dpo4, while the substitution did not affect the rate of reaction, the amplitude of the reaction decreased with all substitutions. This result suggests that Dpo4 bypasses N 2 -BP-dG via Hoogsteen base pairs but that the flipped nucleotide can be either the dNTP or the template.

  13. Testing Self-Similarity Through Lamperti Transformations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Myoungji

    2016-07-14

    Self-similar processes have been widely used in modeling real-world phenomena occurring in environmetrics, network traffic, image processing, and stock pricing, to name but a few. The estimation of the degree of self-similarity has been studied extensively, while statistical tests for self-similarity are scarce and limited to processes indexed in one dimension. This paper proposes a statistical hypothesis test procedure for self-similarity of a stochastic process indexed in one dimension and multi-self-similarity for a random field indexed in higher dimensions. If self-similarity is not rejected, our test provides a set of estimated self-similarity indexes. The key is to test stationarity of the inverse Lamperti transformations of the process. The inverse Lamperti transformation of a self-similar process is a strongly stationary process, revealing a theoretical connection between the two processes. To demonstrate the capability of our test, we test self-similarity of fractional Brownian motions and sheets, their time deformations and mixtures with Gaussian white noise, and the generalized Cauchy family. We also apply the self-similarity test to real data: annual minimum water levels of the Nile River, network traffic records, and surface heights of food wrappings. © 2016, International Biometric Society.

  14. Bridging Database Applications and Declarative Similarity Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Ribeiro, Leonardo; Schneider, Natália Cristina; de Souza Inácio, Andrei; Wagner, Harley Michel; von Wangenheim, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Effective manipulation of string data is of fundamental importance to modern database applications. Very often, textual inconsistencies render equality comparisons meaningless and strings have to be matched in terms of their similarity. Previous work has proposed techniques to express similarity operations using declarative SQL statements. However, the non-trivial issue of embedding similarity support into object-oriented applications has received little attention. Particularly, declarative s...

  15. After notes on self-similarity exponent for fractal structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Martínez Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous works have highlighted the suitability of the concept of fractal structure, which derives from asymmetric topology, to propound generalized definitions of fractal dimension. The aim of the present article is to collect some results and approaches allowing to connect the self-similarity index and the fractal dimension of a broad spectrum of random processes. To tackle with, we shall use the concept of induced fractal structure on the image set of a sample curve. The main result in this paper states that given a sample function of a random process endowed with the induced fractal structure on its image, it holds that the self-similarity index of that function equals the inverse of its fractal dimension.

  16. Similar speaker recognition using nonlinear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, J.P.; Kim, M.S.; Baek, I.C.; Kwon, Y.H.; Lee, K.S.; Chang, S.W.; Yang, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    Speech features of the conventional speaker identification system, are usually obtained by linear methods in spectral space. However, these methods have the drawback that speakers with similar voices cannot be distinguished, because the characteristics of their voices are also similar in spectral space. To overcome the difficulty in linear methods, we propose to use the correlation exponent in the nonlinear space as a new feature vector for speaker identification among persons with similar voices. We show that our proposed method surprisingly reduces the error rate of speaker identification system to speakers with similar voices

  17. Similarity indices I: what do they measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    A method for estimating the effects of environmental effusions on ecosystems is described. The characteristics of 25 similarity indices used in studies of ecological communities were investigated. The type of data structure, to which these indices are frequently applied, was described as consisting of vectors of measurements on attributes (species) observed in a set of samples. A general similarity index was characterized as the result of a two-step process defined on a pair of vectors. In the first step an attribute similarity score is obtained for each attribute by comparing the attribute values observed in the pair of vectors. The result is a vector of attribute similarity scores. These are combined in the second step to arrive at the similarity index. The operation in the first step was characterized as a function, g, defined on pairs of attribute values. The second operation was characterized as a function, F, defined on the vector of attribute similarity scores from the first step. Usually, F was a simple sum or weighted sum of the attribute similarity scores. It is concluded that similarity indices should not be used as the test statistic to discriminate between two ecological communities

  18. Molecular quantum similarity using conceptual DFT descriptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports a Molecular Quantum Similarity study for a set of congeneric steroid molecules, using as basic similarity descriptors electron density ρ (r), shape ... Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Gent, Belgium; Institute of Computational Chemistry, University of ...

  19. Learning deep similarity in fundus photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzik, Piotr; Al-Diri, Bashir; Caliva, Francesco; Ometto, Giovanni; Hunter, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Similarity learning is one of the most fundamental tasks in image analysis. The ability to extract similar images in the medical domain as part of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems has been researched for many years. The vast majority of methods used in CBIR systems are based on hand-crafted feature descriptors. The approximation of a similarity mapping for medical images is difficult due to the big variety of pixel-level structures of interest. In fundus photography (FP) analysis, a subtle difference in e.g. lesions and vessels shape and size can result in a different diagnosis. In this work, we demonstrated how to learn a similarity function for image patches derived directly from FP image data without the need of manually designed feature descriptors. We used a convolutional neural network (CNN) with a novel architecture adapted for similarity learning to accomplish this task. Furthermore, we explored and studied multiple CNN architectures. We show that our method can approximate the similarity between FP patches more efficiently and accurately than the state-of- the-art feature descriptors, including SIFT and SURF using a publicly available dataset. Finally, we observe that our approach, which is purely data-driven, learns that features such as vessels calibre and orientation are important discriminative factors, which resembles the way how humans reason about similarity. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first attempt to approximate a visual similarity mapping in FP.

  20. Measuring transferring similarity via local information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Likang; Deng, Yong

    2018-05-01

    Recommender systems have developed along with the web science, and how to measure the similarity between users is crucial for processing collaborative filtering recommendation. Many efficient models have been proposed (i.g., the Pearson coefficient) to measure the direct correlation. However, the direct correlation measures are greatly affected by the sparsity of dataset. In other words, the direct correlation measures would present an inauthentic similarity if two users have a very few commonly selected objects. Transferring similarity overcomes this drawback by considering their common neighbors (i.e., the intermediates). Yet, the transferring similarity also has its drawback since it can only provide the interval of similarity. To break the limitations, we propose the Belief Transferring Similarity (BTS) model. The contributions of BTS model are: (1) BTS model addresses the issue of the sparsity of dataset by considering the high-order similarity. (2) BTS model transforms uncertain interval to a certain state based on fuzzy systems theory. (3) BTS model is able to combine the transferring similarity of different intermediates using information fusion method. Finally, we compare BTS models with nine different link prediction methods in nine different networks, and we also illustrate the convergence property and efficiency of the BTS model.

  1. Similarity indices I: what do they measure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    A method for estimating the effects of environmental effusions on ecosystems is described. The characteristics of 25 similarity indices used in studies of ecological communities were investigated. The type of data structure, to which these indices are frequently applied, was described as consisting of vectors of measurements on attributes (species) observed in a set of samples. A general similarity index was characterized as the result of a two-step process defined on a pair of vectors. In the first step an attribute similarity score is obtained for each attribute by comparing the attribute values observed in the pair of vectors. The result is a vector of attribute similarity scores. These are combined in the second step to arrive at the similarity index. The operation in the first step was characterized as a function, g, defined on pairs of attribute values. The second operation was characterized as a function, F, defined on the vector of attribute similarity scores from the first step. Usually, F was a simple sum or weighted sum of the attribute similarity scores. It is concluded that similarity indices should not be used as the test statistic to discriminate between two ecological communities.

  2. Outsourced Similarity Search on Metric Data Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Assent, Ira; Jensen, Christian S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers a cloud computing setting in which similarity querying of metric data is outsourced to a service provider. The data is to be revealed only to trusted users, not to the service provider or anyone else. Users query the server for the most similar data objects to a query example...

  3. Mining Diagnostic Assessment Data for Concept Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhyastha, Tara; Hunt, Earl

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for mining multiple-choice assessment data for similarity of the concepts represented by the multiple choice responses. The resulting similarity matrix can be used to visualize the distance between concepts in a lower-dimensional space. This gives an instructor a visualization of the relative difficulty of concepts…

  4. Similarity measure computation of convex polyhedra revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Bekker, Henk

    2001-01-01

    We study the computation of rotation-invariant similarity measures of convex polyhedra, based on Minkowski’s theory of mixed volumes. To compute the similarity measure, a (mixed) volume functional has to be minimized over a number of critical orientations of these polyhedra. These critical

  5. Multimodal Similarity Gaussian Process Latent Variable Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guoli; Wang, Shuhui; Huang, Qingming; Tian, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Data from real applications involve multiple modalities representing content with the same semantics from complementary aspects. However, relations among heterogeneous modalities are simply treated as observation-to-fit by existing work, and the parameterized modality specific mapping functions lack flexibility in directly adapting to the content divergence and semantic complicacy in multimodal data. In this paper, we build our work based on the Gaussian process latent variable model (GPLVM) to learn the non-parametric mapping functions and transform heterogeneous modalities into a shared latent space. We propose multimodal Similarity Gaussian Process latent variable model (m-SimGP), which learns the mapping functions between the intra-modal similarities and latent representation. We further propose multimodal distance-preserved similarity GPLVM (m-DSimGP) to preserve the intra-modal global similarity structure, and multimodal regularized similarity GPLVM (m-RSimGP) by encouraging similar/dissimilar points to be similar/dissimilar in the latent space. We propose m-DRSimGP, which combines the distance preservation in m-DSimGP and semantic preservation in m-RSimGP to learn the latent representation. The overall objective functions of the four models are solved by simple and scalable gradient decent techniques. They can be applied to various tasks to discover the nonlinear correlations and to obtain the comparable low-dimensional representation for heterogeneous modalities. On five widely used real-world data sets, our approaches outperform existing models on cross-modal content retrieval and multimodal classification.

  6. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Mollgaard

    Full Text Available The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships.

  7. Trajectory similarity join in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2017-09-07

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider the case of trajectory similarity join (TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Thus, given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. This join targets applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide a purposeful definition of similarity. To enable efficient TS-Join processing on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and take into account the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer algorithm. For each trajectory, the algorithm first finds similar trajectories. Then it merges the results to achieve a final result. The algorithm exploits an upper bound on the spatiotemporal similarity and a heuristic scheduling strategy for search space pruning. The algorithm\\'s per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the merging has constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithm and demonstrates that is capable of outperforming a well-designed baseline algorithm by an order of magnitude.

  8. Notions of similarity for computational biology models

    KAUST Repository

    Waltemath, Dagmar

    2016-03-21

    Computational models used in biology are rapidly increasing in complexity, size, and numbers. To build such large models, researchers need to rely on software tools for model retrieval, model combination, and version control. These tools need to be able to quantify the differences and similarities between computational models. However, depending on the specific application, the notion of similarity may greatly vary. A general notion of model similarity, applicable to various types of models, is still missing. Here, we introduce a general notion of quantitative model similarities, survey the use of existing model comparison methods in model building and management, and discuss potential applications of model comparison. To frame model comparison as a general problem, we describe a theoretical approach to defining and computing similarities based on different model aspects. Potentially relevant aspects of a model comprise its references to biological entities, network structure, mathematical equations and parameters, and dynamic behaviour. Future similarity measures could combine these model aspects in flexible, problem-specific ways in order to mimic users\\' intuition about model similarity, and to support complex model searches in databases.

  9. Natural cohorts: family similarity in adult cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaie, K W; Plomin, R; Willis, S L; Gruber-Baldini, A; Dutta, R

    1991-01-01

    We now return to the sets of hypotheses formulated in the introductory section to explore how the findings reported above bear on these propositions. Our first hypothesis dealt with whether family similarity could be observed in adulthood and whether there were differing ability patterns in such similarity. Significant family similarities were observed for our total sample for all ability measures, except Perceptual Speed, and for the cognitive style measures. The magnitude of correlations for the ability measures are comparable for those found between young adults and their children (DeFries et al., 1976). Similar to the DeFries study, we also found differences in resemblance across subsets. For example, same gender pairs showed higher correlations on Verbal Meaning, Number, and Word Fluency but opposite-gender pairs on Spatial Orientation, Inductive Reasoning, and Motor-Cognitive Flexibility. Also, greater similarity was found between mother-offspring pairs than father-offspring pairs on Inductive Reasoning and Psychomotor Speed. Moreover, higher parent-offspring correlations were found for daughters than for sons, suggesting at least the possibility that females may experience greater shared environmental influences than males. Our first hypothesis also argued for the possible effect of early shared environment upon offspring performance on Verbal Meaning and Word Fluency. After age adjustment, these were indeed the abilities that showed the highest parent-offspring similarity. Our second hypothesis proposed that if shared environmental influences are relatively unimportant in adulthood, then similarity within parent-offspring pairs should remain reasonably constant in adulthood across time and age. Our examination of this issue with a longitudinal sample ranging over a 21-year period strongly supports this proposition for all of those variables that displayed significant parent-offspring correlations. Indeed, parent-offspring correlations measured at

  10. A Similarity Search Using Molecular Topological Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Fukunishi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecular similarity measure has been developed using molecular topological graphs and atomic partial charges. Two kinds of topological graphs were used. One is the ordinary adjacency matrix and the other is a matrix which represents the minimum path length between two atoms of the molecule. The ordinary adjacency matrix is suitable to compare the local structures of molecules such as functional groups, and the other matrix is suitable to compare the global structures of molecules. The combination of these two matrices gave a similarity measure. This method was applied to in silico drug screening, and the results showed that it was effective as a similarity measure.

  11. Similarity-based pattern analysis and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Pelillo, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    This accessible text/reference presents a coherent overview of the emerging field of non-Euclidean similarity learning. The book presents a broad range of perspectives on similarity-based pattern analysis and recognition methods, from purely theoretical challenges to practical, real-world applications. The coverage includes both supervised and unsupervised learning paradigms, as well as generative and discriminative models. Topics and features: explores the origination and causes of non-Euclidean (dis)similarity measures, and how they influence the performance of traditional classification alg

  12. Studies on the analysis of benzo(a)pyrene and its metabolites in biological samples by using high performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence detection and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won; Hong, Jee Eun; Shin, Hye Seung; Pyo, Hee Soo; Kim, Yun Je

    2003-01-01

    An analytical method the determination of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and its hydroxylated metabolites, 1-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (1-OHBaP), 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (3-OHBaP), benzo(a)pyrene-4,5-dihydrodial(4,5-diolBaP) and benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol (7,8-diolBaP), in rat urine and plasma has been developed by HPLC/FLD and GC/MS. The derivatization with alkyl iodide was employed to improve the resolution and the detection of two mono hydroxylated metabolites, 1-OHBaP and 3-OHBaP, in LC and GC. BaP and its four metabolites in spiked urine were successfully separated by gradient elution on reverse phase ODS C 18 column (4.6 mm I.D., 100 mm length, particle size 5μm) using a binary mixture of MeOH/H 2 O (85/15, v/v) as mobile phase after ethylation at 90 .deg. C for 10 min. The extraction recoveries of BaP and its metabolites in spiked samples with liquid-liquid extraction, which was better than solid phase extraction, were in the range of 90.3-101.6% in n-hexane for urine and 95.7-106.3% in acetone for plasma, respectively. The calibration curves has shown good linearity with the correlation coefficients (R 2 ) varying from 0.992 to 1.000 for urine and from 0.996 to 1.000 for plasma, respectively. The detection limits of all analytes were obtained in the range of 0.01-0.1 ng/mL for urine and 0.1-0.4ng/mL for plasma, respectively. The metabolites of BaP were excreted as mono hydroxy and dihydrodiol forms after intraperitoneal infection of 20 mg/kg of BaP to rats. The total amounts of BaP and four metabolites excreted in dosed rat urine were 3.79 ng over the 0 - 96 hr period from administration and the excretional recovery was less than 0.065% of the injection amounts of BaP. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of BaP and its hydroxylated metabolites in rat urine and plasma for the pharmacokinetic studies

  13. Comparing methods for single paragraph similarity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Benjamin; Dennis, Simon; Kwantes, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this paper is two-fold. First, similarities generated from six semantic models were compared to human ratings of paragraph similarity on two datasets-23 World Entertainment News Network paragraphs and 50 ABC newswire paragraphs. Contrary to findings on smaller textual units such as word associations (Griffiths, Tenenbaum, & Steyvers, 2007), our results suggest that when single paragraphs are compared, simple nonreductive models (word overlap and vector space) can provide better similarity estimates than more complex models (LSA, Topic Model, SpNMF, and CSM). Second, various methods of corpus creation were explored to facilitate the semantic models' similarity estimates. Removing numeric and single characters, and also truncating document length improved performance. Automated construction of smaller Wikipedia-based corpora proved to be very effective, even improving upon the performance of corpora that had been chosen for the domain. Model performance was further improved by augmenting corpora with dataset paragraphs. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. Media segmentation using self-similarity decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Jonathan T.; Cooper, Matthew L.

    2003-01-01

    We present a framework for analyzing the structure of digital media streams. Though our methods work for video, text, and audio, we concentrate on detecting the structure of digital music files. In the first step, spectral data is used to construct a similarity matrix calculated from inter-frame spectral similarity.The digital audio can be robustly segmented by correlating a kernel along the diagonal of the similarity matrix. Once segmented, spectral statistics of each segment are computed. In the second step,segments are clustered based on the self-similarity of their statistics. This reveals the structure of the digital music in a set of segment boundaries and labels. Finally, the music is summarized by selecting clusters with repeated segments throughout the piece. The summaries can be customized for various applications based on the structure of the original music.

  15. Abundance estimation of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates a spectral unmixing method for estimating the partial abundance of spectrally similar minerals in complex mixtures. The method requires formulation of a linear function of individual spectra of individual minerals. The first...

  16. Similarities in Becoming: Transsexuals and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Michael; Feinbloom, Deborah

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the diagnosis of transsexual in terms of its similarities with adolescence. In considering the extreme example of the transsexual, normal adolescent development emerges as more purposive and integrative in the establishment of gender identity. (JAC)

  17. Discovering Music Structure via Similarity Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    semantics”, in such a way that all observed similarities can be satisfactorily explained using the latent semantics. Therefore, one can think of these semantics as the real structure in music, in the sense that they can explain the observed similarities among songs. The suitability of the PLSA model...... for representing music structure is studied in a simplified scenario consisting of 4412 songs and two similarity measures among them. The results suggest that the PLSA model is a useful framework to combine different sources of information, and provides a reasonable space for song representation.......Automatic methods for music navigation and music recommendation exploit the structure in the music to carry out a meaningful exploration of the “song space”. To get a satisfactory performance from such systems, one should incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however...

  18. HYPOTHESIS TESTING WITH THE SIMILARITY INDEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulltilocus DNA fingerprinting methods have been used extensively to address genetic issues in wildlife populations. Hypotheses concerning population subdivision and differing levels of diversity can be addressed through the use of the similarity index (S), a band-sharing coeffic...

  19. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980-2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories.

  20. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso

    Full Text Available Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980-2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories.

  1. Discovering Music Structure via Similarity Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenas-García, Jerónimo; Parrado-Hernandez, Emilio; Meng, Anders

    Automatic methods for music navigation and music recommendation exploit the structure in the music to carry out a meaningful exploration of the “song space”. To get a satisfactory performance from such systems, one should incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however...... semantics”, in such a way that all observed similarities can be satisfactorily explained using the latent semantics. Therefore, one can think of these semantics as the real structure in music, in the sense that they can explain the observed similarities among songs. The suitability of the PLSA model...... for representing music structure is studied in a simplified scenario consisting of 4412 songs and two similarity measures among them. The results suggest that the PLSA model is a useful framework to combine different sources of information, and provides a reasonable space for song representation....

  2. On self-similarity of crack layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsis, J.; Kunin, B.

    1987-01-01

    The crack layer (CL) theory of Chudnovsky (1986), based on principles of thermodynamics of irreversible processes, employs a crucial hypothesis of self-similarity. The self-similarity hypothesis states that the value of the damage density at a point x of the active zone at a time t coincides with that at the corresponding point in the initial (t = 0) configuration of the active zone, the correspondence being given by a time-dependent affine transformation of the space variables. In this paper, the implications of the self-similarity hypothesis for qusi-static CL propagation is investigated using polystyrene as a model material and examining the evolution of damage distribution along the trailing edge which is approximated by a straight segment perpendicular to the crack path. The results support the self-similarity hypothesis adopted by the CL theory.

  3. Outsourced similarity search on metric data assets

    KAUST Repository

    Yiu, Man Lung

    2012-02-01

    This paper considers a cloud computing setting in which similarity querying of metric data is outsourced to a service provider. The data is to be revealed only to trusted users, not to the service provider or anyone else. Users query the server for the most similar data objects to a query example. Outsourcing offers the data owner scalability and a low-initial investment. The need for privacy may be due to the data being sensitive (e.g., in medicine), valuable (e.g., in astronomy), or otherwise confidential. Given this setting, the paper presents techniques that transform the data prior to supplying it to the service provider for similarity queries on the transformed data. Our techniques provide interesting trade-offs between query cost and accuracy. They are then further extended to offer an intuitive privacy guarantee. Empirical studies with real data demonstrate that the techniques are capable of offering privacy while enabling efficient and accurate processing of similarity queries.

  4. Privacy-preserving matching of similar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsalan, Dinusha; Christen, Peter

    2016-02-01

    The identification of similar entities represented by records in different databases has drawn considerable attention in many application areas, including in the health domain. One important type of entity matching application that is vital for quality healthcare analytics is the identification of similar patients, known as similar patient matching. A key component of identifying similar records is the calculation of similarity of the values in attributes (fields) between these records. Due to increasing privacy and confidentiality concerns, using the actual attribute values of patient records to identify similar records across different organizations is becoming non-trivial because the attributes in such records often contain highly sensitive information such as personal and medical details of patients. Therefore, the matching needs to be based on masked (encoded) values while being effective and efficient to allow matching of large databases. Bloom filter encoding has widely been used as an efficient masking technique for privacy-preserving matching of string and categorical values. However, no work on Bloom filter-based masking of numerical data, such as integer (e.g. age), floating point (e.g. body mass index), and modulus (numbers wrap around upon reaching a certain value, e.g. date and time), which are commonly required in the health domain, has been presented in the literature. We propose a framework with novel methods for masking numerical data using Bloom filters, thereby facilitating the calculation of similarities between records. We conduct an empirical study on publicly available real-world datasets which shows that our framework provides efficient masking and achieves similar matching accuracy compared to the matching of actual unencoded patient records. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Parallel trajectory similarity joins in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2018-04-04

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider two cases of trajectory similarity joins (TS-Joins), including a threshold-based join (Tb-TS-Join) and a top-k TS-Join (k-TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the Tb-TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. In contrast, the k-TS-Join does not take a threshold as a parameter, and it returns the top-k most similar trajectory pairs from the two sets. The TS-Joins target diverse applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide purposeful definitions of similarity. To enable efficient processing of the TS-Joins on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and enable use of the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer search framework that lays the foundation for the algorithms for the Tb-TS-Join and the k-TS-Join that rely on different pruning techniques to achieve efficiency. For each trajectory, the algorithms first find similar trajectories. Then they merge the results to obtain the final result. The algorithms for the two joins exploit different upper and lower bounds on the spatiotemporal trajectory similarity and different heuristic scheduling strategies for search space pruning. Their per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the mergings have constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithms and demonstrates that they are capable of outperforming well-designed baseline algorithms by an order of magnitude.

  6. Protein structural similarity search by Ramachandran codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chih-Hung

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein structural data has increased exponentially, such that fast and accurate tools are necessary to access structure similarity search. To improve the search speed, several methods have been designed to reduce three-dimensional protein structures to one-dimensional text strings that are then analyzed by traditional sequence alignment methods; however, the accuracy is usually sacrificed and the speed is still unable to match sequence similarity search tools. Here, we aimed to improve the linear encoding methodology and develop efficient search tools that can rapidly retrieve structural homologs from large protein databases. Results We propose a new linear encoding method, SARST (Structural similarity search Aided by Ramachandran Sequential Transformation. SARST transforms protein structures into text strings through a Ramachandran map organized by nearest-neighbor clustering and uses a regenerative approach to produce substitution matrices. Then, classical sequence similarity search methods can be applied to the structural similarity search. Its accuracy is similar to Combinatorial Extension (CE and works over 243,000 times faster, searching 34,000 proteins in 0.34 sec with a 3.2-GHz CPU. SARST provides statistically meaningful expectation values to assess the retrieved information. It has been implemented into a web service and a stand-alone Java program that is able to run on many different platforms. Conclusion As a database search method, SARST can rapidly distinguish high from low similarities and efficiently retrieve homologous structures. It demonstrates that the easily accessible linear encoding methodology has the potential to serve as a foundation for efficient protein structural similarity search tools. These search tools are supposed applicable to automated and high-throughput functional annotations or predictions for the ever increasing number of published protein structures in this post-genomic era.

  7. Are calanco landforms similar to river basins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo-Arias, N A; Ferro, V

    2017-12-15

    In the past badlands have been often considered as ideal field laboratories for studying landscape evolution because of their geometrical similarity to larger fluvial systems. For a given hydrological process, no scientific proof exists that badlands can be considered a model of river basin prototypes. In this paper the measurements carried out on 45 Sicilian calanchi, a type of badlands that appears as a small-scale hydrographic unit, are used to establish their morphological similarity with river systems whose data are available in the literature. At first the geomorphological similarity is studied by identifying the dimensionless groups, which can assume the same value or a scaled one in a fixed ratio, representing drainage basin shape, stream network and relief properties. Then, for each property, the dimensionless groups are calculated for the investigated calanchi and the river basins and their corresponding scale ratio is evaluated. The applicability of Hack's, Horton's and Melton's laws for establishing similarity criteria is also tested. The developed analysis allows to conclude that a quantitative morphological similarity between calanco landforms and river basins can be established using commonly applied dimensionless groups. In particular, the analysis showed that i) calanchi and river basins have a geometrically similar shape respect to the parameters Rf and Re with a scale factor close to 1, ii) calanchi and river basins are similar respect to the bifurcation and length ratios (λ=1), iii) for the investigated calanchi the Melton number assumes values less than that (0.694) corresponding to the river case and a scale ratio ranging from 0.52 and 0.78 can be used, iv) calanchi and river basins have similar mean relief ratio values (λ=1.13) and v) calanchi present active geomorphic processes and therefore fall in a more juvenile stage with respect to river basins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Similarity search processing. Paralelization and indexing technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    The next Scientific-Technical Report addresses the similarity search and the implementation of metric structures on parallel environments. It also presents the state of the art related to similarity search on metric structures and parallelism technologies. Comparative analysis are also proposed, seeking to identify the behavior of a set of metric spaces and metric structures over processing platforms multicore-based and GPU-based.

  9. Semantic similarity between ontologies at different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingpeng; Haglin, David J.

    2016-04-01

    In the past decade, existing and new knowledge and datasets has been encoded in different ontologies for semantic web and biomedical research. The size of ontologies is often very large in terms of number of concepts and relationships, which makes the analysis of ontologies and the represented knowledge graph computational and time consuming. As the ontologies of various semantic web and biomedical applications usually show explicit hierarchical structures, it is interesting to explore the trade-offs between ontological scales and preservation/precision of results when we analyze ontologies. This paper presents the first effort of examining the capability of this idea via studying the relationship between scaling biomedical ontologies at different levels and the semantic similarity values. We evaluate the semantic similarity between three Gene Ontology slims (Plant, Yeast, and Candida, among which the latter two belong to the same kingdom—Fungi) using four popular measures commonly applied to biomedical ontologies (Resnik, Lin, Jiang-Conrath, and SimRel). The results of this study demonstrate that with proper selection of scaling levels and similarity measures, we can significantly reduce the size of ontologies without losing substantial detail. In particular, the performance of Jiang-Conrath and Lin are more reliable and stable than that of the other two in this experiment, as proven by (a) consistently showing that Yeast and Candida are more similar (as compared to Plant) at different scales, and (b) small deviations of the similarity values after excluding a majority of nodes from several lower scales. This study provides a deeper understanding of the application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies, and shed light on how to choose appropriate semantic similarity measures for biomedical engineering.

  10. [Comparative study of the behavior of particulate emissions from diesel and gasoline engines in animal lungs: elimination rate and induction of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase and ethoxycoumarin de-ethylase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnen, W; Tomingas, R; Kouros, M; Mönch, W

    1985-03-01

    The emitted particulates of five diesel-engined and two gasoline-engined passenger cars were investigated for the elimination rate from hamster lungs after intratracheal instillation. In addition extracts of these particulates were studied for their influence on the mixed function oxidase activity (MFO; Benzo(a)pyrene Hydroxylase, Ethoxycoumarine Deethylase). Differences in the elimination rates of diesel soot and particulates from gasoline engines were not found. Compared with the blanc the extracts of diesel soot from two vehicles proved to give a moderate increase of the MFO activity, but a significant difference to the blanc was observed with the extracts of the gasoline engines. It should be mentioned that the effects were studied without taking into account the quantitative relations of the emissions in the ambient air. However, the amounts of particulates were extremely high in relation to the natural conditions. In the limits of our test model there is no indication of a higher toxicity of diesel-emissions.

  11. Use of benzo[a]pyrene relative abundance ratios to assess exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient atmosphere in the vicinity of a Söderberg aluminum smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, E G; Farant, J P

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) relative abundance ratios (RARs) to assess exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the urban atmospheric air in the vicinity of a horizontal stud Söderberg aluminum reduction facility. The B[a]P RARs refer to the concentration of individual PAHs measured in a given sample divided by the concentration of B[a]P found in the same sample. This study compared the B[a]P RARs calculated for the facility stack and three sites near the Söderberg aluminum smelter for three different sampling periods. Interperiod differences were significant for many of the PAHs, and the differences between the stations proved insignificant at p aluminum refinery for the entire mixture of PAHs present in the ambient atmosphere.

  12. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of thenodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarityof nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure toanalyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large...... university.Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with customdata collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The networkof social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructedfrom different channels of telecommunication as well as data...... might bepresent in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent inthe other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals atransition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively lowweight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest...

  13. Fast similarity search for learned metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Brian; Jain, Prateek; Grauman, Kristen

    2009-12-01

    We introduce a method that enables scalable similarity search for learned metrics. Given pairwise similarity and dissimilarity constraints between some examples, we learn a Mahalanobis distance function that captures the examples' underlying relationships well. To allow sublinear time similarity search under the learned metric, we show how to encode the learned metric parameterization into randomized locality-sensitive hash functions. We further formulate an indirect solution that enables metric learning and hashing for vector spaces whose high dimensionality makes it infeasible to learn an explicit transformation over the feature dimensions. We demonstrate the approach applied to a variety of image data sets, as well as a systems data set. The learned metrics improve accuracy relative to commonly used metric baselines, while our hashing construction enables efficient indexing with learned distances and very large databases.

  14. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationship...... between blood flow and structural similarity in areas involved in visual object recognition. Contrary to this expectation we report a negative relationship in that identification of articles of clothing cause more extensive activation than identification of vegetables/fruit and animals even though items...... from the categories of animals and vegetables/fruit are rated as more structurally similar than items from the category of articles of clothing. Given that this pattern cannot be explained in terms of a tradeoff between activation and accuracy, we interpret these findings within a model where...

  15. Gene expression of heat shock protein 70, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor α as tools to identify immunotoxic effects on Xenopus laevis: A dose–response study with benzo[a]pyrene and its degradation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, Federica; Fernández, Carlos; Tarazona, José V.; Pablos, M. Victoria

    2012-01-01

    The exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) results in an alteration of immune function in mammals and fish, and the analysis of cytokine mRNA levels has been suggested for predicting the immunomodulatory potential of chemicals. To obtain evidence of the innate immune responses to B[a]P in Xenopus laevis, the present study monitored the mRNA expression of interleukin 1-β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in a laboratorial exposure. Tadpoles exposed to 8.36, 14.64, 89.06 and 309.47 μg/L of B[a]P,were used for detecting hsp70, IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA induction. A dose–response increase in the expression of hsp70 and IL-1β mRNA was found. The results of this study confirmed the use of hsp70 and IL-1β, but not TNF-α, as sensitive indicators of immunotoxic effect of B[a]P in X. laevis. Further research would be required for the validation of these endpoints. - Highlights: ► We study innate immune responses to benzo[a]pyrene in Xenopus laevis. ► mRNA expression of three typical proinflammatory proteins was monitored. ► Heat shock protein 70 mRNA induction showed a concentration/response/time relationship. ► Interleukin 1-β also showed a clear concentration/response relationship. ► Interleukin 1-β and heat shock protein 70 are useful indicators of immunotoxic effects. - The present study analyzed the use of cytokine mRNA levels as an earlier tool for predicting immunotoxicological risks to Xenopus laevis in a dose–response pattern.

  16. Large margin classification with indefinite similarities

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2016-01-07

    Classification with indefinite similarities has attracted attention in the machine learning community. This is partly due to the fact that many similarity functions that arise in practice are not symmetric positive semidefinite, i.e. the Mercer condition is not satisfied, or the Mercer condition is difficult to verify. Examples of such indefinite similarities in machine learning applications are ample including, for instance, the BLAST similarity score between protein sequences, human-judged similarities between concepts and words, and the tangent distance or the shape matching distance in computer vision. Nevertheless, previous works on classification with indefinite similarities are not fully satisfactory. They have either introduced sources of inconsistency in handling past and future examples using kernel approximation, settled for local-minimum solutions using non-convex optimization, or produced non-sparse solutions by learning in Krein spaces. Despite the large volume of research devoted to this subject lately, we demonstrate in this paper how an old idea, namely the 1-norm support vector machine (SVM) proposed more than 15 years ago, has several advantages over more recent work. In particular, the 1-norm SVM method is conceptually simpler, which makes it easier to implement and maintain. It is competitive, if not superior to, all other methods in terms of predictive accuracy. Moreover, it produces solutions that are often sparser than more recent methods by several orders of magnitude. In addition, we provide various theoretical justifications by relating 1-norm SVM to well-established learning algorithms such as neural networks, SVM, and nearest neighbor classifiers. Finally, we conduct a thorough experimental evaluation, which reveals that the evidence in favor of 1-norm SVM is statistically significant.

  17. Unveiling Music Structure Via PLSA Similarity Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenas-García, Jerónimo; Meng, Anders; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    observed similarities can be satisfactorily explained using the latent semantics. Additionally, this approach significantly simplifies the song retrieval phase, leading to a more practical system implementation. The suitability of the PLSA model for representing music structure is studied in a simplified......Nowadays there is an increasing interest in developing methods for building music recommendation systems. In order to get a satisfactory performance from such a system, one needs to incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however, how to do so is not obvious...

  18. Similarity joins in relational database systems

    CERN Document Server

    Augsten, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art database systems manage and process a variety of complex objects, including strings and trees. For such objects equality comparisons are often not meaningful and must be replaced by similarity comparisons. This book describes the concepts and techniques to incorporate similarity into database systems. We start out by discussing the properties of strings and trees, and identify the edit distance as the de facto standard for comparing complex objects. Since the edit distance is computationally expensive, token-based distances have been introduced to speed up edit distance comput

  19. Cultural similarity and adjustment of expatriate academics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    The findings of a number of recent empirical studies of business expatriates, using different samples and methodologies, seem to support the counter-intuitive proposition that cultural similarity may be as difficult to adjust to as cultural dissimilarity. However, it is not obvious...... and non-EU countries. Results showed that although the perceived cultural similarity between host and home country for the two groups of investigated respondents was different, there was neither any difference in their adjustment nor in the time it took for them to become proficient. Implications...

  20. The similarity principle - on using models correctly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landberg, L.; Mortensen, N.G.; Rathmann, O.

    2003-01-01

    This paper will present some guiding principles on the most accurate use of the WAsP program in particular, but the principle can be applied to the use of any linear model which predicts some quantity at one location based on another. We have felt a need to lay out these principles out explicitly......, due to the many, many users and the uses (and misuses) of the WAsP program. Put simply, the similarity principle states that one should chose a predictor site which – in as many ways as possible – is similar to the predicted site....

  1. Related herbivore species show similar temporal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, F G; Roslin, T; Kimura, M T; Huotari, T; Kaartinen, R; Gripenberg, S; Tack, A J M

    2018-02-08

    1.Within natural communities, different taxa display different dynamics in time. Why this is the case we do not fully know. This thwarts our ability to predict changes in community structure, which is important for both the conservation of rare species in natural communities and for the prediction of pest outbreaks in agriculture. 2.Species sharing phylogeny, natural enemies and/or life history traits have been hypothesized to share similar temporal dynamics. We operationalized these concepts into testing whether feeding guild, voltinism, similarity in parasitoid community, and/or phylogenetic relatedness explained similarities in temporal dynamics among herbivorous community members. 3.Focusing on two similar data sets from different geographical regions (Finland and Japan), we used asymmetric eigenvector maps as temporal variables to characterize species- and community-level dynamics of specialist insect herbivores on oak (Quercus). We then assessed whether feeding guild, voltinism, similarity in parasitoid community, and/or phylogenetic relatedness explained similarities in temporal dynamics among taxa. 4.Species-specific temporal dynamics varied widely, ranging from directional decline or increase to more complex patterns. Phylogeny was a clear predictor of similarity in temporal dynamics at the Finnish site, whereas for the Japanese site, the data were uninformative regarding a phylogenetic imprint. Voltinism, feeding guild and parasitoid overlap explained little variation at either location. Despite the rapid temporal dynamics observed at the level of individual species, these changes did not translate into any consistent temporal changes at the community level in either Finland or Japan. 5.Overall, our findings offer no direct support for the notion that species sharing natural enemies and/or life history traits would be characterised by similar temporal dynamics, but reveal a strong imprint of phylogenetic relatedness. As this phylogenetic signal cannot be

  2. Nuclear markers reveal that inter-lake cichlids' similar morphologies do not reflect similar genealogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Daud; Seki, Shingo; Horic, Michio; Yamaoka, Kosaku

    2006-08-01

    The apparent inter-lake morphological similarity among East African Great Lakes' cichlid species/genera has left evolutionary biologists asking whether such similarity is due to sharing of common ancestor or mere convergent evolution. In order to answer such question, we first used Geometric Morphometrics, GM, to quantify morphological similarity and then subsequently used Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism, AFLP, to determine if similar morphologies imply shared ancestry or convergent evolution. GM revealed that not all presumed morphological similar pairs were indeed similar, and the dendrogram generated from AFLP data indicated distinct clusters corresponding to each lake and not inter-lake morphological similar pairs. Such results imply that the morphological similarity is due to convergent evolution and not shared ancestry. The congruency of GM and AFLP generated dendrograms imply that GM is capable of picking up phylogenetic signal, and thus GM can be potential tool in phylogenetic systematics.

  3. Measuring structural similarity in large online networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongren; Macy, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Structural similarity based on bipartite graphs can be used to detect meaningful communities, but the networks have been tiny compared to massive online networks. Scalability is important in applications involving tens of millions of individuals with highly skewed degree distributions. Simulation analysis holding underlying similarity constant shows that two widely used measures - Jaccard index and cosine similarity - are biased by the distribution of out-degree in web-scale networks. However, an alternative measure, the Standardized Co-incident Ratio (SCR), is unbiased. We apply SCR to members of Congress, musical artists, and professional sports teams to show how massive co-following on Twitter can be used to map meaningful affiliations among cultural entities, even in the absence of direct connections to one another. Our results show how structural similarity can be used to map cultural alignments and demonstrate the potential usefulness of social media data in the study of culture, politics, and organizations across the social and behavioral sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Great Apes' Capacities to Recognize Relational Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Call, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing relational similarity relies on the ability to understand that defining object properties might not lie in the objects individually, but in the relations of the properties of various object to each other. This aptitude is highly relevant for many important human skills such as language, reasoning, categorization and understanding…

  5. Music Retrieval based on Melodic Similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Typke, R.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis introduces a method for measuring melodic similarity for notated music such as MIDI files. This music search algorithm views music as sets of notes that are represented as weighted points in the two-dimensional space of time and pitch. Two point sets can be compared by calculating how

  6. Anthropogenic and impact spherules: Morphological similarity and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 120; Issue 6. Anthropogenic and impact spherules: Morphological similarity and chemical distinction – A case study from India and its implications. Ambalika Niyogi Jayanta K Pati Suresh C Patel Dipak Panda Shiv K Patil. Volume 120 Issue 6 December 2011 pp ...

  7. Normalized Web Distance and Word Similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Cilibrasi (Rudi); P.M.B. Vitányi (Paul)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractThere is a great deal of work in cognitive psychology, linguistics, and computer science, about using word (or phrase) frequencies in context in text corpora to develop measures for word similarity or word association, going back to at least the 1960s. The goal of this chapter is to

  8. Normalized Web Distance and Word Similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Cilibrasi (Rudi); P.M.B. Vitányi (Paul); N. Indurkhya; F.J. Damerau

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractThere is a great deal of work in cognitive psychology, linguistics, and computer science, about using word (or phrase) frequencies in context in text corpora to develop measures for word similarity or word association, going back to at least the 1960s. The goal of this chapter is to

  9. Finding Protein and Nucleotide Similarities with FASTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, William R

    2016-03-24

    The FASTA programs provide a comprehensive set of rapid similarity searching tools (fasta36, fastx36, tfastx36, fasty36, tfasty36), similar to those provided by the BLAST package, as well as programs for slower, optimal, local, and global similarity searches (ssearch36, ggsearch36), and for searching with short peptides and oligonucleotides (fasts36, fastm36). The FASTA programs use an empirical strategy for estimating statistical significance that accommodates a range of similarity scoring matrices and gap penalties, improving alignment boundary accuracy and search sensitivity. The FASTA programs can produce "BLAST-like" alignment and tabular output, for ease of integration into existing analysis pipelines, and can search small, representative databases, and then report results for a larger set of sequences, using links from the smaller dataset. The FASTA programs work with a wide variety of database formats, including mySQL and postgreSQL databases. The programs also provide a strategy for integrating domain and active site annotations into alignments and highlighting the mutational state of functionally critical residues. These protocols describe how to use the FASTA programs to characterize protein and DNA sequences, using protein:protein, protein:DNA, and DNA:DNA comparisons. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Learning by similarity in coordination problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, Jakub; Stewart, C.

    -, č. 324 (2007), s. 1-40 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : similarity * learning * case-based reasoning Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp324.pdf

  11. Cross-kingdom similarities in microbiome functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, R.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in medical research have revealed how humans rely on their microbiome for diverse traits and functions. Similarly, microbiomes of other higher organisms play key roles in disease, health, growth and development of their host. Exploring microbiome functions across kingdoms holds

  12. Measurement of Similarity in Academic Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Mahian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose some reflections, comments and suggestions about the measurement of similar and matched content in scientific papers and documents, and the need to develop appropriate tools and standards for an ethically fair and equitable treatment of authors.

  13. New similarity search based glioma grading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haegler, Katrin; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Linn, Jennifer [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Boehm, Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Computer Science, Munich (Germany); Schnell, Oliver; Tonn, Joerg-Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    MR-based differentiation between low- and high-grade gliomas is predominately based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (CE-T1w). However, functional MR sequences as perfusion- and diffusion-weighted sequences can provide additional information on tumor grade. Here, we tested the potential of a recently developed similarity search based method that integrates information of CE-T1w and perfusion maps for non-invasive MR-based glioma grading. We prospectively included 37 untreated glioma patients (23 grade I/II, 14 grade III gliomas), in whom 3T MRI with FLAIR, pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted, and perfusion sequences was performed. Cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow, and mean transit time maps as well as CE-T1w images were used as input for the similarity search. Data sets were preprocessed and converted to four-dimensional Gaussian Mixture Models that considered correlations between the different MR sequences. For each patient, a so-called tumor feature vector (= probability-based classifier) was defined and used for grading. Biopsy was used as gold standard, and similarity based grading was compared to grading solely based on CE-T1w. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of pure CE-T1w based glioma grading were 64.9%, 78.6%, and 56.5%, respectively. Similarity search based tumor grading allowed differentiation between low-grade (I or II) and high-grade (III) gliomas with an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 83.8%, 78.6%, and 87.0%. Our findings indicate that integration of perfusion parameters and CE-T1w information in a semi-automatic similarity search based analysis improves the potential of MR-based glioma grading compared to CE-T1w data alone. (orig.)

  14. New similarity search based glioma grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegler, Katrin; Wiesmann, Martin; Böhm, Christian; Freiherr, Jessica; Schnell, Oliver; Brückmann, Hartmut; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Linn, Jennifer

    2012-08-01

    MR-based differentiation between low- and high-grade gliomas is predominately based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (CE-T1w). However, functional MR sequences as perfusion- and diffusion-weighted sequences can provide additional information on tumor grade. Here, we tested the potential of a recently developed similarity search based method that integrates information of CE-T1w and perfusion maps for non-invasive MR-based glioma grading. We prospectively included 37 untreated glioma patients (23 grade I/II, 14 grade III gliomas), in whom 3T MRI with FLAIR, pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted, and perfusion sequences was performed. Cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow, and mean transit time maps as well as CE-T1w images were used as input for the similarity search. Data sets were preprocessed and converted to four-dimensional Gaussian Mixture Models that considered correlations between the different MR sequences. For each patient, a so-called tumor feature vector (= probability-based classifier) was defined and used for grading. Biopsy was used as gold standard, and similarity based grading was compared to grading solely based on CE-T1w. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of pure CE-T1w based glioma grading were 64.9%, 78.6%, and 56.5%, respectively. Similarity search based tumor grading allowed differentiation between low-grade (I or II) and high-grade (III) gliomas with an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 83.8%, 78.6%, and 87.0%. Our findings indicate that integration of perfusion parameters and CE-T1w information in a semi-automatic similarity search based analysis improves the potential of MR-based glioma grading compared to CE-T1w data alone.

  15. Extending the Similarity-Attraction Effect : The effects of When-Similarity in mediated communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Castaneda, D.; Fernandez, N.; Nass, C.

    2014-01-01

    The feeling of connectedness experienced in computer-mediated relationships can be explained by the similarity-attraction effect (SAE). Though SAE is well established in psychology, the effects of some types of similarity have not yet been explored. In 2 studies, we demonstrate similarity-attraction

  16. Self-similar radiation from numerical Rosenau-Hyman compactons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rus, Francisco; Villatoro, Francisco R.

    2007-01-01

    The numerical simulation of compactons, solitary waves with compact support, is characterized by the presence of spurious phenomena, as numerically induced radiation, which is illustrated here using four numerical methods applied to the Rosenau-Hyman K(p, p) equation. Both forward and backward radiations are emitted from the compacton presenting a self-similar shape which has been illustrated graphically by the proper scaling. A grid refinement study shows that the amplitude of the radiations decreases as the grid size does, confirming its numerical origin. The front velocity and the amplitude of both radiations have been studied as a function of both the compacton and the numerical parameters. The amplitude of the radiations decreases exponentially in time, being characterized by a nearly constant scaling exponent. An ansatz for both the backward and forward radiations corresponding to a self-similar function characterized by the scaling exponent is suggested by the present numerical results

  17. Constructing a Database of Similar Exposure Groups: The Application of the Exporisq-HAP Database from 1995 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Pascal; Bicout, Dominique J; Persoons, Renaud; Bonneterre, Vincent; Barbeau, Damien; Maître, Anne

    2017-05-01

    Similar exposure groups (SEGs) are needed to reliably assess occupational exposures and health risks. However, the construction of SEGs can turn out to be rather challenging because of the multifactorial variability of exposures. The objective of this study is to put forward a semi-empirical approach developed to construct and implement a SEG database for exposure assessments. An occupational database of airborne levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was used as an illustrative and working example. The approach that was developed consisted of four steps. The first three steps addressed the construction and implementation of the occupational Exporisq-HAP database (E-HAP). E-HAP was structured into three hierarchical levels of exposure groups, each of which was based on exposure determinants, along 16 dimensions that represented the sampled PAHs. A fourth step was implemented to identify and generate SEGs using the geometric standard deviation (GSD) of PAH concentrations. E-HAP was restructured into 16 (for 16 sampled PAHs) 3 × 3 matrices: three hierarchical levels of description versus three degrees of dispersion, which included low (the SEG database: GSD ≤ 3), medium (3 6). Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was the least dispersed particulate PAH with 41.5% of groups that could be considered as SEGs, 48.5% of groups of medium dispersion, and only 8% with high dispersion. These results were comparable for BaP, BaP equivalent toxic, or the sum of all carcinogenic PAHs but were different when individual gaseous PAHs or ∑PAHG were chosen. Within the framework of risk assessment, such an approach, based on groundwork studies, allows for both the construction of an SEG database and the identification of exposure groups that require improvements in either the description level or the homogeneity degree toward SEG. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  18. Contextual Factors for Finding Similar Experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Katja; Balog, Krisztian; Bogers, Toine

    2010-01-01

    Expertise-seeking research studies how people search for expertise and choose whom to contact in the context of a specific task. An important outcome are models that identify factors that influence expert finding. Expertise retrieval addresses the same problem, expert finding, but from a system......-centered perspective. The main focus has been on developing content-based algorithms similar to document search. These algorithms identify matching experts primarily on the basis of the textual content of documents with which experts are associated. Other factors, such as the ones identified by expertise......-seeking models, are rarely taken into account. In this article, we extend content-based expert-finding approaches with contextual factors that have been found to influence human expert finding. We focus on a task of science communicators in a knowledge-intensive environment, the task of finding similar experts...

  19. Similarity Arguments in the Genetic Modification Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In the ethical debate on genetic modification (GM), it is common to encounter the claim that some anti-GM argument would also apply an established, ethically accepted technology, and that the anti-GM argument is therefore unsuccessful. The paper discusses whether this argumentative strategy...... transferability of reasons from one case to another; and (iii) it runs the risk of equivocations, especially in cases where the anti-genetic-modification argument relies on gradable features. The paper then shows how these issues play out in three specific Similarity Arguments that can be found in the literature....... Finally, the paper discusses what conclusions we can draw from the fact that genetic modification and established technologies are similar for the ethical status of genetic modification....

  20. Relations between premise similarity and inductive strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Feeney, Aidan

    2005-04-01

    According to the diversity principle, diverse evidence is strong evidence. There has been considerable evidence that people respect this principle in inductive reasoning. However, exceptions may be particularly informative. Medin, Coley, Storms, and Hayes (2003) introduced a relevance theory of inductive reasoning and used this theory to predict exceptions, including the nondiversity-by-property-reinforcement effect. A new experiment in which this phenomenon was investigated is reported here. Subjects made inductive strength judgments and similarity judgments for stimuli from Medin et al. (2003). The inductive strength judgments showed the same pattern as that in Medin et al. (2003); however, the similarity judgments suggested that the pattern should be interpreted as a diversity effect, rather than as a nondiversity effect. It is concluded that the evidence regarding the predicted nondiversity-by-property-reinforcement effect does not give distinctive support for relevance theory, although this theory does address other results.

  1. Multidimensional Scaling Visualization Using Parametric Similarity Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, J. Tenreiro; Lopes, António; Galhano, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) and parametric similarity indices (PSI) in the analysis of complex systems (CS). Each CS is viewed as a dynamical system, exhibiting an output time-series to be interpreted as a manifestation of its behavior. We start by adopting a sliding window to sample the original data into several consecutive time periods. Second, we define a given PSI for tracking pieces of data. We then compare the windows for different values of the parameter, an...

  2. Quasi-Similarity Model of Synthetic Jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Kordík, Jozef

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 2 (2009), s. 255-265 ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760705; GA ČR GA101/07/1499 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : jets * synthetic jets * similarity solution Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.674, year: 2009 http://www.sciencedirect.com

  3. Similarity solutions for phase-change problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canright, D.; Davis, S. H.

    1989-01-01

    A modification of Ivantsov's (1947) similarity solutions is proposed which can describe phase-change processes which are limited by diffusion. The method has application to systems that have n-components and possess cross-diffusion and Soret and Dufour effects, along with convection driven by density discontinuities at the two-phase interface. Local thermal equilibrium is assumed at the interface. It is shown that analytic solutions are possible when the material properties are constant.

  4. Stochastic self-similar and fractal universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iovane, G.; Laserra, E.; Tortoriello, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    The structures formation of the Universe appears as if it were a classically self-similar random process at all astrophysical scales. An agreement is demonstrated for the present hypotheses of segregation with a size of astrophysical structures by using a comparison between quantum quantities and astrophysical ones. We present the observed segregated Universe as the result of a fundamental self-similar law, which generalizes the Compton wavelength relation. It appears that the Universe has a memory of its quantum origin as suggested by R. Penrose with respect to quasi-crystal. A more accurate analysis shows that the present theory can be extended from the astrophysical to the nuclear scale by using generalized (stochastically) self-similar random process. This transition is connected to the relevant presence of the electromagnetic and nuclear interactions inside the matter. In this sense, the presented rule is correct from a subatomic scale to an astrophysical one. We discuss the near full agreement at organic cell scale and human scale too. Consequently the Universe, with its structures at all scales (atomic nucleus, organic cell, human, planet, solar system, galaxy, clusters of galaxy, super clusters of galaxy), could have a fundamental quantum reason. In conclusion, we analyze the spatial dimensions of the objects in the Universe as well as space-time dimensions. The result is that it seems we live in an El Naschie's E-infinity Cantorian space-time; so we must seriously start considering fractal geometry as the geometry of nature, a type of arena where the laws of physics appear at each scale in a self-similar way as advocated long ago by the Swedish school of astrophysics

  5. Similarity metrics for surgical process models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumuth, Thomas; Loebe, Frank; Jannin, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to introduce a set of similarity metrics for comparing surgical process models (SPMs). SPMs are progression models of surgical interventions that support quantitative analyses of surgical activities, supporting systems engineering or process optimization. Five different similarity metrics are presented and proven. These metrics deal with several dimensions of process compliance in surgery, including granularity, content, time, order, and frequency of surgical activities. The metrics were experimentally validated using 20 clinical data sets each for cataract interventions, craniotomy interventions, and supratentorial tumor resections. The clinical data sets were controllably modified in simulations, which were iterated ten times, resulting in a total of 600 simulated data sets. The simulated data sets were subsequently compared to the original data sets to empirically assess the predictive validity of the metrics. We show that the results of the metrics for the surgical process models correlate significantly (pmetrics meet predictive validity. The clinical use of the metrics was exemplarily, as demonstrated by assessment of the learning curves of observers during surgical process model acquisition. Measuring similarity between surgical processes is a complex task. However, metrics for computing the similarity between surgical process models are needed in many uses in the field of medical engineering. These metrics are essential whenever two SPMs need to be compared, such as during the evaluation of technical systems, the education of observers, or the determination of surgical strategies. These metrics are key figures that provide a solid base for medical decisions, such as during validation of sensor systems for use in operating rooms in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of similarity on environmental context cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven M; Handy, Justin D; Angello, Genna; Manzano, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined the prediction that context cues which are similar to study contexts can facilitate episodic recall, even if those cues are never seen before the recall test. Environmental context cueing effects have typically produced such small effect sizes that influences of moderating factors, such as the similarity between encoding and retrieval contexts, would be difficult to observe experimentally. Videos of environmental contexts, however, can be used to produce powerful context-dependent memory effects, particularly when only one memory target is associated with each video context, intentional item-context encoding is encouraged, and free recall tests are used. Experiment 1 showed that a not previously viewed video of the study context provided an effective recall cue, although it was not as effective as the originally viewed video context. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that videos of environments that were conceptually similar to encoding contexts (e.g., both were videos of ball field games) also cued recall, but not as well if the encoding contexts were given specific labels (e.g., "home run") incompatible with test contexts (e.g., a soccer scene). A fourth experiment that used incidental item-context encoding showed that video context reinstatement has a robust effect on paired associate memory, indicating that the video context reinstatement effect does not depend on interactive item-context encoding or free recall testing.

  7. Semantic Similarity between Web Documents Using Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Poonam; Singh Tomer, Manjeet; Kumar, Suresh

    2018-03-01

    The World Wide Web is the source of information available in the structure of interlinked web pages. However, the procedure of extracting significant information with the assistance of search engine is incredibly critical. This is for the reason that web information is written mainly by using natural language, and further available to individual human. Several efforts have been made in semantic similarity computation between documents using words, concepts and concepts relationship but still the outcome available are not as per the user requirements. This paper proposes a novel technique for computation of semantic similarity between documents that not only takes concepts available in documents but also relationships that are available between the concepts. In our approach documents are being processed by making ontology of the documents using base ontology and a dictionary containing concepts records. Each such record is made up of the probable words which represents a given concept. Finally, document ontology's are compared to find their semantic similarity by taking the relationships among concepts. Relevant concepts and relations between the concepts have been explored by capturing author and user intention. The proposed semantic analysis technique provides improved results as compared to the existing techniques.

  8. Conditioned real self-similar Markov processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kyprianou, Andreas E.; Rivero, Víctor M.; Satitkanitkul, Weerapat

    2015-01-01

    In recent work, Chaumont et al. [9] showed that is possible to condition a stable process with index ${\\alpha} \\in (1,2)$ to avoid the origin. Specifically, they describe a new Markov process which is the Doob h-transform of a stable process and which arises from a limiting procedure in which the stable process is conditioned to have avoided the origin at later and later times. A stable process is a particular example of a real self-similar Markov process (rssMp) and we develop the idea of su...

  9. Efficient Similarity Retrieval in Music Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Audio music is increasingly becoming available in digital form, and the digital music collections of individuals continue to grow. Addressing the need for effective means of retrieving music from such collections, this paper proposes new techniques for content-based similarity search. Each music......, the Vector Approximation file is adapted to the indexing of time sequences and to use a lower bound on the DTW distance. Using these techniques, the paper exploits the lack of a ground truth for queries to efficiently compute query results that differ only slightly from results that may be more accurate...

  10. Modeling Timbre Similarity of Short Music Clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedenburg, Kai; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence from a number of recent studies that most listeners are able to extract information related to song identity, emotion, or genre from music excerpts with durations in the range of tenths of seconds. Because of these very short durations, timbre as a multifaceted auditory attribute appears as a plausible candidate for the type of features that listeners make use of when processing short music excerpts. However, the importance of timbre in listening tasks that involve short excerpts has not yet been demonstrated empirically. Hence, the goal of this study was to develop a method that allows to explore to what degree similarity judgments of short music clips can be modeled with low-level acoustic features related to timbre. We utilized the similarity data from two large samples of participants: Sample I was obtained via an online survey, used 16 clips of 400 ms length, and contained responses of 137,339 participants. Sample II was collected in a lab environment, used 16 clips of 800 ms length, and contained responses from 648 participants. Our model used two sets of audio features which included commonly used timbre descriptors and the well-known Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients as well as their temporal derivates. In order to predict pairwise similarities, the resulting distances between clips in terms of their audio features were used as predictor variables with partial least-squares regression. We found that a sparse selection of three to seven features from both descriptor sets-mainly encoding the coarse shape of the spectrum as well as spectrotemporal variability-best predicted similarities across the two sets of sounds. Notably, the inclusion of non-acoustic predictors of musical genre and record release date allowed much better generalization performance and explained up to 50% of shared variance ( R 2 ) between observations and model predictions. Overall, the results of this study empirically demonstrate that both acoustic features related

  11. Large-Scale Similarity Joins With Guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The ability to handle noisy or imprecise data is becoming increasingly important in computing. In the database community the notion of similarity join has been studied extensively, yet existing solutions have offered weak performance guarantees. Either they are based on deterministic filtering...... techniques that often, but not always, succeed in reducing computational costs, or they are based on randomized techniques that have improved guarantees on computational cost but come with a probability of not returning the correct result. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of randomized techniques...

  12. Fast approximate hierarchical clustering using similarity heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kull Meelis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC is a common unsupervised data analysis technique used in several biological applications. Standard AHC methods require that all pairwise distances between data objects must be known. With ever-increasing data sizes this quadratic complexity poses problems that cannot be overcome by simply waiting for faster computers. Results We propose an approximate AHC algorithm HappieClust which can output a biologically meaningful clustering of a large dataset more than an order of magnitude faster than full AHC algorithms. The key to the algorithm is to limit the number of calculated pairwise distances to a carefully chosen subset of all possible distances. We choose distances using a similarity heuristic based on a small set of pivot objects. The heuristic efficiently finds pairs of similar objects and these help to mimic the greedy choices of full AHC. Quality of approximate AHC as compared to full AHC is studied with three measures. The first measure evaluates the global quality of the achieved clustering, while the second compares biological relevance using enrichment of biological functions in every subtree of the clusterings. The third measure studies how well the contents of subtrees are conserved between the clusterings. Conclusion The HappieClust algorithm is well suited for large-scale gene expression visualization and analysis both on personal computers as well as public online web applications. The software is available from the URL http://www.quretec.com/HappieClust

  13. Popularity versus similarity in growing networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Kitsak, Maksim; Serrano, M Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2012-09-27

    The principle that 'popularity is attractive' underlies preferential attachment, which is a common explanation for the emergence of scaling in growing networks. If new connections are made preferentially to more popular nodes, then the resulting distribution of the number of connections possessed by nodes follows power laws, as observed in many real networks. Preferential attachment has been directly validated for some real networks (including the Internet), and can be a consequence of different underlying processes based on node fitness, ranking, optimization, random walks or duplication. Here we show that popularity is just one dimension of attractiveness; another dimension is similarity. We develop a framework in which new connections optimize certain trade-offs between popularity and similarity, instead of simply preferring popular nodes. The framework has a geometric interpretation in which popularity preference emerges from local optimization. As opposed to preferential attachment, our optimization framework accurately describes the large-scale evolution of technological (the Internet), social (trust relationships between people) and biological (Escherichia coli metabolic) networks, predicting the probability of new links with high precision. The framework that we have developed can thus be used for predicting new links in evolving networks, and provides a different perspective on preferential attachment as an emergent phenomenon.

  14. Gait Recognition Using Image Self-Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraz BenAbdelkader

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Gait is one of the few biometrics that can be measured at a distance, and is hence useful for passive surveillance as well as biometric applications. Gait recognition research is still at its infancy, however, and we have yet to solve the fundamental issue of finding gait features which at once have sufficient discrimination power and can be extracted robustly and accurately from low-resolution video. This paper describes a novel gait recognition technique based on the image self-similarity of a walking person. We contend that the similarity plot encodes a projection of gait dynamics. It is also correspondence-free, robust to segmentation noise, and works well with low-resolution video. The method is tested on multiple data sets of varying sizes and degrees of difficulty. Performance is best for fronto-parallel viewpoints, whereby a recognition rate of 98% is achieved for a data set of 6 people, and 70% for a data set of 54 people.

  15. Self-similarity in applied superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, Lawrence

    1981-09-01

    Self-similarity is a descriptive term applying to a family of curves. It means that the family is invariant to a one-parameter group of affine (stretching) transformations. The property of self-similarity has been exploited in a wide variety of problems in applied superconductivity, namely, (i) transient distribution of the current among the filaments of a superconductor during charge-up, (ii) steady distribution of current among the filaments of a superconductor near the current leads, (iii) transient heat transfer in superfluid helium, (iv) transient diffusion in cylindrical geometry (important in studying the growth rate of the reacted layer in A15 materials), (v) thermal expulsion of helium from quenching cable-in-conduit conductors, (vi) eddy current heating of irregular plates by slow, ramped fields, and (vii) the specific heat of type-II superconductors. Most, but not all, of the applications involve differential equations, both ordinary and partial. The novel methods explained in this report should prove of great value in other fields, just as they already have done in applied superconductivity. (author)

  16. Similar Hamiltonian Between Avalanche-effect & Sociophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksoed, Ssi, Wh-

    2016-05-01

    Of similar Hamiltonian concerned in ``sociophysics'', there were RandomFieldIsingModel/RFIM in external field retrieved in S. Sabhapandit:``Hysteresis & Avalanche in RandomFieldIsingModel'',2002:'' ..in earthquake, it is an energy release and in case of ferromagnet, it is the size of the domain flips''. Following the extremes & compromises curve in Serge Galam: ``Sociophysics: a Review of Galam Model'', 2008 fig. 12, h 9 whereas it seems similar with ``heating curve''-Prof. Ir. Abdul Kadir: ``Mesin Arus Searah'', h 192 when the heat sources are continuous denote continuous opinion dynamics. Further, hysteresis as duties in ``Kajian Analisis Model Mikromagnetik dari Struktur Magnet Nanokomposit'', 2007 [ UI file no. S29286 ] also sought:'' calculate the probability that `one more site became unstable' causes an avalanche of the spin flips...'' usually found in Per Bak sand-pile fractal characters experiment exhibits. Great acknowledgment to HE. Mr. LieutGen-TNI[rtd]. H. TUK SETYOHADI, +62-21-7220385, Jl. Sriwijaya Raya 3, Kebayoran Baru, South-Jakarta.

  17. Pharmacophore-based similarity scoring for DOCK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lingling; Rizzo, Robert C

    2015-01-22

    Pharmacophore modeling incorporates geometric and chemical features of known inhibitors and/or targeted binding sites to rationally identify and design new drug leads. In this study, we have encoded a three-dimensional pharmacophore matching similarity (FMS) scoring function into the structure-based design program DOCK. Validation and characterization of the method are presented through pose reproduction, crossdocking, and enrichment studies. When used alone, FMS scoring dramatically improves pose reproduction success to 93.5% (∼20% increase) and reduces sampling failures to 3.7% (∼6% drop) compared to the standard energy score (SGE) across 1043 protein-ligand complexes. The combined FMS+SGE function further improves success to 98.3%. Crossdocking experiments using FMS and FMS+SGE scoring, for six diverse protein families, similarly showed improvements in success, provided proper pharmacophore references are employed. For enrichment, incorporating pharmacophores during sampling and scoring, in most cases, also yield improved outcomes when docking and rank-ordering libraries of known actives and decoys to 15 systems. Retrospective analyses of virtual screenings to three clinical drug targets (EGFR, IGF-1R, and HIVgp41) using X-ray structures of known inhibitors as pharmacophore references are also reported, including a customized FMS scoring protocol to bias on selected regions in the reference. Overall, the results and fundamental insights gained from this study should benefit the docking community in general, particularly researchers using the new FMS method to guide computational drug discovery with DOCK.

  18. Similarity Reductions and Similarity Solutions of the (3+1)-Dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Liu, Xi-Qiang

    2008-10-01

    Employing the compatibility method, we obtain the symmetries of the (3+1)-dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation. Four types of similarity reductions of the KP equation are obtained by solving the corresponding characteristic equations associated with symmetry equations. In addition, a lot of similarity solutions to the KP equation are obtained.

  19. A ligand's view of target similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garland, Stephen L; Gloriam, David E

    2011-01-01

    -finding and, potentially, to produce ligands for previously intractable receptors. Sequence motifs correlated with ligands can be applied in the design of target-specific focused libraries that are both efficient and cost-effective and should provide increased hit-rates over diversity screening. Furthermore...... shows with several examples how focusing on the binding site(s) has a clear advantage when it comes to establishing sequence-correlated pharmacological profiles. By organizing and comparing sequence and structural data it is possible to "borrow" SAR from similar targets to increase the speed of lead......, in the optimization phase, the binding motif approach offers the possibility to identify quickly the most likely off-target candidates to be chosen for selectivity screening, as well as potentially characterizing those pockets which may best be exploited for improved selectivity....

  20. Formulation of similarity porous media systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.M.; Ford, W.T.; Ruttan, A.; Strauss, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The mathematical formulation of the Porous Media System (PMS) describing two-phase, immiscible, compressible fluid flow in linear, homogeneous porous media is reviewed and expanded. It is shown that families of common vertex, coaxial parabolas and families of parallel lines are the only families of curves on which solutions of the PMS may be constant. A coordinate transformation is used to change the partial differential equations of the PMS to a system of ordinary differential equations, referred to as a similarity Porous Media System (SPMS), in which the independent variable denotes movement from curve to curve in a selected family of curves. Properties of solutions of the first boundary value problem are developed for the SPMS

  1. Social Values as Arguments: Similar is Convincing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R Maio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Politicians, philosophers, and rhetors engage in co-value argumentation: appealing to one value in order to support another value (e.g., equality leads to freedom. Across four experiments in the United Kingdom and India, we found that the psychological relatedness of values affects the persuasiveness of the arguments that bind them. Experiment 1 found that participants were more persuaded by arguments citing values that fulfilled similar motives than by arguments citing opposing values. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated this result using a wider variety of values, while finding that the effect is stronger among people higher in need for cognition and that the effect is mediated by the greater plausibility of co-value arguments that link motivationally compatible values. Experiment 4 extended the effect to real-world arguments taken from political propaganda and replicated the mediating effect of argument plausibility. The findings highlight the importance of value relatedness in argument persuasiveness.

  2. Social values as arguments: similar is convincing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, Gregory R.; Hahn, Ulrike; Frost, John-Mark; Kuppens, Toon; Rehman, Nadia; Kamble, Shanmukh

    2014-01-01

    Politicians, philosophers, and rhetors engage in co-value argumentation: appealing to one value in order to support another value (e.g., “equality leads to freedom”). Across four experiments in the United Kingdom and India, we found that the psychological relatedness of values affects the persuasiveness of the arguments that bind them. Experiment 1 found that participants were more persuaded by arguments citing values that fulfilled similar motives than by arguments citing opposing values. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated this result using a wider variety of values, while finding that the effect is stronger among people higher in need for cognition and that the effect is mediated by the greater plausibility of co-value arguments that link motivationally compatible values. Experiment 4 extended the effect to real-world arguments taken from political propaganda and replicated the mediating effect of argument plausibility. The findings highlight the importance of value relatedness in argument persuasiveness. PMID:25147529

  3. Ubiquitin-binding proteins: similar, but different

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Katrine M; Hofmann, Kay; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    of ubiquitin conjugation to endoplasmic reticulum degradation), UEV [ubiquitin E2 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme) variant] and NZF (nuclear protein localization gene 4 zinc finger) domain-containing proteins appear to have more specialized functions. Here we discuss functional and structural properties......Covalent modification of proteins with ubiquitin is a common regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic cells. Typically, ubiquitinated proteins are targeted for degradation by the 26 S proteasome. However, more recently the ubiquitin signal has also been connected with many other cell processes, including...... endocytosis, vesicle fusion, DNA repair and transcriptional silencing. Hence ubiquitination may be comparable with phosphorylation in its importance as an intracellular switch, controlling various signal-transduction pathways. Similar to the regulation of the extent of phosphorylation by kinases...

  4. Methods for Similarity-based Virtual Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Greve Kristensen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing new medical drugs is expensive. Among the first steps is a screening process, in which molecules in existing chemical libraries are tested for activity against a given target. This requires a lot of resources and manpower. Therefore it has become common to perform a virtual screening, where computers are used for predicting the activity of very large libraries of molecules, to identify the most promising leads for further laboratory experiments. Since computer simulations generally require fewer resources than physical experimentation this can lower the cost of medical and biological research significantly. In this paper we review practically fast algorithms for screening databases of molecules in order to find molecules that are sufficiently similar to a query molecule.

  5. METHODS FOR SIMILARITY-BASED VIRTUAL SCREENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Kristensen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing new medical drugs is expensive. Among the first steps is a screening process, in which molecules in existing chemical libraries are tested for activity against a given target. This requires a lot of resources and manpower. Therefore it has become common to perform a virtual screening, where computers are used for predicting the activity of very large libraries of molecules, to identify the most promising leads for further laboratory experiments. Since computer simulations generally require fewer resources than physical experimentation this can lower the cost of medical and biological research significantly. In this paper we review practically fast algorithms for screening databases of molecules in order to find molecules that are sufficiently similar to a query molecule.

  6. A Lithium Vapor Box Divertor Similarity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A.; Emdee, Eric D.; Goldston, Robert J.; Jaworski, Michael A.; Schwartz, Jacob A.

    2017-10-01

    A lithium vapor box divertor offers an alternate means of managing the extreme power density of divertor plasmas by leveraging gaseous lithium to volumetrically extract power. The vapor box divertor is a baffled slot with liquid lithium coated walls held at temperatures which increase toward the divertor floor. The resulting vapor pressure differential drives gaseous lithium from hotter chambers into cooler ones, where the lithium condenses and returns. A similarity experiment was devised to investigate the advantages offered by a vapor box divertor design. We discuss the design, construction, and early findings of the vapor box divertor experiment including vapor can construction, power transfer calculations, joint integrity tests, and thermocouple data logging. Heat redistribution of an incident plasma-based heat flux from a typical linear plasma device is also presented. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and The Princeton Environmental Institute.

  7. Human vs. Mouse Nociceptors - Similarities and Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostock, Charlotte; Schrenk-Siemens, Katrin; Pohle, Jörg; Siemens, Jan

    2017-12-08

    The somatosensory system allows us to detect a diverse range of physical and chemical stimuli including noxious ones, which can initiate protective reflexes to prevent tissue damage. However, the sensation of pain can - under pathological circumstances - outlive its usefulness and perpetrate ongoing suffering. Rodent model systems have been tremendously useful to help understand basic mechanisms of pain perception. Unfortunately, the translation of this knowledge into novel therapies has been challenging. We have investigated similarities and differences of human and mouse peptidergic (TRKA expressing) nociceptors using dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization of dorsal root ganglia. By comparing the transcripts of a selected group of well-established nociceptive markers, we observed significant differences for some of them. We found co-expression of Trpv1, a key player for sensitization and inflammatory pain, with TrkA in a larger population in humans compared to mice. Similar results could be obtained for Na v 1.8 and Na v 1.9, two voltage gated sodium channels implicated in pathological forms of pain. Additionally, co-expression of Ret and TrkA was also found to be more abundant in human neurons. Moreover, the neurofilament heavy polypeptide was detected in all human sensory DRG neurons compared to a more selective expression pattern observed in rodents. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such detailed comparative analysis has been performed and we believe that our findings will direct future experimentation geared to understand the difficulties we face in translating findings from rodent models to humans. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Similarity of eigenstates in generalized labyrinth tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiem, Stefanie; Schreiber, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The eigenstates of d-dimensional quasicrystalline models with a separable Hamiltonian are studied within the tight-binding model. The approach is based on mathematical sequences, constructed by an inflation rule P = {w → s,s → sws b-1 } describing the weak/strong couplings of atoms in a quasiperiodic chain. Higher-dimensional quasiperiodic tilings are constructed as a direct product of these chains and their eigenstates can be directly calculated by multiplying the energies E or wave functions ψ of the chain, respectively. Applying this construction rule, the grid in d dimensions splits into 2 d-1 different tilings, for which we investigated the characteristics of the wave functions. For the standard two-dimensional labyrinth tiling constructed from the octonacci sequence (b = 2) the lattice breaks up into two identical lattices, which consequently yield the same eigenstates. While this is not the case for b ≠ 2, our numerical results show that the wave functions of the different grids become increasingly similar for large system sizes. This can be explained by the fact that the structure of the 2 d-1 grids mainly differs at the boundaries and thus for large systems the eigenstates approach each other. This property allows us to analytically derive properties of the higher-dimensional generalized labyrinth tilings from the one-dimensional results. In particular participation numbers and corresponding scaling exponents have been determined.

  9. State and Mafia, Differences and Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfano Vincenzo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate about the differences and, if any, the similarities among the modern State and the mafia criminal organizations. In particular, starting from their definitions, I will try to find the differences between State and mafia, to then focus on the operational aspects of the functioning of these two organizations, with specific reference to the effect/impact that both these human constructs have on citizens’ existences, and especially on citizen’s economic lives. All this in order to understand whether it is possible to identify an objective difference – beside morals – between taxation by the modern State and extortion by criminal organizations. With this of course I do not want to argue that the mafia is in any way justifiable or absolvable, nor that it is better than the State. However, I want to investigate whether there is a real, logical reason why the State should be considered by the citizens more desirable than the criminal organizations oppressing Southern Italy, from a strictly logical point of view and not from the point of view of ethics and morality.

  10. Semantic Similarity Assessment of Volunteered Geographic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maythm M. Albakri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent development in communication technologies between individuals allows for the establishment of more informal collaborative map data projects which are called volunteered geographic information (VGI. These projects, such as OpenStreetMap (OSM project, seek to create free alternative maps which let users add or input new materials to the data of others. The information of different VGI data sources is often not compliant to any standard and each organization is producing a dataset at various level of richness. In this research the assessment of semantic data quality provided by web sources, e.g. OSM will depend on a comparison with the information from standard sources. This will include the validity of semantic accuracy as one of the most important parameter of spatial data quality parameters. Semantic similarity testing covered feature classification, in effect comparing possible categories (legend classes and actual attributes attached to features. This will be achieved by developing a tool, using Matlab programming language, for analysing and examining OSM semantic accuracy. To identify the strength of semantic accuracy assessment strategy, there are many factors should be considered. For instance, the confusion matrix of feature classifications can be assessed, and different statistical tests should be passed. The results revealed good semantic accuracy of OSM datasets.

  11. Multidimensional Scaling Visualization Using Parametric Similarity Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS and parametric similarity indices (PSI in the analysis of complex systems (CS. Each CS is viewed as a dynamical system, exhibiting an output time-series to be interpreted as a manifestation of its behavior. We start by adopting a sliding window to sample the original data into several consecutive time periods. Second, we define a given PSI for tracking pieces of data. We then compare the windows for different values of the parameter, and we generate the corresponding MDS maps of ‘points’. Third, we use Procrustes analysis to linearly transform the MDS charts for maximum superposition and to build a globalMDS map of “shapes”. This final plot captures the time evolution of the phenomena and is sensitive to the PSI adopted. The generalized correlation, theMinkowski distance and four entropy-based indices are tested. The proposed approach is applied to the Dow Jones Industrial Average stock market index and the Europe Brent Spot Price FOB time-series.

  12. Genetic and 'cultural' similarity in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langergraber, Kevin E; Boesch, Christophe; Inoue, Eiji; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Mitani, John C; Nishida, Toshisada; Pusey, Anne; Reynolds, Vernon; Schubert, Grit; Wrangham, Richard W; Wroblewski, Emily; Vigilant, Linda

    2011-02-07

    The question of whether animals possess 'cultures' or 'traditions' continues to generate widespread theoretical and empirical interest. Studies of wild chimpanzees have featured prominently in this discussion, as the dominant approach used to identify culture in wild animals was first applied to them. This procedure, the 'method of exclusion,' begins by documenting behavioural differences between groups and then infers the existence of culture by eliminating ecological explanations for their occurrence. The validity of this approach has been questioned because genetic differences between groups have not explicitly been ruled out as a factor contributing to between-group differences in behaviour. Here we investigate this issue directly by analysing genetic and behavioural data from nine groups of wild chimpanzees. We find that the overall levels of genetic and behavioural dissimilarity between groups are highly and statistically significantly correlated. Additional analyses show that only a very small number of behaviours vary between genetically similar groups, and that there is no obvious pattern as to which classes of behaviours (e.g. tool-use versus communicative) have a distribution that matches patterns of between-group genetic dissimilarity. These results indicate that genetic dissimilarity cannot be eliminated as playing a major role in generating group differences in chimpanzee behaviour.

  13. Different-but-Similar Judgments by Bumblebees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines picture perception in an invertebrate. Two questions regarding possible picture-object correspondence are addressed for bumblebees (Bombus impatiens: (1 Do bees perceive the difference between an object and its corresponding picture even when they have not been trained to do so? (2 Do they also perceive the similarity? Twenty bees from each of four colonies underwent discrimination training of stimuli placed in a radial maze. Bees were trained to discriminate between two objects (artificial flowers in one group and between photos of those objects in another. Subsequent testing on unrewarding stimuli revealed, for both groups, a significant discrimination between the object and its photo: discrimination training was not necessary for bees to detect a difference between corresponding objects and pictures. We obtained not only object-to-picture transfer, as in previous research, but also the reverse: picture-to-object transfer. In the absence of the rewarding object, its photo, though never seen before by the bees, was accepted as a substitute. The reverse was also true. Bumblebees treated pictures as “different-but-similar” without having been trained to do so, which is in turn useful in floral categorization.

  14. Popularity, similarity, and the network extraversion bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiler, Daniel C; Kleinbaum, Adam M

    2015-05-01

    Using the emergent friendship network of an incoming cohort of students in an M.B.A. program, we examined the role of extraversion in shaping social networks. Extraversion has two important implications for the emergence of network ties: a popularity effect, in which extraverts accumulate more friends than introverts do, and a homophily effect, in which the more similar are two people's levels of extraversion, the more likely they are to become friends. These effects result in a systematic network extraversion bias, in which people's social networks will tend to be overpopulated with extraverts and underpopulated with introverts. Moreover, the most extraverted people have the greatest network extraversion bias, and the most introverted people have the least network extraversion bias. Our finding that social networks were systematically misrepresentative of the broader social environment raises questions about whether there is a societal bias toward believing other people are more extraverted than they actually are and whether introverts are better socially calibrated than extraverts. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Reading network in dyslexia: Similar, yet different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldie, Karen E; Wilson, Anna J; Roberts, Reece P; Moreau, David

    2017-11-01

    Dyslexia is a developmental disorder characterized by reading and phonological difficulties, yet important questions remain regarding its underlying neural correlates. In this study, we used partial least squares (PLS), a multivariate analytic technique, to investigate the neural networks used by dyslexics while performing a word-rhyming task. Although the overall reading network was largely similar in dyslexics and typical readers, it did not correlate with behavior in the same way in the two groups. In particular, there was a positive association between reading performance and both right superior temporal gyrus and bilateral insula activation in dyslexic readers but a negative correlation in typical readers. Together with differences in lateralization unique to dyslexics, this suggests that the combination of poor reading performance with high insula activity and atypical laterality is a consistent marker of dyslexia. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding right-hemisphere activation in dyslexia and provide promising directions for the remediation of reading disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring similarities among many species distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmerman, Scott; Wang, Jingyuan; Osborne, James; Shook, Kimberly; Huang, Jian; Godsoe, William; Simons, Theodore R.

    2012-01-01

    Collecting species presence data and then building models to predict species distribution has been long practiced in the field of ecology for the purpose of improving our understanding of species relationships with each other and with the environment. Due to limitations of computing power as well as limited means of using modeling software on HPC facilities, past species distribution studies have been unable to fully explore diverse data sets. We build a system that can, for the first time to our knowledge, leverage HPC to support effective exploration of species similarities in distribution as well as their dependencies on common environmental conditions. Our system can also compute and reveal uncertainties in the modeling results enabling domain experts to make informed judgments about the data. Our work was motivated by and centered around data collection efforts within the Great Smoky Mountains National Park that date back to the 1940s. Our findings present new research opportunities in ecology and produce actionable field-work items for biodiversity management personnel to include in their planning of daily management activities.

  17. Body odor similarity in noncohabiting twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S Craig; Gosling, L Morris; Spector, Tim D; Miller, Paul; Penn, Dustin J; Petrie, Marion

    2005-10-01

    There is currently considerable interest in biometric approaches using human odor as a marker of disease or genetic individuality. Body odor is also thought to be used during mate choice to select genetically compatible mates. The idea that body odor reveals information about both genetic identity and genetic similarity is most readily tested by examining odor in twin pairs. However, although this idea can be traced back 130 years to Francis Galton in 1875, most studies using dogs fail to control for shared environmental effects associated with cohabitation. Here we show that odors of identical twins (but not dizygotic twins) can be matched by human sniffers at rates better than chance, even when the twins are living apart. In addition, matching frequencies for identical twin odors were not significantly different from those for duplicate odors from the same individual. These results indicate an important genetic influence on body odor and the potential for developing technologies for human odor printing in relation to underlying genotype.

  18. Developing a similarity searching module for patient safety event reporting system using semantic similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong; Gong, Yang

    2017-07-05

    The most important knowledge in the field of patient safety is regarding the prevention and reduction of patient safety events (PSE) during treatment and care. The similarities and patterns among the events may otherwise go unnoticed if they are not properly reported and analyzed. There is an urgent need for developing a PSE reporting system that can dynamically measure the similarities of the events and thus promote event analysis and learning effect. In this study, three prevailing algorithms of semantic similarity were implemented to measure the similarities of the 366 PSE annotated by the taxonomy of The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). The performance of each algorithm was then evaluated by a group of domain experts based on a 4-point Likert scale. The consistency between the scales of the algorithms and experts was measured and compared with the scales randomly assigned. The similarity algorithms and scores, as a self-learning and self-updating module, were then integrated into the system. The result shows that the similarity scores reflect a high consistency with the experts' review than those randomly assigned. Moreover, incorporating the algorithms into our reporting system enables a mechanism to learn and update based upon PSE similarity. In conclusion, integrating semantic similarity algorithms into a PSE reporting system can help us learn from previous events and provide timely knowledge support to the reporters. With the knowledge base in the PSE domain, the new generation reporting system holds promise in educating healthcare providers and preventing the recurrence and serious consequences of PSE.

  19. Similarly shaped letters evoke similar colors in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, David; Rouw, Romke; Ramachandran, V S; Coulson, Seana

    2011-04-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological condition in which viewing numbers or letters (graphemes) results in the concurrent sensation of color. While the anatomical substrates underlying this experience are well understood, little research to date has investigated factors influencing the particular colors associated with particular graphemes or how synesthesia occurs developmentally. A recent suggestion of such an interaction has been proposed in the cascaded cross-tuning (CCT) model of synesthesia, which posits that in synesthetes connections between grapheme regions and color area V4 participate in a competitive activation process, with synesthetic colors arising during the component-stage of grapheme processing. This model more directly suggests that graphemes sharing similar component features (lines, curves, etc.) should accordingly activate more similar synesthetic colors. To test this proposal, we created and regressed synesthetic color-similarity matrices for each of 52 synesthetes against a letter-confusability matrix, an unbiased measure of visual similarity among graphemes. Results of synesthetes' grapheme-color correspondences indeed revealed that more similarly shaped graphemes corresponded with more similar synesthetic colors, with stronger effects observed in individuals with more intense synesthetic experiences (projector synesthetes). These results support the CCT model of synesthesia, implicate early perceptual mechanisms as driving factors in the elicitation of synesthetic hues, and further highlight the relationship between conceptual and perceptual factors in this phenomenon. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Expanding the boundaries of local similarity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durno, W Evan; Hanson, Niels W; Konwar, Kishori M; Hallam, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Pairwise comparison of time series data for both local and time-lagged relationships is a computationally challenging problem relevant to many fields of inquiry. The Local Similarity Analysis (LSA) statistic identifies the existence of local and lagged relationships, but determining significance through a p-value has been algorithmically cumbersome due to an intensive permutation test, shuffling rows and columns and repeatedly calculating the statistic. Furthermore, this p-value is calculated with the assumption of normality -- a statistical luxury dissociated from most real world datasets. To improve the performance of LSA on big datasets, an asymptotic upper bound on the p-value calculation was derived without the assumption of normality. This change in the bound calculation markedly improved computational speed from O(pm²n) to O(m²n), where p is the number of permutations in a permutation test, m is the number of time series, and n is the length of each time series. The bounding process is implemented as a computationally efficient software package, FASTLSA, written in C and optimized for threading on multi-core computers, improving its practical computation time. We computationally compare our approach to previous implementations of LSA, demonstrate broad applicability by analyzing time series data from public health, microbial ecology, and social media, and visualize resulting networks using the Cytoscape software. The FASTLSA software package expands the boundaries of LSA allowing analysis on datasets with millions of co-varying time series. Mapping metadata onto force-directed graphs derived from FASTLSA allows investigators to view correlated cliques and explore previously unrecognized network relationships. The software is freely available for download at: http://www.cmde.science.ubc.ca/hallam/fastLSA/.

  1. Expanding the boundaries of local similarity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durno W Evan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pairwise comparison of time series data for both local and time-lagged relationships is a computationally challenging problem relevant to many fields of inquiry. The Local Similarity Analysis (LSA statistic identifies the existence of local and lagged relationships, but determining significance through a p-value has been algorithmically cumbersome due to an intensive permutation test, shuffling rows and columns and repeatedly calculating the statistic. Furthermore, this p-value is calculated with the assumption of normality -- a statistical luxury dissociated from most real world datasets. Results To improve the performance of LSA on big datasets, an asymptotic upper bound on the p-value calculation was derived without the assumption of normality. This change in the bound calculation markedly improved computational speed from O(pm2n to O(m2n, where p is the number of permutations in a permutation test, m is the number of time series, and n is the length of each time series. The bounding process is implemented as a computationally efficient software package, FASTLSA, written in C and optimized for threading on multi-core computers, improving its practical computation time. We computationally compare our approach to previous implementations of LSA, demonstrate broad applicability by analyzing time series data from public health, microbial ecology, and social media, and visualize resulting networks using the Cytoscape software. Conclusions The FASTLSA software package expands the boundaries of LSA allowing analysis on datasets with millions of co-varying time series. Mapping metadata onto force-directed graphs derived from FASTLSA allows investigators to view correlated cliques and explore previously unrecognized network relationships. The software is freely available for download at: http://www.cmde.science.ubc.ca/hallam/fastLSA/.

  2. A toolbox for representational similarity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Nili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal population codes are increasingly being investigated with multivariate pattern-information analyses. A key challenge is to use measured brain-activity patterns to test computational models of brain information processing. One approach to this problem is representational similarity analysis (RSA, which characterizes a representation in a brain or computational model by the distance matrix of the response patterns elicited by a set of stimuli. The representational distance matrix encapsulates what distinctions between stimuli are emphasized and what distinctions are de-emphasized in the representation. A model is tested by comparing the representational distance matrix it predicts to that of a measured brain region. RSA also enables us to compare representations between stages of processing within a given brain or model, between brain and behavioral data, and between individuals and species. Here, we introduce a Matlab toolbox for RSA. The toolbox supports an analysis approach that is simultaneously data- and hypothesis-driven. It is designed to help integrate a wide range of computational models into the analysis of multichannel brain-activity measurements as provided by modern functional imaging and neuronal recording techniques. Tools for visualization and inference enable the user to relate sets of models to sets of brain regions and to statistically test and compare the models using nonparametric inference methods. The toolbox supports searchlight-based RSA, to continuously map a measured brain volume in search of a neuronal population code with a specific geometry. Finally, we introduce the linear-discriminant t value as a measure of representational discriminability that bridges the gap between linear decoding analyses and RSA. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the toolbox, we apply it to both simulated and real fMRI data. The key functions are equally applicable to other modalities of brain-activity measurement. The

  3. Asteroid clusters similar to asteroid pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravec, P.; Fatka, P.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Scheeres, D. J.; Kušnirák, P.; Hornoch, K.; Galád, A.; Vraštil, J.; Pray, D. P.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Gaftonyuk, N. M.; Inasaridze, R. Ya.; Ayvazian, V. R.; Kvaratskhelia, O. I.; Zhuzhunadze, V. T.; Husárik, M.; Cooney, W. R.; Gross, J.; Terrell, D.; Világi, J.; Kornoš, L.; Gajdoš, Š.; Burkhonov, O.; Ehgamberdiev, Sh. A.; Donchev, Z.; Borisov, G.; Bonev, T.; Rumyantsev, V. V.; Molotov, I. E.

    2018-04-01

    We studied the membership, size ratio and rotational properties of 13 asteroid clusters consisting of between 3 and 19 known members that are on similar heliocentric orbits. By backward integrations of their orbits, we confirmed their cluster membership and estimated times elapsed since separation of the secondaries (the smaller cluster members) from the primary (i.e., cluster age) that are between 105 and a few 106 years. We ran photometric observations for all the cluster primaries and a sample of secondaries and we derived their accurate absolute magnitudes and rotation periods. We found that 11 of the 13 clusters follow the same trend of primary rotation period vs mass ratio as asteroid pairs that was revealed by Pravec et al. (2010). We generalized the model of the post-fission system for asteroid pairs by Pravec et al. (2010) to a system of N components formed by rotational fission and we found excellent agreement between the data for the 11 asteroid clusters and the prediction from the theory of their formation by rotational fission. The two exceptions are the high-mass ratio (q > 0.7) clusters of (18777) Hobson and (22280) Mandragora for which a different formation mechanism is needed. Two candidate mechanisms for formation of more than one secondary by rotational fission were published: the secondary fission process proposed by Jacobson and Scheeres (2011) and a cratering collision event onto a nearly critically rotating primary proposed by Vokrouhlický et al. (2017). It will have to be revealed from future studies which of the clusters were formed by one or the other process. To that point, we found certain further interesting properties and features of the asteroid clusters that place constraints on the theories of their formation, among them the most intriguing being the possibility of a cascade disruption for some of the clusters.

  4. Phytomonas serpens: immunological similarities with the human trypanosomatid pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, André L S; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia M; Elias, Camila G R; Vermelho, Alane B; Branquinha, Marta H

    2007-07-01

    The present review provides an overview of recent discoveries concerning the immunological similarities between Phytomonas serpens, a tomato parasite, and human trypanosomatid pathogens, with special emphasis on peptidases. Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi express peptidases that are well-known virulence factors, named leishmanolysin and cruzipain. P. serpens synthesizes two distinct classes of proteolytic enzymes, metallo- and cysteine-type peptidases, that share common epitopes with leishmanolysin and cruzipain, respectively. The leishmanolysin-like and cruzipain-like molecules from P. serpens participate in several biological processes including cellular growth and adhesion to the salivary glands of Oncopeltus fasciatus, a phytophagous insect experimental model. Since previous reports demonstrated that immunization of mice with P. serpens induced a partial protective immune response against T. cruzi, this plant trypanosomatid may be a suitable candidate for vaccine studies. Moreover, comparative approaches in the Trypanosomatidae family may be useful to understand kinetoplastid biology, biochemistry and evolution.

  5. Mutagenic activation and detoxification of benzo[a]pyrene in vitro by hepatic cytochrome P450 1A1 and phase II enzymes in three meat-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, W; Ikenaka, Y; Eldaly, E; Ishizuka, M

    2010-01-01

    The mutagenic activation activity of hepatic microsomes from three meat-producing animals (cattle, deer and horses) was compared with those of rats as a reference species. In the Ames Salmonella typhimurium TA98 assay, the liver microsomes of all examined animals mutagenically activated benzo[a]pyrene, an ideal promutagens, in terms of production of histidine-independent revertant colonies. The microsomes of horses had the highest ability to produce revertant colonies of the examined animals under both low and high substrate concentrations. Inhibition of this mutagenic activity using alpha-naphthoflavone, anti-rat CYP1A1, CYP3A2 and CYP2E1 antibodies suggests that this activity was mainly because of CYP1A1 in these animals as well as in rats. The addition of co-factors for two phase II enzymes, microsomal UDP glucoronosyl transferase and cytosolic glutathione-S-transferase, reduced the production of the revertant colonies in a concentration-dependent manner. Interestingly, horses had the highest reduction rate among the examined animals, suggesting that phase II enzymes play a great role in producing a state of balance between the bioactivation and detoxification of xenobiotics in these meat-producing animals. This report is the first to investigate the mutagenic activation activity of the hepatic microsomes and the role of phase II enzymes against this activity in meat-producing animals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Benzo[b]fluoranthene, a potential alternative to benzo[a]pyrene as an indicator of exposure to airborne PAHs in the vicinity of Söderberg aluminum smelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, S; Farant, J P

    2000-12-01

    Benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F) was used in relative abundance ratios (RARs), a parameter obtained by dividing the concentration of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in a given sample by the concentration of B[b]F in the same sample. The B[b]F RARs were derived for PAH concentrations measured at stacks and sampling stations in the vicinity of two Söderberg aluminum horizontal stud smelters (HSSs). The samples collected were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography using UV and fluorescence detection. A total of 15 PAHs were analyzed, but, due to the inefficiency of the sampling method used in collecting gaseous PAHs, only particulate PAHs were considered. Comparisons between the B[b]F RARs obtained simultaneously at the source (stack) and those obtained at sampling stations at the two smelters showed that B[b]F degrades more slowly than or at the same rate as most other particulate PAHs monitored. Twenty-three months of urban sampling in the vicinity of one of the aluminum HSSs are also presented, and the results indicate that B[b]F is more stable than all other particulate PAHs investigated. Sampling conducted during a smelter shutdown period confirmed that B[b]F was a much better marker of this source than was benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), the usual indicator. The remarkable stability of the benzo[k]fluoranthene (B[k]F)/B[b]F ratio is also discussed.

  7. Similar Symmetries: The Role of Wallpaper Groups in Perceptual Texture Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Halley

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Periodic patterns and symmetries are striking visual properties that have been used decoratively around the world throughout human history. Periodic patterns can be mathematically classified into one of 17 different Wallpaper groups, and while computational models have been developed which can extract an image's symmetry group, very little work has been done on how humans perceive these patterns. This study presents the results from a grouping experiment using stimuli from the different wallpaper groups. We find that while different images from the same wallpaper group are perceived as similar to one another, not all groups have the same degree of self-similarity. The similarity relationships between wallpaper groups appear to be dominated by rotations.

  8. Similarity, agreement, and assumed similarity in proxy end-of-life decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade-Montez, Elizabeth; Watson, David; Beer, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    Medical decisions near the end of life are often made by proxies who can be inaccurate in their judgments of patient preferences. Given that accuracy in surrogate decision making is an important goal in end-of-life decision making, and in light of that previously seen levels of accuracy reflect substantial disagreement, error, or both, this study examined both relationship and individual factors that potentially affect surrogate accuracy. Specifically, this study examined similarity, agreement, and assumed similarity-a process whereby raters use their own traits and preferences to rate another person-in spousal ratings of end-of-life treatment. This study expands on previous research by examining the potential influence of relationship factors and assumed similarity on end-of-life decision making among a sample of newlyweds. Newly married couples (n = 197) completed self and spouse measures of hypothetical end-of-life preferences and scales assessing marital satisfaction, personality, and attitudes. Results indicate a moderate level of similarity on husband and wife self-rated end-of-life treatment preferences (rs = .18-.29) and a moderate level of agreement between self and proxy ratings (rs = .17-.41). The largest correlations were seen between self ratings and proxy ratings (e.g., husband self ratings and husband proxy ratings of wife preferences, rs = .46-.69), reflecting strong assumed similarity in proxy ratings. For wives, similarity with husbands on a few attitudinal variables (i.e., spirituality, moral strictness, and conservatism) influenced proxy accuracy. Recognizing the potential impact of personal preferences on proxy ratings, as well as the potential influence of relationship factors, may help improve proxy accuracy and end-of-life care for patients and families.

  9. Nanoindentation of HMX and Idoxuridine to Determine Mechanical Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra C. Burch

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the mechanical behavior (elastic properties, plastic properties, and fracture phenomena of molecular crystals is often complicated by the difficulty in preparing samples. Pharmaceuticals and energetic materials in particular are often used in composite structures or tablets, where the individual grains can strongly impact the solid behavior. Nanoindentation is a convenient method to experimentally assess these properties, and it is used here to demonstrate the similarity in the mechanical properties of two distinct systems: individual crystals of the explosive cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX and the pharmaceutical idoxuridine were tested in their as-precipitated state, and the effective average modulus and hardness (which can be orientation dependent were determined. Both exhibit a hardness of 1.0 GPa, with an effective reduced modulus of 25 and 23 GPa for the HMX and idoxuridine, respectively. They also exhibit similar yield point behavior. This indicates idoxuridine may be a suitable mechanical surrogate (or “mock” for HMX. While the methodology to assess elastic and plastic properties was relatively insensitive to specific crystal orientation (i.e., a uniform distribution in properties was observed for all random crystals tested, the indentation-induced fracture properties appear to be much more sensitive to tip-crystal orientation, and an unloading slope analysis is used to demonstrate the need for further refinement in relating toughness to orientation in these materials with relatively complex slip systems and crystal structures.

  10. Similarity and self-similarity in high energy density physics: application to laboratory astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falize, E.

    2008-10-01

    The spectacular recent development of powerful facilities allows the astrophysical community to explore, in laboratory, astrophysical phenomena where radiation and matter are strongly coupled. The titles of the nine chapters of the thesis are: from high energy density physics to laboratory astrophysics; Lie groups, invariance and self-similarity; scaling laws and similarity properties in High-Energy-Density physics; the Burgan-Feix-Munier transformation; dynamics of polytropic gases; stationary radiating shocks and the POLAR project; structure, dynamics and stability of optically thin fluids; from young star jets to laboratory jets; modelling and experiences for laboratory jets

  11. Path Similarity Analysis: A Method for Quantifying Macromolecular Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean L Seyler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diverse classes of proteins function through large-scale conformational changes and various sophisticated computational algorithms have been proposed to enhance sampling of these macromolecular transition paths. Because such paths are curves in a high-dimensional space, it has been difficult to quantitatively compare multiple paths, a necessary prerequisite to, for instance, assess the quality of different algorithms. We introduce a method named Path Similarity Analysis (PSA that enables us to quantify the similarity between two arbitrary paths and extract the atomic-scale determinants responsible for their differences. PSA utilizes the full information available in 3N-dimensional configuration space trajectories by employing the Hausdorff or Fréchet metrics (adopted from computational geometry to quantify the degree of similarity between piecewise-linear curves. It thus completely avoids relying on projections into low dimensional spaces, as used in traditional approaches. To elucidate the principles of PSA, we quantified the effect of path roughness induced by thermal fluctuations using a toy model system. Using, as an example, the closed-to-open transitions of the enzyme adenylate kinase (AdK in its substrate-free form, we compared a range of protein transition path-generating algorithms. Molecular dynamics-based dynamic importance sampling (DIMS MD and targeted MD (TMD and the purely geometric FRODA (Framework Rigidity Optimized Dynamics Algorithm were tested along with seven other methods publicly available on servers, including several based on the popular elastic network model (ENM. PSA with clustering revealed that paths produced by a given method are more similar to each other than to those from another method and, for instance, that the ENM-based methods produced relatively similar paths. PSA applied to ensembles of DIMS MD and FRODA trajectories of the conformational transition of diphtheria toxin, a particularly challenging example

  12. The diversity and similarity of simulated cold dark matter haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Julio F.; Ludlow, Aaron; Springel, Volker; Wang, Jie; Vogelsberger, Mark; White, Simon D. M.; Jenkins, Adrian; Frenk, Carlos S.; Helmi, Amina

    2010-02-01

    We study the mass, velocity dispersion and anisotropy profiles of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) haloes using a suite of N-body simulations of unprecedented numerical resolution. The Aquarius Project follows the formation of six different galaxy-sized haloes simulated several times at varying numerical resolution, allowing numerical convergence to be assessed directly. The highest resolution simulation represents a single dark matter halo using 4.4 billion particles, of which 1.1 billion end up within the virial radius. Our analysis confirms a number of results claimed by earlier work, and clarifies a few issues where conflicting claims may be found in the recent literature. The mass profile of ΛCDM haloes deviates slightly but systematically from the form proposed by Navarro, Frenk & White. The spherically averaged density profile becomes progressively shallower inwards and, at the innermost resolved radius, the logarithmic slope is γ ≡ - d ln ρ/d ln r universal: different haloes cannot, in general, be rescaled to look identical. Departures from similarity are also seen in velocity dispersion profiles and correlate with those in density profiles so as to preserve a power-law form for the spherically averaged pseudo-phase-space density, ρ/σ3 ~ r-1.875. The index here is identical to that of Bertschinger's similarity solution for self-similar infall on to a point mass from an otherwise uniform Einstein-de Sitter universe. The origin of this striking behaviour is unclear, but its robustness suggests that it reflects a fundamental structural property of ΛCDM haloes. Our conclusions are reliable down to radii below 0.4 per cent of the virial radius, providing well-defined predictions for halo structure when baryonic effects are neglected, and thus an instructive theoretical template against which the modifications induced by the baryonic components of real galaxies can be judged.

  13. When high similarity copycats lose and moderate similarity copycats gain : The impact of comparative evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Horen, F.; Pieters, R.

    2012-01-01

    Copycats imitate features of leading brands to free ride on their equity. The prevailing belief is that the more similar copycats are to the leader brand, the more positive their evaluation is, and thus the more they free ride. Three studies demonstrate when the reverse holds true:

  14. Similar or different? The role of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in similarity detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Garcin

    Full Text Available Patients with frontal lobe syndrome can exhibit two types of abnormal behaviour when asked to place a banana and an orange in a single category: some patients categorize them at a concrete level (e.g., "both have peel", while others continue to look for differences between these objects (e.g., "one is yellow, the other is orange". These observations raise the question of whether abstraction and similarity detection are distinct processes involved in abstract categorization, and that depend on separate areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC. We designed an original experimental paradigm for a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study involving healthy subjects, confirming the existence of two distinct processes relying on different prefrontal areas, and thus explaining the behavioural dissociation in frontal lesion patients. We showed that: 1 Similarity detection involves the anterior ventrolateral PFC bilaterally with a right-left asymmetry: the right anterior ventrolateral PFC is only engaged in detecting physical similarities; 2 Abstraction per se activates the left dorsolateral PFC.

  15. Perception of timbre and rhythm similarity in electronic dance music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honingh, A.; Panteli, M.; Brockmeier, T.; López Mejía, D.I.; Sadakata, M.

    2015-01-01

    Music similarity is known to be a multi-dimensional concept, depending among others on rhythm similarity and timbre similarity. The present study aims to investigate whether such sub-dimensions of similarity can be assessed independently and how they relate to general similarity. To this end, we

  16. Black tattoos protect against UVR-induced skin cancer in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Catharina M; Sepehri, Mitra; Serup, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black tattoos may involve risk of cancer owing to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in inks. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces skin cancer. The combination of UVR and black tattoo may therefore potentially be very problematic, but has not been previously...... squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was measured. Controls were 'tattooed' without ink. RESULTS: All irradiated mice developed SCCs while no malignant tumours were found in the nonirradiated group. In the tattooed and irradiated group, the development of the first, second and third SCC was significantly delayed...... in comparison with the irradiated controls without black tattoos (212, 232, 247 days vs. 163, 183, 191 days, P skin cancer was delayed by the tattoos. Skin reflectance measurement indicated that the protective...

  17. Prioritization of candidate disease genes by combining topological similarity and semantic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Jin, Min; Zeng, Pan

    2015-10-01

    The identification of gene-phenotype relationships is very important for the treatment of human diseases. Studies have shown that genes causing the same or similar phenotypes tend to interact with each other in a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Thus, many identification methods based on the PPI network model have achieved good results. However, in the PPI network, some interactions between the proteins encoded by candidate gene and the proteins encoded by known disease genes are very weak. Therefore, some studies have combined the PPI network with other genomic information and reported good predictive performances. However, we believe that the results could be further improved. In this paper, we propose a new method that uses the semantic similarity between the candidate gene and known disease genes to set the initial probability vector of a random walk with a restart algorithm in a human PPI network. The effectiveness of our method was demonstrated by leave-one-out cross-validation, and the experimental results indicated that our method outperformed other methods. Additionally, our method can predict new causative genes of multifactor diseases, including Parkinson's disease, breast cancer and obesity. The top predictions were good and consistent with the findings in the literature, which further illustrates the effectiveness of our method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pollinators show flower colour preferences but flowers with similar colours do not attract similar pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverté, Sara; Retana, Javier; Gómez, José M; Bosch, Jordi

    2016-08-01

    Colour is one of the main floral traits used by pollinators to locate flowers. Although pollinators show innate colour preferences, the view that the colour of a flower may be considered an important predictor of its main pollinators is highly controversial because flower choice is highly context-dependent, and initial innate preferences may be overridden by subsequent associative learning. Our objective is to establish whether there is a relationship between flower colour and pollinator composition in natural communities. We measured the flower reflectance spectrum and pollinator composition in four plant communities (85 plant species represented by 109 populations, and 32 305 plant-pollinator interactions in total). Pollinators were divided into six taxonomic groups: bees, ants, wasps, coleopterans, dipterans and lepidopterans. We found consistent associations between pollinator groups and certain colours. These associations matched innate preferences experimentally established for several pollinators and predictions of the pollination syndrome theory. However, flowers with similar colours did not attract similar pollinator assemblages. The explanation for this paradoxical result is that most flower species are pollination generalists. We conclude that although pollinator colour preferences seem to condition plant-pollinator interactions, the selective force behind these preferences has not been strong enough to mediate the appearance and maintenance of tight colour-based plant-pollinator associations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Study of the biological impact of organic contaminants on mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis L.) from the Venice Lagoon, Italy: responses of CYP1A-immunopositive protein and benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Sole C Nasci D R Livingstone

    2000-01-01

    A survey to evaluate the impact of organic contaminants on the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in the Venice Lagoon, Italy was carried out in May 1993. M. galloprovincialis were sampled from putative moderately contaminated (Alberoni, Lio Grande, Crevan), urban (Salute) and industrial (CVE) sites in the Venice Lagoon, and from a clean reference site (Plataforma) in the adjacent Adriatic Sea. Measurements comprised (i) whole-tissue body burdens of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other organochlorines (DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexanes and hexachlorobenzene); and (ii) digestive gland microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent monooxygenase system (i.e. total CYP and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)-immunopositive protein levels, benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase (BPH) activity) as a specific biomarker of impact by organic contaminants. Chemical analysis identified a contaminant gradient with Plataforma as the cleanest and CVE followed by Salute as the most contaminated extremes. No elevation of total CYP content or CYP1A-immunopositive protein level was seen at any of the lagoon sites compared with Plataforma. In contrast, BPH activity and BPH turnover (i.e. BPH activity per amount total CYP) were respectively 1- and 2.5-fold higher at CVE than Plataforma (P < 0.05), and indicated to be higher (up to 1-fold) at all the other lagoon sites compared with Plataforma. Correlation was seen between BPH activity and tissue levels of total aliphatic hydrocarbons (r = 0.94-0.98), but not between the former and total PAHs or PCBs. The results are consistent with other studies in the area and indicate greatest biological impact of contaminants was at CVE followed by the other lagoon sites, with a possible genotoxic role for the elevated BPH activity in the formation of bulky DNA-adducts.

  20. Differential cellular metabolite alterations in HaCaT cells caused by exposure to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-binding polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Potratz

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are ubiquitous in the human environment. Since they are present in crude oilfractions used for the production of rubber and plastics, consumers may come into direct dermal contacts with these compounds (e.g., via tool handles on a daily basis. Some individual PAHs are identified as genotoxic mutagens thereby prompting particular toxicological and environmental concern. Among this group, benzo[a]pyrene (BAP constitutes a model carcinogen which is also used as reference compound for risk assessment purposes. It acts as a strong agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR and becomes metabolically activated toward mutagenic and carcinogenic intermediates by cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases (CYPs. While BAP has been exhaustively characterized with regard to its toxicological properties, there is much less information available for other PAHs. We treated an AHR-proficient immortal human keratinocyte cell line (i.e., HaCaT with three selected PAHs: BAP, chrysene (CRY and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DALP. Compound-mediated alterations of endogenous metabolites were investigated by an LC–MS/MS-based targeted approach. To examine AHR-dependent changes of the measured metabolites, AHR-deficient HaCaT knockdown cells (AHR-KD were used for comparison. Our results reveal that 24 metabolites are sufficient to separate the PAH-exposed cells from untreated controls by application of a multivariate model. Alterations in the metabolomics profiles caused by each PAH show influences on the energy and lipid metabolism of the cells indicating reduced tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle activity and β-oxidation. Up-regulation of sphingomyelin levels after exposure to BAP and DALP point to pro-apoptotic processes caused by these two potent PAHs. Our results suggest that in vitro metabolomics can serve as tool to develop bioassays for application in hazard assessment. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Metabolomics, Aryl

  1. Exposure to di(n-butyl)phthalate and benzo(a)pyrene alters IL-1β secretion and subset expression of testicular macrophages, resulting in decreased testosterone production in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shanjun; Tian Huaijun; Cao Jia; Gao Yuqi

    2010-01-01

    Di(n-butyl)phthalate (DBP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are environmental endocrine disruptors that are potentially hazardous to humans. These chemicals affect testicular macrophage immuno-endocrine function and testosterone production. However, the underlying mechanisms for these effects are not fully understood. It is well known that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), which is secreted by testicular macrophages, plays a trigger role in regulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis. The purpose of this study was to reveal the effects of co-exposure to DBP and BaP on testicular macrophage subset expression, IL-1β secretion and testosterone production. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups; two groups received DBP plus BaP (DBP + BaP: 50 + 1 or 250 + 5 mg/kg/day) four groups received DBP or BaP alone (DBP: 50 or 250 mg/kg/day; BaP: 1 or 5 mg/kg/day), and one group received vehicle alone (control). After co-exposure for 90 days, the relative expression of macrophage subsets and their functions changed. ED2 + testicular macrophages (reactive with a differentiation-related antigen present on the resident macrophages) were activated and IL-1β secretion was enhanced. DBP and BaP acted additively, as demonstrated by greater IL-1β secretion relative to each compound alone. These observations suggest that exposure to DBP plus BaP exerted greater suppression on testosterone production compared with each compound alone. The altered balance in the subsets of testicular macrophages and the enhanced ability of resident testicular macrophages to secrete IL-1β, resulted in enhanced production of IL-1β as a potent steroidogenesis repressor. This may represent an important mechanism by which DBP and BaP repress steroidogenesis.

  2. Systemic resistance induced by rhizosphere bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van; Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Nonpathogenic rhizobacteria can induce a systemic resistance in plants that is phenotypically similar to pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) has been demonstrated against fungi, bacteria, and viruses in Arabidopsis, bean,

  3. Mitochondrial DNA exhibits resistance to induced point and deletion mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, William J.; Ericson, Nolan G.; Long, Alexandra S.; White, Paul A.; Marchetti, Francesco; Bielas, Jason H.

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations contributes to the pathogenesis of human disease. Currently, mitochondrial mutations are largely considered results of inaccurate processing of its heavily damaged genome. However, mainly from a lack of methods to monitor mtDNA mutations with sufficient sensitivity and accuracy, a link between mtDNA damage and mutation has not been established. To test the hypothesis that mtDNA-damaging agents induce mtDNA mutations, we exposed MutaTMMouse mice to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) or N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), daily for 28 consecutive days, and quantified mtDNA point and deletion mutations in bone marrow and liver using our newly developed Digital Random Mutation Capture (dRMC) and Digital Deletion Detection (3D) assays. Surprisingly, our results demonstrate mutagen treatment did not increase mitochondrial point or deletion mutation frequencies, despite evidence both compounds increase nuclear DNA mutations and demonstrated B[a]P adduct formation in mtDNA. These findings contradict models of mtDNA mutagenesis that assert the elevated rate of mtDNA mutation stems from damage sensitivity and abridged repair capacity. Rather, our results demonstrate induced mtDNA damage does not readily convert into mutation. These findings suggest robust mitochondrial damage responses repress induced mutations after mutagen exposure. PMID:27550180

  4. Prediction of maize hybrid performance using similarity in state and similarity by descent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, D V; Von Pinho, R G; Balestre, M; Oliveira, R L

    2010-12-14

    We evaluated the efficiency of the best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) and the influence of the use of similarity in state (SIS) and similarity by descent (SBD) in the prediction of untested maize hybrids. Nine inbred lines of maize were crossed using a randomized complete diallel method. These materials were genotyped with 48 microsatellite markers (SSR) associated with the QTL regions for grain yield. Estimates of four coefficients of SIS and four coefficients of SBD were used to construct the additive genetic and dominance matrices, which were later used in combination with the BLUP for predicting genotypic values and specific combining ability (SCA) in unanalyzed hybrids under simulated unbalance. The values of correlations between the genotypic values predicted and the means observed, depending on the degree of unbalance, ranged from 0.48 to 0.99 for SIS and 0.40 to 0.99 using information from SBD. The results obtained for the SCA ranged from 0.26 to 0.98 using the SIS and 0.001 to 0.990 using the SBD information. It was also observed that the predictions using SBD showed less biased than SIS predictions demonstrating that the predictions obtained by these coefficients (SBD) were closer to the observed value, but were less efficient in the ranking of genotypes. Although the SIS showed a bias due to overestimation of relatedness, this type of coefficient may be used where low values are detected in the SBD in the group of parents because of its greater efficiency in ranking the candidates hybrids.

  5. Similarity Measure for Molecular Structure: A Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bero, S. A.; Muda, A. K.; Choo, Y. H.; Muda, N. A.; Pratama, S. F.

    2017-09-01

    Similarity or distance measures have been used widely to calculate the similarity or dissimilarity between two samples of dataset. Cheminformatics is known as the domain that dealing with chemical information and both similarity and distance coefficient have been an important role for matching, searching and classification of chemical information. There are various types of similarity/distance coefficient used in molecular structure similarity searching. Generally, the calculation using similarity/distance coefficient is focusing more on 2-dimensional (2D) rather than 3-dimensional (3D) structure. In this paper, the popular similarity/distance coefficients for molecular structure will be reviewed together with the review on 3D molecular structure.

  6. Retinoid-binding proteins: similar protein architectures bind similar ligands via completely different ways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ru Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinoids are a class of compounds that are chemically related to vitamin A, which is an essential nutrient that plays a key role in vision, cell growth and differentiation. In vivo, retinoids must bind with specific proteins to perform their necessary functions. Plasma retinol-binding protein (RBP and epididymal retinoic acid binding protein (ERABP carry retinoids in bodily fluids, while cellular retinol-binding proteins (CRBPs and cellular retinoic acid-binding proteins (CRABPs carry retinoids within cells. Interestingly, although all of these transport proteins possess similar structures, the modes of binding for the different retinoid ligands with their carrier proteins are different. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work, we analyzed the various retinoid transport mechanisms using structure and sequence comparisons, binding site analyses and molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that in the same family of proteins and subcellular location, the orientation of a retinoid molecule within a binding protein is same, whereas when different families of proteins are considered, the orientation of the bound retinoid is completely different. In addition, none of the amino acid residues involved in ligand binding is conserved between the transport proteins. However, for each specific binding protein, the amino acids involved in the ligand binding are conserved. The results of this study allow us to propose a possible transport model for retinoids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal the differences in the binding modes between the different retinoid-binding proteins.

  7. Kinetics of ROS generation induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic extracts from ambient air particulate matter in model human lung cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libalova, Helena; Milcova, Alena; Cervena, Tereza; Vrbova, Kristyna; Rossnerova, Andrea; Novakova, Zuzana; Topinka, Jan; Rossner, Pavel

    2018-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with particulate matter (PM) may induce oxidative damage via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. However, the kinetics of ROS production and the link with antioxidant response induction has not been well studied. To elucidate the differences in oxidative potential of individual PAH compounds and extractable organic matter (EOM) from PM containing various PAH mixtures, we studied ROS formation and antioxidant response [total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and expression of HMOX1 and TXNRD1] in human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549 cells) and human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HEL12469 cells). We treated the cells with three concentrations of model PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, B[a]P; 3-nitrobenzanthrone, 3-NBA) and EOM from PM ROS levels were evaluated at 8 time intervals (30 min-24 h). In both cell lines, B[a]P treatment was associated with a time-dependent decrease of ROS levels. This trend was more pronounced in HEL12469 cells and was accompanied by increased TAC. A similar response was observed upon 3-NBA treatment in HEL12469 cells. In A549 cells, however, this compound significantly increased superoxide levels. This response was accompanied by the decrease of TAC as well as HMOX1 and TXNRD1 expression. In both cell lines, a short-time exposure to EOMs tended to increase ROS levels, while a marked decrease was observed after longer treatment periods. This was accompanied by the induction of HMOX1 and TXNRD1 expression in HEL12469 cells and increased TAC in A549 cells. In summary, our data indicate that in the studied cell lines B[a]P and EOMs caused a time-dependent decrease of intracellular ROS levels, probably due to the activation of the antioxidant response. This response was not detected in A549 cells following 3-NBA treatment, which acted as a strong superoxide inducer. Pro-oxidant properties of EOMs are limited to short-time exposure periods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Triplet correlations among similarly tuned cells impact population coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Alexandra Cayco Gajic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Which statistical features of spiking activity matter for how stimuli are encoded in neural populations? A vast body of work has explored how firing rates in individual cells and correlations in the spikes of cell pairs impact coding. Recent experiments have shown evidence for the existence of higher-order spiking correlations, which describe simultaneous firing in triplets and larger ensembles of cells; however, little is known about their impact on encoded stimulus information. Here, we take a first step toward closing this gap. We vary triplet correlations in small (approximately 10 cell neural populations while keeping single cell and pairwise statistics fixed at typically reported values. This connection with empirically observed lower-order statistics important, as it places strong constraints on the level of triplet correlations that can occur. For each value of triplet correlations, we estimate the performance of the neural population on a two-stimulus discrimination task. We find that the allowed changes in the level of triplet correlations can significantly enhance coding, in particular if triplet correlations differ for the two stimuli. In this scenario, triplet correlations must be included in order to accurately quantify the functionality of neural populations. When both stimuli elicit similar triplet correlations, however, pairwise models provide relatively accurate descriptions of coding accuracy. We explain our findings geometrically via the skew that triplet correlations induce in population-wide distributions of neural responses. Finally, we calculate how many samples are necessary to accurately measure spiking correlations of this type, providing an estimate of the necessary recording times in future experiments.

  9. Similarity and conditional similarity reductions of a (2+1)-dimensional KdV equation via a direct method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Sen-yue; Tang, Xiao-yan; Lin, Ji

    2000-12-01

    To get the similarity solutions of a nonlinear physical equation, one may use the classical Lie group approach, nonclassical Lie group approach and the Clarkson and Kruskal (CK) direct method. In this paper the direct method is modified to get the similarity and conditional similarity reductions of a (2+1) dimensional KdV-type equation. Ten types of usual similarity reductions [including the (1+1)-dimensional shallow water wave equation and the variable KdV equation] and six types of conditional similarity reductions of the (2+1)-dimensional KdV equation are obtained. Some special solutions of the conditional similarity reduction equations are found to show the nontriviality of the conditional similarity reduction approach. The conditional similarity solutions cannot be obtained by using the nonclassical Lie group approach in its present form. How to modify the nonclassical Lie group approach to obtain the conditional similarity solutions is still open.

  10. Resource use by two morphologically similar insectivorous bats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of morphologically dissimilar insectivorous bats have lead to the conclusion that morphology is the prime correlate of habitat use, and consequently of diet. This has lead to the prediction that morphologically similar bats should have similar diets. We examined the diet and morphology of two morphologically similar ...

  11. 7 CFR 51.632 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.632 Section 51.632 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.632 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2081 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.2081 Section 51.2081 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the almonds are similar in shape, and are reasonably...

  13. 7 CFR 51.3202 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.3202 Section 51.3202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the onions in any container...

  14. 7 CFR 51.567 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.567 Section 51... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.567 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the stalks in any package have the same general appearance and...

  15. 7 CFR 51.763 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.763 Section 51.763 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the fruits in any container are similar in color and...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2116 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.2116 Section 51.2116 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the kernels are similar in shape and appearance. For...

  17. 7 CFR 51.3057 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.3057 Section 51.3057 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the avocados in any container are similar in shape...

  18. 7 CFR 51.694 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.694 Section 51.694 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., and Arizona) Definitions § 51.694 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics...

  19. 7 CFR 51.2650 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.2650 Section 51.2650 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the cherries in any container are similar in color...

  20. Towards Modelling Variation in Music as Foundation for Similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volk, A.; de Haas, W.B.; van Kranenburg, P.; Cambouropoulos, E.; Tsougras, C.; Mavromatis, P.; Pastiadis, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the concept of variation in music from the perspective of music similarity. Music similarity is a central concept in Music Information Retrieval (MIR), however there exists no comprehensive approach to music similarity yet. As a consequence, MIR faces the challenge on how to

  1. Using Crowdsourcing to Investigate Perception of Narrative Similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend; Theune, Mariet

    2014-01-01

    For many applications measuring the similarity between documents is essential. However, little is known about how users perceive similarity between documents. This paper presents the first large-scale empirical study that investigates perception of narrative similarity using crowdsourcing. As a

  2. Similarities in functional attributes and nutritional effects of magadi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The similarity in properties especially in mineral profile, alkalinity, decreased cooking time and lowered mineral uptake by magadi soda and bean debris-ash explain similar functionality in foods they are added to during cooking. Despite the similarities observed, communities should be informed of the negative nutritional ...

  3. 29 CFR 4043.68 - Bankruptcy or similar settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bankruptcy or similar settlement. 4043.68 Section 4043.68... Bankruptcy or similar settlement. (a) Reportable event and information required. Advance notice is required for a bankruptcy or similar settlement, as described in § 4043.35(a), and the notice shall include the...

  4. Aggregation and Charge Behavior of Metallic and Nonmetallic Nanoparticles in the Presence of Competing Similarly-Charged Inorganic Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of competing, similarly charged, inorganic ions on the size and charge behavior of suspended titanium-dioxide (nTiO2), silver (nAg) and fullerene (nC60) nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated. Under pH and ionic conditions similar to natural water bodies, Ca2+ induced...

  5. Plant defenses against parasitic plants show similarities to those induced by herbivores and pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin B. Runyon; Mark C. Mescher; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2010-01-01

    Herbivores and pathogens come quickly to mind when one thinks of the biotic challenges faced by plants. Important but less appreciated enemies are parasitic plants, which can have important consequences for the fitness and survival of their hosts. Our knowledge of plant perception, signaling and response to herbivores and pathogens has expanded rapidly in recent years...

  6. Use of waveform similarity to define planes of mining-induced seismic events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spottiswoode, SM

    1998-04-15

    Full Text Available ; Deichmann and Garcia- Fernandez, 1992). Groups of doublets can be called multiplets (Fremont and Malone, 1987; Moriya et al., 1996). In this paper we extend the doublet relative location procedure and introduce multiplet relocation using arrival... by SIMRAC under the project GAP033. We would like to thank Blyvooruitzicht Mine and R.J. Stewart for use of the seismic data. The au- thors thank N.C. Gay for his helpful review and discussions. References Deichmann, N., Garcia-Fernandez, M., 1992. Rupture...

  7. Type 2 diabetes and obesity induce similar transcriptional reprogramming in human myocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Väremo, Leif; Henriksen, Tora Ida; Scheele, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    in sphingolipid metabolism was transcriptionally regulated. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identify inherent characteristics in myocytes, as a memory of the in vivo phenotype, without the influence from a diabetic or obese extracellular environment, highlighting their importance in the development of T2D.......BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is one of the primary tissues involved in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The close association between obesity and T2D makes it difficult to isolate specific effects attributed to the disease alone. Therefore, here we set out to identify and characterize...... on genome-wide transcription. This setup enabled us to identify intrinsic properties, originating from muscle precursor cells and retained in the corresponding myocytes. Bioinformatic and statistical methods, including differential expression analysis, gene-set analysis, and metabolic network analysis, were...

  8. Two opposite extremes of adiposity similarly reduce inflammatory response of antigen-induced acute joint inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, M.C.; Silveira, A.L.; Tavares, L.P.; Rodrigues, D.F.; Loo, F.A.J. van de; Sousa, L.P.; Teixeira, M.M.; Amaral, F.A.; Ferreira, A.V.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Acute inflammation is a normal response of tissue to an injury. During this process, inflammatory mediators are produced and metabolic alterations occur. Adipose tissue is metabolically activated, and upon food consumption, it disrupts the inflammatory response. However, little is known

  9. Depletion of the AP-1 repressor JDP2 induces cell death similar to apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerdrup, Mads; Holmberg, Christian Henrik; Dietrich, Nikolaj

    2005-01-01

    depletion of JDP2 resulted in p53-independent cell death that resembles apoptosis and was evident at 72 h. The death mechanism was caspase dependent as the cells could be rescued by treatment with caspase inhibitor zVAD. Our studies suggest that JDP2 functions as a general survival protein, not only...

  10. Mechanism of inhibition of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mutagenicity and DNA binding by ellagic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, R; Gold, B

    1987-01-01

    Ellagic acid (EA) is a dilactone derivative of shikimic acid, which is found in a variety of soft fruits and vegetables. EA inhibits mutagenesis and carcinogenesis induced by benzo[a]pyrene and its bay-region dihydrodiol epoxide derivative by preventing their covalent binding to DNA. EA at concentrations of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 nmol/plate inhibited the mutagenicity of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) (400 nmol/plate) in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 by 3, 13, 45 and 60%, respectively. A study of inhibition of 3H-MNU-mediated DNA methylation by EA showed that it inhibited only the formation of O6-methylguanine, while attack at the N7 and N3 positions of guanine and adenine, respectively, was not altered. This inhibition was observed only in double-stranded DNA. Ultraviolet and equilibrium dialysis studies show that EA has a definite affinity for DNA, but that an intercalating process is not involved.

  11. Epigenetic alterations induced by genotoxic occupational and environmental human chemical carcinogens: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Grace; Pogribny, Igor P; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations play an important role in chemically-induced carcinogenesis. Although the epigenome and genome may be equally important in carcinogenicity, the genotoxicity of chemical agents and exposure-related transcriptomic responses have been more thoroughly studied and characterized. To better understand the evidence for epigenetic alterations of human carcinogens, and the potential association with genotoxic endpoints, we conducted a systematic review of published studies of genotoxic carcinogens that reported epigenetic endpoints. Specifically, we searched for publications reporting epigenetic effects for the 28 agents and occupations included in Monograph Volume 100F of the International Agency for the Research on Cancer (IARC) that were classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1) with strong evidence of genotoxic mechanisms of carcinogenesis. We identified a total of 158 studies that evaluated epigenetic alterations for 12 of these 28 carcinogenic agents and occupations (1,3-butadiene, 4-aminobiphenyl, aflatoxins, benzene, benzidine, benzo[a]pyrene, coke production, formaldehyde, occupational exposure as a painter, sulfur mustard, and vinyl chloride). Aberrant DNA methylation was most commonly studied, followed by altered expression of non-coding RNAs and histone changes (totaling 85, 59 and 25 studies, respectively). For 3 carcinogens (aflatoxins, benzene and benzo[a]pyrene), 10 or more studies reported epigenetic effects. However, epigenetic studies were sparse for the remaining 9 carcinogens; for 4 agents, only 1 or 2 published reports were identified. While further research is needed to better identify carcinogenesis-associated epigenetic perturbations for many potential carcinogens, published reports on specific epigenetic endpoints can be systematically identified and increasingly incorporated in cancer hazard assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Epigenetic alterations induced by genotoxic occupational and environmental human chemical carcinogens: A systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Grace; Pogribny, Igor P.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations play an important role in chemically-induced carcinogenesis. Although the epigenome and genome may be equally important in carcinogenicity, the genotoxicity of chemical agents and exposure-related transcriptomic responses have been more thoroughly studied and characterized. To better understand the evidence for epigenetic alterations of human carcinogens, and the potential association with genotoxic endpoints, we conducted a systematic review of published studies of genotoxic carcinogens that reported epigenetic endpoints. Specifically, we searched for publications reporting epigenetic effects for the 28 agents and occupations included in Monograph Volume 100F of the International Agency for the Research on Cancer (IARC) that were classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1) with strong evidence of genotoxic mechanisms of carcinogenesis. We identified a total of 158 studies that evaluated epigenetic alterations for 12 of these 28 carcinogenic agents and occupations (1,3-butadiene, 4-aminobiphenyl, aflatoxins, benzene, benzidine, benzo[a]pyrene, coke production, formaldehyde, occupational exposure as a painter, sulfur mustard, and vinyl chloride). Aberrant DNA methylation was most commonly studied, followed by altered expression of non-coding RNAs and histone changes (totaling 85, 59 and 25 studies, respectively). For 3 carcinogens (aflatoxins, benzene and benzo[a]pyrene), 10 or more studies reported epigenetic effects. However, epigenetic studies were sparse for the remaining 9 carcinogens; for 4 agents, only 1 or 2 published reports were identified. While further research is needed to better identify carcinogenesis-associated epigenetic perturbations for many potential carcinogens, published reports on specific epigenetic endpoints can be systematically identified and increasingly incorporated in cancer hazard assessments. PMID:27234561

  13. Calculation of Sentence Semantic Similarity Based on Syntactic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined with the problem of single direction of the solution of the existing sentence similarity algorithms, an algorithm for sentence semantic similarity based on syntactic structure was proposed. Firstly, analyze the sentence constituent, then through analysis convert sentence similarity into words similarity on the basis of syntactic structure, then convert words similarity into concept similarity through words disambiguation, and, finally, realize the semantic similarity comparison. It also gives the comparison rules in more detail for the modifier words in the sentence which also have certain contributions to the sentence. Under the same test condition, the experiments show that the proposed algorithm is more intuitive understanding of people and has higher accuracy.

  14. Extending the Similarity-Attraction Effect: The Effects of When-Similarity in Computer-Mediated Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Castaneda, D.; Fernandez, N.; Nass, C.

    2014-01-01

    The feeling of connectedness experienced in computer-mediated relationships can be explained by the similarity-attraction effect (SAE). Though SAE is well established in psychology, the effects of some types of similarity have not yet been explored. In 2 studies, we demonstrate similarity-attraction

  15. Free-classification of perceptually similar speakers with dysarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Kaitlin L; Liss, Julie M; Norton, Rebecca E

    2014-12-01

    In this investigation, the construct of perceptual similarity was explored in the dysarthrias. Specifically, we employed an auditory free-classification task to determine whether listeners could cluster speakers by perceptual similarity, whether the clusters mapped to acoustic metrics, and whether the clusters were constrained by dysarthria subtype diagnosis. Twenty-three listeners blinded to speakers' medical and dysarthria subtype diagnoses participated. The task was to group together (drag and drop) the icons corresponding to 33 speakers with dysarthria on the basis of how similar they sounded. Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling (MDS) modeled the perceptual dimensions underlying similarity. Acoustic metrics and perceptual judgments were used in correlation analyses to facilitate interpretation of the derived dimensions. Six clusters of similar-sounding speakers and 3 perceptual dimensions underlying similarity were revealed. The clusters of similar-sounding speakers were not constrained by dysarthria subtype diagnosis. The 3 perceptual dimensions revealed by MDS were correlated with metrics for articulation rate, intelligibility, and vocal quality, respectively. This study shows (a) feasibility of a free-classification approach for studying perceptual similarity in dysarthria, (b) correspondence between acoustic and perceptual metrics to clusters of similar-sounding speakers, and (c) similarity judgments transcended dysarthria subtype diagnosis.

  16. Similarity analysis between chromosomes of Homo sapiens and monkeys with correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someswara Rao, Chinta; Viswanadha Raju, S

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we consider correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures for evaluating similarity between Homo sapiens and monkeys. We used DNA chromosomes of genome wide genes to determine the correlation between the chromosomal content and evolutionary relationship. The similarity among the H. sapiens and monkeys is measured for a total of 210 chromosomes related to 10 species. The similarity measures of these different species show the relationship between the H. sapiens and monkey. This similarity will be helpful at theft identification, maternity identification, disease identification, etc.

  17. Lipschitz equivalence of self-similar sets with touching structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, Huo-Jun; Wang, Yang; Xi, Li-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Lipschitz equivalence of self-similar sets is an important area in the study of fractal geometry. It is known that two dust-like self-similar sets with the same contraction ratios are always Lipschitz equivalent. However, when self-similar sets have touching structures the problem of Lipschitz equivalence becomes much more challenging and intriguing at the same time. So far, all the known results only cover self-similar sets in R with no more than three branches. In this study we establish results for the Lipschitz equivalence of self-similar sets with touching structures in R with arbitrarily many branches. Key to our study is the introduction of a geometric condition for self-similar sets called substitutable. (paper)

  18. An iterative approach for the global estimation of sentence similarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Kajiwara

    Full Text Available Measuring the similarity between two sentences is often difficult due to their small lexical overlap. Instead of focusing on the sets of features in two given sentences between which we must measure similarity, we propose a sentence similarity method that considers two types of constraints that must be satisfied by all pairs of sentences in a given corpus. Namely, (a if two sentences share many features in common, then it is likely that the remaining features in each sentence are also related, and (b if two sentences contain many related features, then those two sentences are themselves similar. The two constraints are utilized in an iterative bootstrapping procedure that simultaneously updates both word and sentence similarity scores. Experimental results on SemEval 2015 Task 2 dataset show that the proposed iterative approach for measuring sentence semantic similarity is significantly better than the non-iterative counterparts.

  19. A Minimum Spanning Tree Representation of Anime Similarities

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Canggih Puspo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new way to represent Japanese animation (anime) is presented. We applied a minimum spanning tree to show the relation between anime. The distance between anime is calculated through three similarity measurements, namely crew, score histogram, and topic similarities. Finally, the centralities are also computed to reveal the most significance anime. The result shows that the minimum spanning tree can be used to determine the similarity anime. Furthermore, by using centralities c...

  20. The Influence of Similarity on Visual Working Memory Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Po-Han; Luck, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    In verbal memory, similarity between items in memory often leads to interference and impaired memory performance. The present study sought to determine whether analogous interference effects would be observed in visual working memory by varying the similarity of the to-be-remembered objects in a color change-detection task. Instead of leading to interference and impaired performance, increased similarity among the items being held in memory led to improved performance. Moreover, when two simi...

  1. Earth Similarity Index and Habitability Studies of Exoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Kashyap, Jagadeesh Madhu

    2018-01-01

    Study of exoplanets has been of considerable interest for Astronomers, Planetary Scientists and Astrobiologists. Analysis of huge planetary data from space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler is directed ultimately at finding a planet similar to Earth- the Earth's twin, and looking for potential habitability. The Earth Similarity Index (ESI) is defined to find the similarity with Earth, which ranges from 1 (Earth) to 0 (totally dissimilar to Earth). ESI can be computed using four physical param...

  2. The efficiency of similarity-focused comparisons in person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Comparison processes are ubiquitous in person perception. Comparative thinking can follow two routes: People either search for similarities or for dissimilarities while comparing. Which of these two routes is more efficient? Previous research indicates that people could compare two geometrical figures faster if they focused on similarities rather than dissimilarities. I examine comparisons of people and measure the consumption of cognitive resources as indicator for efficiency. The results confirm an efficiency-advantage of similarity-focused comparisons for social stimuli.

  3. A New Trajectory Similarity Measure for GPS Data

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Anas

    2016-08-08

    We present a new algorithm for measuring the similarity between trajectories, and in particular between GPS traces. We call this new similarity measure the Merge Distance (MD). Our approach is robust against subsampling and supersampling. We perform experiments to compare this new similarity measure with the two main approaches that have been used so far: Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) and the Euclidean distance. © 2015 ACM.

  4. FGFR3 signaling induces a reversible senescence phenotype in chondrocytes similar to oncogene-induced premature senescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel; Procházková, J.; Smutný, J.; Chlebová, K.; Lin, P.; Aklian, A.; Bryja, Vítězslav; Kozubík, Alois; Wilcox, W.R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2010), s. 102-110 ISSN 8756-3282 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA301/09/0587 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : FGFR3 * oncogene * skeletal dysplasia Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.601, year: 2010

  5. Self-similarity in particle accumulation on the fluid-fluid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Xu, Feng; Lee, Sungyon

    2017-11-01

    When the mixture of viscous oil and non-colloidal particles displaces air between two parallel plates, the shear-induced migration of particles leads to the gradual accumulation of particles on the advancing oil-air interface. This particle accumulation results in the fingering of an otherwise stable fluid-fluid interface. While the previous works by Xu and colleagues have focused on the resultant instability, one unexplored yet striking feature of the experiments is the self-similarity in the concentration profile of the accumulating particles. In this talk, we model the self-similar particle profiles mathematically, by considering the depth-averaged particle transport equations and the suspension balance model. The method of asymptotic matching is used to combine the key physical effects - the shear-induced migration far upstream of the interface and the secondary flow near the interface, in a mathematically tractable way.

  6. Systematic characterizations of text similarity in full text biomedical publications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Sun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Computational methods have been used to find duplicate biomedical publications in MEDLINE. Full text articles are becoming increasingly available, yet the similarities among them have not been systematically studied. Here, we quantitatively investigated the full text similarity of biomedical publications in PubMed Central.72,011 full text articles from PubMed Central (PMC were parsed to generate three different datasets: full texts, sections, and paragraphs. Text similarity comparisons were performed on these datasets using the text similarity algorithm eTBLAST. We measured the frequency of similar text pairs and compared it among different datasets. We found that high abstract similarity can be used to predict high full text similarity with a specificity of 20.1% (95% CI [17.3%, 23.1%] and sensitivity of 99.999%. Abstract similarity and full text similarity have a moderate correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient: -0.423 when the similarity ratio is above 0.4. Among pairs of articles in PMC, method sections are found to be the most repetitive (frequency of similar pairs, methods: 0.029, introduction: 0.0076, results: 0.0043. In contrast, among a set of manually verified duplicate articles, results are the most repetitive sections (frequency of similar pairs, results: 0.94, methods: 0.89, introduction: 0.82. Repetition of introduction and methods sections is more likely to be committed by the same authors (odds of a highly similar pair having at least one shared author, introduction: 2.31, methods: 1.83, results: 1.03. There is also significantly more similarity in pairs of review articles than in pairs containing one review and one nonreview paper (frequency of similar pairs: 0.0167 and 0.0023, respectively.While quantifying abstract similarity is an effective approach for finding duplicate citations, a comprehensive full text analysis is necessary to uncover all potential duplicate citations in the scientific literature and is helpful when

  7. A Framework for Analysis of Music Similarity Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Højvang; Christensen, Mads G.; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2007-01-01

    To analyze specific properties of music similarity measures that the commonly used genre classification evaluation procedure does not reveal, we introduce a MIDI based test framework for music similarity measures. We introduce the framework by example and thus outline an experiment to analyze...... the dependency of a music similarity measure on the instrumentation of a song compared to the melody, and to analyze its sensitivity to transpositions. Using the outlined experiment, we analyze music similarity measures from three software packages, namely Marsyas, MA toolbox and Intelligent Sound Processing...

  8. Application of the principle of similarity fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, R.C.; Sengers, J.V.

    1979-01-01

    Possible applications of the principle of similarity to fluid mechanics is described and illustrated. In correlating thermophysical properties of fluids, the similarity principle transcends the traditional corresponding states principle. In fluid mechanics the similarity principle is useful in correlating flow processes that can be modeled adequately with one independent variable (i.e., one-dimensional flows). In this paper we explore the concept of transforming the conservation equations by combining similarity principles for thermophysical properties with those for fluid flow. We illustrate the usefulness of the procedure by applying such a transformation to calculate two phase critical mass flow through a nozzle

  9. Semantic similarity: normative ratings for 185 Spanish noun triplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Cornelia D; Ferré, Pilar; Demestre, Josep; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa

    2015-09-01

    The present study introduces the first Spanish database with normative ratings of semantic similarity for 185 word triplets. Each word triplet is constituted by a target word (e.g., guisante [pea]) and two semantically related and nonassociatively related words: a word highly related in meaning to the target (e.g., judía [bean]), and a word less related in meaning to the target (e.g., patata [potato]). The degree of meaning similarity was assessed by 332 participants by using a semantic similarity rating task on a 9-point scale. Pairs having a value of semantic similarity ranging from 5 to 9 were classified as being more semantically related, whereas those with values ranging from 2 to 4.99 were considered as being less semantically related. The relative distance between the two pairs for the same target ranged from 0.48 to 5.07 points. Mean comparisons revealed that participants rated the more similar words as being significantly more similar in meaning to the target word than were the less similar words. In addition to the semantic similarity norms, values of concreteness and familiarity of each word in a triplet are provided. The present database can be a very useful tool for scientists interested in designing experiments to examine the role of semantics in language processing. Since the variable of semantic similarity includes a wide range of values, it can be used as either a continuous or a dichotomous variable. The full database is available in the supplementary materials.

  10. Common neighbour structure and similarity intensity in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Liu, Kecheng

    2017-10-01

    Complex systems as networks always exhibit strong regularities, implying underlying mechanisms governing their evolution. In addition to the degree preference, the similarity has been argued to be another driver for networks. Assuming a network is randomly organised without similarity preference, the present paper studies the expected number of common neighbours between vertices. A symmetrical similarity index is accordingly developed by removing such expected number from the observed common neighbours. The developed index can not only describe the similarities between vertices, but also the dissimilarities. We further apply the proposed index to measure of the influence of similarity on the wring patterns of networks. Fifteen empirical networks as well as artificial networks are examined in terms of similarity intensity and degree heterogeneity. Results on real networks indicate that, social networks are strongly governed by the similarity as well as the degree preference, while the biological networks and infrastructure networks show no apparent similarity governance. Particularly, classical network models, such as the Barabási-Albert model, the Erdös-Rényi model and the Ring Lattice, cannot well describe the social networks in terms of the degree heterogeneity and similarity intensity. The findings may shed some light on the modelling and link prediction of different classes of networks.

  11. Similar Ruled Surfaces with Variable Transformations in Minkowski 3-space

    OpenAIRE

    Önder, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we consider the notion of similar ruled surface for timelike and spacelike ruled surfaces in Minkowski 3-space. We obtain some properties of these special surfaces in E_1^3 and we show that developable ruled surfaces in E_1^3 form a family of similar ruled surfaces if and only if the striction curves of the surfaces are similar curves with variable transformation. Moreover, we obtain that cylindrical surfaces and conoids form two families of similar ruled surfaces in E_1^3.

  12. Multicriteria decision-making method based on a cosine similarity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the cosine similarity measure is often used in information retrieval, citation analysis, and automatic classification. However, it scarcely deals with trapezoidal fuzzy information and multicriteria decision-making problems. For this purpose, a cosine similarity measure between trapezoidal fuzzy numbers is proposed based on ...

  13. Phonological Similarity in Serial Recall: Constraints on Theories of Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Farrell, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In short-term serial recall, similar-sounding items are remembered more poorly than items that do not sound alike. When lists mix similar and dissimilar items, performance on the dissimilar items is of considerable theoretical interest. Farrell and Lewandowsky [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological…

  14. Visual reconciliation of alternative similarity spaces in climate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Poco; A Dasgupta; Y Wei; William Hargrove; C.R. Schwalm; D.N. Huntzinger; R Cook; E Bertini; C.T. Silva

    2015-01-01

    Visual data analysis often requires grouping of data objects based on their similarity. In many application domains researchers use algorithms and techniques like clustering and multidimensional scaling to extract groupings from data. While extracting these groups using a single similarity criteria is relatively straightforward, comparing alternative criteria poses...

  15. Self-similar solution for coupled thermal electromagnetic model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation into the existence and uniqueness solution of self-similar solution for the coupled Maxwell and Pennes Bio-heat equations have been done. Criteria for existence and uniqueness of self-similar solution are revealed in the consequent theorems. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ...

  16. The Gestalt Principle of Similarity Benefits Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Dwight J.; Berryhill, Marian E.

    2013-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is essential for many cognitive processes yet it is notably limited in capacity. Visual perception processing is facilitated by Gestalt principles of grouping, such as connectedness, similarity, and proximity. This introduces the question: do these perceptual benefits extend to VWM? If so, can this be an approach to enhance VWM function by optimizing the processing of information? Previous findings demonstrate that several Gestalt principles (connectedness, common region, and spatial proximity) do facilitate VWM performance in change detection tasks (Woodman, Vecera, & Luck, 2003; Xu, 2002a, 2006; Xu & Chun, 2007; Jiang, Olson & Chun, 2000). One prevalent Gestalt principle, similarity, has not been examined with regard to facilitating VWM. Here, we investigated whether grouping by similarity benefits VWM. Experiment 1 established the basic finding that VWM performance could benefit from grouping. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding by showing that similarity was only effective when the similar stimuli were proximal. In short, the VWM performance benefit derived from similarity was constrained by spatial proximity such that similar items need to be near each other. Thus, the Gestalt principle of similarity benefits visual perception, but it can provide benefits to VWM as well. PMID:23702981

  17. Long-Term Mean Wind Profiles Based on Similarity Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2010-01-01

    We provide general forms for long-term mean wind profiles from similarity-based wind profiles, beginning with a probabilistic adaptation of Monin–Obukhov similarity theory. We develop an analytical formulation for the stability distributions prevailing in the atmospheric surface layer, which...

  18. A Remark on the Similarity and Perturbation Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, J.; Christensen, Erik; Sinclair, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this note we show that Kadison's similarity problem for C*-algebras is equivalent to a problem in perturbation theory: must close C*-algebras have close commutants?......In this note we show that Kadison's similarity problem for C*-algebras is equivalent to a problem in perturbation theory: must close C*-algebras have close commutants?...

  19. MAC/FAC: A Model of Similarity-Based Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbus, Kenneth D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents MAC/FAC, a model of similarity-based retrieval that attempts to capture psychological phenomena; discusses its limitations and extensions, its relationship with other retrieval models, and its placement in the context of other work on the nature of similarity. Examines the utility of the model through psychological experiments and…

  20. 9 CFR 319.181 - Cheesefurters and similar products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Sausage § 319.181 Cheesefurters and similar products. “Cheesefurters” and similar products are products in casings which resemble... for cooked sausages that are in this subchapter. [55 FR 34683, Aug. 24, 1990, as amended at 56 FR...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1550 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.1550 Section 51.1550 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the potatoes in any lot have the same general shape...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1154 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.1154 Section 51.1154 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the fruits in any container are...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2756 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.2756 Section 51.2756 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the peanut kernels in the lot are not of distinctly...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1864 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.1864 Section 51.1864 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the tomatoes are alike as to firmness of flesh and...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1906 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.1906 Section 51.1906 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the tomatoes are alike as to color, i.e., bright red...

  6. 7 CFR 51.2714 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.2714 Section 51.2714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the peanut kernels in the lot are not of distinctly...

  7. 7 CFR 51.603 - Similar varietal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.603 Section 51.603 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the stalks in any container have the same character...

  8. Mixed-List Phonological Similarity Effects in Delayed Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…

  9. Melodic Similarity and Applications Using Biologically-Inspired Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bountouridis, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411292412; Brown, Dan; Wiering, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141928034; Veltkamp, R.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/084742984

    2017-01-01

    Music similarity is a complex concept that manifests itself in areas such as Music Information Retrieval (MIR), musicological analysis and music cognition. Modelling the similarity of two music items is key for a number of music-related applications, such as cover song detection and

  10. An electrophysiological signature of summed similarity in visual working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vugt, Marieke K.; Sekuler, Robert; Wilson, Hugh R.; Kahana, Michael J.

    Summed-similarity models of short-term item recognition posit that participants base their judgments of an item's prior occurrence on that item's summed similarity to the ensemble of items on the remembered list. We examined the neural predictions of these models in 3 short-term recognition memory

  11. Relationship between genetic similarity and some productive traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was applied to detect genetic similarity between five local chicken strains that have been selected for eggs and meat production in Egypt. Based on six oligonucleotide primers, the genetic similarity between the egg-producing strains (Anshas, Silver. Montazah and ...

  12. An efficient similarity measure technique for medical image registration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The similarity measures are tested on the matrix laboratory (MATLAB) plat- form of version 7.0.4. Table 4 shows the comparison of computational time required by various image registration methods. Figures 5a and c of the size 256 × 256 pixels are considered for the calculation of computational time of various similarity ...

  13. Epistemic Similarities between Students' Scientific and Supernatural Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtulman, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The evidential support for scientific claims is quantitatively and qualitatively superior to that for supernatural claims, yet students may not appreciate this difference in light of the fact that both types of claims are learned in similar ways (through testimony rather than firsthand observation) and perform similar functions (explaining…

  14. The Gestalt principle of similarity benefits visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Dwight J; Berryhill, Marian E

    2013-12-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is essential for many cognitive processes, yet it is notably limited in capacity. Visual perception processing is facilitated by Gestalt principles of grouping, such as connectedness, similarity, and proximity. This introduces the question, do these perceptual benefits extend to VWM? If so, can this be an approach to enhance VWM function by optimizing the processing of information? Previous findings have demonstrated that several Gestalt principles (connectedness, common region, and spatial proximity) do facilitate VWM performance in change detection tasks (Jiang, Olson, & Chun, 2000; Woodman, Vecera, & Luck, 2003; Xu, 2002, 2006; Xu & Chun, 2007). However, one prevalent Gestalt principle, similarity, has not been examined with regard to facilitating VWM. Here, we investigated whether grouping by similarity benefits VWM. Experiment 1 established the basic finding that VWM performance could benefit from grouping. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding by showing that similarity was only effective when the similar stimuli were proximal. In short, the VWM performance benefit derived from similarity was constrained by spatial proximity, such that similar items need to be near each other. Thus, the Gestalt principle of similarity benefits visual perception, but it can provide benefits to VWM as well.

  15. 29 CFR 4043.35 - Bankruptcy or similar settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bankruptcy or similar settlement. 4043.35 Section 4043.35....35 Bankruptcy or similar settlement. (a) Reportable event. A reportable event occurs for a plan when any member of the plan's controlled group— (1) Commences a bankruptcy case (under the Bankruptcy Code...

  16. Differential effects of black raspberry and strawberry extracts on BaPDE-induced activation of transcription factors and their target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Dongyun; Stoner, Gary D; Huang, Chuanshu

    2008-04-01

    The chemopreventive properties of edible berries have been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, however, the specific molecular mechanisms underlying their anti-cancer effects are largely unknown. Our previous studies have shown that a methanol extract fraction of freeze-dried black raspberries inhibits benzoapyrene (BaP)-induced transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells. This fraction also blocks activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) induced by benzoapyrene diol-epoxide (BaPDE) in mouse epidermal JB6 Cl 41 cells. To determine if different berry types exhibit specific mechanisms for their anti-cancer effects, we compared the effects of extract fractions from both black raspberries and strawberries on BaPDE-induced activation of various signaling pathways in Cl 41 cells. Black raspberry fractions inhibited the activation of AP-1, NF-kappaB, and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) by BaPDE as well as their upstream PI-3K/Akt-p70(S6K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. In contrast, strawberry fractions inhibited NFAT activation, but did not inhibit the activation of AP-1, NF-kappaB or the PI-3K/Akt-p70(S6K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Consistent with the effects on NFAT activation, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) induction by BaPDE was blocked by extract fractions of both black raspberries and strawberries, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, which depends on AP-1 activation, was suppressed by black raspberry fractions but not strawberry fractions. These results suggest that black raspberry and strawberry components may target different signaling pathways in exerting their anti-carcinogenic effects. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. A Model-Based Approach to Constructing Music Similarity Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Kris; Lamere, Paul

    2006-12-01

    Several authors have presented systems that estimate the audio similarity of two pieces of music through the calculation of a distance metric, such as the Euclidean distance, between spectral features calculated from the audio, related to the timbre or pitch of the signal. These features can be augmented with other, temporally or rhythmically based features such as zero-crossing rates, beat histograms, or fluctuation patterns to form a more well-rounded music similarity function. It is our contention that perceptual or cultural labels, such as the genre, style, or emotion of the music, are also very important features in the perception of music. These labels help to define complex regions of similarity within the available feature spaces. We demonstrate a machine-learning-based approach to the construction of a similarity metric, which uses this contextual information to project the calculated features into an intermediate space where a music similarity function that incorporates some of the cultural information may be calculated.

  18. Cultural similarity, cultural competence, and nurse workforce diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Sandra L; Brush, Barbara L; Moore, Jean

    2010-11-01

    Proponents of health workforce diversity argue that increasing the number of minority health care providers will enhance cultural similarity between patients and providers as well as the health system's capacity to provide culturally competent care. Measuring cultural similarity has been difficult, however, given that current benchmarks of workforce diversity categorize health workers by major racial/ethnic classifications rather than by cultural measures. This study examined the use of national racial/ethnic categories in both patient and registered nurse (RN) populations and found them to be a poor indicator of cultural similarity. Rather, we found that cultural similarity between RN and patient populations needs to be established at the level of local labor markets and broadened to include other cultural parameters such as country of origin, primary language, and self-identified ancestry. Only then can the relationship between cultural similarity and cultural competence be accurately determined and its outcomes measured.

  19. Improved collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm of similarity measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baofu; Yuan, Baoping

    2017-05-01

    The Collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm is one of the most widely used recommendation algorithm in personalized recommender systems. The key is to find the nearest neighbor set of the active user by using similarity measure. However, the methods of traditional similarity measure mainly focus on the similarity of user common rating items, but ignore the relationship between the user common rating items and all items the user rates. And because rating matrix is very sparse, traditional collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm is not high efficiency. In order to obtain better accuracy, based on the consideration of common preference between users, the difference of rating scale and score of common items, this paper presents an improved similarity measure method, and based on this method, a collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm based on similarity improvement is proposed. Experimental results show that the algorithm can effectively improve the quality of recommendation, thus alleviate the impact of data sparseness.

  20. Exact Score Distribution Computation for Similarity Searches in Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Marcel H.; Köhler, Sebastian; Bauer, Sebastian; Vingron, Martin; Robinson, Peter N.

    Semantic similarity searches in ontologies are an important component of many bioinformatic algorithms, e.g., protein function prediction with the Gene Ontology. In this paper we consider the exact computation of score distributions for similarity searches in ontologies, and introduce a simple null hypothesis which can be used to compute a P-value for the statistical significance of similarity scores. We concentrate on measures based on Resnik’s definition of ontological similarity. A new algorithm is proposed that collapses subgraphs of the ontology graph and thereby allows fast score distribution computation. The new algorithm is several orders of magnitude faster than the naive approach, as we demonstrate by computing score distributions for similarity searches in the Human Phenotype Ontology.