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Sample records for benzoapyrene impairs later-life

  1. Age of first exposure to football and later-life cognitive impairment in former NFL players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Julie M; Bourlas, Alexandra P; Baugh, Christine M; Fritts, Nathan G; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Martin, Brett M; McClean, Michael D; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A

    2015-03-17

    To determine the relationship between exposure to repeated head impacts through tackle football prior to age 12, during a key period of brain development, and later-life executive function, memory, and estimated verbal IQ. Forty-two former National Football League (NFL) players ages 40-69 from the Diagnosing and Evaluating Traumatic Encephalopathy using Clinical Tests (DETECT) study were matched by age and divided into 2 groups based on their age of first exposure (AFE) to tackle football: AFE NFL players in the AFE <12 group performed significantly worse than the AFE ≥12 group on all measures of the WCST, NAB-LL, and WRAT-4 Reading tests after controlling for total number of years of football played and age at the time of evaluation, indicating executive dysfunction, memory impairment, and lower estimated verbal IQ. There is an association between participation in tackle football prior to age 12 and greater later-life cognitive impairment measured using objective neuropsychological tests. These findings suggest that incurring repeated head impacts during a critical neurodevelopmental period may increase the risk of later-life cognitive impairment. If replicated with larger samples and longitudinal designs, these findings may have implications for safety recommendations for youth sports. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Stress, gender, cognitive impairment, and outpatient physician use in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, N

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to look at the interface between stressful life events, gender, cognitive impairment, and the use of outpatient physician services among older adults. A theoretical rationale is presented, suggesting that older men who are suffering from either mild or moderate levels of cognitive impairment are especially likely to use outpatient physician services when they are confronted by undesirable stressful events. Analyses with data provided by a nationwide sample of elderly people provide support for this complex three-way interaction.

  3. Creativity in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services.

  4. Depressive symptoms in later life: differential impact of social support and motivational processes on depression in individuals with and without cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser, Sonja; Drobetz, Reinhard; Mortby, Moyra; Maercker, Andreas; Forstmeier, Simon

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the role of a motivational process based on a composite of four subcomponents (self-efficacy, decision regulation, activation regulation and motivation regulation), as a mediator of the relationship between social support and depression assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale in cognitively impaired and unimpaired individuals. Participants were 229 adults with a mean age of 74 years (range: 52-94 years). The sample comprised 64 participants diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 47 participants diagnosed with early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD), and a group of 118 participants without any cognitive impairment. In this cross-sectional study, bivariate correlations and linear regression models were used to assess the association between the predictor variables and depression. Linear regression models were controlled for age, gender, education, cognitive status, cognitive impairment and activities. In the total sample, social support (β = -0.15, p processes (β = -0.41, p processes. While motivational processes were associated with depression in all three groups (no impairment: β = -0.61, p cognitively impaired individuals, while motivational processes remain relevant.

  5. Craving creativity in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine

    2013-01-01

    but it also raises questions as to what constitutes a ‘good’ and ‘active’ life in all societies. The conflicting aspect of the discursive battlefield on active ageing constitutes a fight for authority: Who has the ‘right’ to define the meaning of being ‘active’ and how can ‘activity’ be identified? ‘Active......’ is to be understood according to the interpretations available in different knowledge perspectives in order to discipline the future knowledge production of ageing and control the processes of subjectification in later life as the disciplining of ‘Population Ageing’: Becoming a subject to active ageing. Dominant...... discourses on ‘active ageing’ are challenged by the focus of museums and archives on using heritage and participatory arts as an arena to performAGE in later life by craving creativity as a notion of age and opportunity....

  6. Craving creativity in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine

    2013-01-01

    The societal norms of ageing and old age are changing in society today, due to demographic changes that favour a pedagogicalization of society, focusing on the management of human resources throughout the entire lifespan. The discourse on active ageing mot only reveals ‘better’ ways of ageing......’ is to be understood according to the interpretations available in different knowledge perspectives in order to discipline the future knowledge production of ageing and control the processes of subjectification in later life as the disciplining of ‘Population Ageing’: Becoming a subject to active ageing. Dominant...

  7. Metabolic and immune impairments induced by the endocrine disruptors benzo[a]pyrene and triclosan in Xenopus tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnault, Christophe; Willison, John; Veyrenc, Sylvie; Airieau, Antinéa; Méresse, Patrick; Fortier, Marlène; Fournier, Michel; Brousseau, Pauline; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    Despite numerous studies suggesting that amphibians are highly sensitive to cumulative anthropogenic stresses, the role played by endocrine disruptors (EDs) in the decline of amphibian populations remains unclear. EDs have been extensively studied in adult amphibians for their capacity to disturb reproduction by interfering with the sexual hormone axis. Here, we studied the in vivo responses of Xenopus tropicalis males exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of each ED, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and triclosan (TCS) alone (10 μg L(-1)) or a mixture of the two (10 μg L(-1) each) over a 24 h exposure period by following the modulation of the transcription of key genes involved in metabolic, sexual and immunity processes and the cellular changes in liver, spleen and testis. BaP, TCS and the mixture of the two all induced a marked metabolic disorder in the liver highlighted by insulin resistance-like and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-like phenotypes together with hepatotoxicity due to the impairment of lipid metabolism. For TCS and the mixture, these metabolic disorders were concomitant with modulation of innate immunity. These results confirmed that in addition to the reproductive effects induced by EDs in amphibians, metabolic disorders and immune system disruption should also be considered.

  8. Coping with anxiety in later life.

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    Frazier, Leslie D; Waid, Lisa D; Fincke, Candy

    2002-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how older adults cope with three forms of anxiety, and potential avenues for applied interventions. Although the findings shed light on some interesting findings with potential psychosocial applications, several limitations need to be noted. First, this study was based on two assumptions. The assumption, based on earlier work (Carver et al., 1989; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; Zeidner & Saklofske, 1996), that certain coping strategies are more effective than others, and an assumption of the direction of influence in which anxiety is a precursor of coping strategies. Because this was an exploratory study, the research questions did not directly test these assumptions. Second, this study is correlational in nature. Therefore, conclusions cannot be drawn about the causality of these associations. Third, as with any self-report data and self-selected sample, one needs to interpret the findings with caution. Similarly, for the purposes of the study, a non-clinical sample of older adults was examined using three distinct conceptualizations of anxiety. Suggestions for future research include: Replication of this study using a multidimensional measure of anxiety appropriate for clinical samples. A longitudinal replication of this study identifying patterns of coping that facilitate adjustment over time. Finally, a more general purpose of this study was to focus attention on a neglected issue in gerontology--the experience of anxietY in later life (Frazier & Waid, 1999; Gatz, 1995; Rabins, 1992; Shamoian, 1991; Sheikh, 1992; Smyer, 1995; Stanley & Beck, 1998), and, most importantly, the role of gerontological nurses in early assessment and intervention for successful treatment of anxiety in older adults.

  9. Life skills, wealth, health, and wellbeing in later life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Life skills play a key role in promoting educational and occupational success in early life, but their relevance at older ages is uncertain. Here we measured five life skills—conscientiousness, emotional stability, determination, control, and optimism—in 8,119 men and women aged 52 and older (mean 66.7 y). We show that the number of skills is associated with wealth, income, subjective wellbeing, less depression, low social isolation and loneliness, more close relationships, better self-rated health, fewer chronic diseases and impaired activities of daily living, faster walking speed, and favorable objective biomarkers (concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, vitamin D and C-reactive protein, and less central obesity). Life skills also predicted sustained psychological wellbeing, less loneliness, and a lower incidence of new chronic disease and physical impairment over a 4-y period. These analyses took account of age, sex, parental socioeconomic background, education, and cognitive function. No single life skill was responsible for the associations we observed, nor were they driven by factors such as socioeconomic status or health. Despite the vicissitudes of later life, life skills impact a range of outcomes, and the maintenance of these attributes may benefit the older population. PMID:28396407

  10. Depression in later life: an overview with treatment recommendations.

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    Ellison, James M; Kyomen, Helen H; Harper, David G

    2012-03-01

    We have already entered a new, more exciting, and hopeful era in the treatment of late-life depression. The increasing numbers of older adults who are surviving to more advanced ages and the greater recognition of late-life depression’s prevalence and impact on quality of life emphasize how important it is to detect and treat this disorder. Our increasing repertoire of evidence-based psychotherapeutic, pharmacologic, and neurotherapeutic treatment interventions offers many treatment alternatives, allowing substantial individualization of treatment approach. Demonstration of the effectiveness of depression treatment in primary care suggests the feasibility of increasing our patients’ access to care. Growing appreciation of the pathophysiology of depression and its interrelationships with cognitive impairment may increase our ability to limit or delay certain aspects of cognitive impairment through more aggressive treatment of depression. Improved recognition and treatment of late-life depression holds great potential for improving physical and mental health in later life, reducing disability in later years, and improving quality of life.

  11. Chronic Administration of Benzo(apyrene Induces Memory Impairment and Anxiety-Like Behavior and Increases of NR2B DNA Methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Zhang

    Full Text Available Recently, an increasing number of human and animal studies have reported that exposure to benzo(apyrene (BaP induces neurological abnormalities and is also associated with adverse effects, such as tumor formation, immunosuppression, teratogenicity, and hormonal disorders. However, the exact mechanisms underlying BaP-induced impairment of neurological function remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the regulating mechanisms underlying the impact of chronic BaP exposure on neurobehavioral performance.C57BL mice received either BaP in different doses (1.0, 2.5, 6.25 mg/kg or olive oil twice a week for 90 days. Memory and emotional behaviors were evaluated using Y-maze and open-field tests, respectively. Furthermore, levels of mRNA expression were measured by using qPCR, and DNA methylation of NMDA receptor 2B subunit (NR2B was examined using bisulfate pyrosequencing in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.Compared to controls, mice that received BaP (2.5, 6.25 mg/kg showed deficits in short-term memory and an anxiety-like behavior. These behavioral alterations were associated with a down-regulation of the NR2B gene and a concomitant increase in the level of DNA methylation in the NR2B promoter in the two brain regions.Chronic BaP exposure induces an increase in DNA methylation in the NR2B gene promoter and down-regulates NR2B expression, which may contribute to its neurotoxic effects on behavioral performance. The results suggest that NR2B vulnerability represents a target for environmental toxicants in the brain.

  12. Gender and religious differences associated with volunteering in later life.

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    Manning, Lydia K

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States to investigate the effect gender and religiosity has on volunteer behavior in later life. This study looks specifically at the gender and religious differences associated with volunteering in later life. Accounting for gender and religious differences, more specifically, this study examines the assumption that older women are more likely to volunteer in later life as opposed to men, and that gender is a better predictor than being religious for the likelihood of occupying a volunteer role in later life. This study poses questions about the differences in gender and religiosity associated with volunteering in later life; the results indicate there is more work to be done as we conduct research that is clearer about how volunteerism and religiosity are measured in relation to gender, and the overall impact these differences have for older women and their respective communities.

  13. Perspectives on the Etiology of Violence in Later Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Lindenberg, Jolanda

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of a conceptual framework for explaining the etiology of violence in later life by various groups involved in the field of elder abuse. In this study, we explore this through eight focus groups with different professionals involved in the field of elder abuse...... and older persons themselves and in interviews with 35 experts in the field. Our findings show that dependency, vulnerability, power and control, social isolation, stress, and care burden play a central role in their explanations for the occurrence of violence in later life. The role of a history...... of violence in violence in later life is equivocal. The complexity and ambiguity of dependency and vulnerability, the notion of mutual dependency, and diverse attitudes and expectations toward them that arise with the aging process are distinct features of violence in later life that were found....

  14. Paternal programming of offspring cardiometabolic diseases in later life.

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    Li, Jian; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Yang, Xiaoping; Hocher, Berthold

    2016-11-01

    Early - intrauterine - environmental factors are linked to the development of cardiovascular disease in later life. Traditionally, these factors are considered to be maternal factors such as maternal under and overnutrition, exposure to toxins, lack of micronutrients, and stress during pregnancy. However, in the recent years, it became obvious that also paternal environmental factors before conception and during sperm development determine the health of the offspring in later life. We will first describe clinical observational studies providing evidence for paternal programming of adulthood diseases in progeny. Next, we describe key animal studies proving this relationship, followed by a detailed analysis of our current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of paternal programming. Alterations of noncoding sperm micro-RNAs, histone acetylation, and targeted as well as global DNA methylation seem to be in particular involved in paternal programming of offspring's diseases in later life.

  15. Paternal programming of offspring cardiometabolic diseases in later life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Yang, Xiaoping; Hocher, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Early – intrauterine – environmental factors are linked to the development of cardiovascular disease in later life. Traditionally, these factors are considered to be maternal factors such as maternal under and overnutrition, exposure to toxins, lack of micronutrients, and stress during pregnancy. However, in the recent years, it became obvious that also paternal environmental factors before conception and during sperm development determine the health of the offspring in later life. We will first describe clinical observational studies providing evidence for paternal programming of adulthood diseases in progeny. Next, we describe key animal studies proving this relationship, followed by a detailed analysis of our current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of paternal programming. Alterations of noncoding sperm micro-RNAs, histone acetylation, and targeted as well as global DNA methylation seem to be in particular involved in paternal programming of offspring's diseases in later life. PMID:27457668

  16. Family, housing and well-being in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbers, Daniël Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The ageing of many western populations calls for a better understanding of the factors related to well-being in later life. Family and housing are two domains that become increasingly important at older ages. At older ages people generally spend more time in and around the home, and social networks

  17. Engaging Later-Life Learners through Portfolio Writing

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    Clarke, Egerton; Hornyak, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The ever increasing enrollment of later-life students in institutions of higher learning warrants innovative teaching strategies to promote successful learning outcomes. This article discusses the academic challenges that instructors face and argues in support of an important assessment method, that is, portfolio writing. This novel strategy was…

  18. Gender and adaptation to widowhood in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, N.L.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the well-being and living conditions of older widows and widowers reveals ways in which adaptation to loss of the partner in later life is influenced by gender. This article compares the results of two Dutch studies, one on men and one on women between the ages of 60 and 75, living in

  19. Transitions into and out of Cohabitation in Later Life

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    Brown, Susan L.; Bulanda, Jennifer Roebuck; Lee, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Cohabitation among adults over age 50 is rising rapidly, more than doubling from 1.2 million in 2000 to 2.75 million in 2010. A small literature provides a descriptive portrait of older cohabitors, but no study has investigated transitions into and out of cohabitation during later life. Drawing on demographic and life course perspectives, the…

  20. Androgynous Gender Roles in Later Life: Conceptual Critique and Recommendations.

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    Wells, Kathleen; McGee, Jeanne

    Recent theoretical formulations by Gutmann and Sinnott about the nature of men's and women's roles in later life are critiqued on conceptual and empirical grounds. This paper proposes a multidimensional conceptualization of gender role that stresses dynamic linkages between psychological and social psychological levels of analysis. Requisites of a…

  1. Early life adversity potentiates the effects of later life stress on cumulative physiological dysregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Hansen, Åse Marie; Avlund, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Previous research indicates that early life adversity may heighten stress reactivity and impair mechanisms for adaptive coping, suggesting that experience of stress in early life may also potentiate adults' physiological vulnerability to stress in later life. The study...... tested this hypothesis by investigating whether experience of stressful events and circumstances (SEC) in childhood or adolescence amplified the effect of adulthood SEC on physiological dysregulation (allostatic load, AL) in later midlife. Design: Observational data were used in the present study......: The results provide further insight into the mechanisms behind the "biological embedding" of childhood stress....

  2. DNA methylation: the pivotal interaction between early-life nutrition and glucose metabolism in later life.

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    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao

    2014-12-14

    Traditionally, it has been widely acknowledged that genes together with adult lifestyle factors determine the risk of developing some metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes mellitus in later life. However, there is now substantial evidence that prenatal and early-postnatal nutrition play a critical role in determining susceptibility to these diseases in later life. Maternal nutrition has historically been a key determinant for offspring health, and gestation is the critical time window that can affect the growth and development of offspring. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis proposes that exposures during early life play a critical role in determining the risk of developing metabolic diseases in adulthood. Currently, there are substantial epidemiological studies and experimental animal models that have demonstrated that nutritional disturbances during the critical periods of early-life development can significantly have an impact on the predisposition to developing some metabolic diseases in later life. The hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms may link imbalanced early-life nutrition with altered disease risk has been widely accepted in recent years. Epigenetics can be defined as the study of heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence. Epigenetic processes play a significant role in regulating tissue-specific gene expression, and hence alterations in these processes may induce long-term changes in gene function and metabolism that persist throughout the life course. The present review focuses on how nutrition in early life can alter the epigenome, produce different phenotypes and alter disease susceptibilities, especially for impaired glucose metabolism.

  3. Early life obesity and chronic kidney disease in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hyung Eun; Yoo, Kee Hwan

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased considerably with a parallel rise in the prevalence of obesity. It is now recognized that early life nutrition has life-long effects on the susceptibility of an individual to develop obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and CKD. The kidney can be programmed by a number of intrauterine and neonatal insults. Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the most identifiable markers of a suboptimal prenatal environment, and the important intrarenal factors sensitive to programming events include decreased nephron number and altered control of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). LBW complicated by accelerated catch-up growth is associated with an increased risk of obesity, hypertension and CKD in later life. High birth weight and exposure to maternal diabetes or obesity can enhance the risk for developing CKD in later life. Rapid postnatal growth per se may also contribute to the subsequent development of obesity and CKD regardless of birth weight and prenatal nutrition. Although the mechanisms of renal risks due to early life nutritional programming remain largely unknown, experimental and clinical studies suggest the burdening role of early life obesity in longstanding cardiovascular and renal diseases.

  4. Successful transition to later life: strategies used by baby boomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Kay; Geerligs, Liesbeth; Peisah, Carmelle

    2014-06-01

    We sought to understand strategies employed by baby boomers to maintain well-being and facilitate transition to later life. A non-clinical cohort (n = 139) provided qualitative data about well-being strategies. Thematic data analysis provided insights for those with high and low life satisfaction (based on Satisfaction with Life Scale) and quantitative data from previous waves provided predictors of life satisfaction decades later. Longitudinal predictors were depression history (cognitive trait and repeated episodes) and quality of partner's care. 'Highly satisfied older people' reported proactive strategies, contrasted with lack of planning by 'dissatisfied older people'. 'Resilient older people', with high life satisfaction despite repeated depressive episodes, reported benefit from strategies dealing with adversity, including depression. Strategies of 'satisfied older people' support theories of proactive coping and demonstrate the importance of developing adaptational skills to support later life satisfaction. In 'resilient older people' adaptive strategies can lead to achievement of life satisfaction despite repeated depressive episodes. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2013 ACOTA.

  5. Early growth and development of later life metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Joo-Pin; Mantzoros, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Growth is effected via a complex interaction of genetic, nutritional, environmental and growth factors. Hormonal factors such as the growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system, the human placental lactogen, and insulin play an integral role in early growth. Genetic factors affecting the GH-IGF system and insulin secretion and actions, and epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation have been further implicated as contributory factors. These hormonal systems, on a background of genetic susceptibility, together with other factors including maternal nutrition, placental and environmental factors, regulate not only early growth but also development. These interactions may impact on later health consequences in adult life. Accumulating data in the last few decades on developmental programming and later life metabolic disorders has provided a novel perspective on the possible pathogenesis of metabolic dysregulation. Despite postulations put forward to elucidate the mechanism underlying the association between early growth and later life metabolic disorders, it remains unclear what the dominant factor(s) would be, how any underlying mechanisms interact, or whether these mechanisms are truly causal.

  6. Self-realization and cultural narratives about later life.

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    Laceulle, Hanne; Baars, Jan

    2014-12-01

    In late modern circumstances, aging individuals are confronted with the task of creating a meaningful individual life trajectory. However, these personal narratives are situated in the context of broader cultural narratives. It is argued that current cultural narratives about aging are often stereotyping and demeaning, being based on either a decline ideology or an age-defying ideology. This complicates the ascription of meaning to later life. We argue that narrative gerontology could profit from integrating a more cultural critical stance in its investigations. Dominant cultural narratives need to be challenged by viable counter narratives aimed at repairing and strengthening the moral agency of aging individuals. We discuss the criteria such counter narratives have to answer to and consider how the moral discourse on self-realization can provide an ideological foundation for meaning-generating cultural counter narratives on aging.

  7. Municipality and Neighborhood Influences on Volunteering in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dury, Sarah; Willems, Jurgen; De Witte, Nico; De Donder, Liesbeth; Buffel, Tine; Verté, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    This article explores the relationships between municipality features and volunteering by older adults. In the literature, strong evidence exists of the influence of place on older people's health. However, the question how neighborhoods and municipalities promote or hinder volunteer participation remains under-explored. Data for the research are derived from the Belgian Aging Studies. We estimate logistic multilevel models for older individuals' engagement in volunteering across 141 municipalities in Belgium (N = 67,144). Analysis shows that neighborhood connectedness, neighborhood satisfaction, home ownership, and presence of services predict voluntary engagement at older ages. The findings support that perceptions and quality of social resources that relate to neighborhoods may be important factors to explain volunteering among older adults. Moreover, the findings suggest that volunteering in later life must be considered within a broader framework.

  8. Poverty and transitions in health in later life.

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    Adena, Maja; Myck, Michal

    2014-09-01

    Using a sample of Europeans aged 50+ from 12 countries in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we analyse the role of poor material conditions as a determinant of changes in health over a four- to five-year period. We find that poverty defined with respect to relative income has no effect on changes in health. However, broader measures of poor material conditions, such as subjective poverty or low wealth, significantly increase the probability of transition to poor health among the healthy and reduce the chance of recovery from poor health over the time interval analysed. In addition to this, the subjective measure of poverty has a significant effect on mortality, increasing it by 65% among men and by 68% among those aged 50-64. Material conditions affect health among older people. We suggest that if attempts to reduce poverty in later life and corresponding policy targets are to focus on the relevant measures, they should take into account broader definitions of poverty than those based only on relative incomes.

  9. The role of food shopping in later life.

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    Pettigrew, Simone; Worrall, Caitlin; Biagioni, Nicole; Talati, Zenobia; Jongenelis, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    By the time they reach retirement, individuals are typically highly experienced in sourcing food products and they have strong familiarity with food retailing environments. To investigate the ongoing role of food shopping in later life, the present study explored seniors' attitudes to food shopping and their food-selection behaviours through the lens of their broader lifestyles. The aim was to provide insights of relevance to the development of future efforts to optimise seniors' food shopping experiences and nutrition-related outcomes. Interviews were conducted with 75 Western Australians aged 60 + years to discuss food shopping in the context of their day-to-day lives. The sample was comprised mainly of women (n = 64) and the average age was 74 years. In general, food shopping was perceived to be a manageable but mundane part of life. The findings suggest that there has been an improvement in food retailing practices because many of the numerous areas of concern identified in previous research conducted in this geographical location a decade ago were not nominated as relevant by the interviewees. Instead, food-related issues reported to be most problematic included the difficulties associated with sourcing affordable food products that had been produced locally and that did not contain unacceptable food additives. Seniors' food shopping concerns thus appear to have changed from functional aspects of the physical store environment to product attributes that reflect the increasing industrialisation of the food industry.

  10. SOME PHARMACOLOGIC TREATMENT OPTIONS IN LATER- LIFE ANXIETY DISORDERS

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    Mariana Arnaudova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most recommendations for treatment of anxiety in later life are based on evidence, derived from studies of younger populations. An important challenge is the high psychic and physical comorbidity of primary anxiety disorders. The aim of our study was to examine the pharmacological treatment of elderly patients in acute psychiatry setting, presenting with anxiety disorder.All subjects underwent clinical psychiatric examination and evaluation according to ICD-10 and DSM-IV criteria for an anxiety disorder and depression. The patients were examined also for a physical comorbidity.Depressive-anxious or comorbid with depression anxious patients prevailed. Primary solitary anxiety disorders were less seen. High physical comorbidity was registerd. Pharmacologic treatment consisted mostly of benzodiazepines and antidepressants. A considerable number of patients received Quetiapine in their therapeutic plans.Pharmacologic treatment in elderly patients with anxiety disorders should be precisely administered. Standard pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders for a number of elderly patients needs to be modified. Further research is needed to determine the most appropriate safe and effective treatment model.

  11. Listening to Religious Music and Mental Health in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Matt; Ellison, Christopher G; Fang, Qijuan; Mueller, Collin

    2015-12-01

    Research has linked several aspects of religion--including service attendance, prayer, meditation, religious coping strategies, congregational support systems, and relations with God, among others--with positive mental health outcomes among older U.S. adults. This study examines a neglected dimension of religious life: listening to religious music. Two waves of nationally representative data on older U.S. adults were analyzed (n = 1,024). Findings suggest that the frequency of listening to religious music is associated with a decrease in death anxiety and increases in life satisfaction, self-esteem, and a sense of control across the 2 waves of data. In addition, the frequency of listening to gospel music (a specific type of religious music) is associated with a decrease in death anxiety and an increase in a sense of control. These associations are similar for blacks and whites, women and men, and low- and high-socioeconomic status individuals. Religion is an important socioemotional resource that has been linked with desirable mental health outcomes among older U.S. adults. This study shows that listening to religious music may promote psychological well-being in later life. Given that religious music is available to most individuals--even those with health problems or physical limitations that might preclude participation in more formal aspects of religious life--it might be a valuable resource for promoting mental health later in the life course. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Early Life Nutrition, Epigenetics and Programming of Later Life Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H. Vickers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how

  13. Early life nutrition, epigenetics and programming of later life disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Mark H

    2014-06-02

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be

  14. Altered Fetal Skeletal Muscle Nutrient Metabolism Following an Adverse In Utero Environment and the Modulation of Later Life Insulin Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyn Dunlop

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the in utero environment as a contributor to later life metabolic disease has been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. In this review, we consider how disruption of normal fetal growth may impact skeletal muscle metabolic development, ultimately leading to insulin resistance and decreased insulin sensitivity, a key precursor to later life metabolic disease. In cases of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR associated with hypoxia, where the fetus fails to reach its full growth potential, low birth weight (LBW is often the outcome, and early in postnatal life, LBW individuals display modifications in the insulin-signaling pathway, a critical precursor to insulin resistance. In this review, we will present literature detailing the classical development of insulin resistance in IUGR, but also discuss how this impaired development, when challenged with a postnatal Western diet, may potentially contribute to the development of later life insulin resistance. Considering the important role of the skeletal muscle in insulin resistance pathogenesis, understanding the in utero programmed origins of skeletal muscle deficiencies in insulin sensitivity and how they may interact with an adverse postnatal environment, is an important step in highlighting potential therapeutic options for LBW offspring born of pregnancies characterized by placental insufficiency.

  15. Gendered emotion work around physical health problems in mid- and later-life marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The provision and receipt of emotion work-defined as intentional activities done to promote another's emotional well-being-are central dimensions of marriage. However, emotion work in response to physical health problems is a largely unexplored, yet likely important, aspect of the marital experience. We analyze dyadic in-depth interviews with husbands and wives in 21 mid- to later-life couples to examine the ways that health-impaired people and their spouses provide, interpret, and explain emotion work. Because physical health problems, emotion work, and marital dynamics are gendered, we consider how these processes differ for women and men. We find that wives provide emotion work regardless of their own health status. Husbands provide emotion work less consistently, typically only when the husbands see themselves as their wife's primary source of stability or when the husbands view their marriage as balanced. Notions of traditional masculinity preclude some husbands from providing emotion work even when their wife is health-impaired. This study articulates emotion work around physical health problems as one factor that sustains and exacerbates gender inequalities in marriage with implications for emotional and physical well-being.

  16. A Course on Humanistic Creativity in Later Life: Literature Review, Case Histories, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuessel, Frank; Van Stewart, Arthur; Cedeno, Aristofanes

    2001-01-01

    Presents case histories of late-life creativity in literature (May Sarton), painting (Marcel Duchamp), music (Leos Janacek), dance (Martha Graham), and theatre (Jessica Tandy). Offers suggestions for a course on humanistic creativity in later life. (Contains 74 references.) (SK)

  17. Rewriting age to overcome misaligned age and gender norms in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelock, Jeremiah C; Stokes, Jeffrey E; Moorman, Sara M

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we suggest that older adults undergo a misalignment between societal age norms and personal lived experience, and attempt reconciliation through discursive strategies: They rewrite how they frame chronological age as well as their subjective relations to it. Using a sample of 4041 midlife and older adults from the 2004-2006 wave of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS II), we explore associations of age and gender with subjective age and at what age respondents felt people enter later life. Our results confirm that as men and women age, they push up the age at which they think people enter later life, and slow down subjective aging (there is a growing gap between subjective and chronological age). Relations between a person's age and at what age they think people enter later life were stronger for men than for women. For every year they get older get older, men push up when they think people enter later life by 0.24years, women by 0.16years. Age norms surrounding the transition to later life may be more prominent for men than for women, and the difference in their tendencies to push up when they mark entry into later life may be a reflection of this greater prominence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Midlife Work-Related Stress Increases Dementia Risk in Later Life: The CAIDE 30-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindi, Shireen; Hagman, Göran; Håkansson, Krister; Kulmala, Jenni; Nilsen, Charlotta; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Soininen, Hilkka; Solomon, Alina; Kivipelto, Miia

    2016-04-08

    To investigate the associations between midlife work-related stress and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and Alzheimer's disease later in life, in a large representative population. Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study participants were randomly selected from independent population-based surveys (mean age 50 years). A random sample of 2,000 individuals was invited for two reexaminations including cognitive tests (at mean age 71 and mean age 78), and 1,511 subjects participated in at least one reexamination (mean follow-up 28.5 years). Work-related stress was measured using two questions on work demands that were administered in midlife. Analyses adjusted for important confounders. Higher levels of midlife work-related stress were associated with higher risk of MCI (odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.76), dementia (OR, 1.53; CI, 1.13-2.07), and Alzheimer's disease (OR, 1.55; CI, 1.19-2.36) at the first follow-up among the CAIDE participants. Results remained significant after adjusting for several possible confounders. Work-related stress was not associated with MCI and dementia during the extended follow-up. Midlife work-related stress increases the risk for MCI, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease in later life. The association was not seen after the extended follow-up possibly reflecting selective survival/participation, heterogeneity in dementia among the oldest old, and a critical time window for the effects of midlife stress. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Nutrition and neurodevelopment: mechanisms of developmental dysfunction and disease in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauncey, M J; Bicknell, R J

    1999-12-01

    Nutrition plays a central role in linking the fields of developmental neurobiology and cognitive neuroscience. It has a profound impact on the development of brain structure and function and malnutrition can result in developmental dysfunction and disease in later life. A number of diseases, including schizophrenia, may be related to neurodevelopmental insults such as malnutrition, hypoxia, viruses or in utero drug exposure. Some of the most significant findings on nutrition and neurodevelopment during the last three decades, and especially during the last few years, are discussed in this review. Attention is focused on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms by which diet exerts its effects. Randomized intervention studies have revealed important effects of early nutrition on later cognitive development, and recent epidemiological findings show that both genetics and environment are risk factors for schizophrenia. Particularly important is the effect of early nutrition on development of the hippocampus, a brain structure important in establishing learning and memory, and hence for cognitive performance. A major aim of future research should be to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying nutritionally-induced impairment of neurodevelopment and specifically to determine the mechanisms by which early nutritional experience affects later cognitive performance. Key research objectives should include: (1) increased understanding of mechanisms underlying the normal processes of ageing and neurodegenerative disorders; (2) assessment of the role of susceptibility genes in modulating the effects of early nutrition on neurodevelopment; and (3) development of nutritional and pharmaceutical strategies for preventing and/or ameliorating the adverse effects of early malnutrition on long-term programming.

  20. Do early life factors affect the development of knee osteoarthritis in later life: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Benny; Jones, Graeme; Jin, Xingzhong; Ding, Changhai

    2016-09-13

    Osteoarthritis (OA) mainly affects older populations; however, it is possible that early life factors contribute to the development of OA in later life. The aim of this review is to describe the association between childhood or early adulthood risk factors and knee pain, structural imaging markers and development of knee OA in later life. A narrative overview of the literature synthesising the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerised databases and manual searches was conducted. We found that only a few studies have explored the long-term effect of childhood or early adulthood risk factors on the markers of joint health that predispose people to OA or joint symptoms. High body mass index (BMI) and/or overweight status from childhood to adulthood were independently related to knee pain and OA in later life. The findings regarding the association between strenuous physical activity and knee structures in young adults are still conflicting. However, a favourable effect of moderate physical activity and fitness on knee structures is reported. Childhood physical activity and performance measures had independent beneficial effects on knee structures including knee cartilage in children and young adults. Anterior knee pain syndrome in adolescence could lead to the development of patellofemoral knee OA in the late 40s. Furthermore, weak evidence suggests that childhood malalignment, socioeconomic status and physical abuse are associated with OA in later life. The available evidence suggests that early life intervention may prevent OA in later life.

  1. A multidimensional risk factor model for suicide attempts in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan SMS

    2014-09-01

    <0.001, and being married (Exp[B]: 12.2, P<0.048 significantly increased odds for suicide attempt status in older women (Nagelkerke R2: 0.844. Association of CVRF score and suicide attempt status was not observed in older men for whom number of life events in the past 12 weeks (Exp[B]: 9.164; P<0.001, higher neuroticism (Exp[B]: 1.028; P=0.048, and impaired performance on a Modified Card Sorting Test (Exp[B]: 0.646; P=0.032 significantly increased odds for suicide attempt status in a logistic regression model (Nagelkerke R2: 0.611.Conclusion: Risk factors for cerebrovascular diseases may be associated with higher risk for attempted suicide in older women, but not in older men. Older men and women have distinct risk factor profiles that may inform targeted intervention and prevention strategies. Keywords: chronic medical illness, cognitive function, suicide, later life

  2. Later-Life Preparation Patterns on Depression Among Korean Baby Boom Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Seok In; Kim, Junpyo; Shin, Jimin; Yim, Arram

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the later-life preparation pattern of Korean baby boomers and its effect on depression. Using the fourth wave of Korean Retirement and Income Study, later-life preparation was measured by economic, physical, and psychological preparation, and leisure, and family relationship satisfaction. The data analysis included latent class analysis, correlations, multiple logistic regression, and analysis of variance. Later-life patterns of Korean baby boomers were classified as high-level (35.7%), low-level (31.1%), and health and family relationship (33.2%) preparation patterns. For depression, the low-level pattern was associated with significantly higher level of depression; however, no differences were found in other two patterns. Researchers recommended a postretirement program to reflect the unique characteristics of Korean baby boomers. Moreover, findings regarding the importance of health and family relationships can be applied to other countries that have historical and cultural backgrounds similar to Korea.

  3. Parity and parents' health in later life: the gendered case of Ismailia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Michal; Agree, Emily M; Yount, Kathryn M; Bishai, David

    2010-07-01

    We investigate the relationship between reproduction and functional health in later life among women and men in the resource-poor and gender-stratified setting of Ismailia governorate, Egypt. Analyses of survey data collected in 2003 show a statistically significant positive association between parity and difficulty with activities of daily living (ADLs), controlling for demographic and socio-economic factors and other co-morbid conditions. We also find that the number of daughters (but not sons) is associated with worse physical functioning, and this association is more pronounced for older fathers than for older mothers. Our results indicate that both biological and social pathways link fertility and later-life health in this context, and that prescribed familial roles may underlie the differential impact of sons and daughters on the health of mothers and fathers in later life.

  4. Learning about Sex in Later Life: Sources of Education and Older Australian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fileborn, Bianca; Lyons, Anthony; Hinchliff, Sharron; Brown, Graham; Heywood, Wendy; Minichiello, Victor

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the preferred sexuality education sources of older Australian adults in later life. Drawing on findings from qualitative interviews with 30 men and 23 women aged 60 years and older, we consider the sources that participants currently use, or would like to use, in seeking information about sex. Where relevant, we examine…

  5. Ageing in media: rethinking the studying of media use in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givskov, Cecilie

    to common sense understandings of the lifespan, of later life, and to the concept of ‘healthy ageing’. With its basis in life historical, phenomenological and discourse analytical perspectives and with a commitment to theory this type of research explores the meanings of ageing and their sources. From...

  6. Depression and physical health in later life : results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, ATF; Penninx, BWJH; Deeg, DJH; Ormel, J; Braam, AW; van Tilburg, W

    1997-01-01

    Background: In later life, declining physical health is often thought to be one of the most important risk factors for depression. Major depressive disorders are relatively rare, while depressive syndromes which do not fulfil diagnostic criteria (minor depression) are common. Methods: Community-base

  7. Early-Life Characteristics, Psychiatric History, and Cognition Trajectories in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Although considerable attention has been paid to the relationship between later-life depression and cognitive function, the relationship between a history of psychiatric problems and cognitive function is not very well documented. Few studies of relationships between childhood health, childhood disadvantage, and cognitive…

  8. Narrative foreclosure in later life: Preliminary considerations for a new sensitizing concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Randall, W.; Tromp, T.; Kenyon, G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to explore narrative foreclosure as a sensitizing concept for studying the ways in which narrative identity development falters in later life. Two main characters in famous movies are contrasted to provide a better understanding of narrative foreclosure. The concept is

  9. Learning about Sex in Later Life: Sources of Education and Older Australian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fileborn, Bianca; Lyons, Anthony; Hinchliff, Sharron; Brown, Graham; Heywood, Wendy; Minichiello, Victor

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the preferred sexuality education sources of older Australian adults in later life. Drawing on findings from qualitative interviews with 30 men and 23 women aged 60 years and older, we consider the sources that participants currently use, or would like to use, in seeking information about sex. Where relevant, we examine…

  10. Women's Later Life Career Development: Looking through the Lens of the Kaleidoscope Career Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Rachel A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the relevance of the Kaleidoscope Career Model (KCM) to women's later life career development. Qualitative interview data were gathered from 14 women in both the "truly" late career and bridge employment periods using a longitudinal design. The relevance of authenticity, balance, and challenge--central parameters in the KCM--is…

  11. Ethnic group moderates the association between attachment and well-being in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.-M.; Consedine, N.S.

    2012-01-01

    Attachment styles are associated with well-being across the life span. Particularly in later life, when individuals face declining health and increasing dependency, patterns of attachment may relate to affective outcomes. However, few studies have empirically examined the attachment–well-being link

  12. Living Arrangements, Social Integration, and Loneliness in Later Life: The Case of Physical Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, David

    2009-01-01

    Despite the theoretical linkages between household composition and social integration, relatively limited research has considered how living arrangements affect risk for loneliness in later life. Prior work has also failed to consider whether physical disability moderates this potentially important relationship. Using data from a sample of older…

  13. Constructions of sexuality in later life: analyses of Canadian magazine and newspaper portrayals of online dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Mineko; Hurd Clarke, Laura; Rozanova, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Advertisements as well as contemporary literature and films often depict older adults as sexually undesirable and unattractive, which reinforces the stereotype that they are nonsexual. However, the evolving discourses of successful aging emphasize that active engagement in life is a key element of healthy aging and as such, have been influencing the ways that older adults' sexuality is represented. This paper explores how popular newspapers and magazines in Canada construct and portray later life sexuality within the context of online dating. We retrieved 144 newspaper and magazine articles about later life online dating that were published between 2009 and 2011. Our thematic and discursive analyses of the articles generated six themes. Of 144 articles, 13% idealized sexuality (sexual attractiveness and optimal sexual engagement) for older adults. The articles portrayed sexual interests and functioning as declining in later life (19%) more often than sustaining (15%). Approximately 15% of the articles suggested that older adults should explore new techniques to boost sexual pleasure, thereby medicalizing and ameliorating sexual decline. In addition, the articles challenged the stereotype of older adults as non-sexual and claimed that sexual engagement in later life was valuable as it contributed to successful aging. We address the paradox in the articles' positive portrayals of older adults' sexuality and the tensions that arise between the two distinct ideals of sexuality that they advance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Narrative foreclosure in later life: preliminary considerations for a new sensitizing concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohlmeijer, E.T.; Westerhof, G.J.; Randall, W.; Tromp, T.; Kenyon, G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to explore narrative foreclosure as a sensitizing concept for studying the ways in which narrative identity development falters in later life. Two main characters in famous movies are contrasted to provide a better understanding of narrative foreclosure. The concept is

  15. The Interplay between Women's Life Course Work Patterns and Financial Planning for Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Ellie D.; Denton, Margaret A.

    2004-01-01

    In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the interplay between women's life course work patterns and their financial planning for later life, we examined data from semi-structured interviews with retired women (n = 28) aged 59 to 92. The majority of women disrupted their careers at some point in time, for an average of 14 years, primarily…

  16. The Role of Musical Possible Selves in Supporting Subjective Well-Being in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Andrea; Hallam, Susan; Varvarigou, Maria; Gaunt, Helena; McQueen, Hilary; Pincas, Anita

    2014-01-01

    There is now an accepted need for initiatives that support older people's well-being. There is increasing evidence that active engagement with music has the potential to contribute to this. This paper explores the relationship between musical possible selves and subjective well-being in later life. The research reported here formed part of a…

  17. Older Women in New Romantic Relationships: Understanding the Meaning and Importance of Sex in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Wendy K; Stelle, Charlie; Bell, Nancy

    2016-12-02

    Although research has found that sexual activity declines with age, most of this literature examines people in long-term marriages. Little is known about the initiation of new sexual relationships in later life. In-depth interviews with 14 women aged 64 to 77 years were conducted to examine their personal and collective narratives regarding sexuality in later life. In contrast to common perceptions, none of the participants felt that aging had negatively impacted their own sexuality. For many, this was a time in their lives when they were experiencing renewed sexual desire and enjoyment. Even though sex might not have held the same priority as when they were younger, it held a place of importance in their romantic relationships. The discussion focuses on understanding women's sexual relationships and behaviors within the context of their cohort and lives.

  18. The interplay between women's life course work patterns and financial planning for later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Ellie D; Denton, Margaret A

    2004-01-01

    In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the interplay between women's life course work patterns and their financial planning for later life, we examined data from semi-structured interviews with retired women (n = 28) aged 59 to 92. The majority of women disrupted their careers at some point in time, for an average of 14 years, primarily for child-rearing responsibilities. We found that financial preparedness and income security in later life are structured by women's life course work patterns. However, individuals also have the ability to shape their own lives and many of the women took the initiative to acquire financial knowledge irrespective of their work situation. Financial-planning advice that participants gave to future generations of older women was also explored and centred on the importance of saving, avoiding debt, maintaining financial independence, and planning ahead.

  19. The Third Age and the Baby Boomers: Two Approaches to the Social Structuring of Later Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Gilleard

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines two contrasting positions in interpreting contemporary change in later life. These are summarily represented by a cohort approach that focuses upon the baby boomers and a generational approach that focuses upon the third age. We argue that understanding the role of the sixties’ cultural revolution for the emergence of the third age offers a broader conceptual understanding of the transformation of later life than that provided by the more restrictive and restricting framework of a baby boom cohort. That many people, particularly in the USA, self identify with the term ‘baby boomer’ reflects not so much the power of cohorts as structuring influences on the ‘conscience collective’ as the role of the market and the media in shaping their social identities.

  20. Meaning of life in adulthood and later life / Sentido de vida na fase adulta e velhice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinara Sommerhalder

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The unceasing search for meaning to life is part of the existential questioning. Viktor Frankl is a pioneer in this field. Later, researchers have used his lessons to expand the definition of the construct 'meaning of life'. Transcultural studies lead to a better understanding of this theme, but further research still needs to be done. The available instruments are being tested and improved; however, we already have relevant information on the theme, and it contributes largely to the study of the development of adulthood and later life. This article aims at showing the evolution of the concept 'meaning of life' and how researches have been dealing with the theme in the field of adulthood and later life development.

  1. Later-life Employment Preferences and Outcomes: The Role of Mid-life Work Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymo, James M; Warren, John R; Sweeney, Megan M; Hauser, Robert M; Ho, Jeong-Hwa

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we evaluate relationships between mid-life work experiences and the realization of preferences for full-time employment, part-time employment, and complete retirement at age 63-64. Using rich data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we demonstrate that the likelihood of achieving one's preferred employment status is related to earlier work experiences including employment stability in mid-life and self-employment, part-time employment, and private pension coverage across the life course. Despite large gender differences in work experiences across the life course, relationships between earlier work experiences and the likelihood of realizing later-life employment preferences are generally similar for men and women. We also find that these relationships are only partially mediated by economic and employment circumstances in late mid-life, suggesting the need for further evaluation of the cumulative pathways linking mid-life work experiences to the realization of later-life employment preferences.

  2. Personality Disorders in Later Life: Questions about the Measurement, Course, and Impact of Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Balsis, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Lifespan perspectives have played a crucial role in shaping our understanding of many forms of psychopathology. Unfortunately, little attention has been given to personality disorders in middle adulthood and later life. Several issues are responsible for this deficiency, including difficulty applying the diagnostic criteria for personality disorders to older people and challenges in identifying appropriate samples of older participants. The goal of this review is to explore the benefits of considering older adults in the study of personality disorders. Later life offers a unique opportunity for investigators to consider links between personality pathology and consequential outcomes in people’s lives. Many domains are relevant, including health, longevity, social adjustment, marital relationships, and the experience of major life events. We review each domain and consider ways in which the study of middle-aged and older adults challenges researchers to evaluate how personality disorders in general are defined and measured. PMID:21219195

  3. The Enduring Impact of Maladaptive Personality Traits on Relationship Quality and Health in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Marci E. J.; Weinstein, Yana; Balsis, Steve; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five years, the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN) has been collecting data on personality in later life with an emphasis on maladaptive personality, social integration, and health outcomes in a representative sample of 1630 adults aged 55–64 living in the St. Louis area. This program has confirmed the importance of considering both the normal range of personality and in particular the role of maladaptive traits in order to understand individuals’ relationships, life events, and health outcomes. In the current paper we discuss the explanatory benefits of considering maladaptive traits or traits associated with personality disorders when discussing the role of personality on social and health outcomes with an emphasis on adults in middle to later life, and integrate these findings into the greater literature. PMID:23998798

  4. The enduring impact of maladaptive personality traits on relationship quality and health in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Marci E J; Weinstein, Yana; Balsis, Steve; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2014-12-01

    Over the past 5 years, the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN) has been collecting data on personality in later life with an emphasis on maladaptive personality, social integration, and health outcomes in a representative sample of 1,630 adults aged 55-64 living in the St. Louis area. This program has confirmed the importance of considering both the normal range of personality and in particular the role of maladaptive traits in order to understand individuals' relationships, life events, and health outcomes. In the current article, we discuss the explanatory benefits of considering maladaptive traits or traits associated with personality disorders when discussing the role of personality in social and health outcomes, with an emphasis on adults in middle to later life, and integrate these findings into the greater literature. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Union formation in later life: economic determinants of cohabitation and remarriage among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespa, Jonathan

    2012-08-01

    This study builds on Becker's and Oppenheimer's theories of union formation to examine the economic determinants of marriage and cohabitation during older adulthood. Based on the 1998-2006 Health and Retirement Study and a sample of previously married Americans who are at least 50 years old, results show that wealthier older adults, regardless of gender, are more likely to repartner than stay single. Wealth has no discernable effect on the likelihood of remarrying versus cohabiting. Among the oldest men, the positive associations between wealth and repartnering are entirely due to housing assets. Results suggest that Oppenheimer's theory of marriage timing may be more applicable to later-life union formation than Becker's independence hypothesis. Further, economic disadvantage does not appear to characterize later-life cohabitation, unlike cohabitation during young adulthood. These findings help illuminate the union formation process during older adulthood and are timely considering demographic changes reshaping the American population.

  6. Age at First Birth and Later Life Health in Western and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundy, Emily; Foverskov, Else

    2016-01-01

    MUCH OF THE research on life-course determinants of later life health has focused on cumulated effects of socioeconomic disadvantage (Ben-Shlomoand Kuh 2002; Luo and Waite 2005). Family life courses also involve differential exposures to stresses and supports and interact with other health relevant...... fewer stress-buffering resources (Barban 2013). Additionally, early parenthood may disrupt educational and career progression and increase the chances of divorce and of high completed family size, all factors associated with socioeconomic disadvantage, health-damaging stress, and poorer later life....... We examine associations between early parenthood and self-rated health among women and men aged 50–80, taking account of childhood circumstances that may influence both entry to early parenthood and later health, and intermediate outcomes relevant to health, such as experience of divorce and adult...

  7. Self-care and anticipated transition into retirement and later life in a Nordic welfare context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderhamn O

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Olle Söderhamn1–3, Anne Skisland1,2, Margaretha Herrman31Department of Health and Nursing Sciences, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad and Kristiansand, Norway; 2Centre for Caring Research – Southern Norway, Grimstad, Norway; 3Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, University West, Trollhättan, SwedenAbstract: Few studies have appeared in the health care literature on the meaning of transition into retirement and later life. However, this predictable-involuntary transition may influence personal health and well-being, and studying it from a self-care perspective could be useful. The aim of this study was to illuminate aspects of self-care in a group of middle-aged individuals in relation to their anticipated transition into retirement in the Nordic welfare context. A total of 13 individuals, aged 55 to 65 years, were randomly chosen from the total number of inhabitants in three municipalities in mid-west Sweden. Conversational interviews took place, during which the informants shared important events in their lives that had occurred from early childhood until the present time, together with thoughts about their anticipated future developmental transition into later life. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. After content analyses and interpretation, a comprehensive picture of the phenomenon was revealed. The results showed that there were opportunities, expectations, wishes, concerns, and worries related to the transition into retirement and old age among informants from both rural and urban municipalities. Self-care, in connection with this, depended on motivating and demotivating factors. Autonomy and mature dependence seemed to be positive driving forces for reaching a successful transition into later life. Supporting autonomy should be a way of facilitating the transition into retirement and later life.Keywords: aging, autonomy, motivation, older people, successful aging

  8. Gaps in Social Support Resources in Later Life: An Adaptational Challenge in Need of Further Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rook, Karen S.

    2009-01-01

    Gaps in social support resources in later life may arise when older adults lose social network members due to illness, death, or residential relocation. Gaps also may arise when social networks remain intact but are not well suited to meet older adults’ intensifying support needs, such as needs for extended or highly personal instrumental support. Significant gaps in support resources are likely to require adaptive responses by older adults. This discussion highlights theoretical perspectives...

  9. The implications of unintended pregnancies for mental health in later life

    OpenAIRE

    Herd, Pamela; Higgins, Jenny; Sicinski, Kamil; Merkurieva, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of research on unintended pregnancies, we know little about the health implications for the women who experience them. Moreover, no study has examined the implications for women whose pregnancies occurred before Roe v. Wade was decided—nor whether the mental health consequences of these unintended pregnancies continue into later life. Using the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a 60-year ongoing survey, we examined associations between unwanted and mistimed pregnancies and mental ...

  10. Birth Measurements, Family History, and Environmental Factors Associated With Later-Life Hypertensive Status

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xia; Zhang, Zhen-Xin; George, Linda K.; Wang, Zi-Shi; Fan, Zhong-jie; Xu, Tao; Zhou, Xiao-Lin; Han, Shao-Mei; Wen, Hong-Bo; Zeng, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Background This birth cohort study was conducted to investigate the contribution of prenatal and antenatal environmental exposures to later-life hypertensive status. Methods Two thousand five hundred and three individuals born in 1921–1954 at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) were targeted; 2,081 (83.1%) participated. Clinical examinations included an interview, blood pressure (BP) measurements, and laboratory assays. Statistical analyses were performed using ordinal regressio...

  11. Negative density dependence regulates two tree species at later life stage in a temperate forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiefeng Piao

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated that tree survival is influenced by negative density dependence (NDD and differences among species in shade tolerance could enhance coexistence via resource partitioning, but it is still unclear how NDD affects tree species with different shade-tolerance guilds at later life stages. In this study, we analyzed the spatial patterns for trees with dbh (diameter at breast height ≥2 cm using the pair-correlation g(r function to test for NDD in a temperate forest in South Korea after removing the effects of habitat heterogeneity. The analyses were implemented for the most abundant shade-tolerant (Chamaecyparis obtusa and shade-intolerant (Quercus serrata species. We found NDD existed for both species at later life stages. We also found Quercus serrata experienced greater NDD compared with Chamaecyparis obtusa. This study indicates that NDD regulates the two abundant tree species at later life stages and it is important to consider variation in species' shade tolerance in NDD study.

  12. Negative density dependence regulates two tree species at later life stage in a temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Tiefeng; Chun, Jung Hwa; Yang, Hee Moon; Cheon, Kwangil

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that tree survival is influenced by negative density dependence (NDD) and differences among species in shade tolerance could enhance coexistence via resource partitioning, but it is still unclear how NDD affects tree species with different shade-tolerance guilds at later life stages. In this study, we analyzed the spatial patterns for trees with dbh (diameter at breast height) ≥2 cm using the pair-correlation g(r) function to test for NDD in a temperate forest in South Korea after removing the effects of habitat heterogeneity. The analyses were implemented for the most abundant shade-tolerant (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and shade-intolerant (Quercus serrata) species. We found NDD existed for both species at later life stages. We also found Quercus serrata experienced greater NDD compared with Chamaecyparis obtusa. This study indicates that NDD regulates the two abundant tree species at later life stages and it is important to consider variation in species' shade tolerance in NDD study.

  13. Survival of offspring who experience early parental death: early life conditions and later-life mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ken R; Hanson, Heidi A; Norton, Maria C; Hollingshaus, Michael S; Mineau, Geraldine P

    2014-10-01

    We examine the influences of a set of early life conditions (ELCs) on all-cause and cause-specific mortality among elderly individuals, with special attention to one of the most dramatic early events in a child's, adolescent's, or even young adult's life, the death of a parent. The foremost question is, once controlling for prevailing (and potentially confounding) conditions early in life (family history of longevity, paternal characteristics (SES, age at time of birth, sibship size, and religious affiliation)), is a parental death associated with enduring mortality risks after age 65? The years following parental death may initiate new circumstances through which the adverse effects of paternal death operate. Here we consider the offspring's marital status (whether married; whether and when widowed), adult socioeconomic status, fertility, and later life health status. Adult health status is based on the Charlson Co-Morbidity Index, a construct that summarizes nearly all serious illnesses afflicting older individuals that relies on Medicare data. The data are based on linkages between the Utah Population Database and Medicare claims that hold medical diagnoses data. We show that offspring whose parents died when they were children, but especially when they were adolescents/young adults, have modest but significant mortality risks after age 65. What are striking are the weak mediating influences of later-life comorbidities, marital status, fertility and adult socioeconomic status since controls for these do little to alter the overall association. No beneficial effects of the surviving parent's remarriage were detected. Overall, we show the persistence of the effects of early life loss on later-life mortality and indicate the difficulties in addressing challenges at young ages.

  14. Aging parents of adults with disabilities: the gratifications and frustrations of later-life caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J S; Seltzer, M M; Greenley, J R

    1993-08-01

    Using a stress process model, we investigated the impact of later-life caregiving on 105 mothers of adult children with mental illness and 208 mothers of adult children with mental retardation. As hypothesized, mothers of persons with mental illness reported higher levels of frustrations and lower levels of gratifications. Whereas the adult child's behavior problems were the strongest predictor of maternal gratifications, the adult child's diagnosis was the strongest predictor of maternal frustrations once all other factors were controlled. In addition, the size of the mother's social network, the family social climate, and the child's participation in an out-of-home program were associated with the effect of caregiver stress.

  15. The Political Economy of Longevity: Developing New Forms of Solidarity for Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Aging populations now exert influence on all aspects of social life. This article examines changes to major social and economic institutions linked with old age, taking the period from the mid-20th century to the opening decades of the 21st century. These developments are set within the context of the influence of globalization as well as the impact of the 2008 financial crisis, these restructuring debates around the longevity revolution. The article examines how the basis for a new framework for accommodating longevity can be built, outlining ways of securing new forms of solidarity in later life.

  16. Location of cerebrovascular and degenerative changes, depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning in later life: the SMART-Medea study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grool, Anne M; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Mali, Willem P T M; Geerlings, Mirjam I

    2011-10-01

    Depression and cognitive impairment are highly prevalent in later life and frequently co-occur. Structural changes in critical brain regions may underlie both conditions. The authors examined associations of infarcts, white-matter lesions (WML) and atrophy at different locations with depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning. Within the Second Manifestations of Arterial Disease-Memory, Depression and Aging (SMART-Medea) study, cross-sectional analyses were performed in 585 non-demented patients aged ≥50 years with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease. Volumetric measures of WML and atrophy were obtained with 1.5 T MRI; infarcts were rated visually. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (score ≥6). z Scores of executive functioning, memory and processing speed were calculated. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, education, intelligence, vascular disease, physical functioning and co-occurring brain changes. Depressive symptoms were present in 102 (17%) patients and were associated with poorer memory (B=-0.26, 95% CI -0.47 to -0.06). Large subcortical infarcts and lacunar infarcts in deep white-matter tracts were both associated with depressive symptoms (RR=2.66, 95% CI 1.28 to 5.54; RR=2.02, 95% CI 1.14 to 3.59) and poorer executive functioning and memory. Periventricular WML volume was associated with poorer executive functioning; cortical infarcts in the left hemisphere and media flow region, ventricular volume and cortical atrophy were associated with a slower processing speed. In this sample of non-demented older persons, subcortical infarcts contributed to an increased risk of depressive symptoms as well as cognitive impairment. This depended on location in projecting white-matter tracts, and not on infarct size.

  17. Forever productive: the discursive shaping of later life workers in contemporary Canadian newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Debbie Laliberte; Molke, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, ;productive aging' is promoted within government policies and reports in several Western nations, as well as those of international organizations. The ways in which ;productive aging' comes to be shaped within texts, that is, its discursive shaping, influences what aging individuals view as possible and ideal ways to be and do in later life, as well as what collectivities view as required services and programs to support such identities and occupations. Drawing on governmentality theory, in concert with occupational science, a critical discourse analysis of 72 Canadian newspaper articles pertaining to work and retirement published in 2006 was conducted to examine how 'productive aging' is shaped within such print media texts and the possibilities for identity and occupation promoted. This work critically analyzes ways 'later life workers' have come to be discursively shaped within neoliberal sociopolitical contexts, characterized by emphases on fostering individual responsibility, decreasing state dependency, and increasing privatization. The authors raises concerns related to occupational injustice, arguing for continuing vigilance regarding the ways 'productive aging' discourses might be drawn on to justify further state and workplace retreat from policies and programs that support those who face challenges to continued engagement in work or who cannot, or chose not to, be 'forever productive'.

  18. Subjective financial well-being, income and health inequalities in mid and later life in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arber, Sara; Fenn, Kirsty; Meadows, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between health and income is well established, but the link between subjective financial well-being and self-reported health has been relatively ignored. This study investigates the relationship between income, subjective financial well-being and health in mid-life and later life in Britain. Analysis of the General Household Survey for 2006 examined these relationships at ages 45-64 (n = 4639) and 65 and over (n = 3104). Logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for income and other socio-economic factors associated with self-reported health. Both income and subjective financial well-being are independently associated with health in mid-life; those with lower incomes and greater subjective financial difficulties had higher risk of reporting 'less than good' health. In contrast in later life, subjective financial well-being was associated with health, but the effect of income on health was mediated entirely through subjective financial well-being. The poorer health of the divorced/separated was also entirely mediated by differences in subjective financial well-being. Research on health inequalities should pay greater attention to the link between subjective financial hardship and ill-health, especially during periods of greater economic difficulties and financial austerity.

  19. Feelings of Hopelessness in Midlife and Cognitive Health in Later Life: A Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krister Håkansson

    Alzheimer's disease. These associations remained significant also after the final adjustments for depressive feelings and for hopelessness at follow-up. The individual changes in hopelessness scores between midlife and follow-up were not systematically related to cognitive health at the follow-up.Our results suggest that feelings of hopelessness already in midlife may have long-term implications for cognitive health and increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease in later life.

  20. Education is associated with higher later life IQ scores, but not with faster cognitive processing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stuart J; Bates, Timothy C; Der, Geoff; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2013-06-01

    Recent reports suggest a causal relationship between education and IQ, which has implications for cognitive development and aging-education may improve cognitive reserve. In two longitudinal cohorts, we tested the association between education and lifetime cognitive change. We then tested whether education is linked to improved scores on processing-speed variables such as reaction time, which are associated with both IQ and longevity. Controlling for childhood IQ score, we found that education was positively associated with IQ at ages 79 (Sample 1) and 70 (Sample 2), and more strongly for participants with lower initial IQ scores. Education, however, showed no significant association with processing speed, measured at ages 83 and 70. Increased education may enhance important later life cognitive capacities, but does not appear to improve more fundamental aspects of cognitive processing.

  1. Early Life Adversity as a Risk Factor for Fibromyalgia in Later Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie A. Low

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of early life events is increasingly becoming apparent, as studies investigate how early childhood can shape long-term physiology and behaviour. Fibromyalgia (FM, which is characterised by increased pain sensitivity and a number of affective co-morbidities, has an unclear etiology. This paper discusses risk factors from early life that may increase the occurrence or severity of FM in later life: pain experience during neonatal life causes long-lasting changes in nociceptive circuitry and increases pain sensitivity in the older organism; premature birth and related stressor exposure cause lasting changes in stress responsivity; maternal deprivation affects anxiety-like behaviours that may be partially mediated by epigenetic modulation of the genome—all these adult phenotypes are strikingly similar to symptoms displayed by FM sufferers. In addition, childhood trauma and exposure to substances of abuse may cause lasting changes in developing neurotransmitter and endocrine circuits that are linked to anxiety and stress responses.

  2. [Setting the course early: relevance of childhood and adolescence for health in later life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, T

    2010-05-01

    The article examines the importance of childhood and adolescence for health in later life against the background of the population-aging process and the debate on the social challenges expected to result from this process. In this context, it describes the findings of life course epidemiology, which suggest (among other things) that there is a connection between early organic damage and the risk of illness in middle and old age, that risks and resources accumulate throughout a person's lifespan, and that living conditions and opportunities in life influence the development of health. The article also describes the health situation of children and adolescents based on the data available in Germany, in order to draw attention to existing problems and to identify possible ways of preventing them and taking action.

  3. Life Course Trajectories of Later-Life Cognitive Functions: Does Social Engagement in Old Age Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sojung; Kwon, Eunsun; Lee, Hyunjoo

    2017-04-07

    This study identified differential patterns of later-life cognitive function trajectories and examined to what extent life course factors and social engagement are associated with group trajectories. Data came from seven waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS 1998-2010; n = 7374; Observations = 41,051). Latent class growth analysis identified cognitive function trajectory groups, and multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the factors associated with group trajectories. Five heterogeneous trajectories were identified: stable high, stable moderate, stable low, high-to-moderate, and moderate-to-low. Findings suggest that, after adjusting for life course factors, individuals who became volunteers were more likely to belong to one of the two least vulnerable trajectories, stable high or high-to-moderate. Our findings suggest that, despite the cumulative life course factors evident in cognitive decline, social engagement in old age may serve as a potential protective resource.

  4. Happy Marriage, Happy Life? Marital Quality and Subjective Well-Being in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Deborah; Freedman, Vicki A; Cornman, Jennifer C; Schwarz, Norbert

    2014-10-01

    The authors examined associations between marital quality and both general life satisfaction and experienced (momentary) well-being among older husbands and wives, the relative importance of own versus spouse's marital appraisals for well-being, and the extent to which the association between own marital appraisals and well-being is moderated by spouse's appraisals. Data are from the 2009 Disability and Use of Time daily diary supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 722). One's own marital satisfaction is a sizable and significant correlate of life satisfaction and momentary happiness; associations do not differ significantly by gender. The authors did not find a significant association between spouse's marital appraisals and own well-being. However, the association between husband's marital quality and life satisfaction is buoyed when his wife also reports a happy marriage, yet flattened when his wife reports low marital quality. Implications for understanding marital dynamics and well-being in later life are discussed.

  5. The reproduction of gender norms through downsizing in later life residential relocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addington, Aislinn; Ekerdt, David J

    2014-01-01

    Using data collected from qualitative interviews in 36 households, this article examines people's use of social relations based on gender to perform tasks associated with residential relocation in later life. Without prompting, our respondents addressed the social relations of gender in the meanings of things, in the persons of gift recipients, and in the persons of actors accomplishing the tasks. They matched gender-typed objects to same-sex recipients, reproducing circumstances of possession and passing on expectations for gender identity. The accounts of our respondents also depicted a gendered division of household labor between husbands and wives and a gendered division of care work by daughters and sons. These strategies economized a big task by shaping decisions about who should get what and who will do what. In turn, these practices affirmed the gendered nature of possession and care work into another generation.

  6. Age at First Birth and Later Life Health in Western and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundy, Emily; Foverskov, Else

    2016-01-01

    MUCH OF THE research on life-course determinants of later life health has focused on cumulated effects of socioeconomic disadvantage (Ben-Shlomoand Kuh 2002; Luo and Waite 2005). Family life courses also involve differential exposures to stresses and supports and interact with other health relevant...... domains including socioeconomic status, health-related behaviors, and social support (Barban 2013; Grundy and Read 2015). The transition to parenthood is a pivotal life-course event whose timing and context may have implications for subsequent family and socioeconomic trajectories and for health (Knoester...... reduced disadvantages resulting from early parenthood. In this article we extend the literature on long-term health implications of early parenthood by comparing associations in Western and Eastern Europe using retrospective life-course data for 11 countries included in the Generations and Gender Surveys...

  7. Sentido de vida na fase adulta e velhice Meaning of life in adulthood and later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinara Sommerhalder

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A busca incessante de um sentido para a vida faz parte dos questionamentos existências. Viktor Frankl foi pioneiro em abordar o tema na Psicologia. Posteriormente, a pesquisa fez uso de seus ensinamentos e ampliou a definição do construto. Estudos transculturais têm contribuído para uma melhor compreensão do tema, mas as pesquisas ainda precisam ser aprofundadas. Embora os instrumentos disponíveis ainda estejam sendo testados e aperfeiçoados, as informações já alcançadas representam uma contribuição de grande relevância para o estudo do desenvolvimento do adulto e da velhice. Este artigo objetiva mostrar a evolução do conceito e como as pesquisas vêm tratando o assunto na área do desenvolvimento do adulto e da velhice.The unceasing search for meaning to life is part of the existential questioning. Viktor Frankl is a pioneer in this field. Later, researchers have used his lessons to expand the definition of the construct 'meaning of life'. Transcultural studies lead to a better understanding of this theme, but further research still needs to be done. The available instruments are being tested and improved; however, we already have relevant information on the theme, and it contributes largely to the study of the development of adulthood and later life. This article aims at showing the evolution of the concept 'meaning of life' and how researches have been dealing with the theme in the field of adulthood and later life development.

  8. Health behaviour changes and onset of chronic health problems in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke Veenstra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess five-year changes in health behaviours in later life and associations with onset of chronic health problems. The results may inform policy and interventions to promote healthy life years in ageing populations.Methods: Data are derived from the Norwegian study on Life-course, Ageing and Generation (NorLAG, a five-year (2002-2007 panel survey comprising a nation wide community sample. The present analyses include a sample of 1,019 respondents aged 60 years and older. Five-year changes in smoking, alcohol use, physical exercise and Body Mass Index (BMI are assessed according to prevalent and incident chronic health problems. Multivariate logistic analyses of “healthy” behavioural changes are conducted.Results: A total of 453 respondents (45% reported at least one chronic condition and 13% (N=133 reported onset of chronic conditions in the course of the past five years. Over a five-year period, there was an overall reduction in smoking rates and a decrease in regular physical activity. Alcohol consumption in older people slightly increased over time, but the incidence of chronic health problems tended to reduce alcohol intake. Older persons experiencing chronic health problems were less likely to initiate physical activity.Conclusions: The results provide limited support for the assumption that the onset of a chronic health condition triggers improved health behaviours. This suggests that the health care system could do more in targeting a potential “window of opportunity” for individuals to adopt new healthy behaviours in later life.

  9. Work-related psychosocial stress and the risk of type 2 diabetes in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, K-Y; Xu, W; Mangialasche, F; Fratiglioni, L; Wang, H-X

    2017-06-01

    Although work-related psychosocial stress and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been investigated, the association between lifelong work stress and T2DM in later life remains unclear. This study examined whether high work stress increased the risk of T2DM risk in later life, accounting also for other sources of stress outside work, such as burden from household chores. From the population-based prospective study SNAC-K, 2719 diabetes-free participants aged ≥60 years were identified and followed up for 6 years. T2DM was ascertained by glycated haemoglobin level, self-report, hypoglycaemic medication use and clinical records. Levels of job control and demands over the whole working life were assessed by a validated matrix. Household chores load was assessed by hours spent on such chores. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between job strain and T2DM. During the 6-year follow-up, 154 incident cases of T2DM were identified. High job strain was associated with T2DM occurrence amongst the 60-year-old cohort (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.27-7.77), and only amongst women (OR = 6.18, 95% CI: 1.22-31.26), but not in men. When taking into account household chores load, a more pronounced risk of T2DM was associated with high job strain in combination with heavy household chores load in women aged 60 years at baseline (OR = 9.45, 95% CI: 1.17-76.53). Work-related psychosocial stress may increase the risk of T2DM only amongst women in their early 60s. The risk can be amplified by high household chores load. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  10. Does food insufficiency in childhood contribute to dementia in later life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momtaz YA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz,1,4 Sharifah Azizah Haron,1,3 Tengku Aizan Hamid,1,2 Rahimah Ibrahim,1,2 Jariah Masud1 1Institute of Gerontology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Department of Resource Management and Consumer Studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Iranian Research Center on Aging, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran Background: Despite several studies attempting to identify the risk factors for dementia, little is known about the impact of childhood living conditions on cognitive function in later life. The present study aims to examine the unique contribution of food insufficiency in childhood to dementia in old age.Methods: Data for this study of 2,745 older Malaysians aged 60 years and older was obtained from a national survey entitled “Mental Health and Quality of Life of Older Malaysians” conducted from 2003 through 2005 using a cross-sectional design. The Geriatric Mental State-Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy was used to measure dementia. A multiple binary logistic regression using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21 was conducted to assess the unique effect of food insufficiency in childhood on developing dementia in old age.Results: A notably higher prevalence of dementia was found in respondents who indicated they had experienced food insufficiency in childhood than in their food-sufficient counterparts (23.5% versus 14.3%. The findings from multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that food insufficiency in childhood would independently increase the risk of developing dementia in old age by 81%, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors (odds ratio =1.81, 95% confidence interval 1.13–2.92, P<0.01.Conclusion: Findings

  11. Social capital dynamics and health in mid to later life: findings from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Welsh, Jennifer; Kendig, Hal

    2017-07-26

    The influence of social capital has been shown to improve health and wellbeing. This study investigates the relationship between changes in social capital and health outcomes during a 6-year follow-up in mid to later life in Australia. Nationally representative data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey included participants aged 45 years and over who responded in 2006, 2010 and 2012 (N = 3606). Each of the three components of social capital (connectedness, trust and participation) was measured in Waves 2006 and 2010 and categorised as: 'never low', 'transitioned to low', 'transitioned out of low' and 'consistently low'. Health outcomes in 2012 included self-rated overall health, physical functioning, and mental health based on the Short Form 36-item health survey (SF-36). Multivariable logistic regression assessed changes in social capital (measured in 2006 and 2010) predicted poor health (measured in 2012), adjusting for covariates. Consistently low trust was significantly associated with higher odds of transitions into poor physical functioning (AOR 1.54; 95% Confidence Interval 1.06-1.22), poor mental health (AOR 1.59; 95% CI 1.08-2.36) and poor self-rated health (AOR 1.86; 95% CI 1.27-2.72). Transition into low trust was also a predictor of poor self-rated health after adjusting for covariates (AOR 1.74; 95% CI 1.11-2.73). Changes in social connectedness in both directions (transitioned out of and into low) were statistically associated with poor self-rated health (AORs 1.40; 95% CI 1.00-1.97 and 1.61; 95% CI 1.11-2.34, respectively) after adjusting for confounders as well as other social capital components. Our longitudinal findings reveal social capital dynamics and effects on health in mid to later life. Social trust and connectedness could be important enablers for older persons to be more active in the community and potentially benefit their health and wellbeing over time.

  12. The interaction of family background and personal education on depressive symptoms in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaan, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    This study assesses the interaction between personal education and family background during childhood on depressive symptoms in later life by applying Ross & Mirowsky's resource substitution and structural amplification theory of health and education. OLS regression models are estimated using data from the "Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe" (SHARE), which covers information on current social and health status as well as retrospective life histories from 20,716 respondents aged 50 or older from thirteen European countries. Higher education helps to overcome the negative consequences of a poor family background. Since people from poor families are less likely to attain higher educational levels, they lack exactly the resource they need in order to overcome the negative consequences their non-prosperous background has on depressive symptoms. Thus, low family background and low personal education amplify each other. Examining the processes described by theory of resource substitution and structural amplification over different age groups from midlife to old-age suggests that the moderating effect of education remains constant over age among people coming from a poor family background. However, there is some evidence for a decrease with age in the buffering effect of a well-off family background on depressive symptoms among the low educated group. Furthermore, the educational gap in depression diverges with age among individuals originating from a well-off family background. Taken together the results cautiously allude to the conclusion that three processes - cumulative (dis-)advantage, age-as-leveler, and persistent inequalities - might take place.

  13. Patterns of intimate partner homicide suicide in later life: Strategies for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Salari

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Sonia SalariDepartment Family and Consumer Studies, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Intimate partner homicide suicide (IPHS constitutes the most violent domestic abuse outcome, devastating individuals, families, neighborhoods and communities. This research used content analysis to analyze 225 murder suicide events (444 deaths among dyads with at least one member 60 or older. Data were collected from newspaper articles, television news transcripts, police reports and obituaries published between 1999 and 2005. Findings suggest the most dangerous setting was the home and the majority of perpetrators were men. Firearms were most often employed in the violence. Relationship strife was present in some cases, but only slightly higher than the divorce rate for that age group. Illness was cited in just over half of the cases, but 30% of sick elderly couples had only a perpetrator who was ill. Evidence of suicide pacts and mercy killings were very rare and practitioners are encouraged to properly investigate these events. Suicidal men in this age range must be recognized as a potential threat to others, primarily their partner. Homicide was sometimes the primary motive, and the perpetrators in those cases resembled the “intimate terrorist.” Victims in those cases were often terrorized before the murder. Clinicians are educated about the patterns of fatal violence in later life dyads and provided with strategies for prevention.Keywords: murder-suicide, domestic violence, elder abuse, self abuse

  14. A Global View on the Effects of Work on Health in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudinger, Ursula M; Finkelstein, Ruth; Calvo, Esteban; Sivaramakrishnan, Kavita

    2016-04-01

    Work is an important environment shaping the aging processes during the adult years. Therefore, the cumulative and acute effects of work characteristics on late-life health deserve great attention. Given that population aging has become a global trend with ensuing changes in labor markets around the world, increased attention is paid to investigating the effects of the timing of retirement around the world and the macroeconomic benefits often associated with delaying retirement. It will be essential for societies with aging populations to maintain productivity given an aging workforce and for individuals it will be crucial to add healthy and meaningful years rather than just years to their lives. We first describe the available evidence about participation of older workers (65+) in the labor force in high, middle, and low-income countries. Second, we discuss the individual-level and societal influences that might govern labor-force participation of older adults. Thirdly, we review evidence on the association between work on the one and physical, mental, and cognitive health in later life on the other. Globally, both is true: work supports healthy aging and jeopordizes it. We draw implications for policymaking in terms of social protection, HR policies, and older employee employability. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Patterns of intimate partner homicide suicide in later life: Strategies for prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    Intimate partner homicide suicide (IPHS) constitutes the most violent domestic abuse outcome, devastating individuals, families, neighborhoods and communities. This research used content analysis to analyze 225 murder suicide events (444 deaths) among dyads with at least one member 60 or older. Data were collected from newspaper articles, television news transcripts, police reports and obituaries published between 1999 and 2005. Findings suggest the most dangerous setting was the home and the majority of perpetrators were men. Firearms were most often employed in the violence. Relationship strife was present in some cases, but only slightly higher than the divorce rate for that age group. Illness was cited in just over half of the cases, but 30% of sick elderly couples had only a perpetrator who was ill. Evidence of suicide pacts and mercy killings were very rare and practitioners are encouraged to properly investigate these events. Suicidal men in this age range must be recognized as a potential threat to others, primarily their partner. Homicide was sometimes the primary motive, and the perpetrators in those cases resembled the “intimate terrorist.” Victims in those cases were often terrorized before the murder. Clinicians are educated about the patterns of fatal violence in later life dyads and provided with strategies for prevention. PMID:18044194

  16. Refashioning One's Place in Time: Stories of Household Downsizing in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luborsky, Mark R; Lysack, Catherine L; Van Nuil, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    Older adults face a daunting task: while continuing engagements in multiple relationships, investment in their own and others' futures, and developing life interests and capacities, they also reexamine and sometimes reconfigure the place where their social lives and objects are housed. Some relocate, downsize, to a new smaller place and reducing possessions to ensure an environment supportive of their capacities and desired daily activities. This article examines how key contours of the experiences of place during residential downsizing are infused with unexpectedly heightened awareness and cultivation of one's sense of place in multiple timeframes. In a discovery mode, the downsizing stories of 40 older adults in southeast Michigan are examined. Findings indicate conflicting temporalities and the natures of cognitions related to decision-making and thinking about being leave-taking and being in place. Findings also highlight in particular how making sense of one's place is predicated on notions of its time, of being on time and downsizing on time. Further, these characterizations of the lived worlds of older adults' modes of conceptualizing the nature of downsizing show how an understanding of the meaningfulness of place in later life relocations requires a layered sense of home as places-in multiple timelines.

  17. Multilingualism and later life: a sociolinguistic perspective on age and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divita, David

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, I contribute to subjective accounts of aging by focusing on a population that has been largely overlooked in social gerontology: individuals in later life who are multilingual. How do such individuals experience and make sense of their multilingualism? What role does language play in the way they experience and make sense of their lives? To answer these questions I take a life story approach to three women who experienced similar sociohistorical circumstances but arrived at different linguistic outcomes: born in Spain around the time of the civil war (1936-1939), they migrated to Paris in the 1960s to pursue social and economic mobility. Although they arrived in France as monolingual Spanish speakers, they have since acquired French and now practice their multilingualism in distinct ways. I juxtapose their life stories to illustrate how the acquisition and use of language are informed by a confluence of personal, social, and historical factors. Focusing on the linguistic dimension of the life course I thus introduce a new perspective on the heterogeneity obtained among individuals at this stage of their biographical trajectories.

  18. Leisure Engagement: Medical Conditions, Mobility Difficulties, and Activity Limitations—A Later Life Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Nilsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aims to investigate the impact of medical conditions, mobility difficulties, and activity limitations on older people’s engagement in leisure activities. Methods. The analyses are based on a cross regional survey carried out in 2010 in the Bothnia region (Northern Sweden and Western Finland. A posted questionnaire, which included questions on different aspects of leisure engagement, medical history, and health, was sent out to older persons in the region. The final sample consisted of 5435 persons aged 65, 70, 75, and 80 years. The data was analyzed by using ordinary least squares (OLS multivariate regression. Results. The most important predictor of leisure engagement abstention among older people is the prevalence of activity limitations, whereas mobility difficulties and medical conditions play less important roles. The strong negative association between activity limitations and leisure engagement remains significant even after we control for individual, sociodemographic characteristics, and country. Discussion. This study provides a window into leisure engagement in later life and factors influencing the magnitude of engagement in leisure activities.

  19. Validation of the Cognitive Assessment of Later Life Status (CALLS instrument: a computerized telephonic measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Thomas D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brief screening tests have been developed to measure cognitive performance and dementia, yet they measure limited cognitive domains and often lack construct validity. Neuropsychological assessments, while comprehensive, are too costly and time-consuming for epidemiological studies. This study's aim was to develop a psychometrically valid telephone administered test of cognitive function in aging. Methods Using a sequential hierarchical strategy, each stage of test development did not proceed until specified criteria were met. The 30 minute Cognitive Assessment of Later Life Status (CALLS measure and a 2.5 hour in-person neuropsychological assessment were conducted with a randomly selected sample of 211 participants 65 years and older that included equivalent distributions of men and women from ethnically diverse populations. Results Overall Cronbach's coefficient alpha for the CALLS test was 0.81. A principal component analysis of the CALLS tests yielded five components. The CALLS total score was significantly correlated with four neuropsychological assessment components. Older age and having a high school education or less was significantly correlated with lower CALLS total scores. Females scored better overall than males. There were no score differences based on race. Conclusion The CALLS test is a valid measure that provides a unique opportunity to reliably and efficiently study cognitive function in large populations.

  20. Fear of falling from a daily life perspective; narratives from later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Marianne; Sarvimäki, Anneli

    2012-03-01

    Fear of falling is a well-known condition in later life. The aim of this study was to illuminate the experiences and the meaning of fear of falling in a daily-life context. The method used was a qualitative study inspired by interpretive phenomenology. In narrative interviews, five community-dwelling women over 80 years of age told about their fear of falling from a daily-life perspective. The overall thematic analysis resulted in three main themes: the meaning of managing daily life necessities; keeping in contact with the outside; living with fear. The findings showed that to live with fear of falling was to discipline daily life, and to learn to live with the challenge of a vulnerable bodily condition and of losing control at different levels: from falling, from incontinence, from dirt and from the stigma of being in a humiliating situation. The women created a perception of independence while they were dependent on help and community care and on news from the outside. At an existential level, they coped with their fear by strengthening their will. The conclusion was that the older women studied accepted the condition of fear of falling. They shared the ability to cope in various ways with the limitations of their bodily capacity and their imbalance. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2011 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  1. Later Life Learners: A Significant and Receptive Audience for Introductory Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, J. R.; Krstovic, M.

    2001-05-01

    ``Later life learners" (LLL: generally age 65 or older) are a subset of ``life long learners"; both form a large, influential, and receptive audience for courses in introductory astronomy. This year alone, one of us (JRP) has taught two LLL courses of almost 200 ``students" each. In previous years, he has taught several other such courses (as well as courses for life long learners in general). Each course has its own personality, but the students all tend to be interested and highly interactive, bringing a wealth of life experience to the course. They are also influential in that the students provide a strong link with the community, and they tend to have a very positive and supportive attitude to scholarship and research, and to colleges and universities. Yet these courses are rather neglected in terms of educational research, and resources such as textbooks. In this paper, we discuss the nature of LLL courses, and the motivations for teaching them. We present anecdotal comments on the nature of the learners, and results based on questionnaires about their interests and their reactions to the courses. We encourage other astronomy educators to make contact with LLL groups in their community, with a view to offering a course. Thanks to the Ontario Work-Study Program for supporting this project.

  2. Association between depressive symptoms in childhood and adolescence and overweight in later life : review of the recent literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, E.T.; Sauer, P.J.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Stolk, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To present an overview of the association between depressive symptoms in childhood and adolescence and subsequent overweight in later life. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science for all indexed journals from January 1, 1997, to May 30, 2007. Study Selection: Abstracts of 513 a

  3. Cardiovascular risk, lipids and pregnancy: preeclampsia and the risk of later life cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Francesca; Tooher, Jane; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Hennessy, Annemarie

    2014-03-01

    It has been widely thought that the effects of hypertension in pregnancy reversed after delivery and hypertension values returned to their pre-pregnancy level as it was seen as a disease of short duration in otherwise healthy young women. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the principal underlying abnormality, endothelial dysfunction, remains in women who had preeclampsia and that it is this damage that increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in later life. The contributions of hypertension and dyslipidaemia before and during the pregnancy are also important and contribute to future risk. Serum lipids are complex and change dramatically in pregnancy. In general there is an increase in most plasma lipid components, notably triglycerides, total cholesterol and the major particles of HDL and LDL. Aberrations or exaggerations in this shift (i.e. decrease HDL and a greater increase in LDL) are associated with poor outcomes of pregnancy such as preeclampsia. Long term cardiovascular disease is influenced by preeclampsia and in part potentially by the lipid changes which escalate late in disease. Whether we can influence the risk of preeclampsia by controlling cardiovascular risk factors preceding or during preeclampsia, or cardiovascular disease after preeclampsia is yet to be determined. Ultimately, strategies to control lipid concentrations will only be viable when we understand the safety to the mother at the time of the pregnancy, and to the foetus both immediately and in the very long term. Strategies to control blood pressure are well established in the non-pregnant population, and previous preeclampsia and gestational hypertension should be considered in any cardiovascular risk profile. Whether control of blood pressure in the pregnancy per se is of any longer term benefit is also yet to be determined.

  4. Predicting later life health status and mortality using state-level socioeconomic characteristics in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Rita; Rehkopf, David H; Kuan, Kai Y; Cullen, Mark R

    2016-12-01

    Studies extending across multiple life stages promote an understanding of factors influencing health across the life span. Existing work has largely focused on individual-level rather than area-level early life determinants of health. In this study, we linked multiple data sets to examine whether early life state-level characteristics were predictive of health and mortality decades later. The sample included 143,755 U.S. employees, for whom work life claims and administrative data were linked with early life state-of-residence and mortality. We first created a "state health risk score" (SHRS) and "state mortality risk score" (SMRS) by modeling state-level contextual characteristics with health status and mortality in a randomly selected 30% of the sample (the "training set"). We then examined the association of these scores with objective health status and mortality in later life in the remaining 70% of the sample (the "test set") using multivariate linear and Cox regressions, respectively. The association between the SHRS and adult health status was β=0.14 (95%CI: 0.084, 0.20), while the hazard ratio for the SMRS was 0.96 (95%CI: 0.93, 1.00). The association between the SHRS and health was not statistically significant in older age groups at a p-level of 0.05, and there was a statistically significantly different association for health status among movers compared to stayers. This study uses a life course perspective and supports the idea of "sensitive periods" in early life that have enduring impacts on health. It adds to the literature examining populations in the U.S. where large linked data sets are infrequently available.

  5. Maternal Obesity During Pregnancy Associates With Premature Mortality and Major Cardiovascular Events in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Raja, Edwin A; Lee, Amanda J; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2015-11-01

    One in 5 pregnant women is obese but the impact on later health is unknown. We aimed to determine whether maternal obesity during pregnancy associates with increased premature mortality and later life major cardiovascular events. Maternity records of women who gave birth to their first child between 1950 and 1976 (n=18 873) from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal databank were linked to the National Register of Deaths, Scotland and Scottish Morbidity Record. The effect of maternal obesity at first antenatal visit on death and hospital admissions for cardiovascular events was tested using time-to-event analysis with Cox proportional hazard regression to compare outcomes of mothers in underweight, overweight, or obese body mass index (BMI) categories compared with normal BMI. Median follow-up was at 73 years. All-cause mortality was increased in women who were obese during pregnancy (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) versus normal BMI after adjustment for socioeconomic status, smoking, gestation at BMI measurement, preeclampsia, and low birth weight (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.77). In adjusted models, overweight and obese mothers had increased risk of hospital admission for a cardiovascular event (1.16; 1.06-1.27 and 1.26; 1.01-1.57) compared with normal BMI mothers. Adjustment for parity largely unchanged the hazard ratios (mortality: 1.43, 1.09-1.88; cardiovascular events overweight: 1.17, 1.07-1.29; and obese: 1.30, 1.04-1.62). In conclusion, maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of premature death and cardiovascular disease. Pregnancy and early postpartum could represent an opportunity for interventions to identify obesity and reduce its adverse consequences.

  6. Constructing the self in later life: The life story of Selaelo Thias Kgatla (1949–

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Landman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available On 15 April 2014 the author conducted an interview with Selaelo Thias Kgatla (then 64 by means of a prearranged interview schedule to revaluate a life review. Kgatla’s years of academic and ecclesiastical involvement leading to his ordination as the minister of the Polokwane Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa at the age of 47 were considered. However, the focus was on the last 18 years before his retirement, which was to happen in December 2015. This period commenced with his ordination in 1997 and covered his involvement in church leadership as Assessor and later Moderator of the Northern Synod (since 1999 and as Moderator of the General Synod (since 2005, as well as his appointments as professor at the University of Limpopo in 1997 and at the University of Pretoria in 2010.In freezing this interview into the academic account given here, oral history and methodological sensitivities are considered. The interviewee’s ownership of his life review is acknowledged; his construction of the self as a coherent story of church leadership is respected; and the characteristics of remembering in later life are pointed out reverentially.The life review with Kgatla was expanded with interviews from colleagues and congregants of his choice who confirmed the construction of his life story as one of relationship and resistance. Finally, the author gives a concluding overview of aims achieved in the article in terms of oral methodology and the contents of a life review in which the interviewee constructed his life as a church leader on the interface between resistance and relationship.

  7. Defining anxious depression in later life: a scaring heterogeneity in results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, D.C.; Comijs, Hannie C; van Zelst, Willeke H; Schoevers, Robert A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety in depression is challenging as it results in more functional impairment and a worse prognosis. No consensus exists on the definition of anxious depression. METHODS: In 359 older patients with major depressive disorder, we examined the agreement between anxious depression based o

  8. Defining anxious depression in later life: a scaring heterogeneity in results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, D.C.; Comijs, Hannie C; van Zelst, Willeke H; Schoevers, Robert A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety in depression is challenging as it results in more functional impairment and a worse prognosis. No consensus exists on the definition of anxious depression. METHODS: In 359 older patients with major depressive disorder, we examined the agreement between anxious depression based

  9. Genomic biomarkers of prenatal intrauterine inflammation in umbilical cord tissue predict later life neurological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Sloane K; Joseph, Robert M; Kuban, Karl C K; Dammann, Olaf U; O'Shea, T Michael; Fry, Rebecca C

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth is a major risk factor for neurodevelopmental delays and disorders. This study aimed to identify genomic biomarkers of intrauterine inflammation in umbilical cord tissue in preterm neonates that predict cognitive impairment at 10 years of age. Genome-wide messenger RNA (mRNA) levels from umbilical cord tissue were obtained from 43 neonates born before 28 weeks of gestation. Genes that were differentially expressed across four indicators of intrauterine inflammation were identified and their functions examined. Exact logistic regression was used to test whether expression levels in umbilical cord tissue predicted neurocognitive function at 10 years of age. Placental indicators of inflammation were associated with changes in the mRNA expression of 445 genes in umbilical cord tissue. Transcripts with decreased expression showed significant enrichment for biological signaling processes related to neuronal development and growth. The altered expression of six genes was found to predict neurocognitive impairment when children were 10 years old These genes include two that encode for proteins involved in neuronal development. Prenatal intrauterine inflammation is associated with altered gene expression in umbilical cord tissue. A set of six of the differentially expressed genes predict cognitive impairment later in life, suggesting that the fetal environment is associated with significant adverse effects on neurodevelopment that persist into later childhood.

  10. [How municipalities can plan for later life. Regional challenges of a demography-sensitive social planning for later life as exemplified by the administrative district Vechta (Lower Saxony/Germany)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, L; Backes, G M

    2012-07-01

    The demographic ageing of the population confronts towns, municipalities and administrative districts with new sociopolitical challenges. The general view of the demographic and social change requires demography-sensitive social planning that is no longer segregated according to age or life stages. Drawing on the example of a demographic evaluation conducted for the administrative district of Vechta in Lower Saxony, Germany, it will be discussed how a life course-orientated municipal social planning for later life can be developed. Furthermore, which practical research and methodical challenges the gerontological policy development municipalities can expect to be confronted with in the future are discussed.

  11. Tracing the origins of successful aging: the role of childhood conditions and social inequality in explaining later life health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Martina; Deindl, Christian; Hank, Karsten

    2012-05-01

    This study investigates the role of childhood conditions and social inequality in older Europeans' propensity to age successfully, controlling for later life risk factors. Successful aging was assessed following Rowe and Kahn's conceptualization, using baseline interviews from the first two waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). These data were merged with retrospective information on participants from 13 Continental European countries, collected as part of the SHARELIFE project. Our sample consists of 22,464 men and women, who are representative of the non-institutionalized population aged 50 or older (mean age: 63.3) in their respective country. Estimating multilevel logistic models, we controlled for demographics (age, sex), childhood conditions (SES, health, cognition), later life risk factors (various dimensions of SES and health behaviors), as well as social inequality (measured by country-specific Gini coefficients). There is an independent association of childhood living conditions with elders' odds of aging well. Higher parental SES, better math and reading skills, as well as self-reports of good childhood health were positively associated with successful aging, even if contemporary characteristics were controlled for. Later life SES and health behaviors exhibited the expected correlations with our dependent variable. Moreover, lower levels of income inequality were associated with a greater probability of meeting Rowe and Kahn's successful aging criteria. We conclude that unfavorable childhood conditions exhibit a harmful influence on individuals' chances to age well across all European welfare states considered in this study. Policy interventions should thus aim at improving the conditions for successful aging throughout the entire life course.

  12. Childhood school segregation and later life sense of control and physical performance in the African American Health cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinsky, Fredric D; Andresen, Elena M; Malmstrom, Theodore K; Miller, J Philip; Schootman, Mario; Miller, Douglas K

    2012-09-27

    The association between childhood school desegregation and later life sense of control and physical performance among African Americans is not clear. We hypothesized that childhood school desegregation adversely affected the sense of control of in later life, and that this reduced sense of control accounts in part for reduced physical performance. In-home follow-up assessments were completed in 2010 with 582 of the 58-74 year old men and women participating in the on-going African American Health cohort. We used these data to examine the relationship between (a) retrospective self-reports of attending segregated schools during one's 1st-to-12th grade education and one's current sense of control, as well as (b) the association between current sense of control and physical performance. Multiple linear regression analysis with propensity score re-weighting was used. Attending segregated schools for at least half of one's 1st-to-12th grade education was significantly associated with higher scores on the sense of control. Adjusting for all covariates and potential confounders, those receiving half or more of their 1st-to-12th grade education in segregated schools had sense of control scores that were .886 points higher (p ≤ .01; standardized effect size = .22). Sense of control scores were independently (all p sense of control scores either partially or fully mediated the statistically significant beneficial associations between childhood school segregation and physical performance. Childhood school desegregation was adversely associated with the sense of control of African Americans in later life, and this reduced sense of control appears, in part, to account for their poorer physical performance. The etiologic mechanism through which childhood school segregation at the time that this cohort experienced it improved the sense of control in later life, which subsequently led to better physical performance, has not been identified. We suspect, however, that

  13. Childhood school segregation and later life sense of control and physical performance in the African American Health cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolinsky Fredric D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between childhood school desegregation and later life sense of control and physical performance among African Americans is not clear. We hypothesized that childhood school desegregation adversely affected the sense of control of in later life, and that this reduced sense of control accounts in part for reduced physical performance. Methods In-home follow-up assessments were completed in 2010 with 582 of the 58–74 year old men and women participating in the on-going African American Health cohort. We used these data to examine the relationship between (a retrospective self-reports of attending segregated schools during one’s 1st-to-12th grade education and one’s current sense of control, as well as (b the association between current sense of control and physical performance. Multiple linear regression analysis with propensity score re-weighting was used. Results Attending segregated schools for at least half of one’s 1st-to-12th grade education was significantly associated with higher scores on the sense of control. Adjusting for all covariates and potential confounders, those receiving half or more of their 1st-to-12th grade education in segregated schools had sense of control scores that were .886 points higher (p ≤ .01; standardized effect size = .22. Sense of control scores were independently (all p  Conclusions Childhood school desegregation was adversely associated with the sense of control of African Americans in later life, and this reduced sense of control appears, in part, to account for their poorer physical performance. The etiologic mechanism through which childhood school segregation at the time that this cohort experienced it improved the sense of control in later life, which subsequently led to better physical performance, has not been identified. We suspect, however, that the pathway involves greater exposure to racial solidarity, same-race students as peer role models and

  14. Subjective Well-Being In Later Life: 20 years after the Butterworths monograph series on individual and population aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stones, Michael; Kozma, Albert; McNeil, Kevin; Worobetz, Sarah

    2011-09-01

    This article discusses developments in theory and research on happiness two decades after publication of Psychological Well-Being in Later Life (Butterworths, 1991) by Albert Kozma, Michael Stones, and Kevin McNeil. Major empirical advances include new knowledge about contributions to happiness resulting from genetically related effects and personality. Personality traits have stronger relationships with happiness than was apparent 20 years ago and contribute to covariance between happiness and some of its predictors. Evolving emphases in research include the ways in which genetically related effects influence how people shape, and react to, their environment.

  15. Selection, optimization, and compensation: strategies to maintain, maximize, and generate resources in later life in the face of chronic illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozario, Philip A; Kidahashi, Miwako; DeRienzis, Daniel R

    2011-02-01

    This qualitative study of 45 older adults examines how they allocate their resources in the face of chronic health conditions. Participants were recruited from 2 senior centers and interviewed about their repertoire of activities, any changes in those activities in later life, and meanings they ascribed to those changes. The Selection, Optimization, and Compensation model guided our analysis and interpretation of participants' responses. The findings demonstrate the complexity of participants' responses to age-related changes, particularly in how they adapted and negotiated both their perception and life goals when faced with changing social landscapes. We discuss some implications and nuances of our findings.

  16. Perinatal BPA Exposure Induces Hyperglycemia, Oxidative Stress and Decreased Adiponectin Production in Later Life of Male Rat Offspring

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    Shunzhe Song

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main object of the present study was to explore the effect of perinatal bisphenol A (BPA exposure on glucose metabolism in early and later life of male rat offspring, and to establish the potential mechanism of BPA-induced dysglycemia. Pregnant rats were treated with either vehicle or BPA by drinking water at concentrations of 1 and 10 µg/mL BPA from gestation day 6 through the end of lactation. We measured the levels of fasting serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin and parameters of oxidative stress on postnatal day (PND 50 and PND100 in male offspring, and adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in adipose tissue were also examined. Our results showed that perinatal exposure to 1 or 10 µg/mL BPA induced hyperglycemia with insulin resistance on PND100, but only 10 µg/mL BPA exposure had similar effects as early as PND50. In addition, increased oxidative stress and decreased adiponectin production were also observed in BPA exposed male offspring. Our findings indicated that perinatal exposure to BPA resulted in abnormal glucose metabolism in later life of male offspring, with an earlier and more exacerbated effect at higher doses. Down-regulated expression of adiponectin gene and increased oxidative stress induced by BPA may be associated with insulin resistance.

  17. Effect of pregnancy for females born small on later life metabolic disease risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Tran

    Full Text Available There is a strong inverse relationship between a females own birth weight and her subsequent risk for gestational diabetes with increased risk of developing diabetes later in life. We have shown that growth restricted females develop loss of glucose tolerance during late pregnancy with normal pancreatic function. The aim of this study was to determine whether growth restricted females develop long-term impairment of metabolic control after an adverse pregnancy adaptation. Uteroplacental insufficiency was induced by bilateral uterine vessel ligation (Restricted or sham surgery (Control in late pregnancy (E18 in F0 female rats. F1 Control and Restricted female offspring were mated with normal males and allowed to deliver (termed Ex-Pregnant. Age-matched Control and Restricted Virgins were also studied and glucose tolerance and insulin secretion were determined. Pancreatic morphology and hepatic glycogen and triacylglycerol content were quantified respectively. Restricted females were born lighter than Control and remained lighter at all time points studied (p<0.05. Glucose tolerance, first phase insulin secretion and liver glycogen and triacylglycerol content were not different across groups, with no changes in β-cell mass. Second phase insulin secretion was reduced in Restricted Virgins (-34%, p<0.05 compared to Control Virgins, suggestive of enhanced peripheral insulin sensitivity but this was lost after pregnancy. Growth restriction was associated with enhanced basal hepatic insulin sensitivity, which may provide compensatory benefits to prevent adverse metabolic outcomes often associated with being born small. A prior pregnancy was associated with reduced hepatic insulin sensitivity with effects more pronounced in Controls than Restricted. Our data suggests that pregnancy ameliorates the enhanced peripheral insulin sensitivity in growth restricted females and has deleterious effects for hepatic insulin sensitivity, regardless of maternal

  18. Taking up physical activity in later life and healthy ageing: the English longitudinal study of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark; Lavoie, Kim L; Bacon, Simon L

    2014-02-01

    Physical activity is associated with improved overall health in those people who survive to older ages, otherwise conceptualised as healthy ageing. Previous studies have examined the effects of mid-life physical activity on healthy ageing, but not the effects of taking up activity later in life. We examined the association between physical activity and healthy ageing over 8 years of follow-up. Participants were 3454 initially disease-free men and women (aged 63.7 ± 8.9 years at baseline) from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a prospective study of community dwelling older adults. Self-reported physical activity was assessed at baseline (2002-2003) and through follow-up. Healthy ageing, assessed at 8 years of follow-up (2010-2011), was defined as those participants who survived without developing major chronic disease, depressive symptoms, physical or cognitive impairment. At follow-up, 19.3% of the sample was defined as healthy ageing. In comparison with inactive participants, moderate (OR, 2.67, 95% CI 1.95 to 3.64), or vigorous activity (3.53, 2.54 to 4.89) at least once a week was associated with healthy ageing, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, marital status and wealth. Becoming active (multivariate adjusted, 3.37, 1.67 to 6.78) or remaining active (7.68, 4.18 to 14.09) was associated with healthy ageing in comparison with remaining inactive over follow-up. Sustained physical activity in older age is associated with improved overall health. Significant health benefits were even seen among participants who became physically active relatively late in life.

  19. Benzo[a]pyrene degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentz, Jeremy A. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)], E-mail: rentz@wsu.edu; Alvarez, Pedro J.J. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Schnoor, Jerald L. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Batch experiments were conducted to characterize the degradation of benzo[a]pyrene, a representative high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. Concentrations up to the solubility limit (1.2 {mu}g l{sup -1}) of benzo[a]pyrene were completely removed from solution within 20 h when the bacterium was grown on salicylate. Additional experiments with [{sup 14}C]7-benzo[a]pyrene demonstrated 3.8% mineralization over 7 days when salicylate was present is solution, and one major radio-labeled metabolite was observed that accounted for {approx}10% of the initial radio-label. Further characterization of the radio-labeled metabolite using HPLC/MS and HPLC/MS/MS identified radio-labeled pyrene-8-hydroxy-7-carboxylic acid and unlabeled pyrene-7-hydroxy-8-carboxylic acid as novel ring-cleavage metabolites, and a benzo[a]pyrene degradation pathway was proposed. Results indicate that biostimulation of HMW PAH degradation by salicylate, a water-soluble, non-toxic substrate, has significant potential for in situ bioremediation. - Benzo[a]pyrene degradation and mineralization by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 was stimulated with salicylate, and novel ring-cleavage metabolites were identified.

  20. The role of family social background and inheritance in later life volunteering: evidence from SHARE-Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssim, Iaroslav; Hank, Karsten; Litwin, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Building on a tripartite model of capitals necessary to perform productive activities and on work suggesting that cumulative (dis-)advantage processes are important mechanisms for life course inequalities, our study set out to investigate the potential role of family social background and inheritance in later life volunteering. We hypothesized that older individuals who inherited work-relevant economic and cultural capitals from their family of origin are more likely to be engaged in voluntary activities than their counterparts with a less advantageous family social background. Our main findings from the analysis of a representative sample of community-dwelling Israelis aged 50 and over provide strong support for this hypothesis: the likelihood to volunteer is significantly higher among those who received substantial financial transfers from their family of origin ("inherited economic capital") and among those having a "white collar" parental background ("inherited cultural capital"). We conclude with perspectives for future research.

  1. State policy decisions in the 1990s with implications for the financial well-being of later-life families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gretchen J

    2006-01-01

    This study explores trends and patterns in states' policy decisions affecting the economic well-being of later-life individuals and families in the United States in recent decades, focusing on the 1990s. Rules were selected from the areas of inheritance, estate taxes, homestead exemptions, Medicaid eligibility, estate recovery, and filial responsibility. Results indicate an increasing use of a broad definition of family, one implying that spouses, the nuclear family, extended kin, step-relations, and sometimes in-laws constitute an ongoing collective whose members share economic resources and risks over their lives and beyond. Despite this global trend, states varied in their rules addressing intrafamilial financial obligations and families' accountability to states. While some seemed interested in facilitating the conservation of familial resources, others seemed willing to minimize public assistance while coercing kin into accepting financial responsibility for one another. Research was suggested to answer questions raised by this study.

  2. Small for Gestational Age and Magnesium in Cord Blood Platelets: Intrauterine Magnesium Deficiency May Induce Metabolic Syndrome in Later Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Takaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium deficiency in pregnancy frequently occurs because of inadequate or low intake of magnesium. Magnesium deficiency during pregnancy can induce not only maternal and fetal nutritional problems, but also consequences that might last in offspring throughout life. Many epidemiological studies have disclosed that small for gestational age (SGA is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in adult life. We reported that intracellular magnesium of cord blood platelets is lower in SGA groups than that in appropriate for gestational age groups, suggesting that intrauterine magnesium deficiency may result in SGA. Taken together, intrauterine magnesium deficiency in the fetus may lead to or at least program insulin resistance after birth. In this review, we propose that intrauterine magnesium deficiency may induce metabolic syndrome in later life. We discuss the potential contribution of aberrant magnesium regulation to SGA and to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.

  3. The relationship between childhood poverty, military service, and later life depression among men: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareis, Natalie; Mezuk, Briana

    2016-12-01

    Childhood poverty has been associated with depression in adulthood, but whether this relationship extends to later life major depression (MD) or is modified by military service is unclear. Data come from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) 2010 wave, a longitudinal, nationally representative study of older adults. Men with data on military service and childhood poverty were included (N=6330). Childhood poverty was assessed by four indicators (i.e., parental unemployment, residential instability) experienced before age 16. Military service was categorized as veteran versus civilian, and during draft versus all-volunteer (after 1973) eras. Past year MD was defined by the Composite International Diagnostic Inventory. Four in ten men ever served, with 13.7% in the all-volunteer military. Approximately 12% of civilians, 8% draft era and 24% all-volunteer era veterans had MD. Childhood poverty was associated with higher odds of MD (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.38, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.32-4.32) and higher odds of military service (OR: 2.58, 95% CI: 1.58-4.21). Military service was marginally associated with MD (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 0.98-1.68) and did not moderate the association between childhood poverty and MD. Self-report data is subject to recall bias. The HRS did not assess childhood physical and emotional abuse, or military combat exposure. Men raised in poverty had greater odds of draft and all-volunteer military service. Early-life experiences, independent of military service, appear associated with greater odds of MD. Assessing childhood poverty in service members may identify risk for depression in later life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Micro-scale environment and mental health in later life: Results from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study II (CFAS II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A Matthew; Jones, Andy; Barnes, Linda E; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol

    2017-08-15

    Poor micro-scale environmental features, such as graffiti and broken windows, have been associated with crime and signs of social disorder with a potential impact on mental health. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between micro-scale environment and mental health problems in later life, including cognitive (cognitive impairment and dementia) and common mental disorders (depressive and anxiety symptoms). The method of visual image audits was used to collect micro-scale environmental data for 3590 participants in the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study II, a population-based multicentre cohort of people aged 65 or above in England. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the associations between the quality of micro-scale environment and mental health problems taking into account urban/rural difference. Poor quality of micro-scale environment was associated with nearly 20% increased odds of depressive (OR: 1.19; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.44) and anxiety symptoms (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.38) while the direction of association for cognitive disorders differed across urban and rural settings. Although higher odds of cognitive disorders were found in rural settings, living in a poor quality environment was associated with nearly twice higher odds of cognitive impairment (OR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.18, 2.97) in urban conurbations but 20% lower odds in rural areas (OR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.57, 1.11). The causal direction could not be fully determined due to the cross-sectional nature of the data. The visual nature of the environmental assessment tool means it likely does not fully capture features related to the availability of local support services, or opportunities for social participation and interaction. The quality of micro-scale environment appears to be important to mental health in older people. Interventions may incorporate the environmental aspect to reduce cognitive and common mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by

  5. The B-VITAGE trial: A randomized trial of homocysteine lowering treatment of depression in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Bockxmeer Frank

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and depressive symptoms are common in later life. Observational evidence suggests that depression is more prevalent among people with high plasma homocysteine (tHcy, but the results of randomized trials to date have been unable to show that lowering tHcy through the supplementation of vitamins B6, B12 and folate benefits depressive symptoms. We designed the B-VITAGE trial to determine whether adjunctive treatment with vitamins B6, B12 and folate increases the efficacy of standard antidepressant treatment. Methods/Design The B-VITAGE trial is a 12-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of daily citalopram (20 to 40 mg plus B12(0.4 mg, B6 (25 mg and folic acid (2 mg or citalopram (20 to 40 mg plus placebo for the treatment of depression in later life. The trial aims to recruit over 300 older adults with major depression (DSM-IV and has been powered to detect the impact of an intervention associated with moderate effect size. Depressive symptoms will be rated with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS. The trial has two main outcomes of interest: a reduction of 50% or more in the MADRS total score between baseline and week 12 and the remission of the depressive episode at weeks 12, 26 and 52 according to DSM-IV criteria. We hypothesize that subjects randomly allocated to the vitamin arm of the study will be more likely to show a clinically significant improvement and achieve and maintain remission of symptoms at 12, 26 and 52 weeks. Secondary outcomes of interest include compliance with treatment, reduction in the severity of depressive symptoms, switching to different antidepressants, the use of non-pharmacological antidepressant treatments, response to treatment according to MTHFRC677T genotype, and changes in cognitive function over 52 weeks. Conclusions The results of this trial will clarify whether the systematic use of B

  6. Benzo(a)pyrene metabolism by murine spleen microsomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, T.T.; White, K.L. Jr. (Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (USA))

    1989-11-01

    The immunosuppressive actions of benzo(a)pyrene have been proposed to be mediated by reactive metabolites rather than the parent compound. Reactive metabolites which suppress splenic humoral immune responses are thought to be generated within the spleen rather than in distant tissues. Although the spleen has been shown to be capable of metabolizing benzo(a)pyrene, the relative amounts and types of metabolites generated have not been determined. In this study, high-pressure liquid chromatography was used to separate benzo(a)pyrene metabolites generated by splenic microsomes. The major metabolites generated by the splenic microsomal preparations of untreated female B6C3F1 mice were found to be the 9,10- and 7,8-dihydrodiols and 9-, 7-, and 3-hydroxy benzo(a)pyrene. The 1,3-, 3,6-, and 6,12-diones and 4,5-dihydrodiol constituted only a small fraction of the metabolites generated. The generation of all metabolites were inhibited by alpha-naphthoflavone and antiserum to NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase, whereas SKF 525-A had only a minimal effect. Dihydrodiol production was completely inhibited by the epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, trichloropropylene oxide. Benzo(a)pyrene pretreatment of mice produced a dramatic increase in the amount of metabolites formed; however, the pattern of metabolites remained similar to that generated by splenic microsomes of untreated mice. The role of prostaglandin synthetase in generating these metabolites was also examined. The addition of arachidonic acid in place of NADPH resulted in the formation of only quinones. Dihydrodiols and phenols were undetectable. The results of this study indicate that splenocytes may be capable of generating the 7,8-dihydrodiol, the precursor to the highly reactive 7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide.

  7. Fetal Hematopoietic Stem Cells Are the Canaries in the Coal Mine That Portend Later Life Immune Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiosa, Michael D; Tate, Everett R

    2015-10-01

    Disorders of the blood system are a significant and growing global health concern and include a spectrum of diseases ranging from aplastic anemia and leukemias to immune suppression. This array of hematological disorders is attributed to the fact that the blood system undergoes a perpetual cycle of turn over with aged and exhausted red and white blood cells undergoing daily replacement. The foundational cells of this replenishment process are comprised of rare hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) located in the bone marrow that possess the dual function of long-term self-renewal and multilineage differentiation. This constant turnover makes the hematopoietic system uniquely vulnerable to changes in the environment that impact multilineage differentiation, self-renewal, or both. Notably, environmental endocrine-disrupting exposures occurring during development, when HSCs are first emerging, can lead to alterations in HSC programming that impacts the blood and immune systems throughout life. In this review, we describe the process of fetal hematopoiesis and provide an overview of the intrauterine environmental and endocrine-disrupting compounds that disrupt this process. Finally, we describe research opportunities for fetal HSCs as potential sentinels of later-life blood and immune system disorders.

  8. Religiosity is negatively associated with later-life intelligence, but not with age-related cognitive decline☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stuart J.; Gow, Alan J.; Deary, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    A well-replicated finding in the psychological literature is the negative correlation between religiosity and intelligence. However, several studies also conclude that one form of religiosity, church attendance, is protective against later-life cognitive decline. No effects of religious belief per se on cognitive decline have been found, potentially due to the restricted measures of belief used in previous studies. Here, we examined the associations between religiosity, intelligence, and cognitive change in a cohort of individuals (initial n = 550) with high-quality measures of religious belief taken at age 83 and multiple cognitive measures taken in childhood and at four waves between age 79 and 90. We found that religious belief, but not attendance, was negatively related to intelligence. The effect size was smaller than in previous studies of younger participants. Longitudinal analyses showed no effect of either religious belief or attendance on cognitive change either from childhood to old age, or across the ninth decade of life. We discuss differences between our cohort and those in previous studies – including in age and location – that may have led to our non-replication of the association between religious attendance and cognitive decline. PMID:25278639

  9. Differential impact of multiple levels of productive activity engagement on psychological well-being in middle and later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz-Costa, Christina; Besen, Elyssa; Boone James, Jacquelyn; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie

    2014-04-01

    This study tested the effect of multiple levels of engagement in the productive roles of paid work, volunteering, and caregiving on midlife and older adults' psychological well-being. Using cross-sectional data from a sample of 330 adults aged 50 and older (largely white, women, and educated), a treatment effects model was employed to test the impact of four levels of engagement (not involved and low, medium, and high engagement) on psychological well-being. Those involved in work or volunteer activities who were high in engagement reported greater psychological well-being than those who were not involved, whereas those who were low or medium in engagement reported lower well-being than those not involved. A different pattern emerged for caregiving; midlevels of engagement were associated with higher well-being compared with the noninvolved, whereas low and high levels of engagement were associated with lower well-being. Findings suggest that one's experience of an activity plays an important role in the extent to which involvement is associated with positive outcomes. Recommendations for enhancing role quality to promote psychological well-being in middle and later life are discussed.

  10. Early-Life State-of-Residence Characteristics and Later Life Hypertension, Diabetes, and Ischemic Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkopf, David H; Eisen, Ellen A; Modrek, Sepideh; Mokyr Horner, Elizabeth; Goldstein, Benjamin; Costello, Sadie; Cantley, Linda F; Slade, Martin D; Cullen, Mark R

    2015-08-01

    We examined how state characteristics in early life are associated with individual chronic disease later in life. We assessed early-life state of residence using the first 3 digits of social security numbers from blue- and white-collar workers from a US manufacturing company. Longitudinal data were available from 1997 to 2012, with 305 936 person-years of observation. Disease was assessed using medical claims. We modeled associations using pooled logistic regression with inverse probability of censoring weights. We found small but statistically significant associations between early-state-of-residence characteristics and later life hypertension, diabetes, and ischemic heart disease. The most consistent associations were with income inequality, percentage non-White, and education. These associations were similar after statistically controlling for individual socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and current state characteristics. Characteristics of the state in which an individual lives early in life are associated with prevalence of chronic disease later in life, with a strength of association equivalent to genetic associations found for these same health outcomes.

  11. Diabetes Risk and Disease Management in Later Life: A National Longitudinal Study of the Role of Marital Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda; Shen, Shannon

    2016-11-01

    We assess the association between marital quality and both the risk of developing diabetes and the management of diabetes after its onset in later life. We use data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project to estimate regression models with lagged dependent variables. The sample includes 1,228 married respondents, among whom 389 were diabetic. Those with either a reported diagnosis or with HbA1c ≥ 6.5% are identified diabetic. We categorize diabetic respondents into three groups: controlled, undiagnosed, and uncontrolled diabetes. We conduct factor analysis to construct positive and negative marital quality scales. For women, an increase in positive marital quality between Waves 1 and 2 is related to a lower risk of being diabetic at Wave 2, net of diabetes status at Wave 1; surprisingly, for men, an increase in negative marital quality between Waves 1 and 2 is related to both a lower risk of being diabetic at Wave 2 and a higher chance of controlling diabetes at Wave 2 after its onset. Our results challenge the traditional assumption that negative marital quality is always detrimental to health and encourage family scholars to distinguish different sources and types of negative marital quality. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A brief report on an action learning group exploration of how older people adapt to change in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis C. Biley

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In collaboration with Age Concern UK, older people were invited to participate in action learning groups to explore how they adapt to change. Themes for discussion were initially identified using a nominal focus method. Discussions identified actual and desired methods of coping with changes in later life. A series of weekly meetings with three cohorts of urban, rural and sheltered accommodation participants with an average age of 81 years revealed that they were concerned with having to cope with and adapt to a wide range of experiences. These included the loss of sharing and reduced sociability, reduced mobility, bereavement, physical changes, having to move house and/or location, having to retire, and having to deal with outside agencies. In order to cope with these experiences, participants engaged in a range of activities that centered on aspects of communication and social networking. Participants talked to each other socially and informally, exchanging information and advice. When able, they also participated in more structured but non-specific social events during which time they also had the opportunity to support each other. Participants suggested that there was a role for statutory and nonstatutory bodies and professions such as mental health and community adult nursing, occupational therapy and social work to provide more formal social networking and information exchange opportunities.

  13. Schizophrenia and delusional disorders with onset in later life Esquizofrenia e transtornos delirantes com início na terceira idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hassett

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia-spectrum illness is most commonly associated with an onset in early adulthood. When non-affective psychotic symptoms emerge for the first time in later life, the clinical presentation has both similarities and differences with earlier-onset syndromes. This situation has resulted in continuing debate about the nosological status of late-onset psychosis, and whether there are particular risk factors associated with this late-life peak in incidence. Although early cognitive decline is frequently identified in these patients, studies, to date, have not established if there is a relationship with the dementing illnesses of old age. Sensory impairment, social isolation, and a family history of schizophrenia have been associated with late-onset psychosis, but appear to exert a nonspecific influence on vulnerability. While diagnostic issues remain unresolved, clinicians need to formulate treatment strategies that most appropriately address the constellation of symptoms in the clinical presentation of their psychotic elderly patients.Transtornos mentais do espectro da esquizofrenia são comumente associados a início na primeira fase da vida adulta. Quando sintomas psicóticos não-afetivos emergem pela primeira vez em fases tardias da vida, a apresentação clínica tem semelhanças e diferenças em relação às síndromes de início precoce. Essa situação resultou em debate contínuo sobre o status nosológico da psicose de início tardio e sobre se há fatores de risco associados a esse pico de incidência na terceira idade. Embora déficits cognitivos precoces sejam freqüentemente identificados entre esses pacientes, ainda não foi possível estabelecer se problemas cognitivos estão associados a um quadro demencial dos idosos. Comprometimento sensorial, isolamento social e história familiar de esquizofrenia têm sido associados à psicose de início tardio, mas esses fatores de risco parecem exercer um papel não-específico sobre

  14. Obesity and excess weight in early adulthood and high risks of arsenic-related cancer in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmaus, Craig; Castriota, Felicia; Ferreccio, Catterina; Smith, Allan H; Yuan, Yan; Liaw, Jane; Acevedo, Johanna; Pérez, Liliana; Meza, Rodrigo; Calcagno, Sergio; Uauy, Ricardo; Smith, Martyn T

    2015-10-01

    Elevated body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and other diseases. Inflammation or oxidative stress induced by high BMI may explain some of these effects. Millions of people drink arsenic-contaminated water worldwide, and ingested arsenic has also been associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, and cancer. To assess the unique situation of people living in northern Chile exposed to high arsenic concentrations in drinking water and investigate interactions between arsenic and BMI, and associations with lung and bladder cancer risks. Information on self-reported body mass index (BMI) at various life stages, smoking, diet, and lifetime arsenic exposure was collected from 532 cancer cases and 634 population-based controls. In subjects with BMIs lung and bladder cancer combined for arsenic concentrations of 800 µg/L were 1.00, 1.64 (95% CI, 1.19-2.27), and 3.12 (2.30-4.22). In subjects with BMIs ≥90th percentile in early adulthood, the corresponding ORs were higher: 1.00, 1.84 (0.75-4.52), and 9.37 (2.88-30.53), respectively (synergy index=4.05, 95% CI, 1.27-12.88). Arsenic-related cancer ORs >20 were seen in those with elevated BMIs in both early adulthood and in later life. Adjustments for smoking, diet, and other factors had little impact. These findings provide novel preliminary evidence supporting the notion that environmentally-related cancer risks may be markedly increased in people with elevated BMIs, especially in those with an elevated BMI in early-life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rivalry, solidarity, and longevity among siblings: A life course approach to the impact of sibship composition and birth order on later life mortality risk, Antwerp (1846–1920)

    OpenAIRE

    Robyn Donrovich; Paul Puschmann; Koen Matthijs

    2014-01-01

    Background: Family composition and household dynamics, both in early and in later life, influence individual health and longevity. Both positive and negative effects can be expected in terms of sibling size and composition. On one hand, siblings compete with each other, which may lead to resource dilution and increased adult mortality risks. On the other hand, siblings protect and care for each other, which may have a positive impact on longevity. Objective: To investigate the way in which...

  16. Rivalry, solidarity, and longevity among siblings: A life course approach to the impact of sibship composition and birth order on later life mortality risk, Antwerp (1846-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Donrovich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family composition and household dynamics, both in early and in later life, influence individual health and longevity. Both positive and negative effects can be expected in terms of sibling size and composition. On one hand, siblings compete with each other, which may lead to resource dilution and increased adult mortality risks. On the other hand, siblings protect and care for each other, which may have a positive impact on longevity. Objective: To investigate the way in which sibling composition (with respect to sibship size, sex, and birth order in the family of orientation and the proximity of siblings in later life relates to adult mortality risks at ages 50+. Methods: Life courses of 258 men and 275 women from the Antwerp COR*-database were 'reconstructed' and analyzed by way of event history analysis using Gompertz shared frailty models. Results: Being higher in birth order related to significantly higher mortality risk after age 50 for men. Having older brothers, particularly those present in later life, was associated with very high excess mortality risk for both sexes, though men were more strongly disadvantaged. Having (more younger sisters present at RP (research person age 50 was related to significantly lower relative mortality risk for women. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the complex relationships between sibling and gender dynamics and mortality risk in later life. Evidence of a lasting impact of sibling competition on mortality risk over age 50 is found; and competition is only replaced by solidarity in critical times (e.g., widowhood, wherein older sibling presence dissimilarly impacts different social groups.

  17. Simple Fluorimetric Determination of Benzo[a]pyrene in Cigarette Smoke without Preseparation Procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Constant-energy synchronous fluorimetry was used for the identification of benzo[a]pyrene in mixtures with a detection limit of 1.34 nmol/L. The recovery experiments in cigarette smoke samples have also obtained satisfactory results of 99.1-103.5% for benzo[a]pyrene.

  18. Interindividual variation in binding of benzo[a]pyrene to DNA in cultured human Bronchi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, C.C.; Autrup, Herman; Connor, R.

    1976-01-01

    The binding of benzo[a]pyrene to DNA in cultured human bronchus was measured in specimens from 37 patients. The binding values ranged from 2 to 151 picomoles of benzo[a]pyrene per milligram of DNA with an overall mean +/- standard error of 34.2 +/- 5.2. This 75-fold interindividual variation in t...

  19. The impact of multiple impairments on disability in community-dwelling older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, GIJM; Verbrugge, LM; Merrill, SS; Ormel, J

    Introduction: we have tested the hypothesis that the co-occurrence of common impairments (motor and cognitive impairments, vision and hearing loss, depressive symptoms) of later life have exacerbating effects on disability [activities and instrumental activities of daily living, social and role

  20. Alterations to proteome and tissue recovery responses in fish liver caused by a short-term combination treatment with cadmium and benzo[a]pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, P.M., E-mail: pmcosta@fct.unl.p [IMAR-Instituto do Mar, Departamento de Ciencias e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Chicano-Galvez, E.; Lopez Barea, J. [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Severo Ochoa, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); DelValls, T.A. [UNESCO/UNITWIN/WiCop Chair-Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cadiz, Poligono rio San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Costa, M.H. [IMAR-Instituto do Mar, Departamento de Ciencias e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal)

    2010-10-15

    The livers of soles (Solea senegalensis) injected with subacute doses of cadmium (Cd), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), or their combination, were screened for alterations to cytosolic protein expression patterns, complemented by cytological and histological analyses. Cadmium and B[a]P, but not combined, induced hepatocyte apoptosis and Kupfer cell hyperplasia. Proteomics, however, suggested that apoptosis was triggered through distinct pathways. Cadmium and B[a]P caused upregulation of different anti-oxidative enzymes (peroxiredoxin and glutathione peroxidase, respectively) although co-exposure impaired induction. Similarly, apoptosis was inhibited by co-exposure, to which may have contributed a synergistic upregulation of tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor, {beta}-actin and a lipid transport protein. The regulation factors of nine out of eleven identified proteins of different types revealed antagonistic or synergistic effects between Cd and B[a]P at the prospected doses after 24 h of exposure. The results indicate that co-exposure to Cd and B[a]P may enhance toxicity by impairing specific responses and not through cumulative damage. - The interaction between cadmium and benzo[a]pyrene impairs specific responses to toxicity and tissue repair mechanisms.

  1. Developmental exposure to 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin attenuates later-life Notch1-mediated T cell development and leukemogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrenhoerster, Lori S.; Leuthner, Tess C.; Tate, Everett R.; Lakatos, Peter A.; Laiosa, Michael D., E-mail: laiosa@uwm.edu

    2015-03-01

    Over half of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients have activating mutations in the Notch gene. Moreover, the contaminant 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a known carcinogen that mediates its toxicity through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and crosstalk between activated AHR and Notch signaling pathways has previously been observed. Given the importance of Notch signaling in thymocyte development and T-ALL disease progression, we hypothesized that the activated AHR potentiates disease initiation and progression in an in vivo model of Notch1-induced thymoma. This hypothesis was tested utilizing adult and developmental exposure paradigms to TCDD in mice expressing a constitutively active Notch1 transgene (Notch{sup ICN-TG}). Following exposure of adult Notch{sup ICN-TG} mice to a single high dose of TCDD, we observed a significant increase in the efficiency of CD8 thymocyte generation. We next exposed pregnant mice to 3 μg/kg of TCDD throughout gestation and lactation to elucidate effects of developmental AHR activation on later-life T cell development and T-ALL-like thymoma susceptibility induced by Notch1. We found that the vehicle-exposed Notch{sup ICN-TG} offspring have a peripheral T cell pool heavily biased toward the CD4 lineage, while TCDD-exposed Notch{sup ICN-TG} offspring were biased toward the CD8 lineage. Furthermore, while the vehicle-exposed NotchICN-TG mice showed increased splenomegaly and B to T cell ratios indicative of disease, mice developmentally exposed to TCDD were largely protected from disease. These studies support a model where developmental AHR activation attenuates later-life Notch1-dependent impacts on thymocyte development and disease progression. - Highlights: • Adult mice exposed to 30 μg/kg TCDD have higher efficiency of CD8 thymocyte generation. • Mice carrying a constitutively active Notch transgene were exposed to 3 μg/kg TCDD throughout development. • Progression of Notch

  2. Wheat bran and the induction of intestinal benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase by dietary benzo(a)pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, S K; Visek, W J

    1989-03-01

    The mucosa of the intestine responds to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with the rapid induction of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase (BPH). Studies were conducted to determine if dietary fiber would reduce exposure of the intestine to dietary benzo(a)pyrene (BP) as indicated by intestinal BPH activity. In all studies, female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a fiber-free purified diet for 7 d, whereupon they were switched to experimental diets for 48 h. After 48 h their small intestinal mucosa was assayed for BPH activity. Diets for the initial study contained 0, 100, 400, 800, or 1200 mg BP/kg diet, each with and without 10% soft white wheat bran. Enzyme induction with 100 and 400 mg BP/kg diet was partially inhibited by bran, but with higher concentrations of BP there was no protective effect. The inhibition in BP-induced intestinal BPH activity was observed with 10% wheat bran but not with 3.3 or 6.6%. Subsequent studies showed no significant inhibition in BPH induction with cellulose or lignin, whereas all forms of wheat bran (hard red, soft white, or finely ground soft white) caused significant inhibition. In the final study, a diet containing charcoal-broiled beef, a known source of PAH, was compared with diets containing raw beef or soybean protein, each with and without 10% soft white wheat bran. BPH activity remained low with raw beef and soybean protein whether or not fiber was added. However, intestinal BPH activity was raised ninefold by charcoal-broiled beef. The addition of bran reduced BPH activity to 65% of that observed with the fiber-free, charcoal-broiled beef diet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Linking embryo toxicity with genotoxic responses in the freshwater snail Physa acuta: single exposure to benzo(a)pyrene, fluoxetine, bisphenol A, vinclozolin and exposure to binary mixtures with benzo(a)pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Aparicio, Natalia; Fernández, Carlos

    2012-06-01

    Genotoxic effects on fauna after waterborne pollutant exposure have been demonstrated by numerous research programmes. Less effort has been focused on establishing relationship between genotoxicity and long-term responses at higher levels of biological organization. Taking into account that embryos may be more sensitive indicators of reproductive impairment than alterations in fertility, we have developed two assays in multiwell plates to address correlations between embryo toxicity and genotoxicity. The potential teratogenicity was assessed by analyzing abnormal development and mortality of Physa acuta at embryonic stage. Genotoxicity was measured by the micronucleus (MN) test using embryonic cells. Our results showed that linkage between genotoxicity and embryo toxicity depends on mechanisms of action of compounds under study. Embryo toxic responses showed a clear dose-related tendency whereas no clear dose-dependent effect was observed in micronucleus induction. The higher embryo toxicity was produced by benzo(a)pyrene exposure followed by fluoxetine and bisphenol A. Vinclozolin was the lower embryo toxic compound. Binary mixtures with BaP always resulted in higher embryo toxicity than single exposures but antagonistic effects were observed for MN induction. Benzo(a)pyrene produced the higher MN induction at 0.04 mg/L, which also produced clear embryo toxic effects. Fluoxetine did not induce cytogenetic effects but 0.25mg/L altered embryonic development. Bisphenol A significantly reduced hatchability at 0.5mg/L while MN induction appeared with higher treatments than those that start causing teratogenicity. Much higher concentration of vinclozolin (5mg/L) reduced hatchability and induced maximum MN formation. In conclusion, while validating one biomarker of genotoxicity and employing one ecologically relevant effect, we have evaluated the relative sensitivity of a freshwater mollusc for a range of chemicals. The embryo toxicity test is a starting point for the

  4. Developmental Programming of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Effect of Early Life Nutrition on Susceptibility and Disease Severity in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minglan; Reynolds, Clare M.; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Vickers, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is fast becoming the most common liver disease globally and parallels rising obesity rates. The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis have linked alterations in the early life environment to an increased risk of metabolic disorders in later life. Altered early life nutrition, in addition to increasing risk for the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in offspring, is now associated with an increased risk for the development of NAFLD. This review summarizes emerging research on the developmental programming of NAFLD by both maternal obesity and undernutrition with a particular focus on the possible mechanisms underlying the development of hepatic dysfunction and potential strategies for intervention. PMID:26090409

  5. Revising the personality disorder diagnostic criteria for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-V): consider the later life context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsis, Steve; Segal, Daniel L; Donahue, Cailin

    2009-10-01

    The categorical measurement approach implemented by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) personality disorder (PD) diagnostic system is theoretically and pragmatically limited. As a result, many prominent psychologists now advocate for a shift away from this approach in favor of more conceptually sound dimensional measurement. This shift is expected to improve the psychometric properties of the personality disorder (PD) diagnostic system and make it more useful for clinicians and researchers. The current article suggests that despite the probable benefits of such a change, several limitations will remain if the new diagnostic system does not closely consider the context of later life. A failure to address the unique challenges associated with the assessment of personality in older adults likely will result in the continued limited validity, reliability, and utility of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) system for this growing population. This article discusses these limitations and their possible implications.

  6. Cultural identity and belonging in later life: is extra care housing an attractive concept to older Jewish people living in Britain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Caroline A; Katz, Jeanne S

    2010-03-01

    The extra care housing concept of supported independence within a caring community is one that may offer much to minority communities, particularly those with changing patterns of family care. The context for this study is a UK population which is ageing, with a relatively small but growing number of older people within religious and ethnic minority groups who have needs specific to their cultural identity in addition to those in common with the majority. In considering its need for new forms of later life accommodation, the British Jewish community is looking for models that are acceptable both in terms of specifically Jewish cultural requirements and with respect to 'mainstream' middle class expectations of amenity, service, and social inclusion. This article presents findings of sixteen focus groups with middle-aged and older members of Jewish communities in London and the south east of England, and reflects on their attitudes to specificity in cultural provision in extra care.

  7. Developmental Exposure To 2,3,7,8 Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin Attenuates Later-Life Notch1-Mediated T Cell Development and Leukemogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenhoerster, Lori S.; Leuthner, Tess C.; Tate, Everett R.; Lakatos, Peter A.; Laiosa, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Over half of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients have activating mutations in the Notch gene. Moreover, the contaminant 2,3,7,8 Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a known carcinogen that mediates its toxicity through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and crosstalk between activated AHR and Notch signaling pathways has previously been observed. Given the importance of Notch signaling in thymocyte development and T-ALL disease progression, we hypothesized that the activated AHR potentiates disease initiation and progression in an in vivo model of Notch1-induced thymoma. This hypothesis was tested utilizing adult and developmental exposure paradigms to TCDD in mice expressing a constitutively active Notch1 transgene (NotchICN-TG). Following exposure of adult NotchICN-TG mice to a single high dose of TCDD, we observed a significant increase in the efficiency of CD8 thymocyte generation. We next exposed pregnant mice to 3μg/kg of TCDD throughout gestation and lactation to elucidate effects of developmental AHR activation on later-life T cell development and T-ALL-like thymoma susceptibility induced by Notch1. We found that the vehicle-exposed NotchICN-TG offspring have a peripheral T-cell pool heavily biased toward the CD4 lineage, while TCDD-exposed NotchICN-TG offspring were biased toward the CD8 lineage. Furthermore, while the vehicle-exposed NotchICN-TG mice showed increased splenomegaly and B to T cell ratios indicative of disease, mice developmentally exposed to TCDD were largely protected from disease. These studies support a model where developmental AHR activation attenuates later-life Notch1-dependent impacts on thymocyte development and disease progression. PMID:25585350

  8. Anxiety disorders in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Definition: Anxiety disorders are generally characterized by both excessive fear and irrational, fearful thoughts that are difficult to control and negatively affect daily functioning. Additionally, avoidance behaviors are often used as a strategy to reduce those excessive feelings of fear and anxie

  9. Life Course Pathways to Later Life Wellbeing: A Comparative Study of the Role of Socio-Economic Position in England and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoutte, Bram; Nazroo, James

    The influence of early life, accumulation and social mobility on wellbeing in later life in the U.S. and England is investigated. Using cross-sectional data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), we estimate multivariate regressions of hedonic and eudemonic measures of wellbeing on these life course mechanisms, controlling for age, gender, ethnic background, partnership status, health and wealth. On the level of the life course mechanisms, there is mixed evidence regarding the critical impact of early life, strong evidence for an association between accumulation and eudemonic wellbeing and a moderate negative effect of downward social mobility. While the relation between hedonic wellbeing and life course mechanisms is unclear or in a different direction than anticipated, eudemonic wellbeing is clearly related to accumulation and mobility in both countries and to early life in the U.S. On the societal level, the major observation is that the life course has a larger influence in the U.S. than in England.

  10. Early-life social origins of later-life body weight: the role of socioeconomic status and health behaviors over the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Logan, Ellis Scott; Richman, Aliza

    2014-07-01

    Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we apply structural equation modeling to examine gender-specific effects of family socioeconomic status (SES) at age 18 on body weight at age 65. We further explore SES and health behaviors over the life course as mechanisms linking family background and later-life body weight. We find that early-life socioeconomic disadvantage is related to higher body weight at age 65 and a steeper weight increase between midlife and late life. These adverse effects are stronger among women than men. Significant mediators of the effect of parents' SES include adolescent body mass (especially among women) as well as exercise and SES in midlife. Yet, consistent with the critical period mechanism, the effect of early-life SES on late-life body weight persists net of all mediating variables. This study expands current understanding of life-course mechanisms that contribute to obesity and increase biological vulnerability to social disadvantage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal obesity induced by a high fat diet causes altered cellular development in fetal brains suggestive of a predisposition of offspring to neurological disorders in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Ewa K; Srinivasan, Malathi; Stachowiak, Michal K; Patel, Mulchand S

    2013-12-01

    Fetal development in an obese maternal intrauterine environment has been shown to predispose the offspring for a number of metabolic disorders in later life. The observation that a large percentage of women of child-bearing age in the US are overweight/obese during pregnancy is therefore a source of concern. A high fat (HF) diet-induced obesity in female rats has been used as a model for maternal obesity. The objective of this study was to determine cellular development in brains of term fetuses of obese rats fed a HF diet from the time of weaning. Fetal brains were dissected out on gestational day 21 and processed for immunohistochemical analysis in the hypothalamic as well as extra-hypothalamic regions. The major observation of this study is that fetal development in the obese HF female rat induced several alterations in the HF fetal brain. Marked increases were observed in orexigenic signaling and a significant decrease was observed for anorexigenic signaling in the vicinity of the 3rd ventricle in HF brains. Additionally, our results indicated diminished migration and maturation of stem-like cells in the 3rd ventricular region as well as in the brain cortex. The results from the present study indicate developmental alterations in the hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic regions in the HF fetal brain suggestive of a predisposition for the development of obesity and possibly neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the offspring.

  12. Type and Timing of Menopause and Later Life Mortality Among Women in the Iowa Established Populations for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Rachel; Wallace, Robert B.; Guralnik, Jack M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The relationship between menopausal characteristics and later life mortality is unclear. We tested the hypotheses that women with surgical menopause would have increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality compared with women with natural menopause, and that women with earlier ages at natural or surgical menopause would have greater all-cause and cardiovascular mortality than women with later ages at menopause. Methods Women who participated in the Iowa cohort of the Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (n=1684) reported menopausal characteristics and potential confounding variables at baseline and were followed up for up to 24 years. Participants were aged 65 years or older at baseline and lived in rural areas. We used survival analysis to examine the relationships between menopausal characteristics and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Results A total of 1477 women (87.7% of respondents) died during the study interval. Women with an age at natural menopause ≥55 years had increased all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality compared with women who had natural menopause at younger ages. Type of menopause and age at surgical menopause were not related to mortality. These patterns persisted after adjustment for potential confounding variables. Conclusions Among an older group of women from a rural area of the United States, later age at natural menopause was related to increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Monitoring the cardiovascular health of this group of older women may contribute to improved survival times. PMID:21970557

  13. Metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene and identification of the major benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adducts in cultured human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1978-01-01

    ]benzo(a)pyrene for another 24 hr and the binding to cellular DMA and protein was measured. Two adducts, formed between benzo(a)pyrene and DMA, have been isolated. The major adduct (72 to 100%) was formed between the 10-position of benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide I and the 2-amino group of guanine, and the minor adduct...

  14. An investigation of endocrine disrupting effects and toxic mechanisms modulated by benzo[a]pyrene in female scallop Chlamys farreri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Shuangmei; Pan, Luqing, E-mail: panlq@ouc.edu.cn; Sun, Xiaohua

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •B[a]P disturbed progesterone, 17β-estradiol and testosterone production in scallop. •B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD expression after a 10-day exposure. •B[a]P of lower dose elevated AHR-CYP1A expression but high dose B[a]P inhibited them. •ER and vitellogenin transcription was consistent with AHR after B[a]P exposure. •B[a]P exposure induced relatively developmental delay and impairment of ovary. -- Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and explore the underlying mechanisms in mollusks. In this study, sexually mature female Chlamys farreri were exposed to benzo[a]pyrene for 10 days at four different concentrations as 0, 0.025, 0.5 and 10 μg/L. Sex steroids were identified and quantified by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) method and results showed that exposure to B[a]P exerts great suppression on 17β-estradiol, testosterone production and disrupts progesterone levels in ovary. Transcription of genes were detected and measured by real-time RT-PCR. It showed that at day 10 B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that they could be potential targets of B[a]P that disrupt steroidogenic machinery. Moreover, 0.025 μg/L B[a]P activated transcription of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), CYP1A1 and estrogen receptor (ER), while 10 μg/L B[a]P suppressed all of them. The consistency of their responses to B[a]P exposure implies that AHR action may be involved in invertebrate CYP regulation and ER transcription despite of unknown mechanisms. Additionally, B[a]P exposure could induce ovarian impairment and developmental delay in C. farreri. Overall, sensitivity of C. farreri to endocrine disruption and toxicity suggests that C. farreri is a suitable species for study of endocrine-disrupting effects in marine invertebrates. This study will form a

  15. Topological, functional, and dynamic properties of the protein interaction networks rewired by benzo(a)pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ba, Qian [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Li, Junyang; Huang, Chao [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Wu, Yongning, E-mail: wuyongning@cfsa.net.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: huiwang@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Food Safety Research, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing (China); School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-03-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene is a common environmental and foodborne pollutant that has been identified as a human carcinogen. Although the carcinogenicity of benzo(a)pyrene has been extensively reported, its precise molecular mechanisms and the influence on system-level protein networks are not well understood. To investigate the system-level influence of benzo(a)pyrene on protein interactions and regulatory networks, a benzo(a)pyrene-rewired protein interaction network was constructed based on 769 key proteins derived from more than 500 literature reports. The protein interaction network rewired by benzo(a)pyrene was a scale-free, highly-connected biological system. Ten modules were identified, and 25 signaling pathways were enriched, most of which belong to the human diseases category, especially cancer and infectious disease. In addition, two lung-specific and two liver-specific pathways were identified. Three pathways were specific in short and medium-term networks (< 48 h), and five pathways were enriched only in the medium-term network (6 h–48 h). Finally, the expression of linker genes in the network was validated by Western blotting. These findings establish the overall, tissue- and time-specific benzo(a)pyrene-rewired protein interaction networks and provide insights into the biological effects and molecular mechanisms of action of benzo(a)pyrene. - Highlights: • Benzo(a)pyrene induced scale-free, highly-connected protein interaction networks. • 25 signaling pathways were enriched through modular analysis. • Tissue- and time-specific pathways were identified.

  16. Preferential Formation of Benzo[a]pyrene Adducts at Lung Cancer Mutational Hotspots in P53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denissenko, Mikhail F.; Pao, Annie; Tang, Moon-Shong; Pfeifer, Gerd P.

    1996-10-01

    Cigarette smoke carcinogens such as benzo[a]pyrene are implicated in the development of lung cancer. The distribution of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE) adducts along exons of the P53 gene in BPDE-treated HeLa cells and bronchial epithelial cells was mapped at nucleotide resolution. Strong and selective adduct formation occurred at guanine positions in codons 157, 248, and 273. These same positions are the major mutational hotspots in human lung cancers. Thus, targeted adduct formation rather than phenotypic selection appears to shape the P53 mutational spectrum in lung cancer. These results provide a direct etiological link between a defined chemical carcinogen and human cancer.

  17. Uptake and elimination of benzo[a]pyrene in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Brummelen, T C; van Straalen, N M

    1996-08-01

    In isopods from contaminated sites relatively low levels of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been observed, which may be caused by either a low bioavailability or a high elimination rate. To shed light on this, the uptake and elimination rates of benzo[a]pyrene were estimated for the isopod Porcellio scaber. The isopod was fed contaminated food (100 microg benzo[a]pyrene/g dwt) for seven weeks followed by four weeks of untreated food. The hindguts of the animals were removed prior to analysis to exclude food material from the body. Benzo[a]pyrene concentrations were log-normally distributed among the individuals. The high inter-individual variation in benzo[a]pyrene content could not be explained from differences in sex, the estimated amount of food in the hindgut, or the body weight. A one-compartment model fitted to the isopod concentrations estimated an assimilation rate of 2.9 microg benzo[a]pyrene/g dwt day, an elimination rate constant of 1.1/day and an equilibrium concentration of 2.5 microg benzo[a]pyrene/g dwt. According to the model 68% of the isopod population had an equilibrium concentration between 1.0 and 7.2 microg benzo[a]pyrene/g dwt day with a benzo[a]pyrene half-life ranging between 0.4 and 1.3 days. The assimilation efficiency was estimated at 20 to 40% of the ingested benzo[a]pyrene. The tissue distribution of benzo[a]pyrene was investigated in a separate experiment. Trace levels of benzo[a]pyrene were detected in haemolymph samples, demonstrating absorption and transport of the compound in the isopod. It is concluded that dietary benzo[a]pyrene is available for uptake to the isopod and that low residues of the compound observed in field isopods are the result of a high elimination rate rather than a reduced bioavailability. As PAHs from soil appear to be available to soil invertebrates, the widespread contamination of the soil from atmospheric emissions is of some concern, especially since the observed

  18. Socio-demographic and health-related factors affecting depression of the Greek population in later life: an analysis using SHARE data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verropoulou, Georgia; Tsimbos, Cleon

    2007-09-01

    Depression in later life is one of the most prevalent conditions forecasted to rise to the second most burdensome health condition worldwide by 2020. Using data from the 2004 Study of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE: release 1) on 857 Greek males and 1,032 females aged 50 or higher this study explores, firstly, associations of socio-demographic and health related indicators with depressive symptoms (EURO-D) and, secondly, attempts to identify patterns and structures among them. To achieve the first objective, the 12-item summated EURO-D scale is used in binary form with a cut-off point clinically validated by the EURODEP. Use of logistic regression pinpoints strong associations with gender, years of education, co-morbidity, disability, cognitive function and past depression. Women, less educated persons, those with poor physical health, declining cognitive function and a history of depression are significantly more at risk of scoring higher than three at the EURO-D scale. The role of age is not as clear. To achieve the second objective, multiple correspondence analysis is used in the first instance and factor analysis for binary data subsequently; two components are identified within EURO-D and continuous factor scores are produced. These factors are called "affective suffering" and "motivation". Linear regression models reveal that the first component is responsible for the gender while the second for the age differentials in EURO-D; additionally we find that, apart from physical health indicators which are strongly related to both factors, other associations differ. Further exploration of this differentiation seems of interest, particularly as there is an indication that "motivation" may be an affectively neutral condition.

  19. Behavioural Risk Factors in Mid-Life Associated with Successful Ageing, Disability, Dementia and Frailty in Later Life: A Rapid Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Lafortune

    Full Text Available Smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet and low levels of physical activity significantly contribute to the burden of illness in developed countries. Whilst the links between specific and multiple risk behaviours and individual chronic conditions are well documented, the impact of these behaviours in mid-life across a range of later life outcomes has yet to be comprehensively assessed. This review aimed to provide an overview of behavioural risk factors in mid-life that are associated with successful ageing and the primary prevention or delay of disability, dementia, frailty and non-communicable chronic conditions.A literature search was conducted to identify cohort studies published in English since 2000 up to Dec 2014. Multivariate analyses and a minimum follow-up of five years were required for inclusion. Two reviewers screened titles, abstracts and papers independently. Studies were assessed for quality. Evidence was synthesised by mid-life behavioural risk for a range of late life outcomes.This search located 10,338 individual references, of which 164 are included in this review. Follow-up data ranged from five years to 36 years. Outcomes include dementia, frailty, disability and cardiovascular disease. There is consistent evidence of beneficial associations between mid-life physical activity, healthy ageing and disease outcomes. Across all populations studied there is consistent evidence that mid-life smoking has a detrimental effect on health. Evidence specific to alcohol consumption was mixed. Limited, but supportive, evidence was available relating specifically to mid-life diet, leisure and social activities or health inequalities.There is consistent evidence of associations between mid-life behaviours and a range of late life outcomes. The promotion of physical activity, healthy diet and smoking cessation in all mid-life populations should be encouraged for successful ageing and the prevention of disability and chronic disease.

  20. Leisure-time Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Older People: The Influence of Sport Involvement on Behaviour Patterns in Later Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Gayman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the dramatic demographic change underway in most industrialized nations, the health of older adults is a major concern, particularly given the prevalence of sedentary behaviours and physical inactivity among ageing populations. Researchers have suggested sport participation in later life promotes other health-related behaviours, however, these relationships are poorly understood. It is possible for individuals to be classified as sufficiently active and still spend most of their day involved in sedentary pursuits. Moreover, there is little information on older sport participants’ use of time compared to leisurely active or inactive peers and whether type of physical activity involvement is associated with differences in older adults’ behaviour patterns. With this in mind, data from 1,723 respondents (65 years and older who completed the sport module of the 2010 Canadian General Social Survey–Time Use were used to investigate the influence of physical activity involvement (competitive sport vs. non-competitive sport vs. physically active leisure vs. inactivity on time spent in leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Results indicated that competitive sport participants spent less time engaging in sedentary behaviours compared to the physically active leisure or inactive respondents; however, sport participants (both competitive and non-competitive also spent less time engaging in leisure-time physical activities than the physically active leisure group. Implications of these findings to assumptions related to the activity levels of older sport participants, suggestions for future research, and considerations for sport-related interventions aimed at enhancing health in older adulthood are discussed.

  1. Dietary effects on the uptake of benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavric, B; Klassen, R

    1994-08-01

    It has been established that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), or more specifically benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), either by inhalation through cigarette smoking or by contact through occupational exposure of the lungs or skin, can result in cancerous lesions. It appears that the general population consumes more B[a]P from food than from smoking. Despite this, epidemiological studies have not implicated B[a]P from foods as a causative factor in some human cancers. This lack of an epidemiological correlation between cancer incidence and intake of dietary PAHs/B[a]P could be due to some 'protective' or 'detoxification' mechanism. Despite the abundance of literature regarding the food content of B[a]P, there are few data concerning its uptake from foods. In the present study we investigated the intestinal absorption of B[a]P from foods using bile duct cannulated rats and radioactive B[a]P. [14C]B[a]P was first added to solvents such as water, corn oil, liquid paraffin or 50% ethanol, which were the administered by gavage to rats fed diets with or without added carbon. Additionally, food polyphenols such as quercetin and chlorogenic acid were also tested for their effect on the absorption of B[a]P. The results indicated that the excretion of B[a]P in the bile was reduced by water, carbon, quercetin and chlorogenic acid but was potentiated by corn oil. To complement the in vivo studies, some in vitro tests to investigate the efficiency of B[a]P extraction from different foods using water or oil as solvents were also performed. These tests indicated that extraction of B[a]P from foods was affected by the solvent. It is postulated that reduced solubility, physical adsorption and the formation of chemical adducts between B[a]P and some food ingredients, play a sporadic, although still not well determined, role in reducing the absorption of B[a]P from the gut. The results of these studies suggest that B[a]P absorption from the intestinal tract is markedly

  2. Hypoxia diminishes the detoxification of the environmental mutagen benzo[a]pyrene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schults, Marten A.; Sanen, Kathleen; Godschalk, Roger W.; Theys, Jan; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Chiu, Roland K.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia promotes genetic instability and is therefore an important factor in carcinogenesis. We have previously shown that activation of the hypoxia responsive transcription factor HIF alpha can enhance the mutagenic phenotype induced by the environmental mutagen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). To further elu

  3. Separation of water-soluble metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene formed by cultured human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1979-01-01

    A method has been developed to separate conjugated metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene into three major fractions: sulfate esters, glucuronides and glutathione conjugates. In cultured human colon, formation of sulfate esters and glutathione conjugates is the major conjugation pathway, while formation o......-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene were the major substrates for sulfotransferase in cultured human colon....

  4. [Preparation and characterization of the recombinant protein containing immunomimetic peptide of benzo[a]pyrene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apal'ko, S V; Lunin, V G; Filipenko, M L; Matveeva, V A; Liashchuk, A M; Lavrova, N V; Sherina, E A; Aver'ianov, A V; Kostianko, M V; Glushkov, A N

    2011-01-01

    Two recombinant plasmids were constructed. The first plasmid contained the hybrid gene composed of immunomimetic peptide of benzo[a]pyrene, of the protein pIII of bacteriophage M13 and of cellulose binding domain encoding sequences. The second plasmid contained the hybrid gene composed of the signal peptide of the protein pIII of bacteriophage M13, of immunomimetic peptide of benzo[a]pyrene, of the protein pill of bacteriophage M13 and of cellulose binding domain sequences. The obtained recombinant plasmids were used in expression of chimeric protein containing immunomimetic peptide ofbenzo[a]pyrene based on strain E. coli M15. The lack of the recombinant protein expression using first plasmid was demonstrated. In the same time, it was shown that accumulation of recombinant protein contained immunomimetic peptide with signal peptide of the protein pIIIl of bacteriophage was present. This chimeric protein was produced in "mature" (without signal peptide) and "unprocessing" (with signal peptide) forms. Using the Western-blot analysis, it was shown that the "mature" form only specifically bound to the B2 monoclonal antibody against benzo[a]pyrene. Thus, we expressed, purified, and characterized the recombinant protein containing immunomimetic peptide of benzo[a]pyrene.

  5. Metabolic activation and DNA binding of benzo(a)pyrene in cultured human bronchus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1977-01-01

    Human bronchus is one target site for the carcinogenic action of tobacco smoke, which contains chemical carcinogens, including benzo(a)pyrene. Human bronchi were obtained from surgery or “immediate” autopsy and then cultured in a chemically defined medium. The cultured bronchi were exposed...

  6. Transcriptomic changes in zebrafish embryos and larvae following benzo[a]pyrene exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is an environmentally relevant carcinogenic and endocrine disrupting compound that causes immediate, long-term, and multigenerational health deficits in mammals and fish. Previously, we found that BaP alters DNA methylation patterns in developing zebrafish, which may affect gene...

  7. Benzo[a]pyrene decreases global and gene specific DNA methylation during zebrafish development

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA methylation is important for gene regulation and is vulnerable to early-life exposure to environmental contaminants. We found that direct waterborne benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) exposure at 24 'g/L from 2.5 to 96 hours post fertilization (hpf) to zebrafish embryos significantly decreased global cytosine...

  8. Benzo(A)pyrene Decreases Brain and Ovarian Aromatase mRNA Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    The higher molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are typically associated with genotoxicity, however newer evidence suggests that these compounds may also act as endocrine system disruptors. We hypothesized that a target for reproductive or development...

  9. Benzo(a)pyrene induced structural and functional modifications in lung cystatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Priyadarshini, Medha; Shah, Aaliya; Tabrez, Shams; Jagirdar, Haseeb; Alsenaidy, Abdulrahman M; Bano, Bilqees

    2013-10-01

    Cystatins are thiol proteinase inhibitors ubiquitously present in the mammalian body. They serve a protective function to regulate the activities of endogenous proteinases, which may cause uncontrolled proteolysis and damage. In the present study, the effect of benzo(a)pyrene [BaP] on lung cystatin was studied to explore the hazardous effects of environmental pollutant on structural and functional integrity of the protein. The basic binding interaction was studied by UV-absorption, FT-IR, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The enhancement of total protein fluorescence with a red shift of 5 nm suggests structural scratch of lung cystatin by benzo(a)pyrene. Further, ANS binding studies reaffirm the unfolding of the thiol protease inhibitor (GLC-I) after treating with benzo(a)pyrene. The results of FT-IR spectroscopy reflect perturbation of the secondary conformation (alpha-helix to β-sheet) in goat lung cystatin on interaction with BaP. Finally, functional inactivation of cystatin on association with BaP was checked by its papain inhibitory activity. Benzo(a)pyrene (10 μM) caused complete inactivation of goat lung cystatin. Benzo(a)pyrene-induced loss of structure and function in the thiol protease inhibitor could provide a caution for lung injury caused by the pollutants and smokers.

  10. Genotoxicity testing using the Mutatox assay: evaluation of benzo[a]pyrene as a positive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klamer, H.J.C.; Villerius, L.A.; Roelsma, J.; Maagd, de P.G.J.; Opperhuizen, A.

    1997-01-01

    In a study on bioassay-directed chemical factionation of sediment extracts, problems were encountered using benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as a positive control in the Mutatox™ bacterial genotoxicity assay. Genotoxic responses of tests with this compound, prescribed by the Mutatox supplier, could only be meas

  11. Effects of benzo(a)pyrene on the skeletal development of Sebastiscus marmoratus embryos and the molecular mechanism involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Chengyong [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Subtropical Wetland Ecosystem Research, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Zuo Zhenghong [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Subtropical Wetland Ecosystem Research, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Shi Xiao; Li Ruixia; Chen Donglei; Huang Xin; Chen Yixin [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Subtropical Wetland Ecosystem Research, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Wang Chonggang, E-mail: cgwang@xmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Subtropical Wetland Ecosystem Research, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)

    2011-01-25

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants, which have been known to be carcinogenic and teratogenic. However, the skeletal development toxicity of PAHs and the mechanism involved remain unclear. In fishes, the neurocranial and craniofacial skeleton develop as cartilage. The signaling molecules of hedgehog (Hh) family play crucial roles in regulating skeletal development. In the present study, rockfish (Sebastiscus marmoratus) embryos were exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) for 7 days at environmental levels (0.05, 0.5 and 5 nmol/L) which resulted in craniofacial skeleton deformities. BaP exposure reduced the cell proliferation activity in the craniofacial skeleton as detected by quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. The expression of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), rather than Indian hedgehog (Ihh), was down-regulated in the craniofacial skeleton in the 0.5 and 5 nmol/L groups. Consistent with the Shh results, the expression of Ptch1 and Gli2 was decreased by BaP exposure and BMP4 was presented on changes in the 0.5 and 5 nmol/L groups. These results suggested that BaP could impair the expression and function of Shh signaling pathway, perturbing the proliferation of chondrocytes and so disturbing craniofacial skeletal development.

  12. Benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxides as intermediates in nucleic acid binding in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinstein, I.B.; Jeffrey, A.M.; Jennette, K.W.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence has been obtained that a specific isomer of a diol epoxide derivative of benzo(a)pyrene, (+/-)-7 beta,8alpha-dihydroxy-9alpha, 10alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene, is an intermediate in the binding of benzo(a)pyrene to RNA in cultured bovine bronchial mucosa. An adduct is for...... is formed between position 10 of this derivative and the 2-amino group of guanine.......Evidence has been obtained that a specific isomer of a diol epoxide derivative of benzo(a)pyrene, (+/-)-7 beta,8alpha-dihydroxy-9alpha, 10alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene, is an intermediate in the binding of benzo(a)pyrene to RNA in cultured bovine bronchial mucosa. An adduct...

  13. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness Visual Impairment KidsHealth > For Teens > Visual Impairment Print A A ... with the brain, making vision impossible. What Is Visual Impairment? Many people have some type of visual problem ...

  14. Menstrual disorders in adolescence: a marker for hyperandrogenaemia and increased metabolic risks in later life? Finnish general population-based birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinola, P; Lashen, H; Bloigu, A; Puukka, K; Ulmanen, M; Ruokonen, A; Martikainen, H; Pouta, A; Franks, S; Hartikainen, A-L; Järvelin, M-R; Morin-Papunen, L

    2012-11-01

    population and in both study groups, there were significant correlations between body mass index (BMI) (and waist-to-hip ratio), hyperandrogenaemia and metabolic parameters. Symptomatic girls exhibited significantly higher serum concentrations of testosterone (P= 0.010), lower levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (P =0.042) and higher free androgen indices [FAIs; geometric mean 3.38 (interquartile range (IQR): 2.27, 5.18) versus 3.08 (IQR: 2.15, 4.74), P= 0.002]. The two groups had comparable BMI and insulin sensitivity, and serum levels of glucose, insulin and lipids. There was a significant linear trend towards higher FAI values in the higher BMI quartiles in both symptomatic and non-symptomatic girls. In the whole population, there was a statistically significant linear decrease in high-density lipoprotein concentrations (P factor for the development of PCOS in adulthood. The association between obesity, hyperandrogenism and metabolic risks is already evident in adolescence, which strengthens the importance of noting menstrual disorders at an early stage. BIAS, LIMITATIONS, GENERALIZABILITY: The cross-sectional nature of the study does not allow us to draw conclusions concerning the metabolic risks of this population in later life. The diagnosis of menstrual disorders was based on a questionnaire, suggesting a risk of information bias in reporting the symptoms. This study was not designed to diagnose PCOS, as ultrasonography was not available and there was no clinical evaluation of hyperandrogenism (i.e. hirsutism). However, we were able to take into account potential confounding factors in the analyses. This work was supported by grants from the Finnish Medical Society Duodecim, the North Ostrobothnia Regional Fund, the Academy of Finland (project grants 104781, 120315, 129269, 1114194, SALVE), University Hospital Oulu, Biocenter, University of Oulu, Finland (75617), the European Commission (EURO-BLCS, Framework 5 award QLG1-CT-2000-01643) and the Medical Research

  15. Irregular menstruation and hyperandrogenaemia in adolescence are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome and infertility in later life: Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, S; Lashen, H; Bloigu, A; Franks, S; Puukka, K; Ruokonen, A; Järvelin, M-R; Tapanainen, J S; Morin-Papunen, L

    2014-10-10

    hyperandrogenaemia, PCOS and infertility at 26 years. At follow-up, the proportion of symptomatic girls who had conceived at least once (68.0 versus 67.9%) and had delivered at least one child (25.7 versus 28.1%) was similar to the non-symptomatic women and the groups had similar miscarriage rates (11.6 versus 12.1%). Logistic regression analyses indicated that menstrual irregularity at 16 years was associated with an increased risk of menstrual irregularity [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.88, P = 0.050], PCOS (adjusted OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.74-4.84, P acne (P acne (P self-reported questionnaire, thus introducing a risk of information bias in reporting the symptoms. Moreover, ovarian ultrasonography was not available to aid the diagnosis of PCOS and there was no clinical evaluation of hyperandrogenism. The relatively low rate of participation to the questionnaire at 26 years may also have biased the results. Our findings confirm that menstrual irregularity and/or elevated androgen levels are already present in adolescence in women with PCOS and infertility in later life, which strengthens the importance of early identification of menstrual irregularity. This work was supported by grants from the Finnish Medical Society Duodecim, the North Ostrobothnia Regional Fund, the Academy of Finland, the Sigrid Juselius Foundation, University Hospital Oulu and University of Oulu, the European Commission and the Medical Research Council, UK, Welcome Trust (089549/Z/09/Z). None of the authors have any conflict of interest. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The PACE Study: A randomised clinical trial of cognitive activity (CA) for older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI)

    OpenAIRE

    Flicker Leon; Lautenschlager Nicola T; Vidovich Mandy R; Clare Linda; Almeida Osvaldo P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Research evidence from observational studies suggests that cognitive activity reduces the risk of cognitive impairment in later life as well as the rate of cognitive decline of people with dementia. The Promoting Healthy Ageing with Cognitive Exercise (PACE) study has been designed to determine whether a cognitive activity intervention decreases the rate of cognitive decline amongst older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods/Design The study will recruit 16...

  17. Effects of benzo(a)pyrene on food assimilation and growth efficiency of Porcellio scaber (Isopoda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straalen, N.M. van; Verweij, R.A. (Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1991-01-01

    Although the metabolic effects of benzo(a)pyrene have been investigated extensively in rodents, little is known about its effects in the terrestrial environment and nothing is known about its effects on soil invertebrates. In this study, the authors have chosen the woodlouse Porcellio scaber (Latr.) (Crustacea, Isopoda) as a representative from the soil invertebrate community. Experiments were designed to analyze the consequences of benzo(a)pyrene exposure for the energy metabolism. The partitioning of energy between respiration and scope for growth is considered as an ecologically relevant criterion for studying effects of contaminants in the environment. PAH might affect this partitioning by inducing biotransformation reactions that make demands on the assimilated energy.

  18. Occupational exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles, benzo/a/pyrene and dust in tyre production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogaczewska, T; Ligocka, D

    1994-01-01

    Occupational exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPVs), benzo/a/pyrene (BaP) and dust was evaluated by means of individual measurements carried out in 80 workers and by stationary measurements on 16 work-posts in two divisions of the tyre producing plant. Dust and coal tar pitch volatiles concentrations in the air were determinated by the gravimetric method, measured, in the case of CPTVs, benzene-soluble fraction (BSF) with ultrasonic extraction. Benzo/a/pyrene analysis was performed using high performance liquid chromato-graphy (HPLC) with a spectrofluorimetric detector. It was found that nearly all personal sampling results for BaP were within the range 90%) which exceeded the admissible value (4 mg/m3) was found mainly only in the workers of the Semiproducts Division at some work-posts.

  19. Biotin-mediated epigenetic modifications: Potential defense against the carcinogenicity of benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bo; Pang, Li; Zhuang, Zhi-xiong; Liu, Jian-jun

    2016-01-22

    Environmental pollution and an unhealthy lifestyle result in direct exposure to dangerous chemicals that can modify endogenous pathways and induce malignant transformation of human cells. Although the molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis are still not well understood, epigenetic alteration may be associated with exogenous chemical-induced carcinogenicity. Given the association between nutrition and cancer, nutrient supplementation may reduce aberrant epigenetic modifications induced by chemicals, thus decreasing carcinogenesis. This paper provides an overview of the epigenetic events caused by benzo[a]pyrene, a procarcinogenic and environmental pollutant, and biotin, an essential water-soluble vitamin, and investigates potential connections between them. This paper also discusses the potential inhibitory effect of biotin-related epigenetic modifications on the carcinogenicity of benzo[a]pyrene. The effect of nutritional supplementation on tumorigenesis involving epigenetic modifications is also discussed.

  20. Benzo[a]Pyrene: biodegradation by different Trametes versicolor Morphology and enzymatic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, L.; Xavier Gabarrell, X.; Vicent, T.

    2009-07-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a persistent organic pollutant included in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons group (PAH), is of environmental concern due to its known carcinogenicity and bioaccumulation potential. Because of its toxic properties, it is included in the european community (EC) and United States Environmental Agency (EPA) priority pollutant list resulting in a much more strict regulation and complex tasks to be accomplished for remediation of PAH contaminated environments. (Author)

  1. Bacillus subtilis is a Potential Degrader of Pyrene and Benzo[a]pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette Ekunwe

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs are a group of compounds that pose many health threats to human and animal life. They occur in nature as a result of incomplete combustion of organic matter, as well as from many anthropogenic sources including cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust. PAHs have been reported to cause liver damage, red blood cell damage and a variety of cancers. Because of this, methods to reduce the amount of PAHs in the environment are continuously being sought. The purpose of this study was to find soil bacteria capable of degrading high molecular weight PAHs, such as pyrene (Pyr and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, which contain more than three benzene rings and so persist in the environment. Bacillus subtilis, identified by fatty acid methyl ester (FAME analysis, was isolated from PAH contaminated soil. Because it grew in the presence of 33μg/ml each of pyrene, 1-AP and 1-HP, its biodegradation capabilities were assessed. It was found that after a four-day incubation period at 30oC in 20μg/ml pyrene or benzo[a]pyrene, B. subtilis was able to transform approximately 40% and 50% pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively. This is the first report implicating B. subtilis in PAH degradation. Whether or not the intermediates resulting from the transformation are more toxic than their parent compounds, and whether B. subtilis is capable of mineralizing pyrene or benzo[a]pyrene to carbon dioxide and water, remains to be evaluated.

  2. Proteomic analysis of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana upon exposure to benzo(a)pyrene

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Raquel N.; Lettieri, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants ubiquitously distributed. They are generated by incomplete combustion of organic materials such as wood or fossil fuels. Due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic effects and to their wide distribution in the environment, these pollutants pose many concerns to researchers and regulators. In our laboratories we investigated the effect of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) exposure in the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, which ...

  3. Flux of benzo(a)pyrene to the ground surface and its distribution in the ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milukaite, A. [Institute of Physics, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    1998-07-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BP) has been investigated in bulk atmospheric deposition, moss, needles of pine and some species of vascular plants. At two remote Lithuanian sites, for 1990-1995 the flux of benzo(a)pyrene from the atmosphere to the ground surface varied between 0.3 to 4.8 {mu}g{sup -2} mo{sup -1}. Consequently the territory of Lithuania (65,000 km{sup 2}) yearly was exposed to 624-2574 kg of carcinogen. The distribution of BP in soil and various vascular plant tissues (trifolium tepens, Elitrygea repens, Thymus serpyllum) indicates that benzo(a)pyrene is assimilated by flora. The concentration of BP is different in various organs of vascular plants and mostly depends on the degree of soil pollution. More than 300 samples of moss, mostly Hylocomium spendens and Pleurozium schreberi were analysed for BP. From 3.1 to 896.0 {mu}g kg{sup -1} of BP were measured in the moss samples. The flux of BP to the ground surface correlates well with its concentration in moss. A map of BP flux across Lithuania was created. 20 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. A two-stage process using electrokinetic remediation and electrochemical degradation for treating benzo[a]pyrene spiked kaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, J; Alcántara, M T; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2009-03-01

    An innovative process that combines soil electrokinetic remediation and liquid electrochemical oxidation for the degradation of organic compounds present in a polluted soil was developed and evaluated by using benzo[a]pyrene spiked kaolin. In order to increase benzo[a]pyrene solubility during electrokinetic treatment, the addition of a co-solvent or surfactant, such as ethanol or Brij 35, as flushing solution was tested. The research carried out demonstrated the influence of the desorption agent employed on benzo[a]pyrene remediation from the kaolin matrix. Thus, if the flushing solution was ethanol at 40%, there was no presence of contaminant in either chamber. On the contrary, when a solution of surfactant Brij 35 was used, benzo[a]pyrene was transported towards the cathode chamber, where it was collected. Moreover, the extent of this recovery depends on the pH profile on the soil. When no pH control was used, around 17% of initial contaminant was detected in the cathode chamber; however, when pH control was applied, the recovery of benzo[a]pyrene could be higher than 76%, when the pH control in the anode chamber was set at 7.0. In order to obtain the total degradation of mobilised benzo[a]pyrene from the contaminated soil, the liquid collected by electrokinetic remediation was oxidised by electrochemical treatment. This oxidation was accomplished via an electrochemical cell with a working volume of 0.4 L, and graphite as electrode material. The benzo[a]pyrene was almost totally degraded in 1d, reaching a degradation of about 73% in 16 h.

  5. Can Ketones Help Rescue Brain Fuel Supply in Later Life? Implications for Cognitive Health during Aging and the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Stephen C; Courchesne-Loyer, Alexandre; Vandenberghe, Camille; St-Pierre, Valérie; Fortier, Mélanie; Hennebelle, Marie; Croteau, Etienne; Bocti, Christian; Fulop, Tamas; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We propose that brain energy deficit is an important pre-symptomatic feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that requires closer attention in the development of AD therapeutics. Our rationale is fourfold: (i) Glucose uptake is lower in the frontal cortex of people >65 years-old despite cognitive scores that are normal for age. (ii) The regional deficit in brain glucose uptake is present in adults brain glucose uptake is impaired in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but brain uptake of ketones (beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate), remains the same in AD and MCI as in cognitively healthy age-matched controls. These observations point to a brain fuel deficit which appears to be specific to glucose, precedes cognitive decline associated with AD, and becomes more severe as MCI progresses toward AD. Since glucose is the brain's main fuel, we suggest that gradual brain glucose exhaustion is contributing significantly to the onset or progression of AD. (iv) Interventions that raise ketone availability to the brain improve cognitive outcomes in both MCI and AD as well as in acute experimental hypoglycemia. Ketones are the brain's main alternative fuel to glucose and brain ketone uptake is still normal in MCI and in early AD, which would help explain why ketogenic interventions improve some cognitive outcomes in MCI and AD. We suggest that the brain energy deficit needs to be overcome in order to successfully develop more effective therapeutics for AD. At present, oral ketogenic supplements are the most promising means of achieving this goal.

  6. Explaining health differences between men and women in later life: a cross-city comparison in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Alvarado, Beatriz-Eugenia; Béland, François; Vissandjee, Bilkis

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes differences in health and functional status among older men and women and attempts to anchor the explanations for these differences within a lifecourse perspective. Seven health outcomes for men and women 60 years and older from seven Latin American and Caribbean cities are examined, using data from the 2000 SABE survey (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento-n=10,587). Age-adjusted as well as city- and sex-specific prevalence was estimated for poor self-rated health, comorbidity, mobility limitations, cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms and disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living. Logistic regressions were fitted to determine if the differences between men and women in each outcome could be explained by differential exposures in childhood (hunger, poverty), adulthood (education, occupation) and old age (income) and/or by differential vulnerability of men and women to these exposures. Sao Paulo, Santiago and Mexico, cities in countries with a high level of income inequalities, presented the highest prevalence of disability, functional limitations and poor physical health for both women and men. Women showed poorer health outcomes as compared with men for all health indicators and in all cities. Controlling for lifecourse exposures in childhood, adulthood and old age did not attenuate these differences. Women's unadjusted and adjusted odds of reporting poor self-rated health, cognitive impairment and basic activities of daily living disability were approximately 50% higher than for men, twice as high for number of comorbidities, depressive symptoms and instrumental activities of daily living disability, and almost three times as high for mobility limitations. Higher vulnerability to lifecourse exposures in women as compared with men was not found, meaning that lifecourse exposures have similar odds of poor health outcomes for men and women. A more integrated understanding of how sex and gender act together to influence

  7. Can Ketones Help Rescue Brain Fuel Supply in Later Life? Implications for Cognitive Health during Aging and the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Stephen C.; Courchesne-Loyer, Alexandre; Vandenberghe, Camille; St-Pierre, Valérie; Fortier, Mélanie; Hennebelle, Marie; Croteau, Etienne; Bocti, Christian; Fulop, Tamas; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We propose that brain energy deficit is an important pre-symptomatic feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that requires closer attention in the development of AD therapeutics. Our rationale is fourfold: (i) Glucose uptake is lower in the frontal cortex of people >65 years-old despite cognitive scores that are normal for age. (ii) The regional deficit in brain glucose uptake is present in adults brain glucose uptake is impaired in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but brain uptake of ketones (beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate), remains the same in AD and MCI as in cognitively healthy age-matched controls. These observations point to a brain fuel deficit which appears to be specific to glucose, precedes cognitive decline associated with AD, and becomes more severe as MCI progresses toward AD. Since glucose is the brain’s main fuel, we suggest that gradual brain glucose exhaustion is contributing significantly to the onset or progression of AD. (iv) Interventions that raise ketone availability to the brain improve cognitive outcomes in both MCI and AD as well as in acute experimental hypoglycemia. Ketones are the brain’s main alternative fuel to glucose and brain ketone uptake is still normal in MCI and in early AD, which would help explain why ketogenic interventions improve some cognitive outcomes in MCI and AD. We suggest that the brain energy deficit needs to be overcome in order to successfully develop more effective therapeutics for AD. At present, oral ketogenic supplements are the most promising means of achieving this goal. PMID:27458340

  8. Determination of the level of benzo[a]pyrene in fatty foods and food supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Wielen-Hustinx, Jacqueline Claire Agnes; Jansen, John; Martena, Martijn J.; De Groot, Henk; In T Veld, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A routine method was developed for the quantification of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in edible oils and food supplements. BaP is often taken as an indicator of the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The method consists of on-line LC-clean up followed by injection to an HPLC-system connected with fluorescence detection. The method has good performance characteristics and gave good results in proficiency tests. From 2002 to 2004 about 1350 samples, oils and food supp...

  9. Mikrobieller Abbau von 14 C-markiertem Benzo[a]pyren durch PAK-adaptierte Bakterienmischkulturen

    OpenAIRE

    Schwiening, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    In the last years the biodegradation of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) for the bioremediation of polluted soils was studied. Important for a successfull remediation is the degradation of the high molecular weight PAH, a major class of carcinogenic and persistent organic compounds. So the aim of this work was to study the biodegradation of the 5-ring benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as a priority pollutant of the high molecular weight PAH. With the use of 14C labeled BaP the degradation could be qu...

  10. Electrochemical detection of benzo(a)pyrene and related DNA damage using DNA/hemin/nafion–graphene biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Yongnian, E-mail: ynni@ncu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang, Pingping; Song, Haiyan [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Lin, Xiaoyun [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Kokot, Serge, E-mail: s.kokot@qut.edu.au [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4001 (Australia)

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel electrochemical biosensor, DNA/hemin/nafion–graphene/GCE, was constructed to quantitatively study the DNA damage induced by the metabolite of benzo(a)pyrene in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Construction of a novel DNA/hemin/nafion-graphene/GCE biosensor. • DNA damage induced by the benzo(a)pyrene metabolite was detected. • DPV analysis of benzo(a)pyrene provided a quantitative estimate of DNA damage. • Hemin/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system could mimic the cytochrome P450 to metabolize benzo(a)pyrene. - Abstract: A novel electrochemical biosensor, DNA/hemin/nafion–graphene/GCE, was constructed for the analysis of the benzo(a)pyrene PAH, which can produce DNA damage induced by a benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) enzyme-catalytic product. This biosensor was assembled layer-by-layer, and was characterized with the use of cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and atomic force microscopy. Ultimately, it was demonstrated that the hemin/nafion–graphene/GCE was a viable platform for the immobilization of DNA. This DNA biosensor was treated separately in benzo(a)pyrene, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and in their mixture, respectively, and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis showed that an oxidation peak was apparent after the electrode was immersed in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Such experiments indicated that in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, hemin could mimic cytochrome P450 to metabolize benzo(a)pyrene, and a voltammogram of its metabolite was recorded. The DNA damage induced by this metabolite was also detected by electrochemical impedance and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Finally, a novel, indirect DPV analytical method for BaP in aqueous solution was developed based on the linear metabolite versus BaP concentration plot; this method provided a new, indirect, quantitative estimate of DNA damage.

  11. Potential application of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy to determine benzo[a]pyrene in soil extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua Guoxiong [School of Biology, Institute for Research on the Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Killham, Ken [Department of Plant and Soil Science, Cruickshank Building, University of Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Singleton, Ian [School of Biology, Institute for Research on the Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ian.singleton@ncl.ac.uk

    2006-01-15

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a significant environmental pollutant and rapid, accurate methods to quantify this compound in soil for both research and environmental investigation purposes are required. In this work, solvent extracts from five contrasting soils spiked with four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were rapidly analysed by using a synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) method. The SFS method was validated using HPLC with ultraviolet detection. A good correlation for the quantification of BaP in soil extracts by the two methods was observed. The detection limit of the SFS method was 1.6 x 10{sup -9} g/ml in CTAB micellar medium (7.8 mmol/l). The work demonstrates that SFS has potential as a sensitive, accurate, rapid, simple and economic methodology and an efficient alternative to HPLC for fast confirmation and quantification of BaP in complex soil extracts. - Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy has potential as a method for confirmation of benzo[a]pyrene in soil extracts.

  12. Remediation of benzo[a]pyrene and chrysene-contaminated soil with industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sonia; Paquin, Daniel; Awaya, Jonathan D; Li, Qing X

    2002-01-01

    The phytoremediation, with industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa), of a Hawaiian silty clay soil contaminated with two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, was studied. Hemp showed a very high tolerance to the contaminants. The growth rates of hemp, compared with control, in soils fortified with chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene at concentrations of each varying from 25 to 200 micrograms/g were consistently above 100%. The plants grew from seed for 45 days in soil fortified with PAHs at concentrations of 25, 50, and 75 micrograms/g. Controls were pots with contaminated soil but no plant. PAHs levels were significantly reduced in all pots (control and seeded pots), expect for one set at a high concentration of chrysene, which may be due to uneven spiking. A time course study over 28 days was done to monitor changes of microbial count and levels of chrysene. Little changes were observed for the total microbial count in the soil, and the concentration of chrysene in the soil decreased slightly in the pots containing plants. However, the chrysene levels in those pots were consistently lower than those in the pots without plants.

  13. Species-specific testicular and hepatic microsomal metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene, an ubiquitous toxicant and endocrine disruptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the metabolism of the environmental toxicant, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the male reproductive system is crucial for understanding BaP-induced infertility. Microsomes were isolated from the liver and testes of rat, mouse, hamster, ram, boar, bull, and monkey and incubated with BaP. Post-...

  14. Uptake of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene in melanin-containing tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, A.; Larsson, B.S. [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Div. of Toxicology, Uppsala (Sweden); Tjaelve, H. [The Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-08-01

    It is widely accepted that UV exposure is the main etiological factor for malignant melanoma. Epidemiologic studies, however, have indicated that also chemical carcinogens may be a risk factor for the disease. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene represent an important class of carcinogenic chemicals. It is known that 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene can induce melanotic tumours in various animal species, and human melanocytes in culture have been found to be capable of metabolizing benzo(a)pyrene to its proximate carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-diol. In the present study the disposition of {sup 14}C- and {sup 3}H-7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and {sup 14}C-benzo(a)pyrene was studied in pigmented and albino mice and Syrian golden hamsters by whole-body autoradiography. The results showed pronounced retention of label in the melanin-containing structures of the eyes and the hair follicles in the pigmented animals. The labelling of the corresponding structures in the albino animals was low. Additional experiments showed that 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene as well as some of their metabolites are bound to melanin in vitro. The specific localization of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in pigmented tissues due to melanin affinity, combined with bioactivating capacity of melanocytes, suggest that these substances may play a role in the induction of malignant melanoma. (au).

  15. Effects on specific promoter DNA methylation in zebrafish embryos and larvae following benzo[a]pyrene exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is an established reproductive and developmental toxicant. BaP exposure in humans and animals has been linked to infertility and multigenerational health consequences. DNA methylation is the most studied epigenetic mechanism that regulates gene expression, and mapping of methyla...

  16. Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentz, Jeremy A. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Alvarez, Pedro J.J. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Schnoor, Jerald L. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)]. E-mail: jerald-schnoor@uiowa.edu

    2005-08-15

    Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of {sup 14}C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% {sup 14}CO{sub 2} when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. - Bacterial benzo[a]pyrene cometabolism, a plant-microbe interaction affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phytoremediation was demonstrated with Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 that utilized plant root extracts and exudates as primary substrates.

  17. USE OF MULTIPHOTON LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY TO IMAGE BENZO[A]PYRENE AND METABOLITES IN FISH EGGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM) is a promising tool to study the tissue distribution of environmental chemical contaminants during fish early life stages. One such chemical for which this is possible is benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that a...

  18. USE OF MULTIPHOTON LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY TO IMAGE BENZO[A]PYRENE AND METABOLITES IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiphoton laser scanning micrsocopy holds promise as a tool to study the tissue distribution of environmental chemical contaminants during fish early life stage development. One such chemical for which this is possible is benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polyaromatic hydrocarbon that a...

  19. Evidence for the involvement of cytochrome P-450 in reduction of benzo(a)pyrene 4,5-oxide by rat liver microsomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, R.; Iwasaki, K.; Shiraga, T.; Noguchi, H.

    1976-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene 4,5-oxide is reduced to benzo(a)pyrene by microsomes in the presence of NADPH. Carbon monoxide and oxygen inhibit this reduction. The liver has highest activity which is almost lacking in new-born rats. Phenobarbital as well as 3-methylcholanthrene pretreatment increases the epoxide reduction. Additions of FMN or methylviologen stimulate the epoxide reduction; dimethylaniline N-oxide and cumene hydroperoxide are inhibitory. These results indicate that benzo(a)pyrene 4,5-oxide is reduced by the reduced form of cytochrome P-450.

  20. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Causes Visual Impairment? People rarely lose their eyesight during their teen years. When they do, it's ... inflammation in the eye. It's often found in poor rural countries that have overcrowded living conditions and ...

  1. Liquid chromatographic determination of benzo(a)pyrene in total particulate matter of cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkins, B.A.; Jenkins, R.A.; Griest, W.H.; Reagan, R.R.; Holladay, S.K.

    1985-09-01

    The benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) delivery of reference and commercially available tobacco cigarettes, as well as reference and placebo marijuana cigarettes, is determined using a sequential liquid chromatographic/liquid chromatographic procedure. The total particulate matter of sample cigarette smoke is collected using a Cambridge filter pad, which is ultrasonically extracted with acetone. The resulting extract is filtered, then fractionated using semipreparative-scale normal phase liquid chromatography (LC). Quantitative determination is achieved using analytical-scale reverse phase LC equipped with a fluorescence detector. The method is precise (+/- 10-15% relative standard deviation) and yields 85% or better BaP recovery at the ng/cig. level. A single pad may be analyzed in 8 person-hours, while a more typical lot of 12 pads (6 pads each for 2 cigarette brands) may be analyzed in 10 person-days.

  2. Chlorophyll catalyse the photo-transformation of carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lijuan; Lai, Xueying; Chen, Baowei; Lin, Li; Fang, Ling; Tam, Nora F Y; Luan, Tiangang

    2015-08-04

    Algal blooms cause great damage to water quality and aquaculture. However, this study showed that dead algal cells and chlorophyll could accelerate the photo-transformation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a ubiquitous and persistent pollutant with potently mutagenic and carcinogenic toxicities, under visible light irradiation. Chlorophyll was found to be the major active substance in dead algal cells, and generated a high level of singlet oxygen to catalyse the photo-transformation of BaP. According to various BaP metabolites formed, the degradation mechanism was proposed as that chlorophyll in dead algal cells photo-oxidized BaP to quinones via photocatalytic generation of singlet oxygen. The results provided a good insight into the role of chlorophyll in the photo-transformation of organic contaminants and could be a possible remediation strategy of organic pollutants in natural environment.

  3. Bioremediation of phenanthrene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene by fungi screened from nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Hadibarata

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Laccase of Polyporus sp. S133 was able to oxidize most of the 3 different rings amount polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs tested. Phenanthrene was removed by 89% followed by chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene which were oxidized by 66 and 55%, respectively. Addition of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT to the reaction mixture increased oxidation of PAHs, especially phenanthrene was almost completely removed from the reaction mixture. Oxidation of chrysene and benzo[a]anthracene increased 12 and 10% with the mediator to 78 and 65% in the presence of HBT. PAH-quinones as oxidation products were formed from all PAH to different extents. A part of PAH was polymerized in the laccase/mediator system to products of weight-average molecular weight (MW. The correlation of the ionization potentials of PAH with the oxidation of these compounds is limited to the alternating PAH.

  4. The development of abdominal aortic aneurysms in mice is enhanced by benzo(apyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Yong Zhang1, Kenneth S Ramos1,21Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA; 2Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USAAbstract: Cigarette smoking has been strongly associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA, but the components of tobacco smoke involved in AAA have not been identified. Benzo(apyrene (BaP is an important constituent in cigarette smoke capable of induction of alterations strikingly similar to the pathological changes seen during AAA development. We therefore hypothesized that BaP exposure contributes to the development of AAA. In this study, C57/B6J mice were treated with vehicle, angiotensin II (AngII (0.72 mg/kg/day, BaP (10 mg/kg/week, or the combination of AngII and BaP, for 5 weeks, and then examined for incidence of AAA and pathological changes of the aortic wall. Results showed that incidence of AAA formation in C57/B6J mice treated with BaP and AngII was significantly higher than that in AngII-treated mice (7 of 12 compared to 2 of 12. Further, five mice in the group treated with AngII/BaP and one in the group treated with AngII exhibited AAA rupture and hematoma. BaP caused macrophage infi ltration, disarray of elastic lamella, and loss of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. We conclude that BaP aggravates AAA formation and rupture in C57/B6J mice by promoting macrophage infi ltration, degeneration of elastic lamella, and loss of VSMCs in the aortic wall.Keywords: abdominal aortic aneurysm, benzo(apyrene, cigarette smoking, aorta, C57B/6J mice

  5. Predicting lung dosimetry of inhaled particleborne benzo[a]pyrene using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jerry; Franzen, Allison; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Lumpkin, Michael; Crowell, Susan; Meredith, Clive; Loccisano, Anne; Gentry, Robinan; Clewell, Harvey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a by-product of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and plant/wood products, including tobacco. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for BaP for the rat was extended to simulate inhalation exposures to BaP in rats and humans including particle deposition and dissolution of absorbed BaP and renal elimination of 3-hydroxy benzo[a]pyrene (3-OH BaP) in humans. The clearance of particle-associated BaP from lung based on existing data in rats and dogs suggest that the process is bi-phasic. An initial rapid clearance was represented by BaP released from particles followed by a slower first-order clearance that follows particle kinetics. Parameter values for BaP-particle dissociation were estimated using inhalation data from isolated/ventilated/perfused rat lungs and optimized in the extended inhalation model using available rat data. Simulations of acute inhalation exposures in rats identified specific data needs including systemic elimination of BaP metabolites, diffusion-limited transfer rates of BaP from lung tissue to blood and the quantitative role of macrophage-mediated and ciliated clearance mechanisms. The updated BaP model provides very good prediction of the urinary 3-OH BaP concentrations and the relative difference between measured 3-OH BaP in nonsmokers versus smokers. This PBPK model for inhaled BaP is a preliminary tool for quantifying lung BaP dosimetry in rat and humans and was used to prioritize data needs that would provide significant model refinement and robust internal dosimetry capabilities. PMID:27569524

  6. Preliminary Feasibility Study of Benzo(aPyrene Oxidative Degradation by Fenton Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Homem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are considered priority compounds due to their toxic and carcinogenic nature. The concern about water contamination and the consequent human exposure has encouraged the development of new methods for PAHs removal. The purpose of this work was to study the feasibility of a degradation process of benzo(apyrene (BaP in aqueous matrices by oxidation with Fenton reagent. A laboratory unit was designed to optimize the factors which may influence the process: pH (3.5 to 6.0, temperature (30 to 70°C, H2O2 (20 to 150 mg L-1, Fe2+ concentration (2.75 to 5.50 mg L-1, and the initial concentration of the pollutant (10 to 100 μg L-1. The pH did not influence significantly the results in the range studied. An increase in temperature from 30 to 70°C improved the removal efficiency from 90% to 100%. The same effect was observed for ferrous ion concentrations from 2.75 to 5.50 mg L-1 (increase from 78% to 100% removal. The H2O2 concentration played a double role during the process: from 20 to 50 mg L-1 an increase in the removal efficiency was achieved, but for higher concentrations (> 50 mg L-1 the degradation is lower. This study proved that the degradation of benzo(apyrene by Fenton's reagent is a viable process.

  7. Benzo[a]pyrene in urban environments of eastern Moscow: pollution levels and critical loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimov, Nikolay S.; Kosheleva, Natalia E.; Nikiforova, Elena M.; Vlasov, Dmitry V.

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are toxic compounds emitted from various anthropogenic sources. Understanding the BaP concentrations, dynamics and decomposition in soil is required to assess the critical loads of BaP in urban environments. This study is the first attempt to evaluate all major input and output components of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) balance and to calculate the permissible load on the urban environment in different land-use zones in the Eastern district of Moscow. BaP contamination of the snow cover in the Eastern district of Moscow was related to daily BaP fallout from the atmosphere. In 2010, the mean content of the pollutant in the snow dust was 1942 ng g-1, whereas the average intensity of its fallout was 7.13 ng m-2 per day. Across the territory, BaP winter fallout intensities varied from 0.3 to 1100 ng m-2 per day. The average BaP content in the surface (0-10 cm) soil horizons was 409 ng g-1, which is 83 times higher than the local background value and 20 times higher than the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) accepted in Russia. The variations in soil and snow BaP concentrations among different land-use zones were examined. A significant contribution of BaP from the atmosphere to urban soils was identified. Based on the measurements of BaP atmospheric fallout and BaP reserves in the soils, the critical loads of BaP for the land-use zones in the Eastern district were calculated for different values of degradation intensity and different exposure times. It was established that at an annual degradation intensity of 1-10 %, ecologically safe BaP levels in the soils of all land-use zones, excluding the agricultural zone, will only be reached after many decades or centuries.

  8. Biodegradation of benzo[a]pyrene by the mixed culture of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus vireti isolated from the petrochemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandass, Ramya; Rout, Pallabi; Jiwal, Sonia; Sasikala, Chitrambalam

    2012-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a group of compounds that pose threat to humans and animal life. Methods to reduce the amount of PAHs in the environment are continuously being sought. The bacterial consortium capable of utilizing benzo(a)pyrene as the sole source of carbon and energy was isolated from petrochemical soil. The isolates were identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus viretibased on morphological characterization, and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. About 58.98% of benzo(a)pyrene at concentration of 500 mg l(-1) in mineral salts medium were removed by bacterial consortium. GC mass spectral analysis showed the presence of metabolite cis-4-(7-hydroxypyren-8-yl)-2-oxobut-3enoic acid. The results indicate that the bacterial consortium is a new bacterial resource for biodegrading benzo(a)pyrene and might be used for bioremediation of sites heavily contaminated by benzo[a]pyrene and its derivatives.

  9. Separation: consequences for wealth in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewilde, C.; van den Bosch, K.; van den Heede, A.; Börsch-Supan, A.; Brandt, M.; Hank, K.; Schröder, M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the course of their lives, a substantial minority of elderly European men and women have experienced the dissolution of one or more partner relationships through divorce or the ending of cohabitation. So far, most research into the economic consequences of (marital) separation has been based on

  10. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  11. [Stability of personality in later life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooi, B; Comijs, H C; Beekman, A T F; Kerkhof, A J F M

    2006-09-01

    The relation of aging and the stability of personality in late life is evaluated by a literature review. The findings of six longitudinal studies reveal that rank-order consistency continues into old age. The mean-level stability reveals a concave curve for 'neuroticism' with an increase after age 80, a decrease for 'extraversion', and an increase for 'agreeableness'. The methodological and conceptual issues of personality assessment with old adults can be resolved by using a self report scale which corresponds to the capacities and the lifestyle of older adults and by involving age related variables into analyses.

  12. ELLAN – European Later Life Active Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: The need for cooperation throughout Europe to meet new challenges in professional work with older people seems to be undeniable. Therefore, it is regarded as essential to build on both, inter- and transnational partnerships between Higher Education Institutes and transprofessional...... partnerships, including older adults on the one hand and students on the other hand, as experts of their own experience. In this context the EU-funded Project ELLAN (2013 – 2016) takes place with a consortium of 28 partners from all over Europe. Educational Philosophy or theory: The overarching aim of ELLAN...... is to develop a European Core Competencies Framework for working with older people (ECCF) in the horizon of positive ageing and social cohesion. Moreover, the ECCF is being developed as an instrument for transnational curriculum design in this field. Consequently, the project is designed to share good practice...

  13. Self-caring in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine; Grut, Sara

    2015-01-01

    to the structure and ordering of society. These demographic changes favour what we call a (geronto)pedagogicalisation of ageing societies (Fristrup, 2012a). The neoliberal agenda of choice and agency unfolds as a transformation of the ways in which old age is being experienced by adults throughout the world...

  14. Hearing Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavender, Anna; Ladner, Richard E.

    For many people with hearing impairments, the degree of hearing loss is only a small aspect of their disability and does not necessarily determine the types of accessibility solutions or accommodations that may be required. For some people, the ability to adjust the audio volume may be sufficient. For others, translation to a signed language may be more appropriate. For still others, access to text alternatives may be the best solution. Because of these differences, it is important for researchers in Web accessibility to understand that people with hearing impairments may have very different cultural-linguistic traditions and personal backgrounds.

  15. Hasse diagram as a green analytical metrics tool: ranking of methods for benzo[a]pyrene determination in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigus, Paulina; Tsakovski, Stefan; Simeonov, Vasil; Namieśnik, Jacek; Tobiszewski, Marek

    2016-05-01

    This study presents an application of the Hasse diagram technique (HDT) as the assessment tool to select the most appropriate analytical procedures according to their greenness or the best analytical performance. The dataset consists of analytical procedures for benzo[a]pyrene determination in sediment samples, which were described by 11 variables concerning their greenness and analytical performance. Two analyses with the HDT were performed-the first one with metrological variables and the second one with "green" variables as input data. Both HDT analyses ranked different analytical procedures as the most valuable, suggesting that green analytical chemistry is not in accordance with metrology when benzo[a]pyrene in sediment samples is determined. The HDT can be used as a good decision support tool to choose the proper analytical procedure concerning green analytical chemistry principles and analytical performance merits.

  16. All Vision Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Statistics and Data > All Vision Impairment All Vision Impairment Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment is defined as the ... Ethnicity 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Vision Impairment by Age and Race/Ethnicity Table for ...

  17. Cassia senna inhibits mutagenic activities of benzo[a]-pyrene, aflatoxin B1, shamma and methyl methanesulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Dakan, A A; al-Tuffail, M; Hannan, M A

    1995-10-01

    Ethanol extract of Senokot tablets (Cassia senna concentrate used as vegetable laxative), was found to be non-mutagenic while it inhibited the mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene, shamma, aflatoxin B1 and methyl methanesulfonate in the Ames histidine reversion assay using the Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98. While the Senokot extract completely inhibited the mutagenicity of promutagens (i.e. metabolic activation dependent) like benzo[a]pyrene and shamma, it reduced the mutagenic activity of the direct acting mutagen methyl methanesulfonate by only 58%. The mutagen aflatoxin B1 showed a 25-fold increase in the number of histidine revertants per plate at low concentrations (1.0-4.0 micrograms/plate) in the presence of metabolic activation system while at high concentrations (10.0-30.0 micrograms/plate) it proved to be weakly mutagenic (with a 5-fold increase in the number of histidine revertants/plate) without metabolic activation. The Senokot extract completely inhibited the mutagenic effect of low concentrations of aflatoxin B1 in the presence of metabolic activation but not that resulting from higher concentrations without metabolic activation. The results obtained with benzo[a]pyrene, shamma and aflatoxin B1 indicated that the antimutagenic effects of Senokot extract could be largely due to an interaction with the metabolic process involved in the activation of procarcinogens. However, the results obtained with methyl methanesulfonate suggested that factors in Senokot may also interact with direct mutagens to produce some antimutagenic effects. An ethanol extract of crude senna leaves found to be weakly mutagenic also inhibited (though less than Senokot) the mutagenic effect of benzo[a]pyrene suggesting that the antimutagenic principle is present in the complex plant material itself.

  18. Phthalic acid and benzo[a]pyrene in soil-plant-water systems amended with contaminated sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougin, C.; Dappozze, F.; Brault, A.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the fate of C-14-labelled phthalic acid and benzo[a]pyrene applied to the soil by the way of contaminated sewage sludge in model ecosystems allowing the simultaneous assessment of physicochemical and biological descriptors. Here we show that the mineralisation of phthalic acid is highe......[a]pyrene is recalcitrant to biodegradation whatever the type of soil contamination. We show also that the chemicals present in the sludge are poorly transferred to soil leachates and plant seedlings....

  19. Proteomic analysis of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana upon exposure to benzo(a)pyrene

    OpenAIRE

    Lettieri Teresa; Carvalho Raquel N

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants ubiquitously distributed. They are generated by incomplete combustion of organic materials such as wood or fossil fuels. Due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic effects and to their wide distribution in the environment, these pollutants pose many concerns to researchers and regulators. In our laboratories we investigated the effect of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) exposure in the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonan...

  20. Rate constants for H abstraction from benzo(a)pyrene and chrysene: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenikhin, A S; Savchenkova, A S; Chechet, I V; Matveev, S G; Liu, Z; Frenklach, M; Mebel, A M

    2017-09-12

    Density functional B3LYP/6-31G(d) and ab initio G3(MP2,CC) calculations have been carried out to determine thermal rate constants of direct H abstraction reactions from four- and five-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene by various radicals abundant in combustion flames, such as H, CH3, C3H3, and OH, using transition state theory. The results show that the H abstraction reactions with OH have the lowest barriers of ∼4 kcal mol(-1), followed by those with H and CH3 with barriers of 16-17 kcal mol(-1), and then with propargyl radicals with barriers of 24-26 kcal mol(-1). Thus, the OH radical is predicted to be the fastest H abstractor from PAH. Even at 2500 K, the rate constant for H abstraction by H is still 34% lower than the rate constant for H abstraction by OH. The reaction with H is calculated to have rate constants 35-19 times higher than those for the reaction with CH3 due to a more favorable entropic factor. The reactions of H abstraction by C3H3 are predicted to be orders of magnitude slower than the other reactions considered and their equilibrium is strongly shifted toward the reactants, making propargyl an inefficient H abstractor from the aromatics. The calculations showed strong similarity of the reaction energetics in different H abstraction positions of benzo[a]pyrene and chrysene within armchair and zigzag edges in these molecules, but clear distinction between the armchair and zigzag sites. The zigzag sites appear to be more reactive, with H abstraction rate constants by H, CH3, and OH being respectively 37-42%, a factor of 2.1, and factors of 8-9 higher than the corresponding rate constants for the H abstraction reactions from armchair sites. Although the barrier heights for the two types of edges are similar, the entropic factor makes zigzag sites more favorable for H abstraction. Rate expressions have been generated for all studied reactions with the goal to rectify current combustion kinetics mechanisms.

  1. Degradation of benzo[a]pyrene by Pleurotus ostreatus PO-3 in the presence of defined fungal and bacterial co-cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sourav; Das, Arijit; Palaniswamy, Muthusamy; Angayarkanni, Jayaraman

    2017-02-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon possesses carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic properties. The present study focuses on benzo[a]pyrene degradation by Pleurotus ostreatus PO-3, characterization and identification of metabolites produced and the extent of degradation in the presence of axenic culture of P. ostreatus PO-3 and defined co-cultures of the basidiomycete with bacteria and non-basidiomycete fungi. Thin-layer chromatography revealed that P. ostreatus PO-3 transformed benzo[a]pyrene to polar metabolites. Following degradation, appearance of numerous peaks in the mass spectrum indicated that benzo[a]pyrene degradation was a result of the metabolic activity of P. ostreatus PO-3. A degradation product corresponding to the m/z 284.2 was detected which could possibly be BaP-quinone, resulting from the oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene. Compared to the axenic culture of P. ostreatus PO-3 (64.3%), co-cultures of P. ostreatus PO-3 and Penicillium chrysogenum MTCC 787 and P. ostreatus PO-3 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 1688 could degrade 86.1 and 75.1% of benzo[a]pyrene, respectively. Thus it could be inferred from the present investigation that the combined catabolic activities of P. ostreatus PO-3 with bacteria and non-basidiomycete fungi can produce synergistic effects to enhance BaP degradation. The increase in the generation of polar metabolites as degradation products from the recalcitrant parent compound advocates the potential application of P. ostreatus PO-3 in benzo[a]pyrene bioremediation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Detection of the carcinogenic water pollutant benzo[a]pyrene with an electro-switchable biosurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Gregor; Langer, Andreas; Pschenitza, Michael; Karsunke, Xaver; Strasser, Ralf; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar; Rant, Ulrich

    2015-04-21

    The toxic nature of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in particular benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), neccessitates the monitoring of PAH contamination levels in food and the environment. Here we introduce an indirect immunoassay format using electro-switchable biosurfaces (ESB) for the detection of B[a]P in water. The association of anti-B[a]P antibodies to microelectrodes is analyzed in real-time by measuring changes in the oscillation dynamics of DNA nanolever probes, which are driven to switch their orientations by high-frequency electrical actuation. From the association kinetics, the active concentration of anti-B[a]P, and hence the B[a]P contamination of the sample, can be determined with picomolar sensitivity. The detection limit of the assay improves with measurement time because increasingly accurate analyses of the binding kinetics become possible. It is demonstrated that an exceedance of the permissible 10 ng/L (40 pM) limit for B[a]P is detectable in an unprecedented short assay time (deviations below 5%. Further, the utility of the assay for practical applications is exemplified by analyzing a river water sample.

  3. Mouth-Level Intake of Benzo[a]pyrene from Reduced Nicotine Cigarettes

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    Yan S. Ding

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is a known source of exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, especially benzo[a]pyrene (BaP. Exposure to BaP in cigarette smoke is influenced by how a person smokes and factors, such as tobacco blend. To determine whether sustained use of reduced-nicotine cigarettes is associated with changes in exposure to nicotine and BaP, levels of BaP in spent cigarette filter butts were correlated with levels of BaP in cigarette smoke to estimate mouth-level intake (MLI of BaP for 72 daily smokers given three progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes. Urinary cotinine, a marker of nicotine exposure, and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP, a marker of PAH exposure, were measured throughout the study. Median daily BaP MLI and urine cotinine decreased in a similar manner as smokers switched to progressively lower nicotine cigarettes, despite relatively constant daily cigarette consumption. 1-HOP levels were less responsive to the use of reduced nicotine content cigarettes. We demonstrate that spent cigarette filter butt analysis is a promising tool to estimate MLI of harmful chemicals on a per cigarette or per-day basis, which partially addresses the concerns of the temporal influence of smoking behavior or differences in cigarette design on exposure.

  4. Benzo[a]pyrene and Benzo[k]fluoranthene in Some Processed Fish and Fish Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde S. Olatunji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the concentration levels of the probable carcinogenic PAH fractions, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP and benzo[k]fluoranthrene (BkF in fillets of some processed fish species were investigated. Fish species comprising Merluccius poli (hake, Tyrsites atun (snoek, Seriola lalandi (yellow-tail and Brama brama (angel fish were bought in fish shops at Gordon’s Bay, Western Cape, South Africa. The fish were gutted, filleted and prepared for edibility by frying, grilling and boiling. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted from each homogenized fish sample, cleaned-up using solid phase extraction (SPE, and analysed for the PAH fractions, BaP and BkF using a Gas Chromatograph coupled with a Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID. The sum of the two PAHs (∑2PAH i.e., BaP and BkF ranged between 0.56 and 1.46 µg/kg, in all boiled, grilled and fried fish species. The fried fish extracts showed significantly higher (p < 0.05 abundance of ∑2PAH, than grilled and boiled fish. Dietary safety and PAHs toxicity was also discussed.

  5. Biodegradation of Benzo[a]pyrene by Arthrobacter oxydans B4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Hui; YIN Hua; DENG Jun; YE Jin-Shao; CHEN Shuo-Na; HE Bao-Yan; ZHANG Na

    2012-01-01

    A bacterial strain,Arthrobacter oxydans (B4),capable of degrading benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in water body,was isolated from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-contaminated site.Effects of different factors,such as reaction time,pH value,temperature and organic nutrients,on BaP biodegradation by the strain B4 were studied.After 5 d treatment,the concentration of BaP in mineral salts medium was reduced to 0.318 mg L-1,compared to the initial concentration of 1.000 mg L-1.There was a process of acid formation during the degradation with pH failing from initial 7.01 to 4.61 at 5 d,so keeping the water body under slightly alkaline condition was propitious to BaP degradation.Strain B4 efficiently degraded BaP at 20 to 37 ℃ with addition of organic nutrients.The biodegradation and transformation of BaP mainly occurred on cell surfaces,and extracellular secretions played an important role in these processes.Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analyses of metabolites showed that ring cleavage occurred in the BaP degradation process and the resulting metabolically utilizable substrates were generated as sole carbon sources for B4 growth.Furthermore,mineralization extent of metabolites was verified by determining the total organic carbon and inorganic carbon in the degradation system.

  6. Protective effects of lupeol against benzo[a]pyrene induced clastogenicity in mouse bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Kumar Yadav, Vinay; Srivastava, Smita; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2008-10-01

    Fruits and vegetables contain a variety of ingredients that exhibit chemopreventive effects against an array of xenobiotics. In the present study, the antigenotoxic potential of lupeol, a triterpene, and mango pulp extract (MPE) was evaluated in Swiss albino mice. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a well-known mutagen, was given at a single dose of 100 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally. Pretreatment with lupeol (1 mg/animal) and MPE (1 mL, 20%) was given through oral intubation for 7 days prior to B[a]P administration. Animals from all the groups were killed at sampling time of 24 h and their bone marrow tissue was analyzed for chromosomal damage and micronuclei induction. In B[a]P-treated animals a significant induction of chromosomal aberration and micronuclei was recorded, with a decrease in mitotic index. In lupeol- or MPE-supplemented groups, a significant decrease in B[a]P-induced clastogenicity was recorded. The incidence of aberrant cells and micronuclei was found to be reduced by both lupeol and MPE when compared to the B[a]P-treated group. The anti-cytotoxic effects of lupeol or MPE were also evident, as observed by significant increase in mitotic index. Thus, results of the present investigation revealed that lupeol and MPE have protective effects against B[a]P-induced clastogenic changes in Swiss albino mice.

  7. Benzo[a]pyrene treatment leads to changes in nuclear protein expression and alternative splicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Chunlan; Wu Wei [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Li Haiyan [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Huzhou Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Huzhou, Zhejiang 313000 (China); Zhang Guanglin [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Duerksen-Hughes, Penelope J. [Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States); Zhu Xinqiang, E-mail: zhuxq@zju.edu.cn [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Yang Jun, E-mail: gastate@zju.edu.cn [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Zhejiang-California International Nanosystems Institute, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China)

    2010-04-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a potent pro-carcinogen generated from the combustion of fossil fuel and cigarette smoke. Previously, using a proteomic approach, we have shown that BaP can induce changes in the expression of many cellular proteins, including transcription regulators. In the present study, using a similar approach, we examined the nuclear protein response to BaP in HeLa cells and found that BaP treatment caused expression changes in many nuclear proteins. Twenty-four of these proteins were successfully identified, several of which are involved in the alternative splicing of mRNA, DNA replication, recombination, and repair. The changed expression levels were further confirmed by immunoblot analysis using specific antibodies for two proteins, Lamin A and mitotic checkpoint protein Bub3. The nuclear localization of these two proteins was also confirmed by confocal microscopy. To determine whether alternative splicing was activated following BaP treatment, we examined Fas and CD44, two genes previously shown to be targets of alternative splicing in respond to DNA damage. While no significant activation of alternative splicing was observed for Fas, CD44 splicing variants were found after BaP treatment. Together, these data show that DNA damage induces dramatic changes in nuclear protein expression, and that alternative splicing might be involved in the cellular response to DNA damage.

  8. Comparative Studies on the Toxicokinetics of Benzo[a]pyrene in Pinctada martensii and Perna viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haihua; Cui, Lili; Cheng, Huamin; Zhang, Yu; Diao, Xiaoping; Wang, Jun

    2017-05-01

    Research on the kinetics of Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) bioaccumulation in the clam Pinctada martensii and mussel Perna viridis showed that the initial rate of uptake was directly related to the PAH concentrations in the ambient environment. The uptake and depuration rate constants were different at the four B[a]P exposure levels, which indicated that the toxicokinetic rate constants mainly depended on the exposure levels of pollutants to the environment. In addition, the uptake rate constants of B[a]P were higher than the depuration rate constants in the entire experiment. The comparison demonstrated that mussels release B[a]P more rapidly than clams. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of B[a]P varied from 3335 to 12892 in the clam and 2373-6235 in the mussel. These findings on the bioaccumulation kinetics for petroleum hydrocarbons, in association with the critical body residue, will be valuable when choosing sensitive organisms to assess the potential ecotoxicological risk to the marine environment.

  9. Transcriptomic responses of Perna viridis embryo to Benzo(a)pyrene exposure elucidated by RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiu; Qiu, Liguo; Zhao, Hongwei; Song, Qinqin; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-11-01

    The green mussel Perna viridis is an ideal biomonitor to evaluate marine environmental pollution. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), which is well known for the mutagenic and carcinogenic characteristics. However, the toxicological effects of BaP on Perna viridis embryo are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the embryo transcriptomic profile of Perna viridis treated with BaP via digital gene expression analysis. A total of 92,362,742 reads were produced from two groups (control and BaP exposure) by whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq). Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were used on all genes to determine the biological functions and processes. Genes involved in various molecular pathways of toxicological effects were enriched further. The differential expression genes (DEGs) were related to stress response, infectious disease and innate immunity. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) measured expressional levels of six genes confirmed through the DGE analysis. This study reveals that RNA-seq for transcriptome profiling of P. viridis embryo can better understand the embryo toxic effects of BaP. Furthermore, it also suggests that RNA-seq is a superior tool for generating novel and valuable information for revealing the toxic effects caused by BaP at transcriptional level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of benzo(a)pyrene exposure on the antioxidant enzyme activity of scallop Chlamys farreri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Luqing; Ren, Jiayun; Zheng, Debin

    2009-02-01

    Scallop Chlamys farreri was exposed to different concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) (0.5 μg/L, 1.0 μg/L, 10.0 μg/L and 50.0 μg/L) for 30 days in seawater. The 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was significantly induced, and increased with the increasing BaP concentration. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities increased in short time at low concentration of BaP, and was significantly depressed at high concentrations. Scallop gill was more sensitive to BaP than the digestive gland, and the digestive gland was the main tissue to deal with oxyradicals. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased with the exposure time and there was a positive correlation (concentration-effect) between the MDA content and the concentration of BaP. The biomarkers determined in this experiment had important roles in detoxification, and showed great potential as biomarkers for oxidative stress. Controlled laboratory experiments designed to simulate field exposure scenarios are particularly useful in ascertaining biomarkers suitable for use with complex contaminant mixtures in the marine environment.

  11. Effects of benzo(a)pyrene exposure on the antioxidant enzyme activity of scallop Chlamys farreri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Luqing; REN Jiayun; ZHENG Debin

    2009-01-01

    Scallop Chlamys farreri was exposed to different concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) (0.5 μg/L, 1.0 μg/L, 10.0 μg/L and 50.0 μg/L) for 30 days in seawater. The 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was significantly induced, and increased with the increasing BaP concentration. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities increased in short time at low concentration of BaP, and was significantly depressed at high concentrations. Scallop gill was more sensitive to BaP than the digestive gland, and the digestive gland was the main tissue to deal with oxyradicals. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased with the exposure time and there was a positive correlation (concentration-effect) between the MDA content and the concentration of BaP. The biomarkers determined in this experiment had important roles in detoxification, and showed great potential as biomarkers for oxidative stress. Controlled laboratory experiments designed to simulate field exposure scenarios are particularly useful in ascertaining biomarkers suitable for use with complex contaminant mixtures in the marine environment.

  12. Biochemical biomarkers in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene and diazinon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Trídico, Camila; Ferreira Rodrigues, Aline Cristina; Nogueira, Lilian; da Silva, Daniele Caetano; Benedito Moreira, Altair; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves

    2010-07-01

    Biochemical biomarkers (the activities of acetylcholinesterase, 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deetilase, carboxylesterase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase) were evaluated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) that had been exposed to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and the organophosphate pesticide diazinon (DZ), at 0.5mg/L. The animals were pre-exposed to BaP for three days, and DZ was then added to both non-exposed and pre-exposed groups, being exposed for 2 and 7 additional days. The level of BaP was also measured in the bile. BaP caused the induction of phase I and II enzymes, and DZ caused carboxylesterase inhibition in gills but not in liver. AChE activity was unchanged. No significant modulation was observed in antioxidant enzymes. When in combination with BaP, DZ caused a significant decrease of EROD and GST induction. Levels of BaP in the bile were also increased in fish exposed to BaP combined with DZ, indicating an interference of DZ in responses activated by BaP.

  13. Reproductive toxicity assessment of benzo[a]pyrene in the marine polychaete Perinereis nuntia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingyang; Wang, Shuqi; Chen, Xiaopeng; Li, Ping

    2017-07-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is an increasingly present marine environmental pollutant, yet our understanding of the long-term consequences of reproductive toxicity in marine benthic polychaetes remains limited. To test the reproductive toxicity of B[a]P on polychaetes, Perinereis nuntia was exposed to B[a]P-contaminated artificial seawater and sexual maturation, the sex ratio, number of eggs spawned, fertilization and hatching rated, as well as vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA expression levels were analyzed. A low concentration of B[a]P (2.5 μg/L) had no effects on the rate of sexual maturation, spawning, or fertilization but significantly increased the sex ratio (female: male) from 1.6±0.15:1 to 2.3±0.18:1, inhibited hatching rate by 27%, and significantly increased VTG mRNA expression level by 3.7-fold following a 60-day exposure, compared with those in the solvent controls. A higher concentration of B[a]P (25 μg/L) caused more serious effects; sexual maturation, fertilization success, and hatching decreased by 31%, 17% and 46%, respectively, and the sex ratio (female: male) and VTG mRNA gene expression level increased by 54% and 7.1-fold, respectively. These results demonstrate that sublethal concentrations of B[a]P negatively affect reproductive performance of the sandworm P. nuntia.

  14. Benzo(a)pyrene induced lung cancer: Role of dietary phytochemicals in chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasala, Eshvendar Reddy; Bodduluru, Lakshmi Narendra; Barua, Chandana C; Sriram, Chandra Shekhar; Gogoi, Ranadeep

    2015-10-01

    Lung cancer is the major cause of overall cancer deaths, and chemoprevention is a promising strategy to control this disease. Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P], a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is one among the principal constituents of tobacco smoke that plays a key role in lung carcinogenesis. The B(a)P induced lung cancer in mice offers a relevant model to study the effect of natural products and has been widely used by many researchers and found considerable success in ameliorating the pathophysiological changes of lung cancer. Currently available synthetic drugs that constitute the pharmacological armamentarium are themselves effective in managing the condition but not without setbacks. These hunches have accelerated the requisite for natural products, which may be used as dietary supplement to prevent the progress of lung cancer. Besides, these agents also supplement the conventional treatment and offer better management of the condition with less side effects. In the context of soaring interest toward dietary phytochemicals as newer pharmacological interventions for lung cancer, in the present review, we are attempting to give a silhouette of mechanisms of B(a)P induced lung carcinogenesis and the role of dietary phytochemicals in chemoprevention.

  15. Transcriptional signatures of regulatory and toxic responses to benzo-[a]-pyrene exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schirmer Kristin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small molecule ligands often have multiple effects on the transcriptional program of a cell: they trigger a receptor specific response and additional, indirect responses ("side effects". Distinguishing those responses is important for understanding side effects of drugs and for elucidating molecular mechanisms of toxic chemicals. Results We explored this problem by exposing cells to the environmental contaminant benzo-[a]-pyrene (B[a]P. B[a]P exposure activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr and causes toxic stress resulting in transcriptional changes that are not regulated through Ahr. We sought to distinguish these two types of responses based on a time course of expression changes measured after B[a]P exposure. Using Random Forest machine learning we classified 81 primary Ahr responders and 1,308 genes regulated as side effects. Subsequent weighted clustering gave further insight into the connection between expression pattern, mode of regulation, and biological function. Finally, the accuracy of the predictions was supported through extensive experimental validation. Conclusion Using a combination of machine learning followed by extensive experimental validation, we have further expanded the known catalog of genes regulated by the environmentally sensitive transcription factor Ahr. More broadly, this study presents a strategy for distinguishing receptor-dependent responses and side effects based on expression time courses.

  16. How the Newcastle Thousand Families birth cohort study has contributed to the understanding of the impact of birth weight and early life socioeconomic position on disease in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Mark S; Mann, Kay D; Relton, Caroline L; Francis, Roger M; Steele, James G; Craft, Alan W; Parker, Louise

    2012-05-01

    Much has been made of the potential influence of birth weight and early socioeconomic disadvantage in influencing adult health, but little has been published in terms of how important these associations may be with respect to exposures throughout the lifecourse. The objective of this review is to describe the contributions of the Newcastle Thousand Families Study in understanding the relative impacts of factors in early life, particularly birth weight and socio-economic position at birth, in influencing health in later life. The Newcastle Thousand Families Study is a prospective birth cohort established in 1947. It originally included all births to mothers resident in Newcastle upon Tyne, in northern England, in May and June of that year. Study members were followed extensively throughout childhood and intermittently in adulthood. At the age of 49-51 years, study members underwent a large-scale follow-up phase enabling an assessment of how early life may influence their later health, and also incorporating adult risk factors which enabled the relative contributions of factors at different stages of life to be assessed. While some findings from the study do support birth weight and early socio-economic position having influences on adult health status, the associations are generally small when compared to risk factors later in life. Using path analyses on longitudinal data of this nature enables mediating pathways between early life and later health to be assessed and if more studies were to take this approach, the relative importance of early life on adult disease risk could be better understood.

  17. Air quality assessment of benzo(a)pyrene from asphalt plant operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Nigel; Stewart, Robert; Rankin, Erika

    2012-01-01

    A study has been carried out to assess the contribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from asphalt plant operation, utilising Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as a marker for PAHs, to the background air concentration around asphalt plants in the UK. The purpose behind this assessment was to determine whether the use of published BaP emission factors based on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology is appropriate in the context of the UK, especially as the EPA methodology does not give BaP emission factors for all activities. The study also aimed to improve the overall understanding of BaP emissions from asphalt plants in the UK, and determine whether site location and operation is likely to influence the contribution of PAHs to ambient air quality. In order to establish whether the use of US EPA emissions factors is appropriate, the study has compared the BaP emissions measured and calculated emissions rates from two UK sites with those estimated using US EPA emission factors. A dispersion modelling exercise was carried out to show the BaP contribution to ambient air around each site. This study showed that, as the US EPA methodology does not provide factors for all emission sources on asphalt plants, their use may give rise to over- or under-estimations, particularly where sources of BaP are temperature dependent. However, the contribution of both the estimated and measured BaP concentrations to environmental concentration were low, averaging about 0.05 ng m(-3) at the boundary of the sites, which is well below the UK BaP assessment threshold of 0.25 ng m(-3). Therefore, BaP concentrations, and hence PAH concentrations, from similar asphalt plant operations are unlikely to contribute negatively to ambient air quality.

  18. Hypoxia diminishes the detoxification of the environmental mutagen benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schults, Marten A; Sanen, Kathleen; Godschalk, Roger W; Theys, Jan; van Schooten, Frederik J; Chiu, Roland K

    2014-11-01

    Hypoxia promotes genetic instability and is therefore an important factor in carcinogenesis. We have previously shown that activation of the hypoxia responsive transcription factor HIFα can enhance the mutagenic phenotype induced by the environmental mutagen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). To further elucidate the mechanism behind the ability of hypoxia to increase mutagenicity of carcinogens, we examined the activation and detoxification of BaP under hypoxic conditions. To this end, the human lung carcinoma cell line A549 was treated with BaP under 20%, 5% or 0.2% oxygen for 18h and alterations in BaP metabolism were assayed. First, BaP-induced expression of key metabolic enzymes was analysed; expression levels of the activating CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 were increased, while the detoxifying enzymes UGT1A6 and UGT2B7 were significantly reduced by hypoxia. To evaluate whether these changes had an effect on metabolism, levels of BaP and several of its metabolites were determined. Cells under hypoxia have a reduced capacity to metabolise BaP leaving more of the parent molecule intact. Additionally, BaP-7,8-dihydrodiol, the pre-cursor metabolite of the reactive metabolite BaP-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), was formed in higher concentrations. Finally, under hypoxia, DNA adducts accumulated over a period of 168 h, whereas adducts were efficiently removed in 20% oxygen conditions. The delayed detoxification kinetics resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in DNA adducts. These data indicate that the metabolism under hypoxic conditions has shifted towards increased activation of BaP instead of detoxification and support the idea that modulation of carcinogen metabolism is an important additional mechanism for the observed HIF1 mediated genetic instability.

  19. Effect of benzo(a)pyrene exposure on fluoranthene metabolism by mouse adipose tissue microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huderson, Ashley C; Harris, Deacqunita L; Niaz, Mohammad S; Ramesh, Aramandla

    2010-02-01

    The present study has been undertaken to examine whether exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compound, influences the metabolism of fluoranthene (FLA), another PAH compound. Microsomes were isolated from the adipose tissue of mice that received 50 microg/kg BaP and incubated with FLA (3 microM) alone; FLA in combination with BaP at equimolar concentrations, and a control group that received nothing. Post-incubation, samples were extracted with ethyl acetate and analyzed for FLA metabolites by reverse-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection. The rate of FLA metabolism (pmol of metabolite/min/mg protein) was increased when microsomes from BaP-treated mice were exposed to FLA alone and FLA in combination with BaP, compared to controls. On the other hand, the difference in FLA metabolic rate between microsomes that were exposed to FLA + BaP was higher than the ones that received FLA. The microsomes from BaP-pre-treated mice produced a considerably higher proportion of FLA 2, 3-diol, and 2, 3 D FLA when microsomes were incubated with FLA. There were no differences in the FLA metabolite types formed when BaP-pre-treated mice were co-incubated with BaP and FLA than with FLA alone. The enhanced biotransformation of FLA as a result of prior and concomitant exposure to BaP may have implications for assessment of risks arising from human exposure to PAH mixtures.

  20. Effect of the Apulia air quality plan on PM10 and benzo(apyrene exceedances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Trizio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, several exceedances of PM10 and benzo(apyrene limit values exceedances were recorded in Taranto, a city in southern Italy included in so-called areas at high risk of environmental crisis because of the presence of a heavy industrial district including the largest steel factory in Europe. A study of these critical pollution events showed a close correlation with the wind coming from the industrial site to the adjacent urban area. During 2011, at monitoring sites closes to the industrial area, at least the 65% of PM10 exceedances were related to wind day conditions (characterized by at least 3 consecutive hours of wind coming from 270-360±2deg with an associated speed higher than 7 m/s. For this reason, in 2012 an integrated environmental permit and a regional air quality plan were enacted to reduce pollutant emissions from industrial plants. A study of PM10 levels registered during windy days was performed during critical episodes of pollution highlighting that the difference between windy days and no windy days’ concentrations reduces from 2012 to 2014 in industrial site. False negative events (verified ex-post by observed meteorological data not identified by the forecast model - did not show a significant influence on PM concentration: PM10 values were comparable and sometimes lower than windy days levels. It is reasonable that the new scenario with a relevant reduction emissions form Ilva plant reduced the pollutants contribution from industrial area, contributing to PM10 levels decrease, also in false negative events.

  1. Dietary exposure estimation of benzo[a]pyrene and cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Shim, Geun Ae

    2007-08-01

    Dietary benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) levels were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) in various foods (e.g., snack, potato chip, bread, vegetable oil, meat, cereal, etc.) to estimate dietary intake levels of BaP for the assessment of BaP related-cancer risk in Koreans. Higher levels of BaP were detected in fried chicken (5.25-5.55 BaP microg/kg) and smoked dried beef (5.47 microg/kg) compared to relatively lower levels measured in sesame oil (0.36 microg/kg) and peanut (0.44 microg/kg). The BaP levels in nonmeat items were generally low in detection, but certain potato chip products showed levels up to 4.06 BaP microg/kg. In terms of chronic daily intake of BaP, fried chicken was shown to be the highest (70.09 ng/person/d) and perilla oil was the lowest (0.05 ng/person/d). The total daily intake of BaP due to the consumption of various food items investigated was estimated to be 124.55 ng/person/d, based on daily food consumption and the contaminant level of BaP. The dietary BaP-related cancer risk using carcinogenic potency factor of BaP as 7.3E + 0 (mg/kg/d)(-1) was assessed to be 1.52 x 10(-5). These data suggest that cancer risk due to dietary exposure to BaP is of concern in Koreans and needs to be reduced either by regulatory efforts or by modifying food manufacturing procedures.

  2. Effect of ageing on benzo[a]pyrene extractability in contrasting soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Luchun [CERAR-Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation and Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: Ravi.Naidu@newcastle.edu.au [CERAR-Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation and Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Liu, Yanju; Palanisami, Thavamani; Dong, Zhaomin; Mallavarapu, Megharaj [CERAR-Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation and Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Semple, Kirk T. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • In vitro assessment of B[a]P in contaminated soils using 4 different methods. • An exponential kinetic model fits well with the extractability data. • Fitting parameter and {sup 14}C residue correlates with key soil properties. • Fractionation of B[a]P was obtained based on extractability by extractants. - Abstract: Changes in benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) extractability over 160 days ageing in four contrasting soils varying in organic matter content and clay mineralogy were investigated using dichloromethane: acetone 1:1 (DCM/Ace), 60 mM hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solution, 1-butanol (BuOH) and Milli-Q water. The B[a]P extractability by the four methods decreased with ageing and a first-order exponential model could be used to describe the kinetics of release. Correlation of the kinetic rate constant with major soil properties showed a significant effect of clay and sand contents and pore volume fraction (<6 nm) on sequestration of the desorbable fraction (by HPCD) and the water-extractable fraction. Analysis of {sup 14}C-B[a]P in soils after ageing showed a limited loss of B[a]P via degradation. Fractionation of B[a]P pools associated with the soil matrix was analysed according to extractability of B[a]P by the different extraction methods. A summary of the different fractions is proposed for the illustration of the effect of ageing on different B[a]P-bound fractions in soils. This study provides a better understanding of the B[a]P ageing process associated with different fractions and also emphasises the extraction capacity of the different methods employed.

  3. Effects of Benzo(apyrene on Intra-testicular Function in F-344 Rats

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    Donald D. Lunstra

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive risk associated with exposure of adult male Fisher-344 (F-344 rats to inhaled benzo(apyrene (BaP, a ubiquitous environmental toxicant present in cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust fumes and industrial emissions. Rats were assigned randomly to a treatment or control group. Treatment consisted of exposure of rats via nose-only inhalation to 75μg BaP/m3, 4 hours daily for 60 days, while control animals were unexposed (UNC. Blood samples were collected immediately on day 60 of exposures (time 0 and subsequently at 24, 48, and 72 hours, to assess the effect of exposures to BaP on plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH concentrations. Mean testis weight, total weight of tubules and total tubular length per paired testes were reduced 33% (P < 0.025, 27% (P < 0.01 and 39%, respectively in exposed rats (P < 0.01 compared with UNC rats. The number of homogenization -resistant spermatids was significantly reduced in BaP-exposed versus UNC rats. Plasma testosterone and intra-testicular testosterone (ITT concentrations were significantly decreased by BaP compared with those of UNC rats. The decreases in circulating plasma testosterone were accompanied by concomitant increases in plasma LH concentrations in BaP-exposed versus control rats (P < 0.05. These data suggest that 60 days exposure to inhaled BaP contribute to reduced testicular endocrine and spermatogenic functions in exposed rats.

  4. Loss of VHL in RCC reduces repair and alters cellular response to benzo[a]pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten eSchults

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL tumor suppressor gene occur in the majority of sporadic renal-cell carcinomas (RCC. Loss of VHL function is associated with stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIFα. We and others demonstrated that there is a two-way interaction between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, which is an important mediator in the metabolic activation and detoxification of carcinogens, and the HIF1-pathway leading to an increased genetic instability when both pathways are simultaneously activated. The aim of this study was to investigate how environmental carcinogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, which can be metabolically activated to BaP-7,8-diOH-9,10-epoxide (BPDE play a role in the etiology of renal-cell carcinomas (RCC. We exposed VHL deficient RCC4 cells, in which HIFα is stabilized regardless of oxygen tension, to 0.1µM BaP for 18 hours. The mutagenic BPDE-DNA adduct levels were increased in HIFα stabilized cells. Using qRT-PCR, we demonstrated that absence of VHL significantly induced the mRNA levels of AhR downstream target CYP1A1. Furthermore, HPLC analysis indicated that loss of VHL increased the concentration of BaP-7,8-dihydroxydiol, the pre-cursor metabolite of BPDE. Interestingly, the capacity to repair BPDE-DNA adducts in the HIFα stabilized RCC4 cells, was markedly reduced. Taken together, these data indicate that loss of VHL affects BaP-mediated genotoxic responses in renal-cell carcinoma and decreases repair capacity.

  5. Degradation of benzo[a]pyrene in an experimentally contaminated paddy soil by vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Luo, Y M; Song, J; Wu, L H; Christie, P

    2006-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of growing vetiver grass on the biodegradation of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) under glasshouse conditions. Plant biomass, microbial biomass C and degradation of B[a]P were determined. B[a]P disappeared faster in the plant treatments than in unplanted controls. Disappearance of B[a]P was accompanied by an increase in soil microbial biomass C. Vetiver grass may promote the biodegradation of B[a]P under flooded conditions by plant roots by stimulating the microbial biomass. Microbial biomass was the main factor affecting dissipation of B[a]P under flooded conditions.

  6. Anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene degradation in soil is favoured by compost amendment: Perspectives for a bioremediation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Morelli, Raffaella; Bellino, Alessandro; Prati, Maria Vittoria; Alfani, Anna; De Nicola, Flavia

    2017-10-05

    In order to validate the use of compost in soil PAH bioremediation, the degradation of anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene was monitored in soils artificially contaminated and incubated in mesocosms under controlled conditions. The dynamics observed in compost amended soil were compared to those observed in soil added with a fungal consortium and untreated soil. At the same time, three microbial enzyme activities usually involved in PAH degradation (laccase, o-diphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities) were monitored. Both PAHs decreased along the time in the three mesocosms, with anthracene, with lower molecular weight, degrading with a higher rate and reaching lower residual values than benzo(a)pyrene. Although at the end of incubation, the residual values of investigated PAHs are similar in the three mesocosm types, PAH dynamics showed a higher degradation rate in the early stage in mesocosms added with the fungal mycelium and amended with compost. Among the three enzyme activities, only peroxidase showed higher values in treated than untreated mesocosms. Considering the ameliorating effects of compost on degraded soils, its use can be suggested in PAH bioremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The genotoxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene and methamidophos on black porgy evaluated by comet assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In this study, two common pollutants (benzo[a]pyrene and methamidophos) in marine environment were tested by comet assay for their inducement of in vivo genotoxic effect to the blood cells of black porgy (Acanthopagrus schlegeli). The fish was exposed to 2 μg/L of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and methamidophos, and their mixture. The assay was performed on whole blood at 2 h, 5 h, 24 h and 96 h exposure intervals. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed in each treatment with the pollutants. Additive effect of BaP and methamidophos was also found in the experiment. However, the decrease ratios of DNA damage for 5 h and 96 h exposure interals compared with 2 h and 24 h exposure ones, respectively, were noticed. This phenomenon may be explained by the function of repairing process via enzyme cytochrome P450 in the animal. Evidence of the genotoxicity of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on marine fish are discussed in this paper.

  8. The genotoxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene and methamidophos on black porgy evaluated by comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rixian; Hong, Huasheng; Wang, Xinhong; Wang, Kejian; Wang, Chunguang

    2005-12-01

    In this study, two common pollutants (benzo[a]pyrene and methamidophos) in marine environment were tested by comet assay for their inducement of in vivo genotoxic effect to the blood cells of black porgy ( Acanthopagrus schlegeli). The fish was exposed to 2 μg/L of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and methamidophos, and their mixture. The assay was performed on whole blood at 2 h, 5 h, 24 h and 96 h exposure intervals. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed in each treatment with the pollutants. Additive effect of BaP and methamidophos was also found in the experiment. However, the decrease ratios of DNA damage for 5 h and 96 h exposure interals compared with 2 h and 24 h exposure ones, respectively, were noticed. This phenomenon may be explained by the function of repairing process via enzyme cytochrome P450 in the animal. Evidence of the genotoxicity of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on marine fish are discussed in this paper.

  9. Effect of chimneys on indoor air concentrations of PM 10 and benzo[a]pyrene in Xuan Wei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Linwei; Lan, Qing; Yang, Dong; He, Xingzhou; Yu, Ignatius T. S.; Hammond, S. Katharine

    This paper reports the effect of chimneys in reducing indoor air pollution in a lung cancer epidemic area of rural China. Household indoor air pollution concentrations were measured during unvented burning (chimneys blocked) and vented burning (chimneys open) of bituminous coal in Xuan Wei, China. Concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM 10) and of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were measured in 43 homes during normal activities. The use of chimneys led to significant decreases in indoor air concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM 10) by 66% and of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by 84%. The average BaP content of PM 10 also decreased by 55% with the installation of a chimney. The reduction of indoor pollution levels by the installation of a chimney supports the epidemiology findings on the health benefits of stove improvement. However, even in the presence of a chimney, the indoor air concentrations for both PM 10 and BaP still exceeded the indoor air quality standards of China. Movement up the energy ladder to cleaner liquid or gaseous fuels is probably the only sustainable indoor air pollution control measure.

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene by iron oxides and identification of degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himanshu; Gupta, Bina

    2015-11-01

    Photocatalytic decay profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) have been investigated on various synthesized iron oxides and on soil surfaces under a set of diverse conditions. Samples were analysed using the developed HPLC procedure. Results of the present study demonstrate fastest photodisintegration of B[a]P on goethite followed by haematite, magnetite, akaganeite and maghemite, respectively. The effect of soil pH, irradiation wavelength and iron oxide and oxalic acid dose on the degradation of B[a]P was evaluated. The studies revealed enhancement in photodegradation in the presence of oxalic acid due to the occurrence of fenton like reaction. The results showed faster B[a]P degradation under short wavelength UV radiation. Rate constants in acidic, neutral and alkaline soils under optimum dissipation conditions were 1.11×10(-2), 7.69×10(-3) and 9.97×10(-3) h(-1), respectively. The study indicates that iron oxides along with oxalic acid are effective photocatalyst for the remediation of benzo[a]pyrene contaminated soil surfaces. The degradation products of B[a]P in the soils of different pH in presence of goethite were identified and degradation pathways proposed. Peaks due to toxic metabolites such as diones, diols and epoxides disappear after 120 h in all the three soils.

  11. Effect of chimneys on indoor air concentrations of PM10 and benzo(a)pyrene in Xuan Wei, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, L.W.; Lan, Q.; Yang, D.; He, X.Z.; Yu, I.T.S.; Hammond, S.K. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China). School for Public Health

    2009-07-15

    This paper reports the effect of chimneys in reducing indoor air pollution in a lung cancer epidemic area of rural China. Household indoor air pollution concentrations were measured during unvented burning (chimneys blocked) and vented burning (chimneys open) of bituminous coal in Xuan Wei, China. Concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 {mu} m or less (PM10) and of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were measured in 43 homes during normal activities. The use of chimneys led to significant decreases in indoor air concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 mu m or less (PM10) by 66% and of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) by 84%. The average BaP content of PM10 also decreased by 55% with the installation of a chimney. The reduction of indoor pollution levels by the installation of a chimney supports the epidemiology findings on the health benefits of stove improvement. However, even in the presence of a chimney, the indoor air concentrations for both PM10 and BaP still exceeded the indoor air quality standards of China. Movement up the energy ladder to cleaner liquid or gaseous fuels is probably the only sustainable indoor air pollution control measure.

  12. A common carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene causes neuronal death in mouse via microglial activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallol Dutta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P belongs to a class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that serve as micropollutants in the environment. B[a]P has been reported as a probable carcinogen in humans. Exposure to B[a]P can take place by ingestion of contaminated (especially grilled, roasted or smoked food or water, or inhalation of polluted air. There are reports available that also suggests neurotoxicity as a result of B[a]P exposure, but the exact mechanism of action is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using neuroblastoma cell line and primary cortical neuron culture, we demonstrated that B[a]P has no direct neurotoxic effect. We utilized both in vivo and in vitro systems to demonstrate that B[a]P causes microglial activation. Using microglial cell line and primary microglial culture, we showed for the first time that B[a]P administration results in elevation of reactive oxygen species within the microglia thereby causing depression of antioxidant protein levels; enhanced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, that results in increased production of NO from the cells. Synthesis and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines were also elevated within the microglia, possibly via the p38MAP kinase pathway. All these factors contributed to bystander death of neurons, in vitro. When administered to animals, B[a]P was found to cause microglial activation and astrogliosis in the brain with subsequent increase in proinflammatory cytokine levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Contrary to earlier published reports we found that B[a]P has no direct neurotoxic activity. However, it kills neurons in a bystander mechanism by activating the immune cells of the brain viz the microglia. For the first time, we have provided conclusive evidence regarding the mechanism by which the micropollutant B[a]P may actually cause damage to the central nervous system. In today's perspective, where rising pollution levels globally are a matter of grave concern, our

  13. Further characterization of benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide (BPDE)-induced comet assay effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausinger, Julia; Schütz, Petra; Piberger, Ann Liza; Speit, Günter

    2016-03-01

    The present study aims to further characterize benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide (BPDE)-induced comet assay effects. Therefore, we measured DNA effects by the comet assay and adduct levels by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in human lymphocytes and A549 cells exposed to (±)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide [(±)-anti-BPDE] or (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide [(+)-anti-BPDE]. Both, the racemic form and (+)-anti-BPDE, which is the most relevant metabolite with regard to mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, induced DNA migration in cultured lymphocytes in the same range of concentrations to a similar extent in the alkaline comet assay after exposure for 2h. Nevertheless, (+)-anti-BPDE induced significantly enhanced DNA migration after 16 and 18h post-cultivation which was not seen in response to (±)-anti-BPDE. Combination of the comet assay with the Fpg (formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase) protein did not enhance BPDE-induced effects and thus indicated the absence of Fpg-sensitive sites (oxidized purines, N7-guanine adducts, AP-sites). The aphidicolin (APC)-modified comet assay suggested significant excision repair activity of cultured lymphocytes during the first 18h of culture after a 2 h-exposure to BPDE. In contrast to these repair-related effects measured by the comet assay, HPLC analysis of stable adducts did not reveal any significant removal of (+)-anti-BPDE-induced adducts from lymphocytes during the first 22h of culture. On the other hand, HPLC measurements indicated that A549 cells repaired about 70% of (+)-anti-BPDE-induced DNA-adducts within 22h of release. However, various experiments with the APC-modified comet assay did not indicate significant repair activity during this period in A549 cells. The conflicting results obtained with the comet assay and the HPLC-based adduct analysis question the real cause for BPDE-induced DNA migration in the comet assay and the reliability of the APC-modified comet assay for the

  14. Influence of cell cycle on responses of MCF-7 cells to benzo[a]pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giddings Ian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP is a widespread environmental genotoxic carcinogen that damages DNA by forming adducts. This damage along with activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR induces complex transcriptional responses in cells. To investigate whether human cells are more susceptible to BaP in a particular phase of the cell cycle, synchronised breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells were exposed to BaP. Cell cycle progression was analysed by flow cytometry, DNA adduct formation was assessed by 32P-postlabeling analysis, microarrays of 44K human genome-wide oligos and RT-PCR were used to detect gene expression (mRNA changes and Western blotting was performed to determine the expression of some proteins, including cytochrome P450 (CYP 1A1 and CYP1B1, which are involved in BaP metabolism. Results Following BaP exposure, cells evaded G1 arrest and accumulated in S-phase. Higher levels of DNA damage occurred in S- and G2/M- compared with G0/G1-enriched cultures. Genes that were found to have altered expression included those involved in xenobiotic metabolism, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation and DNA repair. Gene ontology and pathway analysis showed the involvement of various signalling pathways in response to BaP exposure, such as the Catenin/Wnt pathway in G1, the ERK pathway in G1 and S, the Nrf2 pathway in S and G2/M and the Akt pathway in G2/M. An important finding was that higher levels of DNA damage in S- and G2/M-enriched cultures correlated with higher levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA and proteins. Moreover, exposure of synchronised MCF-7 cells to BaP-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE, the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of BaP, did not result in significant changes in DNA adduct levels at different phases of the cell cycle. Conclusions This study characterised the complex gene response to BaP in MCF-7 cells and revealed a strong correlation between the varying efficiency of BaP metabolism and DNA damage in different phases of the cell

  15. Overexpression of Catalase Enhances Benzo(a)pyrene Detoxification in Endothelial Microsomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Yang, Hong; Ramesh, Aramandla; Goodwin, J. Shawn; Okoro, Emmanuel U.; Guo, ZhongMao

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that overexpression of catalase upregulated xenobiotic- metabolizing enzyme (XME) expression and diminished benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) intermediate accumulation in mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs). Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the most active organelle involved in BaP metabolism. To examine the involvement of ER in catalase-induced BaP detoxification, we compared the level and distribution of XMEs, and the profile of BaP intermediates in the microsomes of wild-type and catalase transgenic endothelial cells. Our data showed that endothelial microsomes were enriched in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, CYP1B1 and epoxide hydrolase 1 (EH1), and contained considerable levels of NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase-pi (GSTP). Treatment of wild-type MAECs with 1μM BaP for 2 h increased the expression of microsomal CYP1A1, 1B1 and NQO1 by ~300, 64 and 116%, respectively. However, the same treatment did not significantly alter the expression of EH1 and GSTP. Overexpression of catalase did not significantly increase EH1, but upregulated BaP-induced expression of microsomal CYP1A1, 1B1, NQO1 and GSTP in the following order: 1A1>NQO1>GSTP>1B1. Overexpression of catalase did not alter the distribution of each of these enzymes in the microsomes. In contrast to our previous report showing lower level of BaP phenols versus BaP diols/diones in the whole-cell, this report demonstrated that the sum of microsomal BaP phenolic metabolites were ~60% greater than that of the BaP diols/diones after exposure of microsomes to BaP. Overexpression of catalase reduced the concentrations of microsomal BaP phenols and diols/diones by ~45 and 95%, respectively. This process enhanced the ratio of BaP phenol versus diol/dione metabolites in a potent manner. Taken together, upregulation of phase II XMEs and CYP1 proteins, but not EH1 in the ER might be the mechanism by which overexpression of catalase reduces the levels of all the BaP metabolites

  16. Metabolism of the environmental toxicant benzo(a)pyrene by subcellular fractions of human ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhadevi, P V; Diggs, D L; Huderson, A C; Harris, K L; Archibong, A E; Ramesh, A

    2014-02-01

    Knowledge of the ability of the female reproductive system to metabolize environmental chemicals is critical not only from the standpoint of toxicity but also from infertility risk assessment. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a toxicant that is released into the environment from automobile exhausts, cigarette smoke, burning of refuse, industrial emissions, and hazardous waste sites. In exposed animals, BaP becomes activated to reactive metabolites that interfere with target organ function and as a consequence cause toxicity. Studies on animal models conducted in our laboratories and those of others have shown that BaP possess endocrine disrupting properties. Thus, this chemical has the potential to cause infertility and cancers in the female genital tract. An understanding of BaP metabolism in the female reproductive system will be of importance in the diagnosis and management of female fertility as well as cancers in the reproductive tissues. Therefore, the objective of our study was to examine the metabolism of BaP by human ovarian subcellular fractions. Human ovary samples (eight individuals) were obtained from postoperative tissue removed from subjects with uterine tumors. Subcellular fractions (nuclear, cytosolic, mitochondrial, and microsomal) were prepared by differential centrifugation. BaP (1 μM and 3 μM) was individually incubated with individual subcellular fractions for 15 min and the products were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Among the different fractions tested, microsomal BaP metabolism was higher than the rest of the fractions. The BaP metabolites identified were as follows: BaP-9,10-diol, BaP-4,5-diol, BaP-7,8-diol, 9(OH) BaP, 3(OH) BaP, BaP-1,6-dione, BaP-3,6-dione, and BaP-6,12-dione. Of interest was the presence of DNA-reactive metabolites such as BaP-3,6-dione, BaP-6,12-dione, and BaP 7,8-diol, which have been implicated in the causation of infertility and cancer. Our results indicate that women who are exposed to BaP via

  17. Cortical Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Cortical Visual Impairment En Español Read in Chinese What is cortical visual impairment? Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is a decreased visual ...

  18. A window of vulnerability: impaired fear extinction in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kathryn D; Den, Miriam L; Graham, Bronwyn M; Richardson, Rick

    2014-09-01

    There have been significant advances made towards understanding the processes mediating extinction of learned fear. However, despite being of clear theoretical and clinical significance, very few studies have examined fear extinction in adolescence, which is often described as a developmental window of vulnerability to psychological disorders. This paper reviews the relatively small body of research examining fear extinction in adolescence. A prominent finding of this work is that adolescents, both humans and rodents, exhibit a marked impairment in extinction relative to both younger (e.g., juvenile) and older (e.g., adult) groups. We then review some potential mechanisms that could produce the striking extinction deficit observed in adolescence. For example, one neurobiological candidate mechanism for impaired extinction in adolescence involves changes in the functional connectivity within the fear extinction circuit, particularly between prefrontal cortical regions and the amygdala. In addition, we review research on emotion regulation and attention processes that suggests that developmental changes in attention bias to threatening cues may be a cognitive mechanism that mediates age-related differences in extinction learning. We also examine how a differential reaction to chronic stress in adolescence impacts upon extinction retention during adolescence as well as in later life. Finally, we consider the findings of several studies illustrating promising approaches that overcome the typically-observed extinction impairments in adolescent rodents and that could be translated to human adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between Mutation Spectra and Stable and Unstable DNA Adduct Profiles in Salmonella for Benzo[a]pyrene and Dibenzo[a.l]pyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) are two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that exhibit distinctly different mutagenicity and carcinogenicity profiles. Although some studies show that these PAHs produce unstable DNA adducts, conflicting data and arguments ha...

  20. REACTIONS OF BENZO[A]PYRENE-7,8-QUINONE WITH DEOXYGUANOSINE AND DEOXYADENOSINE AT PHYSIOLOGICAL pH: IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF STABLE ADDUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactions of Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-quinone with Deoxyguanosine and Deoxyadenosine at Physiological pH: Identification and Characterization of Stable AdductsNarayanan Balu, William T. Padgett, Guy Lambert, Adam E. Swank,Ann M. Richard, and Stephen NesnowEnvironmen...

  1. Lack of contribution of covalent benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-quinone-DNA adducts in benzo[a]pyrene-induced mouse lung tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a potent human and rodent lung carcinogen. This activity has been ascribed in part to the formation of anti-trans-B[a]P-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adducts. Other carcinogenic mechanisms have been proposed: 1.] The induction of apurinic sites from r...

  2. Benzo[a]pyrene contamination in Rostov Region of Russian Federation: A 10-year retrospective of soil monitoring under the effect of long-term technogenic pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Sushkova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work was to study the main tendencies in the accumulation and distribution of benzo[a]pyrene in soils of the affected zone of the Novocherkassk regional power plant. Studies were conducted on the soils of monitoring plots subjected to Novocherkassk regional power plant emissions. Monitoring plots were established at different distances from the Novocherkassk regional power plant (1.0–20.0 km. Regularities in the accumulation and distribution of benzo[a]pyrene in chernozemic, meadow-chernozemic, and alluvial soils under the effect of aerotechnogenic emissions from the Novocherkassk regional power plant have been revealed on the basis of long-term monitoring studies (from 2002 to 2011. The tendencies in the distribution and accumulation of BaP in the studied soils coincided during the 10 years of monitoring studies. It has been found the 5-km zone to the northwest from the power station, which coincides with the predominant wind direction, is most subjected to contamination by benzo[a]pyrene, with the maximum accumulation at a distance of about 1.6 km from the source. Dynamics of pollutant accumulation in soils depends on number of Novocherkassk regional power plant emissions. The content of benzo[a]pyrene in the soil is an indicator of the technogenic load impact on the areas, for which the combustion products of hydrocarbon fuel are the major pollutants. A gradual decrease of the pollutant content in the soils was revealed during the period from 2002 to 2011. It explained by the significant decrease in the volume of pollutant emissions from the plant and the self-purification capacity of soils and mechanisms of benzo[a]pyrene degradation.

  3. Benzo(a)pyrene accumulation in soils of technogenic emission zone by subcritical water extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushkova, Svetlana; Minkina, Tatiana; Kizilkaya, Ridvan; Mandzhieva, Saglara; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Bauer, Tatiana; Gulser, Coskun

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of research is the assessment of main marker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) content in soils of emission zone of the power complex plant in soils with use of ecologically clean and effective subcritical water extraction method. Studies were conducted on the soils of monitoring plots subjected to Novocherkassk Power Plant emissions from burning coal. In 2000, monitoring plots were established at different distances from the NPS (1.0-20.0 km). Soil samples for the determination of soil properties and the contents of BaP were taken from a depth of 0-20 cm. The soil cover in the region under study consisted of ordinary chernozems, meadow-chernozemic soils, and alluvial meadow soils. This soil revealed the following physical and chemical properties: Corg-3.1-5.0%, pH-7.3-7.6, ECE-31.2-47.6 mmol(+)/100g; CaCO3-0.2-1.0%, the content of physical clay - 51-67% and clay - 3-37%. BaP extraction from soils was carried out by a subcritical water extraction method. Subcritical water extraction of BaP from soil samples was conducted in a specially developed extraction cartridge made of stainless steel and equipped with screw-on caps at both ends. It was also equipped with a manometer that included a valve for pressure release to maintain an internal pressure of 100 atm. The extraction cartridge containing a sample and water was placed into an oven connected to a temperature regulator under temperature 250oC and pressure 60 atm. The BaP concentration in the acetonitrile extract was determined by HPLC. The efficiency of BaP extraction from soil was determined using a matrix spike. The main accumulation of pollutant in 20 cm layer of soils is noted directly in affected zone on the plots situated at 1.2, 1.6, 5.0, 8.0 km from emission source in the direction of prevailing winds. The maximum quantity of a pollutant was founded in the soil of the plot located mostly close to a source of pollution in the direction of prevailing winds

  4. Myeloperoxidase - 463A variant reduces benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide DNA adducts in skin of coal tar treated patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, M.; Godschalk, R.; Alexandrov, K.; Cascorbi, I.; Kriek, E.; Ostertag, J.; Van Schooten, F.J.; Bartsch, H. [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Div. of Toxicology & Cancer Risk Factors

    2001-07-01

    The skin of atopic dermatitis patients provides an excellent model to study the role of inflammation in benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) activation, since these individuals are often topically treated with ointments containing high concentrations of BaP. The authors determined, by HPLC with fluorescence detection, the BaP diol epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adduct levels in human skin after topical treatment with coal tar and their modulation by the -453G into A myeloperoxidase (MPO) polymorphism, which reduces MPO mRNA expression. The data show for the first time: (i) the in vivo formation of BPDE-DNA adducts in human skin treated with coal tar; (ii) that the MPO-463AA/AG genotype reduced BPDE-DNA adduct levels in human skin.

  5. EROD activity and genotoxicity in the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri exposed to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Rocha, Arthur José; Gomes, Vicente; Rocha Passos, Maria José de Arruda Campos; Hasue, Fabio Matsu; Alves Santos, Thaís Cruz; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Taniguchi, Satie; Van Ngan, Phan

    2012-11-01

    Seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri is a marine species that lives in shallow waters of coastal environments, often impacted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) pollution. In the present study, seabob shrimp were exposed for 96 h to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) at the nominal concentrations of 100, 200, 400 and 800 microg-L(-1). Animals of the control groups were exposed either to clean water or to the BaP-carrier (DMSO). At the end of the exposures, muscle tissues were sampled for BaP uptake assessment and hepatopancreas and hemolymph for EROD enzyme activity and hemocytes DNA damage, respectively. EROD activity and DNA damage increased significantly as a function of BaP exposure concentrations. Significant correlations between BaP uptake and both EROD activity and DNA damage suggest that they can be used as suitable tools for integrated levels of study on the biomarkers of PAH exposure.

  6. Propolis protects human spermatozoa from DNA damage caused by benzo[a]pyrene and exogenous reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, A; Troncoso, N; Sanchez, F; Garbarino, J A; Vanella, A

    2006-02-23

    Many environmental, physiological and genetic factors have been implicated in defective sperm function, the most common cause of infertility. In addition, sperm preparation techniques such as centrifugation, used prior to in vitro fertilization, are associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an increase in the level of DNA damage. Factors that can offer spermatozoa protection are, therefore, of great importance. This study was designed to examine in vitro the effect of a Chilean propolis ethanolic extract on human spermatozoa treated with benzo[a]pyrene and exogenous reactive oxygen species. Our experimental evidence demonstrated that the natural drug under investigation is able to protect genomic DNA by damage induced by benzo[a]pyrene, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydrogen peroxide in combination with adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4), determining a significant reduction of the intracellular oxidants. An increase in membrane damage, measured by monitoring the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) release, was observed only in sperm treated with H2O2, ADP and FeSO4. The propolis extract was shown to possess the capacity to protect sperm membrane from the deleterious action of oxidative attack, reducing TBARS formation and LDH release. In summary, our results evidence that the protective effect exhibited by this natural compound in human spermatozoa is correlated, at least in part, to the antioxidant capacity of its active components, and suggest that propolis may have a role in protection against male infertility.

  7. Antioxidant responses to benzo[a]pyrene and Aroclor 1254 exposure in the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, C.C.C.; Siu, W.H.L.; Richardson, B.J.; De Luca-Abbott, S.B.; Lam, P.K.S

    2004-02-01

    In this study, the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis (L.), was exposed to two concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (0.3 {mu}g l{sup -1}; 3 {mu}g l{sup -1}) and two concentrations of Aroclor 1254 (0.5 {mu}g l{sup -1}; 5 {mu}g l{sup -1}). In addition, a mixture of the contaminants was used (0.3 {mu}g l{sup -1} B[a]P+0.5 {mu}g l{sup -1} Aroclor 1254; 3 {mu}g l{sup -1} B[a]P+5 {mu}g l{sup -1} Aroclor 1254). All concentrations were nominal. A suite of enzymes [glutathione S transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR)], glutathione (GSH) level and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the mussel gill and hepatopancreas were monitored over 18 days. CAT and GSH in gill tissue were positively correlated with concentration of Aroclor 1254. Activity of hepatic GST and SOD was significantly related to body burden of Aroclor 1254. LPO, GR and GPx in gill and hepatopancreas and hepatic GST were positively correlated with B[a]P concentration. The results indicate the importance of using biomarkers specific to the type of contaminant(s) that are likely to be present. Controlled laboratory experiments, such as this study, are useful in ascertaining biomarkers suitable for use with complex contaminant mixtures in the marine environment. - Benzo[a]pyrene and Aroclor 1254 separately and in combination caused specific induction in a number of antioxidant parameters in the gill and hepatopancreas of green-lipped mussels.

  8. Transgenerational inheritance of neurobehavioral and physiological deficits from developmental exposure to benzo[a]pyrene in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Andrea L; Truong, Lisa; Marvel, Skylar W; Reif, David M; Garcia, Abraham; Lu, Catherine; Simonich, Michael T; Teeguarden, Justin G; Tanguay, Robert L

    2017-08-15

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a well-known genotoxic polycylic aromatic compound whose toxicity is dependent on signaling via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). It is unclear to what extent detrimental effects of B[a]P exposures might impact future generations and whether transgenerational effects might be AHR-dependent. This study examined the effects of developmental B[a]P exposure on 3 generations of zebrafish. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6 to 120h post fertilization (hpf) to 5 and 10μM B[a]P and raised in chemical-free water until adulthood (F0). Two generations were raised from F0 fish to evaluate transgenerational inheritance. Morphological, physiological and neurobehavioral parameters were measured at two life stages. Juveniles of the F0 and F2 exhibited hyper locomotor activity, decreased heartbeat and mitochondrial function. B[a]P exposure during development resulted in decreased global DNA methylation levels and generally reduced expression of DNA methyltransferases in wild type zebrafish, with the latter effect largely reversed in an AHR2-null background. Adults from the F0 B[a]P exposed lineage displayed social anxiety-like behavior. Adults in the F2 transgeneration manifested gender-specific increased body mass index (BMI), increased oxygen consumption and hyper-avoidance behavior. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene during development resulted in transgenerational inheritance of neurobehavioral and physiological deficiencies. Indirect evidence suggested the potential for an AHR2-dependent epigenetic route. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  10. Speech and Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... impairment. Many children are identified as having a speech or language impairment after they enter the public school system. A teacher may notice difficulties in a child’s speech or communication skills and refer the child for ...

  11. Increased Sensitivity to Testicular Toxicity of Transplacental Benzo[a]pyrene Exposure in Male Glutamate Cysteine Ligase Modifier Subunit Knockout (Gclm−/−) Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Brooke N.; Mohar, Isaac; Lawson, Gregory W.; Cortés, Mabel M.; Hoang, Yvonne D.; Ortiz, Laura; Patel, Reshma; Rau, Bogdan A.; McConnachie, Lisa A.; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Luderer, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), like benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are ubiquitous environmental pollutants formed by the incomplete combustion of organic materials. The tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is a major antioxidant and is important in detoxification of PAH metabolites. Mice null for the modifier subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclm), the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis, have decreased GSH concentrations. We investigated the effects of Gclm deletion alone on male fertility a...

  12. Application of Phenyl Bonded Mesoporous Silica as A Novel Coating Layer of Solid-phase Microextraction for Determination of Benzo[a]pyrene in Water Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhen DU; Ya Rong WANG; Qian MA; Xue Feng MAO; Jin Guo HOU

    2005-01-01

    Phenyl bonded mesoporous silica (C6H5-MCM-41) was applied as the fiber coating of solid-phase microextraction (SPME). The performance of the fiber coating was discussed coupling to HPLC. Applicability of mesoporous fiber coating was examined for the determination of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in water samples, The limit of detection (LOD) is 0.28μg.L-1. Good recovery and relative standard deviation (RSD) were obtained.

  13. Enhanced oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene by crude enzyme extracts produced during interspecific fungal interaction of Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linbo Qian; Baoliang Chen

    2012-01-01

    The effects of interspecific fungal interactions between Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium on laccase activity and enzymatic oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated.A deadlock between the two mycelia rather than replacement of one fungus by another was observed on an agar medium.The laccase activity in crude enzyme extracts from interaction zones reached a maximum after a 5-day incubation,which was significantly higher than that from regions of T.versicolor or P.chrysosporium alone.The enhanced induction of laccase activity lasted longer in half nutrition than in normal nutrition.A higher potential to oxidize benzo[a]pyrene by a crude enzyme preparation extracted from the interaction zones was demonstrated.After a 48 hr incubation period,the oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene by crude enzyme extracts from interaction zones reached 26.2%,while only 9.5% of benzo[a]pyrene was oxidized by crude extracts from T.versicolor.The oxidation was promoted by the co-oxidant 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate diammonium salt (ABTS).These findings indicate that the application of co-culturing of white-rot fungi in bioremediation is a potential ameliorating technique for the restoration of PAH-contaminated soil.

  14. Protective effect of curcumin and chlorophyllin against DNA mutation induced by cyclophosphamide or benzo[a]pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, M.A.; Elbehairy, A.M.; Ghoneim, M.A.; Amer, H.A. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt). Biochemistry Dept. and Biotechnology Center

    2007-03-15

    The current study was carried out to evaluate the potency of curcumin and chlorophyllin as natural antioxidants to reduce the oxidative stress markers induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) and benzo[a]pyrene [B(a)P] which were used as free radical inducers. For this purpose, 126 male albino rats were used. The animals were assigned into 4 main groups: negative control group; oxidant-treated group (subdivided into two subgroups: cyclophosphamide- treated group and benzo[a]pyrene-treated group); curcumin-treated group; and chlorophyllin-treated group. Liver samples were collected after two days post the oxidant inoculation and at the end of the experimental period (10 weeks). These samples were examined for determination of liver microsomal malondialdehyde (MDA), DNA fragmentation, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentration. Both CP and B(a)P caused increments in DNA fragmentation percentages, liver microsomal MDA, concentration of 8-OHdG and induced point mutation. Treatment of rats with either curcumin or chlorophyllin revealed lower DNA fragmentation percentages, liver microsomal MDA concentration, concentration of 8-OHdG and prevented induction of mutations, i. e., reversed the oxidative stress induced by CP and B(a)P and proved that they were capable of protecting rats against the oxidative damage evoked by these oxidants. (orig.)

  15. Protective effect of curcumin and chlorophyllin against DNA mutation induced by cyclophosphamide or benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa A; Elbehairy, Adel M; Ghoneim, Magdy A; Amer, Hassan A

    2007-01-01

    The current study was carried out to evaluate the potency of curcumin and chlorophyllin as natural antioxidants to reduce the oxidative stress markers induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) and benzo[a]pyrene [B(a)P] which were used as free radical inducers. For this purpose, 126 male albino rats were used. The animals were assigned into 4 main groups: negative control group; oxidant-treated group (subdivided into two subgroups: cyclophosphamide-treated group and benzo[a]pyrene-treated group); curcumin-treated group; and chlorophyllin-treated group. Liver samples were collected after two days post the oxidant inoculation and at the end of the experimental period (10 weeks). These samples were examined for determination of liver microsomal malondialdehyde (MDA), DNA fragmentation, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentration. Both CP and B(a)P caused increments in DNA fragmentation percentages, liver microsomal MDA, concentration of 8-OHdG and induced point mutation. Treatment of rats with either curcumin or chlorophyllin revealed lower DNA fragmentation percentages, liver microsomal MDA concentration, concentration of 8-OHdG and prevented induction of mutations, i.e., reversed the oxidative stress induced by CP and B(a)P and proved that they were capable of protecting rats against the oxidative damage evoked by these oxidants.

  16. Can we use modelling methodologies to assess airborne benzo[a]pyrene from biomonitors? A comprehensive evaluation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ratola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring data available on levels of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in pine needles from the Iberian Peninsula was used to estimate air concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP and, at the same time, fuelled the comparison with chemistry transport model representations. Simulations with the modelling system WRF + CHIMERE were validated against data from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP air sampling network and using modelled atmospheric concentrations as a consistent reference in order to compare the performance of vegetation-to-air estimating methods. A spatial and temporal resolution of 9 km and 1 h was implemented. The field-based database relied on a pine needles sampling scheme comprising 33 sites in Portugal and 37 sites in Spain complemented with the BaP measurements available from the EMEP sites. The ability of pine needles to act as biomonitoring markers for the atmospheric concentrations of BaP was estimated converting the levels obtained in pine needles into air concentrations by six different approaches, one of them presenting realistic concentrations when compared to the modelled atmospheric values. The justification for this study is the gaps still existing in the knowledge of the life cycles of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs, particularly the partition processes between air and vegetation. The strategy followed in this work allows the definition of the transport patterns (e.g. dispersion established by the model for atmospheric concentrations and the estimated values in vegetation.

  17. Fenton degradation assisted by cyclodextrins of a high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veignie, Etienne; Rafin, Catherine; Landy, David; Fourmentin, Sophie; Surpateanu, Gheorghe

    2009-09-15

    This paper investigates the effect of native beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and its CD derivatives, such as hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) and randomly methylated-beta-cyclodextrin (RAMEB), on the solubilization of a high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and on its degradation by Fenton's reaction. The results show that BaP apparent solubility was significantly increased in the presence of cyclodextrin (CD) in the following order: beta-CDcyclodextrin to solubilize BaP. In the presence of a radical scavenger (mannitol), BaP Fenton degradation was inhibited with RAMEB but not in the presence of HPCD. Molecular modelisation was used to visualize the steric complementarity of these host-guest systems. No significant difference of encapsulation between the two modified CDs was observed. Nevertheless, the results suggest a probable existence of a ternary complex HPCD-BaP-iron permitting the generation of hydroxyl radicals in close proximity to BaP. On the basis of these results, it appears that HPCD may be useful for developing targeted BaP degradation system.

  18. Paternal Benzo[a]pyrene Exposure Modulates MicroRNA Expression Patterns in the Developing Mouse Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgeir Brevik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little attention has been given to how microRNA expression is affected by environmental contaminants exposure. We investigate the effects of paternal exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P on miRNA expression in the developing mouse embryo. Male mice were exposed to B[a]P (150 mg/kg i.p., and their sperm was used four days later in in-vitro fertilization experiments. Twenty embryos each from 2-, 8-cell and the blastocyst stage were used for genome-wide miRNA expression profiling. Paternal exposure to B[a]P affected the expression of several miRNAs, and the target genes for some of the dysregulated miRNAs were enriched in many different pathways that are likely to be relevant for the developing mouse embryo. By linking the miRNA target genes to publicly available databases, we identified some miRNA target genes that may serve as global markers of B[a]P-mediated genotoxic stress. The dysregulated miRNAs may provide valuable knowledge about potential transgenerational effects of sublethal exposure to chemicals.

  19. Effects of benzo(a)pyrene on differentially expressed genes and haemocyte parameters of the clam Venerupis philippinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Pan, Luqing; Gong, XiaoLi; Tao, Yanxia; Hu, Yanyan; Miao, Jingjing

    2014-03-01

    In this study a suppression subtractive hybridisation method was employed to identify differentially expressed genes of the clam Venerupis philippinarum exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Nineteen known transcripts and seven predicted proteins were found from the subtractive cDNA library of the clam, which could provide more sequence information for further study. Seven of the differentially expressed genes were selected for mRNA expression analysis. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of the selected cDNAs of clams was up-regulated to varying degrees by different concentration of BaP. They are suggested as potential molecular biomarkers for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. In addition, haemocyte parameters were also measured, and a decrease of total haemocyte counts and suppression of antibacterial and bacteriolytic activities were detected in BaP-stressed clams. We suggest that the modulation of the expression of the selected genes caused by PAHs probably leads to the disturbance of the immune defense of the clam. Meanwhile, the adverse effects of PAHs on haemocyte parameters caused the suppression of the immune defense and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Therefore, it is inferred that PAHs pollutants could interact with components of the immune system and interferes with defense functions of the clam V. philippinarum.

  20. Stabilization of membrane bound ATPases and lipid peroxidation by carotenoids from Chlorococcum humicola in Benzo(a)pyrene induced toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhagavathy S; Sumathi P

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the alteration of the membrane potential and the effect of carotenoid extracts from Chlorococcum humicola (C. humicola) on membrane bound ATPases and lipid peroxidation. Methods: The total carotenoids were extracted from C. humicola. Four groups of Swiss albino mice were treated as control, Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P], total carotenoids, B(a)P +total carotenoids respectively for a period of 60 days. Membrane lipid peroxidation and ATPases (Total ATPases, Ca2+- ATPases, Mg2+ - ATPases, Na+K+ - ATPase) were determined in lung, liver and erythrocyte samples. Results: The activity of total ATPase was found to be significantly increased in the B(a)P treated liver and lung tissue. Erythrocyte membrane also showed higher ATPase activity which was significantly reverted on total carotenoid treatment. Conclusions:It can be concluded that the changes in membrane potential favour the functional deterioration of physiological system. The overall findings demonstrates that the animals post treated with carotenoid extract from C. humicola may maintains the alterations in membrane bound ATPase and lipid peroxidation in tissues against the carcinogenic chemical and hence aid in establishing the membrane potential action. Therefore C. humicola can be further extended to exploits its possible application for various health benefits as neutraceuticals and food additives.

  1. Relation of hepatic EROD activity and CYP1A level in Sebastiscus marmoratus exposed to benzo[a]pyrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and its correlation with cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) protein levels in Sebastiscus marmoratus, which were exposed through a water column to BaP (10, 100, 1000 ng/L, respectively) or were treated with intraperitoneal injections of BaP (0.5, 1, 5, 10 mg/kg, respectively) every 7 d. The results showed that after 25 d of waterborne exposure to 1000 ng/L BaP, fish hepatic CYP1A levels and EROD activity were significantly induced. In contrast, EROD activity was not altered 7 d after second ip injections, whereas, CYP1A protein levels were increased. Dose-dependent increase of biliary BaP metabolites demonstrated that the catalytic activity of CYP1A was induced by treatment with BaP. The lowest observable effect concentration with regard to biliary BaP metabolites (100 ng/L) was much lower than that with reference to EROD activity (1000 ng/L). The results suggest that biliary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites were shown to better reflect the contamination gradients of PAHs than EROD activity. It appeared to be necessary to measure CYP1A protein levels to complement the EROD activity in relevant toxicological assessments.

  2. Enhancement of the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene by arecoline through suppression of DNA repair in HEp-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J L; Lu, H H; Lu, Y N; Hung, P S; Lin, Y J; Lin, C C; Yang, C C; Wong, T Y; Lu, S Y; Lin, C S

    2016-06-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer lists the principal component of betel quid (BQ), the areca nut, and that of cigarette smoke, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), as Group 1 carcinogens. Epidemiological studies have shown that coexposure of BQ and cigarette smoke markedly increases the risk of cancer. We previously demonstrated that arecoline, the most abundant alkaloid in the areca nut, inhibits nucleotide excision repair through the repression of p53 activity. To investigate the combined potency of arecoline and BaP in carcinogenesis, we treated human epithelial HEp-2 cells with subcytotoxic doses of arecoline and BaP, alone or in combination, and examined the effects on DNA damage and repair. When exposed for 24h, BaP enhanced DNA repair and p53 transactivation activity. However, these enhancements were suppressed through concurrent treatment of the cells with arecoline. Using a Comet assay, we found that extended exposure to arecoline and BaP caused moderate-to-severe DNA damage in 60% of the cells. Expression of the XPD helicase was transcriptionally suppressed by 1 week of treatment with BaP. Our studies have revealed potential targets in the DNA repair pathway that are affected by BQ and tobacco components, as well as the effect of these components on carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dose-dependent inhibitory effect of melatonin on carcinogenesis induced by benzo[a]pyrene in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesnushkin, G M; Plotnikova, N A; Semenchenko, A I; Anisimov, V N

    2006-12-01

    Three-month-old Swiss-derived SHR mice were subcutaneously injected with 2 mg of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) dissolved in 0.1 ml of olive oil. After the injections of the carcinogen two groups of mice were given melatonin with night drinking water at the doses of 2 mg/l or 20 mg/l and one group of mice was not treated with melatonin and served as a PB-control. At the 28th week after the carcinogen administration the experiment was stopped and animals were sacrificed. The results show that melatonin treatment inhibits BP-induced carcinogenesis, decreases the incidence of subcutaneous sarcomas, increases their latency and survival of mice. The malone dialdehyde (MDA) level in the serum of BP-induced tumor-bearing mice was increased by 2.6 times (p melatonina on malignancies of mesenchymal origin. Lower dose of melatonin appeared to be more effective in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and tumorigenesis induced by chemical carcinogen than a higher one.

  4. Effect of Soil Aging on the Phytoremediation Potential of Zea mays in Chromium and Benzo[a]Pyrene Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbo, Chibuike

    2015-06-01

    This study compared the phytoremediation potential of Zea mays in soil either aged or freshly amended with chromium (Cr) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Z. mays showed increased shoot biomass in aged soils than in freshly spiked soils. The shoot biomass in contaminated soils increased by over 50% in aged soil when compared to freshly amended soils, and over 29% more Cr was accumulated in the shoot of Z. mays in aged soil than in freshly amended soil. Planting Z. mays in aged soil helped in the dissipation of more than 31% B[a]P than in freshly spiked soil, but in the absence of plants, there seemed to be no difference between the dissipation rates of B[a]P in freshly and aged co-contaminated soil. Z. mays seemed to enhance the simultaneous removal of Cr and B[a]P in aged soil than in freshly spiked soil and hence can be a good plant choice for phytoremediation of co-contaminated soils.

  5. Influence of diet and ration level on benzo[a]pyrene metabolism and excretion in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, C J; Higgs, Dave; Tierney, Keith

    2004-10-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fasted or fed one of three isoenergetic diets varying in protein and lipid content at full satiation levels or half rations for up to 9 weeks. At 3, 6, and 9 weeks, fish in each treatment group were dosed intraperitoneally with 10 mg tritiated benzo[a]pyrene [3H]-B[a]P/kg (B[a]P) to examine the effects of diet composition and energy intake on xenobiotic biotransformation and excretion. The percent dose eliminated during the experiment did not differ among fish receiving the different diet compositions or rations (range 73% to 84%). However, it was significantly decreased (to 53%) in the group that was fasted for 9 weeks. Examination of fish fasted for 6 and 9 weeks showed a significant increase in the proportion of phase I metabolites and a concomitant decrease in the proportion of phase II metabolites found in bile compared with all other groups. Also, fish that were fasted for 9 weeks produced proportionately less 9,10-dihydroxy-benzo[a]pyrene-trans-9,10-diol, more 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene and 9-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene, and more glucuronic acid conjugates compared with all other groups. Thus, dietary protein and lipid concentration did not appear to affect either the rate of B[a]P metabolism or its excretion; however, prolonged fasting resulted in a shift in metabolite profiles and decreased excretion.

  6. Genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes for benzo[a]pyrene and related levels of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA adducts in Goeckerman therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranek, Martin; Fiala, Zdenek; Kremlacek, Jan; Andrys, Ctirad; Hamakova, Kvetoslava; Chmelarova, Marcela; Palicka, Vladimir; Borska, Lenka

    2016-07-25

    Goeckerman therapy (GT) for psoriasis combines the therapeutic effect of crude coal tar (CCT) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR). CCT contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, some of which can form DNA adducts that may induce mutations and contribute to carcinogenesis. The aim of our work was to evaluate the relationship between concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA adducts (BPDE-DNA adducts) and rs4646903 (CYP1A1 gene), rs1048943 (CYP1A1), rs1056836 (CYP1B1), rs1051740 (EPHX1), rs2234922 (EPHX1) and rs8175347 (UGT1A1) polymorphic sites, and GSTM1 null polymorphism in 46 patients with chronic stable plaque psoriasis who underwent GT. The level of BPDE-DNA adducts was determined using the OxiSelect BPDE-DNA Adduct ELISA Kit. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (rs4646903, rs1048943, rs1051740, and rs2234922), fragment analysis (rs8175347), real-time PCR (rs1056836), and digital droplet PCR polymorphism (GSTM1) were used. CYP1B1*1/*1 wild-type subjects and CYP1B1*3/*1 heterozygotes for rs1056836 formed significantly higher amounts of BPDE-DNA adducts than CYP1B1*3/*3 homozygotes (p=0.031 and p=0.005, respectively). Regarding rs1051740, individuals with EPHX1*3/*1 heterozygosity revealed fewer adducts than EPHX1*1/*1 wild-type subjects (p=0.026). Our data suggest that CYP1B1/EPHX1 genotyping could help to predict the risk of DNA damage and to optimize doses of coal tar and UVR exposure in psoriatic patients in whom GT was applied.

  7. Development or Impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakansson, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    Joanne Paradis' Keynote Article on bilingualism and specific language impairment (SLI) is an impressive overview of research in language acquisition and language impairment. Studying different populations is crucial both for theorizing about language acquisition mechanisms, and for practical purposes of diagnosing and supporting children with…

  8. Development or Impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakansson, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    Joanne Paradis' Keynote Article on bilingualism and specific language impairment (SLI) is an impressive overview of research in language acquisition and language impairment. Studying different populations is crucial both for theorizing about language acquisition mechanisms, and for practical purposes of diagnosing and supporting children with…

  9. The arbuscular mycorrhizal Rhizophagus irregularis activates storage lipid biosynthesis to cope with the benzo[a]pyrene oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonne, Maryline; Fontaine, Joël; Debiane, Djouher; Laruelle, Frédéric; Grandmougin-Ferjani, Anne; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa

    2014-01-01

    The phytoremediation assisted by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could constitute an ecological and economic method to restore polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) polluted soils. Unfortunately, little is known about the PAH impact on the beneficial symbiotic AMF. Using radiolabelling experiments, our work aims to understand how benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a representative of high molecular weight PAH, acts on the AMF lipid metabolism. Our results showed decreases in the sterol precursors as well as in total phospholipid quantities, in link with the [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation decreases in these lipids. Interestingly, a concomitant increase of [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation by 29.5% into phosphatidylcholine with its content decrease in Rhizophagus irregularis extraradical mycelium was observed, suggesting a membrane regeneration. A second concomitant increase (estimated to 69%) of [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation into triacylglycerols (TAG) with the content decrease was also observed. This suggests a fungal TAG biosynthesis activation probably to offset the decrease in storage lipid content when the fungus was grown under B[a]P pollution. In addition, our findings showed that lipase activity was induced by more than 3 fold in the presence of B[a]P in comparison to the control indicating that the drop in TAG content could be a consequence of their active degradation. Taken together, our data suggest the involvement of the fungal TAG metabolism to cope B[a]P toxicity through two means: (i) by providing carbon skeletons and energy necessary for membrane regeneration and/or for B[a]P translocation and degradation as well as (ii) by activating the phosphatidic acid and hexose metabolisms which may be involved in cellular stress defence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcriptomics responses in marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana exposed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel N Carvalho

    Full Text Available Diatoms are unicellular, photosynthetic, eukaryotic algae with a ubiquitous distribution in water environments and they play an important role in the carbon cycle. Molecular or morphological changes in these species under ecological stress conditions are expected to serve as early indicators of toxicity and can point to a global impact on the entire ecosystem. Thalassiosira pseudonana, a marine diatom and the first with a fully sequenced genome has been selected as an aquatic model organism for ecotoxicological studies using molecular tools. A customized DNA microarray containing probes for the available gene sequences has been developed and tested to analyze the effects of a common pollutant, benzo(apyrene (BaP, at a sub-lethal concentration. This approach in diatoms has helped to elucidate pathway/metabolic processes involved in the mode of action of this pollutant, including lipid metabolism, silicon metabolism and stress response. A dose-response of BaP on diatoms has been made and the effect of this compound on the expression of selected genes was assessed by quantitative real time-PCR. Up-regulation of the long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase and the anti-apoptotic transmembrane Bax inhibitor, as well as down-regulation of silicon transporter 1 and a heat shock factor was confirmed at lower concentrations of BaP, but not the heat-shock protein 20. The study has allowed the identification of molecular biomarkers to BaP to be later on integrated into environmental monitoring for water quality assessment.

  11. Effect of benzo[a]pyrene on detoxification and the activity of antioxidant enzymes of marine microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Miao, Jingjing; Li, Yun; Pan, Luqing

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on the detoxification and antioxidant systems of two microalgae, Isochrysis zhanjiangensis and Platymonas subcordiformis. In our study, these two algae were exposed to BaP for 4 days at three different concentrations including 0.5 μg L-1 (low), 3 μg L-1 (mid) and 18 μg L-1 (high). The activity of detoxification enzymes, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased in P. subcordiformis in all BaP-treated groups. In I. zhanjiangensis, the activity of these two enzymes increased at the beginning of exposure, and then decreased in the groups treated with mid- and high BaP. The activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased in I. zhanjiangensis in all BaP-treated groups, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no significant change was observed in P. subcordiformis. The activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) increased in I. zhanjiangensis and P. subcordiformis in all BaPtreated groups. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in Isochrysis zhanjiangensis increased first, and then decreased in high BaP-treated group, while no change occurred in P. subcordiformis. These results demonstrated that BaP significantly influenced the activity of detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes in microalgae. The metabolic related enzymes (EROD, GST and CAT) may serve as sensitive biomarkers of measuring the contamination level of BaP in marine water.

  12. Dose-related carcinogenic effects of water-borne benzo(a)pyrene on livers of two small fish species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, W.E.; Walker, W.W.; Overstreet, R.M.; Lytle, T.F.; Lytle, J.S.

    1988-12-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) administered by water-borne exposures caused dose-related carcinogenic effects in livers of two small fish species, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Medaka and guppies each were given two 6-h exposures. The first exposure was conducted on 6- to 10-day-old specimens. The second exposure was given 7 days later. The tests incorporated five treatment groups: (1) control, (2) carrier (dimethylformamide) control, (3) low BaP dose (not detectable--4 ppb), (4) intermediate BaP dose (about 8-47 ppb BaP), and (5) high BaP dose (200-270 ppb). Following the high-dose exposure, hepatocellular lesions classified as foci of cellular alteration (altered foci), adenomas, and hepatocellular carcinomas occurred in both species. In medaka, the lesions appeared to develop sequentially with the appearance of altered foci followed by adenomas and then hepatocellular carcinomas. Most lesions in guppies, however, were classified as altered foci although a few adenomas occurred in the early (24-week) sample and hepatocellular carcinomas occurred in the late (52-week) sample. When total lesions were combined, medaka had an 11% incidence at 24 weeks after the initial exposure and 36% incidence at 36 weeks. In guppies, 8% had liver lesions at 24 weeks, 19% at 36 weeks, and 20% at 52 weeks. A single extrahepatic neoplasm, a capillary hemangioma in a gill filament, occurred in a medaka from the 36-week high-dose sample. The results suggest that the medaka and guppy are capable of metabolizing water-borne BaP to carcinogenic metabolites which initiate hepatic tumor development.

  13. Chronic exposure to low benzo[a]pyrene level causes neurodegenerative disease-like syndromes in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dongxu; Wu, Meifang; Wang, Chonggang; Wang, Yuanchuan; Zuo, Zhenghong

    2015-10-01

    Previous epidemiological and animal studies report that exposure to environmental pollutant exposure links to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a neurotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, has been increasingly released into the environment during recent decades. So far, the role of BaP on the development of neurodegenerative diseases remaind unclear. This study aimed to determine whether chronic exposure to low dose BaP would cause neurodegenerative disease-like syndromes in zebrafish (Danio rerio). We exposed zebrafish, from early embryogenesis to adults, to environmentally relevant concentrations of BaP for 230 days. Our results indicated that BaP decreased the brain weight to body weight ratio, locomotor activity and cognitive ability; induced the loss of dopaminergic neurons; and resulted in neurodegeneration. In addition, obvious cell apoptosis in the brain was found. Furthermore, the neurotransmitter levels of dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, the mRNA levels of the genes encoding dopamine transporter, Parkinson protein 7, phosphatase and tensin-induced putative kinase 1, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1, leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine kinase 2, amyloid precursor protein b, presenilin 1 and presenilin 2 were significantly down-regulated by BaP exposure. These findings suggest that chronic exposure to low dose BaP could cause the behavioral, neuropathological, neurochemical, and genetic features of neurodegenerative diseases. This study provides clues that BaP may constitute an important environmental risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases in humans.

  14. Ploidy-, gender-, and dose-dependent alteration of selected biomarkers in Clarias gariepinus treated with benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Ali; Teh, Swee J; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Courtenay, Simon C

    2015-12-01

    Naturally-occurring and artificially-induced polyploids have been documented in various fish species but to date no comparison has been reported of the impacts of ploidy on fish biomarker responses to organic pollutants. This study describes effects of ploidy, gender, and dose on biliary fluorescent aromatic compound (FAC) concentrations, hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities in one of the most commonly cultured warm-water species, the African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Recently matured male and female diploid and triploid fish were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 0, 5 or 25mg/kg benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and liver and gallbladder were sampled 48hr later. No significant differences were found between ploidies in bile concentrations of 7,8 dihydrodiolbenzo[a]pyrene (7,8D BaP), 1-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (1-OH BaP) or 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (3-OH BaP). However, concentrations of the biliary FACs did differ between males and females at different dose of injection with generally higher concentrations in females at the low dose of BaP and higher concentrations in males at the higher BaP concentration. Hepatic EROD activity did not exhibit gender-dependent difference, whereas it was significantly higher in triploids than diploids. GST activities were not significantly influenced by any of the tested factors. This work advanced our understanding of the role of ploidy, gender, and dose in biotransformation of pollutants in fish.

  15. Genetic polymorphisms in catalase and CYP1B1 determine DNA adduct formation by benzo(a)pyrene ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schults, Marten A; Chiu, Roland K; Nagle, Peter W; Wilms, Lonneke C; Kleinjans, Jos C; van Schooten, Frederik J; Godschalk, Roger W

    2013-03-01

    Genetic polymorphisms can partially explain the large inter-individual variation in DNA adduct levels following exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Effects of genetic polymorphisms on DNA adduct formation are difficult to assess in human studies because exposure misclassification attenuates underlying relationships. Conversely, ex vivo studies offer the advantage of controlled exposure settings, allowing the possibility to better elucidate genotype-phenotype relationships and gene-gene interactions. Therefore, we exposed lymphocytes of 168 non-smoking volunteers ex vivo to the environmental pollutant benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and BaP-related DNA adducts were quantified. Thirty-four genetic polymorphisms were assessed in genes involved in carcinogen metabolism, oxidative stress and DNA repair. Polymorphisms in catalase (CAT, rs1001179) and cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1, rs1800440) were significantly associated with DNA adduct levels, especially when combined. Moreover, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis in a subset of 30 subjects revealed that expression of catalase correlated strongly with expression of CYP1B1 (R = 0.92, P CYP1B1 and how they simultaneously affect BaP-related DNA adduct levels, catalase expression was transiently knocked down in the human lung epithelial cell line A549. Although catalase knockdown did not immediately change CYP1B1 gene expression, recovery of catalase expression 8 h after the knockdown coincided with a 2.2-fold increased expression of CYP1B1 (P polymorphism in the promoter region of CAT may determine the amount and activity of catalase, which may subsequently regulate the expression of CYP1B1. As a result, both genetic polymorphisms modulate DNA adduct levels in lymphocytes by BaP ex vivo.

  16. Toxicogenomic outcomes predictive of forestomach carcinogenesis following exposure to benzo(a)pyrene: Relevance to human cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, Sarah, E-mail: Sarah.Labib@hc-sc.gc.ca; Guo, Charles H., E-mail: Charles.Guo@hc-sc.gc.ca; Williams, Andrew, E-mail: Andrew.Williams@hc-sc.gc.ca; Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: Carole.Yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca; White, Paul A., E-mail: Paul.White@hc-sc.gc.ca; Halappanavar, Sabina, E-mail: Sabina.Halappanavar@hc-sc.gc.ca

    2013-12-01

    Forestomach tumors are observed in mice exposed to environmental carcinogens. However, the relevance of this data to humans is controversial because humans lack a forestomach. We hypothesize that an understanding of early molecular changes after exposure to a carcinogen in the forestomach will provide mode-of-action information to evaluate the applicability of forestomach cancers to human cancer risk assessment. In the present study we exposed mice to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), an environmental carcinogen commonly associated with tumors of the rodent forestomach. Toxicogenomic tools were used to profile gene expression response in the forestomach. Adult Muta™Mouse males were orally exposed to 25, 50, and 75 mg BaP/kg-body-weight/day for 28 consecutive days. The forestomach was collected three days post-exposure. DNA microarrays, real-time RT-qPCR arrays, and protein analyses were employed to characterize responses in the forestomach. Microarray results showed altered expression of 414 genes across all treatment groups (± 1.5 fold; false discovery rate adjusted P ≤ 0.05). Significant downregulation of genes associated with phase II xenobiotic metabolism and increased expression of genes implicated in antigen processing and presentation, immune response, chemotaxis, and keratinocyte differentiation were observed in treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. A systematic comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the forestomach from the present study to differentially expressed genes identified in human diseases including human gastrointestinal tract cancers using the NextBio Human Disease Atlas showed significant commonalities between the two models. Our results provide molecular evidence supporting the use of the mouse forestomach model to evaluate chemically-induced gastrointestinal carcinogenesis in humans. - Highlights: • Benzo(a)pyrene-mediated transcriptomic response in the forestomach was examined. • The immunoproteosome subunits and MHC class I

  17. Phytoremediation for co-contaminated soils of chromium and benzo[a]pyrene using Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbo, Chibuike; Batty, Lesley

    2014-02-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out to investigate the single effect of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) or chromium (Cr) and the joint effect of Cr-B[a]P on the growth of Zea mays, its uptake and accumulation of Cr, and the dissipation of B[a]P over 60 days. Results showed that single or joint contamination of Cr and B[a]P did not affect the plant growth relative to control treatments. However, the occurrence of B[a]P had an enhancing effect on the accumulation and translocation of Cr. The accumulation of Cr in shoot of plant significantly increased by ≥ 79 % in 50 mg kg(-1) Cr-B[a]P (1, 5, and 10 mg kg(-1)) treatments and by ≥ 86 % in 100 mg kg(-1) Cr-B[a]P (1, 5, and 10 mg kg(-1)) treatments relative to control treatments. The presence of plants did not enhance the dissipation of B[a]P in lower (1and 5 mg kg(-1)) B[a]P contaminated soils; however, over 60 days of planting Z. mays seemed to enhance the dissipation of B[a]P by over 60 % in 10 mg kg(-1) single contaminated soil and by 28 to 41 % in 10 mg kg(-1)B[a]P co-contaminated soil. This suggests that Z. mays might be a useful plant for the remediation of Cr-B[a]P co-contaminated soil.

  18. Analysis of fish bile with HPLC — fluorescence to determine environmental exposure to benzo(a)pyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Eric P.; Baumann, Paul C.

    1989-01-01

    Brown bullhead from the Black River, Ohio, have a high incidence of liver neoplasia which is associated with elevated concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediment. We evaluated the use of biliary concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] equivalents as a means for determining PAH exposure. Bile was collected from 16 brown bullheads and 8 common carp taken from each of two Lake Erie tributaries in Ohio, the industrialized Black River and the non-industrialized Old Woman Creek. Hatchery bullhead (n = 8) were used to determine base levels of PAHs. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) — fluorescence technique was used to determine the concentration of B(a)P equivalents in the bile samples. The area of all peaks fluorescing at 380/430 nm was summed to give a single value for B(a)P equivalents in each sample. Concentrations of B(a)P equivalents generally reflected concentrations of PAH in sediment where fish were collected. Bile taken from Black River carp contained the highest concentration of B(a)P equivalents and was significantly different from all other groups. The value obtained for Black River bullhead was also high and was found to be significantly different from hatchery bullhead. B(a)P equivalents varied between carp and bullhead from the same habitat possibly because of differing food habits or metabolic pathways. However, our results indicate that relative levels of B(a)P equivalents in the bile of fish correspond well to B(a)P levels in sediment and may offer a means of determining environmental exposure of fish to the parent compound.

  19. Toxicogenomic outcomes predictive of forestomach carcinogenesis following exposure to benzo(a)pyrene: relevance to human cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Sarah; Guo, Charles H; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L; White, Paul A; Halappanavar, Sabina

    2013-12-01

    Forestomach tumors are observed in mice exposed to environmental carcinogens. However, the relevance of this data to humans is controversial because humans lack a forestomach. We hypothesize that an understanding of early molecular changes after exposure to a carcinogen in the forestomach will provide mode-of-action information to evaluate the applicability of forestomach cancers to human cancer risk assessment. In the present study we exposed mice to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), an environmental carcinogen commonly associated with tumors of the rodent forestomach. Toxicogenomic tools were used to profile gene expression response in the forestomach. Adult Muta™Mouse males were orally exposed to 25, 50, and 75 mgBaP/kg-body-weight/day for 28 consecutive days. The forestomach was collected three days post-exposure. DNA microarrays, real-time RT-qPCR arrays, and protein analyses were employed to characterize responses in the forestomach. Microarray results showed altered expression of 414 genes across all treatment groups (± 1.5 fold; false discovery rate adjusted P ≤ 0.05). Significant downregulation of genes associated with phase II xenobiotic metabolism and increased expression of genes implicated in antigen processing and presentation, immune response, chemotaxis, and keratinocyte differentiation were observed in treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. A systematic comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the forestomach from the present study to differentially expressed genes identified in human diseases including human gastrointestinal tract cancers using the NextBio Human Disease Atlas showed significant commonalities between the two models. Our results provide molecular evidence supporting the use of the mouse forestomach model to evaluate chemically-induced gastrointestinal carcinogenesis in humans.

  20. Effects of ageing and soil properties on the oral bioavailability of benzo[a]pyrene using a swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Luchun; Palanisami, Thavamani; Liu, Yanju; Dong, Zhaomin; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Kuchel, Tim; Semple, Kirk T; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-09-01

    Oral bioavailability of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) was studied in a swine model using eight spiked soil samples after incubation for 50 and/or 90 days. Silica sand was used as a reference material and the relative bioavailability (RB) of B[a]P in soils was calculated as the quotient of the area under the plasma B[a]P curve (AUC) for soil and AUC for the silica sand. Significantly reduced RB was observed in all study soils after 90 days ageing, ranging from 22.1±0.4% to 62.7±10.1%, except for one very sandy soil (sand content 87.6%) where RB was unchanged (108.1±8.0%). Apart from this, bioavailability decreased during ageing with the decrease (from day 50 to day 90) being only significant for a clayey soil containing expandable clay minerals. Statistical analyses of B[a]P RB at day 90 (eight soils) and soil properties showed no direct correlation between RB and specific soil properties such as total organic carbon (TOC) and clay content which were commonly linked to organic contaminant sequestration. However, strongly significant relationships (pFPAC) defined as (Silt+Clay)/TOC, and between RB and the soil mesopore (<6nm; p<0.001) fraction, after two samples with high pH and high EC being excluded from the analyses. The bioaccessibility estimated by four in vitro extraction methods: dichloromethane/acetone sonication (DCM/Ace), butanol vortex (BuOH), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin extraction (HPCD) and Milli Q water leaching methods at different sampling time (1 day, 50 days and 90 days after spiking) also showed a decreasing trend. Significant correlations were found between B[a]P RB and DCM/Ace (R(2)=0.67, p<0.05) extractable fraction and BuOH (R(2)=0.75, p<0.01) extractable fraction.

  1. Degradation of metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene by coupling Penicillium chrysogenum with KMnO4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANG Shu-yan; LI Pei-jun; YU Xiao-cai; SHI Kun; ZHANG Hui; CHEN Jing

    2007-01-01

    Several main metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) formed by Penicillium chrysogenum, Benzo[a]pyrene-l,6-quinone (BP 1,6-quinone), trans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BP 7,8-diol), 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (3-OHBP), were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The three metabolites were liable to be accumulated and were hardly further metabolized because of their toxicity to microorganisms. However, their further degradation was essential for the complete degradation of BaP. To enhance their degradation, two methods, degradation by coupling Penicillium chrysogenum with KMnO4 and degradation only by Penicillium chrysogenum, were compared; Meanwhile, the parameters of degradation in the superior method were optimized.The results showed that (1) the method of coupling Penicillium chrysogenum with KMnO4 was better and was the first method to be used in the degradation of BaP and its metabolites; (2) the metabolite, BP 1,6-quinone was the most liable to be accumulated in pure cultures; (3) the effect of degradation was the best when the concentration of KMnO4 in the cultures was 0.01% (w/v), concentration of the three compounds was 5 mg/L and pH was 6.2. Based on the experimental results, a novel concept with regard to the bioremediation of BaP-contaminated environment was discussed, considering the influence on environmental toxicity of the accumulated metabolites.

  2. Biomarker responses in persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus exposed to benzo-a-pyrene and beta-naphthoflavone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimzadeh Katayoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotransformation enzymes of xenobiotics (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, cytochrome P4501A1 content and glutathione-S-transferase were investigated in the liver of Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus after a 96-hour exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, premutagenic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP and beta-naphthoflavone (BNF. The fish were injected 10 mg/kg wet-body weight in corn oil for 96 hours every days. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD and glutathione s-transferase activity (GST were measured in the fish liver. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1 content was estimated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The response appeared as early as 12 hours post exposure. A time-dependent response was observed in the EROD activity, being significantly higher at 48 hours post exposure to 10 mg/kg of BaP. The greatest induction occurred in the fish treated with 10 mg/kg BaP, in which a 32.1- fold increase in EROD activity was observed. Results showed that EROD activity in A. persicus is significantly increased by BaP and BNF treatments. Both chemicals showed higher values of EROD activity compared to the liver CYP1A content. There was a rise in glutathione-S-transferase activity in fish exposed to BNF, but no increase was observed in fish treated with BaP. The results showed that hepatic CYP1A expression in terms of induction of EROD activity might be suited as a biomarker of organic contamination in aquatic environments and led to lower sensitivity of the second phase in the detoxification enzyme.

  3. Metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene, N-nitrosomethylamine, and N-nitrosopyrrolidine and identification of the major carcinogen-DNA adducts formed in cultured human esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1979-01-01

    The wide variation in the world-wide incidence of esophageal carcinoma suggests that environmental agents including chemicals cause this cancer. Since the interaction between chemical procarcinogens and human esophagus has not been studied previously, we examined the metabolic fate of benzo......(a)pyrene (BP), N-nitrosodimethylamine (DMN), and A/-nitrosopyrrolidine in cultured nontumorous esophagus from two patients with and six patients without esophageal carcinoma. Esophageal explants were cultured in a chemically defined medium for 7 days prior to adding [3H]BP (1.5 JUM),[14C]DMN (100 /IM), or [14C...

  4. Reproductive history and risk of cognitive impairment in elderly women: a cross-sectional study in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu-Dong; He, Fan; Chen, Ting-Rui; Xiao, Yuan-Yuan; Lin, Shang-Tong; Shen, Wei; Wang, Xin-Yi; Zhai, Yu-Jia; Shang, Xiao-Peng; Lin, Jun-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that proxies of higher lifetime estrogen exposure are associated with better cognitive function in postmenopausal women, but this has not been found consistently. To determine whether reproductive history, an important modifier of estrogen exposure across the lifetime, is associated with risk of cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women. We analyzed the baseline data from Zhejiang Major Public Health Surveillance Program (ZPHS) including 4,796 postmenopausal women. Cognitive impairment was assessed through the application of Mini-Mental State Examination questionnaire. Logistic regression models, controlled for an extensive range of potential confounders, were generated to examine the associations between women's reproductive history and risk of cognitive impairment in their later life. The length of reproductive period was inversely associated with risk of cognitive impairment (p = 0.001). Odds ratio (OR) of cognitive impairment were 1.316 (95% CI 1.095∼1.582) for women with 5 or more times of full-term pregnancies, compared with those with 1∼4 times of full-term pregnancies. Women without incomplete pregnancy had a significant higher risk of cognitive impairment (OR = 1.194, 95% CI 1.000∼1.429), compared with the reference (1∼2 times of incomplete pregnancies). Oral contraceptive use (OR = 0.489, 95% CI 0.263∼0.910) and intrauterine device (IUD) use (OR = 0.684, 95% CI 0.575∼0.815) were associated with significantly reduced risk of cognitive impairment. Our results indicated that shorter reproductive period, higher number of full-term pregnancies and no incomplete pregnancy history were associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. In contrast, oral contraceptive and IUD use corresponded to reduced risk of cognitive impairment.

  5. Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichgans, Martin; Leys, Didier

    2017-02-03

    Cerebrovascular disease typically manifests with stroke, cognitive impairment, or both. Vascular cognitive impairment refers to all forms of cognitive disorder associated with cerebrovascular disease, regardless of the specific mechanisms involved. It encompasses the full range of cognitive deficits from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. In principle, any of the multiple causes of clinical stroke can cause vascular cognitive impairment. Recent work further highlights a role of microinfarcts, microhemorrhages, strategic white matter tracts, loss of microstructural tissue integrity, and secondary neurodegeneration. Vascular brain injury results in loss of structural and functional connectivity and, hence, compromise of functional networks within the brain. Vascular cognitive impairment is common both after stroke and in stroke-free individuals presenting to dementia clinics, and vascular pathology frequently coexists with neurodegenerative pathology, resulting in mixed forms of mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Vascular dementia is now recognized as the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, and there is increasing awareness that targeting vascular risk may help to prevent dementia, even of the Alzheimer type. Recent advances in neuroimaging, neuropathology, epidemiology, and genetics have led to a deeper understanding of how vascular disease affects cognition. These new findings provide an opportunity for the present reappraisal of vascular cognitive impairment. We further briefly address current therapeutic concepts.

  6. Researching New Media and Social Diversity in Later Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givskov, Cecilie; Deuze, Mark

    As societies are ageing and mediatising at the same time, it becomes both timely and relevant to develop particular perspectives on the role and meaning of media for older people. The diversity and inequality in the lived experience of the ageing population in the new media environment constitutes...... a blind spot in current research. In this essay we bring literatures of (cultural) ageing studies, and (new) media studies into conversation with each other by asking what future directions for research on older people and their media lives from the particular perspective of social diversity could be. We...... propose three key interventions: developing a focus on social stratification and inequality broadly conceived; designing research with a life course perspective rather than reducing people to age groups; and focusing empirical work on media repertoires looking at the various ways people ‘do’ media....

  7. Researching New Media and Social Diversity in Later Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givskov, Cecilie; Deuze, Mark

    2016-01-01

    As societies are ageing and mediatising at the same time, it becomes both timely and relevant to develop particular perspectives on the role and meaning of media for older people. The diversity and inequality in the lived experience of the ageing population in the new media environment constitutes...... a blind spot in current research. In this essay we bring literatures of (cultural) ageing studies, and (new) media studies into conversation with each other by asking what future directions for research on older people and their media lives from the particular perspective of social diversity could be. We...... propose three key interventions: developing a focus on social stratification and inequality broadly conceived; designing research with a life course perspective rather than reducing people to age groups; and focusing empirical work on media repertoires looking at the various ways people ‘do’ media....

  8. Social support in later life: family, friends and community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Josefina Arias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to carry out an analysis of the importance of social support and participation in old age. Contributions are presented first that various international agencies concerned with old age and aging have been made to strengthen this support and increased participation of older people. Different sources of social support are described: formal and informal interventions that can be made with varied promotion and preventive-wellness-care objectives and action at various levels-individual, group, family, organizational and community-and is made an analysis of the impact on the well-being have the resources of social support available to older people. Finally we reflect on Certain negative assumptions about the availability of support and social participation of older people in relation to recent research findings on the subject. Problematize the importance of these negative stereotypes about aging in general and on the participation and the availability of social support in particular in order to achieve more supportive environments that promote the development of the potential of older persons is concluded.

  9. "Senior coolness": living well as an attitude in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Harm-Peer; Grebe, Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    With demographic change becoming an ever more pressing issue in Germany, old age (80+) is currently talked about above all in terms of being a problem. In mainstream discourse on the situation of the oldest old an interpretive framework has emerged that effectively rules out the possibility of people living positively and well in old age. With regard to both individual (personal) and collective (societal) spheres, negative images of old age dominate public debate. This is the starting point for an interdisciplinary research project designed to look at the ways in which people manage to "live well in old age in the face of vulnerability and finitude"--in express contrast to dominant negative perspectives. Based on the results of this project, the present article addresses an attitudinal and behavioral mode which we have coined "senior coolness". Coolness here is understood as both a socio-cultural resource and an individualized habitus of everyday living. By providing an effective strategy of self-assertion, this ability can, as we show, be just as important for elderly people as for anyone else. "Senior coolness" is discussed, finally, as a phenomenon that testifies to the ways elderly people retain a positive outlook on life--especially in the face of difficult circumstances and powerful socio-cultural pressures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Early childhood wheezers: identifying asthma in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasso-Pirot A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Anayansi Lasso-Pirot, Silvia Delgado-Villalta, Adam J Spanier Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Wheeze in young children is common, and asthma is the most common non-communicable disease in children. Prevalence studies of recurrent asthma-like symptoms in children under the age of 5 years have reported that one third of children in the US and Europe are affected, and rates and severity appear to be higher in developing countries. Over the last few decades, significant research efforts have focused on identification of risk factors and predictors of wheeze and on tools to identify which children who wheeze will progress to develop asthma. We reviewed the phenotypes of childhood wheezing, genetic risk factors, environmental factors, testing/predictive indices, and primary prevention. While it is generally agreed that a complex interaction of environmental exposure and genetic susceptibility contributes to the development of asthma, limitations in predictive tools and tests restrict our ability to provide families with guidance as to whether their child with wheeze will ultimately develop asthma. Additional research is needed to clarify childhood wheeze phenotypes, to develop tools to determine which children will develop asthma, and to determine how and when to intervene. If these areas can be addressed, it would help reduce this large burden on children, families, and society. Keywords: asthma, child, wheeze

  11. Cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders in later life (Protocol)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Hendriks, G.J.; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van

    2009-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: 1. To assess the efficacy and feasability of CBT (CT, BT, CBT and third wave CBT interventions) for different anxiety disorders in older adults aged 55 years or over compared with minimal management 2. To asse

  12. The influence of social relations on mortality in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasulo, Domenica; Christensen, Kaare; Tomassini, Cecilia

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: We examined whether the presence of a spouse and the frequency of interaction with children, relatives, and friends significantly influence the risk of dying in late life. We assessed these effects separately by gender, controlling for self-reported health. In addition, we examined whether...... history analysis. RESULTS: Survival is extended by having a spouse and close ties with friends and the co-twin. However, contact frequency with friends and the co-twin is significant, respectively, only for women and identical twins. IMPLICATIONS: Investigating social relations sheds light on the life...... span of individuals older than 75 years of age. We stress the importance of social relations beyond the presence of the spouse for survival even at very old ages....

  13. What happens to anxiety disorders in later life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrne Gerard JA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders decline in prevalence with advancing age but remain more common than depressive disorders. They are often of late-onset and there is frequent comorbidity with depressive disorders and physical illness. While anxiety disorders in older people are likely to respond to the same non-pharmacological interventions that have been shown to work in younger people, there is currently little formal evidence of this. Although there is some evidence that the non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic medication, buspirone, is effective against late life anxiety symptoms, clinical trials in older people with rigorously diagnosed anxiety disorders are needed. An anxiety scale with demonstrated reliability and validity in older people is needed for screening for pathological anxiety and for measuring change in older patients undergoing treatment for anxiety disorders.

  14. Sleep in later life: a population-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. van den Berg (Julia)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation includes six epidemiological studies of sleep in a normal elderly population. The research was conducted within the setting of the Rotterdam Study, a large prospective cohort study of community-dwelling inhabitants of a district of Rotterdam, aged 55 and over. A total

  15. The Realities of Leisure Education in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosky, Alicia C.

    High-quality leisure education programs for the elderly are few in number considering the size of the older population. Most existing programs are probably inappropriate for the elderly age group. Better perspectives and understanding on the part of leisure educators is needed. Leisure education programs for the elderly may become more plentiful…

  16. Sleep in later life: a population-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. van den Berg (Julia)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation includes six epidemiological studies of sleep in a normal elderly population. The research was conducted within the setting of the Rotterdam Study, a large prospective cohort study of community-dwelling inhabitants of a district of Rotterdam, aged 55 and over. A total o

  17. Pension Plan Types and Financial Literacy in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Burr, Jeffrey A; Miller, Edward Alan

    2017-09-09

    The ongoing shift from defined benefit (DB) to defined contribution (DC) pension plans means that middle-aged and older adults are increasingly being called upon to manage their own fiscal security in retirement. Yet, half of older Americans are financially illiterate, lacking the knowledge and skills to manage financial resources. This study investigates whether pension plan types are associated with varying levels of financial literacy among older Americans. Cross-sectional analyses of the 2010 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (n = 1,281) using logistic and linear regression models were employed to investigate the association between different pension plans and multiple indicators of financial literacy. The potential moderating effect of gender was also examined. Respondents with DC plans, with or without additional DB plans, were more likely to correctly answer various financial literacy questions, in comparison with respondents with DB plans only. Men with both DC and DB plans scored significantly higher on the financial literacy index than women with both types of plans, relative to respondents with DB plans only. Middle-aged and older adults, who are incentivized by participation in DC plans to manage financial resources and decide where to invest pension funds, tend to self-educate to improve financial knowledge and skills, thereby resulting in greater financial literacy. This finding suggests that traditional financial education programs may not be the only means of achieving financial literacy. Further consideration should be given to providing older adults with continued, long-term exposure to financial decision-making opportunities.

  18. Social influences and eating behavior in later life: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesnaver, Elisabeth; Keller, Heather H

    2011-01-01

    Food intake is often poor within the older population and many are at nutritional risk. Food intake is complex, as there are multiple individual, social, and environmental determinants that may interact and change over time. Social isolation has long been recognized as a key factor predicting nutrition risk in this population. However, the mechanisms by which social relationships influence diet among older adults remain poorly understood. The purpose of this review is two-fold: ( 1 ) to identify and, where possible, clarify the social concepts used in older adult nutrition research over the past two decades, specifically, the concepts of social integration, social support, companionship and commensality; and ( 2 ) to provide a review and summary of the empirical literature on social factors and diet among cognitively well older adults living in the community. Finally, challenges to studying social concepts in older adult nutrition and areas of future research will be discussed.

  19. Muscle fatigability and depressive symptoms in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick J; Badreddine, Dala; Roose, Steven P; Rutherford, Bret; Ayonayon, Hilsa N; Yaffe, Kristine; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Goodpaster, Bret

    2017-02-15

    Fatigability is the degree to which performance decreases during a specific activity of a given intensity and duration. Depression is known to heighten subjective fatigue, but whether its association with physical fatigability is unknown. Further, whether fatigability is a precursor or risk factor for the development of subsequent depressive symptoms is also unclear. Data are from the Health Aging and Body Composition Study with fatigability assessed using isokinetic dynamometry of the knee extensors at year 3, and depressive symptoms ascertained longitudinally using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. The relationship between fatigability and depressive symptoms was evaluated using linear and Cox regression models. There was a significant cross-sectional association between fatigability and depressive symptomatology (β = -0.06, p = 0.02), after adjusting for demographic variables, medical comorbidities, cognition, gait speed, and physical activity levels. Greater fatigability was associated with greater adjusted scores on the 10-item CES-D (F2, 1695  = 38.65, p John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Teenage Childbearing, Marital Status, and Depressive Symptoms in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, Ariel; Kunz, James

    2002-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the contribution of age and marital status at first birth to depressive symptomatology in early adulthood. Findings indicated that unmarried teenage childbearers displayed higher levels of depressive symptoms than women who first gave birth as married adults. The psychological health of married teenage mothers in…

  1. Tips for Good Health in Later Life: For Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bearing exercises such as walking, jogging, and aerobic dancing. If you’ve have fallen in the past, ... your mood, and can help prevent and ease depression. Your healthcare provider can help you come up ...

  2. The Association between Routinization and Cognitive Resources in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Isabelle; Mathey, Stephanie; Postal, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between routinization of daily life activities and cognitive resources during aging. Routinization could increase excessively during aging and become maladaptative in reducing individual resources. Fifty-two young participants (M = 20.8 years) and 62 older participants (M = 66.9 years)…

  3. The influence of social relations on mortality in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasulo, Domenica; Christensen, Kaare; Tomassini, Cecilia

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: We examined whether the presence of a spouse and the frequency of interaction with children, relatives, and friends significantly influence the risk of dying in late life. We assessed these effects separately by gender, controlling for self-reported health. In addition, we examined whether...... interaction with the co-twin has a different impact on mortality for identical and fraternal twins. DESIGN AND METHODS: The data set consists of 2,147 Danish twins aged 75 years and older, who were followed prospectively from 1995 to 2001. We modeled the effect of social ties on mortality by using event...... history analysis. RESULTS: Survival is extended by having a spouse and close ties with friends and the co-twin. However, contact frequency with friends and the co-twin is significant, respectively, only for women and identical twins. IMPLICATIONS: Investigating social relations sheds light on the life...

  4. Psychosocial and vascular risk factors of depression in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, AJ; Ormel, J; Brilman, EI; van den Berg, MD

    2003-01-01

    Background: Research on the aetiology of late-life depression has typically focused on either risk factors from the psychosocial stress-vulnerability domain or degenerative biological changes (for instance, vascular disease). We examined whether vascular risk factors could be interpreted within the

  5. Researching New Media and Social Diversity in Later Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givskov, Cecilie; Deuze, Mark

    2016-01-01

    As societies are ageing and mediatising at the same time, it becomes both timely and relevant to develop particular perspectives on the role and meaning of media for older people. The diversity and inequality in the lived experience of the ageing population in the new media environment constitutes...... a blind spot in current research. In this essay we bring literatures of (cultural) ageing studies, and (new) media studies into conversation with each other by asking what future directions for research on older people and their media lives from the particular perspective of social diversity could be. We...... propose three key interventions: developing a focus on social stratification and inequality broadly conceived; designing research with a life course perspective rather than reducing people to age groups; and focusing empirical work on media repertoires looking at the various ways people ‘do’ media....

  6. Suicide in later life: failed treatment or rational choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Whitney L; Ong, Thuan D

    2014-08-01

    Suicide is the deliberate act of causing death by self-directed injurious behavior with intent to die. Assisted dying, also known as assisted suicide, involves others to help hasten death. Physician-assisted dying specifically refers to the participation of a physician in facilitating one's death by providing a lethal means. Any decision to actively end a life has profound emotional and psychological effects on survivors. The article discusses the effects that older adults' deaths through suicide, assisted dying, and physician-assisted dying have on survivors and the implications for clinical practice.

  7. OLD AND SAD — DEPRESSION IN LATER LIFE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    When the World Health Organisation published statistics predicting overall dis- ability figures for the year ... of elderly citizens as the AIDS epidemic plateaus. Increased life expectancy ... She is a Director of the South. African Depression and ...

  8. Alcohol, drugs and much more in later life

    OpenAIRE

    Hulse Gary K

    2002-01-01

    Elderly adults are greater consumers of prescription and 'over the counter' medications than any other age group and polypharmacy, including the co-use of alcohol, is common in this group. Age related physiological changes which influence drug concentrations, metabolism, polypharmacy and interaction of other drugs with alcohol can negatively influence functional capacity, psychomotor ability, and cognition, including attention and memory, placing the older person at greater risk of accident, ...

  9. Impairments to Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an external Non-Government web site. Impairments to Vision Normal Vision Diabetic Retinopathy Age-related Macular Degeneration In this ... pictures, fixate on the nose to simulate the vision loss. In diabetic retinopathy, the blood vessels in ...

  10. Stormwater Impaired Watersheds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Stormwater impaired watersheds occuring on both the Priority Waters (Part D - Completed TMDL) and 303(d) list of waters (Part A - need TMDL) The Vermont State...

  11. Kids' Quest: Vision Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... least one other developmental disability, such as intellectual disabilities, cerebral palsy, hearing loss, or epilepsy. Vision impairment is more common in older people than in children. Guide dogs are the guiding ...

  12. Speech impairment (adult)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003204.htm Speech impairment (adult) To use the sharing features on ... 2017, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  13. Binding of benzo(a)pyrene to DNA by cytochrome P-450 catalyzed one-electron oxidation in rat liver microsomes and nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalieri, E.L.; Rogan, E.G.; Devanesan, P.D.; Cremonesi, P. (Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (USA)); Cerny, R.L.; Gross, M.L. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA)); Bodell, W.J. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1990-05-22

    To investigate whether cytochrome P-450 catalyzes the covalent binding of substrates to DNA by one-electron oxidation, the ability of both uninduced and 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) induced rat liver microsomes and nuclei to catalyze covalent binding of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) to DNA and formation of the labile adduct 7-(benzo(a)pyren-6-yl)guanine (BP-N7Gua) was investigated. In the various systems studied, 1-9 times more BP-N7Gua adduct was isolated than the total amount of stable BP adducts in the DNA. The specific cytochrome P-450 inhibitor 2-((4,6-dichloro-o-biphenyl)oxy)ethylamine hydrobromide (DPEA) reduced or eliminated BP metabolism, binding of BP to DNA, and formation of BP-N7Gua by cytochrome P-450 in both microsomes and nuclei. The effects of the antioxidants cysteine, glutathione, and p-methoxythiophenol were also investigated. This study represents the first demonstration of cytochrome P-450 mediating covalent binding of substrates to DNA via one-electron oxidation and suggests that this enzyme can catalyze peroxidase-type electron-transfer reactions.

  14. Effects of benzo[a]pyrene dietary intake to antioxidative enzymes of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae from unpolluted and polluted forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilović, Anja; Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdaković, Marija; Vlahović, Milena; Mrkonja, Aleksandra; Matić, Dragana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic activity in industrial development has imposed great threats to the environment and wildlife in the form of persistent organic pollutants. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) tend to accumulate in vegetation foliage which is the main food source of polyphagous insect species Lymantria dispar L. Origin and multigenerational adaptation of L. dispar population to environmental challenges strongly condition the enzymes' sensitivity to pollutants. In this study, our aim was to investigate response of the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) to the chronic dietary exposure of benzo[a]pyrene in the midgut tissues and hemolymph of two L. dispar populations originating from unpolluted and polluted forest habitat. Midgut tissue of the larvae from the polluted forest showed significant increase in SOD, CAT and GST activity, while in unpolluted forest's larvae SOD and CAT showed elevated activities in hemolymph. L. dispar populations adapted to different level of pollution in their environment and expressed distinct tissue-dependent antioxidative enzyme sensitivity to benzo[a]pyrene diet, implying high potential for further elucidation of these enzymes as molecular biomarkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. DNA polymerase eta participates in the mutagenic bypass of adducts induced by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alden C Klarer

    Full Text Available Y-family DNA-polymerases have larger active sites that can accommodate bulky DNA adducts allowing them to bypass these lesions during replication. One member, polymerase eta (pol eta, is specialized for the bypass of UV-induced thymidine-thymidine dimers, correctly inserting two adenines. Loss of pol eta function is the molecular basis for xeroderma pigmentosum (XP variant where the accumulation of mutations results in a dramatic increase in UV-induced skin cancers. Less is known about the role of pol eta in the bypass of other DNA adducts. A commonly encountered DNA adduct is that caused by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE, the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of the environmental chemical benzo[a]pyrene. Here, treatment of pol eta-deficient fibroblasts from humans and mice with BPDE resulted in a significant decrease in Hprt gene mutations. These studies in mammalian cells support a number of in vitro reports that purified pol eta has error-prone activity on plasmids with site-directed BPDE adducts. Sequencing the Hprt gene from this work shows that the majority of mutations are G>T transversions. These data suggest that pol eta has error-prone activity when bypassing BPDE-adducts. Understanding the basis of environmental carcinogen-derived mutations may enable prevention strategies to reduce such mutations with the intent to reduce the number of environmentally relevant cancers.

  16. Modulation of adult rat benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) metabolism and DNA adduct formation by neonatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Aramandla; Inyang, Frank; Knuckles, Maurice E

    2004-12-01

    This study seeks to elucidate the role of diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen on benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) metabolism in the male rat reproductive tissues. Offspring of timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were neonatally treated on days 2, 4, and 6 post-partum with 1.45 micromol/kg of DES. Ten weeks after birth, the adult rats were challenged with radiolabeled benzo(a)pyrene (3H BaP) (10 micromol/kg) and the rats were sacrificed 2 h after BaP exposure. Prostrate, testis, lung, liver, urine and feces samples were collected and extracted using a mixture of H2O, MeOH and CHCl3. The extracts were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC. The concentrations of BaP organic metabolites in DES rats were lower compared to controls (vehicle-treated rats). On the other hand, concentrations of aqueous metabolites were significantly increased in DES treated animals. The toxication to detoxication ratios were significantly decreased in DES rats compared to controls. This trend is also reflected in the decreased concentrations of BaP-DNA adducts in DES rats. Collectively these results suggest that DES is capable of modulating the metabolic pathway of BaP towards detoxification thereby preventing the manifestation of toxicity.

  17. Toxicity of benzo(a)pyrene and pyrene in the mosquito Aedes aegypti, in the dark and in the presence of ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, J.; Kagan, E.D.

    1986-03-01

    The phototoxicity of benzo(a)pyrene constitutes a much greater risk to immature forms of the mosquito Aedes aegypti than its mutagenicity of carcinogenicity. First instar larvae, fourth instar larvae, and pupae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti were treated with benzo(a)pyrene at concentrations up to 6.7 ppm, either in the dark or in the presence of long wavelength ultraviolet light (for only 30 min). The irradiations had a profound effect on the fate of first instar larvae. Their LC/sub 50/ value for 24 h survival was about 0.002 ppm. When the adult emergence was determined, the LC/sub 50/ value was about 0.0015 ppm. The development of fourth instar larvae was also modified by the photochemical treatments, with an LC/sub 50/ value for adult emergence of 0.12 ppm. The LC/sub 50/ values for the highly carcinogenic BAP are very similar to those determined for pyrene, its non-carcinogenic parent molecule. This provides one additional proof that the carcinogenicity and the phototoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are not necessarily related.

  18. Inhibitory effects of the phorbolester TPA and cigarette smoke condensate on the mutagenicity of benzo(a)pyrene in a co-cultivation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongen, W.M.; Hakkert, B.C.; van de Poll, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    The transport of reactive intermediates was studied in a co-cultivation system of primary chick embryo hepatocytes and V79 Chinese hamster cells. Two test systems with different genetic endpoints--sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) and gene mutation at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus--were used. Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) was positive in both test systems. When the V79 cells were co-cultivated with the hepatocytes at a distance of 1 mm, only a slight increase in the number of SCEs was observed after exposure to benzo(a)pyrene. When the two cell types were in direct contact, addition of the phorbolester TPA or cigarette smoke condensate inhibited the mutagenic effects of B(a)P in both assays by 50%. No influence of TPA on the number of SCEs induced by B(a)P was observed in a preincubation assay using Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate. The results indicate that metabolic co-operation may play a role in the transport of reactive intermediates in this co-cultivation system. The mutagenic potential of compounds may be underestimated in systems using intact cells for metabolic activation if the compounds or their metabolites are capable of inhibiting metabolic co-operation.

  19. Impact of benzo(a)pyrene, Cu and their mixture on the proteomic response of Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria, V.L., E-mail: vmaria@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Gomes, T., E-mail: tcgomes@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Barreira, L., E-mail: lbarreir@ualg.pt [CCMAR, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Bebianno, M.J., E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [CIMA, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Distinct protein expression profiles dependent of BaP and Cu accumulation, metabolism and chemical interactions in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. •Processes that involve adhesion and motility, cytoskeleton and cell structure, stress response, transcription regulation and energy metabolism are common mechanisms. •Traditional (ATP synthase, GST, HSP and actin) and novel biomarkers for BaP (ZFP), Cu (chitin synthase) and mixture (MVP) exposures identified in mussels. -- Abstract: In natural waters, chemical interactions between mixtures of contaminants can result in potential synergistic and/or antagonic effects in aquatic animals. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and copper (Cu) are two widespread environmental contaminants with known toxicity towards mussels Mytilus spp. The effects of the individual and the interaction of BaP and Cu exposures were assessed in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis using proteomic analysis. Mussels were exposed to BaP [10 μg L{sup −1} (0.396 μM)], and Cu [10 μg L{sup −1} (0.16 μM)], as well as to their binary mixture (mixture) for a period of 7 days. Proteomic analysis showed different protein expression profiles associated to each selected contaminant condition. A non-additive combined effect was observed in mixture in terms of new and suppressed proteins. Proteins more drastically altered (new, suppressed and 2-fold differentially expressed) were excised and analyzed by mass spectrometry, and eighteen putatively identified. Protein identification demonstrated the different accumulation, metabolism and chemical interactions of BaP, Cu and their mixture, resulting in different modes of action. Proteins associated with adhesion and motility (catchin, twitchin and twitchin-like protein), cytoskeleton and cell structure (α-tubulin and actin), stress response (heat shock cognate 71, heat shock protein 70, putative C1q domain containing protein), transcription regulation (zinc-finger BED domain-containing and nuclear

  20. Effects of fatty acids on benzo[a]pyrene uptake and metabolism in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rola Barhoumi

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation with natural chemoprotective agents is receiving considerable attention because of health benefits and lack of toxicity. In recent in vivo and in vitro experimental studies, diets rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been shown to provide significant anti-tumor action. In this investigation, the effects of control fatty acids (oleic acid (OA, linoleic acid (LA and n-3 PUFA, e.g., docosahexaenoic acid (DHA on the uptake and metabolism of the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP was investigated in A549 cells, a human adenocarcinoma alveolar basal epithelial cell line. A549 cells activate BaP through the cytochrome P450 enzyme system to form reactive metabolites, a few of which covalently bind to DNA and proteins. Therefore, multiphoton microscopy spectral analysis combined with linear unmixing was used to identify the parent compound and BaP metabolites formed in cells, in the presence and absence of fatty acids. The relative abundance of select metabolites was associated with altered P450 activity as determined using ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in cells cultured in the presence of BSA-conjugated fatty acids. In addition, the parent compound within cellular membranes increases significantly in the presence of each of the fatty acids, with the greatest accumulation observed following DHA treatment. DHA treated cells exhibit significantly lower pyrene-like metabolites indicative of lower adducts including DNA adducts compared to control BSA, OA or LA treated cells. Further, DHA reduced the abundance of the proximate carcinogen BaP 7,8-dihydrodiol and the 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene metabolites compared to other treatments. The significant changes in BaP metabolites in DHA treated cells may be mediated by the effects on the physicochemical properties of the membrane known to affect enzyme activity related to phase I and phase II metabolism. In summary, DHA is a highly bioactive chemo

  1. Benzo(a)pyrene induces hepatic AKR1A1 mRNA expression in tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Yáñez, Citlalli; García-Tavera, José Luis; Pérez-Núñez, Maria Teresa; Poblete-Naredo, Irais; Muñoz, Balam; Barron-Vivanco, Briscia S; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Zapata-Pérez, Omar; Albores, Arnulfo

    2012-07-01

    AKR1A1 or aldehyde reductase is a member of the aldo-keto reductases superfamily that is evolutionarily conserved among species. AKR1A1 is one of the five AKRs (AKR1A1 and 1C1-1C4) implicated in the metabolic benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) activation to reactive BaP 7,8-dione. BaP is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) widely distributed in aquatic ecosystems and its metabolic activation is necessary to produce its toxic effects. Although the presence of AKR1A1 in fish has been reported, its tissue distribution in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and AKR1A1 inducibility by BaP are not known yet. Moreover, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) mRNA expression in fish has been used as a PAH biomarker of effect. Therefore, BaP effects on AKR1A1 and CYP1A gene expressions in tilapia, a species of commercial interest, were investigated by real-time RT-PCR. A partial AKR1A1 cDNA was identified, sequenced and compared with AKR1A1 reported sequences in the GenBank DNA database. Constitutive AKR1A1 mRNA expression was detected mainly in liver, similarly to that of CYP1A. BaP exposure resulted in statistically significant AKR1A1 and CYP1A mRNA induction in liver (20- and 120-fold, respectively) at 24 h. On the other hand, ethoxyquin (EQ) was used as control inducer for AKR1A1 mRNA. Interestingly, EQ also induced CYP1A mRNA levels in tilapia liver. Our results suggest that teleost AKR1A1, in addition to CYP1A, are inducible by BaP. The mechanism of AKR1A1 induction by BaP and its role in fish susceptibility to BaP toxic effects remains to be elucidated.

  2. Effects of the co-carcinogen catechol on benzo(a)pyrene metabolism and DNA adduct formation in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melikian, A.A.; Leszczynska, J.M.; Hecht, S.S.; Hoffmann, D.

    1986-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the co-carcinogen catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) on the metabolic activation of (/sup 3/H) benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in mouse skin, in vivo and on the binding of BaP metabolites to DNA and protein at intervals from 0.5-24 h. Upon topical application of 0.015 mg (/sup 3/H)BaP and 0.25 or 0.5 mg catechol per mouse, catechol had little effect on the total amount of (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolized in mouse skin, but it affected the relative proportions of (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolites. Catechol (0.5 mg/mouse) decreased the proportion of water-soluble (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolites, ethyl acetate-soluble polar metabolites and quinones, but doubled the levels of unconjugated 3-hydroxy-BaP at all measured intervals after treatment. Catechol also caused a small increase in the levels of trans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydroBaP and trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydroBaP 0.5 h after treatment. Two hours after treatment, the levels of these metabolites subsided to those of the controls. Catechol did not affect the levels of glutathione conjugates of BaP. However, it caused a decrease in glucuronide and sulphate conjugate formation from BaP. Catechol caused an approximately 2-fold increase in the formation of anti-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydroBaP (BPDE) DNA adducts and elevated the ratio of anti-syn-BPDE-DNA adducts 1.6 to 2.9-fold. Catechol treatment increased the radioactivity associated with epidermal proteins after (/sup 3/H)BaP application. Because catechol increased levels of 3-hydroxyBaP, we considered the possibility that 3-hydroxyBaP might enhance the tumor initiating activities of BaP or BPDE in mouse skin; a bioassay demonstrated that this was not the case. The results of this study indicate that one important effect of catechol related to its co-carcinogenicity is its ability to enhance formation of anti-BPDE-DNA adducts in mouse skin.

  3. Determinação de benzo(apireno em pescados Determination of benzo(apyrene in fish products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Azeredo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, peixes, camarões, mexilhões e carnes de siri frescos e processados, comercializados na região metropolitana de Campinas (SP, foram analisados quanto à presença de benzo(apireno (B(aP. A metodologia utilizada envolveu extração com n-hexano, limpeza em Sep-Pak sílica plus e determinação por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência com Detector de Fluorescência. A presença de B(aP foi detectada em todas as amostras analisadas (n=35, em quantidades variando na faixa de 0,03 a 4,54 µg/kg. Os maiores níveis de contaminação foram encontrados em produtos defumados (níveis médios=2,5 µg/kg e mexilhões (níveis médios=2,4 µg/kg. Considerando-se o potencial carcinogênico desse contaminante e a importância desse grupo de alimentos na dieta, um programa de monitoramento deve ser iniciado para identificar e controlar a fonte de contaminação de pescados por B(aP.In the present study samples of fresh and processed fish, shrimp, mussels and crab meat commercialized in the metropolitan area of Campinas (SP, Brazil were analysed for benzo(apyrene (B(aP. The methodology involved extraction with n-hexane, clean-up on Sep-Pak silica plus and determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with a Fluorescence Detector. B(aP was detected in all samples analysed (n=35 at levels ranging from to 0.03 a 4.54 µg/kg. The highest content of B(aP was found in smoked products (mean level=2.5 µg/kg and mussels (mean level=2.4 µg/kg. In view of the carcinogenic potential of this widely distributed contaminant and the importance of seafood in the daily diet of fisherman communities, a monitoring program should be initiated to identify and control the source of contamination of seafood by B(aP.

  4. Prenatal Stress Impairs Spatial Learning and Memory Associated with Lower mRNA Level of the CAMKII and CREB in the Adult Female Rat Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongli; Wu, Haibin; Liu, Jianping; Wen, Jun; Zhu, Zhongliang; Li, Hui

    2017-02-25

    Prenatal stress (PS) results in various behavioral and emotional alterations observed in later life. In particular, PS impairs spatial learning and memory processes but the underlying mechanism involved in this pathogenesis still remains unknown. Here, we reported that PS lowered the body weight in offspring rats, particularly in female rats, and impaired spatial learning and memory of female offspring rats in the Morris water maze. Correspondingly, the decreased CaMKII and CREB mRNA in the hippocampus were detected in prenatally stressed female offspring, which partially explained the effect of PS on the spatial learning and memory. Our findings suggested that CaMKII and CREB may be involved in spatial learning and memory processes in the prenatally stressed adult female offspring.

  5. THE EFFECT OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL ON DNA ADDUCT FORMATION IN C57B1/6 TRP53 +/+ AND C57B16 TRP53 -/- MICE EXPOSED TO BENZO[A]PYRENE MAY BE ASSOCIATED WITH P53 FUNCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractPrevious studies have shown that pentachlorophenol (PCP) has both potentiative and antagonistic effects on the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). It has been suggested that these effects are due to inhibition and/or induction of enzymes involved in the biotr...

  6. Mutations Induced by Benzo[a]pyrene and Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene in lacI Transgenic B6C3F1 Mouse Lung Result from Stable DNA Adducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) are carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that are each capable of forming a variety of covalent adducts with DNA. Some of the DNA adducts formed by these PAHs have been demonstrated to spontaneously depurina...

  7. Social communication impairments: pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robert L

    2007-06-01

    Social communication or pragmatic impairments are characterized and illustrated as involving inappropriate or ineffective use of language and gesture in social contexts. Three clinical vignettes illustrate different pragmatic impairments and the wealth of diagnostic information that can be garnered from observation of a child's social communication behavior. Definitions of, and developmental milestones in, domains of pragmatic competence are provided. Several screening instruments are suggested for use in assessing pragmatic competence within the time-frame of a pediatric examination. Frequent comorbid psychiatric conditions are described and a sample of current neurobiologic research is briefly summarized.

  8. Visual Impairment Training Reviewed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maychell, Karen; Smart, David

    1989-01-01

    A British study of training provided for social services workers with the visually impaired found that emphasis was on workers' learning the skills their clients would need, rather than on how to teach those skills; most training is geared toward the totally blind, a small proportion of the population; and workers felt the need to acquire…

  9. Anarthria impairs subvocal counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubelli, R; Nichelli, P; Pentore, R

    1993-12-01

    We studied subvocal counting in two pure anarthric patients. Analysis showed that they performed definitively worse than normal subjects free to articulate subvocally and their scores were in the lower bounds of the performances of subjects suppressing articulation. These results suggest that subvocal counting is impaired after anarthria.

  10. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It can involve problems with memory, language, thinking and judgment that are greater than normal age-related changes. If you have mild cognitive impairment, you may ...

  11. Antimutagenic activity of some naturally occurring compounds towards cigarette-smoke condensate and benzo(a)pyrene in the Salmonella/microsome assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwel, L.; van der Hoeven, J.C.

    1985-10-01

    Several compounds, occurring in food, were tested for antimutagenic activity towards cigarette-smoke condensate (CSC) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Antimutagenicity was determined in the Salmonella/microsome test, with tester strain TA98, in the presence of rat-liver homogenate. Dose-response curves did show reduction of CSC- and BaP-induced mutagenicity by ellagic acid, riboflavin and chlorophyllin. Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, although less distinct, also inhibited CSC- and BaP-induced mutagenicity. Ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, tocopherol acetate, chlorogenic acid and butyl hydroxyanisole did not have any influence on the mutagenicity of CSC and BaP. The similarity in results for cigarette-smoke condensate and for BaP indicates that a general mechanism may be involved in the inhibition of CSC- and BaP-induced mutagenicity.

  12. Development and validation of a direct sandwich chemiluminescence immunoassay for measuring DNA adducts of benzo[a]pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Kovács, Katalin; Kaila, Stella;

    2012-01-01

    We have developed and validated a sandwich chemiluminescence immunoassay (SCIA) which measures polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts combining high throughput and adequate sensitivity, appropriate for evaluation of adduct levels in human population studies. Fragmented DNA is incubated...... with rabbit antiserum elicited against DNA modified with r7,t8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE) and subsequently trapped by goat anti-rabbit IgG bound to a solid surface. Anti-single-stranded (ss) DNA antibodies binds in a quantity proportional to the adduct levels...... and is detected by chemiluminescence. The BPDE-DNA SCIA has a limit of detection of 3 adducts per 10(9) nucleotides with 5 µg DNA per well. We have validated the BPDE-DNA SCIA using DNA modified in vitro, DNA from benzo[a]pyrene (BP)-exposed cultured cells and mice. The levels of adduct measured by SCIA were...

  13. Use of high pressure liquid chromatography to study chemically induced alterations in the pattern of benzo(a)pyrene metabolism. [Rat liver microsomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenthal, R.I.; Leber, A.P.; Emmerling, D.; Clarke, P.

    1975-11-01

    The metabolism of radiolabeled benzo(a)pyrene (BP) by control, 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) induced and 1,1,1-trichloropropene-2,3-oxide (TCPO)-inhibited rat liver microsomes was measured using fluorescence, radiometric, and high-pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assays. Significant differences in the total measurable metabolism of BP by the three microsomal enzyme incubations resulted from the use of the three assay procedures. Appreciable differences in the concentration of the metabolite fractions after 3-MC induction and TCPO inhibition are clearly demonstrated. NMR analysis revealed that while the 3-hydroxy-BP fraction is greater than 90 percent pure, the 9-hydroxy fraction contains a number of metabolites having essentially identical retention times.

  14. Metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in cultured human bronchus and pancreatic duct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1977-01-01

    The metabolism of two carcinogenic polynuclear aro matic hydrocarbons, benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, was studied in expiants of human pancreatic duct and bronchus cultured in a chemically defined medium. In cultured human bronchial mucosa, activity of aryl hydrocarbon...... hydroxylase was inducible by both benz[a]anthracene and BP. Prior exposure of the bronchial expiants to benz[a]anthracene altered the qualitative features of the metabolite profile of BP as analyzed by highpressure liquid chromatography. The metabolite profiles of BP produced by normal-appearing bronchi from...... cochromatographed with both the 9,10-diol and a triol of BP. 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene was bound to the DMA of cultured human bronchial cells at higher levels than was BP. Binding of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene to DMA in human pancreatic duct was consistently less than that in cultured bronchi in the 5...

  15. Vestibular Impairment in Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Aisha; Oh, Esther S; Bigelow, Robin T; Studenski, Stephanie; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies suggest an association between vestibular and cognitive function. The goal of the study was to investigate whether vestibular function was impaired in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared with cognitively normal individuals. Cross-sectional study. Outpatient memory clinic and longitudinal observational study unit. Older individuals ≥55 years with MCI or AD. Age, sex, and education-matched normal controls were drawn from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). Saccular and utricular function was assessed with cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (c- and oVEMPs) respectively, and horizontal semicircular canal function was assessed with video head impulse testing. Presence or absence of VEMP responses, VEMP amplitude, and vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) gain were measured. Forty-seven individuals with cognitive impairment (MCI N = 15 and AD N = 32) underwent testing and were matched with 94 controls. In adjusted analyses, bilaterally absent cVEMPs were associated with an over three-fold odds of AD (OR 3.42, 95% CI 1.33-8.91, p = 0.011). One microvolt increases in both cVEMP and oVEMP amplitudes were associated with decreased odds of AD (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09-0.93, p = 0.038 and OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.85-0.99, p = 0.036, respectively). There was no significant difference in VOR gain between the groups. These findings confirm and extend emerging evidence of an association between vestibular dysfunction and cognitive impairment. Further investigation is needed to determine the causal direction for the link between peripheral vestibular loss and cognitive impairment.

  16. Influence of dietary fat type on benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] biotransformation in a B(a)P-induced mouse model of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggs, Deacqunita L; Myers, Jeremy N; Banks, Leah D; Niaz, Mohammad S; Hood, Darryl B; Roberts, L Jackson; Ramesh, Aramandla

    2013-12-01

    In the US alone, around 60,000 lives/year are lost due to colon cancer. Diet and environment have been implicated in the development of sporadic colon tumors. The objective of this study was to determine how dietary fat potentiates the development of colon tumors through altered B(a)P biotransformation, using the Adenomatous polyposis coli with Multiple intestinal neoplasia mouse model. Benzo(a)pyrene was administered to mice through tricaprylin, and unsaturated (USF; peanut oil) and saturated (SF; coconut oil) fats at doses of 50 and 100 μg/kg via oral gavage over a 60-day period. Blood, colon, and liver were collected at the end of exposure period. The expression of B(a)P biotransformation enzymes [cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1, CYP1B1 and glutathione-S-transferase] in liver and colon were assayed at the level of protein, mRNA and activities. Plasma and tissue samples were analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography for B(a)P metabolites. Additionally, DNA isolated from colon and liver tissues was analyzed for B(a)P-induced DNA adducts by the (32)P-postlabeling method using a thin-layer chromatography system. Benzo(a)pyrene exposure through dietary fat altered its metabolic fate in a dose-dependent manner, with 100 μg/kg dose group registering an elevated expression of B(a)P biotransformation enzymes, and greater concentration of B(a)P metabolites, compared to the 50 μg/kg dose group (Pcolon and liver, whose concentrations also registered a dose-dependent increase. These metabolites were found to bind with DNA and form B(a)P-DNA adducts, which may have contributed to colon tumors in a subchronic exposure regimen.

  17. In vitro metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol and dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-11,12 diol in rodent and human hepatic microsomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jordan N.; Mehinagic, Denis; Nag, Subhasree; Crowell, Susan R.; Corley, Richard A.

    2017-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are contaminants that are ubiquitously found in the environment, produced through combustion of organic matter or petrochemicals, and many of which are procarcinogens. The prototypic PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and the highly carcinogenic dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) are metabolically activated by isoforms of the P450 enzyme superfamily producing benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol (B[a]P diol), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-11,12 diol (DBC diol). Each of these diols can be further metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes to highly reactive diol-epoxide metabolites that readily react with DNA or by phase II conjugation facilitating excretion. To complement prior in vitro metabolism studies with parent B[a]P and DBC, both phase I metabolism and phase II glucuronidation of B[a]P diol and DBC diol were measured in hepatic microsomes from female B6129SF1/J mice, male Sprague-Dawley rats, and female humans. Metabolic parameters, including intrinsic clearance and Michaelis-Menten kinetics were calculated from substrate depletion data. Mice and rats demonstrated similar B[a]P diol phase I metabolic rates. Compared to rodents, human phase I metabolism of B[a]P diol demonstrated lower overall metabolic capacity, lower intrinsic clearance at higher substrate concentrations (>0.14 µM), and higher intrinsic clearance at lower substrate concentrations (<0.07 µM). Rates of DBC diol metabolism did not saturate in mice or humans and were highest overall in mice. Higher affinity constants and lower capacities were observed for DBC diol glucuronidation compared to B[a]P diol glucuronidation; however, intrinsic clearance values for these compounds were consistent within each species. Kinetic parameters reported here will be used to extend physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to include the disposition of B[a]P and DBC metabolites in animal models and humans to support future human health risk assessments.

  18. In vitro metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol and dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-11,12 diol in rodent and human hepatic microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan N; Mehinagic, Denis; Nag, Subhasree; Crowell, Susan R; Corley, Richard A

    2017-01-21

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are contaminants that are ubiquitously found in the environment, produced through combustion of organic matter or petrochemicals, and many of which are procarcinogens. The prototypic PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and the highly carcinogenic dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) are metabolically activated by isoforms of the P450 enzyme superfamily producing benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol (B[a]P diol), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-11,12 diol (DBC diol). Each of these diols can be further metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes to highly reactive diol-epoxide metabolites that readily react with DNA or by phase II conjugation facilitating excretion. To complement prior in vitro metabolism studies with parent B[a]P and DBC, both phase I metabolism and phase II glucuronidation of B[a]P diol and DBC diol were measured in hepatic microsomes from female B6129SF1/J mice, male Sprague-Dawley rats, and female humans. Metabolic parameters, including intrinsic clearance and Michaelis-Menten kinetics were calculated from substrate depletion data. Mice and rats demonstrated similar B[a]P diol phase I metabolic rates. Compared to rodents, human phase I metabolism of B[a]P diol demonstrated lower overall metabolic capacity, lower intrinsic clearance at higher substrate concentrations (>0.14μM), and higher intrinsic clearance at lower substrate concentrations (P diol glucuronidation; however, intrinsic clearance values for these compounds were consistent within each species. Kinetic parameters reported here will be used to extend physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to include the disposition of B[a]P and DBC metabolites in animal models and humans to support future human health risk assessments.

  19. Impaired GABAergic inhibition in the prefrontal cortex of early postnatal phencyclidine (PCP)-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaerby, Celia; Broberg, Brian V; Kristiansen, Uffe; Dalby, Nils Ole

    2014-09-01

    A compromised γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system is hypothesized to be part of the underlying pathophysiology of schizophrenia. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction during neurodevelopment is proposed to disrupt maturation of interneurons causing an impaired GABAergic transmission in adulthood. The present study examines prefrontal GABAergic transmission in adult rats administered with the NMDA receptor channel blocker, phencyclidine (PCP), for 3 days during the second postnatal week. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from pyramidal cells in PCP-treated rats showed a 22% reduction in the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in layer II/III, but not in layer V pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, early postnatal PCP treatment caused insensitivity toward effects of the GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) inhibitor, 1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-[2-[[(diphenyl-methylene)amino]oxy]ethyl]-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid, and also diminished currents passed by δ-subunit-containing GABAA receptors in layer II/III pyramidal neurons. The observed impairments in GABAergic function are compatible with the alteration of GABAergic markers as well as cognitive dysfunction observed in early postnatal PCP-treated rats and support the hypothesis that PCP administration during neurodevelopment affects the functionality of interneurons in later life. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Lacking power impairs executive functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, P.K.; Jostmann, N.B.; Galinsky, A.D.; Dijk, W.W. van

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments explored whether lacking power impairs executive functioning, testing the hypothesis that the cognitive presses of powerlessness increase vulnerability to performance decrements during complex executive tasks. In the first three experiments, low power impaired performance on executi

  1. Age-Related Sensory Impairments and Risk of Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mary E; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Pinto, Alex A; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Tweed, Ted S

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the associations between sensory impairments and 10-year risk of cognitive impairment. The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS), a longitudinal, population-based study of aging in the Beaver Dam, Wisconsin community. Baseline examinations were conducted in 1993 and follow-up examinations have been conducted every 5 years. General community. EHLS members without cognitive impairment at EHLS-2 (1998-2000). There were 1,884 participants (mean age 66.7) with complete EHLS-2 sensory data and follow-up information. Cognitive impairment was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination score of impairment was a pure-tone average of hearing thresholds (0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz) of >25 dB hearing level in either ear, visual impairment was a Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity of impairment was a San Diego Odor Identification Test score of visual, and olfactory impairment were independently associated with cognitive impairment risk (hearing: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11-3.26; vision: HR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.24-3.38; olfaction: HR = 3.92, 95% CI = 2.45-6.26)). Nevertheless, 85% of participants with hearing impairment, 81% with visual impairment, and 76% with olfactory impairment did not develop cognitive impairment during follow-up. The relationship between sensory impairment and cognitive impairment was not unique to one sensory system, suggesting that sensorineural health may be a marker of brain aging. The development of a combined sensorineurocognitive measure may be useful in uncovering mechanisms of healthy brain aging. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Cryotherapy impairs proprioception function?

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro, Nuno; Henriques, Sara

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cryotherapy application over a joint causes a nerve conduction velocity decrease and proprioceptive changes. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine if cryotherapy impairs proprioception acuity. METHODS: Proprioception was assessed by joint position sense (JPS), measured with an isokinetic dynamometer Biodex System 3, in twenty one females on experimental group, before 15 minutes cryotherapy (T0) and immediately after (T1). A control group (n=20) performed also the JPS...

  3. The PACE Study: A randomised clinical trial of cognitive activity (CA for older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flicker Leon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research evidence from observational studies suggests that cognitive activity reduces the risk of cognitive impairment in later life as well as the rate of cognitive decline of people with dementia. The Promoting Healthy Ageing with Cognitive Exercise (PACE study has been designed to determine whether a cognitive activity intervention decreases the rate of cognitive decline amongst older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods/Design The study will recruit 160 community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years of age or over with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Participants will be randomly allocated to two treatment groups: non-specific education and cognitive activity. The intervention will consist of ten 90-minute sessions delivered twice per week over a period of five weeks. The primary outcome measure of the study is the change from baseline in the total score on the Cambridge Cognitive Score (CAMCOG. Secondary outcomes of interest include changes in memory, attention, executive functions, mood and quality of life. Primary endpoints will be collected 12, 52 and 104 weeks after the baseline assessment. Discussion The proposed project will produce the best available evidence on the merits of increased cognitive activity as a strategy to prevent cognitive decline among older adults with MCI. We anticipate that the results of this study will have implications for the development of evidence-based preventive strategies to reduce the rate of cognitive decline amongst older people at risk of dementia. Trial registration ACTRN12608000556347

  4. The PACE study: a randomised clinical trial of cognitive activity (CA) for older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovich, Mandy R; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Flicker, Leon; Clare, Linda; Almeida, Osvaldo P

    2009-12-14

    Research evidence from observational studies suggests that cognitive activity reduces the risk of cognitive impairment in later life as well as the rate of cognitive decline of people with dementia. The Promoting Healthy Ageing with Cognitive Exercise (PACE) study has been designed to determine whether a cognitive activity intervention decreases the rate of cognitive decline amongst older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The study will recruit 160 community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years of age or over with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Participants will be randomly allocated to two treatment groups: non-specific education and cognitive activity. The intervention will consist of ten 90-minute sessions delivered twice per week over a period of five weeks. The primary outcome measure of the study is the change from baseline in the total score on the Cambridge Cognitive Score (CAMCOG). Secondary outcomes of interest include changes in memory, attention, executive functions, mood and quality of life. Primary endpoints will be collected 12, 52 and 104 weeks after the baseline assessment. The proposed project will produce the best available evidence on the merits of increased cognitive activity as a strategy to prevent cognitive decline among older adults with MCI. We anticipate that the results of this study will have implications for the development of evidence-based preventive strategies to reduce the rate of cognitive decline amongst older people at risk of dementia. ACTRN12608000556347.

  5. Cystic squamous cell carcinomas in the lungs of Syrian golden hamsters induced by coal oven flue exhaust mixed with pyrolized tar pitch in combination with benzo(a)pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittinghausen, S; Dungworth, D L; Dasenbrock, C; Ernst, H; Mohr, U

    1997-02-01

    Among a variety of induced pulmonary tumours, cystic squamous cell carcinomas were observed in five Syrian hamsters that inhaled a mixture of pyrolized tar pitch with coal oven flue exhaust (PCE) and additionally received intratracheal injections of benzo(a)pyrene. The histological appearance of these particular tumours is described, compared to similar tumour types in rats and the susceptibility of both species to inert particles is discussed.

  6. Mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragan M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is a syndrome that spans the area between normal ageing and dementia. It is classified into amnestic and non-amnestic types, both with two subtypes: single domain and multiple domains. Prevalence of MCI depends on criteria and population and can vary from 0.1 to 42% persons of older age. In contrast to dementia, cognitive deterioration is less severe and activities of daily living are preserved. Most impaired higher cognitive functions in MCI are memory, executive functions, language, visuospatial functions, attention etc. Also there are depression, apathy or psychomotor agitation, and signs of psychosis. Aetiology of MCI is multiple, mostly neurodegenerative, vascular, psychiatric, internistic, neurological, traumatic and iatrogenic. Persons with amnestic MCI are at a higher risk of converting to Alzheimer's disease, while those with a single non-memory domain are at risk of developing frontotemporal dementia. Some MCI patients also progress to other dementia types, vascular among others. In contrast, some patients have a stationary course, some improve, while others even normalize. Every suspicion of MCI warrants a detailed clinical exploration to discover underlying aetiology, laboratory analyses, neuroimaging methods and some cases require a detailed neuropsychological assessment. At the present time there is no efficacious therapy for cognitive decline in MCI or the one that could postpone conversion to dementia. The treatment of curable causes, application of preventive measures and risk factor control are reasonable measures in the absence of specific therapy.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: Comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Larkin, Andrew [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Krueger, Sharon K. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); The Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Bradfield, Christopher A. [McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Pereira, Cliff B. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Deptartment of Statistics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Löhr, Christiane V. [Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H. [Analytical and Environmental Sciences Division, MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, King' s College London, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Williams, David E., E-mail: david.williams@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); The Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); and others

    2012-11-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4 nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by {sup 32}P post‐labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH‐dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p < 0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and phase 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs). -- Highlights: ► Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), 3 PAH mixtures, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were compared. ► DBC and 2 PAH mixtures were more potent than Relative Potency Factor estimates. ► Transcriptome profiles 12 hours post initiation were analyzed by microarray. ► Principle components analysis of alterations revealed treatment-based clustering. ► DBC gave a unique

  8. Association between mutation spectra and stable and unstable DNA adduct profiles in Salmonella for benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMarini, David M., E-mail: demarini.david@epa.gov [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hanley, Nancy M.; Warren, Sarah H.; Adams, Linda D.; King, Leon C. [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Highlights: {yields} Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) induces stable DNA adducts and mutations primarily at guanine. {yields} Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) induces them primarily at adenine. {yields} BP induces abasic sites, but DBP does not in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. {yields} Stable DNA adducts alone appear to account for the mutation spectrum of DBP. {yields} Stable DNA adducts and possibly abasic sites account for the mutation spectrum of BP. - Abstract: Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) are two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that exhibit distinctly different mutagenicity and carcinogenicity profiles. Although some studies show that these PAHs produce unstable DNA adducts, conflicting data and arguments have been presented regarding the relative roles of these unstable adducts versus stable adducts, as well as oxidative damage, in the mutagenesis and tumor-mutation spectra of these PAHs. However, no study has determined the mutation spectra along with the stable and unstable DNA adducts in the same system with both PAHs. Thus, we determined the mutagenic potencies and mutation spectra of BP and DBP in strains TA98, TA100 and TA104 of Salmonella, and we also measured the levels of abasic sites (aldehydic-site assay) and characterized the stable DNA adducts ({sup 32}P-postlabeling/HPLC) induced by these PAHs in TA104. Our results for the mutation spectra and site specificity of stable adducts were consistent with those from other systems, showing that DBP was more mutagenic than BP in TA98 and TA100. The mutation spectra of DBP and BP were significantly different in TA98 and TA104, with 24% of the mutations induced by BP in TA98 being complex frameshifts, whereas DBP produced hardly any of these mutations. In TA104, BP produced primarily GC to TA transversions, whereas DBP produced primarily AT to TA transversions. The majority (96%) of stable adducts induced by BP were at guanine, whereas the majority (80%) induced by DBP were at adenine

  9. Black raspberry extracts inhibit benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide-induced activator protein 1 activation and VEGF transcription by targeting the phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuanshu; Li, Jingxia; Song, Lun; Zhang, Dongyun; Tong, Qiangsong; Ding, Min; Bowman, Linda; Aziz, Robeena; Stoner, Gary D

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that freeze-dried black raspberry extract fractions inhibit benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells and benzo(a)pyrene diol-epoxide [B(a)PDE]-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. The phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/Akt pathway is critical for B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation in mouse epidermal Cl 41 cells. In the present study, we determined the potential involvement of PI-3K and its downstream kinases on the inhibition of AP-1 activation by black raspberry fractions, RO-FOO3, RO-FOO4, RO-ME, and RO-DM. In addition, we investigated the effects of these fractions on the expression of the AP-1 target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Pretreatment of Cl 41 cells with fractions RO-F003 and RO-ME reduced activation of AP-1 and the expression of VEGF, but not iNOS. In contrast, fractions RO-F004 and RO-DM had no effect on AP-1 activation or the expression of either VEGF or iNOS. Consistent with inhibition of AP-1 activation, the RO-ME fraction markedly inhibited activation of PI-3K, Akt, and p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6k)). In addition, overexpression of the dominant negative PI-3K mutant delta p85 reduced the induction of VEGF by B(a)PDE. It is likely that the inhibitory effects of fractions RO-FOO3 and RO-ME on B(a)PDE-induced AP-1 activation and VEGF expression are mediated by inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt pathway. In view of the important roles of AP-1 and VEGF in tumor development, one mechanism for the chemopreventive activity of black raspberries may be inhibition of the PI-3K/Akt/AP-1/VEGF pathway.

  10. The expressions of protooncogenes and CYP1A in lungs of rats exposed to sulfur dioxide and benzo(a)pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guohua; Meng, Ziqiang

    2006-06-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a ubiquitous air pollutant, present in low concentrations in the urban air, and in higher concentrations in the working environment. Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant with diverse toxicological effects. To investigate the interactions between SO2 and B(a)P, male Wistar rats were exposed to intratracheally instilled with benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P; 3 mg) or SO2 (20 ppm) inhalation alone or together. The mRNA of CYP1A1 and 1A2, c-fos, and c-jun and protein levels of c-fos and c-jun were analyzed in lungs using a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. And 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) activities were detected. In lungs of rats exposed to SO2 alone, the gene transcription of CYP1A1 and 1A2, the EROD and MROD activities were decreased. Meanwhile, the mRNA and protein levels of c-jun and c-fos were increased significantly. Exposure to B(a)P alone induced CYP1A1, CYP1A2 mRNA levels, the protein levels of c-jun, and the EROD and MROD activities in lungs. However, exposure to B(a)P plus inhaled SO2 neither increased nor decreased CYP1A1/2 mRNA expressions, EROD, and MROD activities in lungs, versus exposure to B(a)P alone. Nevertheless, exposure to B(a)P plus inhaled SO2 increased the mRNA and protein levels of c-jun and c-fos in lungs compared with lungs exposed to SO2 alone. Accordingly, the SO2-induced decreases of CYP1A1/2 might not influence the metabolic activation of B(a)P. However, when B(a)P and SO2 were given in the combinations, one might postulate that a synergistic effect on the expressions of c-fos and c-jun between SO2 and B(a)P, which might be one of the possible mechanisms of combination effects between B(a)P and the air pollutants.

  11. Impairments in Skin Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphree, Rose W

    2017-09-01

    Altered skin integrity increases the chance of infection, impaired mobility, and decreased function and may result in the loss of limb or, sometimes, life. Skin is affected by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors can include altered nutritional status, vascular disease issues, and diabetes. Extrinsic factors include falls, accidents, pressure, immobility, and surgical procedures. Ensuring skin integrity in the elderly requires a team approach and includes the individual, caregivers, and clinicians. The twenty-first century clinician has several online, evidence-based tools to assist with optimal treatment plans. Understanding best practices in addressing skin integrity issues can promote positive outcomes with the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive Impairment and Tramadol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiony, Medhat M; Youssef, Usama M; Hassan, Mervat S; Salah El-Deen, Ghada M; El-Gohari, Hayam; Abdelghani, Mohamed; Abdalla, Ahmed; Ibrahim, Dalia H

    2017-02-01

    Cognitive impairment is one of the consequences of substance abuse. Tramadol abuse is a public health problem in Egypt. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of cognitive impairment among tramadol-abuse patients and control subjects. This study included 100 patients with tramadol abuse and 100 control subjects (matched for age, sex, and education) who were recruited from Zagazig University Hospital, Egypt. Patients were divided into 2 groups: patients who used tramadol only (tramadol-alone group) and patients who used tramadol and other substances (polysubstance group). The participants were interviewed using Montreal Cognitive Assessment test and had urine screening for drugs. Twenty-four percent of the cases used tramadol alone, whereas the remaining used tramadol and other substances, mainly cannabis (66%) and benzodiazepines (27%). Tramadol-abuse patients were about 3 times more likely to have cognitive impairment than control subjects (81% vs 28%). Tramadol-alone patients were more than 2 times more likely to have cognitive impairment than control subjects (67% vs 28%). Cognitive impairment was significantly associated with polysubstance abuse. There was no association between cognitive impairment and sociodemographic or clinical factors. Cognitive impairment occurs commonly among tramadol-abuse patients. Memory impairment is the most common cognitive domain to be affected. There is a significant association between cognitive impairment and polysubstance abuse.

  13. [Multilingualism and specific language impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.

  14. 溶剂效应对脱除煤沥青中3,4-苯并芘的影响%Solvent effect on removal of benzo[a]pyrene in coal tar pitch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙昱; 廖志远; 苏龙; 曾鹏

    2014-01-01

    研究了单种溶剂、混合溶剂对3,4-苯并芘的溶解选择性及煤沥青溶解量。并以顺丁烯二酸酐为改性剂、硫酸为催化剂,考察了溶剂效应对降低煤沥青中3,4-苯并芘的影响。研究表明,环己烷、甲苯,环己烷、乙酸丁酯组成的混合溶剂具有较好的3,4-苯并芘溶解选择性和合适的煤沥青溶解量。当环己烷∶甲苯=2∶1(体积比)和环己烷∶乙酸丁酯=2∶1(体积比)为反应溶剂时,能够高效地脱除煤沥青中3,4-苯并芘,煤沥青中3,4-苯并芘降低率分别达到88.26%和90.83%。其原因认为是此类溶剂能使包裹在沥青颗粒内部的3,4-苯并芘释放出来,且3,4-苯并芘与改性剂能够形成均相反应体系,大部分不具有致癌性的高相对分子质量环芳烃与改性剂之间形成两相体系,从而提高了改性剂与3,4-苯并芘的有效反应。%The solubility selectivity for benzo[a]pyrene and dissolved amount for coal tar pitch of single solvent,mixed solvents were studied. Using maleic anhydride as modifying agent and sulfuric acid as catalyst,the solvent effect on reducing the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene in coal tar pitch was investigated. The mixed solvents,cyclohexane and toluene,cyclohexane and butyl acetate had appropriate benzo[a]pyrene solubility selectivity and coal tar pitch solubility. When using cyclohexane∶toluene=2∶1(v/v),cyclohexane∶butyl acetate=2∶1(v/v)as reaction solvent, benzo[a]pyrene in coal tar pitch could be removed efficiently,with decreases of 88.26%and 90.83%for benzo[a]pyrene in coal tar pitch respectively. Using these kinds of solvent,benzo[a]pyrene wrapped in coal tar pitch could be released. In addition,a homogeneous system between modifying agent and benzo[a]pyrene was formed,with most non-carcinogenic high molecular weight PAHs and modifying agent forming a two phase system. As a result,the effective reaction between modifying agent and benzo[a]pyrene was greatly

  15. Environmental Distributions of Benzo[a]pyrene in China: Current and Future Emission Reduction Scenarios Explored Using a Spatially Explicit Multimedia Fate Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Tao, Shu; Price, Oliver R; Shen, Huizhong; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    SESAMe v3.0, a spatially explicit multimedia fate model with 50 × 50 km(2) resolution, has been developed for China to predict environmental concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) using an atmospheric emission inventory for 2007. Model predictions are compared with environmental monitoring data obtained from an extensive review of the literature. The model performs well in predicting multimedia concentrations and distributions. Predicted concentrations are compared with guideline values; highest values with some exceedances occur mainly in the North China Plain, Mid Inner Mongolia, and parts of three northeast provinces, Xi'an, Shanghai, and south of Jiangsu province, East Sichuan Basin, middle of Guizhou and Guangzhou. Two potential future scenarios have been assessed using SESAMe v3.0 for 2030 as BaP emission is reduced by (1) technological improvement for coal consumption in energy production and industry sectors in Scenario 1 (Sc1) and (2) technological improvement and control of indoor biomass burning for cooking and indoor space heating and prohibition of open burning of biomass in 2030 in Scenario 2 (Sc2). Sc2 is more efficient in reducing the areas with exceedance of guideline values. Use of SESAMe v3.0 provides insights on future research needs and can inform decision making on options for source reduction.

  16. Assessment of Industry-Induced Urban Human Health Risks Related to Benzo[a]pyrene based on a Multimedia Fugacity Model: Case Study of Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyu Xu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of organic pollutants emitted from industries have accumulated and caused serious human health risks, especially in urban areas with rapid industrialization. This paper focused on the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP from industrial effluent and gaseous emissions, and established a multi-pathway exposure model based on a Level IV multimedia fugacity model to analyze the human health risks in a city that has undergone rapid industrialization. In this study, GIS tools combined with land-use data was introduced to analyze smaller spatial scales so as to enhance the spatial resolution of the results. An uncertainty analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation was also conducted to illustrate the rationale of the probabilistic assessment mode rather than deterministic assessment. Finally, the results of the case study in Nanjing, China indicated the annual average human cancer risk induced by local industrial emissions during 2002–2008 (lowest at 1.99´10–6 in 2008 and highest at 3.34´10–6 in 2004, which was lower than the USEPA prescriptive level (1´10–6–1´10–4 but cannot be neglected in the long term. The study results could not only instruct the BaP health risk management but also help future health risk prediction and control.

  17. Molecular cloning and differential expression patterns of sigma and omega glutathione S-transferases from Venerupis philippinarum to heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linbao; Wu, Huifeng; Liu, Xiaoli; Chen, Leilei; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Jianmin; You, Liping

    2012-05-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a class of enzymes that facilitate the detoxification of xenobiotics, and also play important roles in antioxidant defense. We identified two glutathione S-transferase isoforms (VpGSTS, sigma GST; VpGSTO, omega GST) from Venerupis philippinarum by RACE approaches. The open reading frames of VpGSTS and VpGSTO were of 612 bp and 729 bp, encoding 203 and 242 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 22.88 and 27.94 kDa, respectively. The expression profiles of VpGSTS and VpGSTO responded to heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) exposure were investigated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The expression of VpGSTS and VpGSTO were both rapidly up-regulated, however, they showed differential expression patterns to different toxicants. Cd displayed stronger induction of VpGSTS expression with an approximately 12-fold increase than that of VpGSTO with a maximum 6.4-fold rise. Cu exposure resulted in similar expression patterns for both VpGSTS and VpGSTO. For B[a]P exposure, the maximum induction of VpGSTO was approximately two times higher than that of VpGSTS. Altogether, these findings implied the involvement of VpGSTS and VpGSTO in host antioxidant responses, and highlighted their potential as a biomarker to Cd and B[a]P exposure.

  18. Benzo[a]pyrene induced p53-mediated cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis pathways in Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lilai; Lv, Biping; Zha, Jinmiao; Wang, Zijian

    2017-03-01

    The p53 pathways play an important role in carcinogenesis. In mammals, p53 and p53 target genes have been extensively studied, but little is known about their functions and regulation in fish. In this study, the cDNA fragments of p53 network genes, including p53, p21, mdm2, gadd45α, gadd45β, igfbp-3, and bax, were cloned from Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus). These genes displayed high amino acid sequence identities with their zebrafish orthologs. The mRNA levels of p53 network genes and pathological changes in the liver were determined after adult rare minnow were exposed to 0.4, 2, and 10 µg/L of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) for 28 days. The results showed that p53, p21, mdm2, gadd45α, and bax mRNA expressions in the livers from males and females were significantly upregulated compared with those of the controls (p p53 network genes in the livers suggest that rare minnow is suitable as an experimental fish to screen environmental carcinogens. In addition, the p53 network genes in rare minnow could feasibly be used to identify the mechanism of environmental carcinogenesis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 979-988, 2017.

  19. Transcriptional profiles of benzo(a)pyrene exposure in normal human mammary epithelial cells in the absence or presence of chlorophyllin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Kaarthik; Keshava, Channa; Richardson, Diana L; Weston, Ainsley; Nath, Joginder

    2008-04-02

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BP) exposure causes alterations in gene expression in normal human mammary epithelial cells (NHMECs). This study used Affymetrix Hu-Gene133A arrays, with 14,500 genes represented, to evaluate modulation of BP-induced gene expression by chlorophyllin in six NHMEC strains derived from different donors. A major goal was to seek potential biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and how they behave in the presence of a chemopreventive agent. NHMECs (passage 6 and 70% confluence) were exposed for 24h to either vehicle control, or BP, or chlorophyllin followed by BP and chlorophyllin together. BP exposure resulted in approximately 3-fold altered expression of 49 genes in at least one of the six NHMEC strains. When cells were exposed to chlorophyllin pre-treatment followed by BP plus chlorophyllin, expression of 125 genes was similarly altered. Genes in the functional categories of xenobiotic metabolism, cell signaling, cell motility, cell proliferation, cellular transcription, metabolism, cell cycle control, apoptosis and DNA repair were identified. Only CYP1B1 and ALDH1A3 were consistently up-regulated by approximately 3-fold in most of the cell strains (at least 4) when exposed to BP. Cluster analysis identified a suite of 13 genes induced by BP where induction was mitigated in the presence of chlorophyllin. Additionally, cluster analysis identified a suite of 16 genes down-regulated by BP where induction was partially restored in the presence of chlorophyllin.

  20. Transcriptional profiles of benzo(a)pyrene exposure in normal human mammary epithelial cells in the absence or presence of chlorophyllin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Kaarthik [Genetics and Developmental Biology Program, 1120 Agricultural Sciences Building, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6108 (United States); Toxicology and Molecular Biology Laboratory, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); Keshava, Channa; Richardson, Diana L. [Toxicology and Molecular Biology Laboratory, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); Weston, Ainsley [Genetics and Developmental Biology Program, 1120 Agricultural Sciences Building, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6108 (United States); Toxicology and Molecular Biology Laboratory, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); Nath, Joginder [Genetics and Developmental Biology Program, 1120 Agricultural Sciences Building, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6108 (United States)], E-mail: jnath@wvu.edu

    2008-04-02

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BP) exposure causes alterations in gene expression in normal human mammary epithelial cells (NHMECs). This study used Affymetrix Hu-Gene133A arrays, with 14,500 genes represented, to evaluate modulation of BP-induced gene expression by chlorophyllin in six NHMEC strains derived from different donors. A major goal was to seek potential biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and how they behave in the presence of a chemopreventive agent. NHMECs (passage 6 and 70% confluence) were exposed for 24 h to either vehicle control, or BP, or chlorophyllin followed by BP and chlorophyllin together. BP exposure resulted in approximately 3-fold altered expression of 49 genes in at least one of the six NHMEC strains. When cells were exposed to chlorophyllin pre-treatment followed by BP plus chlorophyllin, expression of 125 genes was similarly altered. Genes in the functional categories of xenobiotic metabolism, cell signaling, cell motility, cell proliferation, cellular transcription, metabolism, cell cycle control, apoptosis and DNA repair were identified. Only CYP1B1 and ALDH1A3 were consistently up-regulated by {approx}3-fold in most of the cell strains (at least 4) when exposed to BP. Cluster analysis identified a suite of 13 genes induced by BP where induction was mitigated in the presence of chlorophyllin. Additionally, cluster analysis identified a suite of 16 genes down-regulated by BP where induction was partially restored in the presence of chlorophyllin.

  1. Effects of quantity, quality, and contact time of dissolved organic matter on bioconcentration of benzo[a]pyrene in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haitzer, M.; Hoess, S. [Ludwig Maximilians Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Zoologisches Inst.]|[Inst. fuer Gewaesseroekologie und Binnenfischerei, Berlin (Germany); Burnison, B.K. [Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario (Canada). National Water Research Inst.; Traunspurger, W. [Ludwig Maximilians Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Zoologisches Inst.; Steinberg, C.E.W. [Inst. fuer Gewaesseroekologie und Binnenfischerei, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Quantity and quality of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the time allowed for DOM to interact with organic contaminants can influence their bioavailability. The authors studied the effect of natural aquatic DOM that had been in contact with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) for 1 to 12 d on the bioconcentration of B[a]P in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Dissolved organic matter quality and quantity was varied by using DOM from three different sources, each in three different concentrations. A model, based on the assumption that only freely dissolved B[a]P is bioavailable, was employed to estimate biologically determined partition coefficients [K{sub p}(biol.)]. Expressing the data for each combination of DOM source and contact time in a single K{sub p} (biol.) value allowed a direct comparison of the effects of different DOM qualities and contact times. The results show that the effect of DOM from a specific source was dependent on DOM quantity, but they also observed a distinct effect of DOM quality (represented by different sampling locations) on the bioconcentration of B[a]P. Contact time had no significant influence for the effects of two DOM sources on the bioconcentration of B[a]P. However, the third DOM source was significantly more effective with increased contact time, leading to lower B[a]P bioconcentration in the nematodes.

  2. The role of water ventilation and sediment ingestion in the uptake of benzo[A]pyrene in gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolok, Alan; Huckins, James N.; Petty, Jimmie D.; Oris, James T.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether sediment ingestion or water ventilation was the primary route of uptake for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), a detritivorous fish. Two experiments were conducted in which fish were exposed to sediments spiked with 1 μg/g BaP. In the first experiment, fish were prevented from feeding by esophagus ligation. In the second experiment, 20 nonligated fish and 30 ligated fish were added to the aquarium. The nonligated fish roiled the water as they fed. Fish were collected 4, 8, 15, and 22 d after the experiments began. Gizzard shad metabolize BaP; therefore, the concentrations of BaP equivalents (parent BaP plus metabolite) were determined. Concentrations of BaP equivalents were significantly greater in the ligated fish in experiment 2 relative to those in experiment 1. In contrast, the concentration of BaP equivalents in the ligated fish in experiment 2 was not significantly different than that in the nonligated fish. Our results suggest that ventilation of turbid water may be a significant source of BaP for gizzard shad. Sediment ingestion, however, does not appear to significantly influence the total body concentration of BaP equivalents in gizzard shad.

  3. Interaction of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide isomers with human serum albumin: Site specific characterisation of adducts and associated kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motwani, Hitesh V.; Westberg, Emelie; Törnqvist, Margareta

    2016-11-01

    Carcinogenicity of benzo[a]pyrene {B[a]P, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)} involves DNA-modification by B[a]P diol epoxide (BPDE) metabolites. Adducts to serum albumin (SA) are not repaired, unlike DNA adducts, and therefore considered advantageous in assessment of in vivo dose of BPDEs. In the present work, kinetic experiments were performed in relation to the dose (i.e. concentration over time) of different BPDE isomers, where human SA (hSA) was incubated with respective BPDEs under physiological conditions. A liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry methodology was employed for characterising respective BPDE-adducts at histidine and lysine. This strategy allowed to structurally distinguish between the adducts from racemic anti- and syn-BPDE and between (+)- and (‑)-anti-BPDE, which has not been attained earlier. The adduct levels quantified by LC-UV and the estimated rate of disappearance of BPDEs in presence of hSA gave an insight into the reactivity of the diol epoxides towards the N-sites on SA. The structure specific method and dosimetry described in this work could be used for accurate estimation of in vivo dose of the BPDEs following exposure to B[a]P, primarily in dose response studies of genotoxicity, e.g. in mice, to aid in quantitative risk assessment of PAHs.

  4. Analysis of Benzo[a]pyrene in Vegetable Oils Using Molecularly Imprinted Solid Phase Extraction (MISPE Coupled with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pschenitza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a molecularly imprinted polymer-based solid phase extraction (MISPE method coupled with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for determination of the PAH benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P in vegetable oils. Different molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs were prepared using non-covalent 4-vinylpyridine/divinylbenzene co-polymerization at different ratios and dichloromethane as porogen. Imprinting was done with a template mixture of phenanthrene and pyrene yielding a broad-specific polymer for PAHs with a maximum binding capacity (Q of ~32 μg B[a]P per 50 mg of polymer. The vegetable oil/n-hexane mixture (1:1, (v/v was pre-extracted with acetonitrile, the solvent evaporated, the residue reconstituted in n-hexane and subjected to MISPE. The successive washing with n-hexane and isopropanol revealed most suitable to remove lipid matrix constituents. After elution of bound PAHs from MISPE column with dichloromethane, the solvent was evaporated, the residue reconstituted with dimethyl sulfoxide and diluted 100-fold with methanol/water (10:90, (v/v for analysis of B[a]P equivalents with an ELISA. The B[a]P recovery rates in spiked vegetable oil samples of different fatty acid composition were determined between 63% and 114%. The presence of multiple PAHs in the oil sample, because of MIP selectivity and cross-reactivity of the ELISA, could yield overestimated B[a]P values.

  5. Inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase-catalyzed synthesis by intercalated DNA Benzo[a]Pyrene 7,8-Dihydrodiol-9,10-Epoxide adducts.

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    Parvathi Chary

    Full Text Available To aid in the characterization of the relationship of structure and function for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT, this investigation utilized DNAs containing benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE-modified primers and templates as a probe of the architecture of this complex. BPDE lesions that differed in their stereochemistry around the C10 position were covalently linked to N (6-adenine and positioned in either the primer or template strand of a duplex template-primer. HIV-1 RT exhibited a stereoisomer-specific and strand-specific difference in replication when the BPDE-lesion was placed in the template versus the primer strand. When the C10 R-BPDE adduct was positioned in the primer strand in duplex DNA, 5 nucleotides from the 3΄ end of the primer terminus, HIV-1 RT could not fully replicate the template, producing truncated products; this block to further synthesis did not affect rates of dissociation or DNA binding affinity. Additionally, when the adducts were in the same relative position, but located in the template strand, similar truncated products were observed with both the C10 R and C10 S BPDE adducts. These data suggest that the presence of covalently-linked intercalative DNA adducts distant from the active site can lead to termination of DNA synthesis catalyzed by HIV-1 RT.

  6. The combined toxicity of dibutyl phthalate and benzo(a)pyrene on the reproductive system of male Sprague Dawley rats in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuemei [Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); An Hui; Ao Lin; Sun Lei; Liu Wenbin; Zhou Ziyuan [Department of Hygenic Toxicology, College of Military Preventive Medicine, Key Lab of Medical Protection for Electromagnetic Radiation, Ministry of Education of China, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Wang Yingxiong, E-mail: wyx61221@yahoo.com.cn [Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Cao Jia, E-mail: caojia1962@126.com [Department of Hygenic Toxicology, College of Military Preventive Medicine, Key Lab of Medical Protection for Electromagnetic Radiation, Ministry of Education of China, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Our previous studies revealed more than 100 pollutants, most of which were endocrine disruptors (EDs) in two Chinese rivers, the Jialing and the Yangtze near Chongqing. Most EDs, such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), are known to act individually as reproductive toxicants. However, little is known about the combined toxicity of DBP and BaP. In the current study, male Sprague Dawley rats were subchronically exposed to single doses of DBP (250 mg/kg), single doses of BaP (5 mg/kg) and combined doses of DBP and BaP. Significant adverse effects were observed on the reproductive system, including decreased sperm count, increased production of abnormal sperm, changes in serum testosterone levels and irregular arrangements of the seminiferous epithelium. Biochemical analyses showed that the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased after exposure to these EDs. Therefore, our data suggest that exposure to DBP and BaP, in either separate or combined doses, can affect the reproductive system of male rats adversely via oxidative stress-related mechanisms. No significant additive effect was observed after combined exposure. These results indicate that exposure to mixtures of EDs have unexpected and elusive effects. Our findings provide preliminary but important data for assessing water safety in China.

  7. Biochemical responses in seabream (Sparus aurata) caged in-field or exposed to benzo(a)pyrene and paraquat. Characterization of glutathione S-transferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebali, Jamel; Chicano-Gálvez, Eduardo; Banni, Mohamed; Guerbej, Hamadi; Boussetta, Hamadi; López-Barea, Juan; Alhama, José

    2013-02-01

    Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) specimens were caged in-field at the Téboulba harbour or exposed to benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] or to paraquat [PQ] plus B(a)P, and several biochemical biomarker responses were investigated. Antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase, significantly increased in the in-field and B(a)P+PQ exposures, but were only moderately affected by B(a)P alone. Glucose-6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases significantly diminished after in-field exposure. Different responses with biotransformation enzymes were observed: the P4501A-associated EROD activity was highly induced in response to B(a)P and B(a)P+PQ exposures, while total activity of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) was similar to control. However, after purification of the GST proteins by affinity chromatograpy and analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis, nineteen highly reproducible isoforms were resolved. In addition, some of reproducible isoforms showed different and specific expression patterns in response to contaminants. Thus, proteomic analysis of the purified GST subunits is a reliable tool for ecotoxicological research, useful in polluted marine ecosystem as an effective biomarker of contamination.

  8. NADPH-, NADH- and cumene hydroperoxide-dependent metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene by pyloric caeca microsomes of the sea star Asterias rubens L. (Echinodermata: Asteroidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Besten, P J; Lemaire, P; Livingstone, D R

    1994-10-01

    1. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) metabolism was studied in microsomes of the pyloric caeca (main digestive tissue and site of P450) of the echinoderm sea star (starfish) Asterias rubens. 2. NADPH-dependent metabolism of BaP produced phenols (36% of total metabolism), quinones (19%), dihydrodiols (25%) and putative protein adducts (20%). 3. NADH-dependent rates of BaP metabolism were approximately twice those found for NADPH-dependent metabolism, and metabolite formation was shifted towards dihydrodiols and quinones. 4. Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP)-dependent rates of BaP metabolism were also higher than NADPH-dependent rates by a factor of six for quinone and putative protein adduct production, and by a factor of four for phenol and dihydrodiol production. 5. Microsomal rates of BaP metabolism in BaP-exposed sea stars appeared to be elevated more in the case of NADPH-dependent than for CHP-dependent metabolism (respectively, increases of 130 and 41%), indicating the induction of forms of P450 preferentially catalysing NADPH-dependent metabolism. 6. 1,1,1-Trichloropropene-2,3-oxide (TCPO) inhibited dihydrodiol formation from both NADPH- and CHP-dependent BaP metabolism, indicating the involvement of epoxide hydratase in BaP metabolism. 7. Incubations of pyloric caeca microsomes with BaP and a superoxide anion radical-generating system (xanthine/xanthine oxidase) produced putative protein adducts but no free metabolites.

  9. Serum Level of Antibody against Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA Adducts in People Dermally Exposed to PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Borska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some specific antibodies indicate the presence of antigenic structures on DNA (DNA adducts that can play an important role in the process of mutagenesis and/or carcinogenesis. They indicate the presence of increased genotoxic potential (hazard prior to the formation of disease (primary prevention. The present study was focused on the serum level of benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA adducts antibodies (anti-BPDE-DNA in psoriatic patients (n=55 dermally exposed to different levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The general goal of the study was to contribute to better understanding of the value of the assumed biomarker (anti-BPDE-DNA for evaluation of the organism's answer to genotoxic exposure to PAHs. Elevated level of exposure to PAHs resulted in the increased level of anti-BPDE-DNA. However, almost all levels of anti-BPDE-DNA ranged within the field of low values. Both variants of GT (CCT-3% and CCT-5% induced higher expression of anti-BPDE-DNA in the group of nonsmokers. Significant relations between the level of anti-BPDE-DNA and PASI score, total duration of the therapy, or time of UVR exposure were not found. Further studies are needed to reduce interpretation uncertainty of this promising bioindicator.

  10. Development of a micro dual beam fluorometric detector specific for microchip analysis of benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[k]fluoranthene in diesel exhaust particulate samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Hiroyuki; Susaki, Hironori; Korenaga, Takashi

    2005-09-01

    We developed a device and some systems for detecting benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and benzo[k]fluoranthene (B[k]F). The device uses a UV light-emitting diode that emits light with a wavelength of 370 nm and a violet laser diode that emits light with a wavelength of 395 nm as excitation light sources. The detection method is based on the following observation: characteristic fluorescence is emitted from both B[a]P and B[k]F, with intensities up to 10 times greater than those from 22 other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The excitation and emission wavelengths for fluorescence from B[a]P and B[k]F are 370 and 429 nm, and 395 and 429 nm, respectively. Further, we calculated their concentrations in diesel exhaust particles by means of two calibration curves determined using a mixture of 24 PAHs. The detection limits of the proposed device with a microchip are 5.58 microg L(-1) for B[a]P and 6.03 microg L(-1) for B[k]F. We applied this method to analyze B[a]P or B[k]F contained in three types of diesel exhaust particles, and the results agreed well with those obtained by liquid chromatography.

  11. Alterations in benzo(A)pyrene metabolism and in vivo binding to hepatic DNA in rats red diets containing menhaden oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, A.E.; Dharwadkar, S.

    1987-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids of the omega-6 type have been shown to support the mixed function oxidases (MFO) responsible for carcinogen activation and to promote tumorigenesis in laboratory animals. The omega-3 fatty acids contained in menhaden oil (MO) have been shown to enhance MFO activity and increase the binding of Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) metabolites to calf thymus DNA in an in vitro microsomal system. Rats fed two levels of MO (0.5% and 20%) for 11 days received a single i.p. dose of (/sup 3/H)B(a)P (5 m Ci/kg) dissolved in DMSO. At selected time intervals thereafter rats were killed, blood withdrawn, livers removed and DNA extracted. Hepatic microsomes were recovered from control rats on each diet at the time of B(a)P administration to assess MFO activities. Binding of B(a)P to DNA was higher in rats fed the 20% MO diet suggesting an increased rate of B(a)P activation. Blood levels of B(a)P were elevated at 16 and 24 hours post B(a)P, however no differences in urine concentrations were observed. Elevations in concentration of cytochrome P-450, ethoxycoumarin dealkylase, and glutathione S-transferase suggest that omega-3 fatty acids of menhaden fish oil support MFO related reactions not unlike the omega-6 fatty acids.

  12. Cytochrome P450 system expression and DNA adduct formation in the liver of Zacco platypus following waterborne benzo(a)pyrene exposure: implications for biomarker determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wuk; Kim, Yong Hwa; Yoon, Seokjoo; Lee, Sung Kyu

    2014-09-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that causes mutations and tumor formation. Zacco platypus is a sentinel species that is suitable for monitoring aquatic environments. We studied cytochrome P450 system (CYP system) expression and DNA adduct formation in the liver of Z. platypus following waterborne exposure to BaP. The results showed both dose and time dependency. The significant induction levels of CYP system mRNA and protein reached maximums at 2 days and 14 days, respectively, and hepatosomatic index was maximally induced at 4 days during 14 days BaP exposure. DNA adduct formation was significantly induced compared to corresponding controls (t-test, p adduct formation was a useful biomarker in risk assessment of waterborne BaP exposure at 4 days. CYP1A was a more sensitive biomarker than CYP reductase for BaP exposure when considering both the mRNA and protein level. Furthermore, our results show that Z. platypus is a useful species for assessing the risk of waterborne BaP exposure.

  13. Changes of cytochrome P4501A mRNA expression and physiology responses in the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, exposed to benzo(a)pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C.Y.; An, K.W.; Shin, H.S.; An, M.I.; Jo, P.G. [Korean Maritime University, Pusan (Republic of Korea). Division of Marine Environmental and Bioscience

    2008-07-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is generated by the incomplete combustion of organic substances such as oil and coal, and is a widespread organic environmental contaminant in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. To determine the effects of BaP on organisms, we investigated its time- and dose-related effects on the levels of cytochrome P4501A (P4501A) mRNA in the liver and gills of the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) and measured the plasma glucose, cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. The full-length olive flounder P4501A cDNA consists of 1566 nucleotides and encodes a 521-amino-acid protein. In the liver and gills, the expression of P4501A mRNA was highest 6 h after exposure to both 10 and 30 gl{sup -1} BaP, and then decreased. In addition, the plasma parameters increased with exposure. These results suggest that P4501A plays an important role in the detoxification of BaP, which stressed the olive flounder. Therefore, these physiological parameters may be indicators of BaP-induced stress responses.

  14. Biodegradation of benzo(a)pyrene by two freshwater microalgae Selenastrum capricornutum and Scenedesmus acutus: a comparative study useful for bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Llasera, Martha Patricia; Olmos-Espejel, José de Jesús; Díaz-Flores, Gabriel; Montaño-Montiel, Adriana

    2016-02-01

    A comparative evaluation of the removal of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) by sorption and degradation by two microalgal species, Selenastrum capricornutum and Scenedesmus acutus was performed. The monitoring of the amount of BaP remaining in the liquid culture media and the biomass along with the appearance of three metabolites (4,5 dihydrodiol-BaP; 7,8-dihydrodiol-BaP; and 9,10 dihydrodiol-BaP) at short time periods (from 0.25 to 72 h) in cultures exposed to BaP was made by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence and UV detection. Complete removal of BaP was achieved by the two live microalgal species: S. capricornutum at 15 h of exposure (99%) and S. acutus at 72 h of exposure (95%). Sorption is an important phenomenon for BaP removal by S. capricornutum but biodegradation is the principal means of removing BaP in live cells. The formation of metabolites by S. capricornutum is rapid and seems to be proportional to the amount of the BaP added to cultures. In contrast, in these bioassays, most of the BaP removal of S. acutus is due to sorption rather than degradation. The appearance of metabolites in the cultures is very slow and at a low amount compared to cultures of S. capricornutum. The similarities and differences existing between the two microalgae are important for the establishment of the conditions for bioremediation.

  15. The selective cleanup of complex matrices and simultaneous separation of benzo[a]pyrene by solid-phase extraction with MgO microspheres as sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Li, Yun; Zhang, Zhiping; Su, Fan; Qi, Peipei; Lu, Xianbo; Chen, Jiping

    2011-12-23

    A new method for the selective cleanup of complex matrices and simultaneous separation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was developed in this study. This method was based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) using magnesium oxide microspheres as sorbents, and it eliminated interferences from various impurities, such as lipids, sulphur, pigments, halobenzenes, polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorodibenzofurans. Several parameters, including the volume of rinsing and eluting solvents, the type of loading solvents and SPE sorbents, were optimized systematically. The capability for impurity removal was verified by gel permeation chromatography, gas chromatography, and liquid chromatography. Compared to commercial sorbents (silica gel, florisil and alumina), MgO microspheres exhibited excellent performance in the selective isolation of BaP and removal of impurities. The proposed method was applied to detect BaP in complex samples (sediments, soils, fish, and porcine liver). The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 1.04 ngL(-1), and the resulting regression coefficient (r(2)) was greater than 0.999 over a broad concentration range (9.5-7600 ngL(-1)). In contrast to traditional methods, the proposed method can give rise to higher recovery (85.1-100.8%) and better selectivity with simpler operation and less consumption of organic solvents (20-40 mL).

  16. Benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide induced p53-independent necrosis via the mitochondria-associated pathway involving Bax and Bak activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Liu, N; Wang, X; Jin, X; Du, H; Peng, G; Xue, J

    2015-02-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) is a highly reactive DNA damage agent and can induce cell death through both p53-independent and -dependent pathways. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of p53-independent pathways in BPDE-induced cell death. To understand the p53-independent mechanisms, we have now examined BPDE-induced cytotoxicity in p53-deficient baby mouse kidney (BMK) cells. The results showed that BPDE could induce Bax and Bak activation, cytochrome c release, caspases activation, and necrotic cell death in the BMK cells. Bax and Bak, two key molecules of mitochondrial permeability transition pore, were interdependently activated by BPDE, with Bax and Bak translocation to and Bax/Bak homo-oligomerization in mitochondria, release of cytochrome c was induced. Importantly, cytochrome c release and necrotic cell death were diminished in BMK cells (Bax(-/-)), BMK cells (Bak(-/-)), and BMK cells (Bax(-/-)/Bak(-/-)). Furthermore, overexpression of Bcl-2 could ameliorate BPDE-induced cytochrome c release and necrosis. Together the findings suggested that BPDE-induced necrosis was modulated by the p53-independent pathway, which was related to the translocation of Bax and Bak to mitochondria, release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Estimation of a lifetime unit lung cancer risk for benzo(a)pyrene based on tumour rates in rats exposed to coal tar/pitch condensation aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, U; Roller, M; Pott, F

    1994-06-01

    Female Wistar rats were exposed to coal tar/pitch condensation (CTP) aerosol containing either 20 or 46 micrograms/m3 benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) among other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) 17 h/day and 5 days/week for 10 or 20 months followed by a clean air period of up to 20 or 10 months, respectively. Based on the inhaled BaP, given as BaP exposure concentration multiplied by the total exposure time, the cumulative dose of inhaled BaP of the 4 exposure groups was 71, 142, 158 and 321 mg BaP/m3 x h and the corresponding lung tumour rates were 4.2, 33.3, 38.9 and 97.2%. There was no lung tumour in the control group. Using the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) linearized multistage model, the lifetime lung tumour risk for rats exposed to 1 microgram/m3 BaP as a constituent of a complex PAH mixture may be 2% or correspondingly 2 per 100,000 with a BaP concentration of 1 ng/m3. The estimation of the unit lung cancer risk for BaP based on epidemiological data from coking plants was 7-9%.

  18. Toxicological effects of benzo(a)pyrene, DDT and their mixture on the green mussel Perna viridis revealed by proteomic and metabolomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinqin; Chen, Hao; Li, Yuhu; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-02-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are persistent organic pollutants and environmental estrogens (EEs) with known toxicity towards the green mussel, Perna viridis. In this study, the toxic effects of BaP (10 µg/L) and DDT (10 µg/L) and their mixture were assessed in green mussel gills with proteomic and metabolomic approaches. Metabolic responses indicated that BaP mainly caused disturbance in osmotic regulation by significantly decrease in branched chain amino acids, dimethylamine and dimethylglycine in gills of male green mussels after exposure for 7 days. DDT mainly caused disturbance in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by differential alteration of betaine, dimethylamine, dimethylglycine, amino acids, and succinate in gills of male green mussels. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT didn't show obvious metabolite changes. Proteomic analysis showed different protein expression profiles between different treatment groups, which demonstrated that BaP, DDT and their mixture may have different modes of action. Proteomic responses revealed that BaP induced cell apoptosis, disturbance in protein digestion and energy metabolism in gills of green mussels, whereas DDT exposure altered proteins that were associated with oxidative stress, cytoskeleton and cell structure, protein digestion and energy metabolism. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT affected proteins related to the oxidative stress, cytoskeleton and cell structure, protein biosynthesis and modification, energy metabolism, growth and apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Toxic responses of Perna viridis hepatopancreas exposed to DDT, benzo(a)pyrene and their mixture uncovered by iTRAQ-based proteomics and NMR-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinqin; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2017-09-11

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are environmental estrogens (EEs) that are ubiquitous in the marine environment. In the present study, we integrated isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic approaches to explore the toxic responses of green mussel hepatopancreas exposed to DDT (10μg/L), BaP (10μg/L) and their mixture. The metabolic responses indicated that BaP primarily disturbed energy metabolism and osmotic regulation in the hepatopancreas of the male green mussel P. viridis. Both DDT and the mixture of DDT and BaP perturbed the energy metabolism and osmotic regulation in P. viridis. The proteomic responses revealed that BaP affected the proteins involved in energy metabolism, material transformation, cytoskeleton, stress responses, reproduction and development in green mussels. DDT exposure could change the proteins involved in primary metabolism, stress responses, cytoskeleton and signal transduction. However, the mixture of DDT and BaP altered proteins associated with material and energy metabolism, stress responses, signal transduction, reproduction and development, cytoskeleton and apoptosis. This study showed that iTRAQ-based proteomic and NMR-based metabolomic approaches could effectively elucidate the essential molecular mechanism of disturbances in hepatopancreas function of green mussels exposed to environmental estrogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Burial effects of organic coatings on the heterogeneous reactivity of particle-borne benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) toward ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S; Lee, A K Y; McWhinney, R D; Abbatt, J P D

    2012-07-05

    With an aerosol flow tube coupled to an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), room temperature (296 ± 3 K) kinetics studies have been performed on the reaction of gas-phase ozone with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) adsorbed in submonolayer amounts to dry ammonium sulfate (AS) particles. Three organic substances, i.e., bis(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate (BES, liquid), phenylsiloxane oil (PSO, liquid), and eicosane (EC, solid), were used to coat BaP-AS particles to investigate the effects of such organic coatings on the heterogeneous reactivity of PAHs toward ozone. All the reactions of particle-borne BaP with excess ozone exhibit pseudo-first-order kinetics in terms of BaP loss, and reactions with a liquid organic coating proceed by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) mechanism. Liquid organic coatings did not significantly affect the kinetics, consistent with the ability of reactants to rapidly diffuse through the organic coating. In contrast, the heterogeneous reactivity of BaP was reduced substantially by a thin (4-8 nm), solid EC coating and entirely suppressed by thick (10-80 nm) coatings, presumably because of slow diffusion through the organic layer. Although the heterogeneous reactivity of surface-bound PAHs is extremely rapid in the atmosphere, this work is the first to experimentally demonstrate a mechanism by which the lifetime of PAHs may be significantly prolonged, permitting them to undergo long-range transport to remote locations.

  1. Benzo[a]pyrene, aflatoxine B₁ and acetaldehyde mutational patterns in TP53 gene using a functional assay: relevance to human cancer aetiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Paget

    Full Text Available Mutations in the TP53 gene are the most common alterations in human tumours. TP53 mutational patterns have sometimes been linked to carcinogen exposure. In hepatocellular carcinoma, a specific G>T transversion on codon 249 is classically described as a fingerprint of aflatoxin B(1 exposure. Likewise G>T transversions in codons 157 and 158 have been related to tobacco exposure in human lung cancers. However, controversies remain about the interpretation of TP53 mutational pattern in tumours as the fingerprint of genotoxin exposure. By using a functional assay, the Functional Analysis of Separated Alleles in Yeast (FASAY, the present study depicts the mutational pattern of TP53 in normal human fibroblasts after in vitro exposure to well-known carcinogens: benzo[a]pyrene, aflatoxin B(1 and acetaldehyde. These in vitro patterns of mutations were then compared to those found in human tumours by using the IARC database of TP53 mutations. The results show that the TP53 mutational patterns found in human tumours can be only partly ascribed to genotoxin exposure. A complex interplay between the functional impact of the mutations on p53 phenotype and the cancer natural history may affect these patterns. However, our results strongly support that genotoxins exposure plays a major role in the aetiology of the considered cancers.

  2. Mitigating role of baicalein on lysosomal enzymes and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme status during lung carcinogenesis of Swiss albino mice induced by benzo(a)pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveenkumar, Chandrashekar; Raghunandakumar, Subramanian; Asokkumar, Selvamani; Binuclara, John; Rajan, Balan; Premkumar, Thandavamoorthy; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2014-06-01

    The lungs mainly serve as a primary site for xenobiotic metabolism and constitute an important defense mechanism against inhalation of carcinogens. Our current study aimed to evaluate the chemotherapeutic efficacy of baicalein (BE) in Swiss albino mice exposed to tobacco-specific carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] for its ability to mitigate pulmonary carcinogenesis. Here, we report that altered activities/levels of lysosomal enzymes (cathepsin-D, cathepsin-B, acid phosphatase, β-D-galactosidase, β-D-glucuronidase, and β-D-N-acetyl glucosaminidase), phase I biotransformation enzymes (cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase), and phase II enzymes (glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronyl transferase, and DT-diaphorase) were observed in the B(a)P-induced mice. Treatment with BE significantly restored back the activities/levels of lysosomal enzymes, phase I and phase II biotransformation enzymes. Moreover, assessment of lysosomal abnormalities by transmission electron microscopic examination revealed that BE treatment effectively counteract B(a)P-induced oxidative damages. Protein expression levels studied by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot analysis of CYP1A1 revealed that BE treatment effectively negate B(a)P-induced upregulated expression of CYP1A1. Further analysis of scanning electron microscopic studies in lung was carried out to substantiate the anticarcinogenic effect of BE. The overall data suggest that BE treatment significantly inhibits lysosomal and microsomal dysfunction, thus revealing its potent anticarcinogenic effect.

  3. Evaluation of anti-cancer and anti-oxidative potential of Syzygium Cumini against benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) induced gastric carcinogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, P K; Verma, Preeti; Sharma, Priyanka; Parmar, Jyoti; Agarwal, Annapurna

    2010-01-01

    Syzygium cummini extract (SCE) was used in the present study to explore anti-tumor promoting activity in a stomach carcinogenesis model in mice. For this purpose, Swiss albino mice were administered with 1 mg of benzo-a-pyrene (BaP) in 100?l sesame oil by oral gavage twice a week for 4 consecutive weeks. The animals were sacrificed 14 weeks after the last administration of BaP. Oral administration of the extract to pre-treated (i.e. SCE as 25mg/kg b. wt./ day before BaP application for 2 weeks), post-treated (i.e. SCE after BaP application for 8 weeks) and pre-post treated (i.e. SCE for 2 weeks before treatment of BaP followed by the concomitant treatment with SCE and BaP for 4 weeks during and 2 weeks after the last dose of BaP) groups provided a significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor burden and cumulative number of gastric carcinomas along with a significant elevation of phase II detoxifying enzymes, and inhibition of lipid per oxidation in the stomach. Thus, the present data suggest that the Syzygium cummini extract has anti-tumor and anti-oxidative potential against chemical induced stomach carcinogenesis.

  4. P-glycoprotein and CYP1A protein expression patterns in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) tissues after waterborne exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Wilson, Jonathan M; Ferreira, Marta

    2013-09-01

    The protein levels and tissue distribution patterns of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) were investigated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after waterborne exposure to different benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentrations, using immunochemical approaches. The Pgp mammalian monoclonal antibody (mAb) C219 cross reacted with a ∼170kDa protein, almost exclusively localized to the bile canaliculi, while probing with the Pgp mammalian mAb C494, resulted in a positive reaction in liver, gills and intestine of Nile tilapia and covered a wider set of cell types. Levels of Pgp expression were not altered after in vivo exposure to BaP. CYP1A, detected with the mAb C10-7, reacted positively in liver, gills and intestine and followed a BaP dose-dependent fold induction. Taken together, these results indicate that CYP1A is involved in BaP metabolism in liver, gills and intestine, however, further studies are needed to elucidate the possible interaction of the efflux protein Pgp with BaP and/or its metabolites.

  5. Oral exposure to environmental pollutant benzo[a]pyrene impacts the intestinal epithelium and induces gut microbial shifts in murine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribière, Céline; Peyret, Pierre; Parisot, Nicolas; Darcha, Claude; Déchelotte, Pierre J.; Barnich, Nicolas; Peyretaillade, Eric; Boucher, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota dysbiosis are associated with a wide range of human diseases, including inflammatory bowel diseases. The physiopathology of these diseases has multifactorial aetiology in which environmental factors, particularly pollution could play a crucial role. Among the different pollutants listed, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are subject to increased monitoring due to their wide distribution and high toxicity on Humans. Here, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to investigate the impact of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, most toxic PAH) oral exposure on the faecal and intestinal mucosa-associated bacteria in C57BL/6 mice. Intestinal inflammation was also evaluated by histological observations. BaP oral exposure significantly altered the composition and the abundance of the gut microbiota and led to moderate inflammation in ileal and colonic mucosa. More severe lesions were observed in ileal segment. Shifts in gut microbiota associated with moderate inflammatory signs in intestinal mucosa would suggest the establishment of a pro-inflammatory intestinal environment following BaP oral exposure. Therefore, under conditions of genetic susceptibility and in association with other environmental factors, exposure to this pollutant could trigger and/or accelerate the development of inflammatory pathologies. PMID:27503127

  6. Toxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene (Bap) and Aroclor1254 on embryogenesis, larval growth, survival and metamorphosis of the bivalve Meretrix meretrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Yang, Hongsheng; Liu, Baozhong; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2012-08-01

    To assess the potential toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls on the early development of Meretrix meretrix, the effects of benzo[a]pyrene (Bap) and Aroclor1254 on embryogenesis and larval development were investigated using static laboratory toxicity tests at nominal concentrations of 6.25-1,600 μg/L. Even at 1,600 μg/L, Bap and Aroclor1254 only caused minor reductions in embryo development rates. The 96 h LC(50) values for D-shaped larvae were 156 μg/L for Bap and 132 μg/L for Aroclor1254, respectively. The most sensitive toxicity endpoint in this study was metamorphosis, with an EC(50) value of 20 μg/L for Bap and 35 μg/L for Aroclor1254. Aroclor1254 was more toxic than Bap to embryos and larvae. Our results indicate that Bap and Aroclor1254 do not show extreme toxicity to M. meretrix embryos and larvae. These data provide information for evaluating the toxicity of Bap and Aroclor1254 on bivalve embryos, especially over the entire larval stages.

  7. A fluorescence enhancement-based label-free homogeneous immunoassay of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taihua; Choi, Yo Han; Shin, Yong-Beom; Kim, Hwa-Jung; Kim, Min-Gon

    2016-05-01

    A fluorescence enhancement-based immunoassay has been developed for the detection of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), in aqueous solutions. The results of this study show that BaP, which inefficiently fluoresces in aqueous solution, displays enhanced fluorescence when bound to the anti-BaP antibody (anti-BaP), as part of a label-free immunoassay system. Binding to anti-BaP results in a 3.12-fold increase in the fluorescence intensity of BaP, which emits at 435 nm when excited at 280 nm, due to the hydrophobic interaction and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between antibody and antigen. As result of this phenomenon, the antibody-based fluorescence immunoassay system can be used to detect BaP specifically with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.06 ng mL(-1). Finally, extraction recoveries of BaP from spiked wheat and barley samples were found to be in the range of 80.5-87.0% and 92.9-92.1%, respectively.

  8. Energy-dependent uptake of benzo[a]pyrene and its cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular transport by the telluric fungus Fusarium solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayeulle, Antoine; Veignie, Etienne; Slomianny, Christian; Dewailly, Etienne; Munch, Jean-Charles; Rafin, Catherine

    2014-03-01

    In screening indigenous soil filamentous fungi for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation, an isolate of the Fusarium solani was found to incorporate benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) into fungal hyphae before degradation and mineralization. The mechanisms involved in BaP uptake and intracellular transport remain unresolved. To address this, the incorporation of two PAHs, BaP, and phenanthrene (PHE) were studied in this fungus. The fungus incorporated more BaP into cells than PHE, despite the 400-fold higher aqueous solubility of PHE compared with BaP, indicating that PAH incorporation is not based on a simple diffusion mechanism. To identify the mechanism of BaP incorporation and transport, microscopic studies were undertaken with the fluorescence probes Congo Red, BODIPY®493/503, and FM®4-64, targeting different cell compartments respectively fungal cell walls, lipids, and endocytosis. The metabolic inhibitor sodium azide at 100 mM totally blocked BaP incorporation into fungal cells indicating an energy-requirement for PAH uptake into the mycelium. Cytochalasins also inhibited BaP uptake by the fungus and probably its intracellular transport into fungal hyphae. The perfect co-localization of BaP and BODIPY reveals that lipid bodies constitute the intracellular storage sites of BaP in F. solani. Our results demonstrate an energy-dependent uptake of BaP and its cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular transport by F. solani.

  9. Preliminary evidence of the role of hydrogen peroxide in the degradation of benzo[a]pyrene by a non-white rot fungus Fusarium solani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veignie, Etienne; Rafin, Catherine; Woisel, Patrice; Cazier, Fabrice

    2004-05-01

    In order to study the enzymatic mechanisms involved in the successive steps of BaP degradation by a Deuteromycete fungus Fusarium solani, we developed an indirect approach by using inhibitors of enzymes. We used either specific inhibitors of peroxidases (i.e. salicylhydroxamic acid) and of cytochrome P-450 (i.e. piperonyl butoxyde) or inhibitors of both enzymes (i.e. potassium cyanide). Surprisingly, no expected decrease of BaP degradation was observed with most inhibitors tested. On the contrary, more BaP was degraded. Only butylated hydroxytoluene, which acts as a free radical scavenger, inhibited BaP degradation. The inhibition of these enzymes, which use H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as a cosubstrat, might have resulted in an increase of hydrogen peroxide availability in the fungal cultures. This enhancement could induce formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which might be the agents that initiate benzo[a]pyrene oxidation. This study proposed a hypothetic alternative metabolic pathway involved in PAH metabolism by Fusarium solani. - An alternative metabolic pathway was demonstrated.

  10. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on an aquatic ecosystem: acute toxicity and community-level toxic impact tests of benzo[a]pyrene using lake zooplankton community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Sakamoto, Masaki; Nagata, Takamaru; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Miyabara, Yuichi; Hanazato, Takayuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kim, Jun-Woo; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon

    2013-02-01

    We estimated acute toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) using two cladoceran species, Ceriodaphnia reticulata and Daphnia magna, and also analyzed its impact on zooplankton community throughout an exposure experiment using small-scale mesocosms. LC(50) of B[a]P for C. reticulata and D. magna was 4.3 and 4.7 µg/l, respectively. However, individuals fed with Chlorella showed higher LC(50), 6.1 µg/l for C. reticulata and 8.0 µg/l for D. magna. In the exposure experiment, we examined the impact of B[a]P on zooplankton community using conceivable concentrations in the environment (5 and 10 µg/l) using typical zooplankton community in eutrophicated systems. Despite the residence time of B[a]P in the water column was short as impacts, suppressing cladoceran populations and inducing the dominance of rotifers particularly under high concentration (10 µg/l). Results have suggested that, even such short duration of B[a]P in the water body can have impact on zooplankton abundance and community structure. Since B[a]P easily precipitate to the bottom and rapidly disappears from the water body, careful monitoring and further assessment of the potential toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are necessary.

  11. Haplotypes of DNMT1 and DNMT3B are associated with mutagen sensitivity induced by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shuguang; Stidley, Christine A; Bernauer, Amanda M; Picchi, Maria A; Sheng, Xin; Frasco, Melissa A; Van Den Berg, David; Gilliland, Frank D; Crowell, Richard E; Belinsky, Steven A

    2008-07-01

    The mutagen sensitivity assay is an in vitro measure of DNA repair capacity used to evaluate intrinsic susceptibility for cancer. The high heritability of mutagen sensitivity to different mutagens validates the use of this phenotype to predict cancer susceptibility. However, genetic determinants of mutagen sensitivity have not been fully characterized. Recently, several studies found that three major cytosine DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), especially DNMT1, have a direct role in the DNA damage response, independent of their methyltransferase activity. This study evaluated the hypothesis that sequence variants in DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B are associated with mutagen sensitivity induced by the tobacco carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE) in 278 cancer-free smokers. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (n = 134) dispersed over the entire gene and regulatory regions of these DNMTs were genotyped by the Illumina Golden Gate Assay. DNA sequence variation in the DNMT1 and DNMT3B loci was globally associated with breaks per cell (P variants of DNMT1 and 3B and mutagen sensitivity induced by BPDE supports the involvement of these DNMTs in protecting the cell from DNA damage.

  12. Combined field/modelling approaches to represent the air-vegetation distribution of benzo[a]pyrene using different vegetation species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratola, Nuno; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    A strategy designed to combine the features of field-based experiments and modelling approaches is presented in this work to assess air-vegetation distribution of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the Iberian Peninsula (IP). Given the lack of simultaneous data in both environmental matrices, a methodology with two main steps was employed. First, evaluating the simulations with the chemistry transport model (CTM) WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) + CHIMERE data against the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) network, to test the aptitude of the CTM to replicate the respective atmospheric levels. Then, using modelled concentrations and a method to estimate air levels of BaP from biomonitoring data to compare the performance of different pine species (Pinus pinea, Pinus pinaster, Pinus nigra and Pinus halepensis) to describe the atmospheric evidences. The comparison of modelling vs. biomonitoring has a higher dependence on the location of the sampling points, rather than on the pine species, as some tend to overestimate and others to underestimate BaP concentrations, in most cases regardless of the season. The climatology of the canopy levels of BaP was successfully validated with the concentrations in pine needles (most biases below 26%), however, the model was unable to distinguish between species. This should be taken into consideration in future studies, as biases can rise up to 48%, especially in summer and autumn, the. The comparison with biomonitoring data showed a similar pattern, but with the best results in the warmer months.

  13. Crude cacao Theobroma cacao extract reduces mutagenicity induced by benzo[a]pyrene through inhibition of CYP1A activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Marumi; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Fujita, Shoichi

    2009-08-01

    Polyphenols have been shown to have potent antioxidant activity, and therefore, food containing polyphenols is expected to contribute to the prevention of cancer. However, food contains not only polyphenols but also various other constituents. We used the Ames test to investigate the effects of crude extracts of whole cacao products, which are known to be rich in polyphenols, on the mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA 98 and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) in S. typhimurium strain TA 102. B[a]P induces mutagenicity by metabolic activation and t-BuOOH induces it by generation of free radicals. While white chocolate did not modulate the numbers of revertant colonies produced by B[a]P treatment, milk chocolate and cacao powder extracts did. On the other hand, surprisingly, none of the cacao products tested affected the number of revertant colonies when t-BuOOH was used as the mutagen. At maximum concentration (13.25 mg cacao powder/ml), the crude cacao powder extract reduced ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity to 17.4% of the control, suggesting that whole cacao products inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A activity. In conclusion, inhibition of CYP1A activity by cacao products may prevent DNA damage by reducing metabolic activation of carcinogens.

  14. Effects of benzo[a]pyrene on gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L. hepatocytes exposed in vitro to short and long term trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Zacchino

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, cytotoxic effects to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P were investigated in Sparus aurata hepatocytes primary cultures after acute and chronic exposure. Cells were treated with a wide range of B[a]P doses (100 µg/ml to 1 pg/ml for 24, 48 and 72 h. B[a]P toxicity was quantified in seabream hepatocytes by MTT assay and immunofluorescence analysis after the various exposure periods, in order to evaluate the hepatic damage and toxicity range. Results showed three cytotoxic responses: B[a]P cell death for primary necrosis after exposure to high concentrations for short times, apoptosis induction with the use of sublethal doses and cell proliferation allied with tumoral foci formation after exposure to low concentrations for long times. This responses provided an interesting correlation between the damage caused on hepatocytes and the metabolism of this toxic, mainly studied in vivo. Addictionally, the statistical analysis revealed that the effects of time and dose were significant for both parameters and especially the time was extremely significant (p<0.0001, in fact B[a]P damage increased over time. Our findings demonstrated and confirmed that S. aurata is a very sensitive species to B[a]P exposure since adverse effects were found at all tested doses. Furtheremore, the new in vitro animal model can be considered a useful tool for studying the cellular effects induced by any contaminant harmful for farmed fish.

  15. Benzo(a)pyrene and X-rays induce reversions of the pink-eyed unstable mutation in the retinal pigment epithelium of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, A J; Kosaras, B; Sidman, R L; Schiestl, R H

    2000-12-20

    The pink-eyed unstable (p(un)) mutation is the result of a 70kb tandem duplication within the murine p gene. Homologous deletion/recombination of the locus to wild-type occurs spontaneously in embryos and results in pigmented spots in the fur and eye that persist for life. Such deletion events are also inducible by a variety of DNA damaging agents, as we have observed previously with the fur spot assay. Here, we describe the use of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of the eye to detect reversion events induced with two differently acting agents. Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) induces a high frequency, and X-ray exposure a more modest increase, of p(un) reversion in both the fur and the eye. The eye-spot assay requires fewer mice for significant results than the fur spot assay. Previous work had elucidated the cell proliferation pattern in the RPE and a position effect variegation phenotype in the pattern of p(un) reversions, which we have confirmed. Acute exposure to B(a)P or X-rays resulted in an increased frequency of reversion events. The majority of the spontaneous reversions lie toward the periphery of the RPE whereas induced events are found more centrally, closer to the optic nerve head. The induced distribution corresponds to the major sites of cell proliferation in the RPE at the time of exposure, and further advocates the proposal that dividing cells are at highest risk to develop deletions.

  16. Protective effects of green and white tea against benzo(a)pyrene induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Sharma, V L; Sehgal, Amit; Jain, Mridula

    2012-01-01

    In the current investigation, the ameliorative effect of green tea (GT) and white tea (WT) against benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induced oxidative stress and DNA damage has been studied in the livers and lungs of Balb/c mice. A single dose of BaP (125 mg/kg, b.w. orally) increased the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased endogenous antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutahione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) significantly. Pretreatment with GT and WT for 35 days before a single dose of BaP elevated the decreased activity of GR, SOD, and CAT in liver tissue and also tended to normalize the levels of GSH and LPO in both hepatic and pulmonary tissues. The percentage of DNA in comet tail and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels reflected the decreasing pattern of DNA damage from the BaP-treated group to the groups that received pretreatment with GT and WT. Our study concludes that both GT and WT are effective in combating BaP induced oxidative insult and DNA damage. However, WT was found to be more protective than GT with respect to CAT (only in the liver), percentage of DNA in comet tail (only in the lungs), GST activity, and GSH content in both the tissues.

  17. The Impaired Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Docu Any Axelerad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The ”persistent vegetative state” (PVS has the main attention for us in identifying the examples of consciousness that suffer structural injury. PVS is a state that the patient has the ability to open eyes spontaneously, but without responses to threat, verbalization or other pain defend. Several factors that lead to such state, among which the use of drugs is mostly researched, prolong impaired consciousness as a clinical and personal judgment of this condition. The patients with comatose from a destructive structural injury never regain the conscious state due to widespread structural damage. Any clinical review on this is based on bodily changes observation with impact on the clinical diagnosis of prolonged comatose states as largely descriptive. Eye movements need the most attention because its response to approaching objects distinguishes between a PVS (inconsistent or absent, akinetic mutism (no stacking but spontaneous focusing on moving targets, and MCS (always present. Distinguish between this three conditions needs an interdisciplinary intervention (neurologist or rehabilitation physicians.

  18. Sustained impairment of respiratory function and swim performance following acute oil exposure in a coastal marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, J L; Esbaugh, A J

    2017-06-01

    Acute exposure to crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) can severely impair cardiorespiratory function and swim performance of larval fish; however, the effects of acute oil exposure on later life stages and the capacity for subsequent recovery is less clear. Red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) is an economically important apex predator native to the Gulf of Mexico, which was directly exposed to the 2010 Deep Water Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Here we examine impact and recovery of young adult red drum from exposure to concentrations of 0, 4.1, and 12.1μgL(-1) ΣPAH50 naturally weathered oil-water accommodated fractions (geometric mean), which are well within the range of concentrations measured during the DWH incident. We focused on aerobic scope (ASc), burst- and critical swimming speeds (Uburst and Ucrit), cost of transport (COT), as well as the capacity to repay oxygen debt following exhaustive exercise (EPOC), which are critical parameters for success of all life stages of fishes. A 24h acute exposure to 4.1μgL(-1) ΣPAH caused a significant 9.7 and 12.6% reduction of Uburst and Ucrit respectively, but no change in ASc, COT or EPOC, highlighting a decoupled effect on the respiratory and swimming systems. A higher exposure concentration, 12.1μgL(-1) ΣPAH, caused an 8.6 and 8.4% impairment of Uburst and Ucrit, as well as an 18.4% reduction in ASc. These impairments persisted six weeks post-exposure, suggesting that recorded impacts are entrenched. Large predatory fishes are critically dependent on the cardiorespiratory and swimming systems for ecological fitness, and long-term impairment of performance due to acute oil exposure suggests that even acute exposure events may have long lasting impacts on the ecological fitness of affected populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Perinatal supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves sevoflurane-induced neurodegeneration and memory impairment in neonatal rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Lei

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate if perinatal Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs supplementation can improve sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment in neonatal rats. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 each group were treated with or without an n-3 PUFAs (fish oil enriched diet from the second day of pregnancy to 14 days after parturition. The offspring rats (P7 were treated with six hours sevoflurane administration (one group without sevoflurane/prenatal n-3 PUFAs supplement as control. The 5-bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu was injected intraperitoneally during and after sevoflurane anesthesia to assess dentate gyrus (DG progenitor proliferation. Brain tissues were harvested and subjected to Western blot and immunohistochemistry respectively. Morris water maze spatial reference memory, fear conditioning, and Morris water maze memory consolidation were tested at P35, P63 and P70 (n = 9, respectively. RESULTS: Six hours 3% sevoflurane administration increased the cleaved caspase-3 in the thalamus, parietal cortex but not hippocampus of neonatal rat brain. Sevoflurane anesthesia also decreased the neuronal precursor proliferation of DG in rat hippocampus. However, perinatal n-3 PUFAs supplement could decrease the cleaved caspase-3 in the cerebral cortex of neonatal rats, and mitigate the decrease in neuronal proliferation in their hippocampus. In neurobehavioral studies, compared with control and n-3 PUFAs supplement groups, we did not find significant spatial cognitive deficit and early long-term memory impairment in sevoflurane anesthetized neonatal rats at their adulthood. However, sevoflurane could impair the immediate fear response and working memory and short-term memory. And n-3 PUFAs could improve neurocognitive function in later life after neonatal sevoflurane exposure. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that neonatal exposure to prolonged sevoflurane could impair the immediate fear response, working

  20. Application of SSH and a macroarray to investigate altered gene expression in Mytilus edulis in response to exposure to benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M; Davies, I M; Moffat, C F; Craft, J A

    2006-07-01

    The lack of genomic resources for aquatic invertebrates restricts their use as sentinel species in coastal environments. It is known that where genomic data are not available, suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) can generate cDNA libraries representative of pollutant-responsive gene transcription in aquatic vertebrates. To assess whether the approach was equally suited to aquatic invertebrates, altered gene expression in digestive gland of the mussel, Mytilus edulis, in response to exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (1 mg/l) was investigated with SSH and a nylon macroarray. Screening of the subtracted libraries showed 112/250 up-regulated and 25/55 down-regulated clones were positive for differential expression and characterisation of these identified 87 with unique sequence suitable for array on a nylon membrane. The transcripts isolated were from a diverse range of genes involved in general stress, oxidative stress, cell adhesion, transcriptional and translational regulation, transport mechanisms, energy metabolism, cell metabolism, lipid metabolism, protein turnover and activation, lysosomal activity and 22 cryptic clones. Subsequent use of the clones in macroarray format to analyse expression of BaP-responsive genes (0 vs 4 day exposed) showed 0-100-fold increased levels of the forward-subtracted probes and between 0 and 0.1-fold down-regulation of the reverse-subtracted probes. Only 15% of the clones showed less than 2-fold change in expression. The gene ontology of the transcripts isolated demonstrates that BaP elicits a multitude of responses with a major feature being disruption of cellular redox status. The results indicate that the use of SSH and a macroarray is a robust method to discover novel pollutant-responsive genes in aquatic invertebrates.

  1. Modulation of benzo[a]pyrene induced neurotoxicity in female mice actively immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid conjugate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellenberger, Mario T.; Grova, Nathalie; Farinelle, Sophie; Willième, Stéphanie [Institute of Immunology, Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé/Laboratoire National de Santé, 20A rue Auguste Lumière, L-1950 Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Schroeder, Henri [University of Nancy, URAFPA, INRA UC340, F-54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Muller, Claude P., E-mail: claude.muller@crp-sante.lu [Institute of Immunology, Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé/Laboratoire National de Santé, 20A rue Auguste Lumière, L-1950 Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2013-09-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a small molecular weight carcinogen and the prototype of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these compounds are primarily known for their carcinogenicity, B[a]P and its metabolites are also neurotoxic for mammalian species. To develop a prophylactic immune strategy against detrimental effects of B[a]P, female Balb/c mice immunized with a B[a]P–diphtheria toxoid (B[a]P–DT) conjugate vaccine were sub-acutely exposed to 2 mg/kg B[a]P and behavioral performances were monitored in tests related to learning and memory, anxiety and motor coordination. mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor (NR1, 2A and 2B subunits) involved in the above behavioral functions was measured in 5 brain regions. B[a]P induced NMDA1 expression in three (hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum) of five brain regions investigated, and modulated NMDA2 in two of the five brain regions (frontal cortex and cerebellum). Each one of these B[a]P-effects was reversed in mice that were immunized against this PAH, with measurable consequences on behavior such as anxiety, short term learning and memory. Thus active immunization against B[a]P with a B[a]P–DT conjugate vaccine had a protective effect and attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects even of high concentrations of B[a]P. - Highlights: • B[a]P-antibodies attenuated B[a]P induced NMDA expression in several brain regions. • B[a]P had measurable consequences on anxiety, short term learning and memory. • B[a]P immunization attenuated the pharmacological and neurotoxic effects of B[a]P. • Vaccination may also provide some protection against chemical carcinogenesis.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddens, Lisbeth K; Larkin, Andrew; Krueger, Sharon K; Bradfield, Christopher A; Waters, Katrina M; Tilton, Susan C; Pereira, Cliff B; Löhr, Christiane V; Arlt, Volker M; Phillips, David H; Williams, David E; Baird, William M

    2012-11-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by ³²P post-labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH-dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p<0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and phase 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs).

  3. Grape seed proanthocyanidin suppression of breast cell carcinogenesis induced by chronic exposure to combined 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyu; Siriwardhana, Nalin; Rathore, Kusum; Lin, Degui; Wang, Hwa-Chain Robert

    2010-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women in northern America and northern Europe; dietary prevention is a cost-efficient strategy to reduce the risk of this disease. To identify dietary components for the prevention of human breast cancer associated with long-term exposure to environmental carcinogens, we studied the activity of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in suppression of cellular carcinogenesis induced by repeated exposures to low doses of environmental carcinogens. We used combined carcinogens 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), at picomolar concentrations, to repeatedly treat noncancerous, human breast epithelial MCF10A cells to induce cellular acquisition of cancer-related properties of reduced dependence on growth factors, anchorage-independent growth, and acinar-conformational disruption. Using these properties as biological target endpoints, we verified the ability of GSPE to suppress combined NNK- and B[a]P-induced precancerous cellular carcinogenesis and identified the minimal, noncytotoxic concentration of GSPE required for suppressing precancerous cellular carcinogenesis. We also identified that hydroxysteroid-11-beta-dehydrogenase 2 (HSD11B2) may play a role in NNK- and B[a]P-induced precancerous cellular carcinogenesis, and its expression may act as a molecular target endpoint in GSPE's suppression of precancerous cellular carcinogenesis. And, the ability of GSPE to reduce gene expression of cytochrome-P450 enzymes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, which can bioactivate NNK and B[a]P, possibly contributes to the preventive mechanism for GSPE in suppression of precancerous cellular carcinogenesis. Our model system with biological and molecular target endpoints verified the value of GSPE for the prevention of human breast cell carcinogenesis induced by repeated exposures to low doses of multiple environmental carcinogens. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Increased sensitivity to testicular toxicity of transplacental benzo[a]pyrene exposure in male glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit knockout (Gclm-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Brooke N; Mohar, Isaac; Lawson, Gregory W; Cortés, Mabel M; Hoang, Yvonne D; Ortiz, Laura; Patel, Reshma; Rau, Bogdan A; McConnachie, Lisa A; Kavanagh, Terrance J; Luderer, Ulrike

    2012-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), like benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are ubiquitous environmental pollutants formed by the incomplete combustion of organic materials. The tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is a major antioxidant and is important in detoxification of PAH metabolites. Mice null for the modifier subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclm), the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis, have decreased GSH concentrations. We investigated the effects of Gclm deletion alone on male fertility and spermatogenesis and its effect on the sensitivity of male embryos to the transplacental testicular toxicity of BaP. Gclm-/- males had dramatically decreased testicular and epididymal GCL enzymatic activity and total GSH concentrations compared with Gclm+/+ littermates. Ratios of reduced to oxidized GSH were significantly increased in Gclm-/- testes. GSH reductase enzymatic activity was increased in Gclm-/- epididymides. We observed no changes in fertility, testicular weights, testicular sperm head counts, or testicular histology and subtle changes in cauda epididymal sperm counts, motility, and morphology in Gclm-/- compared with Gclm+/+ males. Prenatal exposure to BaP from gestational day 7 to 16 was dose dependently associated with significantly decreased testicular and epididymal weights, testicular and epididymal sperm counts, and with vacuolated seminiferous tubules at 10 weeks of age. Gclm-/- males exposed prenatally to BaP had greater decreases in testicular weights, testicular sperm head counts, epididymal sperm counts, and epididymal sperm motility than Gclm+/+ littermates. These results show no effects of Gclm deletion alone on male fertility and testicular spermatogenesis and subtle epididymal effects but support increased sensitivity of Gclm-/- males to the transplacental testicular toxicity of BaP.

  5. In vitro Study on Role of Hsp70 Expression in DNA Damage of Human Embryonic Lung Cells Exposed to Benzo[a]pyrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YA-JUAN GAO; CHENG-FENG XIAO; SHENG CHEN; RUI-BO WANG; HAN-ZHEN HE; ROBERT M TANGUAY; TANG-CHUN WU

    2004-01-01

    Objective Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, is a potent procarcinogen and mutagen that can elicit tumors, leading to malignancy. Heat shock proteins (Hsp) have been shown to protect cells against damages caused by various stresses including exposure to numerous chemicals. Whether Hsps, or more specifically Hsp70, are involved in repair of B[a]P-induced DNA damage is currently unknown. Methods We assessed the potential role of the inducible form of Hsp70 in B[a]P-induced DNA damage of human embryonic lung (HEL) cells using immunoblot and the comet assay (i.e., the single cell gel electrophoresis assay). Results Exposure to B[a]P induced a dose-dependent decrease in the level of Hsp70, but a dose-dependent increase in DNA damage both in untreated (control) HEL cells and in cells preconditioned by a heat treatment. Heat preconditioning prior to B[a]P exposure potentiated the effect of B[a]P at a low dose (10 (mol/L), but appeared to be protective at higher doses. There was a negative correlation between Hsp70 level and DNA damage in the non-preheated as well as in the preconditioned cells. Conclusion These data suggest that exposure of HEL cells to B[a]P may induce a dose-dependent reduction in the levels of the inducible Hsp70. The detailed mechanisms for the reduction of Hsp70 levels by B[a]P and the role of Hsp70 in DNA damage under different concentrations of B[a]P remains to be determined.

  6. In vitro assessment of DNA damage after short- and long-term exposure to benzo(a)pyrene using RAPD and the RTG-2 fish cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, Argelia; Becerril, Concepción

    2004-08-18

    Genotoxins present in the aquatic environment are often associated with the decline or disappearance of many wild populations. The hazard assessment of chemicals requires sensitive and specific tests to study the genotoxic effects in order to establish the maximum allowable chemical concentrations prior to the release to the environment. We have previously shown that an established fish cell line (RTG-2) together with the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, can be used to detect alterations in the DNA caused by direct acting genotoxins. The current study takes this a step further and examines in the same system the effect of a pro-mutagen benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) at different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 microg/ml) and at different exposure periods (1, 2, 3, 15, and 30 days). After comparing DNA fingerprints from control and exposed cells, both qualitative and quantitative analysis show an increase in the instability in the DNA fingerprint of exposed cells over a time- and concentration-dependent manner. At the higher concentration (0.5 microg/ml) three out the four primers showed altered bands after 1 day of exposure, while after 3 days all used primers showed an altered pattern. At the lower concentration of B(a)P (0.05 microg/ml) the appearance of new bands was observed with a 100% level of reproducibility after 30 days of exposure suggesting an inheritance of the altered DNA. We conclude that this in vitro system is useful to evaluate genotoxic effects, both after acute and chronic exposures and of direct and non-direct acting genotoxins. Cultured cells can be considered as genetically homogenous populations. Therefore, in vitro systems permits us to undertake mechanistic studies avoiding the interference of polymorphisms inherent in the in vivo systems. Furthermore, the RTG-2 fish cell line combined with a RAPD assay could be used in studies of hazard identification in risk assessment protocols of chemicals.

  7. DNA adduct kinetics in reproductive tissues of DNA repair proficient and deficient male mice after oral exposure to benzo(a)pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhofstad, Nicole; van Oostrom, Conny Th M; van Benthem, Jan; van Schooten, Frederik J; van Steeg, Harry; Godschalk, Roger W L

    2010-03-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) can induce somatic mutations, whereas its potential to induce germ cell mutations is unclear. There is circumstantial evidence that paternal exposure to B[a]P can result in germ cell mutations. Since DNA adducts are thought to be a prerequisite for B[a]P induced mutations, we studied DNA adduct kinetics by (32)P-postlabeling in sperm, testes and lung tissues of male mice after a single exposure to B[a]P (13 mg/kg bw, by gavage). To investigate DNA adduct formation at different stages of spermatogenesis, mice were sacrificed at Day 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, 32, and 42 after exposure. In addition, DNA repair deficient (Xpc(-/-)) mice were used to study the contribution of nucleotide excision repair in DNA damage removal. DNA adducts were detectable with highest levels in lung followed by sperm and testis. Maximum adduct levels in the lung and testis were observed at Day 1 after exposure, while adduct levels in sperm reached maximum levels at approximately 1 week after exposure. Lung tissue and testis of Xpc(-/-) mice contained significantly higher DNA adduct levels compared to wild type (Wt) mice over the entire 42 day observation period (P adduct half-life between Xpc(-/-) and Wt mice were only observed in testis. In sperm, DNA adduct levels were significantly higher in Xpc(-/-) mice than in Wt mice only at Day 42 after exposure (P = 0.01). These results indicate that spermatogonia and testes are susceptible for the induction of DNA damage and rely on nucleotide excision repair for maintaining their genetic integrity.

  8. Structure and mechanism of error-free replication past the major benzo[a]pyrene adduct by human DNA polymerase κ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Vikash; Bian, Chuanbing; Xing, Guangxin; Ling, Hong

    2016-06-02

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) is a well-known and frequently encountered carcinogen which generates a bulky DNA adduct (+)-trans-10S-BP-N(2)-dG (BP-dG) in cells. DNA polymerase kappa (polκ) is the only known Y-family polymerase that bypasses BP-dG accurately and thus protects cells from genotoxic BP. Here, we report the structures of human polκ in complex with DNA containing either a normal guanine (G) base or a BP-dG adduct at the active site and a correct deoxycytidine. The structures and supporting biochemical data reveal a unique mechanism for accurate replication by translesion synthesis past the major bulky adduct. The active site of polκ opens at the minor groove side of the DNA substrate to accommodate the bulky BP-dG that is attached there. More importantly, polκ stabilizes the lesion DNA substrate in the same active conformation as for regular B-form DNA substrates and the bulky BPDE ring in a 5' end pointing conformation. The BP-dG adducted DNA substrate maintains a Watson-Crick (BP-dG:dC) base pair within the active site, governing correct nucleotide insertion opposite the bulky adduct. In addition, polκ's unique N-clasp domain supports the open conformation of the enzyme and the extended conformation of the single-stranded template to allow bypass of the bulky lesion. This work illustrates the first molecular mechanism for how a bulky major adduct is replicated accurately without strand misalignment and mis-insertion.

  9. Degradation of pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and benzo[a]pyrene by Mycobacterium sp. strain RJGII-135, isolated from a former coal gasification site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J; Grosser, R; Jayasimhulu, K; Xue, W; Warshawsky, D

    1996-01-01

    The degradation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), pyrene (PYR), benz[a]anthracene (BAA), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), by Mycobacterium sp. strain RJGII-135 was studied. The bacterium was isolated from an abandoned coal gasification site soil by analog enrichment techniques and found to mineralize [14C]PYR. Further degradation studies with PYR showed three metabolites formed by Mycobacterium sp. strain RJGII-135, including 4,5-phenanthrene-dicarboxylic acid not previously isolated, 4-phenanthrene-carboxylic acid, and 4,5-pyrene-dihydrodiol. At least two dihydrodiols, 5,6-BAA-dihydrodiol and 10,11-BAA-dihydrodiol, were confirmed by high-resolution mass spectral and fluorescence analyses as products of the biodegradation of BAA by Mycobacterium sp. strain RJGII-135. Additionally, a cleavage product of BAA was also isolated. Mass spectra and fluorescence data support two different routes for the degradation of BaP by Mycobacterium sp. strain RJGII-135. The 7,8-BaP-dihydrodiol and three cleavage products of BaP, including 4,5-chrysene-dicarboxylic acid and a dihydro-pyrene-carboxylic acid metabolite, have been isolated and identified as degradation products formed by Mycobacterium sp. strain RJGII-135. These latter results represent the first example of the isolation of BaP ring fission products formed by a bacterial isolate. We propose that while this bacterium appears to attack only one site of the PYR molecule, it is capable of degrading different sites of the BAA and BaP molecules, and although the sites of attack may be different, the ability of this bacterium to degrade these PAH is well supported. The proposed pathways for biodegradation of these compounds by this Mycobacterium sp. strain RJGII-135 support the dioxygenase enzymatic processes reported previously for other bacteria. Microorganisms like Mycobacterium sp. strain RJGII-135 will be invaluable in attaining the goal of remediation of sites containing mixtures of these PAH.

  10. Skin penetration and metabolism of topically applied chemicals in six mammalian species, including man: an in vitro study with benzo(a)pyrene and testosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, J.; Patterson, F.K.; Hall, J.

    1985-12-01

    Because viable skin possesses enzyme activities, including those involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, the extent to which cutaneous metabolism may influence the percutaneous fate of topically applied chemicals in the skin was examined in mammalian skin maintained as short-term organ cultures. Skin samples from mouse, rat, rabbit, guinea pig, marmoset, and man were examined. The results from studies with benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and testosterone showed that, in all species, metabolic viability was a major factor involved in the in vitro skin permeation of surface-applied chemicals. Permeation was accompanied by extensive cutaneous first pass metabolism; both parent compounds and a full spectrum of metabolites were found in the receptor fluid from viable skin preparations. However, in previously frozen nonviable skin preparations, essentially only unchanged parent compounds were detected in the receptor fluid. Permeation of BP and testosterone was highest in mouse skin, and significant species variations in the metabolite profiles were observed. Studies with mouse skin also demonstrated that induction of cutaneous drug-metabolizing enzymes can result in a two- to threefold increase in the in vitro permeation of topical BP, and a significant reduction in permeation was observed when KCN was added to the perfusion medium. These results indicate that diffusional and metabolic processes are intimately involved in the percutaneous fate of surface-applied chemicals. The relative importance of these processes is dependent upon the physicochemical properties of the compounds and the metabolic capabilities of the skin toward the compounds in question. Furthermore, these findings suggest that meaningful in vitro studies on skin absorption should consider both diffusion and cutaneous biotransformation of the applied compound.

  11. Effects of saline-alkaline stress on benzo[a]pyrene biotransformation and ligninolytic enzyme expression by Bjerkandera adusta SM46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Ade; Tachibana, Sanro; Itoh, Kazutaka

    2016-03-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) accumulates in marine organisms and contaminated coastal areas. The biotreatment of waste water using saline-alkaline-tolerant white rot fungi (WRF) represents a promising method for removing BaP under saline-alkaline conditions based on WRF's ability to produce ligninolytic enzymes. In a pre-screening for degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of 82 fungal strains using Remazol brilliant blue R, Bjerkandera adusta SM46 exhibited the highest tolerance to saline-alkaline stress. Moreover, a B. adusta culture grown in BaP-containing liquid medium exhibited resistance to salinities up to 20 g l(-1). These conditions did not inhibit fungal growth or the expression of manganese peroxidase (MnP) or lignin peroxidase (LiP). The degradation rate also became higher as salinity increased to 20 g l(-1). Fungal growth and enzyme expression were inhibited at a salinity of 35 g l(-1). These inhibitory effects directly decreased the degradation rate (>24%). The presence of MnSO4 as an inducer improved the degradation rate and enzyme expression. MnP and LiP activity also increased by seven- and fivefold, respectively. SM46 degraded BaP (38-89% over 30 days) in an acidic environment (pH 4.5) and under saline-alkaline stress conditions (pH 8.2). Investigating the metabolites produced revealed BaP-1,6-dione as the main product, indicating the important role of ligninolytic enzymes in initializing BaP cleavage. The other metabolites detected, naphthalene acetic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, benzoic acid, and catechol, may have been ring fission products. The wide range of activities observed suggests that B. adusta SM46 is a potential agent for biodegrading BaP under saline conditions.

  12. Chemopreventive potential of Triphala (a composite Indian drug) on Benzo(a)pyrene induced forestomach tumorigenesis in murine tumor model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deep, G.; Dhirman, M.; Rao, A.R.; Kale, R.K. [Jawaharlan Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory

    2005-12-15

    The present work is probably the first report on cancer chemopreventive potential of Triphala, a combination of fruit powder of three different plants namely Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis. Triphala is a popular formulation of the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Our findings have shown that Triphala in diet has significantly reduced the benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] induced forestomach papillomagenesis in mice. In the short term treatment groups, the tumor incidences were lowered to 77.77% by both doses of Triphala mixed diet. In the case of long-term treatment the tumor incidences were reduced to 66.66% and 62.50% respectively by 2.5% and 5% triphala containing diet. Tumor burden was 7.27{+-}1.16 in the B(a)P treated control group, whereas it reduced to 3.00{+-}0.82 (p<0.005) by 2.5% dose and 2.33 +/- 1.03 (p<0.001) by 5% dose of Triphala. In long-term studies the tumor burden was reduced to 2.17{+-}0.75 (p<0.001) and 2.00{+-}0.71 (p<0.001) by 2.5% and 5% diet of Triphala, respectively. It was important to observe that Triphala was more effective in reducing tumor incidences compared to its individual constituents. Triphala also significantly increased the antioxidant status of animals which might have contributed to the chemoprevention. It was inferred that the concomitant use of multiple agents seemed to have a high degree of chemoprevention potential.

  13. Molecular cloning and differential expression patterns of sigma and omega glutathione S-transferases from Venerupis philippinarum to heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Linbao; WU Huifeng; LIU Xiaoli; CHEN Leilei; WANG Qing; ZHAO Jianmin; YOU Liping

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a class of enzymes that facilitate the detoxification of xenobiotics,and also play important roles in antioxidant defense.We identified two glutathione S-transferase isoforms (VpGSTS,sigma GST; VpGSTO,omega GST) from Venerupis philippinarum by RACE approaches.The open reading frames of VpGSTS and VpGSTO were of 612 bp and 729 bp,encoding 203 and 242 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 22.88 and 27.94 kDa,respectively.The expression profiles of VpGSTS and VpGSTO responded to heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) cxposure were investigated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR.The expression of VpGSTS and VpGSTO were both rapidly up-regulated,however,they showed differential expression patterns to different toxicants.Cd displayed stronger induction of VpGSTS expression with an approximately 12-fold increase than that of VpGSTO with a maximum 6.4-fold rise.Cu exposure resulted in similar expression patterns for both VpGSTS and VpGSTO For B[a]P exposure,the maximum induction of VpGSTO was approximately two times higher than that of VpGSTS.Altogether,these findings implied the involvement of VpGSTS and VpGSTO in host antioxidant responses,and highlighted their potential as a biomarker to Cd and B[a]P exposure.

  14. Comparison of toxicogenomics and traditional approaches to inform mode of action and points of departure in human health risk assessment of benzo[a]pyrene in drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Sarah; Bourdon-Lacombe, Julie; Kuo, Byron; Buick, Julie K.; Lemieux, France; Williams, Andrew; Halappanavar, Sabina; Malik, Amal; Luijten, Mirjam; Aubrecht, Jiri; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Fornace, Albert J.; Swartz, Carol D.; Recio, Leslie; Yauk, Carole L.

    2015-01-01

    Toxicogenomics is proposed to be a useful tool in human health risk assessment. However, a systematic comparison of traditional risk assessment approaches with those applying toxicogenomics has never been done. We conducted a case study to evaluate the utility of toxicogenomics in the risk assessment of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a well-studied carcinogen, for drinking water exposures. Our study was intended to compare methodologies, not to evaluate drinking water safety. We compared traditional (RA1), genomics-informed (RA2) and genomics-only (RA3) approaches. RA2 and RA3 applied toxicogenomics data from human cell cultures and mice exposed to BaP to determine if these data could provide insight into BaP's mode of action (MOA) and derive tissue-specific points of departure (POD). Our global gene expression analysis supported that BaP is genotoxic in mice and allowed the development of a detailed MOA. Toxicogenomics analysis in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells demonstrated a high degree of consistency in perturbed pathways with animal tissues. Quantitatively, the PODs for traditional and transcriptional approaches were similar (liver 1.2 vs. 1.0 mg/kg-bw/day; lung 0.8 vs. 3.7 mg/kg-bw/day; forestomach 0.5 vs. 7.4 mg/kg-bw/day). RA3, which applied toxicogenomics in the absence of apical toxicology data, demonstrates that this approach provides useful information in data-poor situations. Overall, our study supports the use of toxicogenomics as a relatively fast and cost-effective tool for hazard identification, preliminary evaluation of potential carcinogens, and carcinogenic potency, in addition to identifying current limitations and practical questions for future work. PMID:25605026

  15. The extreme variety of genotoxic response to benzo[a]pyrene in three different human cell lines from three different organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genies, Camille; Maître, Anne; Lefèbvre, Emmanuel; Jullien, Amandine; Chopard-Lallier, Marianne; Douki, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are associated with occupational exposure and urban atmospheric pollution. Determination of the genotoxic properties of these compounds is thus of outmost importance. For this purpose a variety of cellular models have been widely used. Reliable results can however only be obtained with models reflecting the specific sensitivity of different organs towards PAHs. In this work, we compared the response to benzo[a]pyrene in cell lines from human lungs (A549) and bladder (T24); two important target organs for PAHs-induced cancer. Human hepatocytes (HepG2) were used as a reference, although liver is not a concern for PAHs carcinogenesis. Adducts arising from the ultimate diol-epoxide metabolite of B[a]P, BPDE, were found to be produced in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2. BPDE DNA adducts were not detected in T24 and in A549 their formation was found to be most efficient at the lowest concentration studied (0.2 µM). These results are probably explained by differences in induction and activity of phase I metabolization enzymes, as well as by proteins eliminating the B[a]P epoxide in A549. In addition to BPDE adducts, oxidative DNA damage, namely strand breaks and oxidized purines were measured and found to be produced only in minute amounts in all three cell lines. In summary, our results emphasize the large differences in the response of cells originating from different organs. Our data also point out the importance of carefully selecting the doses used in in vitro toxicological experiments. The example of A549 shows that working at high doses may lead to an underestimation of the risk. Finally, the choice of method for evaluating genotoxicity appears to be of crucial importance. The comet assay does not seem to be the best method for a compound like B[a]P which induces stable adducts causing limited oxidative damage.

  16. Fullerene inhibits benzo(a)pyrene Efflux from Cyprinus carpio hepatocytes by affecting cell membrane fluidity and P-glycoprotein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiqing; Hu, Xialin; Wang, Rui; Yuan, Jin; Yin, Daqiang

    2016-05-01

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) can protect cells by pumping out toxic compounds, and has been found widely expressed in fish tissues. Here, we illustrate the P-gp efflux ability for benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the hepatocytes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after exposing to fullerene aqueous suspension (nC60). The results revealed that nC60 increased the membrane fluidity by decreasing the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids, and increased the cholesterol contents. These findings, combined with 10-38% and 70-75% down-regulation of P-gp mRNA and protein respectively, suggested that nC60 caused inhibition on P-gp efflux transport system. Therefore, we further investigated the cellular efflux ability for BaP. Results showed unequivocally that nC60 is a potent P-gp inhibitor. The retaining BaP amounts after efflux were elevated by 1.7-2.8 fold during the 10 day exposure. Meanwhile, 5mg/L humic acid (one of the important fractions of natural organic matter, which is ubiquitous in aquatic environment) alleviated the nC60 damage to hepatocytes in terms of oxidative damage, cholesterol increment, and P-gp content reduction; and finally attenuated the suppressed P-gp efflux ability. Collectively, this study provides the first evidence of nC60 toxicity to P-gp functionality in fish and illustrates the possible mechanism of the suppressed P-gp efflux ability for BaP.

  17. Noncovalent interactions of a benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide with DNA base pairs: insight into the formation of adducts of (+)-BaP DE-2 with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargis, Jacqueline C; Schaefer, Henry F; Houk, K N; Wheeler, Steven E

    2010-02-01

    Noncovalent complexes of a tumorigenic benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide with the guanine-cytosine (GC) and adenine-thymine (AT) base pairs have been examined computationally. (+)-BaP DE-2 forms covalent adducts with DNA via nucleophilic attack on the (+)-BaP DE-2 epoxide. Computational results predict five thermodynamically accessible complexes of AT with (+)-BaP DE-2 that are compatible with intact DNA. Among these, two are expected to lead to adenine adducts. In the lowest energy AT...(+)-BaP DE-2 complex, which has a gas-phase interaction energy of -20.9 kcal mol(-1), the exocyclic NH(2) of adenine is positioned for backside epoxide attack and formation of a trans adduct. The most energetically favorable complex leading to formation of a cis ring-opened adduct lies only 0.6 kcal mol(-1) higher in energy. For GC...(+)-BaP DE-2, there are only two thermodynamically accessible complexes. The higher-lying complex, bound in the gas phase by 24.4 kcal mol(-1) relative to separated GC and (+)-BaP DE-2, would lead to a trans ring-opened N(2)-guanine adduct. In the global minimum energy GC...(+)-BaP DE-2 complex, bound by 27.3 kcal mol(-1), the exocyclic NH(2) group of cytosine is positioned for cis epoxide addition. However, adducts of (+)-BaP DE-2 with cytosine are rarely observed experimentally. The paucity of cytosine adducts, despite the predicted thermodynamic stability of this GC...(+)-BaP DE-2 complex, is attributed to the electrostatic destabilization of the benzylic cation intermediate thought to precede cis addition.

  18. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) model: applicability for investigating the immunosuppressive effects of the aquatic pollutant benzo[a]pyrene (BaP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, E A; Li, Y; Zelikoff, J T

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that BaP is a carcinogen, mammalian immunosuppressant, and ubiquitous aquatic pollutant, knowledge regarding the effects of BaP on the immune system of fish is still lacking. To begin to fill this gap, studies were conducted in medaka to examine the effects and mechanisms by which BaP exposure might alter host immunocompetence. Fish, exposed by IP injection of BaP (2-600 microg/g BW), were examined after 48 h for effects upon immune function and CYP1A expression/activity. Benzo[a]pyrene, at a concentration below that which increased levels of CYPIA expression/activity (2 microg BaP/g BW) suppressed lymphocyte proliferation. Concentrations of BaP at 20 and 200 microg/g BW. suppressed antibody-forming cell (AFC) numbers, superoxide production, and host resistance against bacteria. In contrast, exposure to the low affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist, benzo[e]pyrene (BeP), neither induced CYP1A expression nor altered immune function. Given the lack of immunosuppressive effects produced by BeP, and the fact that exposure to the AhR antagonist (and CYP1A inhibitor) alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF) ameliorated the suppressive effects of BaP upon AFC numbers, the AhR pathway (including CYP1A-mediated production of reactive BaP metabolites) appears important in mediating BaP-induced immunotoxicity in fish, as in mammals. In the past, the medaka has proven a successful model for assessing carcinogenic agents. These studies have demonstrated its utility for also determining the immunosuppressive effects of an important aquatic contaminant.

  19. Seasonal variation of benzo(a)pyrene in the Spanish airborne PM10. Multivariate linear regression model applied to estimate BaP concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callén, M S; López, J M; Mastral, A M

    2010-08-15

    The estimation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentrations in ambient air is very important from an environmental point of view especially with the introduction of the Directive 2004/107/EC and due to the carcinogenic character of this pollutant. A sampling campaign of particulate matter less or equal than 10 microns (PM10) carried out during 2008-2009 in four locations of Spain was collected to determine experimentally BaP concentrations by gas chromatography mass-spectrometry mass-spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). Multivariate linear regression models (MLRM) were used to predict BaP air concentrations in two sampling places, taking PM10 and meteorological variables as possible predictors. The model obtained with data from two sampling sites (all sites model) (R(2)=0.817, PRESS/SSY=0.183) included the significant variables like PM10, temperature, solar radiation and wind speed and was internally and externally validated. The first validation was performed by cross validation and the last one by BaP concentrations from previous campaigns carried out in Zaragoza from 2001-2004. The proposed model constitutes a first approximation to estimate BaP concentrations in urban atmospheres with very good internal prediction (Q(CV)(2)=0.813, PRESS/SSY=0.187) and with the maximal external prediction for the 2001-2002 campaign (Q(ext)(2)=0.679 and PRESS/SSY=0.321) versus the 2001-2004 campaign (Q(ext)(2)=0.551, PRESS/SSY=0.449).

  20. Enhancement of hypoxia-induced gene expression in fish liver by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Richard Man Kit; Ng, Patrick Kwok Shing; Tan, Tianfeng; Chu, Daniel Ling Ho; Wu, Rudolf Shiu Sun; Kong, Richard Yuen Chong

    2008-11-21

    Fish in polluted coastal habitats commonly suffer simultaneous exposure to both hypoxia and xenobiotics. Although the adaptive molecular responses to each stress have been described, little is known about the interaction between the signaling pathways mediating these responses. Previous studies in mammalian hepatoma cell lines have shown that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)- and/or aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-activated gene expression is suppressed following co-exposure to hypoxia and the hallmark AhR ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, whether similar crosstalk exists in the non-tumor liver tissues of fish and whether other non-TCDD ligands also play the same inhibitory role in this crosstalk remain unknown. Here, the in vivo hepatic mRNA expression profiles of multiple hypoxia- and AhR-responsive genes (later gene expression=mRNA expression of the gene) were examined in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) upon single and combined exposures to hypoxia and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Combined exposure enhanced hypoxia-induced gene expression but did not significantly alter BaP-induced gene expression. Protein carbonyl content was markedly elevated in fish subjected to combined exposure, indicating accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Application of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) to hypoxia-treated grouper liver explants similarly exaggerated hypoxia-induced gene expression as in the combined stress tissues in vivo. These observations suggest that ROS derived from the combined hypoxia and BaP stress have a role in enhancing hypoxia-induced gene expression.

  1. Uncertainty evaluation for the quantification of low masses of benzo[a]pyrene: Comparison between the Law of Propagation of Uncertainty and the Monte Carlo method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sega, Michela; Pennecchi, Francesca; Rinaldi, Sarah; Rolle, Francesca

    2016-05-12

    A proper evaluation of the uncertainty associated to the quantification of micropollutants in the environment, like Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), is crucial for the reliability of the measurement results. The present work describes a comparison between the uncertainty evaluation carried out according to the GUM uncertainty framework and the Monte Carlo (MC) method. This comparison was carried out starting from real data sets obtained from the quantification of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), spiked on filters commonly used for airborne particulate matter sampling. BaP was chosen as target analyte as it is listed in the current European legislation as marker of the carcinogenic risk for the whole class of PAHs. MC method, being useful for nonlinear models and when the resulting output distribution for the measurand is non-symmetric, can particularly fit the cases in which the results of intrinsically positive quantities are very small and the lower limit of a desired coverage interval, obtained according to the GUM uncertainty framework, can be dramatically close to zero, if not even negative. In the case under study, it was observed that the two approaches for the uncertainty evaluation provide different results for BaP masses in samples containing different masses of the analyte, MC method giving larger coverage intervals. In addition, in cases of analyte masses close to zero, the GUM uncertainty framework would give even negative lower limit of uncertainty coverage interval for the measurand, an unphysical result which is avoided when using MC method. MC simulations, indeed, can be configured in a way that only positive values are generated thus obtaining a coverage interval for the measurand that is always positive.

  2. Disturbance of Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3, Ki-67 and C-myc expression in acute and subchronic exposure to benzo(a)pyrene in cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meili; Li, Yongfei; Ji, Xiaoying; Xue, Xiaochang; Chen, Lan; Feng, Guodong; Zhang, Huqin; Wang, Huichun; Shah, Walayat; Hou, Zhanwu; Kong, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoking is an important cofactor or an independent risk factor for the development of cervical cancer. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is one of the most potent tobacco smoke carcinogens in tobacco smoke. BaP induced DNA damage and over expression in p53 cervical tissue of mice as demonstrated in our previous study. Here we present the findings of exposure to BaP on the expression of Bcl-2, C-myc, Ki-67, Caspase-3 and Bax genes in mouse cervix. Acute intraperitoneal administration of BaP (12.5, 25, 50, 100mg/kg body weight) to ICR female mice induced a significant increase in Bcl-2, C-myc, Ki-67 mRNA and protein level till 72h except in Bcl-2 at 24h with 12.5, 25, 50mg/kg as well as at 48h with 12.5mg/kg body weight post treatment. A significant increase was also seen in Caspase-3 and Bax mRNA and protein level with peak level at 24h and gradual decrease till 72h, however, the expression of caspase-3 increased while that of Bax decreased with increasing dose of Bap after 24h. In sub chronic intraperitoneal and oral gavage administration of BaP (2.5, 5, 10mg/kg body weight), similar significant increase was observed for all the examined genes as compared to the control and vehicle groups, however the expression of Bax decreased in a dose dependent manner. The findings of this study will help in further understanding the molecular mechanism of BaP induced carcinogenesis of cervical cancer.

  3. Influence of dietary Coexposure to benzo(a)pyrene on the biotransformation and distribution of 14C-methoxychlor in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyagode, Beatrice A; James, Margaret O; Kleinow, Kevin M

    2009-04-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide whose mono- and bis-demethylated metabolites, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (OH-MXC) and 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE), respectively, are estrogenic and antiandrogenic. Studies in vitro showed that treatment of channel catfish with a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon increased phase I and phase II metabolism of MXC. To determine the in vivo significance, groups of four channel catfish were treated by gavage for 6 days with 2 mg/kg (14)C-MXC alone or 2 mg/kg (14)C-MXC and 2 mg/kg benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). On day 7, blood and tissue samples were taken for analysis. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity was 10-fold higher in the BaP-treated catfish, indicating CYP1A induction. More MXC-derived radioactivity remained in control (42.8 +/- 4.1%) than BaP-induced catfish (28.5 +/- 3.2%), mean percent total dose +/- SE. Bile, muscle and fat contained approximately 90% of the radioactivity remaining in control and induced catfish. Extraction and chromatographic analysis showed that liver contained MXC, OH-MXC, HPTE, and glucuronide but not sulfate conjugates of OH-MXC and HPTE. Liver mitochondria contained more MXC, OH-MXC, and HPTE than other subcellular fractions. Bile contained glucuronides of OH-MXC and HPTE, and hydrolysis of bile gave HPTE and both enantiomers of OH-MXC. The muscle, visceral fat, brain and gonads contained MXC, OH-MXC, and HPTE in varying proportions, but no conjugates. This study showed that catfish coexposed to BaP and MXC retained less MXC and metabolites in tissues than those exposed to MXC alone, suggesting that induction enhanced the elimination of MXC, and further showed that potentially toxic metabolites of MXC were present in the edible tissues.

  4. Sensitivity analysis of biodiesel blends on Benzo[a]pyrene and main emissions using MOVES: A case study in Temuco, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino-Cortés, Ernesto; Díaz-Robles, Luis A; Cubillos, Francisco; Fu, Joshua S; Vergara-Fernández, Alberto

    2015-12-15

    Temuco is one of the most highly wood-smoke polluted cities in Chile; however, the diesel mobile sources are growing very fast in the past 10 years and so far very few studies have been done. The main goal of this research was to develop a 2013 emission inventory of criteria pollutants and Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and to evaluate the use of six biodiesel blends of 0%, 1%, 4%, 8%, 12%, and 20% by volume of fuel in diesel motors from the vehicle fleet within the mentioned areas using the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES). Input parameters for the base year 2005 were estimated to implement and adapt the model in Chile, while results of NOx, PM10, PM2.5, NH3, CO2 equivalent and SO2 were compared with the Chilean Emission Inventory estimated by the model "Methodology for the Calculation of Vehicle Emissions." The 2013 emissions reduced with respect to 2005, in the majority of the contaminants analyzed, despite the 47% increase in the annual miles traveled. Using biodiesel blends, an emission reduction was estimated at up to 15% in particulate matter, BaP, and CO for the year 2013, as well as an increment of 2% in NOx emissions, attributed to low sulfur content (50 ppm) in the diesel and the antiquity of the vehicle fleet. The results obtained gave evidence of the influence of the biodiesel use in the pollutant emissions to improve the Chilean air quality, as well as providing a strategy for this air quality management.

  5. The extreme variety of genotoxic response to benzo[a]pyrene in three different human cell lines from three different organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Genies

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are associated with occupational exposure and urban atmospheric pollution. Determination of the genotoxic properties of these compounds is thus of outmost importance. For this purpose a variety of cellular models have been widely used. Reliable results can however only be obtained with models reflecting the specific sensitivity of different organs towards PAHs. In this work, we compared the response to benzo[a]pyrene in cell lines from human lungs (A549 and bladder (T24; two important target organs for PAHs-induced cancer. Human hepatocytes (HepG2 were used as a reference, although liver is not a concern for PAHs carcinogenesis. Adducts arising from the ultimate diol-epoxide metabolite of B[a]P, BPDE, were found to be produced in a dose-dependent manner in HepG2. BPDE DNA adducts were not detected in T24 and in A549 their formation was found to be most efficient at the lowest concentration studied (0.2 µM. These results are probably explained by differences in induction and activity of phase I metabolization enzymes, as well as by proteins eliminating the B[a]P epoxide in A549. In addition to BPDE adducts, oxidative DNA damage, namely strand breaks and oxidized purines were measured and found to be produced only in minute amounts in all three cell lines. In summary, our results emphasize the large differences in the response of cells originating from different organs. Our data also point out the importance of carefully selecting the doses used in in vitro toxicological experiments. The example of A549 shows that working at high doses may lead to an underestimation of the risk. Finally, the choice of method for evaluating genotoxicity appears to be of crucial importance. The comet assay does not seem to be the best method for a compound like B[a]P which induces stable adducts causing limited oxidative damage.

  6. Formation of estrogenic metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene and chrysene by cytochrome P450 activity and their combined and supra-maximal estrogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lipzig, Marola M H; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Gusinu, Renato; Legler, Juliette; Frank, Heinz; Seidel, Albrecht; Meerman, John H N

    2005-01-01

    Metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been studied intensively, and potential metabolites with estrogenic activity have been identified previously. However, little attention has been paid to the metabolic pathways in mammalians and to the combined effect of individual metabolites. Several hydroxylated metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and chrysene (CHN) were formed by rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity, some of which possess estrogenic activity. All mono- and several dihydroxylated metabolites of BaP and CHN were tested for ER affinity and estrogenic activity in a proliferation assay (E-screen) and in a reporter-gene assay (ER-CALUX). Twelve estrogenic metabolites were identified with EC50 values ranging from 40nM to 0.15mM. The combined effect of a mixture of seven PAH-metabolites was also studied in the ER binding assay. At concentrations that show little activity themselves, their joint action clearly exhibited significant estrogenic activity. BaP itself exhibited estrogenicity in the ER-CALUX assay due to bio-activation into estrogenic metabolites, probably via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) induced CYP activity. Furthermore, 2-hydroxy-CHN (2-OHCHN) induced supra-maximal (400%) estrogenic effects in the ER-CALUX assay. This effect was entirely ER-mediated, since the response was completely blocked with the ER-antagonist ICI182,780. We showed that 2-OHCHN increased ER-concentration, using ELISA techniques, which may explain the observed supra-maximal effects. Co-treatment with the AhR-antagonist 3',4'-dimethoxyflavone (DMF) enhanced ER-signaling, possibly via blockage of AhR-ER inhibitory cross-talk.

  7. Embryotoxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]-anthracene in petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Gay, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Studies with different avian species have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 70% of the egg surface result in considerable reduction in hatching with teratogenicity and stunted growth. Other stUdies have shown that the embryo toxicity is dependent on the aromatic hydrocarbon content, further suggesting that the toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study the effects of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons identified in petroleum were examined on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) embryo development. Addition of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), chrysene, or 7,7 2-dimethylbenz[ a]anthracene (DMBA) to a synthetic petroleum hydrocarbon mixture of known composition and relatively low embryotoxicity resulted in embryo toxicity that was enhanced or equal to that of crude oil when 10 :I was applied externally to eggs at 72 h of development. The order of ability to enhance embryo toxicity was DMBA > BaP > chrysene. The temporal pattern of embryonic death was similar to that reported after exposure to crude oil, with additional mortality occurring after outgrowth of the chorioallantois. Retarded growth, as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, and bill length, was accompanied by teratogenicity. Abnormal embryos exhibited extreme stunting; eye, brain, and bill defects; and incomplete ossification. Gas chromatographic-mass spectral analysis of externally treated eggs showed the passage of aromatic hydrocarbons including chrysene through the shell and shell membranes to the developing embryos. These findings suggest that the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum, including BaP, chrysene, and DMBA, significantly enhances the overall embryotoxicity in avian species.

  8. Evaluation of the impact of wood combustion on benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) concentrations; ambient measurements and dispersion modeling in Helsinki, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellén, Heidi; Kangas, Leena; Kousa, Anu; Vestenius, Mika; Teinilä, Kimmo; Karppinen, Ari; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Niemi, Jarkko V.

    2017-03-01

    Even though emission inventories indicate that wood combustion is a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), estimating its impacts on PAH concentration in ambient air remains challenging. In this study the effect of local small-scale wood combustion on the benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) concentrations in ambient air in the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland is evaluated, using ambient air measurements, emission estimates, and dispersion modeling. The measurements were conducted at 12 different locations during the period from 2007 to 2015. The spatial distributions of annual average BaP concentrations originating from wood combustion were predicted for four of those years: 2008, 2011, 2013, and 2014. According to both the measurements and the dispersion modeling, the European Union target value for the annual average BaP concentrations (1 ng m-3) was clearly exceeded in certain suburban detached-house areas. However, in most of the other urban areas, including the center of Helsinki, the concentrations were below the target value. The measured BaP concentrations highly correlated with the measured levoglucosan concentrations in the suburban detached-house areas. In street canyons, the measured concentrations of BaP were at the same level as those in the urban background, clearly lower than those in suburban detached-house areas. The predicted annual average concentrations matched with the measured concentrations fairly well. Both the measurements and the modeling clearly indicated that wood combustion was the main local source of ambient air BaP in the Helsinki metropolitan area.

  9. Inflammatory response and blood hypercoagulable state induced by low level co-exposure with silica nanoparticles and benzo[a]pyrene in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Junchao; Yu, Yang; Li, Yang; Wang, Yapei; Sun, Zhiwei

    2016-05-01

    Given the severe situation of world-wide particulate matter air pollution, it is urgent to explore the combined effects of particulate matter components on cardiovascular system. Using zebrafish model, this study was aimed to determine whether the low level co-exposure to silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) had a pronounced cardiovascular toxicity than the single exposure to either SiNPs or B[a]P alone. The FTIR and TGA analysis showed that the co-exposure system possessed of high absorption and thermal stability. Embryos exposed to SiNPs or B[a]P alone did not show cardiac toxicity phenotype at the NOAEL level. However, embryos co-exposed to SiNPs and B[a]P exhibited pericardial edema and bradycardia. While ROS generation remained unaffected, the co-exposure induced significant neutrophil-mediated inflammation and caused erythrocyte aggregation in caudal vein of embryos. Microarray analysis and STC analysis were performed to screen the cardiovascular-related differential expression genes and the expression trend of genes in each group. The co-exposure of SiNPs and B[a]P significantly enhanced the expression of proinflammatory and procoagulant genes. Moreover, the co-exposure markedly increased the phosphorylated AP-1/c-Jun and induced TF expression, but not NF-κB p65. This study for the first time demonstrated the inflammatory response and blood hypercoagulable state were triggered by the combination of SiNPs and B[a]P at low level exposure.

  10. Effects of binary mixtures of benzo[a]pyrene, arsenic, cadmium, and lead on oxidative stress and toxicity in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Sasikumar; Peng, Cheng; Ng, Jack C

    2016-12-01

    Mixed contamination of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) is a major environmental and human health concern. The mixture toxicity data on these co-contaminants are important for their risk assessment. In this study, we have determined the mixture toxicity of As, Cd and Pb, and B[a]P with As, Cd or Pb in HepG2 cells. The binary mixtures of Cd + As, Cd + Pb and As + Pb and B[a]P + metals (B[a]P + As, B[a]P + Cd and B[a]P + Pb) were evaluated for their interaction on the cytotoxicity using the MTS assay. A full factorial design (4 × 5) was used to determine the interaction toxicity and all the six mixtures showed significant interaction on the cytotoxicity. We further investigated the role of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation) and antioxidant defense mechanism (total glutathione (GSH) level) with the observed cytotoxicity. The mixtures of metals reduced the total GSH level and increased the ROS generation, respectively. In the case of mixtures of B[a]P and metals, both total GSH level and ROS generation were increased. Overall, the binary mixtures of metals and B[a]P with metals caused a dose dependent toxicity to HepG2 cells. The results also showed a significant contribution of oxidative stress to the observed toxicity and the potential protective role of the total GSH level against this mixture toxicity. The findings of interaction between B[a]P and metals might have an impact on the potential human health risk of this mixtures at contaminated sites.

  11. Specific Language Impairment in Families: Evidence for Co-Occurrence with Reading Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Judy F.; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Hirsch, Linda S.; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bartlett, Christopher W.; Tallal, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Two family aggregation studies involving 25 children (ages 5-10) with specific language impairment (SLI) report the occurrence and co-occurrence of oral language impairments and reading impairments. Results indicate that when language impairments occur within families of SLI probands, these impairments generally co-occur with reading impairments.…

  12. Intracerebral hemorrhage and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li; Reijmer, Yael D; Charidimou, Andreas; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-05-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia are composed of cognitive deficits resulted from a range of vascular lesions and pathologies, including both ischemic and hemorrhagic. However the contribution of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage presumed due to small vessel diseases on cognitive impairment is underestimated, in contrast to the numerous studies about the role of ischemic vascular disorders on cognition. In this review we summarize recent findings from clinical studies and appropriate basic science research to better elucidate the role and possible mechanisms of intracerebral hemorrhage in cognitive impairment and dementia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock.

  13. EEG in Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The value of routine wake electroencephalography in children with specific language impairment was reviewed retrospectively in 111 children examined over a 10-year interval at Montreal Children’s Hospital, Quebec, Çanada.

  14. Hearing impairment: technological advances and insights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, A; O'Leary, S

    2008-01-01

    ... treatment or rehabilitation, resulting in functional impairment and social isolation. OBJECTIVE: This article outlines the available options and recent advances in the treatment of hearing impairment...

  15. Chemistry for the Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Judy L.

    1997-06-01

    Methods used to try to provide a valuable experience for visually impaired students in a general education or an introductory chemistry class are discussed. Modifications that can be made cheaply and with little time commitment which will allow visually impaired students to participate productively in the laboratory are examined. A conductivity tester that cost less than $4.00 to construct, is easy to assemble, very rugged, and provides a great deal of entertainment for sighted and non-sighted students is described.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL INJUSTICE AND MOBILITY IMPAIRMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cahill

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of mobility is a growth area in the social sciences.  The car system (automobility has had as one of its consequences reduced opportunities for mobility impaired people to walk in their local environment. Immobility has resulted for many people with disabilities. Despite the promotion of physical activity by public health guidance local environments are often hazardous for mobility impaired people.  In particular, there is a problem with cars parking on pavements and pavement cycling.

  17. Emotional impairment in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Hai-bo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Emotional impairment is the common complication of Parkinson's disease (PD. Depression, anxiety and apathy affect the quality of life and the prognosis of PD patients. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of emotional impairment in PD patients suggest abnormalities involving mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic pathways, but the specific mechanism needs further study. In this review we discuss the clinical manifestation, possible pathological mechanism, diagnosis and treatment in PD patients.

  18. Dystypia: isolated typing impairment without aphasia, apraxia or visuospatial impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Mika; Soma, Yoshiaki; Arihiro, Shoji; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2002-01-01

    We report a 60-year-old right-handed Japanese man who showed an isolated persistent typing impairment without aphasia, agraphia, apraxia or any other neuropsychological deficit. We coined the term 'dystypia' for this peculiar neuropsychological manifestation. The symptom was caused by an infarction in the left frontal lobe involving the foot of the second frontal convolution and the frontal operculum. The patient's typing impairment was not attributable to a disturbance of the linguistic process, since he had no aphasia or agraphia. The impairment was not attributable to the impairment of the motor execution process either, since he had no apraxia. Thus, his typing impairment was deduced to be based on a disturbance of the intermediate process where the linguistic phonological information is converted into the corresponding performance. We hypothesized that there is a specific process for typing which branches from the motor programming process presented in neurolinguistic models. The foot of the left second frontal convolution and the operculum may play an important role in the manifestation of 'dystypia'.

  19. Gadobutrol in Renally Impaired Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaely, Henrik J.; Aschauer, Manuela; Deutschmann, Hannes; Bongartz, Georg; Gutberlet, Matthias; Woitek, Ramona; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Kucharczyk, Walter; Hammerstingl, Renate; De Cobelli, Francesco; Rosenberg, Martin; Balzer, Thomas; Endrikat, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the potential risk of gadobutrol-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment for the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). Materials and Methods We performed a prospective, international, multicenter, open-label study in 55 centers. Patients with moderate to severe renal impairment scheduled for any gadobutrol-enhanced MRI were included. All patients received a single intravenous bolus injection of gadobutrol at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight. The primary target variable was the number of patients who develop NSF within a 2-year follow-up period. Results A total of 908 patients were enrolled, including 586 with moderate and 284 with severe renal impairment who are at highest risk for developing NSF. The mean time since renal disease diagnosis was 1.83 and 5.49 years in the moderate and severe renal impairment cohort, respectively. Overall, 184 patients (20.3%) underwent further contrast-enhanced MRI with other gadolinium-based contrast agents within the 2-year follow-up. No patient developed symptoms conclusive of NSF. Conclusions No safety concerns with gadobutrol in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment were identified. There were no NSF cases. PMID:27529464

  20. Oxidative Damage to Nucleic Acids and Benzo(apyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA Adducts and Chromosomal Aberration in Children with Psoriasis Repeatedly Exposed to Crude Coal Tar Ointment and UV Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Borska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a prospective cohort study. Observed group was formed of children with plaque psoriasis (n=19 treated by Goeckerman therapy (GT. The study describes adverse (side effects associated with application of GT (combined exposure of 3% crude coal tar ointment and UV radiation. After GT we found significantly increased markers of oxidative stress (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, 8-hydroxyguanosine, and 8-hydroxyguanine, significantly increased levels of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE DNA adducts (BPDE-DNA, and significantly increased levels of total number of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes. We found significant relationship between (1 time of UV exposure and total number of aberrated cells and (2 daily topical application of 3% crude coal tar ointment (% of body surface and level of BPDE-DNA adducts. The findings indicated increased hazard of oxidative stress and genotoxic effects related to the treatment. However, it must be noted that the oxidized guanine species and BPDE-DNA adducts also reflect individual variations in metabolic enzyme activity (different extent of bioactivation of benzo[a]pyrene to BPDE and overall efficiency of DNA/RNA repair system. The study confirmed good effectiveness of the GT (significantly decreased PASI score.

  1. Molecular modelling of cytochrome CYP1A1: a putative access channel explains differences in induction potency between the isomers benzo(a)pyrene and benzo(e)pyrene, and 2- and 4-acetylaminofluorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D F; Ioannides, C; Parke, D V

    1994-05-01

    The present studies were undertaken to provide a rationale for the observation that benzo(a)pyrene and 2-acetylaminofluorene induce the hepatic CYP1A1 protein, whereas their non-carcinogenic isomers benzo(e)pyrene and 4-acetylaminofluorene are, at best, relatively very weak inducers. Using amino acid sequence alignment, a molecular model of the CYP1A1 was constructed by analogy to CYP101, the bacterial protein for which the 3-dimensional structure is known from X-ray crystallographic analysis. The putative structure of the active site of the CYP1A1 protein shows the presence of two phenylalanine residues preferentially aligned in parallel orientation, presumably functioning as a 'sieve' for planar molecules, the established substrates of CYP1A1. The molecular dimensions of this putative access channel show a width and depth of 8.321 and 3.261 A, respectively. The width of 4-acetylaminofluorene, 8.794 A, and benzo(e)pyrene, 9.153 A, precludes their passage through this channel access in contrast to benzo(a)pyrene and 2-acetylaminofluorene having a width of 7.150 and 5.283 A, respectively, explaining their difference in CYP1A1 induction potential.

  2. Serum Level of Antibodies (IgG, IgM Against Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-DNA Adducts in Children Dermatologically Exposed to Coal Tar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Borský

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Crude coal tar (CCT contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP is metabolized into a highly reactive metabolite benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE that is able to bind to DNA and creates BPDE-DNA adducts. Adducted DNA becomes immunogenic and induces immune response by production of antibodies against BPDE-DNA adducts (Ab-BPDE-DNA. Circulating Ab-BPDE-DNA was proposed as potential biomarker of genotoxic exposure to BaP (PAHs. Goeckerman therapy (GT of psoriasis uses dermal application of CCT ointment (PAHs. In presented study (children with psoriasis treated by GT; n = 19 the therapy significantly increased the level of Ab-BPDE-DNA (EI = 0.29/0.19–0.34 vs. 0.31/0.25–0.40; median/lower–upper quartile; p < 0.01. The results support the idea of Ab-BPDE-DNA level as a possible tentative indicator of exposure, effects and susceptibility of the organism to the exposure of BaP (PAHs.

  3. Piperonyl butoxide enhances the bioconcentration and photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene to larvae of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, John E; Garner, Thomas R

    2008-04-08

    Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) is a commonly used synergist in many pyrethroid formulations due to its ability to interfere with cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases. Because PBO can co-occur in the estuarine environment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of compounds metabolized by CYP isozymes, the overall objective of this study was to investigate the influence of PBO on the bioconcentration and photoinduced toxicity of two common PAH contaminants, fluoranthene (FLU) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), on the larvae of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). PBO alone was not particularly toxic to grass shrimp larvae. In dark exposures and under simulated sunlight (UV-A=211.0+/-7.0 microW/cm(2), UV-B=9.8+/-2.4microW/cm(2)), 96-h LC(50) values were similar (814.4 and 888.6 microg/L, respectively), suggesting that PBO toxicity is not enhanced in the presence of sunlight. The presence of sublethal concentrations of PBO in single PAH toxicity tests increased the bioconcentration of the two tested PAHs, and these increases were greatest at the lowest tested PAH concentrations. Mean bioconcentration factors (BCF) at the three lowest FLU and BaP treatments increased 14.3- and 7.1-fold, respectively, in the low PBO (127 microg/L) exposure compared to that of the no PBO exposure. Under simulated sunlight, PBO exposure also increased the photoinduced toxicity of the two tested PAHs, and this increase occurred in a PBO concentration-dependent fashion. For FLU, 96-h LC(50) values decreased from 2.35 microg/L in the absence of PBO to 0.76 microg/L in the high PBO (256 microg/L) exposure. For BaP, 96-h LC(50) values similarly decreased from 1.02 microg/L in the absence of PBO to 0.30microg/L in the high PBO exposure. The presence of PBO also influenced the PAH tissue residue-response relationship, but in different ways for FLU and BaP. For FLU, slopes of the tissue residue-response relationship decreased in the presence of PBO, and for BaP, there was a trend towards

  4. Effects of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and benzo[a]pyrene on modulating vitellogenin expression in primary culture of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yong; C. K. C. Wong; XU Ying; M. H. Wong

    2004-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) is the precursor of yolk protein. Its expression and secretion are estrogen-regulated and are crucial for oocyte maturation. An in vitro xenoestrogen screening model was established by measuring Vtg induction in cultured primary hepatocytes from crucian carp. Vtg production was detected by biotin-avidin sandwich ELISA method while Vtg and cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) mRNA induction were measured by semi- quantitative PCR-primer dropping technique. Vtg and Vtg mRNA were dose-dependently induced by diethylstilbestrol (DES, 0.2-200 ng/mL) in hepatocytes of crucian carp. Co-treatment of the DES-induced hepatocytes with either 2,3,7,8-TCDD (TCDD, 0.1-4 pg/mL) or benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P, 5-1000 ng/mL) resulted in a reduction of Vtg production and an increment of CYP1A1 mRNA expression both in a dose dependent manner, indicating the anti-estro-genic effects of the compounds. However, at lower tested concentrations, TCDD (0.1, 0.2 pg/mL), B[a]P (5 ng/mL) seemed to have a potentiating effect on Vtg expression and secretion, although by their own these compounds had no observable estrogenic effect on Vtg induction. Tamoxifen (a selective estrogen receptor modulators, 1 nmol/L-1 μmol/L), and β-naphtho-flavone (β-NF, an aryl hydrocarbon receptor inducing compounds, 2.5-1000 ng/mL) also were employed to study the possible interactions in DES-induced Vtg expression. In co-treatment of the DES-induced hepatocytes with β-NF or tamoxifen, the decrease in Vtg production did parallel induction of CYP1A1 for β-NF, but tamoxifen inhibited Vtg induction did not parallel induced CYP1A1 expression in all test concentrations. On the contrary, it was found that in co-treatment of the TCDD-induced hepatocytes with DES, TCDD induced CYP1A1 mRNA production was inhibited by DES also. These results implicated a possible cross talk between estrogen receptor- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathways in the hepatocytes.

  5. Levels of benzo(a)pyrene in oil shale industry wastes, some bodies of water in the Estonian S.S.R. and in water organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldre, I A; Itra, A R; Paalme, L P

    1979-06-01

    Data on the content of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in oil shale industry wastewater, the effectiveness of various effluent treatment processes (evaporation, extraction with butyl acetate, trickling filters, aeration tanks) in reducing the level of BP in oil shale wastewater, the level of BP in various bodies of water of Estonia, and in fish and other water organisms are reviewed. The quantitative determination of BP in concentrated diethyl ether extracts of water samples was carried out by ultraviolet and spectroluminescence procedures by use of the quasi-linear spectra at -196 degrees C in solid paraffins. It has been found that oil shale industry wastewater contains large amounts of BP. The most efficient purification process for removing the BP in oil shale industry phenol water is extraction with butyl acetate. The level of BP in the rivers of the oil shale industry area is comparatively higher than in other bodies of water of the Republic. The concentration of BP in the lakes of the Estonian S.S.R. is on the whole insignificant. Even the maximum concentration found in our lakes is as a rule less than the safety limit for BP in bodies of water (0.005 microgram/l). During water is treated at the waterworks. The effectiveness of the water treatment in reducing the level of BP varies from 11 to 88%. Filtration was found to be the most effective treatment. About 20 samples of fish from nine bodies of water in Estonia have been analyzed for content of BP. The average content of BP in the muscular tissue of various species of fish is as a rule less than 1 microgram/kg. There is no significant difference in the concentration of BP in sea and freshwater fish. There is no important difference in the content of BP in the organs of various fish. Fat fish contain more BP than lean ones. The weight (age) of fish does not influence the content of BP in the muscular tissue of fish.

  6. Induction and recovery of morphofunctional changes in the intestine of juvenile carnivorous fish (Epinephelus coioides) upon exposure to foodborne benzo[a]pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuen, Bonny B.H. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Wong, Chris K.C. [Department of Biology, Baptist University of Hong Kong, Waterloo Road, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Woo, N.Y.S. [Department of Biology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territory, Hong Kong (China); Au, Doris W.T. [Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: bhdwtau@cityu.edu.hk

    2007-05-15

    The sublethal toxicity of dietary benzo[a]pyrene, B[a]P, on fish growth and intestinal morphofunctional changes [as measured by epithelial turnover, cell proliferation, hyperplasia, de novo crypt formation and protein absorption efficiency (i.e. expression of proton/peptide co-transporter, PepT-1, on the mucosal brush border)] were studied for the carnivorous orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Juvenile fish were force-fed daily with pellets containing environmentally realistic concentrations of B[a]P (dissolved in corn oil) at 0.25 {mu}g/g body weight (low-dose) and 12.5 {mu}g/g body weight (high-dose) for 4 weeks, followed by a control diet for a further 4 weeks to assess recovery. Although growth inhibition was observed in fish treated with high-dose B[a]P during the exposure period, no mortality was observed throughout the 8-week experiment. Significant hyperplasia of basal enterocytes of mucosal folds was detected shortly after 3-day exposure to the high-dose B[a]P. Moreover, a faster epithelial turnover was measured in the high-dose B[a]P exposed fish at exposure week 1, which was followed by an increase of basal cell proliferation and a reduction of PepT-1 expression at exposure week 2. The formation of de novo crypts, resemblance to the cancer predisposition syndrome 'juvenile polyposis', was significantly higher in the intestine of high-dose treated fish as compared to the control at exposure week 2 and onwards. Abnormal cytoplasmic extrusions were frequently observed in mucosal folds of high-dose fish at exposure week 4. In the low-dose treatment group, only the expression of PepT-1 was significantly reduced at exposure week 2 and an early adaptive response was observed at exposure week 4. Despite all these intestinal disturbances were reversible in fish upon the abatement to dietary B[a]P (within 1-4 weeks), environmental realistic levels of foodborne B[a]P could induce sublethal toxicity to E. coioides, and probably impose potential

  7. CYP1B1 mRNA inducibility due to benzo(a)pyrene is modified by the CYP1B1 L432V gene polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmig, Simone; Wenzel, Sibylle; Maxeiner, Hagen; Schneider, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a primary component of tobacco smoke, is activated by cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1). Smokers homozygous for the C-allele (*1/*1) at the CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism have shown increased CYP1B1 expression, compared to smokers homozygous for the G-allele *3/*3. Since no difference has been shown in CYP1B1 expression between both genotypes in non-smokers, we assumed that the genetic impact is produced in combination with an exogenous induction (e.g. BaP). To confirm this theory and to quantify the effect, we induced human leucocytes with increasing BaP concentrations and determined CYP1B1 mRNA expression with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We incubated human leucocytes from 27 healthy donors with BaP concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 250 µM. We identified the CYP1B1 genotypes by melting curve analysis and assessed relative CYP1B1 mRNA expression using real-time PCR. Expression was related to β-2-microglobulin with the 2(-ΔΔCT) method. Inducibility of CYP1B1 mRNA by BaP was higher in leucocytes carrying the CYP1B1*1/*1 genotype than in leucocytes carrying the CYP1B1*3/*3 genotype (P = 0.012). We revealed significant differences, with BaP concentrations of 2.5 µM (P = 0.0094), 5 µM (P = 0.027), 10 µM (P = 0.0006), 25 µM (P = 0.0007) and 50 µM (P = 0.017). Homozygous carriers of the C-allele (*1/*1) at the CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism show a higher response to environmental factors, such as carcinogenic BaP, than homozygous carriers of the G-allele *3/*3.

  8. Effects of light on the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of benzo(a)pyrene and an oil refinery effluent in the newt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, M.; l`Haridon, J. [Universite Paul-Sabatier, Toulouse (France)

    1994-12-31

    The genotoxicity and/or toxicity of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were evaluated under different lighting conditions in larvae and embryos of the newt Pleurodeles waltl. Visible light alone, UVA alone, or BaP alone had no toxic effects on the larvae. Conversely, toxic effects were observed in animals exposed to BaP + daylight, or BaP + UVA. The genotoxicity of BaP (50 ppb) was halved by its previous exposure to UVA, and was abolished at the lowest concentration (12.5 ppb). In other experiments, the larvae were exposed alternatively to BaP or Irr BaP (18 hours in dark) and UVA (6 hr in water), every day for 8 days. All animals that had accumulated non-irradiated BaP (50 ppb) showed signs of severe toxicity, and 90% died before the end of the test. On the other hand, irradiated BaP (50 ppb) was a 4-fold less toxic and half as genotoxic as non-irradiated BaP. In addition, exposure of the animals to UVA alone for 4 days prior to treatment with BaP did not affect the genotoxicity or toxicity of this hydrocarbon. In the dark, the embryotoxicity of BaP was markedly attenuated by the presence of the jelly coats. Although UVA alone did not affect growth of the embryos, the toxicity of BaP was enhanced by the combined action of the two agents together or in succession (BaP + UVA or BaP then UVA). Larvae were treated with an oil refinery effluent (EF). At 125 ml/l, EF was not found to be genotoxic in the dark. However, in animals exposed to both EF and UVA, there was a progressive increase in level of micronucleated erythrocytes with increasing duration of daily exposure to UVA. Moreover, the genotoxic potential of irradiated EF + UVA was systematically below that of non-irradiated EF + UVA for all durations of exposure to ultraviolet light. Irradiation of this type of effluent might help reduce its harmful effects on aquatic species. Our results also suggest that metabolic activation is not necessary for hydrocarbons to induce toxic effects. 51 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  9. DNA adducts, benzo(a)pyrene monooxygenase activity, and lysosomal membrane stability in Mytilus galloprovincialis from different areas in Taranto coastal waters (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisoni, M; Cogotzi, L; Frigeri, A; Corsi, I; Bonacci, S; Iacocca, A; Lancini, L; Mastrototaro, F; Focardi, S; Svelto, M

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of environmental pollution at different stations along the Taranto coastline (Ionian Sea, Puglia, Italy) using several biomarkers of exposure and the effect on mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected in October 2001 and October 2002. Five sampling sites were compared with a "cleaner" reference site in the Aeronautics Area. In this study we also investigated the differences between adduct levels in gills and digestive gland. This Taranto area is the most significant industrial settlement on the Ionian Sea known to be contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, heavy metals, etc. Exposure to PAHs was evaluated by measuring DNA adduct levels and benzo(a)pyrene monooxygenase activity (B(a)PMO); DNA adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabeling with nuclease P1 enhancement in both gills and digestive glands to evaluate differences between DNA adduct levels in the two tissues. B(a)PMO was assayed in the microsomal fraction of the digestive glands as a result of the high expression of P450-metabolizing enzymes in this tissue. Lysosomal membrane stability, a potential biomarker of anthropogenic stress, was also evaluated in the digestive glands of mussels, by measuring the latent activity of beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase. Induction of DNA adducts was evident in both tissues, although the results revealed large tissue differences in DNA adduct formation. In fact, gills showed higher DNA adduct levels than did digestive gland. No significant differences were found in DNA adduct levels over time, with both tissues providing similar results in both years. DNA adduct levels were correlated with B(a)PMO activity in digestive gland in both years (r = 0.60 in 2001; r = 0.73 in 2002). Increases were observed in B(a)PMO activity and DNA adduct levels at different stations; no statistical difference was observed in B(a)PMO activity over the two monitoring campaigns. The membrane labilization

  10. Language Impairment and Generative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Stopar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with different types of language impairment from the perspective of generative grammar. The paper focuses on syntactic deficiencies observed in aphasic and SLI (specific language impairment patients. We show that the observed ungrammatical structures do not appear in a random fashion but can be predicted by that theory of universal sentence structure which posits a strict hierarchy of its constituent parts. The article shows that while the hierarchically lower elements remain unaffected, the higher positions in the hierarchy show various degrees of syntactic impairment. The paper supports the implementation of recent developments in the field of generative grammar with the intention of encouraging further theoretical, experimental and therapeutic research in the field.

  11. [Functional impairment associated with cognitive impairment in hospitalised elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Chaparro, José Mauricio; Mosquera-Jiménez, José Ignacio; Davis, Annabelle S; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A

    2017-06-24

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of cognitive impairment on functional decline in hospitalised patients aged ≥60 years. Measurements at admission included demographic data, Charlson's comorbidity index, and cognitive impairment (according to education level). Data were also collected on hospital length of stay, depression, and delirium developed during hospitalisation. The outcome, Barthel Index (BI), was measured at admission, discharge, and 1-month post-discharge. Patients with BI≤75 at admission (n=54) or with a missing BI value were excluded (n=1). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore predictive factors with functional decline (BI≤75) from admission to discharge, and 1-month later. Of the 133 patients included, 24.8% and 19.6% had a BI≤75 at discharge and at 1-month, respectively. Compared with men, women had more than double risk for functional decline at discharge and 1-month (P<.05). Compared with those without delirium and without cognitive impairment, those with delirium and cognitive impairment had an increased risk for functional decline (BI≤75) at discharge (OR 5.15, 95% CI; 1.94-13.67), and at 1-month (OR 6.26, 95% CI; 2.30-17.03). Similarly, those with comorbidity (≥2) had increased functional decline at discharge (OR 2.36, 95% CI; 1.14-4.87), and at 1-month after discharge (OR 2.71, 95% CI; 1.25-5.89). Delirium during hospitalisation, together with cognitive impairment on admission, was a strong predictor of functional decline. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Etesam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment can emerge in the earliest phases of multiple sclerosis. It strongly impacts different aspects of Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients' lives, like employment, social relationships and the overall quality of life; thus, its on-time recognition and treatment is mandatory. This paper discusses issues, diagnostic methods and treatment options for cognitive dysfunctions in MS. This paper is a descriptive review of the related studies in the recent 10 years, performing a keyword search in the main databases4T. Cognitive impairment mostly involves aspects of information processing, memory and executive functioning in MS. Neuropsychological tests like MACFIMS and BRB-N are recommended for its assessment. Still, there is no fully efficient treatment for cognitive impairment. Researchers have shown some positive effects, using disease-modifying therapies and cognitive rehabilitation. Depression, pain, fatigue and other factors influencing cognitive functions must be paid attention to4T. Recognizing cognitive impairment as a major symptom for MS, makes studying this subject one of the priorities in dealing with the disease. Therefore, a consecutive research for identification and management of this part of quality of life in MS patients is obligatory4T.4T

  13. Oceanography for the Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Amy Bower is a physical oceanographer and senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts--she has also been legally blind for 14 years. Through her partnership with the Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts, the oldest K-12 school for the visually impaired in the United States,…

  14. Parkinson's Disease and Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Tang, Bei-Sha; Guo, Ji-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease primarily characterized by the hallmarks of motor symptoms, such as tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability. However, through clinical investigations in patients and experimental findings in animal models of Parkinson's disease for years, it is now well recognized that Parkinson's disease is more than just a motor-deficit disorder. The majority of Parkinson's disease patients suffer from nonmotor disabilities, for instance, cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, sensory dysfunction, and sleep disorder. So far, anti-PD prescriptions and surgical treatments have been mainly focusing on motor dysfunctions, leaving cognitive impairment a marginal clinical field. Within the nonmotor symptoms, cognitive impairment is one of the most common and significant aspects of Parkinson's disease, and cognitive deficits such as dysexecutive syndrome and visuospatial disturbances could seriously affect the quality of life, reduce life expectancy, prolong the duration of hospitalization, and therefore increase burdens of caregiver and medical costs. In this review, we have done a retrospective study of the recent related researches on epidemiology, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, genetics, and potential treatment of cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease, aiming to provide a summary of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease and make it easy for clinicians to tackle this challenging issue in their future practice.

  15. Assessment of the Visually Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Joan B.

    1985-01-01

    Assessment of visually impaired students is traced historically, and current practices in visual functioning, movement and spatial awareness, cognition, tactile performance, and emotional/social development are noted. Federal requirements for assessment are discussed and recommended assessment practices for six major assessment domains are listed.…

  16. Language Impairment in Cerebellar Ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gaalen, Judith; de Swart, Bert J. M.; Oostveen, Judith; Knuijt, Simone; van de Warrenburg, Bart P. C.; Kremer, Berry (H. ) P. H.

    Background: Several studies have suggested that language impairment can be observed in patients with cerebellar pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate language performance in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). Methods: We assessed speech and language in 29 SCA6 patients

  17. Specificity of specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GoorhuisBrouwer, SM; WijnbergWilliams, BJ

    1996-01-01

    In children with specific language impairment (SLI) their problems are supposed to be specifically restricted to language. However, both on a theoretical basis as well as on a practical basis it is often difficult to make a sharp distinction between specific and nonspecific language disorders. In a

  18. Language Impairment in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Ann Virginia

    Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…

  19. Parkinson's Disease and Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bei-sha

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease primarily characterized by the hallmarks of motor symptoms, such as tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability. However, through clinical investigations in patients and experimental findings in animal models of Parkinson's disease for years, it is now well recognized that Parkinson's disease is more than just a motor-deficit disorder. The majority of Parkinson's disease patients suffer from nonmotor disabilities, for instance, cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, sensory dysfunction, and sleep disorder. So far, anti-PD prescriptions and surgical treatments have been mainly focusing on motor dysfunctions, leaving cognitive impairment a marginal clinical field. Within the nonmotor symptoms, cognitive impairment is one of the most common and significant aspects of Parkinson's disease, and cognitive deficits such as dysexecutive syndrome and visuospatial disturbances could seriously affect the quality of life, reduce life expectancy, prolong the duration of hospitalization, and therefore increase burdens of caregiver and medical costs. In this review, we have done a retrospective study of the recent related researches on epidemiology, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, genetics, and potential treatment of cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease, aiming to provide a summary of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease and make it easy for clinicians to tackle this challenging issue in their future practice. PMID:28058128

  20. Electrophysiology in visually impaired children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, Maria Michielde van

    2006-01-01

    Inherited retinal disorders and posterior visual pathway abnormalities are important causes of visual impairment in children. Visual electrophysiology often is indispensable in diagnosing these conditions. This thesis shows the wide range of use of pediatric electro-ophthalmology, and demonstrates i

  1. Language Impairment in Cerebellar Ataxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gaalen, Judith; de Swart, Bert J. M.; Oostveen, Judith; Knuijt, Simone; van de Warrenburg, Bart P. C.; Kremer, Berry (H. ) P. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies have suggested that language impairment can be observed in patients with cerebellar pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate language performance in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). Methods: We assessed speech and language in 29 SCA6 patients

  2. Oceanography for the Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Amy Bower is a physical oceanographer and senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts--she has also been legally blind for 14 years. Through her partnership with the Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts, the oldest K-12 school for the visually impaired in the United States,…

  3. Jumping the gun: Smoking constituent BaP causes premature primordial follicle activation and impairs oocyte fusibility through oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobinoff, A.P.; Pye, V. [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia); Nixon, B.; Roman, S.D. [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology and Development, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia); McLaughlin, E.A., E-mail: eileen.mclaughlin@newcastle.edu.au [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology and Development, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia)

    2012-04-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is an ovotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke associated with pre-mature ovarian failure and decreased rates of conception in IVF patients. Although the overall effect of BaP on female fertility has been documented, the exact molecular mechanisms behind its ovotoxicity remain elusive. In this study we examined the effects of BaP exposure on the ovarian transcriptome, and observed the effects of in vivo exposure on oocyte dysfunction. Microarray analysis of BaP cultured neonatal ovaries revealed a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving a small cohort of genes associated with follicular growth, cell cycle progression, and cell death. Histomorphological and immunohistochemical analysis supported these results, with BaP exposure causing increased primordial follicle activation and developing follicle atresia in vitro and in vivo. Functional analysis of oocytes obtained from adult Swiss mice treated neonatally revealed significantly increased levels of mitochondrial ROS/lipid peroxidation, and severely reduced sperm-egg binding and fusion in both low (1.5 mg/kg/daily) and high (3 mg/kg/daily) dose treatments. Our results reveal a complex mechanism of BaP induced ovotoxicity involving developing follicle atresia and accelerated primordial follicle activation, and suggest short term neonatal BaP exposure causes mitochondrial leakage resulting in reduced oolemma fluidity and impaired fertilisation in adulthood. This study highlights BaP as a key compound which may be partially responsible for the documented effects of cigarette smoke on follicular development and sub-fertility. -- Highlights: ► BaP exposure up-regulates canonical pathways linked with follicular growth/atresia. ► BaP causes primordial follicle activation and developing follicle atresia. ► BaP causes oocyte mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation, impairing fertilisation. ► Short term neonatal BaP exposure compromises adult oocyte quality.

  4. Perioperative care of the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, F

    1991-07-01

    Eighty-three per cent of sensory input is received optically. Sight impaired patients thus experience substantial sensory deficit, so nursing any visually impaired patient through surgery requires special considerations.

  5. Impaired sleep and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Understanding the mechanisms linking sleep impairment to morbidity and mortality is important for future prevention, but these mechanisms are far from elucidated. We aimed to determine the relation between impaired sleep, both in terms of duration and disturbed sleep, and allostatic load...... Biobank with comprehensive information on sleep duration, disturbed sleep, objective measures of an extensive range of biological risk markers, and physical conditions. Results: Long sleep (mean difference 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13, 0.32) and disturbed sleep (0.14; 0.06, 0.22) were associated...... with higher AL as well as with high-risk levels of risk markers from the anthropometric, metabolic, and immune system. Sub-analyses suggested that the association between disturbed sleep and AL might be explained by underlying disorders. Whereas there was no association between short sleep and AL...

  6. Impaired sleep and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Understanding the mechanisms linking sleep impairment to morbidity and mortality is important for future prevention, but these mechanisms are far from elucidated. We aimed to determine the relation between impaired sleep, both in terms of duration and disturbed sleep, and allostatic load...... Biobank with comprehensive information on sleep duration, disturbed sleep, objective measures of an extensive range of biological risk markers, and physical conditions. Results: Long sleep (mean difference 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13, 0.32) and disturbed sleep (0.14; 0.06, 0.22) were associated...... with higher AL as well as with high-risk levels of risk markers from the anthropometric, metabolic, and immune system. Sub-analyses suggested that the association between disturbed sleep and AL might be explained by underlying disorders. Whereas there was no association between short sleep and AL...

  7. Relevance theory and pragmatic impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, E; Kerbel, D

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes aspects of relevance theory that are useful for exploring impairment of pragmatic comprehension in children. It explores data from three children with pragmatic language difficulties within this framework. Relevance theory is seen to provide a means of explaining why, in a given context, a particular utterance is problematic. It thus enables one to move on from mere description of problematic behaviours towards their explanation. The theory provides a clearer delineation between the explicit and the implicit, and hence between semantics and pragmatics. This enables one to place certain difficulties more firmly within semantics and others within pragmatics. Relevance, and its maximization in communication, are squarely placed within human cognition, which suggests a close connection between pragmatic and cognitive (dis)functioning. Relevance theory thus emerges as a powerful tool in the exploration and understanding of pragmatic language difficulties in children and offers therapeutically valuable insight into the nature of interactions involving individuals with such impairments.

  8. Visual Impairment Due to Lissencephaly

    OpenAIRE

    Marqués-Fernández, V. E.; Sánchez-Tocino, H.; Escudero-Caro, M.T.; Cancho-Candela, R.; García-Zamora, M.

    2016-01-01

    Lissencephaly is a rare disorder due to abnormal neural migration, causing neurological impairment and clinically characterised by mental retardation and epilepsy. Any disturbance of the visual pathway can cause loss of vision. The authors describe a case of a 6-year-old boy referred to the ophthalmologist presenting poor bilateral vision. This child had no other known medical conditions, and neurological examination was completely normal. Only when a magnetic resonance imaging was made that ...

  9. Diagnosis advances in vascular cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Zhou; Zhong Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment(VCI) encompasses the entire range of cognitive deficits associated with cerebrovascular disease(CVD), from mild deficits with little or no functional impairment, such as vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia(VCIND), to full-blown vascular dementia(VaD). Accurate diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment is important but may be difficult. In this review we report advances in VCI in the following areas: etiology, subtypes, neuropsychology, biomarkers, neuroimaging, and diagnostic criteria.

  10. Mandatory notification of impaired doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, R G

    2014-12-01

    Mandatory reporting of impaired doctors is compulsory in Australasia. Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency guidelines for notification claim high benchmark though the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and the Royal Australasian College of Physicians suggest they still obstruct doctors seeking help. Western Australia excludes mandatory reporting of practitioner-patients. This study examines reporting, consequences and international experiences with notification. Depressed doctors avoid diagnosis and treatment, fearing consequences, yet are more prone to marital problems, substance dependence and needing psychotherapy. South African research confirms isolation of impaired doctors and delayed seeking help with definable characteristics of those at risk. New Zealand data acknowledge: errors occur; questionable contribution from mandatory reporting; issues concerning competence assessment; favouring reporting to senior colleagues or self-intervention to compliance with mandatory reporting. UK found an anaesthetist guilty of professional misconduct for not reporting and sanctioned doctors regarding Harold Shipman. Australians are reluctant to report, fearing legalistic intrusion into care. Australian research confirmed definable characteristics for doctors with psychiatric illness or alcohol abuse. Exposure to legal medicine evokes personal disenchantment for doctors involved. Medicine poses barriers for impaired doctors. Spanish and UK doctors do not use general practitioners and may have suboptimal care. US and European doctors self-medicate using samples. US drug-dependent doctors also prescribe for spouses. Junior doctors are losing empathy with the profession. UK doctors favour private care, avoiding public scrutiny. NZ and Brazil created specific services for doctors, which appear effective. Mandatory reporting may be counterproductive requiring reappraisal.

  11. Cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latalova, Klara; Prasko, Jan; Diveky, Tomas; Velartova, Hana

    2011-03-01

    Provide an overview of how bipolar disorder affects cognitive function in patients. MEDLINE and PsycInfo data bases were searched for articles indexed by the combinations of MESH term or key word "bipolar disorder" with the following terms: "cognition", "memory", "neuropsychology", "neuropsychological tests", "lithium", "anticonvulsants", "antipsychotics", and "schizophrenia". Constraints limiting time period of publications or their language were not applied. Reference lists of publications identified by these procedures were hand-searched for additional relevant citations. There is evidence of stable and lasting cognitive impairment in all phases of bipolar disorder, including the remission phase, particularly in the following domains: sustained attention, memory and executive functions. But research on the cognitive functions has yielded inconsistent results over recent years. There is a growing need for clarification regarding the magnitude, clinical relevance and confounding variables of cognitive impairment in bipolar patients. The impact of bipolar illness on cognition can be influenced by age of onset, pharmacological treatments, individual response, familial risk factors, and clinical features. In addition to the mood state, cognitive performance in bipolar patients is influenced by seasonality. Previous optimistic assumptions about the prognosis of bipolar disorder were based on the success of the control of mood symptoms by pharmacotherapy. However, it is now clear that the "remitted" euthymic bipolar patients have distinct impairments of executive function, verbal memory, psychomotor speed, and sustained attention. Mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics may reduce cognitive deficits in certain domains and may have a positive effect on quality of life and social functioning.

  12. Inferential Functioning in Visually Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche-Navarro, Rebeca; Millan, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The current study explores the inferential abilities of visually impaired children in a task presented in two formats, manipulative and verbal. The results showed that in the group of visually impaired children, just as with children with normal sight, there was a wide range of inference types. It was found that the visually impaired children…

  13. The triad of impairment in autism revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashin, Andrew; Sci, Dip App; Barker, Philip

    2009-11-01

    The triad of impairment referred to at present in the autism-related literature is a behavioral triad. This paper extends this thinking of the triad of impairment to the triad that underlies the behavioral manifestation. The real triad of impairment. This paper considers the thinking and information processing style of autism and takes the next transitional step in understanding the triad of impairment. Contemporary literature on autism and information processing. Exceptional pioneering work in the late 1970s gave rise to the concept of the triad of impairments as the central plank of the construct of autism: impaired communication; impaired social skills; and a restricted and repetitive way of being-in-the-world. This clear articulation of the structures of the phenomena allowed a new way for professionals and families to see and understand autism, and to relate to those with autism. Like the evolution of many concepts, this was a transitional idea. The original triad of impairments described the behavioral manifestation; the actual triad of impairments is at the level of cognitive processing. The actual triad of impairment is static and ubiquitous unlike the variable and fluctuating behavioral manifestation. The actual triad of impairment in autism is visual as opposed to linguistic processing, impaired abstraction, and lack of theory of mind. The actual triad is central to all diagnosis that together makes up the autism spectrum.

  14. Familial Aggregation in Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallal, Paula; Hirsch, Linda S.; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Miller, Steve; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bartlett, Christopher; Flax, Judy F.

    2001-01-01

    A case-control family study design examined the current language-related abilities of all biological, primary relatives of probands (N=22) with specific language impairment (SLI) and of matched controls. Impairment rates for family members of SLI probands was significantly higher than for controls. Also, impairment rates estimated from a family…

  15. Communication Skills and Learning in Impaired Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliöz, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the communication skills of individuals with different disabilities with athletes and sedentary people and to examine their learning abilities which influence the development of communication. A total of 159 male subjects 31 sedentary, 30 visually impaired, 27 hearing impaired, 40 physically impaired and 31…

  16. Isometric Exercise Training for Managing Vascular Risk Factors in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Nicole C. L.; Smart, Neil A.

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia diagnosed amongst the elderly. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a condition often indicative of the earliest symptomatology of AD with 10%–15% of MCI patients reportedly progressing to a diagnosis of AD. Individuals with a history of vascular risk factors (VRF’s) are considered high risk candidates for developing cognitive impairment in later life. Evidence suggests that vascular injury resulting from untreated VRF’s promotes progression from MCI to AD and exacerbates the severity of dementia in AD, and neuroimaging studies have found that the neurodegenerative processes associated with AD are heavily driven by VRF’s that promote cerebral hypoperfusion. Subsequently, common links between vascular disorders such as hypertension and neurodegenerative disorders such as AD include compromised vasculature, cerebral hypoperfusion and chronic low grade inflammation (a hallmark of both hypertension and AD). Exercise has been demonstrated to be an effective intervention for blood pressure management, chronic low grade inflammation and improvements in cognition. Data from recent analyses suggests that isometric exercise training (IET) may improve vascular integrity and elicit blood pressure reductions in hypertensives greater than those seen with dynamic aerobic and resistance exercise. IET may also play an effective role in the management of VRF’s at the MCI stage of AD and may prove to be a significant strategy in the prevention, attenuation or delay of progression to AD. A plausible hypothesis is that the reactive hyperemia stimulated by IET initiates a cascade of vascular, neurotrophic and neuro-endocrine events that lead to improvements in cognitive function. PMID:28316570

  17. Comparison of determining benzo(a)pyrene in vegetable oil by two methods%植物油中苯并(a)芘的检测方法比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马素换; 汪学德; 刘兵戈

    2014-01-01

    比较高效液相色谱法和气相色谱-质谱联用法测定植物油中苯并(a)芘含量。结果表明,两种方法均采用中性氧化铝固相萃取柱净化油样,平均回收率均大于75%,相对标准偏差均小于8%,检出限分别为0.12μg / kg 和0.40μg / kg,均能满足测定要求。相对来说,高效液相色谱法前处理简便,峰形基线平稳,检出限低,回收率高,更适于植物油中苯并(a)芘含量的测定。%The determinations of benzo(a)pyrene in vegetable oil by high performance liquid chromatog-raphy( HPLC) and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry ( GC - MS) were compared. The results showed that the commercial neutral alumina solid - phase extraction column was employed to purify oil sample by two methods. The average recovery rates and relative standard deviations of two methods were all above 75% and below 8% respectively, and the limits of detection of two methods were 0. 12 μg / kg and 0. 40 μg / kg respectively, which could satisfy the measurement requirements. Relatively, HPLC method had the items of simple pretreatment, smooth baseline of peaks, low limit of detection and high recovery rate, which was more suitable for the determination of benzo(a)pyrene content of vegetable oil.

  18. Diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elham; Saedi[1; Mohammad; Reza; Gheini[2; Firoozeh; Faiz[3; Mohammad; Ali; Arami[4

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence that diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Insulin signaling dysregulation and small vessel disease in the base of diabetes may be important contributing factors in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia pathogenesis, respectively. Optimal glycemic control in type 1 diabetes and identification of diabetic risk factors and prophylactic approach in type 2 diabetes are very important in the prevention of cognitive complications.In addition, hypoglycemic attacks in children and elderly should be avoided. Anti-diabetic medications especially Insulin may have a role in the management of cognitive dysfunction and dementia but further investigation is needed to validate these findings.

  19. Diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi, Elham; Gheini, Mohammad Reza; Faiz, Firoozeh; Arami, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence that diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Insulin signaling dysregulation and small vessel disease in the base of diabetes may be important contributing factors in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia pathogenesis, respectively. Optimal glycemic control in type 1 diabetes and identification of diabetic risk factors and prophylactic approach in type 2 diabetes are very important in the prevention of cognitive complications. In addition, hypoglycemic attacks in children and elderly should be avoided. Anti-diabetic medications especially Insulin may have a role in the management of cognitive dysfunction and dementia but further investigation is needed to validate these findings. PMID:27660698

  20. Individual difficulties faced by persons with mobility impairments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Standard everyday use – home computer user Advanced Advanced Advanced Disability Mobility impairment (quadriplegic – Frederik’s Ataxia), speech impairment) Mobility impairment (quadriplegic - Physical cerebral palsy, speech impairment) Mobility...