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Sample records for benzine

  1. Technique for isolating isoprene from pyrolysis benzine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei, C.; Laba, M.; Mihalcescu, M.; Moldovan, E.; Pandele, G.

    1979-10-30

    A patent for isolating isoprene (I) from benzine pyrolyzed by distillation; to inhibit polymerization of I, distillation is carried out with an inhibitor. The latter is N-phenyl-N'-cyclohexyl- or N,N'-di-secondary-butyl-p-phenylene diamine and phenaol compounds that contain 55% 2.4 dimethyl-6-tert-butylphenol and 15% 4-methyl-2,6di-tert-butylphenol and 30% residual alkylphenols with inhibiting properties. Phenol compound may be substituted with quinoline like 6-etoxy-2.2, 4-trimethyl-1.2-dihydroquinoline. Ration of both components in mixture 1:1. Inhibitor is added to mixture in the form of a solution in pyrolyzed benzine or in isoprene; solution has a concentration of 150-400 p/per mil. Example: pyrolyzed benzine composition,%: isoprene 5.12, piperylene 10.89, cyclopentadiene 3.6, hydrocarbons C/sub 4/-C/sub 7/ 2, benzol 29, hydrocarb. C/sub 9/ 0.08, toluene 3.87, C/sub 10/+ xylol 3.12, dicyclopentadiene 18.15, other elements 3.29. A mixture of N,N'-di-secondary-butyl-p-phenylene-amine is added to the benzine, and the above shown phenols in the amt. of 50 p/per mill. Induction period is derived (using ASTMD-525-55 method), 70 min., while addition of each component separately in the same amount gives a corresponding induction period of 37 and 22 min.

  2. Biobrandstof met het gemak van benzine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Lankhorst, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Onderzoekers in Wageningen werken aan brandstoffen voor voertuigen die hernieuwbaar zijn en tegelijk hetzelfde gemak kennen als benzine en diesel. In het BioSolar Cellsconsortium werken ze met technieken die geïnspireerd zijn op fotosynthese in planten. Van water wordt met zonlicht waterstof gemaakt

  3. Demand response er som at købe benzin når den er billigst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderberg Petersen, L.

    2005-01-01

    Vi har vænnet os til at benzinpriserne varierer voldsomt. Vi har vænnet os til at holde i kø ved tankstationen og købe mest muligt benzin når prisen er lavest. Sådan er Demand Response, som vi også vil opleve i fremtidens energisystem.......Vi har vænnet os til at benzinpriserne varierer voldsomt. Vi har vænnet os til at holde i kø ved tankstationen og købe mest muligt benzin når prisen er lavest. Sådan er Demand Response, som vi også vil opleve i fremtidens energisystem....

  4. Application of laser-optical diagnostics for the support of direct-injection gasoline combustion process development; Einsatz laseroptischer Messverfahren zur Unterstuetzung der Entwicklung von Brennverfahren mit Benzin-Direkteinspritzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, W.; Meyer, H.; Stiebels, B. [Volkswagenwerk AG, Wolfsburg (Germany). Abt. Forschung und Entwicklung

    2000-07-01

    The development of direct-injection gasoline engines at Volkswagen was supported strictly from the beginning by the means of optical diagnostics and CFD-simulations. Basic phenomena, such as the formation of the in-cylinder flow field, the penetration of the spray formed by a hollow-cone swirl-type injector at high fuel pressure, the interaction of spray and flow and the formation of an ignitable mixture were analysed in details. The paper describes the laser-optical techniques-particle-image-velocimetry, laser-Doppler-anemometry, videostroboscopy, high-speed cinematography and laser-induced fluorescence - which were used during the development of the DI gasoline combustion process. Examples taken from engines with optical access to the combustion chamber demonstrate the capability of the techniques and pinpoint where the design of the combustion process benefits from experimental and simulation investigations. (orig.) [German] Die Entwicklung von Ottomotoren mit Benzin-Direkteinspritzung wurde bei Volkswagen von Beginn an konsequent durch den Einsatz optischer Messverfahren und CFD-Simulationen unterstuetzt. Damit konnten grundlegende Phaenomene, wie die Ausbildung des Stroemungsfeldes im Motorbrennraum, die Ausbreitung des durch einen Hohlkegel-Drallinjektor unter hohem Druck eingespritzten Kraftstoffs sowie die Wechselwirkung der Luftstroemung im Zylinder mit den Einspritzstrahlen und die Bildung einer zuendfaehigen Ladungswolke detailliert untersucht werden. Das Paper beschreibt die laseroptischen Messverfahren - Particle-Image-Velocimetry, Laser-Doppler-Anemometry, Video-Stroboskopie, Hochgeschwindikgkeits-Kinematographie und Laserinduzierte Fluoreszenz - die bei der Brennverfahrensentwicklung eingesetzt werden und zeigt anhand einer Reihe von konkreten Beispielen, wo Antworten auf Grundsatzfragen zur Auslegung des Brennverfahrens durch Messergebnisse an optisch zugaenglichen Motoren und durch CFD-Simulationen erarbeitet werden koennen. (orig.)

  5. Benzin iz rapsa : utopija ili realnaja perspektiva? / Oleg Samorodni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Samorodni, Oleg, 1961-

    2006-01-01

    Suurärimees Rein Kilgi eesmärgiks on viia Lõuna Toiduainetööstus Lõuna-Eesti juhtivaks ettevõtteks, seepärast käib ka võitlus rapsitööstuse Werol Tehased ostmise ümber ärimeeste Oliver Kruuda ja Urmas Sõõrumaaga

  6. Ramanspektroskopisk undersøgelse af Metyltertiærbutylether indhold i benzin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    Indholdsfortegnelse:Indledning s. 2 Hvad er MTBE s. 2 Eksperimentielt s. 3 Ramanspektre af ren MTBE s. 3 Ramanspektre af benzinprøver s. 6 Ramanspektre af MTBE i heptan s. 8 Konklusion s. 11 Referencer s. 12Konklusion.Vore målinger af ren MTBE viser et spektrum med fint opløste hånd og ingen...

  7. Combustion Velocity of Benzine-Benzol-Air Mixtures in High-Speed Internal-Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnauffer, Kurt

    1932-01-01

    The present paper describes a device whereby rapid flame movement within an internal-combustion engine cylinder may be recorded and determined. By the aid of a simple cylindrical contact and an oscillograph the rate of combustion within the cylinder of an airplane engine during its normal operation may be measured for gas intake velocities of from 30 to 35 m/s and for velocities within the cylinder of from 20 to 25 m/s. With it the influence of mixture ratios, of turbulence, of compression ratio and kind of fuel on combustion velocity may be determined. Besides the determination of the influence of the above factors on combustion velocity, the degree of turbulence may also be determined. As a unit of reference in estimating the degree of turbulence, the intake velocity of the charge is chosen.

  8. EMISIJE ALDEHIDA IZ DVOTAKTNOG I ČETVEROTAKTNOG MOTORA NA PALJENJE SVJEĆICAMA UZ MJEŠAVINU BENZIN-ALKOHOL S KATALIZATOROM

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, P.V. Krishna; Kumar, S. Narasimha; Krishna, M. V. S. Murali; Kishor, K.

    2011-01-01

    Rad donosi rezultate ispitivanja emisije aldehida iz dvotaktnog i četverotaktnog jednocilindričnog motora na paljenje svjećicama koji koristi mješavinu benzina (80 vol. %) i alkohola (20 vol.); motor je prevučen bakrom (sloj debljine 300 μm na klipu i na unutarnjoj strani glave cilindra) i opremljen katalizatorom od spužvastog željeza. Rezultati su uspoređeni s konvencionalnim benzinskim motorom na paljenje svjećicama. Motor prevučen bakrom pokazuje smanjenje emisije aldehida u odnosu na konv...

  9. Calibration of solenoid injectors for gasoline direct injection using the knock sensor; Kalibrierung von Magnet-Injektoren fuer Benzin-Direkteinspritzung mittels Klopfsensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Konrad; Back, Kristine; Jiqqir, Mehdi; Puente Leon, Fernando [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Industrielle Informationstechnik; Kiencke, Uwe

    2011-04-15

    Precise fuel metering is essential for lower exhaust emissions and increased fuel economy of modern combustion engines. This calls for compensating manufacturing dispersions of fuel injectors as well as maintaining a stable operating behavior during their entire lifetime. To meet this challenge, a method for calibrating solenoid injectors of gasoline direct injection engines has been developed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). (orig.)

  10. Effecten van aanpassing APK-frequentie op de verkeersveiligheid : diesel/LPG (3-1) en benzine/elektrisch (4-2-2-1) naar één stramien.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stipdonk, H.L. & Bos, N.M.

    2016-01-01

    Road safety effects due to adaptation of the time intervals of periodic vehicle inspection (MOT) : the same time schedule for Diesel/LPG (3-1) and Gasoline/Electric (4-2-2-1) vehicles. All light motor vehicles in the Netherlands are subjected to regular periodic vehicle inspections (MOT), the time i

  11. Energiegewas in Noord-Nederland loont niet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, A.

    2010-01-01

    De productie van ethanol uit suikerbieten en de grassoort Miscanthus in Noord-Nederland is momenteel niet concurrerend met benzine uit olie. Alleen bij hoge energieprijzen en op marginale grond is het energiegewas hier lonend.

  12. Controlling Factors for Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Vapors in a Layered Subsurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Andreas Houlberg

    Størstedelen af benzin- og oliestoffer er nedbrydelige i jordmiljøet. Som følge heraf bliver ”naturlig nedbrydning” i stigende grad betragtet som et effektivt og miljøvenligt alternativ til mere aktive oprensningsstrategier. Denne afhandling omhandler sammenhængen mellem jordfysiske egenskaber i ...

  13. Labori en Arabio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier Gómez Kolombio

    1997-01-01

    Saǜda Arabio estas lando, kies logantoj es-tas grandparte alilandaj. Tie vi povas trovi multajn soforojn* pakistanajn, benzin*-staciis-tojn bangladesajn, ingenierojn* usonajn kaj britain, vendistojn filipinajn. Ankafǜ hindoj es-tas multegaj en ciuj laborlokoj. Araboj estas

  14. Fuel formula for lighters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwayama, I.; Iwayama, A.

    1982-04-10

    A fuel formula that includes a homogenous mixture of benzine, aromatic ether oils, perfume and other perfuming agents, as well as the lowest possible aliphatic alcohol as a component solvent, surfactant, and possibly, a soluble pigment that colors the formula an appropriate color. This formula is used as an aromatic fuel for cigarette lights. The ether oils can be musk, amber, camomille, lavender, mint, anise, rose, camphor, and other aromatic oils; the perfuming agents are: geraniol, linalool, menthol, camphor, benzyl or phenetyl alcohols, phenylacetaldehyde, vanillin, coumarin, and so forth; the pigments are: beta-carotene, sudan dyes, etc.; the low aliphatic alcohols are EtOH, iso-PrOH. Example: 70 parts benzine, 10 parts EtOH, 15 parts oxide mezithylene and 5 parts borneol form a clear liquid that has a camphor aroma when it is lit.

  15. Alkolukon kytkentä Mercedes-Benz E 300 BlueTEC Hybridiin

    OpenAIRE

    Pöntinen, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    Tässä insinöörityössä kehitettiin toimiva alkolukkokytkentä Mercedes-Benz E 300 BlueTEC Hybridiin, joka on tarkoitettu koulu- ja päivähoitokuljetuskäyttöön. E 300 Hybrid poikkeaa normaalista polttomoottorilla varustetusta autosta niin paljon, että alkolukkoa ei ole mahdollista asentaa siihen olemassa olevilla ohjeilla. Työ tehtiin tilauksena Mercedes-Benzin Suomen-maahantuojalle Veho Group Oy Ab:lle, ja yhteistyössä oli mukana myös Dräger-alkolukkojen maahantuoja Kaha Oy. Tavoitteena oli k...

  16. Benchmarking biofuels; Biobrandstoffen benchmarken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H.; Kampman, B.; Bergsma, G.

    2012-03-15

    A sustainability benchmark for transport biofuels has been developed and used to evaluate the various biofuels currently on the market. For comparison, electric vehicles, hydrogen vehicles and petrol/diesel vehicles were also included. A range of studies as well as growing insight are making it ever clearer that biomass-based transport fuels may have just as big a carbon footprint as fossil fuels like petrol or diesel, or even bigger. At the request of Greenpeace Netherlands, CE Delft has brought together current understanding on the sustainability of fossil fuels, biofuels and electric vehicles, with particular focus on the performance of the respective energy carriers on three sustainability criteria, with the first weighing the heaviest: (1) Greenhouse gas emissions; (2) Land use; and (3) Nutrient consumption [Dutch] Greenpeace Nederland heeft CE Delft gevraagd een duurzaamheidsmeetlat voor biobrandstoffen voor transport te ontwerpen en hierop de verschillende biobrandstoffen te scoren. Voor een vergelijk zijn ook elektrisch rijden, rijden op waterstof en rijden op benzine of diesel opgenomen. Door onderzoek en voortschrijdend inzicht blijkt steeds vaker dat transportbrandstoffen op basis van biomassa soms net zoveel of zelfs meer broeikasgassen veroorzaken dan fossiele brandstoffen als benzine en diesel. CE Delft heeft voor Greenpeace Nederland op een rijtje gezet wat de huidige inzichten zijn over de duurzaamheid van fossiele brandstoffen, biobrandstoffen en elektrisch rijden. Daarbij is gekeken naar de effecten van de brandstoffen op drie duurzaamheidscriteria, waarbij broeikasgasemissies het zwaarst wegen: (1) Broeikasgasemissies; (2) Landgebruik; en (3) Nutriëntengebruik.

  17. A method for isolating piperylenes from the C5 fraction of pyrolysis gasolines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messinger, T.; Pop, G.; Purvutolu, T.

    1980-11-30

    A method is patented for separating piperylenes from the C5 fraction of pyrolysis benzine. The starting raw material is fractionated to remove the volatile C5 components (with a boiling point of less than 38 degrees), while the remainder is fractionated, removing the upper fraction which contains piperylenes (a boiling point of 38 to 45 degrees); this fraction is subjected to extractive distillation, distilling away the residues of the C5 components; the residual product is fractionated, producing in the distillate a mixture of piperylene, acetylenes and cyclopentadienes which is shifted to the zone of extractive distillation, producing in the distillate a piperylene concentrated which is then purified by known chemical means, producing a piperylene concentrate enriched with a transisomer. The residue from the fractionation is fractionated in another tower, from the top of which the piperylene concentrated, enriched with a cis isomer is distilled off.

  18. Environmental data 1995; Umweltdaten Deutschland 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The brochure contains concise data on pollution sources and pollutant effects on the environment (land use, airborne pollutants, liquid effluents, waste, noise, etc.), data on environment quality (air pollution levels, water quality, diversity of species, etc.), and data on the social effects of environmental pollution (environmental protection expenditures, market shares of low-polluting passenger cars and unleaded fuel, biological sewage treatment systems, etc.). All these data are suitable indicators for describing the current environmental situation. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Die Broschuero umfasst in komprimierter Weise - Daten zu den Verursachern von Umweltbelastungen und zu den Einwirkungen auf die Umwelt (Bodennutzung, Luftemissionen, Abwasser, Abfaelle, Laerm etc.), - Daten zur Qualitaet der Umwelt (Immissionen, Gewaesserguete, Artenvielfalt etc.) sowie - Daten zur gesellschaftlichen Reaktion auf die Umweltbelastung (Ausgaben fuer den Umweltschutz, Anteil schadstoffarmer Pkw und bleifreien Benzins, Anschluss der Bevoelkerung an biologische Klaeranlagen etc.), die als Indikatoren zur Beschreibung der Umweltsituation geeignet erscheinen. (orig./KW)

  19. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of the Excess Fuel Coefficient on the Electrical Conductivity of Potassium-Seeded Hydrocarbon Fuel Combustion Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study was carried out on the relation between ionization of the potassium seed and the composition of the combustion products of two hydrocarbon fuels, methane and benzine. The composition of the combustion products could be varied by changing the excess fuel coefficient for the combustion mixture. Measurements were carried out at various fixed temperatures in the range 1850-3000°K (total pressure 1 atm). The temperature was kept constant (by diluting the combustion products with nitrogen). The experimental data obtained for the conductivity correspond to a potassium seed partial pressure of 1%. In the high temperature range (with benzine as fuel) measurements were carried out directly with 1% seeding, while at low temperatures (with methane as fuel) measurements were carried out for 3 x 10-2% seeding and the results extrapolated to 1% seeding. Resonance circuit and radiowave (λ = 0.8 cm) damping methods were adopted in making the measurements. The temperature of the combustion products was measured by sodium D-line reversal. The measurements showed that the electrical conductivity of the combustion products with potassium seeding decreases as the excess fuel coefficient is reduced. At higher excess fuel coefficients this decrease is only slight. A sharp decrease in the electrical conductivity (several times) occurs for excess fuel coefficients in the range 1 to 1.7. In interpreting the experimental data, use was made of the results of a theoretical calculation of the effect of the hydroxyl radical on the ionization of the potassium seed (formation of KOH) and on the conductivity (capture of some free electrons to obtain OH-). The comparison showed good qualitative agreement between the experimental and calculated data, confirming the applicability of the mechanism proposed for gauging the effect of combustion product composition on seed ionization. (author)

  20. The Primary study on the technique of oil production from Isochrysis cultured in photobio-reactor%生物反应器培养金藻生产生物柴油技术初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常林; 邹宁

    2011-01-01

    本实验将金藻用生物反应器在实验室条件下进行培养,并初步优化了乙醚石油醚法从一种金藻中提取油脂的方法。金藻中富含油脂,实验研究得出,用无水乙醚和石油醚混合溶剂在体积比2:1、温度20℃[1]、提纯时间5h以上的实验条件下萃取海藻中的脂肪质量最高。皂化过程选取甲醇作为溶剂要明显优于以乙醇作为溶剂的结果,实验确定采用KOH一甲醇作为皂化试剂。%The Isochrysis was cultured in photobioreators under laboratory conditions. The methods of extraction of oil from Isochrysis was studied. The Isochrysis is rich in oil.The results showed the optimal conditions of the oil extraction from the alga were : the ratio of the volume of absolute ether and petroleum benzin was 2:l,the temperature of the extrac- tion was 20℃,and the extraction time was 5h. Efficiency of extraction was higher with methand as the solvent than it with ethanol.

  1. Biofuel contents in blue gasoline can be determined by liquid scintillation counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunoki, Shunji; Saito, Masaaki; Nagakawa, Yoshiyasu [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Nogawa, Norio [The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the advantage of blue dye over red dye on the determination of bioethanol contents in gasoline by the direct measurement of liquid scintillation counting (LSC) The simulated gasoline containing biofuel was prepared from bioethanol (3, 10, and 25%), petroleum benzine, and Solvent Red 26 or Solvent Blue 35 (2.5, 25 and 250 ppm) as fuel dyes. The bioethanol contents in the simulated gasoline were determined from {sup 14}C disintegration rates in the samples measured by LSC. The bioethanol contents were precisely determined for the blue simulated gasoline containing the fuel dye below 25 ppm. On the other hand, the overestimation was observed for the red simulated gasoline when the concentration of the fuel dye was 25 ppm. The advantage of blue for determining bioethanol contents can be explained by lower color quenching of blue duel dye. In the UV-VIS spectra of the blue simulated gasoline, there was a window around 440 nm in which light absorption was little observed. The UV-VIS spectra of the red simulated gasoline showed broad light absorbance between 300 and 600 nm. A blue fuel dye is suitable for gasoline in case that biofuels in gasoline are detected by LSC.

  2. Antioxidant activity of the various extracts of cyclamen graecum link tubers and leaves from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, antioxidant activities of various solvent extracts (methanol, ethanol, acetone and petroleum benzine) obtained from tubers and leaves of Cyclamen graecum Link (Primulaceae) were determined. Antioxidant properties of various extracts from C. graecum were evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene-linoleic acid assays. In addition, total phenolic contents in all the extracts of C. graecum tubers and leaves were determined as pyrocatechol equivalents. Leaves extracts of C. graecum exhibited higher antioxidant activity than tuber extracts with all the types of solvent used. All extracts of C. graecum tubers and leaves had effective free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging activity of C. graecum leaf-ethanol extract (97.3 +- 0.55%) was found more effective than BHT (92.30 +- 0.35%). A positive correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and amount of phenolic contents of the extracts. In this study, all types of extracts obtained from C. graecum have showed strong antioxidant activity. Therefore, this species can be used as a natural antioxidant in food processing and pharmaceutical industries. (author)

  3. Advanced technologies of production of cemented carbides and composite materials based on them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents new technological processes of production of W, WC and (Ti, W)C powders, cemented carbides having a controlled carbon content, high-strength nonmagnetic nickel-bonded cemented carbides, cemented carbide-based composites having a wear-resistant antifriction working layer as well as processes of regeneration of cemented carbide waste. It is shown that these technological processes permit radical changes in the production of carbide powders and products of VK, TK, VN and KKhN cemented carbides. The processes of cemented carbide production become ecologically acceptable and free of carbon black, the use of cumbersome mixers is excluded, the power expenditure is reduced and the efficiency of labor increases. It becomes possible to control precisely the carbon content within a two-phase region -carbide-metal. A high wear resistance of parts of friction couples which are lubricated with water, benzine, kerosene, diesel fuel and other low-viscosity liquids, is ensured with increased strength and shock resistance. (author)

  4. Separation and Purification of Oridonin by Macro-porous Resin and Silica Column Chromatography%大孔吸附树脂联用硅胶柱层析法分离纯化冬凌草甲素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建峰; 邬泉周; 黄少梅

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立大孔吸附树脂联用硅胶柱层析法分离纯化冬凌草甲素的工艺流程.方法:将冬凌草粉碎,用95%乙醇提取,浓缩成浸膏;以冬凌草甲素含量为指标,采用大孔吸附树脂联用硅胶柱层析法分离纯化冬凌草甲素,并用红外光谱、熔点测定和高效液相色谱(HPLC)法对重结晶产品的纯度和结构进行分析和表征.结果:优化的工艺为采用苯乙烯型大孔吸附树脂(HZ-841)先对浸膏进行粗分离,再选取乙酸乙酯-石油醚(6∶4,V/V)为洗脱溶剂,石油醚-丙酮(2∶3,VV)为重结晶溶剂进行硅胶柱分离纯化,在此条件下,得到的冬凌草甲素含量为96.11%,提取率达到0.86%.结论:所选工艺简单、可行,使用溶剂安全、无毒,提取效率高,可用于分离纯化冬凌草甲素.%OBJECTIVE: To establish macro-porous resin and silica column chromatography for the separation and purification of oridonin. METHODS: Rabdosia rubescens was shattered and extracted with 95% ethanol, then concentrated to extract. Taking the content of oridonin as index, the oridonin was separated and purified by macro-porous resin and silica column chromatography. The structure and purity of the recrystallized products were analyzed and characterized with IR spectra, smelting point and HPLC. RESULTS: The optimal technology was as follows: polystyrene-type macroporous absorbing resins (HZ-841) was used to separate extract roughly and silica column was used for purification with acetic ether-petroleum benzin(6:4, V/V) as elution solvent and petroleum benzin-acetone(2 : 3, V/V). Under this condition, the content of oridonin was 96.11% and the extraction ratio reached to 0.86‰. CONCLUSIONS: The technology is simple and feasible, and solvents used are safe and non-toxic with high extraction efficient. It can be used for the separation and purification of oridonin.

  5. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of plant extracts from Clausena dentata (Willd) (Rutaceae) against dengue, malaria, and filariasis vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjari, Murugesan Susitra; Karthi, Sengodan; Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Shivakumar, Muthugoundar Subramanian

    2014-07-01

    Mosquitoes in the larval stage are attractive targets for pesticides because mosquitoes breed in water, and thus, it is easy to deal with them in this habitat. The use of conventional pesticides in the water sources, however, introduces many risks to people and/or the environment. Natural pesticides, especially those derived from plants, are more promising in this aspect. Aromatic plants and their essential oils are very important sources of many compounds that are used in different respects. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative to chemical insecticides. Acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum benzine leaf extracts of Clausena dentata were tested against the fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The highest larval mortality was found in acetone leaf extract, C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 0.150278 mg/ml; LC90 = 7.302613 mg/ml), A. aegypti (LC50 = 0.169495 mg/ml; LC90 = 1.10034 mg/ml), and A. stephensi (LC50 = 0.045684 mg/ml; LC90 = 0.045684 mg/ml). GC-MS analysis of plant extracts of acetone solvent revealed 16 compounds, of which the major compounds were benzene,1,2,3-trimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl) (14.97%), Z,Z-6,28-heptatriactontadien-2-one (6.81%), 2-allyl-4-methylphenol (28.14%), 2-allyl-4-methylphenol (17.34%), and 2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene, 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl (10.35%). Our result shows acetone leaf extracts of C. dentata have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for mosquito control.

  6. Development achievements for electric vehicles; Entwicklungsleistungen fuer Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epple, K. [Wirtschaftsministerium Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Companies in Baden-Wurttemberg have achieved major development success in both fields: The diesel and gasoline direct injection technology as well as the lightweight car body construction has been further developed by the companies Bosch, DaimlerChrysler and Audi. Technologies with alternative fuels such as hydrogen and methanol are further developed in research institutes and industrial companies. The social frame conditions seem to support the electric vehicle because it is emission-free wherever it is used. Baden-Wurttemberg has supported model experiments for the market introduction of battery-operated electric vehicles. Despite of the advanced technology these vehicles could not establish themselves on the market. Fuel cell-operated vehicles are going to be serious competitors. The DaimlerChrysler AG has invested billions in the development of fuel cells and presented only recently the Necar 4. Fuel cell systems will also be used in other fields, e.g. decentral energy supply. (orig.) [German] Baden-wuerttembergische Unternehmen haben in beiden Bereichen grosse Entwicklungserfolge erreicht: Die Diesel- und Benzin-Direkteinspritztechnik zur Kraftstoffeinsparung wurden von den Firmen Bosch, DaimlerChrysler und Audi weiterentwickelt, ebenfalls der Karosserie-Leichtbau. Technologien mit alternativen Kraftstoffen wie Wasserstoff und Methanol sowie alternativen Antriebsformen werden in Forschungsinstituten und Industrieunternehmen weiterentwickelt. Die gesellschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen scheinen sich pro Elektroauto wegen der Emissionsfreiheit am Einsatzort zu verschieben. Baden-Wuerttemberg hat Modellversuche zur Markteinfuehrung von batteriebetriebenen Elektrofahrzeugen unterstuetzt. Trotz fortgeschrittener Technik konnten sich diese Fahrzeuge noch nicht auf dem Markt etablieren. Brennstoffzellen-betriebene Fahrzeuge werden ernstzunehmende Konkurrenten zu ihnen sein. Die DaimlerChrysler-AG hat Milliardenbetraege in die Entwicklung der Brennstoffzellen investiert

  7. CO{sub 2} emissions target of 90 grams per kilometer reached with G90; Ein Weg zur 90 Gramm CO{sub 2} Emission pro Kilometer am Beispiel des G90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathes, G.; Leopold, F.; Tyler, R.; Metzger, O.; Gerspacher, M. [Opel (A.) AG, Ruesselsheim (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    'G 90' - Innovative compact-class concept car providing high fuel efficiency. The name of the spacious low-consumption four-seater already indicates the program target. With CO{sub 2} emissions as low as 90 grams per kilometer the concept car with an approximate length of 4 meters and a 44 kW/60 hp three-cylinder gasoline engine undercuts by more than one third the average fleet value of 140 grams per kilometer stipulated by the European Union for 2008. Rigorous lightweight design and a drag coefficient of 0.22 realized this trend-setting value, representing an MVEG standard consumption of 3.88 liters gasoline per 100 km, which is an exceptionally low value for this vehicle class. With its low mass and aerodynamic shape the G 90 body has made an important contribution to this achievement. (orig.) [German] 'G 90' - Neues Konzept in der Kompakt-Klasse mit Mini-Verbrauch. Der Name des verbrauchsguenstigen, geraeumigen Viersitzers ist Programm: Mit einem CO{sub 2}-Ausstoss von nur 90 Gramm pro Kilometer unterbietet das von einem 44 KW/60 PS starken Dreizylinder-Benzinmotor angetriebene, rund vier Meter lange Konzeptfahrzeug den von der Europaeischen Union erst fuer das Jahr 2008 vorgesehenen Hersteller-Flottenwert von 140 Gramm CO{sub 2} pro Kilometer um gut ein Drittel. Moeglich wurde dieser richtungsweisende Wert, der einem MVEG-Normalverbrauch von 3,88 Litern Benzin auf 100 Kilometer entspricht, durch konsequenten Leichtbau und den fuer ein Fahrzeug dieser Groessenklasse aeusserst niedrigen c{sub w} Wert von 0,22. Hierbei hat die Karosserie des G 90 mit ihrem geringen Gewicht und der aerodynamischen Form einen wesentlichen Beitrag geleistet. (orig.)

  8. Determination of engine and combustion technique parameters on a Diesel engine with direct injection when operated with differently treated rape oil; Ermittlung von motor- und verbrennungstechnischen Kenndaten an einem Dieselmotor mit Direkteinspritzung bei Betrieb mit unterschiedlich aufbereitetem Rapsoel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, W.

    1997-09-01

    In order to be able to use rape oil as fuel for modern direct injection Diesel engines, it must be matched to the specific fuel properties of Diesel fuel. Apart from the use of plant oil methyl ester (PME) based on rape oil, one tries to change its properties by different additives to rape oil. Rape oil was prepared by adding an alcohol-benzene mixture and other fuel components. The effects of the different fuels on the engine and the environment were examined. The engine output with plant oil was only slightly below the Diesel values. By optimising the examined fuels on the one hand, and the engine setting on the other hand, and by the choice of the injection nozzles, the engine was optimised for harmful emission and output. To estimate the safety in continuous operation, the difference in consumption between plant oil operation and Diesel is compared. An appreciable improvement of the limited exhaust gas emission was achieved. The operating behaviour of the engine examined was unsatisfactory at low load operation below 30% of the engine rated output. Therefore, the rape oil mixed fuels examined can only be used up to a point. A high output of the engine must be ensured. (orig.). 62 figs., 33tabs. [Deutsch] Um Rapsoel als Kraftstoff fuer moderne direkteinspritzende Dieselmotoren verwenden zu koennen, muss es an die kraftstoffspezifischen Eigenschaften von Dieselkraftstoff angepasst werden. Neben dem Einsatz von Pflanzenoelmethylester (PME) auf Rapsoelbasis wird versucht, durch verschiedene Zusaetze zum Rapsoel dessen Eigenschaften zu veraendern. Durch Zusatz einer Alkohol-Benzin-Mischung und anderer Kraftstoffkomponenten wurde Rapsoel aufbereitet. - Die Einfluesse der verschiedenen Kraftstoffe sind auf Motor und Umwelt untersucht worden. Die Motorleistung lag bei Pflanzenoel nur geringfuegig unter den Dieselwerten. Durch Optimierung der untersuchten Kraftstoffe einerseits, der Motoreinstellung andererseits und die Wahl der Einspritzduesen wurde der Motor

  9. Validação de método para determinação de resíduos de agrotóxicos em tomate: uma experiência laboratorial Method validation for determination of pesticide residues in tomatoes: a laboratorial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Wohlers Morelli Cardoso

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Um modelo de procedimento para validação de método de ensaio para determinação de cinco agrotóxicos (γ - HCH, clorotalonil, fenitrotiona, clorpirifós e procimidona em matriz tomate é demonstrado através da análise cromatográfica. A amostra processada é extraída com 30 mL de acetona e em seguida com 60 mL de uma mistura diclometano: éter de petróleo (1:1. O volume total é centrifugado e a alíquota orgânica é filtrada sob Na2SO4. Um mililitro de extrato orgânico é concentrado e dissolvido em um mililitro de iso-octano. Um microlitro do extrato é analisado no cromatógrafo a gás com detector por captura de elétrons - CG/DCE. Foram avaliados seletividade, linearidade, repetitividade, recuperação e limites de detecção e de quantificação. As recuperações obtidas variaram de 70 a 110%, considerando-se os níveis de adição de agrotóxicos/amostra de 0,02 a 2,50 mg.kg-1. Os limites de detecção do método variaram de 0,004 a 0,006 mg.kg-1 e os de quantificação entre 0,014 e 0,020 mg.kg-1.A validation procedure model of a multiresidue method is presented for chromatographic analyses of five pesticides residues γ-HCH, chlorothalonil, fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos and procymidone applied on tomatoes. The tomatoes were processed and extracted by acetone plus a mixture of dichloromethane:petroleum benzine (1:1. The volume was centrifuged and was then filtered under Na2SO4. One milliliter of organic extract was concentrated then diluted in isooctane and one microliter was analyzed in the gas chromatograph with electron capture detector - GC/ECD. The parameters evaluated were selectivity, linearity, repeatability, recovery, and limits of detection and quantification. The recovery ranged from 70 to 110% in the concentration range of 0.02 to 2.50 mg.kg-1. The limits of detection ranged from 0.004 to 0.006 mg.kg-1 and the limits of quantification were between 0.014 to 0.02 mg.kg-1.

  10. Compilation and evaluation of published and unpublished data of relevant mineral oil additives and their combustion products; Zusammenstellung und Bewertung der bekannten Daten ueber relevante Mineraloel-Additive und ihre Verbrennungsprodukte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, D.; Boehncke, A.; Mangelsdorf, I. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Aerosolforschung (ITA), Hannover (Germany)

    1999-06-01

    -Chemie, Konzentrationsbereiche und Funktionen in den Mineraloelen betrachtet. Mit einer fuer Deutschland 1997/98 geschaetzten Einsatzmenge von 84600 Tonnen (57400 Tonnen Motoroel-Additive, 27200 Tonnen Kraftstoff-Additive) gehoeren Mineraloel-Additive in ihrer Gesamtheit zu den mengenmaessig bedeutendsten Chemikalien. Ihr Vorhandensein in Motorenoelen, Benzin und Diesel bestimmt heute ganz wesentlich deren Eigenschaftsprofil. Wichtige Zusaetze fuer Motorenoele sind Detergentien, Dispergatoren, Antioxidantien / Verschleissminderer (ZDTP), Inhibitoren und Viskositaetsverbesserer. Beispiele fuer Kraftstoff-Additive sind Detergentien, Antioxidantien, Korrosionsinhibitoren, Cetanzahlverbesserer (Diesel) und Zusaetze gegen Bildung von Wachskristallen (Diesel). Basierend auf Literatur- und Herstellerangaben wird eine Inventarisierung (Berechnung des Inputs und Outputs) vorgenommen. Auf Grundlage dieser Daten werden dann jeweils Emissionsberechnungen unter Benutzung eines 'reasonable worst-case' Szenarios durchgefuehrt. Da Messdaten nur ausnahmsweise verfuegbar sind, muss von einem hohen Unsicherheitsfaktor der so berechneten Emissionen ausgegangen werden. Durch Vergleich der emittierten Schadstoffmengen CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub 2}, NMVOC und Partikel mit Abgasgrenzwerten und den verkehrsbedingten Schadstoffemissinen in Deutschland kann gezeigt werden, dass hauptsaechlich den additivbedingten Partikelemissionen eine erhoehte Bedeutung zukommt. Nach den Ergebnissen der Berechnung haben Mineraloel-Additive einen Anteil von etwa 7% an den verkehrsbedingten Partikelemissionen in Deutschland (davon etwa 3/5 aus Schmierstoff-Additiven und 2/5 aus Kraftstoff-Additiven). (orig.)

  11. Bioenergy Status Document 2011; Statusdocument Bio-energie 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Bergsma, G.

    2011-03-15

    als in 2009 (88 PJ) en iets meer dan 2010 (86 PJ). In de richtlijn hernieuwbare energie is verder vastgelegd dat in 2020 minimaal 10% van het verbruik van benzine, diesel en elektriciteit voor vervoer afkomstig moet zijn uit hernieuwbare bronnen. Staatssecretaris Atsma wil dat dit percentage al in 2016 behaald wordt. In 2011 bedroeg het verplichte aandeel hernieuwbare energie 4,25%. Naar verwachting is deze verplichting administratief gehaald. Doordat sommige typen biotransportbrandstoffen dubbel geteld mogen worden, is de fysieke levering echter aanzienlijk lager dan in 2009. De administratieve dubbeltelling is van toepassing op de transportdoelstelling (10 %), maar niet op de algemene doelstelling (14 %). Een hoger aandeel dubbeltellende brandstoffen draagt daarmee niet proportioneel bij aan de algemene doelstelling. Ongeveer driekwart van de geproduceerde hernieuwbare energie in 2011 is afkomstig van biomassa. De overige hernieuwbare energie komt bijvoorbeeld uit waterkracht, wind- en zonne-energie. Hernieuwbare energie uit biomassa is voor een groot deel afkomstig van afvalverbrandingsinstallaties, meestook in energiecentrales, gebruik van houtkachels en het gebruik van biobrandstoffen in de transportsector.

  12. 白术挥发油提取方法研究%Extraction of volatile oils from rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎克里; 朱秀卿; 赵丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立白术挥发油高效液相色谱法(HPLC)定量分析方法.研究白术挥发油提取方法.方法 对3种有机溶剂和4种提取方法提取的4个产地挥发油提取率及挥发油中5个定量指标含量进行分析比较.结果 乙酸乙酯、正己烷、石油醚浸提挥发油提取率依次为2.76%,2.24%,1.96%,超声法的依次为2.54%,1.98%,1.86%.SPE法挥发油提取率为3.13%,水蒸气蒸馏法的为1.42%.挥发油含量浙江>安徽>湖南>河北.水蒸气蒸馏法与其他3种提取方法相比,苍术酮含量低1倍以上,桉叶醇含量低35倍,榄香烯含量为零,白术内酯Ⅰ、白术内酯Ⅲ含量高3倍以上.结论 研究建立的挥发油HPLC法定量分析方法简单、稳定可靠.SPE法为白术挥发油较好的提取方法.在没有SPE设备时,乙酸乙酯浸提法是白术挥发油较合适的提取方法.水蒸气蒸馏法提取白术挥发油并不科学.%Objective To establish a quantitative analysis for extraction of volatile oils from Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae by HPLC method. Methods Quantitative analysis and comparison were conducted for contents and extraction rates of 5 active ingredients in volatile oils from rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae, purchased from 5 geographical regions, and extracted with three organic solvents and 4 extraction methods. Results The extraction rates were respectively, 2.76%, 2.24% and 1.96% using ethyl acetate, N-hexane and benzine, 2.54%, 1.98% and 1.86% using ultrasonic method, 3.13% by SPE method, and 1.42% by steam distillation. The highest rate of extraction was achieved with products from Zhejiang, followed in order by Anhui, Hunan and Hebei. Compared with the other three extraction methods, volatile oil obtained with steam distillation was one-fold lower in atractylon, 35-fold lower in eudesmol. zero contents in elemene, and 3-fold higher in atractylenolids Ⅰ and Ⅲ. Conclusions The quantitative analysis using HLPC for rhizoma

  13. Future propulsion systems and fuels; Antriebe und Kraftstoffe fuer die Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huss, C. [Wissenschafts- und Verkehrspolitik, BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Nutzung weltweit unangefochten die Fuehrungsrolle erlangt. Fuer konventionelle Antriebe und Kraftstoffe wurde dabei ein hoher Standard erreicht, der sich durch optimierte Verbrennung, aufwaendige Abgasnachbehandlung und dementsprechend niedrige klassische Abgasemissionen auszeichnet. Die Abhaengigkeit von den eingeschraenkt verfuegbaren Oelvorkommen sowie die Nachteile bei der Verbrennung fossiler Energietraeger infolge von Treibhausgasemissionen haben die Diskussion zu diesen bislang als optimal angesehenen Kraftstoffen intensiviert. Entsprechend wird nach anderen Kraftstoffen bzw. Antriebsformen fuer den Strassenverkehr gesucht. Einbezogen werden dabei oekologische und oekonomische Kriterien sowie die Ressourcenverfuegbarkeit zur Erzielung eines Gesamtoptimums des Kraftstoffsystems. Schluessel zur 'Entkarbonisierung' des Kraftstoffes kann langfristig der Einsatz von Wasserstoff als Treibstoff sein - unter der Voraussetzung einer insgesamt emissionsarmen Erzeugungskette fuer die Bereitstellung des Wasserstoffs. Die Entwicklung an Wasserstoff-Fahrzeug-Prototypen bei BMW wird seit 20 Jahren verfolgt. Mit dem BMW 750hL konnte im Jahr 2000 eine seriennahe Flotte von 15 fahrbereiten Pkw aufgebaut werden. Im Jahr 2001 stellte BMW mit der Modellreihe 745h die sechste Generation vor und damit ein erstmals unter seriennahen Bedingungen entwickeltes Fahrzeug. Alle Fahrzeug-Serien sind mit einem Wasserstoff-Kryotank ausgestattet und fuer bivalenten Betrieb ausgelegt (Wasserstoff/Benzin). Wesentliche technische Entwicklungsaufgabe ist die Speicherung des Kraftstoffes Wasserstoff. Aufgrund seiner physikalisch-chemischen Eigenschaften sind moderne Kryo-Tanks fuer Fluessigwasserstoff entwickelt worden. Im Rahmen der Verkehrswirtschaftlichen Energiestrategie haben sich fuehrende Unternehmen mit Unterstuetzung der Bundesregierung zusammengeschlossen, um an einer konzertierten Einfuehrungsstrategie fuer den Kraftstoff Wasserstoff zu arbeiten. (orig.)