WorldWideScience

Sample records for benzine

  1. Biobrandstof met het gemak van benzine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Lankhorst, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Onderzoekers in Wageningen werken aan brandstoffen voor voertuigen die hernieuwbaar zijn en tegelijk hetzelfde gemak kennen als benzine en diesel. In het BioSolar Cellsconsortium werken ze met technieken die geïnspireerd zijn op fotosynthese in planten. Van water wordt met zonlicht waterstof gemaakt

  2. Technique for isolating isoprene from pyrolysis benzine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei, C.; Laba, M.; Mihalcescu, M.; Moldovan, E.; Pandele, G.

    1979-10-30

    A patent for isolating isoprene (I) from benzine pyrolyzed by distillation; to inhibit polymerization of I, distillation is carried out with an inhibitor. The latter is N-phenyl-N'-cyclohexyl- or N,N'-di-secondary-butyl-p-phenylene diamine and phenaol compounds that contain 55% 2.4 dimethyl-6-tert-butylphenol and 15% 4-methyl-2,6di-tert-butylphenol and 30% residual alkylphenols with inhibiting properties. Phenol compound may be substituted with quinoline like 6-etoxy-2.2, 4-trimethyl-1.2-dihydroquinoline. Ration of both components in mixture 1:1. Inhibitor is added to mixture in the form of a solution in pyrolyzed benzine or in isoprene; solution has a concentration of 150-400 p/per mil. Example: pyrolyzed benzine composition,%: isoprene 5.12, piperylene 10.89, cyclopentadiene 3.6, hydrocarbons C/sub 4/-C/sub 7/ 2, benzol 29, hydrocarb. C/sub 9/ 0.08, toluene 3.87, C/sub 10/+ xylol 3.12, dicyclopentadiene 18.15, other elements 3.29. A mixture of N,N'-di-secondary-butyl-p-phenylene-amine is added to the benzine, and the above shown phenols in the amt. of 50 p/per mill. Induction period is derived (using ASTMD-525-55 method), 70 min., while addition of each component separately in the same amount gives a corresponding induction period of 37 and 22 min.

  3. Demand response er som at købe benzin når den er billigst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderberg Petersen, L.

    2005-01-01

    Vi har vænnet os til at benzinpriserne varierer voldsomt. Vi har vænnet os til at holde i kø ved tankstationen og købe mest muligt benzin når prisen er lavest. Sådan er Demand Response, som vi også vil opleve i fremtidens energisystem.......Vi har vænnet os til at benzinpriserne varierer voldsomt. Vi har vænnet os til at holde i kø ved tankstationen og købe mest muligt benzin når prisen er lavest. Sådan er Demand Response, som vi også vil opleve i fremtidens energisystem....

  4. Application of laser-optical diagnostics for the support of direct-injection gasoline combustion process development; Einsatz laseroptischer Messverfahren zur Unterstuetzung der Entwicklung von Brennverfahren mit Benzin-Direkteinspritzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, W.; Meyer, H.; Stiebels, B. [Volkswagenwerk AG, Wolfsburg (Germany). Abt. Forschung und Entwicklung

    2000-07-01

    The development of direct-injection gasoline engines at Volkswagen was supported strictly from the beginning by the means of optical diagnostics and CFD-simulations. Basic phenomena, such as the formation of the in-cylinder flow field, the penetration of the spray formed by a hollow-cone swirl-type injector at high fuel pressure, the interaction of spray and flow and the formation of an ignitable mixture were analysed in details. The paper describes the laser-optical techniques-particle-image-velocimetry, laser-Doppler-anemometry, videostroboscopy, high-speed cinematography and laser-induced fluorescence - which were used during the development of the DI gasoline combustion process. Examples taken from engines with optical access to the combustion chamber demonstrate the capability of the techniques and pinpoint where the design of the combustion process benefits from experimental and simulation investigations. (orig.) [German] Die Entwicklung von Ottomotoren mit Benzin-Direkteinspritzung wurde bei Volkswagen von Beginn an konsequent durch den Einsatz optischer Messverfahren und CFD-Simulationen unterstuetzt. Damit konnten grundlegende Phaenomene, wie die Ausbildung des Stroemungsfeldes im Motorbrennraum, die Ausbreitung des durch einen Hohlkegel-Drallinjektor unter hohem Druck eingespritzten Kraftstoffs sowie die Wechselwirkung der Luftstroemung im Zylinder mit den Einspritzstrahlen und die Bildung einer zuendfaehigen Ladungswolke detailliert untersucht werden. Das Paper beschreibt die laseroptischen Messverfahren - Particle-Image-Velocimetry, Laser-Doppler-Anemometry, Video-Stroboskopie, Hochgeschwindikgkeits-Kinematographie und Laserinduzierte Fluoreszenz - die bei der Brennverfahrensentwicklung eingesetzt werden und zeigt anhand einer Reihe von konkreten Beispielen, wo Antworten auf Grundsatzfragen zur Auslegung des Brennverfahrens durch Messergebnisse an optisch zugaenglichen Motoren und durch CFD-Simulationen erarbeitet werden koennen. (orig.)

  5. Benzin iz rapsa : utopija ili realnaja perspektiva? / Oleg Samorodni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Samorodni, Oleg, 1961-

    2006-01-01

    Suurärimees Rein Kilgi eesmärgiks on viia Lõuna Toiduainetööstus Lõuna-Eesti juhtivaks ettevõtteks, seepärast käib ka võitlus rapsitööstuse Werol Tehased ostmise ümber ärimeeste Oliver Kruuda ja Urmas Sõõrumaaga

  6. Ramanspektroskopisk undersøgelse af Metyltertiærbutylether indhold i benzin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    Indholdsfortegnelse:Indledning s. 2 Hvad er MTBE s. 2 Eksperimentielt s. 3 Ramanspektre af ren MTBE s. 3 Ramanspektre af benzinprøver s. 6 Ramanspektre af MTBE i heptan s. 8 Konklusion s. 11 Referencer s. 12Konklusion.Vore målinger af ren MTBE viser et spektrum med fint opløste hånd og ingen...

  7. Flexible design of fuel injection and ignition systems for gasoline direct injection engines; Flexibles Design der Einspritzduese und Effektivitaet von Zuendanlagen fuer Benzin-Direkt-Einspritzung-Motoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuda, H.; Yoshinaga, T.; Nakashima, T.; Sugiura, S. [DENSO Corp. (Japan); Saitoh, K.; Okabe, S. [NIPPON SOKEN, Inc. (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    First generation ''wall-guided'' DISI engines had stratified lean combustion with a wide spacing between the injector and spark plug. In these engines, however, the combustion timing tended to be too early, leading to the inability to achieve ideal efficiency from the thermodynamic process. One proposal to overcome the disadvantages of ''wall-guided'' DISI engines is second-generation ''spray-guided'' DISI engines. It has stratified lean combustion with a close spacing between the injector and spark plug. In ''spray-guided'' DISI engines, the air-fuel mixture formation is independent of gas flow and piston movement. This enables the most significant possibilities for decreasing fuel consumption. Nevertheless, stratified lean combustion has been criticized for the costs and complexity of the aftertreatment required to achieve particulate and NOx emissions compliance. As one response to this problem, there has been a shift toward DISI development specific to stoichiometric homogeneous combustion. In this report, we will describe DENSO's current status and the future of two critical technologies for DISI fuel spray and ignition. Specifically, we will describe a nozzle concept and a high-performance ignition concept. The first concerns a ''multi-hole nozzle with highly flexible spray formation,'' and the second concerns a ''multi-spark ignition system with a high degree of energy flexibility.'' In addition, we will describe advanced ignition methods involving a plasma and a laser ignition. (orig.)

  8. Energiegewas in Noord-Nederland loont niet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, A.

    2010-01-01

    De productie van ethanol uit suikerbieten en de grassoort Miscanthus in Noord-Nederland is momenteel niet concurrerend met benzine uit olie. Alleen bij hoge energieprijzen en op marginale grond is het energiegewas hier lonend.

  9. Native carbonoxidation microorganisms in bioremedetion Northern Caspian sea from oil pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gridneva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 26 strains microorganisms - degradation oil have been isolated from shelf water North Caspian. The high emulsifying ability relative to benzine, kerosene and diesel-fuel oil relevantly were possessed the 11 strains. The 4 cultures exhibiting degradation of oil rates 43-49 %, respectively, were selected.

  10. Labori en Arabio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier Gómez Kolombio

    1997-01-01

    Saǜda Arabio estas lando, kies logantoj es-tas grandparte alilandaj. Tie vi povas trovi multajn soforojn* pakistanajn, benzin*-staciis-tojn bangladesajn, ingenierojn* usonajn kaj britain, vendistojn filipinajn. Ankafǜ hindoj es-tas multegaj en ciuj laborlokoj. Araboj estas

  11. Fuel formula for lighters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwayama, I.; Iwayama, A.

    1982-04-10

    A fuel formula that includes a homogenous mixture of benzine, aromatic ether oils, perfume and other perfuming agents, as well as the lowest possible aliphatic alcohol as a component solvent, surfactant, and possibly, a soluble pigment that colors the formula an appropriate color. This formula is used as an aromatic fuel for cigarette lights. The ether oils can be musk, amber, camomille, lavender, mint, anise, rose, camphor, and other aromatic oils; the perfuming agents are: geraniol, linalool, menthol, camphor, benzyl or phenetyl alcohols, phenylacetaldehyde, vanillin, coumarin, and so forth; the pigments are: beta-carotene, sudan dyes, etc.; the low aliphatic alcohols are EtOH, iso-PrOH. Example: 70 parts benzine, 10 parts EtOH, 15 parts oxide mezithylene and 5 parts borneol form a clear liquid that has a camphor aroma when it is lit.

  12. Dioxin emission of road traffic; Dioxin-Emission des Strassenverkehrs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehler, U. [Antriebstechnik Ferretti GmbH (Germany); Essers, U. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Kraftfahrwesen]|[Forschungsinstut fuer Kraftfahrwesen und Fahrzeugmotoren, Stuttgart (Germany).; Greiner, R. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Kraftfahrwesen

    1997-07-01

    The well-founded determination of the dioxin and furan emission (PXDD/PXDF) of road traffic was the aim of a research project jointly conducted by the Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry at the University of Bayreuth (Prof. Hutzinger), the Institute for Organic Chemistry at the University of Tuebingen (Prof. Hagenmaier) and the IVK (Prof. Essers). The non-standardised examinations of an otto engine, a passenger car and a truck diesel engine required the development of sample-taking and analysis methods as well as of engine test technology. The otto engine driven with leaded gasoline containing scavengers showed the highest dioxin and furan emission while, on the other hand, the otto engine driven with unleaded gasoline, the diesel engines and in particular the otto engine with three-way catalytic converter showed much lower values. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die fundierte Ermittlung der Dioxin- und Furan-Emissionen (PXDD/PXDF) des Strassenverkehrs war das Ziel eines vom Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie und Geochemie der Universitaet Bayreuth, dem Institut fuer Organische Chemie der Universitaet Tuebingen und dem IVK der Universitaet Stuttgart gemeinsam bearbeiteten Forschungsprojekts. Die nicht standardisierten Untersuchungen an einem Ottomotor, einem Pkw- und einem Lkw-Dieselmotor erforderten die Entwicklung von Probenahme- und Analyseverfahren sowie der motorischen Prueftechnik. Der mit verbleitem, scavengerhaltigem Benzin betriebene Ottomotor wies die hoechsten Dioxin- und Furanemissionen auf. Demgegenueber waren die Emissionen des mit unverbleitem Benzin betriebenen Ottomotors, der Dieselmotoren und besonders des Ottomotors mit Drei-Wege-Katalysator deutlich geringer. (orig.)

  13. Benchmarking biofuels; Biobrandstoffen benchmarken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H.; Kampman, B.; Bergsma, G.

    2012-03-15

    A sustainability benchmark for transport biofuels has been developed and used to evaluate the various biofuels currently on the market. For comparison, electric vehicles, hydrogen vehicles and petrol/diesel vehicles were also included. A range of studies as well as growing insight are making it ever clearer that biomass-based transport fuels may have just as big a carbon footprint as fossil fuels like petrol or diesel, or even bigger. At the request of Greenpeace Netherlands, CE Delft has brought together current understanding on the sustainability of fossil fuels, biofuels and electric vehicles, with particular focus on the performance of the respective energy carriers on three sustainability criteria, with the first weighing the heaviest: (1) Greenhouse gas emissions; (2) Land use; and (3) Nutrient consumption [Dutch] Greenpeace Nederland heeft CE Delft gevraagd een duurzaamheidsmeetlat voor biobrandstoffen voor transport te ontwerpen en hierop de verschillende biobrandstoffen te scoren. Voor een vergelijk zijn ook elektrisch rijden, rijden op waterstof en rijden op benzine of diesel opgenomen. Door onderzoek en voortschrijdend inzicht blijkt steeds vaker dat transportbrandstoffen op basis van biomassa soms net zoveel of zelfs meer broeikasgassen veroorzaken dan fossiele brandstoffen als benzine en diesel. CE Delft heeft voor Greenpeace Nederland op een rijtje gezet wat de huidige inzichten zijn over de duurzaamheid van fossiele brandstoffen, biobrandstoffen en elektrisch rijden. Daarbij is gekeken naar de effecten van de brandstoffen op drie duurzaamheidscriteria, waarbij broeikasgasemissies het zwaarst wegen: (1) Broeikasgasemissies; (2) Landgebruik; en (3) Nutriëntengebruik.

  14. DYNAMIC YOUNG’S MODULUS, MORPHOLOGICAL, AND THERMAL STABILITY OF 5 TROPICAL LIGHT HARDWOODS MODIFIED BY BENZENE DIAZONIUM SALT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun'aim Idrus

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the tropical light hardwood species jelutong (Dyera costulata, terbulan (Endospermum diadenum, batai (Paraserianthes moluccana, rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis, and pulai (Alstonia pneumatophora were treated with benzene diazonium salt to improve their dynamic Young’s modulus (Ed, and thermal stability. Benzine diazonium salt reacted with cellulose in wood and produced 2,6-diazocellulose by a coupling reaction, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Values of Ed were calculated from the free-free flexural vibration method and found to increase on treatment. The morphological properties were studied by FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM and found to be changed. Thermal properties of treated wood samples were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The treated wood samples exhibited an increased thermal stability relative to the untreated wood samples; this increase may be related to the formation of 2, 6-diazo cellulose compound.

  15. A method for isolating piperylenes from the C5 fraction of pyrolysis gasolines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messinger, T.; Pop, G.; Purvutolu, T.

    1980-11-30

    A method is patented for separating piperylenes from the C5 fraction of pyrolysis benzine. The starting raw material is fractionated to remove the volatile C5 components (with a boiling point of less than 38 degrees), while the remainder is fractionated, removing the upper fraction which contains piperylenes (a boiling point of 38 to 45 degrees); this fraction is subjected to extractive distillation, distilling away the residues of the C5 components; the residual product is fractionated, producing in the distillate a mixture of piperylene, acetylenes and cyclopentadienes which is shifted to the zone of extractive distillation, producing in the distillate a piperylene concentrated which is then purified by known chemical means, producing a piperylene concentrate enriched with a transisomer. The residue from the fractionation is fractionated in another tower, from the top of which the piperylene concentrated, enriched with a cis isomer is distilled off.

  16. USA and European Union. Loyal allies? A new episode in energy diplomacy; Verenigde Staten en Europese Unie. Trouwe bondgenoten? Nieuwe episode in energiediplomatie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linde, C.; Hoogeveen, F.

    2005-07-15

    The authors focus on a new chapter in energy diplomacy of the United States and the European Union. They deal with various relevant causes of the structural change in global petrol and gas markets in the context of Transatlantic relations. Their key question is whether efforts at improving energy security will help maintain the Transatlantic relationship or rather act as divisive element. [Dutch] De auteurs richten zich op een nieuw hoofdstuk in de energie-diplomatie van de Verenigde Staten en de Europese Unie. Zij bespreken diverse relevante oorzaken van de structurele veranderingen in de wereldwijde benzine-en gasmarkten in het kader van de transatlantische betrekkingen. Hun belangrijkste vraag is of de inspanningen ter verbetering van de energie zekerheid de trans-Atlantische relatie zal helpen onderhouden van als splijtzwam zal fungeren.

  17. Environmental data 1995; Umweltdaten Deutschland 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The brochure contains concise data on pollution sources and pollutant effects on the environment (land use, airborne pollutants, liquid effluents, waste, noise, etc.), data on environment quality (air pollution levels, water quality, diversity of species, etc.), and data on the social effects of environmental pollution (environmental protection expenditures, market shares of low-polluting passenger cars and unleaded fuel, biological sewage treatment systems, etc.). All these data are suitable indicators for describing the current environmental situation. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Die Broschuero umfasst in komprimierter Weise - Daten zu den Verursachern von Umweltbelastungen und zu den Einwirkungen auf die Umwelt (Bodennutzung, Luftemissionen, Abwasser, Abfaelle, Laerm etc.), - Daten zur Qualitaet der Umwelt (Immissionen, Gewaesserguete, Artenvielfalt etc.) sowie - Daten zur gesellschaftlichen Reaktion auf die Umweltbelastung (Ausgaben fuer den Umweltschutz, Anteil schadstoffarmer Pkw und bleifreien Benzins, Anschluss der Bevoelkerung an biologische Klaeranlagen etc.), die als Indikatoren zur Beschreibung der Umweltsituation geeignet erscheinen. (orig./KW)

  18. [Effect of organic solvents on the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langauer-Lewowicka, H; Witecki, K; Braszczyńska, Z; Wocka-Marek, T; Byczkowska, Z

    1983-01-01

    Psychological tests and EEG investigations were applied for detecting early signs of neurotoxicity of organic solvents present in glues used in the production of shoes (extraction benzin, toluene and n-hexane). In 5% of the obtained samples the permissible benzin concentration was exceeded, and in 10% of samples this permissible concentration of toluene was exceeded. Psychological testing was done in 100 subjects. The intelligence level was at the lower normal range. Organic cortical changes were demonstrated in 35 cases, and borderline pathological changes in 28 cases. The test of L. Bender suggested damage to the occipital cortex in 31, and the Graham-Kendal test demonstrated abnormalities in 13 cases. EEG was done in 56 subjects in this group and in another 9 subjects with a high concentration of toluene metabolite. In 75.4% of subjects the EEG findings were classified as normal, within normal limits or borderline normal. Abnormal EEG tracings were found in 24.0%. Diffuse, slight or moderately intense abnormalities were present in 7 cases, focal abnormalities in 4 and seizure activity in 7. Most subjects with abnormal EEG findings worked under conditions of excessive exposure, with the summarized exposure index exceeding the acceptable one. No correlation was demonstrated between cortical pathological changes and the degree of occupational exposure and the type of EEG tracings. The authors suggest that organic occipital cortical changes may be regarded as an early phase of organic brain damage syndrome and disturbances of cerebral bioelectric activity as a sign of individual biological response to chronic action of organic solvents on the organism.

  19. Effect of organic solvents on the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langauer-Lewowicka, H.; Witecki, K.; Braszczynska, Z.; Wocka-Marek, T.; Byczkowska, Z.

    Psychological tests and EEG investigations were applied for detecting early signs of neurotoxicity of organic solvents present in glues used in the production of shoes (extraction benzin, toluene and n-hexane). In 5% of the obtained samples the permissible benzin concentration was exceeded, and in 10% of samples this permissible concentration of toluene was exceeded. Psychological testing was done in 100 subjects. The intelligence level was at the lower normal range. Organic cortical changes were demonstrated in 35 cases, and borderline pathological changes in 28 cases. The test of L. Bender suggested damage to the occipital cortex in 31, and the Graham-Kendal test demonstrated abnormalities in 13 cases. EEG was done in 56 subjects in this group and in another 9 subjects with a high concentration of toluene metabolite. In 75.4% of subjects the EEG findings were classified as normal, within normal limits or borderline normal. Abnormal EEG tracings were found in 24.0%. Diffuse, slight or moderately intense abnormalities were present in 7 cases, focal abnormalities in 4 and seizure activity in 7. Most subjects with abnormal EEG findings worked under conditions of excessive exposure, with the summarized exposure index exceeding the acceptable one. No correlation was demonstrated between cortical pathological changes and the degree of occupational exposure and the type of EEG tracings. The authors suggest that organic occipital cortical changes may be regarded as an early phase of organic brain damage syndrome and disturbances of cerebral bioelectric activity as a sign of individual biological response to chronic action of organic solvents on the organism.

  20. İÇTEN YANMALI MOTORLARDA, AL TERNATİF ENERJİ OLARAK KULLANILABİLECEK, ALKOL VE HİDROJENİN İNCELENMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Kılıçarslan

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Il. Dünya savaşından itibaren, alternatif yakıt arayışları giderek yo�unlaşmıştır. Özellikle 1973 yılındaki petrol krizinden konuya ilgi oldukça artmıştır. Bu çalışmada, içten yanmab motorların yakıt özelliklerine ve yakıt ekonomilerine paralel olarak alternatif enerji kaynaklarından alkol ve hidrojen ele alınmıştır. Benzinli motorlarda, hacmen o/o20 kadar alkol içeren benzinler motor yapısında değişiklik yapılmaksızın kullanılmaktadır. Alkol, benzin motorlannda o/ol O güç aruşı sağlamaktadır. Hidrojenin tutuşma sınırlarımn çok geniş olması, içten yanmalı motorlar için büyük avantajdır. Yakıt hileresi uygulamasında, hidrojenden elektro kimyasal yöntemle elektrik üretilmektedir. Bu uygulamada, alkol araç içerisinde hidrojene dönüşmekte daha sonrada bir kütle içerisi den geçirilerek motoı-lara akım sağlayan elektrik enerjisini üretmektedir. Klasik yakrtlara alternatif olarak, alkol "e hidrojenin kullanılabilirliği ortaya konulmuştur.

  1. Operational performance of the ETH-hybrid III drive system - at the test stand and in the vehicle; Betriebsverhalten des ETH-Hybrid III Antriebes - Auf dem dynamischen Pruefstand und im Fahrzeug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, P.; Eberle, M.K.

    1999-07-01

    The position and the way of operation of the ETH hybrid III drive system in an Otto engine, an electric motor, a flywheel and an infinitely variable wide-range transmission are presented. The consumption values for gasoline and electric power are shown for constant drive and in city cycles. The achievable conservation of 40% at gasoline operation is not limited to one cycle and shows the robustness of this measure to improve partial load operation. The sensitiveness towards the evaluated current generation is shown by means of the autarkic charge operation. (orig.) [German] Es wird die Anordnung und die Betriebsweise des ETH-Hybrid III Antriebes mit einem Ottomotor, einem Elektromotor, einem Schwungrad und einem stufenlosen Weitbereichsgetriebe dargestellt. Es werden die Verbrauchswerte bei Konstantfahrt und in Stadtzyklen sowohl fuer Benzin und Strom aufgezeigt. Die erzielbaren 40% Verbrauchseinsparung im Benzinbetrieb ist nicht nur auf einen Zyklus beschraenkt und zeigt die Robustheit dieser Teillastverbesserungsmassnahme auf. Anhand des autarken Ladebetriebes wird die Sensitivitaet gegenueber der betrachteten Stromherstellung aufgezeigt. (orig.)

  2. The Primary study on the technique of oil production from Isochrysis cultured in photobio-reactor%生物反应器培养金藻生产生物柴油技术初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常林; 邹宁

    2011-01-01

    本实验将金藻用生物反应器在实验室条件下进行培养,并初步优化了乙醚石油醚法从一种金藻中提取油脂的方法。金藻中富含油脂,实验研究得出,用无水乙醚和石油醚混合溶剂在体积比2:1、温度20℃[1]、提纯时间5h以上的实验条件下萃取海藻中的脂肪质量最高。皂化过程选取甲醇作为溶剂要明显优于以乙醇作为溶剂的结果,实验确定采用KOH一甲醇作为皂化试剂。%The Isochrysis was cultured in photobioreators under laboratory conditions. The methods of extraction of oil from Isochrysis was studied. The Isochrysis is rich in oil.The results showed the optimal conditions of the oil extraction from the alga were : the ratio of the volume of absolute ether and petroleum benzin was 2:l,the temperature of the extrac- tion was 20℃,and the extraction time was 5h. Efficiency of extraction was higher with methand as the solvent than it with ethanol.

  3. Lead sources in airborne particulate matter from urban areas of Sicily; Livelli di piombo nel particolato atmosferico dei centri urbani della Sicilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiuppa, A.; Dongarra' , G.; Varrica, D. [Palermo Univ., Palermo (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Fisica della Terra; Monna, G. [Univ. de Bourgougne, Geosol, CST, Dijon (France); Sabatino, G. [Messina Univ., Messina (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze della Terra

    2001-01-01

    Pb isotopic studies, measurements of Pb/Br ratios and enrichment factors have been used to discriminate the origin of lead in the urban atmosphere of several cities of Sicily. The acquired data confirm that, although the relative importance of gasoline-derived Pb is decreased in time, lead still remains one of the most significant trace elements in airborne particulate matter. The chemical and isotopic data show that gasoline and industrial activities makes a major contribution to particulate Pb, while the crustal source is of minor importance. The correlation between lead and antimony is also presented. [Italian] Le differenti fonti che contribuiscono al contenuto di piombo nel particolato atmosferico di alcune citta' della Sicilia sono state discriminate mediante l'utilizzo di opportuni marker chimici: il rapporto Pb/Br ed i rapporti isotopici del piombo. I rapporti Pb/Br osservati nel particolato atmosferico risultano prossimi al rapporto tipico presente nelle benzine. I dati isotopici confermano il limitato contributo crostale rispetto a quello proveniente dal traffico autoveicolare e mettono in evidena come in alcune aree sia particolarmente significativo anche il contributo delle attivita' industriali. Viene inoltre presentata la correlazione esistente fra i contenuti di piombo e antimonio, come risultato delle attivita' antropiche.

  4. Product analyses and kinetic studies on gas phase oxidation of the fuel additive ethyl tert-butyl ether and its products; Produktanalysen und Kinetikuntersuchungen der Gasphasenoxidation des Kraftstoffadditivs Ethyl-tert-butylether und seiner Produkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.H.; Thuener, L.

    1997-04-01

    The widespread use of the additive ETBE in gasoline leads to an increased release of this compound into the atmosphere via evaporation or exhaust fumes. In order to determine the influence of this additive on trace gas cycles it is first necessary to carry out studies on the degradation mechanisms and pertinent kinetic properties of this substance. The aim of the present study was to examine the degradation mechanisms of the fuel additive t-butyl ethyl ether under atmospheric conditions. The reactions of the main degradation products (t-butyl formiate and t-butyl acetate, together ca. 80%) were also studied in order to obtain as complete a picture of the degradation paths as possible. This was to permit an assessment of the influence of ETBE and its products on tropospheric trace gas cycles and ozone formation. [Deutsch] Bei haeufigem Zusatz von ETBE in Benzin wird diese Verbindung durch Verdampfung oder als Abgas verstaerkt in die Atmosphaere abgegeben. Um den Einfluss des Additivs auf die Spurengas-Kreislaeufe zu bestimmen, sind daher Untersuchungen noetig, um die Abbau-Mechanismen und die zugehoerigen kinetischen Daten zu ermitteln. Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Untersuchung der Abbaumechanismen des Kraftstoffadditivs t-Butylethylether unter atmosphaerischen Bedingungen. Fuer eine moeglichst vollstaendige Analyse des Abbauweges werden auch die Reaktionen der Hauptabbauprodukte (t-Butylformiat und t-Butylacetat, zusammen etwa 80%) untersucht. Dadurch soll der Einfluss auf troposphaerische Spurengas-Kreislaeufe und auf die Ozonbildung von ETBE und seinen Produkten abgeschaetzt werden. (orig./SR)

  5. Separation and Purification of Oridonin by Macro-porous Resin and Silica Column Chromatography%大孔吸附树脂联用硅胶柱层析法分离纯化冬凌草甲素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建峰; 邬泉周; 黄少梅

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立大孔吸附树脂联用硅胶柱层析法分离纯化冬凌草甲素的工艺流程.方法:将冬凌草粉碎,用95%乙醇提取,浓缩成浸膏;以冬凌草甲素含量为指标,采用大孔吸附树脂联用硅胶柱层析法分离纯化冬凌草甲素,并用红外光谱、熔点测定和高效液相色谱(HPLC)法对重结晶产品的纯度和结构进行分析和表征.结果:优化的工艺为采用苯乙烯型大孔吸附树脂(HZ-841)先对浸膏进行粗分离,再选取乙酸乙酯-石油醚(6∶4,V/V)为洗脱溶剂,石油醚-丙酮(2∶3,VV)为重结晶溶剂进行硅胶柱分离纯化,在此条件下,得到的冬凌草甲素含量为96.11%,提取率达到0.86%.结论:所选工艺简单、可行,使用溶剂安全、无毒,提取效率高,可用于分离纯化冬凌草甲素.%OBJECTIVE: To establish macro-porous resin and silica column chromatography for the separation and purification of oridonin. METHODS: Rabdosia rubescens was shattered and extracted with 95% ethanol, then concentrated to extract. Taking the content of oridonin as index, the oridonin was separated and purified by macro-porous resin and silica column chromatography. The structure and purity of the recrystallized products were analyzed and characterized with IR spectra, smelting point and HPLC. RESULTS: The optimal technology was as follows: polystyrene-type macroporous absorbing resins (HZ-841) was used to separate extract roughly and silica column was used for purification with acetic ether-petroleum benzin(6:4, V/V) as elution solvent and petroleum benzin-acetone(2 : 3, V/V). Under this condition, the content of oridonin was 96.11% and the extraction ratio reached to 0.86‰. CONCLUSIONS: The technology is simple and feasible, and solvents used are safe and non-toxic with high extraction efficient. It can be used for the separation and purification of oridonin.

  6. Second generation biofuels. France drives in top gear; Tweede generatie biobrandstoffen. Frankrijk in de hoogste versnelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polo-Leemreis, J.

    2010-06-15

    In its 2008 directive Europe formulated a target for 2020 for blending biofuels of 5.75%. At the national level France formulated stricter targets: 7% blending in petrol in 2010 and 10% in 2015. The target for diesel blending amounted to 8%. Partly because of this policy, France has become Europe's largest producer of first generation biofuels. Due to France's enthusiasm for first generation biofuels, it is lagging behind in the development of second generation biofuels compared to competitors such as Germany and the United States. Ambitions have now been set high to make up arrears. Both on the national and international level French teams are working on ambitious projects. This article provides an overview of the main French projects for the development of second generation biofuels. The following projects are discussed: Futurol (total budget of 74 million euro), BioTFuel (total budget of 112,7 million euro), GAYA (total budget van 61,4 million euro), Deinol, Global Bioenergies en Memobiol, Biocore, Eurobioref and the international enzyme-genomics project. [Dutch] In zijn richtlijn uit 2008 heeft Europa voor 2020 een doelstelling van 5,75% opgesteld voor bijmenging van biobrandstoffen. Op nationaal niveau heeft Frankrijk strengere doelstellingen geformuleerd: 7% bijmenging in benzine in 2010 en 10% in 2015. Voor diesel was de doelstelling 8% bijmenging. Mede vanwege dit beleid is Frankrijk Europa's grootste producent van eerste generatie biobrandstoffen. Door het Franse enthousiasme voor eerste generatie biobrandstoffen loopt het land voor de ontwikkeling van tweede generatie biobrandstoffen achter op concurrenten als Duitsland en de Verenigde Staten. De ambities zijn nu hoog om deze achterstand zo snel mogelijk weg te werken. Zowel op nationaal als internationaal niveau werken Franse teams aan ambitieuze projecten. Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van de belangrijkste Franse projecten voor de ontwikkeling van tweede generatie biobrandstoffen. Het

  7. pH-sensitive hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing-Fun, Yaung.

    1993-01-01

    This work dealt with the diffusant release from the polyvinyl-pyrrolidone-polyacrylic acid (PVP-PAA) semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) film when the film was placed in separate aqueous dissolution media with various pH values. The pH effect on the swelling behavior of the film and the rates of diffusant release from the film were studied. The PVP-PAA semi-IPN films and the PVP-PAA complexes were prepared from photopolymerization of the mixture of PVP and acrylic acid, in the presence of benzin methyl ether. The PVP-PAA complexes were characterized by means of DSC and FT-IR. The PVP-PAA semi-IPN films with various percentages of a crosslinking agent were investigated. The study of pH effect on the swelling of the semi-IPN film was carried out in 0.1 N HCl solution, pH 3.0 and 6.0 buffers. The swelling rate of PVP-PAA semi-IPN film in pH 6.0 buffer was much higher than the rates in 0.1 N HCl and pH 3.0 buffer. The chemical to be released from the film was incorporated during the film preparation and the diffusant used was either caffeine (hydrogen-bonding-acceptor) or salicylamide (hydrogen-bonding-donator). The diffusant release from the PVP-PAA semi-IPN in 0.1 N HCl solution and in the phosphate buffers with various pH values was investigated. Release rate was faster in high pH media. The chemical valve function of the PVP-PAA semi-IPN film in controlling release rate was studied by alternating the dissolution medium between 0.1N HCl solution and pH 6.0 buffer. Consistently, the release rate increased when the dissolution medium was changed from 0.1 N HCl solution to pH 6.0 buffer, and the rate dropped while the medium was was switched from pH 6.0 buffer to 0.1 N HCl solution. Finally, the effects of the type of crosslinking agent, the percentage of crosslinking agent used, and the molar ratio of PVP/AA on the diffusant release from the PVP-PAA semi-IPN film were explored.

  8. 雪里蕻腌菜特征风味物质的分离和鉴定%Isolation and Identification of Typical Flavor Componentsof Potherb Mustard Pickles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵大云; 汤坚; 丁霄霖

    2001-01-01

    运用色-质(GC/MS)联用技术对雪里蕻腌菜的风味物质进行了研究,以期发现能显著影响其风味特性的关键性成分.首先,对雪里蕻腌菜卤汁的乙醚萃取浓缩液组分进行了鉴定,结果发现有机酸组分8个,醇类组分4个,腈类组分2个,酯类组分1个,芳香烃2个.经动态顶空吸附雪里蕻腌菜挥发性组分并进行组分离,在GC-MS图谱上进行组分的分离鉴定,其特征风味在碱性组分中嗅感强烈.雪里蕻腌菜挥发性成分经GC-MS检测解析为烃类、醇类、酯类、腈及杂环化合物,其中丁烯腈及苯并噻唑与雪里蕻腌菜特征风味形成密切相关.%The spectra patterns of volatile flavor components in potherb mustard pickles detected by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectometry(GC/MS) were investigated in order to identify key compounds in the pickles. The constituents from pickle brine extracted with ethyl ether and identified by GC-MS. In the result, 8 acids, 4 alcohol, 2 nitriles, 2benzines and 1 ester were identified. The application of dynamic headspace trapping using a glass column trap contained HayeSep Q as absorbent combined with GC-MS technique for the volatile flavor analyses and identification was studied. The volatile components from the trapping were collected and presented into acidic, weak acidic, neutral and basic fraction, the basic fraction contained character-impact compounds by means of olfactory evaluation. Two key compounds, butenenitrile and benzothiazole, were found.

  9. Systems for hydrogen utilisation; Geraete fuer die Wasserstofftechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulien, S. [AGAFE, Ruesselsheim (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The hydrogen technology has better prospects than renewable fuels as it can rely on the coal gasification and liquefaction processes developed in Germany in the twenties and thirties of the past century. Hydrogen produced with renewable fuels or from fossil energy sources can be used partly for hydrogenation of CO and CO2 as in these earlier coal hydrogenation processes for producing synthesis gas and liquid energy sources. The public and the scientific experts should be made aware of this fact. Coal utilisation technologies should be re-introduced in order to produce synthesis gas, gasoline and hydrogen. This will result in a high demand for hydrogen consumers, hydrogen storage vessels and small-scale hydrogen generators. Once the expert German industry will get aware of this, electrolysers, H2 burners, H2 motors, storage tanks, measuring instruments, safety systems etc. will be developed. Related technologies like oxygen technology, decentralised power supply systems, catalysts in technical facilities etc. will become interesting as well. Industry will start to work on this once its experts have realised that this is an interesting production sector and not just fantasy. [German] Die Wasserstofftechnik wird sich vor den regenerativen Energien durchsetzen. Denn es besteht eine enge Verwandtschaft zwischen der Wasserstofftechnik und den Techniken zur Kohleverfluessigung und -vergasung, die in Deutschland in den zwanziger und dreissiger Jahren entwickelt worden sind. Der mit regenerativen Energien oder aus fossilen Energietraegern erzeugte Wasserstoff kann z.T. zur Hydrierung von CO und CO{sub 2} verwendet werden, wie er frueher bei der Hydrierung von Kohle verwendt wurde, um so Synthesegas und fluessige Energietraeger zu erzeugen. Die Oeffentlichkeit und die Wirtschaft muessten auf diese Zusammenhaenge hingewiesen werden. Es werden im grossen Massstab wieder Kohlevergasung und Kohleverfluessigung angewandt werden muessen, um Synthesegas, Benzin und Wasserstoff zu

  10. Validação de método para determinação de resíduos de agrotóxicos em tomate: uma experiência laboratorial Method validation for determination of pesticide residues in tomatoes: a laboratorial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Wohlers Morelli Cardoso

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Um modelo de procedimento para validação de método de ensaio para determinação de cinco agrotóxicos (γ - HCH, clorotalonil, fenitrotiona, clorpirifós e procimidona em matriz tomate é demonstrado através da análise cromatográfica. A amostra processada é extraída com 30 mL de acetona e em seguida com 60 mL de uma mistura diclometano: éter de petróleo (1:1. O volume total é centrifugado e a alíquota orgânica é filtrada sob Na2SO4. Um mililitro de extrato orgânico é concentrado e dissolvido em um mililitro de iso-octano. Um microlitro do extrato é analisado no cromatógrafo a gás com detector por captura de elétrons - CG/DCE. Foram avaliados seletividade, linearidade, repetitividade, recuperação e limites de detecção e de quantificação. As recuperações obtidas variaram de 70 a 110%, considerando-se os níveis de adição de agrotóxicos/amostra de 0,02 a 2,50 mg.kg-1. Os limites de detecção do método variaram de 0,004 a 0,006 mg.kg-1 e os de quantificação entre 0,014 e 0,020 mg.kg-1.A validation procedure model of a multiresidue method is presented for chromatographic analyses of five pesticides residues γ-HCH, chlorothalonil, fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos and procymidone applied on tomatoes. The tomatoes were processed and extracted by acetone plus a mixture of dichloromethane:petroleum benzine (1:1. The volume was centrifuged and was then filtered under Na2SO4. One milliliter of organic extract was concentrated then diluted in isooctane and one microliter was analyzed in the gas chromatograph with electron capture detector - GC/ECD. The parameters evaluated were selectivity, linearity, repeatability, recovery, and limits of detection and quantification. The recovery ranged from 70 to 110% in the concentration range of 0.02 to 2.50 mg.kg-1. The limits of detection ranged from 0.004 to 0.006 mg.kg-1 and the limits of quantification were between 0.014 to 0.02 mg.kg-1.

  11. Dispersion of volatile hydrocarbons into the environment; Dispersione di idrocarburi volatili nell'ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamberti, L.; Gironi, F. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali, delle Materie Prime e Metallurgia

    2001-04-01

    Recent studies revealed the presence of relevant concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether in groundwater. The same researches did not measure significant quantities of the other gasoline hydrocarbons in the samples. The aim of this work is to analyse in which way MTBE can reach the deeper layers of groundwater. Different liquid and vapour losses of hydrocarbons, with a particular attention to MTBE, are studied. In this context, the dispersion into atmosphere of the vapours present in the car gasoline tanks during the refilling of fuel has been estimated and compared to the losses due to imperfect combustion. An estimation of the total hydrocarbons vapours lost into atmosphere because of the evaporation from cars and industrial tanks has been compared with data reported in the European Community Directives. To reduce the losses of hydrocarbons from car gasoline tanks during the refilling of fuel, a recovery system has been suggested, which is based on the adsorption of hydrocarbon vapours on activated carbons. This method can be alternative to that adopted by service station pumps. At the moment, the behaviour of the equipment is being studied in the laboratory, where this research is performed. [Italian] Alcuni studi recenti hanno rilevato la presenza di concentrazioni significative di metil terz-butil etere nelle acque di falda. Al contrario altri composti idrocarburici, quali quelli presenti normalmente nelle benzine, non sono stati individuati. Il presente lavoro ha lo scopo di studiare le modalita' con le quali l'MTBE puo' raggiungere la falda idrica, distinguendo in particolare le perdite in fase liquida dalle perdite in fase vapore. Sono state quantificate le perdite per lo spiazzamento dei vapori presenti nel serbatorio nel momento del rifornimento del carburante e si e' mostrato come questo termine sia confrontabile con quello dovuto alle perdite per imperfetta combustione. La stima delle perdite totali di vapori idrocarburici per

  12. Bioenergy Status Document 2011; Statusdocument Bio-energie 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Bergsma, G.

    2011-03-15

    als in 2009 (88 PJ) en iets meer dan 2010 (86 PJ). In de richtlijn hernieuwbare energie is verder vastgelegd dat in 2020 minimaal 10% van het verbruik van benzine, diesel en elektriciteit voor vervoer afkomstig moet zijn uit hernieuwbare bronnen. Staatssecretaris Atsma wil dat dit percentage al in 2016 behaald wordt. In 2011 bedroeg het verplichte aandeel hernieuwbare energie 4,25%. Naar verwachting is deze verplichting administratief gehaald. Doordat sommige typen biotransportbrandstoffen dubbel geteld mogen worden, is de fysieke levering echter aanzienlijk lager dan in 2009. De administratieve dubbeltelling is van toepassing op de transportdoelstelling (10 %), maar niet op de algemene doelstelling (14 %). Een hoger aandeel dubbeltellende brandstoffen draagt daarmee niet proportioneel bij aan de algemene doelstelling. Ongeveer driekwart van de geproduceerde hernieuwbare energie in 2011 is afkomstig van biomassa. De overige hernieuwbare energie komt bijvoorbeeld uit waterkracht, wind- en zonne-energie. Hernieuwbare energie uit biomassa is voor een groot deel afkomstig van afvalverbrandingsinstallaties, meestook in energiecentrales, gebruik van houtkachels en het gebruik van biobrandstoffen in de transportsector.

  13. 白术挥发油提取方法研究%Extraction of volatile oils from rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎克里; 朱秀卿; 赵丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立白术挥发油高效液相色谱法(HPLC)定量分析方法.研究白术挥发油提取方法.方法 对3种有机溶剂和4种提取方法提取的4个产地挥发油提取率及挥发油中5个定量指标含量进行分析比较.结果 乙酸乙酯、正己烷、石油醚浸提挥发油提取率依次为2.76%,2.24%,1.96%,超声法的依次为2.54%,1.98%,1.86%.SPE法挥发油提取率为3.13%,水蒸气蒸馏法的为1.42%.挥发油含量浙江>安徽>湖南>河北.水蒸气蒸馏法与其他3种提取方法相比,苍术酮含量低1倍以上,桉叶醇含量低35倍,榄香烯含量为零,白术内酯Ⅰ、白术内酯Ⅲ含量高3倍以上.结论 研究建立的挥发油HPLC法定量分析方法简单、稳定可靠.SPE法为白术挥发油较好的提取方法.在没有SPE设备时,乙酸乙酯浸提法是白术挥发油较合适的提取方法.水蒸气蒸馏法提取白术挥发油并不科学.%Objective To establish a quantitative analysis for extraction of volatile oils from Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae by HPLC method. Methods Quantitative analysis and comparison were conducted for contents and extraction rates of 5 active ingredients in volatile oils from rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae, purchased from 5 geographical regions, and extracted with three organic solvents and 4 extraction methods. Results The extraction rates were respectively, 2.76%, 2.24% and 1.96% using ethyl acetate, N-hexane and benzine, 2.54%, 1.98% and 1.86% using ultrasonic method, 3.13% by SPE method, and 1.42% by steam distillation. The highest rate of extraction was achieved with products from Zhejiang, followed in order by Anhui, Hunan and Hebei. Compared with the other three extraction methods, volatile oil obtained with steam distillation was one-fold lower in atractylon, 35-fold lower in eudesmol. zero contents in elemene, and 3-fold higher in atractylenolids Ⅰ and Ⅲ. Conclusions The quantitative analysis using HLPC for rhizoma

  14. Future propulsion systems and fuels; Antriebe und Kraftstoffe fuer die Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huss, C. [Wissenschafts- und Verkehrspolitik, BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Nutzung weltweit unangefochten die Fuehrungsrolle erlangt. Fuer konventionelle Antriebe und Kraftstoffe wurde dabei ein hoher Standard erreicht, der sich durch optimierte Verbrennung, aufwaendige Abgasnachbehandlung und dementsprechend niedrige klassische Abgasemissionen auszeichnet. Die Abhaengigkeit von den eingeschraenkt verfuegbaren Oelvorkommen sowie die Nachteile bei der Verbrennung fossiler Energietraeger infolge von Treibhausgasemissionen haben die Diskussion zu diesen bislang als optimal angesehenen Kraftstoffen intensiviert. Entsprechend wird nach anderen Kraftstoffen bzw. Antriebsformen fuer den Strassenverkehr gesucht. Einbezogen werden dabei oekologische und oekonomische Kriterien sowie die Ressourcenverfuegbarkeit zur Erzielung eines Gesamtoptimums des Kraftstoffsystems. Schluessel zur 'Entkarbonisierung' des Kraftstoffes kann langfristig der Einsatz von Wasserstoff als Treibstoff sein - unter der Voraussetzung einer insgesamt emissionsarmen Erzeugungskette fuer die Bereitstellung des Wasserstoffs. Die Entwicklung an Wasserstoff-Fahrzeug-Prototypen bei BMW wird seit 20 Jahren verfolgt. Mit dem BMW 750hL konnte im Jahr 2000 eine seriennahe Flotte von 15 fahrbereiten Pkw aufgebaut werden. Im Jahr 2001 stellte BMW mit der Modellreihe 745h die sechste Generation vor und damit ein erstmals unter seriennahen Bedingungen entwickeltes Fahrzeug. Alle Fahrzeug-Serien sind mit einem Wasserstoff-Kryotank ausgestattet und fuer bivalenten Betrieb ausgelegt (Wasserstoff/Benzin). Wesentliche technische Entwicklungsaufgabe ist die Speicherung des Kraftstoffes Wasserstoff. Aufgrund seiner physikalisch-chemischen Eigenschaften sind moderne Kryo-Tanks fuer Fluessigwasserstoff entwickelt worden. Im Rahmen der Verkehrswirtschaftlichen Energiestrategie haben sich fuehrende Unternehmen mit Unterstuetzung der Bundesregierung zusammengeschlossen, um an einer konzertierten Einfuehrungsstrategie fuer den Kraftstoff Wasserstoff zu arbeiten. (orig.)