Full Text Available Research on transesterification of crude palm oil (CPO using petroleum benzin as solvent has been done. This research aims to determine the optimum concentration of catalyst KOH and NaOH, mole ratio of methanol to oil, volume ratio of solvent to oil, and temperature range of solvent. This research also observes the influence of changing in methanol concentration and levels of palm oil free fatty acids (FFA on biodiesel production. In this research, transesterification was preceded by esterification for 10 min using sulphuric acid catalyst. The results showed that KOH gave better results than NaOH as catalyst with optimum concentration was 1.75% (w/v. Mole ratio of methanol to palm oil optimum was 6:1, and volume ratio of solvent to palm oil optimum was 2:5. Optimum temperature range of the solvent was 70-90 °C. Decreasing on concentration of methanol, and increasing of free fatty acids (FFA level gave negative impact on the biodiesel production, more over on transesterification without solvent. The characteristics (phosphor content, density, water content, ash content, carbon residue, energy content and chemical components of biodiesel which was produced using petroleum benzin relatively similar to biodiesel produced in the normal way (without solvent. Decreasing on concentration of methanol, and increasing on level of free fatty acids (FFA gave a negative impact on the biodiesel, more over on transesterification without solvent. Keywords: transesterification, CPO, solvent, petroleum benzin
Application of laser-optical diagnostics for the support of direct-injection gasoline combustion process development; Einsatz laseroptischer Messverfahren zur Unterstuetzung der Entwicklung von Brennverfahren mit Benzin-Direkteinspritzung
Hentschel, W.; Meyer, H.; Stiebels, B. [Volkswagenwerk AG, Wolfsburg (Germany). Abt. Forschung und Entwicklung
The development of direct-injection gasoline engines at Volkswagen was supported strictly from the beginning by the means of optical diagnostics and CFD-simulations. Basic phenomena, such as the formation of the in-cylinder flow field, the penetration of the spray formed by a hollow-cone swirl-type injector at high fuel pressure, the interaction of spray and flow and the formation of an ignitable mixture were analysed in details. The paper describes the laser-optical techniques-particle-image-velocimetry, laser-Doppler-anemometry, videostroboscopy, high-speed cinematography and laser-induced fluorescence - which were used during the development of the DI gasoline combustion process. Examples taken from engines with optical access to the combustion chamber demonstrate the capability of the techniques and pinpoint where the design of the combustion process benefits from experimental and simulation investigations. (orig.) [German] Die Entwicklung von Ottomotoren mit Benzin-Direkteinspritzung wurde bei Volkswagen von Beginn an konsequent durch den Einsatz optischer Messverfahren und CFD-Simulationen unterstuetzt. Damit konnten grundlegende Phaenomene, wie die Ausbildung des Stroemungsfeldes im Motorbrennraum, die Ausbreitung des durch einen Hohlkegel-Drallinjektor unter hohem Druck eingespritzten Kraftstoffs sowie die Wechselwirkung der Luftstroemung im Zylinder mit den Einspritzstrahlen und die Bildung einer zuendfaehigen Ladungswolke detailliert untersucht werden. Das Paper beschreibt die laseroptischen Messverfahren - Particle-Image-Velocimetry, Laser-Doppler-Anemometry, Video-Stroboskopie, Hochgeschwindikgkeits-Kinematographie und Laserinduzierte Fluoreszenz - die bei der Brennverfahrensentwicklung eingesetzt werden und zeigt anhand einer Reihe von konkreten Beispielen, wo Antworten auf Grundsatzfragen zur Auslegung des Brennverfahrens durch Messergebnisse an optisch zugaenglichen Motoren und durch CFD-Simulationen erarbeitet werden koennen. (orig.)
Bruinsma, F.R.; Rietveld, P. [Vakgroep Ruimtelijke Economie, Faculteit der Economische Wetenschappen en Econometrie, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Vuuren, D. [Tinbergen Instituut, Amsterdam/Rotterdam (Netherlands)
Dutch people at the border of Germany fill up the tanks of their cars in Germany while the price per liter petrol is much lower there. The Dutch government tries to protect the Dutch petrol station owners by lowering the tax for petrol within a specific area near the border and thus to refrain Dutch car owners from refuelling their cars in Germany. The problems of `border tanking` (`grenstanken`) and the results of the petrol tax decrease for the petrol station owners are briefly discussed. 3 refs.
The present paper describes a device whereby rapid flame movement within an internal-combustion engine cylinder may be recorded and determined. By the aid of a simple cylindrical contact and an oscillograph the rate of combustion within the cylinder of an airplane engine during its normal operation may be measured for gas intake velocities of from 30 to 35 m/s and for velocities within the cylinder of from 20 to 25 m/s. With it the influence of mixture ratios, of turbulence, of compression ratio and kind of fuel on combustion velocity may be determined. Besides the determination of the influence of the above factors on combustion velocity, the degree of turbulence may also be determined. As a unit of reference in estimating the degree of turbulence, the intake velocity of the charge is chosen.
Pekic, B.; Kisgeci, J.
Trials conducted in 1980 and 1981 on three soil types, chernozem (a rich soil), anthropogenized black sand (a medium-rich soil), and anthropogenized brown sand (a poor soil), showed that the Jerusalem artichoke was superior to conventional field crops (corn, sugarbeet, potato, and sorghum) regarding the yield of carbohydrates per unit area, especially when grown on the poor soil. The analyses of the technological properties of Jerusalem artichokes grown for two years in the experimental plots showed that the plant species is a quality raw material for the production of alcohol. From the aspect of alcohol production, the quality of the tested varieties of Jerusalem artichoke depended neither on soil quality nor on the delay in harvesting the crop after it reached technological maturity. The results of the study indicate that the alcohol production from Jerusalem artichokes would be more economic, i.e., more profitable, than the production from conventional raw materials. The study of the carbohydrate composition of Jerusalem artichoke tubers made it clear that besides alcohol production, Jerusalem artichokes are a good raw material for the production of high-fructose syrup and crystalline fructose. Since the interest in these products kept increasing in recent years, because of their exceptional characters, it is necessary to establish research programs to cover these field too. In the course of the study the authors came across some interesting literature data on the use of Jerusalem artichokes as a raw material for the production of high-fructose syrup and crystalline fructose. Some of the publication, i.e., those that might be useful in further research work, are appended to this study.
The butane and isobutane content of gasification in vapor phase splitting with fuller's earth catalysts was chiefly a function of temperature and only dependent in a lesser degree on other conditions (for example, active components of fuller's earth, 250 or 600 atmospheres, or starting material). An accompanying graph shows corresponding values which were gained with the one-stage 600 atmosphere splitting (mild aromatization), as well as with 250 and 600 atmosphere aromatization of butuminous coal liquefaction middle oils and other pure oils at 200 to 250 and partly at 600 atmospheres. Only with the highest aromatization temperatures did the isobutane content of gasification correspond to the butane-isobutane equilibrium. At lower temperratures the isomerization equilibrium was not gained with the fuller's earth catalyst, and the amount of isobutane produced by splitting lay in an increasing measure above the equilibrium value.
Alkemade, F. [ed.
The Swatch-developed mini-automobile Smart seems to be a trendsetter for a new generation of small and energy efficient cars. An overview is given of the activities in the automobile industry to develop and design energy efficient cars that also are acceptable to the public, while fuel consumption is not the only issue for the customer to buy a car. 3 refs.
Stipdonk, H.L. & Bos, N.M.
Road safety effects due to adaptation of the time intervals of periodic vehicle inspection (MOT) : the same time schedule for Diesel/LPG (3-1) and Gasoline/Electric (4-2-2-1) vehicles. All light motor vehicles in the Netherlands are subjected to regular periodic vehicle inspections (MOT), the time
Performance and exhaust emissions of a spark ignition engine using G-Series fuel (mixtures of gasoline, bioethanol, biodiesel and diesel) / G Serisi Yakıt (Benzin, Biyoetanol, Biyodizel ve Dizel Karışımı) Kullanan Kıvılcım Ateşlemeli Bir Motorun Performan
Nematizade, Pegah; Ghobadian, Barat; Ommi, Fathollah; Najafi, Gholamhassan
In this research, performance and exhaust emissions of a spark ignition (S.I) engine (XU7JP/L3) using gasoline-ethanol blend (E20) and G-Series fuels, of GS1 and GS2, comprised of the mixtures of gasoline, ethanol, biodiesel and diesel were investigated. The results confirm that the power and torque of XU7JP/L3 engine decreases (not significantly) 6.5% and 1.2% respectively for the mixtures of fossil fuel and biofuel blends. In these circumstances the rate of fuel consumption increases by 36%...
The use of biofuels decreased from 3.5 percent, for all gasoline and diesel used by road transport in 2009, to 2 percent in 2010. Particularly the use of biodiesel decreased, dropping from 3.5 to 1.5 percent. The use of biogasoline remained stable, catering for 3 percent of all gasoline use. [Dutch] Het verbruik van biobrandstoffen daalde van 3,5 procent, van alle benzine en diesel voor het wegverkeer in 2009, naar 2 procent in 2010. Vooral het verbruik van biodiesel daalde: van 3,5 procent naar 1,5 procent. Het verbruik van biobenzine bleef, met 3 procent van alle benzine, gelijk.
Økobilen har slået sin egen verdensrekord fra 2013 ved at køre hvad der svarer til 665 km på en liter benzin til Shell Eco – Marathon i Rotterdam lørdag d. 23. maj i kategorien Urban Concept.......Økobilen har slået sin egen verdensrekord fra 2013 ved at køre hvad der svarer til 665 km på en liter benzin til Shell Eco – Marathon i Rotterdam lørdag d. 23. maj i kategorien Urban Concept....
Kristensen, Andreas Houlberg
Størstedelen af benzin- og oliestoffer er nedbrydelige i jordmiljøet. Som følge heraf bliver ”naturlig nedbrydning” i stigende grad betragtet som et effektivt og miljøvenligt alternativ til mere aktive oprensningsstrategier. Denne afhandling omhandler sammenhængen mellem jordfysiske egenskaber i ...
V. V. Gridneva
Full Text Available The 26 strains microorganisms - degradation oil have been isolated from shelf water North Caspian. The high emulsifying ability relative to benzine, kerosene and diesel-fuel oil relevantly were possessed the 11 strains. The 4 cultures exhibiting degradation of oil rates 43-49 %, respectively, were selected.
Severa, J.; Knajfl, J.
Polypropylene fabrics can efficiently be decontaminated by dry cleaning in benzine or perchloroethylene, this also in case the fabric was greased in addition to radioactive contamination. For heavily soiled fabric, it is advantageous to first dry clean it and then wash it. The positive effect was confirmed of intensifiers on the cleaning process, especially of benzine soap. In practice, its concentration should be selected within 1 and 10 g.dm - 3 . Decontamination by dry cleaning and subsequent washing is advantageous in that that the resulting activity of waste water from the laundry is low. Radioactive wastes from the dry cleaning process have a low weight and can be handled as solid waste. (M.D.)
Iwayama, I.; Iwayama, A.
A fuel formula that includes a homogenous mixture of benzine, aromatic ether oils, perfume and other perfuming agents, as well as the lowest possible aliphatic alcohol as a component solvent, surfactant, and possibly, a soluble pigment that colors the formula an appropriate color. This formula is used as an aromatic fuel for cigarette lights. The ether oils can be musk, amber, camomille, lavender, mint, anise, rose, camphor, and other aromatic oils; the perfuming agents are: geraniol, linalool, menthol, camphor, benzyl or phenetyl alcohols, phenylacetaldehyde, vanillin, coumarin, and so forth; the pigments are: beta-carotene, sudan dyes, etc.; the low aliphatic alcohols are EtOH, iso-PrOH. Example: 70 parts benzine, 10 parts EtOH, 15 parts oxide mezithylene and 5 parts borneol form a clear liquid that has a camphor aroma when it is lit.
Trevino-Villarreal, J Humberto; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Valero-Guillén, Pedro L; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C
Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium frequently isolated from human actinomycetoma. However, the pathogenesis of this infection remains unknown. Here, we used a model of bacterial delipidation with benzine to investigate the role of N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids in experimental actinomycetoma. Delipidation of N. brasiliensis with benzine resulted in complete abolition of actinomycetoma without affecting bacterial viability. Chemical analyses revealed that trehalose dimycolate and an unidentified hydrophobic compound were the principal compounds extracted from N. brasiliensis with benzine. By electron microscopy, the extracted lipids were found to be located in the outermost membrane layer of the N. brasiliensis cell wall. They also appeared to confer acid-fastness. In vitro, the extractable lipids from the N. brasiliensis cell wall induced the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and CCL-2 in macrophages. The N. brasiliensis cell wall extractable lipids inhibited important macrophage microbicidal effects, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production, phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) expression in response to gamma interferon (IFN-γ). In dendritic cells (DCs), N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated extractable lipids suppressed MHC-II, CD80, and CD40 expression while inducing tumor growth factor β (TGF-β) production. Immunization with delipidated N. brasiliensis induced partial protection preventing actinomycetoma. These findings suggest that N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids are important for actinomycetoma development by inducing inflammation and modulating the responses of macrophages and DCs to N. brasiliensis.
Trevino-Villarreal, J. Humberto; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Valero-Guillén, Pedro L.
Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium frequently isolated from human actinomycetoma. However, the pathogenesis of this infection remains unknown. Here, we used a model of bacterial delipidation with benzine to investigate the role of N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids in experimental actinomycetoma. Delipidation of N. brasiliensis with benzine resulted in complete abolition of actinomycetoma without affecting bacterial viability. Chemical analyses revealed that trehalose dimycolate and an unidentified hydrophobic compound were the principal compounds extracted from N. brasiliensis with benzine. By electron microscopy, the extracted lipids were found to be located in the outermost membrane layer of the N. brasiliensis cell wall. They also appeared to confer acid-fastness. In vitro, the extractable lipids from the N. brasiliensis cell wall induced the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and CCL-2 in macrophages. The N. brasiliensis cell wall extractable lipids inhibited important macrophage microbicidal effects, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production, phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) expression in response to gamma interferon (IFN-γ). In dendritic cells (DCs), N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated extractable lipids suppressed MHC-II, CD80, and CD40 expression while inducing tumor growth factor β (TGF-β) production. Immunization with delipidated N. brasiliensis induced partial protection preventing actinomycetoma. These findings suggest that N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids are important for actinomycetoma development by inducing inflammation and modulating the responses of macrophages and DCs to N. brasiliensis. PMID:22851755
Hagner, C. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik
Deutschland das erste europaeische Land, das Gesetze zur Reduktion des Bleigehalts in Benzin erliess. Vor dem Hintergrund der Diskussion um die Gefahr des Waldsterbens wurde seit 1985 nicht nur in Deutschland, sondern ab 1986 auch in einigen anderen Laendern der EU bleifreies Benzin angeboten. Mit zeitlicher Verzoegerung fuehrten diese gesetzlichen Massnahmen zur Reduktion der Bleikonzentrationen in verschiedenen Umweltmedien, wie z.B. in der Atmosphaere oder auch im Menschen. Oekonomische Auswirkungen hatte die Bleireduktion im Benzin in Deutschland vor allem auf die Mineraloel- und Automobilindustrie. Dabei war die Preisentwicklung fuer bleifreies Benzin durch steuerliche Anreize stark beeinflusst, die nicht nur den Handel, sondern auch die Autofahrer beguenstigte. Im Automobilsektor profitierten vorwiegend die Hersteller, die bereits durch Exporte auf den US-Markt Erfahrungen mit abgasarmen Techniken, wie z.B. dem Katalysator, gesammelt hatten. Abgesehen vom Wettbewerb, hatte die Bleigesetzgebung jedoch keinen Einfluss auf volkswirtschaftliche Indikatoren. (orig.)
Croezen, H.; Kampman, B.; Bergsma, G.
A sustainability benchmark for transport biofuels has been developed and used to evaluate the various biofuels currently on the market. For comparison, electric vehicles, hydrogen vehicles and petrol/diesel vehicles were also included. A range of studies as well as growing insight are making it ever clearer that biomass-based transport fuels may have just as big a carbon footprint as fossil fuels like petrol or diesel, or even bigger. At the request of Greenpeace Netherlands, CE Delft has brought together current understanding on the sustainability of fossil fuels, biofuels and electric vehicles, with particular focus on the performance of the respective energy carriers on three sustainability criteria, with the first weighing the heaviest: (1) Greenhouse gas emissions; (2) Land use; and (3) Nutrient consumption [Dutch] Greenpeace Nederland heeft CE Delft gevraagd een duurzaamheidsmeetlat voor biobrandstoffen voor transport te ontwerpen en hierop de verschillende biobrandstoffen te scoren. Voor een vergelijk zijn ook elektrisch rijden, rijden op waterstof en rijden op benzine of diesel opgenomen. Door onderzoek en voortschrijdend inzicht blijkt steeds vaker dat transportbrandstoffen op basis van biomassa soms net zoveel of zelfs meer broeikasgassen veroorzaken dan fossiele brandstoffen als benzine en diesel. CE Delft heeft voor Greenpeace Nederland op een rijtje gezet wat de huidige inzichten zijn over de duurzaamheid van fossiele brandstoffen, biobrandstoffen en elektrisch rijden. Daarbij is gekeken naar de effecten van de brandstoffen op drie duurzaamheidscriteria, waarbij broeikasgasemissies het zwaarst wegen: (1) Broeikasgasemissies; (2) Landgebruik; en (3) Nutriëntengebruik.
The sulfurization of middle oil at Gelsenberg, Wesseling, Scholven, Welheim, Luetzkendorf, Bruex, Boehlen, and Poelitz is shown in a chart. Each plant (except Welheim and Luetzkendorf which were divided into aromatization and benzination) was divided into two stages, prehydrogenation and benzination, and the following information is given for each of these: (1) per cent S in fresh feed, (2) percent S in injection feed, (3) percent S in circulation gas, (4) percent S added as H/sub 2/S, (5) percent S added as element, (6) total sulfur in reaction space referred to injection feed, (7) percent phenols in fresh feed, (8) percent phenols in injection feed, (9) percent O/sub 2/ in fresh feed, (10) special observations at the preheater, (11) special observation in the heat exchanger, (12) special observations in the catchpot, (13) other observations on sulfurizing injection feed, (14) results from sulfurizing with H/sub 2/S with the concentration of H/sub 2/S in the gas below 80%, (15) method of sulfurizing, and (16) temperature and pressure.
Antonov Dmitry V.
Full Text Available Heat and mass transfer models are developed on the base of experimental data and using Ansys Fluent software. These models allow prediction of the temperature and concentration traces of droplets. Transfer mechanisms of water droplets from different flames of flammable liquid (ethanol, kerosene И benzine with temperature gases 450–850 К are analyzed. The paper considers aerosol flows with droplets sizes of 0.04–0.4 mm and concentration of 3.8·10-5 –10.3·10-5 m3 of droplets/m3 of gas. The maximum gas temperature reduction in the trace of a moving liquid is ranged from 850 K to 600 K. The times of keeping the low temperature of the gas-vapor mixture in the droplets trace are from 13 s to 25 s relative to the initial gas temperature.
Kristensen, Andreas Houlberg; Mortensen, Lars; Høj, Ander Riiber
Naturlig nedbrydning af kulbrinter i umættet zone er tæt forbundet med de jordfysiske forhold, der styrer transporten af ilt og gasformig forurening. Rambøll har sammen med Oliebranchens Miljøpulje og Aalborg Universitet undersøgt i laboratoriet hvordan potentialet for aerob naturlig nedbrydning...... varierer i en dyb, lagdelt umættet zone forurenet med benzin og diesel. Resultaterne af laboratorieforsøgene viste et nedbrydningspotentiale, der var tæt forbundet med den enkelte jordprøves tekstur i rækkefølgen: moræneler > finsand > kalk. Desuden blev det vist, at vandindholdet i de forskellige...
Full Text Available Il. Dünya savaşından itibaren, alternatif yakıt arayışları giderek yo�unlaşmıştır. Özellikle 1973 yılındaki petrol krizinden konuya ilgi oldukça artmıştır. Bu çalışmada, içten yanmab motorların yakıt özelliklerine ve yakıt ekonomilerine paralel olarak alternatif enerji kaynaklarından alkol ve hidrojen ele alınmıştır. Benzinli motorlarda, hacmen o/o20 kadar alkol içeren benzinler motor yapısında değişiklik yapılmaksızın kullanılmaktadır. Alkol, benzin motorlannda o/ol O güç aruşı sağlamaktadır. Hidrojenin tutuşma sınırlarımn çok geniş olması, içten yanmalı motorlar için büyük avantajdır. Yakıt hileresi uygulamasında, hidrojenden elektro kimyasal yöntemle elektrik üretilmektedir. Bu uygulamada, alkol araç içerisinde hidrojene dönüşmekte daha sonrada bir kütle içerisi den geçirilerek motoı-lara akım sağlayan elektrik enerjisini üretmektedir. Klasik yakrtlara alternatif olarak, alkol "e hidrojenin kullanılabilirliği ortaya konulmuştur.
Nakayama, Kunio; Morimoto, Kanehisa
To investigate the association among symptoms of sick building syndrome (SBS). Self-reported questionnaire and indoor environmental surveys of newly build dwellings in Japan were conducted. The questionnaire included items on symptoms of SBS and lifestyle, and an indoor environmental survey (i.e., mold, mites, and volatile organic compounds (VOC)) was conducted in family rooms of dwellings in Japan (Sapporo, Fukushima, Nagoya, Osaka, Okayama, and Kitakyusyu), from 2004 to 2007. Data from Osaka in 2004 indicated significant odds ratios for symptoms of SBS for questionnaire items on renovation, air freshener, carpet, use of benzin, use of thinner, use of coating materials, moldiness, smell of house, and feeling of having insufficient sleeping hours. Significant odds ratios were noted for total CFU, Auerbasidum genus, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus sp., Aureobasidium pullulans, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp., Rhodotorula minuta, and Wallemia sebi. Concerning concentrations of VOCs, TVOC, limonene, o,m-tolualdehyde, 2-pentanone, tetrachloroethylene, n-decane, and n-heptane are significantly higher in those who have symptoms of SBS. Significant odds ratios were indicated for questionnaire items on smell of house, stuffiness, moldiness, fustiness, dampness, water leakage, and feeling of having insufficient sleeping hours from data of six areas in Japan in 2004. Continuous data analysis of Osaka from 2004 to 2006 suggested that improvement of symptoms of SBS might be due to lifestyle modification. Mites, molds, VOCs, renovation, moldiness, stuffiness, feeling of having insufficient sleeping hours, carpet use, benzin, thinner, and coating materials, increase the risk of developing symptoms of SBS, whereas modification of lifestyle and ways of living factors might alleviate them.
Gostic, T; Klemenc, S
An abandoned clandestine laboratory was seized in Slovenia. All confiscated exhibits were analysed in a forensic laboratory, where the following analytical methods were applied: capillary gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined also by solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) and pyrolysis (Py) technique, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray detector (SEM-EDX). The most interesting analytical findings can be summarised as follows: at the crime scene some plastic pieces, which contained cocaine dissolved (as solid solution) in polymethyl methacrylate-plexiglass (PMMA), were found. The highest cocaine concentration measured in the plastic sample was about 15% by weight. Two larger lumps of material (12 and 3 kg) were composed mainly of PMMA and CaCO3 and contained only 0.4 and 0.5% of cocaine, respectively. As for the low cocaine concentration, we assume that those two lumps of material represent discarded waste product--residue after the isolation of cocaine from plastic. Higher quantities of pure solvents (41 l) and solvent mixtures (87 l) were seized. We identified three types of pure solvents (acetone, gasoline and benzine) and two different types of solvent mixtures (benzine/acetone and gasoline/acetone). The total seized volume (87 l) of solvent mixtures holds approximately 395 g of solid residue formed mainly of PMMA and cocaine. Obviously solvent mixtures were used for isolation of cocaine from the plastic. Small quantities of relatively pure cocaine base were identified on different objects. There were two cotton sheets, most probably used for filtration. One sheet had traces of cocaine base (76% purity) on the surface, while cocaine in hydrochloride form (96%) was identified on the other sheet. GC-MS analyses of micro traces isolated from analytical balances showed the presence of cocaine and some common adulterants: phenacetine, lidocaine and procaine. A cocaine
Metin, H.; Aydin, C.; Mammadov, R.
In this study, antioxidant activities of various solvent extracts (methanol, ethanol, acetone and petroleum benzine) obtained from tubers and leaves of Cyclamen graecum Link (Primulaceae) were determined. Antioxidant properties of various extracts from C. graecum were evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene-linoleic acid assays. In addition, total phenolic contents in all the extracts of C. graecum tubers and leaves were determined as pyrocatechol equivalents. Leaves extracts of C. graecum exhibited higher antioxidant activity than tuber extracts with all the types of solvent used. All extracts of C. graecum tubers and leaves had effective free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging activity of C. graecum leaf-ethanol extract (97.3 +- 0.55%) was found more effective than BHT (92.30 +- 0.35%). A positive correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and amount of phenolic contents of the extracts. In this study, all types of extracts obtained from C. graecum have showed strong antioxidant activity. Therefore, this species can be used as a natural antioxidant in food processing and pharmaceutical industries. (author)
Gorelik, Vladimir S.; Zlobina, Ludmila I.; Sharts, Olga N.
Raman spectra of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbin zigzag structure molecules are studied. The investigations have been fulfilled for following substances: CnH2n+2 (n equals 6, 7, 10), CnH2nO2 (n equals 4, 5, 8, 10, 11, 13, 15, 18), CnF2n+1Br(n equals 6, 7, 8, 10, 14), for similar structures: H(CF2)10H, H(CF2)10CONH2, F(CF2)5CO2K and commercial products. The frequency shifts of some modes, corresponding to acoustical and optical vibrations, have been observed. The theory, explaining Raman modes frequency dependence on the length of zigzag molecule, is developed. The presence of characteristic isooctane line in Raman spectra of benzines is established. Molecular structure modification of sun- flower-seed oil as a result of technological preparation process has been observed. The obtained results allow detecting zigzag fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon molecules in media and estimating its length with the help of Raman scattering spectroscopy.
Kalaivanan, R.; Srinivasan, K.
Synthesis of the organic nonlinear optical compound N-benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (BNA) was carried out in a newer chemical environment using the mixture of benzyl chloride and 2-methl-4-nitroaniline by a preferred laboratory synthesis process. The synthesized BNA compound was separated by column chromatography (CC) with low pressure silica gell using petrollium benzine and purity of the separated resultant product was confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Further, the material was recrystallized atleast four times in methanol and the highly purified BNA was used for the growth of single crystals from solutions with selected solvents by slow evaporation method at room temperature. Single crystals having natural growth morphology were harvested and their different growth faces were identified by optical goniometry. The grown crystals were subjected to different characterization techniques such as powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and UV-vis-Near IR spectroscopy. Further, the second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the grown BNA crystal was studied by Kurtz and Perry powder technique using Nd:YAG laser as fundamental source and found to be twice that of inorganic standard KDP.
Full Text Available This study employed 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing to examine the hypothesis that chemolithotrophic Fe(II-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB would preferentially colonize the Fe(II-bearing mineral biotite compared to quartz sand when the minerals were incubated in situ within a subsurface redox transition zone (RTZ at the Hanford 300 Area site in Richland, WA, USA. The work was motivated by the recently documented presence of neutral-pH chemolithotrophic FeOB capable of oxidizing structural Fe(II in primary silicate and secondary phyllosilicate minerals in 300 Area sediments and groundwater (Benzine et al., 2013. Sterilized portions of sand+biotite or sand alone were incubated in situ for five months within a multilevel sampling (MLS apparatus that spanned a ca. 2-m interval across the RTZ in two separate groundwater wells. Parallel MLS measurements of aqueous geochemical species were performed prior to deployment of the minerals. Contrary to expectations, the 16S rRNA gene libraries showed no significant difference in microbial communities that colonized the sand+biotite versus sand-only deployments. Both mineral-associated and groundwater communities were dominated by heterotrophic taxa, with organisms from the Pseudomonaceae accounting for up to 70% of all reads from the colonized minerals. These results are consistent with previous results indicating the capacity for heterotrophic metabolism (including anaerobic metabolism below the RTZ as well as the predominance of heterotrophic taxa within 300 Area sediments and groundwater. Although heterotrophic organisms clearly dominated the colonized minerals, several putative lithotrophic (NH4+, H2, Fe(II, and HS- oxidizing taxa were detected in significant abundance above and within the RTZ. Such organisms may play a role in the coupling of anaerobic microbial metabolism to oxidative pathways with attendant impacts on elemental cycling and redox-sensitive contaminant behavior in the vicinity of the
Renard, E.V.; Pyatibratov, Yu.P.; Neumoev, N.V.; Chizhov, A.A.; Kulikov, I.A.; Gol'dfarb, Yu.Ya.; Sirotkina, I.G.; Semenova, T.I.
By means of catalytic hydroisomerization of the n-paraffinic raw material in a reactor using alumino-platinum catalysts, there was attained a 45-90% degree of conversion of n-paraffins into branched iso-paraffins with mono- and dimethyl structure. From a batch of extensively isomerized n-paraffins, by carrying out the operations of distillation of the light (benzine) fraction, dearomatization, de-n-paraffinization and fractional distillation on a rectification column, isoparaffinic (99%) concentrates were obtained with a constant molecular weight, from iso-C 10 to isoC 15 . The solubility of plutonium and thorium nitrates in 30% solutions of TBP in iso-paraffins (mixtures of iso-paraffins with the same number of C-atoms) increases with decrease in the molecular weight of the iso-paraffin; a system with a 30% TBP in a mixture of iso-decanes practically does not stratify (∼104 g Pu/liter, 22-25 degree C). Nevertheless, a twofold increase (compared with NP) of the maximally permissible (up to the formation of the third phase) concentration, is attained when iso-paraffins are introduced into NP with a similar molecular composition in a 1:1 ratio. With respect to the main requirements demanded of diluents for radiochemical extractional operations, such as density, viscosity, boiling point, flash point, and freezing point, the chemical stability and radiation resistance, content of radioruthenium and radiozirconium, rate of stratification of two-phase systems, the synthetic iso-paraffin-containing solvents are as suitable as n-paraffins
Bles, M.; Schepers, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Bergsma, G.
als in 2009 (88 PJ) en iets meer dan 2010 (86 PJ). In de richtlijn hernieuwbare energie is verder vastgelegd dat in 2020 minimaal 10% van het verbruik van benzine, diesel en elektriciteit voor vervoer afkomstig moet zijn uit hernieuwbare bronnen. Staatssecretaris Atsma wil dat dit percentage al in 2016 behaald wordt. In 2011 bedroeg het verplichte aandeel hernieuwbare energie 4,25%. Naar verwachting is deze verplichting administratief gehaald. Doordat sommige typen biotransportbrandstoffen dubbel geteld mogen worden, is de fysieke levering echter aanzienlijk lager dan in 2009. De administratieve dubbeltelling is van toepassing op de transportdoelstelling (10 %), maar niet op de algemene doelstelling (14 %). Een hoger aandeel dubbeltellende brandstoffen draagt daarmee niet proportioneel bij aan de algemene doelstelling. Ongeveer driekwart van de geproduceerde hernieuwbare energie in 2011 is afkomstig van biomassa. De overige hernieuwbare energie komt bijvoorbeeld uit waterkracht, wind- en zonne-energie. Hernieuwbare energie uit biomassa is voor een groot deel afkomstig van afvalverbrandingsinstallaties, meestook in energiecentrales, gebruik van houtkachels en het gebruik van biobrandstoffen in de transportsector.
Agora Energiewende (2017). New pricing models for energy. Fundamentals of a reform of fees, taxes, levies and charges on electricity and fossil fuels; Agora Energiewende (2017). Neue Preismodelle fuer Energie. Grundlagen einer Reform der Entgelte, Steuern, Abgaben und Umlagen auf Strom und fossile Energietraeger
Praetorius, Barbara; Lenck, Thorsten [Agora Energiewende, Berlin (Germany); Lietz, Franziska [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Energie Forschungszentrum; Buechner, Jens; Nikogosian, Vigen [E-Bridge Consulting GmbH, Bonn (Germany); Schober, Dominik [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany); Mannheim Univ. (Germany); Weyer, Hartmut [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Woll, Oliver [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany)
erreicht werden. Wenn Strom knapp ist, mobilisieren hohe Preise den Betrieb von Speichern, Lastmanagement und Erzeugungsanlagen. Ist Strom im Ueberschuss vorhanden, dann locken die niedrigen Preise zusaetzliche Abnehmer. Im Idealfall reizen Preise auch die richtigen Investitionen fuer ein verlaessliches, effizientes und klimaschonendes Stromsystem an - auch an den Grenzen der Strom-, Waerme- und Verkehrssektoren. In der Realitaet besteht der Strompreis fuer die meisten Verbraucher zu 75 bis 80 Prozent aus staatlich veranlassten, regulierten Preisbestandteilen. Energiesteuern, Netzentgelte, Abgaben und Umlagen summieren sich auf etwa 55 Milliarden Euro pro Jahr und erfuellen wichtige Funktionen in der Finanzierung des Stromsystems und der Energiewende. Sie ueberlagern aber oft fast vollstaendig das koordinierende Preissignal im Grosshandel. Flexibilitaet anzubieten, lohnt sich etwa kaum, weil sofort Steuern, Entgelte, Abgaben und Umlagen faellig werden. Auch an den Sektorengrenzen stimmen die Preissignale nicht: Heizoel und Erdgas, Diesel und Benzin werden nach anderen Kriterien besteuert als Strom; es bestehen Fehlanreize bei Energietraegerwahl und Klimaschutz. Die Reform des Steuer-, Entgelte-, Abgaben- und Umlagensystems steht deshalb dringend an, ist jedoch ein komplexes Unterfangen. Als Grundlage hierfuer hat Agora Energiewende mit Unterstuetzung von E-Bridge, ZEW und TU Clausthal eine Analyse des aktuellen Preisgefueges vorgenommen und den Loesungsraum sondiert, der fuer eine grundsaetzliche Reform des bestehenden Systems besteht. Damit wollen wir eine Grundlage legen fuer die Entwicklung konkreter Reformvorschlaege, die in einer weiteren Studie erarbeitet werden sollen.