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Sample records for benzidine

  1. [Benzidine dyes and risk of bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, M; Yoshida, O

    1989-12-01

    Until the early 1970's there was little concern about dyes which contain benzidine as an integral part of their chemical structure. Furthermore, use of the finished dyes was not considered dangerous. To ascertain whether azo dyes are associated with risk of development of bladder tumors in workers who handpaint Yuzen-type silk kimonos in Kyoto, we investigated the disintegration of dyes to benzidine. In these studies, we found that in rats and mice benzidine-based dyes are metabolized to benzidine and that the azo linkage of benzidine dyes is reduced by Escherichia coli and soil bacteria. These experimental findings were reported previously. In this report, we outline an approach to these studies. Many of the dyes used to color paper, textiles, lipstick, bait used by fishermen, as well as hair dyes, and dyes used in research, for pharmaceutical products, and by defence personnel for the detection of liquid chemical warfare agents, have been shown to be potentially mutagenic or carcinogenic. We review the literature on these dyes.

  2. 29 CFR 1915.1010 - Benzidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzidine. 1915.1010 Section 1915.1010 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances §...

  3. Structure and vibrational spectra of benzidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akalin, Elif; Akyüz, Sevim

    2003-06-01

    The geometry and vibrational spectrum of benzidine have been computed by ab initio calculations using the DFT/B3LYP method with 6-31+G(d,p) basis set. In the most stable geometry, the dihedral angle between the two phenyl rings was found to be around 38°. Calculated wavenumbers were scaled by a single factor 0.965 to approximately correct for vibrational anharmonicity as well as for overestimation of the force constants. Normal coordinate analysis of benzidine and some of its deuterated derivatives have also been performed in valance force field approximation in order to demonstrate the transferability of the force field of aniline. Good agreements between the two different calculation results (ab initio and force field refinement methods) and between the calculated and observed values are found.

  4. Reduction to benzidine is not necessary for the covalent binding of a benzidine azodye to rat liver DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, J C; Shaw, A; Martin, C N

    1984-09-28

    The DNA binding of 2 benzidine azodyes, Congo Red and Direct Blue 6, was compared in rat liver. Both dyes showed binding consequent upon metabolism to benzidine, and in each case hydrolysis of the liver DNA yielded N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-N'-acetylbenzidine. The majority of Direct Blue 6-derived radioactivity bound to DNA was present as at least one other novel species. Our preliminary work on the major Direct Blue 6 DNA adduct suggests its structure may be disodium 8-amino-2-[4-(N-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-aminobiphenyl-4'-yl] azo-1-hydroxynaphthalene-3,6-disulphonate. This adduct may form as a result of the susceptibility of the dye to hepatic azoreductase and its apparent existence may explain the observed potent carcinogenicity of dyes such as Direct Blue 6.

  5. [Mutagenicity of the urine of rats treated with benzidine dyes (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K

    1980-05-01

    Today industrial use of benzidine is restricted in many countries. However, little attention is paid to those substances which may decompose themselves in the body and release benzidine or benzidine-like substances. I investigated the mutagenicity of urinary ingredients of rats to which benzidine and three kinds of azo dyes were separately administered through the alimentary tract. The azo dyes were Direct Black EX(EX), Direct Green BK(BK), and Direct Bordeaux BK(BK), all having 4,4'-diazobiphenyl group in each structure. The mutagenicity of the urine extract with ether was tested on Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100. Urinary metabolites of benzidine showed stronger mutagenicity than benzidine itself on both TA 98 and TA 100 in the presence of S9 mix. EX itself showed mutagenicity only on TA 98, whereas B and BK were nonmutagens. Nevertheless, the urine extract of each azo dye showed strong mutagenicity of the same pattern as benzidine. As a result it is suggested that benzidine might be released in the intestine of experimental animals after the administration of each azo dye. Mutagenic activity of urine sample is important and full of suggestions from the viewpoint of carcinogenicity of aromatic amines.

  6. Metabolism of the benzidine-based azo dye Direct Black 38 by human intestinal microbiota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, B.W.; Cerniglia, C.E.; Federle, T.W.

    1985-07-01

    Benzidine-based azo dyes are proven mutagens and have been linked to bladder cancer. Previous studies have indicated that their initial reduction is the result of the azo reductase activity of the intestinal microbiota. Metabolism of the benzidine-based dye Direct Black 38 was examined by using a semicontinuous culture system that simulates the lumen of the human large intestine. The system was inoculated with freshly voided feces, and an active flora was maintained as evidenced by volatile fatty acid and gas production. Within 7 days after exposure to the dye, the following metabolites were isolated and identified by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry: benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, monoacetylbenzidine, and acetylaminobiphenyl. Benzidine reached its peak level after 24 h, accounting for 39.1% of the added dye. Its level began to decline, and by day 7 the predominant metabolite was acetylaminobiphenyl, which accounted for 51.1% of the parent compound. Formation of the deaminated and N-acetylated analogs of benzidine, which have enhanced mutagenicity and lipophilicity, previously has not been attributed to the intestinal microbiota.

  7. 77 FR 18752 - Benzidine-Based Chemical Substances; Di-n

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ....I.) Direct Red 28 (Congo Red) (CAS No. 573-58-0), use as an indicator dye was excluded as a... dyes in the textile industry. The nine newly-proposed benzidine-based chemical substances are believed... well as on the skin (Ref. 7). Therefore, the primary human health concern for consumers is exposure...

  8. Studies on the relation between bladder cancer and benzidine or its derived dyes in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, X Y; Chen, J G; Hu, Y N

    1990-08-01

    Shanghai is the largest industrial centre in China and has a history of about 50 years in producing and applying benzidine derived dyes. A series of epidemiological studies on the carcinogenicity of benzidine and its derived dyes have been performed since 1979. This report describes three such studies. A case-control study was carried out on 344 cases of bladder cancer, each matched for age and sex, with a person without bladder cancer. Factors studied were occupational exposure, smoking, drinking, medical histories, and family history of bladder cancer and other carcinomas. The correlation between bladder cancer and occupational exposures (relative risk (RR) 5.71) was greater than that between bladder cancer and smoking (RR 1.53). A retrospective cohort study was conducted in seven dyestuffs factories where benzidine had served as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes before 1976. The cohort was made up of 550 men and 186 women. The men were divided into two groups according to job; 354 were assigned to a presynthesis group and 196 to a postsynthesis group. Those in the presynthesis group were thought to have been exposed to benzidine and the subjects in the postsynthesis group were exposed mainly to its derived dyes. The 15 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed were all in the presynthesis group, although an excess of bladder cancer was also seen in the whole cohort. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of bladder cancer was 1918 in the whole cohort and 3500 in the presynthesis group. Moreover, the SIR of bladder cancer in a subgroup working directly with the assignment, transport, and mixing of benzidine was as high as 7500. A further retrospective cohort study was made on incidence of cancer among 1420 workers who used benzidine derived dyes in 43 textile printing and dyeing factories. No excess carcinoma was found. These results suggest that, in Shanghai, the main cause of bladder cancer is occupational exposure, especially to benzidine. The risk of bladder

  9. Biodegradation of benzidine based azodyes Direct red and Direct blue by the immobilized cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens D41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvaneswari, N; Muthukrishnan, J; Gunasekaran, P

    2002-10-01

    Benzidine based azodyes are proven carcinogens, mutagens and have been linked to bladder cancer of human beings and laboratory animals. The textile and dyestuff manufacturing industry are the two major sources that released azodyes in their effluents. The dye, Direct blue contains two carcinogenic compounds namely benzidine (BZ), 4-amino biphenyl (4-ABP), while the dye Direct red has benzidine (BZ). Among 40 isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens screened, one isolate designated as D41 was found to be capable of extensively degrading the dyes Direct blue and Direct red. Immobilized cells of P. fluorescens D41 efficiently degraded Direct red (82%) and Direct blue (71%) in the presence of glucose.

  10. Synthesis and Analytical Application of Bis(2-diazoaminobenzothiazoyl)-benzidine to Determination of Mercury Ion by Fluorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Run-sheng; FENG Feng; CHEN Ze-zhong; BAI Yun-feng; LIN Sen; FU Guo-liang

    2009-01-01

    A new fluorescent reagent bis(2-diazoaminobenzothiazoyl)-benzidine(BDABTB) was synthesized by combining benzothiazole with benzidine and triazene reagent. The product was confirmed by elemental analysis, 1HNMR and FTIR. The excitation and emission wavelengths of BDABTB were 214 and 338 nm in a basic medium, respectively. The fluorescence was quenched by Hg~(2+) selectively and sensitively. The linear range of Hg~(2+) was 1.0×10~(-8)-1.0×10~(-5) mol/L with a detection limit of 5.0×10~(-10) mol/L. It has been used to determine trace Hg~(2+) in water sample with satisfactory results.

  11. N-Acetyltransferase 2 genotype, exfoliated urothelial cells and benzidine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing-wen; Lin, Guo-fang; Chen, Ji-gang; Guo, Wei-Chao; Qin, Yi-qiu; Golka, Klaus; Shen, Jian-hua

    2012-01-01

    Most studies report an association of the slow N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) status with elevated bladder cancer risk. In this study, NAT2 genotypes and the decades-long records of Papanicolaou's grading of exfoliated urothelial cells in a former benzidine-exposed cohort of the Shanghai dyestuff industry (29 bladder cancer patients; 307 non-cancer cohort members, some of them presenting different grades of pre-malignant alterations of exfoliated urothelial cells) were investigated. The cohort members had been enrolled in regular medical surveillance since mid-1980s. No overall increase of slow NAT2 genotypes in the former benzidine-exposed bladder cancer patients was found, compared with non-diseased members of the same cohort. A lower presentation of the homozygous wild genotype NAT2 4/4 was observed in bladder cancer patients, compared with non-diseased members with averaged Papanicolaou's grading (APG)3 II (OR=0.31, 95 percent CI 0.10-0.96, p=0.034) or with APG less than II (OR=0.36,95 percent CI 0.12-1.10, p=0.063). Nevertheless, neither a protective influence of rapid NAT2 genotypes on bladder cancer risk nor on pre-malignant cytological alterations could be confirmed by the present data.

  12. A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64%) and COD (88%) of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%), NADH-DCIP reductase (264%) and laccase (275%) proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification. PMID:25815522

  13. A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Lade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64% and COD (88% of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%, NADH-DCIP reductase (264% and laccase (275% proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification.

  14. A low-cost wheat bran medium for biodegradation of the benzidine-based carcinogenic dye Trypan Blue using a microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-03-25

    Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L-1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64%) and COD (88%) of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%), NADH-DCIP reductase (264%) and laccase (275%) proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm-1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification.

  15. Stabilization of N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)benzidine thin film morphology with UV light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomović, A.Ž.; Markešević, N. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Scarpellini, M.; Bovio, S. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces (CIMAINA), Università di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Lucenti, E. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces (CIMAINA), Università di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Institute of Molecular Science and Technology of CNR, via Golgi 19, 20133 Milan (Italy); Milani, P. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces (CIMAINA), Università di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Zikic, R. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanović, V.P., E-mail: vladimir.jovanovic@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Srdanov, V.I. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces (CIMAINA), Università di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    Owing to their low glass transition temperature, T{sub g}, amorphous thin films of N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)benzidine (TPD) undergo morphological changes even at room temperature. It has been noticed previously that exposure to UV light can increase apparent T{sub g} of TPD films and thus stabilize their morphology. However, the reason behind increase in structural stability was not examined at the time. Here we present evidence that TPD molecules undergo photo-oxidation in air when exposed to λ ≈ 350 nm radiation and that less than 5% of the photo-oxidized species are needed to prevent dewetting of thin TPD films. We propose that photo-oxidized TPD species bind strongly to both ordinary TPD molecules and to terminal hydroxyl groups at the substrate surface, which decreases mobility of TPD molecules and makes thin TPD film less prone to morphology changes. - Highlights: • We made variable thickness TPD films and exposed them to UV light under ambient conditions. • Mass spectroscopy and proton NMR measurements of irradiated and pristine TPD films • TPD molecules undergo oxidation process under UV light irradiation. • Dipole–dipole interactions may be responsible for stabilization of morphological changes.

  16. Stabilization of N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)benzidine thin film morphology with UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owing to their low glass transition temperature, Tg, amorphous thin films of N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)benzidine (TPD) undergo morphological changes even at room temperature. It has been noticed previously that exposure to UV light can increase apparent Tg of TPD films and thus stabilize their morphology. However, the reason behind increase in structural stability was not examined at the time. Here we present evidence that TPD molecules undergo photo-oxidation in air when exposed to λ ≈ 350 nm radiation and that less than 5% of the photo-oxidized species are needed to prevent dewetting of thin TPD films. We propose that photo-oxidized TPD species bind strongly to both ordinary TPD molecules and to terminal hydroxyl groups at the substrate surface, which decreases mobility of TPD molecules and makes thin TPD film less prone to morphology changes. - Highlights: • We made variable thickness TPD films and exposed them to UV light under ambient conditions. • Mass spectroscopy and proton NMR measurements of irradiated and pristine TPD films • TPD molecules undergo oxidation process under UV light irradiation. • Dipole–dipole interactions may be responsible for stabilization of morphological changes

  17. Potential health hazards of organic pigments and dyes used in the manufacture of paints and surface coatings. Appendix I: scientific basis for the proposed regulation of dyes derived from the chemical substances benzidine, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C.L.

    1978-05-08

    The scientific bases for regulating dyes derived from benzidine, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine are presented. Studies of these compounds have demonstrated that benzidine-type dyes undergo nearly complete cleavage to known potent human carcinogenic agents through several metabolic and biological pathways, that these metabolites are carcinogenic in human and animal studies, that the toxicity and carcinogenicity of benzidine-type dyes has been demonstrated in animals, and that there is a high incidence of bladder cancer among users of benzidine-type dyes. Industrial workers were at risk through the inhalation of dye dusts, absorption through skin exposure, and accidental ingestion. Industries involved included dye manufacture, textile finishing, leather working, and paper dyeing. Direct dyes sold for home and craft use that may contain benzidine type dyes were listed by brand name and company or distributor. Commercial trade names of dyes and pigments based on these chemical substances were listed. Chemical identification of benzidine type dyes was described. Alternatives to benzidine type dyes were suggested, and a history of legislative attempts to regulate benzidine type dye production was provided.

  18. EFFECT OF PHOTOOXIDATION ON PHOTOLUMINESCENCE OF N, N'-DIPHENYL-N, N'-DI(M-TOLYL)-BENZIDINE AND RUBRENE CODOPED PMMA THIN FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.B. Hou; L.J. Meng; M.P. dos Santos

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the PMMA films doped with N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-di(m-tolyl)-benzidineand rubrene were fabricated by spin coating, and the effect of photooxidation onthe photoluminescence of the doped PMMA thin films was investigated. The resultsshowed that under the irradiation of 350nm UV light, N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-di(m-tolyl)-benzidine can sensitized rubrene and results in the enhancement in the photooxrationof rubrene. The effect of photooxidation on the photoluminescence from rubrene w asmore obvious. Both lifetime measurement and in situ measurement of photolumines-cence showed that rubrene molecules exist in two chemical surroundings.

  19. Dependence of Papanicolaou gradings of exfoliated urothelial cells upon GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphism in benzidine-exposed workers of the Shanghai dye industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Guofang; Ma Qingwen; Shen Jianhua; Zhang Dongsheng [Shanghai Inst. of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Chen Jigang; Xiang Cuiqing [Municipal Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Shanghai (China); Golka, K. [Institute of Occupational Physiology, Univ. of Dortmund (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    The distribution of the polymorphic alleles of the genes coding for glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) M1 and T1 was compared with the results of cytological grading of exfoliated urothelial cells (Pap test) in a non-diseased high-risk group of workers formerly exposed to benzidine in the Shanghai dyestuff industry (n=317). All subjects were genotyped for GSTT1 and M1 gene polymorphism by allele-specific PCR. Individuals were stratified according to their job and duration of exposure. A subgroup of 78 individuals with cytological gradings of grade III or higher in the Pap test showed a significant under-representation of the combination of GSTT1 0/0 and M1 0/0 genotypes compared with 238 subjects with a cytological classification lower than grade III (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.31-0.98, P=0.04). These results suggest that neither the GSTM1 0/0 or GSTT1 0/0 genotype alone nor their combination had a clear association with cytopathological changes in exfoliated urothelial cells from individuals previously exposed to benzidine in Shanghai. This contradicts the results of studies indicating that the GSTM1 0/0 genotype is associated with an increased risk for bladder cancer in the general population, mostly outside China. (orig.)

  20. 联苯胺对鲫鱼肝线粒体DNA(mtDNA)作用的研究%MtDNA of Crucian's Liver by Benzidine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 刘伟民; 周培疆

    2011-01-01

    Technique of flat electrophoresis was used to study the difference characteristics of mtDNA of crucian's liver that continuously feed with the same concentration of benzidine. Results showed that mtDNA of crucian had two endonuclease sites of EcoR I, and the damage of benzidine to mtDNA began from lower molecular weight. With the time prolonged, the snippets of mtDNA were increased at lower molecular weight, and the molecular weight of snippets became lower.%采用平板电泳的方法,研究等浓度连续喂养的鲫鱼肝线粒体DNA的表达条带差异特征.结果表明:该实验中的鲫鱼mtDNA拥有两个EcoR Ⅰ的酶切位点;随着联苯胺作用时间的延长,mtDNA双链断裂呈三个依次递进的状态;线粒体DNA的断裂总是从低分子量链向高分子量链的断裂转移.

  1. Synthesis, molecular and crystalline architectures, and properties of a mononuclear complex [CoII (benzidine)2(NCS)2(OH2)2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhasish Kundu; Subhasis Roy; Kishalay Bhar; Rajarshi Ghosh; Chia-Her Lin; Joan Ribas; Barindra Kumar Ghosh

    2013-07-01

    One mononuclear cobalt(II) compound of the type [Co(bnzd)2(NCS)2(OH2)2] (1) (bnzd = benzidine) has been isolated through a single-pot reaction of the molecular building components in MeOH-H2O solvent mixture at room temperature and characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The crystal structure of complex 1 has an octahedral geometry with trans, trans, trans orientations in the order (Na,Na), (Nt,Nt), (Ow,Ow) [Na = N(amine), Nt = N(thiocyanate) and Ow = O(water)]. In crystalline state, individual units of 1 are associated by weak cooperative O-H…N, O-H…S and N-H…S hydrogen bonds resulting in a 3D network structure. The compound is redox active and shows luminescence in MeOH solution. Thermal decomposition pattern of 1 reveals the presence of two coordinated water molecules. Variabletemperature magnetic susceptibility measurement shows significant orbital contribution and numerical matrix diagonalization method gives the best fit parameters: = A∗k = 1.43; = −130 cm-1; = −864 cm-1; TIP = 0.000975; R = 1.19 × 10−4.

  2. Risk of Lung Cancer in Workers Exposed to Benzidine and/or Beta-Naphthylamine: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Saeki, Keigo; Obayashi, Kenji; Kurumatani, Norio

    2016-01-01

    Benzidine (BZ) and beta-naphthylamine (BNA) have been classified as definite human carcinogens for bladder cancer by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, the epidemiological evidence for an association between exposure to BZ and/or BNA and lung cancer has been inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the risk for lung cancer among workers exposed to BZ/BNA. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies that had reported occupational BZ/BNA exposure and the outcome of interest (lung cancer death and/or incidence). Meta-analyses were performed using random effects models to combine standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) or standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). We identified 23 retrospective cohort studies including 1745 cases of lung cancer; only one study reported smoking-adjusted lung cancer risk. A significantly increased lung cancer risk (pooled SMR/SIR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.14–1.43) was observed by combining all studies, with significant heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 64.1%, P cancer with SMR/SIR ≥4.7 (pooled SMR/SIR 1.68; 95% CI, 1.35–2.09). Effect estimates were similar for studies with and without concomitant occupational exposure to chromium, asbestos, arsenic, or bis(chloromethyl) ether. The cumulative meta-analysis showed that the evidence of association between occupational BZ/BNA exposure and lung cancer has been stable since 1995. Although the results of this meta-analysis have the potential for confounding by smoking and heterogeneity, our findings suggest that a finding of lung cancer following occupational BZ/BNA exposure should be considered to be a potential occupational disease. PMID:26947956

  3. Thim- Layer Spectroelectrochemistry on Electrocle Reaction Constant of Benzidine%薄层光谱电化学法测定联苯胺的电极反应常数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛淑妍; 焦奎; 张书圣; 闫明磊

    2000-01-01

    Benzidine is electrolysed in acid medium, and studied by spectroelectrochemistry with the third electrocle system, and the spectrum is determined at the same tine. The electron tuansfer number(n) and the formal potentials (E°) are determined by the Nernst equation.%采用薄层光谱电化学法,以三电极系统在酸性介质中对联苯胺进行薄层电势电解,同时测定吸收光谱,由Nernst方程得到反应过程中的电子转移数n和式极电位E0。

  4. Determination of residual chlorine in drinking water by 3,3′ 5,5′-tetramethyl benzidine colorimetry%3,3′,5,5′-四甲基联苯胺比色法测定饮用水中余氯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康苏花

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethyl benzidine visual colorimetry in GB/T 5750.11-2006 standard in determination of residual chlorine in drinking water,this paper discusses the media concentration in preparation of tetramethyl benzidine and the preparation methods,as well as pH,temperature,developing time,color rendering dosage and other factors,which is better than the traditional determination method.%针对采用GB/T5750.11-2006生活饮用水标准检验方法中的3,3 ′,5,5′-四甲基联苯胺目视比色法检测余氯时出现的问题,探讨了四甲基联苯胺配制的介质浓度及配制方法,以及pH值、温度、显色时间、显色剂用量等因素对测定过程的影响,改进了生活饮用水中余氯的测定方法.

  5. Biodegradation of benzidine based dye Direct Blue-6 by Pseudomonas desmolyticum NCIM 2112.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalme, S D; Parshetti, G K; Jadhav, S U; Govindwar, S P

    2007-05-01

    Pseudomonas desmolyticum NCIM 2112 was able to degrade a diazo dye Direct Blue-6 (100 mg l(-1)) completely within 72 h of incubation with 88.95% reduction in COD in static anoxic condition. Induction in the activity of oxidative enzymes (LiP, laccase) and tyrosinase while decolorization in the batch culture represents their role in degradation. Dye also induced the activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase, one of the enzyme of mixed function oxidase system. The biodegradation was monitored by UV-Vis, IR spectroscopy and HPLC. The final products, 4-amino naphthalene and amino naphthalene sulfonic acid were characterized by GC-mass spectroscopy.

  6. Thin-layer Spectroelectrochemistry of 3, 3',5, 5' -Tetramethyl- benzidine on Pt Minigrid Optically Transparent Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kui JIAO; Tao YANG; Zeng Jian WANG

    2005-01-01

    The electrooxidation behavior of 3, 3' 5, 5'-tetramethylbenzidine(TMB) was investigated using a platinum minigrid optically transparent thin-layer spectroelectrochemical cell. TMB underwent one two-electron electrooxidation process to yield quinonediimine in the pH range from2.0 to < 4.0, and two consecutive one-electron electrooxidation processes, gave the mediate product free radical of TMB first, then gave the oxidation product quinonediimine in the pH range from 4.0 to < 7.0. In the pH range from 7.0 to 10.0, the electrooxidation of TMB was also one two-electron electrooxidation process to yield an azo compound. The formal potential E0' and the electron transfer number of the electrooxidation of TMB at pH 2.0 and pH 8.4 were determined by spectroelectrochemical techniques.

  7. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITIES OF BENZIDINE TO DAPHNIA MAGNA%联苯胺对大型溞(Daphnia magna)的急性和慢性毒性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁中海; 王喆; 潘国隆; 金洪钧; 陆海天; 刘冬姝

    2005-01-01

    研究了联苯胺对大型溞(Daphnia magna)的急性毒性和慢性毒性.急性毒性试验结果表明,联苯胺对大型溞的ρLC50,24h、ρLC50,48h值分别为1.73 mg L-1和0.89 mg L-1.21 d生活周期试验结果表明,大型溞的生殖是对该化合物最为敏感的慢性毒性指标.联苯胺对大型溞生殖的无可见效应浓度(NOEC/Reproduction)为0.004 mg L-1,最低可见效应浓度(LOEC/Reproduction)为0.012 mg L-1.并据此计算出该毒物的最大允许浓度(MATC)为0.008 9 mg L-1. 表3 参19

  8. 色素(染料)による膀胱腫瘍の発生

    OpenAIRE

    宮川, 美栄子; 吉田, 修

    1989-01-01

    Until the early 1970's there was little concern about dyes which contain benzidine as an integral part of their chemical structure. Furthermore, use of the finished dyes was not considered dangerous. To ascertain whether azo dyes are associated with risk of development of bladder tumors in workers who handpaint Yuzen-type silk kimonos in Kyoto, we investigated the disintegration of dyes to benzidine. In these studies, we found that in rats and mice benzidine-based dyes are metabolized to benz...

  9. Cancer risk assessment of azo dyes and aromatic amines from tattoo bands, folders of paper, toys, bed clothes, watch straps and ink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeilmaker MJ; Kranen HJ van; Veen MP van; Janus J; LBM

    2000-01-01

    A quantitative assessment was performed to estimate the cancer risk to individuals using tattoo bands, folders of paper, toys, bed clothes, watch straps and ink which are coloured with azo dyes. In these products benzidine and the benzidine related amines o-anisidine, 2,4-toluenediamine, 4,4'-diamin

  10. Mechanism of erroneous Dextrostix readings.

    OpenAIRE

    Togari, H; Oda, M; Y. Wada

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of hyper-reactivity of the Dextrostix system when contaminated with alcoholic skin cleaning agents was investigated. When sodium fluoride was supplied to block glucose oxidase activity and hydrogen peroxide was exogenously provided benzidine peroxidation could be preferentially studied. Benzidine hydrochloride was the most likely site of the hyper-reaction.

  11. Comparative metabolism and mutagenicity of azo and hydrazone dyes in the Ames test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De France, B F; Carter, M H; Josephy, P D

    1986-02-01

    Enteric bacterial and hepatic azoreductase enzymes are capable of reducing azo dyes to yield the constituent aromatic amines. Azo dyes based on benzidine and benzidine congeners have received particular attention because of their widespread use and the known carcinogenicity of benzidine to humans. Azo dyes based on beta-diketone coupling components exist preferentially as the tautomeric hydrazones. A series of hydrazone dyes based on benzidine and benzidine congeners was prepared and characterized by NMR and UV-visible spectroscopy. These dyes were tested for mutagenicity using a modified Ames assay and, unlike the true azo dyes, showed no significant mutagenic activity. The hydrazone dyes were resistant to enzymatic reduction by FMN-supplemented hamster-liver post-mitochondrial supernatant (S-9); under identical conditions, azo dyes such as trypan blue were rapidly reduced.

  12. Electrical resistivity study of some organic charge transfer complexes under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical resistivity study of the organic charge transfer complexes tetramethyl benzidine - TCNQ and tetramethyl p-phenylene diamine - TCNQ has been carried out up to pressure 80 kilobar. Using the structural aspect, a conduction mechanism under pressure is suggested. (author)

  13. Cancer risk assessment of azo dyes and aromatic amines from tattoo bands, folders of paper, toys, bed clothes, watch straps and ink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeilmaker MJ; van Kranen HJ; van Veen MP; Janus J; LBM

    2000-01-01

    Dit rapport beschrijft een schatting voor het risico op kanker dat verbonden is aan het gebruik van tatoe bandjes, kinderspeelpapier, speelgoed, beddengoed, lederen horlogebandjes en inkt waarin kankerverwekkende azo kleurstoffen aangetroffen zijn. In genoemde producten zijn benzidine en de benzidi

  14. PERMEATION OF MOUSE SKIN AND SILICONE RUBBER MEMBRANES BY PHENOLS: RELATIONSHIP TO IN VITRO PARTITIONING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutaneous permeability coefficients of a set of pollutants chosen to span a wide range or polarity; namely N-nitrosodimethylamine, benzidine, benzene, toluene, carbon tetrachloride, hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorobiphenyl; were assessed using closed, water-jacketed diffusion cel...

  15. 40 CFR 63.74 - Demonstration of early reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Arsenic compounds 100 1332214 Asbestos 100 71432 Benzene 10 92875 Benzidine 1000 0 Beryllium compounds 10... Dichloroethyl ether (Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether) 10 79447 Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride 100 122667 1,2... chloride 10 (g) The best available data representing actual emissions for the purpose of establishing...

  16. A dual-immunocytochemical method to localize c-fos protein in specific neurons based on their content of neuropeptides and connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, J D; Larsen, P J; Sørensen, G G;

    1994-01-01

    -immunocytochemical staining technique has been developed with avidin-biotin-peroxidase labelling using diaminobenzidine as the chromogen for c-fos protein located in the nucleus, and benzidine dihydrochloride (BDHC) in the presence of sodium nitroprusside to reveal cytoplasmic antigens (neuropeptide or retrograde tracer...

  17. [Leather azo dyes: mutagenic and carcinogenic risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonfero, E; Venier, P; Granella, M; Levis, A G

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity data on azo dyes used in the leather industry. Two water soluble benzidine-based dyes were classified as "probably carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). No other dyes have been evaluated by the IARC. Of the 48 azo dyes assayed in the Salmonella/microsome test, 20 gave positive results. Attention is drawn to the important role of the in vivo metabolism of azo compounds, which includes a preliminary reduction of the azo bonds and subsequent release of the aromatic amines of the dye. A useful assay (Prival test) for evaluating the mutagenic properties of azo dyes involves a reductive step that permits the release of any genotoxic agents present in the compounds. A list of leather azo dyes is furnished that are considered as potentially harmful due to the presence of a carcinogenic aromatic amine (benzidine, p-aminobenzene and derivatives) in their formulae.

  18. Epidemiology of cancer from exposure to arylamines.

    OpenAIRE

    Vineis, P

    1994-01-01

    Occupational exposure to arylamines such as benzidine, 2-naphthylamine, and 4-aminobiphenyl is associated with exceptionally elevated risks of bladder cancer (up to 100-fold or more). In one plant, all 15 workers involved in distilling naphthylamine developed bladder cancer, suggesting that for high levels of exposure to potent carcinogens individual susceptibility is irrelevant. More recently, exposure to other arylamines also has been suggested to increase the risk of bladder cancer in huma...

  19. Arylamine-DNA adducts in vitro and in vivo: their role in bacterial mutagenesis and urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Beland, Frederick A.; Beranek, David T.; Dooley, Kenneth L.; Heflich, Robert H; Kadlubar, Fred F.

    1983-01-01

    Hepatic N-oxidation, followed by N-glucuronidation, has been proposed as a route of metabolic activation for arylamine bladder carcinogens. It is postulated that the N-glucuronides are transported to the bladder lumen where they are hydrolyzed under slightly acidic conditions to release direct-acting carcinogenic and mutagenic N-hydroxyarylamines. In this study, 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), 1-naphthylamine (1-NA), 2-naphthylamine (2-NA), 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), 4-nitrobiphenyl (NBP), benzidine...

  20. Promotion in urinary bladder carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, S M

    1983-01-01

    Aromatic amines, including 2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine, are known urinary bladder carcinogens in man and other species, but in rodents, aromatic amines and amides have usually induced liver tumors, occasionally also with tumors of the bladder and other tissues. Variations in organ specificity are related to differences in metabolism; for the production of bladder tumors, the rates of acetylation and deacetylation appear to be critical. Bladder specific carcinogens in rodent...

  1. 75 FR 16153 - Proposed Substances To Be Evaluated for Set 24 Toxicological Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ...-68-3 110 COAL TAR CREOSOTE.. 008001-58-9 111 COAL TARS 008007-45-2 112 DDD, P,P' 000072-54-8 113 COAL TAR PITCH..... 065996-93-2 114 BENZIDINE 000092-87-5 115 TOXAPHENE 008001-35-2 116 TETRACHLOROETHYLENE... announced in the Federal Register on March 6, 2008 (73 FR 12178). For prior versions of the list...

  2. Biosynthesis and Degradation of H2O2 by Vaginal Lactobacilli▿

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, Rebeca; Suárez, Juan E.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide production by vaginal lactobacilli represents one of the most important defense mechanisms against vaginal colonization by undesirable microorganisms. To quantify the ability of a collection of 45 vaginal Lactobacillus strains to generate H2O2, we first compared three published colorimetric methods. It was found that the use of DA-64 as a substrate rendered the highest sensitivity, while tetramethyl-benzidine (TMB) maintained its linearity from nanomolar to millimolar H2O2 c...

  3. Piyasada Tüketilen Değişik Cips ve Çerez Yağlarının bazı Bileşim Özellikleri Üzerine Araştırma

    OpenAIRE

    Tekin, Aziz; KARABACAK, Hülya

    1998-01-01

    The fat contents of various chips and snack foods sold in the markets and some compositional properties of those fats were investigated. The results showed that the products obtained from potato which freshly contains more water than corn have absorbed more fat during frying, and this situation was also related to their surface areas. The fifth sample containing groundnut oil and having the highest iodine number has given the lowest peroxide and benzidine values whereas the third one has had...

  4. Carcinogenicity of azo colorants: influence of solubility and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golka, Klaus; Kopps, Silke; Myslak, Zdislaw W

    2004-06-15

    In the past, azo colorants based on benzidine, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine (o-tolidine), and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine (o-dianisidine) have been synthesized in large amounts and numbers. Studies in exposed workers have demonstrated that the azoreduction of benzidine-based dyes occurs in man. The metabolic conversion of benzidine-, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine- and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine-based dyes to their (carcinogenic) amine precursors in vivo is a general phenomenon that must be considered for each member of this class of chemicals. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the use of the benzidine-based dyes has caused bladder cancer in humans. However, in contrast to water-soluble dyes, the question of biological azoreduction of (practically insoluble) pigments has been a matter of discussion. As a majority of azo pigments are based on 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, much of the available experimental data are focused on this group. Long-term animal carcinogenicity studies performed with pigments based on 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine did not show a carcinogenic effect. The absence of a genotoxic effect has been supported by mutagenicity studies with the 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine-based Pigment Yellow 12. Studies in which azo pigments based on 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine had been orally administered to rats, hamsters, rabbits and monkeys could generally not detect significant amounts of 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine in the urine. It, therefore, appears well established that the aromatic amine components from azo pigments based on 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine are practically not bioavailable. Hence, it is very unlikely that occupational exposure to insoluble azo pigments would be associated with a substantial risk of (bladder) cancer in man. According to current EU regulations, azo dyes based on benzidine, 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine and 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine have been classified as carcinogens of category 2 as "substances which should be regarded as if they are carcinogenic

  5. Dopamine inhibits proliferation, induces differentiation and apoptosis of K562 leukaemia cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Qun; YUAN Lin-bo

    2007-01-01

    Background Dopamine exerts its effects mainly in nervous system through D1, D2 or D3 receptors. There are few reports dealing with the effects of dopamine on leukaemia cells. However, some dopamine agonists or antagonists do show biological effects on some types of leukaemia cells. Here, we report the effects of dopamine on the proliferation,differentiation and apoptosis of K562 leukaemia cells.Methods Proliferation was determined by MTT assay and cell counting both in liquid and semisolid cultures.Differentiation was verified by morphology, benzidine staining and flow cytometry. Apoptosis was checked by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry. The two groups were untreated group and treated group (dopamine 10-9 mol/L-10-4mol/L).Results In liquid culture, MTT assay and colony assay, dopamine inhibited proliferation of K562 cells. Inhibition rate was 29.28% at 10-6 mol/L and 36.10% at 10-5 mol/L after culture for 5 days in MTT assay. In benzidine staining and CD71 expression, dopamine induced K562 cells toward erythroid differentiation by increased 155% at 10-6 mol/L and by 171% at 10-5 mol/L after culture for 5 days in benzidine staining. In Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry,dopamine induced K562 cells toward apoptosis. The sub G1 peak stained by PI was 14.23% at 10-4 mol/L dopamine after culture for 3 days compared with the control (0.81%) in flow cytometry.Conclusion Dopamine inhibites proliferation and induces both differentiation and apoptosis of K562 leukaemia cells.

  6. The enhanced bladder cancer susceptibility of NAT2 slow acetylators towards aromatic amines: a review considering ethnic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golka, Klaus; Prior, Verena; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Bolt, Hermann M

    2002-03-10

    Human bladder cancer may be caused by exposure to aromatic amines. The polymorphic enzyme N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is involved in the metabolism of these compounds. Two classical studies on chemical workers in Europe, exposed in the past to aromatic amines like benzidine, unambiguously showed that the slow acetylator status is a genetic risk factor for arylamine-induced bladder cancer. In the former benzidine industry in Huddington, Great Britain, 22 of 23 exposed cases with bladder cancer, but only 57% of 95 local controls without bladder cancer were of the slow acetylator phenotype. In Leverkusen, Germany, 82% of 92 benzidine-exposed chemical workers with bladder cancer were of the slow acetylator phenotype, whereas only 48% of 331 chemical workers who had worked at that plant were of the slow acetylator phenotype. This is in line with several smaller studies, which also show an over-representation of the slow acetylator status in formerly arylamine-exposed subjects with bladder cancer. Some of these studies included also subjects that were exposed to aromatic amines by having applied dyes, paints and varnishes. These European findings are in contrast to a large study on Chinese workers occupationally exposed to aromatic amines. In this study, only five of 38 bladder cancer cases occupationally exposed to arylamines were of the slow acetylator genotype. This is much lower than the ratio of slow acetylators to the general population in China. This points to different mechanisms of susceptibility for bladder cancer upon exposure to aromatic amines between European (Caucasian) and Chinese populations.

  7. A conceptual DFT approach towards analysing toxicity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Sarkar; D R Roy; P K Chattaraj; R Parthasarathi; J Padmanabhan; V Subramanian

    2005-09-01

    The applicability of DFT-based descriptors for the development of toxicological structure-activity relationships is assessed. Emphasis in the present study is on the quality of DFT-based descriptors for the development of toxicological QSARs and, more specifically, on the potential of the electrophilicity concept in predicting toxicity of benzidine derivatives and the series of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) expressed in terms of their biological activity data (50). First, two benzidine derivatives, which act as electron-donating agents in their interactions with biomolecules are considered. Overall toxicity in general and the most probable site of reactivity in particular are effectively described by the global and local electrophilicity parameters respectively. Interaction of two benzidine derivatives with nucleic acid (NA) bases/selected base pairs is determined using Parr’s charge transfer formula. The experimental biological activity data (50) for the family of PAH, namely polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), polyhalogenated dibenzo--dioxins (PHDD) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are taken as dependent variables and the HF energy (), along with DFT-based global and local descriptors, viz., electrophilicity index () and local electrophilic power (+) respectively are taken as independent variables. Fairly good correlation is obtained showing the significance of the selected descriptors in the QSAR on toxins that act as electron acceptors in the presence of biomolecules. Effects of population analysis schemes in the calculation of Fukui functions as well as that of solvation are probed. Similarly, some electron-donor aliphatic amines are studied in the present work. We see that global and local electrophilicities along with the HF energy are adequate in explaining the toxicity of several substances

  8. Directly patternable dielectric based on fluorinated polyimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Andrew R.; Bell, William K.; Luke, Brendan; Maines, Erin; Mueller, Brennan; Kohl, Paul A.; Rawlings, Brandon; Willson, C. Grant

    2015-03-01

    A photosensitive polyimide system based on amine catalyzed imidization of a precursor poly(amic ester) is described. The material is based on the meta ethyl ester of pyromellitic dianhydride and 2,2' bis(trifluoromethyl)benzidine and acts as a negative tone resist when formulated with a photobase generator. The material exhibits a dielectric constant of 3.0 in the GHz range, a coefficient of thermal expansion of 6+/-2 ppm/K, and can be patterned to aspect ratios of greater than 2 when formulated with a high efficiency cinnamide type photobase generator.

  9. 芳香族アミン化合物による尿路腫瘍

    OpenAIRE

    内藤, 誠二; 熊澤, 浄一

    1989-01-01

    Clinical and statistical observations were made on a group of 438 persons who had worked with aromatic amines (benzidine, 2-naphthylamine, 1-naphthylamine and dianisidine) with reference to their carcinogenic properties in the urinary tract. Urinary tract tumors developed in 68 (15.5%), with an average latent period of 22 years and 11 months. In these 68 cases, upper urinary tract tumors were found in 16 cases, 8 of which had bilateral lesions. The average age of onset was 48.1 ranging from 2...

  10. MoO3/Ag/MoO3 anode for organic light-emitting diodes and its carrier injection property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzai, Kazuki; Naka, Shigeki; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2015-05-01

    We report on the application of the dielectric/metal/dielectric (DMD) structure consisting of a molybdenum trioxide (MoO3)/silver (Ag)/MoO3 stack as the transparent electrode in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Bright emission similar to that of the indium-tin-oxide anode (ITO) device was obtained from the OLEDs with the DMD anode. Also, the barrier height at the interface of DMD/bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenyl] benzidine (α-NPD) is similar to that at the ITO/α-NPD interface. The DMD electrode is a promising anode for OLEDs.

  11. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 C802T (His268Tyr) polymorphism in bladder cancer cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Anna; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Roth, Gerhard; Seidel, Thilo; Dietrich, Holger; Schutschkow, Olga; Bolt, Hermann M; Golka, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    A study of Chinese benzidine workers indicated elevated levels of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7 T/T activity in carriers for development of bladder cancer. The present study was designed to investigate the possible impact of the presence of UGT2B7 genotype on bladder cancer risk in Caucasians. UGT2B7 polymorphism at locus C(802)T (His(268)Tyr) was detected using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)-based procedure. The study group consisted of 211 bladder cancer cases and 210 controls suffering from different urological diseases, but without any history of cancer. Both groups were recruited from a Department of Urology located in a center of former chemical and rubber industries in Germany. Furthermore, 171 bladder cancer cases with a history of occupational exposure to aromatic amines surveyed for compensation due to an occupational disease were investigated. T/T genotype frequencies in bladder cancer cases, urological controls, and exposed patients appeared similar (27 vs. 35 vs. 25%). This study indicated that there were ethnic differences between Caucasian and Chinese general populations with respect to the UGT2B7 genotype. Furthermore, in contrast to an earlier investigation in benzidine-exposed Chinese bladder cancer patients, no relevant differences between bladder cancer patients and urological hospital controls were observed in Germany.

  12. Carcinogenicity of hair dye components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duuren, B L

    1980-03-01

    The available animal carcinogenicity data on hair dye components was reviewed. From this review it became clear that certain hair dye components, some of which are still in hair dye formulations now on the market, are animal carcinogens. The compounds of concern that are still in use are: 3-amino-4-methoxyaniline, 2-nitro-4-aminoaniline and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyaniline. Certain azo dyes formerly used, and related compounds still in use, contain the benzidine moiety. Two of these compounds, Direct Blue 6 and Direct Black 38, have been shown to be metabolized in animals to the human carcinogen benzidine. Furthermore, skin absorption studies carried out with radiolabeled hair dye components applied to animal or human skin have conclusively shown that these compounds are systemically absorbed and excreted. Known cocarcinogens such as catechol and pyrogallol, which enhance benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenicity on mouse skin, are used as hair dye components. It is not known whether such compounds will enhance the carcinogenicity of substituted aniline hair dye chemicals. The available epidemiologic data are not sufficient to link hair dye use with an increased incidence in human cancer.

  13. Experimental investigation of some coordination complexes using the sup(151)Eu Moessbauer resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several Schiff base complexes containing Eu151 metal ions have been synthesized and their Moessbauer spectra are recorded using the constant acceleration velocity spectrometer. The least-square analysis method for the evaluation of the hyperfine field coupling constants is adopted using the computer dec system-10. From the systematic analysis of the quadrupole coupling constants (q.c.c.) and isomer shifts it has been established that the coordination number of the metal ion of Bis(acetylacetone) benzidine and thiourea complexes is five, that of bis-vanillin benzidine and bis-salicylaldehyde-o-dianisidine is six, and that of bis-vanillin-o-phenylene diamine is seven. It is also found that the q.c.c. being negative in all these complexes decreases monotonically as the coordination number increases. One unusual aspect of this experimental data is that most of the coordination complexes have very low f-factors whereas the Schiff base complexes studied here have a fairly high recoilless fractions. Attempts are in progress to synthesize and study the Fe Schiff base complexes in place of Eu. (auth.)

  14. Effect of Co-Culturing of Mice Liver Cells and Embryonic Carcinomatous Stem Cells on the Rate of Differentiation to Hematopoietic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Pourfatollah

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the importance of co-culture in differentiation of embryonic stem cells, the aim of this study was evaluation of the effect of co-culturing fetal liver stroma cells with P19 cells on the line of differentiation. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, P19 cells were cultured directly in semisolid medium. These cells proliferated and primarily differentiated to colonies know as embryoid bodies (EBs after 8-12 days. The Ebs cells were trypsinized and dissociated to single or double cells. Then these cells were co-cultured on the mouse fetal liver feeder layer in the absence of exogenous factors. After 14-18 days, the colonies were studied morphologically by benzidine and giemsa staining and also counted under invert microscope. Results: The percentages of benzidine positive (or erythroid and negative colonies were 94% and 6% respectively and also the cells of colonies were studied by Giemsa staining. Results showed that they were myeloid or lymphoid type cells. Thus, the results show that in the presence of mouse fetal liver feeder layer, the number of erythroid colonies was increased. Conclusions: Therefore, this technique may be effective for differentiation of stem cells from different sources into hematopoietic cells and can be used in future for human cell therapy.

  15. The Use of 7,7′,8,8′-Tetracyanoquinodimethane for the Spectrophotometric Determination of Some Primary Amines Application to Real Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theia'a N. Al-Sabha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive, simple, and accurate spectrophotometric method was developed for the quantitative determination of some primary aliphatic and aromatic amines, that is, ethylamine, 1,2-diaminopropane, aniline, p-aminophenol, and benzidine. The method is based on the interaction of these amines in aqueous medium with 7,7′,8,8′-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ reagent in the presence of a buffer solution and surfactant (in the case of aromatic amines to form charge-transfer complexes measurable at maximum wavelengths ranging between 323 and 511 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration ranges of 0.025 and 3.0 μg/mL and the molar absorptivity is ranged between 8.977 × 103 and 5.8034 × 104  L·mol−1·cm−1 for these amines. The method was applied for the determination of benzidine in the river, sea, and tap waters. The TCNQ complexes with the previously mentioned amines were formed in the ratio of 1 : 1 amine : TCNQ, and their stability constants ranged between 8.78 × 104 and 1.844 × 105 L·mol−1.

  16. [Characterization of cases contravening of regulations regarding primary aromatic amines originating from azo dyes in commercial textile products and leather products in European Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Isama, Kazuo; Ikarashi, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Contraventions of regulations regarding primary aromatic amines (PAAs) originating from azo dyes in commercial textile products and leather products in European Union (EU), notified in the period between 2006 and 2012 were collected from the Rapid Alert System for non-food consumer products (RAPEX), were characterized. Various types of products (clothes, footwear, bedding, etc.) and their raw materials (cotton, silk, viscose, leather, etc.) were reported to have contravened the regulations. The contravention frequencies for products made in China and India were higher than those for other countries. Ten percentage of the country in which the reported products were produced was unknown. The notification frequencies for benzidine and 4-aminoazobenzene were higher than those for other PAAs. Contravention of regulations regarding benzidine, 4-aminoazobenzene, and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine were notified every year. Contraventions of regulations regarding five PAAs--classified as IARC group 1--were notified one or several times. Since the scale of the survey conducted in Japan were small compared with RAPEX, it is necessary that many kinds and number of products should be surveyed in Japan. In addition, it is also necessary to pay attention to 4-aminoazobenzene, while it has not been detected in the previous studies conducted in Japan. PMID:24340672

  17. Method of Testing Viability of Pollen in Pomegranate%石榴花粉生活力测定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘程宏; 张芳明; 宋尚伟

    2012-01-01

    Three pomegranate varieties (Tunisia soft seed, Yu large seed and Taishan red) were used as the tested materials, the methods of testing their pollen viability were screened and analyzed. The results showed that; though benzidine staining method obtained slightly higher determination result of pollen viability than glucose solution culture method, it had better correlation. So benzidine staining method is a better method for the determination of pollen viability of pomegranate.%以突尼斯软籽、豫大籽、泰山红3个石榴品种为试验材料,对其花粉活力的测定方法进行了筛选,结果表明:联苯胺染色法较之葡萄糖溶液培养法测定结果略偏高,但相关性良好,因此联苯胺染色法是测定石榴花粉生活力较好的染色方法.

  18. Polymorphism of Glutathione S-transferase T1, M1 and P1 Genes in a Shanghai Population: Patients With Occupational or Non-occupational Bladder Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective Glutathione S-transferases are involved in the conjugation of xenobiotics. To explore whether GSTs polymorphisms are involved in the development of occupational or non-occupational bladder cancer, polymorphism frequencies of GSTT1, M1 and P1 were investigated in a normal population, which had been settled in a rural area in Shanghai suburb for at least 5 generations as well as in a group of patients with benzidine exposure related occupational bladder cancer in Shanghai dyestuff industry and a group of patients with non-occupational bladder cancer. Methods PCR based procedures were performed in the study populations to confirm the genotypes of GSTT1, M1 and P1. Results The polymorphisms at locus of GSTP1- A1578G in the normal population differed significantly from those in Caucasians or African Americans. All the subjects genotyped so far (n =118) bore only homogenous wild genotype (C2293/ C2293) at GSTP1 - C2293T locus. This locus seemed to be a monomorphic in Shanghai population. No significant difference in GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphic form frequencies could be confirmed among three groups of subjects. An overrepresentation of GSTP1 AG or GG genotype corresponding a less stable and less effective isozyme protein was detected in patients with benzidine related occupational bladder cancer, compared with that in the normal population though a statistical significance was not yet reached (P=0.09, OR=1.96, 95% CI 0.89-4.32,). Conclusion This study suggests that GSTM1 or GSTT1 homozygous deficiency genotypes and their combination do not have a clear impact on bladder cancer incidence in a Shanghai population. It seems that GSTP1 polymorphism is not associated with non-occupational bladder cancer. GSTP1 AG or GG genotype has a higher frequency in the patients with benzidine related occupational bladder cancer, and further work is needed to confirm if GSTP1 AG or GG genotype plays a role in the development of occupational bladder cancer.

  19. Performance Improvement of Bulk Heterojunction Organic Photovoltalc Cell by Addition of a Hole Transport Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Nan; LIU Qian; MAO Jie; LIU Zun-Feng; YANG Li-Ying; YIN Shou-Gen; CHEN Yong-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ A novel photovoltaic cell with an active layer of poly(phenyleneethynylene)(PPE)/C60/N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-di-(m-tolyl)-p-benzidine(TPD)is designed.In the active layer,PPE is the major component;C60 and TPD are the minor ones.Compared with a control BHJ device based on PPE/C60,the short circuit current density Jsc is increased by 1 order of magnitude,and the whole device performance is increased greatly,however the open circuit voltage Voc is largely decreased.The possible mechanism of the improved performance may be as follows:In the PPE/C60/TPD device,PPE,C60,and TPD serve as the energy harvesting material,the electron transport material,and the hole transport materiall respectively.As the TPD and C60 are spatially separated by PPE,the charge recombination is effectively retarded.

  20. Electroluminescence from colloidal semiconductor CdSe nanoplatelets in hybrid organic-inorganic light emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitukhnovsky, A. G.; Lebedev, V. S.; Selyukov, A. S.; Vashchenko, A. A.; Vasiliev, R. B.; Sokolikova, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of a hybrid light-emitting-diode based on colloidal semiconductor CdSe nanoplatelets as emitters and organic TAZ [3-(Biphenyl-4-yl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole] and TPD [N, N‧-bis (3-methylphenyl)-N, N‧-bis (phenyl)-benzidine] materials as the electron and hole transporting layers. Electroluminescent and current-voltage characteristics of the developed hybrid device with the turn-on voltage of 5.5 V and the radiation wavelength of 515 nm have been obtained. Semiconductor nanoplatelets like CdSe are attractive for the fabrication of hybrid LEDs with low operating voltages, spectrally pure color and short-wavelength electroluminescence, which is required for RGB devices.

  1. Localized surface plasmon resonance effect in organic light-emitting devices with Ag islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Noritaka; Naka, Shigeki; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2014-04-01

    We report on luminescence enhancement of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with silver islands (i-Ag) by a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect. The devices were fabricated using tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) as the red emission material, bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenyl] benzidine (α-NPD) as the blue emission and hole transport material, and 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) as the electron transport material. To clarify the position of emission enhancement by energy transfer from i-Ag, an ultrathin TPP layer located within the α-NPD layer. In the device with i-Ag and the TPP layer located over 10 nm from i-Ag, TPP emission was enhanced in comparison with the device without i-Ag. The enhancement of TPP emission was suggested to be the effect of the enhanced electric field resulting from LSPR excited by α-NPD emission.

  2. Studies on the Fluorescence Properties of Chloromethyl Polystyrene Supported Fluorophore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN; HongXia

    2001-01-01

    The basic materials used in making photoluminescence materials are all synthesized polymers at present, such as PVC, etc [1]. Red and green LEDs are easy to be prepared, but the blue LED is difficult to be done. In this paper, we used chloromethyl polystyrene as supporter, leading into the known fluorophore by polymer chemical reaction, so as to obtaining blue luminous material.  The PS-CH2Cl supported fluorophore are prepared by PS-CH2Cl and benzidine (B), dimethylbenzidine (MA), 4,4'-diamino-diphenyl ether (DAPE), 4,4'-diamino-diphenyl sulfone (DAPS), respectively. They were characterized by IR and elemental analysis. The stead state fluorescence properties of these supported polymers were investigated.The results were summarized in table 1.  ……

  3. Studies on the Fluorescence Properties of Chloromethyl Polystyrene Supported Fluorophore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The basic materials used in making photoluminescence materials are all synthesized polymers at present, such as PVC, etc [1]. Red and green LEDs are easy to be prepared, but the blue LED is difficult to be done. In this paper, we used chloromethyl polystyrene as supporter, leading into the known fluorophore by polymer chemical reaction, so as to obtaining blue luminous material. The PS-CH2Cl supported fluorophore are prepared by PS-CH2Cl and benzidine (B), dimethylbenzidine (MA), 4,4'-diamino-diphenyl ether (DAPE), 4,4'-diamino-diphenyl sulfone (DAPS), respectively. They were characterized by IR and elemental analysis. The stead state fluorescence properties of these supported polymers were investigated.The results were summarized in table 1.

  4. Evaluation of Uncertainty for Detecting the Content of Banned Aromatic Amines in Textile Products by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Ke-jie; LI Zheng-rong; YANG Li-sheng; MIN Jie; YE Hong-miao

    2006-01-01

    The article evaluated the uncertainty of the content of banned aromatic amines in textile products in terms of GB/T17592. 1 - 1998 Textiles-test Method of Banned Azo Colourants-gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric Method, analyzed and quantified the uncertainty components which affected the measurement results.Through calculation, the uncertainty of the sample mainly came from C0 standard uncertainty, weighing, uncertainty of volume, effect on the recovery rate of sample during the course of extraction and purification and ucertainty from the random effect during the course of measurement. It was obtained that the expanded uncertainties of the content of 2 -naphthylamine, benzidine and 2, 4 - diaminotoluene with higher frequency in 24 kinds of forbidden aromatic amines were respectively 2.128, 2.302 and 4.778 mg/kg.

  5. Experimental verifications on chemical carcinogenesis, a bifunctional alkylation between DNA interstrands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It is evidenced by the filter elution method that two carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, two carcinogenic metal salts, beryllium chloride and cadmium chloride, four carcinogenic aromatic amines, 2-aminofluorene, β-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine, can all induce DNA interstrand and DNA-protein cross-link in L1210 culture. However, under the same condition, the corresponding non-carcinogenic compounds, including benzo[k]fluorancene, anthracene, magnesium chloride, zinc chloride, a -naphthylamine, 2-aminobiphenyl and m-toluidine, cannot produce any cross-link adducts. All these results are consistent with the di-region theory that carcinogens are bio-bifunctional alkylation agents. This method can also be used to discriminate carcinogens and non-carcinogens.

  6. Application of an ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica material for the SPE of aromatic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yihui; Wang, Tingting; Ma, Junfeng; Liang, Zhen; Chen, Mingliang; Fang, Jianghua; Gao, Haoqi; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-01-01

    An SPE cartridge based on an ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent has been adopted for the analysis of aromatic amines including 4-aminobiphenyl, benzidine, 2-naphthylamine, p-chloroaniline, 2,4,5-trimethylaniline, and 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine. Crucial variables governing the extraction efficiency of the material such as the pH of sample, sample loading volume, solvent used for elution, and elution volume have been thoroughly optimized. The adsorption capacities for the six aromatic amines ranged from 0.17 to 1.82 μg/mg. The recoveries of aromatic amines spiked in textile samples ranged from 78.9 to 103.0%, with RSDs of 1.1-11.9% (n = 3). Moreover, the extraction efficiency of the ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent was at least comparable with that of Oasis WCX. PMID:24178632

  7. DIFFERENTIAL PULSE VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF 3,3' 5,5'-TETRAMETHYLBENZIDINE AND ITS ANALOGUES WITH A GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁元晨; 仁玉贝

    1993-01-01

    The differential pulse voltarametric ( DPV ) method with a glassy carbon electrode was used for the determination of 3,3' 5,5'-tetramethy lbenzidine ( TMB ) , o-tolidine and benzidine in the acidic media. The pulse amplitude, interval time and scan rate of DPV are optimized to be 50 mV, 0.5 s and 10 mV/s, respectively, The peak current is proportional to the concentration of TMB and its analogues, the linear range is from 10-8mol/l to 10-4 mal/l, The electrochemical behaviour of the compounds is discussed, The chemical poisons can be determined directly, or indirectly by the extraction in the waste water of chemical industry and laboratory,

  8. Radioimmunoassay of haemoglobin F in K 562 cells following induction with renin substrate and erythropoietin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenloef, K.; Fyhrquist, F.; Hortling, L.; Groenhagen-Riska, C. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Minerva Inst. for Medical Research; Helsinki Univ. (Finland). 4th Dept. of Medicine)

    1985-06-01

    To test the hypothesis of renin substrate (RS: angiotensinogen) being a precursor of erythropoietin (EP), the capacity of RS and EP to induce Hb synthesis was compared in cultured human erythroid leukaemia cells of the K 562 line after prestimulation with haemin. For this purpose a radioimmunoassay for haemoglobin F (HbF) was developed. This assay was shown to be specific for HbF, reproducible, and sensitive for 0.1 ng of HbF. The cells were induced by RS and EP to increased HbF production. Cells stimulated with RS or EP showed increased benzidine staining. These data support the hypothesis that renin substrate is a likely precursor of erythropoietin.

  9. Front-Light Source Using Inverted Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Microcathode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Kohei; Naka, Shigeki; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2010-04-01

    We have demonstrated an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) front-light source with a blinding microcathode array on a transparent electrode and a top-emission structure. Contrast ratio was improved by inserting MoO3 at the indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/Al interface. In a device of glass substrate/ITO/MoO3/meshed Al/lithium fluoride (LiF)/tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum(III) (Alq3)/bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenyl] benzidine (α-NPD)/MoO3/semitransparent Au structure, the maximum luminance of top-side emission was 1,140 cd/m2, and the contrast ratio was 19:1. The transmittance was 44% at 555 nm.

  10. Effect of Dopant Properties on the Microstructures and Electrical Characteristics of Poly(3-Hexylthiophene)Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Liang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Effects of dopant properties on microstructures and the electrical characteristics of poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT)films are studied by doping 0.1 wt% 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane(F4-TCNQ),6,6-pheny1-C61 butyric acid methyl ester(PCBM)and N,N'-Diphenyl-N,N'-(m-tolyl)-benzidine(TPD)into P3HT,respectively.The introductions of various dopants in small quantities increase the field-effect mobility and the Ion/Ioff ratio of P3HT thin-film transistors.However,each of dopants shows various effects on the crystalline order and the molecular orientation of P3HT films and the performance of P3HT thin-film transistors.These can be attributed to the various size,shape and energy-level properties of the dopants.

  11. Polymorphism of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) Gene Polymorphism in Shanghai population:Occupational and Non-occupational Bladder Cancer Patient Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING-WEN MA; GUO-FANG LIN; JI-GANG CHEN; CUI-QING XIANG; WEI-CHAO GUO; KLAUS GOLKA; JIAN-HUA SHEN

    2004-01-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are involved in the detoxification of aromatic amines and hydrazine. In order to explore the possible association of NAT2 polymorphism with bladder cancer risk in benzidine exposed or non-exposed Chinese individuals, healthy subjects, subjects with bladder cancer of a former benzidine exposed cohort in Shanghai dyestuff industry and a group of bladder cancer patients without known occupational exposure to aromatic amines were genotyped for NAT2 gene polymorphism. Methods NAT2 genotyping was performed with a set of RFLP procedures at seven major polymorphic loci of gene coding area: G191A, C282T, T341C, C481T, G590A, A803G and G857A. Results The wild allele NAT2 *4 was the most prevalent allele (59%) in healthy individuals. The alleles NAT2*6A and NAT2*7B were also frequently observed (21% and 17%, respectively). In contrast to Caucasians, the percentage of slow acetylators was lower (12% in Chinese vs. 58% in Caucasians, P<0.001). No relevant differences were observed for homogenous rapid, heterogeneous rapid/slow and homogeneous slow acetylation genotypes between the healthy subjects and both groups of bladder cancer patients. Conclusion The present work did not support the association of slow acetylating genotypes of NAT2 gene with elevated risk of bladder cancer in Chinese whereas it was documented as an important genetically determined risk factor in Caucasians. Different mechanisms might play a role in individual susceptibility to bladder cancer related with aromatic amine exposure in various races or ethnic groups.

  12. Alternative p-doped hole transport material for low operating voltage and high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the properties of N,N′-[(Diphenyl-N,N′-bis)9,9,-dimethyl-fluoren-2-yl]-benzidine (BF-DPB) as hole transport material (HTL) in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and compare BF-DPB to the commonly used HTLs N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-benzidine (MeO-TPD), 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N′-di-p-methylphenylamino)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (Spiro-TTB), and N,N′-di(naphtalene-1-yl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine (NPB). The influence of 2,2′-(perfluoronaphthalene-2,6-diylidene)dimalononitrile (F6-TCNNQ p-dopant) concentration in BF-DPB on the operation voltage and efficiency of red and green phosphorescent OLEDs is studied; best results are achieved at 4 wt. % doping. Without any light extraction structure, BF-DPB based red (green) OLEDs achieve a luminous efficacy of 35 .1 lm/W (74 .0 lm/W) at 1000 cd/m2 and reach a very high brightness of 10 000 cd/m2 at a very low voltage of 3.2 V (3.1 V). We attribute this exceptionally low driving voltage to the high ionization potential of BF-DPB which enables more efficient hole injection from BF-DPB to the adjacent electron blocking layer. The high efficiency and low driving voltage lead to a significantly lower luminous efficacy roll-off compared to the other compounds and render BF-DPB an excellent HTL material for highly efficient OLEDs.

  13. Lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlewska-Roberts, Katarzyna M; Teitel, Candee H; Lay, Jackson O; Roberts, Dean W; Kadlubar, Fred F

    2004-12-01

    Lactoperoxidase, an enzyme secreted from the human mammary gland, plays a host defensive role through antimicrobial activity. It has been implicated in mutagenic and carcinogenic activation in the human mammary gland. The potential role of heterocyclic and aromatic amines in the etiology of breast cancer led us to examination of the lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of the most commonly studied arylamine carcinogens: 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP), benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx). In vitro activation was performed with lactoperoxidase (partially purified from bovine milk or human milk) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and calf thymus DNA. Products formed during enzymatic activation were monitored by HPLC with ultraviolet and radiometric detection. Two of these products were characterized as hydrazo and azo derivatives by means of mass spectrometry. The DNA binding level of 3H- and 14C-radiolabeled amines after peroxidase-catalyzed activation was dependent on the hydrogen peroxide concentration, and the highest levels of carcinogen binding to DNA were observed at 100 microM H2O2. Carcinogen activation and the level of binding to DNA were in the order of benzidine > ABP > IQ > MeIQx > PhIP. One of the ABP adducts was identified, and the level at which it is formed was estimated to be six adducts/10(5) nucleotides. The susceptibility of aromatic and heterocyclic amines for lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation and the binding levels of activated products to DNA suggest a potential role of lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of carcinogens in the etiology of breast cancer.

  14. Oligomeric complexes of some heteroaromatic ligands and aromatic diamines with rhodium and molybdenum tetracarboxylates: 13C and 15N CPMAS NMR and density functional theory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leniak, Arkadiusz; Kamieński, Bohdan; Jaźwiński, Jarosław

    2015-05-01

    Seven new oligomeric complexes of 4,4'-bipyridine; 3,3'-bipyridine; benzene-1,4-diamine; benzene-1,3-diamine; benzene-1,2-diamine; and benzidine with rhodium tetraacetate, as well as 4,4'-bipyridine with molybdenum tetraacetate, have been obtained and investigated by elemental analysis and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, (13)C and (15)N CPMAS NMR. The known complexes of pyrazine with rhodium tetrabenzoate, benzoquinone with rhodium tetrapivalate, 4,4'-bipyridine with molybdenum tetrakistrifluoroacetate and the 1 : 1 complex of 2,2'-bipyridine with rhodium tetraacetate exhibiting axial-equatorial ligation mode have been obtained as well for comparison purposes. Elemental analysis revealed 1 : 1 complex stoichiometry of all complexes. The (15)N CPMAS NMR spectra of all new complexes consist of one narrow signal, indicating regular uniform structures. Benzidine forms a heterogeneous material, probably containing linear oligomers and products of further reactions. The complexes were characterized by the parameter complexation shift Δδ (Δδ = δcomplex  - δligand). This parameter ranged from around -40 to -90 ppm in the case of heteroaromatic ligands, from around -12 to -22 ppm for diamines and from -16 to -31 ppm for the complexes of molybdenum tetracarboxylates with 4,4'-bipyridine. The experimental results have been supported by a density functional theory computation of (15)N NMR chemical shifts and complexation shifts at the non-relativistic Becke, three-parameter, Perdew-Wang 91/[6-311++G(2d,p), Stuttgart] and GGA-PBE/QZ4P levels of theory and at the relativistic scalar and spin-orbit zeroth order regular approximation/GGA-PBE/QZ4P level of theory. Nucleus-independent chemical shifts have been calculated for the selected compounds. PMID:25614975

  15. Synthesis and characterization of new polyamides derived from alanine and valine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Faham Ayman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many efforts have been recently devoted to design, investigate and synthesize biocompatible, biodegradable polymers for applications in medicine for either the fabrication of biodegradable devices or as drug delivery systems. Many of them consist of condensation of polymers having incorporated peptide linkages susceptible to enzymatic cleavage. Polyamides (PAs containing α-amino acid residues such as L-leucine, L-alanine and L-phenylalanine have been reported as biodegradable materials. Furthermore, polyamides (PAs derived from C10 and C14 dicarboxylic acids and amide-diamines derived from 1,6-hexanediamine or 1,12-dodecanediamine and L-phenylalanine, L-valyl-L-phenylalanine or L-phenylalanyl-L-valine residues have been reported as biocompatible polymers. We have previously described the synthesis and thermal properties of a new type of polyamides-containing amino acids based on eight new symmetric meta-oriented protected diamines derived from coupling of amino acids namely; Fomc-glycine, Fmoc-alanine, Fomc-valine and Fomc-leucine with m-phenylene diamine or 2,6-diaminopyridine. Results revealed that incorporation of pyridine onto the polymeric backbone of all series decreases the thermal stability. Here we describe another family of polyamides based on benzene dicarboxylic acid, pyridine dicarboxylic acid, and α-amino acid linked to benzidine and 4,4′-oxydianiline to study the effect of the dicarboxylic acid as well as the amino acids on the nature and thermal stability of the polymers. Results We report here the preparation of a new type of polyamides based on benzene dicarboxylic acid, pyridine dicarboxylic acid, and α-amino acid linked to benzidine and 4,4′-oxydianiline to study the effect of the dicarboxylic acid as well as the amino acids on the nature and thermal stability of polymers. The thermal properties of the polymers were evaluated by different techniques. Results revealed that structure-thermal property

  16. 浊点萃取催化光度法测定蔬菜中的敌敌畏%Cloud Point Extraction Catalytic Spectrophotometric Determination of Dichlorvos in Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘正; 张晓霞; 宋天琳

    2013-01-01

    基于有机磷农药对过氧化氢氧化联苯胺反应的催化作用,以敌敌畏为例,用Triton X-114为萃取剂,研究了该浊点萃取体系用于敌敌畏检测的特性。在pH值为8.5的氨缓冲溶液中,过氧化氢与盐酸联苯胺在敌敌畏的催化作用下生成稳定的黄色配合物,经浊点萃取测定其含量。配合物的最大吸收波长为425 nm,在0μg~250μg范围内吸光值呈良好的线性关系,相关系数为0.9998,表观摩尔吸光系数ε为5.3×104 L· mol-1· cm-1,方法检出限为22.2μg/L。用于5种蔬菜中敌敌畏的残留量分析,平均加标回收率为82.3%~102%,RSD≤8.9%。%Based on the organophosphorus pesticides have a strong catalytic function on oxidization of hydro -gen peroxide and benzidine , one study investigating of dichlorvos was perforemed .With the Triton X-114 as ex-tractant, the characteristics of the cloud point extraction system in dichlorvos determination was studied .In pH 8 .5 ammonia buffer solution , a stable yellow complex was formed in the reaction of catalytic of dichlorvos on hy-drogen peroxide and benzidine .This complex was determined by cloud point extraction .The maximum absorp-tion wave length is 425 nm.In the range of 0 μg ~250 μg, the linear relationship of the absorbance values is good.The relation coefficient is 0.999 8.The molar absorbance coefficient is 5.3 ×104 L· mol-1 · cm-1 .The method detection limit of 22 .2 μg/L was measured .On determination for dichlorvos in five kinds of vegetables , the average spiked recoveries were 82.3% ~102%, RSD ≤8.9%.

  17. The impact of pollutants on the antioxidant protection of species of the genus Tilia at different developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Alexeyeva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of transport fumes and industrial waste on the activity of catalase, benzidine-peroxidase and guaiacol-peroxidase was studied in the dormant buds, leaves and seeds of the following species of the genus Tilia:T. platyphyllos Scop., T. europaea L., T. amurensis Rupr. and T. begoniifolia Stev. We tested the hypothesis that the action of pollutants changes the state of antioxidant protection at different stages of tree development in contaminated phytocenoses. An increase in catalase activity was observed in leaves of all linden species, and the action of transport fumes caused excess over control level by 118, 118, 196, and 61% respectively for T. platyphyllos, T. europaea, T. amurensis and T. begoniifolia. The action of industrial waste was accompanied by a slight decrease in catalase activity in T. europaea leaves, and increase in activity in leaves of T. amurensis and T. begoniifolia (143% and 115%. Benzidine-peroxidase activity increased due to the influence of transport fumes on leaves of T. amurensis and T. begoniifolia (103% and 44%, but decreased due to the effect of industrial waste on leaves of T. europaea, T. amurensis and T. begoniifolia (46%, 30%, and 44% respectively, and was suppressed in the seeds of T. europaea, T. amurensis and T. begoniifolia both under the influence of transport (42%, 47% and 33% below control and industrial emissions (19%, 19% and 45%, and was reduced in buds of T. platyphyllos, T. europaea and T. amurensis due to the effect of transport fumes (21%, 9% and 20% respectively. Guaiacol-peroxidase activity decreased due to the influence of transport fumes in buds of T. platyphyllos, T. europaea and T. amurensis (41%, 14% and 47% below control, while it increased in the seeds of T. platyphyllos and T. amurensis (104% and 83%, as well as in leaves of T. amurensis and T. begoniifolia both due to the effect of transport (129% and 144% and of industrial emissions (respectively, 34% and 40% above control

  18. 功能层厚度对叠层有机电致发光器件出光性能影响的数值研究%Influence of the functional layer thickness on the light output property of tandem organic light emitting diode:a numerical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路飞平; 李建丰; 孙硕

    2013-01-01

    Based on the principle of thin film optics, the theory of electric dipole radiation, and the principle of Fabry-P ´erot microcavity, an optical model is built for the tandem organic light emitting diode (OLED) with the structure of Glass/ITO/N, N0-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N, N0-bis (phenyl)-benzidine(NPB)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoli-ne) aluminum (Alq3)/molybdenum trioxide (MoO3)/NPB/Alq3/LiF/Al. The influence of the functional layer thickness on the light output intensity of device is systematically studied, the laws of light output intensity for tandem OLEDs under different thickness values of functional layer are obtained. This model and the results obtained in this paper can present an in-depth understanding of the working mechanism of tandem OLED and help ones fabricate high efficiency OLED.%功能层厚度是影响有机电致发光器件出光效率的主要因素之一,故获得不同功能层厚度对器件出光特性的影响规律是制备高性能器件的重要基础。本文基于薄膜光学原理、电偶极子辐射理论及Fabry-P´erot 微腔原理,建立了结构为glass/ITO/N, N0-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N, N0-bis(phenyl)-benzidine(NPB)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum(Alq3)/molybdenum trioxide(MoO3)/NPB/Alq3/Al的叠层有机电致发光器件的光学模型,系统地研究了各个功能层厚度对叠层有机电致发光器件出光强度的影响,得到了功能层厚度对器件出光强度影响的规律。该模型的建立与所获得的结果可对深入了解叠层有机电致发光器件的工作机理以及制备高性能的器件提供一定的帮助。

  19. Examination of chromogenic and fluorogenic substrates in solid-phase enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates were used in direct and trapping enzyme linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of mouse IgG and foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV). The detection limits for both antigens were compared, using different combinations of enzymes and substrates. Various times and concentrations of chemicals were used to obtain maximum sensitivity for both systems. Similar sensitivities were found using fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates. Tetramethyl benzidine substrate for horse radish peroxidase enzyme conjugates was found to attain the highest sensitivity levels for chromogenic assays (0.12 ng IgG/ml and 1.0 ng/ml FMDV respectively), after 10 min incubation. Of the two fluorogenic enzyme/substrates studied, B-galactosidase was the most sensitive but required extended incubation times (2-3 h) as compared with chromogenic systems. Special microplates for fluoro-immunoassay were compared with conventional microplates and no advantage was found to justify their use. An alkaline phosphatase anti-guinea pig conjugate was used to confirm the equivalence of fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates in terms of sensitivity. A comparison of the amount of signal generated using various concentrations of enzyme in the absence of antigen was made for two different alkaline phosphatase conjugates to obtain theoretical sensitivity limits. One possible advantage of fluorogenic substrates is that high binding ratio can improve the confidence in discrimination of positive results. (author). 3 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  20. Hemoglobin adducts of N-substituted aryl compounds in exposure control and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, H G; Birner, G; Kowallik, P; Schütze, D; Zwirner-Baier, I

    1993-03-01

    Arylamines, nitroarenes, and azo dyes yield a common type of metabolite, the nitroarene, which produces a hydrolyzable adduct with protein and is closely related to the critical, ultimate toxic and genotoxic metabolite. The target dose as measured by hemoglobin adducts in erythrocytes reflects not only the actual uptake from the environment but also an individual's capacity for metabolic activation and is therefore an improved dosimeter for human exposure. The usefulness of hemoglobin adducts in molecular epidemiology is now widely recognized. With regard to risk assessment, many questions need to be answered. The described experiments in rats address some of these questions. The relationship between binding to hemoglobin in erythrocytes and to proteins in plasma has been found to vary considerably for a number of diamines. The fraction of hydrolyzable adducts out of the total protein adducts formed also varies in both compartments. This indicates that the kind of circulating metabolites and their availability in different compartments is compound specific. This has to do with the complex pattern of competing metabolic pathways, and the role of N-acetylation and deacetylation is emphasized. An example of nonlinear dose dependence adds to the complexity. Analysis of hemoglobin adducts reveals interesting insights into prevailing pathways, which not only apply to the chemical, but may also be useful to assess an individual's metabolic properties. In addition, it is demonstrated that the greater part of erythrocytes and benzidine-hemoglobin adducts are eliminated randomly in rats, i.e., following first-order kinetics.

  1. Colorless and transparent copolyimide nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hye-Jin; Kim, Yong Seok; Chang, Jin-Hae

    2014-12-01

    Copolyimides (Co-PIs) were synthesized from 2,2'-bis(trifluoromethyl) benzidine (TFB) and different ratios of 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphthalic anhydride (6FDA) and pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA). The Co-PI films were obtained from poly(amic acid) (PAA) by solution-casting through typical chemical and thermal imidizations. The thermal properties and optical transparency of the Co-PI films with various PMDA monomer contents were investigated. It was found that with increasing PMDA content, the thermal transition temperatures of the Co-PI films increased. Co-PI nanocomposites were prepared with various amounts of organically modified hectorite (STN) on a TFB:6FDA:PMDA = 1.0:0.9:0.1 mole ratio Co-PI hybrid film to examine the thermal properties, morphology, and optical transparency. The thermo-optical properties of the Co-PI hybrid films deteriorated with increasing clay content. However, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and oxygen barrier properties of the PI hybrid films improved with increasing clay content. PMID:25971113

  2. Low driving voltage in an organic light-emitting diode using MoO3/NPB multiple quantum well structure in a hole transport layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Xue; Wu Xiao-Ming; Hua Yu-Lin; Jiao Zhi-Qiang; Shen Li-Ying; Su Yue-Ju; Bai Juan-Juan

    2013-01-01

    The driving voltage of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is lowered by employing molybdenum trioxide (MoO3)/N,N'-bis(naphthalene-l-yl)-N,N'-bis(phe-nyl)-benzidine (NPB) multiple quantum well (MQW) structure in the hole transport layer.For the device with double quantum well (DQW) structure of ITO/ [MoO3 (2.5 nm)/NPB (20 nm)]2/Alq3(50 nm)/LiF (0.8 nm)/Al (120 nm)],the turn-on voltage is reduced to 2.8 V,which is lowered by 0.4 V compared with that of the control device (without MQW structures),and the driving voltage is 5.6 V,which is reduced by l V compared with that of the control device at the 1000 cd/m2.In this work,the enhancement of the injection and transport ability for holes could reduce the driving voltage for the device with MQW structure,which is attributed not only to the reduced energy barrier between ITO and NPB,but also to the forming charge transfer complex between MoO3 and NPB induced by the interfacial doping effect of MoO3.

  3. [Present aspects and problems regarding occupational bladder cancer due to exposure to aromatic amines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, J

    1989-12-01

    About a century has passed since the first case of bladder cancer due to occupational exposure to carcinogenic aromatic amines was reported. In the major developed countries of the world, it is forbidden to manufacture and/or to use such aromatic amines. In Japan in the 1950's, many workers were exposed to carcinogenic aromatic amines, but in 1972, the Labor Safety and Health Act came into force and manufacturing and/or using of four kinds of aromatic amines were forbidden. Recently it has been reported that the risk of bladder cancer in workers exposed to aromatic amines before the ban of these chemicals is approximately from several times to a hundred times compared with the general population, and some reports say that dose-response relationship was observed. The important issues now are the carcinogenicity of other kinds of aromatic amines besides benzidine and 2-naphthylamine, carcinogenicity of metabolites of several substances like synthetic dyes, and carcinogenic aromatic amines as impurities in substances imported from developing countries. The type of exposure to these carcinogens changes low level and long period exposures. In addition to the chemical or dye industries, an increased risk of bladder cancer was observed among workers handling leather and rubber and those engaged in printing, textile industries, hairdressing, truck driving and so on. In the future, it will be necessary to cooperate with the departments of epidemiology, toxicology and clinical medicine for the purpose of estimating the risk of these occupations and the health care administration of the exposed workers.

  4. Glutathione S-transferase P1 ILE105Val polymorphism in occupationally exposed bladder cancer cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopps, Silke; Angeli-Greaves, Miriam; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Prager, Hans-Martin; Roemer, Hermann C; Lohlein, Dietrich; Weistenhofer, Wobbeke; Bolt, Hermann M; Golka, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    The genotype glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) influences the risk for bladder cancer among Chinese workers occupationally exposed to benzidine. Studies of Caucasian bladder cancer cases without known occupational exposures showed conflicting results. Research was thus conducted to define the role of GSTP1 genotypes in Caucasian bladder cancer cases with an occupational history of exposure to aromatic amines. DNA from 143 cases reported to the Industrial Professional Associations (Berufsgenossenschaften) in Germany from 1996 to 2004, who had contracted urothelial cancer due to occupational exposure, and 196 patients from one Department of Surgery in Dortmund, without known malignancy in their medical history, were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (LightCycler) in relation to GSTP1 A1578G (Ile105Val) polymorphism. Among the subjects with bladder cancer, 46% presented the AA genotype, 39% the AG genotype, and 15% the GG genotype. In the surgical (noncancer) control group analyzed, 42% presented the AA genotype, 42% the AG genotype, and 16% the GG genotype. A subgroup of bladder cancer cases, represented by 46 painters, showed a distribution of 41% of the AA genotype, 48% of the AG genotype, and 11% of the GG genotype. Data indicated that in Caucasians exposed to aromatic amines the GSTP1 A1578G polymorphism did not appear to play a significant role as a predisposing factor for bladder cancer incidence.

  5. N-acetyltransferase-2 and medical history in bladder cancer cases with a suspected occupational disease (BK 1301) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistenhofer, Wobbeke; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Bolt, Hermann M; Golka, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    In 187 bladder cancer cases reported to the employers' liability insurance association in Germany as suspected cases of an occupational disease produced by aromatic amines, N- acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2) activity status, occupational exposure data, period of latency, and clinical parameters were determined. In 83 out of 187 cases surveyed within the period 1991-1999, the NAT2 acetylator status was investigated by determining the molar ratio of an acetylated and a nonacetylated caffeine metabolite in urine (phenotyping) and/or by NAT2 genotyping according to standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol. The proportion of slow NAT2 acetylators in the surveyed 83 bladder cancer cases was 67%. In the entire group of surveyed 187 cases, mean duration of exposure was 17.6 yr and mean period of latency was 34.7 yr. Occupational exposures to potential bladder carcinogens were observed in 73 occupations, including chemical industry (25%), and occupations as a painter and/or varnisher (23%) were most often encountered. In 12% of the surveyed bladder cancer cases, a second primary malignancy was observed. The NAT2 distribution observed in the 83 cases is comparable to the proportion in 40 occupationally exposed bladder cancer cases in a Department of Urology located close to a former German production site of benzidine-based azo dyes, but higher than in most studies involving NAT2 genetic status in bladder cancer cases.

  6. Occupational exposure and urological cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golka, Klaus; Wiese, Andreas; Assennato, Giorgio; Bolt, Hermann M

    2004-02-01

    Occupational exposure is definitely a major cause of cancer. In the field of urology, the urinary bladder is the most important target. A classical cause of bladder cancer is exposure to carcinogenic aromatic amines, especially benzidine and beta-naphthylamine. Such exposures were related to work places in the chemical industry, implying production and processing of classical aromatic amines, and in the rubber industry. Occupational bladder cancer has also been observed in dyers, painters and hairdressers. Even some occupations with much lower exposures to carcinogenic aromatic amines, like coke oven workers or workers in the rubber industry after the ban on beta-naphthylamine, are at risk. In these occupations, exposure to complex mixtures of substances containing combustion products (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) or nitrosamines is common. Renal cell cancer has been observed as an occupational disease in cases of very high exposure to trichloroethylene having led to narcotic or prenarcotic symptoms. Occupationally related cancers of the prostate or the testes appear currently not relevant.

  7. Chemical and enzymatic interactions of Direct Black 38 and Direct Brown 1 on release of carcinogenic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanamani, A; Bhaskar, M; Ganga, Radhakrishnan; Sekaran, G; Sadulla, S

    2004-09-01

    Release of amine products from azo compounds is of considerable interest, since most of the metabolized amine products have toxic and carcinogenic characters. Moreover, most of the azo dyes are extensively used as coloring agents in inks, textiles, leathers, food and pharmaceutical industries. The present study emphasis on the quantification and comparison of amines released from water soluble dyes by (i) extra cellular protein (ECP) of Streptomyces sp. SS07 and by (ii) chemical methods. It has been observed that both the methods release considerable quantities of similar type of amine products. Release of amine compounds by ECP and chemical reduction in acid and alkaline sweat medium from a leather garment sample was also assessed. ECP (0.7852 mg protein/mg of ECP) releases benzidine and 4-amino biphenyl from Direct Black 38 and Direct Brown 1 as stable products at pH 9.2 and at 37 degrees C for a contact period of 24 h. On comparison with chemical reduction, it was observed that about 5-20% increase in the release of amine products by ECP was observed. However, more than 60% of amine products were released by chemical method from leather garment samples than direct treatment with ECP.

  8. Toxicity assessment and microbial degradation of azo dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvaneswari, N; Muthukrishnan, J; Gunasekaran, P

    2006-08-01

    Toxic effluents containing azo dyes are discharged from various industries and they adversely affect water resources, soil fertility, aquatic organisms and ecosystem integrity. They pose toxicity (lethal effect, genotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity) to aquatic organisms (fish, algae, bacteria, etc.) as well as animals. They are not readily degradable under natural conditions and are typically not removed from waste water by conventional waste water treatment systems. Benzidine based dyes have long been recognized as a human urinary bladder carcinogen and tumorigenic in a variety of laboratory animals. Several microorganisms have been found to decolourize, transform and even to completely mineralize azo dyes. A mixed culture of two Pseudomonas strains efficiently degraded mixture of 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA) and phenol/cresols. Azoreductases of different microorganisms are useful for the development of biodegradation systems as they catalyze reductive cleavage of azo groups (-N=N-) under mild conditions. In this review, toxic impacts of dyeing factory effluents on plants, fishes, and environment, and plausible bioremediation strategies for removal of azo dyes have been discussed.

  9. A review of the genotoxicity of food, drug and cosmetic colours and other azo, triphenylmethane and xanthene dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, R D; Haveland-Smith, R B

    1982-03-01

    The genetic toxicology of the major dyestuffs used in foods, drugs and cosmetics has been reviewed. Published data for azo, triphenylmethane and xanthene dyes from short-term assays for muta-carcinogenicity have been summarized and discussed according to usage, current and previous worldwide legislative status. Certain other synthetic food dyes, commercial mixtures, natural and polymeric colourants as well as a section on aminoazobenzene and its derivatives have been included. Genotoxicity has been discussed with reference to structural chemistry, levels of exposure, absorption and metabolism and to epidemiological information. The extent of agreement between data from different tests and correlations with animal cancer assays have been considered. Synthetic dyes from the 3 major structural classes exhibit genotoxicity, whilst only 2 natural colours have proved active. Activity may be due to the presence of certain functional groups, notably nitro- and amino-substituents which are metabolized to ultimate electrophiles that may be stabilized by electronic interaction with aryl rings. Metabolic processes such as azo-reduction may be activating or detoxifying. the low but significant correlation between animal carcinogenicity and short-term test data may be increased with further screening, especially involving chromosome assays. It is suggested that a human cancer hazard may exist where significant quantities of finished benzidine dye samples are handled. Such risks from exposures to other colours and the possibility of human germ-line mutation induction by dyestuffs cannot be meaningfully assessed.

  10. DNA-damaging activity in vivo and bacterial mutagenicity of sixteen aromatic amines and azo-derivatives, as related quantitatively to their carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, S; Taningher, M; Russo, P; Pala, M; Tamaro, M; Monti-Bragadin, C

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen aromatic amines and azo-derivatives were studied. They were: benzidine; 2-acetylaminofluorene; 3'-methyl-p-dimethylaminobenzene; o-aminoazo-toluene; p-dimethylaminoazobenzene; 2,4-diamino-toluene; 4,4'-oxydianiline; 2,4-diaminoanisole; 4,4'-methylenedianiline; 2-naphthylamine; Auramine O; Rhodamine B; Ponceau MX; 1-naphthylamine; p-aminoazobenzene and aniline. The compounds were examined for their capability to induce alkaline DNA fragmentation in rat liver after treatment in vivo, for their mutagenicity in the Salmonella strains TA 98 and TA 100, for their acute toxicity and for their carcinogenicity in mice and rats. For each parameter a quantitative potency index was established, and the correlation existing amongst the different parameters investigated. Only mutagenicity in the strain TA 98 was slightly correlated with carcinogenic potency (r = 0.408). DNA fragmentation and toxicity were not correlated with carcinogenicity. A significant correlation was found between DNA fragmentation and toxicity (r = 0.539). No correlation was found between DNA fragmentation and mutagenicity. The lack of correlation between DNA fragmentation and carcinogenicity is in contrast with previous results obtained with a family of hydrazine derivatives (12) and a group of nitrosocompounds (22). For these two groups of chemicals correlation between DNA fragmentation and carcinogenicity existed, but not between carcinogenicity and mutagenicity in the Ames' test. It is suggested that short term tests can perform very differently for different classes of chemicals.

  11. Starch Degradation Metabolism towards Sucrose Synthesis in Germinating Araucaria araucana Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardemil, L; Varner, J E

    1984-12-01

    As starch is the main seed reserve material in both species of Araucaria of South America, A. araucana and A. angustifolia, it is important to understand starch breakdown in both embryo and megagametophyte tissues of Araucaria seeds. Sugar analysis by thin layer chromatography indicates that sucrose is the main sugar produced in both tissues. Enzyme reactions coupled to benzidine oxidation indicate that sucrose is the main sugar moved from the megagametophyte to the growing regions of the embryo via the cotyledons.Phosphorylase was detected in both embryo and megagametophyte tissues by the formation of [(32)P]glucose-1-P and by formation of [(14)C] amylopectin from [(14)C]glucose-1-P. The enzyme activity increases 5-fold in both embryo and gametophyte to a peak 18 hours after the start of imbibition. Debranching enzyme, alpha-glucosidase, and hexokinase are also present in both embryonic and megagametophytic tissues.Branched glucan oligosaccharides accumulate during this time, reaching a maximum 40 hours after imbibition starts, and decline after germination occurs.The pattern of activity of the enzymes studied in this work suggests that starch degradation is initiated by alpha-amylase and phosphorylase in the embryo and by phosphorylase mainly in the megagametophyte. Sucrose-P synthase seems to be the enzyme responsible for sucrose synthesis in both tissues. PMID:16663947

  12. Low driving voltage in an organic light-emitting diode using MoO3/NPB multiple quantum well structure in a hole transport layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xue; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Hua, Yu-Lin; Jiao, Zhi-Qiang; Shen, Li-Ying; Su, Yue-Ju; Bai, Juan-Juan; Bi, Wen-Tao; Yin, Shou-Gen; Zheng, Jia-Jin

    2013-02-01

    The driving voltage of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is lowered by employing molybdenum trioxide (MoO3)/N, N'-bis(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phe-nyl)-benzidine (NPB) multiple quantum well (MQW) structure in the hole transport layer. For the device with double quantum well (DQW) structure of ITO/ [MoO3 (2.5 nm)/NPB (20 nm)]2/Alq3(50 nm)/LiF (0.8 nm)/Al (120 nm)], the turn-on voltage is reduced to 2.8 V, which is lowered by 0.4 V compared with that of the control device (without MQW structures), and the driving voltage is 5.6 V, which is reduced by 1 V compared with that of the control device at the 1000 cd/m2. In this work, the enhancement of the injection and transport ability for holes could reduce the driving voltage for the device with MQW structure, which is attributed not only to the reduced energy barrier between ITO and NPB, but also to the forming charge transfer complex between MoO3 and NPB induced by the interfacial doping effect of MoO3.

  13. Discrimination of Primary Alkyl and Arylamines by a New Binaphthyl-Azacrown-Anthracene Fluorophore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyu Jung; Li, Yinan; Kim, Kwang Soo; Hyun, Myung Ho [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    A new binaphthyl-azacrown-anthracene fluorophore (1) was prepared and utilized as a selective fluorescent chemosensor for the discrimination of primary alkyl and arylamine HCl salts in ethanol. Primary arylamine HCl salts were found to induce large CHEF effects with the excitation wavelength of 390 nm. On the other hand, primary alkylamine HCl salts were found not to induce any CHEF effect with the excitation wavelength of 390 nm. From the {sup 1}H NMR titration study, we found that primary arylamine HCl salts form complex effectively with compound 1 while primary alkylamine HCl salts do not. The development of highly sensitive and selective detection techniques for the discrimination of biologically toxic materials is of considerable importance in the fields of chemical, biological, and environmental sciences. Primary arylamines originated from occupational sources and/or tobacco smoking are known to be carcinogenic. For example, 4-aminobiphenyl, 2-naphthylamine and benzidine have been known to induce bladder cancer. In this instance, the methods for the detection of primary arylamines are quite important.

  14. Hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase activity in ethanol-treated hamsters and its consequences on the bioactivation of aromatic amines to mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, C; Steele, C M

    1986-09-01

    Male golden Syrian hamsters were maintained on ethanol-containing liquid diets for 4 weeks, corresponding to an average daily intake of 17 g/kg body wt. The p-hydroxylation of aniline was markedly enhanced by this treatment while minimal effects were seen in benzphetamine N-demethylase and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activities; there was no change in the microsomal levels of cytochromes P-450. Hepatic microsomal preparations from the ethanol-treated hamsters were more efficient than controls fed isocaloric diets in converting 2-aminofluorene, 4-aminobiphenyl, benzidine and 2-acetylaminofluorene into mutagens in the Salmonella mutagenicity test. The same treatment had no effect on the metabolic activation of 2-naphthylamine and even inhibited the mutagenicity of 2-aminoanthracene. No increase was seen in the activation of the two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzo[a]pyrene and 3-methylcholanthrene to mutagens and an inhibitory effect was seen with the former. The ethanol-induced increase in the mutagenicity of 2-aminofluorene was inhibited by 2-butanol but not by the hydroxyl radical scavenger dimethylsulphoxide. It is concluded that chronic ethanol ingestion modulates the bioactivation of aromatic amines and amides to mutagens, the effect being substrate dependent. This effect of ethanol may be catalysed by unique form(s) of cytochrome P-450 whose synthesis is induced by such treatment. PMID:3021347

  15. Androgen regulation of CYP4B1 responsible for mutagenic activation of bladder carcinogens in the rat bladder: detection of CYP4B1 mRNA by competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, S; Yoneda, Y; Sugimoto, T; Ikemoto, S; Hiroi, T; Yamamoto, K; Nakatani, T; Funae, Y

    2001-05-26

    Significant sex differences exist among cases of bladder cancer in humans as well as in experimental animals such as rats. Aromatic amines such as benzidine and 2-naphthylamine are known to induce bladder cancer. These carcinogenic amines are activated to genotoxic substances by cytochrome P 450 CYP4B1, which is present in bladder mucosa. In this study, regulation of CYP4B1 was investigated to elucidate sex difference in bladder carcinogenesis. Competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate the expression of rat CYP4B1 mRNA occurring in small amounts of tissue such as bladder tissue. Expression of CYP4B1 in the bladder of male rats increased with development but not in that of female rats. Moreover, mature male rats exhibited higher expression of CYP4B1 in the bladder than did mature female rats. Castration of male rats decreased CYP4B1 levels and treatment with testosterone led to a partial recovery of CYP4B1 levels. These results indicate that CYP4B1 levels in the rat bladder are partly regulated by androgens. Furthermore, the present findings suggest that the sex difference observed in bladder carcinogenesis was due to sex-different expression of CYP4B1 in bladder tissue. PMID:11311483

  16. Proton conducting sulfonated poly (imide-benzimidazole) with tunable density of covalent/ionic cross-linking for fuel cell membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhouying; Cai, Yang-Ben; Xu, Shiai

    2015-07-01

    Ionic cross-linked sulfonated polyimides containing bis-benzimidazole rings have been prepared from 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA), 6,6‧-bis[2-(4-aminophenyl)benzimidazole] (BAPBI) and 3,3‧-bis(4-sulfophenoxy)- benzidine (BSPOB). A new cross-linker, 4,4‧-bibromomethenyl diphenyl ether, is used to induce covalent cross-linking between halogen and imidazole groups in SPIBI chains via a facile thermally activated reaction. The resulted covalent and ionic cross-linked membranes show an improved resistance to hydrolytic attack in deionized water at 80 °C (more than two months) and free radical attack in Fenton's solution (more than 690 min) as compared to non-cross-linked SPIBIs (less than two days and 270 min, respectively). Cross-linking also results in a reduction in proton conductivity due to the blockage of a hydrophilic channel. However, all the prepared CBr-ySPIBI-x membranes show a proton conductivity higher than 10-2 S cm-1 under hydrous condition. This could be attributed to the fact that more cross-linking sites are contained in each repeating unit, which ensures enough cross-linking degree at high sulfonation level. All these results suggest that CBr-ySPIBI-x membranes have a great potential for applications in the proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  17. Novel Hole Transporting Materials Based on 4-(9H-Carbazol-9-yltriphenylamine Derivatives for OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quynh Pham Bao Nguyen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs have been increasingly studied due to their emerging applicability. However, some of the properties of existing OLEDs could be improved, such as their overall efficiency and durability; these aspects have been addressed in the current study. A series of novel hole-transporting materials (HTMs 3a–c based on 4-(9H-carbazol-9-yltriphenylamine conjugated with different carbazole or triphenylamine derivatives have been readily synthesized by Suzuki coupling reactions. The resulting compounds showed good thermal stabilities with high glass transition temperatures between 148 and 165 °C. The introduction of HTMs 3b and 3c into the standard devices ITO/HATCN/NPB/HTMs 3 (indium tin oxide/dipyrazino(2,3-f:2ꞌ,3ꞌ-hquinoxaline 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexacarbonitrile/N,Nꞌ-bis(naphthalen-1-yl-N,Nꞌ-bis(phenyl-benzidine/HTMs/CBP (4,4ꞌ-Bis(N-carbazolyl-1,1ꞌ-biphenyl: 5% Ir(ppy3/Bphen/LiF/Al (tris[2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N]iridium(III/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline/LiF/Al resulted in significantly enhanced current, power, and external quantum efficiencies (EQE as compared to the reference device without any layers of HTMs 3.

  18. Patternless light outcoupling enhancement method for top-emission organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doo-Hoon; Lee, Ho-Nyeon

    2016-11-01

    An increase of 65% in the luminous flux of a top-emission organic light-emitting diode (TE-OLED) was obtained by fabricating a stacked N,N‧-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N‧-bis(phenyl)benzidine (NPB) (0.2 µm)/CaF2 (2.5 µm) light outcoupling layer on the TE-OLED. The high-refractive-index NPB layer extracted the trapped light energy in the TE-OLED for input into the light outcoupling layer and protected the top cathode of the TE-OLED from damage due to the CaF2 layer. The surface morphology of the CaF2 layer had an irregular shape consisting of randomly dispersed pyramids; the irregular structure scattered the waveguide mode energy into air. By combining the effects of the NPB and CaF2 layers, the external quantum efficiency of the TE-OLED was increased significantly. The light outcoupling layer can be fabricated using a thermal evaporation process without patterning and, hence, provides a practical solution for the enhancement of TE-OLED light outcoupling using a patternless fabrication process.

  19. URINARY BLADDER CANCER WITH FOCUS ON OCCUPATIONAL DYE WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Revathi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Benzidine based azo dyes are proven carcinogens, mutagens and have been linked to bladder cancer of human beings and laboratory animals. The textile and dyestuff manufacturing industry are the two major sources for releasing of azo dyes. Various research groups have started work on genotoxic effect of textile dyes in occupational workers of textile dye industry. Bladder cancer is the most common form of cancer in dye industries. Most of people between age 50 and 70 group of are diagnosed with bladder cancer. Men are more likely than the women to develop bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is a disease in which abnormal cells multiply without control in the bladder. The most common type of bladder cancer begins in cells lining the inside of the bladder and is called transitional cell carcinoma. Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body when cancer is present. They are most often found in the blood or urine. The review deals about the impacts of the industry dyes on human health.

  20. Two new hexacoordinated coordination polymers of cadmium(II) containing bridging units only: Syntheses, structures and molecular properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DIPU SUTRADHAR; HABIBAR CHOWDHURY; SUSHOVAN KONER; SUBHASIS ROY; BARINDRA KUMAR GHOSH

    2016-09-01

    The syntheses, characterizations and structures of a neutral 2D coordination polymer [Cd(bnzd)(NCS)₂]n (1) and a polycationic 3D coordination polymer isolated as perchlorate salt [Cd(bnzd)₃]n(ClO₄)₂n (2) (bnzd = benzidine) are described. X-ray structural analyses reveal that each hexacoordinated cadmium(II) center in 1 adopts a distorted octahedral geometry with a CdN₄S₂ chromophore bound by two N atoms of two different bnzd units and two N and two S atoms of symmetric doubly bridged end-toend NCS− units extended in a 2D sheet. Six N atoms of six different bridged bnzd units are bonded to each cadmium(II) in 2 in a non-ended fashion affording a 3D network structure. In the crystalline state, each 2D sheet structure in 1 is further stabilized by π· · ·π interaction which in turn affords a 3D network structure through multiple intermolecular N-H· · · S hydrogen bonds. On the other hand, the 3D network structure in 2 is stabilized by weak intermolecular N-H· · ·O hydrogen bonds and C-H· · ·π interactions. Bnzd, 1 and 2 display intraligand 1(π-π*) fluorescence in DMF solution at room temperature.

  1. Genistein as an inducer of tumor cell differentiation : possible mechanisms of action.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinou, A.; Huberman, E.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    1995-01-01

    Decreased activity of either topoisomerases or tyrosine kinases has been implicated in the differentiation of a number of cell types. It is therefore conceivable that genistein, because of its reported ability to inhibit these activities in vitro, may be an inducer of cellular differentiation. We investigated this possibility in human promyelocytic HL-60 and erythroid K-562 leukemia cells and in human SK-MEL-131 melanoma cells. Our results indicated that genistein, in a dose-dependent manner, inhibited cell multiplication and induced cell differentiation. The maturing HL-60 cells acquired granulocytic and monocytic markers. The differentiating K-562 cells stained positively with benzidine, which indicates the production of hemoglobin, an erythroid marker. Following genistein treatment, maturing SK-MEL-131 melanoma cells formed dendrite-like structures and exhibited increased tyrosinase activity and melanin content. Experiments were designed to identify the molecular mechanism of genistein's action. Data from our laboratory suggest that this isoflavone triggers the pathway that leads to cellular differentiation by stabilizing protein-linked DNA strand breakage. Other possible mechanisms reported in the literature are discussed.

  2. Energy level alignment of electrically doped hole transport layers with transparent and conductive indium tin oxide and polymer anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehse, Karsten; Olthof, Selina; Walzer, Karsten; Leo, Karl; Johnson, Robert L.; Glowatzki, Hendrik; Bröker, Benjamin; Koch, Norbert

    2007-10-01

    Using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, we investigated the energy level alignment at the interfaces of typical anodes used in organic electronics, indium tin oxide (ITO) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), with the oligomeric hole transport material N ,N,N',N'-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-benzidine (MeO-TPD), and studied the influence of electrical interface doping by the strong electron acceptor tetrafluoro tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ). The fundamentally different anode materials with work functions of 4.40eV (ITO) and 4.85eV (PEDOT:PSS) show different hole injection barriers, which also depend on the thickness of the F4-TCNQ interface dopant layer. PEDOT:PSS anodes exhibit a consistently lower hole injection barrier to MeO-TPD compared to ITO by 0.1eV. We attribute this low hole injection barrier to additional charge transfer reactions at the PEDOT:PSS/MeO-TPD interface. In contrast, the deposition of the electron acceptor at the interface helps significantly to lower the hole injection barrier for ITO anodes.

  3. The carcinogenic effect of aromatic amines: an epidemiological study on the role of o-toluidine and 4,4'-methylene bis (2-methylaniline) in inducing bladder cancer in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubino, G.F.; Scansetti, G.; Piolatto, G.; Pira, E.

    1982-04-01

    Cause-specific mortality of 906 workers first employed 1922-1970 in a dyestuff factory in Northern Italy was compared to national figures: a marked excess of bladder cancer was observed (36 observed vs 1.23 expected deaths). The mean latent period was 25 years. The excess was higher among those with longer duration of exposure. Some excess of mortality from lung cancer, laryngeal cancer, and esophageal cancer was also found, but a clear explanation could not be provided regarding the causal role of aromatic amines. Mortality from bladder cancer was very much higher among those exposed in benzidine and naphthylamines manufacture as compared to those only exposed in use or intermittent contact. Excess bladder cancer was also very high among workers in fuchsin manufacture. There is evidence that o-toluidine and 4,4'-methylene bis(2-methylaniline) should be implicated in such excess mortality. Caution in handling these compounds is therefore suggested and the need for further studies to confirm such findings is stressed.

  4. Cancer mortality among male workers in the Polish rubber industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Wilczyńska, U; Kaczmarek, T; Szymczak, W

    1991-01-01

    The rubber industry, acknowledged by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to be a cancer risk technology is, because of difficulty in identifying causal factors, the subject of intensive epidemiological studies in many countries. In the presented study, cancer risk in the rubber industry was evaluated on the basis of long-term observation (1945-1985) of a cohort of 6978 male workers employed in a rubber goods factory, predominantly engaged in producing rubber footwear. The reference group was the general male population of Poland. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), calculated by means of the person-years method, were used in the evaluation of death risk. The observation of a whole cohort indicated an excess of cancer, in general (approx 12%), lung cancer (approx 40%) and gallbladder cancer (approx fourfold). In the subcohorts, distinguished according to peculiarities of individual production sections, cancer risk of the large intestine and larynx was significantly increased. The highest cancer risk was found in compounding, mixing, milling and vulcanizing sections. Hence, beta-naphthylamine, benzidine and solvents (benzene) were used in technological processes in the past, bladder cancer and leukemia were considered as most specific for the rubber industry. In the cohort observed, the risk of death from bladder cancer was significantly increased only in those who had been employed during the years 1945-1953, namely during the period when beta-naphthylamine was in use. No excess of deaths from leukemia was observed. PMID:1799640

  5. White electrophosphorescent devices based on tricolour emissive layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yu [Institute of Physical Materials, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Hua Yulin [Institute of Physical Materials, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Wu Xiaoming [Institute of Physical Materials, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Zhang Guohui [Institute of Physical Materials, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Hui Juanli [Institute of Physical Materials, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Zhang Lijuan [Institute of Physical Materials, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Liu Qian [Institute of Physical Materials, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Ma Liang [Institute of Physical Materials, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Yin Shougen [Institute of Physical Materials, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Petty, M C [School of Engineering, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-21

    We demonstrate high efficiency, white organic light-emitting devices based on a structure using multiple emissive layers and fabricated without a hole-injecting layer. 2,5,8,11-tetra-tertbutylperylene (TBPe) was used as the blue fluorescent layer and the overall device configuration was indium tin oxide (ITO)/N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB)/4,4'-N, N'-dicarbazole-biphenyl (CBP): bis[1-(phenyl)isoquinoline] iridium (III) acetylanetonate [Ir(piq){sub 2}(acac)]/CBP:fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium [Ir(ppy){sub 3}]/CBP: TBPe/2, 9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP)/(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq{sub 3})/LiF/Al. This structure possessed a maximum luminous efficiency of 14.2 cd A{sup -1} at a current density of 4 mA cm{sup -2} and a maximum brightness of 40 520 cd m{sup -2} at 25 V. The Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates changed only from (0.27, 0.38) to (0.33, 0.38), with the brightness varying from 100 to 25 640 cd m{sup -2}, as the applied voltage was increased from 10 to 23 V.

  6. The in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay in rat primary hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay was evaluated for inclusion in a battery of assays used at The Upjohn Company for evaluation of lead compounds in the development of new and existing drug entities. This evaluation process uncompassed aspects of the isolation of hepatocytes and tests of reference mutagens and genotoxins. The flow rate of perfusion solutions and their temperatures were critical in the isolation of high viability hepatocytes in good yield. The attachment of freshly isolated hepatocytes to coverslips was greatly enhanced by coating the coverslips with type III colagen. Results of testing 12 known genotoxic agents (UV light, cyclophosphamide, 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene, dimethylnitrosamine, diethylnitrosamine, 2-acetylaminofluorene, benzo[a]pyrene, methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, N-propyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, benzidine and 4-aminobiphenyl) were in agreement with the literature. The use of X-ray did not induce unscheduled DNA synthesis in hepatocytes. This latter finding draws attention to the inability of this assay to detect agents which result in 'short-patch' repair of damage. (author). 35 refs.; 8 tabs

  7. Molecular beam deposition and polymerization of parylene-N ultrathin films: Effective buffers in organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Parylene-N (PPXN) films prepared by using a home-made Knudsen Cell were identified and characterized. • 1 nm PPXN thin films were inserted at different locations in the hole transport layers of organic light emitting diodes. • For an optimized PPXN inserted organic light emitting diodes, current efficiency improvement of 11% was achieved. • The device current efficiency improvement and the current density variation under operation were discussed. - Abstract: Ultrathin Parylene-N (PPXN) films were prepared by using a home-made Knudsen Cell (KC). The PPXN films were identified by infrared (IR) spectra. The morphology and insulativity of PPXN films were measured by atomic force microscope (AFM) and current density versus voltage (j–V) characteristics. Well controlled 1-nm-thick PPXN thin films were inserted at different locations in the N′-bis(naphthalene-1-yl)-N, N′-bis(phenyl) benzidine (NPB) layers of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with the structure of ITO/NPB/tris (8-hydroxyquinolato) aluminum (Alq3)/LiF/Al. For an optimized PPXN inserted structure, current efficiency of 6.27 cd/A was achieved, 11% higher than the 5.64 cd/A of the control one with 1-nm-thick PPXN buffer inserted at the anode interface. The device current efficiency improvement is due to the electron blocking of PPXN buffers, and the current density variation of devices under operation was explained by tunneling barrier reduction

  8. Electrophoresis Profile of Total Peroxidases in Saliva and Sera of Patients with Different Oral Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathama Razooki Hasan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Total peroxidase system (EC 1.11.1.X activity is known to play a key role in a number of human diseases, where the activity of these species can be both beneficial & detrimental. In our previous work (submitted for publication a remarkable increase have been noticed in the activity of this system in saliva of patients with oral tumors (Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma OSCC, & Oral Ossifying Fibroma, OF. The present project aimed to highlight the variations in the different forms of this system in saliva & serum samples among patients with above mentioned tumors, in comparison to that of corresponding healthy individuals, using the electrophoresis as the analytical tool. Salivary peroxidase gave faint bands with a poor separation when the analysis was carried out using basic PAGE electrohoresis while good clear bands, as well as better resolutions of these bands were obtained when acidic PAGE electrophoresis was used for the analysis. An additional band, moved further toward the anode, was observed to be present, as the electrozymogram indicated, in the saliva samples of the patients with malignant tumors (Squamous cell carcinoma. The results also showed that using benzidine, or o-dianisidine, as the substrate in staining of the polyacrylamide gels , in order to localize the bands that exhibit peroxidase activity, seems to be better than using 3, 3’, 5, 5’-Tetramethylbenzidine( TMBZ as the substrate for this purpose.

  9. Tandem organic light-emitting diode with a molybdenum tri-oxide thin film interconnector layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Fei-Ping; Wang Qian; Zhou Xiang

    2013-01-01

    A 10-nm-thick molybdenum tri-oxide (MoO3) thin film was used as the interconnector layer in tandem organic lightemitting devices (OLEDs).The tandem OLEDs with two identical emissive units consisting of N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) / tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) exhibited current efficiency-current density characteristics superior to the conventional single-unit devices.At 20 mA/cm2,the current efficiency of the tandem OLEDs using the interconnector layers of MoO3 thin film was about 4.0 cd/A,which is about twice that of the corresponding conventional single-unit device (1.8 cd/A).The tandem OLED showed a higher power efficiency than the conventional single-unit device for luminance over 1200 cd/m2.The experimental results demonstrated that a MoO3 thin film with a proper thickness can be used as an effective interconnector layer in tandem OLEDs.Such an interconnector layer can be easily fabricated by simple thermal evaporation,greatly simplifying the device processing and fabrication processes required by previously reported interconnector layers.A possible explanation was proposed for the carrier generation of the MoO3 interconnector layer.

  10. DIFFERENTIATION AND MALIGNANT SUPPRESSION INDUCED BY MOUSE ERYTHROID DIFFERENTIATION AND DENUCLEATION FACTOR ON MOUSE ERYTHROLEUKEMIA CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩代书; 赵青; 葛晔华; 周建平; 马静; 陈克铨; 薛社普

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the roles of mouse erythroid differentiation and denueleation factor (MEDDF), a novel factor cloned in our laboratory recently, in erythroid terminal differentiation.Methods. Mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells were transfected with eukaryotic expression plasmid pcD-NA-MEDDF. Then we investigated the changes on characteristics of cell growth by analyzing cells growth rate,mitotic index and colony-forming rate in semi-solid medium. The expressions of c-myc and β-globin genes were analysed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR.Results. MEL ceils transfected with pcDNA-MEDDF showed significant lower growth rate, mitotic index,and colony-forming rate in semi-solid medium ( P<0.01 ). The percentage of benzidine-positive cells was 32.8% after transfection. The expression of β-globin in cells transfected with pcDNA-MEDDF was 3.43 times higher than that of control (MEL transfected with blank vector, pcDNA3. 1 ), and the expression of c-myc decreased by 66.3%.Conclusions. MEDDF can induce differentiation of MEL cell and suppress its malignancy.

  11. NEW DESIGNED HMBA AGENTS AS INDUCERS OF ERYTHROLEUKEMIA CELL DIFFERENTIATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华力; 张世馥; 周建平; 章静波

    2002-01-01

    Objective.Searching for more potent and less toxic HMBA related agents. Methods.Human erythroleukemia cell K562,murine erythroleukemia cell (MEL) and its sub line MEL DS19 were used as target cells to select a cell line which is the most sensitive to HMBA,then analyzed the activity of inducing differentiation of two new designed HMBA derivatives:HMBPA [hexamethylenebi (3 pyridin) amide] and Co HDTA (ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid cobalt) using cell biology,cytochemical and molecular biology techniques. Results.We found that the MEL DS19 cells were most sensitive to HMBA (benzidine positive,B+ ~76% ).Co HDTA can inhibit the growth of MEL DS19,but induces differentiation just in a small population (B+ 2% ~4.5% ).Between 0.02~5μ mol/L,HMBPA induces 3% ~8% cells committed to differentiation with little inhibition of cell proliferation.1μ mol/L HMBPA and 2mmol/L HMBA together,can obviously increase the percentage of differentiated cell (B+ ~72% ),inhibit DNA synthesis and accelerate β globin transcription. Conclusion.The new HMBA derivatives may provide potential cancer differentiation inducers.

  12. Differences in the sensitivity of children and adults to carciogenic substances - literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature study was undertaken to investigate whether children are more sensitive to carcinogenic effects than adults. This question is especially important for regulatory decisions for situations with shorter than lifetime exposure. Adequate human data is scare except for ionizing radiation, where there is good evidence for a higher sensitivity of children for breast cancer, leukemia and thyroid cancer from epidemiological studies of japanese atom bomb survivors and tumor patients. For chemical substances main evidence comes from animal studies, which show for several substances (e.g. vinyl chloride, nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 2-acetylaminofluorene, benzidine, aflatoxin B1, cycasin, urethane) high incidences of tumors in the juvenile organisms whereas under comparable exposure conditions low numbers or no tumors were observed in adult animals. All of the mentioned substances are genotoxic carcinogens and mechanistic studies point towards the importance of high cell division rates in target organs of the juvenile organism which in combination with genotoxic activity leads to tumor development. Concerning nongenotoxic carcinogens there are data for saccharin which show that tumor incidence is higher when exposure periods include the period between birth and weaning. For other substances there is negative evidence under similar conditions. In conclusion there is ample evidence for a high sensitivity of the young towards some genotoxic carcinogens and therefore even less than lifetime exposures of children towards these substances may lead to a high carcinogenic risk. (orig.)

  13. Properties, Morphology and Structure of BPDA/PPD/TFMB Polyimide Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Sen-biao; GAO Zhong-min; MA Xiao-ye; GUO Hai-quan; QIU Xue-peng; GAO Lian-xun

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical properties of fibers were notably improved by incorporating 2,2'-bis(trifluoromethyl)-benzidine(TFMB) into 3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride(s-BPDA) and p-phenylenediamine(PPD) backbone.The best strength and modulus of BPDA/PPD/TFMB polyimide(PI) fiber(diamine molar ratio of PPD/TFMB=90/10) were 1.60 and 90 GPa,respectively,which was over two times that of BPDA/PPD PI fiber.SEM image showed that the cross-section of fibers at each stage was round and voids free.Besides,the "skin-core" and microfibrillar structure were not observed.The thermal properties of PI fibers were also investigated.The results showed that the fibers owned excellent thermal stability,moreover,the structural homogeneity of fibers were significantly improved by heat-drawn stage.The Tg values were found to be around 300 ℃ by dynamic mechanical analysis(DMA).Wide angle X-ray diffraction(WAXD) and small angle X-ray scattering(SAXS) experiments indicated that the order degree of longitudinal and lateral stacks,the molecular orientation and the structural homogeneity of fibers were improved in the preparation process of fibers.

  14. [Hygienic significance of patulin in foods. 1. Analytical detection of patulin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, C E; Thurm, V; Paul, P

    1979-01-01

    The authors describe a thin-layer chromatographic method for determining patulin in fruit and vegetable products which is suited for routine work in hygiene practice. The samples are extracted with ethyl acetate, and the extracts are purified on a Florisil column. Separation is performed by means of a one-dimensional technique, using toluene/ehtyl acetate/formic acid (5 + 4 + 1), or, in the presence of interfering contaminants, by means of a two-dimensional technique, using benzene/methanol/glacial acetic acid (90 + 5 + 5) for the first run, and toluene/ethyl acetate/formic acid (5 + 4 + 1) for the second run. Patulin is detected by spraying with a benzidine solution, after chlorination. The limits of detection are 5 microgram/l of juice and 5 microgram/kg of fruit or vegetable. Derivatization with acetic anhydride/pyridine is used for corroborating the results obtained. The significance of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural as an interfering substance in apple juices is discussed. PMID:471032

  15. 檫木花粉活力和柱头可授性研究%Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity of Sassafras tzumu (Hemsl.) Hemsl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王馨; 于芬; 季春峰; 龙春玲; 杨光耀

    2013-01-01

    通过野外观察檫木Sassafras tzumu (Hemsl.) Hemsl的开花过程,用联苯胺-过氧化氢法测定其柱头可授性, TTC的方法测定檫木花粉活力。结果表明:柱头具可授性时间为8 d,檫木的花粉活力持续时间为32 h。根据测定时间发现柱头可授期和花粉活力较强期重叠较长,通过后期观察到檫木有结实,说明檫木具有正常的传粉机制和结实能力。%Flowering process of Sassafras tzumu (Hemsl.) Hemsl was observed in the wild, stigma receptivity of sassafras tzumu was evaluated with benzidine-H2O2 method, and pollen viability of sassafras tzumu was evaluated with TTC method. The results showed that stigma can be granted with 8 days, pollen viability of sassafras tzumu has durative 32 hours. According to the measured time to discover stigma receptivity and pollen viability stronger has a longer period of overlap, later period observation showed that sassafras tzumu have fructify, which indicated that sassafras tzumu has normal pollination mechanisms and fructification ability.

  16. [Pollen viability, stigma receptivity and fruiting characteristics of botanical origin of Jinxianlian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qing-song; Wang, Yong; Hu, Run-huai; Zhang, Wang-shu; Li, Ming-yan

    2015-03-01

    The viability and life span of pollen were evaluated by TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazlium chloride) and the peroxidase solution, the stigma receptivity were estimated by benzidine-H2O2 method and the fruiting characteristics were investigated. The results showed that (1) Anoectochilus roxburghii and A. formosanus appeared the same up-and-down trend of the pollen viability, increased and then decreased. The storage temperature and storage time had significant impact on the pollen viability. With the extension of storage time, the pollen activity decreased. 4 degrees C refrigerator storage may be extended the pollen vitality. (2) The stigma had receptivity in 1st day and reached the highest level in the 4th day after blooming. A. roxburghii lost receptivity in the 8th day while A. formosanus lost receptivity in the 10th day after blooming. (3) The different pollination had significant impact on seed setting rate. The seed setting rate of artificial cross-pollination was higher than that of the artificial self-pollination. Collecting pollen in the 3rd day and carrying out artificial cross-pollination in the 4th day after blooming can significantly improve seed setting rate. The results provided technical assurance for A. roxburghii and A. formosanus breeding of new varieties and seed breeding.

  17. Magnetically modulated electroluminescence from hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diodes based on electron donor-acceptor exciplex blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhiyong; Baniya, Sangita; Zhang, Chuang; Sun, Dali; Vardeny, Z. Valy

    2016-03-01

    We report room temperature magnetically modulated electroluminescence from a hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting diode (h-OLED), in which an inorganic magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with large room temperature magnetoresistance is coupled to an N,N,N ',N '-Tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)benzidine (MeO-TPD): tris-[3-(3-pyridyl)mesityl]borane (3TPYMB) [D-A] based OLED that shows thermally activated delayed luminescence. The exciplex-based OLED provides two spin-mixing channels: upper energy channel of polaron pairs and lower energy channel of exciplexes. In operation, the large resistance mismatch between the MTJ and OLED components is suppressed due to the non-linear I-V characteristic of the OLED. This leads to enhanced giant magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) at room temperature. We measured MEL of ~ 75% at ambient conditions. Supported by SAMSUNG Global Research Outreach (GRO) program, and also by the NSF-Material Science & Engineering Center (MRSEC) program at the University of Utah (DMR-1121252).

  18. Reducing the Cation Exchange Capacity of Lithium Clay to Form Better Dispersed Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Maggie

    2004-01-01

    Polymer-clay nanocomposites have exhibited superior strength and thermo- oxidative properties as compared to pure polymers for use in air and space craft; however, there has often been difficulty completely dispersing the clay within the matrices of the polymer. In order to improve this process, the cation exchange capacity of lithium clay is first lowered using twenty-four hour heat treatments of no heat, 130 C, 150 C, or 170 C to fixate the lithium ions within the clay layers so that they are unexchangeable. Generally, higher temperatures have generated lower cation exchange capacities. An ion exchange involving dodecylamine, octadecylamine, or dimethyl benzidine (DMBZ) is then employed to actually expand the clay galleries. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy can be used to determine whether the clay has been successfully exfoliated. Finally, resins of DMBZ with clay are then pressed into disks for characterization using dynamic mechanical analyzer and oven- aging techniques in order to evaluate their glass transition, modulus strength, and thermal-oxidative stability in comparison to neat DMBZ. In the future, they may also be tested as composites for flexural and laminar shear strength.

  19. Effects of cigarette smoke composition on respiratory system%香烟烟雾成分对呼吸系统的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马铮; 平芬; 曹磊; 苏力; 马坤; 梁会朋

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains a lot of harmful substances.For the human respiratory system,the most harmful substances include nicotine,benzopyrene,hydrogen cyanide,tobacco tar,carbon monoxide,nitric,and other harmful substances such as cadmium,benzidine,vinyl chloride and so on.The effects of some cigarette smoke composition on the respiratory system are reviewed in this paper as follows.%香烟烟雾含有大量的有害物质,其中对人体呼吸系统危害最大的物质包括烟碱(尼古丁)、苯并芘、氰化氢、烟焦油、一氧化碳和一氧化氮及其他有害物质金属镉、联苯胺、氯乙烯等。本文将部分香烟烟雾成分对呼吸系统的影响综述如下。

  20. A search for blues brothers: X-ray crystallographic/spectroscopic characterization of the tetraarylbenzidine cation radical as a product of aging of solid magic blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talipov, Marat R; Hossain, Mohammad M; Boddeda, Anitha; Thakur, Khushabu; Rathore, Rajendra

    2016-03-14

    Magic blue (MB+˙ SbCl6− salt), i.e. tris-4-bromophenylamminium cation radical, is a routinely employed one-electron oxidant that slowly decomposes in the solid state upon storage to form so called ‘blues brothers’, which often complicate the quantitative analyses of the oxidation processes. Herein, we disclose the identity of the main ‘blues brother’ as the cation radical and dication of tetrakis-(4-bromophenyl)benzidine (TAB) by a combined DFT and experimental approach, including isolation of TAB+˙ SbCl6− and its X-ray crystallography characterization. The formation of TAB in aged magic blue samples occurs by a Scholl-type coupling of a pair of MB followed by a loss of molecular bromine. The recognition of this fact led us to the rational design and synthesis of tris(2-bromo-4-tert-butylphenyl)amine, referred to as ‘blues cousin’ (BC: Eox1 = 0.78 V vs. Fc/Fc+, λmax(BC+˙) = 805 nm, εmax = 9930 cm−1 M−1), whose oxidative dimerization is significantly hampered by positioning the sterically demanding tert-butyl groups at the para-positions of the aryl rings. A ready two-step synthesis of BC from triphenylamine and the high stability of its cation radical (BC+˙) promise that BC will serve as a ready replacement for MB and an oxidant of choice for mechanistic investigations of one-electron transfer processes in organic, inorganic, and organometallic transformations. PMID:26878458

  1. REACH纺织品召回案例评析%REACH textiles recall case studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高铭

    2011-01-01

    欧盟自2009年6月开始实施REACH召回,至今已公布了55起REACH纺织品召回案例,其中我国纺织产品占54.55%.禁用偶氮染料和邻苯二甲酸盐超标是纺织品召回的主要问题,其中禁用偶氮染料案例中检测出的致癌芳香胺主要是联苯胺、对氨基偶氮苯、3,3'-二甲氧基偶氮苯和3,3'-二甲基偶氮苯等;而邻苯二甲酸盐超标主要出现在特种印花的涂层整理儿童产品中.因此,有关印染企业应甄选染料,慎用特种印花和涂层整理技术.%The European Union began REACH recall measure in June, 2009,55 textile REACH recall cases have been opened to public till now, among which 54.55% is made in China. The forbidden azo dyes and phthalates are the two main problems regarding textile recall. The case of forbidden azo dyes are detected the carcinogenic aromatic amines mainly including benzidine,p-aminoazobenzene, 3,3'-dimethoxy-azobenzene and 3,3'-dimethyl azobenzene etc. The case of phthalates exceeded causes mainly in special printing and coating finish in children's products. Therefore, printing and dyeing entarprises should select dyes, and employ special printing and coating technology with caution.

  2. Fluorescence Spectra of Rubrene Dopant for Organic Light-Emitting Devices%有机电致发光器件中Rubrene掺杂剂的荧光光谱性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璐; 于军胜; 陈苏杰; 蒋亚东

    2009-01-01

    通过改变黄色荧光染料5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene(Rubrene)的溶液浓度,研究了溶液的浓度改变对荧光小分子染料的发光光谱的影响.采用测试不同浓度Rubrene溶液光致发光(PL)的光谱强度手段,确定了溶液中染料的最佳浓度,即最大程度避免或减弱浓度效应(浓度猝灭)且光致发光强度最大时的溶液浓度.首先确定极限浓度的范围,然后通过测试范围内的不同浓度的PL光谱强度判断精确的极限浓度位置.结果表明,在Rubrene浓度为2×10-3 mol·L-1时,PL光谱强度最大,并且随着溶液浓度的继续增加,PL光谱强度的降低仅为11%,进而确定Rubrene分子的极限浓度应该在2×10-3 mol.L-1左右.通过对比不同掺杂比例的Rubrene:N,N'-Bis(naphthalen-l-y)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)benzidine(NPB)在溶液中的混合体系的PL光谱发现,NPB与Rubrene分子之间存在小完全的能鞋传递过程,有利于实现NPB分子和Rubrene分子共同的蓝光和黄光发射,从而得到色纯度较高的白色荧光.

  3. [Urothelial carcinoma related to exposure to aromatic amines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, S; Kumazawa, J

    1989-12-01

    Clinical and statistical observations were made on a group of 438 persons who had worked with aromatic amines (benzidine, 2-naphthylamine, 1-naphthylamine and dianisidine) with reference to their carcinogenic properties in the urinary tract. Urinary tract tumors developed in 68 (15.5%), with an average latent period of 22 years and 11 months. In these 68 cases, upper urinary tract tumors were found in 16 cases, 8 of which had bilateral lesions. The average age of onset was 48.1 ranging from 24 to 79. The incidence of tumors increased with the length of exposure to the amines. There was no finding that smoking habit increased the incidence of tumors in this group. Of the 49 new patients with bladder tumor, urine cytology was positive in 24 (49.0%) and suspicious of malignancy in 10 (20.4%), respectively. This indicated that it could be a useful screening test. Transurethral surgery was most frequently performed as an initial treatment. Recurrence occurred in 50 cases (73.5%), but 5-, 10- and 20-year-survival rates were 89.0 79.3 and 64.7%, respectively, showing a good prognosis. Malignant tumors in other organs developed in 18 (4.1%) of the 438 workers. The incidence of such malignant tumors was significantly higher in the workers who had been exposed to 2-naphthylamine than in others. Our data indicate that close observation is still necessary for early detection of patient with new or recurrent urothelial carcinoma in this group. PMID:2618901

  4. A search for blues brothers: X-ray crystallographic/spectroscopic characterization of the tetraarylbenzidine cation radical as a product of aging of solid magic blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talipov, Marat R; Hossain, Mohammad M; Boddeda, Anitha; Thakur, Khushabu; Rathore, Rajendra

    2016-03-14

    Magic blue (MB+˙ SbCl6− salt), i.e. tris-4-bromophenylamminium cation radical, is a routinely employed one-electron oxidant that slowly decomposes in the solid state upon storage to form so called ‘blues brothers’, which often complicate the quantitative analyses of the oxidation processes. Herein, we disclose the identity of the main ‘blues brother’ as the cation radical and dication of tetrakis-(4-bromophenyl)benzidine (TAB) by a combined DFT and experimental approach, including isolation of TAB+˙ SbCl6− and its X-ray crystallography characterization. The formation of TAB in aged magic blue samples occurs by a Scholl-type coupling of a pair of MB followed by a loss of molecular bromine. The recognition of this fact led us to the rational design and synthesis of tris(2-bromo-4-tert-butylphenyl)amine, referred to as ‘blues cousin’ (BC: Eox1 = 0.78 V vs. Fc/Fc+, λmax(BC+˙) = 805 nm, εmax = 9930 cm−1 M−1), whose oxidative dimerization is significantly hampered by positioning the sterically demanding tert-butyl groups at the para-positions of the aryl rings. A ready two-step synthesis of BC from triphenylamine and the high stability of its cation radical (BC+˙) promise that BC will serve as a ready replacement for MB and an oxidant of choice for mechanistic investigations of one-electron transfer processes in organic, inorganic, and organometallic transformations.

  5. The role of catechol-O-methyltransferase in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriguga; Li, Xiao-Fei; Li, Yang; Yu, Chun-Hong; Li, Yi-Ran; Yi, Zong-Chun

    2013-12-15

    Catechol is widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Catechol is also one of phenolic metabolites of benzene in vivo. Our previous study showed that catechol improved erythroid differentiation potency of K562 cells, which was associated with decreased DNA methylation in erythroid specific genes. Catechol is a substrate for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-mediated methylation. In the present study, the role of COMT in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells was investigated. Benzidine staining showed that exposure to catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation and induced mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes in K562 cells. Treatment with catechol caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in guaiacol concentration in the medium of cultured K562 cells. When COMT expression was knocked down by COMT shRNA expression in K562 cells, the production of guaiacol significantly reduced, and the sensitivity of K562 cells to cytotoxicity of catechol significantly increased. Knockdown of COMT expression by COMT shRNA expression also eliminated catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. In addition, the pre-treatment with methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine or its demethylated product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine induced a significant increase in hemin-induced Hb synthesis in K562 cells and the mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes. These findings indicated that O-methylation catalyzed by COMT acted as detoxication of catechol and involved in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells, and the production of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine partly explained catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation.

  6. INTEREST IN DETERMINING THE CD34+ CD38- PHENOTYPE IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS OF ACUTE LEUKEMIA IN ABIDJAN – CÔTE D’IVOIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duni Sawadogo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background In Côte d’Ivoire, acute leukemias account for 12.5% of hematological malignancies. Acute leukemias are due to an anomaly of the stem cell characterized among other things by the expression of CD34+ CD38- surface markers. This CD34+ CD38- phenotype as well as other factors such as tumor syndrome, high leukocytosis and blasts are considered as important factors of poor prognosis. We therefore proposed to investigate the prognostic value of the expression of CD34+ CD38- markers in acute leukemias in Abidjan. Methods We selected 23 patients aged 33 years on whom we performed Complete Blood Count, bone marrow aspiration and immunophenotyping. To search for myeloperoxydase, smears of blood or bone marrow were stained with benzidine and revealed by the use of Hydrogen peroxide. Acute leukemias were then identified and distributed using the score proposed by the European Group for the Immunological characterization of Leukemias. The definitive diagnosis was made by combining morphological characters that serve as the basis for the French-American-British classification as well as cytochemical and immunophenotypic characters. Results According to the cytological and immunophenotypic classifications, the acute lymphoid leukemia 2 and B IV predominated. 52.2% (12/33 of patients were CD34+ CD38-. This phenotype was found in almost all cytological immunophenotypic types. The medullary invasion by blasts (reflection of the tumor mass of the total sample of CD34+ , CD34+ CD38- patients and those not expressing CD34+ was respectively 79.4%, 81.25%, 83.3% and 74.8%. Conclusion There was therefore no correlation between medullary blasts and the expression of CD34+ CD38-. To the factors we selected it would have been necessary to associate the study ofcytogenetic and molecular anomalies to better understand the role of CD34+ CD38- phenotype, concerning prognosis.

  7. A high concentration of triiodothyronine attenuates the stimulatory effect on hemin-induced erythroid differentiation of human erythroleukemia K562 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Mieno; Yamamoto, Yoritsuna; Hirooka, Nobutaka; Obuchi, Yasuhiro; Tachibana, Shoichi; Makishima, Makoto; Tanaka, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Although thyroid hormone is a known stimulator of erythropoietic differentiation, severe anemia is sometimes observed in patients with hyperthyroidism and this mechanism is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of triiodothyronine (T3) on hemin-induced erythropoiesis. Human erythroleukemia K562 cells were used as an erythroid differentiation model. Cell differentiation was induced by hemin and the effect of pre-incubation with T3 (0.1 to 100 nM) was analyzed by measuring the benzidine-positive rate, hemoglobin content, CD71 expression (transferrin receptor), and mRNA expression for transcription factors related to erythropoiesis and thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). Hemin, a promoter of erythroid differentiation, increased the levels of mRNAs for TRα, TRβ, and retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), as well as those for nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NFE2), GATA-binding protein 1 (GATA1) and GATA-binding protein 2 (GATA2). Lower concentrations of T3 had a stimulatory effect on hemin-induced hemoglobin production (1 and 10 nM), CD71 expression (0.1 nM), and α-globin mRNA expression (1 nM), while a higher concentration of T3 (100 nM) abrogated the stimulatory effect on these parameters. T3 at 100 nM did not affect cell viability and proliferation, suggesting that the abrogation of erythropoiesis enhancement was not due to toxicity. T3 at 100 nM also significantly inhibited expression of GATA2 and RXRα mRNA, compared to 1 nM T3. We conclude that a high concentration of T3 attenuates the classical stimulatory effect on erythropoiesis exerted by a low concentration of T3 in hemin-induced K562 cells. PMID:25787723

  8. Role of impurities in determining the exciton diffusion length in organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Ian J.; Blaylock, D. Wayne; Holmes, Russell J.

    2016-04-01

    The design and performance of organic photovoltaic cells is dictated, in part, by the magnitude of the exciton diffusion length (LD). Despite the importance of this parameter, there have been few investigations connecting LD and materials purity. Here, we investigate LD for the organic small molecule N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine as native impurities are systematically removed from the material. Thin films deposited from the as-synthesized material yield a value for LD, as measured by photoluminescence quenching, of (3.9 ± 0.5) nm with a corresponding photoluminescence efficiency (ηPL) of (25 ± 1)% and thin film purity of (97.1 ± 1.2)%, measured by high performance liquid chromatography. After purification by thermal gradient sublimation, the value of LD is increased to (4.7 ± 0.5) nm with a corresponding ηPL of (33 ± 1)% and purity of (98.3 ± 0.8)%. Interestingly, a similar behavior is also observed as a function of the deposition boat temperature. Films deposited from the purified material at a high temperature give LD = (5.3 ± 0.8) nm with ηPL = (37 ± 1)% for films with a purity of (99.0 ± 0.3)% purity. Using a model of diffusion by Förster energy transfer, the variation of LD with purity is predicted as a function of ηPL and is in good agreement with measurements. The removal of impurities acts to decrease the non-radiative exciton decay rate and increase the radiative decay rate, leading to increases in both the diffusivity and exciton lifetime. The results of this work highlight the role of impurities in determining LD, while also providing insight into the degree of materials purification necessary to achieve optimized exciton transport.

  9. Effects of chebulinic acid on differentiation of human leukemia K562 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-chun YI; Zhao WANG; Hai-xia LI; Ming-jie LIU; Rong-cong WU; Xiao-hui WANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study effects of chebulinic acid on erythroid and megakaryocytic differentiation in K562 cells. METHODS:The benzidine staining method was used to evaluate hemoglobin synthesis; the expression of erythroid specific glycophorin A (GPA) protein and megakaryocytic surface marker CD61 was determined by flow cytometry using fluorescence labeled antibodies; erythroid and megakaryocytic mRNA expression was analyzed by RT-PCR.RESULTS: During erythroid differentiation induced by butyric acid (BA) or hemin, chebulinic acid not only inhibited the hemoglobin synthesis of BA- and hemin-treated K562 cells in concentration-dependant manner with IC50 of 4 μmol/L and 40 μmol/L respectively, but also inhibited another erythroid differentiation marker acetylcholinesterase at the concentration of 50 μmol/L in the cells either treated or untreated with each erythroid differentiation inducers,whereas chebulinic acid 50 μmol/L did not change GPA protein expression in these cells significantly. When K562 cells were treated with TPA 50 μg/L for 72 h to induce megakaryocytic differentiation, the presence of chebulinic acid 50 μmol/L slightly provoked the decrease of GPA protein expression induced by TPA. Chebulinic acid did not change the TPA-induced CD61 expression at the same concentration. Chebulinic acid also reduced the mRNA levels of erythroid relative genes including γ-globin, PBGD, NF-E2, and GATA-1 genes in K562 cells either treated or untreated with BA, whereas chebulinic acid upregulated the mRNA levels of GATA-2 transcription factor in these cells. CONCLUSION: Chebulinic acid had inhibitory effect on erythroid differentiation likely through changing transcriptional activation of differentiation relative genes, which suggests that chebulinic acid or other tannins might influence the efficiency of some anti-tumor drugs-induced differentiation or the hematopoiesis processes.

  10. Evaluation of the Catalytic Activity and Cytotoxicity of Palladium Nanocubes. The Role of Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Eshan; Curtiss, Jessica; Subedi, Deepak; Chen, Gen; Houston, Jessica P.; Smirnov, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Recently it has been reported that palladium nanocubes (PdNC) are capable of generating singlet oxygen without photo-excitation simply via chemisorption of molecular oxygen on its surface. Such a trait would make PdNC a highly versatile catalyst suitable in organic synthesis and a Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) inducing cancer treatment reagent. Here we thoroughly investigated the catalytic activity of PdNC with respect to their ability to produce singlet oxygen and to oxidize 3,5,3′,5′-tetramethyl-benzidine (TMB), as well as, analyzed the cytotoxic properties of PdNC on HeLa cells. Our findings showed no evidence of singlet oxygen production by PdNC. The nanocubes’ activity is not necessarily linked to activation of oxygen. The oxidation of substrate on PdNC can be a first step followed by PdNC regeneration with oxygen or other oxidant. The catalytic activity of PdNC towards oxidation of TMB is very high and shows direct two-electrons oxidation when the surface of PdNC is clean and the ratio of TMB/PdNC is not very high. Sequential one electron oxidation is observed when the pristine quality of PdNC surface is compromised by serum or uncontrolled impurities and/or the ratio of TMB/PdNC is high. Clean PdNC in serum-free media efficiently induce apoptosis of HeLa cells. It is the primary route of cell death and is associated with hyperpolarization of mitochondria, contrary to a common mitochondrial depolarization initiated by ROS. Again, the effects are very sensitive to how well the pristine surface of PdNC is preserved, suggesting that PdNC can be used as an apoptosis inducing agent but only with appropriate drug delivery system. PMID:25886644

  11. The role of catechol-O-methyltransferase in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriguga,; Li, Xiao-Fei; Li, Yang; Yu, Chun-Hong; Li, Yi-Ran; Yi, Zong-Chun, E-mail: yizc@buaa.edu.cn

    2013-12-15

    Catechol is widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Catechol is also one of phenolic metabolites of benzene in vivo. Our previous study showed that catechol improved erythroid differentiation potency of K562 cells, which was associated with decreased DNA methylation in erythroid specific genes. Catechol is a substrate for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-mediated methylation. In the present study, the role of COMT in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells was investigated. Benzidine staining showed that exposure to catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation and induced mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes in K562 cells. Treatment with catechol caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in guaiacol concentration in the medium of cultured K562 cells. When COMT expression was knocked down by COMT shRNA expression in K562 cells, the production of guaiacol significantly reduced, and the sensitivity of K562 cells to cytotoxicity of catechol significantly increased. Knockdown of COMT expression by COMT shRNA expression also eliminated catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. In addition, the pre-treatment with methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine or its demethylated product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine induced a significant increase in hemin-induced Hb synthesis in K562 cells and the mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes. These findings indicated that O-methylation catalyzed by COMT acted as detoxication of catechol and involved in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells, and the production of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine partly explained catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation. - Highlights: • Catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation. • COMT-catalyzed methylation acted as detoxication of catechol. • COMT involved in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation.

  12. The role of DNA methylation in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiao-Fei; Wu, Xiao-Rong; Xue, Ming; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Li, Yang; Suriguga,; Zhang, Guang-Yao; Yi, Zong-Chun, E-mail: yizc@buaa.edu.cn

    2012-11-15

    Catechol is one of phenolic metabolites of benzene in vivo. Catechol is also widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In addition, fruits, vegetables and cigarette smoke also contain catechol. Our precious study showed that several benzene metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, and 1,2,4-benzenetriol) inhibited erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. In present study, the effect of catechol on erythroid differentiation of K562 cells was investigated. Moreover, to address the role of DNA methylation in catechol-induced effect on erythroid differentiation in K562 cells, methylation levels of erythroid-specific genes were analyzed by Quantitative MassARRAY methylation analysis platform. Benzidine staining showed that exposure to catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation in K562 cells in concentration- and time-dependent manners. The mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes, including α-globin, β-globin, γ-globin, erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase, erythroid porphobilinogen deaminase, and transcription factor GATA-1 genes, showed a significant concentration-dependent increase in catechol-treated K562 cells. The exposure to catechol caused a decrease in DNA methylation levels at a few CpG sites in some erythroid specific genes including α-globin, β-globin and erythroid porphobilinogen deaminase genes. These results indicated that catechol improved erythroid differentiation potency of K562 cells at least partly via up-regulating transcription of some erythroid related genes, and suggested that inhibition of DNA methylation might be involved in up-regulated expression of some erythroid related genes. -- Highlights: ► Catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation. ► Exposure to catechol resulted in up-regulated expression of erythroid genes. ► Catechol reduced methylation levels at some CpG sites in erythroid genes.

  13. A current global view of environmental and occupational cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mihi

    2011-07-01

    This review is focused on current information of avoidable environmental pollution and occupational exposure as causes of cancer. Approximately 2% to 8% of all cancers are thought to be due to occupation. In addition, occupational and environmental cancers have their own characteristics, e.g., specific chemicals and cancers, multiple factors, multiple causation and interaction, or latency period. Concerning carcinogens, asbestos/silica/wood dust, soot/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [benzo(a) pyrene], heavy metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), aromatic amines (4-aminobiphenyl, benzidine), organic solvents (benzene or vinyl chloride), radiation/radon, or indoor pollutants (formaldehyde, tobacco smoking) are mentioned with their specific cancers, e.g., lung, skin, and bladder cancers, mesothelioma or leukemia, and exposure routes, rubber or pigment manufacturing, textile, painting, insulation, mining, and so on. In addition, nanoparticles, electromagnetic waves, and climate changes are suspected as future carcinogenic sources. Moreover, the aspects of environmental and occupational cancers are quite different between developing and developed countries. The recent follow-up of occupational cancers in Nordic countries shows a good example for developed countries. On the other hand, newly industrializing countries face an increased burden of occupational and environmental cancers. Developing countries are particularly suffering from preventable cancers in mining, agriculture, or industries without proper implication of safety regulations. Therefore, industrialized countries are expected to educate and provide support for developing countries. In addition, citizens can encounter new environmental and occupational carcinogen nominators such as nanomaterials, electromagnetic wave, and climate exchanges. As their carcinogenicity or involvement in carcinogenesis is not clearly unknown, proper consideration for them should be taken into account. For these purposes, new

  14. 金边瑞香花粉活力和柱头可授性研究%Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity of Daphne odora var. marginata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周华; 余发新; 王碧琴; 刘腾云

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究金边瑞香花粉活力和柱头可授性.[方法]采用I-KI法、TTC法和固体培养基法测定金边瑞香花粉的活力,并用联苯胺-过氧化氢法测定柱头的可授性.[结果]金边瑞香从初花期至盛花期,I-KI法未对花粉内部染色,使用,TTC法花粉未变红色,离体培养法未见有花粉管萌发,均表明花粉不具生活力.柱头表面有少量气泡产生的,且柱头变色,表明金边瑞香柱头可授性较低.[结论]金边瑞香花粉无活力,柱头可授性低.%[Objective] To study the pollen viability and stigma receptivity of Daphne odora var. marginala. [Method] The pollen viability was detected by the methods of iodine-iodide Kalium(I-KI) , triphenyllrazolium chloride(TTC) and solid medium. The stigma receptivity was estimated by benzidine-H2O2 method. [ Result] The pollen was not stained by I - KI method, and did not become red by TTC method, and there was no germinated pollen tube by the in vitro culture method, indicating that the pollen viability was zero during the whole flowering period of Daphne odora var. marginata. Few bubbles appeared on the stigma surface and the stigma color changed, which meant that stigma receptivity was very low. [Conclusion] Daphne odora var. marginata has no pollen viability and low stigma receptivity.

  15. Advances in Poly(4-aminodiphenylaniline) Nanofibers Preparation by Electrospinning Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Pina, C; Busacca, C; Frontera, P; Antonucci, P L; Scarpino, L A; Sironi, A; Falletta, E

    2016-05-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers are drawing a great deal of interest from academia and industry due to their multiple applications, especially in biomedical field. PANI nanofibers were successfully electrospun for the first time by MacDiarmid and co-workers at the beginning of the millennium and since then many efforts have been addressed to improve their quality. However, traditional PANI prepared from aniline monomer shows some drawbacks, such as presence of toxic (i.e., benzidine) and inorganic (salts and metals) co-products, that complicate polymer post-treatment, and low solubility in common organic solvents, making hard its processing by electrospinning technique. Some industrial sectors, such as medical and biomedical, need to employ materials free from toxic and polluting species. In this regard, the oxidative polymerization of N-(4-aminophenyl)aniline, aniline dimer, to produce poly(4-aminodiphenylaniline), P4ADA, a kind of PANI, represents an innovative alternative to the traditional synthesis because the obtained polymer results free from carcinogenic and/or polluting co-products, and, moreover, more soluble than traditional PANI. This latter feature can be exploited to obtain P4ADA nanofibers by electrospinning technique. In this paper we report the advances obtained in the P4ADA nanofibers electrospinnig. A comparison among polyethylene oxide (PEO), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS), as the second polymer to facilitate the electrospinning process, is shown. In order to increase the conductivity of P4ADA nanofibers, two strategies were adopted and compared: selective insulating binder removal from electrospun nanofibers by a rinsing tratment, afterwards optimizing the minimum amount of binder necessary for the electrospinning process. Moreover, the effect of PEO/P4ADA weight ratio on the fibers morphology and conductivity was highlighted.

  16. Advances in Poly(4-aminodiphenylaniline) Nanofibers Preparation by Electrospinning Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Pina, C; Busacca, C; Frontera, P; Antonucci, P L; Scarpino, L A; Sironi, A; Falletta, E

    2016-05-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers are drawing a great deal of interest from academia and industry due to their multiple applications, especially in biomedical field. PANI nanofibers were successfully electrospun for the first time by MacDiarmid and co-workers at the beginning of the millennium and since then many efforts have been addressed to improve their quality. However, traditional PANI prepared from aniline monomer shows some drawbacks, such as presence of toxic (i.e., benzidine) and inorganic (salts and metals) co-products, that complicate polymer post-treatment, and low solubility in common organic solvents, making hard its processing by electrospinning technique. Some industrial sectors, such as medical and biomedical, need to employ materials free from toxic and polluting species. In this regard, the oxidative polymerization of N-(4-aminophenyl)aniline, aniline dimer, to produce poly(4-aminodiphenylaniline), P4ADA, a kind of PANI, represents an innovative alternative to the traditional synthesis because the obtained polymer results free from carcinogenic and/or polluting co-products, and, moreover, more soluble than traditional PANI. This latter feature can be exploited to obtain P4ADA nanofibers by electrospinning technique. In this paper we report the advances obtained in the P4ADA nanofibers electrospinnig. A comparison among polyethylene oxide (PEO), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS), as the second polymer to facilitate the electrospinning process, is shown. In order to increase the conductivity of P4ADA nanofibers, two strategies were adopted and compared: selective insulating binder removal from electrospun nanofibers by a rinsing tratment, afterwards optimizing the minimum amount of binder necessary for the electrospinning process. Moreover, the effect of PEO/P4ADA weight ratio on the fibers morphology and conductivity was highlighted. PMID:27483933

  17. Treatment of wastewaters containing anilines using enzymes: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aromatic amines are manufactured in a large scale for use in industries dealing with resins, dyes, plastics and rubber, pesticides and explosives. The majority of the production-related waste is either incinerated or released into the environment. The majority of them are highly toxic, carcinogenic or mutagenic and impose serious health hazards to mankind. Available conventional physical-chemical processes including activated carbon adsorption processes, solvent extraction processes, microbial degradation and various chemical-oxidation processes developed over the years are not selective in terms of the range of the aromatic pollutant removed during treatment. Thus, such treatment strategies are more economically suitable for treatment of dilute wastewaters and are invariably used as polishing steps. Enzymes such as peroxidases, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, and laccases, in the presence of oxygen, catalyze the oxidation of a wide variety of phenols, biphenyls, anilines, benzidines and other related aromatic compounds. Various peroxidases and laccases have been used to treat wastewaters. With respect to anilines, the potential, scope and cost of enzymatic treatment is reviewed here and compared with conventional technology, e.g., the cost of enzymatic treatment using a crude enzyme preparation of soybean peroxidase was reported to be about $0.36/m3 for synthetic wastewater containing 1 mM of aniline, compared to an activated sludge process of $1.05/m3 and $1.31/m3 for activated carbon process, while for p-toluidine, it was about $0.17/m3. Thus, through choice of enzyme and its mode of operation, treatment costs less than the conventional treatment strategies can be achieved. (author)

  18. CDK2 accelerates early erythroid differentiation of K562 cells%CDK2促进K562细胞早期红系分化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李均; 岳瑞华; 沈钧乐; 肖俊

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨细胞周期调节蛋白CDK2对K562细胞红系分化的影响.方法 分别用CDK2表达质粒和干扰RNA分子转染K562细胞,用Western blot法检测过表达或干扰效率,使用real-time PCR和联苯胺染色法检测K562细胞分化.结果 CDK2在K562细胞红系分化早期呈现表达上升趋势;在K562细胞中过表达CDK2可促进hemin诱导的红系分化;反之,干扰K562内源的CDK2表达会对K562红系分化产生抑制作用.结论 CDK2在K562细胞早期红系分化过程中发挥促进作用.%Objective To study the roles of a cell cycle regulator cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) in erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. Methods K562 cells were transfected with the construct expressing CDK2 and siRNAs specifically targeting at CDK2. The effects of over-expression or knocking-down of CDK2 were examined by Western blot. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed to detect the level of γ-globin mRNA expression. The benzidine staining assay was used to identify the differentiation state of K562 cells. Results CDK2 was up-regulated at the early stage of K562 erythroid differentiation. Over-expression of CDK2 in K562 cells accelerated erythroid differentiation. Inhibition of CDK2 attenuates globin accumulation in K562 cells. Conclusion CDK2 is necessary for early erythroid differentiation of K562 cells.

  19. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine) and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline), which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking), and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) are well known risk

  20. A method for the amplification of chemically induced transformation in C3H/10T1/2 clone 8 cells: its use as a potential screening assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechtman, L M; Kiss, E; McCarvill, J; Nims, R; Kouri, R E; Lubet, R A

    1987-09-01

    A method has been developed by which to amplify expression of phenotypic transformation of C3H/10T1/2 clone 8 mouse embryo cells not otherwise observed in the standard transformation assay. The expression of transformed foci was amplified by subcultivating chemically treated target cells after they had reached confluence and replating them at subconfluent cell densities. Conditions leading to the expression of the highest numbers of transformed foci include a) a cell seeding density for chemical treatment of 1 X 10(4) cells/dish, b) subculture 4 weeks after treatment, and c) replating cells at a density of 2 X 10(5) cells/-dish. Agents capable of inducing transformation in the standard assay (e.g., 4,4'-bis(dimethylamino)benzophenone, benzo[a]pyrene, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, and others) also yielded transformation in the replating assay. The more marginal transforming activities of chemicals such as ethyl methanesulfonate, 7-(bromomethyl)-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene, and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine were enhanced by the amplification procedure. Compounds that failed to elicit focal transformation in the standard assay (e.g., dibenz[a,h]anthracene, Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate, lead acetate, benzidine, propyleneimine, N-hydroxy-2-fluorenylacetamide, and numerous other compounds of various chemical classes) induced significant levels of phenotypic transformation upon amplification. Noncarcinogens (e.g., phenanthrene, anthracene, 2-aminobiphenyl, cycloheximide, and others) failed to cause significant phenotypic transformation even when cells were replated. To further enhance the applicability of this new replating system, an exogenous source of metabolic activation was added: a 9,000 X g supernatant from Aroclor 1254-induced rat hepatic S-9. This activation system was found a) to be only minimally cytotoxic by itself and b) to be able to mediate NADPH-dependent, dose-dependent toxicity, and transformation by activating the procarcinogens

  1. Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on erythropoiesis: A preclinical in vitro characterization for the treatment of congenital sideroblastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Treatment with ALA induces erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. • Transportation of ALA into erythroid cells occurs predominantly via SLC36A1. • ALA restores defects in ALAS2 in human iPS cell-derived erythroblasts. • ALA may represent a novel therapeutic option for CSA caused by ALAS2 mutations. - Abstract: Congenital sideroblastic anemia (CSA) is a hereditary disorder characterized by microcytic anemia and bone marrow sideroblasts. The most common form of CSA is attributed to mutations in the X-linked gene 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2). ALAS2 is a mitochondrial enzyme, which utilizes glycine and succinyl-CoA to form 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a crucial precursor in heme synthesis. Therefore, ALA supplementation could be an effective therapeutic strategy to restore heme synthesis in CSA caused by ALAS2 defects. In a preclinical study, we examined the effects of ALA in human erythroid cells, including K562 cells and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived erythroid progenitor (HiDEP) cells. ALA treatment resulted in significant dose-dependent accumulation of heme in the K562 cell line. Concomitantly, the treatment substantially induced erythroid differentiation as assessed using benzidine staining. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed significant upregulation of heme-regulated genes, such as the globin genes [hemoglobin alpha (HBA) and hemoglobin gamma (HBG)] and the heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) gene, in K562 cells. Next, to investigate the mechanism by which ALA is transported into erythroid cells, quantitative RT-PCR analysis was performed on previously identified ALA transporters, including solute carrier family 15 (oligopeptide transporter), member (SLC15A) 1, SLC15A2, solute carrier family 36 (proton/amino acid symporter), member (SLC36A1), and solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter), member 13 (SLC6A13). Our analysis revealed that SLC36A1 was abundantly

  2. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letašiová Silvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline, which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking, and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline

  3. siRNA沉默Ikaros基因对K562细胞中γ珠蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳; 李冉; 吴新忠; 胡珺; 曾玉

    2012-01-01

    @@ 地中海贫血,即β珠蛋白合成障碍性贫血,简称地贫,是一种单基因缺陷的遗传性疾病,它是由于β珠蛋白多肽链合成减少或缺失,α链与非α链(β、γ、δ)之间不平衡所导致的以红细胞无效生成为特征的血红蛋白病.重型β-地贫常常有严重的临床症状,多采取规则的输血及祛铁治疗,但大多数病人最终还是死于铁过载相关的心脏疾病,平均寿命不满20岁[1].%To interfere the Ikaros gene with siRNA, and observe the expression of y-globin in K562 human erythroleukemia cells. Method, Three siRNA-Ikaros(siRNAl,siRNA2 and siRNA3) were designed and transacted to K562 cells by Lipolectamine 2000. The optimal siRNA se-quence of Ikaros gene silencing was screened by semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting mehtods were used to detect the expression of Ikaros and y-globin mRNA and protein levels alter Ikaros gene silencing. Hemoglobin content of the K562 cells were detected by using benzidine staining method. Results, The transaction rate of K562 cells by the Lipolectamine 2000 could reach up to 58. 7%. SiRNA3 could effectively interfere the expression of Ikaros gene, and the inhibited efficiency could reach up to 86. 7%. SiRNA3 could enhance the expression of y-globin and the hemoglobin content of K562 cells. Conclusion; SiRNA3 can interfere the expression of Ikaros and en-

  4. Effect of Ionic Liquid on the Determination of Aromatic Amines as Contaminants in Hair Dyes by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Electrochemical Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valnice Boldrin Zanoni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The room temperature ionic liquid (IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluorometanesulfonylimide BMIm[NTf2] was used as a novel medium for improvement of separation and quantization of 16 aromatic amines typically present as contaminants in consumer products and detected by HPLC coupled to an electrochemical detector. The aromatic amines, namely 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane, 4-chloroaniline, 2-methoxy-5-methyl-aniline, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, 2,4-diaminotoluidine, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline, 4,4'-oxydianiline, aniline, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, o-dianisidine, o-anisidine, o-toluidine, 4,4'-methylene-bis-2-chloroaniline and 2-naphthyl-amine are oxidized in methanol/BMIm[NTf2] at a potential around +0.68V to +0.93V vs. Ag/AgCl at a glassy carbon electrode, which is the base for their determination by HPLC/ED. Using the optimized conditions of methanol/BMIm[NTf2] 70:30 (v/v as mobile phase, flow-rate of 0.8 mL·min−1, column CLC-ODS, Eap = +1.0 V and T = 40 °C analytical curves were constructed for each of the tested amines. Good linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 1.09 mg·L−1 to 217 mg·L−1, with excellent correlation coefficients. The limits of detection reached 0.021 mg·L−1 to 0.246 mg·L−1 and good relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 3 were obtained from the measurements. Satisfactory recovery for each aromatic amine was achieved, ranging from 95 to 103%. The developed method was successfully applied to determine six aromatic amines present as contaminants in commercial hair dye samples.

  5. White OLED with high stability and low driving voltage based on a novel buffer layer MoOx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Xueyin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhang Zhilin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China); Cao Jin [Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Application, Ministry of Education, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Khan, M A [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China); Khizar-ul-Haq [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhu Wenqing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2007-09-21

    White organic light emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), 4,4',4-prime-tris(N-3-methylphenyl-N-phenyl-amino) triphenylamine (m-MTDATA), tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) and molybdenum oxide (MoOx) as buffer layers have been investigated. The MoOx based device shows superior performance with low driving voltage, high power efficiency and much longer lifetime than those with other buffer layers. For the Cell using MoOx as buffer layer and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) as electron transporting layer (ETL), at the luminance of 1000 cd m{sup -2}, the driving voltage is 4.9 V, which is 4.2 V, 2 V and 0.7 V lower than that of the devices using CuPc (Cell-CuPc), m-MTDATA (Cell-m-MTDATA) and WO{sub 3} (Cell-WO{sub 3}) as buffer layers, respectively. Its power efficiency is 7.67 Lm W{sup -1}, which is 2.37 times higher than that of Cell-CuPc and a little higher than that of Cell-m-MTDATA. The projected half-life under the initial luminance of 100 cd m{sup -2} is 55 260 h, which is more than 4.6 times longer than that of Cell-m-MTDATA and Cell-CuPc. The superior performance of Cell-MoOx is attributed to its high hole injection ability and the stable interface between MoOx and organic material. The work function of MoOx has been measured by the contact potential difference method. The J-V curves of 'hole-only' devices indicate that a small hole injection barrier between MoOx/N,'-bis(naphthalene-1-y1)-N, N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) leads to a strong hole injection, resulting in a low driving voltage and a high stability.

  6. 野芝麻开花与繁育特性初步研究%Studies of floral biology, breeding characters of Lamium barbatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张栋; 周守标; 刘坤; 夏青; 洪欣

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To reveal the flowering characteristics and provide theoretical basis for the breeding and cultivation of Lamiiun barbalum. Method: The field observation and investigation of blooming phenophase were applied in the study growth dynamics of inflorescence and the period of the floret were measured. Then the statistic analyses of them were carried out The pollen viability was evaluated by TTC test and the stigma receptivity was evaluated by benzidine-H2O2 method. Result and Conclusion: The flowers of L barbatum were bisexual, with 4 to 14 flowers in an inflorescence. The population came into bloom from April to June and the blossom of a single flower could last about 3 days. Pollination peak lasted 8 hours from the very beginning of blooming, and the high stigma receptive stage remained during the same period of time. The results indicated that the breeding system of L. Barbatum was outcrossing with self-compatibility and pollinators were needed based on the outcrossing index. The most frequent floral visitors were bees. The suitable breeding strategy was also discussed.%目的:探究野芝麻的开花生物学特性,为今后野芝麻的栽培和品种的选育提供理论基础.方法:田间定株、定时观察记录,并统计野芝麻的群体、花序和单花开花过程;用TTC法测定花粉的活力,用联苯胺-过氧化氢法测定柱头可授性.结果与结论:野芝麻具两性花,为轮伞花序,每轮有花4~14朵;花期4-6月,单花花期约3d;从花朵刚开放到开花后8h花粉活力和柱头可授性都较强,两者有效可遇期约为8h;野芝麻繁育类型为兼性异交,自交亲和,有时需要传粉者;传粉媒介主要是蜂类.此外,探讨了野芝麻育种中适宜采用的育种途径.

  7. Influence of polymer:sensitizer ratio on photoelectric properties of organic composite photoconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, K.; Sanchez Juarez, A.; Kosarev, A.; Mansurova, S.; Koeber, S.; Meerholz, K.

    2010-06-01

    The results on characterization of the main photoelectric properties of the polymer:fulleren based composite material by using the non-steady-state photo-electromotive force (p-EMF) and modulated photocurrent technique are presented. By measuring this current under different experimental conditions, important material photoelectric parameters such as drift L0 and diffusion length LD, photocarrier's lifetime τ ; quantum efficiency of charge generation φ can be determined. The 50% of the composite weight consists of a mixture of the hole-conducting polymer PF6:TPD (poly-hexyle-triophene:N,N'-bis(4-methylphenyl)-N,N'-bis-(phenyl)-benzidine) sensitized with the highly soluble C60 derivative PCBM (phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) . Seven samples with varied polymer:sensitizer weight ratio (49:1wt.-%, 45:5wt.-%, 40:10wt.-%, 15:35wt.-%, 25:25wt.-%, 10:40wt.-%, 5:45wt.-%) where prepared. The remaining 50% were two azo-dyes 2,5-dimethyl-(4-p-nitrophenylazo)-anisole (DMNPAA) and 3- methoxy-(4-p-nitrophenylazo)-anisole (MNPAA) (25wt.-% each). Photoconductive composite film was sandwiched between two glass plates covered by transparent ITO electrodes. Two counter-propagating beams derived from a cw HeNe laser (λ = 633nm) intersected inside the detector creating an interference pattern. The output photo-EMF current (SEE MANUSCRIPT FOR EQUATION) was detected as a voltage drop by a lock-in amplifier. At polymer sensitizer ratio 25:25wt.-% the signal sign changes to the opposite revealing that the majority carriers at this and higher concentration of sensitizer are electrons. Our results show that the majority carrier's lifetime τ is only slightly affected by the variations of sensitizer concentration. Mobility-lifetime product μhτh of holes, on its turn decreases at the increasing sensitizer concentration, while μeτe of electrons keeps increasing. All this indicates that the carrier's mobility is strongly influenced by the changes on sensitizer concentrations.

  8. 核桃优良品种雌雄花授粉活力的研究%Study on pollination activity of pistillate and staminate flowers in walnut excellent varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昊; 高英; 董宁光; 徐虎智; 裴东

    2011-01-01

    Stigma receptivity and pollen viability during walnut flowering can determine the fruit set percentage and the yield of current year directly.In this study,representative walnut cultivars—'Wen185','Chandler' and 'QingXiang' were observed.The morphological changes of stigma were recorded during pollination and fertilization,the stigma receptivity and optimal pollination period were studied by benzidine-H2O2 method,and the period and conditions for keeping highest pollen viability were detected by MTT staining method.The results showed that the stigma receptivity period was ranging from the stigma slightly open to it with brown stripes.The best period for pollination was 3-5 days after the split stigma opened.The pollen can be stored for 96 hours under natural conditions and the viability decreased quickly to 33% after 4 hours.The pollen viability was the highest when the walnut anthers shedding,reaching 95%.Pollen viability could be reinforced at 4 ℃ and the average viability was 63.3% after 120 hours.%在核桃花期,柱头的可授性和花粉活力直接决定着座果率和当年产量。本文采用具有代表性的核桃优良品种‘温185’、‘强特勒’和‘清香’,在记录柱头授粉受精形态变化的同时,用联苯胺--过氧化氢法确定了柱头的可授时期;用MTT染色法确定了花粉活力期限和花粉活力最高的条件和时期。结果表明:柱头可授时期在柱头微张至出现棕色条纹之间,最佳时期在柱头开张后3~5d;自然状态下花粉可保存96h,但4h后生活力即降至33%,雄花刚开放时花粉生活力最高,达95%。花粉在4℃条件下可延长生活力,120h平均生活力为63.3%。

  9. 滇重楼最佳授粉期的研究%Preliminary Study on the Optimal Pollination Period of Paris polyphylla var.yunnanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾卫民; 赵庭周

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To select the optimal pollination period of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. [ Method] The pollen viability of P, polyphylla was evaluated by TTC test (2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and its stigma receptivity was estimated by benzidine-H2O2 method. [Result] Pollen viability was the highest at 68.2% when pollen sac cracked. It did not decrease significantly in the first 2 days. Since the fourth day, the pollen viability declined obviously, but still remained some activity. The stigma receptivity was in high activity within five days after pollen sac cracking and the pollination of P. polyphylla should be done in this period. [ Conclusion] The optimal pollination period of P. polyphylla is selected in this experiment, which can provide basis for further development and utilization of P. polyphylla.%[目的]优选滇重楼的最佳授粉期.[方法]采用TTC法测定花粉的活力,并采用联苯胺-过氧化氢法测定柱头可授性,根据研究滇重楼花粉活力变化规律及柱头可授性优选滇重楼的最佳授粉期.[结果]滇重楼花粉囊开裂时活力最高为68.2%,前2d内,花粉活力下降不明显.第4天开始,活力明显下降,但仍然具有一定的活性.柱头的活性在花粉囊开裂后5d内最强,滇重楼的授粉应选择在这5d内进行.[结论]该研究优选了滇重楼的最佳授粉期,为滇重楼的进一步开发利用提供了依据.

  10. 太子参花粉活力和柱头可授性研究%Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity of Pseudostellaria heterophylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩怡; 巢建国; 谷巍; 张莹; 孙亚昕

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究太子参的花粉活力、柱头可授性及花粉贮藏.方法:采用离体萌发法、染色法测定花粉活力,用联苯胺-过氧化氢法测定柱头可授性,并检测不同贮藏条件下花粉的活力.结果:离体萌发法适用于太子参花粉活力测定,最适培养基为0.04%硼酸+15%蔗糖+11%聚乙二醇,萌发率达92.44%;太子参花药开裂期柱头可授性较强;花粉的短期保存以4℃效果较好,长期保存以-80℃效果最佳.结论:在进行杂交授粉时,应选花药开裂期的花粉,对开花第2天的柱头进行人工授粉,本研究为太子参的良种选育及种质资源保护提供了科学依据.%Objective: To study the pollen viability, the stigma receptivity and storage character of Pseudostellaria heterophylla. Methods: The pollen viability was evaluated by the methods of in vitro pollen germination and pollen staining,the stigma receptivity was estimated by benzidine-H2O2 method,and the pollen viability in different storage conditions were detected. Results;In vitro pollen germination method was suitable for the determination of pollen germination of Pseudostellaria heterophylla,the optimal medium was 0. 04% H3BO3 + 15% sucrose + 11% PEG4000 ,in which the pollen germination capacity reached to 92. 44% ;The stigma receptivity of Pseudostellaria heterophylla was higher when the pollen anther opening; The results showed that short-term pollen storage at -4 ℃was the most suitable while the long-term pollen storage was at -80 ℃. Conclusion; The optimum cross pollination times of Pseudostellaria heterophylla was 2 days after blooming and choose the pollen in anther opening. This study provides a foundation for the breeding and germplasm resources protection of Pseudostellaria heterophylla.

  11. Study on the Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity of Four Plants in Hedychium%4种姜花属植物花粉活力和柱头可授性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊友华; 闫建勋; 刘念

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为姜花属植物种间有性杂交育种提供理论依据.[方法]采用TIC法、联苯胺-过氧化氢法测定4种姜花属植物白姜花、圆瓣姜花、红姜花和金姜花的花粉活力和柱头可授性.[结果]4种植物花粉活力在89.7%~97.8%,其中红姜花的花粉活力最高,然后依次为:白姜花、圆瓣姜花和金姜花:4种植物的柱头可授性在91.3%-98.7%,其大小依次为:白姜花、圆瓣姜花、红姜花和金姜花.[结论]4种姜花属植物都具有较高的花粉活力和柱头可授性,其中白姜花的花粉活力和柱头可授性均最高.%[ Objective ] The basis of the sexual hybridization breeding among the species from Hedychium was provided. [ Method] In order to evaluated The pollen viability and stigma receptivity of four Hedychium plants: H. coronarium, H. coccineum, H. gardnerianum, and H. forrestii were measured with the method of TTC and Benzidine-H2O2. [ Results] The results showed that the pollen viability of four plants were in the range from 89.7% to 97.8%, among which, the pollen viability of H. gardnerianum was highest and then the order of pollen viability was H. coronarium > H. coccineum > H. forrestii. The stigma receptivity was in the range from 91.3% to 98.7% and the order of the stigma receptivity was H. coronarium > H. coccineum > H. gardnerianum > H. forrestii. [ Conclusion] All the four plants had high pollen viability and stigma receptivity, among which, the pollen viability and stigma receptivity of H. coronarium were highest.

  12. Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on erythropoiesis: A preclinical in vitro characterization for the treatment of congenital sideroblastic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Tohru [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Department of Molecular Hematology/Oncology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Okamoto, Koji; Niikuni, Ryoyu [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Takahashi, Kiwamu [SBI Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Okitsu, Yoko; Fukuhara, Noriko; Onishi, Yasushi [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Ishizawa, Kenichi [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Clinical Research, Innovation and Education Center, Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai (Japan); Ichinohasama, Ryo [Department of Hematopathology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Nakamura, Yukio [Cell Engineering Division, RIKEN BioResource Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Tohru [SBI Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Harigae, Hideo, E-mail: harigae@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Department of Molecular Hematology/Oncology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Treatment with ALA induces erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. • Transportation of ALA into erythroid cells occurs predominantly via SLC36A1. • ALA restores defects in ALAS2 in human iPS cell-derived erythroblasts. • ALA may represent a novel therapeutic option for CSA caused by ALAS2 mutations. - Abstract: Congenital sideroblastic anemia (CSA) is a hereditary disorder characterized by microcytic anemia and bone marrow sideroblasts. The most common form of CSA is attributed to mutations in the X-linked gene 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2). ALAS2 is a mitochondrial enzyme, which utilizes glycine and succinyl-CoA to form 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a crucial precursor in heme synthesis. Therefore, ALA supplementation could be an effective therapeutic strategy to restore heme synthesis in CSA caused by ALAS2 defects. In a preclinical study, we examined the effects of ALA in human erythroid cells, including K562 cells and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived erythroid progenitor (HiDEP) cells. ALA treatment resulted in significant dose-dependent accumulation of heme in the K562 cell line. Concomitantly, the treatment substantially induced erythroid differentiation as assessed using benzidine staining. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed significant upregulation of heme-regulated genes, such as the globin genes [hemoglobin alpha (HBA) and hemoglobin gamma (HBG)] and the heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) gene, in K562 cells. Next, to investigate the mechanism by which ALA is transported into erythroid cells, quantitative RT-PCR analysis was performed on previously identified ALA transporters, including solute carrier family 15 (oligopeptide transporter), member (SLC15A) 1, SLC15A2, solute carrier family 36 (proton/amino acid symporter), member (SLC36A1), and solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter), member 13 (SLC6A13). Our analysis revealed that SLC36A1 was abundantly

  13. A thin-layer spectroelectrochemical study of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine at SnO2:F film optically transparent electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO; Kui; YANG; Tao; NIU; Shuyan

    2004-01-01

    [1]Wang Tong, Sun Wei, Jiao Kui, Studies on the voltammetric enzyme-linked immunoassay system based on 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as substrate, Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry (in Chinese ), 2002, 30(11): 1298-1302.[2]He Yanan, Chen Hongyuan, 3,3',5,5'-Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB)-H2O2-HRP voltammetric immunoassay for the determination of IgE in human serum, Chem. J. Chinese Universities (in Chinese), 1997, 18(8): 1306-1308.[3]Jiao Kui, Zhang Shusheng, Sun Wei, Authorization Certificate of Science and Technology of Shandong Province, 1999, No: 197.[4]Jiao Kui, Lu Gang, Yang Tao et al., Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical study of m-phenylenediamine, Chem. J. Chinese Universities (in Chinese), 2003, 24(6): 1005-1008.[5]Mohr, P., Harke, T., Kuhn, W. et al., Mechanism studies of enzymatically formed tolidine blue and determination of peroxidatic activities, Biomed. Biochim. Acta, 1983, 42(6): 663-672.[6]Matrka, M., Pipalova, J., Semiquinone formation during the oxidation of benzidine, o-tolidine, and o-dianisidine, Chem. Prum.,1971, 21(1): 14-18.[7]Shen Baoen, Wang Guiliang, Thin-layer spectroelectrochemical investigation on indigo carmine, Acta Physico-Chimica Sinica (in Chinese), 1990, 6(1): 71-76.[8]Jiao Kui, Zhang Shusheng, Wei Lu et al., Investigation of voltammetric enzyme-linked immunoassay system based on new system of OT- H2O2-HRP, Acta Chimica Sinica (in Chinese), 1997,55: 1121-1129.[9]Wang Huawei, Shen Baoen, Peng Tuzhi et al., The mechanism of electrooxidation of o-tolidine, J. of Hangzhou Universities (in Chinese), 1994, 21(2): 198-203.[10]Cheng, G, Yang, Y, Dong, S., Spectroelectrochemical study of biliverdin produced by the electrooxidation of bilirubin.Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg., 1991, 26: 35-39.[11]Dong Shaojun, Song Shihua, Cheng Guangjin, Optically thinlayer spectroelectrochemical investigation on murexide electroreduction progress, Acta Physico-Chimica Sinica (in Chinese),1987, 3

  14. Synthesis and characterization of fluorinated polyaminoquinones and fluorinated polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Eleonora

    ,4'-oxydianiline, 2,2-bis(3-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane, 2,2'-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzidine and 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane. A variety of structures was achieved, allowing for a thorough determination of the structure/properties relationship. The presence of the pentafluorophenyl substituent in the polyimide backbone imparted more flexibility to the 8F polyimides, as demonstrated by the low glass transition temperatures. The dielectric constant of these 8F polyimides was the lowest ever reported for polyimides. It is believed that the pentafluorophenyl group may increase the free volume and hydrophobicity of the 8F polyimides. The thermo- and thermo-oxidative stability of these 8F polyimides was also studied and appeared to be adequate for high temperature applications.

  15. Floral Characteristic and Breeding System of Anemone obtusiloba%钝裂银莲花花部综合特征及其繁育系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春; 刘左军; 伍国强; 赵志刚

    2013-01-01

    Anemone obtusiloba is an indicative plant of grassland degradation that plays an important role as a dominant poisonous weed in eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.However,there are few studies about its reproductive characteristics.The flower characteristic and breeding system of Anemone obtusiloba were studied by field location investigations using data of TTC method,benzidine hydrogen peroxide method,pollen-ovule ratio (P/O),out crossing index (OCI),and hagging experiments.Results showed:the life span of individual flower was about 4~5 days; during the flowering phase,the pistil matured before stamens;stigma receptivity and pollen vitality had a period of overlap,and they were the highest at 12:00-14:00 of the day; a out-crossing partially self-compatible,and requiring pollinations can be reflected by OCI=4.The pollen-ovule ratio (P/O) was approximately 86.Based on Cruden's criterion,the breeding system could be termed as facultative autogamy.According to the results of emasculation,bagging,and artificial pollination,it was agamospermy,and the breeding system of Anemone obtusiloba was determined to be self-compatible largely,and only occasionally requiring pollinators.It was conclude that the breeding system of Anemone obtusiloba mixes with self-pollination and out-crossing,and tended to selfing,which can be regarded as an adaptive strategy for reproduction under unfavorable environmental conditions.%钝裂银莲花(Anemone obtusiloba)是青藏高原东部常见的一种优势毒杂草,也是一种重要的草原退化指示植物,目前对其繁殖特性研究甚少.通过野外定位观察,运用TTC法、联苯胺-过氧化氢法、花粉-胚珠比(P/O)、杂交指数、人工授粉和套袋试验等方法,首次对该物种的花部特征及繁育系统进行了研究.结果表明:该物种单花花期为4~5 d,花雌雄异熟,雌蕊先熟,单花花粉活力和柱头可授期之间也存在一段时间的重叠,钝裂银莲花最佳授粉时间为一天中的12

  16. 偶氮染料及其代谢产物的化学结构与毒性关系的回顾与前瞻%Review of the Mutagenicity,Carcinogenicity and Autoimmunity of Azo Dyes and their Metabolites from the Perspective of their Structure-activity Relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟金汤

    2004-01-01

    偶氮染料用途广泛.当它们进入人体后,会被肠道细菌的偶氮还原酶分解成芳香胺.许多食物因子会影响偶氮还原酶的活性.许多芳香胺具有致突变性和致癌性.作者发现只有在分子结构上含有对苯二胺(p-phenylene diamine)或联苯胺(benzidine)的偶氮染料才会因代谢而具有致突变性或致癌性.因此,对苯二胺和联苯胺便是偶氮染料之主要致突变成分.这类芳香胺都需要代谢活化才能表现其致突变性.如在其分子结构上多加一个亚硝基(-NO2)或氯基(-Cl),会使其变为直接诱变剂.在苯环上如有甲基(-CH3)或胺基(-NH2)也会影响这些芳香胺的致突变力.分子轨道能如the highest occupiedmolecular orbital energy(E HOMO),the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy(E LUMO),和亲脂性与致突变力有直接相关性.突变性芳香胺会被代谢活化成为高活性的亲电子产物与DNA结合成DNA加合物而诱发突变.这些芳香胺也可能被氧化产生自由基,进而再与体内物质代谢产生一系列的活性氧(ROS).ROS攻击DNA造成DNA之氧化损伤而发生突变.作者推测有些芳香胺也可能被代谢活化后与DNA相互吸引,诱导DNA从正常的"B"态变成有抗原性的"Z"态,因而引发体内的"B"细胞产生抗体与本身之DNA或其核内的成分形成一种免疫复合物,堆积于微血管引发自发性免疫性疾病,如红斑性狼疮,药物性狼疮和风温性关节炎等.

  17. Mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of a textile azo dye processing plant effluent that impacts a drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves de Lima, Rodrigo Otávio; Bazo, Ana Paula; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero; Rech, Célia Maria; de Palma Oliveira, Danielle; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela

    2007-01-10

    Recently a textile azo dye processing plant effluent was identified as one of the sources of mutagenic activity detected in the Cristais River, a drinking water source in Brazil [G.A. Umbuzeiro, D.A. Roubicek, C.M. Rech, M.I.Z. Sato, L.D. Claxton, Investigating the sources of the mutagenic activity found in a river using the Salmonella assay and different water extraction procedures, Chemosphere 54 (2004) 1589-1597]. Besides presenting high mutagenic activity in the Salmonella/microsome assay, the mutagenic nitro-aminoazobenzenes dyes CI Disperse Blue 373, CI Disperse Violet 93, and CI Disperse Orange 37 [G.A. Umbuzeiro, H.S. Freeman, S.H. Warren, D.P. Oliveira, Y. Terao, T. Watanabe, L.D. Claxton, The contribution of azo dyes in the mutagenic activity of the Cristais river, Chemosphere 60 (2005) 55-64] as well as benzidine, a known carcinogenic compound [T.M. Mazzo, A.A. Saczk, G.A. Umbuzeiro, M.V.B. Zanoni, Analysis of aromatic amines in surface waters receiving wastewater from textile industry by liquid chromatographic with eletrochemical detection, Anal. Lett., in press] were found in this effluent. After approximately 6 km from the discharge of this effluent, a drinking water treatment plant treats and distributes the water to a population of approximate 60,000. As shown previously, the mutagens in the DWTP intake water are not completely removed by the treatment. The water used for human consumption presented mutagenic activity related to nitro-aromatics and aromatic amines compounds probably derived from the cited textile processing plant effluent discharge [G.A. Umbuzeiro, D.A. Roubicek, C.M. Rech, M.I.Z. Sato, L.D. Claxton, Investigating the sources of the mutagenic activity found in a river using the Salmonella assay and different water extraction procedures, Chemosphere 54 (2004) 1589-1597; G.A. Umbuzeiro, H.S. Freeman, S.H. Warren, D.P. Oliveira, Y. Terao, T. Watanabe, L.D. Claxton, The contribution of azo dyes in the mutagenic activity of the Cristais

  18. OLEDs under high current densities. Transient electroluminescence turn-on peaks and singlet-triplet quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasemann, Daniel

    2012-02-27

    This work focuses on a better understanding of the behavior of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) under intense electrical excitation. Attaining high exciton densities in organic semiconductors by electrical excitation is of special interest for the field of organic semiconductor lasers (OSLs). In these devices, the high singlet exciton density needed in the active layer to obtain population inversion is easily created by pulsed optical pumping, but direct electrical pumping has not been achieved yet. First, the steps necessary to achieve stable high current densities in organic semiconductors are discussed. After determining the optimal excitation scheme using single p-doped transport layers, the device complexity is increased up to full p-i-n OLEDs with their power dependent emission spectra. For this purpose, two exemplary emitter systems are chosen: the fluorescent laser dye 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-p-dimethylaminostyryl-4H-pyran (DCM) doped into Aluminum(III)bis (2-methyl-8-quinolinato)-4-phenylphenolate (Alq{sub 3}) and the efficient phosphorescent emitter system N,N'-di(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-diphenyl-benzidine (alpha-NPD) doped by Iridium(III) bis(2-methyl-dibenzo[f,h]quinoxaline)(acetylacetonate) (Ir(MDQ){sub 2}(acac)). For pulsed excitation using 50 ns pulses and a repetition rate of 1 kHz, single 100 nm thin p- and n-doped transport layers sustain current densities of over 6 kA/cm{sup 2}. While the maximum current density decreases with increasing device thickness, the full OLEDs still sustain current densities beyond 800 A/cm{sup 2} and exhibit a continuously increasing emission intensity with increasing input power. Next, the time-resolved emission behavior of the singlet and triplet emitter device at high excitation densities is analyzed on the nanosecond scale. Here, the peak emission intensity of the phosphorescent emitter system is found to be more than eight times lower than for the singlet emitter system at comparable current

  19. Preliminary study on pollination biology of Tulipa edulis%老鸦瓣传粉生物学初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴正军; 朱再标; 郭巧生; 徐红建; 马宏亮; 缪媛媛

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Current study on the pollination biology of Tulipa edulis was conducted to investigate its pollination characteristics and to provide references for artificial domestication and breeding of T. Edulis. Method: Flowering dynamics, pollinators , morphology and structure of flower were observed. Different methods were adopted to evaluate the pollen vitality, and benzidine-H2O2 method was used for estimation of the stigma receptivity. Breeding system was evaluated based on out-crossing index ( OCI) , pollen-ovule ratio (P/0) and the results of emasculation, bagging and artificial pollination studies. Result: The flower of T, edulis showed typical characteristics of Liliaceae. The pollen remained viable to some extent during all the anthesis and peaked within three days after blossoming. Stigma acceptability peaked in the first day of blossom and dwindled away in the next four days. The type of breeding system of T. Edulis was facultative xenogamy, three species of Halictus are the main pollination insects. Conclusion: The type of breeding system of T. Edulis was facultative xenogamy, withal cross-pollination give priority to self-pollination, and the insects play a main role on the pollination of T. Edulis, further validation are needed to judge if the wind is helpful to pollination.%目的:对老鸦瓣进行系统的传粉生物学研究,了解其传粉生殖特性,为今后实现规范化栽培提供依据.方法:于老鸦瓣盛花期观察花部性状;采用不同花粉活力检测方法动态检测花粉活力,用联苯胺-过氧化氢法动态测定柱头授性;估算老鸦瓣花粉-胚珠比(P/O),计算杂交指数值(OCI),依据Dafni及Cruden标准判断老鸦瓣繁育系统类型;进行野外繁育系统验证实验及访花昆虫观察.结果:老鸦瓣花具有典型的百合科花部特征;花药未炸裂前已有一定比例的具活性花粉,在刚开放的1~3d活力最高,但直至花凋谢时,仍有一部分花粉具有活力,柱头

  20. 七叶树花粉活力和柱头可授性变化的研究%Pollen viability and stigma receptivity of Aesculus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莺; 陈鹏涛; 樊静静

    2012-01-01

    采用花粉离体萌发法研究不同蔗糖浓度、硼酸浓度和不同温度对七叶树花粉萌发的影响及花粉活力测定,用联苯胺-过氧化氢法测定柱头可授性.结果表明:七叶树花粉萌发的最佳培养基是12%蔗糖+30 mg/L硼酸,花粉萌发的最适温度为25℃.雄花在开花当天花粉活力最高达75.69%,并在开花当天的上午10:00时,花粉活力最强,10:00~16:00花粉活力保持较高活力,是最佳授粉时段.两性花的柱头可授期持续时间较长,为8~9 d,开花3d达到最强,开花1~4 d柱头可授性保持较高水平,为授粉的最佳时间段.因此,从七叶树的花部特征、花粉活力与柱头可授性及花粉萌发的条件看,在长期的自然选择下七叶树在花部结构和开花生理上都是相配合的,以保障生殖成功.%In vitro pollen-germinating method was used to study the effects of different sucrose and boric acid concentrations, and temperatures on pollen germination and vitality of Aesculus Chinese. Benzidine-hydrogen peroxide method was used to assay stigma receptive. The results showed that the best sucrose and boric acid concentration for pollen germination was 12% and 30 mg/L,respectively,and the optimized temperature was 25℃. The pollen viability of male flowers maintained at higher levels from 10:00 to 16:00 and the highest (75. 69%) at 10:00 during the flowering day. As a result,the best time for pollination was at 10:00. The stigma receptivity of perfect flowers lasted about 8 - 9 d,the stigma receptivity maintained at high levels 1 -4 d after flowering and was the strongest 3 d after flowering. As a result,the best time for pollination was at 1- 4 d after flowering. According to the floral character,pollen viability,stigma receptivity and pollen germination of A. Chinensis, during long terms of natural selection, the floral structure was matched with flowering physiology of A. Chinensis in order to guarantee successful reproduction.

  1. 冷蒿的开花动态与花粉活力及柱头可授性研究%Observation on the Flowering Dynamic, Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity in Artemisia frigida Willd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅荣; 宛涛; 蔡萍; 伊卫东

    2012-01-01

    Flowering dynamic was observed in test field, pollen viability of Artemisia frigida Willd. Was evaluated with TTC method, and stigma receptivity of Artemisia frigida Willd. Was evaluated with benzidine-H2O2 method. The results showed that flowers in inflorescence of Artemisia frigida Willd. Bloomed from up to down and outer florets bloomed before others, then middle florets bloomed later. The pollen viability of Artemisia frigida Willd. Was lower at initial stage, higher on the 2nd or 3rd day after flowering, and then reduced evidently, but a few pollen viability still existed until inflorescence withered. The life-span of pollen was about 20 days. The stigma receptivity of outer female flowers appeared on the first flowering day, and lasted longer, the highest on the 2nd or 3rd day after flowering. The stigma receptivity of middle flowers appeared latter than the outer female flowers, but the stigma receptivity were highest on the 2nd or 3rd day after flowering and lasted longer. The best stage of stigma receptivity and pollination was on the 2nd or 3rd day after flowering.%在试验地观察了冷蒿的开花动态,用TTC法测定了冷蒿花序花粉的活力,采用联苯胺—过氧化氢法测定了其柱头的可授性.结果表明,冷蒿花序的开花顺序是自上而下的,小花的开放是自外轮至中央小花.冷蒿的花粉活力在盛花期开花之初很低,第2~3d花粉活力较高,随后活力明显下降,但直至其花序枯萎,少量的花粉仍具有部分活力.花粉寿命较长,约为20d.冷蒿边缘雌花柱头的可授性在开花当天就具有,并且持续时间较长,在第2~3d可授性最强.中央两性小花柱头可授性要稍晚于边缘小花,但是在开花后第2~3d可授性也达到最高,其可授性时间也较长.柱头可授性的最佳时期为开花后第2~3d.冷蒿的最佳授粉期在开花后2~3d左右.

  2. Experiments of pollinationg and pollen viability and stigma receptivity of ‘Weixuan1'%‘围选1号’授粉试验及花粉生活力和柱头可授性的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高金锋; 张超; 李玲; 王萍; 李彦慧

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, pollination experiments and the effects of pollination tree on fruiting rate and seed-setting rate of Prunus armeniaca were studied by choosing grafting 'Weixuanl' as female parent and 4 different apricot tree as male parent. After the choosing suitable method. Pollen viability of 'Weixuanl' was evaluated by pollen germination test in vitro. It is feasibility to test stigma receptivity by the benzidine-H2O2 also. The conclusion is drawn as follows: The self pollination results showed that the self-pollination rate for 'Weixuanl' was 0. 84%(<6%) and * Weixuanl' were suggested to be a self-incompatible cultivar, The result indicated that most it need pollinating variety. Prunus armeniaca L. Cv. Katy is the best one a-mong them, The fructification ratio of cross pollination is 25. 88%; The viable pollen ratios of four test species were more than 70% and they could pollinate each other under natural condition, The pollen viability was 84.31% for 'Weixuanl', but pollen germination rate is low; The sucrose concentration has some effect on pollen germiration, which has a highest germina-tion rate at 10%; The stigma receptivity began enhancing in the time 3 h after anthesis. The stigma receptivity of 'Weixuanl' was around 4 days. Optimal pollination period lasted around 2 days.%以嫁接的2年生‘围选1号’为授粉母树,分别以‘围选1号’、‘优一’、‘凯特’、‘金太阳’4个不同的杏品种作为父本,进行授粉试验,研究不同授粉树对‘围选1号’结实率和坐果率的影响.同时,用花粉离体培养法测定其花粉生活力,并用苯胺一过氧化氢法测定了其柱头可授性.结果表明:‘围选1号’自花授粉坐果率为0.84%(<6%),是自交不亲和品种;‘围选1号'以‘凯特'作为的授粉树效果最好,坐果率为25.88%;供试品种的花粉生活力都在70%以上.‘围选1号’的花粉生活力高达84.31%,但花粉的萌发力相对较低;不同蔗糖浓度

  3. Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity of Tagetes erecta%万寿菊花粉活力及柱头可授性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵剑颖; 张华丽; 张西西; 张睿鹂; 关雪莲

    2012-01-01

    为探明造成万寿菊雄性不育系结实率低的原因,对万寿菊花粉活力及柱头可授性进行了研究.采用花粉离体萌发法研究万寿菊自交系V-01花粉萌发适宜温度、花粉活力日变化和适宜贮存条件;用联苯胺-过氧化氢法检测万寿菊雄性不育系S-261、S-17-06-29、S-0191不育株柱头的可授性;水溶性苯胺蓝染色法检测花粉在柱头的萌发情况.结果表明:(1)万寿菊V-01适宜萌发温度介于25~30℃之间;V-01花粉活力日变化趋势为先升高后降低,11-13时采集的花粉萌发率最高;4℃干燥贮存是最适宜的花粉贮存条件.(2)万寿菊柱头形态呈“γ”状时有可授性,可授性可持续3天.(3)万寿菊花粉授粉到柱头上1h内即可萌发,授粉后2h,花粉细胞达到花粉管内.%In order to investigate the difference among different sterile lines of Tagetes erecta, the pollen viability and stigma receptivity of it was studied in this paper. The pollen germination in vitro was used to select the optimum geminating temperature of the pollen, to observe daily variation of pollen viability and to choose optimum storage condition of marigold V-01 (Tagetes erecta L.) pollen. The stigma receptivity was tested with benzidine-H2O2 method. Aniline blue water soluble staining was for detecting the pollen germination on stigma. The results showed that: (1) 25-30℃ was the best temperature for the pollen germination. The pollen viability increased firstly in the morning, reached the maximum at 11 am to 13 pm and then decreased. 4℃ with dry condition was the best pollen storage condition. (2) Stigma with the shape of 'γ' was respectable and could sustain 3 days. (3) Pollen geminated on stigma 1 hour later and pollen cells flew into the pollen tube 2 hours later after the pollination.

  4. Pollen viability and stigma receptivity of Cistanche deserticola%肉苁蓉花粉活力与柱头可授性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐荣; 朱维成; 陈君; 王霞; 刘同宁

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics of pollen viability and stigma receptivity of C. deserticola and provide theory basis for seed production and breeding of C. deserticola. Method: Different physiological measurement methods were applied to evaluate pollen viability and stigma receptivity. The results of different methods were compared with the seed setting percentage of the cross-pollination in the field test and pollen germination percentage by fluoroscope observation methods. The changes of pollen vitality and stigma receptivity in different conditions were tested using proper methods. Result: The optimum methods on pollen viability and stigma receptivity detection were MTT-test and Benzidine-Hydrogen Peroxide method respectively. Results showed that the mean pollen viability and stigma receptivity were both the highest in inchoate anthesis with pollen germination percentage up to 95%, and can maintain viable for 4-5 d,but at the lower temperature of 4 ℃, the pollen can be stored up to 10 days. Conclusion: The physiological characteristics of pollen and stigma of C. deserticola displayed good ecological adaptation, which are much more adaptive to the large area of cultivation condition.%目的:明确肉苁蓉Cistanche deserticola的花粉活力和寿命以及柱头的可授期,为肉苁蓉种子生产和良种选育提供理论依据.方法:比较不同生理测定方法对肉苁蓉花粉活力与柱头可授性测定的有效性和适用性,并与田间人工授粉结实率和荧光显微观察结果相比较;应用适宜方法测定不同条件下肉苁蓉的花粉和柱头的活力变化.结果:确定肉苁蓉花粉活力和柱头可授性的最佳测定方法分别为MTT法和联苯胺-过氧化氢法,测得肉苁蓉开花3 h后的花粉活力和柱头可授性均为最高水平,此时花粉在柱头的萌发率高达95%以上,活性可保持4~5 d,而低温保存的花粉寿命可保持10 d以上.结论:肉苁蓉花粉与柱头的生理特征具

  5. 三系杂交棉花粉育性对高温和低温胁迫的反应%Reaction of Pollen Fertility to High or Low Temperature Stresses in CMS-Based Hybrid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪密; 王学德; 张昭伟; 朱云国; 张海平; 邵明彦; 袁淑娜; 刘英新; 文国吉

    2009-01-01

    Planting CMS-based hybrid cotton is an important way to use cotton hetcrosis. Fertility of hybrid cotton pollens is in-fluenced by cultivar, climatic conditions, management practices and pests. Among all the factors, temperature is the primary one affecting cotton growth, the following is air humidity. Stability of pollen fertility under high and low temperature stresses, associ-ated with the hetcrosis expression of CMS-based hybrids, is the main point to elucidate in this study. The fertility differences be-tween hybrids and the maintainer were compared by testing the percentage of fertile pollens in the greenhouse experiment with temperature controlled and the field experiment with natural temperature. In addition, percentage of setting bolls and percentage of aborted seeds were tested in the field experiment. Pollen fertility was checked by benzidine-Naphthol fluorescence microscopic method, while cross-pollination experiments were performed by dusting pollen obtained from corresponding restorers, then per-centage of setting boils and percentage of aborted seeds were determined by calculating the number of boils or seeds, respectively. The critical temperatures for upper limit and lower limit were searched from different given consistent temperatures, which each temperature was kept for eight days in the greenhouse when cotton pollens turned from fertility to sterility. The results showed that the response of CMS-based hybrids to the extreme temperature stress was more sensitive than that of the maintainer, while the former usually had lower stability in pollen vitality under the stress. However, different CMS-based hybrids had various toler-ances to temperature stress, for example, hybrids (F_1) restored by Zheda strong restorer showed higher pollen viability, more set-ting bolls and less aborted seeds under the stress than others. The response of pollen fertility to air temperature had a 5-day's delay in the field. Furthermore, the changes of maximum air

  6. Study on the Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity of Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘Fubaiju’%福白菊花粉活力和柱头可授性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雷; 刘常丽; 王慧弟; 陈科力

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the blooming habits,pollen viability and stigma receptivity of Chrysanthemum morifolium and provide theoretical basis for its breeding.Methods:Explored the blooming habits by dynamic observation on the process of blossom,evaluated the pollen viability by germination in vitro culture method and estimated stigma receptivity by benzidine-hydrogen peroxide method.Results: About the pollen viability,there were no significant differences between the flowers which in the same round of the capitulum; Tubular flowers in the center of a capitulum were significantly higher than that on the edge; In the morning pollen vitality gradually raised,during 11:00 ~ 14:00 maintained the highest,and then gradually decreased; Tubular flower began to loose powder on the third day,during 4th ~6th day the pollen viability was highest,respectively was 35.12% ,39.89% ,38.12% ,then gradually decreased,on the 15th day was only 7.41 % ,finally turned into wither.Regard to the stigma receptivity,the center of a capitulum were significantly higher than that on the edge,outer edge ligulate flower had no receptivity; Revealed the strongest during 13:00 ~ 14:00 in one day; During the 5th ~7th day was the strongest after flowering.The regulation of the stigma secreted mucus existed great consistency with the stigma receptivity,namely the stigma receptivity usually was strong when it secreted large number mucus.Conclusion:Understand the blossom habits of Chrysanthemun morifolium,as well as the dynamic changes regulation of pollen viability and stigma receptivity during its blossom,which could be used to select the flowers in a capitulum which are on the more suitable period and position for artificial pollination and hybridization breeding research.%目的:明确福白菊(Chrysanthemum morifolium‘ Fubaiju’)开花习性、花粉活力以及柱头可授性,以期为药用菊花良种选育提供理论依据.方法:对开花过程进行动态观察了解开花习性,采用

  7. 人胚嗅鞘细胞与鼠胚胎脊髓组织联合移植对大鼠脊髓损伤的治疗%Combined transplantation of human fetal olfactory ensheathing cells and rat embryonic spinal cord tissues in the treatment of spinal cord injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴卫江; 惠国桢; 吕然博; 苗宗宁

    2006-01-01

    . ②The rats of each group were performed ethological evaluation periodically. Combined with pathological observation, effect of human OECS and rat ECS on neuronal survival and regeneration was evaluated by performing horseradish peroxidase-tetramethyl benzidine tracer technique.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ①In vitro culture and purification of human fetal human OECs. ② In vitro immunocytochemistrical analysis. ③BBB scoring of motor function of hindlimb of rats. ④ Immunohistochemical detection of implants and injured spinal cord repair⑤ Quantitative analysis on labeled neurons at the cortex and mesencephalic red nucleus ineach group with horseradish peroxidase-tetramethyl benzidine tracer technique.RESULTS: ① Most of human fetal OSCs presented double-polar spindle.Five to seven days after culture, OSCs weaved into net and a lot of mitosis phases were found. The cellular purity was 85%. ② The rate of P75 positive cells was (83±7)%. Glial fibrillary acidic protein was found in about (81±6)% of cells and Vimentin in (91±9)% of cells and the rate of Nestin positive was (77±5)%. ③Three to five days after operation, affected limb of rats of sham-operation group began to contract, the activity of hindlimb of intact side was limited a little. Fewer obvious contraction symptoms were found in the other 3 groups. From 2 weeks after operation,behavioral function recovered significantly fast in each group. BBB scores of combined transplanted group were significantly high than those of human OECs group, rat ECS group and sham-operation group [(6.2±1.13) vs.(5.0±1.15)vs.(3.9±0.88)vs.(3.3±1.03)scores,P < 0.05]. ④In bipolar or multipolar cells, in which basic protein(+)granules were found, P75 and glial fibrillary acidic protein positive were found at the implanted part in the range of 2.0 to 5.0 mm of transplanted region in the human OECs group and combined transplantation group. A great many of small MAP2 positive neurons were found in the spinal defected

  8. 蓝花丹结实率低的传粉生物学和繁育系统初探%Pollination biology and the breeding system of Plumbago auriculata low seed-set ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴佩纹; 高素萍; 张硕; 赵志惠

    2016-01-01

    In order to explain the main reasons for the low natural seed-set ratio of Plumbago auriculata, which can con-tribute to the large-scale production of P. auriculata and also help to get rid of the situation that the seeds over-rely on the import from abroad at the same time. We attempted to measured the dynamic changes of the pollen viability by the method of TTC and the stigma receptivity and the method of Benzidine-H2 O2 in two ways, which respectively focused more on the pollination biology and the breeding system. And we also estimated the type of the breeding system pollen-ovule ratio ( P/O) , and verified the out-crossing index ( OCI) by the pollination experiments. The results of the experi-ment were as follows:(1) About P. auriculata, the maturity time of the L-type female organs and the S-type male or-gans,and also that of the L-type female organs and the L-type male organs overlaped a lot,there was no obvious differ-ence in the maturity time between the female and the male organs. On the other hand,the maturity time of the S-type fe-male organs and the L-type male organs,and also that of the S-type female organs and the S-type male organs overlaped a little,but the continuous blossoming pattern of P. auriculata reduced reproductive isolation caused by the different ma-turity time of the male and the female sexual organs. (2) The P/O of L-type was 502±52.30,the P/O of S-type 482.7± 87.91,both the out-crossing index of the L-type and that of the S-type are 4. The result of the manual-controlled pollina-tion experiments suggested that the breeding system of P. auriculata was obligate outcrossing and it had the feature of the heteromorphic incompatibility. To sum up,the reasons for the low natural seed-set ratio of P. auriculata were the combi-nation of both internal and external factors. Among these factors,the short same maturity time of the male and the female sexual organs was not the main reason,while the strong self-incompatibility of P. auriculata