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Sample records for benzidine

  1. Benzidine Dyes Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Action Plan addresses the use of benzidine-based dyes and benzidine congener-based dyes, both metalized and non-metalized, in products that would result in consumer exposure, such as for use to color textiles.

  2. [Benzidine dyes and risk of bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, M; Yoshida, O

    1989-12-01

    Until the early 1970's there was little concern about dyes which contain benzidine as an integral part of their chemical structure. Furthermore, use of the finished dyes was not considered dangerous. To ascertain whether azo dyes are associated with risk of development of bladder tumors in workers who handpaint Yuzen-type silk kimonos in Kyoto, we investigated the disintegration of dyes to benzidine. In these studies, we found that in rats and mice benzidine-based dyes are metabolized to benzidine and that the azo linkage of benzidine dyes is reduced by Escherichia coli and soil bacteria. These experimental findings were reported previously. In this report, we outline an approach to these studies. Many of the dyes used to color paper, textiles, lipstick, bait used by fishermen, as well as hair dyes, and dyes used in research, for pharmaceutical products, and by defence personnel for the detection of liquid chemical warfare agents, have been shown to be potentially mutagenic or carcinogenic. We review the literature on these dyes.

  3. 29 CFR 1915.1010 - Benzidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzidine. 1915.1010 Section 1915.1010 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous Substances §...

  4. Plasma Induced Degradation of Benzidine in Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高锦章; 盖克; 杨武; 董彦杰

    2003-01-01

    The degradation of benzidine in aqueous solution by the low temperature plasmawas examined. The results showed that the concentration of medium and the value of pH have anappreciable effect on the degradation of benzidine. What is more important is that iron ions actingas a catalyst play an important role in this reaction. For exploring the degradation mechanismof benzidine, some of the intermediate products were recorded by HPLC(high performance liquidchromatography).

  5. USING BASE-SPECIFIC SALMONELLA TESTER STRAINS TO CHARACTERIZE THE TYPES OF MUTATION INDUCED BY BENZIDINE AND BENZIDINE CONGENERS AFTER REDUCTIVE METABOLISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine HCl, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, 3,3'- dimethoxybenzidine and benzidine congener-based dye trypan blue were mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TAl 00 only with metabolic activation. It was found that a hamster liver 89 ...

  6. Reduction to benzidine is not necessary for the covalent binding of a benzidine azodye to rat liver DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, J C; Shaw, A; Martin, C N

    1984-09-28

    The DNA binding of 2 benzidine azodyes, Congo Red and Direct Blue 6, was compared in rat liver. Both dyes showed binding consequent upon metabolism to benzidine, and in each case hydrolysis of the liver DNA yielded N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-N'-acetylbenzidine. The majority of Direct Blue 6-derived radioactivity bound to DNA was present as at least one other novel species. Our preliminary work on the major Direct Blue 6 DNA adduct suggests its structure may be disodium 8-amino-2-[4-(N-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-aminobiphenyl-4'-yl] azo-1-hydroxynaphthalene-3,6-disulphonate. This adduct may form as a result of the susceptibility of the dye to hepatic azoreductase and its apparent existence may explain the observed potent carcinogenicity of dyes such as Direct Blue 6.

  7. [Mutagenicity of the urine of rats treated with benzidine dyes (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K

    1980-05-01

    Today industrial use of benzidine is restricted in many countries. However, little attention is paid to those substances which may decompose themselves in the body and release benzidine or benzidine-like substances. I investigated the mutagenicity of urinary ingredients of rats to which benzidine and three kinds of azo dyes were separately administered through the alimentary tract. The azo dyes were Direct Black EX(EX), Direct Green BK(BK), and Direct Bordeaux BK(BK), all having 4,4'-diazobiphenyl group in each structure. The mutagenicity of the urine extract with ether was tested on Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100. Urinary metabolites of benzidine showed stronger mutagenicity than benzidine itself on both TA 98 and TA 100 in the presence of S9 mix. EX itself showed mutagenicity only on TA 98, whereas B and BK were nonmutagens. Nevertheless, the urine extract of each azo dye showed strong mutagenicity of the same pattern as benzidine. As a result it is suggested that benzidine might be released in the intestine of experimental animals after the administration of each azo dye. Mutagenic activity of urine sample is important and full of suggestions from the viewpoint of carcinogenicity of aromatic amines.

  8. Metabolism of the benzidine-based azo dye Direct Black 38 by human intestinal microbiota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, B.W.; Cerniglia, C.E.; Federle, T.W.

    1985-07-01

    Benzidine-based azo dyes are proven mutagens and have been linked to bladder cancer. Previous studies have indicated that their initial reduction is the result of the azo reductase activity of the intestinal microbiota. Metabolism of the benzidine-based dye Direct Black 38 was examined by using a semicontinuous culture system that simulates the lumen of the human large intestine. The system was inoculated with freshly voided feces, and an active flora was maintained as evidenced by volatile fatty acid and gas production. Within 7 days after exposure to the dye, the following metabolites were isolated and identified by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry: benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, monoacetylbenzidine, and acetylaminobiphenyl. Benzidine reached its peak level after 24 h, accounting for 39.1% of the added dye. Its level began to decline, and by day 7 the predominant metabolite was acetylaminobiphenyl, which accounted for 51.1% of the parent compound. Formation of the deaminated and N-acetylated analogs of benzidine, which have enhanced mutagenicity and lipophilicity, previously has not been attributed to the intestinal microbiota.

  9. PHENYLENE HOMOLOGS OF BENZIDINE: MUTAGENICITY AND USE IN DYE/PIGMENT SYNTHESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a previous paper in this area, we reported results from studies pertaining to the use of molecular modeling methods in predicting the properties of some Congo Red analogs containing 4,4'-diaminoterphenyl (DATP) and 4,4'-diaminoquarterphenyl (DAQP) in lieu of the benzidine moie...

  10. 77 FR 18752 - Benzidine-Based Chemical Substances; Di-n

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 721 RIN 2070-AJ73 Benzidine-Based Chemical Substances; Di-n-pentyl phthalate (DnPP...-based chemical substances; a SNUR for di-n-pentyl phthalate (DnPP) (1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid,...

  11. Studies on the relation between bladder cancer and benzidine or its derived dyes in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, X Y; Chen, J G; Hu, Y N

    1990-08-01

    Shanghai is the largest industrial centre in China and has a history of about 50 years in producing and applying benzidine derived dyes. A series of epidemiological studies on the carcinogenicity of benzidine and its derived dyes have been performed since 1979. This report describes three such studies. A case-control study was carried out on 344 cases of bladder cancer, each matched for age and sex, with a person without bladder cancer. Factors studied were occupational exposure, smoking, drinking, medical histories, and family history of bladder cancer and other carcinomas. The correlation between bladder cancer and occupational exposures (relative risk (RR) 5.71) was greater than that between bladder cancer and smoking (RR 1.53). A retrospective cohort study was conducted in seven dyestuffs factories where benzidine had served as an intermediate in the manufacture of dyes before 1976. The cohort was made up of 550 men and 186 women. The men were divided into two groups according to job; 354 were assigned to a presynthesis group and 196 to a postsynthesis group. Those in the presynthesis group were thought to have been exposed to benzidine and the subjects in the postsynthesis group were exposed mainly to its derived dyes. The 15 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed were all in the presynthesis group, although an excess of bladder cancer was also seen in the whole cohort. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of bladder cancer was 1918 in the whole cohort and 3500 in the presynthesis group. Moreover, the SIR of bladder cancer in a subgroup working directly with the assignment, transport, and mixing of benzidine was as high as 7500. A further retrospective cohort study was made on incidence of cancer among 1420 workers who used benzidine derived dyes in 43 textile printing and dyeing factories. No excess carcinoma was found. These results suggest that, in Shanghai, the main cause of bladder cancer is occupational exposure, especially to benzidine. The risk of bladder

  12. Biodegradation of benzidine based azodyes Direct red and Direct blue by the immobilized cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens D41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvaneswari, N; Muthukrishnan, J; Gunasekaran, P

    2002-10-01

    Benzidine based azodyes are proven carcinogens, mutagens and have been linked to bladder cancer of human beings and laboratory animals. The textile and dyestuff manufacturing industry are the two major sources that released azodyes in their effluents. The dye, Direct blue contains two carcinogenic compounds namely benzidine (BZ), 4-amino biphenyl (4-ABP), while the dye Direct red has benzidine (BZ). Among 40 isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens screened, one isolate designated as D41 was found to be capable of extensively degrading the dyes Direct blue and Direct red. Immobilized cells of P. fluorescens D41 efficiently degraded Direct red (82%) and Direct blue (71%) in the presence of glucose.

  13. Graphene-based materials via benzidine-assisted exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide and their electrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermisoglou, E. C.; Giannakopoulou, T.; Romanos, G.; Boukos, N.; Psycharis, V.; Lei, C.; Lekakou, C.; Petridis, D.; Trapalis, C.

    2017-01-01

    Benzidine, a compound bearing aromatic rings and terminal amino groups, was employed for the intercalation and simultaneous reduction of graphite oxide (GO). The aromatic diamine can be intercalated into GO as follows: (1) by grafting with the epoxy groups of GO, (2) by hydrogen bonding with the oxygen containing groups of GO. Stacking between benzidine aromatic rings and unoxidized domains of GO may occur through π-π interaction. The role of benzidine is influenced by pH conditions and the weight ratio GO/benzidine. Two weight ratios were tested i.e. 1:2 and 1:3. Under strong alkaline conditions through K2CO3 addition (pH ∼10.4-10.6) both intercalation and reduction of GO via amino groups occur, while under strong acidic conditions through HCl addition (pH ∼1.4-2.2) π-π stacking is preferred. When no base or acid is added (pH ∼5.2) and the weight ratio is 1:2, there are indications that reduction and π-π stacking occur, while at a GO/benzidine weight ratio 1:3 intercalation via amino groups and reduction seem to dominate. The aforementioned remarks render benzidine a multifunctional tool towards production of reduced graphene oxide. The effect of pH conditions and the GO/benzidine weight ratio on the quality and the electrochemical properties of the produced graphene-based materials were investigated. Cyclic voltammetry measurements using three-electrode cell and KCl aqueous solution as an electrolyte gave specific capacitance values up to ∼178 F/g. When electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC) were fabricated from these materials, the maximum capacitance in organic electrolyte i.e., tetraethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4) in polycarbonate (PC) was ∼29 F/g.

  14. Synthesis and Analytical Application of Bis(2-diazoaminobenzothiazoyl)-benzidine to Determination of Mercury Ion by Fluorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Run-sheng; FENG Feng; CHEN Ze-zhong; BAI Yun-feng; LIN Sen; FU Guo-liang

    2009-01-01

    A new fluorescent reagent bis(2-diazoaminobenzothiazoyl)-benzidine(BDABTB) was synthesized by combining benzothiazole with benzidine and triazene reagent. The product was confirmed by elemental analysis, 1HNMR and FTIR. The excitation and emission wavelengths of BDABTB were 214 and 338 nm in a basic medium, respectively. The fluorescence was quenched by Hg~(2+) selectively and sensitively. The linear range of Hg~(2+) was 1.0×10~(-8)-1.0×10~(-5) mol/L with a detection limit of 5.0×10~(-10) mol/L. It has been used to determine trace Hg~(2+) in water sample with satisfactory results.

  15. N-Acetyltransferase 2 genotype, exfoliated urothelial cells and benzidine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing-wen; Lin, Guo-fang; Chen, Ji-gang; Guo, Wei-Chao; Qin, Yi-qiu; Golka, Klaus; Shen, Jian-hua

    2012-01-01

    Most studies report an association of the slow N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) status with elevated bladder cancer risk. In this study, NAT2 genotypes and the decades-long records of Papanicolaou's grading of exfoliated urothelial cells in a former benzidine-exposed cohort of the Shanghai dyestuff industry (29 bladder cancer patients; 307 non-cancer cohort members, some of them presenting different grades of pre-malignant alterations of exfoliated urothelial cells) were investigated. The cohort members had been enrolled in regular medical surveillance since mid-1980s. No overall increase of slow NAT2 genotypes in the former benzidine-exposed bladder cancer patients was found, compared with non-diseased members of the same cohort. A lower presentation of the homozygous wild genotype NAT2 4/4 was observed in bladder cancer patients, compared with non-diseased members with averaged Papanicolaou's grading (APG)3 II (OR=0.31, 95 percent CI 0.10-0.96, p=0.034) or with APG less than II (OR=0.36,95 percent CI 0.12-1.10, p=0.063). Nevertheless, neither a protective influence of rapid NAT2 genotypes on bladder cancer risk nor on pre-malignant cytological alterations could be confirmed by the present data.

  16. Determination of benzidine in the food colours tartrazine and sunset yellow FCF, by reduction and derivatization followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F E; Lawrence, J F

    1999-09-01

    Free and bound benzidine, a non-sulphonated aromatic amine (NSAA), were determined in the food colours tartrazine and sunset yellow FCF. Bound amines were released by reducing with sodium dithionite, then total NSAAs were extracted into chloroform, transferred to aqueous acid solution and diazotized with sodium nitrite before coupling with 2-naphthol-3,6-disulphonic acid, disodium salt (R-salt). Coloured benzidine and aniline derivatives (BZDRS and ANRS) were analysed using reversed-phase ion pair high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and an absorbance detector set at 548 nm. Levels of total benzidine were similar to those reported in studies conducted in the USA, and ranged from < 5 to 270 ng/g. Total aniline was also determined (0.2-188 micrograms/g). Recoveries of benzidine with this method were found to be lower than expected (average ca 46%), but were reproducible. Detection limits were 15-20 ng BZDRS/g (3-4 ng benzidine/g). Mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was evaluated for identifying and determining purity of the standards, but difficulties were encountered when the methodology was applied to commercial samples.

  17. Examination of the Quality of the Manual Pre-Sterilization Processing of Dental Instruments Using Benzidine Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoeva V.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The risk of infections in dental practices has been attracting for decades the interest of researchers from all over the world. A serious problem related to the transmission of blood-borne viruses is the thorough removal of organic matter, and mainly blood, from dental instruments when performing manual pre-sterilization decontamination. Application of benzidine test to prove the presence of blood traces on large and small dental instruments prepared for sterilization for the purpose of assessing the quality of the manual pre-sterilization decontamination. A total of 485 benzidine tests had been performed on selected 205 large and 280 small dental instruments visibly contaminated with blood. Of the total of 485 tested samples, blood traces were found in 63 (12.99 ± 1.53%. In the group of large instruments, positive benzidine test was obtained in 7.80% compared to 16.78% in the small instruments with the difference being statistically significant (p = 0.003. All 63 positive samples were additionally processed using ultrasound. Blood traces were found in 8 instruments with all of the positive samples being obtained from the barbed broaches. The manual cleaning does not guarantee decontamination of the dental instruments unlike the ultrasonic cleaning where any blood traces are being completely removed from the large instruments. In terms of the small instruments, there are still blood traces present after the ultrasonic cleaning which requires for it to be combined with a suitable enzyme cleaner, and the barbed broaches, as a requirement, should be used on a disposable basis.

  18. Opportunity of objective account of the colorimetric procedure using benzidine indicative at establishing the preliminary presence of blood on the material evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Konovalenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a modification of the colorimetric method for the preliminary establishment of presence of blood in the stainson the material evidences using benzidine test. The proposed modification is accompanied by photometric accounting and computer processing of the results. Performance, objectivity, as well as other features and advantages of this method when used in forensic practice are described in detail.

  19. A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Lade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64% and COD (88% of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%, NADH-DCIP reductase (264% and laccase (275% proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification.

  20. A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64%) and COD (88%) of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%), NADH-DCIP reductase (264%) and laccase (275%) proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification. PMID:25815522

  1. A low-cost wheat bran medium for biodegradation of the benzidine-based carcinogenic dye Trypan Blue using a microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-03-25

    Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L-1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64%) and COD (88%) of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%), NADH-DCIP reductase (264%) and laccase (275%) proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm-1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification.

  2. Stabilization of N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)benzidine thin film morphology with UV light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomović, A.Ž.; Markešević, N. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Scarpellini, M.; Bovio, S. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces (CIMAINA), Università di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Lucenti, E. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces (CIMAINA), Università di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Institute of Molecular Science and Technology of CNR, via Golgi 19, 20133 Milan (Italy); Milani, P. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces (CIMAINA), Università di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Zikic, R. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanović, V.P., E-mail: vladimir.jovanovic@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Srdanov, V.I. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces (CIMAINA), Università di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    Owing to their low glass transition temperature, T{sub g}, amorphous thin films of N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)benzidine (TPD) undergo morphological changes even at room temperature. It has been noticed previously that exposure to UV light can increase apparent T{sub g} of TPD films and thus stabilize their morphology. However, the reason behind increase in structural stability was not examined at the time. Here we present evidence that TPD molecules undergo photo-oxidation in air when exposed to λ ≈ 350 nm radiation and that less than 5% of the photo-oxidized species are needed to prevent dewetting of thin TPD films. We propose that photo-oxidized TPD species bind strongly to both ordinary TPD molecules and to terminal hydroxyl groups at the substrate surface, which decreases mobility of TPD molecules and makes thin TPD film less prone to morphology changes. - Highlights: • We made variable thickness TPD films and exposed them to UV light under ambient conditions. • Mass spectroscopy and proton NMR measurements of irradiated and pristine TPD films • TPD molecules undergo oxidation process under UV light irradiation. • Dipole–dipole interactions may be responsible for stabilization of morphological changes.

  3. Potential health hazards of organic pigments and dyes used in the manufacture of paints and surface coatings. Appendix I: scientific basis for the proposed regulation of dyes derived from the chemical substances benzidine, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C.L.

    1978-05-08

    The scientific bases for regulating dyes derived from benzidine, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine are presented. Studies of these compounds have demonstrated that benzidine-type dyes undergo nearly complete cleavage to known potent human carcinogenic agents through several metabolic and biological pathways, that these metabolites are carcinogenic in human and animal studies, that the toxicity and carcinogenicity of benzidine-type dyes has been demonstrated in animals, and that there is a high incidence of bladder cancer among users of benzidine-type dyes. Industrial workers were at risk through the inhalation of dye dusts, absorption through skin exposure, and accidental ingestion. Industries involved included dye manufacture, textile finishing, leather working, and paper dyeing. Direct dyes sold for home and craft use that may contain benzidine type dyes were listed by brand name and company or distributor. Commercial trade names of dyes and pigments based on these chemical substances were listed. Chemical identification of benzidine type dyes was described. Alternatives to benzidine type dyes were suggested, and a history of legislative attempts to regulate benzidine type dye production was provided.

  4. EFFECT OF PHOTOOXIDATION ON PHOTOLUMINESCENCE OF N, N'-DIPHENYL-N, N'-DI(M-TOLYL)-BENZIDINE AND RUBRENE CODOPED PMMA THIN FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.B. Hou; L.J. Meng; M.P. dos Santos

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the PMMA films doped with N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-di(m-tolyl)-benzidineand rubrene were fabricated by spin coating, and the effect of photooxidation onthe photoluminescence of the doped PMMA thin films was investigated. The resultsshowed that under the irradiation of 350nm UV light, N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-di(m-tolyl)-benzidine can sensitized rubrene and results in the enhancement in the photooxrationof rubrene. The effect of photooxidation on the photoluminescence from rubrene w asmore obvious. Both lifetime measurement and in situ measurement of photolumines-cence showed that rubrene molecules exist in two chemical surroundings.

  5. Dependence of Papanicolaou gradings of exfoliated urothelial cells upon GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphism in benzidine-exposed workers of the Shanghai dye industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Guofang; Ma Qingwen; Shen Jianhua; Zhang Dongsheng [Shanghai Inst. of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Chen Jigang; Xiang Cuiqing [Municipal Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Shanghai (China); Golka, K. [Institute of Occupational Physiology, Univ. of Dortmund (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    The distribution of the polymorphic alleles of the genes coding for glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) M1 and T1 was compared with the results of cytological grading of exfoliated urothelial cells (Pap test) in a non-diseased high-risk group of workers formerly exposed to benzidine in the Shanghai dyestuff industry (n=317). All subjects were genotyped for GSTT1 and M1 gene polymorphism by allele-specific PCR. Individuals were stratified according to their job and duration of exposure. A subgroup of 78 individuals with cytological gradings of grade III or higher in the Pap test showed a significant under-representation of the combination of GSTT1 0/0 and M1 0/0 genotypes compared with 238 subjects with a cytological classification lower than grade III (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.31-0.98, P=0.04). These results suggest that neither the GSTM1 0/0 or GSTT1 0/0 genotype alone nor their combination had a clear association with cytopathological changes in exfoliated urothelial cells from individuals previously exposed to benzidine in Shanghai. This contradicts the results of studies indicating that the GSTM1 0/0 genotype is associated with an increased risk for bladder cancer in the general population, mostly outside China. (orig.)

  6. Synthesis, molecular and crystalline architectures, and properties of a mononuclear complex [CoII (benzidine)2(NCS)2(OH2)2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhasish Kundu; Subhasis Roy; Kishalay Bhar; Rajarshi Ghosh; Chia-Her Lin; Joan Ribas; Barindra Kumar Ghosh

    2013-07-01

    One mononuclear cobalt(II) compound of the type [Co(bnzd)2(NCS)2(OH2)2] (1) (bnzd = benzidine) has been isolated through a single-pot reaction of the molecular building components in MeOH-H2O solvent mixture at room temperature and characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The crystal structure of complex 1 has an octahedral geometry with trans, trans, trans orientations in the order (Na,Na), (Nt,Nt), (Ow,Ow) [Na = N(amine), Nt = N(thiocyanate) and Ow = O(water)]. In crystalline state, individual units of 1 are associated by weak cooperative O-H…N, O-H…S and N-H…S hydrogen bonds resulting in a 3D network structure. The compound is redox active and shows luminescence in MeOH solution. Thermal decomposition pattern of 1 reveals the presence of two coordinated water molecules. Variabletemperature magnetic susceptibility measurement shows significant orbital contribution and numerical matrix diagonalization method gives the best fit parameters: = A∗k = 1.43; = −130 cm-1; = −864 cm-1; TIP = 0.000975; R = 1.19 × 10−4.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and magnetic property of a succinate bridged 1D coordination polymer of cobalt(II) containing benzidine as end-capping ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Subhasis; Choubey, Somnath; Khan, Sumitava; Bhar, Kishalay; Ribas, Joan; Ghosh, Barindra Kumar

    2014-03-01

    A new bis(monodentate) succinate bridged 1D coordination polymer [Co(bnzd)2(μ-suc)(OH2)2]nṡ(H2O)n (1) (bnzd = benzidine; suc = succinate dianion) has been isolated using a one-pot reaction of the building components, and characterized structurally and magneto-structurally. Single crystal X-ray diffraction measurement reveals that each cobalt(II) center adopts an octahedral geometry with a CoN2O4 chromophore coordinated by two N atoms of two bnzd ligands, two O atoms of two water molecules and two O atoms of two suc units. In crystalline state, individual units of 1 self-assemble through cooperative N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π interactions affording a 3D network structure. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurement of 1 in the 2-300 K temperature range shows weak antiferromagnetic coupling among the adjacent cobalt(II) centers presumably due to long bridging arm of the dicarboxylate.

  8. Risk of Lung Cancer in Workers Exposed to Benzidine and/or Beta-Naphthylamine: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Saeki, Keigo; Obayashi, Kenji; Kurumatani, Norio

    2016-09-05

    Benzidine (BZ) and beta-naphthylamine (BNA) have been classified as definite human carcinogens for bladder cancer by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, the epidemiological evidence for an association between exposure to BZ and/or BNA and lung cancer has been inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the risk for lung cancer among workers exposed to BZ/BNA. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies that had reported occupational BZ/BNA exposure and the outcome of interest (lung cancer death and/or incidence). Meta-analyses were performed using random effects models to combine standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) or standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). We identified 23 retrospective cohort studies including 1745 cases of lung cancer; only one study reported smoking-adjusted lung cancer risk. A significantly increased lung cancer risk (pooled SMR/SIR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.14-1.43) was observed by combining all studies, with significant heterogeneity among studies (I(2) = 64.1%, P BZ/BNA exposure (ie, dyestuff and manufacturing industries) (pooled SMR/SIR 1.58; 95% CI, 1.31-1.89), and studies that identified BZ/BNA-associated bladder cancer with SMR/SIR ≥4.7 (pooled SMR/SIR 1.68; 95% CI, 1.35-2.09). Effect estimates were similar for studies with and without concomitant occupational exposure to chromium, asbestos, arsenic, or bis(chloromethyl) ether. The cumulative meta-analysis showed that the evidence of association between occupational BZ/BNA exposure and lung cancer has been stable since 1995. Although the results of this meta-analysis have the potential for confounding by smoking and heterogeneity, our findings suggest that a finding of lung cancer following occupational BZ/BNA exposure should be considered to be a potential occupational disease.

  9. ClO2氧化法预处理联苯胺类染料中间体废水%Pretreatment of Benzidine Dye Intermediate Wastewater by Chlorine Dioxide Oxidation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹向禹

    2013-01-01

    采用ClO2氧化法预处理联苯胺类染料中间体生产废水,探讨了影响COD和联苯胺去除率的主要因素,并采用GC/MS技术对ClO2氧化前后废水中的有机组分进行了分析.实验确定了较佳的工艺参数:ClO2加入量为45~55 mg/L,ClO2与联苯胺的化学计量比控制在(3.0~3.5)∶1,反应时间为30~35 min.在此条件下,ClO2氧化后出水中联苯胺去除率达到80%以上,联苯胺类污染物含量得到有效降低,废水BOD5/COD由原水的0.18提高到0.40.该方法能提高废水的可生化性,是一种较好的生化预处理技术.%The wastewater in benzidine dye intermediate production was pretreated by ClO2 oxidation process.The factors affecting the removal rates of COD and benzidine were studied.The organic components in the wastewater before and after ClO2 oxidation were analyzed by GC/MS.The optimum process parameters are determined as follows:ClO2 dosage 45-55 mg/L,stoichiometric ratio of ClO2 to benzidine (3.0-3.5) ∶ 1 and reaction time 30-35 min.Under these conditions,the benzidine content is decreased effectively with above 80% of removal rate.The BOD5/COD of the wastewater is increased from 0.18 to 0.40.It indicates that the process is a good biochemical pretreatment process.

  10. Determination of residual chlorine in drinking water by 3,3′ 5,5′-tetramethyl benzidine colorimetry%3,3′,5,5′-四甲基联苯胺比色法测定饮用水中余氯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康苏花

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethyl benzidine visual colorimetry in GB/T 5750.11-2006 standard in determination of residual chlorine in drinking water,this paper discusses the media concentration in preparation of tetramethyl benzidine and the preparation methods,as well as pH,temperature,developing time,color rendering dosage and other factors,which is better than the traditional determination method.%针对采用GB/T5750.11-2006生活饮用水标准检验方法中的3,3 ′,5,5′-四甲基联苯胺目视比色法检测余氯时出现的问题,探讨了四甲基联苯胺配制的介质浓度及配制方法,以及pH值、温度、显色时间、显色剂用量等因素对测定过程的影响,改进了生活饮用水中余氯的测定方法.

  11. Determination of Horseradish Peroxidase by Spectrophotometry Based on 3,3',5,5'-Tetramethyl Benzidine-H2O2-HRP System%3,3',5,5'-四甲基联苯胺-H2O2-HRP分光光度法测定HRP的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彤; 刘会峦

    2004-01-01

    研究了3,3',5,5'-四甲基联苯胺(3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl benzidine,TMB)-H2O2-辣根过氧化物酶(horseradish peroxidase,HRP)分光光度法测定HRP的方法和酶催化反应机理.在辣根过氧化物酶的催化作用下,H2O2氧化3,3',5,5'-四甲基联苯胺生成有色偶氮化合物,以分光光度计在λmax=380 nm处测其吸光度值可以间接测定HRP的含量.此法用于测定游离的HRP,线性范围为4×10-12~4 × 10-9g/mL,检出限为4×10-12g/mL,与同类方法相比灵敏度提高了2个数量级.

  12. Biodegradation of benzidine based dye Direct Blue-6 by Pseudomonas desmolyticum NCIM 2112.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalme, S D; Parshetti, G K; Jadhav, S U; Govindwar, S P

    2007-05-01

    Pseudomonas desmolyticum NCIM 2112 was able to degrade a diazo dye Direct Blue-6 (100 mg l(-1)) completely within 72 h of incubation with 88.95% reduction in COD in static anoxic condition. Induction in the activity of oxidative enzymes (LiP, laccase) and tyrosinase while decolorization in the batch culture represents their role in degradation. Dye also induced the activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase, one of the enzyme of mixed function oxidase system. The biodegradation was monitored by UV-Vis, IR spectroscopy and HPLC. The final products, 4-amino naphthalene and amino naphthalene sulfonic acid were characterized by GC-mass spectroscopy.

  13. Thin-layer Spectroelectrochemistry of 3, 3',5, 5' -Tetramethyl- benzidine on Pt Minigrid Optically Transparent Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kui JIAO; Tao YANG; Zeng Jian WANG

    2005-01-01

    The electrooxidation behavior of 3, 3' 5, 5'-tetramethylbenzidine(TMB) was investigated using a platinum minigrid optically transparent thin-layer spectroelectrochemical cell. TMB underwent one two-electron electrooxidation process to yield quinonediimine in the pH range from2.0 to < 4.0, and two consecutive one-electron electrooxidation processes, gave the mediate product free radical of TMB first, then gave the oxidation product quinonediimine in the pH range from 4.0 to < 7.0. In the pH range from 7.0 to 10.0, the electrooxidation of TMB was also one two-electron electrooxidation process to yield an azo compound. The formal potential E0' and the electron transfer number of the electrooxidation of TMB at pH 2.0 and pH 8.4 were determined by spectroelectrochemical techniques.

  14. Synthesis and crystal structure of the Schiff base derived from acetylacetone and benzidine%乙酰丙酮缩联苯胺席夫碱的合成及晶体结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江光奇; 蔡杰; 杨建; 张云黔

    2008-01-01

    一个多世纪以来,己有大量有关席夫碱方面的文献报道。许多Schiff碱金属配合物因具有良好的抗肿瘤、抗病毒、杀菌抑霉等多种生物活性而得到了广泛应用;其特殊的催化行为以及在酶模拟方面的功效引起了化学家的普遍重视。席夫碱中,β-二酮类化合物是一类良好的金属螯合剂,因为它能够为金属提供两个键合点,形成稳定的六元螯合环,其与稀土离子形成的配合物具有稳定的化学性质和优异的发光性能,因而具有广泛的应用前景。乙酰丙酮是典型的β-二酮,它与不同胺类化合物缩合得到的Schiff碱具有较强的亲核性,容易与不同的金属离子进行配位,因此广泛地应用于金属离子分析测定和配位化合物的合成中。

  15. Cancer risk assessment of azo dyes and aromatic amines from tattoo bands, folders of paper, toys, bed clothes, watch straps and ink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeilmaker MJ; Kranen HJ van; Veen MP van; Janus J; LBM

    2000-01-01

    A quantitative assessment was performed to estimate the cancer risk to individuals using tattoo bands, folders of paper, toys, bed clothes, watch straps and ink which are coloured with azo dyes. In these products benzidine and the benzidine related amines o-anisidine, 2,4-toluenediamine, 4,4'-diamin

  16. Comparative metabolism and mutagenicity of azo and hydrazone dyes in the Ames test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De France, B F; Carter, M H; Josephy, P D

    1986-02-01

    Enteric bacterial and hepatic azoreductase enzymes are capable of reducing azo dyes to yield the constituent aromatic amines. Azo dyes based on benzidine and benzidine congeners have received particular attention because of their widespread use and the known carcinogenicity of benzidine to humans. Azo dyes based on beta-diketone coupling components exist preferentially as the tautomeric hydrazones. A series of hydrazone dyes based on benzidine and benzidine congeners was prepared and characterized by NMR and UV-visible spectroscopy. These dyes were tested for mutagenicity using a modified Ames assay and, unlike the true azo dyes, showed no significant mutagenic activity. The hydrazone dyes were resistant to enzymatic reduction by FMN-supplemented hamster-liver post-mitochondrial supernatant (S-9); under identical conditions, azo dyes such as trypan blue were rapidly reduced.

  17. Cancer risk assessment of azo dyes and aromatic amines from tattoo bands, folders of paper, toys, bed clothes, watch straps and ink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeilmaker MJ; van Kranen HJ; van Veen MP; Janus J; LBM

    2000-01-01

    Dit rapport beschrijft een schatting voor het risico op kanker dat verbonden is aan het gebruik van tatoe bandjes, kinderspeelpapier, speelgoed, beddengoed, lederen horlogebandjes en inkt waarin kankerverwekkende azo kleurstoffen aangetroffen zijn. In genoemde producten zijn benzidine en de benzidi

  18. A Field Program to Identify TRI Chemicals and Determine Emission Factors from DoD Munitions Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    primer used in all six munitions tested. These were: barium as barium nitrate, lead as lead styphnate , and antimony as antimony sulfide. A...7440-38-2 A 3, 13, 14 barium 7440-39-3 A 13, 14, 17, 18 benzene 71-43-2 A 3, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 benzidine 92-87-5 A 10 benzyl chloride 100-44...dichloropropane antimony diethylphthalate benzidine 1,1,2,2- tetrachloroethane barium dibutylphthalate biphenyl tetrachloroethylene cobalt chlorine

  19. Relation between some environmental pollutants and recurrent spontaneous abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza A. Saad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive health is exquisitely sensitive to characteristics of an individual’s environment including physical, biological, behavioral, cultural and socioeconomic factors. This study was launched to elucidate the effect of the exposure to chemical pollutants as aromatic amines viz. (benzidine, mono-acetyl benzidine, diacetyl benzidine, α,β-naphthylamine as well as the biological pollutants e.g., human cytomegalovirus (HCMV as risk factors for recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA through determination of MDA as a marker of oxidative stress and determination of some antioxidant markers. The results of the current study revealed that the aborter mothers were being exposed to environmental pollutants as aromatic amines which were manifested by the presence of benzidine, mono-acetyl-benzidine, di-acetyl-benzidine, α,β-naphthylamine in most of their urine samples, where the level of aromatic amines were more 13.6, 10, 15, and 4-folds than the control group, respectively. Also, the data suggest that in early pregnancy failure there is an increase in markers of oxidative stress and a probable decrease in maternal antioxidant defenses (22 nmol/ml and 17 mg/l, 550 U/l, respectively. Generation of ROS in large quantities, in the first trimester placenta which has limited antioxidant defenses may cause DNA damage, oxidation of protein and lipid resulting in extensive cell death. Also, it was demonstrated that high elevation of HCMV inhibits cytotrophoblasts proliferation, migration invasion and matrix metalloproteins (MMP expression. Obviously, placental toxicological responses are partly due to pharmaco/toxico dynamic responses to the chemicals. Conclusively, the aforementioned findings emphasis that, the exposures to environmental chemical and/or biological risk factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of recurrent spontaneous abortion.

  20. 40 CFR 79.64 - In vivo micronucleus assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... micronucleus assay. (a) Purpose. The micronucleus assay is an in vivo cytogenetic test which uses erythrocytes...) Test evaluation. (i) Positive results in the micronucleus test provide information on the ability of a..., Mammalian Bone Marrow Cytogenetics Tests: Micronucleus Assay. (2) Cihak, R. “Evaluation of Benzidine by...

  1. 40 CFR 63.74 - Demonstration of early reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Arsenic compounds 100 1332214 Asbestos 100 71432 Benzene 10 92875 Benzidine 1000 0 Beryllium compounds 10... Dichloroethyl ether (Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether) 10 79447 Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride 100 122667 1,2... chloride 10 (g) The best available data representing actual emissions for the purpose of establishing...

  2. A dual-immunocytochemical method to localize c-fos protein in specific neurons based on their content of neuropeptides and connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, J D; Larsen, P J; Sørensen, G G;

    1994-01-01

    -immunocytochemical staining technique has been developed with avidin-biotin-peroxidase labelling using diaminobenzidine as the chromogen for c-fos protein located in the nucleus, and benzidine dihydrochloride (BDHC) in the presence of sodium nitroprusside to reveal cytoplasmic antigens (neuropeptide or retrograde tracer...

  3. [Leather azo dyes: mutagenic and carcinogenic risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonfero, E; Venier, P; Granella, M; Levis, A G

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity data on azo dyes used in the leather industry. Two water soluble benzidine-based dyes were classified as "probably carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). No other dyes have been evaluated by the IARC. Of the 48 azo dyes assayed in the Salmonella/microsome test, 20 gave positive results. Attention is drawn to the important role of the in vivo metabolism of azo compounds, which includes a preliminary reduction of the azo bonds and subsequent release of the aromatic amines of the dye. A useful assay (Prival test) for evaluating the mutagenic properties of azo dyes involves a reductive step that permits the release of any genotoxic agents present in the compounds. A list of leather azo dyes is furnished that are considered as potentially harmful due to the presence of a carcinogenic aromatic amine (benzidine, p-aminobenzene and derivatives) in their formulae.

  4. Proceedings of the Conference on Environmental Toxicology (13th) Held at Dayton, OH on 16-18 November 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    TOXICITY OF PETROLEUM AND OIL SHALE DIESEL FUEL MARINE .................. .. ............... 364 Charles L. Gaworski 26 - EFFECT OF 2,5-HEXANEDIONE ON...then trypsinized to single cells. The cells were next suspended in Gibco (Grand Island, New York) minimal essential medium with 10% fetal bovine serum...75% 2 jig/ml 3,3’-5,5’-tetramethylbenzidine - NS -- Benzidine + NS -- 2-aminofluorine + -81% 0.005 UM Aflatoxin BI + -93% 0.05 UM Number 4 fraction

  5. Carcinogenicity of azo colorants: influence of solubility and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golka, Klaus; Kopps, Silke; Myslak, Zdislaw W

    2004-06-15

    In the past, azo colorants based on benzidine, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine (o-tolidine), and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine (o-dianisidine) have been synthesized in large amounts and numbers. Studies in exposed workers have demonstrated that the azoreduction of benzidine-based dyes occurs in man. The metabolic conversion of benzidine-, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine- and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine-based dyes to their (carcinogenic) amine precursors in vivo is a general phenomenon that must be considered for each member of this class of chemicals. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the use of the benzidine-based dyes has caused bladder cancer in humans. However, in contrast to water-soluble dyes, the question of biological azoreduction of (practically insoluble) pigments has been a matter of discussion. As a majority of azo pigments are based on 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, much of the available experimental data are focused on this group. Long-term animal carcinogenicity studies performed with pigments based on 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine did not show a carcinogenic effect. The absence of a genotoxic effect has been supported by mutagenicity studies with the 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine-based Pigment Yellow 12. Studies in which azo pigments based on 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine had been orally administered to rats, hamsters, rabbits and monkeys could generally not detect significant amounts of 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine in the urine. It, therefore, appears well established that the aromatic amine components from azo pigments based on 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine are practically not bioavailable. Hence, it is very unlikely that occupational exposure to insoluble azo pigments would be associated with a substantial risk of (bladder) cancer in man. According to current EU regulations, azo dyes based on benzidine, 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine and 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine have been classified as carcinogens of category 2 as "substances which should be regarded as if they are carcinogenic

  6. Dopamine inhibits proliferation, induces differentiation and apoptosis of K562 leukaemia cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Qun; YUAN Lin-bo

    2007-01-01

    Background Dopamine exerts its effects mainly in nervous system through D1, D2 or D3 receptors. There are few reports dealing with the effects of dopamine on leukaemia cells. However, some dopamine agonists or antagonists do show biological effects on some types of leukaemia cells. Here, we report the effects of dopamine on the proliferation,differentiation and apoptosis of K562 leukaemia cells.Methods Proliferation was determined by MTT assay and cell counting both in liquid and semisolid cultures.Differentiation was verified by morphology, benzidine staining and flow cytometry. Apoptosis was checked by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry. The two groups were untreated group and treated group (dopamine 10-9 mol/L-10-4mol/L).Results In liquid culture, MTT assay and colony assay, dopamine inhibited proliferation of K562 cells. Inhibition rate was 29.28% at 10-6 mol/L and 36.10% at 10-5 mol/L after culture for 5 days in MTT assay. In benzidine staining and CD71 expression, dopamine induced K562 cells toward erythroid differentiation by increased 155% at 10-6 mol/L and by 171% at 10-5 mol/L after culture for 5 days in benzidine staining. In Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry,dopamine induced K562 cells toward apoptosis. The sub G1 peak stained by PI was 14.23% at 10-4 mol/L dopamine after culture for 3 days compared with the control (0.81%) in flow cytometry.Conclusion Dopamine inhibites proliferation and induces both differentiation and apoptosis of K562 leukaemia cells.

  7. The enhanced bladder cancer susceptibility of NAT2 slow acetylators towards aromatic amines: a review considering ethnic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golka, Klaus; Prior, Verena; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Bolt, Hermann M

    2002-03-10

    Human bladder cancer may be caused by exposure to aromatic amines. The polymorphic enzyme N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is involved in the metabolism of these compounds. Two classical studies on chemical workers in Europe, exposed in the past to aromatic amines like benzidine, unambiguously showed that the slow acetylator status is a genetic risk factor for arylamine-induced bladder cancer. In the former benzidine industry in Huddington, Great Britain, 22 of 23 exposed cases with bladder cancer, but only 57% of 95 local controls without bladder cancer were of the slow acetylator phenotype. In Leverkusen, Germany, 82% of 92 benzidine-exposed chemical workers with bladder cancer were of the slow acetylator phenotype, whereas only 48% of 331 chemical workers who had worked at that plant were of the slow acetylator phenotype. This is in line with several smaller studies, which also show an over-representation of the slow acetylator status in formerly arylamine-exposed subjects with bladder cancer. Some of these studies included also subjects that were exposed to aromatic amines by having applied dyes, paints and varnishes. These European findings are in contrast to a large study on Chinese workers occupationally exposed to aromatic amines. In this study, only five of 38 bladder cancer cases occupationally exposed to arylamines were of the slow acetylator genotype. This is much lower than the ratio of slow acetylators to the general population in China. This points to different mechanisms of susceptibility for bladder cancer upon exposure to aromatic amines between European (Caucasian) and Chinese populations.

  8. A conceptual DFT approach towards analysing toxicity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Sarkar; D R Roy; P K Chattaraj; R Parthasarathi; J Padmanabhan; V Subramanian

    2005-09-01

    The applicability of DFT-based descriptors for the development of toxicological structure-activity relationships is assessed. Emphasis in the present study is on the quality of DFT-based descriptors for the development of toxicological QSARs and, more specifically, on the potential of the electrophilicity concept in predicting toxicity of benzidine derivatives and the series of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) expressed in terms of their biological activity data (50). First, two benzidine derivatives, which act as electron-donating agents in their interactions with biomolecules are considered. Overall toxicity in general and the most probable site of reactivity in particular are effectively described by the global and local electrophilicity parameters respectively. Interaction of two benzidine derivatives with nucleic acid (NA) bases/selected base pairs is determined using Parr’s charge transfer formula. The experimental biological activity data (50) for the family of PAH, namely polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), polyhalogenated dibenzo--dioxins (PHDD) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are taken as dependent variables and the HF energy (), along with DFT-based global and local descriptors, viz., electrophilicity index () and local electrophilic power (+) respectively are taken as independent variables. Fairly good correlation is obtained showing the significance of the selected descriptors in the QSAR on toxins that act as electron acceptors in the presence of biomolecules. Effects of population analysis schemes in the calculation of Fukui functions as well as that of solvation are probed. Similarly, some electron-donor aliphatic amines are studied in the present work. We see that global and local electrophilicities along with the HF energy are adequate in explaining the toxicity of several substances

  9. Quinoxaline polymers and copolymers derived from 1,4-bis(1'-naphthalenyloxalyl)benzene and their graphite composites. [polymer chemistry and polymer physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, W. S.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental studies were performed with new polyquinoxalines and their graphite composites. Four polymers were synthesized, and then were characterized with respect to their inherent viscosity, elemental chemical analysis, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties. Structural formulas of the polymers and their precursors are given; methods of synthesis are described; and specifically examined was the preparation of polymers from 3,3' diamino-benzidine from 1,4- and 1,3- bis ((1'-napthalenyl) oxalyl) benzene respectively. Also considered was the preparation of polyquinoxalines from poly (p-benzil), and 1,2- aryldiamines.

  10. MoO3/Ag/MoO3 anode for organic light-emitting diodes and its carrier injection property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzai, Kazuki; Naka, Shigeki; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2015-05-01

    We report on the application of the dielectric/metal/dielectric (DMD) structure consisting of a molybdenum trioxide (MoO3)/silver (Ag)/MoO3 stack as the transparent electrode in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Bright emission similar to that of the indium-tin-oxide anode (ITO) device was obtained from the OLEDs with the DMD anode. Also, the barrier height at the interface of DMD/bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenyl] benzidine (α-NPD) is similar to that at the ITO/α-NPD interface. The DMD electrode is a promising anode for OLEDs.

  11. Simple way to engineer metal-semiconductor interface for enhanced performance of perovskite organic lead iodide solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuzhuan; Shi, Jiangjian; Lv, Songtao; Zhu, Lifeng; Dong, Juan; Wu, Huijue; Xiao, Yin; Luo, Yanhong; Wang, Shirong; Li, Dongmei; Li, Xianggao; Meng, Qingbo

    2014-04-23

    A thin wide band gap organic semiconductor N,N,N',N'-tetraphenyl-benzidine layer has been introduced by spin-coating to engineer the metal-semiconductor interface in the hole-conductor-free perovskite solar cells. The average cell power conversion efficiency (PCE) has been enhanced from 5.26% to 6.26% after the modification and a highest PCE of 6.71% has been achieved. By the aid of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and dark current analysis, it is revealed that this modification can increase interfacial resistance of CH3NH3PbI3/Au interface and retard electron recombination process in the metal-semiconductor interface.

  12. Directly patternable dielectric based on fluorinated polyimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Andrew R.; Bell, William K.; Luke, Brendan; Maines, Erin; Mueller, Brennan; Kohl, Paul A.; Rawlings, Brandon; Willson, C. Grant

    2015-03-01

    A photosensitive polyimide system based on amine catalyzed imidization of a precursor poly(amic ester) is described. The material is based on the meta ethyl ester of pyromellitic dianhydride and 2,2' bis(trifluoromethyl)benzidine and acts as a negative tone resist when formulated with a photobase generator. The material exhibits a dielectric constant of 3.0 in the GHz range, a coefficient of thermal expansion of 6+/-2 ppm/K, and can be patterned to aspect ratios of greater than 2 when formulated with a high efficiency cinnamide type photobase generator.

  13. Formation of ternary complexes between a macrotricyclic host and hetero-guest pairs: an acid-base controlled selective complexation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tao; Chen, Chuan-Feng

    2007-10-11

    A triptycene-based cylindrical macrotricyclic host can include diquat and electron-rich aromatics simultaneously to form stable ternary complexes, which is stabilized not only by a charge-transfer (CT) interaction between electron-rich and electron-deficient guests but also by the face to face pi-stacking interactions between the host and the guests. Moreover, a selective complexation process between a ternary complex containing benzidine and a binary complex can be effectively controlled by the use of acid and base.

  14. Sulfonated copolyimide membranes derived from a novel diamine monomer with pendant benzimidazole groups for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Xiaoxia; Aili, David;

    2015-01-01

    . A series of sulfonated copolyimides (SPI) are prepared via random copolymerizatio of 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA) with a new diamine monomer with pendant benzimidazole groups, 2,2'-bis(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenoxy)benzidine (BIPOB), and a sulfonated diamine monomer 4,4'-bis...... pendant groups significantly improves the hydrolytic stability as well as the radical oxidative stability of the membranes. In addition, the SPI membranes exhibit high proton conductivities of 0.1 S cm(-1) in the fully hydrated state at 60 degrees C and high elastic modulus and tensile strength...

  15. The Use of 7,7′,8,8′-Tetracyanoquinodimethane for the Spectrophotometric Determination of Some Primary Amines Application to Real Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theia'a N. Al-Sabha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive, simple, and accurate spectrophotometric method was developed for the quantitative determination of some primary aliphatic and aromatic amines, that is, ethylamine, 1,2-diaminopropane, aniline, p-aminophenol, and benzidine. The method is based on the interaction of these amines in aqueous medium with 7,7′,8,8′-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ reagent in the presence of a buffer solution and surfactant (in the case of aromatic amines to form charge-transfer complexes measurable at maximum wavelengths ranging between 323 and 511 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration ranges of 0.025 and 3.0 μg/mL and the molar absorptivity is ranged between 8.977 × 103 and 5.8034 × 104  L·mol−1·cm−1 for these amines. The method was applied for the determination of benzidine in the river, sea, and tap waters. The TCNQ complexes with the previously mentioned amines were formed in the ratio of 1 : 1 amine : TCNQ, and their stability constants ranged between 8.78 × 104 and 1.844 × 105 L·mol−1.

  16. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 C802T (His268Tyr) polymorphism in bladder cancer cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Anna; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Roth, Gerhard; Seidel, Thilo; Dietrich, Holger; Schutschkow, Olga; Bolt, Hermann M; Golka, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    A study of Chinese benzidine workers indicated elevated levels of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7 T/T activity in carriers for development of bladder cancer. The present study was designed to investigate the possible impact of the presence of UGT2B7 genotype on bladder cancer risk in Caucasians. UGT2B7 polymorphism at locus C(802)T (His(268)Tyr) was detected using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)-based procedure. The study group consisted of 211 bladder cancer cases and 210 controls suffering from different urological diseases, but without any history of cancer. Both groups were recruited from a Department of Urology located in a center of former chemical and rubber industries in Germany. Furthermore, 171 bladder cancer cases with a history of occupational exposure to aromatic amines surveyed for compensation due to an occupational disease were investigated. T/T genotype frequencies in bladder cancer cases, urological controls, and exposed patients appeared similar (27 vs. 35 vs. 25%). This study indicated that there were ethnic differences between Caucasian and Chinese general populations with respect to the UGT2B7 genotype. Furthermore, in contrast to an earlier investigation in benzidine-exposed Chinese bladder cancer patients, no relevant differences between bladder cancer patients and urological hospital controls were observed in Germany.

  17. Carcinogenicity of hair dye components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duuren, B L

    1980-03-01

    The available animal carcinogenicity data on hair dye components was reviewed. From this review it became clear that certain hair dye components, some of which are still in hair dye formulations now on the market, are animal carcinogens. The compounds of concern that are still in use are: 3-amino-4-methoxyaniline, 2-nitro-4-aminoaniline and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyaniline. Certain azo dyes formerly used, and related compounds still in use, contain the benzidine moiety. Two of these compounds, Direct Blue 6 and Direct Black 38, have been shown to be metabolized in animals to the human carcinogen benzidine. Furthermore, skin absorption studies carried out with radiolabeled hair dye components applied to animal or human skin have conclusively shown that these compounds are systemically absorbed and excreted. Known cocarcinogens such as catechol and pyrogallol, which enhance benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenicity on mouse skin, are used as hair dye components. It is not known whether such compounds will enhance the carcinogenicity of substituted aniline hair dye chemicals. The available epidemiologic data are not sufficient to link hair dye use with an increased incidence in human cancer.

  18. Effect of Co-Culturing of Mice Liver Cells and Embryonic Carcinomatous Stem Cells on the Rate of Differentiation to Hematopoietic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Pourfatollah

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the importance of co-culture in differentiation of embryonic stem cells, the aim of this study was evaluation of the effect of co-culturing fetal liver stroma cells with P19 cells on the line of differentiation. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, P19 cells were cultured directly in semisolid medium. These cells proliferated and primarily differentiated to colonies know as embryoid bodies (EBs after 8-12 days. The Ebs cells were trypsinized and dissociated to single or double cells. Then these cells were co-cultured on the mouse fetal liver feeder layer in the absence of exogenous factors. After 14-18 days, the colonies were studied morphologically by benzidine and giemsa staining and also counted under invert microscope. Results: The percentages of benzidine positive (or erythroid and negative colonies were 94% and 6% respectively and also the cells of colonies were studied by Giemsa staining. Results showed that they were myeloid or lymphoid type cells. Thus, the results show that in the presence of mouse fetal liver feeder layer, the number of erythroid colonies was increased. Conclusions: Therefore, this technique may be effective for differentiation of stem cells from different sources into hematopoietic cells and can be used in future for human cell therapy.

  19. Method of Testing Viability of Pollen in Pomegranate%石榴花粉生活力测定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘程宏; 张芳明; 宋尚伟

    2012-01-01

    Three pomegranate varieties (Tunisia soft seed, Yu large seed and Taishan red) were used as the tested materials, the methods of testing their pollen viability were screened and analyzed. The results showed that; though benzidine staining method obtained slightly higher determination result of pollen viability than glucose solution culture method, it had better correlation. So benzidine staining method is a better method for the determination of pollen viability of pomegranate.%以突尼斯软籽、豫大籽、泰山红3个石榴品种为试验材料,对其花粉活力的测定方法进行了筛选,结果表明:联苯胺染色法较之葡萄糖溶液培养法测定结果略偏高,但相关性良好,因此联苯胺染色法是测定石榴花粉生活力较好的染色方法.

  20. Quick staining technique for myeloperoxidase using potassium iodide and oxidized pyronine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Xin; Zhu, Hong-Lin; Xue, Mei; Zhou, Hao; Zhao, Fei; Yan, Ni; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) staining has been important for the cytomorphological diagnosis and classification of leukemia. A novel staining method for MPO and its clinical application are presented in the report. Pyronine B (PyB), serving as a chromogenic reagent, was pre-oxidized to obtain stable oxidized Pyronine B solution. The MPO working solution for oxidized pyronine B method consisted of phosphate buffer solution, potassium iodide (KI) solution, and oxidized Pyronine B solution. The positive products of the oxidized Pyronine B method of MPO staining were vibrant red particles located in cytoplasm and the nucleus was stained bluish green. Bone marrow smears from 229 patients with acute leukemia or with grossly normal bone marrow were stained by both oxidized Pyronine B method and the conventional Washburn benzidine staining and a comparison revealed no significant difference in the positive detection rate between the two techniques. The new method eliminates the influence of the varying amount of H₂O₂ on MPO staining. With this method, the reagents were more stable and the staining procedure was simple and time-saving. This MPO staining technique is a better alternative than the conventional benzidine-based methods.

  1. Polymorphism of Glutathione S-transferase T1, M1 and P1 Genes in a Shanghai Population: Patients With Occupational or Non-occupational Bladder Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective Glutathione S-transferases are involved in the conjugation of xenobiotics. To explore whether GSTs polymorphisms are involved in the development of occupational or non-occupational bladder cancer, polymorphism frequencies of GSTT1, M1 and P1 were investigated in a normal population, which had been settled in a rural area in Shanghai suburb for at least 5 generations as well as in a group of patients with benzidine exposure related occupational bladder cancer in Shanghai dyestuff industry and a group of patients with non-occupational bladder cancer. Methods PCR based procedures were performed in the study populations to confirm the genotypes of GSTT1, M1 and P1. Results The polymorphisms at locus of GSTP1- A1578G in the normal population differed significantly from those in Caucasians or African Americans. All the subjects genotyped so far (n =118) bore only homogenous wild genotype (C2293/ C2293) at GSTP1 - C2293T locus. This locus seemed to be a monomorphic in Shanghai population. No significant difference in GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphic form frequencies could be confirmed among three groups of subjects. An overrepresentation of GSTP1 AG or GG genotype corresponding a less stable and less effective isozyme protein was detected in patients with benzidine related occupational bladder cancer, compared with that in the normal population though a statistical significance was not yet reached (P=0.09, OR=1.96, 95% CI 0.89-4.32,). Conclusion This study suggests that GSTM1 or GSTT1 homozygous deficiency genotypes and their combination do not have a clear impact on bladder cancer incidence in a Shanghai population. It seems that GSTP1 polymorphism is not associated with non-occupational bladder cancer. GSTP1 AG or GG genotype has a higher frequency in the patients with benzidine related occupational bladder cancer, and further work is needed to confirm if GSTP1 AG or GG genotype plays a role in the development of occupational bladder cancer.

  2. Experimental verifications on chemical carcinogenesis, a bifunctional alkylation between DNA interstrands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It is evidenced by the filter elution method that two carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, two carcinogenic metal salts, beryllium chloride and cadmium chloride, four carcinogenic aromatic amines, 2-aminofluorene, β-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine, can all induce DNA interstrand and DNA-protein cross-link in L1210 culture. However, under the same condition, the corresponding non-carcinogenic compounds, including benzo[k]fluorancene, anthracene, magnesium chloride, zinc chloride, a -naphthylamine, 2-aminobiphenyl and m-toluidine, cannot produce any cross-link adducts. All these results are consistent with the di-region theory that carcinogens are bio-bifunctional alkylation agents. This method can also be used to discriminate carcinogens and non-carcinogens.

  3. Synthesis of new Schiff bases bearing 1,2,4-triazole, thiazolidine and chloroazetidine moieties and their pharmacological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandile, Nadia G; Mohamed, Mansoura I; Ismaeel, Hind M

    2017-12-01

    New compounds based on oxindole moiety were synthesized via the reaction of 5-substitued isatins 1a-e with different nucleophiles such as benzidine, 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine 2a,b and 2,6-diaminopyridine 3 to afford three different classes of bis-Schiff bases 4a-e, 5a-e and 6a-e, respectively. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of their FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, GC/MS spectral data and elemental analysis. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the new compounds was evaluated using a broth dilution technique in terms of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against four bacterial and two fungal pathogens and anticancer activities against HELA cervix. The revealed data showed that compound 9d has excellent activity against Gram + ve and Gram -ve bacteria, and compounds 11b presented promising anticancer activity against HELA cervix. [Formula: see text].

  4. Performance Improvement of Bulk Heterojunction Organic Photovoltalc Cell by Addition of a Hole Transport Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Nan; LIU Qian; MAO Jie; LIU Zun-Feng; YANG Li-Ying; YIN Shou-Gen; CHEN Yong-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ A novel photovoltaic cell with an active layer of poly(phenyleneethynylene)(PPE)/C60/N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-di-(m-tolyl)-p-benzidine(TPD)is designed.In the active layer,PPE is the major component;C60 and TPD are the minor ones.Compared with a control BHJ device based on PPE/C60,the short circuit current density Jsc is increased by 1 order of magnitude,and the whole device performance is increased greatly,however the open circuit voltage Voc is largely decreased.The possible mechanism of the improved performance may be as follows:In the PPE/C60/TPD device,PPE,C60,and TPD serve as the energy harvesting material,the electron transport material,and the hole transport materiall respectively.As the TPD and C60 are spatially separated by PPE,the charge recombination is effectively retarded.

  5. Evaluation of Uncertainty for Detecting the Content of Banned Aromatic Amines in Textile Products by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Ke-jie; LI Zheng-rong; YANG Li-sheng; MIN Jie; YE Hong-miao

    2006-01-01

    The article evaluated the uncertainty of the content of banned aromatic amines in textile products in terms of GB/T17592. 1 - 1998 Textiles-test Method of Banned Azo Colourants-gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric Method, analyzed and quantified the uncertainty components which affected the measurement results.Through calculation, the uncertainty of the sample mainly came from C0 standard uncertainty, weighing, uncertainty of volume, effect on the recovery rate of sample during the course of extraction and purification and ucertainty from the random effect during the course of measurement. It was obtained that the expanded uncertainties of the content of 2 -naphthylamine, benzidine and 2, 4 - diaminotoluene with higher frequency in 24 kinds of forbidden aromatic amines were respectively 2.128, 2.302 and 4.778 mg/kg.

  6. Radioimmunoassay of haemoglobin F in K 562 cells following induction with renin substrate and erythropoietin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenloef, K.; Fyhrquist, F.; Hortling, L.; Groenhagen-Riska, C. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Minerva Inst. for Medical Research; Helsinki Univ. (Finland). 4th Dept. of Medicine)

    1985-06-01

    To test the hypothesis of renin substrate (RS: angiotensinogen) being a precursor of erythropoietin (EP), the capacity of RS and EP to induce Hb synthesis was compared in cultured human erythroid leukaemia cells of the K 562 line after prestimulation with haemin. For this purpose a radioimmunoassay for haemoglobin F (HbF) was developed. This assay was shown to be specific for HbF, reproducible, and sensitive for 0.1 ng of HbF. The cells were induced by RS and EP to increased HbF production. Cells stimulated with RS or EP showed increased benzidine staining. These data support the hypothesis that renin substrate is a likely precursor of erythropoietin.

  7. Weaving of organic threads into a crystalline covalent organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuzhong; Ma, Yanhang; Zhao, Yingbo; Sun, Xixi; Gándara, Felipe; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Liu, Zheng; Zhu, Hanyu; Zhu, Chenhui; Suenaga, Kazutomo; Oleynikov, Peter; Alshammari, Ahmad S; Zhang, Xiang; Terasaki, Osamu; Yaghi, Omar M

    2016-01-22

    A three-dimensional covalent organic framework (COF-505) constructed from helical organic threads, designed to be mutually weaving at regular intervals, has been synthesized by imine condensation reactions of aldehyde functionalized copper(I)-bisphenanthroline tetrafluoroborate, Cu(PDB)2(BF4), and benzidine (BZ). The copper centers are topologically independent of the weaving within the COF structure and serve as templates for bringing the threads into a woven pattern rather than the more commonly observed parallel arrangement. The copper(I) ions can be reversibly removed and added without loss of the COF structure, for which a tenfold increase in elasticity accompanies its demetalation. The threads in COF-505 have many degrees of freedom for enormous deviations to take place between them, throughout the material, without undoing the weaving of the overall structure.

  8. Studies on the Fluorescence Properties of Chloromethyl Polystyrene Supported Fluorophore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN HongXia; LEI ZiQiang; WANG SongBai; YANG ZhiWang; WANG YunPu

    2001-01-01

    @@ The basic materials used in making photoluminescence materials are all synthesized polymers at present, such as PVC, etc [1]. Red and green LEDs are easy to be prepared, but the blue LED is difficult to be done. In this paper, we used chloromethyl polystyrene as supporter, leading into the known fluorophore by polymer chemical reaction, so as to obtaining blue luminous material. The PS-CH2Cl supported fluorophore are prepared by PS-CH2Cl and benzidine (B), dimethylbenzidine (MA), 4,4'-diamino-diphenyl ether (DAPE), 4,4'-diamino-diphenyl sulfone (DAPS), respectively. They were characterized by IR and elemental analysis. The stead state fluorescence properties of these supported polymers were investigated.The results were summarized in table 1.

  9. Studies on the Fluorescence Properties of Chloromethyl Polystyrene Supported Fluorophore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN; HongXia

    2001-01-01

    The basic materials used in making photoluminescence materials are all synthesized polymers at present, such as PVC, etc [1]. Red and green LEDs are easy to be prepared, but the blue LED is difficult to be done. In this paper, we used chloromethyl polystyrene as supporter, leading into the known fluorophore by polymer chemical reaction, so as to obtaining blue luminous material.  The PS-CH2Cl supported fluorophore are prepared by PS-CH2Cl and benzidine (B), dimethylbenzidine (MA), 4,4'-diamino-diphenyl ether (DAPE), 4,4'-diamino-diphenyl sulfone (DAPS), respectively. They were characterized by IR and elemental analysis. The stead state fluorescence properties of these supported polymers were investigated.The results were summarized in table 1.  ……

  10. n-type ZnS used as electron transport material in organic light-emitting diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Peng; Zhang Xi-Qing; Sun Xue-Bai; Yao Zhi-Gang; Wang Yong-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the n-type ZnS used as electron transport layer for the organic light-emitting diodes(OLEDs). The naphthyl-substituted benzidine derivative (NPB) and tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3)are used as the hole transport layer and the emitting layer respectively. The insertion of the n-type ZnS layer enhances the electron injection in the OLEDs. The study was carried out on OLEDs of structures: indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/NPB/Alq3/ZnS/LiF/AL, ITO/NPB/Alqa/LiF/AL and ITO/NPB/Alq3/AL. The luminance and efficiency of the device containing this electron transport layer are increased significantly over those obtained from conventional devices due to better carrier balance.

  11. DIFFERENTIAL PULSE VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF 3,3' 5,5'-TETRAMETHYLBENZIDINE AND ITS ANALOGUES WITH A GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁元晨; 仁玉贝

    1993-01-01

    The differential pulse voltarametric ( DPV ) method with a glassy carbon electrode was used for the determination of 3,3' 5,5'-tetramethy lbenzidine ( TMB ) , o-tolidine and benzidine in the acidic media. The pulse amplitude, interval time and scan rate of DPV are optimized to be 50 mV, 0.5 s and 10 mV/s, respectively, The peak current is proportional to the concentration of TMB and its analogues, the linear range is from 10-8mol/l to 10-4 mal/l, The electrochemical behaviour of the compounds is discussed, The chemical poisons can be determined directly, or indirectly by the extraction in the waste water of chemical industry and laboratory,

  12. Plasma-Etching of Spray-Coated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Biointerfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon Hyub; Lee, Jun-Yong; Min, Nam Ki

    2012-08-01

    We present an effective method for the batch fabrication of miniaturized single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film electrodes using oxygen plasma etching. We adopted the approach of spray-coating for good adhesion of the SWCNT film onto a pre-patterned Pt support and used O2 plasma patterning of the coated films to realize efficient biointerfaces between SWCNT surfaces and biomolecules. By these approaches, the SWCNT film can be easily integrated into miniaturized electrode systems. To demonstrate the effectiveness of plasma-etched SWCNT film electrodes as biointerfaces, Legionella antibody was selected as analysis model owing to its considerable importance to electrochemical biosensors and was detected using plasma-etched SWCNT film electrodes and a 3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl-benzidine dihydrochloride/horseradish peroxidase (TMB/HRP) catalytic system. The response currents increased with increasing concentration of Legionella antibody. This result indicates that antibodies were effectively immobilized on plasma-etched and activated SWCNT surfaces.

  13. Morphologic and cytochemical characteristics of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Raskin, R.E.; Balazs, G.H.; Whittaker, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Objective - To identify and characterize blood cells from free-ranging Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas. Sample Population - 26 green turtles from Puako on the island of Hawaii and Kaneohe Bay on the island of Oahu. Procedure - Blood was examined, using light and electron microscopy and cytochemical stains that included benzidine peroxidase, chloroacetate esterase, alpha naphthyl butyrate esterase, acid phosphatase, Sudan black B, periodic acid-Schiff, and toluidine blue. Results - 6 types of WBC were identified: lymphocytes, monocytes, thrombocytes, heterophils, basophils, and eosinophils (small and large). Morphologic characteristics of mononuclear cells and most granulocytes were similar to those of cells from other reptiles except that green turtles have both large and small eosinophils. Conclusions - Our classification of green turtle blood cells clarifies imporoper nomenclature reported previously and provides a reference for future hematologic studies in this species.

  14. Polymorphism of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) Gene Polymorphism in Shanghai population:Occupational and Non-occupational Bladder Cancer Patient Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING-WEN MA; GUO-FANG LIN; JI-GANG CHEN; CUI-QING XIANG; WEI-CHAO GUO; KLAUS GOLKA; JIAN-HUA SHEN

    2004-01-01

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are involved in the detoxification of aromatic amines and hydrazine. In order to explore the possible association of NAT2 polymorphism with bladder cancer risk in benzidine exposed or non-exposed Chinese individuals, healthy subjects, subjects with bladder cancer of a former benzidine exposed cohort in Shanghai dyestuff industry and a group of bladder cancer patients without known occupational exposure to aromatic amines were genotyped for NAT2 gene polymorphism. Methods NAT2 genotyping was performed with a set of RFLP procedures at seven major polymorphic loci of gene coding area: G191A, C282T, T341C, C481T, G590A, A803G and G857A. Results The wild allele NAT2 *4 was the most prevalent allele (59%) in healthy individuals. The alleles NAT2*6A and NAT2*7B were also frequently observed (21% and 17%, respectively). In contrast to Caucasians, the percentage of slow acetylators was lower (12% in Chinese vs. 58% in Caucasians, P<0.001). No relevant differences were observed for homogenous rapid, heterogeneous rapid/slow and homogeneous slow acetylation genotypes between the healthy subjects and both groups of bladder cancer patients. Conclusion The present work did not support the association of slow acetylating genotypes of NAT2 gene with elevated risk of bladder cancer in Chinese whereas it was documented as an important genetically determined risk factor in Caucasians. Different mechanisms might play a role in individual susceptibility to bladder cancer related with aromatic amine exposure in various races or ethnic groups.

  15. Lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlewska-Roberts, Katarzyna M; Teitel, Candee H; Lay, Jackson O; Roberts, Dean W; Kadlubar, Fred F

    2004-12-01

    Lactoperoxidase, an enzyme secreted from the human mammary gland, plays a host defensive role through antimicrobial activity. It has been implicated in mutagenic and carcinogenic activation in the human mammary gland. The potential role of heterocyclic and aromatic amines in the etiology of breast cancer led us to examination of the lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of the most commonly studied arylamine carcinogens: 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP), benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx). In vitro activation was performed with lactoperoxidase (partially purified from bovine milk or human milk) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and calf thymus DNA. Products formed during enzymatic activation were monitored by HPLC with ultraviolet and radiometric detection. Two of these products were characterized as hydrazo and azo derivatives by means of mass spectrometry. The DNA binding level of 3H- and 14C-radiolabeled amines after peroxidase-catalyzed activation was dependent on the hydrogen peroxide concentration, and the highest levels of carcinogen binding to DNA were observed at 100 microM H2O2. Carcinogen activation and the level of binding to DNA were in the order of benzidine > ABP > IQ > MeIQx > PhIP. One of the ABP adducts was identified, and the level at which it is formed was estimated to be six adducts/10(5) nucleotides. The susceptibility of aromatic and heterocyclic amines for lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation and the binding levels of activated products to DNA suggest a potential role of lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of carcinogens in the etiology of breast cancer.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of new polyamides derived from alanine and valine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Faham Ayman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many efforts have been recently devoted to design, investigate and synthesize biocompatible, biodegradable polymers for applications in medicine for either the fabrication of biodegradable devices or as drug delivery systems. Many of them consist of condensation of polymers having incorporated peptide linkages susceptible to enzymatic cleavage. Polyamides (PAs containing α-amino acid residues such as L-leucine, L-alanine and L-phenylalanine have been reported as biodegradable materials. Furthermore, polyamides (PAs derived from C10 and C14 dicarboxylic acids and amide-diamines derived from 1,6-hexanediamine or 1,12-dodecanediamine and L-phenylalanine, L-valyl-L-phenylalanine or L-phenylalanyl-L-valine residues have been reported as biocompatible polymers. We have previously described the synthesis and thermal properties of a new type of polyamides-containing amino acids based on eight new symmetric meta-oriented protected diamines derived from coupling of amino acids namely; Fomc-glycine, Fmoc-alanine, Fomc-valine and Fomc-leucine with m-phenylene diamine or 2,6-diaminopyridine. Results revealed that incorporation of pyridine onto the polymeric backbone of all series decreases the thermal stability. Here we describe another family of polyamides based on benzene dicarboxylic acid, pyridine dicarboxylic acid, and α-amino acid linked to benzidine and 4,4′-oxydianiline to study the effect of the dicarboxylic acid as well as the amino acids on the nature and thermal stability of the polymers. Results We report here the preparation of a new type of polyamides based on benzene dicarboxylic acid, pyridine dicarboxylic acid, and α-amino acid linked to benzidine and 4,4′-oxydianiline to study the effect of the dicarboxylic acid as well as the amino acids on the nature and thermal stability of polymers. The thermal properties of the polymers were evaluated by different techniques. Results revealed that structure-thermal property

  17. 浊点萃取催化光度法测定蔬菜中的敌敌畏%Cloud Point Extraction Catalytic Spectrophotometric Determination of Dichlorvos in Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘正; 张晓霞; 宋天琳

    2013-01-01

    基于有机磷农药对过氧化氢氧化联苯胺反应的催化作用,以敌敌畏为例,用Triton X-114为萃取剂,研究了该浊点萃取体系用于敌敌畏检测的特性。在pH值为8.5的氨缓冲溶液中,过氧化氢与盐酸联苯胺在敌敌畏的催化作用下生成稳定的黄色配合物,经浊点萃取测定其含量。配合物的最大吸收波长为425 nm,在0μg~250μg范围内吸光值呈良好的线性关系,相关系数为0.9998,表观摩尔吸光系数ε为5.3×104 L· mol-1· cm-1,方法检出限为22.2μg/L。用于5种蔬菜中敌敌畏的残留量分析,平均加标回收率为82.3%~102%,RSD≤8.9%。%Based on the organophosphorus pesticides have a strong catalytic function on oxidization of hydro -gen peroxide and benzidine , one study investigating of dichlorvos was perforemed .With the Triton X-114 as ex-tractant, the characteristics of the cloud point extraction system in dichlorvos determination was studied .In pH 8 .5 ammonia buffer solution , a stable yellow complex was formed in the reaction of catalytic of dichlorvos on hy-drogen peroxide and benzidine .This complex was determined by cloud point extraction .The maximum absorp-tion wave length is 425 nm.In the range of 0 μg ~250 μg, the linear relationship of the absorbance values is good.The relation coefficient is 0.999 8.The molar absorbance coefficient is 5.3 ×104 L· mol-1 · cm-1 .The method detection limit of 22 .2 μg/L was measured .On determination for dichlorvos in five kinds of vegetables , the average spiked recoveries were 82.3% ~102%, RSD ≤8.9%.

  18. The impact of pollutants on the antioxidant protection of species of the genus Tilia at different developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Alexeyeva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of transport fumes and industrial waste on the activity of catalase, benzidine-peroxidase and guaiacol-peroxidase was studied in the dormant buds, leaves and seeds of the following species of the genus Tilia:T. platyphyllos Scop., T. europaea L., T. amurensis Rupr. and T. begoniifolia Stev. We tested the hypothesis that the action of pollutants changes the state of antioxidant protection at different stages of tree development in contaminated phytocenoses. An increase in catalase activity was observed in leaves of all linden species, and the action of transport fumes caused excess over control level by 118, 118, 196, and 61% respectively for T. platyphyllos, T. europaea, T. amurensis and T. begoniifolia. The action of industrial waste was accompanied by a slight decrease in catalase activity in T. europaea leaves, and increase in activity in leaves of T. amurensis and T. begoniifolia (143% and 115%. Benzidine-peroxidase activity increased due to the influence of transport fumes on leaves of T. amurensis and T. begoniifolia (103% and 44%, but decreased due to the effect of industrial waste on leaves of T. europaea, T. amurensis and T. begoniifolia (46%, 30%, and 44% respectively, and was suppressed in the seeds of T. europaea, T. amurensis and T. begoniifolia both under the influence of transport (42%, 47% and 33% below control and industrial emissions (19%, 19% and 45%, and was reduced in buds of T. platyphyllos, T. europaea and T. amurensis due to the effect of transport fumes (21%, 9% and 20% respectively. Guaiacol-peroxidase activity decreased due to the influence of transport fumes in buds of T. platyphyllos, T. europaea and T. amurensis (41%, 14% and 47% below control, while it increased in the seeds of T. platyphyllos and T. amurensis (104% and 83%, as well as in leaves of T. amurensis and T. begoniifolia both due to the effect of transport (129% and 144% and of industrial emissions (respectively, 34% and 40% above control

  19. Novel Hole Transporting Materials Based on 4-(9H-Carbazol-9-yltriphenylamine Derivatives for OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quynh Pham Bao Nguyen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs have been increasingly studied due to their emerging applicability. However, some of the properties of existing OLEDs could be improved, such as their overall efficiency and durability; these aspects have been addressed in the current study. A series of novel hole-transporting materials (HTMs 3a–c based on 4-(9H-carbazol-9-yltriphenylamine conjugated with different carbazole or triphenylamine derivatives have been readily synthesized by Suzuki coupling reactions. The resulting compounds showed good thermal stabilities with high glass transition temperatures between 148 and 165 °C. The introduction of HTMs 3b and 3c into the standard devices ITO/HATCN/NPB/HTMs 3 (indium tin oxide/dipyrazino(2,3-f:2ꞌ,3ꞌ-hquinoxaline 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexacarbonitrile/N,Nꞌ-bis(naphthalen-1-yl-N,Nꞌ-bis(phenyl-benzidine/HTMs/CBP (4,4ꞌ-Bis(N-carbazolyl-1,1ꞌ-biphenyl: 5% Ir(ppy3/Bphen/LiF/Al (tris[2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N]iridium(III/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline/LiF/Al resulted in significantly enhanced current, power, and external quantum efficiencies (EQE as compared to the reference device without any layers of HTMs 3.

  20. Use of a New Blue Emitter in Color-Stable, Flexible, Polymeric White Light-Emitting Diodes with a Simple Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsennia, Mohsen; Bidgoli, Maryam Massah; Boroumand, Farhad Akbari; Khademi, Alireza

    2015-08-01

    New, polymeric white light-emitting diodes with the structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS/BFE + MEH-PPV/Al have been fabricated, in which poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co- N, N'-di(phenyl)- N, N'-di(3-carboethoxyphenyl) benzidine (BFE) was used as the blue emitter host and poly [2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene (MEH-PPV) as the red emitter guest. A poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) layer was spin-coated as the hole-injection layer (HIL) on a flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate)/indium tin oxide (PET/ITO) substrate; the cathode was aluminium (Al). The entire simple, low-cost fabrication process was performed without any need for a glove box. The effect of PEDOT:PSS films prepared from the PEDOT:PSS/water solution with two different volume ratios (1:3 and 1:6) as the HIL on the lifetime and output performance of devices was investigated. The device fabricated by using the volume ratio 1:3 emitted white light with high color quality and Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.34, 0.38), and had a long operating lifetime.

  1. URINARY BLADDER CANCER WITH FOCUS ON OCCUPATIONAL DYE WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Revathi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Benzidine based azo dyes are proven carcinogens, mutagens and have been linked to bladder cancer of human beings and laboratory animals. The textile and dyestuff manufacturing industry are the two major sources for releasing of azo dyes. Various research groups have started work on genotoxic effect of textile dyes in occupational workers of textile dye industry. Bladder cancer is the most common form of cancer in dye industries. Most of people between age 50 and 70 group of are diagnosed with bladder cancer. Men are more likely than the women to develop bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is a disease in which abnormal cells multiply without control in the bladder. The most common type of bladder cancer begins in cells lining the inside of the bladder and is called transitional cell carcinoma. Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body when cancer is present. They are most often found in the blood or urine. The review deals about the impacts of the industry dyes on human health.

  2. Patternless light outcoupling enhancement method for top-emission organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doo-Hoon; Lee, Ho-Nyeon

    2016-11-01

    An increase of 65% in the luminous flux of a top-emission organic light-emitting diode (TE-OLED) was obtained by fabricating a stacked N,N‧-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N‧-bis(phenyl)benzidine (NPB) (0.2 µm)/CaF2 (2.5 µm) light outcoupling layer on the TE-OLED. The high-refractive-index NPB layer extracted the trapped light energy in the TE-OLED for input into the light outcoupling layer and protected the top cathode of the TE-OLED from damage due to the CaF2 layer. The surface morphology of the CaF2 layer had an irregular shape consisting of randomly dispersed pyramids; the irregular structure scattered the waveguide mode energy into air. By combining the effects of the NPB and CaF2 layers, the external quantum efficiency of the TE-OLED was increased significantly. The light outcoupling layer can be fabricated using a thermal evaporation process without patterning and, hence, provides a practical solution for the enhancement of TE-OLED light outcoupling using a patternless fabrication process.

  3. Photodecomposition of Molybdenum andTungsten Carbonyl Complexes

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    Thamer A. Alwani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The photodecomposition of four different colored organometallic molybdenum and tungsten carbonyl complexes, i.e. [Mo(CO52LA] (complex I, [(Mo(CO3(bipy2LB] (complex II, [(W(CO3(tmen2LB] (complex III and [Mo(CO2LC]2 (complex I V where LA 2-phenyl-1,3-indandionebis(2-methyl anilines, LB 2-phenyl-1,3-indandione bis (4-hydroxy anilines and LCbis (2-hydroxo-benzalydine benzidine ion have been performed at 365 nm in chloroform at 25 °C under oxygen atmosphere. The absorbance spectrum of these complexes has been recorded with the time of irradiation in order to examine the kinetics of photodecomposition. The rate of the photodecomposition process was investigated and the relative values of the rate constants of dissociation (Kd for the first-order reaction are tabulated. The apparent rate constant of photodecomposition was found to be (8.33-11.50 × 10-5 s-1.

  4. Optimized Performances of Thick Film Organic Lighting-Emitting Diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiu-Ru; ZHANG Zhi-Qiang; MA Dong-Ge; SUN Run-Guang

    2008-01-01

    @@ The performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with thick film is optimized.The alternative vana-dium oxide (V2O5) and N,N'-di(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB) layers are used to enhance holes in the emissive region, and 4,7-dipheny-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) doped 8-tris-hydroxyquinoline alu-minium (Alq3) is used to enhance electrons is the emissive region, thus ITO/V2O5 (8nm)/NPB (52nm)/V2O5 (8nm)/NPB (52 nm)/Alq3 (30 and 45 nm)/Alq3:Bphen (30wt%, 30 and 45 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (120nm) devices are fabricated.The thick-film devices show the turn-on voltage of about 3 V and the maximal power efficiency of 4.51m/W, which is 1.46 times higher than the conventional thin-film OLEDs.

  5. Establishment and characterization of a new erythroblastic leukemia cell line, EEB: phosphatidylglucoside-mediated erythroid differentiation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano-Yamamoto, Chizuru; Muroi, Kazuo; Nagatsuka, Yasuko; Higuchi, Masato; Kikuchi, Satoru; Nagai, Tadashi; Hakomori, Sen-Itiroh; Ozawa, Keiya

    2006-07-01

    A new erythroblastic leukemia cell line (EEB) was established from a patient with early erythroblastic leukemia. The cells had features of immature erythroblasts, including an agranular basophilic cytoplasm and CD36, CD71, CD175s (sialyl-Tn) and CD235a (glycophorin A) expression without CD41 expression, myeloperoxidase activity and platelet-peroxidase activity. The cells were confirmed to be of the erythroid lineage based on expression of the gamma-globin message. They were induced to differentiate into benzidine-positive cells by hemin and delta-amino levulinic acid (delta-ALA). An analysis of cell membrane lipids showed that EEB cells contain a type of glycerolipid, phosphatidylglucose (PhGlc), but not unbranched type 2 chains, i antigens. GL-7 which is a recombinant Fab fragment of GL-2 and binds to PhGlc, induced production of hemoglobin F (HbF) associated with accumulation of the gamma-globin (gamma-globin) message in EEB cells. The GL-7-mediated erythroid differentiation was associated with apoptosis. These results suggest that direct signaling to PhGlc mediates erythroid differentiation and apoptosis in EEB cells.

  6. Modeling disordered morphologies in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Tobias; Danilov, Denis; Lennartz, Christian; Wenzel, Wolfgang

    2013-12-05

    Organic thin film devices are investigated for many diverse applications, including light emitting diodes, organic photovoltaic and organic field effect transistors. Modeling of their properties on the basis of their detailed molecular structure requires generation of representative morphologies, many of which are amorphous. Because time-scales for the formation of the molecular structure are slow, we have developed a linear-scaling single molecule deposition protocol which generates morphologies by simulation of vapor deposition of molecular films. We have applied this protocol to systems comprising argon, buckminsterfullerene, N,N-Di(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-diphenyl-benzidine, mer-tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline)aluminum(III), and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, with and without postdeposition relaxation of the individually deposited molecules. The proposed single molecule deposition protocol leads to formation of highly ordered morphologies in argon and buckminsterfullerene systems when postdeposition relaxation is used to locally anneal the configuration in the vicinity of the newly deposited molecule. The other systems formed disordered amorphous morphologies and the postdeposition local relaxation step has only a small effect on the characteristics of the disordered morphology in comparison to the materials forming crystals.

  7. DIFFERENTIATION AND MALIGNANT SUPPRESSION INDUCED BY MOUSE ERYTHROID DIFFERENTIATION AND DENUCLEATION FACTOR ON MOUSE ERYTHROLEUKEMIA CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩代书; 赵青; 葛晔华; 周建平; 马静; 陈克铨; 薛社普

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the roles of mouse erythroid differentiation and denueleation factor (MEDDF), a novel factor cloned in our laboratory recently, in erythroid terminal differentiation.Methods. Mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells were transfected with eukaryotic expression plasmid pcD-NA-MEDDF. Then we investigated the changes on characteristics of cell growth by analyzing cells growth rate,mitotic index and colony-forming rate in semi-solid medium. The expressions of c-myc and β-globin genes were analysed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR.Results. MEL ceils transfected with pcDNA-MEDDF showed significant lower growth rate, mitotic index,and colony-forming rate in semi-solid medium ( P<0.01 ). The percentage of benzidine-positive cells was 32.8% after transfection. The expression of β-globin in cells transfected with pcDNA-MEDDF was 3.43 times higher than that of control (MEL transfected with blank vector, pcDNA3. 1 ), and the expression of c-myc decreased by 66.3%.Conclusions. MEDDF can induce differentiation of MEL cell and suppress its malignancy.

  8. Hemoglobin adducts of N-substituted aryl compounds in exposure control and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, H G; Birner, G; Kowallik, P; Schütze, D; Zwirner-Baier, I

    1993-03-01

    Arylamines, nitroarenes, and azo dyes yield a common type of metabolite, the nitroarene, which produces a hydrolyzable adduct with protein and is closely related to the critical, ultimate toxic and genotoxic metabolite. The target dose as measured by hemoglobin adducts in erythrocytes reflects not only the actual uptake from the environment but also an individual's capacity for metabolic activation and is therefore an improved dosimeter for human exposure. The usefulness of hemoglobin adducts in molecular epidemiology is now widely recognized. With regard to risk assessment, many questions need to be answered. The described experiments in rats address some of these questions. The relationship between binding to hemoglobin in erythrocytes and to proteins in plasma has been found to vary considerably for a number of diamines. The fraction of hydrolyzable adducts out of the total protein adducts formed also varies in both compartments. This indicates that the kind of circulating metabolites and their availability in different compartments is compound specific. This has to do with the complex pattern of competing metabolic pathways, and the role of N-acetylation and deacetylation is emphasized. An example of nonlinear dose dependence adds to the complexity. Analysis of hemoglobin adducts reveals interesting insights into prevailing pathways, which not only apply to the chemical, but may also be useful to assess an individual's metabolic properties. In addition, it is demonstrated that the greater part of erythrocytes and benzidine-hemoglobin adducts are eliminated randomly in rats, i.e., following first-order kinetics.

  9. Selective spectrophotometric determination of some primary amines using 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theia’a N. Al-Sabha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A spectrophotometric method is developed for the quantitative determination of some primary aliphatic and aromatic amines, i.e., allyl amine, 1,5-diaminopentane, 1,6-diaminohexane, cyclohexylamine, m-aminophenol, benzidine and p-phenylenediamine. The method is based on the interaction between these amines and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB reagent. The spectra of the products show maximum absorption that ranged from 355–357 nm and 366–377 nm with molar absorptivities that ranged from 1.086 × 104–6.398 × 104 and 7.566 × 103–1.581 × 104 l/mol cm for aliphatic and aromatic primary amines, respectively. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration range of 0.25–8.0, 1.0–10, 0.25–2.50, 1.0–8.0, 2.0–20, 1.0–12.0 and 1.0–10.0 μg/ml for the above mentioned amines, respectively, and the mean percent recoveries ranged between 97.8% and 103.3% with precision (RSD better than 5.5% for all the amines under study. In addition, the stability constant has been determined and the mechanism is proposed for the DNFB-amine products.

  10. [Present aspects and problems regarding occupational bladder cancer due to exposure to aromatic amines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, J

    1989-12-01

    About a century has passed since the first case of bladder cancer due to occupational exposure to carcinogenic aromatic amines was reported. In the major developed countries of the world, it is forbidden to manufacture and/or to use such aromatic amines. In Japan in the 1950's, many workers were exposed to carcinogenic aromatic amines, but in 1972, the Labor Safety and Health Act came into force and manufacturing and/or using of four kinds of aromatic amines were forbidden. Recently it has been reported that the risk of bladder cancer in workers exposed to aromatic amines before the ban of these chemicals is approximately from several times to a hundred times compared with the general population, and some reports say that dose-response relationship was observed. The important issues now are the carcinogenicity of other kinds of aromatic amines besides benzidine and 2-naphthylamine, carcinogenicity of metabolites of several substances like synthetic dyes, and carcinogenic aromatic amines as impurities in substances imported from developing countries. The type of exposure to these carcinogens changes low level and long period exposures. In addition to the chemical or dye industries, an increased risk of bladder cancer was observed among workers handling leather and rubber and those engaged in printing, textile industries, hairdressing, truck driving and so on. In the future, it will be necessary to cooperate with the departments of epidemiology, toxicology and clinical medicine for the purpose of estimating the risk of these occupations and the health care administration of the exposed workers.

  11. Glutathione S-transferase P1 ILE105Val polymorphism in occupationally exposed bladder cancer cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopps, Silke; Angeli-Greaves, Miriam; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Prager, Hans-Martin; Roemer, Hermann C; Lohlein, Dietrich; Weistenhofer, Wobbeke; Bolt, Hermann M; Golka, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    The genotype glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) influences the risk for bladder cancer among Chinese workers occupationally exposed to benzidine. Studies of Caucasian bladder cancer cases without known occupational exposures showed conflicting results. Research was thus conducted to define the role of GSTP1 genotypes in Caucasian bladder cancer cases with an occupational history of exposure to aromatic amines. DNA from 143 cases reported to the Industrial Professional Associations (Berufsgenossenschaften) in Germany from 1996 to 2004, who had contracted urothelial cancer due to occupational exposure, and 196 patients from one Department of Surgery in Dortmund, without known malignancy in their medical history, were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (LightCycler) in relation to GSTP1 A1578G (Ile105Val) polymorphism. Among the subjects with bladder cancer, 46% presented the AA genotype, 39% the AG genotype, and 15% the GG genotype. In the surgical (noncancer) control group analyzed, 42% presented the AA genotype, 42% the AG genotype, and 16% the GG genotype. A subgroup of bladder cancer cases, represented by 46 painters, showed a distribution of 41% of the AA genotype, 48% of the AG genotype, and 11% of the GG genotype. Data indicated that in Caucasians exposed to aromatic amines the GSTP1 A1578G polymorphism did not appear to play a significant role as a predisposing factor for bladder cancer incidence.

  12. N-acetyltransferase-2 and medical history in bladder cancer cases with a suspected occupational disease (BK 1301) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistenhofer, Wobbeke; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Bolt, Hermann M; Golka, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    In 187 bladder cancer cases reported to the employers' liability insurance association in Germany as suspected cases of an occupational disease produced by aromatic amines, N- acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2) activity status, occupational exposure data, period of latency, and clinical parameters were determined. In 83 out of 187 cases surveyed within the period 1991-1999, the NAT2 acetylator status was investigated by determining the molar ratio of an acetylated and a nonacetylated caffeine metabolite in urine (phenotyping) and/or by NAT2 genotyping according to standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol. The proportion of slow NAT2 acetylators in the surveyed 83 bladder cancer cases was 67%. In the entire group of surveyed 187 cases, mean duration of exposure was 17.6 yr and mean period of latency was 34.7 yr. Occupational exposures to potential bladder carcinogens were observed in 73 occupations, including chemical industry (25%), and occupations as a painter and/or varnisher (23%) were most often encountered. In 12% of the surveyed bladder cancer cases, a second primary malignancy was observed. The NAT2 distribution observed in the 83 cases is comparable to the proportion in 40 occupationally exposed bladder cancer cases in a Department of Urology located close to a former German production site of benzidine-based azo dyes, but higher than in most studies involving NAT2 genetic status in bladder cancer cases.

  13. Occupational exposure and urological cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golka, Klaus; Wiese, Andreas; Assennato, Giorgio; Bolt, Hermann M

    2004-02-01

    Occupational exposure is definitely a major cause of cancer. In the field of urology, the urinary bladder is the most important target. A classical cause of bladder cancer is exposure to carcinogenic aromatic amines, especially benzidine and beta-naphthylamine. Such exposures were related to work places in the chemical industry, implying production and processing of classical aromatic amines, and in the rubber industry. Occupational bladder cancer has also been observed in dyers, painters and hairdressers. Even some occupations with much lower exposures to carcinogenic aromatic amines, like coke oven workers or workers in the rubber industry after the ban on beta-naphthylamine, are at risk. In these occupations, exposure to complex mixtures of substances containing combustion products (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) or nitrosamines is common. Renal cell cancer has been observed as an occupational disease in cases of very high exposure to trichloroethylene having led to narcotic or prenarcotic symptoms. Occupationally related cancers of the prostate or the testes appear currently not relevant.

  14. Chemical and enzymatic interactions of Direct Black 38 and Direct Brown 1 on release of carcinogenic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanamani, A; Bhaskar, M; Ganga, Radhakrishnan; Sekaran, G; Sadulla, S

    2004-09-01

    Release of amine products from azo compounds is of considerable interest, since most of the metabolized amine products have toxic and carcinogenic characters. Moreover, most of the azo dyes are extensively used as coloring agents in inks, textiles, leathers, food and pharmaceutical industries. The present study emphasis on the quantification and comparison of amines released from water soluble dyes by (i) extra cellular protein (ECP) of Streptomyces sp. SS07 and by (ii) chemical methods. It has been observed that both the methods release considerable quantities of similar type of amine products. Release of amine compounds by ECP and chemical reduction in acid and alkaline sweat medium from a leather garment sample was also assessed. ECP (0.7852 mg protein/mg of ECP) releases benzidine and 4-amino biphenyl from Direct Black 38 and Direct Brown 1 as stable products at pH 9.2 and at 37 degrees C for a contact period of 24 h. On comparison with chemical reduction, it was observed that about 5-20% increase in the release of amine products by ECP was observed. However, more than 60% of amine products were released by chemical method from leather garment samples than direct treatment with ECP.

  15. Toxicity assessment and microbial degradation of azo dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvaneswari, N; Muthukrishnan, J; Gunasekaran, P

    2006-08-01

    Toxic effluents containing azo dyes are discharged from various industries and they adversely affect water resources, soil fertility, aquatic organisms and ecosystem integrity. They pose toxicity (lethal effect, genotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity) to aquatic organisms (fish, algae, bacteria, etc.) as well as animals. They are not readily degradable under natural conditions and are typically not removed from waste water by conventional waste water treatment systems. Benzidine based dyes have long been recognized as a human urinary bladder carcinogen and tumorigenic in a variety of laboratory animals. Several microorganisms have been found to decolourize, transform and even to completely mineralize azo dyes. A mixed culture of two Pseudomonas strains efficiently degraded mixture of 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA) and phenol/cresols. Azoreductases of different microorganisms are useful for the development of biodegradation systems as they catalyze reductive cleavage of azo groups (-N=N-) under mild conditions. In this review, toxic impacts of dyeing factory effluents on plants, fishes, and environment, and plausible bioremediation strategies for removal of azo dyes have been discussed.

  16. A review of the genotoxicity of food, drug and cosmetic colours and other azo, triphenylmethane and xanthene dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, R D; Haveland-Smith, R B

    1982-03-01

    The genetic toxicology of the major dyestuffs used in foods, drugs and cosmetics has been reviewed. Published data for azo, triphenylmethane and xanthene dyes from short-term assays for muta-carcinogenicity have been summarized and discussed according to usage, current and previous worldwide legislative status. Certain other synthetic food dyes, commercial mixtures, natural and polymeric colourants as well as a section on aminoazobenzene and its derivatives have been included. Genotoxicity has been discussed with reference to structural chemistry, levels of exposure, absorption and metabolism and to epidemiological information. The extent of agreement between data from different tests and correlations with animal cancer assays have been considered. Synthetic dyes from the 3 major structural classes exhibit genotoxicity, whilst only 2 natural colours have proved active. Activity may be due to the presence of certain functional groups, notably nitro- and amino-substituents which are metabolized to ultimate electrophiles that may be stabilized by electronic interaction with aryl rings. Metabolic processes such as azo-reduction may be activating or detoxifying. the low but significant correlation between animal carcinogenicity and short-term test data may be increased with further screening, especially involving chromosome assays. It is suggested that a human cancer hazard may exist where significant quantities of finished benzidine dye samples are handled. Such risks from exposures to other colours and the possibility of human germ-line mutation induction by dyestuffs cannot be meaningfully assessed.

  17. DNA-damaging activity in vivo and bacterial mutagenicity of sixteen aromatic amines and azo-derivatives, as related quantitatively to their carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, S; Taningher, M; Russo, P; Pala, M; Tamaro, M; Monti-Bragadin, C

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen aromatic amines and azo-derivatives were studied. They were: benzidine; 2-acetylaminofluorene; 3'-methyl-p-dimethylaminobenzene; o-aminoazo-toluene; p-dimethylaminoazobenzene; 2,4-diamino-toluene; 4,4'-oxydianiline; 2,4-diaminoanisole; 4,4'-methylenedianiline; 2-naphthylamine; Auramine O; Rhodamine B; Ponceau MX; 1-naphthylamine; p-aminoazobenzene and aniline. The compounds were examined for their capability to induce alkaline DNA fragmentation in rat liver after treatment in vivo, for their mutagenicity in the Salmonella strains TA 98 and TA 100, for their acute toxicity and for their carcinogenicity in mice and rats. For each parameter a quantitative potency index was established, and the correlation existing amongst the different parameters investigated. Only mutagenicity in the strain TA 98 was slightly correlated with carcinogenic potency (r = 0.408). DNA fragmentation and toxicity were not correlated with carcinogenicity. A significant correlation was found between DNA fragmentation and toxicity (r = 0.539). No correlation was found between DNA fragmentation and mutagenicity. The lack of correlation between DNA fragmentation and carcinogenicity is in contrast with previous results obtained with a family of hydrazine derivatives (12) and a group of nitrosocompounds (22). For these two groups of chemicals correlation between DNA fragmentation and carcinogenicity existed, but not between carcinogenicity and mutagenicity in the Ames' test. It is suggested that short term tests can perform very differently for different classes of chemicals.

  18. Low driving voltage in an organic light-emitting diode using MoO3/NPB multiple quantum well structure in a hole transport layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Xue; Wu Xiao-Ming; Hua Yu-Lin; Jiao Zhi-Qiang; Shen Li-Ying; Su Yue-Ju; Bai Juan-Juan

    2013-01-01

    The driving voltage of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is lowered by employing molybdenum trioxide (MoO3)/N,N'-bis(naphthalene-l-yl)-N,N'-bis(phe-nyl)-benzidine (NPB) multiple quantum well (MQW) structure in the hole transport layer.For the device with double quantum well (DQW) structure of ITO/ [MoO3 (2.5 nm)/NPB (20 nm)]2/Alq3(50 nm)/LiF (0.8 nm)/Al (120 nm)],the turn-on voltage is reduced to 2.8 V,which is lowered by 0.4 V compared with that of the control device (without MQW structures),and the driving voltage is 5.6 V,which is reduced by l V compared with that of the control device at the 1000 cd/m2.In this work,the enhancement of the injection and transport ability for holes could reduce the driving voltage for the device with MQW structure,which is attributed not only to the reduced energy barrier between ITO and NPB,but also to the forming charge transfer complex between MoO3 and NPB induced by the interfacial doping effect of MoO3.

  19. Variability in the distribution of callosal projection neurons in the adult rat parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, G O; Gould, H J; Killackey, H P

    1984-07-23

    Previous reports have shown that the barrel field area of the parietal cortex of the adult rat contains relatively few callosal projection neurons, even though callosal projection neurons are abundant in this cortical region in the neonatal rat. Furthermore, it has been shown that many of the callosal neurons which seem to disappear as the animal matures do not die, but project to ipsilateral cortical areas. These findings rely on the ability of retrograde transport techniques which utilize injections of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or of fluorescent dyes into one hemisphere. We now show that several technical modifications of the HRP technique yield a wider distribution of HRP-containing neurons in the contralateral barrel field area of the adult rat than previously reported. These include implants of HRP pellets into transected axons of the corpus callosum, the addition of DMSO and nonidet P40 to Sigma VI HRP, wheat germ agglutinin HRP and the use of tetramethyl benzidine as the chromogen in the reaction procedure. Our findings have implications for transport studies in general and for the development of the cortical barrel field in particular.

  20. Electrophoresis Profile of Total Peroxidases in Saliva and Sera of Patients with Different Oral Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathama Razooki Hasan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Total peroxidase system (EC 1.11.1.X activity is known to play a key role in a number of human diseases, where the activity of these species can be both beneficial & detrimental. In our previous work (submitted for publication a remarkable increase have been noticed in the activity of this system in saliva of patients with oral tumors (Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma OSCC, & Oral Ossifying Fibroma, OF. The present project aimed to highlight the variations in the different forms of this system in saliva & serum samples among patients with above mentioned tumors, in comparison to that of corresponding healthy individuals, using the electrophoresis as the analytical tool. Salivary peroxidase gave faint bands with a poor separation when the analysis was carried out using basic PAGE electrohoresis while good clear bands, as well as better resolutions of these bands were obtained when acidic PAGE electrophoresis was used for the analysis. An additional band, moved further toward the anode, was observed to be present, as the electrozymogram indicated, in the saliva samples of the patients with malignant tumors (Squamous cell carcinoma. The results also showed that using benzidine, or o-dianisidine, as the substrate in staining of the polyacrylamide gels , in order to localize the bands that exhibit peroxidase activity, seems to be better than using 3, 3’, 5, 5’-Tetramethylbenzidine( TMBZ as the substrate for this purpose.

  1. Two new hexacoordinated coordination polymers of cadmium(II) containing bridging units only: Syntheses, structures and molecular properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DIPU SUTRADHAR; HABIBAR CHOWDHURY; SUSHOVAN KONER; SUBHASIS ROY; BARINDRA KUMAR GHOSH

    2016-09-01

    The syntheses, characterizations and structures of a neutral 2D coordination polymer [Cd(bnzd)(NCS)₂]n (1) and a polycationic 3D coordination polymer isolated as perchlorate salt [Cd(bnzd)₃]n(ClO₄)₂n (2) (bnzd = benzidine) are described. X-ray structural analyses reveal that each hexacoordinated cadmium(II) center in 1 adopts a distorted octahedral geometry with a CdN₄S₂ chromophore bound by two N atoms of two different bnzd units and two N and two S atoms of symmetric doubly bridged end-toend NCS− units extended in a 2D sheet. Six N atoms of six different bridged bnzd units are bonded to each cadmium(II) in 2 in a non-ended fashion affording a 3D network structure. In the crystalline state, each 2D sheet structure in 1 is further stabilized by π· · ·π interaction which in turn affords a 3D network structure through multiple intermolecular N-H· · · S hydrogen bonds. On the other hand, the 3D network structure in 2 is stabilized by weak intermolecular N-H· · ·O hydrogen bonds and C-H· · ·π interactions. Bnzd, 1 and 2 display intraligand 1(π-π*) fluorescence in DMF solution at room temperature.

  2. NPB厚度对异质结OLED载流子复合区域的调控%Modification Effect of NPB Film Thickness on Charge Carrier Recombination Zone of Heterostructure OLEDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璐; 于军胜; 黎威志; 李伟; 蒋亚东

    2007-01-01

    通过调控p型半导体N,N′-bis(naphthalen-1-y)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)benzidine(NPB)层的厚度,制备了结构为ITO/NPB/aluminum(Ⅲ)bis(2-methyl-8-quinolinato)-4-phenylphenolate(BAlq)/ NPB(0~18 nm)/tri-(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum (Alq3)/Mg:Ag的多层有机电致发光器件.分析结果表明,在该类异质结器件中,NPB不仅可以作为空穴传输材料,在适当的厚度范围内,它还可以起到调控载流子复合区域的作用;当NPB厚度在0~18 nm之间变化时,随着其厚度增加器件发光颜色可由蓝色变为绿色.通过器件发光光谱的表征可以得知,器件的载流子复合区域相应地由BAlq层转移至Alq3层.

  3. Tandem organic light-emitting diode with a molybdenum tri-oxide thin film interconnector layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Fei-Ping; Wang Qian; Zhou Xiang

    2013-01-01

    A 10-nm-thick molybdenum tri-oxide (MoO3) thin film was used as the interconnector layer in tandem organic lightemitting devices (OLEDs).The tandem OLEDs with two identical emissive units consisting of N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) / tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) exhibited current efficiency-current density characteristics superior to the conventional single-unit devices.At 20 mA/cm2,the current efficiency of the tandem OLEDs using the interconnector layers of MoO3 thin film was about 4.0 cd/A,which is about twice that of the corresponding conventional single-unit device (1.8 cd/A).The tandem OLED showed a higher power efficiency than the conventional single-unit device for luminance over 1200 cd/m2.The experimental results demonstrated that a MoO3 thin film with a proper thickness can be used as an effective interconnector layer in tandem OLEDs.Such an interconnector layer can be easily fabricated by simple thermal evaporation,greatly simplifying the device processing and fabrication processes required by previously reported interconnector layers.A possible explanation was proposed for the carrier generation of the MoO3 interconnector layer.

  4. NEW DESIGNED HMBA AGENTS AS INDUCERS OF ERYTHROLEUKEMIA CELL DIFFERENTIATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华力; 张世馥; 周建平; 章静波

    2002-01-01

    Objective.Searching for more potent and less toxic HMBA related agents. Methods.Human erythroleukemia cell K562,murine erythroleukemia cell (MEL) and its sub line MEL DS19 were used as target cells to select a cell line which is the most sensitive to HMBA,then analyzed the activity of inducing differentiation of two new designed HMBA derivatives:HMBPA [hexamethylenebi (3 pyridin) amide] and Co HDTA (ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid cobalt) using cell biology,cytochemical and molecular biology techniques. Results.We found that the MEL DS19 cells were most sensitive to HMBA (benzidine positive,B+ ~76% ).Co HDTA can inhibit the growth of MEL DS19,but induces differentiation just in a small population (B+ 2% ~4.5% ).Between 0.02~5μ mol/L,HMBPA induces 3% ~8% cells committed to differentiation with little inhibition of cell proliferation.1μ mol/L HMBPA and 2mmol/L HMBA together,can obviously increase the percentage of differentiated cell (B+ ~72% ),inhibit DNA synthesis and accelerate β globin transcription. Conclusion.The new HMBA derivatives may provide potential cancer differentiation inducers.

  5. 檫木花粉活力和柱头可授性研究%Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity of Sassafras tzumu (Hemsl.) Hemsl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王馨; 于芬; 季春峰; 龙春玲; 杨光耀

    2013-01-01

    通过野外观察檫木Sassafras tzumu (Hemsl.) Hemsl的开花过程,用联苯胺-过氧化氢法测定其柱头可授性, TTC的方法测定檫木花粉活力。结果表明:柱头具可授性时间为8 d,檫木的花粉活力持续时间为32 h。根据测定时间发现柱头可授期和花粉活力较强期重叠较长,通过后期观察到檫木有结实,说明檫木具有正常的传粉机制和结实能力。%Flowering process of Sassafras tzumu (Hemsl.) Hemsl was observed in the wild, stigma receptivity of sassafras tzumu was evaluated with benzidine-H2O2 method, and pollen viability of sassafras tzumu was evaluated with TTC method. The results showed that stigma can be granted with 8 days, pollen viability of sassafras tzumu has durative 32 hours. According to the measured time to discover stigma receptivity and pollen viability stronger has a longer period of overlap, later period observation showed that sassafras tzumu have fructify, which indicated that sassafras tzumu has normal pollination mechanisms and fructification ability.

  6. [Pollen viability, stigma receptivity and fruiting characteristics of botanical origin of Jinxianlian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qing-song; Wang, Yong; Hu, Run-huai; Zhang, Wang-shu; Li, Ming-yan

    2015-03-01

    The viability and life span of pollen were evaluated by TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazlium chloride) and the peroxidase solution, the stigma receptivity were estimated by benzidine-H2O2 method and the fruiting characteristics were investigated. The results showed that (1) Anoectochilus roxburghii and A. formosanus appeared the same up-and-down trend of the pollen viability, increased and then decreased. The storage temperature and storage time had significant impact on the pollen viability. With the extension of storage time, the pollen activity decreased. 4 degrees C refrigerator storage may be extended the pollen vitality. (2) The stigma had receptivity in 1st day and reached the highest level in the 4th day after blooming. A. roxburghii lost receptivity in the 8th day while A. formosanus lost receptivity in the 10th day after blooming. (3) The different pollination had significant impact on seed setting rate. The seed setting rate of artificial cross-pollination was higher than that of the artificial self-pollination. Collecting pollen in the 3rd day and carrying out artificial cross-pollination in the 4th day after blooming can significantly improve seed setting rate. The results provided technical assurance for A. roxburghii and A. formosanus breeding of new varieties and seed breeding.

  7. Boswellic acid acetate induces differentiation and apoptosis in leukemia cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Y; Nakajo, S; Xia, L; Nakaya, K; Fang, Q; Waxman, S; Han, R

    1999-01-01

    Boswellic acid acetate (BC-4), a compound isolated from the herb Boswellia carterii Birdw., can induce differentiation and apoptosis of leukemia cells. Based on cell morphology and NBT reduction, BC-4 induced monocytic differentiation of myeloid leukemia HL-60, U937 and ML-1 cells at a dose under 12.5 microg/ml (24.2 microM). BC-4 was a potent inducer, with 90% of the cells showing morphologic changes and 80-90% of the cells showing NBT reduction. Specific and non-specific esterase were also increased by BC-4. Based on benzidine staining assay, BC-4 failed to induce erythroid leukemia DS-19 and K562 cells differentiation. In contrast to its selective differentiation effect, BC-4 strongly inhibited growth of all cell lines tested. The growth inhibition effect was dose- and time-dependent. In HL-60 cells, 20 microg/ml (38.8 microM) of BC-4 decreased viable cell number by 60% at 24 h, whereas at 3 days there was virtually no viable cells. Morphologic and DNA fragmentation analysis proved that BC-4 induced cell apoptosis. The dual apoptotic and differentiation effects of BC-4 suggest that it may be a powerful agent in the treatment of leukemia.

  8. Effect of two kinds of multi-enzyme abluent on cleaning regenerative medical instruments%两种多酶清洗剂对外来再生医疗器械清洗效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凤溪

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较两种多酶清洗剂清洗外来再生医疗器械的质量.方法 取外来再生医疗器械800件,随机分为试验A组和对照B组,每组400件;A组使用鲁沃夫传统型酶洗剂+超声机洗,B组使用万福金安多酶清洗剂+超声机洗;比较2组器械清洗后的目测洁净合格率和2%联苯胺冰醋酸隐血显色合格率.结果 试验组清洗后器械目测洁净合格率和隐血显色合格率分别为98%和97%,对照组清洗后器械目测洁净合格率和隐血显色合格率分别为95%和91%,以χ2检验进行统计学处理,试验组优于对照组差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论鲁沃夫传统型酶洗剂清洗外来再生医疗器械提高了清洗质量,确保了灭菌效果,是外来再生医疗器械清洗的理想清洗剂.%OBJECTIVE To compare qualities that two kinds of multi-enzyme abluent clear regenerated medical instruments.METHODS A total of 800 pieces of polluted medical instruments with the same material were collected randomly and divided into test group A and control group B (400 pieces each).Medical instruments in group A were soaked in the traditional RUHOF multi-enzyme abluent by using ultrasonic washer.The group B were soaked in the WANFUJINAN multi-enzyme cleaner, also using ultrasonic washer And compared passing rate of visually clean after cleaning device and qualified rate of 2% acetic acid benzidine coloring occult blood between two groups.RESULTS The passing rate of visually clean in test group was 98% and 97%.The qualified rate of 2% acetic acid benzidine coloring occult blood in control group was 95% and 91%.There was statistical significant difference between the two groups by chi square test (P<0.01), It demonstrated that the test group was superior to the control group.CONCLUSION The traditional RUHOF multi-enzyme abluent improves the quality of clearing effect and makes sure the germicidal effect is ideal multi-enzyme abluent for clearing regenerated medical

  9. Characterization of copper selenide thin film hole-injection layers deposited at room temperature for use with p-type organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Koizumi, Ikue; Kim, Ki-Beom; Yanagi, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Toshio; Hirano, Masahiro; Matsunami, Noriaki; Hosono, Hideo

    2008-12-01

    Copper selenide, CuxSe(x ˜2), was examined as a hole-injection layer for low-temperature organic devices. Crystalline CuxSe films grown at room temperature with atomically flat surfaces exhibited metallic conduction with a high electrical conductivity of 4.5×103 S/cm, a hole concentration of 1.4×1022 cm-3, and a mobility of 2.0 cm2/(V s). Analysis of the free carrier absorption using the Drude model estimated the effective mass of a hole as 1.0me. Photoemission spectroscopy measurements of the interfaces between CuxSe and organic hole transport layers, N ,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N ,N'-bis(phenyl) benzidine (NPB) and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), verified that the hole-injection barriers of these interfaces (0.4 eV for NPB and 0.3 eV for CuPc) are smaller than that of a conventional indium tin oxide (ITO) hole-injection electrode/NPB interface (0.6 eV) but are comparable to that of an ITO electrode/CuPc interface (0.3 eV). Hole-only devices using the CuxSe layer as a hole-injection anode exhibited very low threshold voltages (0.4-0.5 V) and nearly Ohmic characteristics. The NPB layer on the CuxSe layer was found to be highly doped at 1017-1019 cm-3, probably due to copper diffusion, while the CuPc layer is nearly intrinsic with a doping concentration lower than 1015 cm-3. These results indicated that a CuxSe film combined with CuPc is a promising candidate for a low-voltage hole-injection anode or a buffer layer in low-temperature devices such as organic light-emitting diodes and thin film transistors.

  10. A search for blues brothers: X-ray crystallographic/spectroscopic characterization of the tetraarylbenzidine cation radical as a product of aging of solid magic blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talipov, Marat R; Hossain, Mohammad M; Boddeda, Anitha; Thakur, Khushabu; Rathore, Rajendra

    2016-03-14

    Magic blue (MB+˙ SbCl6− salt), i.e. tris-4-bromophenylamminium cation radical, is a routinely employed one-electron oxidant that slowly decomposes in the solid state upon storage to form so called ‘blues brothers’, which often complicate the quantitative analyses of the oxidation processes. Herein, we disclose the identity of the main ‘blues brother’ as the cation radical and dication of tetrakis-(4-bromophenyl)benzidine (TAB) by a combined DFT and experimental approach, including isolation of TAB+˙ SbCl6− and its X-ray crystallography characterization. The formation of TAB in aged magic blue samples occurs by a Scholl-type coupling of a pair of MB followed by a loss of molecular bromine. The recognition of this fact led us to the rational design and synthesis of tris(2-bromo-4-tert-butylphenyl)amine, referred to as ‘blues cousin’ (BC: Eox1 = 0.78 V vs. Fc/Fc+, λmax(BC+˙) = 805 nm, εmax = 9930 cm−1 M−1), whose oxidative dimerization is significantly hampered by positioning the sterically demanding tert-butyl groups at the para-positions of the aryl rings. A ready two-step synthesis of BC from triphenylamine and the high stability of its cation radical (BC+˙) promise that BC will serve as a ready replacement for MB and an oxidant of choice for mechanistic investigations of one-electron transfer processes in organic, inorganic, and organometallic transformations.

  11. A current global view of environmental and occupational cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mihi

    2011-07-01

    This review is focused on current information of avoidable environmental pollution and occupational exposure as causes of cancer. Approximately 2% to 8% of all cancers are thought to be due to occupation. In addition, occupational and environmental cancers have their own characteristics, e.g., specific chemicals and cancers, multiple factors, multiple causation and interaction, or latency period. Concerning carcinogens, asbestos/silica/wood dust, soot/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [benzo(a) pyrene], heavy metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), aromatic amines (4-aminobiphenyl, benzidine), organic solvents (benzene or vinyl chloride), radiation/radon, or indoor pollutants (formaldehyde, tobacco smoking) are mentioned with their specific cancers, e.g., lung, skin, and bladder cancers, mesothelioma or leukemia, and exposure routes, rubber or pigment manufacturing, textile, painting, insulation, mining, and so on. In addition, nanoparticles, electromagnetic waves, and climate changes are suspected as future carcinogenic sources. Moreover, the aspects of environmental and occupational cancers are quite different between developing and developed countries. The recent follow-up of occupational cancers in Nordic countries shows a good example for developed countries. On the other hand, newly industrializing countries face an increased burden of occupational and environmental cancers. Developing countries are particularly suffering from preventable cancers in mining, agriculture, or industries without proper implication of safety regulations. Therefore, industrialized countries are expected to educate and provide support for developing countries. In addition, citizens can encounter new environmental and occupational carcinogen nominators such as nanomaterials, electromagnetic wave, and climate exchanges. As their carcinogenicity or involvement in carcinogenesis is not clearly unknown, proper consideration for them should be taken into account. For these purposes, new

  12. Syntheses, structures and luminescent properties of Sm (III) and Eu (III) chelates for organic electroluminescent device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Y.J.; Wong, T.K.S.; Yan, Y.K.; Hu, X

    2003-08-25

    Samarium(III) and europium(III) complexes of the {beta}-diketone ligand (2-thienyl)trifluoroacetylacetone (HTTA) and triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) were prepared. The complexes, Sm(TTA){sub 2}(TPPO){sub 2}NO{sub 3} (1), Eu(TTA){sub 2}(TPPO){sub 2}NO{sub 3}H{sub 2}O (2), and Eu(TTA){sub 3}(TPPO){sub 2} (3) were characterized. Single crystal X-ray diffraction molecular structures of complexes 1 and 3 are presented and some of the crystal parameters for complex 1 are: space group, P1; a=11.019(4) A, b=11.791(6) A, c=12.535(5) A; {alpha}=102.68(3) deg., {beta}=102.06(3) deg., {gamma}=117.75(3) deg. ; for complex 3: space group, P-1, a=11.1946(9) A, b=12.117(2) A, c=23.535(2) A, {alpha}=80.047(13) deg., {beta}=76.498(7) deg., {gamma}=70.450(9) deg. . Electroluminescent devices were fabricated by vacuum evaporation. Apart from single layer devices, double and triple layer devices with the following structures: ITO/TPD/Complex 2/Al; ITO/TPD/Complex 3/Al; ITO/TPD/Complex 2/Alq/Al were studied, where N,N-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-benzidine (TPD) was used as a hole transporting layer and tris(8-hydroxyquinolinate)aluminum (Alq) as an electron transporting layer. The results indicate that single layer devices show very low quantum efficiency, while the double layer devices with a hole transporting layer exhibit enhanced efficiency and a well defined EL spectrum. No significant improvement was observed in the triple layer devices with an additional electron transporting layer.

  13. The role of DNA methylation in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiao-Fei; Wu, Xiao-Rong; Xue, Ming; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Li, Yang; Suriguga,; Zhang, Guang-Yao; Yi, Zong-Chun, E-mail: yizc@buaa.edu.cn

    2012-11-15

    Catechol is one of phenolic metabolites of benzene in vivo. Catechol is also widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In addition, fruits, vegetables and cigarette smoke also contain catechol. Our precious study showed that several benzene metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, and 1,2,4-benzenetriol) inhibited erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. In present study, the effect of catechol on erythroid differentiation of K562 cells was investigated. Moreover, to address the role of DNA methylation in catechol-induced effect on erythroid differentiation in K562 cells, methylation levels of erythroid-specific genes were analyzed by Quantitative MassARRAY methylation analysis platform. Benzidine staining showed that exposure to catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation in K562 cells in concentration- and time-dependent manners. The mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes, including α-globin, β-globin, γ-globin, erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase, erythroid porphobilinogen deaminase, and transcription factor GATA-1 genes, showed a significant concentration-dependent increase in catechol-treated K562 cells. The exposure to catechol caused a decrease in DNA methylation levels at a few CpG sites in some erythroid specific genes including α-globin, β-globin and erythroid porphobilinogen deaminase genes. These results indicated that catechol improved erythroid differentiation potency of K562 cells at least partly via up-regulating transcription of some erythroid related genes, and suggested that inhibition of DNA methylation might be involved in up-regulated expression of some erythroid related genes. -- Highlights: ► Catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation. ► Exposure to catechol resulted in up-regulated expression of erythroid genes. ► Catechol reduced methylation levels at some CpG sites in erythroid genes.

  14. The role of catechol-O-methyltransferase in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriguga; Li, Xiao-Fei; Li, Yang; Yu, Chun-Hong; Li, Yi-Ran; Yi, Zong-Chun

    2013-12-15

    Catechol is widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Catechol is also one of phenolic metabolites of benzene in vivo. Our previous study showed that catechol improved erythroid differentiation potency of K562 cells, which was associated with decreased DNA methylation in erythroid specific genes. Catechol is a substrate for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-mediated methylation. In the present study, the role of COMT in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells was investigated. Benzidine staining showed that exposure to catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation and induced mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes in K562 cells. Treatment with catechol caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in guaiacol concentration in the medium of cultured K562 cells. When COMT expression was knocked down by COMT shRNA expression in K562 cells, the production of guaiacol significantly reduced, and the sensitivity of K562 cells to cytotoxicity of catechol significantly increased. Knockdown of COMT expression by COMT shRNA expression also eliminated catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. In addition, the pre-treatment with methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine or its demethylated product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine induced a significant increase in hemin-induced Hb synthesis in K562 cells and the mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes. These findings indicated that O-methylation catalyzed by COMT acted as detoxication of catechol and involved in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells, and the production of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine partly explained catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation.

  15. Photoinduced interactions between oxidized and reduced lipoic acid and riboflavin (vitamin B2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Changyuan; Bucher, Götz; Sander, Wolfram

    2004-01-23

    As a powerful natural antioxidant, lipoic acid (LipSS) and its reduced form dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) exert significant antioxidant activities in vivo and in vitro by deactivation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). In this study the riboflavin (RF, vitamin B2) sensitized UVA and visible-light irradiation of LipSS and DHLA was studied employing continuous irradiation, fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser flash photolysis (LFP). Our results indicate that LipSS and DHLA quench both the singlet state (1RF*) and the triplet state (3RF*) of RF by electron transfer to produce the riboflavin semiquinone radical (RFH.) and the radical cation of LipSS and DHLA, respectively. The radical cation of DHLA is rapidly deprotonated twice to yield a reducing species, the radical anion of LipSS (LipSS.-). When D2O was used as solvent, it was confirmed that the reaction of LipSS with 3RF* consists of a simple electron-transfer step, while loss of hydrogen occurs in the case of DHLA oxidation. Due to the strong absorption of RFH. and the riboflavin ground state, the absorption of the radical cation and the radical anion of LipSS can not be observed directly by LFP. N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl benzidine (TMB) were added as probes to the system. In the case of LipSS, the addition resulted in the formation of the radical cation of TMPD or TMB by quenching of the LipSS radical cation. If DHLA is the reducing substrate, no formation of probe radical cation is observed. This confirms that LipSS.- is produced by riboflavin photosensitization, and that there is no oxidizing species produced after DHLA oxidization.

  16. Higher catalytic activity of porphyrin functionalized Co₃O ₄ nanostructures for visual and colorimetric detection of H₂ O₂ and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingyun; Zhu, Renren; Du, Hui; Li, Hui; Yang, Yanting; Jia, Qingyan; Bian, Bing

    2014-10-01

    5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(4-carboxyl pheyl)-porphyrin (H2TCPP) functionalized chain-like Co3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by a facile two-step method. The H2TCPP-Co3O4 nanocomposites were demonstrated to display enhanced peroxidase-like activity than that of pure Co3O4 nanoparticles without modification with H2TCPP molecules, catalyzing oxidation of peroxidase substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl-benzidine (TMB) in the presence of H2O2 to produce a blue color reaction. Furthermore, H2TCPP-Co3O4 nanocomposites showed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics and higher affinity to H2O2 and TMB than that of pure Co3O4 NPs alone. Based on H2TCPP-Co3O4 nanocomposites, a simple, sensitive and selective colorimetric method with TMB as the substrate for the detection of H2O2 and glucose was successfully established. This colorimetric method can be used for the colorimetric detection of H2O2 with a low detection limit of 4×10(-7)mol·L(-1) and a dynamic range of 1×10(-6)mol·L(-1) to 75×10(-6)mol·L(-1). This method was designed to detect glucose when combined with glucose oxidase at a low detection limit of 8.6×10(-7)mol·L(-1) and a dynamic range of 1×10(-6)mol·L(-1) to 10×10(-6)mol·L(-1). Results of a fluorescent probe suggested that the peroxidase-mimic activity of the H2TCPP-Co3O4 nanocomposites effectively catalyzed the decomposition of H2O2 into [OH] radicals.

  17. Epigenetic alterations induced by genotoxic occupational and environmental human chemical carcinogens: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Grace; Pogribny, Igor P; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations play an important role in chemically-induced carcinogenesis. Although the epigenome and genome may be equally important in carcinogenicity, the genotoxicity of chemical agents and exposure-related transcriptomic responses have been more thoroughly studied and characterized. To better understand the evidence for epigenetic alterations of human carcinogens, and the potential association with genotoxic endpoints, we conducted a systematic review of published studies of genotoxic carcinogens that reported epigenetic endpoints. Specifically, we searched for publications reporting epigenetic effects for the 28 agents and occupations included in Monograph Volume 100F of the International Agency for the Research on Cancer (IARC) that were classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1) with strong evidence of genotoxic mechanisms of carcinogenesis. We identified a total of 158 studies that evaluated epigenetic alterations for 12 of these 28 carcinogenic agents and occupations (1,3-butadiene, 4-aminobiphenyl, aflatoxins, benzene, benzidine, benzo[a]pyrene, coke production, formaldehyde, occupational exposure as a painter, sulfur mustard, and vinyl chloride). Aberrant DNA methylation was most commonly studied, followed by altered expression of non-coding RNAs and histone changes (totaling 85, 59 and 25 studies, respectively). For 3 carcinogens (aflatoxins, benzene and benzo[a]pyrene), 10 or more studies reported epigenetic effects. However, epigenetic studies were sparse for the remaining 9 carcinogens; for 4 agents, only 1 or 2 published reports were identified. While further research is needed to better identify carcinogenesis-associated epigenetic perturbations for many potential carcinogens, published reports on specific epigenetic endpoints can be systematically identified and increasingly incorporated in cancer hazard assessments.

  18. Role of impurities in determining the exciton diffusion length in organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Ian J.; Blaylock, D. Wayne; Holmes, Russell J.

    2016-04-01

    The design and performance of organic photovoltaic cells is dictated, in part, by the magnitude of the exciton diffusion length (LD). Despite the importance of this parameter, there have been few investigations connecting LD and materials purity. Here, we investigate LD for the organic small molecule N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine as native impurities are systematically removed from the material. Thin films deposited from the as-synthesized material yield a value for LD, as measured by photoluminescence quenching, of (3.9 ± 0.5) nm with a corresponding photoluminescence efficiency (ηPL) of (25 ± 1)% and thin film purity of (97.1 ± 1.2)%, measured by high performance liquid chromatography. After purification by thermal gradient sublimation, the value of LD is increased to (4.7 ± 0.5) nm with a corresponding ηPL of (33 ± 1)% and purity of (98.3 ± 0.8)%. Interestingly, a similar behavior is also observed as a function of the deposition boat temperature. Films deposited from the purified material at a high temperature give LD = (5.3 ± 0.8) nm with ηPL = (37 ± 1)% for films with a purity of (99.0 ± 0.3)% purity. Using a model of diffusion by Förster energy transfer, the variation of LD with purity is predicted as a function of ηPL and is in good agreement with measurements. The removal of impurities acts to decrease the non-radiative exciton decay rate and increase the radiative decay rate, leading to increases in both the diffusivity and exciton lifetime. The results of this work highlight the role of impurities in determining LD, while also providing insight into the degree of materials purification necessary to achieve optimized exciton transport.

  19. Effect of varying the exposure and /sup 3/H-thymidine labeling period upon the outcome of the primary hepatocyte DNA repair assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barfknecht, T.R.; Mecca, D.J.; Naismith, R.W.

    1988-06-01

    The results presented in this report demonstrate that an 18-20 hour exposure//sup 3/H-thymidine DNA labeling period is superior to a 4 hour incubation interval for general genotoxicity screening studies in the rat primary hepatocyte DNA repair assay. When DNA damaging agents which give rise to bulky-type DNA base adducts such as 2-acetylaminofluorene, aflatoxin B1 and benzidine were evaluated, little or no difference was observed between the 4 hour or an 18-20-hour exposure/labeling period. Similar results were also noted for the DNA ethylating agent diethylnitrosamine. However, when DNA damaging chemicals which produce a broader spectrum of DNA lesions were studied, differences in the amount of DNA repair as determined by autoradiographic analysis did occur. Methyl methanesulfonate and dimethylnitrosamine induced repairable DNA damage that was detected at lower dose levels with the 18-20 hour exposure/labeling period. Similar results were also observed for the DNA cross-linking agents, mitomycin C and nitrogen mustard. Ethyl methanesulfonate produced only a marginal amount of DNA repair in primary hepatocytes up to a dose level of 10(-3) M during the 4 hour incubation period, whereas a substantial amount of DNA repair was detectable at a dose level of 2.5 X 10(-4) M when the 18-20 hour exposure/labeling period was employed. The DNA alkylating agent 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, which creates DNA base adducts that are slowly removed from mammalian cell DNA, induced no detectable DNA repair in hepatocytes up to a toxic dose level of 2 X 10(-5) M with the 4 hour exposure period, whereas a marked DNA repair response was observed at 10(-5) M when the 18-20 hour exposure/labeling period was used.

  20. REACH纺织品召回案例评析%REACH textiles recall case studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高铭

    2011-01-01

    欧盟自2009年6月开始实施REACH召回,至今已公布了55起REACH纺织品召回案例,其中我国纺织产品占54.55%.禁用偶氮染料和邻苯二甲酸盐超标是纺织品召回的主要问题,其中禁用偶氮染料案例中检测出的致癌芳香胺主要是联苯胺、对氨基偶氮苯、3,3'-二甲氧基偶氮苯和3,3'-二甲基偶氮苯等;而邻苯二甲酸盐超标主要出现在特种印花的涂层整理儿童产品中.因此,有关印染企业应甄选染料,慎用特种印花和涂层整理技术.%The European Union began REACH recall measure in June, 2009,55 textile REACH recall cases have been opened to public till now, among which 54.55% is made in China. The forbidden azo dyes and phthalates are the two main problems regarding textile recall. The case of forbidden azo dyes are detected the carcinogenic aromatic amines mainly including benzidine,p-aminoazobenzene, 3,3'-dimethoxy-azobenzene and 3,3'-dimethyl azobenzene etc. The case of phthalates exceeded causes mainly in special printing and coating finish in children's products. Therefore, printing and dyeing entarprises should select dyes, and employ special printing and coating technology with caution.

  1. Superoxide and its metabolism during germination and axis growth of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khangembam Lenin; Chaudhuri, Abira; Kar, Rup Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Involvement of reactive oxygen species in regulation of plant growth and development is recently being demonstrated with various results depending on the experimental system and plant species. Role of superoxide and its metabolism in germination and axis growth was investigated in case of Vigna radiata seeds, a non-endospermous leguminous species having epigeal germination, by studying the effect of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitors, distribution of O2(•)- and H2O2 and ROS enzyme profile in axes. Germination percentage and axis growth were determined under treatment with ROS inhibitors and scavengers. Localization of O2(•)- and H2O2 was done using nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl benzidine dihydrochloride hydrate (TMB), respectively. Apoplastic level of O2(•)- was monitored by spectrophotometric analysis of bathing medium of axes. Profiles of NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied by in-gel assay. Germination was retarded by treatments affecting ROS level except H2O2 scavengers, while axis growth was retarded by all. Superoxide synthesis inhibitor and scavenger prevented H2O2 accumulation in axes in later phase as revealed from TMB staining. Activity of Cu/Zn SOD1 was initially high and declined thereafter. Superoxide being produced in apoplast possibly by NADPH oxidase activity is further metabolized to (•)OH via H2O2. Germination process depends possibly on (•)OH production in the axes. Post-germinative axis growth requires O2(•)- while the differentiating zone of axis (radicle) requires H2O2 for cell wall stiffening.

  2. Advances in Poly(4-aminodiphenylaniline) Nanofibers Preparation by Electrospinning Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Pina, C; Busacca, C; Frontera, P; Antonucci, P L; Scarpino, L A; Sironi, A; Falletta, E

    2016-05-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers are drawing a great deal of interest from academia and industry due to their multiple applications, especially in biomedical field. PANI nanofibers were successfully electrospun for the first time by MacDiarmid and co-workers at the beginning of the millennium and since then many efforts have been addressed to improve their quality. However, traditional PANI prepared from aniline monomer shows some drawbacks, such as presence of toxic (i.e., benzidine) and inorganic (salts and metals) co-products, that complicate polymer post-treatment, and low solubility in common organic solvents, making hard its processing by electrospinning technique. Some industrial sectors, such as medical and biomedical, need to employ materials free from toxic and polluting species. In this regard, the oxidative polymerization of N-(4-aminophenyl)aniline, aniline dimer, to produce poly(4-aminodiphenylaniline), P4ADA, a kind of PANI, represents an innovative alternative to the traditional synthesis because the obtained polymer results free from carcinogenic and/or polluting co-products, and, moreover, more soluble than traditional PANI. This latter feature can be exploited to obtain P4ADA nanofibers by electrospinning technique. In this paper we report the advances obtained in the P4ADA nanofibers electrospinnig. A comparison among polyethylene oxide (PEO), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS), as the second polymer to facilitate the electrospinning process, is shown. In order to increase the conductivity of P4ADA nanofibers, two strategies were adopted and compared: selective insulating binder removal from electrospun nanofibers by a rinsing tratment, afterwards optimizing the minimum amount of binder necessary for the electrospinning process. Moreover, the effect of PEO/P4ADA weight ratio on the fibers morphology and conductivity was highlighted.

  3. 金边瑞香花粉活力和柱头可授性研究%Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity of Daphne odora var. marginata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周华; 余发新; 王碧琴; 刘腾云

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究金边瑞香花粉活力和柱头可授性.[方法]采用I-KI法、TTC法和固体培养基法测定金边瑞香花粉的活力,并用联苯胺-过氧化氢法测定柱头的可授性.[结果]金边瑞香从初花期至盛花期,I-KI法未对花粉内部染色,使用,TTC法花粉未变红色,离体培养法未见有花粉管萌发,均表明花粉不具生活力.柱头表面有少量气泡产生的,且柱头变色,表明金边瑞香柱头可授性较低.[结论]金边瑞香花粉无活力,柱头可授性低.%[Objective] To study the pollen viability and stigma receptivity of Daphne odora var. marginala. [Method] The pollen viability was detected by the methods of iodine-iodide Kalium(I-KI) , triphenyllrazolium chloride(TTC) and solid medium. The stigma receptivity was estimated by benzidine-H2O2 method. [ Result] The pollen was not stained by I - KI method, and did not become red by TTC method, and there was no germinated pollen tube by the in vitro culture method, indicating that the pollen viability was zero during the whole flowering period of Daphne odora var. marginata. Few bubbles appeared on the stigma surface and the stigma color changed, which meant that stigma receptivity was very low. [Conclusion] Daphne odora var. marginata has no pollen viability and low stigma receptivity.

  4. The role of catechol-O-methyltransferase in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriguga,; Li, Xiao-Fei; Li, Yang; Yu, Chun-Hong; Li, Yi-Ran; Yi, Zong-Chun, E-mail: yizc@buaa.edu.cn

    2013-12-15

    Catechol is widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Catechol is also one of phenolic metabolites of benzene in vivo. Our previous study showed that catechol improved erythroid differentiation potency of K562 cells, which was associated with decreased DNA methylation in erythroid specific genes. Catechol is a substrate for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-mediated methylation. In the present study, the role of COMT in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells was investigated. Benzidine staining showed that exposure to catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation and induced mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes in K562 cells. Treatment with catechol caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in guaiacol concentration in the medium of cultured K562 cells. When COMT expression was knocked down by COMT shRNA expression in K562 cells, the production of guaiacol significantly reduced, and the sensitivity of K562 cells to cytotoxicity of catechol significantly increased. Knockdown of COMT expression by COMT shRNA expression also eliminated catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. In addition, the pre-treatment with methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine or its demethylated product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine induced a significant increase in hemin-induced Hb synthesis in K562 cells and the mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes. These findings indicated that O-methylation catalyzed by COMT acted as detoxication of catechol and involved in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells, and the production of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine partly explained catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation. - Highlights: • Catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation. • COMT-catalyzed methylation acted as detoxication of catechol. • COMT involved in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation.

  5. Yes, one can obtain better quality structures from routine X-ray data collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Fabiola Sanjuan-Szklarz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal X-ray diffraction structural results for benzidine dihydrochloride, hydrated and protonated N,N,N,N-peri(dimethylaminonaphthalene chloride, triptycene, dichlorodimethyltriptycene and decamethylferrocene have been analysed. A critical discussion of the dependence of structural and thermal parameters on resolution for these compounds is presented. Results of refinements against X-ray data, cut off to different resolutions from the high-resolution data files, are compared to structural models derived from neutron diffraction experiments. The Independent Atom Model (IAM and the Transferable Aspherical Atom Model (TAAM are tested. The average differences between the X-ray and neutron structural parameters (with the exception of valence angles defined by H atoms decrease with the increasing 2θmax angle. The scale of differences between X-ray and neutron geometrical parameters can be significantly reduced when data are collected to the higher, than commonly used, 2θmax diffraction angles (for Mo Kα 2θmax > 65°. The final structural and thermal parameters obtained for the studied compounds using TAAM refinement are in better agreement with the neutron values than the IAM results for all resolutions and all compounds. By using TAAM, it is still possible to obtain accurate results even from low-resolution X-ray data. This is particularly important as TAAM is easy to apply and can routinely be used to improve the quality of structural investigations [Dominiak (2015. LSDB from UBDB. University of Buffalo, USA]. We can recommend that, in order to obtain more adequate (more accurate and precise structural and displacement parameters during the IAM model refinement, data should be collected up to the larger diffraction angles, at least, for Mo Kα radiation to 2θmax = 65° (sin θmax/λ  65°.

  6. 黄芪多糖和丁酸钠联合用药对K562细胞胎儿血红蛋白合成的作用%Combined Use of Astragalus Polysaccharide with Sodium Butyrate in Induction of Fetal Hemoglobin Synthesis on K562 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹祥; 钱新华; 徐梅佳; 陈佳; 郭丽珊

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨黄芪多糖(APS)和丁酸钠(NaB)联合用药对人K562细胞胎儿血红蛋白(HbF)合成的作用,为临床联合用药治疗β-珠蛋白生成障碍性贫血(β-地贫)提供实验依据.方法 以K562细胞为模型,低剂量APS和NaB联合用药诱导的细胞为实验组,低剂量APS、NaB单药和常规剂量 NaB单药诱导的细胞分别为阳性对照组1、2、3,未加药组细胞为对照组4,采用联苯胺染色和Western blot技术分析药物作用K562细胞96 h后红系分化和HbF表达.结果 1.实验组对细胞生长的抑制作用显著弱于对照组3(P<0.05).2.APS和NaB联合作用K562细胞的最佳剂量组合为APS 2.50 g·L-1+NaB 250 μmol·L-1.3.联苯胺染色结果显示实验组联苯胺染色阳性率于48 h显著升高,96 h达高峰,与各对照组比较差异均有统计学意义(F=966.630,P<0.05),作用可维持至144 h.4.Western blot结果显示实验组和对照组3诱导K562细胞后HbF合成分别增加至对照组4的(1.82±0.16)倍和(1.57±0.08)倍(F=26.569,P<0.05),实验组HbF表达水平显著高于对照组3(P<0.05).结论 APS和 NaB低剂量联合用药诱导HbF表达增强,作用维持时间长,细胞毒性低,有望成为β-地贫的一种新的治疗方案.%Objective To provide an experimental basis for clinical combination therapy of β - thalassemia through investigating the effects of combined use of low - dose astragalus polysaccharide(APS) and sodium butyrate(NaB) in the induction of fetal hemoglobin(HbF)synthesis on K562 cells.Methods K562 cells were chosen as the cell model, cells treated with low - dose APS combined with NaB were taken as the experimental group,while low -dose APS,low -dose NaB and regular-dose NaB were set up as the positive control group 1,2,3 and untreated cells as the control group 4.Benzidine staining and Western blot were used to analyze erythroid differentiation and HbF expression in K562 cells after getting treated with drugs for 96 h.Results 1.The K562 cell inhibiting

  7. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letašiová Silvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline, which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking, and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline

  8. Immobilization of thermolysin to polyamide nonwoven materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeschel, Klaus; Nouaimi, Meryem; Steinbrenner, Christa; Bisswanger, Hans

    2003-04-20

    In the last few years, an increasing number of biotechnological techniques have been applied to the restoration and conservation of works of art, paintings, old maps, and papers or books. Enzymes can solve problems that give restorers difficulties, although for many applications it is not possible to use soluble enzymes; therefore, it is necessary to look for suitable carriers for immobilization. Different methods for covalent immobilization of enzymes to polyamide nonwovens were tested, using thermolysin as an example. Two distinct strategies were pursued: (1). controlled, partial hydrolysis of the polymer and subsequent binding of the enzyme to the released amino and carboxy groups; and (2). attachment of reactive groups directly to the polyamide without disintegrating the polymeric structure (O-alkylation). Different spacers were used for covalent fixation of the enzyme in both cases. The enzyme was fixed to the released amino groups by glutaraldehyde, either with or without a spacer. Either way, active enzyme could be immobilized to the matrix. However, intense treatment caused severe damage to the stability of the nonwoven fabric, and reduced the mechanical strength. Conditions were investigated to conserve the nonwoven fabric structure while obtaining near-maximum immobilized enzyme activity. Immobilization of the enzyme to the released carboxy group after acid hydrolysis was performed using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. In comparison to the enzyme bound via the amino group, the yield of immobilized enzyme activity was slightly lower when benzidine was taken as spacer and still lower with a 1,6-hexanediamine spacer. O-alkylation performed with dimethylsulfate caused severe damage to the nonwoven fabric structure. Considerably better results were obtained with triethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate. As the spacers 1,6-hexanediamine and adipic acid dihydrazide were used, activation for immobilizing thermolysin was performed with glutaraldehyde, adipimidate, and azide

  9. Yes, one can obtain better quality structures from routine X-ray data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuan-Szklarz, W Fabiola; Hoser, Anna A; Gutmann, Matthias; Madsen, Anders Østergaard; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Single-crystal X-ray diffraction structural results for benzidine dihydrochloride, hydrated and protonated N,N,N,N-peri(dimethylamino)naphthalene chloride, triptycene, dichlorodimethyltriptycene and decamethylferrocene have been analysed. A critical discussion of the dependence of structural and thermal parameters on resolution for these compounds is presented. Results of refinements against X-ray data, cut off to different resolutions from the high-resolution data files, are compared to structural models derived from neutron diffraction experiments. The Independent Atom Model (IAM) and the Transferable Aspherical Atom Model (TAAM) are tested. The average differences between the X-ray and neutron structural parameters (with the exception of valence angles defined by H atoms) decrease with the increasing 2θmax angle. The scale of differences between X-ray and neutron geometrical parameters can be significantly reduced when data are collected to the higher, than commonly used, 2θmax diffraction angles (for Mo Kα 2θmax > 65°). The final structural and thermal parameters obtained for the studied compounds using TAAM refinement are in better agreement with the neutron values than the IAM results for all resolutions and all compounds. By using TAAM, it is still possible to obtain accurate results even from low-resolution X-ray data. This is particularly important as TAAM is easy to apply and can routinely be used to improve the quality of structural investigations [Dominiak (2015 ▸). LSDB from UBDB. University of Buffalo, USA]. We can recommend that, in order to obtain more adequate (more accurate and precise) structural and displacement parameters during the IAM model refinement, data should be collected up to the larger diffraction angles, at least, for Mo Kα radiation to 2θmax = 65° (sin θmax/λ data collected to the lower 2θmax angles. Also the results of translation-libration-screw (TLS) analysis and vibrational entropy values are more

  10. Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on erythropoiesis: A preclinical in vitro characterization for the treatment of congenital sideroblastic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Tohru [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Department of Molecular Hematology/Oncology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Okamoto, Koji; Niikuni, Ryoyu [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Takahashi, Kiwamu [SBI Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Okitsu, Yoko; Fukuhara, Noriko; Onishi, Yasushi [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Ishizawa, Kenichi [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Clinical Research, Innovation and Education Center, Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai (Japan); Ichinohasama, Ryo [Department of Hematopathology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Nakamura, Yukio [Cell Engineering Division, RIKEN BioResource Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Tohru [SBI Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Harigae, Hideo, E-mail: harigae@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Department of Molecular Hematology/Oncology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Treatment with ALA induces erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. • Transportation of ALA into erythroid cells occurs predominantly via SLC36A1. • ALA restores defects in ALAS2 in human iPS cell-derived erythroblasts. • ALA may represent a novel therapeutic option for CSA caused by ALAS2 mutations. - Abstract: Congenital sideroblastic anemia (CSA) is a hereditary disorder characterized by microcytic anemia and bone marrow sideroblasts. The most common form of CSA is attributed to mutations in the X-linked gene 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2). ALAS2 is a mitochondrial enzyme, which utilizes glycine and succinyl-CoA to form 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a crucial precursor in heme synthesis. Therefore, ALA supplementation could be an effective therapeutic strategy to restore heme synthesis in CSA caused by ALAS2 defects. In a preclinical study, we examined the effects of ALA in human erythroid cells, including K562 cells and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived erythroid progenitor (HiDEP) cells. ALA treatment resulted in significant dose-dependent accumulation of heme in the K562 cell line. Concomitantly, the treatment substantially induced erythroid differentiation as assessed using benzidine staining. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed significant upregulation of heme-regulated genes, such as the globin genes [hemoglobin alpha (HBA) and hemoglobin gamma (HBG)] and the heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) gene, in K562 cells. Next, to investigate the mechanism by which ALA is transported into erythroid cells, quantitative RT-PCR analysis was performed on previously identified ALA transporters, including solute carrier family 15 (oligopeptide transporter), member (SLC15A) 1, SLC15A2, solute carrier family 36 (proton/amino acid symporter), member (SLC36A1), and solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter), member 13 (SLC6A13). Our analysis revealed that SLC36A1 was abundantly

  11. Triplet-triplet annihilation process in organic light-emitting diodes doped with fluorescent dyes%三重态激子在不同荧光染料掺杂体系中的湮灭过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚敏; 陈平; 曹绍谦; 刘文利; 宋群梁; 熊祖洪

    2010-01-01

    室温下,在红色荧光染料掺杂的有机发光器件ITO/N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-y)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)benzidine (NPB)/tris(8-hydroxyquinolato) aluminum (Alq3):4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-p-dimethylaminostyryl-4H-pyran(DCM),Alq3/LiF/A1中,观察到发光随外磁场的变化(即磁致发光)表现为刚开始的快速增加,在~50 mT处达到最大后,随着磁场的进一步增加,又呈现出减弱的特点(即高场效应);而且,器件的掺杂浓度越高、所加偏压越大,该高场减弱就越明显.但在另一类绿色荧光染料5,12-dihydro-5,12-dimethylquino [2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dione (DMQA)的掺杂器件中,磁致发光的高场部分则是在~50 mT后增加变缓并逐渐趋于饱和.分析结果表明,F(o)rster能量转移过程占主导发射的DMQA掺杂器件,不利于染料分子上三重态激子的形成,从而,通过三重态激子对(triplet pairs)湮灭产生单重态激子(triplet-triplet annihilation,TTA)的过程不易发生;但在载流子陷阱效应参与发射的DCM掺杂器件中,室温下在染料分子上就可以形成寿命较长的三重态激子,增加了发生TTA过程的几率.因此,基于掺杂器件中两种不同的发射机制,外加磁场对有机发光中三重态激子对(T…T)的演化表现出了不同的调控作用.

  12. siRNA沉默Ikaros基因对K562细胞中γ珠蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳; 李冉; 吴新忠; 胡珺; 曾玉

    2012-01-01

    @@ 地中海贫血,即β珠蛋白合成障碍性贫血,简称地贫,是一种单基因缺陷的遗传性疾病,它是由于β珠蛋白多肽链合成减少或缺失,α链与非α链(β、γ、δ)之间不平衡所导致的以红细胞无效生成为特征的血红蛋白病.重型β-地贫常常有严重的临床症状,多采取规则的输血及祛铁治疗,但大多数病人最终还是死于铁过载相关的心脏疾病,平均寿命不满20岁[1].%To interfere the Ikaros gene with siRNA, and observe the expression of y-globin in K562 human erythroleukemia cells. Method, Three siRNA-Ikaros(siRNAl,siRNA2 and siRNA3) were designed and transacted to K562 cells by Lipolectamine 2000. The optimal siRNA se-quence of Ikaros gene silencing was screened by semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting mehtods were used to detect the expression of Ikaros and y-globin mRNA and protein levels alter Ikaros gene silencing. Hemoglobin content of the K562 cells were detected by using benzidine staining method. Results, The transaction rate of K562 cells by the Lipolectamine 2000 could reach up to 58. 7%. SiRNA3 could effectively interfere the expression of Ikaros gene, and the inhibited efficiency could reach up to 86. 7%. SiRNA3 could enhance the expression of y-globin and the hemoglobin content of K562 cells. Conclusion; SiRNA3 can interfere the expression of Ikaros and en-

  13. Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on erythropoiesis: a preclinical in vitro characterization for the treatment of congenital sideroblastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Tohru; Okamoto, Koji; Niikuni, Ryoyu; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Okitsu, Yoko; Fukuhara, Noriko; Onishi, Yasushi; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Ichinohasama, Ryo; Nakamura, Yukio; Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Tohru; Harigae, Hideo

    2014-11-07

    Congenital sideroblastic anemia (CSA) is a hereditary disorder characterized by microcytic anemia and bone marrow sideroblasts. The most common form of CSA is attributed to mutations in the X-linked gene 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2). ALAS2 is a mitochondrial enzyme, which utilizes glycine and succinyl-CoA to form 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a crucial precursor in heme synthesis. Therefore, ALA supplementation could be an effective therapeutic strategy to restore heme synthesis in CSA caused by ALAS2 defects. In a preclinical study, we examined the effects of ALA in human erythroid cells, including K562 cells and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived erythroid progenitor (HiDEP) cells. ALA treatment resulted in significant dose-dependent accumulation of heme in the K562 cell line. Concomitantly, the treatment substantially induced erythroid differentiation as assessed using benzidine staining. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis confirmed significant upregulation of heme-regulated genes, such as the globin genes [hemoglobin alpha (HBA) and hemoglobin gamma (HBG)] and the heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) gene, in K562 cells. Next, to investigate the mechanism by which ALA is transported into erythroid cells, quantitative RT-PCR analysis was performed on previously identified ALA transporters, including solute carrier family 15 (oligopeptide transporter), member (SLC15A) 1, SLC15A2, solute carrier family 36 (proton/amino acid symporter), member (SLC36A1), and solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter), member 13 (SLC6A13). Our analysis revealed that SLC36A1 was abundantly expressed in erythroid cells. Thus, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was added to K562 cells to competitively inhibit SLC36A1-mediated transport. GABA treatment significantly impeded the ALA-mediated increase in the number of hemoglobinized cells as well as the induction of HBG, HBA, and HMOX1. Finally, small-interfering RNA

  14. Effect of Ionic Liquid on the Determination of Aromatic Amines as Contaminants in Hair Dyes by Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Electrochemical Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valnice Boldrin Zanoni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The room temperature ionic liquid (IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluorometanesulfonylimide BMIm[NTf2] was used as a novel medium for improvement of separation and quantization of 16 aromatic amines typically present as contaminants in consumer products and detected by HPLC coupled to an electrochemical detector. The aromatic amines, namely 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane, 4-chloroaniline, 2-methoxy-5-methyl-aniline, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, 2,4-diaminotoluidine, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline, 4,4'-oxydianiline, aniline, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, o-dianisidine, o-anisidine, o-toluidine, 4,4'-methylene-bis-2-chloroaniline and 2-naphthyl-amine are oxidized in methanol/BMIm[NTf2] at a potential around +0.68V to +0.93V vs. Ag/AgCl at a glassy carbon electrode, which is the base for their determination by HPLC/ED. Using the optimized conditions of methanol/BMIm[NTf2] 70:30 (v/v as mobile phase, flow-rate of 0.8 mL·min−1, column CLC-ODS, Eap = +1.0 V and T = 40 °C analytical curves were constructed for each of the tested amines. Good linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 1.09 mg·L−1 to 217 mg·L−1, with excellent correlation coefficients. The limits of detection reached 0.021 mg·L−1 to 0.246 mg·L−1 and good relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 3 were obtained from the measurements. Satisfactory recovery for each aromatic amine was achieved, ranging from 95 to 103%. The developed method was successfully applied to determine six aromatic amines present as contaminants in commercial hair dye samples.

  15. Dimensionality Alteration and Intra- versus Inter-SBU Void Encapsulation in Zinc Phosphate Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Aijaz A; Bhat, Gulzar A; Murugavel, Ramaswamy

    2016-06-06

    4,4'-Bipyridine-N-oxide (BIPYMO, 1), a less commonly employed coordination polymer linker, has been used as a ditopic spacer to bridge double-four-ring (D4R) zinc phosphate clusters to form novel framework coordination polymers. Zinc phosphate framework compounds [Zn4(X-dipp)4(BIPYMO)2]n·2MeOH [X = H (2), Cl (3), Br (4), I (5); dipp = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl phosphate] have been obtained by treating a methanol solution of zinc acetate with X-dippH2 and BIPYMO (in a 1:1:1 molar ratio) at ambient conditions. Framework phosphates 2-5 can also be obtained by treating the preformed D4R cubanes [Zn(X-dipp)(DMSO)]4 with required quantities of BIPYMO in methanol. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that these framework solids are two-dimensional (2D) networks as opposed to the diamondoid networks obtained when the parent unoxidized 4,4'-bipyridine is used as the linker (Inorg. Chem. 2014, 53, 8959). The two types of voids (viz., smaller intra-D4R and larger inter-D4R) present in these framework solids can be utilized for different types of encapsulation processes. For example, the in situ generated 2D framework 2 encapsulates fluoride ions accompanied by a change in the dimensionality of the framework to yield {[(nC4H9)4N][F@(Zn4(dipp)4(BIPYMO)2)]}n (6). The three-dimensional framework 6 represents the first structurally characterized example of a fluoride-ion-encapsulated polymeric coordination compound or a metal-organic framework. The possibility of utilizing inter-D4R voids as hosts for small organic molecules has been explored by treating in situ generated 2 with a series of organic molecules of appropriate size. Framework 2 has been found to be a selective host for benzil and not for other structurally similar molecules such as benzoquinone, benzidine, anthracene, naphthalene, α-pyridoin, etc. The benzil-occluded isolated framework [benzil@{Zn4(dipp)4(BIPYMO)2}]n (7) has been isolated as single crystals, and its crystal structure determination revealed

  16. Estudos sôbre a anemia produzida em cães por benzoato de estradiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. O. Cruz

    1944-08-01

    Full Text Available A anemia que se processa em caes quando se administra grandes doses de benzoato de estradiol, nao parece ser produzida por processes conhecidos de destrui?ao intra-organica. Esta substantia paraliza os fenomenos de rege¬nerate hematica, parece interferir por processo desconhecido na fisiologia sanguinea, produz graves lesoes na rede circulatoria que irriga a mucosa do intestino, principalmente jejuno, ocasipnando nesse orgao «extravasamento variavel de sangue, fator seguramente coadjuvante na formação da anemia.The characteristic findings in the pathological picture presented by 60 dogs when administered large doses of estradiol benzoate subcutaneously in an oil vehicle are: thrombocytopenia, aplastic anemia, which follows a brief latent period, intestinal tract haemorrhages, haemorrhagic lesions occurring principally in the mucosa of the jejunum, followed by prostration and death generally within 1 to 3 weeks. Irregular findings are leucocytosis, purpuric skin lesions, visceral haemorrhages and pyoid bone marrow. The total circulating hemoglobin was determined in 9 dogs before and after the anemia was established, thus verifying the total hemoglobin loss. The blood loss through intestinal haemorrhages during the observation period was determined by benzidine test. The quantity of hemoglobin recovered from the feces in the form of hematin varied between 30 and 70% of the total hemoglobin which disappeared from the circulation. In order to ascertain the degree of intra-organic blood destruction the bilirubin eliminated in the urine of dogs with gall-bladder renal type of fis¬tula was determined daily and these values compared with those obtained for normal animals. The blood destruction as measured by this method was practically nil. An attempt was made to determine whether the presence of large quan¬tities of blood in the intestine might exert a paralyzing effect on the regene¬ration of hemoglobin in dogs rendered anemic through

  17. Influence of polymer:sensitizer ratio on photoelectric properties of organic composite photoconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, K.; Sanchez Juarez, A.; Kosarev, A.; Mansurova, S.; Koeber, S.; Meerholz, K.

    2010-06-01

    The results on characterization of the main photoelectric properties of the polymer:fulleren based composite material by using the non-steady-state photo-electromotive force (p-EMF) and modulated photocurrent technique are presented. By measuring this current under different experimental conditions, important material photoelectric parameters such as drift L0 and diffusion length LD, photocarrier's lifetime τ ; quantum efficiency of charge generation φ can be determined. The 50% of the composite weight consists of a mixture of the hole-conducting polymer PF6:TPD (poly-hexyle-triophene:N,N'-bis(4-methylphenyl)-N,N'-bis-(phenyl)-benzidine) sensitized with the highly soluble C60 derivative PCBM (phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) . Seven samples with varied polymer:sensitizer weight ratio (49:1wt.-%, 45:5wt.-%, 40:10wt.-%, 15:35wt.-%, 25:25wt.-%, 10:40wt.-%, 5:45wt.-%) where prepared. The remaining 50% were two azo-dyes 2,5-dimethyl-(4-p-nitrophenylazo)-anisole (DMNPAA) and 3- methoxy-(4-p-nitrophenylazo)-anisole (MNPAA) (25wt.-% each). Photoconductive composite film was sandwiched between two glass plates covered by transparent ITO electrodes. Two counter-propagating beams derived from a cw HeNe laser (λ = 633nm) intersected inside the detector creating an interference pattern. The output photo-EMF current (SEE MANUSCRIPT FOR EQUATION) was detected as a voltage drop by a lock-in amplifier. At polymer sensitizer ratio 25:25wt.-% the signal sign changes to the opposite revealing that the majority carriers at this and higher concentration of sensitizer are electrons. Our results show that the majority carrier's lifetime τ is only slightly affected by the variations of sensitizer concentration. Mobility-lifetime product μhτh of holes, on its turn decreases at the increasing sensitizer concentration, while μeτe of electrons keeps increasing. All this indicates that the carrier's mobility is strongly influenced by the changes on sensitizer concentrations.

  18. Catalytic and peroxidase-like activity of carbon based-AuPd bimetallic nanocomposite produced using carbon dots as the reductant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Liuqing [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology & Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education, China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Liu, Xiaoying [College of Science, Science and Technological Innovation Platform, Hunan Agricultural University, Hunan, Changsha 410128 (China); Lu, Qiujun; Huang, Na [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology & Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education, China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Liu, Meiling, E-mail: liumeilingww@126.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology & Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education, China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology & Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education, China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2016-08-03

    In this report, carbon-based AuPd bimetallic nanocomposite (AuPd/C NC) was synthesized using carbon dots (C-dots) as the reducing agent and stabilizer by a simple green sequential reduction strategy, without adding other agents. The as synthesized AuPd/C NC showed good catalytic activity and peroxidase-like property. The structure and morphology of these nanoparticles were clearly characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The AuPd/C NC catalyst exhibits noticeably higher catalytic activity than Pd and Au nanoparticles in catalysis reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Moreover, based on the high peroxidase-like property of AuPd/C NC, a new colorimetric detection method for hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) has been designed using 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethyl-benzidine (TMB) as the substrate, which provides a simple and sensitive means to detect H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in wide linear range of 5 μM–500 μM and 500 μM–4 mM with low detection limit of 1.6 μM (S/N = 3). Therefore, the facile synthesis strategy for bimetallic nanoparticles by the mild reductant of carbon dot will provide some new thoughts for preparing of carbon-based metal nanomaterials and expand their application in catalysis and analytical chemistry areas. - Highlights: • Carbon-based AuPd bimetallic nanocomposite was synthesized using carbon dots. • The green sequential reduction strategy synthesis method is simple, green, convenient and effective. • The as synthesized AuPd/C NC showed good catalytic activity and peroxidase-like activity. • The AuPd/C NC exhibits noticeably higher catalytic activity in reduction of 4-nitrophenol. • A new colorimetric detection method for hydrogen peroxide based on AuPd/C NC was proposed.

  19. 野芝麻开花与繁育特性初步研究%Studies of floral biology, breeding characters of Lamium barbatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张栋; 周守标; 刘坤; 夏青; 洪欣

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To reveal the flowering characteristics and provide theoretical basis for the breeding and cultivation of Lamiiun barbalum. Method: The field observation and investigation of blooming phenophase were applied in the study growth dynamics of inflorescence and the period of the floret were measured. Then the statistic analyses of them were carried out The pollen viability was evaluated by TTC test and the stigma receptivity was evaluated by benzidine-H2O2 method. Result and Conclusion: The flowers of L barbatum were bisexual, with 4 to 14 flowers in an inflorescence. The population came into bloom from April to June and the blossom of a single flower could last about 3 days. Pollination peak lasted 8 hours from the very beginning of blooming, and the high stigma receptive stage remained during the same period of time. The results indicated that the breeding system of L. Barbatum was outcrossing with self-compatibility and pollinators were needed based on the outcrossing index. The most frequent floral visitors were bees. The suitable breeding strategy was also discussed.%目的:探究野芝麻的开花生物学特性,为今后野芝麻的栽培和品种的选育提供理论基础.方法:田间定株、定时观察记录,并统计野芝麻的群体、花序和单花开花过程;用TTC法测定花粉的活力,用联苯胺-过氧化氢法测定柱头可授性.结果与结论:野芝麻具两性花,为轮伞花序,每轮有花4~14朵;花期4-6月,单花花期约3d;从花朵刚开放到开花后8h花粉活力和柱头可授性都较强,两者有效可遇期约为8h;野芝麻繁育类型为兼性异交,自交亲和,有时需要传粉者;传粉媒介主要是蜂类.此外,探讨了野芝麻育种中适宜采用的育种途径.

  20. Studies on an efficient method for determining 3,3’-dimethylbenzidine in the workplace air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kowalska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: 3,3’-Dimethylbenzidene (DMB is a substance classified into the group of carcinogens. The value of maximum admissible concentration for this substance in the workplace air is not specified in Poland. Bearing in mind that DMB is used in domestic companies there is a need to develop a sensitive method for determining 3,3’-dimethylbenzidine in the work environment. Material and Methods: The method consists in passing DMB-containing air through sulfuric acid-treated glass fiber filters, washing out the substance settled on the filter, using water and solution of sodium hydroxide, liquid–liquid extraction with toluene, replacing dissolvent with acetonitrile and analyzing the obtained solution. Studies were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC technique. An Agilent Technologies chromatograph, series 1200, with a diode-array detector (DAD and a fluorescence detector (FLD was used in the experiment. In the test, an Ultra C18 column of dimensions: 250×4.6 mm, particle diameter (dp = 5 μm (Restek was applied. Results: The method is linear (r = 0.999 within the investigated working range of concentration 1.08–21.6 μg/ml, which is equivalent to air concentrations 2–40 μg/m3 for a 540 l air sample. The limit of detection (LOD of quantification determination is 5.4 ng/ml and the limit of quantification (LOQ – 16.19 ng/ml. Conclusions: The analytical method described in this paper allows for selective determination of 3,3’-dimethylbenzidine in the workplace air in the presence of 1,4-phenylenediamine, benzidine, aniline, 3,3’-dimethoxybenzidine, 2-nitrotoluene, 3,3’-dichlorobenzidine and azobenzene. The method is characterized by good precision and good accuracy, it also meets the criteria for procedures involving the measurement of chemical agents, listed in EN 482:2012. Med Pr 2016;67(1:43–50

  1. A thin-layer spectroelectrochemical study of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine at SnO2:F film optically transparent electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO; Kui; YANG; Tao; NIU; Shuyan

    2004-01-01

    [1]Wang Tong, Sun Wei, Jiao Kui, Studies on the voltammetric enzyme-linked immunoassay system based on 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as substrate, Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry (in Chinese ), 2002, 30(11): 1298-1302.[2]He Yanan, Chen Hongyuan, 3,3',5,5'-Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB)-H2O2-HRP voltammetric immunoassay for the determination of IgE in human serum, Chem. J. Chinese Universities (in Chinese), 1997, 18(8): 1306-1308.[3]Jiao Kui, Zhang Shusheng, Sun Wei, Authorization Certificate of Science and Technology of Shandong Province, 1999, No: 197.[4]Jiao Kui, Lu Gang, Yang Tao et al., Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical study of m-phenylenediamine, Chem. J. Chinese Universities (in Chinese), 2003, 24(6): 1005-1008.[5]Mohr, P., Harke, T., Kuhn, W. et al., Mechanism studies of enzymatically formed tolidine blue and determination of peroxidatic activities, Biomed. Biochim. Acta, 1983, 42(6): 663-672.[6]Matrka, M., Pipalova, J., Semiquinone formation during the oxidation of benzidine, o-tolidine, and o-dianisidine, Chem. Prum.,1971, 21(1): 14-18.[7]Shen Baoen, Wang Guiliang, Thin-layer spectroelectrochemical investigation on indigo carmine, Acta Physico-Chimica Sinica (in Chinese), 1990, 6(1): 71-76.[8]Jiao Kui, Zhang Shusheng, Wei Lu et al., Investigation of voltammetric enzyme-linked immunoassay system based on new system of OT- H2O2-HRP, Acta Chimica Sinica (in Chinese), 1997,55: 1121-1129.[9]Wang Huawei, Shen Baoen, Peng Tuzhi et al., The mechanism of electrooxidation of o-tolidine, J. of Hangzhou Universities (in Chinese), 1994, 21(2): 198-203.[10]Cheng, G, Yang, Y, Dong, S., Spectroelectrochemical study of biliverdin produced by the electrooxidation of bilirubin.Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg., 1991, 26: 35-39.[11]Dong Shaojun, Song Shihua, Cheng Guangjin, Optically thinlayer spectroelectrochemical investigation on murexide electroreduction progress, Acta Physico-Chimica Sinica (in Chinese),1987, 3

  2. The distribution of rat bladder nerves within the spinal cord: WGA-HRP retrograde tracing study%支配大鼠膀胱的神经在脊髓内的分布-WGA-HRP逆行示踪研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡力丰; 张志成; 孙天胜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To locate bladder afferent and efferent elements within the spinal cord in rats by retrograde tracing. Methods WGA - HRP was injected into the bladder wall of normal male Sprague - Dawley rats ( 250 ~ 300 g ). 48 hours after the injection, the rats were killed, frozen sections were made from the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglian ( DRG ) and color developed with colorimetric tetramethyl benzidine ( TMB ) and H2O2. Results HRP positive neurons located in LI - S3 DRG, mainly in L6 - SI DRG. HRP - positive neurons were also found in the lateral horn of L6 - SI ( more in L6 ). Conclusion According to the experimental results, the lower nerve center - sacral parasympathetic nucleus ( SPN ) for the innervation of the detrusor of bladder was located and determined.%目的 行膀胱逆行示踪,明确支配大鼠膀胱的传入及传出神经在脊髓的位置.方法 正常成年SD雄性大鼠(250~300 g),大鼠膀胱壁内注射麦芽凝集素-辣根过氧化物酶(WGA-HRP),注射后大鼠继续存活48 h.分别取材脊髓和背根神经节,冰冻切片,用四甲基联苯胺(TMB)和H2O2呈色.结果 脊髓L1~S3节段背根神经节内(DRG)均出现染成阳性的神经细胞,以L6-S1节段 DRG中阳线细胞为著;脊髓L6部至S1侧角(以L6多见)出现HRP阳性神经细胞.结论 根据本次实验结果,明确了支配膀胱逼尿肌的低位中枢-骶副交感神经核(SPN)的位置,明确了膀胱传入神经的主要部分.

  3. 核桃优良品种雌雄花授粉活力的研究%Study on pollination activity of pistillate and staminate flowers in walnut excellent varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昊; 高英; 董宁光; 徐虎智; 裴东

    2011-01-01

    Stigma receptivity and pollen viability during walnut flowering can determine the fruit set percentage and the yield of current year directly.In this study,representative walnut cultivars—'Wen185','Chandler' and 'QingXiang' were observed.The morphological changes of stigma were recorded during pollination and fertilization,the stigma receptivity and optimal pollination period were studied by benzidine-H2O2 method,and the period and conditions for keeping highest pollen viability were detected by MTT staining method.The results showed that the stigma receptivity period was ranging from the stigma slightly open to it with brown stripes.The best period for pollination was 3-5 days after the split stigma opened.The pollen can be stored for 96 hours under natural conditions and the viability decreased quickly to 33% after 4 hours.The pollen viability was the highest when the walnut anthers shedding,reaching 95%.Pollen viability could be reinforced at 4 ℃ and the average viability was 63.3% after 120 hours.%在核桃花期,柱头的可授性和花粉活力直接决定着座果率和当年产量。本文采用具有代表性的核桃优良品种‘温185’、‘强特勒’和‘清香’,在记录柱头授粉受精形态变化的同时,用联苯胺--过氧化氢法确定了柱头的可授时期;用MTT染色法确定了花粉活力期限和花粉活力最高的条件和时期。结果表明:柱头可授时期在柱头微张至出现棕色条纹之间,最佳时期在柱头开张后3~5d;自然状态下花粉可保存96h,但4h后生活力即降至33%,雄花刚开放时花粉生活力最高,达95%。花粉在4℃条件下可延长生活力,120h平均生活力为63.3%。

  4. 滇重楼最佳授粉期的研究%Preliminary Study on the Optimal Pollination Period of Paris polyphylla var.yunnanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾卫民; 赵庭周

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To select the optimal pollination period of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. [ Method] The pollen viability of P, polyphylla was evaluated by TTC test (2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and its stigma receptivity was estimated by benzidine-H2O2 method. [Result] Pollen viability was the highest at 68.2% when pollen sac cracked. It did not decrease significantly in the first 2 days. Since the fourth day, the pollen viability declined obviously, but still remained some activity. The stigma receptivity was in high activity within five days after pollen sac cracking and the pollination of P. polyphylla should be done in this period. [ Conclusion] The optimal pollination period of P. polyphylla is selected in this experiment, which can provide basis for further development and utilization of P. polyphylla.%[目的]优选滇重楼的最佳授粉期.[方法]采用TTC法测定花粉的活力,并采用联苯胺-过氧化氢法测定柱头可授性,根据研究滇重楼花粉活力变化规律及柱头可授性优选滇重楼的最佳授粉期.[结果]滇重楼花粉囊开裂时活力最高为68.2%,前2d内,花粉活力下降不明显.第4天开始,活力明显下降,但仍然具有一定的活性.柱头的活性在花粉囊开裂后5d内最强,滇重楼的授粉应选择在这5d内进行.[结论]该研究优选了滇重楼的最佳授粉期,为滇重楼的进一步开发利用提供了依据.

  5. 太子参花粉活力和柱头可授性研究%Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity of Pseudostellaria heterophylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩怡; 巢建国; 谷巍; 张莹; 孙亚昕

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究太子参的花粉活力、柱头可授性及花粉贮藏.方法:采用离体萌发法、染色法测定花粉活力,用联苯胺-过氧化氢法测定柱头可授性,并检测不同贮藏条件下花粉的活力.结果:离体萌发法适用于太子参花粉活力测定,最适培养基为0.04%硼酸+15%蔗糖+11%聚乙二醇,萌发率达92.44%;太子参花药开裂期柱头可授性较强;花粉的短期保存以4℃效果较好,长期保存以-80℃效果最佳.结论:在进行杂交授粉时,应选花药开裂期的花粉,对开花第2天的柱头进行人工授粉,本研究为太子参的良种选育及种质资源保护提供了科学依据.%Objective: To study the pollen viability, the stigma receptivity and storage character of Pseudostellaria heterophylla. Methods: The pollen viability was evaluated by the methods of in vitro pollen germination and pollen staining,the stigma receptivity was estimated by benzidine-H2O2 method,and the pollen viability in different storage conditions were detected. Results;In vitro pollen germination method was suitable for the determination of pollen germination of Pseudostellaria heterophylla,the optimal medium was 0. 04% H3BO3 + 15% sucrose + 11% PEG4000 ,in which the pollen germination capacity reached to 92. 44% ;The stigma receptivity of Pseudostellaria heterophylla was higher when the pollen anther opening; The results showed that short-term pollen storage at -4 ℃was the most suitable while the long-term pollen storage was at -80 ℃. Conclusion; The optimum cross pollination times of Pseudostellaria heterophylla was 2 days after blooming and choose the pollen in anther opening. This study provides a foundation for the breeding and germplasm resources protection of Pseudostellaria heterophylla.

  6. Study on the Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity of Four Plants in Hedychium%4种姜花属植物花粉活力和柱头可授性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊友华; 闫建勋; 刘念

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为姜花属植物种间有性杂交育种提供理论依据.[方法]采用TIC法、联苯胺-过氧化氢法测定4种姜花属植物白姜花、圆瓣姜花、红姜花和金姜花的花粉活力和柱头可授性.[结果]4种植物花粉活力在89.7%~97.8%,其中红姜花的花粉活力最高,然后依次为:白姜花、圆瓣姜花和金姜花:4种植物的柱头可授性在91.3%-98.7%,其大小依次为:白姜花、圆瓣姜花、红姜花和金姜花.[结论]4种姜花属植物都具有较高的花粉活力和柱头可授性,其中白姜花的花粉活力和柱头可授性均最高.%[ Objective ] The basis of the sexual hybridization breeding among the species from Hedychium was provided. [ Method] In order to evaluated The pollen viability and stigma receptivity of four Hedychium plants: H. coronarium, H. coccineum, H. gardnerianum, and H. forrestii were measured with the method of TTC and Benzidine-H2O2. [ Results] The results showed that the pollen viability of four plants were in the range from 89.7% to 97.8%, among which, the pollen viability of H. gardnerianum was highest and then the order of pollen viability was H. coronarium > H. coccineum > H. forrestii. The stigma receptivity was in the range from 91.3% to 98.7% and the order of the stigma receptivity was H. coronarium > H. coccineum > H. gardnerianum > H. forrestii. [ Conclusion] All the four plants had high pollen viability and stigma receptivity, among which, the pollen viability and stigma receptivity of H. coronarium were highest.

  7. 芭蕉芋的花粉活力和柱头的可授性研究%Study on Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity of Canna edulis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明强; 欧珍贵; 班秀文; 李志芳; 黎青

    2013-01-01

    In order to explore the possibility of hybrid breeding for Canna edulis, the author studied the pollen viability and stigma receptivity of three Canna edulis varieties planted in Guizhou by the methods of TTC staining and benzidine -H2 O2 .The re-sults showed that the pollen viability of Canna edulis was generally lower than that of other crops .Under the isolated condition for o-ver 36 hours, the pollen of Canna edulis was basically of no viability , and its short lifetime affected the seed setting rate .The stigma receptivity changed with time history , it showed a rising trend from 19:00 on that day to 10:30 on the next day , and then began to decline.From 4:30 to 10:30 on the next day, the stigma receptivity was the strongest .As a result, as long as we choice the right time and supplement artificial pollination , the objective of enhancing the fertilized rate of Canna edulis will be attained , and the breeding and improvement of new varieties will be realized successfully .%为探讨芭蕉芋杂交育种的可能性,采用TTC染色法和联苯胺-过氧化氢法对贵州种植的3个品种(材料)的花粉活力和柱头可授性进行了研究,结果表明:芭蕉芋花粉活力普遍低于其他作物,在离体条件下,36 h后,基本没有活力,寿命较短,影响了芭蕉芋种子结实率;柱头可授性随时间的变化而变化,从当日19:00到次日10:30均呈上升趋势,随后开始下降,次日4:30~10:30是柱头可授性最强的时间,只要选择合适的时期辅以人工授粉,则可达到提高芭蕉芋授粉受精目的,从而进行新品种选育及改良。

  8. Synthesis and characterization of fluorinated polyaminoquinones and fluorinated polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Eleonora

    ,4'-oxydianiline, 2,2-bis(3-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane, 2,2'-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzidine and 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane. A variety of structures was achieved, allowing for a thorough determination of the structure/properties relationship. The presence of the pentafluorophenyl substituent in the polyimide backbone imparted more flexibility to the 8F polyimides, as demonstrated by the low glass transition temperatures. The dielectric constant of these 8F polyimides was the lowest ever reported for polyimides. It is believed that the pentafluorophenyl group may increase the free volume and hydrophobicity of the 8F polyimides. The thermo- and thermo-oxidative stability of these 8F polyimides was also studied and appeared to be adequate for high temperature applications.

  9. OLEDs under high current densities. Transient electroluminescence turn-on peaks and singlet-triplet quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasemann, Daniel

    2012-02-27

    This work focuses on a better understanding of the behavior of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) under intense electrical excitation. Attaining high exciton densities in organic semiconductors by electrical excitation is of special interest for the field of organic semiconductor lasers (OSLs). In these devices, the high singlet exciton density needed in the active layer to obtain population inversion is easily created by pulsed optical pumping, but direct electrical pumping has not been achieved yet. First, the steps necessary to achieve stable high current densities in organic semiconductors are discussed. After determining the optimal excitation scheme using single p-doped transport layers, the device complexity is increased up to full p-i-n OLEDs with their power dependent emission spectra. For this purpose, two exemplary emitter systems are chosen: the fluorescent laser dye 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-p-dimethylaminostyryl-4H-pyran (DCM) doped into Aluminum(III)bis (2-methyl-8-quinolinato)-4-phenylphenolate (Alq{sub 3}) and the efficient phosphorescent emitter system N,N'-di(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-diphenyl-benzidine (alpha-NPD) doped by Iridium(III) bis(2-methyl-dibenzo[f,h]quinoxaline)(acetylacetonate) (Ir(MDQ){sub 2}(acac)). For pulsed excitation using 50 ns pulses and a repetition rate of 1 kHz, single 100 nm thin p- and n-doped transport layers sustain current densities of over 6 kA/cm{sup 2}. While the maximum current density decreases with increasing device thickness, the full OLEDs still sustain current densities beyond 800 A/cm{sup 2} and exhibit a continuously increasing emission intensity with increasing input power. Next, the time-resolved emission behavior of the singlet and triplet emitter device at high excitation densities is analyzed on the nanosecond scale. Here, the peak emission intensity of the phosphorescent emitter system is found to be more than eight times lower than for the singlet emitter system at comparable current

  10. Pesquisa de sangue oculto nas fezes e achado colonoscópico em 60 pacientes Fecal occult blood test and colonoscopy diagnosis in 60 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Piratininga Jatobá

    2008-12-01

    simple methods which are based on the idea that polyps and carcinomas bleed frequently. In recent times, the interest in these methods grew considerably. OBJECTIVE: the study evaluates the relevance of fecal occult blood test as a screening method in symptomatic patients compared to colonoscopy results. METHOD: 60 symptomatic patients with colon and rectal ailments at Santa Casa of São Paulo Hospital underwent fecal occult blood tests with benzidine, followed by colonoscopic exam. RESULTS: the average age was 54.2, being 31 of them women and 28 men. The fecal occult blood test was positive in 25 and negative in 34. Lesions were identified as the cause of bleeding and the fecal occult blood test had a sensibility of 63.7%, specificity of 81%, predictive positive value of 28% and negative of 88%. CONCLUSION: the present results show that the fecal occult blood test should be applied in social programs of carcinoma prevention in symptomatic patients.

  11. Markers of genetic susceptibility in human environmental hygiene and toxicology: the role of selected CYP, NAT and GST genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thier, Ricarda; Brüning, Thomas; Roos, Peter H; Rihs, Hans-Peter; Golka, Klaus; Ko, Yon; Bolt, Hermann M

    2003-06-01

    human bladder cancer due to occupational exposure to "classical" aromatic amines (benzidine, 4-aminodiphenyl, 1-naphthylamine) acetylation by NAT2 is regarded as a detoxication step. Interestingly, the underlying European findings of a higher susceptibility of slow acetylators towards aromatic amines are in contrast to findings in Chinese workers occupationally exposed to aromatic amines which points to different mechanisms of susceptibility between European and Chinese populations. Regarding human bladder cancer, the hypothesis has been put forward that genetic polymorphism of GSTM1 might be linked with the occurrence of this tumour type. This supports the hypothesis that exposure to PAH might causally be involved in urothelial cancers. The human polymorphic GST catalysing conjugation of halomethanes, dihalomethanes, ethylene oxide and a number of other industrial compounds could be characterised as a class theta enzyme (GSTT1) by means of molecular biology. "Conjugator" and "non-conjugator" phenotypes are coincident with the presence and absence of the GSTT1 gene. There are wide variations in the frequencies of GSTT1 deletion (GSTT1*0/0) among different ethnicities. Human phenotyping is facilitated by the GST activity towards methyl bromide or ethylene oxide in erythrocytes which is representative of the metabolic GSTT1 competence of the entire organism. Inter-individual variations in xenobiotic metabolism capacities may be due to polymorphisms of the genes coding for the enzymes themselves or of the genes coding for the receptors or transcription factors which regulate the expression of the enzymes. Also, polymorphisms in several regions of genes may cause altered ligand affinity, transactivation activity or expression levels of the receptor subsequently influencing the expression of the downstream target genes. Studies of individual susceptibility to toxicants and gene-environment interaction are now emerging as an important component of molecular epidemiology.

  12. 偶氮染料及其代谢产物的化学结构与毒性关系的回顾与前瞻%Review of the Mutagenicity,Carcinogenicity and Autoimmunity of Azo Dyes and their Metabolites from the Perspective of their Structure-activity Relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟金汤

    2004-01-01

    偶氮染料用途广泛.当它们进入人体后,会被肠道细菌的偶氮还原酶分解成芳香胺.许多食物因子会影响偶氮还原酶的活性.许多芳香胺具有致突变性和致癌性.作者发现只有在分子结构上含有对苯二胺(p-phenylene diamine)或联苯胺(benzidine)的偶氮染料才会因代谢而具有致突变性或致癌性.因此,对苯二胺和联苯胺便是偶氮染料之主要致突变成分.这类芳香胺都需要代谢活化才能表现其致突变性.如在其分子结构上多加一个亚硝基(-NO2)或氯基(-Cl),会使其变为直接诱变剂.在苯环上如有甲基(-CH3)或胺基(-NH2)也会影响这些芳香胺的致突变力.分子轨道能如the highest occupiedmolecular orbital energy(E HOMO),the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy(E LUMO),和亲脂性与致突变力有直接相关性.突变性芳香胺会被代谢活化成为高活性的亲电子产物与DNA结合成DNA加合物而诱发突变.这些芳香胺也可能被氧化产生自由基,进而再与体内物质代谢产生一系列的活性氧(ROS).ROS攻击DNA造成DNA之氧化损伤而发生突变.作者推测有些芳香胺也可能被代谢活化后与DNA相互吸引,诱导DNA从正常的"B"态变成有抗原性的"Z"态,因而引发体内的"B"细胞产生抗体与本身之DNA或其核内的成分形成一种免疫复合物,堆积于微血管引发自发性免疫性疾病,如红斑性狼疮,药物性狼疮和风温性关节炎等.

  13. Mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of a textile azo dye processing plant effluent that impacts a drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves de Lima, Rodrigo Otávio; Bazo, Ana Paula; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero; Rech, Célia Maria; de Palma Oliveira, Danielle; de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela

    2007-01-10

    Recently a textile azo dye processing plant effluent was identified as one of the sources of mutagenic activity detected in the Cristais River, a drinking water source in Brazil [G.A. Umbuzeiro, D.A. Roubicek, C.M. Rech, M.I.Z. Sato, L.D. Claxton, Investigating the sources of the mutagenic activity found in a river using the Salmonella assay and different water extraction procedures, Chemosphere 54 (2004) 1589-1597]. Besides presenting high mutagenic activity in the Salmonella/microsome assay, the mutagenic nitro-aminoazobenzenes dyes CI Disperse Blue 373, CI Disperse Violet 93, and CI Disperse Orange 37 [G.A. Umbuzeiro, H.S. Freeman, S.H. Warren, D.P. Oliveira, Y. Terao, T. Watanabe, L.D. Claxton, The contribution of azo dyes in the mutagenic activity of the Cristais river, Chemosphere 60 (2005) 55-64] as well as benzidine, a known carcinogenic compound [T.M. Mazzo, A.A. Saczk, G.A. Umbuzeiro, M.V.B. Zanoni, Analysis of aromatic amines in surface waters receiving wastewater from textile industry by liquid chromatographic with eletrochemical detection, Anal. Lett., in press] were found in this effluent. After approximately 6 km from the discharge of this effluent, a drinking water treatment plant treats and distributes the water to a population of approximate 60,000. As shown previously, the mutagens in the DWTP intake water are not completely removed by the treatment. The water used for human consumption presented mutagenic activity related to nitro-aromatics and aromatic amines compounds probably derived from the cited textile processing plant effluent discharge [G.A. Umbuzeiro, D.A. Roubicek, C.M. Rech, M.I.Z. Sato, L.D. Claxton, Investigating the sources of the mutagenic activity found in a river using the Salmonella assay and different water extraction procedures, Chemosphere 54 (2004) 1589-1597; G.A. Umbuzeiro, H.S. Freeman, S.H. Warren, D.P. Oliveira, Y. Terao, T. Watanabe, L.D. Claxton, The contribution of azo dyes in the mutagenic activity of the Cristais

  14. Preliminary study on pollination biology of Tulipa edulis%老鸦瓣传粉生物学初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴正军; 朱再标; 郭巧生; 徐红建; 马宏亮; 缪媛媛

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Current study on the pollination biology of Tulipa edulis was conducted to investigate its pollination characteristics and to provide references for artificial domestication and breeding of T. Edulis. Method: Flowering dynamics, pollinators , morphology and structure of flower were observed. Different methods were adopted to evaluate the pollen vitality, and benzidine-H2O2 method was used for estimation of the stigma receptivity. Breeding system was evaluated based on out-crossing index ( OCI) , pollen-ovule ratio (P/0) and the results of emasculation, bagging and artificial pollination studies. Result: The flower of T, edulis showed typical characteristics of Liliaceae. The pollen remained viable to some extent during all the anthesis and peaked within three days after blossoming. Stigma acceptability peaked in the first day of blossom and dwindled away in the next four days. The type of breeding system of T. Edulis was facultative xenogamy, three species of Halictus are the main pollination insects. Conclusion: The type of breeding system of T. Edulis was facultative xenogamy, withal cross-pollination give priority to self-pollination, and the insects play a main role on the pollination of T. Edulis, further validation are needed to judge if the wind is helpful to pollination.%目的:对老鸦瓣进行系统的传粉生物学研究,了解其传粉生殖特性,为今后实现规范化栽培提供依据.方法:于老鸦瓣盛花期观察花部性状;采用不同花粉活力检测方法动态检测花粉活力,用联苯胺-过氧化氢法动态测定柱头授性;估算老鸦瓣花粉-胚珠比(P/O),计算杂交指数值(OCI),依据Dafni及Cruden标准判断老鸦瓣繁育系统类型;进行野外繁育系统验证实验及访花昆虫观察.结果:老鸦瓣花具有典型的百合科花部特征;花药未炸裂前已有一定比例的具活性花粉,在刚开放的1~3d活力最高,但直至花凋谢时,仍有一部分花粉具有活力,柱头

  15. Floral Characteristic and Breeding System of Anemone obtusiloba%钝裂银莲花花部综合特征及其繁育系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春; 刘左军; 伍国强; 赵志刚

    2013-01-01

    Anemone obtusiloba is an indicative plant of grassland degradation that plays an important role as a dominant poisonous weed in eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.However,there are few studies about its reproductive characteristics.The flower characteristic and breeding system of Anemone obtusiloba were studied by field location investigations using data of TTC method,benzidine hydrogen peroxide method,pollen-ovule ratio (P/O),out crossing index (OCI),and hagging experiments.Results showed:the life span of individual flower was about 4~5 days; during the flowering phase,the pistil matured before stamens;stigma receptivity and pollen vitality had a period of overlap,and they were the highest at 12:00-14:00 of the day; a out-crossing partially self-compatible,and requiring pollinations can be reflected by OCI=4.The pollen-ovule ratio (P/O) was approximately 86.Based on Cruden's criterion,the breeding system could be termed as facultative autogamy.According to the results of emasculation,bagging,and artificial pollination,it was agamospermy,and the breeding system of Anemone obtusiloba was determined to be self-compatible largely,and only occasionally requiring pollinators.It was conclude that the breeding system of Anemone obtusiloba mixes with self-pollination and out-crossing,and tended to selfing,which can be regarded as an adaptive strategy for reproduction under unfavorable environmental conditions.%钝裂银莲花(Anemone obtusiloba)是青藏高原东部常见的一种优势毒杂草,也是一种重要的草原退化指示植物,目前对其繁殖特性研究甚少.通过野外定位观察,运用TTC法、联苯胺-过氧化氢法、花粉-胚珠比(P/O)、杂交指数、人工授粉和套袋试验等方法,首次对该物种的花部特征及繁育系统进行了研究.结果表明:该物种单花花期为4~5 d,花雌雄异熟,雌蕊先熟,单花花粉活力和柱头可授期之间也存在一段时间的重叠,钝裂银莲花最佳授粉时间为一天中的12

  16. 新疆高葶韭雄蕊开花动态特征与花粉育性研究%Stamen dynamics and pollen fertility of Allium obliquum in Xinjiang Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林辰壹; 韩文娟; 祁晨霞; 叶强

    2012-01-01

    Allium obliquum only distributes in the Xinjiang Province,China.The marked plants were used to observe stamen morphological characteristics to analyze the floral dynamics of stamen and test pollen fertility of A.obliquum by 6 methods.This study showed that five morphological phases were found during flowering period.The inner filaments earlier expanded than the outer ones,and the inner anthers firstly expanded from perianth.It was about 4-5 d for all 6 anthers from open to fall.The individual anther released pollen about 1.5-2.0 h from the beginning dispersion to the end.Pollen viability kept about 0-10 h above 50% after anther dehiscence.The triphenyl tetrazolium chloride,diphenyl tetrazolium bromide,benzidine,and the in vitro germination test were used to test pollen fertility and the acetocarmine and iodine potassium iodide test was not suitable for A.obliquum pollen testing.A.obliquum was dichogamy and protandry with fertility,short longevity pollen,which would provide basic theory and method for pollen development,pollination biology and artificial sexual reproduction by and six methods were used to test pollen fertility.%为进一步研究国内仅分布于新疆的高葶韭(Allium obliquum)花粉发育、传粉生物学以及为高葶韭人工有性繁殖提供理论依据和试验方法,定株观察了花期高葶韭雄蕊的开花进程以及形态变化特征,并采用6种方法测定了高葶韭花粉育性。结果显示,高葶韭单花开放经过5个形态变化至花药脱落和花被片完全闭合。高葶韭内轮花丝先于外轮花丝伸长,内轮花药先伸出花被片,随后外轮花药陆续伸出花被片。雄蕊开放至6枚花药全部脱落4~5d。单枚花药从散粉到完全散粉一般需要1.5~2.0h。散粉后高葶韭花粉活力(萌发率)0~10h内超过50%。0.5%氯化三苯基四氮唑、四甲基偶氮唑、联苯胺和离体萌发法可以用来检验高葶韭花粉活力和花粉萌发率,而醋酸洋红和碘-

  17. 七叶树花粉活力和柱头可授性变化的研究%Pollen viability and stigma receptivity of Aesculus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莺; 陈鹏涛; 樊静静

    2012-01-01

    采用花粉离体萌发法研究不同蔗糖浓度、硼酸浓度和不同温度对七叶树花粉萌发的影响及花粉活力测定,用联苯胺-过氧化氢法测定柱头可授性.结果表明:七叶树花粉萌发的最佳培养基是12%蔗糖+30 mg/L硼酸,花粉萌发的最适温度为25℃.雄花在开花当天花粉活力最高达75.69%,并在开花当天的上午10:00时,花粉活力最强,10:00~16:00花粉活力保持较高活力,是最佳授粉时段.两性花的柱头可授期持续时间较长,为8~9 d,开花3d达到最强,开花1~4 d柱头可授性保持较高水平,为授粉的最佳时间段.因此,从七叶树的花部特征、花粉活力与柱头可授性及花粉萌发的条件看,在长期的自然选择下七叶树在花部结构和开花生理上都是相配合的,以保障生殖成功.%In vitro pollen-germinating method was used to study the effects of different sucrose and boric acid concentrations, and temperatures on pollen germination and vitality of Aesculus Chinese. Benzidine-hydrogen peroxide method was used to assay stigma receptive. The results showed that the best sucrose and boric acid concentration for pollen germination was 12% and 30 mg/L,respectively,and the optimized temperature was 25℃. The pollen viability of male flowers maintained at higher levels from 10:00 to 16:00 and the highest (75. 69%) at 10:00 during the flowering day. As a result,the best time for pollination was at 10:00. The stigma receptivity of perfect flowers lasted about 8 - 9 d,the stigma receptivity maintained at high levels 1 -4 d after flowering and was the strongest 3 d after flowering. As a result,the best time for pollination was at 1- 4 d after flowering. According to the floral character,pollen viability,stigma receptivity and pollen germination of A. Chinensis, during long terms of natural selection, the floral structure was matched with flowering physiology of A. Chinensis in order to guarantee successful reproduction.

  18. 冷蒿的开花动态与花粉活力及柱头可授性研究%Observation on the Flowering Dynamic, Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity in Artemisia frigida Willd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅荣; 宛涛; 蔡萍; 伊卫东

    2012-01-01

    Flowering dynamic was observed in test field, pollen viability of Artemisia frigida Willd. Was evaluated with TTC method, and stigma receptivity of Artemisia frigida Willd. Was evaluated with benzidine-H2O2 method. The results showed that flowers in inflorescence of Artemisia frigida Willd. Bloomed from up to down and outer florets bloomed before others, then middle florets bloomed later. The pollen viability of Artemisia frigida Willd. Was lower at initial stage, higher on the 2nd or 3rd day after flowering, and then reduced evidently, but a few pollen viability still existed until inflorescence withered. The life-span of pollen was about 20 days. The stigma receptivity of outer female flowers appeared on the first flowering day, and lasted longer, the highest on the 2nd or 3rd day after flowering. The stigma receptivity of middle flowers appeared latter than the outer female flowers, but the stigma receptivity were highest on the 2nd or 3rd day after flowering and lasted longer. The best stage of stigma receptivity and pollination was on the 2nd or 3rd day after flowering.%在试验地观察了冷蒿的开花动态,用TTC法测定了冷蒿花序花粉的活力,采用联苯胺—过氧化氢法测定了其柱头的可授性.结果表明,冷蒿花序的开花顺序是自上而下的,小花的开放是自外轮至中央小花.冷蒿的花粉活力在盛花期开花之初很低,第2~3d花粉活力较高,随后活力明显下降,但直至其花序枯萎,少量的花粉仍具有部分活力.花粉寿命较长,约为20d.冷蒿边缘雌花柱头的可授性在开花当天就具有,并且持续时间较长,在第2~3d可授性最强.中央两性小花柱头可授性要稍晚于边缘小花,但是在开花后第2~3d可授性也达到最高,其可授性时间也较长.柱头可授性的最佳时期为开花后第2~3d.冷蒿的最佳授粉期在开花后2~3d左右.

  19. Experiments of pollinationg and pollen viability and stigma receptivity of ‘Weixuan1'%‘围选1号’授粉试验及花粉生活力和柱头可授性的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高金锋; 张超; 李玲; 王萍; 李彦慧

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, pollination experiments and the effects of pollination tree on fruiting rate and seed-setting rate of Prunus armeniaca were studied by choosing grafting 'Weixuanl' as female parent and 4 different apricot tree as male parent. After the choosing suitable method. Pollen viability of 'Weixuanl' was evaluated by pollen germination test in vitro. It is feasibility to test stigma receptivity by the benzidine-H2O2 also. The conclusion is drawn as follows: The self pollination results showed that the self-pollination rate for 'Weixuanl' was 0. 84%(<6%) and * Weixuanl' were suggested to be a self-incompatible cultivar, The result indicated that most it need pollinating variety. Prunus armeniaca L. Cv. Katy is the best one a-mong them, The fructification ratio of cross pollination is 25. 88%; The viable pollen ratios of four test species were more than 70% and they could pollinate each other under natural condition, The pollen viability was 84.31% for 'Weixuanl', but pollen germination rate is low; The sucrose concentration has some effect on pollen germiration, which has a highest germina-tion rate at 10%; The stigma receptivity began enhancing in the time 3 h after anthesis. The stigma receptivity of 'Weixuanl' was around 4 days. Optimal pollination period lasted around 2 days.%以嫁接的2年生‘围选1号’为授粉母树,分别以‘围选1号’、‘优一’、‘凯特’、‘金太阳’4个不同的杏品种作为父本,进行授粉试验,研究不同授粉树对‘围选1号’结实率和坐果率的影响.同时,用花粉离体培养法测定其花粉生活力,并用苯胺一过氧化氢法测定了其柱头可授性.结果表明:‘围选1号’自花授粉坐果率为0.84%(<6%),是自交不亲和品种;‘围选1号'以‘凯特'作为的授粉树效果最好,坐果率为25.88%;供试品种的花粉生活力都在70%以上.‘围选1号’的花粉生活力高达84.31%,但花粉的萌发力相对较低;不同蔗糖浓度

  20. Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity of Tagetes erecta%万寿菊花粉活力及柱头可授性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵剑颖; 张华丽; 张西西; 张睿鹂; 关雪莲

    2012-01-01

    为探明造成万寿菊雄性不育系结实率低的原因,对万寿菊花粉活力及柱头可授性进行了研究.采用花粉离体萌发法研究万寿菊自交系V-01花粉萌发适宜温度、花粉活力日变化和适宜贮存条件;用联苯胺-过氧化氢法检测万寿菊雄性不育系S-261、S-17-06-29、S-0191不育株柱头的可授性;水溶性苯胺蓝染色法检测花粉在柱头的萌发情况.结果表明:(1)万寿菊V-01适宜萌发温度介于25~30℃之间;V-01花粉活力日变化趋势为先升高后降低,11-13时采集的花粉萌发率最高;4℃干燥贮存是最适宜的花粉贮存条件.(2)万寿菊柱头形态呈“γ”状时有可授性,可授性可持续3天.(3)万寿菊花粉授粉到柱头上1h内即可萌发,授粉后2h,花粉细胞达到花粉管内.%In order to investigate the difference among different sterile lines of Tagetes erecta, the pollen viability and stigma receptivity of it was studied in this paper. The pollen germination in vitro was used to select the optimum geminating temperature of the pollen, to observe daily variation of pollen viability and to choose optimum storage condition of marigold V-01 (Tagetes erecta L.) pollen. The stigma receptivity was tested with benzidine-H2O2 method. Aniline blue water soluble staining was for detecting the pollen germination on stigma. The results showed that: (1) 25-30℃ was the best temperature for the pollen germination. The pollen viability increased firstly in the morning, reached the maximum at 11 am to 13 pm and then decreased. 4℃ with dry condition was the best pollen storage condition. (2) Stigma with the shape of 'γ' was respectable and could sustain 3 days. (3) Pollen geminated on stigma 1 hour later and pollen cells flew into the pollen tube 2 hours later after the pollination.

  1. Pollen viability and stigma receptivity of Cistanche deserticola%肉苁蓉花粉活力与柱头可授性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐荣; 朱维成; 陈君; 王霞; 刘同宁

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics of pollen viability and stigma receptivity of C. deserticola and provide theory basis for seed production and breeding of C. deserticola. Method: Different physiological measurement methods were applied to evaluate pollen viability and stigma receptivity. The results of different methods were compared with the seed setting percentage of the cross-pollination in the field test and pollen germination percentage by fluoroscope observation methods. The changes of pollen vitality and stigma receptivity in different conditions were tested using proper methods. Result: The optimum methods on pollen viability and stigma receptivity detection were MTT-test and Benzidine-Hydrogen Peroxide method respectively. Results showed that the mean pollen viability and stigma receptivity were both the highest in inchoate anthesis with pollen germination percentage up to 95%, and can maintain viable for 4-5 d,but at the lower temperature of 4 ℃, the pollen can be stored up to 10 days. Conclusion: The physiological characteristics of pollen and stigma of C. deserticola displayed good ecological adaptation, which are much more adaptive to the large area of cultivation condition.%目的:明确肉苁蓉Cistanche deserticola的花粉活力和寿命以及柱头的可授期,为肉苁蓉种子生产和良种选育提供理论依据.方法:比较不同生理测定方法对肉苁蓉花粉活力与柱头可授性测定的有效性和适用性,并与田间人工授粉结实率和荧光显微观察结果相比较;应用适宜方法测定不同条件下肉苁蓉的花粉和柱头的活力变化.结果:确定肉苁蓉花粉活力和柱头可授性的最佳测定方法分别为MTT法和联苯胺-过氧化氢法,测得肉苁蓉开花3 h后的花粉活力和柱头可授性均为最高水平,此时花粉在柱头的萌发率高达95%以上,活性可保持4~5 d,而低温保存的花粉寿命可保持10 d以上.结论:肉苁蓉花粉与柱头的生理特征具

  2. Visualization of Latent Blood Fingerprints on Red Surface with Light Green SF Yellowish%亮绿 SF 溶液增强红色光滑客体表面潜血手印技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王跃; 胡书良; 刘晋

    2015-01-01

    目的:探索一种实验室和犯罪现场上均可使用的红色光滑表面上血潜手印新型显现技术。方法把0.2g 亮绿 SF 溶解到容积为200mL 盛有5mL 蒸馏水的烧杯中,然后加入0.2g 正四丁基碘化铵、93mL 无水乙醇,使用玻璃棒搅拌,充分溶解后,最后加入盐酸2mL 形成绿色透明溶液作为显现液,采用精细喷雾器喷涂客体增强红色光滑面潜血手印,潜血手印增强后,照相提取后并对局部放大观察效果,研究其对红色光滑表面潜血手印的增强效果。结果对遗留手印进行了批量显现与统计分析,0.2%的亮绿 SF 酒精显现液对红色客体表面潜血手印的反应极其敏感,实验室条件下潜血手印样本显现率可达100%,显出的手印纹线清晰连贯,反差明显,无颜色背景,且局部放大能够有效显示出纹线的细节特征。结论0.2%的亮绿 SF 显现液能有效增强红色光滑客体表面潜血手印,反差极其明显,可以作为红色光滑客体表面潜血手印增强试剂。%Objective Since tetramethylbenzidine has substituted benzidine to visualize latent blood fingerprints, it is the preferential choice for developing latent blood fingerprints based on the principle that its oxidized resultant can make the fingerprints of shallow-color or colorless turn into cyan color. But, the fingerprints developed by this method show low contrast when the observed objects are red and even lower the fuscous, are difficult or cannot be photographed. This paper tries to explore a new technique to enhance the development of blood fingerprints on red surface. Methods The solution of 0.25% light green SF yellowish was sprayed onto latent blood fingerprints deposited on red surfaces. The revealed fingerprints were taken pictures, some parts of the fingerprints were further amplified to find out the enhancement effect. Results The light green SF yellowish was very sensitive to develop the blood

  3. 三系杂交棉花粉育性对高温和低温胁迫的反应%Reaction of Pollen Fertility to High or Low Temperature Stresses in CMS-Based Hybrid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪密; 王学德; 张昭伟; 朱云国; 张海平; 邵明彦; 袁淑娜; 刘英新; 文国吉

    2009-01-01

    Planting CMS-based hybrid cotton is an important way to use cotton hetcrosis. Fertility of hybrid cotton pollens is in-fluenced by cultivar, climatic conditions, management practices and pests. Among all the factors, temperature is the primary one affecting cotton growth, the following is air humidity. Stability of pollen fertility under high and low temperature stresses, associ-ated with the hetcrosis expression of CMS-based hybrids, is the main point to elucidate in this study. The fertility differences be-tween hybrids and the maintainer were compared by testing the percentage of fertile pollens in the greenhouse experiment with temperature controlled and the field experiment with natural temperature. In addition, percentage of setting bolls and percentage of aborted seeds were tested in the field experiment. Pollen fertility was checked by benzidine-Naphthol fluorescence microscopic method, while cross-pollination experiments were performed by dusting pollen obtained from corresponding restorers, then per-centage of setting boils and percentage of aborted seeds were determined by calculating the number of boils or seeds, respectively. The critical temperatures for upper limit and lower limit were searched from different given consistent temperatures, which each temperature was kept for eight days in the greenhouse when cotton pollens turned from fertility to sterility. The results showed that the response of CMS-based hybrids to the extreme temperature stress was more sensitive than that of the maintainer, while the former usually had lower stability in pollen vitality under the stress. However, different CMS-based hybrids had various toler-ances to temperature stress, for example, hybrids (F_1) restored by Zheda strong restorer showed higher pollen viability, more set-ting bolls and less aborted seeds under the stress than others. The response of pollen fertility to air temperature had a 5-day's delay in the field. Furthermore, the changes of maximum air

  4. Study on the Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity of Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘Fubaiju’%福白菊花粉活力和柱头可授性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雷; 刘常丽; 王慧弟; 陈科力

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the blooming habits,pollen viability and stigma receptivity of Chrysanthemum morifolium and provide theoretical basis for its breeding.Methods:Explored the blooming habits by dynamic observation on the process of blossom,evaluated the pollen viability by germination in vitro culture method and estimated stigma receptivity by benzidine-hydrogen peroxide method.Results: About the pollen viability,there were no significant differences between the flowers which in the same round of the capitulum; Tubular flowers in the center of a capitulum were significantly higher than that on the edge; In the morning pollen vitality gradually raised,during 11:00 ~ 14:00 maintained the highest,and then gradually decreased; Tubular flower began to loose powder on the third day,during 4th ~6th day the pollen viability was highest,respectively was 35.12% ,39.89% ,38.12% ,then gradually decreased,on the 15th day was only 7.41 % ,finally turned into wither.Regard to the stigma receptivity,the center of a capitulum were significantly higher than that on the edge,outer edge ligulate flower had no receptivity; Revealed the strongest during 13:00 ~ 14:00 in one day; During the 5th ~7th day was the strongest after flowering.The regulation of the stigma secreted mucus existed great consistency with the stigma receptivity,namely the stigma receptivity usually was strong when it secreted large number mucus.Conclusion:Understand the blossom habits of Chrysanthemun morifolium,as well as the dynamic changes regulation of pollen viability and stigma receptivity during its blossom,which could be used to select the flowers in a capitulum which are on the more suitable period and position for artificial pollination and hybridization breeding research.%目的:明确福白菊(Chrysanthemum morifolium‘ Fubaiju’)开花习性、花粉活力以及柱头可授性,以期为药用菊花良种选育提供理论依据.方法:对开花过程进行动态观察了解开花习性,采用